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Leadership competencies for college leaders of public small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus colleges

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Leadership competencies for college leaders of public small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus colleges
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Kools, Joseph
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University of South Florida
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Leadership development
Management
Leadership
Succession
Succession planning
Dissertations, Academic -- Leadership Development -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This research examined how two decidedly different groups of community college presidents from across the United States viewed the competencies, characteristics, and professional skills identified by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) (2005) as important for effective community college leadership. The two groups participating in the research were from small, single-campus colleges serving rural populations and from large, multiple-campus colleges serving urban populations. The participants were asked to identify those activities and experiences that they found helpful in developing the AACC leadership competencies. The results from this research suggest that community college presidents from both sizes of college campuses widely regarded the AACC competencies as important to effective leadership. The respondents also provided insight into the experiences that helped form the characteristics related to the development of the competencies. Practical implications for the development and hiring of leaders to perform senior leadership roles within the community college system are offered.
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Dissertation (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Joseph Kools.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Includes vita.

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Leadership Competencies for College Leader s of Public Small, Rural, Single-Campus and Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Colleges by Joseph M. J. Kools A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Adult, Car eer and Higher Education College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: William H. Young III, Ed.D. Donald Dellow, Ed.D. Robert Sullins, Ed.D. Darlene Bruner, Ed.D. Date of Approval: March 24, 2010 Keywords: leadership development, management, leadership, succession, succession planning Copyright 2010, Joseph M. J. Kools

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Dedication This dissertation is dedicated to my child ren, Jake and Hailey. Always strive to develop greater understanding and tolerance of yourselves and others and remain lifelong learners. Make a positive difference in the lives of those you meet and do great things with your lives! To my wife, Lori. Thanks for your love support and patience during this entire educational process and learning experience. We’ve come a long way since we were sophomores in high school. Thank you for keep ing me pointed in th e right direction! To my brother Kevin and sisters, Judy and Jane. Thanks to each of you for the examples you have set for me in your personal and professional live s. I couldn’t have asked for better siblings. To my late father who taught me the l ove for reading and for critical thinking. Thanks for helping me consider that anyt hing is possible for t hose who dream big. To my mother, who always has high e xpectations, and who taught me to value education and for instilling in me the understand ing of the value of a strong work ethic. Thank you for your eternal love, su pport, and confidence. I will be forever gr ateful to you all.

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Acknowledgments I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and si ncere appreciation to my dissertation chair and comm ittee for their direction, guidance, and unyielding support throughout this dissertation pr ocess. Drs. Young and Dello w provided a wonderful tag team to keep me on the correct azimuth th roughout the process. Dr. Bruner was an invaluable source of statisti cal assistance and direction, a nd Dr. Sullins was a continual source of guidance and sage advice. I owe each of you a tremendous debt of gratitude. It would be impossible for me to acknow ledge on an individual basis the hundreds of great Army veterans who helped shape my life through their de dication to duty and selfless service. The many men and women wh o were my leaders, colleagues, and role models provided me with the culture and disc ipline I needed to become a lifelong learner committed to professional excellence. Thank you all. To Dr. Anthony Hassan. His sharing of information and design of the instrumentation used in this research was inst rumental to my success. To Fran Hopf for her support in keeping me moving forward on th is project and the many readings of my proposal. Best wishes on a speedy completion of your doctorate. To Yenni Djajalak and Jenny Farmer for their assistance in processing data for this study. Finally to the college presidents who t ook the time out of thei r busy days and life to provide their input and obser vations. You are the reason th is project was possible. The willingness of each of you to ta ke the time to participate in this research is greatly appreciated. My hope is that I have done justice with the information you have provided and that through this study those aspiring to become college leaders are well served.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables iv List of Figures viiiAbstract ixChapter One: Introduction 1Background 4Statement of the Problem: The Leadership Crisis in Community Colleges 8Significance of the Study 11Purpose of the Study 12Research Questions 13Definitions 14Delimitations 15Limitations 15Organization of the Remaining Chapters 16 Chapter Two: Review of the Literature 17Overview 17Background and History of Community Colleges 18Continued Relevance of Comm unity Colleges in America 19The Future Outlook for Community Colleges 21Historical Profile of the Co mmunity College Presidency 22Unique Challenges and Complexities 23Leadership Required in the New Millennium 25Community College Leadership Development Programs 26Projected Leadership Shortfall 29Competencies for Effective Community College Leadership 31Theoretical Perspectives and Conceptual Frameworks 34Leadership Framework 38Contemporary Leadership Th eories and Practices 40Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions 47 Chapter Three: Methods 51Overview 51Quantitative Research Questions 52Qualitative Research Questions 53Research Design 53Source of Data 55Data Collection Procedures 56

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ii Instrument Development 58Data Organization and Analysis 61Summary 66 Chapter Four: Results 68Overview 68Demographics of the Community College Chief Executives 69Discussion of Research Questions 76Qualitative Data 116 Qualitative question 1 117 Small, rural colleges 118 Large, urban colleges 118 Qualitative question 2 119 Personnel 120 Finance 120 Resources/Miscellaneous 120 Qualitative question 3 121 College experience 121 Professional experience in higher education 121 Unrelated professional experience 122 Chapter Five: Findings 123 Overview 123Summary of the Research Study 123 Purpose 124 Summary of the findings 124 Research question 1 125 Research question 2 132 Research question 3 139 Research question 4 145 Organizational strategy 151 Professionalism 152 Common top-three and botto m-three competencies 153 Open-ended question 1 154 Open-ended question 2 155 Open-ended question 3 156 Implications for Practice 157 Application of AACC compet encies as the foundation for conducting competency-based interviewing 158 Expansion of the six competenci es into a greater number of competencies that are more clearly defined 160 Design of new or improvement of existing internal development programs 161 Professional networking and social learning 164 Feedback 165

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iii Mentorship Program 166 Action learning 168 Limitations 170Implications for Future Research 170Significance of the Study 171 References 174 Appendices 183Appendix A: AACN Competencies fo r Community College Leaders 184Appendix B: Demographic Data 199Appendix C: Letter of In troduction and In struction 202Appendix D: Follow-Up E-Mail 204Appendix E: Second Follow-Up E-Mail 206Appendix F: Participants’ Profile 207Appendix G: SAS Output on Reliability Analysis 211Appendix H: Responses from Small, Rural Community College Participants on Six AACC Competencies 216Appendix I: Responses from Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community College Participants on AACC Competencies 231Appendix J: Experience s Perceived to Contribute to Competency Development 247Appendix K: Comparison of Respon ses (by Mean) Between Leaders of Small and Large Community Colleges 253Appendix L: SAS Output for t Tests 259Appendix M: Overall Responses from Both Types of Community Colleges Participants on Six Competencies 291Appendix N: SAS Output to Test Differences Between Gender 308Appendix O. Comparison of Findings From Duree’s, Hassan’s, and Kools’s Studies 344 About the Author End Page

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iv List of Tables Table 1.1. Attendees at AACC Summits 9Table 4.1. Participants’ Positions 70Table 4.2. Participants’ Profile by Year s of Experience in Current Position 70Table 4.3. Participants’ Pr ofile by Number of Year s as Community College CEO 71Table 4.4. Participants’ Profile by Age 72Table 4.5. Participants’ Profile by Race/Ethnicity 73Table 4.6. Participants’ Profile by Gender 74Table 4.7. Participants’ Profile by Highest Level of Academic Degree Attainment 74Table 4.8. Basic Statistics for Each Co mpetency as Perceived by Small, Rural Community Colleges’ Participants 77Table 4.9. Summary of Basic Statistic s for Each Competency Dimension— Small, Rural Community Colleges 80Table 4.10. Basic statistics for each comp etency as perceived by large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges participants 89Table 4.11. Summaries of Basic Statis tics for each Competency Dimension— Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges 92Table 4.12. Experiences that Contri bute the Most to Competency Development—Small, Rural Community Colleges 101Table 4.13. Experiences that Contri bute the Most to Competency Development—Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges 105Table 5.1. Comparison Among Duree, Hassan, and Kools Studies (Sorted From Highest to Lowest Mean s by Kools’s Research on Small Community Colleges) 127

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v Table 5.2. Comparison of Competenci es Among Duree, Hassan, and Kools Studies (Sorted from Highest to Lowest Means by Kools’s Large Community Colleges) 133Table 5.3. Experiences Identified as Contributing the Most to Competency Development—Combined Responses 141Table G.1. SAS Output—Cronbach Coefficient Alpha for the Six AACC Competencies 211Table G.2. SAS Output—Cronbach Co efficient Alpha for 45 Competency Dimensions 211Table H.1. Summary of Responses on Organizational Strategy Competency— Small, Rural Community Colleges 216Table H.2. Summary of Responses on Resource Management Competency— Small, Rural Community Colleges 219Table H.3. Summary of Responses on Communication Competency—Small, Rural Community Colleges 222Table H.4. Summary of Responses on Collaboration Competency—Small, Rural Community Colleges 224Table H.5. Summary of Responses on Community College Advocacy Competency—Small, Rural Community Colleges 226Table H.6. Summary of Responses on Professionalism Competency—Small, Rural Community Colleges 228Table I.1. Summary of Responses on Organizationa l Strategy Competency— Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges 231Table I.2. Summary of Responses on Resource Ma nagement Competency— Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges 234Table I.3. Summary of Responses on Communication Competency—Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges 237Table I.4. Summary of Responses on Collaboration Competency—Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges 239Table I.5. Summary of Responses on Community College Advocacy Competency—Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges 241

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vi Table I.6. Summary of Responses on Professiona lism Competency—Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges 244Table L.1. Summary of Shapiro-Wilk Normality Test Statistics for Each Dimension—Comparison Between Types of Community Colleges 259Table L.2. Summary of Shapiro-Wilk Normality Test Statistics for Each Variable—Comparison Between T ypes of Community Colleges 266Table L.3. Summary of Folded F Test Statistics for Each Dimension— Comparison Between Two Types of Community Colleges 267Table L.4. Summary of Folded F Test Statistics for Each Variable— Comparison Between Two Types of Community Colleges 273Table L.5. Summary of Means Diffe rences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Organizatio nal Strategy Competency 274Table L.6. Summary of Means Diffe rences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Resource Management Competency 275Table L.7. Summary of Means Diffe rences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Communication Competency 277Table L.8. Summary of Means Diffe rences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Collaboration Competency 278Table L.9. Summary of Means Diffe rences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Community College Advocacy Competency 280Table L.10. Summary of Means Diffe rences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Professionalism Competency 281Table L.11. Summary of Differences ( by Means) Between the Two Types of Community Colleges 283Table L.12. Summary of tTest Statistics for Each Dimension—Comparison Between Two Types of Community Colleges 284Table L.13. Summary of t -Test Statistics for Each Variable– Comparison between Two Types of Community Colleges 290Table M.1. Summary of Overall Re sponses on Organizational Strategy Competency 291Table M.2. Overall Summary of Responses on Resource Management Competency 294

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vii Table M.3. Overall Summary of Res ponses on Communication Competency 297Table M.4. Overall Summary of Res ponses on Collaboration Competency 299Table M.5. Overall Summary of Responses on Community College Advocacy Competency 302Table M.6. Overall Summary of Respons es on Professionalism Competency 305Table N.1. Summary of Shapiro-Wilk Normality Test Statistics for Each Dimension—Comparison Between Gender Types 308Table N.2. Summary of Shapiro-Wilk Normality Test Statistics for Each Variable—Comparison Between Gender Types 316Table N.3. 317Summary of Folded F Test Statistics for Each Dimension— Comparison Between Gender Types 317Table N.4. Summary of Folded I Te st Statistics for Each Variable— Comparison Between Gender Types 323Table N.5. Summary of Means Di fferences Between Gender Types— Organizational Strategy Competency 324Table N.6. Summary of Means Di fferences Between Gender Types— Resource Management Competency 325Table N.7. Summary of Means Di fferences Between Gender Types— Communication Competency 327Table N.8. Summary of Means Di fferences Between Gender Types— Collaboration Competency 328Table N.9. Summary of Means Di fferences Between Gender Types— Community College Advocacy Competency 330Table N.10. Summary of Means Di fferences Between Gender Types— Professionalism Competency 331Table N.11. Summary of Means Differenc es for Each Variable—Comparison Between Gender Types 333Table N.12. Summary of tTest Statistics for Each Dimension—Comparison Between Gender Types 334Table N.13. Summary of t -Test Statistics for Each Variable—Comparison Between Gender Types 341

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viii List of Figures Figure 4.1. Comparisons of means from CEOs of small, rural community colleges for each AACC competency. 78 Figure 4.2. Percentages of responses for the six competencies as rated by CEOs of small, rural colleges. 87 Figure 4.3. Comparison means of responses for six competencies from CEOs of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges 89 Figure 4.4. Percentages of responses for the six competencies as scored by CEOs of large, urban, multiple-campus colleges. 99 Figure 5.1. Comparison of mean scores be tween responses from presidents of small, rural colleges in the Kools study and all chief executives in the Hassan study. 132 Figure 5.2. Comparison of mean scores urban, multiple-campus presidents (Kools study) and all chief executives (Hassan study). 139 Figure F.1. Participants by position title. 207 Figure F.2. Participants’ profile by year of experience in the current position. 207 Figure F.3. Participants’ profile by year of experience as community college CEO. 208 Figure F.4. Participants’ profile by age. 208 Figure F.5. Participants’ pr ofile by race/ethnicity. 209 Figure F.6. Participants’ profile by gender. 209 Figure F.7. Participants’ profile by highest level of academic degree attained. 210 Figure J.1. Comparison of percentages of responses on experiences that contribute to organizational strategy competency development. 247 Figure J.2. Comparison of percentages of responses on experiences that contribute to resource management competency development. 248 Figure J.3. Comparison on percentages of responses on experiences that contribute to communication co mpetency development. 249

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ix Leadership Competencies for College Leaders of Public Small, Rural, SingleCampus and Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Colleges Joseph M. J. Kools ABSTRACT This research examined how two d ecidedly different gr oups of community college presidents from across the United States viewed the competencies, characteristics, and professional skills identif ied by the American Associat ion of Community Colleges (AACC) (2005) as important for effective community college leadership. The two groups participating in the re search were from small, single-campus colleges serving rural populations and from large, multiplecampus colleges serving urban populations. The participants were asked to identify thos e activities and experiences that they found helpful in developing the AACC leadership comp etencies. The results from this research suggest that community college presidents fr om both sizes of college campuses widely regarded the AACC competencies as important to effective leadership. The respondents also provided insight into the experiences that helped form the characteristics related to the development of the competencies. Pract ical implications for the development and hiring of leaders to perform senior leadership roles within the comm unity college system are offered.

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1 Chapter One Introduction In 2004, the American Association of Co mmunity Colleges (AACC) developed a list of competencies determined to benefit co mmunity college presidents seeking to lead their respective organizations in an effective manner. Th e guidance set forth in the AACC’s competencies document is both releva nt and timely because of the aging of senior administrators and chief executives l eading American colleges. Forecasts made in the early 2000s of senior leaders’ impending retirement s meant the turnover at community colleges would be at an alltime high in upcoming years (Shults, 2001; Wallin, 2002). Global economic recession in th e late 2000s slowed the exodus of senior leaders, who chose to remain in their positions rather than run headlong into the financial tumult. These deferred retirements may inadvertently provide the community college system with the additional time needed to further refine the co mpetencies of those preparing to assume the mantle of leadershi p, along with time for t hose already in these roles to fully adopt and implement the practices. Commonalities and differences exist in th e leadership competencies of college presidents. This statement is based on the perceptions of sitting co llege presidents at institutions serving communities of various size s. Some of the competencies identified by the AACC (2004) were determined to be c onsidered more important to leaders of institutions of a particular size.

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2 When, in the early 1990s, Katsinas and Lacey (as cited in Hardy & Katsinas, 2007) started to classify 2-year colleges, the large databases used by the U.S. Department of Education were difficult to manage. Inabilit y of the system to return data segregated by institutional type undermined the research ers’ objective to examine objectively and in sufficient detail the differences among instit utions. Most classifi cations of geographic area and populations served (e.g., rural, suburban, or urban) we re not taken into account. Because rural, suburban, and urban 2-y ear colleges are not a homogeneous group (Katsinas, 2003), the classifi cations of geographical size and location are relevant. Mission, culture, and constituencies served are among the differences in key components with which rural and metropolitan community college presidents must contend on a regular and recurring basis (Eller et al., 2003; Leist, 2007; Valadez & Killacky, 1995). The early work performed by Katsinas and L acey (as cited in Har dy & Katsinas, 2007) and updates to the classification of 2-year colleges by Hardy (2005) have enhanced the segregation of data, resulti ng in more easily managed la rge databases compiled by the U.S. Department of Education’s Integrated Education Data System ([IPEDS], 2009). Further enhancements made under the sponsor ship of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2006) allowed for segregation of IPEDS data suitable for identifying the targeted resear ch groups in this study. Only public community colleges were examined in this research study. In the Carnegie classification as identified in th e Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2006), public colleges are categorized into three types: rural, suburban, and urban. Geographic locations are subdivided according to the size of the community, the population of which is served by these public colleges. Small, medium, and large rural

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3 colleges, and suburban and urban colleges are subdivided into singleand multiplecampus entities. Student enrollments are generally distributed equally among the two subcategories of rural and urban institution. The Carnegie (Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 2006) subclassification identified 130 public institu tions serving small, rural communities and 145 public, urban multiple-campus colleges. This classification uses the term serving as it pertains to its categorization of colleges. According to Hardy a nd Katsinas (2007), this term is used to reflect the r eality that all public community co llege institutions are “placebased institutions, with geographic servi ce delivery areas defined by state statute, regulation, or custom” (p. 6). Rural America accounts for 85% of the geography of the United States but contains only 15% of the population (Miller & Kissenger, 2007). Despite this inequality in distribution, rural colleges represent 60% of all community colleges, with the other 40% contributed by suburban and urban colleg es that service the remaining 85% of the national population (Carnegi e Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 2006). Public, rural community colleges serving small populations and public, urban multiplecampus community colleges serving large populations are examined by surveying the presidents of these two classifications of colleges. According to Murray and Eddy (2007), it is “known that community colleges vary tremendously by geographic location and size” (p. 1). The commonly held belief that significant differences exist across the nation’s community colleges (Murray & Eddy) suggests the leaders of these institutions f ace a wide-ranging set of challenges. Based on these dissimilarities, it is reasonable to exp ect that leaders of these different-sized

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4 colleges serving different populations cannot effectively employ the same leadership styles for the varied challenges, situations, and conditions they encounter. It is likely that the leaders of these colleges will consider some of the competencies identified by the AACC (2006) as more important and relevant for the effective leadership of their particular colleges. Morelli (2002) id entified limited resources, a st atic economy, and geographic location as three of the many concerns f aced by community college presidents. According to Leist (2007), the differences a nd challenges created by the issues identified by Morelli raise two critical and interrelate d questions: First, do community college presidents of different geographic locations require professional qualities markedly different from one another? Second, if different professional qualities are required, which qualities do the leaders view as essent ial? These two questions posed by Leist are at the heart of the que stions plaguing practitioners in the community college system. This research offers insight into both thes e questions by determining the degree to which community college presidents at small, rural colleges and large, urban colleges perceive the relative importance of the AACC (2004) competencies. Findings indicate that the competencies highly regarded by presidents of both large multiple-campus and small single-campus community colleges are essential for effective community college leadership. Background Beginning with their inception in 1901, commu nity colleges have been an integral part of American society and our soci al, economic, business, and intellectual development. As of the late 2000s, nearly every person in the United States who enters

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5 the workforce is expected to gain additional training or certification to meet the needs and demands of the global economic workforce. This additional training will be required for workers to properly manage the technologi cal advances made throughout American industry. Community colleges help serve the edu cational, training, and certification demands of America. Growth in community colleges has ri sen steadily since the 1960s. Enrollment in community colleges regularly out paces traditional 4-year institutions of higher education. According to the AACC ( 2005), nearly 50% of a ll students in the United States are enrolled in community colleges. During the 1990s, enrollment in community colleges grew by more than 14% (AACC, 2005). In comparison, the American Council on Education (2008) noted that traditional 4-year programs grew by only 9%. A prediction by the American Council on Education re garding the popularity of community colleges indicates growth am ong these institutions will continue for the foreseeable future. Driving much of the popularity of community colleges is the critical roles they serve in their communities. Community colleges’ leaders acknowledge a variety of missions related to the advancement and economic development of the community (Fluharty & Scaggs, 2007). Katsinas and Opp (as cited by Fluharty & Scaggs, 2007) identified four critical community college missions: industry tr aining, developmental education, community service, and continuing education. According to Kasper (2002), community colleges serve as a key source of vocational training for local workforce development. A. M. Cohen and Brawer (2003) posited that community colleges have within their mission the requirement to s upport community needs and are superb at

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6 providing access to education to the populat ions of communities in which they are located. Because of their wide-ranging missions, diffe rent populations served, and the size of the institutions, it is unde rstood that not all community colleges are the same. Even though the smaller colleges are growing as the larger college s are shrinking, after reviewing data from government reports, Ka tsinas and Moeck (2002) determined the differences between rural and urban commun ity colleges were actually increasing in some critical areas. Reconfiguration of the Carnegie classification system for institutions of higher education (Carnegie Foundati on for the Advancement of Teaching, 2006) allowed researchers and scholars to examin e what Murray and Eddy (2007) contended many educators and college administrators have known for a long time: Major differences exist between the colleges ba sed solely upon geographic location, size, and the communities in which they are located and serve. Hardy and Katsinas (2007) commented that student populat ions, gender, ethnicity, number of full-time students, number of continuing educati on and professional education programs offered, accelerated programs, work-study programs, and enrichment programs are some of the many differences between colleges based on geogra phic location and size of the community in which they are located. Despite these perceived differences, co mmonalities exist. Perhaps the most obvious common feature is that all public co mmunity colleges have open access and admissions. Both regularly offer the most comprehensive programs of study in higher education (O’Banion, 2007). Because these inst itutions are situated in the communities they serve, they are typically an active part of the community (Har dy & Katsinas, 2007).

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7 This connection between the community colleges and their communities means the community colleges are often well positioned to meet the needs of the industries and the workforce members they serve (A. M. Cohen & Brawer, 2003). Community colleges meet the needs of the regional workforce and sustain partnerships with businesses by providing education to thei r employees and assisting in developing skill sets to satisfy business re quirements (AACC, 2005; Roueche, Baker, & Rose, 1989). Their presidents must be connected with and have a thorough understanding of business and community needs. This understanding enables presidents to effectively lead their institutions by re sponding to training and educational demands driven in part by increasing globalization, ch anges in manufacturing, and agriculture. By providing businesses with releva nt continuing education oppor tunities for their workforce to stay competitive with technological adva ncements, colleges remain an effective community partner (Clark & Davis, 2007). Despite the growing need for community co lleges, serving as a chief executive of a community college is becoming more complex and, according to research, a less attractive career choice for higher educati on administrators (Shults, 2001; Vaughan & Weisman, 1998). According to Little (2002), the demands placed on senior executives are becoming greater, in large part due to greater accountability and the need to constantly seek and retain alte rnative sources of finance. The ability to draw the highest caliber leaders may be further diminished b ecause, more often than not, salaries do not reflect the growing demands of the position.

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8 Statement of the Problem: The Leadership Crisis in Community Colleges Community colleges, like all instituti ons of higher education, face a growing challenge in preparing for the succession of leadership of their institutions (Eddy & VanDerLinden, 2006). In a 2001 survey by Weisman and Vaughan (2002), 79% of sitting presidents ( n = 661) indicated they intended to retire from their positions no later than 2012. Coinciding with the forecasted reti rements of presidents are the predicted retirements of other senior administrato rs. Because these senior members are traditionally sought as the replacements for si tting presidents, a lack of well-qualified successors when older Baby Boomers begin thei r retirements is a gr eat concern (Shults, 2001; Weisman & Vaughan). To help identify the capabilities, knowle dge, skills, and abilities required for effective community college leadership, the AACC (2003) established meetings to gather information pertaining to the subject. Indi viduals with a wide range of community college expertise were gathered to determine what competencies were required to be an effective community college president. Before gathering people for the summits, the AACC developed categories re presenting the divers ity of experiences and requirements found across college settings (see Table 1.1).

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9 Table 1.1. Attendees at AACC Summits Summit name # Participants Experts/consultants AACC staff Total AACC Affiliated Councils 40 5 45 Grow Your Own Programs 22 7 27 University Programs 32 7 39 Underserved Programs 34 7 41 Total 128 26 154 Note. Adapted from A Qualitative Analysis of Community College Leadership from the Leading Forward Summits by E. T. Vincent, 2004, p. 6. Copyright 2004 by ACT, Inc. These information-gathering summits (AA CC, 2003) resulted in the development of a list of competencies organized into six general areas: or ganizational strategy, resource management, effective communi cation, collaboration, community college advocacy, and professionalism (AACC, 2004). The competencies identified were the result of a 2-year study calle d Leading Forward, made possi ble through a grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. This same grant provided the resources for the AACC to host a series of four day-long summits betw een November 2003 and March 2004. According to Vincent (2004), more than 125 experts re presenting the categorie s established by the AACC were brought together at these summit m eetings to share ideas and information. As a result of these summits (AACC, 2003) leaders reached consensus on the key knowledge, values, and skills required for successful future l eaders of community colleges (AACC, 2004). In July 2004, ACT, In c. (formerly American College Testing), a nonprofit organization that prov ides assessment, research, and program management

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10 services in education and workforce de velopment, was commissioned to perform a qualitative analysis of community college l eadership from the data gathered at the Leading Forward summits. The data was further refined and contextualized by the AACC to fit more seamlessly into the comm unity college environment (AACC, 2005). In 2004, the AACC conducted a survey to de termine if the critical areas of leadership competencies identified in its research had been ad dressed. Seventy-six percent of the surveys were returned, and 100% of those responding identified each of the six competencies as either very essentia l or extremely essential to the effective performance of a community college presiden t (AACC, 2004). The same survey showed that two of the competencies identified as critical for effective leadership development were either minimally well established or m oderately well established in their college training or leadership development programs. These six competencies were unanim ously approved by the AACC board of directors. Following the approval and dissemination, the board encouraged all stakeholders to use the competencies to gui de their leadership pr actices (AACC, 2004). The document prepared to encapsulate and expound upon these competencies (AACC, 2005) has become a guiding source in the prep aration of community college leaders. The intent of the AACC was to promote these leadership competencies to the community college community with the expe ctation of facilitating the development of effective leadership within the community co llege system. Given the imminent wave of community college leader retirements (W eisman & Vaughan, 2002), the AACC reiterated the importance of implementing a leadership development framework in the curricula of university and internal leader ship development programs. This development plan is

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11 intended to provide an appropriate training and development program for aspiring senior administrators and leaders. Significance of the Study A potential disaster is on the horizon of the U.S. community college system. An increase in the demand for education and vocational training provided through community colleges and a projected shortage of executive community college leadership are anticipated to occur simultaneously. Weisman and Vaughan (2002) reported that 79% of presidents surveyed in 2001 had plans to retire within the decade. Coupled with these expected empty seats are a nearly equa l number of administrators who have the experience and expertise to fill these projecte d vacancies and are also nearing retirement age. It is imperative the administrators identified for strategic succession planning of the organization and the new administrators and leaders joining the ranks obtain the knowledge, skills, and abilities to effectiv ely apply each competency identified as essential for success. Two research studies (Duree, 2007; Ha ssan, 2008) confirmed that community college presidents agree the leadership competencies cited by the AACC (2005) are important to effective leadership. Determining which competencies sitting presidents judge to be the most importan t for effective leader ship of their resp ective size community colleges will enable leadership developmen t programs to more accurately develop curricula to ensure future senior administra tors and presidents are able to meet the challenges they will predictably face. Although leadership characteristics releva nt to all types of community colleges may be similar, differences may exist in the degree to which leadership skill sets are

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12 important in small, rural a nd large, urban community colle ges. This study examined whether differences exist in how chief executives of large, urban multiple-campus and small, rural single-campus community colleges perceive the relative importance of the competencies identified by the AACC (2004) as being essential for effective community college leadership. If a diffe rence is found in the way presidents from small, rural and large, urban institutions rate the relativ e importance of the AACC competencies, the leadership development programs may be able to provide more focus on certain leadership skills for those who are seeking lead ership positions in institutions of that particular size. Amey (2005) suggested the primary challenge facing leadership development is the inability to develop struct ures that support the continuous process of learning. The results from this research may provide some focus to the structure that supports the kind of leadership de velopment proposed by Amey. Purpose of the Study This research was a mixed met hodology study (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998) combining quantitative and qualitative appr oaches to determine whether a difference exists in how presidents of small, rura l, single-campus community colleges and presidents of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges perceive the relative importance of the AACC-recommended competencies (AACC, 2005). By ascertaining which competencies are identified by pres idents as being important for effective community college leadership, it is anticipat ed that greater congruity in leadership development programs may be achieved.

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13 Quantitative Research Questions The purpose of the study was fulfilled by obtaining respondents’ feedback and by evaluating the following research questions: 1. To what degree do practicing presiden ts of small, rural, single-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by the AAC C as being essential for community college leadership? 2. To what degree do practicing presidents of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by the AAC C as being essential for community college leadership? 3. Which leader development experience(s ) do presidents of small, rural singlecampus and large, urban multiple-campus community colleges perceive as beneficial in the development of the competencies identified by the AACC as being essential for effective community college leaders? 4. Are there significant differences in perceptions between the responses of practicing presidents of small, rural single-campus and large, urban multiplecampus community colleges on the relati ve importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by the AACC as being essential for community college leadership?

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14 Definitions Terms and concepts utilized in this study are defined as follows: American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). The leading professional organization for the nation’s 2year degree-producing institu tions. The AACC is reported to have as much as 95% of all accredited comm unity, technical, and junior colleges in the nation as members (AACC, 2004). Community college. A community college is a public, not-for-profit 2-year institution from which the most common degree earned is an associate degree (arts or science) but, with increasing frequency, offe rs a limited variety of 4-year degrees. Competency. A cluster of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that affects performance of one’s job and correlates with performan ce on the job that can be measured against well-accepted standards. Constituent. A person or group of people who ar e a part of the organization. Leadership. The establishment of a clear visi on and sharing (communicating) that vision with others so they will follow w illingly; providing the information, knowledge, and methods to realize that vision, and coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members or stakeholders. Management. The organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies and in ach ievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is a factor of produc tion, along with materials and money. Power. The ability to cause or prevent an action and to make things happen; the discretion to act or not act. President. The chief executive officer of the organization.

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15 Senior-level administration. The administrative personnel in the organization. Stakeholder(s). A person or group with direct in terest and involvement in the good of the organization. Stratification. The hierarchical arrangement of an organization into different layers (strata) on the basis of a distinguishing characteristic, such as required leadership abilities and competencies. Succession planning. The identification and developm ent of potential successors for critical positions through a systematic evaluation process, mentoring, grooming, successive duties, and responsibilities incr easing in scope, complexity, and training. Delimitations The study is delimited by responses obtained from sitting community college presidents in public, not-for-profit 2-y ear community colleges and can only be generalized to public, small, rural single-campus and large, urban multiple-campus community colleges. Limitations Because this study was limited to a sa mple of volunteers from two categories (public, small, rural single-c ampus 2-year community colleges and public, large, urban multiple-campus 2-year community colleges), its external validity may be limited. It is possible that all trends will not be consiste nt across the national system. Only public, not-for-profit community colleges classified as small, serving rural communities and large, multiple-campus institutions serving urban communities were studied to gain insight into the perceptio n of the importance of the AACC’s (2005) six core competencies. The information obtained thr ough this research was limited to aggregated

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16 results from survey responses of presidents ’ perceptions on the rela tive importance of the AACC’s competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership and to their personal developmental experiences. The survey instrument was administered electronically and, as such, lim ited control could be exerci sed over response rates or individual biases of respondents’ self-perception of leadership traits, skills, and illustrated competencies. Organization of the Remaining Chapters The study is structured in five chapters. An introduction to the topi c, including the role of community colleges in America and an overview of leadership, statement of the problem, significance of the study, purpose of the study, research ques tions, definitions, delimitations, limitations, and the organizati on of the research study are presented in Chapter 1. A background of organizational lead ership and practices, and the context of community college leadership, leadership co mpetencies required for community college leaders, and leadership development for comm unity college leaders, as described in the literature, is offered in Chapter 2. Met hodology for the research study is presented in Chapter 3, as is an overview and discussion of the primary research questions, specific subresearch questions, research design, data source, collection procedures, instrument development, data collection and analysis and a summary. Results of the survey distribution and responses, treatment of data, findings of survey responses, description of respondents, statistical methods for analysis, and a summary of the research findings are offered in Chapter 4. The purpose, findings implications for practice, limitations, implications for future research, and c onclusion are provided in Chapter 5.

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17 Chapter Two Review of the Literature Overview A discussion of the key competencies identified by the AACC as essential for effective leadership of community colleges is presented in Chapter 1. According to the AACC (2004), community colleges across the na tion need to promote implementation of six core competencies through developmen t and training programs administered to individuals in line for successi on to senior administrative po sitions. These competencies must be encouraged throughout all community co lleges to ensure eff ective leadership in the future. An in-depth review of the literature related to implementation of the AACC competencies is provided in this chapter. The backgr ound and history of community colleges, as well as a connection between th at history and the continued relevance of community colleges in America is presented. An outlook and future needs assessment of community colleges, the historical profile of the community college presidency, and a snapshot of the state of community colle ge leadership are offered. Leadership requirements for the new millennium and the leadership developmental programs available to facilitate imbuing these characteristics within the community college system, as described in the literature, is discussed. Projected leadership shor tfalls and definitions of the competencies for effective community co llege leadership are detailed. A review of theoretical perspectives and conceptual fram eworks is presented. Several contemporary

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18 leadership theories and leadership practi ces that build the f oundation for effective leadership and efficient app lication of the competencies are reviewed. A summary and discussion of the implications presented in the literature conclude the chapter. Background and History of Community Colleges Community colleges began as an extensi on of high schools. Leaders of these secondary academic institutions became the firs t leaders of the extension systems, which evolved into present-day community college s. Since their inception in 1901 as a continuation of high schools through the 1920s, when general liberal arts programs were the primary offering, community colleges have responded to the needs of the communities in which they are situated. From the Great Depression of the 1930s through present day, these local centers for lifelong lear ning have played a critical role and fulfill an important niche in America’s higher education system (Kasper, 2002; L. G. Sullivan, 2001). As community colleges increased in popul arity in the 1920s, Clark University President G. Stanley Hall recognized the need to establish programs to address the demand for administrators (Katsinas & Kempne r, 2005). Despite Hall’s insight into the growing need for professional programs to de velop higher education administrators, early community colleges were most often le d by secondary schoo l principals and superintendents (Vaughan, 1989). These indi viduals were most commonly selected because their experience in ot her educational contexts provided them with transferable skills that could be adapted to new leadersh ip positions. Accord ing to Vaughan (1989), in 1960, more than 25% of community college presidents were former public secondary school superintendents.

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19 The specialized training required to satis factorily administer community colleges was most often gained thr ough on-the-job training. This informal approach to professional development primarily consis ted of the leaders moving through academic ranks and administrative positions. In some cases, targeted leadership development training was provided by presti gious universities or professi onal associations (Piland & Wolf, 2003). Eventually, leadership development pr ograms were expanded and new programs were created in universities around the nation to meet the growing demand caused by the rapid expansion of the community college sy stem (Hassan, 2008). According to Duvall (2003), since 2000, professional terminal degrees in higher educati on administration and educational leadership have become the rec ognized standard of educational attainment required for the position of chief executiv e of a community college. Of the 415 community college presidents responding to a survey distributed by Duvall, 87% held doctoral degrees. The split between Ph.D. and Ed.D. was nearly equal (43% and 44%, respectively). Only 38% of the community college presidents responding to Duvall indicated their doctora l degree was in higher education with an emphasis on community college leadership. Continued Relevance of Comm unity Colleges in America A total of 1,195 community colleges are ope rational in the United States (AACC, 2006). Of all the community colleges, 987 of these are public, 177 are independent, and 31 are tribal (AACC, 2006; U.S. Department of Edu cation, 2009). Community colleges are a vital part of the American postseconda ry education system, and many corporate, political, and social leaders have touted their importance.

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20 The importance of community colleges in the United States is apparent when considering the role they play in continuing education. Near ly half of all undergraduate students in the country receive their education at a commun ity college (AACC, 2005). In the fall of 2005, the number of students attending community college exceeded 6.5 million students (AACC, 2006). According to the AACC (2006), a growing demand for community colleges will continue well into the future because globalization and technological advancements of contempor ary enterprises demand a highly skilled workforce. James Adams, Chairman of Texas Instruments, stated, The community college system is an absolutely imperative part of the fabric of education in this country. It’s the th ing that will help us remain competitive leaders in the world, and corporations like mine have to retain a competitive leadership throughout the U.S. and th roughout the world. (AACC, 2005, p. 7) As Chairman Adams aptly recognize d, globalization is accelerating the competitive changes occurring in the economy and placing greater demands on workers’ technical abilities to remain co mpetitive. It is estimated that the majority of new jobs created by 2014 will require some postsecondary education (AACC, 2005). The global recession that began in 2008 is likely to have an impact on community colleges as newly displaced workers flock to community colleges in an effort to retool their personal skills and technical abilities to bette r meet the changing needs of the new economic landscape. Open access and reasonable tuition costs of 2-year community colleges, as compared to those offered by public 4-year instituti ons, will increase the demand for community colleges in the years to come (AACC, 2006).

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21 Accessibility of programs within easy r each of population centers, locations in remote areas, and the economic advantages of offerings by community colleges make them a growth industry. Availability of education provided thr ough open enrollment and the adaptive nature of community colleges enable s them to tailor certification and degreeproducing programs to serve the needs of local employers and streng then their value to the community. According to leadership expert Tom Peters (as cited by Watts & Hammons, 2002, p. 7), it is a prudent invest ment to “. . support your community colleges, the un-sung, under-funded, backbone of America’s all-important life-long learning network.” The Future Outlook for Community Colleges Community colleges are an important li nk between educati on and the nation’s economic success; they provide the nation a competitive advantage and well-trained workforce (Watts & Hammons, 2002). Because costs of traditional colleges continue to rise, community colleges are often considered to be a realistic educational alternative. From 1976 to 2001, tuition costs for public 4year baccalaureate-producing colleges and universities increased by 468% with annual tuition cost rising from $617 to $3,506. During the same period, community colleges’ annual tuition rose 380% from $283 to $1,359, making them a viable choice for those at tracted to their ope n enrollment, local presence, and affordability (Kasper, 2002). During the first 8 years of the new millennium, costs of traditional 4-year colleges climbed to unprecedented levels. Accordi ng to Manzo (2003), recent high school graduates, their parents, and di splaced workers with moderate to low annual salaries seek more affordable paths to earn a degree. B ecause many in this social economic status

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22 have not amassed adequate savings for a co llege education, they may discover the high tuition costs charged by 4-year degree-pr oducing public universi ties are beyond their reach. Their salaries are t oo low to accommodate tuition costs out of pocket but their salaries are too high to qualify for financia l aid. According to the AACC (2003), growth in community college attendance doubled from 2000 to 2003. The importance and demand for the resources offered by community colleges continues to grow while the development of leaders and chief executive succession planning to meet these demands appear to have reached a plateau. Historical Profile of the Community College Presidency The role of president has evolved throughout the 109 year s since the inception of 2-year community colleges. L. G. Sullivan (2001) categorized community colleges into four distinct eras. The founding fathers ar e credited with the invention, inception, and development of the contemporary postseconda ry community college system. The good managers were responsible for growing the community college system in size, resources, and stature. The collaborators built the community college system’s organizational team of faculty, staff, and admini stration into a group working, the guiding vision of which was leveraging their hard-earned resources to provide access of edu cation to all (termed “open enrollment”). The millennium generation, represented by contemporary community college leaders, is responsible fo r setting the course into the new millennium and managing the loss of a large portion of exis ting senior leadership. This fourth group will be tasked to oversee a smooth transiti on into the future while contending with stagnation or reduction in resources and a growing de mand for their product.

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23 Unique Challenges and Complexities The role of the modern-day community coll ege president is vari ed. Leadership in the community college has evolved into a complex one requiring administrative and political savvy. A community college presiden t is responsible for serving both internal and external customers under increasing sc rutiny. Hockaday and Puyear (2000) described the challenges facing the millennium generation of community college leaders as follows: “relevance in a global economy, new competition, and the move toward privatization, distance ed ucation, competency-based programs, mission boundaries blurred, and new funding challe nges” (pp. 6-7). Many of th e themes the authors noted are similar to the concer ns raised since the 1980s. In 1989, a group of students who were part of a higher education graduate program were given the task of identifyi ng the challenges comm unity colleges would predictably face in the future (Lewis, 1989). The result was a list of challenges chief executives of community colleges were facing in the late 1980s and expected to face in the early 1990s. The list incl uded, among other challenges: a diverse and unprepared student popul ation resulting from open enrollment, limited financial support, militancy among support staff and faculty, increased oversight from the local government, faculty retirements outpacing the availability of qualified backfills, and a general lack of accountability th roughout the system (Lewis, 1989). Interestingly, many of the concerns identif ied by the students in 1989 remain. Since Lewis’s (1989) report, community colleges ha ve experienced incred ible growth, funding

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24 challenges, increased local government oversi ght, and increased demands by stakeholders to provide high-quality education fo r all participants (Lewis, 1989). Conditions and predicaments unchanged or worsened since 1989 inspired the establishment of programs such as the Academy for Community College Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and Modeling, whic h designed a curriculum in community college leadership development, made po ssible through funding provided by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, North Caroli na State University, and regional state community colleges in Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and North Carolina (North Carolina State University, as cited in Palmer & Katsinas 1996). The goal of these programs is to improve the capabilities of leaders to respond to a va riety of challenges facing community college leadership. Since 1992, the Academy for Community College Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and Modeling has o ffered continuing education, graduate and technical e ducation, and assistance to community college executive leadership teams and stakeholders. This pa rticular program was de signed to establish a foundation for leadership devel opment in the community college system in the four-state region and to serve as a model for the rest of the nation (North Caro lina State University, as cited in Palmer & Katsinas, 1996). Goff (2003) stated that the 21st century will pose unique challenges combined with the age-old challenges for community college presidents. Goff posited presidents would be responsible for redefi ning their role as they meet the challenges that arise. According to L. G. Sullivan (2001), the challe nges these leaders will face are large and varied, and include the scarcity of resources that are declin ing more quickly than ever before. Evolution of student demographics is likewise occurring at unprecedented rates.

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25 Students of all ages seek community colleges for their continuing education needs. The economic downturn which began in late 2008 wi ll predictably result in even greater numbers of nontraditional students joining th e ranks of community college students. As student demographics have changed, so have staff demographics (AACC, 2005). Retirements of so many senior lead ers means the demographic composition of future staff will change dramatically. Comm unity college presidents are responsible for making technological advancements. Change s involving technology ch allenge traditional methods of instruction and n ecessitate retraining of sta ff and faculty. The balance between advancing classroom instruction and delivering continuously high-quality learning outcomes is certain to remain a challenge. Increasing regulation by external ag encies and requirements for shared governance placed by stakeholders and constituen ts is another drain on the attention of community college leaders in the new millenni um. While these expectations are nothing new, L. G. Sullivan (2001) noted skeptic ism from the public a bout the ability of community colleges to meet growing demands and needs of clients. Competition from the private sector in the ar ea of high-quality technical tr aining and development is a growing issue facing community college leader s. However, maintaining communications with stakeholders in the community in whic h the college is locat ed will provide public colleges with the relevance needed to reta in the competitive advantage over private competition. Leadership Required in the New Millennium Although there is little agreem ent in the literature on the specific leadership traits and skills needed to be an effective chief executive of a community college, Kouzes and

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26 Posner (2002) identified more than 250 traits subordinates admired in their leaders. Their research showed that most everyone resp ects leaders who are honest, competent, strategic, and able to inspir e. McKee (1990) determined the chief executive’s leadership style as perceived by the faculty had a statistically significan t effect on job satisfaction. Findings of research conducted by McKee on co mmunity college facult y in Virginia and West Virginia indicated job satisfaction was highest for t hose presidents who used the situational leadership model promoted by Blanchard (2003). According to McKee (1990), community co llege leaders who employ Situational Leadership Style 3, a combination of high relationship and low task direction, had employees with the greatest satisfaction. This particular lead ership style provides employees the opportunity to engage in a di alog with the leader while receiving support of their ideas. The result is a workforce that enjoys participative le adership and increased self-worth in the performance of their job duties. Using this style, the leader acts as a facilitator and provides the resources to acco mplish the task while opening the lines of communication without being directive on how to accomplish the stated objectives. To develop leadership competencies required to meet the challenges facing the millennium generation of community college presidents, several universities across the country have instituted developmental programs. Community College Leaders hip Development Programs According to Gibson-Benninger, Ratcliff, and Rhoads (1995), “The role of change agent is a vital res ponsibility of organizational members assigned to key roles within a community college” ( p. 6). Gibson-Benninger et al. contended presidents must create an environment that enables the entire staff to be part of the decision-making team.

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27 The ability to build consensus, and lead and manage teams productively are key ingredients of effective leadership and essent ial to any leadership development program. “Leadership is a quality that grows from a dialogue between people” (Ramsden, 1998, p. 80). Ramsden (1998) posited that th e most important resource available to leaders of academic institutions is ot her academics; how the leader manages the relationships between himself or herself a nd other educators str ongly influences the effectiveness of their leadership. Gibson-Benni nger et al. (1995) s uggested leading in a democratic style creates opportunities for others to have a stake in the organization and provides a more progressive and well-represen ted organization. This notion is supported by conclusions reported in Ramsden’s (1998) res earch, which indicated that leadership is not fundamentally about th e attributes the leader has but about what the leader does (Ramsden, 1998, p. 80). Katsinas and Kempner (2005) stated, “[L] eadership development implies personal and professional growth, expanding the cap acity to sustain, grow, and transform organizations dedicated to teaching, learni ng, and community development” (p. 3). Regardless of how the leader ship development is derive d, all constituencies and stakeholders have an intere st in the continued devel opment of leadership. Many community colleges have created internal programs to support the growth and development of their president and other se nior administrators who are the logical choices to fill projected vacan cies. Most of these programs are more formal than practical and have morphed from programs that were originally esta blished in the 1960s and 1970s (Hassan, 2008). An example is the program adopted in Massachusetts, where the state’s 15 community colleges participate in a state-based leadership academy. This

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28 formal, internal training provides experientia l and didactic leadership development to individuals identified by their colleges as having the potential for increased duties and responsibilities in th e community college system. Th e Community College Leadership Academy, as it is named, provides a structured leadership development program for two people identified from each public community college in the state to attend monthly workshops, 5-day resident training, and part icipate in a capstone experience (Hassan, 2008). According to the AACC (2006), too fe w of these programs exist but several alternatives are available from which higher education administrators can gain lifelong learning, including professiona l continuing education pr ograms, university-based leadership development programs, and personal and self-development programs. Professional continuing education programs ar e typically formal in nature and are accredited at the regional level. Organi zations including the AACC and the National Council of Instructional Admi nistrators are known to participate in these programs (Katsinas & Kempner, 2005). Un iversity-based leadership programs are formal and provide professional training and accredita tion for students seeking a degree or certification. Degrees range from certificates of training to master’s and doctoral degrees (Ed.D. and Ph.D.). The spectrum covers K-22, as well as teac hing, organizational leadership, and curriculum development (K atsinas & Kempner, 2005). The increasing demand for leadership training has enabled seve ral large research-one universities, such as the University of South Florida to estab lish, grow, and maintain their higher education programs. Personal and self-development programs are rarely formal and tend to be more aligned with a personal procli vity for lifelong personal and professional development.

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29 Although the objective of this c ourse of instruction is the increase in leadership acumen among community college senior administration, the individual nature of these programs make them difficult to manage. Individual effo rt rather than a formal, organized program of study and development is the rule. These programs are difficult to standardize across the community college system (Katsinas & Kempner, 2005). Regardless of which method of leader ship development program community college professionals choose to employ, thes e programs can add value. Each college would be best served to institute a developmental program that complements their succession planning initiatives. Participation in programs such as these would predictably help avert the leadership shortf all with which the community college system is predicted to encounter in the future. Projected Leadership Shortfall With the demand for continuing education growing, the future looks bright for community colleges but challenges remain that dampen some of that enthusiasm. Most notable is the transition in which most co mmunity colleges will soon be embroiled, if they are not in the midst of it already. For nearly three decades, researchers, education experts, and pundits have foretold the retire ment of a large number of faculty no later than the early 2000s (Berry, Hammons & Denny, 2001; Conley, 2004; Shults, 2001;Watts & Hammons, 2002). Despite the recurring forecast of doom based on the impending retirements, several positive factors are associated with the anticipated exodus of so many who have served for so long. The community college system has the unique opportunity to reinvent itself with the influx of new people with different skill sets. Along with these new people come new

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30 experiences, new best practices, new organiza tional models, and new values that have served them well in the for-profit sector. Th ese same skills are predicted to add value to community colleges facing ever-increasing budget cuts and requirements to do more with less (Little, 2002). Making the projected sh ortfall of senior administrato rs more challenging is that many leadership development models may not provide the appropriate mix of leadership development skills required for successive community college leadership (Amey, 2006). Challenges facing community colleges serve to illustrate that these institutions are approaching a tipping point fueled by growi ng demand for services and the concurrent loss of their executive leadership due to retirements (Conley, 2004). Campbell and Sloan (2002) cited Boggs, who stated that in order to meet the challenges looming because of the predicted retirements; the system must pay particular atten tion to developing new leaders. The competencies framewor k set forth by the AACC (2005) provides community college leaders with guidelines to lead their respective institutions with effective practices gained from the collec tive experience of seas oned professionals. In 2000, Claremont University’s community college leadership development initiative board of directors issued a report recommending commun ity colleges adopt a regional approach to draw from a broad co mplement of potential leaders to meet the projected demand (Charan, Drotter, and Noel 2001). The report prepared by Claremont University suggests adopting a regional approa ch may help to fill the forecasted gap in the leadership pipeline but Charan et al. ( 2001) suggested this is unlikely to solve the problem. Across America, Charan et al. (2001) noted, a demand for leadership exists that greatly exceeds the supply of qualified candi dates. Managing the projected need for

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31 community college leaders is made more daunting because many of those holding positions traditionally considered essential in succession planning are also preparing to retire from the system (Boggs, 2003). In short, a large proportion of the entire leadership structure that joined the ra nks of the community college system in the 1960s and 1970s are at the twilight of their careers. The impending retirements of these leader s served as a catalyst for the AACC (2003) community college leadership summit and prompted a study on the retirement plans of community college presidents (Watts & Hammons, 2002). The summit was intended to “promote a clear and shared unde rstanding of the state of community college leadership” and to “begin building a fram ework for the national plan of action” (McClenney, as cited by Watts & Hammons 2002, p. 23). In so doing, the AACC has taken decisive action and captured the findings of its leadership summits and results of previous research on competencies for communi ty college leaders. The result of this effort was the AACC’s (2004) six core comp etencies, with 45 “dimensions” that are subcomponents of the six core competencies. Competencies for Effective Community College Leadership It is important to identify what a compet ency is as it relates to AACC leadership guidance. According to Lucia and Lepsinge r (1999), a competency is more than the knowledge and ability to perform a job to fulfill established standards. Rather, a competency is a combination of related knowledge, skills, and attitudes that come together and have an effect on what a pers on is responsible for in his or her job. Competencies can be measured against establ ished standards and can be learned. They are different than job descriptions because job descriptions list tasks, functions, and

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32 responsibilities for a specific role; comp etencies identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to successfully acco mplish those functions (McNamara, 2008). According to McNamara (2008), a compet ency is much larger than being qualified at a task; it includes the skill to accomplish the job, the cognition of how to do so effectively, and the attitude to accomplish the task. Competencies can also be enhanced and are often interrelated. They se ldom operate in isolation. For example, it may be of little consequence if a leader possesses the competency of organizational strategy if he or she cannot communicate eff ectively to stakeholders the outcome of the efforts. As such, competencies must be integr ated with other competen cies or skill sets to be effective (Lombardo & Eichinger, 2004). On April 9, 2005, the AACC board of direct ors approved its list of competencies for community college leaders. The board enco uraged those interested in or responsible for community college lead ership development programs to use its documented competencies (AACC, 2004) to guide their curriculum and developmental practices. Essential to the effective employment of these competencies, the AACC (2006) established the following prin ciples “in order to appreciat e and use these competencies” (p. 1): “Leadership can be learned.” Althou gh experience, aptitude, mentorship, supportive coaching and development, and a host of other factor s contribute to leadership, it remain s a learned skill. “Many members of the community college community can lead.” As leaders and their respective leadership development experiences evolve, competencies will actually shift in importance as individual competency improves.

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33 “Effective leadership is a combination of effective management and vision.” Although it is most effective when mana gement skills precede the ability to establish a corporate vision, often the two are developed simultaneously in a community college leader. For this r eason, the two are presented together in the AACC competency framework. “Learning leadership is a lifelong pro cess, the movement of which is influenced by personal and career maturity as other developmental processes.” “The leadership gap can be addressed th rough a variety of strategies such as colleges and grow-your-own progr ams, AACC council and university programs, state system programs,” and university programs, and a host of others, all provide a way to meet the ch allenges states face in the development of future community college presidents. (AACC, 2006, p. 3) AACC’s (2006) treatise on co mmunity college leaders’ competencies was the culmination of a development process that began in summer 2003, when the W. K Kellogg Foundation awarded the AACC a grant to address the growing need for a community college leader development program (AACC, 2004). The process began with establishment of constituent groups to identif y the critical knowledge, values and skills required for community college leaders to be effective and to de termine how to best develop and sustain these leader s. Experts from a variety of organizational development programs gathered at four separate summits between N ovember 2003 and March 2004 to determine these critical leadership competen cies (AACC, 2004). The competencies are categorized into six general organizational leadership core competencies: organizational strategy, resource management, communication, community college advocacy, and

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34 professionalism (AACC, 2006). A descripti on of the performance divisions and each competency’s subcomponents are presented in Appendix A. Time is of the essence for the comm unity college system to simultaneously attract, retain, and develop qualified leaders w ho will be able and prepared to assume the soon-to-be vacated leadership positions. Colleges and developmental programs must devise and implement curricula that en able and enhance the competencies of administrators and senior personnel being prep ared to assume progressively greater roles of leadership. Preparation for assuming th e mantle of executive leadership can be strengthened in a number of ways, accordi ng to Watts and Hammons (2002). Doctoral programs can be enhanced by matching program offerings to community college needs. Specifically, programs can pay better attenti on to the competencies identified by the AACC (2006) as critical, which can enhan ce the success of the community college system. Theoretical Perspectives and Conceptual Frameworks Organizations of all types require ef fective leaders to promote successful outcomes (Charan et al., 2001; Kouzes & Po sner, 2003; Miller & Pope, 2003; Taylor & Rosenbach, 1992). Effective leadership has built the American community college system into what is arguably the greatest institution of its kind in the world. The next generation of leaders can, and predictably will, result in a positive outcome for the community college system. The millennium generation of leaders is standing on the shoulders of giants who prepared a solid f oundation from which they can build the next generation of community college leaders. According to Sarros and Santora (2001),

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35 “when leaders use specific lead ership behaviors consistent wi th deeply ingrained values, they can achieve great things” (p. 384). Development of leadership skills and attributes is a critical need for all organizational leaders and is not easily managed or accomplished (G. R. Sullivan & Harper, 1996). Goff (2002) suggested, “There is no common agreement on the leadership skills and traits that are needed to be a community college president” (p. 9). Researchers support G. R. Sullivan and Harp er’s (1996) premise that leadership is difficult to develop and suggest it may take up to 20 years before le aders acquire all the requisite skills to solve challenges associat ed with effectively leading an organization (Mumford, Marks, Connelly, Za ccaro, & Reiter-Palmon, 2000). Warren Bennis (1990) posited, Leaders are not made by corporate course s, anymore than they are made by their college courses, but by experience. Theref ore it is not devices, such as “career path planning,” or training courses, that are needed, but an organization’s commitment to providing its potential le aders with opportunities to learn through experience in an environment that permits growth and change. (p. 182). If Bennis is correct, it is imperative that those identified as th e next generation of community college leaders come from an envi ronment that develops effective succession planning and respects experiential learning. Despite multiple articles having been written and theories developed on the subject of leadership, very little is understood about how to optimally develop highquality leaders. Little new data regarding leadership and management has emerged since the 1970s. James MacGregor Burns (2005), the founding father of transformational

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36 leadership, suggested the real difference between effective and ineffective leadership has to do with how those who possess leadership use their powers. According to Burns (2005), those who wield power wisely use their influence to make their organizations greater functioni ng units. Conversely, those who abuse their power and authority fail to advance their or ganization to levels of greatness. Most experts in the field agree leadership can be taught and learned, with one caveat: The student must have the fortitude to persevere through the process to be or become such a person (Bass, 1985; Bennis, 1990; Burns; Kouzes & Posner, 2002; Maxwell, 1996). It is widely regarded in leadership developm ent programs that almost everyone has the potential to become a leader, but not everyone has the desire, will, and discipline to change behaviors to be an effective leader (G. R. Sullivan & Harper, 1996). The biggest challenge facing the developm ent of community college leaders with the skill sets associated with practical implementation of the needed competencies (AACC, 2006) has nothing to do with lack of desire and discipline. Potential successors, by virtue of having attained an administra tive level worthy of consideration for a leadership role, should have already establis hed and demonstrated a professional lifetime of desire, discipline, and will. The person must possess an extensive repertoire of leadership skills to successfully implement the AACC competencies. Perhaps the most daunting challenge involves satisfying the American co llege president’s demanding leadership role while fulfilling its admini strative duties and res ponsibilities (Eddy, 2007; Hardy & Katsinas, 2007; Murray & E ddy, 2007; Northouse, 2007; Trow, 1985). The difficulty in applying leadership theo ries to any organiza tion is particularly evident in leadership of community colleges. Academic practitioners of the community

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37 college system recognize the demands of leadership are different depending upon the type of institution being led (Mello w & Heelan, 2008; Murray & Eddy, 2007). Differences in organizational structure and si ze can have an impact on the effectiveness of the leadership practices employed. Because the types of community colleges studied in this research are so different relative to size of communities served (large, urban compared to small, rural) and the composition of these institutions (single campus versus multiple campus), it is reasonable to expect di fferent challenges will confront the leaders of the two types of institutions. The challe nges and demands placed on leaders of small, rural and large, urban colle ges are considerab le (A. M. Cohen & Brawer, 2003; Eddy, 2007; Hardy & Katsinas, 2007; Miller & Ki ssinger, 2007; Murray & Eddy, 2007). Ramsden (1998) posited the future success of higher education is dependent upon the ability of its institutions’ leaders to respond to change, the pressures associated with providing for more students with less fundi ng, and more accountability from students and stakeholders alike. The demands to res pond to fast-paced changes, manage growing student enrollments with le ss state funding and greater tr ansparency, and increasing scrutiny may be shared by the leaders of all coll eges, but differences in leadership are still required depending upon the type of college being led (Miller & Kissinger, 2007). The challenges faced by leadership in smaller institutions include fewer resources with greater economic constraints and fewer faculty to uphold the same mission as the larger colleges situated in urban environments: preparing st udents for transfer into 4-year colleges, meeting the educational needs of training th e workforce, and aiding community economic development (A. M. Cohen & Brawer, 2003). In order to respond effectively, differences in the skill sets required to lead in differ ent situations and operational environments must

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38 be recognized. The one-size-fits-all philos ophy will inevitably result in what Cameron, Whetten, and Kim (1987) described as orga nizational dysfunctions of decline. A review of the most applicable theories styles, and practices associated with effective, contemporary leadership is warrant ed. Bennis (1990) might have been correct in his assessment of leaders not being made by college or co rporate courses but it remains prudent for potential leaders to gain the requisite educati on in the art and science of leadership prior to or in conjunction w ith experience gained in an operational environment. Such leadership developmen t facilitates growth when the environment supports development and rewards innovative so lutions to the challenges encountered. Leadership Framework Theoretical scholarly writing on leader ship is extensiv e (Boehnke, Bontis, DiStefano, & DiStefano, 2003; Burns, 1978; Covey, 1990; De Pree, 1989; Maxwell, 1996; Nair, 1994; Russell, 2001; Senge, 1990; Y ukl, 1989). Establishi ng a definition of what leadership is and is not will facilitate th e exploration of requisite leadership skills. Context and situation can have an effect on the meaning of the term and result in descriptions of entirely diffe rent phenomena. Literature and common practice often blur the lines between leadership and management using the two concepts interchangeably. Bennis (1990) suggested this difference between the two concepts: “Leaders are people who do the right thing; managers are pe ople who do things right. Both roles are crucial, but they differ profoundl y” (p. 18). Yukl (1989) defined leadership as the pursuit of a goal or objective by a group of two or more. Leaders ch art the organizational course by establishing the vision of where the or ganization should go and what should be accomplished upon reaching that destination; they set the culture, model appropriate

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39 behaviors, are passionate a bout their cause, and inspire the team (Kouzes & Posner, 2003). Managers establish organizational systems and methods. They manage the resources required to complete the tasks esse ntial for accomplishing the objective. G. R. Sullivan and Harper (1996) suggested mana gement concerns itself with process and leaders are dedicated to organizational purpose. Leaders are essential to the success of any enterprise. Hockaday and Puyear (2000) stated that more than 125 definitions of leadership exist. Goff (2002) noted that Hockaday and Puyear defined leadership as “s imply holding the goals of the institution in one hand and the people of the institution in the other and someho w bringing these two together in a common good” ( p. 3). Given such a nebulous definition, it is little wonder the concept of defining what constitutes a qua lified, effective, and competent leader is less than universally accepted among scholars. Failure to provide an effective definition of leadership increases the difficulty to adequately prepare the millennium generati on of organizational l eaders to assume the helm in community colleges. Research in organizational leadership suggests the chief executive must rely on a range of leadership st yles and skills to lead effectively (Bnzet, Katz, & Magnusson, 1981; Bennis, 1990; M. D. Cohen & March, 1974; Richman & Farmer, 1974). The relationship between leaders and those they lead is an essential part of the equation and the foundation upon which all successful leadership is built. A leader must have someone to lead. Without pe ople to lead and a purpose requiring the characteristics and skills of a leader, no lead ership requirement exists. Leadership is embedded in social and cultura l beliefs and values and canno t be fully understood apart from the context in which it ex ists (Sarros & Santora, 2001).

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40 Determination of how the many leadership theories and best practices facilitate community college presidents and those as piring to be chief executives would be beneficial for those seeking to improve thei r odds of success. The effective application of the AACC’s (2005) six core competencies is essential for the long-term improvement of the community college system. Following is a review of the major leadership theories and practices employed in various organizati ons across the nation, both in businesses and colleges. Contemporary Leadership Theories and Practices Bass (1960), touted as the father of transact ional leadership theo ry, was the first to explain how transactions between the leader and the follower accomplish goals and objectives. Transactional leadership is base d on the theory that effective leadership involves a transaction or exch ange between involved partie s (Boehnke et al., 2003; Sarros & Santora, 2001). Based largely on a behavi oralist theoretical system that rewards positive behaviors, transactional leadersh ip is widely used and accepted throughout western industry (Bass, Avolio, & Goodhe im, 1987; Boehnke et al., 2003; Sarros & Santora, 2001; Van Fleet, 1975). Transactiona l leaders get their fo llowers to accomplish the required task by offering rewards, incentive s, and other tangible be nefits in a quid pro quo (Somers, 1995) for accomplishing the desired action. Bass (1990, p. 23) noted “most experimental research, unfortunately, has fo cused on transactional leadership, whereas the real movers and shakers of the world ar e transformational.” Burns was the first to make the distinction between transactional leadership and transformational leadership (Boehnke et al., 2003).

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41 Transformational leadership, proposed by Burns (1978), is based on leaders attaining results by inspiring their followers to change and transform into better actors to attain the goals of their organizations. Transformational leadership shifts the benefit of high performance from the indi vidual (via the quid pro quo) (Somers, 1995) to the organization. Bass (1985) posited that tran sformational leaders ar e capable of raising stakeholders to a higher awareness of the cons equence of their role and action within the organization. Sharing the macroeconomic vi ew of the organization and how the actions of the stakeholders are related to the success of the organization is an essential role of the leader. A leader who is able to engage the workfo rce and elicit the disc retionary effort of employees while simultaneously having employees follow the vision set forth for them is a transformational leader. Tr ansformational leaders place th e needs of the organization above themselves and make decisions on beha lf of the organizati on rather than for personal gain or reward. Transformational l eadership is collaborative and based heavily on the relationship between the leader and his or her employees. The leader establishes the vision and successful outcome of the orga nization as the primary benefactor of the efforts of the workforce. The style of transformationa l leadership transcends rewards and inducements for desired behavior and develops, stimulates, and inspires followers to place the needs of the organization before personal needs to achie ve a higher order collective purpose that serves the entire organization (Boehnke, et al., 2003). Sarros and Santora (2001) conducted research to explore transformational leadership in more detail and determined that four primary types of transformational le adership were used by executives in their

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42 study. In the sequence of most frequently utilized to least frequently utilized, the four primary types of transformational leader ship are individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, intellectual s timulation, and idealized influence. Individualized considerati on pertains to the leader treating workers as valued members of the team and as important cont ributors to the organi zation. Inspirational leaders are skilled at drawing out the very best attributes worker s have to offer and tapping into those skills and abilities. L eaders use intellectual stimulation to actively encourage shifting conventional focus and paradi gms to consider creative solutions to old challenges. These leaders value pushb ack and encourage creative dialog and collaboration to solve problems that arise. Leaders who employ idealized influence set the example so others can model appropriate behaviors; charismatic leaders rely on this type of transformationa l leadership. Servant leadership continues the relationship-focus ideals of transformational leadership philosophy. It places the leader in the position to serve others. According to Russell and Stone (2002), “[s]er vant leadership takes plac e when leaders assume the position as servant in their relationship w ith fellow workers” (p. 145). While the motivation for workers to perform well is shif ted from self-reward to the overall good of the organization under transformati onal leadership, in servant l eadership, the leader shifts his or her personal motivati on to the service of others and the workforce responds because their needs are being met by the leader The theory of servant leadership was introduced by Robert Greenleaf in 1977 (G reenleaf & Spears, 2002) and has received considerable attention since it s introduction. Attempts at practical application of the

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43 theoretical framework from its mostly philos ophical roots in the Western business model has had mixed results. In the late 1960s, Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey developed a leadership style and model they called situational leadership (Blanchard (2003). Blanchard (2003) revised and updated the situa tional leadership model in 1985, referring to the updated version as Situational Leadership II. The mode l shifts the role of the leader and manager from one of boss, evaluator, judg e, and critic to one of a lead er that serves as a partner, facilitator, cheerleader supporter, and coach, as determin ed by the needs of the person being led and the situation, environment, a nd condition in which th e person is operating (Blanchard, 2003). According to Blanch ard (2003), “leadership is what you do with people—not to people” (p. 3). Partnership is the main premise behind Situational Leadership II (Blanchard (2003). To become a partner rather than a boss, leaders need the skills that allow them to lead effectively. Four basic leader beha vior styles are iden tified by Situational Leadership II but Blanchard contended there is no one best leadership style. Rather, the leadership style to use is the style that best fits the situa tion. To determine which style fits best, the leader must first determine (d iagnose) the development level of the follower relative to the task being attempted. Situat ional Leadership II also identifies four development levels for followers, which represent four different combinations of competence and commitment. Once a leader has made the diagnosi s and determined the individual’s development level, the leader must put into practice the second skill of the situational leader: flexibility (Blanchard, 2003). Flexibil ity is fundamental to the leader employing

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44 one of the four leadership styles of Situa tional Leadership II. The four styles are directing, coaching, supporting, a nd delegating. Directive behavi or is used by the leader to build confidence and compet ence with task-specific knowledge and skills. Coaching is a combination of directive and supporting behavior In this style, th e leader explains why the follower must do something, solicits input and recommendations, and provides positive reinforcement and praise. During this process, the leader continue s to direct the action to accomplish the task. Supporting behavior is primarily us ed to build commitment on the part of the follower and involves encouraging, listening, asking, and explaining rather than a more directive communicative proce ss. Delegating is used when the leader empowers the person to act independently to accomplish th e task. When delegating is performed effectively, the leader ensures the person to whom work has been delegated possesses the resources needed to accomplish the task; then the leader gets out of the way (Blanchard, 2003). Essential for the leader to realize when using Situational Leadership II (Blanchard, 2003) is that the le ader is identifying the capabil ity of the person relative to accomplishment of the specific task. A highl y skilled and competent person may be an expert at one task and the l eader needs only to delegate, but the same person may require directive behaviors for a completely different task. Another leadership model popular among organizational leaders is the five practices of exemplary leader ship developed by Kouzes and Posner (2003). Kouzes and Posner began their leadership research in the early 1980s and have conducted studies using a large variety of organizations. Based on their many years of investigative

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45 activities, they proposed that leadership is not centered on the position held but is something anyone in the organization may exer t because it stems from behavior (Kouzes & Posner). Kouzes and Posner (2003) defined leadersh ip as an observable set of skills and abilities leaders use to manage challenging situations into successful outcomes. They suggested that to be an eff ective leader, one must develop a method to constantly grow and learn, positing that leadership developm ent is synonymous with self-development. Just as other professionals have tools to perform their work, leaders must have the essential tools for their work as well. Instead of requiring a paintbrush or a chisel as an artist might do, leaders’ princi ple instruments are themselves. To be effective, a leader must have a high degree of self-awareness and a commit ment to self-discovery. One method used to create a high level of self-awareness is to provide leaders with 360-degree feedback on their leadership be haviors. This type of feedback involves leaders receiving input regardi ng their observable leadership behaviors from a variety of stakeholders with whom they in teract. To be most effectiv e, those requested to provide feedback include stakeholders (internal and ex ternal), managers, peers, coworkers, direct reports, and any other person with whom the leader has a significant and ongoing professional relationship. Obtaining fee dback from a large complement of people provides the leader an accurate appreciation of how he or sh e is perceived by those with whom he or she interacts. In so doing, the Leadership Practice s Inventory 360-degree survey (Kouzes & Posner, 2003) provides th e leader with an excellent source of information of how his or her leadership is perceived by others. This 360-degree profile provides the best chance for the leader to gain an accurate assessment of strengths and

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46 weaknesses, consistencies, and inconsistenc ies in leadership behaviors, information critical for the leader both to understand a nd accept in order for the leader to make continuous improvement in his or her individual leadership development. The seven habits of highly effective pe ople is a leadership model based on the research of Stephen Covey (1997). The mode l is based on a list of seven principles garnered from 200 years of literature on succe ssful people and the practices they employ. Covey contended that, when put into practice, adherence to these principles can develop into habitual behavior and serve as th e foundation upon which successful and effective leaders perform their duties. According to Covey, leadership practic es are shifted away from focusing on solutions of specific cha llenges to a more pers on-character-centric perspective. Covey (1997) explained th at literature dating to the 1930s focused on being tactical as a means of being effective and su ccessful. Literature on the subject of success written during the 140 years pred ating the 1930s was found to be more strategic in nature, focusing on the character of the leader rather than on specific actions to solve challenges. Covey referred to the short-term, tactical philosophy of management and leadership as the personality ethic At the core of the personality ethic is a focus related to skills, techniques, attitudes, and pers onality traits that can be at tributed to accomplishing goals and objectives in modern organizations. According to Covey (1997), a more deeply seated, strategic level of principles than the personality ethic is the character ethic Integrity, ethics, morals, values, and justice are core hallmarks of the character et hic. Covey suggests ch aracter ethic is the primary driving factor of personality and pe rsonality ethic is secondary. A person may

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47 achieve initial success by mastering the pers onality ethic but both elements are necessary for long-term success. The f undamental thesis of Covey’s theory of success is that character is a culmination of habitual behavior. Habits consisting of knowledge, skill, and desire have a powerful impact on behavior and daily lives (Cove y). The habits are progressive and sequential, and move fr om dependence through independence, and finally to interdependence. Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions A review of literature identified a wide variety of theories and practices chief executives and administrators can choose to employ when leading their teams (Boehnke et al., 2003; Burns, 1978; Covey, 1990, 1997; De Pree, 1989; Maxwell, 1996; Nair, 1994; Russell, 2001; Senge, 1990; Yukl, 1989). Thes e same theories and practices can be applied for development of leaders to backf ill the predicted shortages resulting from the retirement of sitting community college presid ents and senior administrators (Little, 2002). Replacements of presidents anticip ating retirement (Weisman & Vaughan, 2002) with new leaders trained specifically for th e task is an opportunity for the community college system to update old practices and improve policies, procedures, and organizational culture (Little, 2002). Infusion of fresh leadership can increase diversity to reflect better the communities in wh ich these institutions are located. Leadership can be learned (AACC, 2005). The top executive position is responsible for charting the di rection of the organization and providing leadership for organizational change (Gibson-Benninger et al., 1995). The predicted shortages in community college leadership expected to result from retirements (Shults, 2001; Wallin, 2002; Weisman & Vaughan, 2002) was the impe tus for the AACC (2005) to develop a

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48 list of core competencies required for effec tive leadership. The AACC’s list is a starting point from which organizations can assess, evaluate, and refine their leadership development track to avert th e potential crisis (AACC, 2005). To lead in a manner that embodies the competencies necessary for the role, community college leaders have a variety of leadership styles and practices from which to c hoose to develop their skills (Bass et al., 1987; Blanchard, 2003; Boe hnke et al., 2003; Burns, 1978; Covey, 1990, 1997; Gibson-Benninger et al., 1995; Kouzes & Posner, 2003; McKee, 1990; Russell & Stone, 2002; Sarros & Santora, 2001). Options available to assist in development of the characteristics necessary the role of community college leadership range fr om informal, in-house training programs to formal, university-based higher educational programs in organizational leadership (Hassan, 2008; Katsinas & Kempner, 2005; P iland & Wolf, 2003). A general lack of understanding exists on precisely how leaders are best developed, but certain components are accepted as being essential to the deve lopment of quality leaders. Perhaps most important is that the person’s character is the foundation upon which every successful leader is built and sustained (C ovey, 1997; Sarros & Santora, 2001). The theory or practice to wh ich the leader subscribes is best determined by the leader (Blanchard, 2003). This determinati on is made by assessing several factors and then choosing the leadership style that will best facilitate a successful outcome. A leader who is confident in his or her leadership ability will be more adept at moving from one leadership style to another (Blanchard, 2003) A shift between styles by the adaptive leader is determined by the leader accord ing to the needs of the person being led (Blanchard, 2003).

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49 Essential to the leadership of teams that include highly skille d professionals is participative involvement by the leader (McKee, 1990). Communication is the key ingredient to openness (AACC, 2004; L. G. Sullivan, 2001) Professional teams value leaders who are participative in nature and feel a strong connection and appreciation to leaders who ask them to provide their input and analysis to challenges the organization faces (Blanchard, 2003; Kouzes & Posn er, 2003; McKee, 1990). When soliciting feedback from stakeholders, it is important for the leader to be clear that he or she requires candor and thoughtful assessment of the challenge, but the leader alone is responsible for the final decisi on. Participative leadership is known to build loyalty and buy-in from constituents while providing the leader excellent advice from multiple perspectives (McKee, 1990). Th is style of leadership crea tes a climate and culture of trust, demonstrating the leader places the needs of the organization as a whole above his or her self-interests while developing subordi nate administrators and faculty members. The impending retirement of chief executives provides an opportunity for community colleges to reinvent themselves and chart a new direction for the future (Little, 2002). The AACC (2003) identified a problem exists in the community college system’s approach to leadership development. A guide to help estab lish the future course of leadership development was prepared to document the competencies and capabilities necessary for transforming the chie f executive position (AACC, 2005). Conclusions drawn as part of this res earch may assist individual leaders and administrators, community colleges, and commun ity college stakeholders to refine their leadership development programs. The results of this study may be useful in guiding the structure of future leadership developmen t programs by encouraging community colleges

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50 to tailor specific competencies for leaders at certain sized institutions. Literature offers insights into the careers and skill sets require d of presidents leading community colleges but a gap exists on how the specific competen cies are applicable to different sized institutions. By identifying which competencies are most pertinent to institu tions of different sizes, the competencies identified by the AACC (2004) can be stratified to provide leaders of specific sized institutions better fidelity in training and education, allowing programs to be tailored to specific student’s needs depending upon the type of institution with which he or she aspires to affiliate. This research is intended to expand and complement the AACC’s (2004) initiative by garnering feedback and assessment from the field of practicing commun ity college presidents on how important they determine each competency is in the effective manageme nt of their respective institutions. The design of the study on perceptions of sitting presid ents at two different sizes of colleges is outlined in Chapter 3.

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51 Chapter Three Methods Overview An outline and description of the research design, methods used for the research, source of data, collection procedures, inst rument employed, and data analysis are presented in this chapter. The purpose of this research wa s threefold. Th e first objective was to explore whether there are differences in the viewpoints of prac ticing presidents of public, small rural community colleges and presidents of public large, urban multiplecampus community colleges on the relative im portance of the competencies identified by the AACC (2004) as essential for effective leadership of community colleges. The second objective was to provide additional information on the relative importance of competencies identified by the AACC to the perceptions of presidents of these two different sized institutions. It is hoped that this research may be useful in refining leadership development programs and provide hiring committees insight into what respondents perceived regarding the relative importance of these competencies, based on their personal experience. Third, this research sought to determine whether the importance of the AACC competencies (2005) is different for small, rural and large, urban community colleges. This objective is perhaps the most poignant for the development of community college leaders and potential graduate and doctoral students. T hose students whose goal is to gain the formal education to become a commun ity college president ca n be best served by

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52 knowing which leadership experiences, knowledge skills, and abilities sitting community college presidents rate as the most important competencies. This research may benefit the higher education institutions’ developmental programs if the administrators of those institutions elect to tailor their curricula for specific sized institutions (small rural and large urban). To facilitate obtaining accurate responses to the research questions, only presidents of public, rural community co lleges serving small populations and public, urban multiple-campus community colleges were surveyed. Categorization of the two groups researched was based on the classificat ions set forth by the National Center for Educational Statistics Integrated Postsecondary Educa tion Data System (IPEDS) (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). The IPEDS data is categorized using the basic classifications developed by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2006). These classifications provide the segreg ation of IPEDS data that was essential to identify the targeted research groups for this study. Quantitative Research Questions The following quantitative rese arch questions were posed: 1. To what degree do practicing presidents of small, rural, single-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by the AACC (2005) as being essential for community college leadership? 2. To what degree do practicing presidents of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of the characteristics and

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53 professional skills identified by the AACC (2005) as being essential for community college leadership? 3. Which leader development experience(s) do presidents of small, rural, singlecampus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges perceive as the most beneficial in the developm ent of the competencies identified by AACC (2005) as being essential for eff ective community college leaders? 4. Are there significant differences in pe rceptions between the responses of practicing presidents of small, rura l, single-campus community colleges and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges on the relative importance of the characteristics and profession al skills identifie d by the AACC (2005) for effective community college leadership? Qualitative Research Questions The following qualitative research questions were posed: 1. Please explain what you believe are the differences in leadership skills required for effective leadership of sm all, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges. 2. Please describe the biggest challenges you face in the daily leadership of your college. 3. Please describe the key experiences or training you perceive best prepared you for your current position as chie f executive of your college. Research Design An electronic questionnaire se rved as the instrument used in the survey of the target population. A descriptive design was used to address the three research objectives

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54 and to provide the investigator the opportunity to determine what is or what exists as it pertains to the topic investigated (Gall, Borg, & Gall, 1996). Church and Waclawski (1998) stated that descriptive su rvey research is used to syst ematically measure aspects in the data which are pertinent to the research topic. The advantage of survey research is that it can be used to gain a large amount of descriptive information pertaining to the subject. According to Jackson and Fur nham (2000), survey research allows the investigator to gather information and identi fy areas to improve and challenge the status quo. Survey research is regarded as one of the most important methods of measurement in applied social science (Glass & Hopkins, 1996). Since 1950, survey research has been the most common method to seek information on leadership (Yukl, 2001). In general, survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve a researcher asking questions of responding participants. Surveys collect perceptions, beliefs, attitude s, and opinions, and may explore variables and the relationship between variables. According to Glass and Hopkins (1996), in experimental studies, the researcher describes data colle cted from respondents without manipulating any variables. This study was designed to investigate the percep tions and opinions of presidents of rural and urban colleges as related to the leadership competencies for community college leaders. Survey design and layout are important for ensuring that respondents participate to the greatest extent possible. A poorly designed survey may result in respondents skipping questions, stopping befo re completion, or opting out of participating altogether. Poor participation is especia lly problematic when soliciti ng voluntary response using the

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55 Internet because no personal contact is possi ble. To garner the maximum amount of participation, the researcher sent potential participants an introduction e-mail message (see Appendix C) with an accompanying link to the survey (see Appendix D). The email message explained the purpose of the survey and the importance of those selected to participate to in the research to respond honestly and in as mu ch detail as possible. Each recipient of the e-mail message was invite d to provide his or her impressions and personal judgments on the relative importan ce of the competencies identified by the AACC (2004) (see Appendix A) as being esse ntial for effective community college leadership. The introduction message sent to pote ntial participants explained why the research was being conducted, how the collected information would be used, approximately how long it would take partic ipants to complete the survey, and a commitment from the researcher that all info rmation will be kept strictly confidential and anonymous. In the survey itself (see Appendix D) general instructions were provided for each section of the survey specifying how to progress through the survey. The researcher’s personal contact information (b oth phone and e-mail) was provided in the event the participants had any questions during completion of the survey. At the end of the survey, the researcher sent each respondent completing the survey a note thanking the respondent for his or her participation. Source of Data The population of this mixed methodology research investigat ion consisted of presidents obtained from a list of community colleges from the IPEDS database (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). This data base was used to filter th e selection criteria

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56 for this research. All potent ial participants were select ed for voluntary support of the process and were sitting pres idents of community colleges in the United States. Each participant was from a public small, rural single-campus community college or large, urban, multiple-campus community college. The list of colleges was obtained from IPEDS using the basic classifications of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (2006). Prior to the 2006 revision of IPEDS, all 2-year colleges were lumped into one category. The new classification provides distinct categories for associate degree-granting institu tions (Hardy & Katsinas, 2007). Enhanced classification provides the segregation of IPEDS data that allows fo r targeted research of predetermined groups pertaining to this study Data Collection Procedures The researcher, who was the primary inve stigator and completed all appropriate and required training for use of the IPEDS database (U.S. Department of Education, 2009), followed all ethical protocols for data co llection. Data collec tion began with each president of the two categories identified for this research being sent an e-mail message describing the study; procedures for data colle ction, the research survey instrument, the data collection reporting pro cedures (see Appendix C). Samples of the e-mail notes requesting participation were submitted th rough the University of South Florida Institutional Review Board for review. A pproval from the Institutional Review Board was received before data collection was begun. A total of 239 community college presidents were invited to participate in this research. The 239 community college presidents were garnered from the 130 public, rural, single-campus community colleges serving small populati ons and the 145 public,

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57 urban, multiple-campus community colleges which make up the total possible research population of 275 colleges for the study. A lthough the researcher attempted to send invitations to participate in the survey to all 275 community college presidents matching the research criteria, 36 e-mail addresses we re either unavailable or no longer accurate due to changes in college administration structure. The tota l population of the community colleges meeting the establishe d criteria (Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 2006) was obtained vi a the IPEDS database (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). Because of the nature of the electronic invitation, there is no reliable way to determine how many of th e 239 community college presidents who were sent an invitation to partic ipate actually received the email invitation. The research population of 239 community college presidents who were invited to participate via electronic mail represents 87% (239 of 275) of the target pop ulation for this research. The 239 presidents were sent an e-mail me ssage inviting their participation in the study. A brief synopsis of the research obj ectives was included in the message. Importance of the message recipients’ partic ipation was underscored and an estimate of the amount of time required for completion of the survey was offered. A link to the survey was included in the e-mail message, alon g with the request to complete the survey within a 2-week period of time. A reminder e-mail (see Appendix C) was sent 9 calendar days after the initial request with survey li nk was e-mailed to all presidents who had not yet responded. Five days late r, a second request was sent to those presidents who had not yet responded, asking again for th eir participation in the surv ey. Sixteen days from the initial contact, those who ha d not yet completed the survey were determined to be nonrespondents and data colle ction was terminated.

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58 The following 13-step collection process a nd procedures was used to initiate, manage, collect, and process data for this research: 1. Request IRB approval. 2. Receive IRB approval. 3. Obtain e-mail addresses of community college presidents for each community college in the two categories (rural and urban) studied. 5. Assign a randomly generated code to each potential respondent to ensure anonymity. 6. Maintain all names and institutions corresponding to each code number in a separate, locked file location to ensure anonymity and confidentiality. 7. Conduct an initial e-mailing of the su rvey instrument to participants. 8. Sent a reminder e-mail requesting partic ipation in the survey after 9 days. 9. Fourteen calendar days after initial contact, sent a follow-up e-mail message requesting participation in the survey to those presidents who had not completed the survey. 10. After 16 days from the initi al contact, those who had not yet participated were considered nonrespondents and the survey was closed. 11. Collect and organize survey responses from participants. 12. Review the survey instru ments for completeness. 13. Conduct statistical analysis of the data. Instrument Development Leadership assessment is not a new t opic in higher education research. Throughout the years, various assessments and re search studies of leadership have been

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59 conducted (Impara & Plake, 1998). The surv ey instrument used for this study was originally designed by Hassan (2008) and is based on data gathered from the AACN (2006). This survey instrument contained the precise wording us ed in the survey conducted by the AACC. The instrument contai ns a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 to 5 so respondents could rate the degree to which they felt each of the specific competencies and dimensions were important to effective lead ership. A Likert scale is also referred to as an agree-disagree scale (Brace, 2004). Th e benefit of employing a Likert-type scale in the research is that most everyone who has ta ken a survey is familiar with this type of rating scale. Moreover, this t ype of scale provides a series of attitude dimensions, which enables respondents to use a point rating to id entify how strongly they agree or disagree to each dimension. Likert scales are assigne d scores for the purpose of obtaining a sum score for each respondent called the response average (Brace, 2004). According to Jackson and Furnham (2000), Li kert-type scales are typical ly used in surveys that measure attitudes and beliefs. By providing an assigned weight to each scale (in this case, a scale of 1-5), it is the intent that each statement will represent different aspects of the same attitude (Brace, 2004). The Likert-type scale provides respo ndents the opportunity to rate each competency on a scale as follows: 1 = Not important, 2 = Minimally important, 3 = Moderately important, 4 = Very important and 5 = Extremely important. Employing a balanced rating scale such as this 5-poi nt scale typically pr ovides respondents a sufficient amount of discrimination in thei r ratings and is ea sily understood by the participants (Meric & Wagne r, 2006). Any number of categories can be used by researchers but it is possible th at using too few choices on the rating scale could result in

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60 gaining information that is less reliable a nd not as specific as that which could be garnered by a more precise set of descrip tive rating scale categor ies (Meric & Wagner, 2006). A rating scale that is balanced contai ns the same number of positive and negative ratings with the opposite poles anchoring the most significant ratings (Meric & Wagner, 2006). Providing a midpoint allows respondents to offer a neutral rating to the question and yields greater discrimination in the rating of each category. Likert-type scales are an excellent vehicle for rating valu es sought in research and are widely used in descriptive research because of the ease of implementati on for respondents; a single scale covers all items being measured (Hassan, 2008). The scal es also benefit the researcher because Likert-type scales enable st raightforward tabulation for da ta analysis (Hassan, 2008). This same Likert-type scale was used in the AACC (2004) pilot study. Internal validity of the instrument used in the AACC pilot st udy was conducted via a factor analysis of the instrument by Duree (2007), who concluded th at subtasks of the competencies contained within each of the six ma jor themes identified by the AACC (2006) were valid. To gather qualitative data pertaining to the objectives of this research, open-ended questions were asked of the respondents. An additional section wa s included following the quantitative portion of the research instru ment originally used by Hassan (2008). The inclusion of open-ended ques tions allows the respondent the opportunity to offer additional relevant informati on regarding the subject in his or her own words. Openended questions were designed by the researcher to gather a free response and to elicit the major points regarding the topic from the res pondent’s perspective. In the case of this research, open-ended questions were used to augment the quantitative portion of the

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61 research study. Inclusion of these open-e nded questions added a dditional depth to the research study by soliciting feedback and coll ecting attitudes, feeling, likes, dislikes, and opinions that could not be measur ed by a predetermined scale. Demographic information pertaining to th e respondents was gathered during this research (see Appendix B). To ensure a nonymity, the data was not attributed to any specific person or institution. The informati on was gathered via a section added to the instrument originally used by Hassan (2008). Demographic information of interest to the researcher included questions regarding gender, age, number of years in current position, total number of years as a community college CEO, race/ethnicity, and the highest level of academic degree attained ( by type). Information gather ed from this portion of the survey was subsequently classified by the type of college (small, rural single-campus institution or large, urban multiple-campus institution) led by the CEO. Data Organization and Analysis All data obtained from the respondents re garding the competen cies was gathered and entered into variab le fields using SAS software. All additional data was entered by the researcher into a Microsoft Office Excel 2007 sp readsheet or responses were coded for qualitative research analysis. All responses remained anonymous and neither responses nor data were not associated with any institution or i ndividual. The data collected in the quantitative portion of the research was analyzed using inferential statistics (independent-samples t tests and Cronbach’s alpha re liability coefficients) and descriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, range, standard deviat ion, and correlation), depending upon the nature of the question.

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62 Descriptive statistics, used to describe wh at exists or what the data is showing, were used to tabulate and describe the data obtained in the quantit ative portion of this research (Gall et al., 1996). Descriptive stat istics enable the researcher to present the quantitative data in an organized and ma nageable form (Stevens, 1999). The large amount of data gathered was summarized to provide a simplified structure for better understanding (Glass & Hopki ns, 1996; Stevens, 1999). Inferential statistics were used to apply the data gained from research participants to other groups of similar populations (Glass & Hopkins, 1996) Using this statistical method, inferences were made to arrive at j udgments about the probabi lity of the findings and trends gained from the research being su itable for accurate generalization to similar groups (Stevens, 1999). As such, using infere ntial statistics and fr om validation from other similar research studies, it is reasonable to assume the findings from this study may be applied to similar populations. Descriptive statistics were used for questions 1 and 2, both of which were designed to gain an appreciation for th e overall makeup of the entire group of participants. Questions 1 and 2 allowed th e researcher to determine and assess the participants’ perceptions to the six core competencies identified by the AACC (2005). Question 3 was designed to seek greater und erstanding of the importance of each core competency. This question addressed the pr esidents’ experiences in each subcomponent of the six major core competencies. Question 4 was analyzed using inferentia l testing between th e two independent groups: small, rural community colleges and large, urban community colleges. Because the two groups are completely independent application of the independent-samples t test

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63 is appropriate (O’Rourke, Hatcher, & Step anski, 2005; Stevens, 1999). According to O’Rourke et al. (2005), “t he independent-samples t test is appropriate if the observations obtained under one treatment condition are independent of (i.e., unrelated to) the observations obtained under the other treatment condition” (p. 168). The independentsamples t test is used to determine if th e means of two independent groups are statistically different fr om one another. The t test is appropriate when the analysis involves a single predictor measur ed on an interval or ratio sc ale and is used to determine if there are differences between groups (O’Rourke et al., 2005). Type I error occurs when th e null hypothesis is rejected when it is actually true (Stevens, 1999). If this occu rs, the researcher is erroneous ly stating that something is true when it is not (Stevens, 1999). An adju stment to the alpha level of .05 was used to ensure type I error was contro lled. The independent-samples t test allows a researcher to determine with a high degree of confidence if a significant difference between the two groups exists. According to Stevens (1999), [T]he t test is based on the following three assumptions: 1. Normality—the scores on the dependent variable are normally distributed in each group. 2. Homogeneity of variance—the popula tion variances are equal for the two groups. 3. Independence of observations – each subject’s score on the dependent variable is not affected by other subjects in the same treatment group. Briefly, considerable research has shown that a violation of the normality assumption is of little consequence. Unequal variances will distort the type I error

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64 rate appreciably only if the groups sizes are sh arply unequal (largest/ smallest > 1.5). Finally, dependent obse rvations have a very serious effect on type I error rate. (Stevens, 1999, p. 9) The t test is an appropriate stat istical method to test the diffe rences in responses between the two different types of institutions: larg e, urban, multiple-campus community colleges and small, rural, single-campus community colleges. In this research study, the independen ce assumption of the observation was clearly met. Because the two institutions were differentiated by the two distinct categories (large, urban and small, rural) and the two categories have no overlap. The responses of the participants were not affected by other pa rticipants because the survey was answered individually through th e use of an online survey tool. To test the normality of each variable, th e Shapiro-Wilk test was employed. This test is especially eff ective for populations of le ss than 100 participants ( n < 100). The method tests the null hypothesis that the variab le distribution is normal (Stevens, 1999). In this study, the researcher tested the null hypothesis to an alpha level of 0.05. The Shapiro-Wilk test indicated that not all variables met the normality assumption for the t test. As Stevens (1999) stat ed, “the violation of the nor mality assumption is of little consequence” (p. 9). Although all variables did not meet the standard for normality, the research results are reliable and tested the assumptions. The following research questions and statis tical tests were paired as follows: 1. To what degree do practicing presidents of small, rural, single-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by the AACC (2005) as being essential for

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65 community college leadership? Answers to this question were analyzed using mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage tabulation. 2. To what degree do practicing presidents of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by the AACC (2005) as being essential for community college leadership? Answers to this question were analyzed using mean, median, mode, range, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage tabulation. 3. Which leader development experience(s) do presidents of small, rural, singlecampus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges perceive as the most beneficial in the developm ent of the competencies identified by AACC (2005) as being essential for eff ective community college leaders? This question was analyzed by compar ing the percentage of responses between the two types of community college s with tables and graphical charts. 4. Are there significant differences in pe rceptions between the responses of practicing presidents of small, rural, single-campus and large, urban multiplecampus community colleges on the relati ve importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by the AACC (2005) for effective community college leadership? Answers to this question were analyzed using comparison of percentage responses for each rating level between the two types of community college s and independent-samples t test.

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66 The qualitative portion of the research c onsisted of a basic interpretive and descriptive qualitative study that allowed the re searcher to gather in formation to develop an understanding of how the participants perc eive and make meani ng of the situations related to the competencies developed by the AACC (2005). According to Merriam (2002), meaning is mediated through the res earcher and the questions asked seek to discover and understand a phenomenon, the proc ess, and the perspectives of the participants involved. The data was colle cted by obtaining responses to open-ended questions posed by the researcher. Responses to these questions were analyzed by coding the responses (Saldana, 2009) to identify any patterns of th emes that occurred throughout the data. The researcher developed operational definitions for each code and gained additional independent coding analysis from an independe nt researcher. After the development of a coding system, an interrat er reliability test was conducted to ensure validity (Saldana, 2009). The procedure offe red two independent judges the ability to analyze the data. The degree, significance, and sampling stability of the judges’ agreement was determined using the J. C ohen’s (1960) kappa. J. Cohen’s kappa provided a coefficient of agreement for the nominal scales in the coding process. Summary The purpose of this study was to examine how presidents of public, small, rural single-campus and public, large, urban multiple-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of each of the AACC’s (2005) six competencies as being essential for effective community college leadership. The objective was to discover if the competencies identified as essential for e ffective community college leadership by the

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67 AACC (2005) were perceived diffe rently in relative importan ce by the presidents of these different-sized community colleges It was intended that the re sults of this research could be shared with educational leaders and those managing and directing leadership development programs to allow them to be tter focus development of their respective leaders. The intent of sharing the results of this research is that the information garnered through this study may enhance the leadersh ip development programs and thereby add value to the development of future leader s of community colleges and other related institutions requiring similar leadership competencies. Primary quantitative and qualitative res earch questions, the research design, a description of the data s ource, collection procedures, instrument development, organization and analysis procedures, format and methodology the researcher used to accomplish the objectives of this research were presented in this chapter. The results of the research are presented in Chapter 4.

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68 Chapter Four Results Overview The purpose of this research was to explore whether there are significant differences in the perceptions of chief executives of small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges on the relative importance of the competencies identified by the AACC (2004) as essential for effective community college leadership. A second objective wa s to provide additional information on the relative importance of the competencies id entified by the AACC based on the perceptions of the chief executives of the two decidedl y different sized colleges. This chapter provides an overview of the findings of this re search derived through st atistical analysis. For a more comprehensive understanding of the community college presidents who participated in this survey, a profile of their age, gender, race/ethnicity, and educational background was compiled from a frequency analyses. Of the 130 small, single-campus community colleges serving ru ral populations and the 145 large, multiplecampus community colleges serving urban popula tions, the researcher was able to obtain 234 accurate e-mail addresses. These e-mail ad dresses were used to distribute a link to the survey instrument directly to the pres ident’s personal e-mail account. No manner of control was available to ensure the chie f executives to whom the researcher was endeavoring to send the electronic corresponde nce received any or all of the e-mail messages sent to their respect ive accounts. Of the two hundred thirty-four of the possible

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69 275 chief executives were sent an invitation using the valid e-mail address identified in IPEDS (U. S. Department of Education, 2009) as their personal, business account. This action resulted in 85% of the total population having an inv itation arrive to their e-mail inbox to participate in this research in August, 2009. Of the 234 e-mail invitations delivered to these addresses, 55 chief execu tives participated to some degree, which resulted in a response rate of 23.5%. For the purpose of this research, five chief executives (identified by entry numbers: 1, 22, 25, 36, and 42) were excluded from the analysis because they did not complete the survey and therefore their response data was considered too incomplete. As such, a total of 50 chief executives provided responses to the survey, resulting in an overall response rate of 21.4%. Demographics of the Communi ty College Chief Executives Of all participants in the survey, 47 (94 %) held the position titl e of president, two (4%) of chancellor, and the re maining one participant (2%) held a title other than president or chancellor (see Table 4.1). Broken down by college size, 26 (52%) participants from small, rural, single-cam pus colleges and 21 (48%) participants from large, urban, multiple-campus colleges identifie d president as their primary title. Just fewer than 10% of large, multiple-campus chief executives used the title of chancellor, compared to zero participants from small, single-campus colleges. Both types of institutions studied (small, single-campus community colleges serving rural populations and large, multiple -campus community colleges serving urban populations) were well represented in the su rvey. Chief executives of small, singlecampus, rural community colleges were repr esented by 27 particip ants (54%) and the

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70 remaining 23 (46%) were chief executives of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges (for a detailed illustrative ch art, see Appendix F, Figure F.1). Table 4.1. Participants’ Positions Position title Small, rural CC Large, urban CC All participants n % n % N % President 26 96.30 21 91.30 47 94.00 Chancellor 0 0.00 2 8.70 2 4.00 Other 1 3.700 0 0.00 1 2.00 Total 27 100.00 23 100.00 50 100.00 Data on tenure in the current position reveal ed the majority of the participants had held their current position fr om 1 to 3 years (see Table 4.2, and Appendix F, Figure F.2). Ten (20%) participants indicated they have se rved in their current position for 4-7 years, eight (16%) participants have held their position for 8-10 year s, six (12%) participants for 11-15 years, and four (8%) participants have served in their current position for 16-19 years. Table 4.2. Participants’ Profile by Years of Experience in Current Position Years in current position Small, rural CC Large, urban CC All participants n % n % N % 1-3 13 48.15 9 39.13 22 44.00 4-7 4 14.81 6 26.09 10 20.00 8-10 6 22.22 2 8.70 8 16.00 11-15 4 14.81 2 8.70 6 12.00

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71 Table 4.2 (Continued) Years in current position Small, rural CC Large, urban CC All participants n % n % N % 16-19 0 0.00 4 17.39 4 8.00 20 + 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Total 27 100.00 23 100.00 50 100.00 In comparison, the total number of year s that participants served as chief executive officers in the community college syst em revealed slightly different ratios (see Table 4.3). When combining bot h sized colleges, 16 particip ants (32%) indicated they have served for 1-3 years, nine (18%) have served in a community college leadership position for 4-7 years, seven (14%) have served for 8-10 years, eight (16%) have served as chief executive for 11-15 years, four (8 %) have been CEO for 16-19 years, and six (20%) indicated that they have served for 20 years or more. For a graphical illustration of the number of years of experience for wh ich participants serve as a CEO within the community college system, see Appendix F, Figure F.3. Table 4.3. Participants’ Profile by Number of Years as Community College CEO Years as CC CEO Small, rural CC Large, urban CC All participants n % n % N % 1-3 10 37.04 6 26.09 16 32.00 4-7 3 11.11 6 26.09 9 18.00 8-10 4 14.81 3 13.04 7 14.00 11-15 6 22.22 2 8.70 8 16.00

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72 Table 4.3 (Continued) Years as CC CEO Small, rural CC Large, urban CC All participants n % n % N % 16-19 2 7.41 2 8.70 4 8.00 20 + 2 7.41 4 17.39 6 12.00 Total 27 100.00 23 100.00 50 100.00 Age of the participants ranged from 40 y ears or younger to 71 years or older (see Table 4.4 and Appendix F, Figure F.4). Interesti ng to note is that 52% of all participants ( N = 50) indicated their present age was 56-65 years. The median age group of participants was 55-60 years old (28%), followed closely by those aged 61-65 years (24%). Table 4.4. Participants’ Profile by Age Age Small, rural CC Large, urban CC All participants n % n % N % 40 or under 1 4.00 0 0.00 1 2.00 41-45 1 4.00 1 5.00 2 4.00 46-50 3 9.00 1 5.00 4 8.00 51-55 5 20.00 4 17.00 9 18.00 56-60 8 30.00 6 25.00 14 28.00 61-65 7 25.00 5 22.00 12 24.00 66-70 2 8.00 4 17.00 6 12.00 71 or over 0 0.00 2 9.00 2 4.00 Total 27 100.00 23 100.00 50 100.00 Of the 50 participants who indicated thei r race/ethnicity, 40 ( 80%) self-identified as White/non-Hispanic (see Table 4.5 and A ppendix F, Figure F.5). Five (10%) self-

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73 identified as Hispanic or Latino, compared and 6% ( n = 3) of those responding who selfidentified as Black or African American. The remaining two participants (4%) selfidentified as Asian or Pacific Islander, which closely represented the total U.S. population of 4.5%. Table 4.5. Participants’ Pr ofile by Race/Ethnicity Race/ethnicity Small, rural CC Large, urban CC All participants n % n % N % White 22 81.48 18 78.26 40 80.00 Black or African American 2 7.41 1 4.35 3 6.00 Asian or Pacific Islander 1 3.70 1 4.35 2 4.00 Native American Indian or Alaskan Native 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Other 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Total 27 100.00 23 100.00 50 100.00 Gender was evenly divided (see Table 4.6 and Appendix F, Figure F.6). Males represented 54% of the particip ants and females represented 46% of the participants. Of those responding to the survey, more males se rved as chief executives in small, rural, single-campus colleges than in large, urban, multiple-campus colleges. Female respondents were more likely than their male co unterparts to serve as chief executives in large, urban colleges.

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74 Table 4.6. Participants’ Profile by Gender Gender Small, rural CC Large, urban CC All participants n % n % N % Male 16 61.54 10 45.45 26 54.17 Female 10 38.46 12 54.55 22 45.83 Total 26 100.00 22 100.00 48 100.00 All but 10 (20%) of the part icipants reported their highe st degree attained was a doctorate (see Table 4.7 and Appendix F, Figur e F.7). Of the 80% who earned a doctoral degree, 21 (42%) earned a Ph.D and 19 (38%) an Ed.D. Six participants (12%) indicated their highest level of academic de gree earned as a master’s degree. Table 4.7. Participants’ Profile by Highest Level of Academic Degree Attainment Degree Small, rural CC Large, urban CC All participants n % n % N % Bachelor’s 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Master’s 3 11.11 3 13.04 6 12.00 Ph.D. 11 40.74 10 43.48 21 42.00 Ed.D. 11 40.74 8 34.78 19 38.00 Other 2 7.41 2 8.70 4 8.00 Total 27 100.00 23 100.00 50 100.00 The scores were analyzed for reliability. The analysis of th e scores obtained through the research was conducted using Cronb ach alpha coefficien ts gained through Statistical Analysis Software (SAS). Cronbach coefficient alpha was used to assess the internal consistency for each dimension. The sc ore reflects the internal consistency of the

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75 instrument used in the research. Greater fide lity and specific detail derived from the SAS is provided in Appendix G. According to George and Mallery (2007), a general rule of thumb regarding the Cronbach alpha is that values should be 0.70 or higher for the instrument to be considered consistent and therefore the data derived ther ein acceptable. Based on this rule of thumb, the reliability for the six competencies was acceptable with each ha ving presented a value of greater than 0.90 (see Appendix G, Table G.1) The reliability analysis performed on the six competencies indicated that scores decrease after removing each variable; as such it appears the variables each contribute to the overall reliability of the instrument and are correlated with the other variables. The reliability analyses performed on the 45 dimensions from the six competencies indicate acceptable reliability with each alpha score (see Appendix G, Table G.2). Based on the alpha coefficients shown in Appendix G, Table G.2, the overall scores ranged from .944272 to .947759. By compar ing the alpha coefficient scores after the deletion of each dimension, only three di mensions did not have the effect of decreasing the overall alpha coefficient when they were removed. Only these three dimmensions were considered not strongly correl ated with other variables in the scale. The three dimensions that were not str ongly correlated were as follows: RM 4 (Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities), PR 5 (Manage stress through self-care, balance, ad apability, flexibility and humor), and PR 8 (Promote and maintain high standards for pe rsonal and organizati onal integrity, honesty and respect for people).

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76 Discussion of Research Questions The AACC (2004) conducted re search that resulted in the identification of six specific competencies (organizational st rategy, resource management, communication, collaboration, community college advocacy, a nd professionalism) that the organization determined were essential for effective commun ity college leadership. Each of these six competencies consisted of 45 specific dimens ions that were used to describe the components of each competency area. When combined, these dimensions formed the six overarching competencies of 45 specific, obs ervable actions. Ta ken individually, the dimensions provide a detailed description of each competency. The dimensions were used to develop a que stionnaire to gather the perceptions of participants. Each participant was asked to rate on a 5-point Like rt-type rating scale the relative importance of each of the 45 dime nsions as being essential for effective community college leadership. Options on the Likert-type scale provid ed participants the opportunity to rate each competency dimensi on on a scale as follows: 1 = Not important, 2 = Minimally important, 3 = Moderately important, 4 = Very important, and 5 = Extremely important. By providing participants this balanced ra ting scale, the researcher incorporated a sufficient amount of discrimination in the ra ting of each competency dimension. These same ratings scales were used by the research er to conduct basic statistical analysis using the mean, range, standard deviation, or frequenc y. In addition to the Likert-type scale, the researcher offered partic ipants the opportunity to res pond to open-ended questions. This additional data yielded information in the form of qualitative research that was coded and examined for trends and common themes between the two groups.

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77 Research question 1. The first research questio n asked, “To what degree do practicing presidents of small, rural single-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professi onal skills identifie d by the AACC as being essential for community college leadership?” De scriptive statistics were used to analyze this question by identifying the mean, me dian, mode, range, standard deviation, frequency, percentage tabulation, standard er ror, skew, kurtosis, and frequency. The participants’ mean scores for the six competenci es from the highest to the lowest were as follows: communication (4.51) community college advocacy (4.49), organizational strategy (4.44), professionalism (4.32), reso urce management (4.32), and collaboration (4.31). The mean, standard deviation, standard error, range, skew, and kurtosis of the core competencies as perceived by chief executives of small, rural community colleges are presented in Table 4.8. Table 4.8. Basic Statistics for Each Comp etency as Perceived by Small, Rural Community Colleges’ Participants No. Rank by means Variable n Mean SD SE Range Skew Kurtosis 3 1 Communication 27 4.51 0.37 0.07 1.17 0.02 -1.10 5 2 Community college advocacy 27 4.49 0.41 0.08 1.67 -0.82 0.83 1 3 Organization strategy 27 4.44 0.34 0.07 1.17 0.14 -0.83 2 4 Resource management 27 4.32 0.39 0.08 1.38 0.09 -0.98 6 5 Professionalism 27 4.32 0.35 0.07 1.36 0.08 -0.72 4 6 Collaboration 27 4.31 0.40 0.08 1.38 0.16 -0.55

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78 The results of the participants’ responses fo r each of the six competencies identified by the AACC (2004) as being essential for eff ective community college leadership are illustrated in Figure 4.1. Competencies are ranked from highest (communication) to lowest (collaboration) by the average mean sc ore of responses from participants of chief executives from small, rural colleges. Figure 4.1. Comparisons of means from CEOs of small, rural community colleges for each AACC competency. When sorting the means of the 45 dimensi ons (see Table 4.9), the five dimensions with the highest mean scores from participan ts were as follows: professionalism (PR) 8 (Promote and maintain high standards for pe rsonal and organizati onal integrity, honesty and respect for people) with a mean of 4.93; organizational strate gy (OS) 4 (Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork and successful outcomes) with a mean of 4.81; communication (CM) 6 (Pro ject confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully) with a mean of 4.74; professionalism (PR) 6 (Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility) with a mean of 4.67; and 4.31 4.32 4.32 4.44 4.49 4.51 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 4.55 Collaboration Professionalism Resource Management Organizational Strategy CC Advocacy Communication

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79 communication (CM) 1 (Articulate and champion a shared mission, vision and values to internal and external audien ces) with a mean of 4.67. The very high means for these dimensions demonstrate that the participants from small, rural community colleges believe that each of these dimensions are extremely important in effective community college leadership. The competency dimensions that received the five lowest mean scores are telling because they represent the dimensions that were perceived to be less important in the effective community college leadership, as de monstrated by being rated lower than all of the other 45 dimensions. From highest to lo west, the five dimensions with the lowest mean scores from respondents were as follo ws: PR 5 (Manage stre ss through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor) w ith a mean of 4.04; resource management (RM) 2 (Support operational decisions by mana ging information resources) with a mean of 4.00; OS 3 (Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, changing demographics, and th e economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community) with a mean of 3.85; and collaboration (CL) 2 (Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society) with a mean of 3.74. The competency dimension with the lowest overall rating by chief executives of small, rural colleges was PR 11 (Contribute to the pr ofession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadersh ip, and research or publication) with a mean score of 3.70.

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80 Table 4.9. Summary of Basic Statistics for Each Competency Dimension—Small, Rural Community Colleges No. Rank by means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 42 1 PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 27 4.93 0.27 1.00 -3.45 10.67 4 2 OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 27 4.81 0.40 1.00 -1.72 1.02 20 3 CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 27 4.74 0.45 1.00 -1.16 -0.70 40 4 PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 27 4.67 0.55 2.00 -1.46 1.40 15 5 CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences 27 4.63 0.56 2.00 -1.25 0.74 25 6 CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, bus leaders, and accreditation agencies 27 4.63 0.63 2.00 -1.53 1.38

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81 Table 4.9 (Continued) No. Rank by means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 30 7 AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning 27 4.63 0.63 2.00 -1.53 1.38 17 8 CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 26 4.62 0.50 1.00 -0.50 -1.90 1 9 OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution 27 4.59 0.50 1.00 -0.40 -1.99 11 10 RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 27 4.59 0.50 1.00 -0.40 -1.99 19 11 CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act 27 4.59 0.50 1.00 -0.40 -1.99 34 12 AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education 27 4.59 0.57 2.00 -1.05 0.24 35 13 PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership 27 4.59 0.57 2.00 -1.05 0.24

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82 Table 4.9 (Continued) No. Rank by means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 6 14 OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan 27 4.56 0.58 2.00 -0.88 -0.14 7 15 RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting 27 4.56 0.58 2.00 -0.88 -0.14 27 16 CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 26 4.54 0.51 1.00 -0.16 -2.14 5 17 OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets 27 4.52 0.58 2.00 -0.72 -0.41 32 18 AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 27 4.52 0.64 2.00 -1.01 0.07 29 19 AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 27 4.44 0.51 1.00 0.24 -2.11 12 20 RM 6: Implement a human resources system that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff 27 4.41 0.57 2.00 -0.27 -0.77

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83 Table 4.9 (Continued) No. Rank by means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 14 21 RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 27 4.41 0.69 2.00 -0.76 -0.50 33 22 AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment 27 4.41 0.64 2.00 -0.59 -0.48 36 23 PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 27 4.41 0.57 2.00 -0.27 -0.77 28 24 CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 27 4.37 0.69 2.00 -0.64 -0.60 23 25 CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 26 4.35 0.63 2.00 -0.41 -0.54 2 26 OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically 27 4.33 0.62 2.00 -0.35 -0.54 10 27 RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 27 4.33 0.62 2.00 -0.35 -0.54

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84 Table 4.9 (Continued) No. Rank by means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 24 28 CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college 27 4.33 0.55 2.00 0 -0.65 26 29 CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 27 4.33 0.48 1.00 0.75 -1.56 31 30 AD 3: Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college 27 4.33 0.55 2.00 0 -0.65 37 31 PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 27 4.33 0.55 2.00 0 -0.65 18 32 CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents 27 4.30 0.54 2.00 0.13 -0.48 44 33 PR 10: Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 27 4.30 0.47 1.00 0.94 -1.20

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85 Table 4.9 (Continued) No. Rank by means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 43 34 PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teachinglearning process and the exchange of knowledge 27 4.26 0.53 2.00 0.27 -0.20 9 35 RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan 27 4.22 0.58 2.00 -0.02 -0.14 21 36 CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 27 4.22 0.58 2.00 -0.02 -0.14 16 37 CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies 27 4.19 0.62 2.00 -0.13 -0.32 38 38 PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others 27 4.19 0.68 2.00 -0.25 -0.71 41 39 PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 27 4.15 0.72 2.00 -0.23 -0.93 13 40 RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 27 4.07 0.68 2.00 -0.09 -0.63

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86 Table 4.9 (Continued) No. Rank by means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 39 41 PR 5: Manage stress through selfcare, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 27 4.04 0.76 3.00 -0.63 0.70 8 42 RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources 27 4.00 0.68 2.00 0 -0.65 3 43 OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community 27 3.85 0.86 3.00 -0.08 -0.89 22 44 CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society 27 3.74 0.76 3.00 -0.07 -0.25 45 45 PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research or publication 27 3.70 0.82 3.00 0.18 -0.71 As shown in Table 4.9, all but three dime nsions (PR 11, CL 2, and OS 3) were rated on the Likert-type scale to have a mean greater than 4.0. This value indicates that participants rated every dimension other than the three previously noted as either very important or extremely important to the rela tive importance of the illustrated competency as being essential for effective co mmunity college leadership.

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87 Organizational strategy, communicati on, and community college advocacy all received average mean scores in the range category of extremely important, while resource management, collaboration, and professionalism each received average mean scores in the range category of very impor tant (see Figure 4.2). Greater details of responses are available in Appendix H, Table H.1 to Table H.6. Figure 4.2. Percentages of responses for the six competencies as rated by CEOs of small, rural colleges. Research question 2. The second question asked by the researcher was, “To what degree do practicing presidents of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges rate 0 10 20 30 40 50 60Org. Strategy Resource Mgt. Communication Collaboration CC Advocacy ProfessionalismPercentageCompetency Extremely Very Moderately Minimally Not

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88 the relative importance of the characteris tics and professional sk ills identified by the AACC (2004) as being essential for community college leadership?” This question was analyzed using mean, median, mode, range, st andard deviation, sta ndard error, skew, kurtosis, frequency, and percentage. Results of the participants’ responses fo r each of the six competencies identified by the AACC (2004) as being essential for e ffective community colle ge leadership are represented in Figure 4.3. The competencies are ranked from highest (communication) to lowest (resource management) by the average mean score of responses from participants of chief executives from large, urban multip le-campus colleges. The respondents’ mean scores for the six competencies (from highest to lowest) were as follows: communication (4.54), organizational strategy (4.53), community college advocacy (4.47), professionalism (4.39), collaboration (4.38) and resource management (4.26). Additional tables containing information deri ved from responses of CEOs from large, urban multiple-campus community colleges are provided in Appe ndix I, Figure I.1 to I.6. The mean, standard deviation, standard e rror, range, skew, and kurtosis of core competencies as perceived by chief executives of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges are presented in Table 4.10. The mean of all variables is above 4.00. This high mean illustrates that the average mean score of each dimension fell into the scale range as being either very important or extremely important to respondents.

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89 Figure 4.3. Comparison means of responses for six competencies from CEOs of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges Table 4.10. Basic statistics for each competen cy as perceived by large, urban, multiplecampus community colleges participants No. Rank by Means Variable n Mean SD SE Range Skew Kurtosis 3 1 Communication 23 4.55 0.34 0.07 1.33 -0.46 0.42 1 2 Organization strategy 23 4.53 0.36 0.08 1.33 -0.27 -0.29 5 3 Community college advocacy 23 4.47 0.50 0.10 1.83 -0.95 0.79 6 4 Professionalism 23 4.39 0.36 0.08 1.18 0.30 -0.89 4.26 4.38 4.39 4.47 4.53 4.54 4.10 4.15 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.35 4.40 4.45 4.50 4.55 4.60 Resource Management Collaboration Professionalism CC Advocacy Organizational Strategy Communication

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90 Table 4.10 (Continued) No. Rank by Means Variable n Mean SD SE Range Skew Kurtosis 4 5 Collaboration 23 4.38 0.42 0.09 1.63 -0.31 -0.16 2 6 Resource management 23 4.26 0.46 0.10 2.00 -0.74 1.76 The basic statistics pertaining to the res ponses from participants regarding each of the 45 competency dimensions are presented in Table 4.11. The standard deviation of responses among the 45 dimensions is consid erably small except for the following four dimensions in which the standard deviation was greater than 0.75: resource management (RM) 6 (Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization), community college advo cacy (AD) 2 (Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of the community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning), AD 3 (Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college, seeking to understand how these change over time and f acilitating discussion with al l stakeholders), and (CM) 2 (Disseminate and support pol icies and strategies). When sorting the means of the 45 dimensions (see Table 4.11), the dimensions with the highest mean scores from particip ants were as follows: PR 8 (Promote and maintain high standards for personal and orga nizational integrity, hon esty, and respect for people) with a mean of 4.95; OS 1 (Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization) with a mean of 4.70; OS 4 (D evelop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes) with a mean of 4.70; OS 6 (Align

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91 organizational mission, structures and resources with the co llege master plan) with a mean of 4.70; and CM 1 (Articulate and ch ampion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audien ces, appropriately matching message to audience) with a mean of 4.70. These dimensions represent th e variables that received the highest mean score according to participants of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges. The ranges of the mean scores of thes e five dimensions indicate that the respondents believe each of these dimensions is extremely important in effective community college leadership. The competency dimensions that received the five lowest mean scores are also important to highlight. From lowest to highest the five dimensions with the lowest mean scores from respondent s were as follows: PR 11 (Contribute to the profession through professional developmen t programs, professional organizational leadership, and research or publication) with a mean sc ore of 3.70; RM 4 (Take and entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical, a lternative funding sources) with a mean of 4.04; CL 2 (Demonstrate cultural competence relati ve to a global society) with a mean of 4.13; CM 2 (Disseminate and support policies and strategies) with a mean of 4.13; and RM 2 (Support operational decisions by mana ging information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases) with a mean of 4.13.

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92 Table 4.11. Summaries of Basic Statistics for each Competency Dimension—Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges No. Rank by Means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 42 1 PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 22 4.95 0.21 1.00 -4.69 22 1 2 OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution 23 4.70 0.47 1.00 -0.91 -1.29 4 3 OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 23 4.70 0.47 1.00 -0.91 -1.29 6 4 OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan 23 4.70 0.47 1.00 -0.91 -1.29 15 5 CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences 23 4.70 0.47 1.00 -0.91 -1.29 17 6 CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 23 4.70 0.56 2.00 -1.73 2.41

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93 Table 4.11(Continued) No. Rank by Means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 25 7 CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies 23 4.70 0.56 2.00 -1.73 2.41 40 8 PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept resp onsibility 23 4.70 0.56 2.00 -1.73 2.41 20 9 CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 23 4.65 0.49 1.00 -0.68 -1.69 2 10 OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically 23 4.57 0.66 2.00 -1.29 0.62 18 11 CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents 23 4.57 0.51 1.00 -0.28 -2.11 32 12 AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 23 4.57 0.51 1.00 -0.28 -2.11 34 13 AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education 23 4.57 0.51 1.00 -0.28 -2.11 30 14 AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning 22 4.55 0.80 3.00 -2.00 4.05

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94 Table 4.11 (Continued) No. Rank by Means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 19 15 CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act 23 4.52 0.59 2.00 -0.81 -0.22 27 16 CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 23 4.52 0.59 2.00 -0.81 -0.22 35 17 PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership 23 4.52 0.67 2.00 -1.10 0.19 26 18 CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 23 4.48 0.51 1.00 0.09 -2.19 29 19 AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 23 4.48 0.67 2.00 -0.93 -0.12 39 20 PR 5: Manage stress through selfcare, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 23 4.48 0.59 2.00 -0.63 -0.47 43 21 PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teachinglearning process and the exchange of knowledge 23 4.48 0.59 2.00 -0.63 -0.47 9 22 RM 3; Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan 23 4.39 0.72 3.00 -1.57 4.10

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95 Table 4.11 (Continued) No. Rank by Means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 11 23 RM 5; Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 23 4.39 0.58 2.00 -0.29 -0.66 14 24 RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 23 4.39 0.58 2.00 -0.29 -0.66 24 25 CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college 23 4.39 0.66 2.00 -0.62 -0.48 31 26 AD 3: Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college 23 4.39 0.78 3.00 -1.47 2.64 7 27 RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting 23 4.35 0.57 2.00 -0.13 -0.62 21 28 CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, & communication styles 23 4.35 0.65 2.00 -0.47 -0.54 3 29 OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community 23 4.30 0.56 2.00 0.02 -0.46

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96 Table 4.11 (Continued) No. Rank by Means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 33 30 AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment 23 4.30 0.63 2.00 -0.34 -0.52 37 31 PR 3: Regularly self-assess one’s own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 23 4.30 0.56 2.00 0.02 -0.46 41 32 PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 22 4.27 0.63 2.00 -0.27 -0.46 23 33 CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 23 4.26 0.62 2.00 -0.21 -0.41 36 34 PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 23 4.26 0.62 2.00 -0.21 -0.41 5 35 OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets 23 4.22 0.60 2.00 -0.09 -0.20

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97 Table 4.11 (Continued) No. Rank by Means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 12 36 RM 6: Implement a human resources system that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff 23 4.22 0.80 3.00 -1.02 1.32 28 37 CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 23 4.22 0.60 2.00 -0.09 -0.20 44 38 PR 10: Weigh short-term and longterm goals in decision making 23 4.22 0.52 2.00 0.32 0.25 13 39 RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 23 4.17 0.65 3.00 -1.26 4.94 38 40 PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others 23 4.17 0.65 2.00 -0.18 -0.46 8 41 RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources 23 4.13 0.55 2.00 0.11 0.60 16 42 CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies 23 4.13 0.76 2.00 -0.23 -1.14 22 43 CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society 23 4.13 0.69 2.00 -0.18 -0.75 10 44 RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 23 4.04 0.71 3.00 -0.91 2.32

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98 Table 4.11 (Continued) No. Rank by Means Dimension n Mean SD Range Skew Kurtosis 45 45 PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research or publication 22 3.91 0.75 2.00 0.15 -1.11 As presented in Table 4.11, in the sec ond research question all but one dimension was rated on the Likert-type scale to have a mean greater than 4.0. This trend indicates that, on average (using the mean dimensiona l score), participants rated every other variable as either very importa nt or extremely important to the relative importance of the illustrated competency as being essential for effective community college leadership. The dimension with the mean lower than 4.0 was PR 11 (Contribut e to the profession through professional development programs, pr ofessional organizati onal leadership, and research or publication) with a mean of 3.91. This one dimension averaged a moderately important rating on the Likert-type scale by the participants. All dimensions were rated exceptiona lly high by the participants as being essential for effective comm unity college leadership (see Figure 4.4). Operational strategy, communication, and community colleg e advocacy all received average mean scores, placing the ratings in the categor y of extremely important, while resource management, collaboration, and professiona lism each received average mean scores, placing the ratings in the categ ory of very important.

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99 Figure 4.4. Percentages of responses for the si x competencies as scored by CEOs of large, urban, multiple-campus colleges. Research question 3. The third research ques tion asked, “Which leader development experience(s) do presidents of sm all, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges perceive as beneficial in the development of the competencies identified by AACC (2005) as being essential for effective community college leaders?” This question was analyzed by comparing the percentage of responses between the two types of community colle ges using tables and graphical charts displaying frequency and percentage. To ascertain which leader development experiences the participants perceived may have helped them acquire some of th e AACC (2005) competencies, the participants 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70Organizational Strategy Resource Management Communication Collaboration CC Advocacy ProfessionalismPercentageCompetency Extremely Very Moderately Minimally Not

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100 were provided a list of 13 leader development experiences and asked to indicate which, if any, of the six AACC competencies those lead er experiences helped develop. For each leadership experience, the participant was asked to match the competency(ies) to the development experience. The results of this inquiry yielded informa tion pertaining to the degree to which participants perceived each experience contributed to developing one or more of the AACC competencies. Res ponses are presented in Table 4.12.

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101 Table 4.12. Experiences that Contribute the Most to Co mpetency Development—Small, Rural Community Colleges Experiences OS RM CM CL CA PR N/A Total per experience n % n % n % n % n % n % n % N % Graduate programs 21 15.79 11 8.27 13 8.13 12 7.95 13 13.13 15 10.07 1 1.22 86 9.48 In-house programs 5 3.76 6 4.51 7 4.38 11 7.28 4 4.04 7 4.70 9 10.98 49 5.40 Workshops 12 9.02 14 10.53 12 7.50 9 5.96 13 13.13 17 11.41 6 7.32 83 9.15 Challenging job assignments 16 12.03 19 14.29 21 13.13 23 15.23 12 12.12 18 12.08 0 0.00 109 12.02 Hardship 9 6.77 11 8.27 18 11.25 9 5.96 2 2.02 15 10.07 5 6.10 69 7.61 Feedback 10 7.52 12 9.02 18 11.25 16 10.60 4 4.04 12 8.05 0 0.00 72 7.94 Mentor/coaching 11 8.27 8 6.02 15 9.38 13 8.61 10 10.10 13 8.72 4 4.88 74 8.16 Personal reflection/ journaling 5 3.76 5 3.76 10 6.25 9 5.96 6 6.06 13 8.72 7 8.54 55 6.06 Networking with colleagues 14 10.53 11 8.27 17 10.63 22 14.57 16 16.16 12 8.05 0 0.00 92 10.14

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102 Table 4.12 (Continued) Experiences OS RM CM CL CA PR N/A Total per experience n % n % n % n % n % n % n % N % Progressive administrative responsibilities within the community college 17 12.78 17 12.78 16 10.00 16 10.60 13 13.13 15 10.07 3 3.66 97 10.69 From previous business experience 8 6.02 11 8.27 7 4.38 5 3.31 2 2.02 7 4.70 9 10.98 49 5.40 From previous military experience 2 1.50 3 2.26 3 1.88 4 2.65 2 2.02 2 1.34 20 24.39 36 3.97 From previous government experience 3 2.26 5 3.76 3 1.88 2 1.32 2 2.02 3 2.01 18 21.95 36 3.97 Total 133 100 133 100 160 100 151 100 99 100 149 100 82 100 907 100 Note. OS = organizational strategy. RM = resource management. CM = communication. CL = collaborati on. CA = community college advocacy. PR = professionalism. N/A = not applicable.

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103 By analyzing the responses from particip ants of small, rural colleges, the four leadership development experiences receiv ing the highest and lowest frequency of responses are worth noting. The four leader development experience s identified with the greatest frequency as being beneficial in the development of each of the six competencies, from highest frequency of response to lowest, were as follows: 1. Challenging job assignments (12.02%), 2. Progressive administrative responsibili ties within the community college (10.69%), 3. Networking with colleagues (10.14%), and 4. Graduate programs (9.48%). Alternatively, the four lead er development experiences that were identified least as contributing to the development of the six AACC competencies, from highest frequency of response to lowest, were as follows: 1. In-house programs (5.40%), 2. Previous business experience (5.40%), 3. Previous military experience (3.97%), and 4. Previous government experience (3.97%). Also worth highlighting are the responses fr om participants of urban, multiple-campus colleges. The four leader development expe riences identified with the greatest frequency as being beneficial in the development of each of the six competencies, from highest frequency of response to lowest and as pr esented in Table 4.13, were as follows: 1. Progressive administrative responsibili ties within the community college (13.14%),

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104 2. Challenging job assignments (11.08%), 3. Graduate programs (8.89%), and 4. Mentoring/coaching (8.63%). The four leader development experien ces identified least frequently as contributing to the development of the six AACC competencies, from highest frequency of response to lowest, were as follows: 1. Previous business experience (5.67%), 2. Personal reflection/journaling (4.77%), 3. Previous military experience (4.38%), and 4. Previous government experience (3.61%). Details of the responses from large, ur ban, multiple-campus community colleges with combined responses indicating which leader development experiences were identified most by respondents are pr ovided in Table 4.13.

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105 Table 4.13. Experiences that Contribute the Most to Competency Development— Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges Experiences OS RM CM CL CA PR N/A Total per experience n % n % n % n % n % n % n % N % Graduate programs 14 12.17 9 9.18 16 10.39 8 6.11 8 10.13 13 9.85 1 1.49 69 8.89 In-house programs 7 6.09 5 5.10 10 6.49 11 8.40 7 8.86 6 4.55 5 7.46 51 6.57 Workshops 10 8.70 6 6.12 11 7.14 10 7.63 14 17.72 10 7.58 4 5.97 65 8.38 Challenging job assignments 12 10.43 18 18.37 17 11.04 16 12.21 7 8.86 15 11.36 1 1.49 86 11.08 Hardship 6 5.22 9 9.18 19 12.34 13 9.92 2 2.53 15 11.36 0 0.00 64 8.25 Feedback 10 8.70 7 7.14 14 9.09 12 9.16 6 7.59 13 9.85 2 2.99 64 8.25 Mentor/coaching 9 7.83 6 6.12 15 9.74 12 9.16 8 10.13 15 11.36 2 2.99 67 8.63 Personal reflection/ journaling 5 4.35 1 1.02 8 5.19 6 4.58 3 3.80 7 5.30 7 10.45 37 4.77 Networking with colleagues 10 8.70 8 8.16 14 9.09 13 9.92 8 10.13 11 8.33 1 1.49 65 8.38

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106 Table 4.13 (Continued) Experiences OS RM CM CL CA PR N/A Total per experience n % n % n % n % n % n % n % N % Progressive administrative responsibilities within the community college 20 17.39 18 18.37 17 11.04 17 12.98 14 17.72 16 12.12 0 0.00 102 13.14 From previous business experience 7 6.09 5 5.10 6 3.90 6 4.58 2 2.53 5 3.79 13 19.40 44 5.67 From previous military experience 3 2.61 2 2.04 5 3.25 5 3.82 0 0.00 4 3.03 15 22.39 34 4.38 From previous government experience 2 1.74 4 4.08 2 1.30 2 1.53 0 0.00 2 1.52 16 23.88 28 3.61 Total 115 100 98 100 154 100 131 100 79 100 132 100 67 100 776 100 Note. OS = organizational strategy. RM = resource management. CM = communication. CL = collaborati on. CA = community college advocacy. PR = professionalism. N/A = not applicable.

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107 Finally, it is important to c onsider and compare the resu lts of this question when analyzed by combining the responses of both small, rural and large, urban community college CEOs. Analyzing the responses from participants of both small, rural singlecampus and large, urban multiple-campus colleges together, the four leadership development experiences with the highest a nd lowest frequency of responses (combined frequency of responses) identified as being bene ficial in the development of each of of the six competencies, were as follows: 1. Progressive administrative responsibili ties within the community college (11.82%), 2. Challenging job assignments (11.59%), 3. Networking with coll eagues (9.33%), and 4. Graduate programs (9.21%). The four leader development experien ces identified least frequently as contributing to the development of the six AACC competencies, from highest frequency of response to lowest, were as follows: 1. Previous business experience (5.53%) 2. Personal reflection/journaling (5.47%) 3. Previous military expereince (4.16%) 4. Previous government expereince (3.80%) Details of the responses from the combined results of the responde nts from both small, rural and large, urban multiple-campus comm unity colleges indicating which leader development experiences were identified most by respondents are provided in Table 4.14.

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108 Table 4.14. Experiences Identified that Contribute the Most to Competen cy Development—Combined Responses Experiences OS RM CM CL CA PR N/A Total per experience n % n % n % n % n % n % n % N % Graduate programs 35 14.11 20 8.66 29 9.24 20 7.09 21 11.80 28 9.96 2 1.34 155 9.21 In-house programs 12 4.84 11 4.76 17 5.41 22 7.80 11 6.18 13 4.63 14 9.40 100 5.94 Workshops 22 8.87 20 8.66 23 7.32 19 6.74 27 15.17 27 9.61 10 6.71 148 8.79 Challenging job assignments 28 11.29 37 16.02 38 12.10 39 13.83 19 10.67 33 11.74 1 0.67 195 11.59 Hardship 15 6.05 20 8.66 37 11.78 22 7.80 4 2.25 30 10.68 5 3.36 133 7.90 Feedback 20 8.06 19 8.23 32 10.19 28 9.93 10 5.62 25 8.90 2 1.34 136 8.08 Mentor/coaching 20 8.06 14 6.06 30 9.55 25 8.87 18 10.11 28 9.96 6 4.03 141 8.38 Personal reflection/ journaling 10 4.03 6 2.60 18 5.73 15 5.32 9 5.06 20 7.12 14 9.40 92 5.47 Networking with colleagues 24 9.68 19 8.23 31 9.87 35 12.41 24 13.48 23 8.19 1 0.67 157 9.33

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109 Table 4.14 (Continued) Experiences OS RM CM CL CA PR N/A Total per experience n % n % n % n % n % n % n % N % Progressive administrative responsibilities within the community college 37 14.92 35 15.15 33 10.51 33 11.70 27 15.17 31 11.03 3 2.01 199 11.82 From previous business experience 15 6.05 16 6.93 13 4.14 11 3.90 4 2.25 12 4.27 22 14.77 93 5.53 From previous military experience 5 2.02 5 2.16 8 2.55 9 3.19 2 1.12 6 2.14 35 23.49 70 4.16 From previous government experience 5 2.02 9 3.90 5 1.59 4 1.42 2 1.12 5 1.78 34 22.82 64 3.80 Total 248 100 231 100 314 100 282 100 178 100 281 100 149 100 1683 100 Note. OS = organizational strategy. RM = resource management. CM = communication. CL = collaborati on. CA = community college advocacy. PR = professionalism. N/A = not applicable.

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110 Further analysis and comparison charts of the responses on the experiences that contribute the most to each of the six comp etencies are provided in Appendix J, Figure J.1 to Figure J.6. Research question 4. This question asked, “Are th ere significant differences in perceptions between the responses of practici ng presidents of small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges on the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills id entified by the AACC (2004) for essential community college leadership?” Descriptiv e statistics including mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and independent-samples t test were used to analyze the mean differences between participants of the two sized colleges. The mean scores derived from the participants for the core competencies are examined as they compare to each other ba sed on the respondents’ category (small or large) of college. Bar charts depicting a co mparison of the responses from participants of the two types of community colleges are ava ilable in Appendix K, Figure K.1 to Figure K.6. To further examine the results of th e data collected, an independent-samples t test was used to determine the differences in the mean scores between chief executives of small, rural and larg e, urban colleges. Assessing assumptions using th e independent-samples t test. To assess the level of significance, independent-samples t tests (Stevens, 1999) were conducted. According to Stevens (1999) the level of significance is the probability of saying the groups differ when in actuality, they do not (i.e., Type I er ror). This type of error is controlled by setting the alpha level at 0.05. As such, there is a 95% chance that what is reported is true. This is based upon three assumptions : normality, homogeneity of variance, and

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111 independence of observations (Stevens, 1999). SAS output for assessing the assumptions and performing t tests on the data gathered in this research are available in Appendix M. Each of the assumptions regarding this study as discussed in the sections that follow. SAS output for testing differences between genders is available in Appendix N. Assessment on independence assumption. The independence assumption of the observations is clearly met as the institu tion types have been differentiated by two categories (small, rural and large, urban, multiple-campus community college). These two groups surveyed are two different types of colleges and do not represent overlapping categories. Responses of the participants were gathered individually using an online survey tool and, as such, we re completely independent. Assessment on the normality assumption. To test the normality of each dimension, Shapiro-Wilk tests were performed. This test is a valid test to determine normality when study populations involve less than 100 participants ( n < 100). A summary of the results of the Shapiro-Wilk test on all 45 dimensions is presented in Appendix L, Table L.1. With the alpha level set at 0.05, no dimension in this data meet the normality assumption for the independent-samples t test. However, according to Stevens (1999), “Briefly, considerable rese arch has shown that a violation of the normality assumption is of little consequence. Unequal variances will distort the type I error rate appreciably only if the group sizes are sharply une qual” (p. 9). Because the two groups in this study were not sharply unequal (23/27), t tests can still be performed to determine independence. To help ascertain the normality of the data, the researcher also assessed the skew and kur tosis of the data.

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112 The Shapiro-Wilk tests were used to assess the normality of each variable. A summary of the results of the Shapiro-Wilk te st on all six competencies is presented in Appendix L, Table L.2. This instrument wa s used to test the null hypothesis that the variable distribution is normal With the alpha level set at a sta ndard of 0.05, four variables met the normality assumption for the independent-samples t test and two variables did not meet the normality assumption for the t test. Assessment the homogeneity assumption. To determine whether the homogeneity assumption has been met for each of the variables, a folded F test was conducted. A summary of the folded F test on each competency dimension is presented in Appendix L, Table L.3 and Table L.4. The homogeneity assumption is met for all dimensions and variables except dimension OS 3 (Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changi ng demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community). However, because the group size of this particular dimension was not extremely unequal (27/23), the heterogeneity of variance remains less than 1.5 and therefore is still acceptable. Thus, for all variables, the most appropriate inst rument to use to test homogeneity of the variables was the t tests. Independent-samples t tests. Comparing the results of the responses from the participants of the two diffe rent sized colleges revealed considerable similarities (see Appendix K). The similarity in responses between the two groups of chief executives on the relative importance of the dimensions a nd professional skills identified by the AACC (2005) as being essential for community colle ge leadeship were evident when conducting a review of responses. As such, an independent-samples t test was used to confirm

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113 whether statistically significant differe nces existed between the two groups of participants. Means of dimensions. To determine if the mean differences between the two types of colleges were significant, an independent-samples t test was conducted. The SAS output contains the results of the t test statistics on each di mension (see Appendix L, Table L.5 to Table L.10). Using an alpha le vel of 0.05, of the 45 dimensions used in the research, only two dimensions contained signifi cant differences between the participants of the two different types of colleges. Each of the two dimensions were from different competencies. The first was from the orga nizational strategy competency: the OS 3 dimension (Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, a nd to economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community). The differences between the mean of responses from the two types colleges are statistically significant, t (45) = -2.23, p < 0.05 for this dimension. Specifically the dimension was rated significantly higher (0.452) by participants of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges. The second dimension that was si gnificantly different was from the professionalism competency: the PR 5 di mension (Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor). The mean of this variable was significantly different when comparing the two groups: t (48) = 2.26, p < 0.05. Thus the variable was rated significantly higher (0.441) by particip ants from large, urban, multiple-campus colleges than by those participants from sma ll, rural, single-campus colleges. Analysis revealed that the remaining 43 dimensions contained no statistically significant diffencences between participants of the two groups (as summarized in

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114 Appendix L, Table L.11). However, although no t statistically significant, the research did reveal differences, as rated by the pa rticipants from the two groups, that are noteworthy. Comparing nonstatistically significant differences in competencies between respondents of small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus colleges. Using an alpha level of 0.05, the independent-samples t test did not reveal any significant differences between the means of the two types of community colleges participants’ perception. This suggests that despite the obvious differe nce in size of the college, the chief executives consider the dimensions that embody the six competecies identified by the AACC (2004) to be important. 100% of the particip ants in this study indicated that the AACC competencies identi fied as essential for effective community college leadership were considered either very important or extremely important. Because of the large agreement, comparisons of the responses of the two groups pertain to differences in the competency ratings between very important and extrememly important. Despite the great commonality in the responses and agreement on the majority of the competencies, participants di d indicate some differences of responses in their perceptions by the size of college. Th e three dimensions discussed represent the greatest differences in the responses from each of the six competencies between the leaders of small and large community colleges. Comparison of responses of the two types of community college. The combined responses from both types of community colle ges are available in Appendix M, Table M.1 to Table M.6.

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115 When comparing the means of response s of both groups there exists a slight difference (not statistically significant) in the level of agreement on the perceptions related to the importance of each of the co mpetencies. Figure 4.5 provides graphical representation of the average mean scores of small, rural and large, urban multiplecampus colleges. The competencies are ra ted from highest to lowest based on the combined mean scores of res ponses of all participants. Figure 4.5. Comparison of means of responses (lowest to highest, based on overall means) for the six competencies. The communication competency was ra ted highest of all competencies, suggesting that this competen cy is critically important to both small and large college leaders. The largest disparity in responses of the dimensions that form this competency was found in the CM 4 dimension (Convey idea s and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal a nd nonverbal means to the board and other 4.14.154.24.254.34.354.44.454.54.554.6 Communication Organizational Strategy CC Advocacy Collaboration Professionalism Resource Management Small Large Overall

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116 constituencies and stakeholders ). Leaders of the small, ru ral, single-campus community colleges indicated this dimension was very important, while leaders of large, urban, multiple-campus colleges rated the competency mo re frequently as extremely important. Organizational strategy wa s the second highest rated competency when mean scores were combined. However, out of the top three rated competencies, this competency had the greatest degree of differe nce between the two groups of respondents. Chief executives of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges rated the competency higher in terms of average mean score than did respondents from small, rural, single-campus community colleges. Community college advocacy was the competency with the third highest mean score when the results were combined. Part icipants from small, rural, single-campus community colleges rated this competency high er than the respondents from large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges. Qualitative Data Qualitative research data was gathered from many of the participants on three specific questions. Although participation was not as high for the qualitative portion of the survey, useful data was obt ained. Participation in the qualitative portion ranged from 31 to 35 (depending on the question) particip ants of the 50-pers on population. Although qualitative data was gathered from three areas of interest, no sophisti cated analysis of the responses was undertaken as part of this st udy. However, in general, the responses did indicate some patterns and those patterns will be highlighted. To interpret the qua litative data obtained from re spondents, the researcher first coded the responses. According to Saldana ( 2009, p. 3), “[A] code in qualitative inquiry

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117 is most often a word or short phrase that symbolically assigns a summative, salient, essence-capturing and/or evocative attribute for a portion of language-based or visual data.” In the process of c oding raw data, it is common to find patterns in responses; the greater the number of respondents, the gr eater the frequency of patterns. This phenomenon results because there are comm on practices and consistencies in human observation and responses to stimuli that are revealed through res ponses (Saldana). Each of the questions asked in this research yielded different degrees of responsiveness. The greatest response was garnered from the question that asked the most generic question that en abled leaders with experience in either sized college to answer with authority. Conversely, the lo west response was obtained for the question that asked chief executives to explain what they believed were differences between the two sized colleges. Specifically, 31 chief executives responded to the question, “Please explain what you believe are th e differences in leadership skills required for effective leadership of small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges.” Thirty-three participants provided responses to the ques tion, “Please describe the biggest challenges you face in the daily leadership of your college.” On the third question, 35 chief executives provided a res ponse to the question, “Please describe the key experiences or training you perceive best prepared you for your current position as chief executive of your college.” The follo wing sections offer an analysis of the qualitative data gathered in res ponse to three qualitative questions. Qualitative question 1. The first qualitative question asked, “Please explain what you believe are the differences in leadership skills required for effective leadership of small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges.”

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118 Responses to this question were categorized into two distinct groups: small, rural and large, urban colleges. Categories are an important part in c oding because the codes are part of the overall hierar chy of the category pertaining to the responses (Saldana, 2009). Because the question asked respondents the differences in leadership skills required between these two distinct groups, th e categories of responses are in direct response to the question itself. The responses were coded by the major category relating to size/locale. Small, rural colleges. Options for this qualitative question in the category of small, rural colleges consisted of the followi ng responses. The frequency of responses for each category are also indicated. Same/none (6) Greater personal involvement/indi vidual leader attention (5) Greater interpersonal skills (1) Greater communication to communities (4) Greater community involvement (internal and external) (4) Greater political skills (1) Large, urban colleges. Options to this qualitative que stion in the category of large, urban colleges were as follows: Same/none (6) Greater collaboration (3) Greater bureaucracy skills required (1) Greater communication skills (4) Greater organizational management skills (build collaboration/consensus) (3)

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119 Greater need for systems approach (more complexity) (3) Greater understanding of po licies and procedures (1) Greater political skills (2) There existed more commonality in respons es of the participants regarding the leadership skills required in leading a small, rural, single-campus community college than the responses regarding the skills required in leading a large, urban, multiple-campus community college. Of all the responses regard ing leadership of rural colleges, the most common theme was that leaders are required to have greater interpersonal skills to support a more hands-on leadership role. Anot her recurring theme in the urban colleges was that leaders were required to have more interaction with the external community than those in rural colleges. Those responses pertaining to the skills required for leading in urban colleges centered most on the need for leaders to po ssess organizational skills to manage the multitude of activities related to multiple-campus systems. Another common theme was the need for chief executives of urban colleges to be skilled in collaborative leadership as a way to bring together many different constituents to achieve their goals and objectives. Finally, respondents indicated that leaders of large, ur ban colleges needed to be skilled in managing in a bureaucracy. Qualitative question 2 The second qualitative ques tion asked, “Please describe the biggest challenges you face in the daily leadership of your college.” This question yielded perceptions from respondents regard ing what challenges were most common when leading in the community college envir onment. The responses fell into three main categories: personnel, budget/finance, and resources. Without question, the

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120 overwhelming response by participants was that finance or the lack of financial resources was the biggest challenge faced in the accomp lishment of their daily duties. Of the 33 chief executives who responded to this question, more than 50% ( n = 17) indicated finance was a daily challenge. The second most recurring theme was dealing with personnel issues. Personnel Options to this qualitative question in the category of personnel were as follows: Maximizing talents of staff (2) Personnel Issues (6) Union negotiations/issues (3) Communication (5) Bureaucracy (2) Finance. Options to this qualitative question in the category of finance were as follows: Lack of budget/funds (11) Fundraising (1) Resources/Miscellaneous. Options to this qualitative qu estion in the category of resources/miscellaneous were as follows: Time management (3) Shortage of resources (3) Creativity (1) Managing change (2)

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121 Qualitative question 3. The third qualitative questi on asked, “Please describe the key experiences or training you perceive best prepared you for your current position as chief executive of your college.” The ove rwhelming response to this question from participants ( N = 35) was progressive responsible e xperience in higher education. Fifty percent ( n = 17) of respondents indicated experi ence in higher education was the key experience that best prepared them for their position as chief executive. The second highest response involved trai ning or leadership workshops designed specifically for developing leadership. Respons es were categorized into three general areas: college experience, professional experience in highe r education, and professional experience not related to higher education. College experience. Options to this qualitative question in the category of college experience were as follows: Undergraduate stude nt experience (1) Leadership workshops and training (8) Doctoral program (12) Undergraduate studies (2) Professional experience in higher education Options to this qualitative question in the category of professional experien ce in higher education were as follows: Budgetary experience (5) Personnel policy (1) Progressive responsibility in H. E. job assignments/OJT (18) Previous business leadership experience (1) State coordinating board

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122 Mentoring (8) Unrelated professional experience. Options to this qualitative question in the category of unrelated professiona l experience were as follows: Executive business experience (1) Elected government official (1) Military leadership (1) General “blue-collar” work (2)

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123 Chapter Five Findings Overview The purpose of this chapter is to prov ide a summary of the findings of the research study. This summary will include the purpose, findings, implications for practice, limitations, implications for future research, and a conclusion. Summary of the Research Study The first decade of the 21st century has b een witness to a great deal of speculation and publicity regarding to the looming leadersh ip crisis in community colleges. Because the majority of those leading these colleges have been in the community college system since their boom in the 1960s and 1970s, a large number of senior executives and administrators are approaching retirement age. Forecasts made early in the decade raised concerns about the impending retirements of senior leaders in the upcoming years (Shults, 2001; Wallin, 2002). This projecte d increase in retirements of aging Baby Boomers currently serving as senior executi ves of community colleges resulted in some asserting that there would be a void in leader ship at the college le vel (Boggs, 2003). The global economic recession in the late 2000s sl owed the exodus of senior leaders. Fortunately, this deferral of retirements has provided the community college system time to focus on preparing younger generations of community college leaders with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to meet this coming leadership shortage.

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124 While commonalities exist in the leadership competencies of college presidents, some of the competencies identified by the AACC (2004) were determined to be considered more important to leaders of ins titutions of a particul ar size. With the exception of studies by Hassan (2008) and Duree (2007), there has not been further validation of the six competencies identif ied by the AACC (2004) pilot study as being essential for effective community college lead ership. Furthermore there has not been any further refinement of the competencies to pr ovide those who are preparing for leadership roles within community colleges to guide th eir development and leadership acumen in relationship to the AACC compet encies (2006). Purpose. This research study had the primary purpose of determining whether a difference existed in how presidents of small, rural, single-campus colleges and those of large, urban, multiple-campus colleges perceived the relative importance of the AACC’s (2005) recommended competencies. In an atte mpt to provide furthe r validation to the AACC competencies and the re sults of Hassan’s (2008) study presidents from colleges of two different size categorie s (very small and very large) were asked to rate the importance of the AACC characteristics and profe ssional skills identified as essential for effective community college leadership. More over, this research sought to identify the experience(s) that the participants from thes e two different sized co lleges perceived as beneficial in the development of the comp etencies identified by the AACC (2006). Summary of the findings. Results of this research provide further support and validation of the six competencies iden tified by the AACC (2006). Additionally the study provides greater fidelity to the art and science of l eadership within the college system by identifying specific experiences that contribute to the development of the

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125 competencies. The four quantitative resear ch questions and thr ee qualitative research questions are presented with a summary of the findings. Research question 1. The first research question asked, “To what degree do practicing presidents of small, rural, single-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professi onal skills identifie d by the AACC as being essential for community college leadership?” The results of the participants’ respon ses for each of the six competencies indicated that the presidents from the rural community colleges considered each of the six competencies as either very important or ex tremely important. This finding is consistent with Hassan’s (2008) study and w ith Duree’s (2007) research. In the case of Hassan, his research also indicated that each of the six competencies were considered either very important or extremely important when rece iving responses from 30 presidents of New York and Florida community colleges. A lthough using a different scale to measure importance, Duree discovered that all six AACC competencies were considered important or very important when pr ovided responses from a population of 415 community college presidents in his research study. Moreover, there was very little vari ation between these ratings of the competencies among the presidents of the sm all, rural colleges in regards to their importance. This finding is worth noting beca use there are dimensions of the presidents’ job that can be considerably different between states, communities in which they serve, board involvement, variations in local funding, and a variet y of other executive-level interactions that vary depe nding upon the community being se rved and the state in which the college is operating. The discovery that ther e exists a great deal of consistency in the

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126 agreement to the importance of the comp etencies supports the AACC’s work in identifying a set of competencies that provide wide application and direction to leaders across a wide spectrum of college types. The findings in this study warrant comparison to both the Hassan (2008) and Duree (2007) st udies because the same six competencies are considered from very wide-ranging pe rspectives. This cross-study comparison indicates that, regardle ss of the environment in which presidents lead their particular rural, single-campus colleges across a wide variety of stat es or from a particular community college within two very populous states (New York and Florida), the impressions regarding the importance of the competencies are remarkably consistent among the chief executives. Although there was general agreement of the importance of the competencies overall, some notable variations existed between presidents of small, rural colleges and those from New York and Florida obtain ed from Hassan’s (2008) study. When comparing the mean scores obtained from re spondents in both the Hassan study and this research (see Table 5.1), there was commonality in which three competencies were rated in the top half and the bottom half of the six competencies. However, the order of the competencies, when ranked from highest to lowest based on the mean scores of the respondents, indicates some variation in th e importance of the competencies when comparing the two studies. Hassan’s responde nts indicated higher average mean scores for two competencies (professionali sm and organizational strategy). Respondents in Hassan’s (2008) study indi cated that organizational strategy was equally important as comm unication and community college advocacy, as noted by

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127 average mean scores of ratings. This resear ch study indicated a slightly lower rating in the mean score for organizati onal strategy compared to the other two competencies. Likewise when comparing the average mean scores of the three competencies rated the lowest in both research studies, only the professionalism competency was rated differently between the two very different gr oups of college presiden ts. Presidents in Hassan’s (2008) study gave the professionalism competency a higher average mean score than in the Kools study. A comprehensive comparison of findings from Duree’s (2007) research, Hassan’s (2008) study, and Kools’ study is presented in Appendix O. Table 5.1. Comparison Among Duree, Hassan, a nd Kools Studies (Sor ted From Highest to Lowest Means by Kools’ Resear ch on Small Community Colleges) Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 87.2 91.8 4.5 4.93 4.95 OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 90.4 98.9 4.9 4.81 4.7 CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 87.7 95.5 4.7 4.74 4.65 PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 83.8 91.4 4.9 4.67 4.7 CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences 86 96.8 4.7 4.63 4.7 Table 5.1. (Continued)

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Table 5.1. (Continued) 128 Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies 66 94.2 4.7 4.63 4.7 AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning 79.3 83.8 4.7 4.63 4.55 CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities and expectations 89.6 96.6 4.6 4.62 4.7 OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution 84.6 96.6 4.6 4.59 4.7 RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 77.4 95.9 4.5 4.59 4.39 CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act 88.4 97.3 4.6 4.59 4.52 AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education 82.7 88.5 4.6 4.59 4.57 PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership 69.4 85.8 4.5 4.59 4.52 OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan 80.2 96.4 4.6 4.56 4.7 RM 1: Ensure accountability in repo rting 80.3 96.1 4.5 4.56 4.35 CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 87 94.4 4.5 4.54 4.52 OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, 77.8 98 4.6 4.52 4.22

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Table 5.1. (Continued) 129 Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC and assets AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 84.3 90.2 4.5 4.52 4.57 AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 79 87.9 4.6 4.44 4.48 RM 6: Implement a human resour ces system that fosters the professional development an d advancement of all staff 74.4 95.4 4.4 4.41 4.22 RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 83.6 97.1 4.5 4.41 4.39 AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learningcentered environment 83.2 88.2 4.4 4.41 4.3 PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 80 77.6 4.2 4.41 4.26 CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 84.3 91.6 4.3 4.37 4.22 CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 82.1 91.3 4.3 4.35 4.26 OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically 79.6 96.4 4.4 4.33 4.57 RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 61.4 85.8 4.1 4.33 4.04 CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the 77.1 92.7 4.4 4.33 4.39

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Table 5.1. (Continued) 130 Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC mission of the community college CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 83.3 94.2 4.5 4.33 4.48 AD 3: Promote equity, open a ccess, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college 85.5 89.9 4.5 4.33 4.39 PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 78.8 89.9 4.2 4.33 4.3 CM 4: Effectively convey id eas and information to all constituents 88.7 96.9 4.6 4.3 4.57 PR 10: Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 81.5 90.1 4.4 4.3 4.22 PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process and the exchange of knowledge 80.7 88.4 4.5 4.26 4.48 RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan 79.3 94.7 4.2 4.22 4.39 CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 80 90.8 4.3 4.22 4.35 CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies 81.2 89.2 4 4.19 4.13 PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others 85 86.3 4.2 4.19 4.17 PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 72.5 81.9 4.2 4.15 4.27

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Table 5.1. (Continued) 131 Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 82.9 94.4 4 4.07 4.17 PR 5: Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 65.3 89.4 4.4 4.04 4.48 RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources 71.4 92.5 4 4 4.13 OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community 73.3 89.7 4.2 3.85 4.3 CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society 66.3 82.2 3.7 3.74 4.13 PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and resear ch or publication 60.5 69.4 3.9 3.7 3.91 A graphical representation of the comparison of the mean scores between small, rural college presidents participating in the Kools study and all chief executives who responded in the Hassan (2008) st udy is presented in Figure 5.1.

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132 Figure 5.1. Comparison of mean scores between responses from presidents of small, rural colleges in the Kools study and all ch ief executives in the Hassan study. Research question 2. The second research question asked, “To what degree do practicing presidents of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges rate the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by the AACC as being essential for community college leadership?” Results of the responses from the pres idents of large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges for each of the six compet encies indicated that these presidents largely agreed with those chief executives fr om the rural, single-campus colleges. Like their counterparts in the smaller colleges, th e mean scores from presidents of urban, multiple-campus colleges considered each of the six competencies as either very important or extremely important. In additi on to this finding being consistent with the 4.24.254.34.354.44.454.54.55 Communication CC Advocacy Organizational Strategy Resource Management Professionalism Collaboration Communicatio n CC Advocacy Organizational Strategy Resource Management Professionalis m Collaboration Hassan 4.54.54.54.34.44.3 Kools 4.54.54.44.34.34.3 Hassan Kools

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133 sample of presidents from small colleges, it is also consistent w ith Hassan’s (2008) study and with Duree’s (2007) rese arch. Hassan found responses from 30 presidents of New York and Florida to each of the six compet encies rated as either very important or extremely important when these respondents we re asked to what degree they rated the relative importance of the competencies. Likewise, Duree discove red that all six AACC (2005) competencies were considered impor tant or very important when provided responses from a population of 415 community colle ge presidents in his research study. A comparison of the Duree, Hassan, and Kools mean scores, from highest to lowest, for these competencies is presented in Table 5.2. Table 5.2. Comparison of Competencies Am ong Duree, Hassan, and Kools Studies (Sorted from Highest to Lowest Mean s by Kools’ Large Community Colleges) Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 87.2 91.8 4.5 4.93 4.95 OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 90.4 98.9 4.9 4.81 4.7 PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 83.8 91.4 4.9 4.67 4.7 CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences 86 96.8 4.7 4.63 4.7

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134 Table 5.2 (Continued) Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies 66 94.2 4.7 4.63 4.7 CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 89.6 96.6 4.6 4.62 4.7 OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution 84.6 96.6 4.6 4.59 4.7 OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan 80.2 96.4 4.6 4.56 4.7 CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 87.7 95.5 4.7 4.74 4.65 AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education 82.7 88.5 4.6 4.59 4.57 AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 84.3 90.2 4.5 4.52 4.57 OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically 79.6 96.4 4.4 4.33 4.57 CM 4: Effectively convey id eas and information to all constituents 88.7 96.9 4.6 4.3 4.57 AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning 79.3 83.8 4.7 4.63 4.55

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135 Table 5.2 (Continued) Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act 88.4 97.3 4.6 4.59 4.52 PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership 69.4 85.8 4.5 4.59 4.52 CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 87 94.4 4.5 4.54 4.52 AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 79 87.9 4.6 4.44 4.48 CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 83.3 94.2 4.5 4.33 4.48 PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process and the exchange of knowledge 80.7 88.4 4.5 4.26 4.48 PR 5: Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 65.3 89.4 4.4 4.04 4.48 RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 77.4 95.9 4.5 4.59 4.39 RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 83.6 97.1 4.5 4.41 4.39 CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college 77.1 92.7 4.4 4.33 4.39 AD 3: Promote equity, open a ccess, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college 85.5 89.9 4.5 4.33 4.39

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136 Table 5.2 (Continued) Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan 79.3 94.7 4.2 4.22 4.39 RM 1: Ensure accountability in repo rting 80.3 96.1 4.5 4.56 4.35 CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 80 90.8 4.3 4.22 4.35 AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learningcentered environment 83.2 88.2 4.4 4.41 4.3 PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 78.8 89.9 4.2 4.33 4.3 OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community 73.3 89.7 4.2 3.85 4.3 PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 72.5 81.9 4.2 4.15 4.27 PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 80 77.6 4.2 4.41 4.26 CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 82.1 91.3 4.3 4.35 4.26 OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets 77.8 98 4.6 4.52 4.22 RM 6: Implement a human resour ces system that fosters the professional development an d advancement of all staff 74.4 95.4 4.4 4.41 4.22

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137 Table 5.2 (Continued) Competencies by category Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 84.3 91.6 4.3 4.37 4.22 PR 10: Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 81.5 90.1 4.4 4.3 4.22 PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others 85 86.3 4.2 4.19 4.17 RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 82.9 94.4 4 4.07 4.17 CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies 81.2 89.2 4 4.19 4.13 RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources 71.4 92.5 4 4 4.13 CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society 66.3 82.2 3.7 3.74 4.13 RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 61.4 85.8 4.1 4.33 4.04 PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, organizational leadership, and research/publication 60.5 69.4 3.9 3.7 3.91 The findings in the answers to this questi on are interesting to compare to both the Hassan (2008) and Duree (2007) studies be cause the same six competencies are considered from wide-ranging pers pectives. Like the data revealed from presidents of the small, rural, single-campus colleges, the data obtained from the leaders of large, urban, multiple-campus colleges revealed that regardless of the environment in which the

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138 president leads, the impressions regardi ng the importance of the competencies are remarkably consistent among the chief executives. Although there was agreement on the importa nce of the competencies overall, some variations existed between presidents of large, urban, multiple-campus colleges and those chief executives from New York and Florida colleges obtained from Hassan’s (2008) study. When comparing the mean scor es obtained from respondents in both the Hassan study and this research, there was commonality in which three of the six competencies were rated in th e top half and the bo ttom half. However, the order of the competencies, when ranked from highest to lowest based on the mean scores of the respondents, indicates some variation in the importance of the competencies between the two studies. As presented in Figure 5.2, res pondents in both studi es indicated that organizational strategy was equally important as the ratings indicat ed by average mean scores for community college advocacy. This research study indicated a slightly higher rating in the mean score for communicati on strategy compared to the other two competencies. Likewise, when comparing the average mean scores of the three competencies rated the lowest in both research studies, only the collaboration competency was rated differently between the two different research studies. Presidents in this study gave the collaboration competency a higher average m ean score than in the Hassan (2008) study. In comparing the results of the participants’ perceptions in Hassan’s (2008) study with those presidents from large, urban, multiple -campus colleges, the average mean score from urban, multiple-campus presidents was the same in four of the six competencies.

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139 Presidents from the large colleges provided an average mean score in the collaboration and communication competencies higher than those from the Hassan study. Figure 5.2. Comparison of mean scores, urba n, multiple-campus presidents (Kools study) and all chief executives (Hassan study). Research question 3. The third research ques tion asked, “Which leader development experience(s) do presidents of sm all, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges perceive as beneficial in the development of the competencies identified by AACC as being essential for effective community college leaders?” The responses of the chief executives from both small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus colleges regarding the perceptions of the presidents on what developmental experiences were cons idered beneficial in developing the competencies identified by the AACC pr ovide worthwhile information. While 4.154.24.254.34.354.44.454.54.554.64.65 Communication CC Advocacy Organizational Strategy Resource Management Professionalism Collaboration Communicatio n CC Advocacy Organizational Strategy Resource Management Professionalis m Collaboration Hassan 4.54.54.54.34.44.3 Kools 4.64.54.54.34.44.4 Hassan Kools

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140 comparisons and conclusions between this re search and previous studies (Duree, 2007; Hassan, 2008) can be made, it is important to begin with a comparison of the results of responses from the two different sized coll eges within this study. The combined responses from participants in this study are presented in Table 5.3. It appears from the responses that some leadership development experiences are considered beneficial to the development of a wide variety of the 45 dimensions and several of the core competencies. For ex ample, respondents indicated that the two developmental experiences of challe nging job assignments and progressive administrative responsibilities we re perceived as highly benefi cial in the development of each of the six competencies. These experien ces are closely related to one another and fall under the general tre nd of on-the-job or experiential le arning. It is clear from the research that respondents believe that some of the most beneficial experience they have had in the development of the competencies identified by the AACC (2006) as essential for effective community college leadersh ip have their foundation in leading and managing within the community college system itself. These findings are consistent with the findings of Hassan (2008).

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141 Table 5.3. Experiences Identified as Contributing the Mo st to Competency Devel opment—Combined Responses Experiences OS RM CM CL CA PR N/A Total per experience n % n % n % n % n % n % n % N % Graduate programs 35 14.11 20 8.66 29 9.24 20 7.09 21 11.80 28 9.96 2 1.34 155 9.21 In-house programs 12 4.84 11 4.76 17 5.41 22 7.80 11 6.18 13 4.63 14 9.40 100 5.94 Workshops 22 8.87 20 8.66 23 7.32 19 6.74 27 15.17 27 9.61 10 6.71 148 8.79 Challenging job assignments 28 11.29 37 16.02 38 12.10 39 13.83 19 10.67 33 11.74 1 0.67 195 11.59 Hardship 15 6.05 20 8.66 37 11.78 22 7.80 4 2.25 30 10.68 5 3.36 133 7.90 Feedback 20 8.06 19 8.23 32 10.19 28 9.93 10 5.62 25 8.90 2 1.34 136 8.08 Mentor/coaching 20 8.06 14 6.06 30 9.55 25 8.87 18 10.11 28 9.96 6 4.03 141 8.38 Personal reflection/ journaling 10 4.03 6 2.60 18 5.73 15 5.32 9 5.06 20 7.12 14 9.40 92 5.47 Networking with colleagues 24 9.68 19 8.23 31 9.87 35 12.41 24 13.48 23 8.19 1 0.67 157 9.33

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142 Table 5.3 (Continued) Experiences OS RM CM CL CA PR N/A Total per experience n % n % n % n % n % n % n % N % Progressive administrative responsibilities within the community college 37 14.92 35 15.15 33 10.51 33 11.70 27 15.17 31 11.03 3 2.01 199 11.82 From previous business experience 15 6.05 16 6.93 13 4.14 11 3.90 4 2.25 12 4.27 22 14.77 93 5.53 From previous military experience 5 2.02 5 2.16 8 2.55 9 3.19 2 1.12 6 2.14 35 23.49 70 4.16 From previous government experience 5 2.02 9 3.90 5 1.59 4 1.42 2 1.12 5 1.78 34 22.82 64 3.80 Total 248 100 231 100 314 100 282 100 178 100 281 100 149 100 1683 100 Note. OS = organizational strategy. RM = resource management. CM = communication. CL = collaborati on. CA = community college advocacy. PR = professionalism. N/A = not applicable.

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143 The patterns that emerged from the da ta regarding which experiences were identified as beneficial in shaping specific competencies were noteworthy. Participants indicated that progressive admini strative responsibilities were most beneficial of all other experiences they were able to choose fr om in developing the organizational strategy competency. Two other experiences that we re identified as being beneficial to the development of skills associated with the organizational strategy competency were challenging job assignments a nd graduate programs. Workshops and progressive responsibility within the community college were tied for being cited most as beneficial experiences when it came to developing the community college advocacy competency. Community coll ege advocacy was closely associated with three other experiences identified with a high frequency as benefici al in developing the competency: networking with colleagues, chal lenging job assignment s, and mentoring. Participants in Hassan’s (2008) research also identified community college advocacy with a very high frequency of ratings for th e experiences they considered beneficial. However, given that both studies asked presid ents to identify the experiences that were beneficial to the AACC (2006) competency deve lopment, it is not surprising to find that the research would uncover consistent findings regarding the importance in this particular competency. That said, it is a positive revelation that this and previous research identify experiences that are often included with many graduate programs. Another pattern that emerged from this research is that participants most frequently identified challenging job assi gnments as the developmental experience considered beneficial regardless of which co mpetency they were rating. This experience also received the single hi ghest percentage of responses among those from which

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144 participants could choose in identifying the experiences considered beneficial in developing the competencies. These finding ar e consistent with the previous research conducted by Hassan (2008), which also discove red that regardless of the competency, challenging job assignments was regularly iden tified as a beneficial experience by the majority of participants. This experience was identified as beneficial most frequently of all the choices in contributing to the competencies of resource management, communication, collaboration, and professionali sm. No other experience was identified as beneficial as frequently as having a challenging job experience. The second most frequently cited expe rience noted as being beneficial to contributing to the development of comp etencies was progressive administrative responsibilities within the community college. Thos e two most frequently cited experiences are the ones learne d and most often acquired th rough on-the-job experience. When grouping developmental experiences that can be considered on-the-job training (e.g., challenging job assignments, networki ng with colleagues, and progressive administrative responsibilities), th is research revealed that pa rticipants indentified these experiential learning situations as beneficial most often wh en compared to other learning experiences. When drawing comparisons in the data between on-the-job experiences and developmental experiences that were a part of a formal educational or professional development training curriculum (e.g., gra duate programs, workshops, and personal reflection/journaling) more revelations app ear. In short, when comparing the two experiences, participants in the research indi cated with greater frequency that on-the-job training experience is beneficial to the deve lopment of these competencies. This finding is consistent with Hassan’s (2008) research a nd the literature resear ch of McCauley and

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145 Van Velsor (as cited in Hassan), which bot h reported that the performance of job assignments are key ingredients of leadership development. Further, both posited that learning through experience is the most powerful manner in which leaders acquire and develop the skills to lead effectively. This research confirms several experien ces that respondents have validated as being beneficial to the development of the competencies identified by the AACC (2006). This finding further corroborates the pilot study which identified the six AACC competencies for community college leader s. The research indicates that some experiences are cited as beneficial with greater frequency across a broad range of competencies. However, not all experiences ar e equal in the degree to which they benefit and contribute to the development of these competencies. Although the data provided by participants is retrospective in nature and as such may be subject to biases associated with the recall and memory of thos e presidents responding to th e question, the conclusions are important and relevant. Research question 4. The fourth research question asked, “Are there significant differences in perceptions between the responses of practicing presiden ts of small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges on the relative importance of the characteristics and professional skills identified by the AACC for effective community colle ge leadership?” The results of the responses from the pr esidents of both small, rural, singlecampus colleges and large, urban, multiple-campus community colleges regarding the relative importance for each of the six competencies indicated that the chief executives mostly agreed with one another regardless of the size of the college they lead.

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146 Specifically, this research indicated that out of the 45 dimensions of the six competencies, there were statis tically significant differences in only two. To that end, the average ratings of the mean scores from presidents of large, urban, multiple-campus colleges considered each of the six competenci es as either very important or extremely important. In addition to this finding being consistent with th e sample of presidents from small, rural, single-campus colleges, it is al so consistent with Hassan’s (2008) study and with Duree’s (2007) research. In the case of Hassan, he found each of the six competencies were rated as either very impor tant or extremely important when receiving responses from the 30 presidents of New York and Florida. Like wise, Duree discovered that all six AACC competencies were consid ered important or very important when provided responses from a population of 415 community college presidents in his research study. A comparison of the scores from Duree, Hassan, and Kools (sorted from highest to lowest means) is presented in Table 5.5.

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147 Table 5.5. Comparison of Competencies Am ong Duree, Hassan, and Kools Studies (Sorted by Dimension) Showi ng Both Sizes of Colleges Competencies by categ ory Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution 84.6 96.6 4.6 4.59 4.7 OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically 79.6 96.4 4.4 4.33 4.57 OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community 73.3 89.7 4.2 3.85 4.3 OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 90.4 98.9 4.9 4.81 4.7 OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets 77.8 98 4.6 4.52 4.22 OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan 80.2 96.4 4.6 4.56 4.7 RM 1: Ensure accountability in repo rting 80.3 96.1 4.5 4.56 4.35 RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources 71.4 92.5 4 4 4.13 RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan 79.3 94.7 4.2 4.22 4.39 RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 61.4 85.8 4.1 4.33 4.04

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148 Table 5.5 (Continued) Competencies by categ ory Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 77.4 95.9 4.5 4.59 4.39 RM 6: Implement a human resour ces system that fosters the professional development an d advancement of all staff 74.4 95.4 4.4 4.41 4.22 RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 82.9 94.4 4 4.07 4.17 RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 83.6 97.1 4.5 4.41 4.39 CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences 86 96.8 4.7 4.63 4.7 CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies 81.2 89.2 4 4.19 4.13 CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 89.6 96.6 4.6 4.62 4.7 CM 4: Effectively convey id eas and information to all constituents 88.7 96.9 4.6 4.3 4.57 CM 5: Listen actively to under stand, analyze, engage, and act 88.4 97.3 4.6 4.59 4.52 CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 87.7 95.5 4.7 4.74 4.65 CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 80 90.8 4.3 4.22 4.35

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149 Table 5.5 (Continued) Competencies by categ ory Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society 66.3 82.2 3.7 3.74 4.13 CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 82.1 91.3 4.3 4.35 4.26 CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college 77.1 92.7 4.4 4.33 4.39 CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies 66 94.2 4.7 4.63 4.7 CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 83.3 94.2 4.5 4.33 4.48 CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 87 94.4 4.5 4.54 4.52 CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 84.3 91.6 4.3 4.37 4.22 AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity and academic excellence 79 87.9 4.6 4.44 4.48 AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning 79.3 83.8 4.7 4.63 4.55 AD 3: Promote equity, open a ccess, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college 85.5 89.9 4.5 4.33 4.39

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150 Table 5.5 (Continued) Competencies by categ ory Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 84.3 90.2 4.5 4.52 4.57 AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learningcentered environment 83.2 88.2 4.4 4.41 4.3 AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education 82.7 88.5 4.6 4.59 4.57 PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership 69.4 85.8 4.5 4.59 4.52 PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 80 77.6 4.2 4.41 4.26 PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 78.8 89.9 4.2 4.33 4.3 PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others 85 86.3 4.2 4.19 4.17 PR 5: Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 65.3 89.4 4.4 4.04 4.48 PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 83.8 91.4 4.9 4.67 4.7 PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 72.5 81.9 4.2 4.15 4.27 PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 87.2 91.8 4.5 4.93 4.95

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151 Table 5.5 (Continued) Competencies by categ ory Duree Hassan Kools Well-prepared Importance Importance Importance Small CC Large CC PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process and the exchange of knowledge 80.7 88.4 4.5 4.26 4.48 PR 10: Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 81.5 90.1 4.4 4.3 4.22 PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and re search/publication 60.5 69.4 3.9 3.7 3.91 Advancement of research on this topic is predicated on determining how to maximize commonalities in their perceptions between the responses of practicing presidents from the two very different si zed colleges. Although there was general agreement of the importance of the competen cies between the part icipants from both small, rural, single-campus colleges and large, urban, multiple-campus colleges, two dimensions contained significant differences. It is important to investigate the two dimensions which received significantly diffe rent ratings by the two distinct groups. Organizational strategy. The first dimension was from the organizational strategy competency. The OS 3 dimension (Use a syst ems approach to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing de mographics, and to economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community) was rated significan tly higher by the participants from urban, multiple-campus co lleges. A possible explanation for this

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152 statistically significant difference from chief executives of larger colleges is that the population of students and administrative st aff organizations for which these chief executives are responsible to lead is more diverse. As such, the use of a systems approach is a viable and effective approach to responding to the organizational culture and changing demographics. Alternatively, t hose responsible for charting the course for smaller, rural colleges are more likely to find the environment and population less diverse and the employment of a systems approach to assess and respond to the culture or to changing demographics is not necessary. Professionalism. The second dimension that receive d a statistically significant difference in response was from the profe ssionalism competency: the PR 3 dimension (Manage stress through self-care, balance, ad aptability, flexibility, and humor). The mean of this variable was rated significantly higher by chief executives of urban, multiple-campus colleges. One potential reason for the difference in responses between the two groups may be provided in the quali tative portion of the study in which it was revealed that the perception among respondents is that those leading in urban, multiplecampus settings were prone to greater stress and required greater multitasking skills and flexibility in the conduct of their professional duties. It is beneficial to compare the responses obtained in this resear ch to the responses obtained in previous research from different populations of chief executives. The findings in this question are also important to compare to both the Hassan (2008) and Duree (2007) studies because in those studies, the same six competencies are considered from very wide-ranging perspectives. Perhap s most interesting is the discovery that regardless of the environment in which the president leads, whether it is an urban,

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153 multiple-campus college, a rural, single-campus college, or a variety of different sized campuses across a wide variety of states or from a particular community college located in one of two very populous states (New York and Florida), the impressions regarding the importance of the competencies are remark ably consistent among the chief executives across all three research studies rega rding this particular question. Common top-three and bottom-three competencies. Although not statistically significant, some notable vari ations existed between the ch ief executives’ responses in this study and those presidents from colleges in New York and Florida obtained from Hassan’s (2008) study. When co mparing the mean scores obtained from respondents in both the Hassan study and this research, th ere was commonality of three competencies that were rated in the top half and the bottom half of the six competencies. However, the order of those competencies, when ranked fr om highest to lowest based on the mean scores of the respondents, indicates some variation in the importance of the competencies. As presented in Table 5.5, re spondents in both st udies indicated that organizational strategy was equally important as the ratings, indicat ed by average mean scores, of community college advocacy. This research study indicated a slightly higher rating in the mean score for communicati on strategy compared to the other two competencies. Likewise, when comparing the average mean scores of the three competencies rated the lowest in both research studies, only the collaboration competency was rated differently between this study and the Hassan (2008) study. Presidents in this study gave the collaborat ion competency a higher average mean score than in the Hassan study.

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154 A comparison of the perceptions report ed in Hassan’s (2008) study with the perceptions of those from small, rural colleges in this study indicates Hassan’s respondents yielded higher average mean scores for the two competencies of professionalism and organizational strategy. Wh en comparing the resu lts of participants from Hassan’s study with those from presiden ts of urban, multiple-campus colleges, the average mean score from urban, multiple-campus presidents was the same in four of the six competencies. Presidents from the larg e colleges provided an average mean score in the collaboration and communication competen cies higher than those from the Hassan study. Open-ended question 1. The research clearly indicates there is a great deal of agreement of the six competencies pr ovided by the AACC (2006) for effective community college leadership. To further e xplore the perceptions of the chief executives regarding the challenges they face in the c onduct of their daily du ties, this research introduced open-ended questions to seek grea ter fidelity on the perceptions of chief executives. The first qualita tive question asked participants, “Please explain what you believe are the differences in l eadership skills required for ef fective leadership of small, rural colleges and urban, multiple-campus community colleges. Results to this question indicate differences in the perceptions of the respondents. In general terms, respondents from small colleges had greater commonality of answers than did those participants from urban, mu ltiple-campus colleges. Respondents indicated that smaller colleges required a greater commitment to personal involvement and individual attention to stakehol ders (internal and external). Participants also indicated that leaders of the smaller colleges also need ed to effectively communicate to the external

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155 community to a greater degree. In general, the rural college leader was perceived to require greater community involvement (both in ternal and external) than do leaders of urban, multiple-campus colleges. In comparison, participants indicated th at those leading multiple-campus colleges require greater bureaucracy skills, the ability to collaborate, and great er need to possess organizational management and political sk ills than do their c ounterparts in rural colleges. The focus on organizational skills fo r the leaders of larger and predictably more complex organizations represented by urban, multiple-campus colleges is understandable. However, besides the clear delineation in the responses to the question regarding the differences in leadership skills, the partic ipants also indicated some similarity in responses. Some respondents from both sized institutio ns indicated there were no differences in the skills required for the leaders of the two different si zed colleges. Both populations of respondents also indicated that political savvy was cr itical, as was effective communication skills. The difference between the two in these common areas seems to be the degree to which each leadership sk ill is required. As Bl anchard (2003) posited, leadership is dependent upon the situation in which the leader is placed, and the conditions dictate how the person le ads to be most effective. Open-ended question 2. The second open-ended question asked, “Describe the biggest challenges faced in th e daily leadership of the college.” Responses to this question fell into three distinct categories: pe rsonnel issues, financial challenges, and lack of miscellaneous resources. Of these three i ssues, the lack of finances was cited by more than 50% of participants. Cl early the modern college leader s participating in this study

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156 feel considerable pressure due to the fiscal challenges in which they consider they are required to operate. The second most frequently cited challeng e faced by presidents responding to this research question was personnel issues. From dealing with the disruptions of unions to leading at an interpersonal level, leaders indicated that dealing with those they are entrusted to lead is daily hur dle in the their path to su ccessful leadership of their respective colleges. This is an important finding because no one can lead effectively without connecting with and influencing people (Bass & Avolio, 1990, Covey, 1990; De Pree, 1989; Eddy, 2007; Greenleaf & Spears, 2002; Kouzes & Posn er, 2003; Sarros & Santora, 2001; Yukl, 2009). Co mmunicating with and maximizing the talents of the staff is a critical component to eff ective leadership; as such, given that these are the issues that participants raised as the challenges faced on a daily basis, greater emphasis on how to lead effectively must be a key component to any leadership development program. The third set of challeng es identified by respondents to the second open-ended question was categorized as miscellaneous resource challenges and included specific items, such as time management and the mana gement of change and creativity. Although time management is a skill that can be taught using a systems approach, both managing change and creativity are best achieved through interpersonal sk ills possessed by the leader. A general approach to exhibit a nd practice open communication and transparency may be the best approach to manage these leadership challenges. Open-ended question 3. The third qualitative questi on asked, “Describe the key experiences or training you pe rceive best prepared you for your current position as chief executive of your college.” Answers to this open-ended question we re categorized into

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157 three primary areas: professional experience in higher education, professional experience unrelated to higher education, and college education and pr ofessional training. In the college experience and prof essional training category, the doctoral program experience and leadership workshops or professional tr aining programs were most often cited as preparing chief executives fo r their current position. The most common response to this research question was that holding positions of progressive responsibility and experience w ithin the higher educa tion system was the most important experience in preparing th em for their respective chief executive positions. In this category, progressive jobs of increasing respons ibility and authority, and on-the-job experience with in the higher education syst em provided the key training and experience perceived as best preparing them for their current senior leadership position. Experience in mentoring programs and on state executive education boards were also noted as contributing to the res pondents’ acumen as college chief executive. The fewest responses to th is question were categorized as unrelated professional experience. This group contained experi ences ranging from bl ue-collar work to government and military experience. Each of these options was noted by only one respondent. The conclusion drawn from this observation was that most all respondents came from higher education ranks and progresse d to the chief executive position rather than from positions outside of higher education. Implications for Practice Results of this research offer those responsible for designing, developing, implementing, and sustaining a comprehensive and cogent leadership development curriculum for the development of those determ ined or designated to fill the projected

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158 community college vacancies (Shults, 2001). A pplication of the result s of this research and validation of research by Hassan (2008) and Duree (2007) pertaining to the subject of leadership competencies may provide practit ioners of leadership development programs to fabricate a comprehensive program that can address the projected shortfall in seniorlevel leadership of community colleges througho ut the country. The implications of this research will be discussed in detail in the following order: 1. Application of the AACC (2004, 2005, 2006) competencies for community college leaders as the foundation for conducting competency-based interviewing of pot ential candidates. 2. Expansion of the six competencies into a greater number of competencies that are more clearly defined from the dimensions contained therein. 3. Design of new programs or improvement of existing internal development programs. Application of the AACC competencies as the foundation for conducting competency-based interviewing of potential candidates. Implementation of competency-based interviewing strategies in to the interview process the colleges will greatly enhance colleges’ ability to recruit and hire candidates with th e requisite skill sets to serve in administrative positions and de velop into senior-level community college leaders and administrators (Hassan, 2008). Competency models are commonly used throughout industry to establish structured in terview questions that link directly to competencies identified as valuable to the organization. Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy (2006) posited that by establishi ng a clearly defined intervie w based on the organizational competency model improves the probabil ity of making quality hiring decisions.

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159 Using the established an d well-validated AACC comp etencies (2005) as a foundation to establish a competency-based in terview model is a recommended first step in this process. The model must be comprehe nsive in order to obtain the best results and select the best available ca ndidates. To support this type of competency-based interviewing program, the researcher recomme nds this program is implemented in three phases. The first phase consists of a thor ough review of past performance and organizational performance in situations clos ely replicating the lead ership conditions and skill sets required for serving as a leader in a college environment. This review is based on closely measuring past accomplishments with the six primary competencies identified as essential by the AACC (2005). The best pred ictor for future performance is the past record of performance in similar conditions. The second phase of the competency-bas ed interviewing pro cess is to have candidates provide written examples of the knowledge, skills, and abilities associated with the competencies. Those competencies determined to be most important for the position being filled may be weighted higher than other competencies. Specific examples of mastery of the competencies with quantifiable information supporting the competencies will provide the hiring and sele ction committee with evidence to either pass the candidate on for further consideration or determine that the candidate does not have the requisite skills to fulfill the needs of the position. The final phase of the competency-based interviewing that can be supported by this research is a formal interview process consisting of a hiring committee and candidates. It is recommende d that each member of the committee craft questions that

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160 request candidates to provide sp ecific examples of their ma stery of the competencies. The head of the committee will be respons ible for ensuring that all six critical competencies are adequately covered during the formal face-to-face interview process. In the process of answering each question, candidates would be prompted to provide specific challenges faced that replicate ch allenges encountered on a regular basis by senior administrators and leaders, the speci fic actions taken in the past to remedy and reach a solution to the challenge, a nd the results of those actions. Expansion of the six competencies in to a greater number of competencies that are more clearly defined from the dimensions contained therein. This research and that of Duree (2007) and Hassan (2008) clearly validate the AACC’s (2006) six competencies. That said, as presently writte n, the competencies offer little in the way of precision, primarily because each is comprised of broadly consolidated dimensions that provide little specificity to the practitioner. Specificity of each competency will add value to the competencies as a whole. The researcher suggests that the AACC reevaluate the competencies and add greater specificity to each competency. An end result of such action may be the strengthening of each competency by refining the meaning and connection of each competency to the success of the organizati on. It is a key element in this proposed specification that managers/leaders understa nd and be able to articulate how their demonstrated mastery of each competency stre ngthens their ability to lead and add value to the organization as a whole. To this end, the author recommends that the AACC provide greater detail to each competency by specifying and defining the purpose of the organizational leaders at all levels of leader ship and management for each competency.

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161 Each of the 45 dimensions must defi ne the functions that contribute to accomplishing the required work. This work performance must directly support the accomplishment of the competencies. Finally, performance indicators must be developed to support the hierarchy of the fully expanded competency model. The performance indicators should describe the specific activities required fo r leaders to support accomplishment of the dimensions. This proposed hierarchy of the AACC co mpetency model establishes clearly defined cascading effects to the dimensions th at are supported by performance indicators. Individual leaders must also demonstrate th e requisite knowledge, skil ls, and abilities to provide and perform the basic capabilities required to accomplish activities associated with the job duties and descriptions for the roles they are tasked to fill. An inability to do so will provide hiring committees a valid met hod of selecting candida tes who do not meet the requisite skills for the position. College hiring committees may use the competencies and their associated dimensions for leadership selection, traini ng, and development opportunities, as well as and performance management (Hassan, 2008) Each dimension has performance indicators that identify and describe in broad terms the leader’s important activities (performance) that may contribute to successf ully achieving the dimension. When using this model as a hiring tool to conduct competency-based interviewing, hiring committee members may identify specific job-related perf ormance expectations that the position will require and add these tailored details into th e questions for each performance indicator. Design of new or improvement of ex isting internal development programs. This research and previous research (Duree, 2007; Hassan, 2008; McCauley & Van

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162 Velsor, 2004) demonstrate that on-the-job training is a beneficial factor in the development of skills and competencies that ch ief executive attribute to being key in their leadership acumen. Citing this research, cu rriculum developers may choose to use these on-the-job experiences as an integral part of the leadership deve lopment program they design to best prepare those pa rticipating in their grow-you r-own programs. This study supports Hassan’s (2008) resear ch and has revealed severa l developmental experiences that presidents have identified as benefici al to the developmen t of AACC’s (2005) six competencies for community college leadershi p. By using this most recent data as a foundation, colleges may build an effective leadership developm ent curriculum for establishing or improving upon an ex isting grow-your-own program. The AACC (2004) pilot study revealed th at existing leadership development programs were considered by respondents to have either minimally or moderately prepared them to develop the AACC’s (2005) six competencies. According to Vincent (2004), the AACC pilot study also identified a discrepancy between the experiences required to master the competencies and how current and future leaders actually developed the competencies. This study and the study by Hassan (2008) provide data that may enable colleges to design, devel op, and implement a comprehensive and highly effective leadership development program that is adaptable to target the specific needs of leaders of community colleges. Leveraging the research uncovered by th is study, specifically that on-the-job development experiences were determined to be highly regarded by community college presidents in developing the AACC (2005) competencies, may make grow-your-own programs a cost-effective and efficient lead ership development program capable of

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163 stemming the projected lead ership shortage as agi ng Baby Boomers begin their retirements. This action would be a step toward heeding the call made by researchers who have stated that specific attention needs to be provide d to alleviate the projected shortfall of qualified community college senior leaders and administrators (Amey, 2006; Campbell & Sloan, 2002; Little, 2002; Ma nzo, 2003; Murray & Eddy, 2007; Shults, 2001; Vaughan & Weisman, 1989, 1998, 2003; Wa tts & Hammons, 2002). As such, grow-your-own programs may be a superb solution to the looming leadership shortfall within the community college ranks. Perhaps the greatest justification for implementing an effective grow-your-own program is that this and previous research (Hassan, 2008) clearly indicates that activ e and participative on-the-job development was cited as beneficial for de veloping the competencies identified by the AACC (2005) as essential for effectiv e community college leadership. The information provided by community colle ge presidents participating in this research provides the information that served as the basis for the following recommendations. The knowledge gained sugges ts that recommended practices such as these would be best implemented in conjunc tion with working in the community college environment. Each recommended leadership development practice outlined here was originally recommended by Hassan (2008). So me modifications to the leadership development practices have been made and the proposals contained in the synopsis are based on this research. These practices are intended to enhance communication, engagement, and build a high-performance management team for the college while providing specific roles and re sponsibilities for maximizing the development of those participating in the grow-your-own l eadership development program.

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164 Professional networking and social learning. Networking is well regarded as a fundamental element of modern, effective, bu siness best practices. The advancement of social and professional networking sites has co ntributed to building co ntacts, professional relationships, and support networks. Acco rding to Day (2000), networking enables leaders and managers to grow beyond unders tanding the how and what of problem solving and develop a new dimension of knowing who. This new dimension empowers the networker to become a part of community of practice that is far greater than what are traditionally available using normal one-on-one personal contacts. Developing a web-based, interactive res ource center and professional knowledgesharing community of practice is an importa nt ingredient for successful grow-your-own programs. Such a website would provide a meaningful and value-added professional network for those aspiring to become community college presidents. The site could serve as a virtual resource center and a hub for connecting to leadership and management resources throughout the AACC. This central hub could serv e as a central launch point for leaders to access knowledge, information, and ideas that will enable their best practices in the art and science of leader ship, which will assist them in overcoming challenges encountered in their professional duties. This professionally based, social learning web platform would c onnect aspiring leaders with other colleagues who may be geographically dispersed across the United States and serve as a conduit to reduce distance while simultaneous increasing co mmunication. Employment of web-based social media will support and enhance the tr ansfer of knowledge, ideas, information, and best practices and enhance the performan ce of all community college leaders.

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165 Development and implementation of such a network would also facilitate senior community college leaders to support and enhance the professional development of junior level managers (leader-l ed development). The ability to connect with and share best practices, knowledge, and legacy info rmation gained through experiential learning would predictably be enhanced through the us e of this networking. Perhaps the most powerful application of this professional netw orking would be the ability for those senior community college presidents and senior admi nistrators preparing to retire to access a conduit to imbue their legacy information to a far greater number of protgs and junior leaders than through traditional one-on-one me ntoring methods. Research conducted by Duree (2007) supports the premise that pr ofessional networking in the community college environment could be very useful. Duree’s research i ndicated that 75% of respondents indicated that networking with colleagues was very important. Feedback (supervisors, peers, subordinates, and others). Without feedback, uncertainty grows throughout the workforce. Research conducted by Kouzes and Posner (2002) indicates that when people receive f eedback that is fair and accurate, their performance is nearly 40% grea ter than those who receive feedback that they feel is unfair or not accurate. Litera ture indicates that feedback, particularly 360-degree feedback, is an essential pa rt of any leadership devel opment program (McCauley & Van Velsor, 2004). Such feedback involves rece iving feedback from peers, subordinates, superiors, and colleagues. In short, the grea ter number of people pr oviding feedback to a person, the greater the probability the feedback will be accura te. Because all feedback received is potentially beneficial to impr oving leaders’ understanding of themselves and their intrapersonal and interpersonal compet ence, feedback may also be obtained from

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166 people normally considered outside of their pr ofessional circle. By collecting feedback from associates outside of the work environm ent for evaluation of leadership qualities, individuals who solicit 360-degr ee feedback receive the most well-rounded picture of themselves. Community college presidents participa ting in this and previous (Hassan, 2008) research support the notion th at feedback is a valuable method of gaining information regarding leadership development. Through their responses to the open-ended question component of this research, participants indi cated that feedback wa s a valuable part of their leadership development equation and im portant to the experi ences that built and sustained the competencies of communicati on and collaboration. This finding was also supported by the research conducted by Ha ssan (2008), who found that presidents participating in his research also considered feedback as valuable in the development of these same two competencies. Mentorship program A formal mentoring program is a key component of any leadership development program (Hassan, 2008). Mentoring can be formal or informal in nature. Informal mentoring programs typically occur when a junior leader connects with a more senior leader and seeks to establis h and pursue a personal plan for growth. Formal mentoring programs are established by th e organization and typically pair a junior leader with a seasoned and successful leader who is external to their formal reporting chain (McCauley & Van Velsor, 2004). Re gardless whether a formal or informal mentoring program is chosen, to be effectiv e, the mentoring must be intentional and consistent (Maxwell, 2008).

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167 Another important part of any mentorship partnership is th at the mentor and mentee must have a relationship. Mentorship is an involved process and there must be a foundation of general respect and personal co mmitment from both parties for the process to be successful. McCauley and Van Velsor (2004) posited that mentoring is important for development and that people should seek ou t relationships specifically for the purpose of enhancing their profe ssional development. This study supported the idea of mentorship. Several participants indicated that mentoring had been a positive factor in their successful development as a college president. Specifically, respondents in this research and in Ha ssan’s (2008) research indicated that mentoring supported the deve lopment of professionalism and community college advocacy. Likewise, in Duree’ s (2007) study, 85% of participants had established mentoring programs, either fo rmal or informal, on their campuses. Hassan (2008) suggested that because community college advocacy is a competency set that is not so easily de veloped by a general set of professional experience, mentoring may be an excellent me thod to best contribute to the development of this important competency. Regardless what specific skills are required to be developed in the grow-your-own program, me ntoring can be a valuable developmental tool. The flexibility it provides is only limited by the personal and professional experience of the mentor. The mentor-mentee relationship can be one that is pliable and adjusted to focus on the skill set most importa nt to the successful accomplishment of the job being performed. Colleges would be well served to esta blish a mentorship program as a cornerstone of any growyour-own development program.

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168 Action learning (progressive job responsi bilities/challenging job assignments, hardships, personal reflection/journaling) The most evident outcome from this research was that participants valued action learning. In the collection of qua ntitative data, it was the theme that occurred with the highest freque ncy of responses across all dimensions. In the qualitative portion of the study, it was the developmental concept most readily identified by participants as a central ingr edient to building their competencies. This research and the research of Hassan (2008) cl early indicate that ac tive experience in the area in which one will eventually lead and whic h is associated with that job as a great value in the development of the competency itself. Progressive job responsibilities and cha llenging job assignmen ts were the two experiences most often identified by the re spondents in this study as helpful in developing the AACC (2006) competencies of organizational strategy, resource management, communication, collaboration, a nd professionalism. Development in complex leadership roles such as leading a community college is a long process that has many aspects and requires skill sets to be effective and successful. Grow-your-own developmental programs may be well suited to mirror the military model of leader development. Like their counterparts in higher education, leaders in the U.S. Army undergo intense coursework, case studies, and conduct personal reflection in preparation to becoming a leader in their organization. Another similarity is that members of the U.S. Army also receive years of continued development with progressive job responsibilities and challenging job assignments. Each job as the junior leader advances through the system is designed to be progressive in the responsibility and authority invested in th at leader. Each new position

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169 builds on the experience gained from the previous position; s ubsequent jobs are greater in scope and complexity of the challenge. In many instances, leaders are brought into positions with the sole purpose of the “crucible ” experience that these positions will offer them and aid their personal growth and professional development. The process of having leader s go through a series of jobs that are progressive in the scope of work and responsibility is an effective tool in building competence of the leader in the key positions that operate the organization. Moreover, such a program would provide colleges with a wide talent pool of capable executives with broad ranging experience. Regardless which method the commun ity college program elects to use, this research and the research of Hassan ( 2008) and Duree (2007) support the specific targeting of action learning e xperiences throughout the prof essional life of those being identified as emerging leaders of the organization. Proposals recommended in this research study are unique because they vastly alter the typical weekend seminars, case stud ies, required readings and team projects commonly associated with grow-your-own pr ograms. These recommendations expand the previously recommended actions r ecommended by Hassan (2008) and have the potential to enhance the cost-effectiveness of grow-your-own programs that colleges across the nation offer their emerging leaders. Leadership development practices are the result of the information provided by the re spondents from this study and validate the findings of previous research in th is subject area by Hassan (2008). The leadership development experiences recommended in this study are intended to be performed within the context of the organizational environment. Because these developmental activities are conducted in conjunction with leaders performing their

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170 duties, implementation of these recommendations can begin relatively quickly. As such, these developmental activities have the potenti al to refine the best practices associated with the development of th e skills and abilities whic h form the AACC’s (2006) six competencies for community college leaders. Limitations Although this study contributes to the unde rstanding of the development of the AACC’s (2006) six competencies for community college leaders, some limitations must be acknowledged. 1. This study has limited external validity. The sample selected for this research was a convenience sample of volunteers fr om two distinct sized colleges. 2. This study assessed the competencies identified by the AACC (2006 as essential for effective community college leadership. It did not analyze any other competencies that may contribute to the effectiveness of the college presidents. 3. This research employed a retrospective method in assessing the effectiveness of the competencies identified by the AACC (2006) and in determining the experiences that contributed to the deve lopment of those competencies. Implications for Future Research This research contributed to the valida tion of the AACC (2006) competencies for community college leaders. It also validated the work of Hassan ( 2008) in identifying the specific leadership developmental experiences th at contribute to the development of those competencies. Given the importance of the continued need for development of emerging

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171 leaders to fill the projected shortfall of ag ing community college presidents, the following topics are suggested for future research: 1. a study that explores how a curriculum implementing the recommendations of this study in its leadership development program fares; 2. a study that modifies the dimensions id entified as defining each of the AACC (2006) competencies into categories th at are more strictly defined and expanded; and 3. a study exploring the curriculum bei ng used by the different community college leadership developers and its relationship to the competencies identified by the AACC (2006). Significance of the Study Results from this study raise several salient issues surrounding the leadership development of emerging leaders for the comm unity college organiza tion. It provides valuable information from seasoned professi onals from across the breadth of the United States in colleges of varying sizes that provide keen insight into the key ingredients and crucible experiences they determined most beneficial in their development. This information provides community college leadership development programs a pathway for designing, developing, and implementing the road ahead for their organizational succession plans. Regardless of the of the specific deta ils contained within the leadership development framework, this research illuminates the clear belief from those with experience in preparing for the mantle of l eadership that experiences gained on the job through challenging personal and professional a ssignments added significantly to their

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172 leadership acumen. As such, any program will be well regarded if it combined these experiences into its leadership developmen t curriculum and held its emerging leaders responsible for rising to th ese challenges. However, no matter how well planned and rigorous the coursework, how relevant the j ob experiences, or how challenging the job assignment, it is ultimately the responsibility of individuals to grow their leadership skills themselves. Leadership development is an intensely personal expe rience that requires dedication, learning opportunitie s, and time to reflect on t hose events and the lessons learned to be most effective. Those who aspire to serve in senior leadership positions and as college presidents should use the informa tion derived from this study to help focus their time and energy to the skills identified as most effective in developing the AACC (2006) competencies. A well-rounded develo pmental program consisting of professional networking, 360-degree feedback, mentoring, challenging job assignments, progressive responsibility, and the host of other recomm endations in this research will enable dedicated emerging leaders to maximize th eir personal and professional growth and prepare for the mantle of executive leadership. Without question, our nation is in the mids t of an exciting time for those who are ascending the ladder of organi zational leadership. As aging Baby Boomers begin their exodus from leadership positions across corporate, government, and nonprofit America, the senior level positions they leave behind will need to be filled with qualified and competent professionals. Higher education will face these same challenges but has the advantage of possessing a network of profe ssionals dedicated to the advancement of ideas, ideals, and capacities of sharing of knowledge, all of which are essential to the

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173 transfer of knowledge as th e next generation of leader s takes over the mantle of organizational leadership.

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183 Appendices

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184 Appendix A: AACN Competencies for Community College Leaders Organizational strategy. An effective community college leader strategically improves the quality of the in stitution, protects the long-term health of the organization, promotes the success of all students, and su stains the community college mission, based on knowledge of the organization, its environment, and future trends 1. Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization. 2. Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically. To the Respondent: Please read each of th e illustrated competencies and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1 = Not important 5 = Extremely important ) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for e ffective community college leadership. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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185 Appendix A (Continued): 3. Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, changing demographics, and the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community. 4. Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes. 5. Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets. 6. Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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186 Appendix A (Continued) Resource management. An effective community college leader equitably and ethically sustains people, pr ocesses, and information as well as physical and financial assets to fulfill the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. 1. Ensure accountability in reporting. 2. Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases. 3. Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent with the college master plan and local, state, and national policies. 4. Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources. To the Respondent: Please read each of th e illustrated competencies and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1 = Not important 5 = Extremely important ) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for e ffective community college leadershi p 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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187 Appendix A (Continued) 5. Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities. 6. Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward and performance management systems, and that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff. 7. Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills. 8. Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long -term viability of the organization. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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188 Appendix A (Continued) Communication. An effective community college leader uses clear listening, speaking, and writing skills to engage in honest open dialog at all levels of the college and its surrounding community, to promote the success of all students, and to sustain the community college mission. 1. Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience. 2. Disseminate and support policies and strategies. 3. Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations. 4. Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and stakeholders. To the Respondent: Please read each of th e illustrated competencies and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1 = Not important 5 = Extremely important ) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for e ffective community college leadership. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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189 Appendix A (Continued) 5. Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act. 6. Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully. Collaboration. An effective community college leader develops and maintains responsive, cooperative, mutu ally beneficial, and ethica l internal and external relationships that nurt ure diversity, promote the success of all students, and sustain the community college mission. 1. Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles. 2. Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society. To the Respondent: Please read each of th e illustrated competencies and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1 = Not important 5 = Extremely important ) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for e ffective community college leadership. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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190 Appendix A (Continued) 3. Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good. 4. Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. 5. Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups, such as legislators, board members, business leaders, accreditation organizations, and others. 6. Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships. 7. Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation. 8. Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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191 Appendix A (Continued) Community college advocacy. An effective community college leader understands, commits to, and advocates for the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. 1. Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence. 2. Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning. 3. Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college, seeking to understand how these change over time and facilitating discussion with all stakeholders. To the Respondent: Please read each of th e illustrated competencies and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1 = Not important 5 = Extremely important ) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for e ffective community college leadership. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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192 Appendix A (Continued) 4. Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same. 5. Advance lifelong learning and support a learner-centered and learningcentered environment. 6. Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in intern ational settings. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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193 Appendix A (Continued) Professionalism. An effective community college leader works ethically to set high standards for self and others, con tinuously improve self and surroundings, demonstrate accountability to and for the institution, and ensures the long-term viability of the college and community. 1. Demonstrate transformational leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision. 2. Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college. 3. Self-assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation. 4. Support lifelong learning for self and others. To the Respondent: Please read each of th e illustrated competencies and rate on a scale of 1-5 (1 = Not important 5 = Extremely important ) the relative importance of the illustrated competencies as being essential for e ffective community college leadership. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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194 Appendix A (Continued) 5. Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor. 6. Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility. 7. Understand the impact of perceptions, worldviews, and emotions on self and others. 8. Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people. 9. Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching—learning process and the exchange of knowledge. 10. Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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195 Appendix A (Continued) 11. Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organiza tional leadership, and research/publication. Are there important competencies yo u would like to add to the list of Competencies for Community College Leaders ? Please feel free to a dd your thoughts and suggestions. Would you like to receive a copy of the results of this research study? Yes _____ or No_____ 1 2 3 4 5

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196 Appendix A (Continued) AACC leader development experience competencies. Please identify your leader development experiences. 1 = Organizational strategy 2 = Resource management 3 = Communication 4 = Collaboration 5 = Community college advocacy 6 = Professionalism 1. Graduate programs (i.e., de gree or certificate) _____________ 2. In-house programs (i.e., grow -your-own programs/college programs) _____________ 3. Workshops (i.e., Presidents Academy, Future Leaders, ICCD, AACC) _____________ 4. Challenging job assignments (i.e., new position, build team from scratch) _____________ 5. Hardship (i.e., failures, career setbacks, downsizing, problem employees) _____________ 6. Feedback (i.e., supervisor, p eers, subordinates, team) _____________ 7. Mentor/coaching _____________ 8. Personal reflection/journaling _____________ To the Respondent: Certain experiences contribute to the development of competencies. Presented is a list of lead er development experiences that may have helped you acquire some of competencies identified by the AACC as essential for effective college leadership. For each experi ence, please indicate which (if any) of the competencies the experience helped develop. Place the number of each competency (ies) next to the leader de velopment experience, or indi cate N/A as appropriate.

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197 Appendix A (Continued) 9. Networking with colleagues _____________ 10. Progressive administrative re sponsibilities w ithin the community college (i.e., director, dean, vice president) _____________ 11. From previous business experience _____________ 12. From previous military experience _____________ 13. From previous government experience _____________ 14. Other Qualitative research questions. Please answer the following questions. 1. Please explain what you believe are th e differences in leadership skills required for effective leadership of small, rural and urban, multiple-campus community colleges. 2. Please describe the biggest challenges you face in the daily leadership of your college.

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198 Appendix A (Continued) 3. Please describe the key experiences or training you perceive best prepared you for your current position as chie f executive of your college.

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199 Appendix B: Demographic Data Please indicate the following information: 1. Position/title (check one) President Chancellor Other—specify ____________________ 2. Institution type Small—rural community college Large—urban community college 3. Number of years in current position (check one) 1-3 4-7 8-10 11-15 16-19 20+ 4. Number of total years as community college CEO (check one) 1-3 4-7 8-10 11-15 16-19 20+ 5. Gender (check one) Male Female 6. Present age __________________ 7. Race/ethnicity (check one) American Indian or Alaska Native Asian/Pacific Islander Black or African American Hispanic/Latino White Other—specify ____________________ 8. Highest level of academic degree Bachelors Masters Doctoral: specify discipline (e.g., business, education) ________________________ Ph.D. Ed.D. Other—specify ____________________

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A D S a r w l e C c o c o c a C c o a t c o A ppendix C : L Sm a D ear commu n I am a outh Florid a r e aware, th e w hich identi f e adership a n C ompetencie s o mpetencie s o mmunity c o a mpus colle g C ommunity C o mmunity c o In thi s t tached sur v o mplete. Pl e : Letter of I L eadership a ll-Rural S i n ity college a doctoral c a a and I am i n e American A f ied leaders h n d subseque n s for Comm u s are rated i n o lleges: Sm a g es. Your p C ollege Lea d o llege leade s regard, I w ey. The sur v e ase be ass u I ntroductio n Competen c i n g le-Camp president: a ndidate in H n terested in c A ssociation h ip compete n n tly publish e u nity Colle g n relative im p a ll, rural, si n p erceptions a d ers will off e rs. w ould greatl y v ey should t u red that all i 202 n and Instr u c ies for Co m us and Urb H igher Educ a c ommunity c of Commu n n cies essenti a e d these co m g e Leaders ( 2 p ortance by n gle-campus a nd views re g e r valuable d y appreciate y t ake approxi i nformation u ction m munit y Co an Multipl e a tion Admi n c ollege lead e n ity College s a l for effect i m petencies i n 2 005). I am presidents o colleges an g arding the A d ata for the f y our coope r mately 10-1 provided b y lle g e Leade e -Campus C 9178 Hig h T n istration at t e rship com p s (AACC) c o i ve commu n n a documen t interested i n o f two very d d large, urb a A ACC Co m f uture devel o r ation by co m 2 minutes o y you and ot h rs of C olle g es h land Ridge T ampa, FL 3 t he Univers i p etencies. A o mpleted a s n ity colleges t titled n how these d ifferent siz e a n, multiple m petencies f o o pment of m pleting the f your time t h er particip a Way 3 3647 i ty of s you s tudy e s of o r t o a nts

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203 Appendix C (Continued) will be handled in strictest confidence and will never be associated with you by name or college. Your participation and re sponses are comple tely anonymous. I respectfully request that the survey be completed by August 21, 2009. If you are unable to participate in the study, please ta ke a moment to let me know by sending a return e-mail so that I can remove your name from the list of participants. If you have any questions about the study, please contact me di rectly by phone at (920) 574-0256 or by e-mail at usfcompetencyresearch@gmail.com. Thank you very much in advance for your time and assistance. Sincerely, Joseph M. J. Kools Doctoral Candidate, Univer sity of South Florida

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A D r e u r p n c o m p f u t i c o g r s t A ppendix D : D ear commu n You r e garding the r ban colleg e articipation. ote a friend l o nsideratio n If yo u m oments out erceptions a u rther devel o i me commit m o mpletion o f r eatly appre c Pleas e t rictest conf i : Follow-U p n ity college r ecently rec e competenc i e s. If you h a However, i l y request a n n for partici p u have not al of your bus y a nd input re g o pment and m ent of app r f the survey c iated. e rest assure d i dence and w p E-Mail president: e ived an invi i es for com m a ve complet e i f you have n n d a remind e p ating in this ready done s y schedule t o g arding this t refinement o r oximately 1 is August 2 d that all in f w ill not be a s 204 tation to pa r m unity colle g e d the surve y n ot yet com p e r of the app r very short, s o, I am res p o participat e t opic are ve r o f the AAC C 0-15 minut e 8, 2009. Y o f ormation pr o s sociated to r ticipate in a n g e leaders o f y I want to s p leted the s u r eciation I h a yet importa n p ectfully re q e in this rese r y important C ’s leadersh i e s is all that o ur assistanc o vided on t h you by nam n important f both small s incerely th a u rvey, pleas e a ve for you r n t research s q uesting that arch. Your p to this stud y i p compete n is required. e in meetin g h e survey w i e or college research st u rural and la r a nk you for y e consider t h r time and s tudy. you take a f p ersonal y and vital t o n cies. A sho The timeli n g that timeli n i ll be held i n u dy r gey our h is f ew o the rt n e for n e is n the

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205 Appendix D (Continued) In the event you misplaced th e survey, I have included th e link to the survey. If you have any questions regarding this important research please don’t hesitate to contact me. I can be reached at (920) 574-0256 or via e-mail at usfcompetencyresearch@gmail.com. Sincerely, Joseph M. J. Kools Doctoral Candidate, Univer sity of South Florida

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A D t i r e Y A bu F c o a n q u r e S J o D A ppendix E : D ear commu n Pleas e i me as I ma k e search stud y I kno w Y OUR input A ACC’s lea d u sy schedul e riday, Aug u Rest a o nfidence a n The l i n d share yo u u estions reg e ached at (9 2 incerely, o seph M. J. K D octoral Ca n : Second Fo n ity college e consider t h k e one final r y The aver a w your time on this topi c d ership com p e to particip a u st 28, 2009. a ssured that n d will not b i nk to the su r u r perceptio n arding this i 2 0) 574-025 K ools n didate, Uni v llow-Up EM president: h is note a fri e r equest for y a ge time to c is importan t c is vital to t p etencies. A a te in this r e Your assis t all informat i b e associate d r vey is p r ov i n s in the A A mportant re s 6 or via em v ersity of S o 206 M ail e ndly remin d y our thought c omplete th e t —especiall y t he further d e A s such, I re s e search. Th e t ance in me e i on provide d d to you by n i de d so ple a A CC’s leade r s earch, plea s m ail at usfco m o uth Florid a d er of the a p ful particip a e survey is a y at this tim e e velopment s pectfully re e timeline fo e ting that ti m d on the sur v n ame or coll e a se log on a t r ship compe t s e don’t hes i m petencyres p preciation I a tion in this v a pproximate l e of the yea r and refine m quest some t r completio n m e line is gr e v ey is held i n e ge. t your earlie s t encies. If y i tate to cont a earch@gm a I have for y o v ery import a l y 12 minut e r However, m ent of the t ime out of y n of the sur v e atly apprec i n the strictes s t convenie n y ou have an y a ct me. I ca n a il.com. o ur a nt e s. y our v ey is i ated. t n ce y n be

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207 Appendix F: Participants’ Profile Figure F.1. Participants by position title. Figure F.2. Participants’ profile by year of experience in the current position. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 PresidentChancellorOtherFrequencyCommunity Colleges Type Small Rural, Community College Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 3 years 4 7 years 8 10 years 11 15 years 16 19 years 20 + yearsFrequencyYears of Experience Small Rural, Community College Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College

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208 Appendix F (Continued) Figure F.3. Participants’ profile by year of experience as community college CEO. Figure F.4. Participants’ profile by age. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 3 years4 7 years8 10 years 11 15 years 16 19 years 20 + yearsFrequencyYears as Community College CEO Small Rural, Community College Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 40 or under 41 4546 5051 5556 6061 6566 7071 or overFrequencyAge Small Rural, Community College Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College

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209 Appendix F (Continued) Figure F.5. Participants’ profile by race/ethnicity. Figure F.6. Participants’ profile by gender. 0 5 10 15 20 25 FrequencyRace/ Ethnicity Small Rural, Community College Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 MaleFemaleFrequencyGender Small Rural, Community College Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College

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210 Appendix F (Continued) Figure F.7. Participants’ profile by highe st level of academic degree attained. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 BachelorsMastersPh.D.Ed.D.OtherFrequencyHighest Academic Degree Attained Small Rural, Community College Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College

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211 Appendix G: SAS Output on Reliability Analysis Table G.1. SAS Output—Cronbach Coefficien t Alpha for the Six AACC Competencies Cronbach coefficient alpha Variables Alpha Raw 0.925619 Cronbach coefficient alpha with deleted variable Deleted variable Raw variables Correlation with total Alpha MOS organization strategy 0.743008 0.917916 MRM resource management 0.764895 0.915329 MCO communication 0.825483 0.907623 MCL collaboration 0.807987 0.908888 MCA community college a dvocacy 0.7972 69 0.912069 MPR professionalism 0.804170 0.910249 Table G.2. SAS Output—Cronbach Coefficien t Alpha for 45 Competency Dimensions Cronbach coefficient alpha Variables Alpha Raw 0.947052

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212 Appendix G (Continued) Table G.2 (Continued) Cronbach coefficient alpha with deleted variable Deleted variable Raw variables Correlation with total Alpha OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution 0.433333 0.946409 OS 2: Use data-driven decision-making practices to plan strategically 0.467440 0.946256 OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community 0.475732 0.946320 OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 0.310370 0.946977 OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets 0.410886 0.946582 OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan 0.557153 0.945729 RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting 0. 446691 0.946349 RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources 0.556547 0.945670 RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan 0.605782 0.945333 RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial st ance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 0.364679 0.947069 RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 0.674394 0.945045 RM 6: Implement a human resources sy stem that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff 0.591185 0.945428

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213 Appendix G (Continued) Table G.2 (Continued) Cronbach coefficient alpha with deleted variable Deleted variable Raw variables Correlation with total Alpha RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 0.565923 0.945604 RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the longterm viability of the organization 0.417863 0.946618 CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences 0.520400 0.945939 CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies 0.668648 0.944869 CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 0.393240 0.946622 CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents 0.521859 0.945917 CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act 0.582399 0.945574 CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 0.493977 0.946125 CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 0.464013 0.946261 CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society 0.506269 0.946131 CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staf f, and community members to work for the common good 0.490215 0.946097 CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college 0.610057 0.945341

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214 Appendix G (Continued) Table G.2 (Continued) Cronbach coefficient alpha with deleted variable Deleted variable Raw variables Correlation with total Alpha CL 5: Work effectively and diplom atically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies 0.561821 0.945646 CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 0.532945 0.945896 CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 0.692157 0.944940 CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 0.550209 0.945710 AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 0.655854 0.945085 AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success throug h teaching and learning 0.641539 0.945058 AD 3: Promote equity, op en access, teaching, lear ning, and innovation as primary goals for the college 0.672908 0.944863 AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 0.437126 0.946407 AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment 0.674998 0.944888 AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education 0.509767 0.945983 PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership 0.571925 0.945574 PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 0.533409 0.945823

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215 Appendix G (Continued) Table G.2 (Continued) Cronbach coefficient alpha with deleted variable Raw variables Deleted variable Correlation with total Alpha PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 0.660720 0.945105 PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others 0.633703 0.945134 PR 5: Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 0.277156 0.947759 PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 0.478778 0.946155 PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 0.752608 0.944272 PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 0.228430 0.947229 PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process and the exchange of knowledge 0.387453 0.946688 PR 10: Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 0.429448 0.946427 PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication 0.420903 0.946884

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216 Appendix H: Responses from Small, Rural Community College Participants on Six AACC Competencies Table H.1. Summary of Responses on Organizational Strategy Competenc y—Small, Rural Community Colleges Organizational strategy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization. 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 11 40.74 16 59.26 27 100.00 4.59 Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically. 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.41 14 51.85 11 40.74 27 100.00 4.33

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217 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.1 (Continued) Organizational strategy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community. 0 0.00 1 3.70 9 33.33 10 37.04 7 25.93 27 100.00 3.85 Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes. 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 18.52 22 81.48 27 100.00 4.81 Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets. 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 11 40.74 15 55.56 27 100.00 4.52

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218 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.1 (Continued) Organizational strategy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Align organizational mission, structures, and re sources with the college master plan. 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 10 37.04 16 59.26 27 100.00 4.56 Total 0 0.00 1 0.62 13 8.02 61 37.65 87 53.70 162 100.00 4.44

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219 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.2. Summary of Responses on Resource Management Competency—S mall, Rural Community Colleges Resource management Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Ensure accountability in reporting 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 10 37.04 16 59.26 27 100.00 4.56 Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases 0 0.00 0 0.00 6 22.22 15 55.56 6 22.22 27 100.00 4.00 Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent with the college master plan and local, state, and national policies 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.41 17 62.96 8 29.63 27 100.00 4.22 Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.41 14 51.85 11 40.74 27 100.00 4.33

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220 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.2 (Continued) Resource management Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 11 40.74 16 59.26 27 100.00 4.59 Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward, and performance management systems and that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 14 51.85 12 44.44 27 100.00 4.41 Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 18.52 15 55.56 7 25.93 27 100.00 4.07

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221 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.2 (Continued) Resource management Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization. 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 11.11 10 37.04 14 51.85 27 100.00 4.41 Total 0 0.00 0 0.00 20 9.26 106 49.07 90 41.67 216 100.00 4.32

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222 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.3. Summary of Responses on Communication Competency—S mall, Rural Community Colleges Communication Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 8 29.63 18 66.67 27 100.00 4.63 Disseminate and support policies and strategies 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 11.11 16 59.26 8 29.63 27 100.00 4.19 Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 10 38.46 16 61.54 26 100.00 4.62

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223 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.3 (Continued) Communication Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and stakeholders 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 17 62.96 9 33.33 27 100.00 4.30 Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 11 40.74 16 59.26 27 100.00 4.59 Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 25.93 20 74.07 27 100.00 4.74 Total 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 3.11 69 42.86 87 54.04 161 100.00 4.51

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224 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.4. Summary of Responses on Collaboration Competency—Sma ll, Rural Community Colleges Collaboration Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.41 17 62.96 8 29.63 27 100.00 4.22 Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society 0 0.00 1 3.70 9 33.33 13 48.15 4 14.81 27 100.00 3.74 Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.69 13 50.00 11 42.31 26 100.00 4.35 Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 16 59.26 10 37.04 27 100.00 4.33

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225 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.4 (Continued) Collaboration Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups, such as legislators, board members, business leaders, accreditation organizations, and others 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.41 6 22.22 19 70.37 27 100.00 4.63 Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 18 66.67 9 33.33 27 100.00 4.33 Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 46.15 14 53.85 26 100.00 4.54 Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 11.11 11 40.74 13 48.15 27 100.00 4.37 Total 0 0.00 1 0.47 19 8.88 106 49.53 88 41.12 214 100.00 4.31

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226 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.5. Summary of Responses on Community College Advocacy Competency—Small, Rural Community Colleges Community college advocacy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 15 55.56 12 44.44 27 100.00 4.44 Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.41 6 22.22 19 70.37 27 100.00 4.63 Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college, seeking to understand how these change over time, and facilitating discussion with all stakeholders 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 16 59.26 10 37.04 27 100.00 4.33

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227 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.5 (Continued) Community college advocacy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Advocate the comm unity college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.41 9 33.33 16 59.26 27 100.00 4.52 Advance lifelong learning and support a learner-centered and learningcentered environment 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.41 12 44.44 13 48.15 27 100.00 4.41 Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in international settings 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 9 33.33 17 62.96 27 100.00 4.59 Total 0 0.00 0 0.00 8 4.94 67 41.36 87 53.70 162 100.00 4.49

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228 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.6. Summary of Responses on Professionalism Competency—S mall, Rural Community Colleges Professionalism Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Demonstrate transformational leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 9 33.33 17 62.96 27 100.00 4.59 Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 14 51.85 12 44.44 27 100.00 4.41 Self-assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 16 59.26 10 37.04 27 100.00 4.33 Support lifelong learning for self and others 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 14.81 14 51.85 9 33.33 27 100.00 4.19

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229 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.6 (Continued) Professionalism Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 0 0.00 1 3.70 4 14.81 15 55.56 7 25.93 27 100.00 4.04 Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 7 25.93 19 70.37 27 100.00 4.67 Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 18.52 13 48.15 9 33.33 27 100.00 4.15 Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 7.41 25 92.59 27 100.00 4.93

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230 Appendix H (Continued) Table H.6 (Continued) Professionalism Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process and the exchange of knowledge 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 3.70 18 66.67 8 29.63 27 100.00 4.26 Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 19 70.37 8 29.63 27 100.00 4.3 Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication 0 0.00 1 3.70 11 40.74 10 37.04 5 18.52 27 100.00 3.7 Total 0 0.00 2 0.67 29 9.76 137 46.13 129 43.43 297 100.00 4.32

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231 Appendix I: Responses from Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community College Particip ants on AACC Competencies Table I.1. Summary of Responses on Orga nizational Strategy Competency—Large, Ur ban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges Organizational strategy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 30.43 16 69.57 23 100.00 4.70 Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 6 26.09 15 65.22 23 100.00 4.57

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232 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.1 (Continued) Organizational strategy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, changing demographics, and the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 14 60.87 8 34.78 23 100.00 4.30 Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 30.43 16 69.57 23 100.00 4.70 Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 14 60.87 7 30.43 23 100.00 4.22

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233 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.1 (Continued) Organizational strategy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Align organizational mission, structures, and re sources with the college master plan 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 30.43 16 69.57 23 100.00 4.70 Total 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 3.62 55 39.86 78 56.52 138 100.00 4.53

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234 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.2. Summary of Responses on Re source Management Competency—Large, Ur ban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges Resource management Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Ensure accountability in reporting 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 13 56.52 9 39.13 23 100.00 4.35 Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 16 69.57 5 21.74 23 100.00 4.13 Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent with the college master plan and local, state, and national policies 0 0.00 1 4.35 0 0.00 11 47.83 11 47.83 23 100.00 4.39 Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 0 0.00 1 4.35 2 8.70 15 65.22 5 21.74 23 100.00 4.04

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235 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.2 (Continued) Resource management Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 12 52.17 10 43.48 23 100.0 4.39 Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward, and performance management systems and that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff 0 0.00 1 4.35 2 8.70 11 47.83 9 39.13 23 100.00 4.22 Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 0 0.00 1 4.35 0 0.00 16 69.57 6 26.09 23 100.00 4.17

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236 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.2 (Continued) Resource management Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 12 52.17 10 43.48 23 100.00 4.39 Total 0 0.00 4 2.17 9 4.89 106 57.61 65 35.33 184 100.00 4.26

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237 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.3. Summary of Responses on Communication Competency—Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges Communication Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 30.43 16 69.57 23 100.00 4.7 Disseminate and support policies and strategies 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 21.74 10 43.48 8 34.78 23 100.00 4.13 Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 5 21.74 17 73.91 23 100.00 4.7

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238 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.3 (Continued) Communication Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and stakeholders 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 10 43.48 13 56.52 23 100.00 4.57 Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 9 39.13 13 56.52 23 100.00 4.52 Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 8 34.78 15 65.22 23 100.00 4.65 Total 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 5.07 49 35.51 82 59.42 138 100.00 4.54

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239 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.4. Summary of Responses on Collaboration Competency—Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges Collaborations Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 11 47.83 10 43.48 23 100.00 4.35 Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 17.39 12 52.17 7 30.43 23 100.00 4.13 Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community memb ers to work for the common good 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 13 56.52 8 34.78 23 100.00 4.26 Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 10 43.48 11 47.83 23 100.00 4.39

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240 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.4 (Continued) Collaborations Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups such as legislators, board members, business leaders, accreditation organizations, and others 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 5 21.74 17 73.91 23 100.00 4.7 Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 52.17 11 47.83 23 100.00 4.48 Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 9 39.13 13 56.52 23 100.00% 4.52 Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 14 60.87 7 30.43 23 100.00 4.22 Total 0 0.00 0 0.00 14 7.61 86 46.74 84 45.65 184 100.00 4.38

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241 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.5. Summary of Responses on Community College A dvocacy Competency—Large, Urban, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges Community college advocacy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 8 34.78 13 56.52 23 100.00 4.48 Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning 0 0.00 1 4.55 1 4.55 5 22.73 15 68.18 22 100.00 4.55

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242 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.5 (Continued) Community college advocacy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college, seeking to understand how these change over time and facilitating discussion with all stakeholders 0 0.00 1 4.35 1 4.35 9 39.13 12 52.17 23 100.00 4.39 Advocate the comm unity college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 10 43.48 13 56.52 23 100.00 4.57 Advance lifelong learning and support a learner-centered and learningcentered environment 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 12 52.17 9 39.13 23 100.00 4.3

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243 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.5 (Continued) Community college advocacy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in international settings 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 10 43.48 13 56.52 23 100.00 4.57 Total 0 0.00 2 1.46 6 4.38 54 39.42 75 54.74 137 100.00 4.47

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244 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.6. Summary of Responses on Pr ofessionalism Competency—Large, Urba n, Multiple-Campus Community Colleges Professionalism Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Demonstrate transformational leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 7 30.43 14 60.87 23 100.00 4.52 Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 8.70 13 56.52 8 34.78 23 100.00 4.26 Self-assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 14 60.87 8 34.78 23 100.00 4.3 Support lifelong learning for self and others 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 13.04 13 56.52 7 30.43 23 100.00 4.17

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245 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.6 (Continued) Professionalism Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 10 43.48 12 52.17 23 100.00 4.48 Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 5 21.74 17 73.91 23 100.00 4.7 Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 9.09 12 54.55 8 36.36 22 100.00 4.27 Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.55 21 95.45 22 100.00 4.95

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246 Appendix I (Continued) Table I.6 (Continued) Professionalism Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process and the exchange of knowledge 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 10 43.48 12 52.17 23 100.00 4.48 Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 4.35 16 69.57 6 26.09 23 100.00 4.22 Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 31.82 10 45.45 5 22.73 22 100.00 3.91 Total 0 0.00 0 0.00 21 8.40 111 44.40 118 47.20 250 100.00 4.39

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247 Appendix J: Experiences Perceived to Contribute to Competency Development Figure J.1. Comparison of percentages of re sponses on experiences that contribute to organizational strategy co mpetency development. 0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%16%18%20% From previous military experience From previous government experience Personal Reflection, Journaling In House Programs Hardship From previous business experience Feedback Mentor/Coaching Workshops Networking with colleagues Challenging job assignments Graduate Programs Progressive adm responsibilities within the CC Overall Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College Small Rural, Community College

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248 Appendix J (Continued) Figure J.2. Comparison of percentages of re sponses on experiences that contribute to resource management competency development. 0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%16%18%20% From previous military experience Personal Reflection, Journaling From previous government experience In House Programs Mentor/Coaching From previous business experience Feedback Networking with colleagues Graduate Programs Workshops Hardship Progressive adm responsibilities within the CC Challenging job assignments Overall Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College Small Rural, Community College

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249 Appendix J (Continued) Figure J.3. Comparison on percentages of resp onses on experiences that contribute to communication competency development. 0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%16%18%20% From previous government experience From previous military experience From previous business experience In House Programs Personal Reflection, Journaling Workshops Graduate Programs Mentor/Coaching Networking with colleagues Feedback Progressive adm responsibilities within the CC Hardship Challenging job assignments Overall Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College Small Rural, Community College

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250 Appendix J (Continued) Figure J.4. Comparison of percentages of re sponses on experiences that contribute to collaboration competency development. 0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%16% From previous government experience From previous military experience From previous business experience Personal Reflection, Journaling Workshops Graduate Programs In House Programs Hardship Mentor/Coaching Feedback Progressive adm responsibilities within the CC Networking with colleagues Challenging job assignments Overall Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College Small Rural, Community College

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251 Appendix J (Continued) Figure J.5. Comparison of percentages of re sponses on experiences that contribute to community college advocacy competency development. 0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%16%18%20% From previous military experience From previous government experience Hardship From previous business experience Personal Reflection, Journaling Feedback In House Programs Mentor/Coaching Challenging job assignments Graduate Programs Networking with colleagues Workshops Progressive adm responsibilities within the CC Overall Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College Small Rural, Community College

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252 Appendix J (Continued) Figure J.6. Comparison of percentages of re sponses on experiences that contribute to professionalism competency development. 0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14% From previous government experience From previous military experience From previous business experience In House Programs Personal Reflection, Journaling Networking with colleagues Feedback Workshops Graduate Programs Mentor/Coaching Hardship Progressive adm responsibilities within the CC Challenging job assignments Overall Large Urban, Multi Campus Community College Small Rural, Community College

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253 Appendix K: Comparison of Respon ses (by Mean) Between Leaders of Small and Large Community Colleges Figure K.1. Comparison of means of responses for di mensions in organizational strategy competency. 3.85 4.52 4.33 4.56 4.59 4.81 4.30 4.22 4.57 4.70 4.70 4.70 4.06 4.38 4.44 4.62 4.64 4.76 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community. Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets. Use data driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically. Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan. Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long term health of the organization. Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes. Mean Overall Large Small

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254 Appendix K (Continued) Figure K.2. Comparison of means of responses for di mensions in resource management competency. 4.00 4.07 4.33 4.22 4.41 4.41 4.56 4.59 4.13 4.17 4.04 4.39 4.22 4.39 4.35 4.39 4.06 4.12 4.20 4.30 4.32 4.40 4.46 4.50 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.70 Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of … Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills. Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources. Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent … Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward, and performance management … Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long term viability of the organization. Ensure accountability in reporting. Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities. Mean Overall Large Small

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255 Appendix K (Continued) Figure K.3. Comparison of means of responses fo r dimensions in communication competency. 4.19 4.30 4.59 4.62 4.63 4.74 4.13 4.57 4.52 4.70 4.70 4.65 4.16 4.42 4.56 4.65 4.66 4.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.70 4.80 Disseminate and support policies and strategies. Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and … Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act. Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations. Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience. Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully. Mean Overall Large Small

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256 Appendix K (Continued) Figure K.4. Comparison of means of responses fo r dimensions in collaboration competency. 3.74 4.22 4.37 4.35 4.33 4.33 4.54 4.63 4.13 4.35 4.22 4.26 4.39 4.48 4.52 4.70 3.92 4.28 4.30 4.31 4.36 4.40 4.53 4.66 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society. Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles. Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making. Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the … Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college. Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships. Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation. Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups such as legislators, board members, … Mean Overall Large Small

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257 Appendix K (Continued) Figure K.5. Comparison of means of responses for dime nsions in community college advocacy competency. 4.33 4.41 4.44 4.52 4.59 4.63 4.39 4.30 4.48 4.57 4.57 4.55 4.36 4.36 4.46 4.54 4.58 4.59 4.10 4.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.70 Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college seeking to understand how these change over time and facilitating … Advance lifelong learning and support a learner centered and learning centered environment. Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence. Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same. Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that … Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning. Mean Overall Large Small

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258 Appendix K (Continued) Figure K.6. Comparison of means of responses fo r dimensions in professionalism competency. 3.70 4.19 4.15 4.04 4.30 4.33 4.41 4.26 4.59 4.67 4.93 3.91 4.17 4.27 4.48 4.22 4.30 4.26 4.48 4.52 4.70 4.95 3.80 4.18 4.20 4.24 4.26 4.32 4.34 4.36 4.56 4.68 4.94 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and … Support lifelong learning for self and others. Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others. Manage stress through self care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor. Weigh short term and long term goals in decision making.Self assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation. Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college. Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching—learning process and the exchange of knowledge. Demonstrate transformational leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision. Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility. Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people.Mean Overall Large Small

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259 Appendix L: SAS Output for t Tests Table L.1. Summary of Shapiro-Wilk Norma lity Test Statistics for Each Dimension— Comparison Between Types of Community Colleges Dimension Small community colleges Large community colleges W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution 0.626218 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.581845 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically 0.760682 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.671538 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community 0.859417 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.724371 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 0.475896 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.581845 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets 0.707888 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.759778 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan 0.693453 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.581845 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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260 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.1 (Continued) Dimension Small community colleges Large community colleges W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting 0.693453 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.733058 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources 0.802403 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.722078 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan 0.74312 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.693945 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 0.760682 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.764109 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 0.626218 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.735962 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 6: Implement a human resources system that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff 0.726354 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.794303 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 0.800009 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.655928 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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261 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.1 (Continued) Dimension Small community colleges Large community colleges W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 0.750423 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.735962 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences 0.651022 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.581845 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies 0.77318 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.808583 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 0.619395 pr < W <0.0001 Not normal 0.592172 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents 0.707908 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.633658 pr < W <0.0001 Not normal CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act 0.626218 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.711154 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 0.548735 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.60538 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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262 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.1 (Continued) Dimension Small community colleges Large community colleges W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 0.74312 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.768338 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society 0.855376 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.804112 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 0.762357 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.768461 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college 0.718321 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.760039 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies 0.625504 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.592172 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 0.597182 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.639172 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 0.636852 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.711154 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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263 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.1 (Continued) Dimension Small community colleges Large community colleges W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 0.763984 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.759778 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 0.634284 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.727177 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning 0.625504 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.631845 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 3: Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college 0.718321 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.730354 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 0.708221 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.633658 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment 0.751696 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.771203 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education 0.674598 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.633658 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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264 Appendix L (Continued) Appendix L.1 (Continued) Dimension Small community colleges Large community colleges W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership 0.674598 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.702345 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 0.726354 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.768461 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 0.718321 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.724371 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others 0.795785 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.787814 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 5: Manage stress through selfcare, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 0.82353 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.725033 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 0.622313 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.592172 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 0.80503 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.773393 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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265 Appendix L (Continued) Appendix L.1 (Continued) Dimension Small community colleges Large community colleges W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 0.293827 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.221473 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teachinglearning process & the exchange of knowledge 0.692885 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.725033 Pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 10: Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 0.575617 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.687964 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/ publication 0.853874 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.812737 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal Note. Conc. = Conclusion.

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266 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.2. Summary of Shapiro-Wilk Norma lity Test Statistics for Each Variable— Comparison Between Types of Community Colleges Variable Small community colleges Large community colleges W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* Organizational strategy 0.943979 pr < W < 0.1527 Normal 0.912387 pr < W < 0.0459 Not normal Resource management 0.953359 pr < W < 0.2584 Normal 0.907142 pr < W < 0.0356 Not normal Communication 0.91446 pr < W < 0.0291 Not normal 0.925027 pr < W < 0.0854 Normal Collaboration 0.958933 pr < W < 0.3494 Normal 0.94909 pr < W < 0.2802 Normal Community college advocacy 0.9241 pr < W < 0.0496 Not normal 0.875202 pr < W < 0.0081 Not normal Professionalism 0.97486 pr < W < 0.7327 Normal 0.948603 pr < W < 0.2737 Normal

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267 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.3. Summary of Folded F Test Statistics for Each Dimension—Comparison Between Two Types of Community Colleges Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution Folded F 26 22 1.13 0.7727 Homogen OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically Folded F 22 26 1.14 0.7415 Homogen OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community Folded F 26 22 2.39 0.0415 Not Homogen OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes Folded F 22 26 1.41 0.3966 Homogen OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets Folded F 22 26 1.07 0.8612 Homogen OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and re sources with the college master plan Folded F 26 22 1.51 0.3327 Homogen RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting Folded F 26 22 1.02 0.9784 Homogen RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources Folded F 26 22 1.54 0.3096 Homogen RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan Folded F 22 26 1.57 0.2731 Homogen

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268 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources Folded F 22 26 1.29 0.5241 Homogen RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities Folded F 22 26 1.36 0.4542 Homogen RM 6: Implement a human resources system that fosters the professional development and adv of all staff Folded F 22 26 1.93 0.1095 Homogen RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills Folded F 26 22 1.08 0.8655 Homogen RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization Folded F 26 22 1.42 0.4102 Homogen CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences Folded F 26 22 1.44 0.3869 Homogen CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies Folded F 22 26 1.48 0.3374 Homogen CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations Folded F 22 25 1.27 0.5627 Homogen

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269 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents Folded F 26 22 1.14 0.7573 Homogen CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act Folded F 22 26 1.40 0.4057 Homogen CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully Folded F 22 26 1.19 0.6667 Homogen CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles Folded F 22 26 1.26 0.5721 Homogen CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society Folded F 26 22 1.21 0.6529 Homogen CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community memb ers to work for the common good Folded F 25 22 1.03 0.9483 Homogen CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college Folded F 22 26 1.40 0.4085 Homogen CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies Folded F 26 22 1.27 0.5755 Homogen

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270 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships Folded F 22 26 1.13 0.7581 Homogen CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation Folded F 22 25 1.36 0.4547 Homogen CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making Folded F 26 22 1.31 0.5181 Homogen AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence Folded F 22 26 1.73 0.1827 Homogen AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success thro ugh teaching and learning Folded F 21 26 1.62 0.2435 Homogen AD 3: Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college Folded F 22 26 1.99 0.0940 Homogen AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same Folded F 26 22 1.61 0.2613 Homogen AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment Folded F 26 22 1.00 1.0000 Homogen

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271 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education Folded F 26 22 1.28 0.5665 Homogen PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership Folded F 22 26 1.35 0.4592 Homogen PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college Folded F 22 26 1.17 0.6952 Homogen PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation Folded F 22 26 1.01 0.9625 Homogen PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others Folded F 26 22 1.10 0.8304 Homogen PR 5: Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor Folded F 26 22 1.64 0.2445 Homogen PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility Folded F 22 26 1.01 0.9625 Homogen PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others Folded F 26 21 1.29 0.5501 Homogen

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272 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people Folded F 26 21 1.57 0.2967 Homogen PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process and the exchange of knowledge Folded F 22 26 1.27 0.5514 Homogen PR 10: Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making Folded F 22 26 1.24 0.5929 Homogen PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/ publication Folded F 26 21 1.20 0.6688 Homogen Note. Num. df = numerical degrees of freedom. ** Den. df = Denominator degrees of freedom. *** Conc. = conclusions.

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273 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.4. Summary of Folded F Test Statistics for Each Variable—Comparison Between Two Types of Community Colleges Variable Method Num. df* Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** Organizational strategy Folded F 22 26 1.11 0.7921 Homogen Resource management Folded F 22 26 1.39 0.4181 Homogen Communication Folded F 26 22 2.16 0.7257 Homogen Collaboration Folded F 22 26 1.11 0.7994 Homogen Community college advocacy Folded F 22 26 1.47 0.3421 Homogen Professionalism Folded F 22 26 1.11 0.7882 Homogen Note. Num. df = numerical degrees of freedom. ** Den. df = Denominator degrees of freedom. *** Conc. = conclusions.

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274 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.5. Summary of Means Differences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Organizational Strategy Competency Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** OS 1 1 27 4.5926 0.5007 0.0964 4.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.6957 0.4705 0.0981 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1031 0.4871 0.1382 OS 2 1 27 4.3333 0.6202 0.1194 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.5652 0.6624 0.1381 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2319 0.6399 0.1816 OS 3 1 27 3.8519 0.8640 0.1663 2.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.3043 0.5588 0.1165 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.4525 0.7399 0.2099 OS 4 1 27 4.8148 0.3958 0.0762 4.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.6957 0.4705 0.0981 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.1192 0.4317 0.1225 OS 5 1 27 4.5185 0.5798 0.1116 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.2174 0.5997 0.1251 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.3011 0.5890 0.1671 OS 6 1 27 4.5556 0.5774 0.1111 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.6957 0.4705 0.0981 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1401 0.5310 0.1507 Note. CC type = community college type: 1 = sm all, rural; 2 = larg e, urban. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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275 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.6. Summary of Means Differences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Resource Management Competency Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** RM 1 1 27 4.5556 0.5774 0.1111 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.3478 0.5728 0.1194 3.000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.2077 0.5753 0.1632 RM 2 1 27 4.0000 0.6794 0.1307 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.1304 0.5481 0.1143 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1304 0.6226 0.1767 RM 3 1 27 4.2222 0.5774 0.1111 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.3913 0.7223 0.1506 2.0000 5.000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1691 0.6478 0.1838 RM 4 1 27 4.3333 0.6202 0.1194 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.0435 0.7057 0.1472 2.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.2899 0.6608 0.1875 RM 5 1 27 4.5926 0.5007 0.0964 4.000 5.0000 2 23 4.3913 0.5830 0.1216 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.2013 0.5400 0.1532 RM 6 1 27 4.4074 0.5724 0.1102 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.2174 0.7952 0.1658 2.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.1900 0.6836 0.1940 RM 7 1 27 4.0741 0.6752 0.1299 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.1739 0.6503 0.1356 2.0000 5.000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0998 0.6639 0.1884

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276 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.6 (Continued) Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** RM 8 1 27 4.4074 0.6939 0.1335 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.3913 0.5830 0.1216 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0161 0.6454 0.1831 Note. CC type = community college type: 1 = sm all, rural; 2 = larg e, urban. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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277 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.7. Summary of Means Differences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Communication Competency Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** CM 1 1 27 4.6296 0.5649 0.1087 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.6957 0.4705 0.0981 4.000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0660 0.5237 0.1486 CM 2 1 27 4.1852 0.6225 0.1198 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.1304 0.7570 0.1579 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1–2) 0.0548 0.6874 0.1951 CM 3 1 26 4.6154 0.4961 0.0973 4.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.6957 0.5588 0.1165 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0803 0.5264 0.1507 CM 4 1 27 4.2963 0.5417 0.1043 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.5652 0.5069 0.1057 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2689 0.5260 0.1493 CM 5 1 27 4.5926 0.5007 0.0964 4.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.5217 0.5931 0.1237 3.0000 5.000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0709 0.5450 0.1546 CM 6 1 27 4.7407 0.4466 0.0859 4.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.6522 0.4870 0.1015 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0886 0.4655 0.1321 Note. CC type = community college type: 1 = sm all, rural; 2 = larg e, urban. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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278 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.8. Summary of Means Differences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Collaboration Competency Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** CL 1 1 27 4.2222 0.5774 0.1111 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.3478 0.6473 0.1350 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1256 0.6104 0.1732 CL 2 1 27 3.7407 0.7642 0.1471 2.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.1304 0.6944 0.1448 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.3897 0.7331 0.2080 CL 3 1 26 4.3462 0.6288 0.1233 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.2609 0.6192 0.1291 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0853 0.6243 0.1787 CL 4 1 27 4.3333 0.5547 0.1068 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.3913 0.6564 0.1369 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0580 0.6034 0.1712 CL 5 1 27 4.6296 0.6293 0.1211 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.6957 0.5588 0.1165 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0660 0.5980 0.1697 CL 6 1 27 4.3333 0.4804 0.0925 4.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.4783 0.5108 0.1065 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1449 0.4945 0.1403 CL 7 1 26 4.5385 0.5084 0.0997 4.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.5217 0.5931 0.1237 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0167 0.5497 0.1573

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279 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.8 (Continued) Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** CL 8 1 27 4.3704 0.6877 0.1323 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.2174 0.5997 0.1251 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.1530 0.6489 0.1841 Note. CC type = community college type: 1 = sm all, rural; 2 = larg e, urban. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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280 Table L.9. Summary of Means Differences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Community College Advocacy Competency Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** AD 1 1 27 4.3704 0.6877 0.1323 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.2174 0.5997 0.1251 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.1530 0.6489 0.1841 AD 2 1 27 4.6296 0.6293 0.1211 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5455 0.8004 0.1707 2.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0842 0.7109 0.2042 AD 3 1 27 4.3333 0.5547 0.1068 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.3913 0.7827 0.1632 2.0000 5.000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0580 0.6689 0.1898 AD 4 1 27 4.5185 0.6427 0.1237 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.5652 0.5069 0.1057 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0467 0.5844 0.1658 AD 5 1 27 4.4074 0.6360 0.1224 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.3043 0.6350 0.1324 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.1031 0.6355 0.1803 AD 6 1 27 4.5926 0.5724 0.1102 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.562 0.5069 0.1057 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0274 0.5433 0.1542 Note. CC type = community college type: 1 = sm all, rural; 2 = larg e, urban. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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281 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.10. Summary of Mean s Differences Between the Two Types of Community Colleges—Professionalism Competency Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** PR 1 1 27 4.5926 0.5724 0.1102 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.5217 0.6653 0.1387 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0709 0.6167 0.1750 PR 2 1 27 4.4074 0.5724 0.1102 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.2609 0.6192 0.1291 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.1465 0.5943 0.1686 PR 3 1 27 4.3333 0.5547 0.1068 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.3043 0.5588 0.1165 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0290 0.5566 0.1579 PR 4 1 27 4.1852 0.6815 0.1311 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.1739 0.6503 0.1356 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0113 0.6674 0.1894 PR 5 1 27 4.0370 0.7586 0.1460 2.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.4783 0.5931 0.1237 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.4412 0.6877 0.1951 PR 6 1 27 4.6667 0.5547 0.1068 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.6957 0.5588 0.1165 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0290 0.5566 0.1579 PR 7 1 27 4.1481 0.7181 0.1382 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.2727 0.6311 0.1345 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1246 0.6806 0.1955

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282 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.10 (Continued) Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** PR 8 1 27 4.9259 0.2669 0.0514 4.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.9545 0.2132 0.0455 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0286 0.2444 0.0702 PR 9 1 27 4.2593 0.5257 0.1012 3.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.4783 0.5931 0.1237 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2190 0.5576 0.1582 PR 10 1 27 4.2963 0.4653 0.0896 4.0000 5.0000 2 23 4.2174 0.5184 0.1081 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0789 0.4904 0.1391 PR 11 1 27 3.7037 0.8234 0.1585 2.0000 5.0000 2 22 3.9091 0.7502 0.1599 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2054 0.7915 0.2273 Note. CC type = community college type: 1 = sm all, rural; 2 = larg e, urban. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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283 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.11. Summary of Differe nces (by Means) Between the Two Types of Community Colleges Dimension CC type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** Organizational strategy 1 27 4.4444 0.3428 0.0660 3.8333 5.0000 2 23 4.5290 0.3612 0.0753 3.6667 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0845 0.3513 0.0997 Resource management 1 27 4.3241 0.3926 0.0756 3.6250 5.0000 2 23 4.2609 0.4630 0.0965 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0632 0.4263 0.1210 Communication 1 27 4.5062 0.3683 0.0709 3.8333 5.0000 2 23 4.5435 0.3416 0.0712 3.5557 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0373 0.3563 0.1011 Collaboration 1 27 4.3117 0.3967 0.0763 3.6250 5.0000 2 23 4.3804 0.4171 0.0870 3.3750 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0687 0.4062 0.1153 Community college advocacy 1 27 4.4877 0.4133 0.0795 3.3333 5.0000 2 23 4.4710 0.5016 0.1046 3.1667 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0166 0.4559 0.1294 Professionalism 1 27 4.3232 0.3451 0.0664 3.6364 5.0000 2 23 4.3866 0.3639 0.0759 3.8182 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0633 0.3539 0.1004 Note. CC type = community college type: 1 = sm all, rural; 2 = larg e, urban. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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284 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.12. Summary of tTest Statistics for Each Dimension—Comparison Between Two Types of Community Colleges Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution Pooled Equal 48 -0.75 0.4595 NS OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically Pooled Equal 48 -1.28 0.2077 NS OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community Satterthwaite Unequal 45 -2.23 0.0309 Significant OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes Pooled Equal 48 0.97 0.3355 NS OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets Pooled Equal 48 1.80 0.0779 NS OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and re sources with the college master plan Pooled Equal 48 -0.93 0.3572 NS RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting Pooled Equal 48 1.27 0.2093 NS RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources Pooled Equal 48 -0.74 0.4639 NS

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285 Appendix L (Continued) Table L. 12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan Pooled Equal 48 -0.92 0.3623 NS RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources Pooled Equal 48 1.55 0.1287 NS RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities Pooled Equal 48 1.31 0.1952 NS RM 6: Implement a human resources system that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff Pooled Equal 48 0.98 0.3322 NS RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills Pooled Equal 48 -0.53 0.5986 NS RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization Pooled Equal 48 0.09 0.9303 NS CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences Pooled Equal 48 -0.44 0.6588 NS

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286 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies Pooled Equal 48 0.28 0.7802 NS CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations Pooled Equal 47 -0.53 0.5968 NS CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents Pooled Equal 48 -1.80 0.0779 NS CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act Pooled Equal 48 0.46 0.6489 NS CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully Pooled Equal 48 0.67 0.5058 NS CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles Pooled Equal 48 -0.73 0.4719 NS CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society Pooled Equal 48 -1.87 0.0671 NS CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community memb ers to work for the common good Pooled Equal 47 0.48 0.6354 NS CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college Pooled Equal 48 -0.34 0.7364 NS

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287 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies Pooled Equal 48 -0.39 0.6989 NS CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships Pooled Equal 48 -1.03 0.3069 NS CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation Pooled Equal 47 0.11 0.9158 NS CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making Pooled Equal 48 0.83 0.4102 NS AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence Pooled Equal 48 -0.20 0.8393 NS AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning Pooled Equal 47 0.41 0.6820 NS AD 3: Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college Pooled Equal 48 -0.31 0.7614 NS AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same Pooled Equal 48 -0.28 0.7794 NS

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288 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment Pooled Equal 48 0.57 0.5703 NS AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education Pooled Equal 48 0.18 0.8598 NS PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership Pooled Equal 48 0.40 0.6874 NS PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college Pooled Equal 48 0.87 0.3892 NS PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation Pooled Equal 48 0.18 0.8552 NS PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others Pooled Equal 48 0.06 0.9528 NS PR 5: Manage stress through selfcare, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor Pooled Equal 48 -2.26 0.0283 Significant PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept resp onsibility Pooled Equal 48 -0.18 0.8552 NS

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289 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others Pooled Equal 47 -0.64 0.5270 NS PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people Pooled Equal 47 -0.41 0.6853 NS PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teachinglearning process and the exchange of knowledge Pooled Equal 48 -1.38 0.1727 NS PR 10: Weigh short-term and longterm goals in decision making Pooled Equal 48 0.57 0.5733 NS PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and re search/publication Pooled Equal 47 -0.90 0.3709 NS Note. Conc. = conclusions.

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290 Appendix L (Continued) Table L.13. Summary of t -Test Statistics for Each Variable– Comparison between Two Types of Community Colleges Variable Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* Organizational strategy Pooled Equal 48 -0.85 0.4006 NS Resource management Pooled Equal 48 0.52 0.6037 NS Communication Pooled Equal 48 -0.37 0.7138 NS Collaboration Pooled Equal 48 -0.60 0.5539 NS Community College advocacy Pooled Equal 48 0.13 0.8982 NS Professionalism Pooled Equal 48 -0.63 0.5312 NS Note. Conc. = conclusions.

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291 Appendix M: Overall Responses from Both Types of Co mmunity Colleges Participan ts on Six Competencies Table M.1. Summary of Overall Responses on Organizational Strategy Competency Organizational strategy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Assess, develop, implement, and evaluate strategies regularly to monitor and improve the quality of education and the long-term health of the organization 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 18 36.00 32 64.00 50 100.00 4.64 Use data-driven evidence and proven practices from internal and external stakeholders to solve problems, make decisions, and plan strategically 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 8.00 20 40.00 26 52.00 50 100.00 4.44

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292 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.1 (Continued) Organizational strategy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the culture of the organization, to changing demographics, and to the economic, political, and public health needs of students and the community 0 0.00 1 2.00 10 20.00 24 48.00 15 30.0% 50 100.0 4.06 Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 24.00 38 76.00 50 100.0 4.76 Maintain and grow college personnel and fiscal resources and assets 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 6.00 25 50.00 22 44.00 50 100.00 4.38

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293 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.1 (Continued) Organizational strategy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Align organizational mission, structures, and re sources with the college master plan 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.00 17 34.00 32 64.00 50 100.00 4.62 Total 0 0.00 1 0.33 18 6.00 116 38.67 165 55.00 300 100.00 4.48

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294 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.2. Overall Summary of Responses on Resource Management Competency Resource management Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Ensure accountability in reporting 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 4.00 23 46.00 25 50.00 50 100.00 4.46 Support operational decisions by managing information resources and ensuring the integrity and integration of reporting systems and databases 0 0.00 0 0.00 8 16.00 31 62.00 11 22.00 50 100.00 4.06 Develop and manage resource assessment, planning, budgeting, acquisition, and allocation processes consistent with the college master plan and local, state, and national policies 0 0.00 1 2.00 2 4.00 28 56.00 19 38.00 50 100.00 4.30

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295 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.2 (Continued) Resource management Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 0 0.00 1 2.00 4 8.00 29 58.00 16 32.00 50 100.00 4.20 Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.00 23 46.00 26 52.00 50 100.00 4.50 Implement a human resources system that includes recruitment, hiring, reward, and performance management systems and that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff 0 0.00 1 2.00 3 6.00 25 50.00 21 42.00 50 100.00 4.32

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296 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.2 (Continued) Resource management Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 0 0.00 1 2.00 5 10.00 31 62.00 13 26.00 50 100.00 4.12 Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 8.00 22 44.00 24 48.00 50 100.00 4.40 Total 0 0.00 4 1.33 19 6.33 158 52.67 119 39.67 300 100.00 4.31

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297 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.3. Overall Summary of Res ponses on Communication Competency Communication Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences, appropriately matching message to audience 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.00 15 30.00 34 68.00 50 100.00 4.66 Disseminate and support policies and strategies 0 0.00 0 0.00 8 16.00 26 52.00 16 32.00 50 100.00 4.16 Create and maintain open communications regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.04 15 30.61 33 67.35 49 100.00 4.65

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298 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.3 (Continued) Communication Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Convey ideas and information succinctly, frequently, and inclusively through media and verbal and nonverbal means to the board and other constituencies and stakeholders 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.00 27 54.00 22 44.00 50 100.00 4.42 Listen actively to understand, comprehend, analyze, engage, and act 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.00 20 40.00 29 58.00 50 100.00 4.56 Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 15 30.00 35 70.00 50 100.00 4.70 Total 0 0.00 0 0.00 12 4.01 118 39.46 169 56.52 299 100.00 4.53

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299 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.4. Overall Summary of Res ponses on Collaboration Competency Collaboration Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 8.00 28 56.00 18 36.00 50 100.00 4.28 Demonstrate cultural competence relative to a global society 0 0.00 1 2.00 13 26.00 25 50.00 11 22.00 50 100.00 3.92 Catalyze involvement and commitment of students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 8.16 26 53.06 19 38.78 49 100.00 4.31 Build and leverage networks and partnerships to advance the mission, vision, and goals of the community college 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 6.00 26 52.00 21 42.00 50 100.00 4.36

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300 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.4 (Continued) Collaboration Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Work effectively and diplomatically with unique constituent groups such as legislators, board members, business leaders, accreditation organizations, and others 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 6.00 11 22.00 36 72.00 50 100.00 4.66 Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 30 60.00 20 40.00 50 100.00 4.40 Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.04 21 42.86 27 55.10 49 100.00 4.53

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301 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.4 (Continued) Collaboration Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 0 0.00 0 0.00 5 10.00 25 50.00 20 40.00 50 100.00 4.30 Total 0 0.00 0 0.00 16 5.37 139 46.64 143 47.99 298 100.00 4.43

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302 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.5. Overall Summary of Responses on Community College Advocacy Competency Community college advocacy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 4.00 23 46.00 25 50.00 50 100.00 4.46 Demonstrate a passion for and commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through the scholarship of teaching and learning 0 0.00 1 2.04 3 6.12 11 22.45 34 69.39 49 100.00 4.59

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303 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.5 (Continued) Community college advocacy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college, seeking to understand how these change over time and facilitating discussion with all stakeholders 0 0.00 1 2.00 2 4.00 25 50.00 22 44.00 50 100.00 4.36 Advocate the comm unity college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 4.00 19 38.00 29 58.00 50 100.00 4.54 Advance lifelong learning and support a learner-centered and learningcentered environment 0 0.00 0 0.00 4 8.00 24 48.00 22 44.00 50 100.00 4.36

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304 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.5 (Continued) Community college advocacy Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Represent the community college in the local community, in the broader educational community, at various levels of government, and as a model of higher education that can be replicated in international settings 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.00 19 38.00 30 60.00 50 100.00 4.58 Total 0 0.00 2 0.67 14 4.68 121 40.47 162 54.18 299 100.00 4.48

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305 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.6. Overall Summary of Respons es on Professionalism Competency Professionalism Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Demonstrate transformational leadership through authenticity, creativity, and vision. 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 6.00 16 32.00 31 62.00 50 100.00 4.56 Understand and endorse the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college. 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 6.00 27 54.00 20 40.00 50 100.00 4.34 Self-assess performance regularly using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation. 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 4.00 30 60.00 18 36.00 50 100.00 4.32 Support lifelong learning for self and others. 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 14.00 27 54.00 16 32.00 50 100.00 4.18

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306 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.6 (Continued) Professionalism Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor. 0 0.00 1 2.00 5 10.00 25 50.00 19 38.00 50 100.00 4.24 Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility. 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 4.00 12 24.00 36 72.00 50 100.00 4.68 Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others. 0 0.00 0 0.00 7 14.29 25 51.02 17 34.69 49 100.00 4.20 Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people. 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 3 6.12 46 93.88 49 100.00 4.94

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307 Appendix M (Continued) Table M.6 (Continued) Professionalism Reported level of importance Total responses Mean Not Minimally Moderately Very Extremely n % n % n % n % n % N % Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching—learning process and the exchange of knowledge. 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 4.00 28 56.00 20 40.00 50 100.00 4.36 Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making. 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 2.00 35 70.00 14 28.00 50 100.00 4.26 Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication. 0 0.00 1 2.04 18 36.73 20 40.82 10 20.41 49 100.00 3.80 Total 0 0.00 2 0.37 50 9.14 248 45.34 247 45.16 547 100.00 4.35

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308 Appendix N: SAS Output to Te st Differences Between Gender Table N.1. Summary of Shapiro-Wilk Norma lity Test Statistics for Each Dimension— Comparison Between Gender Types Dimension Male Female W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution 0.639002 pr < W < 0.0001 0.473552 pr < W < 0.0001 OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically 0.79796 pr < W < 0.0002 Not normal 0.52227 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community 0.840445 pr < W < 0.0009 Not normal 0.720206 pr < W <0.0001 Not normal OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 0.524251 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.560668 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets 0.728023 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.755736 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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309 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.1 (Continued) Dimension Male Female W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan 0.660794 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.590438 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting 0.762357 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.628123 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources 0.796601 pr < W < 0.0002 Not normal 0.590438 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan 0.785183 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.637219 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 0.780503 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.773393 pr < W < 0.0002 Not normal RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 0.727966 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.612683 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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310 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.1 (Continued) Dimension Male Female W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* RM 6: Implement a human resources system that fosters the professional development and adv of all staff 0.772117 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.737929 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 0.806795 pr < W < 0.0002 Not normal 0.731549 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 0.762357 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.738025 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences 0.683648 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.52227 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies 0.811473 pr < W < 0.0003 Not normal 0.773475 pr < W < 0.0002 Not normal CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities and expectations 0.609368 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.612683 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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311 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.1 (Continued) Dimension Male Female W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents 0.723666 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.640223 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act 0.714791 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.590438 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 0.556767 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.590438 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 0.703722 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.701933 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society 0.849942 pr < W < 0.0014 Not normal 0.773393 pr < W < 0.0002 Not normal CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 0.728504 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.789598 pr < W < 0.0003 Not normal

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312 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.1 (Continued) Dimension Male Female W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college 0.736178 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.677024 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies 0.636371 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.495598 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 0.524251 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.628123 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 0.709573 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.637219 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 0.776865 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.731549 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 0.714736 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.644924 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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313 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.1 (Continued) Dimension Male Female W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning 0.668046 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.568867 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 3: Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college 0.745259 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.7322 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 0.735332 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.628123 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment 0.783373 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.701933 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education 0.639002 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.604824 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership 0.74235 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.52227 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal

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314 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.1 (Continued) Dimension Male Female W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 0.783557 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.637219 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 0.750009 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.637219 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others 0.79992 pr < W < 0.0002 Not normal 0.75376 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 5: Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 0.815388 pr < W < 0.0003 Not normal 0.718629 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 0.598428 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.604824 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 0.790555 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.773548 pr < W < 0.0003 Not normal

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315 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.1 (Continued) Dimension Male Female W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 0.300651 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.221473 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 9 Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process & the exchange of knowledge 0.762357 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.612683 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 10 Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 0.556767 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal 0.698595 pr < W < 0.0001 Not normal PR 11 Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, & research/publication 0.862792 pr < W < 0.0025 Not normal 0.787667 pr < W < 0.0004 Not normal Note. Conc. = conclusions.

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316 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.2. Summary of Shapiro-Wilk Norma lity Test Statistics for Each Variable— Comparison Between Gender Types Variable Male Female W p value Conc.* W p value Conc.* Organizational strategy 0.953341 pr < W < 0.2773 Normal 0.848702 pr < W < 0.0032 Not normal Resource management 0.960489 pr < W < 0.4013 Normal 0.951312 pr < W < 0.3353 Normal Communication 0.938683 pr < W < 0.1249 Normal 0.878264 pr < W < 0.0112 Not normal Collaboration 0.977584 pr < W < 0.8190 Normal 0.924196 pr < W < 0.0929 Normal Community college advocacy 0.88831 pr < W < 0.0087 Not normal 0.829858 pr < W < 0.0015 Not normal Professionalism 0.97824 pr < W < 0.8346 Normal 0.920805 Pr < W 0.0790 Normal Note. Conc. = conclusions.

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317 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.3. Summary of Folded F Test Statistics for Each Dimension—Comparison Between Gender Types Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution Folded F 25 21 1.67 0.2372 Homogen OS 2: Use data-driven decision-making practices to plan strategically Folded F 25 21 2.62 0.0284 Not homogen OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community Folded F 25 21 1.47 0.3741 Homogen OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes Folded F 21 25 1.13 0.7702 Homogen OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets Folded F 21 25 1.36 0.4584 Homogen OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and re sources with the college master plan Folded F 25 21 1.44 0.4039 Homogen RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting Folded F 25 21 1.56 0.3032 Homogen RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources Folded F 25 21 2.00 0.1099 Homogen

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318 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan Folded F 25 21 2.16 0.0769 Homogen RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources Folded F 25 21 1.34 0.4948 Homogen RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities Folded F 25 21 1.38 0.4600 Homogen RM 6: Implement a human resources system that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff Folded F 25 21 1.84 0.1596 Homogen RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills Folded F 25 21 1.61 0.2727 Homogen RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization Folded F 21 25 1.14 0.7493 Homogen CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences Folded F 25 21 1.81 0.1694 Homogen CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies Folded F 25 21 1.24 0.6198 Homogen

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319 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations Folded F 24 21 1.28 0.5729 Homogen CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents Folded F 25 21 1.20 0.6706 Homogen CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act Folded F 25 21 1.50 0.3518 Homogen CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully Folded F 21 25 1.11 0.7943 Homogen CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles Folded F 21 25 1.27 0.5571 Homogen CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society Folded F 25 21 1.39 0.4424 Homogen CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community memb ers to work for the common good Folded F 21 24 1.53 0.3173 Homogen CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college Folded F 21 25 1.08 0.8395 Homogen

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320 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies Folded F 25 21 1.45 0.3865 Homogen CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships Folded F 21 25 1.37 0.4467 Homogen CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation Folded F 24 21 1.32 0.5219 Homogen CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making Folded F 25 21 1.68 0.2313 Homogen AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence Folded F 21 25 1.12 0.7795 Homogen AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success thro ugh teaching and learning Folded F 25 20 2.10 0.0945 Homogen AD 3: Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college Folded F 25 21 1.42 0.4164 Homogen

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321 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same Folded F 25 21 1.65 0.2460 Homogen AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment Folded F 25 21 1.20 0.6820 Homogen AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education Folded F 21 25 1.24 0.6014 Homogen PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership Folded F 25 21 2.68 0.0247 Not homogen PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college Folded F 25 21 1.71 0.2146 Homogen PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation Folded F 25 21 1.33 0.5143 Homogen PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others Folded F 25 21 1.62 0.2641 Homogen PR 5: Manage stress through self-care, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor Folded F 25 21 2.38 0.0473 Not homogen

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322 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.3 (Continued) Dimension Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility Folded F 21 25 1.07 0.8640 Homogen PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others Folded F 20 25 1.25 0.5889 Homogen PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people Folded F 25 21 1.62 0.2622 Homogen PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teaching-learning process and the exchange of knowledge Folded F 25 21 1.63 0.2584 Homogen PR 10: Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making Folded F 21 25 1.36 0.4541 Homogen PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and re search/publication Folded F 20 25 1.03 0.9293 Homogen Note. Num. df = numerical degrees of freedom. ** Den. df = Denominator degrees of freedom. *** Conc. = conclusions.

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323 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.4. Summary of Folded I Test Statis tics for Each Variable—Comparison Between Gender Types Variable Method Num. df Den. df** F value pr > F Conc.*** Organizational strategy Folded F 21 25 1.06 0.8838 Homogen Resource management Folded F 25 21 1.36 0.4739 Homogen Communication Folded F 25 21 1.10 0.8347 Homogen Collaboration Folded F 21 25 1.02 0.9474 Homogen Community college advocacy Folded F 21 25 1.05 0.9040 Homogen Professionalism Folded F 21 25 1.09 0.8222 Homogen Note. Num. df = numerical degrees of freedom. ** Den. df = Denominator degrees of freedom. *** Conc. = conclusions.

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324 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.5. Summary of Means Differences Between Gender Types—Organizational Strategy Competency Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** OS 1 1 26 4.5000 0.5099 0.1000 4.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.8182 0.3948 0.0842 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.3182 0.4609 0.1335 OS 2 1 26 4.1923 0.6939 0.1361 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.7727 0.4289 0.0914 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.5804 5.880 0.1703 OS 3 1 26 3.7308 0.7243 0.1420 2.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5000 0.5976 0.1274 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.7692 0.6694 0.1939 OS 4 1 26 4.7692 0.4297 0.0843 4.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.7273 0.4558 0.0972 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0420 0.4418 0.1280 OS 5 1 26 4.3846 0.5711 0.1120 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.4091 0.6661 0.1420 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0245 0.6163 0.1785 OS 6 1 26 4.6154 0.5711 0.1120 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.6818 0.4767 0.1016 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0664 0.5301 0.1536 Note. Gender type: 1 = male; 2 = female. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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325 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.6. Summary of Means Differen ces Between Gender Types—Resource Management Competency Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** RM 1 1 26 4.3462 0.6288 0.1233 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5909 0.5032 0.1073 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2448 0.5749 0.1665 RM 2 1 26 3.8462 0.6748 0.1323 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.3182 0.4767 0.1016 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.4720 0.5927 0.1717 RM 3 1 26 4.1923 0.7494 0.1470 2.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.4545 0.5096 0.1087 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2622 0.6510 0.1886 RM 4 1 26 4.1538 0.7317 0.1435 2.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.2727 0.6311 0.1345 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1189 0.6876 0.1992 RM 5 1 26 4.4231 0.5778 0.1133 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.6364 0.4924 0.1050 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2133 0.5405 0.1566 RM 6 1 26 4.3077 0.7884 0.1546 2.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.3636 0.5811 0.1239 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0559 0.7014 0.2032 RM 7 1 26 3.9615 0.7200 0.1412 2.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.3182 0.5679 0.1211 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.3566 0.6550 0.1897

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326 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.6 (Continued) Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** RM 8 1 26 4.3462 0.6288 0.1233 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.4545 0.6710 0.1431 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1084 0.6484 0.1878 Note. Gender type: 1 = male; 2 = female. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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327 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.7. Summary of Means Differen ces Between Gender Types—Communication Competency Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** CM 1 1 26 4.5769 0.5778 0.1133 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.7727 0.4289 0.0914 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1958 0.5152 0.1492 CM 2 1 26 4.0385 0.7200 0.1412 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.3182 0.6463 0.1378 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -.02797 0.6874 0.1991 CM 3 1 25 4.6800 0.5568 0.1114 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.6364 0.4924 0.1050 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0436 0.5277 0.1543 CM 4 1 26 4.3462 0.5616 0.1101 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5000 0.5118 0.1091 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1538 0.5394 0.1563 CM 5 1 26 4.5000 0.5831 0.1144 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.6818 0.4767 0.1016 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1818 0.5372 0.1556 CM 6 1 26 4.7308 0.4523 0.0887 4.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.6818 0.4767 0.1016 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0490 0.4636 0.1343 Note. Gender type: 1 = male; 2 = female. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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328 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.8. Summary of Means Differen ces Between Gender Types—Collaboration Competency Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** CL 1 1 26 4.0385 0.5277 0.1035 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5455 0.5958 0.1270 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.5070 0.5598 0.1622 CL 2 1 26 3.6538 0.7452 0.1462 2.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.2727 0.633 0.1345 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.6189 0.6955 0.2015 CL 3 1 25 4.3600 0.5686 0.1137 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.2727 0.7025 0.1498 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0873 0.6346 0.1855 CL 4 1 26 4.1923 0.5670 0.1112 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5909 0.5903 0.1259 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.3986 0.5778 0.1674 CL 5 1 26 4.6154 0.6373 0.1260 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.7727 0.5284 0.1127 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1573 0.5901 0.1709 CL 6 1 26 4.2308 0.4297 0.0843 4.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5909 0.5032 0.1073 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.3601 0.4647 0.1346

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329 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.8 (Continued) Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** CL 7 1 25 4.5200 0.5859 0.1172 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5455 0.5096 0.1087 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0255 0.5517 0.1613 CL 8 1 26 4.3077 0.7359 0.1443 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.3182 0.5679 0.1211 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0105 0.6645 0.1925 Note. Gender type: 1 = male; 2 = female. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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330 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.9. Summary of Means Differen ces Between Gender Types—Community College Advocacy Competency Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** AD 1 1 26 4.3077 0.5491 0.1077 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.6364 0.5811 0.1239 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.3287 0.5639 0.1634 AD 2 1 26 4.5000 0.8124 0.1593 2.0000 5.0000 2 21 4.7143 0.5606 0.1223 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2143 0.7116 0.2088 AD 3 1 26 4.2308 0.7104 0.1393 2.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.4545 0.5958 0.1270 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2238 0.6605 0.1913 AD 4 1 26 4.4615 0.6469 0.1269 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5909 0.5032 0.1073 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1294 0.5857 0.1697 AD 5 1 26 4.2308 0.6516 0.1278 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.5455 0.5958 0.1270 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.3147 0.6268 0.1816 AD 6 1 26 4.5000 0.5099 0.1000 4.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.6818 0.5679 0.1211 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1818 0.5372 0.1556 Note. Gender type: 1 = male; 2 = female. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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331 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.10. Summary of Means Differences Between Gender Types—Professionalism Competency Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** PR 1 1 26 4.4231 0.7027 0.1378 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.7727 0.4289 0.0914 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.3497 0.5936 0.1720 PR 2 1 26 4.2692 0.6668 0.1308 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.4545 0.5096 0.1087 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1853 0.6002 0.1739 PR 3 1 26 4.2308 0.5870 0.1151 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.4545 0.5096 0.1087 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2238 0.5531 0.1602 PR 4 1 26 4.1923 0.7494 0.1470 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.1818 0.5885 0.1255 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0105 0.6807 0.1972 PR 5 1 26 4.1923 0.8494 0.1666 2.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.2727 0.5505 0.1174 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0804 0.7283 0.2110 PR 6 1 26 4.6923 0.5491 0.1077 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.6818 0.5679 0.1211 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0105 0.5578 0.1616 PR 7 1 26 4.1154 0.6528 0.1280 3.0000 5.0000 2 21 4.3333 0.7303 0.1594 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2179 0.6883 0.2020

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332 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.10 (Continued) Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** PR 8 1 26 4.9231 0.2717 0.0533 4.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.9545 0.2132 0.0455 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0315 0.2467 0.0715 PR 9 1 26 4.3462 0.6288 0.1233 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.3636 0.4924 0.1050 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0175 0.5706 0.1653 PR 10 1 26 4.2692 0.4523 0.0877 4.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.2273 0.5284 0.1127 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) 0.0420 0.4885 0.1415 PR 11 1 26 3.8077 0.8010 0.1571 2.0000 5.0000 2 21 3.8095 0.8136 0.1775 3.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.00183 0.8066 0.2366 Note. Gender type: 1 = male; 2 = female. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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333 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.11. Summary of Means Differences for Each Variable—Comparison Between Gender Types Dimension Gender type* N M SD SE Min.** Max.*** Organizational strategy 1 26 4.3654 0.3198 0.0627 3.6667 4.8333 2 22 4.6515 0.3290 0.0701 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2861 0.3240 0.0939 Resource Management 1 26 4.1971 0.4475 0.0878 3.0000 5.0000 2 22 4.4261 0.3832 0.0817 3.6250 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2290 0.4193 0.1215 Communication 1 26 4.4744 0.3642 0.0714 3.6667 5.0000 2 22 4.5985 0.3476 0.0741 4.0000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.1241 0.3567 0.1033 Collaboration 1 26 4.2372 0.3906 0.0766 3.3750 5.0000 2 22 4.4886 0.3951 0.0842 3.7500 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2515 0.3927 0.1138 Community college advocacy 1 26 4.3718 0.4430 0.0869 3.1667 5.0000 2 22 4.5985 0.4533 0.0966 3.5000 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.2267 0.4477 0.1297 Professionalism 1 26 4.3147 0.3500 0.0686 3.6364 5.0000 2 22 4.4120 0.3660 0.0780 3.9091 5.0000 Diff (1 – 2) -0.0973 0.3574 0.1035 Note. Gender type: 1 = male; 2 = female. ** Min. = minimum. *** Max. = maximum.

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334 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.12. Summary of tTest Statistics for Each Dimension—Comparison Between Gender Types Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution Pooled Equal 46 -2.38 0.0214 Significant OS 2: Use data-driven decisionmaking practices to plan strategically Satterthwaite Unequal 42.4 -3.54 0.0010 Significant OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community Pooled Equal 46 -3.97 0.0003 Significant OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes Pooled Equal 46 0.33 0.7445 NS OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets Pooled Equal 46 -0.14 0.8916 NS OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and resources with the college master plan Pooled Equal 46 -0.43 0.6673 NS RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting Pooled Equal 46 -1.47 0.1485 NS

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335 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources Pooled Equal 46 -2.75 0.0085 Significant RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan Pooled Equal 46 -1.39 0.1710 NS RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources Pooled Equal 46 -0.60 0.5535 NS RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities Pooled Equal 46 -1.36 0.1797 NS RM 6: Implement a human resources system that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff Pooled Equal 46 -0.28 0.7843 NS RM 7: Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills Pooled Equal 46 -1.88 0.0665 NS RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the longterm viability of the organization Pooled Equal 46 -0.58 0.5667 NS

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336 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences Pooled Equal 46 -1.31 0.1960 NS CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies Pooled Equal 46 -1.40 0.1668 NS CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations Pooled Equal 45 0.28 0.7786 NS CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents Pooled Equal 46 -0.98 0.3300 NS CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act Pooled Equal 46 -1.17 0.2486 NS CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully Pooled Equal 46 0.36 0.7172 NS CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles Pooled Equal 46 -3.13 0.0031 Significant CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society Pooled Equal 46 -3.07 0.0036 Significant

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337 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good Pooled Equal 45 0.47 0.6403 NS CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college Pooled Equal 46 -2.38 0.0214 Significant CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies Pooled Equal 46 -0.92 0.3621 NS CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships Pooled Equal 46 -2.68 0.0103 Significant CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation Pooled Equal 45 -0.16 0.8753 NS CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making Pooled Equal 46 -0.05 0.9568 NS AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence Pooled Equal 46 -2.01 0.0501 NS AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning Pooled Equal 45 -1.03 0.3102 NS

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338 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* AD 3: Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college Pooled Equal 46 -1.17 0.2482 NS AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same Pooled Equal 46 -0.76 0.4497 NS AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment Pooled Equal 46 -1.73 0.0898 Not Significant AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education Pooled Equal 46 -1.17 0.2486 NS PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership Satterthwaite Unequal 42.1 -2.11 0.0405 Significant PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college Pooled Equal 46 -1.07 0.2920 NS PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation Pooled Equal 46 -1.40 0.1692 NS

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339 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others Pooled Equal 46 0.05 0.9578 NS PR 5: Manage stress through selfcare, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor Satterthwaite Unequal 43.3 -0.39 0.6950 NS PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept resp onsibility Pooled Equal 46 0.06 0.9485 NS PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others Pooled Equal 45 -1.08 0.2862 NS PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people Pooled Equal 46 -0.44 0.6618 NS PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teachinglearning process & the exchange of knowledge Pooled Equal 46 -0.11 0.9162 NS PR 10: Weigh short-term and longterm goals in decision making Pooled Equal 46 0.30 0.7682 NS

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340 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.12 (Continued) Dimension Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, & research/publication Pooled Equal 45 -0.01 0.9939 NS Note. Conc. = conclusions.

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341 Appendix N (Continued) Table N.13. Summary of t -Test Statistics for Each Variable—Comparison Between Gender Types Variable Method Variances df t value pr > | t | Conc.* Organizational strategy Pooled Equal 46 -3.05 0.0038 Significant Resource management Pooled Equal 46 -1.89 0.0657 NS Communication Pooled Equal 46 -1.20 0.2358 NS Collaboration Pooled Equal 46 -2.21 0.0321 Significant Community college advocacy Po oled Equal 46 -1.75 0.0872 NS Professionalism Pooled Equal 46 -0.94 0.3522 NS Note. Conc. = conclusions.

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342 Appendix O. Comparison of Findings From Duree’s, Hassan’s, and Kools’s Studies No. Variable Duree Hassan Kools Small CC Large CC Wellprepared Important/ very important Mean Mean Mean 1 OS 1: Develop, implement, and evaluate strategies to improve the quality of education at your institution 84.6 96.6 4.6 4.59 4.70 2 OS 2: Use data-driven decision making practices to plan strategically 79.6 96.4 4.4 4.33 4.57 3 OS 3: Use a systems perspective to assess and respond to the needs of students and the community 73.3 89.7 4.2 3.85 4.30 4 OS 4: Develop a positive environment that supports innovation, teamwork, and successful outcomes 90.4 98.9 4.9 4.81 4.70 5 OS 5: Maintain and grow college personnel, fiscal resources, and assets 77.8 98 4.6 4.52 4.22 6 OS 6: Align organizational mission, structures, and re sources with the college master plan 80.2 96.4 4.6 4.56 4.70

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343 Appendix O (Continued) No. Variable Duree Hassan Kools Small CC Large CC Wellprepared Important/very important Mean Mean Mean 7 RM 1: Ensure accountability in reporting 80.3 96.1 4.5 4.56 4.35 8 RM 2: Support operational decisions by managing information resources 71.4 92.5 4 4.00 4.13 9 RM 3: Develop and manage resources consistent with the college master plan 79.3 94.7 4.2 4.22 4.39 10 RM 4: Take an entrepreneurial stance in seeking ethical alternative funding sources 61.4 85.8 4.1 4.33 4.04 11 RM 5: Implement financial strategies to support programs, services, staff, and facilities 77.4 95.9 4.5 4.59 4.39 12 RM 6: Implement a human resources system that fosters the professional development and advancement of all staff 74.4 95.4 4.4 4.41 4.22 13 RM 7 Employ organizational, time management, planning, and delegation skills 82.9 94.4 4 4.07 4.17

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344 Appendix O (Continued) No. Variable Duree Hassan Kools Small CC Large CC Wellprepared Important/very important Mean Mean Mean 14 RM 8: Manage conflict and change in ways that contribute to the long-term viability of the organization 83.6 97.1 4.5 4.41 4.39 15 CM 1: Articulate and champion shared mission, vision, and values to internal and external audiences 86 96.8 4.7 4.63 4.70 16 CM 2: Disseminate and support policies and strategies 81.2 89.2 4 4.19 4.13 17 CM 3: Create and maintain open communication regarding resources, priorities, and expectations 89.6 96.6 4.6 4.62 4.70 18 CM 4: Effectively convey ideas and information to all constituents 88.7 96.9 4.6 4.30 4.57 19 CM 5: Listen actively to understand, analyze, engage, and act 88.4 97.3 4.6 4.59 4.52 20 CM 6: Project confidence and respond responsibly and tactfully 87.7 95.5 4.7 4.74 4.65

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345 Appendix O (Continued) No. Variable Duree Hassan Kools Small CC Large CC Wellprepared Important/very important Mean Mean Mean 21 CL 1: Embrace and employ the diversity of individuals, cultures, values, ideas, and communication styles 80 90.8 4.3 4.22 4.35 22 CL 2: Demonstrate cultural competence in a global society 66.3 82.2 3.7 3.74 4.13 23 CL 3: Involve students, faculty, staff, and community members to work for the common good 82.1 91.3 4.3 4.35 4.26 24 CL 4: Establish networks and partnerships to advance the mission of the community college 77.1 92.7 4.4 4.33 4.39 25 CL 5: Work effectively and diplomatically with legislators, board members, business leaders, and accreditation agencies 66 94.2 4.7 4.63 4.70 26 CL 6: Manage conflict and change by building and maintaining productive relationships 83.3 94.2 4.5 4.33 4.48 27 CL 7: Develop, enhance, and sustain teamwork and cooperation 87 94.4 4.5 4.54 4.52

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346 Appendix O (Continued) No. Variable Duree Hassan Kools Small CC Large CC Wellprepared Important/very important Mean Mean Mean 28 CL 8: Facilitate shared problem solving and decision making 84.3 91.6 4.3 4.37 4.22 29 AD 1: Value and promote diversity, inclusion, equity, and academic excellence 79 87.9 4.6 4.44 4.48 30 AD 2: Demonstrate commitment to the mission of community colleges and student success through teaching and learning 79.3 83.8 4.7 4.63 4.55 31 AD 3: Promote equity, open access, teaching, learning, and innovation as primary goals for the college 85.5 89.9 4.5 4.33 4.39 32 AD 4: Advocate the community college mission to all constituents and empower them to do the same 84.3 90.2 4.5 4.52 4.57 33 AD 5: Advance lifelong learning and support a learning-centered environment 83.2 88.2 4.4 4.41 4.30

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347 Appendix O (Continued) No. Variable Duree Hassan Kools Small CC Large CC Wellprepared Important/very important Mean Mean Mean 34 AD 6: Represent the community college in a variety of settings as a model of higher education 82.7 88.5 4.6 4.59 4.57 35 PR 1: Demonstrate transformational leadership 69.4 85.8 4.5 4.59 4.52 36 PR 2: Demonstrate an understanding of the history, philosophy, and culture of the community college 80 77.6 4.2 4.41 4.26 37 PR 3: Regularly self-assess one's own performance using feedback, reflection, goal setting, and evaluation 78.8 89.9 4.2 4.33 4.30 38 PR 4: Support lifelong learning for self and others 85 86.3 4.2 4.19 4.17 39 PR 5: Manage stress through selfcare, balance, adaptability, flexibility, and humor 65.3 89.4 4.4 4.04 4.48

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348 Appendix O (Continued) No. Variable Duree Hassan Kools Small CC Large CC Wellprepared Important/very important Mean Mean Mean 40 PR 6: Demonstrate the courage to take risks, make difficult decisions, and accept responsibility 83.8 91.4 4.9 4.67 4.70 41 PR 7: Understand the impact of perceptions, world views, and emotions on self and others 72.5 81.9 4.2 4.15 4.27 42 PR 8: Promote and maintain high standards for personal and organizational integrity, honesty, and respect for people 87.2 91.8 4.5 4.93 4.95 43 PR 9: Use influence and power wisely in facilitating the teachinglearning process and the exchange of knowledge 80.7 88.4 4.5 4.26 4.48 44 PR 10: Weigh short-term and long-term goals in decision making 81.5 90.1 4.4 4.30 4.22

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349 Appendix O (Continued) No. Variable Duree Hassan Kools Small CC Large CC Wellprepared Important/very important Mean Mean Mean 45 PR 11: Contribute to the profession through professional development programs, professional organizational leadership, and research/publication 60.5 69.4 3.9 3.70 3.91

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About the Author Joseph M. J. Kools earned his Bachelo r’s of Arts Degree in Psychology from Saint Norbert College. He is a graduate of the Command and Ge neral Staff College (master’s level) and earned a Masters of Business Administration (MBA) from the University of Missouri, Bloch School of Business.


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Leadership competencies for college leaders of public small, rural, single-campus and large, urban, multiple-campus colleges
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ABSTRACT: This research examined how two decidedly different groups of community college presidents from across the United States viewed the competencies, characteristics, and professional skills identified by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) (2005) as important for effective community college leadership. The two groups participating in the research were from small, single-campus colleges serving rural populations and from large, multiple-campus colleges serving urban populations. The participants were asked to identify those activities and experiences that they found helpful in developing the AACC leadership competencies. The results from this research suggest that community college presidents from both sizes of college campuses widely regarded the AACC competencies as important to effective leadership. The respondents also provided insight into the experiences that helped form the characteristics related to the development of the competencies. Practical implications for the development and hiring of leaders to perform senior leadership roles within the community college system are offered.
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