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Utilizing contextualized reading in career and technical education to enhance reading skills
h [electronic resource] /
by Alan Darr.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
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Thesis (Ed.S.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
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ABSTRACT: Utilizing Contextualized Reading in Career and Technical Education to Enhance Reading Skills Alan Duane Darr ABSTRACT The traditional education system in the United States developed a goal of sending a high number of students to post secondary schools. The expectation of going to college starts at elementary school and continues through high school and is pushed by the school district's hierarchy. Schools annually publish numbers through the Department of Education at state and national levels of students moving to college. College progression has become such a priority that many students feel they have failed if not college bound. Students not considered academic often move toward vocational education with the intent of post-secondary education to support a chosen career field. Students with lower grades and abilities are routed to vocational classes utilizing a shop model. The education system identifies and educates students at expected age and grade level requirements. High stakes testing has been established to determine if students meet those educational requirements considered necessary for success. Students not meeting established math, English and reading requirements are given remediation to bring academic skills to appropriate age and grade levels. My thesis described a contextual reading program for building reading skills. Content area material is used to teach academic skills in writing, reading and math to levels supporting high stakes testing needed for success. Contextual reading has improved reading competencies for vocational education students in the CATER program at Kathleen High School in the Polk County School System as well as in the other statewide settings. This has the potential to improve career and technical education (CTE) in other systems. A contextual approach also has potential to improve teaching and learning in so-called academic areas, and improving scores in high stakes tests. Recommendations for further study include following this line of action for younger and adult students.
Advisor: Arthur Shaprio, Ph. D.
x Educational Leadership & Policy Studies
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Utilizing Contextual ized Reading i n Career and Technical Education t o Enhance Re ading Skills by Alan Duane Darr A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Education Specialist Department of Educational Leadership College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Arthur Shapiro, Ph.D. William Blank, Ph.D. Steven Permuth, Ed.D. Date of Approval: February 6, 2010 K eywords: Content Area, Career, Cluster, Cooperative Training, Share d Leadership Copyright 2010, Alan Duane Darr
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research is dedicated to a group of instructors that brought their educational expertise, experience and caring to help me develop a new appreciation for learning. This learn ing and a belief in myself that has been substantiated in my learning through these very wonderful professors I have encountered. I have long believed all students can and will learn but only if their particular learning styles were addressed. An effort to understand those styles was made to help me underst and and facilitate a more productive learning environment. Thus my development of my constructivist behaviors and learning was made aware to myself. A special thank you to Major Professor, Arthur Shapiro Ph.D. for his efforts and support during my degree work. Dr. Shapiro and his wife Sue helped me to further understand my educational philosophy
i Table of Contents Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. i ii Preface ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. v CHAPTER ONE: SCHOOL REFORM IN AMERICA ................................ ...................... 1 UNITED STATES RE FORM ................................ ................................ ..................... 1 FLORIDA REFORM ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 CHAPTER TWO : THE NEED TO IMPROVE HIGH SCHOOLS IN AMERICA ........... 6 CHAPTER THREE : IMPROVING READING ................................ ................................ .. 8 CHAPTER FOUR: ................................ ............. 11 HISTORY OF CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION ................................ 11 CTE ADDRESSES THE DRO POUT STUDENT ................................ ................... 1 3 ................................ 15 CHAPTER FIVE: THE CONTENT AREA TECHNICAL EDUCATION READING PROGRAM ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 18 CHAPTER SIX : CATER PROGRAM AT KATHLEEN HIGH SCHOOL: A CASE STUDY ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 20 CHAPTER SEVEN: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMM ENDATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 22 References ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 24 Appendices ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 26 Appendix A: Content Area Technical Education Reading Program (CATER), Reading First, FLDOE ................................ ................. 27
ii Appendix B : Content Area Technical Education Rea ding Program (CATER), Reading First, FLDOE Case Study ............................. 29
iii Utilizing Contextualized Reading in Career and Technical Education to Enhance Reading Skills Alan Duane Darr ABSTRACT The traditional education syst em in the United States developed a goal of sending a high number of students to post secondary school s The expectation of going to college starts at elementary school and continues through high school and is pushed by the school district s hierarchy Schools annually publish numbers through the Departmen t of Education at state and national level s of stu d ents moving to college. College progression has become such a priority that many students feel they have failed if not college bound Students not considered academic often move toward vocationa l education with the intent of post secondary education to support a chosen career field. Students with lower grad es and abilities are routed to vocational class es utilizing a shop model. The education system identifies and educate s stud ents at expected age and grade level requirements High stakes testing has be en established to determine if students meet those educational requirements considered necessary for succes s Students not meeting established math, English and reading requirements are given remediation to bring academic skills to appropriate age and grad e levels. My thesis described a contextual reading program for building reading skills. C ontent area material is used to teach academic skills in writing, reading and math to levels supporting high stakes testing needed for success
iv Contextual reading ha s improved reading competencies for vocational education students in the CATER program at Kathleen High School in the Polk County School System as well as in the other statewide settings. This has the potential to improve career and technical education (CT E) in other systems. A contextual approach also has potential to improve teaching and learning in so called academic areas, and improving scores in high stakes tests. Recommendations for further study include following this line of action for younger and adult students.
v PREFACE Educa tion is currently under fire this 2010 election year. The evaluation of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) of 2001 is being challenged as non effective with regards to the successes that were expected. (Ravitch, 2010) Forme r Florida Commi ssioner of Education Betty Casto r, in The Blue Print for Career Preparation (1991 ), s tated that America is losing it s competitive edge in a global economy and if current trends continue, up to three quarters of new employees in the year 20 1 0 will have insufficient verbal and writing skills The statement includes a warning of a need for schools to integrate academic and vocational education to enhance student competency in academic skills. a cademic concepts relevant to the workplace, especially in communication, mathematics and science is beginning to take shape and ma y show validity when used in the CTE programs that are currently used. education. Our entire economic survival Methods to assist the student to succeed are being introduce d in a rigorous curriculum in Career and Technical Education programs (CTE). Student curri culum is being enhanced to meet higher level s of academic requirements. These requirements meet the entry level job skills of the career field and the rigorous requirements necessitated by This paper identifies the content area immersion using the Content Area Technical Education Reading ( CATER ) program classroom methodology that has proven to be a viable method of educating students in content reading area strategies The
vi program helps to facilitate student abilities to increase learning by utilizing their career content area mat erial s areas tested by state high stakes testing.
1 CHAPTER ONE S CHOOL REFORM IN AMERICA UNITED STATES REFORM The state of education in the United States is under scrutiny to ensure th at students today are prepared for the world in an ever changing te chnological society The evaluation of schools has presented our education systems an awakening educators were aware of but was being addressed at a slower rate than needed to facilitate student success Current f ederal legislation is being recommended tha t will affect classrooms and is changing the educational process hoping to facilitate higher learning levels from the students The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was designed along the foundations of Standards Based Education d evelop ing assess ments in basic academic skills for students in various grades to show increased academic proficiency Initially students tested were in grades three, eight and ten to evaluate student proficiency in the areas of math, reading and writing. Science was then added to allow testing levels for eleventh grade students similar in design to the other high stakes tests being used in math, English and reading (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). Continual evaluation of mandated programs is deemed useful in maintai ning level s of educational excellence. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only national representative test used to monitor and make recommendations in the areas being tested.
2 In Aligning High School Graduation Requirements wit h the Real World: A Road Map for States in Achieve Policy Brief ( 1997 ) more advanced classes with higher rigor were identified to increase student success Fifteen states have passed legislation to align their public schools at this time. The need to mov e students forward at higher levels and at a faster rate was being promoted to push students toward higher education with higher success rates. Questions addressed included: What co urses would be needed to be prepared for colle ge and career attainment? Do courses meet the college and career ready expectations? Are college career trac k s m andatory for all students or will an o pt out provision be available. How will rigor be tracked? Can credit be ob tained through demonstration of proficiency? Will the stat e establish an honors and/or technical honors diploma? And how will requirements be phased in to ensure equitable access and participation? These q uestions set the stage for change regardless of desire s to have college as a post secondary option. This policy brief discusses phenomena identified as student obstacles when trying to attain academic skills in coursework for advancement toward college or care er options. Obstacles include lack of relevance to post high school higher mathematics need it not progressing in a college track. More extensive s cience requirements for non college preparation have been considered excessive for students not in college tracks A dditional requirements were added for history, c ivics/U.S. g overnment. Electives can be the building blocks for career identification and expectations for the future F ew states have defined educational levels of learning necessary in electives which include Career and Technical Education (CTE) options. CTE courses discourage old style vocational courses to now focus on career skills
3 required for current job market expectations Rigor must be attached to the CTE programs in both classroom and appli ed portion of coursework show ing equal emphasis on academ ics required for the CTE course. The intensi ty must be equivalent to the college prep cours es in all respects ( Ferger, 2001 ). The American Diploma Project (ADP) has been accepted in thirty states to align high school standards with what it takes to succeed in a post seconda ry environment and the w orkplace (National Education Summit on High Schools, 2006). ADP requires math in all four years of high school including statistics, and advanced reasoning and problem solving. Educators in high school, post secondary, and members of the business world h ave defined new standards for the end of high school testing. The test would show the student has met the criteria to continue on to his/her post secondary choice. Currently, end of program tests evaluate student progress E nd of program tests are being c onsidered and plac ed in many career fields by professional organizations to promote higher rigor. Many career fields contain testing used for current professionals. (Southeast Region Educati o n Board, 2010) Examples would include the Automotive Service Exce llence (ASE) tests used to certify automotive ca reer trade technicians. T ests are individualized to the specific area of expertise for the technician. The initial test in the certification area defines general and specific knowledge in the career area wit h a five year recertification that establishes knowledge of the technology and skills tha t have been upgraded since the previous test. Educators have known for years that all students will not continue to college directly out of high school O ther option s were made in the schools to provide students with an alternate path durin g their high school experience. O pt out provision s were
4 provided to students who may choose not to be college directed while in high school. An alternative curriculum is provided for student s allowing career diploma versus college diplomas provided with the college class option The o pt out provision is provided for students during high school when planning to identify college prep or career prep options Opting out of the college trac k would not stop student s from moving to a college. Opt out would requi re a default curriculum for student s choo sing not to mov e in a college direction whil e in high school. This o pt out provision is currently being challenged. The opportunity to o pt o ut gives parents and students a default curriculum in support of the career choice of the student For a student to receive the opt out privilege, an agreement between the parents and schoo l administration would be made. By written agreement, t he principal and the parents may approve the change of curriculum. Opt out provisions create an opportunity for the student, parents, and principal when approving curriculum for career track instead of the college track A curren t proposal on the program is removal of the Opt out choice. Program developers concur that without the opt out provision students will stay more focused on success for their choice of car eer or college progression with a rigorous academic ally challenging program FLORIDA REFORM States have adopted methods of assessment in line with federal mandates. Florida has adopted three programs that meet the needs of mandated testing. The programs include the A+, A++, and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). e use of vouchers to any student in a school that receives two F grades in high stakes testing performance in a four year period. The school
5 grade is based on student performance results from the scores derived from FCAT assessments The vouchers can be ut ilized to attend a private school or a better performing public school HB 7087 ) establishes guiding principles requiring school boards to adopt policies based on the principles that address placing and promoting studen ts from out of state or country, and alternative methods for students to demonstrate competency in required courses and credits. All students must have a personal education plan with tools for parents to monitor student progress and communicate with teachers. The Fl orida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) was e stablished following the passing of the No Child Left Behind act of 2001. Annual assessment in math, English and reading were developed and mandated as a graduation requirements for Florida students in the th ird, eighth and tenth grade. Retaining students who do not meet the necessary levels at achievement began at this time. Records suggest the first year of FCAT testing in Florida, almost 30,000 third grade students were retained in the public school syste ms across the state.
6 CHAPTER TWO DROP OUT CRISIS: THE AMERICAN DILEMMA The issue is addition of high stakes testing to the requirements for graduation I mprovement within our schools has focused on requirements bringing students academic skills essent ial for future success in post secondary setting but has tended to overlook the possibility of other post high school options President Obama has declared the need to produce more college graduates and to reduce the number of dropouts. Every school day ab out 7,000 students decide to drop out of school a total of 1.2 million students each year and only about 70% of entering high school freshman will graduate each year (Obama, 2010). Without a high school diploma, young people are less likely to succeed in the workforce. Each year, our nation loses $319 billion in potential earnings ass ociated with the dropout crisis (Obama, 2010) Retired Gener al Colin Powel l in his article: Catastrophe (2010) states that every year the United States has about 1.3 million dropouts from high school. According to General Powell, the drop out issue can be classified as a moral catastrophe and is accompanied by associated economic and security problem s as well. Two goals stated in General Powel l s message were : to ensure that graders graduate from high school on time and help America become the world leader in proportion of college graduates by 2020. Today, 70% of fourth graders are expected to graduate on time. The new pro focus es that
7 Current drop out rates as given by the U.S. Department of Education fact sheet show almost 6.2 million students in the United States, students between ages of 16 and 24 who dropped out of high school receive 25 (16%) people in that age range in 2007. Most dropouts were Latino or African American descent according to a report by the Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts (2009) The Presidential focus for change in education encompasses many areas including a national effort to help tu schools that are persistently low performing School change s t rategies include: k eeping students engaged and on track to graduation; p ersonalized and individua lized instruction and support m ultiple pathways and credit recovery programs; and b etter use of data and information ( U.S. Department of Education, 2006). These avenue s have provided guidance to educational institutions for a path designed for high risk students to help in developing success in the essential learning ele ments. Th ese issues include inadequate achievement by low income socio economic students in such areas as mathematics, reading and writ ing. Current high stakes testing focuses on bringing students to appropriate levels of learning based on age Expectations for t he students are that they will develop the necessary level of skills over an established time. Expectations suggest for each year in school, a student should be expected educational growth of a year.
8 CHAPTER THREE IMPROVING READING Levels of success of students are identified in the State of Florida by the levels of competency a student achieves on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). FCAT testing criteria shows growth and establishes required performance levels for reading, math and writi ng. Annually grades three, eight, and ten are tested to show grade level proficie ncy. Proficiency is proof that a student has achieved one year growth for each year of school ed ucation. The e stablished corrective guideline used for students in Florida is to retain them in third grade, twice until appropriate test achievement occurs. T he student can then be promoted to the next grade level. Student numbers retained at current grade level according to the Florida Department of Education (FLDOE.org) are shown to be decreasing. The effort to get full concurrency of academic competency in 100% of students to grade level of the students to grade level by 2013 2014 is viewed as unrealistic Third grade is the phase one of development of appropriate student educat ion based on the FCAT student responsibilities. Elementary school grades K 5, are designing Student Learning Activities (SLAs) that have been proven successful in elevating student test scores There will be a Phonics Screening, Academic Vocabulary Invento ry, Lexiled Text Passages, and Instructional Level Passages with Question/Response Templates provided for student and teacher use. These activities will provide a guide for building activities for the grades 7 12 reading groups. Continued assessments wil l show learning levels with the use of the Response to Intervention (RTI) techniques being presented by the Just Read Program of Florida. The
9 Just Read program was established in 2001 by order of Governor Jeb Bush Executive Order Number 01 260. The goal of the Just Read Program is to promote a comprehensive, coordinated reading initiative aimed at helping every student become a successful, independent reader. Goals recommended by Executive Order #01 260 include: The Florida Department of Education is here by requested to address and to make recommendations, in consultation with the Florida Board of Education, regarding at least the following areas: early reading instruction strategies and reading screenings or assessments for K 2 students; reading interve ntion strategies for students who read below grade level; reading course requirements for middle school and high school students who are not reading at grade level; reading activities in teacher preparation and professional development programs; leverag ing technology to improve reading proficiency and integrating online professional development with existing and traditional training; utilizing teacher reading academies and/or schools within schools to teach effective reading strategies; planning for in tegration, coordination and effective investment of anticipated federal funds from President Bush's Reading First Initiative, and for the 21st Century Community Learning Centers; developing ongoing public private partnerships aimed at increasing reading p roficiency and providing supplemental books to students;
10 recognizing outstanding reading teachers and schools at which students are making significant progress in reading; increasing parental and family involvement in teaching and encouraging reading; e ncouraging family literacy practices and programs through innovative integration of adult literacy and elementary and secondary school programs; utilizing supporting, and training mentors and volunteers to help children and adults learn to read. Governor 260 noted that forty percent of elementary, middle, and less than forty percent of high school students were able to read at grade level. Executive Order 01 260 is directed for all Florida students permitting immediate program ch anges to facilitate higher reading proficiencies in all grades EO 01 260 directs evaluation of the reading programs in Florida with regular reports
11 CHAPTER FOUR CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION REFORM Career a nd Technical Education (CTE) is experiencing a renewal of importance in the education. CTE supports student education by practical application of career skills and support ing an academic knowledge identified for student achievement needed for graduation T he practical applied methodology require s students to utilize academic skills in CTE areas which may enhance academic skills necessary to improve performance on high stakes testing like the F CAT utilized in the Florida Education system as a graduation req HISTORY OF CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION A PERSPECTIVE The use of the internship as a method o f training has been part of education for generations. The indentured servant was provided as a youth to various skilled journeym en to work and to learn a trade. Once the debt was worked off the youth would have the skills to succee d in the field of endeavor. This was by all counts the first vocational training available to youth. Public school focus centers on the use of vocationa l education as a means of developing skills useful for futures. Little career skills identification and practice could be seen in these early Industrial Education classes The School To Work Act of 1994 (STW) was established to support educationa l reform initiatives. Legislation came from research showing an absence of systems connecting school and work. All states received STW funds and each showed varying degrees of success. Four reports look back at the School To Work Movement. (Ferger, 2001)
12 The Intermediary Guidebook: Making and Managing Community Connections for Youth Designed to promote youth self confidence about abilities, opportunities and connections and helped foster academic and work related competencies needed for success (Ferger 2001) School to Work: Making a Difference in Education. Released in 2001, provided a synthesis of lessons learned since the implementation of STW (Ferger, 2001). Accomplishments noted include students with improved attendance and goals b eing less likely to drop out. Employers and teachers are generally enthusiastic about STW and believe it beneficial to all concerned. Career Academies help link corporate involvement to secondary school education and fostering small learning communities. STW funds have stimulated new systems creation. Needing improvement: STW effects on standardized test scores evidence STW has positive effect on college enrollment and completion and labor market success. Only a small group of students take advantage of STW rigorous a pplied academics, intensive work based learning and c omprehensive career development (Ferger, 2001). Looking Forward: School to Work Principles and Strategies for Sustainability. American Youth Policy Forum and t he Center for Workforce Development, Instit ute for Educational Leadership and supported by th e STW Opportunities Act (STWOA), r evealed essential principles and elements used in the field i ncluding: promoting high standards of academic learning and pe rformance for all young people;
13 i ncorporate indu stry values standards that help inform curricula and lead to respected and portable credentials; and connects young people with supportive adults, mentors and other role models (Ferger, 2001) Career Academies: Impacts on Students Engagement and Performanc e in High School. A report from the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation of 2000 stated a promising approach to a high school restructuring and the S chool T o W ork (STW) transition. The methodology noted increased levels of interpersonal support st udents experience during high school and career awareness participation and work based learning activities. Also noted were higher levels of outcomes for at risk students in academic c ourses STW participation had many positive results, although Career A cademies did not improve standardized math and reading achievement test scores (Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC), 2009) Viable vocational education has been available for students for many years by means of internships and work study pro grams Today, a new focus on the Career and Technical Edu cation programs (CTE) is being promoted in the school systems. CTE is a method of helping bring skills and abilities to students in efforts to help improve student test scores and to lessen the drop out rate. CTE ADDRESSES THE DROP OUT PROBLEM The past 50 years have seen the importance of high school c ompletion and continuing into post secondary education The Manhattan Institu te and the Educational Testing S ervice estimate that national high school c ompletion rate averages around
14 seventy percent. This equates to about 3.8 million of the 35.2 million youth who will be ill equipped for the 21 st Century (Green, 2002) Research shows a worse picture for minorities in the U.S. In the project Losing Our Fut ure by the Harvard Civil Rights Project (2004) shows that graduation rates are substantially lower for most min ority groups particularly males ( Orfield 2 0 0 4 ) Th is report notes a dropout rate of 50% in Native American, Latino, and Africa n American students who enter ninth grade and fail to move on to graduation in four years. Additional identifiers of students who drop out prior to graduation shows higher dropout rates among low socioeconomic status students, those eligible for free or reduced price lunches poor academic performance, repeating a grade, speaking English as a second language, pregnancy, large number of absences, and being physically or mentally impaired ( Orfield, 2004 ) The dropout rate bring s added concerns in the economy with additional cost s for these ex students. Most students who drop out are less likely to be employable and when employment is found will get less income. Statistics from 2004 show a non high school graduate student will make about $16,500 per year, while a high school gradu ate student will receive just over $26,000. The figures show a difference of about $9500 that will be a loss in income of over $260,000 (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007) The Alliance for Excellent Education estimates at current dropout rates, consi dering all dropouts age 16 67, the total loss of over $3 t rillion in the next decade to our economy will occur Increased graduation rates would lessen the impact of t his loss and add to our economy (Alliance for Excellent Education, Issue Brief 2010 )
15 CT E is a proven strategy that educates students in the context area of careers and prepares students to succeed in postsecondary education and the workforce. It is also a HIGH SCHO S tudies have been conducted to show a direction for h igh s chools for meeting the needs of the 21 st Century ( Lynch, 2000). The consensus for a new direction for high schools career and technical education as we move forwar d to the 21 st Century indicates that four themes have emerged as a possible framework for career and technical education ( Lynch, 2000). Needed ref orm recommendations to help schools adapt and develop into the 21 st century indicates that the focus of discu ssions allowing a framework for a new direction for vocational education. These recommendations or themes from educators, business persons and policy groups were: 1. A need to infuse career planning throughout the entire curriculum, from Pre K through life l ong learning. This theme is that all teachers (and parents) should be cognizant of applications of knowledge to real world environments, especially in workplaces. 2. Need to ground career and technical career programs in high school reform. Consistently, res ponde nts spoke of the need for changing the models by which high schools are organized, programs and curriculums are delivered, and students are taught. 3. Improve the image and upgrade vocational education into a new and improved career and technical educati on model.
16 4. Increase the perspective of the career and technical education mod el to the public. Increase expectatio ns for educators and students. Advance the skills and abilities of the student in preparation for post s econdary and work force needs. The study showed a recommendation for additional two years minimum of education as a benchmark for the next generation of students These recommendations brought about a direction for charting movement in the educational systems and a new direction for caree r and technical education. The four identified education components that came from these re commendations were used to direct reform related to student learning and student achievemen t ( Lynch, 2000) : 1. Organize programs, curriculum, and instruction around m ajor fields of stud y similar to college programs. 2. Promote more contextual teaching and learning in high schools curriculum. 3. Install more work based learning models, ensuring that work based activities are more solidly grounded in curriculum and contribu te to mastery of standards. 4. Assess authentically student progress toward meeting education standards. Two components relate to systems and organization of the high school: 5. Increase the use of Career Academies. 6. Adapt successful models of tech prep. The imp ortance of a new direction in career and technical education has be en identified to help direct stat e and local education groups promote rigorous and relevant educational learning experience s P romoting a new direction in career planning and
17 development be ginning at elementary sch ool levels and high school reform supports the concepts of the 21 st century with higher levels of technical education expertise. All components of educational systems must learn to work together with career and technical education. Career and technical education must also chan ge to become more symbiotic in relationship with all facets of the educational community such as high school system c urriculum and instruction. The need to u pgrade o l d e r v oc a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s t o career and technical education levels appropriate for future industry and career opportunities C T E program development to i ncreas e rigor in programs may make the program more acceptable t o higher education. Currently, consi dered as favorable in determining applicant qualities and abilities. Additionally, most employers do not consider vocational programs at this time adequately preparing students for entry to their businesses. The final consideration is the acceptance of po st secondary education to be on the radar for all high school students. This includes those enrolled in career and technical programs already. The concept of the K 14 model is recommended with the addition al two years of education above high school being a part of the extended free education for all students. Hopefully, the extended voluntary attendance through at least 13 and 14 years of educ ation will be government funded (Lynch, 2000 ). In this thinking, t he high school diploma is not a terminal degree and advanced education above the high s chool level is essential to preparation for the 21 st century for all students regardless of choice of career.
18 CHAPTER FIVE THE CONTENT AREA TECHNICAL EDUCATION READING T he Content Area and Career Education Readin g Program (CATER) in the State of Florida is showing promise of success in the early stages of classroom utilization The CATER program places students in a reading program utilizing content a rea materials for the students to use in enhancing their reading skills. (Florida Department of Education, 2010) i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e n t e r i n g h i g h s c h o o l Usin g co ntent area materials from c a r e e r area of interest choices will help maintain a positi ve outlook on reading and skills building. T h e r e a d i n g p r o g r a m b e g i n s P h a s e o n e w i t h t eacher preparation for the prog ram requires complet ion of the Florida On line Reading Professio nal Development program (FORPD). FORPD is a fourteen week computer based training course which brings reading strategies to teacher s. These strategies have been shown valuable to reading success in students (Florida Department of Education, 2010) P hase two is the Content Area Reading Professional Development program (CARPD). CARPD is a re ading immersion class assis ting teachers i n developing and assimilating the reading skills essential in career education pr ograms ( Appendi ces A and B ). The Content Area Technical Education Reading (CATER) program is the final stage of the teacher reading development program allowing teacher s the opportunity to build curriculum to support teaching students th rough use of the reading skills necessary for success in the career education programs. ( Appendix A ) These programs promote continual effort by the student and teacher to read a variety of materials designed for each (Florida
19 Department of Education, 2010) A student has a tested reading of level 4 will be assigned reading material in the c a r e e r area that has been identified a t a n a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l above the student measured reading to help bring reading g r o w t h Materials tested at lower reading levels a re still available but will not r e s u l t i n credit. Materials with l evels considered too high are no t provided to the reading challenged student The chal lenged reader has been found un successful when too high a reading level is attempted and may become discouraged. Success is the key with controlled higher level ch allenged reading for students. S t u d e n t r eadin g levels w i t h t h i s type of forma t have seen s o m e success ( A ppendix A) (Florida Department of Education, 2010) The first year using the developmental strategies of the CATER program i n F l o r i d a h i g h s c h o o l s has shown s o m e success with teachers using their career field as the focus to en h anced r e a d i n g s k i l l s ( appendix A ) (Florida Department of Education, 2010) Immersion of students using c a r e e r related r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s has had an increase in the reading and writing levels of students assigned to their C T E c lasses ( a p p e n d i x A ) The students assigned Levels 1 and 2 in their tested levels of reading p r i o r t o the program b e g i n n i n g were the focus of the reading program T he CTE efforts a r e d e s i g n e d to increase reading proficiency in the students. (Florida Department of Education, 2010) When testing occurred following stude nt training student reading after a semester in the Content Area Technical Education Readin g program show positive success although not statistically significant results were noted (Florida Department of Education, 2010).
20 CHAPTER SIX CATER P ROGRAM AT KATHLEEN HIGH SCHOOL: A CASE STUDY Information provided on two cases was derived from the C o m p u t e r A i d e d D r a f t i n g ( C A D ) program and Cr iminal Justice program i n a high sch ool s e t t i n g in Polk County S c h o o l System (A ppendix B ). The Content Area Technical Education Reading program (CATER) was designed with the idea that immersi ng the student in reading c a r e e r material s that have been identified f o r student career education will assist successful reading growth Florida students in eighth grade are required to identify a career option of interest to allow the a p p r o p r i a t e reading material to be identified for the student use in the CATER reading pro gram. The student identifying t h e C T E option of high interest is expected to have more f o c u s in that area Two case study examples were the Criminal Justice Academy and the Computer A i d e d Drafting (CAD) program at the identified high school used the associated curriculum materials in their efforts to bring higher level reading skills to th e students. The program is designed to move students in a rotating scheme into three areas to avoid boredom and lo ss of concentration . The three areas used in the rotation including modeling or demonstration, student repetitive process, and content area training associated with the assigned r e a d i n g Movement of students through three phases of training allows each to move through and to maintai n an interest and focus relevant to each stud Following this type of concentrated program, students were tested with the regular student population and scores compared with school, district and state success r ates
21 (Appendix B) Scoring of the student tests was based on a 60 point scale that established a base line allowing ide ntification of growth when tested. G rowth patterns for students w h e n reteste d a t the end of the semester were established. The state scores of the p o s t b a s e l i n e reading test were 23 on averag e across the state in the reading program. The district reading test score of 26 for students during baseline testing showed scores slightly above state avera ge for other students assigned to the CATER program. Content area technical education reading classes with students placed in their student career choice classes showed scores of 36 in the Criminal Justice and Computer Assisted Drafting was at 39 a fter th e first retest for skill development. The results from the CATER students in Polk County School District showed an in crease in all students above state average which allowed continued consideration and use of the training philosophy and methodology estab lished in the CATER Prog ram. Although the C A T E R c a s e s t u d y used was a s m a l l s a m p l i n g classes identified showed promising results at the local level and throughout the state (appendix B)
22 CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS world to be more competitive in the global econo my is essential to student success. In addition, a paradigm shift must be made by students and parents alike to ch ange the belief t hat a high school diploma is a terminal degree. European countries have identified the need to give direction to students at an early age. I n G e r m a n f o r e x a m p l e middle school students are tested to qualify them for eithe r the Gymnasium ( University ) o r Technical Education. If selected to technical education, the student s could still work their way toward a college track but each student is expected to make career path determination Government supported technical schools a r e a s s i g n e d students t o a l l o w a s t a r t t o w a r d career p r o g r e s s i o n In the United States, s tudents will be challenged to become more competitive through the use of rigor and relevance in the application of selected reading coursework. T wo choices of c ollege tr ack or career and technical education are a v a i l a b l e for students Many students choose a path for themselves but then are unable to maintain that path due to substandard academic abilities, which are being challenged in the classroom to pass the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). T he development of Career and Technical Education (CTE) group to develop of preparation of students for the 21 st century. Vocation al education training has t r a n s f o r m e d into t o d a y s high er level CTE programs with focus on rigor and relevance the student m u s t master as they move toward a successful future.
23 In conclusion, contextual reading h a s s h o w n improve d reading s c o r e s for s o m e c a r e e r education student s in the CATER program at Kathleen High School in the Polk County School System as well as in the other statewide settings. G r o w t h i n t h e C A D p r o g r a m w a s p r o m i s i n g C A T E R m a y h a v e the potential to improve career and technical education (CTE) in other systems ( a p p e n d i x B ) A contextual approach also has potential to improve teaching and learning in so called academic areas, and improving scores in high stakes tests. Recommendations for further study include following this line of action for younger and adult students.
24 References 1. Allia nc e for Excellent Educatio n, (2007). The High Cost of High School Dropouts: What The Nation Pays For Inadequate High School. ACTE Issue Brief: Dropout Prevention and Recovery Retrieved from acteonline.org 2. Bridegeland, J. (2006). The Silent Epidemic. (2006). Perspectives of the Hi gh School Dropout Civic Enterprises 3. Edutopia online, GLEF Staff. (2007). Four reports look back on the school to work movement. Four Reports Look Back on the School to Work Movement Retrieved from www.glef.org 4. Ferger, R. (2001, January). Assessment: what school district policy makers can do. Edutopia 5. Florida Department of Education Elzie. (2010). Just Read, Florida!. Career and Technical Reading (CATER), 1 2. 6. Green, J. (2002). High school graduation rates in the Unit ed States. High School Graduation Rates in the United States 7. Lynch, R. (2000). Themes and components of high school career and technical education in the 21st century. New Directions for High School Career and Technical Education in the 21st Century (38 4) 8. Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC), (2009). Career academies: building career awareness and work based learning activities through employer partnerships Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation 9. National Education Summit on Hig h Schools, (2006). College and career readiness. American Diploma Project 1 5. 10. Orfield, G, Losen, D, Wald, J, & Swanson, C. (2004). Losing Our Future: How Minority Youth Are Being Left Behind By The Graduation Rate Crisis. ACTE Issue Brief: Dropout Pre vention and Recovery 1 7. 11. Ravitch, D. (2010). The Death and life of the great American school system. New York: Basic Books. 12. Southeast Region Educati o n Board, (2010). Improving career/technical education. SREB
25 13. U.S. Department of Education, (2006). Dropo ut and completion rates in the United S tates: 2006. Digest of Education NCES 2006 (30). 14. U.S. Department of Education, (2001). No child left behind act of 2001. PUBLIC LAW 107 110 JAN. 8, 2002 115 STAT. 1425 15. phe, General Colin Powell, 2007.
27 Appendix A A Comparison of 9 th and 11 th Grade Students in CATER compared with Propensity Matched Students Reported: 12 October 2009 By: Kevin Smith; Kevin.Smith@fldoe.org Florida Department of Education Evaluation Research A Comparison of 9 th and 11 th Grade Students in CATER compared with Propensity Matched Students Yaacov Petscher, Ph.D. Barbara R. Foorman, Ph.D. This report summarizes the f indings of a quasi experimental comparison of students enrolled in the CATER program during the 2008 2009 academic years. These analyses reflect comparisons for students who had the GRADE fall and spring scores, as well as FCAT 2008 and 2009 data available In order to ascertain any type of relationship between enrollment in CATER and gains in outcomes, it must be compared to a group of individuals who did not receive the CATER intervention. This way it is possible to theoretically examine how students who received CATER may have performed if they had not been in the intervention group. Although this design was not a randomized control, we can employ a rigorous quasi experimental deign that attempts to best approximate what would be found under randomized co nditions. In this study, students in CATER were matched to non CATER students who had similar FCAT 2008 scores, minority status, ELL status, and free/reduced lunch eligibility. Very few students in 10 th and 12 th grades had available, complete data for FC AT and GRADE (i.e., < 25). Thus it would not be appropriate to make comparisons about the relationship between CATER and outcomes since there are too few students to meaningfully generalize results. Using the matched data on students, two comparisons were made: 1)
28 analysis of pre post gains in the GRADE from fall to spring, and 2) analysis of group differences on FCAT 2009. Both of these analyses were necessary since a significant finding on the first one cannot generalize to the population because there we re not students who took the GRADE not enrolled in CATER. The second analysis was important to extend findings of the first analysis to determine if differences in FCAT between matched students could be observed when accounting for initial FCAT and demogr aphics. The first analysis was a paired t test to examine if significant gains were made from fall to spring on the GRADE for 9 th and 11 th grade students. Results from this analysis (Table 1) indicated that students in 9 th grade made significant gains on the GRADE ( t (27) = 3.72, p < 0.001); however, 11 th grade students did not ( t (37) = 0.88, p = 0.384). Table 1: Means and Standard Deviations On GRADE for Paired samples t test results The second analysis was a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare the matched students in each grade on the 2009 FCAT. Results from this analysis (Table 2) indicated that CATER and non CATER matched s tudents did not significantly differ on the FCAT in either 9 th or 11 th grade. Although CATER students in both grades show a mean developmental scale score FCAT that is larger than the non CATER students, this difference is not of statistical merit, and can largely be attributed to the individual differences in the mean FCAT scores. Similarly, when analyzing the gain scores (i.e., FCAT 2009 FCAT 2008) there were also no statistically significant differences, even though non CATER students in 11 th grade dec rease in FCAT performance. In both of these cases, there is a large degree of error, but also very small samples, which preclude a meaningful analysis of the relationship between CATER and outcomes. Table 2: Means/SDs for 2009 FCAT DSS Reading Scores for M atched Students GRADE Fall GRADE Spring Grade N M S.D. M S.D. 9th 25 19.46 5.8 24.25 8.11 11th 38 21.12 3.83 22.02 7.40
29 Appendix B CATER READING PROGRAM 2008 2009 RESULTS Kathleen High School 2600 Crutchfield Road Lakeland, Florida 33805 May 14, 2009 Cecil McClelland, Jr., Mechelle Daughtery, Principal Reading Specialist Subj: CATE R READING PROGRAM 2008 2009 RESULTS Debriefing Schedule Post testing 8:11 9:51: 3 rd period. o Doug Harwell Drafting 10:00 11:30: o Interview Richard Dobson Criminal Justice o Debriefing with Cater Teachers and Administration FCAT Re ading Scores 08 09 Fall Spring (Average Passed)_________________________________________________________ District 23 17 State 26 20 Harwell 34 39 Dobson 35 28_________ ing Teacher of theYear!!) 3 rd Period 50% of the class passed the FCAT 66% passed the FCAT/ACT 83% will receive a diploma (some ESE) 6 th Period 64% Passed the FCAT None took the ACT, No known ESE Total for the 2 classes 54% passed the FCAT 66% passed the FCAT/ACT And 72 Percent will receive a diploma!