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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFirst and foremost, I would like to thank my father Benard Gaboury. Thank you for all of your support and love over the years. Without you as a pillar of guidance I do not know where I would be today. Everything that I have accomplished I can credit to you in some way or another. I cannot even being to express my gratitude for your unconditional presence in my life. I would also like to thank the rest of my family for supporting me throughout my studies. You always believed in me and pushed me to do my best and to follow my dreams, I wouldnt have been able to make it without you. Lastly, I would like to acknowledge and extend my deepest appreciation to all of my friends that gave their time and energy to help me with this endeavor. Without your assistance this project would not have come to fruition. Kirsten Dahlquist, Danelle Gillingham, Josh Jones, Tim K eepers, Lauran Moore, Leo Morantin, Jon Stinson, and Sid Vicious, you are truly great assets in my life and I sincerely thank you for everything you did for me.
i TABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT THESIS OBJECTIVES ORNAMENT OF ARCHITECTURE THE PRODUCT PARADIGM THE ARCHITECTURAL PRODUCT UPGRADABILITY MA SS PRODUCTION COMPUTER INTEGRA TION THE INTERFACE INTERACTION MANIFESTO GORDON PA SK iv x 1 3 9 11 12 13 15 16 17 19
ii 22 24 28 31 31 33 35 37 38 40 41 42 44 46 47 49 49 49 THE USER OPEN SOURCE ARCHITECTURE SUST AINABILITY PRECEDENT STUDIES THE GALLERIA SEOUL, SOUTH K OREA TRUTEC PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH LABORA TORIES LIVINGSHADE PRECEDENT CONCLUSION SITE ANAL YSIS MADISON SQU ARE P ARK UNITED ARAB EMIRA TES MONTREAL METRO ST ADSHUIS CITY HALL PRADA FLAGSHIP STORE PROGRAM ISSUES TO ADDRESS PROGRAMMING SCALES
iii 50 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 60 61 65 67 75 78 80 80 88 TYPES OF INTERACTION PRODUCTION SUST AINABILITY COMPUTER INTEGRA TION MODULE CUSTOMIZA TION MODERN ORNAMENT DESIGN NARRA TIVE SCHEMA TIC DESIGN PROGRAMMING OPTIONS MODULE HUMAN/FAADE INTERACTION PROGRAMMABLE RESPONSES DYNAMIC ELEMENTS BEY OND THE FACADE FINAL DESIGN DYNAMIC LIGHT FLA T-P ACKED DESIGN
iv SOLAR COLLECTION CONCLUSION REFERENCES 94 99 101
v LIST OF FIGURESFIG.1. THESIS POSTER DESIGN FIG.2. TRIPART ACHITECTURE DIAGRAM FIG.3. NEST OF RUFOUS BREA STED CA STLE BUILDER FIG.4. SIENA DUOMO FIG.5. BAKER HOUSE FIG.6. NIKE SHOE FIG.7. COMPUTER AXO FIG.8. CA TIA MODEL OF W ALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL FIG.9. CA TIA RENDERING OF GEHR Y CONCERT HALL FIG.10. INTERACTION DIAGRAM FIG.11. OPEN-SOURCE DIAGRAM FIG.12. HERMAN-MILLER CHAIR 2 3 4 5 7 10 13 14 14 18 27 29
vi FIG.13. GALLERIA PRESENT A TION BOARD FIG.14. GALLERIA PRESENT A TION BOARD 2 FIG.15. TRUTEC PRESENT A TION BOARD FIG.16. TRUTEC PRESENT A TION BOARD 2 FIG.17. PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH LABORA TORIES PRESENT A TION BOARD FIG.18. PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH LABORA TORIES PRESENT A TION BOARD 2 FIG.19. GLOBAL GRAPHIC FIG.20. MADISON SQU ARE P ARK PRESENT A TION BOARD FIG.21. U AE PRESENT A TION BOARD FIG.22. MONTREAL METRO PRESENT A TION BOARD FIG.23. ST ADSHUIS CITY HALL PRESENT A TION BOARD FIG.24. INTERACTION DIAGRAM FIG.25. INTERACTION DIAGRAM FIG.26. INTERACTION DIAGRAM FIG.27. INTERACTION DIAGRAM FIG.28. INTERACTION DIAGRAM FIG.29. COMPUTER GRAPHIC FIG.30. COMPUTER GRAPHIC 31 32 33 34 35 36 40 41 43 45 47 51 51 51 52 52 57 59
vii FIG.31. DIAGRAM OF PROGRAMMA TIC OPPORTUNITIES FIG.32. CONCEPTU AL MODULAR SKETCH FIG.33. COMPUTER GRAPHIC FIG.34. COMPUTER GRAPHIC FIG.35. CONNECTION DRA WINGS FIG.36. 3D PRINT MODEL OF WEAVING MODULE FIG.37. DET AIL PHOTO OF 3D PRINT MODEL FIG.38. INITIAL CONCEPT SKETCH FIG.39. DET AIL SCHEMA TIC OF TOUCH CONSTRUCT FIG.40. T OUCH CONSTRUCT IN ST A TIC ST A TE FIG.41. T OUCH CONSTRUCT IN USE 66 FIG.42. DET AIL SCHEMA TIC FOR LED CIRCUIT FIG.43. DET AIL DRA WING OF LED CONSTRUCT FIG.44. LED CONSTRUCT FIG.45. DET AIL OF LED PANEL FIG.46. DET AIL OF LED CONSTRUCT FIG.47. P ANEL DURING OPERA TION FIG.48. P ANEL DURING OPERA TION 60 61 62 62 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 69 69 70 70
viii FIG.49. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING FIG.50. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING 2 FIG.51. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING 3 FIG.52. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING 4 FIG.53. CONSTRUCT MANIPULA TION GRAPHIC FIG.54. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING FIG.55. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING FIG.56. CONCEPTU AL SKETCHES FIG.57. INITIAL D YNAMIC IDEA GRAPHIC FIG.58. INITIAL D YNAMIC IDEA FIG.59. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING OF D YNAMIC SYSTEM FIG.60. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING OF D YNAMIC SYSTEM FIG.61. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING OF D YNAMIC SYSTEM FIG.62. DIAGRAM DIPICTING OF THE FACADE SYSTEM FIG.63. DIAGRAM OF OUTREACH POSSIBILITIES OF THE SYSTEM FIG.64. DAY AND NIGHT FIG.65. TEXT GRAPHIC FIG.66. TEXT GRAPHIC 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 79 80 81 81
ix FIG.67. COMPUTER RENDERING FIG.68. SERVO MOTORS FIG.69. SERVO DRIVE ARMS FIG.72. SERVO MOTOR MOUNTED FIG.70. SERVO CONTROL BOARD FIG.71. INDIVIDU AL SERVO MOTOR FIG.73. EXTERIOR CONCEPTU AL RENDERING FIG.74. EXTERIOR CONCEPTU AL RENDERING 3 FIG.75. EXTERIOR CONCEPTU AL RENDERING 2 FIG.76. EXTERIOR CONCEPTU AL RENDERING 3 FIG.77. CONCEPTU AL NIGHT RENDERING FIG.78. DYNAMIC LIGHT QU ALITIES OF FACADE FIG.79. AUTOCAD DRA WING OF SINGLE MODULE FIG.80. LA SERCUT MA T BOARD FIG.81. LA SERCUT CHIP BOARD FIG.82. MULTIPLE ST ACKS OF CHIP BOARD FIG.83. DET AIL PHOTOGRAPH OF MA T BOARD FIG.84. FOLDING SEQUECE 82 83 83 84 84 84 85 85 85 85 86 87 88 88 89 89 90 91
x FIG.85. FOLDED UNITS FIG.86. MODULE UNIT BACK FIG.87. MODULE UNIT RIGHT SIDE FIG.88. MODULE UNIT LEF T SIDE FIG.89. MODULE UNIT FRONT FIG.90. RENDERING OF DYNAMICLIGHT FACADE FIG.91. FINAL W ALL MOCK-UP FIG.92. FINAL W ALL SECTION FIG.93. FINAL W ALL SECTION FIG.94. MODULAR UNITS FIG.95. FINAL W ALL MOCK-UP FIG.96. FINAL W ALL MOCK-UP FIG.97. FINAL W ALL MOCK-UP FIG.99. FINAL W ALL SECTION FIG.100. DIAGRAM OF FACADE OPERA TION FIG.101. DIAGRAM OF FACADE OPERA TION FIG.102. FINAL W ALL SECTION FIG.103. CONCEPTU AL RENDERING 92 93 93 93 93 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 98 98 99 100
xi UPGRADING DESIGN: A MECHA TRONIC INVESTIGA TION INTO THE ARCHITECTURAL PRODUCT MARKET MA TTHEW GABOUR Y ABSTRACT numerous times since, that architecture is frozen music(see note). While this romantic analogy lively. Goethes quote conjures up the notion of a world that is silent, one in which we can see the notes but never hear the music because we are trapped by stasis in time. Like the note admired on a piece of paper, architecture in this world is static regardless of the changing conditions around it. What if the frozen part could be removed from this concept, and the element of time could play an active role in the built environment? An architecture that can exist in a sense of time is one in which the musical note can be played. Through the ability to change with time and be changed by time architecture can directly respond to its inhabitants, environment, and contextual factors. A rich melody of interaction can then be initiated in which the built world can talk back. buildings faade, and it is here that there is the greatest opportunity to reach the largest audience. The outer face both designer and customer. For centuries the ornamental features of a building were what distinguished its purpose and place in society. From the elaborite pediments of the Greeks to the inticatly carved reliefs of the Itailians, the ornament of a structure told a static story about the creators and inhabitants of the structure. Now, the technology is available to make this aspect of architecture talk to us by becoming a dymanic, interactive, and kinetic component. In order for this faade system to transcend the boundries of conventional architecture it must utilize precocious architectural means, methods, and materials. These new communication systems include, but are not As any of these stimuli are precieved by the faade, it
xii can have the ability to react proportional to the input. Esentially, the faade system will be able to customize itself depending on the conditions presented. Similar to a computer operating system, the new faade will provide a generic mass producible platform that can be individualized by it user. The users of this system may be the architect, client, occupant, viewer, environment, regional context, technologic connection, or global most importantly, both the user and the faade have the capacity to be changed or altered at any time, meaning that the fundamental characteristics of the project will never be frozen. In this manner, the new architectural ornament will go beyond the static nature of its predecessors and become one that the viewer can actively communicate with.
1 The goal for this project is to design a system of modules that can be programmed at different scales and in alternate ways to make customizable facades. Ideally, the faade should have the ability to be manipulated to match the conditions presented. This means that at every stage of its conceptions and implementation its must be able to change to meet the needs of the particular situation. Allowing for programming opportunities (both in the traditional sense and in a more progressive manner like opensource implications) is one of the prime ways that this will be accomplished. Thesis strives to answer the following questions: How the exterior of a building interacts with the viewer, client, and surrounding space? interaction? How can an interactive display become integrated into the buildings architecture and not be simply a billboard posted on a building? What if a building could be upgraded with the click of a mouse? In what way can the public play a proactive part in the appearance of architecture? The new generations of people are native to the digital age. What types of media do they create and use style of modern architectural ornament?THESIS OBJECTIVES
2 In doing so, it will address the following issues: Programming Scales: T ypes of interaction Dynamic elements / Time-based media Production means and methods Computer integration Module design Customization Sustainability Modern ornament What is the modern conception of architectural delight? One of the objectives of this project is to answer this question and explore new ideas to make architecture appealing in a temporal sense. Since the face of a building has historically tended to portray the greatest concentration of ornament, it features that allow designers to shape aesthetics. Fig.1. Thesis poster design
3 John R uskin points out in the second line of his book Seven Lamps of Architecture it is necessary in the onset of all inquiry, to distinguish carefully between architecture and building (3). What then, architecture was written in about 25 BC by the ancient R oman architect Marcus Vitruvius. In his book titled The Ten Books of Architecture Vitruvius writes that (18). Later, in the 17th century Sir Henry W otten paraphrased those sentiments and listed commodity, true architecture have remained essentially unchanged architecture, it must posses all three of these features. Louis K ahn who believed architecture is what nature cannot make (24). Humans are not the only creature that builds. Indeed some structures built by birds, bees Fig.2. T ripart achitecture diagram architecture lies in the combination of the three key vituvian elements; commodity, ORNAMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
4 and sea mollusks, to name a few, are much like human engineering in their economy and form. The R ufousBreasted Castle Builder of South America weaves two chambers connected by a cantilevered tube, creating a double-chambered nest in the form of a dumbbell (R uskin 78). Certain North American bears create a den structure that is ingeniously constructed and insulated to withstand the harsh weather of the tundric regions. Yet none of the creations produced by animals constitute architecture. Even though what these creatures build shows brilliant utility and, in some cases, of architecture. They have no features deigned purely to delight our senses and inspire our minds. As Sir Henry W otten stated, this missing third element is delight, the most complex and diverse of all components. It involves how architecture engages our senses, and how it shapes our perception and the enjoyment of our built environment (101). This is perhaps the area with which most people, Similar to the animal dwellings, many of the houses we live in and the buildings we encounter on a daily basis are missing the fundamental element of beauty. They contain to appeal to our eye. These buildings are the product of strictly functional and economic pursuits. They fail the ultimate test of architecture; not appealing to the senses and providing a full measure of satisfaction or enjoyment. One of the primary ways an architect corrects this problem and adds beauty to a building is through the proper incorporation of ornament and decoration. The term ornament is often tainted by contemporary use of the even negative connotations. Some pair ornament with lavishness, trivia and excessiveness while others choose to relegate it to a history of repertoire frozen in time (Bloomer 16). Prejudice has, of course, skewed the understanding of other fundamental terms over time, as well. Up until recent decades, the word sex was attached Fig.3. Nest of R ufous Breasted Castle Builder (R oth 1)
5 closely to a negative stigma and steeped in connotation. Likewise, in the start of the 20th century, the word feminine was synonymous with weakness and inferiority. Not to mention the laundry list of ethical and derogatory terms employed as vernacular. It is not odd then that the word ornament, which was praised for centuries, is now in question (Bloomer 17-18). The English word ornament, originated in Latin as ornamentun. The modern meaning, found in MerriamW ebster dictionary, is something that lends grace or beauty (546). The term, by most accounts, originated from the Greek K osmos, which meant something like order, universe and ornament (397). Through this root ornament leant a high sense of order to that which it adorned. From an architectural viewpoint, ornament and decoration encompasses all of the elements that are consciously added to strictly enhance the visual perception of a place. A fairly simplistic metaphor for architectural ornament is fashion in respect to clothing. Clothing is a necessity, and at a basic level a woven burlap sack will pleasant. Where the burlap sack would provide Vitruvius department. The designer suit would, conversely, provide the trifecta. Clothing serves, fundamentally, to protect the body. Fashion, however, serves to enhance the image of the body. In the same way, ornament adds a visually Fig.4. Siena Duomo facade (www.shafe.co.uk)
6 stimulating element to a building, raising it to a higher level. This metaphor can be extended to the physical manifestation of most ornament as well. Since, the exterior of a building usually contains the majority of its ornament, its tangible expression can be compared to the clothing of an individual. The common phrase, the clothes makes the man, applies in this way to the facades of a building as well. Many structures have similar layouts or programs, but it is the way in which they are wrapped, or dressed, that gives them distinguishing architectural features. In this way, it is the fashion of the building, the way the designer chooses to cloth their structure, that makes the largest impact on the way it is perceived. At this juncture, it is proper to make the important distinction between ornament and decoration. T o the layman, these two terms are often intermingled and frequently confused. Architecturally speaking, these two terms represent two separate forms of sensory enhancement. Ornament is the more powerful medium of the two in an architecture sense, and also the one that is harder to grasp. Ornament is dependant on the structure and has a symbiotic relationship with the architecture. If we compare a building to a culinary dish and an architect to a chef, ornament would be one of the main ingredients used in preparing a meal. Ornament is built into the essence of a structure, if a buildings ornament is removed; it no longer functions in the same way. Likewise, our chefs recipe is changed and the dish tastes different. On the other hand, decoration is added after the fact and is independent of the recipe. It ornament and other structural elements of the meal. Almost comparable to a condiment, sea salt or cracked distinction should be made here with respect to Vitruvian theory. A structure which includes decoration but no ornament is simply a utilitarian building. A structure that lacks any sort of decoration. Decoration can be seen in such features as the way in which a building is painted, the choice of furnishings or in other interior dcor selections. All of these elements are interchangeable and designed wholly to suit any occupants needs. Decoration should not be dismissed as an unimportant feature of design, however. Especially in the context of the interior of a space, decoration has a powerful ability to enhance the look and feel of an area (Smith 87-91). Most architecture in not meant to be immediately inhabitable, as most dwellings require the addition of decoration in order to be comfortably occupied. Distinguishing the ornament of a building is a slightly harder task. However, as noted earlier, all construction that demonstrates the three key Vitruvian
7 functions contains some incidents of ornament. Even modern architects who eschewed ornamentation in their designs, like the International Style, inadvertently made their sleek post-modern buildings into rather large architectural ornaments by default. The buildings of glass, straight lines and cold concrete are viewed as large functional sculptural ornaments and monuments to the industrial age. Adolf Loos denounced the use of ornament vehemently by stating ornament is crime (Loos 10). Yet, even he created structures that embody unique forms and that let the stark nature and simple lines of the materials become their own ornament. Modernism championed an aesthetic of stripped-down or unorthodox ornament, but not one completely devoid of it. The reasons for using ornament in this way directly period. Even in Modernism, architecture without ornament architecture loses an invaluable feature. It is only through the incorporation of all the necessary architectural elements that we are graced by the 18). Ornament is a tool that is impossible to eliminate from an architects palliate. Although its manifestations may change with the ever-evolving concepts in art and architecture, at the core it will remain the same. Ornament, undoubting, plays with the human psyches ability to perceive the underlying order in a seemingly chaotic realm (Smith 10-13). The brain has a task to obtain knowledge about the worldand architectural ornament provides the needed stimuli to challenge the brain (Smith 11). Through structure and utility architecture appeals to the rational left side of the brain, but through the device of ornament architecture communicates with the non-verbal right side of our brain. Fig.5. Adolf Loos, Baker house 1928 (Loos 59)
8 This symbiotic relationship between the two halves allows architecture to connect to us in a way no other medium can. Architecture is the fusion of science and art, and ornament is one of the agents that aids in are adequately combined, the result is architecture that goes beyond utilitythat creates drama out of stone (Le Corbusier 151). Vitruvius classical trifecta (utility, ornament. W e, unlike any other creature, ornament where we live, were we worship, and even where we are buried. Man might well be described as the ornamenting animal (Bloomer 122). Such behavioral traits are strangely and exclusively Human.
9 capable of doing it for you. The individual item was custom produced to meet the standards of the client, and its performance depended on how well the production went. This business paradigm fostered a market where availability for personalized goods was low and price was high. Yet if you managed to acquire such goods, the individual. In many respects, the architect has been providing this type of service and producing this type of product throughout the history of the profession. When one contracts the services of an architect, a process is initiated where the client becomes the driving factor of the design. An architect acts as an agent for the client in producing the desired outcome. During this process, the needs and desires of the client are of prime focus to the architect and at any point the client may choose to change, remove, add, or discontinue any aspect of the project. It is purely a one to one loop of cause and effect, with the client being at the beginning of the cycle, the building at the termination, and the architect as the mediator. However, the recent exponential proliferation of technology and changes in the mode of human life have begun to rendered this singular production model obsolete in most other industries. The desire for personalized products is still prevalent, but the means to obtain and produce them has undergone a profound paradigm shift. No longer is the individual craftsman the sole source production methods have enabled large corporations to cater to the individual desires of the client. The dichotomy between the mass produced product and the custom crafted good is no longer distinguishable. Whether it is a pair of sneakers or an automobile, the consumer only has to visit a store or log-on to a computer to procure a variation that suits their personal needs. THE PRODUCT PARADIGM
10 Companies like Nike and Converse now offer online services where you can design your footwear to match your personal requirements and aesthetic preferences. A myriad of color patterns, sole style, laces, and embroidery options make it possible that no two people have to wear identical shoes (http:\\Nike. com). And this paradigm is not restricted to just the footwear market. Almost every major industry, from have it your way at BurgerKing to On demand programming through Comcast, have embraced the Picture of customized Nikes from NikeID This individualization has allowed these multinational corporations to play the part of the craftsman. Yet, there and the monetary bottom line, which enables the price and time of the product to be less than that of the traditional craftsman(Barro 133-138). The technologic improvements of manufacturing and communication allow for this customer/corporation dynamic to happen relatively from the experience. W orldwide, customers have become accustomed to the availability of goods and services that they feel an emotive attachment to because of this new business model. The personalized product has exceeded its once trendy or exclusive beginnings to become the social norm for the average customer, and it has done so in a means that is economic. It is this notion of economy where the modern conception of architecture fails to correlate with the successful business model of the aforementioned industries. While and cost effective manner (Pressman 22). The realm of architecture has stayed exceptionally static in this regard throughout the course of its existence. The vast majority of buildings constructed are entirely site built with little or no prefabricated components. For example, only 2 percent of the total number of buildings constructed in the United States are made with prefabricated methods, and as a consequence 30% of the total amount of material delivered Fig.6. Nike Shoe the above shoe was designed on Nikeid.com for the sole purpose of this thesis.
11 to a building site ends up in the dumpster (ask tim for source). It is now time for the way in which buildings are constructed to be radically changed. As Dr. Fisher, is unbelievable that real estate and construction, which is the leading sector of the world economy, is also the most primitive. For example, most workers throughout by the Egyptians and then by the R omans. Buildings should not be different than any other product, and should be manufactured in a production facility (qtd. in Time 44) THE ARCHITECTURAL PRODUCT: T aking cue from other industries, it is now time for a profound shift in the way clients shop for buildings and how architects dictate the production. The means to produce a building should be addressed in the same manner that many other major industries sustainable, and multi-faceted components that enable the creation of designable artifacts. A system that favors mass producible parts is key to reducing the overall workload of the architect in design development and the days of the labor intensive on-site construction. As in many other genres, the realm of architecture must embrace the technology of the future in order to progress. One of the means that architecture can accomplish this is through the concept of the architectural product and how it applies to the design and fabrication of buildings. Currently, there are numerous manufactures of building materials and systems, but very few companies producing complex performance components (http://archproducts.com/). Through the study of high performance aftermarket products prevalent in other industries one can make numerous correlations to architecture in categories that include: Mass production means, fabrication methods, materials, quality control, improving safety standards, designing for upgradeability, reaching mass markets, and sustainability. Data from these product studies can then be architectural components that can aid in the proliferation of a high performance building product market that supports a new culture of design and construction. Ideally, having a more comprehensive product market could help transition the architecture industry into one which produces higher quality building with less effort exerted by the architect and contactor. In addition, having the support of manufacturers that continually upgrades and improves their product line allows designers an easy opportunity to incorporate future change into their initial conception. The notion of designing for adaptability is instrumental in creating a sustainable structure that will outlive its original occupants or intent.
12 UPGRADABILITY : Contrary to what many believe, architects are not omniscient. Their ability to see the future and predict the upcoming demands of a project is quite small. Most are limited to the immediate information given to them from the original client. However, the lifespan of the architects building may exceed that of client or the clients need may change down the road, either of which may dictate a change in the desired function of the original building. Unfortunately, the static nature of architecture is a hindrance to this desired change and usually is not very easily adapted to meet the altered expectations. A structures inability to adapt to the evolving demands placed upon it perpetuates a cycle of demolition and rebuilding (McDonough 23). The waste of this cycle could be avoided if the process could be prolonged by a structure which is easily be manipulated. One way that a building could easily adapt is through the use of components which are initially designed to do so. Products that are made to be upgraded by the manufacturer are a guaranteed way of insuring that there will be an entity in the future that is capable this is the computer industry and the conglomeration of different manufactures that collaborate in order to make most PCs. If an individual purchases a computer from say Dell, not all of the parts that make that machine are made by Dell. The processor may be made by a company like Intel or Amd, the graphics card by NVidia, the Bluetooth module by T oshiba, and so on and so forth. If the persons needs change and they want a computer that performs faster, they do not need to buy an entirely new machine, they can just purchase upgraded versions of individual parts. A new Intel processor and upgraded ram may satisfy the individuals immediate needs at a much lower cost, and without the waste associated with throwing away all of the parts of the computer that still perform up but it does extend the life of the original product and save the customer non-necessary expenses. designed upgrade is that it removes the necessity of the original architect in the process. Once a building is complete, the services of the architect are limited. Not all architects are interested in business renovation. The the building can be a major hurtle in having the work done. However, a manufacture that is continually upgrading their product line should have no hesitation assisting the previous customer in becoming up to date. R eferencing the previous example; if Dell went out of business, the individual looking to upgrade the performance of their computer could still do so because the parts that they required were designed, produced, and distributed by companies independent of Dell. Although it still would be a prerequisite for the original designer of the thing (computer
13 in the case of Dell, building for an architect) to take the proper measures to ensure that the products used could be upgraded when/if the need arose. MA SS PRODUCTION precision are of vital importance, the higher the degree of accuracy, the better the end result. Many architectural projects have failed not because of the oversight of the designer, but due to the negligence of those who are responsible for translating the architects intents. If the roll of the unskilled worker could be reduced and substituted by a highly capable specialist, the frequency of these types of failures could be drastically decreased. The use of prefabricated components ensures that the production is product. The more comprehensive the factory production, Duran 12-13). However, the person doing the work on-site is not always to blame though, many times it is the site itself that is the underlying culprit. The accuracy that can be attained in a factory, under constant conditions, and unpredictable site conditions. Most importantly, dedicated production facilities enable the manufacturer to use tools and machines that are not feasible to do so on-site (Costa Duran 130-134). Advanced fabrication methods like CNC machining, water jetting, plasma molding, and 3d printing Fig.7. Computer Axo this example shows all the different types and manufactures of common pc components
14 are all highly developed means of productions that are non-mobile. Complex computer fabrication techniques with these tools are instrumental in making the advanced architectural elements of the future and only available to implement remotely. Integrating computer-aided design with computerthe relationship between designing and producing(Mau 193). In 1981, Dassault S ystemes of France invented a new software platform called CA TIA. This innovative program gives manufactures the ability to simulate different industrial design processes from the conceptual phase through analysis, simulation, assembly, and maintenance. It has since percolated throughout the industrial realm and has established itself as the worldwide standard in product development. It is the most used software in the aerospace, shipbuilding, automotive, plant design, electrical and electronics, consumer goods, and fabrication and assembly markets (Need CA TIA source). CA TIA along with IBM and Boeing are responsible for the new generation Boeing advanced commercial aircraft to date. From designing to building, and even aerodynamically testing, the whole process of making an airplane was reconsidered. Dassault S ystemes gave Boeing engineers and designers the ability to visualize each part of the aircraft as a solid image, then simulate the assembly on screen, easily correcting (T ravi 19). Fig.8. Catia model of walt disney concert hall Fig.9. Catia rendering of Gehry concert hall
15 Even though this powerfully software application has a proven track record in projects like the Boeing 737, is the benchmark tool in a wide spectrum of technology unprecedented tasks, it has been almost completely ignored or underutilized in the architecture profession. Currently there are only a handful of architects that utilize of which is Frank O Gehhry, whom uses the computermodeling aspect of the program in the development of his structurally complex building. Without CA TIA, the realization of projects like the Experience Music Project or the W alt Disney Concert Hall would not have been feasible. It was only through the use of this software that many of the complex elements of his building production facility to be precisely fabricated through automated processes (Mau 193). If more architectural product manufactures incorporated CA TIA software, it would become easier for architects to use the powerful features of the program in their design work, while also COMPUTER INTEGRA TION: In the sphere of architecture, the possible applications of the computer go far beyond design and production. While it use in these phases is of great value (as demonstrated in the previous examples), there are many other aspects of the completed building that could be enhanced through computer augmentation. Global society has embraced the computer in a multi-faceted manner, welcoming its presence into almost every aspect of life. So to in architecture, computer application can be integrated into the tangible artifact itself in ways that have not yet been explored. The personal computer has opened up dialog between places and people that were once completely devoid of connection. And it has done this in a manner that is fast, effective, and extensive. Through means like email, T witter, instant messaging, and social networking sites, machines around the world can interact with a multitude of other machines. It is time for the computer to enable the occupant to communicate with their physical surroundings on a more personal level. More complete architectural integration could give the user greater control over their environment, and allow for the customization that is expected in our modern society. No longer should architecture be exclusive and elite. The more control the occupant has of the architecture, the greater their ability control is one approach that could enable that connection this manner dont merely enable people to develop their own ways of responding to the architecture, they are actually enriched by them doing so. As people become architects
16 of their own spaces (through use of mechanisms like computer interaction) the word architecture ceases to be a noun: instead it becomes a verb (Haque 46). Such an architecture is explicitly dynamic, a shift that opens up a wealth of poetic possibilities for designers of space or form. THE INTERFACE: How the communication occurs between the user and building is very important. In order to accomplish this new technological enhancements are necessary. T echnologic enhancements, however, are complex and can create self perpetuating complexities as a result. Good design augments human possibility and reduces complexity. When we have problems interacting with technologies, its a direct result of our not having asked the right questions in the design process. T o be effective, we must shift our focus from the techno-centric to the human-centric (Bill Buxton, qtd in Mau 99) W e operate by making using the collective memories of a lifetime of experiences. Cognitive abilities enable us to logically analyze things. Motor/ sensory abilities enable us to perceive and navigate through the world. Social abilities enable us to acts as members of a society. All together, these abilities are not only critical and valuable, but they essential make us human. A properly designed interface addresses these innate humanistic qualities. Every school today teaches its students how to perform long division based on the principals of the decimal point brought to use by the Indians. The chronograph enabled seaman to determine location and navigate celestially. The microscope allowed us to see a world that was invisible to the naked human eye. The telescope brought the stars into reach of our vision, and let us explore space. Imagine the delight in the experiences that exceptionally crafted musical instruments, paintbrushes, cars, and tools provide to us. Now think about computers. They also have the ability to profoundly augment human capacity. Yet in order to do it well, the information about human qualities must match the technical knowledge of engineering. The human must be balanced with the technological or else innovation becomes, as Henry David Thoreau stated, an improved means to an unimproved end (47). The challenge in creating an interface to interact with architecture is as great as the potential. (Mau 99)
17 The term interactive is widely used in our society. Yet, most do not analyze what interactive means and if what is presented is actually performing in an interactive manner. Many times the phrase hitech is used synonymously with interactive, but the two are not interchangeable; something can be hi-tech and not the interactive (and vice-versa). T echnology simple enables interactive properties to be obtained special, temporal, and interrelated scales. From an architectural point of view, a building degrades and breaks down over time; environmental factors chip away at walls, rust steel, and warp wood. Is the building interacting with the environment? Many would contest that the it is not interacting but simply reacting because the effects are not reciprocal between the building and environment. Other than possibly at the sub-molecular level, the building is not having any effect on the environment. There is no circularity the behavior of the environment. Causality is easily ascribed in this example because the event is happening in a linear fashion and in a single direction (Haque 2). At its core, interaction concerns two or more entities mutually exchanging energy (i.e. between two humans, between two machines, or between human and machine) (Manovich 45). The key however is that these transactions should be in some sense circular otherwise they are what artist and engineer Jim Campbell calls merely reactive (7). Consider the following example: When you withdraw money from an A TM (cash machine), is it an interactive experience? (you input in some information and the desired amount of money is returned closing a circle). happens when we go into the bank to withdraw funds and actually talk to a live bank teller. W e walk up to the counter, provide the teller with the appropriate information, and then get the requested amount of cash from the person. Even though it is rather simple, a two way exchange of INTERACTION MANIFESTO
18 information has happened that resulted in both parties getting what they had anticipated (Haque 2). This idea of getting what is expected is instrumental in this transaction. There is an interaction, in means of a transmission of information across a divide that has resulted in a reciprocal thing being given back to us (Haque 2). Yet, the instructions that we gave the teller were expected (though it came from a list of possible standard scenarios) and in return we got what we expected (a sum of money). Some may call this type of transmission interactive, but it is, in my opinion, the weakest for of interaction. The strict boundaries that the process adhered to make it not nearly as interesting as some other forms of interaction. The process that an individual goes through with an A TM is very similar to the teller in that there are outcome depending on them. This can also be seen in the mechanical systems in a building, in which a thermostat allows a user to set a desired temperature and the system attempts to match the spatial conditions to what was requested. In these case, both input and output criteria are predetermined solely by the designer of the system. This kind of interaction is what designer Usman Haque calls a single-loop interaction(3). we actually engage the bank teller in conversation. This might be about some local news, or concerning Fig.10. Interaction diagram the nature of true interaction is continuous and circular, but not necessarily always verbal or linear
19 or simply just personal banter (which may happen after become familiar with the person). The important point is that the platform of the interaction is open, and through communication a connection is formed that is stimulating and productive. In this process new information will probably be delivered, which may interactions. Many psychologists and anthropologists have suggested that it is our propensity to encourage continual interactions that make us human (Haque 3). In such Haque-like multiple-loop interactive than in merely reactive systems: A provokes B, but B should be noted that hit-tech thermostat systems such as those that take into account other environment input data are not necessarily multiple-loop interactive systems. Multiple-loop interaction is not dependent upon complexity, it depends upon the openness and continuation of cycles of response. It also depends on the ability of each system, while interacting, to have access to and to modify each others goals (Haque 3). This is the kind of interaction that is just not present in a cash machine; it is, although, an interaction that I believe is possible to achieve with machines. In the three different scenarios: one in which there was no interaction; a second in which there was there was a productive and continual interaction. It is my contention that the third scenario is most fascinating and also the most constructive in terms of designed spaces and architecture. If the desire is to have the user of a building to have the sensation of agency and of contribution, then the most interesting situation would be a system in which individuals create their spaces through conversations with the environment they inhabit, where the progressive compilation of interactions builds new possibilities for sharing goals and sharing outcomes. In such architectural systems, the occupants themselves would be able to interaction being mutually or reciprocally active actually occur (www.m-w.com). GORDON PA SK Theres no such thing as input or output. . Every process produces a product. Every product is produced by a process. Gordon Pask. An approach to cybernetics 1961. Gordon Pask is most noted as being one of the pioneers of cybernetics. However, the Englishman was also a prominent scientist, inventor, designer, academic and author. His contribution to the study of control and
20 communication of both natural and mechanical goaldriven system has become the foundation for the modern conception. Of primary importance are his concepts involving second-order cybernetics as a basis for viewer, interactions, and participants in cybernetic cycles (Holland, Husbands, Wheeler 122). In 1968, the curator of Londons ICA, Jasia R eichardt, held an exhibit entitled Cybernetic Serendipity in which Gordon Pask was the keynote presenter. The interaction loop cybernetic systems on display at the show became the inspiration for many future interaction designers. Exhibits like Pasks S AKI, where stimuli initiate forces on the environment that lead to sensing and additional actions, established the basis for the Paskian environment (R eichardt 3436). He is also credited with the Conversation Theory, which is possible the most productive theory on multiparticipant and common framework interaction. dates back to the early 1960s, with the majority of the work being performed with the Architecture Association in London and the Architecture Machine Group at MIT (now know as the Media Lab). One of Pasks notable early projects was the Fun Palace, where he worked as the resident cybernetician for the architect Cedric of an architectural system that operates on the theory automated systems and devices, the building was a feedback control. Not only did the building act on the occupants, the occupants acted back. If the user wanted change, the architecture could be altered to do so. The building as tool conditioned human behavior but it also served the individuals changing intentions (Haque 46-48). While Pasks direct contributions to architecture established a foundation for dynamic, responsive and authentically interactive environments, they were seen by many as far too ahead of their time to be fully appreciated by the profession at large. Fortunately, the extent of Pasks other research, writing and artifact design/construction was massive. The huge collection of theories and experiments provides ample fotter for creative inquiry into architectural interactive systems. One such project of interest is a construct built in 1953 titled The MusiColour Machine. The MusiColour Machine was a performance device of actuators that illuminated in concert with audio stimuli provided by a human performer. Unlike the popular disco lights of today, MusiColour did not simply respond directly to audio in a preprogrammed or predetermined manner. Conversely, Pasks invention analyzed the frequency and rhythm produced by a musician, then outputted a unique light response. The nonrandom multicolored manipulation produced by the machine enabled it to become another performer in a performance. From moment to moment the MusiColour would be continually adjusting its output depending on the rhythms and frequencies it could hear. If, however, the audio input became overly static
21 or consistent, the machine would become bored and change the criteria for output. The MusiColour listened for certain frequencies, responded and then got bored and listened elsewhere, producing as well as stimulating improvisation, and reassembled its language much like a jazz musician might in conversation with other band members (Haque 48). The interesting aspect of this project is that the output action (multicolored lights) only occurs after the users (the performers) enter into a conversation with the machine. Due to this, the process is varied enough to keep the musician engaged but not varied to the point of appearing totally random. The way in which the criteria of novelty and boredom are calculated is key to the system (Pask 144-145). This is continually to a response. An architecture constructed with this oriented methods commonly used by reaction based environmental systems. Pasks concept would constantly promote novelty and enable interactive relationships with human users. Many of todays interactive systems are not nearly as rich and complex as the creations of Gordon Pask. Most of the modern machines are prescriptive in their reactions, producing deterministic responses in a amount of data that the user simply wonders through until it has all been revealed. The concept of these works is actually rooted in the philosophy pertinent of the industrial revolution; user does x to machine, machine responds with y action. It is an unsustainable because the machine is ultimately going to experience situations it was not preprogrammed to process (Haque 48). Therefore, the individual is at the mercy of the machine. T ruly interactive dialog is not accomplished in this type of environment because nothing novel can emerge when all the possible outcomes have been programmed in advance. For Pask it was about creating evolving and unique conversations between human and machine in a valid sense. It is not about having a concealed amount of information that is just waiting to be revealed, but rather about creating a holistic data exchange. In an architectural sense, this approach enables occupants of a building to communicate directly with their environment in a way that is more than trivial. Paskionian principles would promote an environment in which the individual could work with the artifact in a constructive, engaging and productive way. Imagine a building that responded to your needs, not a preprogrammed generic abstraction of you, but actually your personal input. An interactive system like this would be able to provide the circularity necessary to make it more than simply a reactive element. A faade designed in this manner would go beyond the A TM metaphor, and engage the user in a multiple-loop and reciprocal set of interactions.
22 THEUSER: The User is an important term when a situation or environment becomes interactive. In the world of human-computer interface the user is a continually evolving concept. In the past decade there has been a surge in research and development focused on the design process has evolved from this growing concern. performed by Jan Chipchase from the User Experience Group of Nokia reach in Japan (16), and Aditya Dev Sood in the Centre for Knowledge Societies in India who works with users in emerging markets. . to conduct contextual research studies to help technology companies determine the kind of devices, interfaces, features, services and power needs these groups of users require (www.cks.in/). These individuals propagate a design approach that places importance on the actual needs of a user group. In a user-centered communicate with the device. The prime objective is to allow new users interface with the system in a natural manner rather than being forced to learn a nonnative protocol. Overall, this means of designing for user control is successful, but in the realm of architecture there are a few potential risks. Most of the problems in this approach to architectural design happen when the people are considered mere occupants. First, the dichotomy between production and use, and the gap separating them, is often stressed when focusing on the occupant. Second, as Usman Haque states, by taking the minimumcommon-denominator approach it may preclude the challenge of people learning a new skill that might open up new informational or constructional possibilities. These two factors encourage the notion of design as problem solving the problems they are having and then develops a solution for them), but discourages users from proactively operating in an authentically productive capacity, potentially learning to help themselves(27). In a nontraditional architecture problem like an interactive faade system, this notion of the users ability to play a proactive role is a prominent concern. Since the role of the designer and the the user periodically change throughout the production and implementation of the product, the system must intuitively respond to existence there is a different designer and user group, and at each phase the needs of both may vary between installations. Primarily, there are four main entities that participate in the design and use of the faade system; the product manufacturer, the architect, the client, and the viewer. With the exception of the manufacturer, all of the user groups act simultaneously as designers. For example,
23 the client commissioning the architect acts continually as the designer and end user. Through communication with the architect and product manufacturer they play a direct role in the design and function of the faade, as operator of the software they have control over the main occupant they interact with the wall on a one-toone level. In this arrangement, there is no entity that is solely a user. Ideally, at every phase and for every individual there is a design aspect to the system that allows for personal control. Kinetic and interactive architecture breaks the molds of the static nature of building, thus reducing many of the design problems inherent in the user-centered approach. R esearch in social computing by Anne Galloway, lecturer in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Carleton University, suggest this type of non-linear usability is crucial in creating a human-device interaction that is successful. She believes that planning user adaption and control into the initial conception is the only way to design for the end user (10). By doing so and creating an effective human-device interaction for every type of user would ensure that the system is accessible to the largest demographic. In order to create the type of interactive environment in which the user enters into a reciprocal conversation with the device, the technology present must be able to holistically process and output data. The goal is a symbiotic interaction between both human and machine.
24 The world in which we inhabit, through its constant evolving and direct personal impact, is a perpetual design project. It is one in which there are many different contributors of a plethora of preferences. There is no one individual or group that is responsible for how things develop, nor would one entity be able to handle the task. It is only through a holistic intermingling of various races, genders, personalities, and ideas that our environment is collectively shaped. Our surroundings for the most part are an open source platform of continual vicissitude. Computer language has taken much of its vernacular from architecture, now it is time to use some computer terminology to describe the way the built environment may perform. Historically, architecture is a static art, it is the equivalent of computer hardware. materials like concrete, steel, and brick (Haque 14). Once constructed, most building remain frozen in the place like unmoving sentinels on the horizon. Conversely, if one thinks of the non-physical aspects of a space (smells, sounds, thermal qualities, even electromagnetic waves), than you can suggest that architecture can also be compared to software. Combining the two analogies, architecture as both hardware and software, we can picture the entire experience like an operating system which allows people to design personalized programs for interaction. Architecture that emphasizes structure is focusing on the hardware design of the building, while architecture that creates softspace is similar to computer software. Hardspace is the physical framework, and softspace is what animates it and allows for people to become integral parts in their environment (Bullivant 27). Integration of both systems is the key to an effective architecture operating system. Since the design on our environment is a collective endeavor, the computer term open source has interesting correlations to the realm of architecture. At some point, OPEN SOURCE ARCHITECTURE
25 everyone has been a pervader of space. Individuals paint walls, hang pictures, furnish in all types of ways, throw parties in homes, burn incense, and use showers as karaoke booths. Some people even go as far as to physically modify their surroundings with additions, subtractions, and improvements, without the need for an architect. However, most people do not consider what they are doing as design. Even in spaces that are architect designed, technologic devices like the thermostat allow the occupant to be the primary controller of their environment. This control, or design, of space renders much of what the architect does as obsolete. So what can the architect do? In the softspace architecture the production happens at the moment of use. When an architect designs these types of interaction systems the production is in the hands of the occupant. Architectural design then is providing the meta-programs that provide the platform for users to construct their own individual programs. This chorography of senses can be compared to the operating system of a computer, which is the software that runs as the foundation for all the other programs (i.e., L ynx, Windows, Mac OS). It provides the platform to enable a multitude of architectural programs to be executed. In this idea, the user is the designer of their space, architects just provide the meta-systems. These systems also bring into question the role of the designer in creating meta-systems that cater to creativity, promote the customization of personal space, and permeate the notions of individual logic. The dilemma in this process is designing interfaces controls that allow Open source in the software universe refers to a type of source code (with which software is designed and built) that is accessible to all; that is freely distributed as and derivatives as long as the result is equally open; that is non-discriminatory; where patching is possible without disturbing the integrity of the main work; and that is technology neutral. Similarly, an open source architecture requires a framework in which the distinction between those who design and those who use is replaced by participatory system that encourages a constructed project to be constantly patched or performed (Bullivant 27). There are several ways in which architects can take these concepts of open source and apply them to their intuitive ways that non-architects can participate more intimately with the design of their environment. This can be done within the current paradigms by creating a stronger project, or by implementing new technological interfaces for design. However, a more profound change toward open architecture will occur when the discourse on the very ideas and notions of the profession are opened up. Pragmatic communication within the modern architectural
26 practice will only go so far. Second, a new approach to the way in which the designer designs must be implemented. In order for an open architecture to exist, the architect must design a by the inhabitants or the environment itself. A spatial operating system works on the idea that everyone is a designer, therefore, it is imperative that the architect not design an interface that controls the process omnisciently from above. R ather than dictating in this nature, the architect would only create the base upon which other co-designers build the rest. In this scenario, the design professional sets the stage for the actors to freely and openly perform their personal interplay. However, just because everyone has the option to be a designer in an open source architecture, it does not mean that everyone would do so. The theory merely offers a system that is open enough to allow for anyone to participate in, but does not mean that everyone has to become a programmer. Many people simply like the fact that something can be altered, or that its source code is available. Usually information that is open is more trust worthy; there is an innate aspect of distrust to something that is kept hidden. It really comes down to having access to the processnot that all people would necessarily know what to technically and communal system that is open to all. After all, as Mitch K apor, inventor of the immensely popular Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet program and founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), a public interest group working for the civil liberties of people in information technologies, stated, Architecture is politics (Mau 91). And open source architecture is a democratic process that exists in space as well as time: an architecture that is designed by the user for their personal use.
27 Fig.11. Open-source diagram
28 When engaged in playing a game, there has to be a set goal; in rugby, it is to score a tri. Without this desired outcome, the strategy of the game is impossible of sustainable practices as, A delightfully diverse, safe, healthy, and just world, with clean water, air, soil, and power, that is economically, equitably, ecologically, and elegantly enjoyed(23). He goes on to suggest that through the application of nature to human needs, we can create a model where waste equals food. Instead of disposing of waste, methods can be devised to use it as an input. McDonoughs Next Industrial R evolution proposes that this process can be accomplished through industry and environment uniting in a synergetic and harmonious manner (24-30). In 1962 Francis Crick, who is credited with the discovery of the double helix of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), put forward a similar concept in his writing about physiological vitality. His research indicated that it must have a free form of energy, it must grow, and it must have an open matrix of chemicals. If we use the it receives all of its energy in the form of solar radiation from the sun, and it has an open matrix of chemicals plant, its reproduction, and its ecosystem. If we apply can be put in the same type of cycle. The outcome of this comparison is what can be referred to as technical nutrients (Mau 181). T ake aluminum for example. Humans have produced over 690 million tons of aluminum since 1888 and we still can account for over 450 million tons of it (Mau 181). Therefore, the idea is that there is the possibility products of consumption, which are literally biologically consumed and go back to the soil. The second is products SUST AINABILITY
29 of service that we want to use, but not necessarily the molecular potential. With something like a microwave or a school bus or a carpet, the user is not a consumer but a customer. In these examples, at the end of the things lifespan, it should become technical and biological nutrition by returning back to the industry forever(Mau 190). This idea of an endless cycle of design and production promotes a major change in manufacturing from the wasteful traditions of the 19th and 20th centuries. The new sustainable strategy ensures a continuous construction/deconstruction process that circulates the product and its elemental matterrather than recycling itin a perpetual upcycle (Mau 181). Since every year in the United States, 136 million tons of construction and demolition waste are tossed waste, it is instrumental that methods are taken from the beginning to address waste. Additionally, architecture has a responsibility to be a leading entity in the support of sustainable energy collection and consumption. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sustainable Construction and Building Initiative (SBCI) estimates the building sector consumes 30-40% of total global energy on an annual basis. A net-zero energy and waste protocol should be a mandatory requirement of any new architectural product (McDonough 33-37). Fortunately, there are already numerous manufactures setting the precedent for the Next Industrial R evolution. Supply chain tools by Nike Fig.12. Herman-Miller chair a staple in the product world for upcycling and sustainable design (http://www.hermanmiller.com/ Products/Aeron-Chairs)
30 monitor all the material in its total supply chain and inventory. The Herman Miller furniture company now has a no pvc, cradle-to-cradle, chair that can be used in worlds predominate chemical producer, is pioneering intelligent chemistry with a line of polymer protocols and has since developed numerous similar products. The Instituto de Empresa in Spain, which according the Wall Street Journal is the top ranked business school in Europe, has begun offering new coursework in ecointelligent cradle-to-cradle management practices. And Ford Motors is developing the Model U to succeed the Model T which is a car whose components can be returned either to the industry or the soil (Mau 187). In an architecturel product market, where the architect is depending on the manufacture to produce sustainable solutions, there is extra amount of emphasis placed on company to exceed performance standards. The building industry, especially post economic recession, has to step up and take a moral stand on the grounds of sustainability. It would be professionally and consciously irresponsible to continue proprogating the old, excessively wasteful, practices of times past. In addition, the modern customer is becoming more ecologically savy and demanding these stratigies to be implemented. T aking que from other companies, like Hermin Miller and Steelcase, product manufactures have to take the necessary measures to bring their products and services up to the stringent concepts presented by activists component ensures that the building starts in life from step-one as a environmentally conscious entity.
31 THE GALLERIA SEOUL, SOUTH K OREA Architect: UN Studio Lighting designer: R ogier van der Heide, Arup The Galleria was a boring concrete box prior to the faade renovations performed by UNStudio and Arup Lighting. It existed in a major metropolitan area of Seoul, but lacked the draw that the vendors needed. In an effort to prevent the building from permanently closing, the owners held an invitation only contest to renovate it. The winning design by UNStudio and Arup Lighting has transformed the featureless concrete box into vivid light wall that is capable of displaying patterns and messages. The faade system that was designed for this building is composed primarily of acid etched glass Fig.13. Galleria presentation boardPRECEDENT STUDIES
32 disks. The 850mm diameter disks are structurally held by a self supporting steel framework that has been attached to the original concrete face. These disks are grouped into pods of three on a single steel strut, which is then suspended off a lattice of diagonal box section components. All of the lattice elements are protruded from the existing concrete walls by brackets fastened to I-section posts. Arguably the most riveting aspect of the new faade is a highly advanced LED system. Each of the 4,340 disks has a controllable luminaire illumination mechanism. These luminaires are an innovative lighting solution, developed with Xilver Lighting in the Netherlands, which have the ability to output 16 million different colors of light with only four LEDs. In order to address the common pink and magenta hues that occur when trying to create pastel and white shades, each luminaire contains a LED set of two greens, a blue, and a red. The whole lighting system is mounted in a circular aluminum casting, a heat sink that allows for the dissipation of residual heat buildup. glass disks appear spherical because the luminaires project the light off center onto the surface. This angle, as well as numerous other factors, is controlled by a dedicated actuator mounted behind each pod of three disks. The control system was designed and supplied by E:cue of Germany, and is capable of operating 15,000 Fig.14. Galleria presentation board 2
33 different DMX channels simultaneously. The lighting most elaborate ever conceived. According to the lighting designer R odier van been well liked by the occupants and viewers of the grown exponentially, and the retail mall is no longer also become somewhat of a regional landmark and attraction, with people regularly stopping to look, take pictures, and enjoy the elaborate light shows (http:/ bdonline.co.uk) TRUTEC Barkow Leibinger Architects Seoul, South K orea 11 story steel frame The rational building massing is very beautifully detailed and carefully developed, commented the jury. For a relatively modest building, it has an incredible street presence through a subtle manipulation of a Fig.15. T rutec presentation board
34 simple kit of parts (http://architectureweek.com). The T ruec building features a unique and distinctive facade of projecting mirrored-glass bays. This custom building envelope was designed by Arup Facade Engineering, and consists of a patterned array of two window types a 3D panel, used in two interior. The face of the just over 55-metre-high cube is composed almost entirely of crystalline glass elements that, as well as mirroring the environmental aspects of the building, also refract them in kaleidoscopic way. This stunning visual is accomplished by way of storey high discs that are segmented into polygonal pieces. Each of these pieces measures 4.20 x 2.70 meters and add up to 20cm to the outside (http://architectureweek. com). The visual effect of this orientation of folded three-dimensional elements is an abstract breaking up of the buildings surface into pixel-like nodes. be a conglomeration of different elements that were assembled in a random pattern. However, there is a to establish continuity with surrounding structures, that creates a logical matrix of modules. The molded design of the faade is actually just systematic variations on algorithms the extrusions were precisely mapped prior to manifestation. The outcome is a building that retains Fig.16. T rutec presentation board 2 panel system
35 that changes how both it and the world it gives are to be experienced. PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH LABORA TORIES ArchitectSauerbruch Hutton Berlin, Germany The relatively new Anglo-German partnership of Matthias Sauerbruch and Louisa Hutton is building reputation for projects that are marked by formal innovation, sustainability and an abundance of color. They take uninspiring architecture typologies, like factories, into interesting and unique buildings. Projects such as the Pharmacological R esearch Laboratory in Berlin exhibit a resourceful response to site and program, demonstrating a structural polychromy that generates a desire a building with a strong visual identity, they are not for the lighthearted (http://sauerbruchhutton.de/). The Pharmacological R esearch Laboratories looks like an inhabited Mondrian painting. This project is part of the research campus of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma. The building is a long seven-storey structure Fig.17. Pharmacological R esearch Laboratories presentation board
36 several paths that transverse the campus. The building consists of a simple volume with a glass skin, onto which a polychromatic pattern has been printed. The pattern of glass panels was designed based on an enlargement of a microscopic image of one of the drugs produced by the pharmaceutical company. Each of these individual panels has been colored using a fritting pattern and the reverse of dots. There are a total of eight different solid color panels on the faade. As an architectural element, the matrix of panels unites pragmatic level it operates as a sun shading device. Each of the 2,892 panels acts as a means to control the amount of solar light and radiation that enters the building (Gray 11). While the colored fritting pattern appears stunning on the exterior of the building, on the interior the impact of these opaque colors is rather minimal. The light passes through the window through the transparent areas only, the spaces between the enameled frits, so that the inside spaces are not affected by the color of the panel. Additionally, each panel has the ability to independently move in relation to the angle of the sun. The effect of the panel system on the overall appearance of the faade is one functionality of the faade is just as innovative and captivating as the aesthetic qualities. Fig.18. Pharmacological R esearch Laboratories presentation board 2 facade to wall details and glass connection details
37 LIVINGSHADE Adam Lassy and Adi Marom The Living Shade was exhibited at ITP Winter Show 2008. Students Adam Lassy and Adi Marom produced a kinetic shade device that regulates ambient light amounts within a space dependent on the brightness levels outside. The shading system is made from an group of units that can open and close independently. As each set of units transform, they can make a living shade system that breathes light into the room. The shade acts as an interactive dimmer, so that when it gets lighter outside the units open/close in a higher speed or different patterns. While the matrix is indeed interesting, there foremost, is the use of a rigid aluminum framing system. All of the units are adhered to a structural aluminum framing support system. While the frame is technically prospects of the project. From a monetary standpoint, the aluminum is the most expensive part of the project and adds unneeded expenditure. Secondly, the size and shape of the shading system is directly proportional Therefore, a separate and custom aluminum frame must be built for each and every application of the shading device. Also, the means of control of the system seem rather rudimentary. While it claims to be interactive, just the exterior ambient light levels is that the shading the type of people that want to maximize the amount of solar radiation that enters a room in order to cut down on lighting expenses or increase thermal comfort. In addition, the LivingShade unit is only functional for a portion of the day. What happens at night when the there are minimal would be completely open. Personally, I think that night time is probably when most people desire privacy and would like most shades closed. There doesnt seem to be any fail-safes or customizable aspects in order to address these key concerns.
38 PRECEDENT CONCLUSION The three examples studied above demonstrate the importance that is placed upon the face of a building. In the noted cases, the faade is the distinguishing characteristic to an otherwise conventional structure. Through the use of various architectural methods (color, movement, lights, solar manipulation) the designers were able to create a totally unique experience for the inhabitants and spectators of the building. Similar to the common phrase beauty is only skin deep, much of the aesthetic considerations of architecture are placed on the skin of a building, where they can be viewed by the largest amount of viewers. Due to this widespread its outer appearance (at least arbitrarily), as is evident by the three case examples above that were extensively documented in concern to their exterior presence but had little mention of interior or spatial considerations. It should be noted that two of the three case studies (T rutec and Pharma labs) had faade systems that go beyond the realm of visual stimulation to encompass functionality as well. In both buildings, there are integrated solar mitigation measures that enable the faade to have a direct impact on the quality of the interior spaces. This feature is important to note because it is an intrinsically interactive element incorporated into an otherwise static building. Although this interactive aspect is rather elementary, only responding to a single set of input data and reacting in a predetermined manner, it is still an interesting example of how a piece of architecture sure method of contextually integrating a building into its The idea of contextual integration starting at the building exterior is a key concept in creating any faade system. However, the way in which it was accomplished in the T rutec and Pharma project differs in method then how it would occur with an architectural product, being that one is a custom application whereas the other is a generic designed faade is made for a certain time and place, and is thus easily situated in its environment. However, the mass produced product is initially manufactured without consideration as to where it will be placed, and it is only through preconceived openness of manipulation that it can transcend into a unique manifestation. It is in the concept, therefore, and not in the means to produce the result, that these case studies can provide precedent to this thesis. Outside the conceptual, these projects are very different in the way in which the faade is designed, produced, constructed, and used. Whereas the custom project and are one-off facades, the product that this thesis is proposing would be a system that is inherently universal design objectives. It is a system that exhibits the aesthetic and functional aspects of the aforementioned facades but
39 in a manner that is mass producible, replicable, and customizable. Through the use of a programmable kit of parts and a structural module, the system has the ability to give any building the dynamic characteristics presented in these case studies, and so much more. .
40 The site selection process for this project is not R ather, the purpose of this research is to analyze possible sets of generic conditions, which would be conducive to different aspects of an interactive faade be a mass manufactured product that can be located in a multitude of contexts and regions. The desired goal is to create a set of design possibilities that allow for the system to be incorporated universally, yet also individually, at a global level. of this thesis. Each location represents a set of contextual issues that can be addressed by part or all of an interactive and customizable facade system. While some features, and thus results, are shared amoung place or situation. Fig.19. Global graphic the applications and potential for an interactive facade system are universal and globally applicableSITE ANAL YSIS
41 MADISON SQU ARE P ARK: New York City, New York + Public Installation Detached from Building + R esponsive to contextual issues + T emporary T ransient + Ability to cater to the site + Facilitate spontaneous interaction + Independent of any additional functions Historic Madison Square Park is the cultural node of Manhattans Flatiron District consisting of a combination of gardens, lawns and cultural programs for all ages. The park is roughly 6.2 acres located between 23rd and 26th streets and Fifth and Madison avenues. In addition to the lush garden-like environment, the park also has a comprehensive art program. The Madison Square Arts is a free open air gallery that takes place throughout the park. Periodically, artist and performers are invited to exhibit their work in the no-walls gallery. The venue provide for oneon-one interaction with the art pieces as well as a constant stream of viewers. T o date, numerous artists, sculptures, installationists, performers, and musicians have showcased their work in the park. Fig.20. Madison Square Park presentation board
42 As a public installation detached from a building, Madison Square Park would acts as an ideal venue for an interactive wall system. Since the system is a self contained unit, there is no reason that is must be physically connected with anything, including a building. The module nature of the product enables variations in the way it is pieced together. Depending different contextual issue. The module design of the wall also gives the system an innate transience which is ideal for a temporary art installation. Most importantly, the nature of the product, being interactive and reactive, has the ability to facilitate spontaneous conversation with park patrons. In a setting like Madison Square Park, this interactive element has the potential to be a UNITED ARAB EMIRA TES Abu Dhabi, Dubai + Status S ymbol visual icon + Continually upgradable + Visually stimulating + Self promoting + Indication of wealth The United Arab Emirates (U AE) (Arabic: idah) is a federation of seven emirates situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman and Saudi Arabia. The U AE consists of seven states, termed emirates, which are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Quwain, R as al-Khaimah and Fujairah. The capital and second largest city of the United Arab Emirates is Abu Dhabi. There are various deviating estimates regarding the actual growth rate of the nations GDP. However, all available statistics indicate that the U AE currently has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. In architectural terms, the surplus of capital available in the
43 U AE has lead to the largest construction undertaking in recent history. During the years of 2002-2006, there were more construction workers in Abu Dhabi and Dubai then actual citizens. Already the area is home to the worlds tallest tower (Burj Dubai), and has plans of hosting an even taller structure of 1200 meters (30% taller than Burj Dubai). The magnitude of new construction is paralleled by a regional desire to outdo the previous structures. Innovation and experimentation are integral in every major construction project in the area. In a building environment like what is present in the U AE, architecture becomes a status symbol. As the country establishes a name for themselves on the global platform, they look to their buildings as a means of demonstrating wealth and stature. The physical manifestation of their ideals through tangible objects is very much a part of their society. In this type of market, architecture that is visually stimulating is of upmost importance. Products like a kinetic grabbing is something that an interactive faade would provide in a relatively easy manner. The ability of the faade product to be upgraded, both physically and software, is another appealing factor to the U AE market. Constantly seeking to be on the cutting edge is a trait that many of the projects in that area poses. Unfortunately, the majority of buildings are static structures that do not provide opportunity to be easily changed after completion. Having a faade system that is upgradable would allow the clients to continually have the newest and most technologically advance components. Overall, would be interested in an interactive faade product for the Fig.21. U AE presentation board
44 MONTREAL METRO Montreal, Canada + Public T ransit + Station Identify + R esponsive to train schedules + Opportunity for public interaction + Kinetic manifestation of train movement + Establish character of place The Montreal Metro system is comprised of are decorated with over a hundred works of public art, such as sculptures, stained glass, and murals by noted artists worldwide. The city has encouraged the incorporation of public art since 1967, one year after the opening of the system. The design of the Metro Unlike other cities metros, nearly all station entrances in Montreal are completely enclosed: usually in small, separate buildings. Montreals metro is renowned for its architecture and public art. Under the direction of Drapeau, a competition among Canadian architects was held to decide the design of each station, ensuring that every station was built in a different style by a different architect. Several stations, such as Berri-UQAM are important examples of modernist architecture, and various system-wide design choices were informed by the International Style. Along with the Stockholm Metro, Montreal pioneered the installation of public art in the metro among capitalist countries, a practice that beforehand was mostly found in Socialist and Communist nations (the Moscow Metro being a case in point). More works of public art, such as sculpture, stained glass, and murals by noted Quebec artists, including members of the famous art movement, the Automatistes. Some of the most important works in the Metro include the stainedglass window at Champ-de-Mars station, the masterpiece of major Quebec artist Marcelle Ferron; and the Guimard entrance at Square (Laprise 22-34). In the early years of the Montreal Metros life, a unique mode of advertising was used. In some downtown tunnels, cartoons depicting an advertisers product were inscribed on the walls of the tunnel at the level of the cars windows. T oday known as tunnel movies or tunnel advertising, they have been installed in many cities subways around the world in recent years (Laprise 78-81). As these tunnel movies are inventive business strategies exploiting the trains innate property of movement, so to can a kinetic wall system act as a manifestation of locomotion. However, instead of acting in a passive manner, the wall system has the ability to actively inform the passengers about the motion of the
45 mechanism, schedule indicator, condition response, metro station would be insure that the wall is has the In a metro system that strive for individual station identity, the faade system provides the means to customize the features. Even if multiple walls were used in numerous stations, each one could be wall necessarily have to perform the same function or each one could provide enough sensorial stimulation to give a unique and memorable character to its respective location. In the public realm, interaction is a trademark feature of the wall system. The ability for the general metro patron to provide their input, whether physically or virtually, is a way that the individual can actively user interaction is a trait of the system, enabling the conversation to go beyond the wall to include dialog between more than one passenger. Unlike Dubai, the metro example is less about the cursory features of the dynamic interactions between site and inhabitants. Fig.22. Montreal Metro presentation board
46 ST ADSHUIS CITY HALL Schakelstede,Netherlands + Civic Center + Interaction with community + Content citizen controlled + Democracy incarnate + Platform between government and public + Iconic presence of community center The Stadshuis, City Hall, of Nieuwegein is a mix of tradition civic spaces and non-typical function. rooms, a library, a multi-cultural center, and commercial facilities. Due to the mix of uses, the building has become an essential part to the citys fabric and a part of everyday life for its citizens (3xn.du). The city hall is the keystone in a plan to densify the city center, and will act as the central node to unite the complex context. Adjacent to the building is a large open-air public square that hosts a multitude of regional events. This space, along with the public areas of city hall and neighboring cafes, is the main gathering area of Nieuwegein. The new Stadshuis seeks to be the focal point for public life and acts as the mediator between the citizen and government. As the architecture A public building provides the physical contact between blood is the most important interface in a democratic society (3xn.du). As a means to strengthen this contact between citizen and state, the addition of a interactive faade system would facilitate one-to-one communication amongst all parties. While the current faade of the building is aesthetically pleasing, subjectively, it does not actively engage the public. Its static nature is purely architectural metaphor and function, acting a rain screen and building wall. The proposed interactive faade product has the ability to take make the face of city hall truly democratic. Through various mediums of communication, including the internet and physical contact, the citizens of Nieuwegein would be able to be the conductors of the iconic presence. Software integration could easily allow any number of people to submit visualizations to the government for display. The walls could change depending on season, event, purpose, or desired effect; the possibilities of use are nearly limitless. Any media, from text to complex video, could be a input for the actuator system of the faade. In the most basic sense, it could be democracy incarnate in architectural form.
47 PRADA FLAGSHIP STORE T okyo, Japan + Store Front + Owner Controlled + Upgrade to match current trends + Visual icon for a visual market + R esponsive to viewers interior+exterior + S ynchronize globally with other stores In 1998 Prada initiated a campaign to change the shopping experience. A key concept in this new strategy is buildings designed by innovative architects. Prada T okyo epicenter in the Aoyama district is the companys second for the area of Japan known for its prominent couture and street fashion. Prada T okyo is an extrinsic prism that sticks out, even in the chaotic T okyo landscape. The experience of shopping within the building is a blend of retail and culture on a platform of kaleidoscopic structure. The designing architect, H&DM, created a tessellating rhombus Fig.23. Stadshuis City Hall presentation board
48 exoskeleton which acts as the main visual element as well as the primary support structure. In an region know for emphasizing appearance, and a client whose sole proprietary interests is visual appeal, the Prada expectations for now. The Prada T okyo store is in an area where trends change at an overly accelerated pace, and made for a client whose whole business plan is based on being the the new building, which is hip and stylish now, becomes outdated and yesterdays news? The nature of the design makes the form completely integral to the structure. There is no plausible way in which the visual appearance of the building can be changed without serious renovation or demolition. The faade system that this thesis is suggesting could solve these problems through the innovative use of the customizable module. Since the client ultimately has control over the system, they are in command of how it looks, what it does, and how it performs. If Prada wanted the stores appearance to match that of its newest product line, then the software of the system would enable them to do so. If all the Prada stores worldwide desired to be showing the same visuals at the same time, they could all easily network the individual facades together, enabling synchronized behaviors and performance. If the owner wanted the exterior of the building to mimic some special event happening inside the structure, a system of controls and sensors could enable a dynamic inter-architecture dialog. And if the faade simply became outdated due to time, the actual prominence, the visual draw of the customer is of primary importance. In many cases the retail experience is about what happens before the customer enters the store. The window shopping expectations generally affect the nature of the actually shopping experience to the extent that it can solidify a sale. The era of the billboard is over, it is now time for the storefront to start addressing the viewer on a personal and interactive level.
49 ISSUES TO ADDRESS: How the exterior of a building interacts with the viewer, client, and surrounding space? interaction? How can an interactive display become integrated into the buildings architecture and not be simply a billboard posted on a building? What if a building could be upgraded with the click of a mouse? In what way can the public play a proactive part in the appearance of architecture? The new generations of people are native to the digital age. What types of media do they create and use? modern architectural ornament? PROGRAMMING SCALES: The goal for this project is to design a system of modules that can be programmed at different scales and in alternate ways to make customizable facades. Ideally, the faade should have the ability to be manipulated to match the conditions presented. This means that at every stage of its conceptions and implementation its must be able to change to meet the needs of the particular situation. Allowing for programming opportunities (both in the traditional sense and in a more progressive manner like open-source implications) is one of the prime ways that this will be accomplished. The continuous programming approach is segmented into different scales of the faade from macro to micro and beyond:PROGRAM
50 1) The overall building face At this scale the architect has the ability to design the macro appearance of the structure and its functions. By using a combination of modules performing different tasks, the faade can take on different aesthetic conditions and perform different functions. For example, say that there are three adaptable modules that a designer can choose from. If one designer wanted a building faade that performed a single function and had a monolithic appearance, a single module could be duplicated structure and deliver the anticipated result. However, if another designer wanted to address different aspects of the building with different functions or appearance, then they could use all three modules in a unique way (i.e. one module to address the needs of the buildings body of the building, and one to exploit the conditions present at the top of the structure. The classical tripart approach). 2) The module The next scale down would be the actual module itself. While certain feature of the module would remain constant (connections, joints, meet the needs of the designer or client. In this way, the product retains some of the features that make it universal while also supplying a means for customization. An example of this would be the way in which an opening could be addressed. Some may want the module around a door to contain sensors that detect the presence of a person, while others may rather that module to contain an actuator in the place of the sensor instead. 3) The software This area of programming uses the (contrary to how architects usually use it). Since a is integral to the concept, the faade will be able to be literally programmed to perform in alternate ways. end user can always change certain qualities of the building/space they inhabit. Sometimes a physical change of the building is not feasible or warranted. With a programmable interface to communicate with the system an individual can propagate change without any physical alteration. TYPES OF INTERACTION Viewer + faade (video/motion sensing. T ouch sensitive) Owner + faade (owner can cater facades performance to relate directly to the viewer they are trying to reach)
51 Viewer + viewer (play games, send messages, display personal animations) Owner + viewer (owner can customize and Owner can change, upgrade, and control the system at any time) Faade + building (how does it affect the spaces inside the building? How is it structurally attached?) Faade + nature (collection of solar energy and water. Can it manipulate the light inside the building?) environment? What contextual issues can it address) Fig.24. Interaction diagram owner + viewer, one talks many listen Fig.25. Interaction diagram facade + nature Fig.26. Interaction diagram facade + viewer
52 Fig.27. Interaction diagramViewer + Viewer, talking through the facade Fig.28. Interaction diagram facade + building, reciprocally active and fully intergrated
53 DYNAMIC ELEMENTS Create time based interaction Use physical and visual movement as means to establish connection with viewer Has to be easily customized and changed R eacts to stimuli, i.e. the viewer, owner, weather, climate, light, ect. Each module controlled individually in the movement of the whole PRODUCTION Mass manufacturable Designed with the computer so that it can be built by the computer Inter-global/interconnected business model Collaboration with other technology leaders Minimize the amount of on-site construction time and labor SUST AINABILITY S ystem must have a net zero energy balance. Whatever energy the system expends, it must in turn produce Its ability to perform kinetically/visually is based on its ability to perform in obtaining energy Use of sustainable or recycled materials Minimize production and building waste Design to be upcycled COMPUTER INTEGRA TION The computer must play an integral part in the following areas: Design Manufacturing Assembly Diagnostics Interaction
54 Client control Ordering/customer service MODULE Set module size for smallest iteration Module can be repeated and assembled in an Each module is easily attached and assembled to another module Complexity of interaction is based on complexity/ amount of modules turn-key product module. Each individual module contains everything that is required for it to work independent or as part of a group. Simple plug and play. CUSTOMIZA TION Both hardware and software are easily customizable Can be upgraded when future versions or new updates are released Can change from owner to owner Internet support community. Open source software that allows individual the opportunity to customize and make publically available. (i.e., if 10 faade units are installed worldwide with each generating 10 people who make their own interactions, that would yield a net of 100 shared applications) MODERN ORNAMENT What is the modern conception of architectural delight? One of the objectives of this project is to answer this question and explore new ideas to make architecture appealing in a temporal sense. Since the face of a building has historically tended to portray the new faade system have inherent features that allow designers to shape aesthetics.
55 It would be possible to describe everything would be without meaning, as if you described a Beethoven symphony as a variation of wave pressure. . [which is why] imagination is more important than knowledge -Albert Einstein (9) DESIGN NARRA TIVE: I awaken. Opening my eyes on a new day I look out at the landscape before me and see my city. My city is my home; I am a creature in its habitat of steel and mortar. The giant sleeping sentinels I stare at on the horizon are the constant entities of this environment. Every day I venture out and move between, around, and through them. Monolithic manifestations of mans inextinguishable striving and aptitude, they are the both the stage and the background of my existence. They play such a fundamental role in establishing my home and thus my life. Yet, as I gaze upon them this morning, I feel that and inconsequential. As a participant in a global culture alter everything from my eye color to the software on my phone is no more than a minute away. Change abides the to the timer I set that turns off my lights at night, my life is continually being manipulated through my direct actions. But the matrix of built form that is my city remains the same, day in and day out, regardless of my personal concerns or actions. As I step onto the subway car that will take me into the heart of my city, these feelings of inconsequentiality preside. I feel that, much like this ride, the relationship I SCHEMA TIC DESIGN
56 have with the dominate players of the built world is a one on my life, but there being nothing I can reciprocally give back. The train speeds ahead, adhering rigidly to its tract, I sit passively and get carried along. My destination is alive. Emerging from the of activity as people move with a velocious pace. Everywhere you look the built environment is aiding in the activities of the people. There is a constant and with the sidewalk and road acting as the substrate that connects door to door. Some people sit on the stairs of a nearby entranceway while others eat lunch under its particularly large overhang. But in this scene of emanate use there is an evident juxtaposition of vibrant activity against a motionless backdrop. It is clear to me that in such an environment it is the architecture that is subservient to the people. There is no change in it demeanor or form whether someone sits to enjoy its shade or walks past without even giving it a second glance. periphery. As I turn and see what it is, my mind is instantly drawn to its innately different qualities. Like a single color photograph in a sea of black & white, I am immediately enticed by its ability to stick out from the ordinary. Upon further investigation, my curiosity for this foreign entity rises. It seems that I am looking at about 5 stories of the top a building, approximately three blocks away. There are other structures between me and the focus of my interest, so that only the top section of the building is visible. But from where I am standing it appears to be continually morphing, changing subtly in response to some unknown factor. I stand there, now the frozen form, as the face of this new thing dances on the horizon. I feel connected to it. Even from a distance it seems that there is something about what it is doing that has a direct effect on the way I feel. No, wait, that is not it. The opposite is occurring, it is what I feel that is affecting this moving faade: the wind, the climate, the natural environment. As I feel the breeze touch my skin, I can see that it is touching the skin of the building. As my pours open and contract to the stimuli of the wind gently passing over the nerves, the faade is reacting. W e are linked in this common experience of the world we both inhabit. I need to know more, the visual draw has now turned into a physical desire to be in closer proximity to this thing. Each block I walk reveals more of the building, and with the ever expanding view comes a deeper fascination. Soon I notice that what I saw happening at the crown of the structure is different then what is going on at the base. Groups of people are walking up to viscerally interact with the faade on a one-to-one scale. The building is responding to these individuals is an equally dynamic and
57 personalized manner. The vibrancy that is apparent in the city is mirrored by the reactions of the building to its participants. In areas where people are actively engaging the faade, it is actively responding. In places where there are sedentary individuals, it is doing little or nothing at all. Directly and proportionally, the faade corresponds to a multitude of stimuli presented by the user. I now feel the urge to participate in this ongoing spectacle. My skepticism of its authenticity must be abated. I approach the building from the street, and although I am a fair distance away, I notice that it has perceived my presence. Mutual perception is initiated; the dialog between object and user has begun. I get close and reach out a hand as if to make a gesture of salutation. In direct, and immediate, response the building gestures back in its own means. Astonishment succeeds. Each body movement corresponds to a subsequent manipulation in the building face. It feels as if there is some sort of non-verbal communication between myself and this inanimate sense of the word). As I react to it, it reacts to me, and the cycle is repeated in novel and curious ways. This dialog, however, isnt limited to being between the building and myself. It seems that the more I delve into the robust possibilities of interaction the more opportunities arise. Where initially the Fig.29. Computer graphic interaction with facade in gestoral manner
58 conversation was between me and the wall, now it has evolved to encompass several nearby users as well. W e all are participating in shared communication with the wall acting as the mediator of connection. In a world medium like the internet, it does not feel strange to be holding a conversation on a building with a stranger. Actually, it seems refreshing in this city of nameless faces that the man-made realm can facilitate this type of interpersonal connection. And even this is only part of capabilities of this new faade system. Moving around the perimeter of the structure, it is evident that this system is composed of multiple different interfacing platforms. Some areas seem to respond to touch, others to light and shadow, and some I cannot even tell how the input is being processed. All though seem to be working synchronically with each yet varied, experience for the user. The most fundamental aspect of this system is that it changes in relation to time. However, this also means that time has passed since discovering this place and it is now time to depart. Although the building seems like it wants to follow me a little longer, and I notice that my footsteps on the ground adjacent to the faade are playing a role in the scheme as well. One last glance over my shoulder reveals that my spot against the wall has been taken by a new group of individuals in awe of what I have just witnessed; their presence generating a new dialog with the building and its surroundings. Its brings a smile to my face to see the alternate way the interaction seems to be occurring with this group, mine Through this system I have had a veritable conversation with my city, with my home. On this little plot of land, I played a part in how the environment performed. Even if only for a moment, there was a connection, both physically and psychologically, between the actor and the stage. And the line that distinguishes the two was temporarily blurred. Now, even as I walk away, my curiosity in this new found dictator of habitat is growing. How will this thing respond to my presence next time I encounter it? What are the other possibilities in form, performance, and application? Will it be the same tomorrow? Will it be the same next year?
59 Fig.30. Computer graphic conceptual rendering of interactive facade experience
60 PROGRAMMING OPTIONS: The goal for this project is to design a system of modules that can be programmed at different scales and in alternate ways to make customizable facades. Ideally, the faade should have the ability to be manipulated to match the conditions presented. This means that at every stage of its conceptions and implementation its must be able to change to meet the needs of the particular situation. Allowing for programming opportunities is one of the prime ways that this will be accomplished. The continuous programming approach is segmented into different scales of the faade from macro to micro and beyond, and is meant to be employed by everyone with a design objective (from the product manufacturer to the architect and even the client). At the largest scale the facade is programmed as a whole unit and the overall building face is devised. At this scale the architect has the ability to design the macro appearance of the structure and its functions. By using a combination of modules performing different tasks, the faade can take on different aesthetic conditions and perform different functions. For example, say that there are three adaptable modules that a designer can choose from. If one designer wanted a building faade Fig.31. Diagram of programmatic opportunities shows the possibilities of delagating different tasks to alternate areas
61 that performed a single function and had a monolithic appearance, a single module could be duplicated structure and deliver the anticipated result. However, if another designer wanted to address different aspects of the building with different functions or appearance, then they could use all three modules in a unique way (i.e. one module to address the needs of the buildings body of the building, and one to exploit the conditions present at the top of the structure. The classical tripart approach). Fig.32. Conceptual modular sketch MODULE: In designing the module, it is key to begin by establishing a module size for smallest iteration. Schematically, it seems that a module size between usable. A small sizing, coupled with multiple connection possibilities, creates a module that can be repeated and sizes. And because each module is easily attached and assembled to another module, they can be formed and reformed continuously. Due to the nature of this design, complexity of interaction is based on complexity amount of modules.
62 modules put together to create a small installation, or as large as thousands to make a large building faade. In either case though, each individual module is a turnkey product. Each one contains everything that is required for it to work independent or as part of a group. Simply plug and play. Fig.33. Computer graphic modular studies various different module orientations based around the same base module. Fig.34. Computer graphic modular studies 2 various different module orientations based around the same base module.
63 Fig.35. Connection drawings various different module orientations based around the same base module.
64 Fig.36. 3d print model of weaving module Fig.37. Detail photo of 3d print model
65 HUMAN/FAADE INTERACTION: Haptic interaction At the human scale, the faade will have to be able to address the individual in a personal manner. In order to do this, direct response mechanisms must play a part in the design of the system. Draing inspiration from the led light panels of Evil Mad Scientist, the following experiments use common infrared techniques to detect the presence of an object and control a set of output responses. In the construct, these output actuators are simple LED s set to light in response to movement. While this setup with LEDs is not original, it demonstrates the possibilities for a similar approach. The actuator in this model has the potentially to be anything, the use of LED s was only due to monetary constraints at this stage of the project. Future iterations may contain a multitude of different outputs.Fig.38. Initial concept sketch it demonstrates that this idea can be incorporated in convential building materials like concrete Fig.39. Detail schematic of touch construct it has the ability to be connected in a multitude of orientations
66Fig.40. T ouch construct in static state Fig.41. T ouch construct in use
67 PROGRAMMABLE RESPONSES: Another scale and application for the faade system is in the macro control capabilities. Comparing the individual module to a pixel on a television, the system can be seen as a conglomeration of parts that make a whole. Each part has the ability to be individually controlled and manipulated. The resulting response is completely controllable through a centralized unit. This enables a wide range of users groups to actively dictate unique ways. Fig.42. Detail schematic for led circuit Fig.43. Detail drawing of led construct
69 Fig.45. Detail of led panel shows the multiple layers of lasercut plexiglass used to deliniate positive and negative connections Fig.46. Detail of led construct
70 Fig.47. Panel during operation Fig.48. Panel during operation, side view
71 Fig.49. Conceptual rendering showing the time-based visual change that can be achieved with an individually controlled modular system Fig.50. Conceptual rendering 2 showing the time-based visual change that can be achieved with an individually controlled modular system
72 Fig.51. Conceptual rendering 3 showing the time-based visual change that can be achieved with an individually controlled modular system Fig.52. Conceptual rendering 4 showing the time-based visual change that can be achieved with an individually controlled modular system
73Fig.53. Construct manipulation graphic
74 Fig.54. Conceptual rendering shows the possibilities of projection of the surface of a building and other non-physical visual elements Fig.55. Conceptual rendering shows the possibilities of projection of the surface of a building and other non-physical visual elements
75 DYNAMIC ELEMENTS: Create time based interaction Use physical and visual movement as means to establish connection with viewer Has to be easily customized and changed R eacts to stimuli, i.e. the viewer, owner, weather, climate, light, ect. Each module controlled individually in the movement of the whole Fig.56. Conceptual sketches of a movement based wall system Fig.57. Initial dynamic idea graphic based on a triangulated design that could open and close
76 Fig.58. Initial dynamic idea based on a triangulated design that could open and close Fig.59. Conceptual rendering of dynamic system
77 Fig.60. Conceptual rendering of dynamic system responsive to touch and human interaction Fig.61. Conceptual rendering of dynamic system
78 BEY OND THE FACADE: In order to better integrate the system into the context of the site and the interior of the building, beyond the wall. Interior partitions can be used to bring certain aspects of the faade into the interior of the building. W alkways and paths can be part of the input mechanisms. The building face can wrap around the structure to address the sky through the means of roof. Certain functions of the system can follow the user as they approach or leave response. Fig.62. Diagram dipicting the alternate functionality of the facade system
79Fig.63. Diagram of outreach possibilities of the system it can begin to perculate other areas of the site and building
80 FINAL DESIGNDYNAMIC LIGHT itself in the form of DynamicLight. T aking for the previous case studies, experiments, and schematic designs, the DynamicLight faade system is a modular interactive wall treatment. It is comprised of 9x9 selfAs an individual unit, each module contains the same basic components and performs the same functions. As a conglomeration of units, the wall has the any number of tasks. Similar to the led construct, each unit can be controlled independent of the others. This in effect enables a networked set of inexpensive micro-controllers to communicate through serial ports and become a living whole comprised of pieces. Each Fig.64. Day and night. The facade system has the ability to portray differnt things depending on its environment
81 piece being like a pixel on the led construct that can be controlled by any number of inputs and react in various degrees of designated output. For the DynamicLight faade, the output, or function, of the individual unit is two-fold. First, each unit has an integrated servo motor system that operated a mechanical lever device which opens and closes the six panels per module. The movement of the panels is used to regulate solar radiation entering the building as well as capture solar energy through photovoltaic close the panels from a complete closed position (less than 2% solar transmittance) to a fully open position (88% solar transmittance compared to clear glazing). Simply opening and closing these panels to the absolute maximums has the ability to aid in the mitigation of solar radiation. However, the dynamic aspect of the design is that each panel can be controlled to a 1/16th of a degree, which enables the wall to constantly adjust the amount that each panel is opened to maximize the occupants thermal/visual comfort. And because each unit is also controllable in a custom manner they can all be performing in a different manner dependent on some units may be tracking the sun with ambient light sensors and constantly adjusting their panel operation dependant on sun angles, while other units are responding to ping sensors and opening as people walk by, while even others are performing a set sequence of Fig.65. T ext graphic haptic qualities of the facade system Fig.66. T ext graphic sensorial qualities of the facade system
82Fig.67. Computer rendering shows a detailed view of the facade system from the outside looking in
83 activity that was custom programmed by the buildings occupants. The second output of the DynamicLight wall occurs after the sun goes down and the use for solar mitigation is no longer pertinent. At night, the faade system has the ability to display complex visualizations through an integrated array of led lights. From solid color changes to warping myriads of rainbows, each module performs as an ambient glowing pixel. Emitting the light inside each unit is a red, blue, green, and white led luminare, producing a possible color combination range of over 1 million colors. Depending on the amount of units connected together, the potential visualizations that can occur range from the simple to the very complex. Similar to a television screen or computer monitor, the more units that are used in a faade will directly relate to the resolution, and thus complexity, of the possible light manipulations and visuals. Like the movement of the panels, the output of the led lights can be controlled through various different sensors, controls, programs, and input devices. It can be an interactive endeavor like the led touch construct that responded to movement, or it can be programmed through a computer program like Processing, and every other imaginable user interface in-between. The greatest strength of the design is its versatility and open-source nature. It is made to be hacked, coded, chopped, and customized by the user. Ultimately, it is through the users customization that the product Fig.68. Servo motors Futuba S3306 servos mounted to plexi Fig.69. Servo drive arms 16mm
84 becomes successful. Since it is impossible to design the design that allows the individual to make it unique and appropriate to its installation. Hence the dynamic aspect of the product lies not only in its function but more so in its innate propensity to change in order to meet alternating requirements. Fig.70. Servo control board supplies ground, power, and control signals to six servo motors Fig.71. Individual servo motor Futuba S3306 can provide 26Kg/ square inch of torque on 6v power Fig.72. Servo motor mounted servo is mounted in a lasercut piece of plexiglass and attached with 1/4 bolts and steel spacers
85 Fig.73. Exterior conceptual rendering facade system closed Fig.74. Exterior conceptual rendering 3 facade system in action, diangle pattern Fig.75. Exterior conceptual rendering 2 facade system in action, checkered pattern Fig.76. Exterior conceptual rendering 3 facade system in action, strip pattern
86Fig.77. Conceptual night rendering
87Fig.78. Dynamic light qualities of facade photograph shows how the angles of the opening and closing units catch sunlight in different ways
88 FLA T-P ACKED DESIGN In order to promote an easy and inexpensive factory-to-completion process, the desired method of undertaking relies heavily on maximizing the materials and simplifying the assembly process. Drawing on the incite of such great innovators as S wedish furniture designers Gillis Lundgren and Baron DuMuff, the notion by the aforementioned individuals was designed to be rapidly and easily assembled. These furniture pieces pieces were put together to be shipped they could easily be stacked on top of each other and took up as little saving substantial amounts of money in shipping and storage costs. Savings can then be passed along to the consumer whom gets a better product at a lower then market average cost. Along with all of the pieces being designed with the notion of economical packing in mind, each component is pre-drilled, cut, and scored to aid in assembly. Ideally, the design of the whole unit is such that the inexperienced construction worker may put the Fig.79. Autocad drawing of single module shows the score and Fig.80. Lasercut mat board the stacked 112 cut out pieces of
89 whole thing together with little to no problem. Since all of the accurate and complex parts of the piece are fabricated under the stringent conditions of the factory and all of the proper hardware is packaged along with the pieces, the assembly that the construction worker has to do is lies easily within his/her expertise of simple building processes. In addition, there are no specialty tools that are required in order to put the individual faade units together. Everything that is needed and not shipped with the other parts is assumed to be in the common tool collection of the average construction company. is that the very nature of the design abets a mass producible product. And mass producing a product assures that the consumer ultimately saves even more money compared to other viable alternatives. It also assures a certain degree of uniformity to the module and hence the product. Lastly, mass production techniques in order to reduce the amount of waste produced. Fig.81. Lasercut chip board the stacked cut out pieces of chip Fig.82. Multiple stacks of chip board the stacked cut out pieces
90Fig.83. score marks necessary for folding can be seen
91Fig.84. Folding sequece the sequece of photos shows the manner in which one piece of mat board is folded to create half of one unit
92Fig.85. Folded units units that have been folded prior to recieving the structural frame
93 Fig.86. Module unit back Fig.87. Module unit right side Fig.88. Module unit left side Fig.89. Module unit front
94 SOLAR COLLECTION Solar collection is a key aspect of the DynamicLight system. Since a carbon zero energy balance is desired, the whole faade must collect or mitigate and equal amount of energy to that which it consumes. T o accomplish this goal a network of photovoltaic solar cell, in the form of a semi-transparent mesh, are integrated into each modular unit. The PV cells are contained in a mesh layer between the structural substrate and the outer ETFE layers. As the unit panels move during the day each PV panels is optimizing solar collection as it is simultaneously blocking solar gain into the building. Therefore, each unit is performing two sustainable energy functions at once; collection of electricity through harnessing solar energy, and lowering the load on the buildings mechanical system by controlling Fig.90. R endering of DynamicLight facade all units open Fig.91. Final wall mock-up back side showing mechanical components
95 the amount of sunlight, and thus heat, that enters the interior space. The harnessed energy from the integrated PV mesh is stored in individual batteries that are part of each individual unit. During the operation of the unit (i.e. to run the servo motors or power the led lights) the battery provides the initial power. In the unlikely case that the system needs additional power, be connected to the main buildings electrical grid. However, the probability of the system needing to draw electricity from the main grid is highly unlikely. What probably will occur is the opposite; the PV mesh will collect an abundance of energy and the excess can be Fig.92. Final wall section photo of units in alternating Fig.93. and closed Fig.94. space waiting assembly
96 Fig.95. Final wall mock-up front view units closed, no sun transmittance Fig.96. Final wall mock-up front view units 60% open, moderate sun transmittance Fig.97. Final wall mock-up front view units 30% open, partial sun transmittance Fig.98. Final wall mock-up front view units 90% open, full sun transmittance
97Fig.99. Final wall section
98 Fig.100. Diagram of facade operation units open and solar light entering interior space Fig.101. Diagram of facade operation units cloded and solar light being blocked from entering interior space
99 CONCLUSION In all honesty, I feel that a conclusion at this stage is premature. In my eyes, there is much more potential for this project outside these printed pages. The future of this kinetic faade system hopefully lies in the development of the abstract into the reality. If my assumptions about the demand for a product like DynamicLight are correct, then there is a market for the production of such a faade system. Hopefully, in the near future the concept presented in the preceding pages will become an actually wall somewhere in the world. Now, it is time for the true real world rigor of testing and fabrication. I can only hope that the future iterations of this project are as fun and enjoyable as creating the conceptual underpinning have been. Fig.102. Final wall section one of the many ways that
100Fig.103. Conceptual rendering the sky is the limit and the possibilities of DynamicLight kinetic facade system are limitless
101 Adamatzky, Andrew, T etsuya Asai, and Ben De Lacy Costello. 2005. Reaction-diffusion computers 1st ed. Amsterdam Boston: Elsevier. Barro, R obert J. 1989. Modern business cycle theory Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Basic Books. 2003. Ultimate business library. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books. Bateson, Mary Catherine, and W enner Gren Foundation for Anthropological R esearch. 1972. Our own metaphor; a personal account of a conference on the effects of conscious purpose on human adaptation 1st ed. New York: Knopf; distributed by R andom House. Bullivant, Lucy. 2005. 4dspace : Interactive architecture Architectural design; v. 75, no. 1. Chichester: WileyAcademy. Cariani, Peter. 1998. Epistemic autonomy through adaptive sensing. Gaithersburg, MD Casper, Dale E. 1987. Architecture series--bibliography ; A-1898. Monticello, Ill.: Vance Bibliographies. Costa Duran, Sergi. 2008. New prefab architecture Barcelona, Spain: Loft. EBSCOhost, and T aylor & Francis Online Journals. 1985-. Human-computer interaction Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. REFERENCES
102 Galloway, Anne, and Matthew W ard. 2006. Locative media as socialising and spatialising practice: Learning from archaeology. Leonardo Electronic Almanac Vol. 14, (3/4). Haque, Usman. July/August 2007. The architectural relevance of gordon pask. : 54-61. Haque, Usman. July/August 2007. Distinguishing concepts: Lexicons of interactive art and architecture. Architectural : 24-31. Haque, Usman. August 2006. Architecture, Interaction, S ystems. AU: Arquitetura & Urbanismo A U 149, : 44-51. Holland, Owen, Phil Husbands, and Michael Wheeler. 2008. The mechanical mind in history Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. IFIP Conference on Human Computer Interaction, International Federation for Information Processing T ask Group on Human Computer Interaction, B. Shackel, and B. Shackel. 1985. Human-computer interaction Amsterdam ; New York; New York, N.Y.: North-Holland; Sole distributors for the U .S .A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co. Knittel Ammerschuber, Susanne. 2006. objectives. Basel ; Boston: Birkhuser-Publishers for Architecture. Manovich, Lev. 2001. Leonardo (series) (cambridge, mass.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Mau, Bruce, Institute without Boundaries, and Jennifer Leonard. 2004. London ; New York: Phaidon. McDonough, William, and Michael Braungart. 2002. 1st ed. New York: North Point Press. Pask, Gordon. 1961. An approach to cybernetics : With a pref Science today series. New York: Harper. Pressman, Andy. 1997. architecture New York: Wiley. R eichardt, Jasia, and Institute of Contemporary Arts. 1969. Cybernetic serendipity; the computer and the arts New York: Praeger. Time [electronic resource]. November 10, 2008. Hadden,Briton; Luce,Henry R obinson. The Best Inventions of the Year Time Inc., New York, etc.
103 Thoreau, Henry David. 2004. Walden. 1 Shambhala 150 anniversary ed. Boston: Shambhala. T ravi, Valerio. 2001. IT revolution in architecture. Basel ; Boston: Birkhuser.
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Upgrading design :
b a mechatronic investigation into the architectural product market
h [electronic resource] /
by Matthew Gaboury.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
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Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
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ABSTRACT: It was first stated 200 years ago, and reiterated numerous times since, that "architecture is frozen music"(see note). While this romantic analogy sufficiently satisfies many in the realm of architecture, it actually is a sad way of defining an idea so inherently lively. Goethe's quote conjures up the notion of a world that is silent, one in which we can see the notes but never hear the music because we are trapped by stasis in time. Like the note admired on a piece of paper, architecture in this world is static regardless of the changing conditions around it. What if the "frozen" part could be removed from this concept, and the element of time could play an active role in the built environment? An architecture that can exist in a sense of time is one in which the musical note can be played. Through the ability to change with time and be changed by time architecture can directly respond to its inhabitants, environment, and contextual factors. A rich melody of interaction can then be initiated in which the built world can talk back. Naturally, the first point of this contact would be the building's faade, and it is here that there is the greatest opportunity to reach the largest audience. The outer "face" of a building has always been a feature of significance for both designer and customer. For centuries the ornamental features of a building were what distinguished its purpose and place in society. From the elaborite pediments of the Greeks to the inticatly carved reliefs of the Itailians, the ornament of a structure told a static story about the creators and inhabitants of the structure. Now, the technology is available to make this aspect of architecture talk to us by becoming a dymanic, interactive, and kinetic component. In order for this faade system to transcend the boundries of conventional architecture it must utilize precocious architectural means, methods, and materials. These new communication systems include, but are not limited to, touch, light, sound, and electromagnictic fields. As any of these stimuli are precieved by the faade, it can have the ability to react proportional to the input. Esentially, the faade system will be able to customize itself depending on the conditions presented. Similar to a computer operating system, the new faade will provide a generic mass producible platform that can be individualized by it user. The users of this system may be the architect, client, occupant, viewer, environment, regional context, technologic connection, or global community, depending on the specific installation. And most importantly, both the user and the faade have the capacity to be changed or altered at any time, meaning that the fundamental characteristics of the project will never be frozen. In this manner, the new architectural ornament will go beyond the static nature of its predecessors and become one that the viewer can actively communicate with.
Advisor: Mark Weston, M.Arch.
x School of Architecture and Community Design
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.