USF Libraries

AC/DC : let there be hybrid cooling

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
AC/DC : let there be hybrid cooling
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Podes, Christopher
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Subtropical architecture passive cooling thermal comfort garden classroom educational building
Dissertations, Academic -- School of Architecture and Community Design -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: In today's increasingly energy conscious society, the methods of providing thermal comfort to humans are constantly under scrutiny. Depending on the climate, and the comfort requirements of the occupants, buildings can be designed to heat and cool occupants with passive methods, as well as mechanical methods. In the subtropics, where buildings often need to be heated in the winter and cooled in the summer, a synthesis of these two methods would be ideal. However, there is a disconnect between the integration of passive cooling and mechanical air conditioning, in subtropical architecture. A study of user attitudes, based out of Australia, found that, "Central control of temperatures has been used to cut demand by preventing users from altering thermostats and other parts of the building for microclimate control. In particular, windows are sealed to prevent tampering."1 Reliance on air conditioning has the everyday person convinced that if we save energy in the right places, we can use air conditioning as much as we like. The same study goes on to state, "Air-conditioning has been assumed to replace the need for climate design features in buildings creating poor thermal design and high energy use."2 This can be most clearly seen in our public buildings. Fully conditioned buildings pump cool air into sealed envelopes, adjusting the thermostat to regulate thermal comfort year-round, often in a climate in which mechanical air conditioning is needed only four months of the year, and during the warmest hours of the day. Inversely, ventilated buildings provide passive cooling in a climate in which the temperature and humidity are often too high for thermal comfort during the same four months of the year. In his book Natural Ventilation in Buildings, Francis Allard points out that the global energy efficiency movement, begun in the early 1990s, has now emerged as a concept that incorporates active air conditioning and site-specific climate design of buildings into one holistic approach.3 However, these buildings exist in more dry and temperate climates, and do not fully apply to the subtropics as cooling models. A model is needed for subtropical architecture allowing a building to reach both ends of the spectrum; from natural ventilation, through mechanical ventilation, to mechanical air conditioning. The goal of this thesis is to design a hybrid model for subtropical architecture which maximizes the use of natural and mechanical ventilation, and minimizes the use of mechanical air conditioning. The vehicle for this explanation is the design of an educational facility. Research of thermal comfort needs for occupants in the subtropics was accompanied with observation studies. This research was compared with case study, site and program analysis. The analysis was supplemented by a handbook of passive and mechanical cooling which was compiled to aid in establishing cooling strategies for the design process. The implementation of the research and analysis was brought to a conclusion that successfully achieved the goals of this thesis. By using passive methods to lower the temperature of the air surrounding the classroom buildings, the incoming air used to cool the occupants reached temperatures low enough to be considered comfortable inside the classrooms.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Christopher Podes.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0003500
usfldc handle - e14.3500
System ID:
SFS0027815:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling by Christopher Podes of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design College of Graduate Studies University of South Florida Major Professor: Daniel S. Powers, M. Arch. Rick Rados, M. Arch. Stanley Russell, M. Arch. Date of Approval: April 16, 2010 Keywords: Subtropical Architecture, Passive Cooling, Thermal Comfort, Garden Classroom, Educational Building Copyright 2010, Christopher Podes

PAGE 2

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling For my parents (with love). and those about to rock.

PAGE 3

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling Acknowledgements not just throughout my thesis, but also through the numerous obstacles I often made for myself during my time at SACD. Thanks to Rick Rados for always having the answer. The issues discussed relating to the roles of air conditioning place in the timeline of cooling. To Stan Russell for his understanding in this not becoming a design-build project. However, the experience gained on-site as to how a building is put together has been invaluable in visualizing and illustrating how these concepts could translate into architectural space and form. Thank you and appreciation to Ricky Peterika, for too many things to mention, but most pertinent to this thesis, for showing me how to make the gardens of the garden classroom work. Thank you to Alison and Nicole, for constructing a model in six hours, and to Luciano Esposito, for his late-night laser work. Thanks for the last minute help from Brandon Bartle, Mark Perret, Nate Boyd, Thao Nguyen, Jessica Gardberg and Leo Morantin. I would like to give a big thank you to Sasha Dalla Costa for her constant support, making me look good in the jury room and keeping me well-fed during my crazy hours.

PAGE 4

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling i Table of ContentsTable of Contents i List of Figures iii ABSTRACT vii Subtropical Hot, Humid Climates 1 Thermal Comfort and the Comfort Zone 4 The Importance of Air Movement in Hot, Humid Climates 9 Meso-climate and Microclimate 1 1 Case Studies 13 School of Architecture and Community Design 14 Marrkolidjban Outstation School 19 Denham Oaks Elementary School 24 Problem Statement 28 Project Goals and Description 36 Project Concept 39 Research and Design Methods 43 Passive and Mechanical Cooling Handbook 45 Site Analysis 54 Program Analysis 72 Design Solution 77

PAGE 5

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling ii Conclusion 103 Notes 112 Works Cited 124 Bibliography 126

PAGE 6

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling iii List of FiguresFig. 1. Hot climate zones of the world. 2 Fig. 2. Range of conditions which provide comfort according to ASHRAE. 6 Fig. 3. Thermal Exchange of the human body. 6 Fig. 4. The Human Comfort Chart developed by Terry Boutet. 7 Fig. 5. Ventilation caused by the stack effect. 9 Fig. 6. Buoyancy is caused by variations in air density due to changes in air temperature. 10 Fig. 7. The temperatures of a microclimate are greatly affected by the surrounding context. 1 1 Fig. 8. Photo just after completion showing dark shadows as a result of the deep recesses afforded by the design. 14 Fig. 9. Original landscape plan showing the anticipated use of vegetation as a way too cool the edges of the building. 14 15 15 Fig. 10. Surfaces affected by direct solar heat gain, Fall and Spring. 15 Fig. 14. Exposed surfaces section. 16 Fig. 13. Wind diagram depicting westerly winds. 16 Fig. 16. Cooling methods section. 17

PAGE 7

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling iv Fig. 15. Cooling methods plans. 17 Fig. 17. Wind diagram depicting easterly winds. 18 Fig. 18. Westerly wind plan diagrams of levels 1-3. 18 Fig. 19. Original model showing metal roof providing a large area of shade. 19 Fig. 20. Sensory connection to exterior. 20 Fig. 22. Wind section diagram. 21 Fig. 21. Original elevation. 21 Fig. 23. Exposed surfaces section. 21 Fig. 25. Wind plan diagrams of level 2 partially open. 22 Fig. 26. Wind plan diagrams of level 1 partially open. 22 Fig. 24. Wind plan diagrams of levels 1 and 2 fully open. 22 Fig. 27. Plan of Denham Oaks Elementary School. 24 Fig. 28. Perception of expanse of garden court. 25 Fig. 29. Areas of vegetation within the garden court. 26 Fig. 30. Sectional study of garden court. 27 Fig. 31. Diagram illustrating the cooling potential of trees and shrubs. 41 movement. 41 Fig. 33. Passive and Mechanical Cooling Handbook. 46 Fig. 34. NASA Landsat image of the Tampa Bay area. 54 Fig. 35. Meso-climatic chart for the city of Tampa. 55 Fig. 36. The temperature and humidity chart converted to a 15 cell Temperature

PAGE 8

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling v and Humidity Matrix. 57 Fig. 37. Example of the hourly totals of temperature and humidity for November and December. 58 Fig. 38. Climate-Comfort Analysis Chart. 60 Fig. 39. Summary by Hour Chart. 61 Fig. 40. Aerial view of the site in relation to downtown Tampa. 63 Fig. 41. Aerial view of the site in relation to immediate context. 63 Fig. 42. View of the site looking southwest. 64 Fig. 43. Site Observation Study A. 66 Fig. 44. Site Observation Study B. 67 Fig. 45. Shade studies of the summer and winter sun in relation to the academic calendar. 68 Fig. 46. Functional Program. 73 Fig. 47. Ground Floor Plan. 78 Fig. 48. Second Floor Plan. 79 Fig. 49. Third Floor Plan. 80 Fig. 50. Fourth Floor Plan. 81 Fig. 51. Garden Classroom Section A-A. 82 Fig. 52. Classroom Community Section B-B. 83 Fig. 53. Passive Cooling Mode: Thermal Chimney. 84 Fig. 54. Passive Cooling Mode: Windcatcher. 85 Fig. 55. Mechanically Assisted Cooling Mode: Thermal Chimney. 86

PAGE 9

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling vi Fig. 56. Full Mechanical Cooling Mode: Air Conditioning. 87 88 Fig. 58. Planting Key A. 89 Fig. 59. Sensory Dune. 89 Fig. 60. Garden Court: Timber Bamboo. 90 Fig. 61. Planting Key B. 91 Fig. 62. Garden Court. 91 Fig. 63. Canopy Forest: Cathedral Live Oak. 92 Fig. 64. Site model. 93 Fig. 65. View showing shade of deep roof overhangs. 94 Fig. 66. Parking garage, sensory dune and classrooms. 95 Fig. 67. View into canopy forest. 96 Fig. 68. Circulation paths looking over the shaded canopy forest. 97 Fig. 69. Section model showing the garden court. 98 Fig. 70. View of classrooms and circulation along east side. 99 Fig. 71. Foliage screen upon the sensory dune. 100 Fig. 72. View of classrooms along the west side. 100 Fig. 73. View of southwest corner. 101 101 Fig. 75. View into the garden court from the activity space. 102

PAGE 10

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling vii AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling Chris Podes ABSTRACT providing thermal comfort to humans are constantly under scrutiny. Depending on the climate, and the comfort requirements of the occupants, buildings can be designed to heat and cool occupants with passive methods, as well as mechanical methods. In the subtropics, where buildings often need to be heated in the winter and cooled in the summer, a synthesis of these two methods would be ideal. However, there is a disconnect between the integration of passive cooling and mechanical air conditioning, in subtropical architecture. A study of user attitudes, based out of Australia, found that, Central control of temperatures has been used to cut demand by preventing users from altering thermostats and other parts of the building for microclimate control. In particular, windows are sealed to prevent tampering.1 Reliance on air conditioning has the everyday person convinced that if we save energy in the right places, we can use air conditioning as much as we like. The same study goes on to state, Air-conditioning has been assumed to replace the need for climate design features in buildings creating poor thermal design and high energy use.2 This can be most clearly seen in our public buildings. Fully conditioned buildings pump cool air into sealed envelopes, adjusting the

PAGE 11

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling viii thermostat to regulate thermal comfort year-round, often in a climate in which mechanical air conditioning is needed only four months of the year, and during the warmest hours of the day. Inversely, ventilated buildings provide passive cooling in a climate in which the temperature and humidity are often too high for thermal comfort during the same four months of the year. In his book Natural Ventilation in Buildings, Francis Allard points now emerged as a concept that incorporates active air conditioning and site3 However, these buildings exist in more dry and temperate climates, and do not fully apply to the subtropics as cooling models. A model is needed for subtropical architecture allowing a building to reach both ends of the spectrum; from natural ventilation, through mechanical ventilation, to mechanical air conditioning. The goal of this thesis is to design a hybrid model for subtropical architecture which maximizes the use of natural and mechanical ventilation, and minimizes the use of mechanical air conditioning. The vehicle for this explanation is the design of an educational facility. Research of thermal comfort needs for occupants in the subtropics was accompanied with observation studies. This research was compared with case study, site and program analysis. The analysis was supplemented by a handbook of passive and mechanical cooling which was compiled to aid in

PAGE 12

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling ix establishing cooling strategies for the design process. The implementation of the research and analysis was brought to a conclusion that successfully achieved the goals of this thesis. By using passive methods to lower the temperature of the air surrounding the classroom buildings, the incoming air used to cool the occupants reached temperatures low enough to be considered comfortable inside the classrooms.

PAGE 13

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 1 Subtropical Hot, Humid Climates by many, but the most widely accepted system is the Koppen-Geiger climate subtropical climates. Typically located on the southeastern edges of continents, the vegetation is lush, and fairly cloudy skies often cause strong glare of diffused sunlight. The two climatic factors that have the biggest impact on subtropical surroundings, and relative humidity, which is the percentage of water vapor that exists in the air. The average temperatures of regions within this climate can vary by more than ten degrees, and are often affected by proximity to bodies of water and topography of natural land features. In many ways the humid subtropics are similar to tropical climates closer to the equator. For example, both climates experience very high temperature and humidity levels. Temperatures can reach as high as the low 90s in the summer, and feel even hotter, due to the humidity. The relative humidity hovers at 70 to 80 percent

PAGE 14

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 2 Hot climate zones of the world. Fig. 1. 1

PAGE 15

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 3 in the summer during the days, and does not deviate much in the evenings. However, unlike the tropics, subtropical climates also have a cool season. For example, in North America the cool season stretches from mid-November through mid-March, and temperatures can drop as low as 25 degrees Fahrenheit. The relative humidity also drops in the cool season to between 40 and 70 percent. It is because of these characteristics that the humid subtropics are often High precipitation is common of the humid subtropics with the most amount of rain falling from late May to early September in North America. In these months, afternoon showers can be expected almost every day. The hurricane and monsoon seasons bring the highest concentration of rains and 2 Though subtropical regions closer to the poles of the earth are affected by the prevailing westerlies, the trade winds prevail in the majority of subtropical climates. Because these hot humid regions are generally found along continental temperatures of land and sea.3

PAGE 16

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 4 Thermal Comfort and the Comfort ZoneOne of the most relentless pursuits of mankind has been the pursuit of comfort. Human comfort is built upon health and well-being, which is most Air Movement, describes the relevance of health and climate in ancient and by climate. Hippocrates, in about 400 B.C., wrote that, Whoever would study medicine aright must learn of the following subjects. First he must consider the effect of each of the seasons of the year and the difference between them. Secondly, he must study the warm and the cold winds, both those which are common to every country and those in peculiar to a particular locality. Lastly, the effect of the water on the health must not be forgotten. Thus, he would know what changes to expect in the weather and, not only would he enjoy good health himself for the most part, but he would be very successful in the practice of medicine. If it should be thought that this is more of the business of the meteorologist, then learn that astronomy plays a very important part in medicine Climate and health are still vital issues among modern doctors, as Sir Leonard Hill pointed out in a report to the Medical Research Council, The changing play of light, of cold and warmth, stimulate the activity and health of the mind and

PAGE 17

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 5 body. Monotony of occupation and external conditions for long hours destroy 1 Comfort is both psychological and physiological, encompassing not only the limits of an environment in which no discomfort occurs, but extending beyond that boundary to the limits of satisfaction. Because of this, thermal comfort differs from comfort in that it lacks the emotion and excitement of the produces minimal activity of the thermoregulatory mechanisms of the body.2 Thus, it is the emotional aspect of human comfort that makes for a full, rounded experience, and should be the vantage point from which the thermal qualities of an experience are viewed. In his book, Design with Climate, Victor Olgyay proposes a method of designing for humans within their respective climates. Through analysis of a varied set of studies conducted in relation to humans and their perceived levels of comfort, Olgyay assembled a Bioclimatic Chart. The underlying concept of the Bioclimatic Chart is to establish a comfort zone whose perimeter 3 Since the publication of the Bioclimatic Chart, many others have published charts based on a similar theme. The studies researched in the creation of most of these charts incorporated both physiological and psychological responses to climate conditions in a variety of environments. The comfort zone is different for every

PAGE 18

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 6 individual, and is affected by factors such as age, sex and acclimatization. An from one environment to the next, such as from a dry, temperate climate to a comfort zone, further proving the subjective nature of comfort. For example, the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers more than 50 percent of the persons tested felt comfortable.4 relative humidities at noon varying from 40 to 70 percent.5The six main factors affecting comfort in humans are ambient air temperature, solar radiation, humidity, air movement and velocity, clothing, and the metabolic rate of the body. The ambient air temperature is the baseline from the surfaces surrounding the individual, and a difference between ambient and radiant temperatures can be used to balance one another and increase comfort. Humidity can greatly increase or decrease the loss of heat from the body, which affects comfort more directly than radiant temperature. Air movement enables the body to lose heat through convection or evaporative cooling. As air velocity increases, so does the rate of heat loss from the body. When the ambient air temperature is below the temperature of the human body, air movement will always have a cooling effect. When the ambient air temperature is above the Range of conditions which provide comfort according to Fig. 2. ASHRAE.6 Thermal Fig. 3. Exchange of the human body.7

PAGE 19

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 7 temperature of the human body, the air movement will have a warming and a cooling effect, but the cooling effect will always be greater until the ambient air temperature reaches 104 degrees. Clothing decreases the evaporative cooling effect of the body and prevents heat loss through convection. Densities of fabrics and amount of body coverage are the contributing factors. The metabolic rate is affected by body weight and levels of activity, and is the factor that most does the need for cooling.8The Human Comfort Chart has been established as a combination of previous comfort charts, in order to supply the architect with a source that displays the factors of human comfort in terms easily understood. Developed by thus assisting the architect in understanding which climate responsive strategies are needed from the outset of the design process. The comfort zone found within this chart contains separate summer and winter comfort zones, as well as an overlapping comfort zone of greater size, afforded by the implementation of ventilation. Depending on the climatic conditions, the ambient air temperature may need to be lowered, the humidity may need to increase, the humidity may need to decrease, or the individual may need the supply of air movement. The Human Comfort Chart will be used, for the purpose of this thesis, to analyze the comfort issues found within the climate of the project site. The ventilated comfort zone will serve as a foundation from which subjective comfort levels The Human Comfort Chart developed by Terry Boutet. Fig. 4. 9

PAGE 20

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 8 can be assumed to exist.10

PAGE 21

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 9 The Importance of Air Movement in Hot, Humid ClimatesIn the summer months of subtropical climates, temperatures often reach highs that cause the human body to perspire. Additionally, relative humidity levels can reach levels leaving moisture on the skin and clothing of occupants. Air movement uses the perspiration and moisture as an advantage of cooling. The movement of air across the skin and clothing increases both the rate and sensation of cooling as the moisture is evaporated. This process is commonly referred to as evaporative cooling. In hot, humid climates, cross-ventilation can be utilized as a method of cooling occupants up to a certain temperature limit, assuming a relatively high air velocity. Since, in most cases, the air used to ventilate an interior space comes from the exterior environment, the limit is based upon the outdoor air temperature. If one assumes a maximum air speed between 1.5 and 2.0 meters per second, then the maximum temperature limit for which outdoor air can be used to cross-ventilate an interior space is between 82.4 and 89.6 degrees Fahrenheit. The maximum air speed has been established as the threshold at which loose papers, such as the worksheets and 1 Similarly, if the same velocity of air movement can be induced by the stack effect, or with the supplement of a fan, the same results can be achieved. Ventilation caused by the Fig. 5. stack effect.2

PAGE 22

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 10 For the purpose of this thesis, there are three main forms of air move air through a space. Cross-ventilation is an example of natural ventilation. The second form of air movement is induced ventilation, which is based on changes in temperature and pressure. Changes in temperature and pressure can cause air to rise or sink, which is referred to as buoyancy. A solar chimney is a good example of induced ventilation. The last form of air movement is forced ventilation, which relies on the assistance of mechanical means to move air at a higher velocity than that of the existing natural conditions.3 Buoyancy is caused by variations in air density due to Fig. 6. changes in air temperature. Air pressure always moves from positive to negative.4

PAGE 23

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 11 Meso-climate and Microclimate The climate of the subtropics can be analyzed at two different scales. The meso-climatic scale is the broader scale, and consists of data that is recorded for an entire city or district. The data often includes monthly weather patterns of characteristics such as average maximum temperatures, average minimum temperatures, average relative humidity, prevailing wind directions, amount observations recorded hourly and averaged over the period of a month.1 context, such as the surrounding buildings and streets.2 Microclimatic data is observed and recorded by the architect, and is extremely important in its the effects of thermal mass on the site. Additionally, ambient air temperature and relative humidity should also be recorded. While the latter two may seem redundant, the truth is that the meso-climatic and microclimatic data do not temperature and humidity. Consequently it is imperative to make consistent The temperatures of a microclimate are greatly affected by Fig. 7. the surrounding context.3

PAGE 24

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 12 be shaded during the morning, and then exposed to the sun in the afternoon. proposed buildings during the design process. The purpose of comparing the ambient air temperature and relative humidity recordings to the meso-climatic data is to understand the patterns of difference between the two. Since most architects do not have an entire twelve months to understand the site at its hottest and coldest, conclusions can be inferred from the differences between the two forms of data. Although computer programs may be able to model sun and shade patterns, among other characteristics, the knowledge gained by physically designing for is invaluable.

PAGE 25

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 13 Case Studies The purpose of the selected case studies is to understand the range of methods used in educational architecture for cooling in hot, humid climates. From the most typical local example of air conditioned big box enclosure, through air conditioned enclosures separated by open-air circulation, to the bare-bone example of natural and mechanical ventilation, these case in school buildings.

PAGE 26

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 14 Photo just after completion showing dark shadows as a result of Fig. 8. the deep recesses afforded by the design. Original landscape plan showing the anticipated use of vegetation Fig. 9. as a way too cool the edges of the building.School of Architecture and Community Design University of South Florida Tampa, Florida H. Leslie Walker and Associates Architects, 1965 The HMS Building which houses the School of Architecture and Community Design is an excellent example of the institutional architecture of the 1960s that was constructed in the Gulf Coast Region. Using a concrete column and beam framework, the building demonstrates Modernist sensibilities in its technological use of cantilevered enclosures to create shaded paths, and the separation of enclosed spaces to create covered breezeways. It was constructed just prior to the energy crisis of the 1970s under the reality that energy was sealed envelopes without any windows.

PAGE 27

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 15 Surfaces affected by direct solar heat gain, Fall and Spring. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. The HMS building lies at the air conditioned end of the spectrum for the selected group of case studies. While it does provide covered open-air circulation, similar to Denham Oaks Elementary School, the air movement within these breezeways is unable to penetrate into the fully enclosed classrooms. The purpose of this case study is twofold. One function is to understand the amount of surface area hidden from direct sunlight, as well as indirect heat. By minimizing surfaces exposed to the hot, humid climate, the Fig. 12.

PAGE 28

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 16 Wind diagram depicting westerly winds. Fig. 13. Exposed surfaces section. Fig. 14. function is to examine how these surfaces could be cooled with the same wind currents that could naturally and mechanically ventilate interior spaces with the addition of wall openings. If the thermal perception of naturally cooled exterior surfaces can be related to surfaces felt within interior spaces, then the thermal qualities of interior surfaces can begin to shape and organize interior spaces. The design approach of HMS is a variation on the principles of a dogtrot house, applied to a larger scale structure. As such, all of the open-air circulation paths serve as breezeways. The vertical circulation, restrooms and found on these levels. The classrooms within this envelope were designed to which spans the entire length and width of the building. Sun-shaded, operable windows can be found along the north and south faades of this level.

PAGE 29

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 17 Cooling methods plans. Fig. 15. Cooling methods section. Fig. 16. shading, as well as paths for air movement, the building takes a bipolar stance of extreme contrast between interior and exterior. The building informs its inhabitants that the natural air is meant to be kept out of the classrooms at all times. Unfortunately, all other relationships with the world outside suffer just as severely. Daylight, the sound of birds, the scent of trees, as well as the feel of

PAGE 30

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 18 Westerly wind plan diagrams of levels 1-3. Fig. 18. Wind diagram depicting easterly winds. Fig. 17. natural air, all cease to exist within the classrooms. This case study serves as not only a study of air movement and heat gain of surfaces, but also as an inspiration to break down barriers between interior and exterior spaces through a range of secondary and tertiary spaces leading from open space to enclosure within the sense of the classroom, thus collapsing the previous notions of interior versus exterior.

PAGE 31

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 19 Original model showing metal roof providing a large area of shade. Fig. 19. The operable louvered wall panels can be seen, allowing occupants to have complete control over the degree to which the space is cooled by outside air.1 Marrkolidjban Outstation School Central Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia Troppo Architects, 1992 The Marrkolidjban Outstation School is located near the northern coast of Australia in a climate similar to the hot, humid climate of Tampa, with the exception being the dry season that can be found in Arnhem Land. Despite this difference in humidity and rainfall for certain portion of the year, the Outstation School utilizes the simplest strategies maximizing natural and mechanical ventilation in a contemporary architectural model. As such, this case study will be used as a starting point for the design and construction of the full-scale inhabitable space. Furthermore, these basic methods are relevant and extremely applicable to the subtropics. The most important lesson derived from this case study is the lack of distinction between interior and exterior space afforded by the abundant number of exterior walls that function as large louvers

PAGE 32

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 20 Sensory connection to exterior. Fig. 20. and retractable doors, and the intermediate semi-enclosed spaces created as a result of the louvers and doors being open. The sensorial connection to the interior classrooms of school buildings offered a greater sense of openness to exterior spaces through the blending of interior and exterior spatial qualities, the

PAGE 33

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 21 Original elevation. Fig. 21. 3 Wind section diagram. Fig. 22. Exposed surfaces section. Fig. 23. The design approach of Troppo Architects is based around four fundamental architectural principles for tropical buildings: the promotion of cooling breezes; ventilation by convection; reducing radiation of heat, and; the sheltering of walls and openings.2 Most inspiring, though, is how cooling breezes are promoted in the Outstation School. As in many tropical and subtropical regions, orientation, elevation and the plan form of the building are key elements. But it is the treatment of potential barriers that allows the ventilation to pass through the building, cooling all of the indoor spaces. The layout consists of very few interior walls, and the exterior walls consist of interior partitions are oriented parallel with the passage of the prevailing wind.

PAGE 34

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 22 Wind plan diagrams of levels 1 and 2 fully open. Fig. 24. Wind plan diagrams of level 2 partially open. Fig. 25. As the passage of air moves inside the building, internal partitions raised above and below those partitions that would otherwise impede air movement. The roof pitch rises one and a half times the height of the walls, encouraging air of the main space aiding in the exhaust of rising hot air and inducing cool air the design of school buildings in terms of presentation towards prevailing winds, the treatment of potential barriers and the incorporation of supplementary means Wind plan diagrams of level 1 partially open. Fig. 26.

PAGE 35

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 23 of air movement. The Marrkolidjban Outstation School, demonstrates how the role of the human, and his or her perception and control of thermal comfort can become a tactile part of the learning process in school buildings. The Outstation School is at the natural ventilation end of the spectrum for the selected group of case studies. Whereas the other cases consisted of air conditioned interior spaces, this building is void of a mechanical air conditioning system, and is designed to blur the perception between interior and exterior. Unlike the large building square footages of the other case studies, this school is structure that makes up the campus, and is surrounded by tall grass and trees. Despite the positive qualities of this case study, the openness of the structure translates to a building that is neither tightly sealed, nor materially thick. This poses problems such as lack of security, lack of insulation, and the potential for air leakage when considered as a model to be adapted for hybrid cooling.

PAGE 36

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 24 Plan of Denham Oaks Elementary School. This illustrates the Fig. 27. relationship between garden courts, classrooms and oak preserve beyond.Denham Oaks Elementary School Rowe Architects Incorporated, 1993 Denham Oaks Elementary School is located just north of greater Tampa, surrounded by suburban single-family homes. The site consists series of neighborhoods along the reach of both arms of the L, individual garden courts provide air movement between the larger built volumes of the campus while also creating a sense of community among the students of each court. In addition to exterior air movement, all of the campus classrooms, which are designed to be fully air conditioned, also feature operable clerestory windows that allow for natural ventilation. This case study implies a hybrid system of cooling, and yet school buildings such as this one, located in subtropical

PAGE 37

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 25 Perception of expanse of garden court. Fig. 28. climates, rarely utilize natural ventilation. However, if the perception of thermal comfort of the inhabitants within the classroom, for example, can be expanded to include sensorial cooling elements of a greater space, such as the court and preserve beyond, then the perception of thermal comfort will more likely be satisfying. Denham Oaks demonstrates a range of thermal zones from exterior passively cooled courtyards are typically found in dryer climates. By opening up one side of the courtyard to the preserve, and allowing exterior covered capturing both easterly and westerly breezes. In addition, the low one-story sectional quality of the campus allows air to move over one arm of buildings and back down to ground level before crossing the other arm of the campus, again, affording all four courts good air movement. Wrapping three sides of the garden court, covered pathways provide shade with varying degrees of openness, not well. Secondary gardens exist off of these circulation pathways, marking the entrance to the classrooms. The sense of spatial limits of the garden reaches beyond the physical garden to include the pathways, secondary gardens, and oak preserve beyond. Unfortunately, this sense of a greater space does not extend to the classrooms. The walls of the campus buildings serve to maximize functional wall space, and minimize the amount of natural daylight. As a result,

PAGE 38

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 26 Areas of vegetation within the garden court. Fig. 29. all windows are placed high and views to the exterior give no sense of a greater whole. Thus, Denham Oaks lies in the crossroads of the selected case studies. While it does provide air conditioned enclosures utilizing open-air circulation, it has the ability to function as a passively cooled school. This campus design suggests the possibilities of the court as a source of the perception of thermal comfort. By creating a strong sensorial connection to the court, the classroom becomes a part of the court. Views must be created to the greater space described as the garden court, but more importantly an abundance of elements are needed within the garden court providing a sense of

PAGE 39

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 27 Sectional study of garden court. Fig. 30. sound, smell, taste and touch in association with the breeze that naturally and mechanically cools the classrooms. This case study will serve as a jumping off point for the implementation of garden courts that provide the perception of thermal comfort to interior classrooms through sensorial elements integrated into the architecture of the spaces.

PAGE 40

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 28 Problem StatementNatural ventilation relies on the quality of the external environment of the building to provide clean, fresh air to service the air quality and cooling needs of the building and its occupants.1 During the Industrial Revolution, the air quality used to supply natural ventilation to buildings within major cities was heavily polluted. This problem, coupled with the noise pollution of downtowns, became the catalyst for the development of forced ventilation, which is ventilation by mechanical means.2 A mechanical ventilator simply consists of a motor-driven fan that either exhausts air from an interior space, or induces air from an exterior space.3 With the advent of mechanical ventilation, buildings no longer required large openings in the building envelope to allow for natural ventilation. Filters removed the pollutants from the air as it was mechanically and roof, providing fresh air. The small number and size of the mechanical city from the interiors of urban buildings.4 Up until this point in time, naturally ventilated buildings in hot, humid typically featured large openings, and, in the case of the dwellings of primitive

PAGE 41

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 29 peoples, the elimination of walls altogether. The air movement through the interior spaces provided evaporative cooling for the inhabitants and the lack of enclosure was almost a necessity of the climate.5 However, Willis Carrier developed a way to not only mechanically move air, but to cool and dehumidify dry, interior environment a reality.6 In the 1950s and 1960s, the mechanical service disciplines came together as one integrated heating, ventilation and air conditioning, also known as HVAC. This merging of disciplines allowed the services to be better coordinated within the design of the building, and increased the acceptance of this new technology. The act of creating a cool, dry, thermal environment within a building, despite the temperature and humidity outside, became a progressive and desired ideal.7 The architect ultimately designs for the potential inhabitants of the space. As the installation of air conditioning has spread throughout public and private buildings, a large population has been affected by this technology. Richard Hyde, in his book Climate Responsive Design, provides a list of ability to maximize the potential built area of a site through the elimination of open spaces such as courtyards, no longer needed to access natural ventilation. shape a building in any way desired, since the climate design factors will not be

PAGE 42

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 30 used to cool the building. A third reason is the hope of improving attendance through the perception of a comfortable place to work or an afternoon oasis. The fourth reason is the necessity to provide fresh, cool air to spaces such as auditoriums in which a large number of users, in close proximity, require air to not only cool the large amount of heat created from the number of bodies, but 8 illustrate the freedom, hope and necessity of air conditioning to the architect as a design tool. The list of criticisms by the users of air conditioned buildings, and human well-being. One of the main criticisms is the over-use of recycled and contributes to sick building syndrome. Second, high life-cycle energy costs and negative environmental impacts are created due to the abuse of air conditioning capabilities, and ignorance of climate design factors such as shading, shaping and naturally ventilating a building, when possible. Another major criticism is the shifting of temperature control to a central location within a building by removing control of localized thermostats and operable windows from the users, especially in buildings originally designed to be thermally controlled locally. The last main criticism is the long-term effects of living and working within climatically controlled environments for the majority of day and

PAGE 43

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 31 regulatory mechanisms, increasing the risk of climatic stain when returning to warmer external conditions.9 Societies in warm climates have indulged in the use of a machine that will cater to their thermal wishes, or rather, what their thermal wishes are speculated to be. The air conditioner, acting as a mechanical servant, has given users the ability to exist, for the large majority of our daily lives, in the temperature and humidity of our liking. But what happens when the majority humidity?10Hyde further points out, It is evident that whilst these concerns are about the design issues associated with air conditioning there is also strong criticism placed on the management of these systems. This stems temperatures and humidity day in, day out and throughout the year. The result is the building is disengaged from the place in which it is located and from the natural cycle, promoting in humans a range of behavior similar to that of sensory deprivation. This is indicated in feedback from one user survey of air conditioned buildings.11 Two of the problems described in the feedback suggest that the occupants were not happy having their localized thermal environment controlled by a central source, and that the transition between interior and

PAGE 44

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 32 exterior could be uncomfortable due to the large temperature and humidity differences. The survey also showed that there is little preference for an air conditioned building over a non-air conditioned building, and that preference is based on climatic experience.12 Despite studies such as this, ASHRAE has pursued a standardized thermal range for building interiors. This idea, in which the occupant does not feel too hot or too cold, is the underlying theme behind thermal neutrality. Proponents of thermal neutrality believe the thermal qualities of interior spaces should be so perfectly suitable that they go unnoticed. Thermal neutrality stems from the concept of the comfort zone, and has served as an attempt by organizations such as ASHRAE to objectify a subjective concept.13 According to Victor Olgyay, conditions wherein the average person will not experience the feeling of discomfort can constitute the perimeter of the comfort zone.14 The comfort zone differs from thermal neutrality in the sense that the comfort zone is unique to every individual, whereas thermal neutrality is a method universally applied to occupants despite their varying individual comfort zones. Olgyay describes a report of lightly clothed, sedentary individuals, stating that the British comfort zone lies between 58 and 70F; the comfort zone in the United States lies between 69 and 80F; and in the tropics it is between 74 and 85F. Regional acclimatizations such as these, in addition to age and sex, are the 15

PAGE 45

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 33 expands well beyond the boundaries of neutrality. Simple pleasures can be had thermal sense can be just as enjoyable. In fact, it is often sensory experiences Heschong states,there seems to be a simple pleasure that comes with just using it, letting it provide us with bits of information about the world around, using it to explore and learn, or just to notice. The stone is cool; yes, it feels cool when I touch it; perhaps it has been in the shade for awhile. The coffee cup life in being aware of these little pieces of information about the world outside us. When the sun is warm on my face and the breeze is cool, I know it is good to be alive.16 Humans enjoy a range of temperatures, especially contrasts. Take for example, the alternating repetition of heat and cool from the intermittent shade of tree canopies when walking along a tree-lined path. Each moment of sunlight refreshes the desire for the moment of shade, and, conversely, each moment of shade refreshes the desire for a moment of sunlight. This is meal. The range of temperatures typically experienced in nonor poorly air conditioned settings is often discouraged by proponents of a thermal uniformity, commonly referred to as a steady-state approach. The steady-state approach

PAGE 46

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 34 advocates a lifestyle in which the moments in-between air conditioned spaces are viewed as negative, uncomfortable, or an inconvenience of thermal stress. Those in-between moments are, of course, the moments one is able to interact with the world outside. The moment one leaves their air conditioned car to walk break in the steady-state.17 persists, which is the relationship of the steady-state to the functions and habits of the various interior spaces. The use of air conditioning in this steady-state their uses. Spaces, within the home, where families once gathered for desirable thermal qualities to relax in the evening are gathering places no more. The family has been stretched throughout the house, inconsequential of the thermal qualities of the spaces occupied by each family member because the thermal qualities are the same for every space. The contemporary issues of climate determinism, thermal neutrality and the steady-state approach apply to a variety of public buildings. on air conditioning in buildings. Limiting the use of air conditioning in a building to the times of the year in which thermal comfort of occupants cannot

PAGE 47

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 35 the renewed sense of purpose, through thermal qualities, of spaces associated with the maximization of passive cooling and air movement. The idea of the thermal place as a reason for occupants to come together will create a sense of community and shared experience, reinforcing the ritual of gathering.

PAGE 48

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 36 Project Goals and DescriptionCurrently, the majority of schools within Tampa, Florida are equipped with centrally located HVAC systems that supply and exhaust cooled or heated air to and from the individual classrooms and other spaces. In a conversation with a substitute teacher who has been assigned to a number of different local schools, it was stated that the majority of classrooms rely on air conditioning year-round, with the exception of those winter months when heat is needed. Most classrooms provide daylight through windows along one side of the classroom, typically located at the top of the wall, but much fewer amount feature operable windows. Classrooms with operable windows are seldom opened to provide natural ventilation to the interior spaces.1 There seems to be a general perception amongst those in control of the cooling systems that when the option to cool classrooms by non-conditioned methods is present, it is often viewed as incomparable to the cooling sensation provided by air conditioning. annual time window of evaporative cooling of occupants throughout the spaces of school buildings located in hot, humid climates through natural and induced ventilation methods such as cross-ventilation and buoyancy. Additionally, forced ventilation, such as the use of fans, will supplement passive methods, when needed. The second is to minimize the reliance on air conditioning

PAGE 49

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 37 systems within interior spaces of school buildings in hot, humid climates. The third is to facilitate the localized control of microclimates within the school building. The scope of this thesis encompasses designing the masterplan for microclimate of a selected classroom community within the school. The program within the site. Designing a masterplan will acknowledge the importance of air movement throughout the campus that can be captured to provide natural and induced ventilation for the buildings and occupants. Climate the siting of the structures before exploring the design of individual classroom communities. The purpose of selecting one classroom community as the focus of achieving the goals listed above is to positively affect the perception of students where the majority of their time is spent; in the classroom. The project is located near the Gulf Coast of Florida in the city of Tampa. Tucked into the northeast portion of the Hillsborough Bay, the city is mean temperature recorded at 82.5 degrees Fahrenheit, the city falls within the

PAGE 50

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 38 of Tampa, and the area is known to have a large percentage of young couples, implying the need for a local primary school.2

PAGE 51

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 39 Project ConceptThe garden classroom is the conceptual basis underlying the architectural solution of this thesis. This concept can be distilled to creating garden spaces within and surrounding classrooms and classroom communities to provide positive, thermal qualities of human comfort to their occupants. For spaces consisting of natural features, such as plants, and man-made features, such as sun screens. The gardens increase the perception of human comfort, and facilitate the maximization of natural and induced ventilation of classroom communities in two main ways. air movement, such as a breeze, to other senses affected by the garden, through what the author is terming sensory association. Sensory association is based For example, the scent of coffee, for many, often has a sensory association with sense can produce a psychological sensation of warmth in an individual.1 The thermal sense is often, mistakenly associated with the sense of touch. However,

PAGE 52

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 40 the two differ greatly, since the human body senses heat loss and gain without ever touching an object.2 While the ability of the human psyche to alter the occupants. In The Japanese House and Garden, Tetsuro Yoshida tells of a variety of methods used in Japanese households to create a sense of coolness in the minds of residents. In the warmest times of the year, images of waterfalls and mountain streams are displayed. Yoshida goes on to describe, People like to hang a lantern or a wind chime under the roof of the veranda. The lightly swaying lantern or the ringing of the bell gives a suggestion of refreshing coolness. An awareness of air movement also persisted in Persian gardens, where fragrant plants often provided a pleasant scent with the breeze.3 One can imagine sitting in a room within a Persian household, invigorated by the scent of jasmine as a gentle wind slips through the window from the garden. As months go by, this repeated experience forms a sensory association between the scent of the jasmine and the cooling sensation of the breeze. This relationship between the human psyche and the physical act of cooling the body is what makes human comfort, human.4The second positive comfort quality of garden spaces is to serve as a buffer, softening the thermal transition between interior spaces such as classrooms and exterior spaces such as hallways and courtyards. This reduces the amount of thermal stress on the human body often experienced in hot,

PAGE 53

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 41 humid climates when moving from cool conditioned spaces to the outdoors on a hot day. In a study carried out by Nasser Al Hemiddi, under the direction of Baruch Givoni, surface and air temperatures at three feet above ground were measured, based on a variety of ground treatments. The results showed that on clear, hot summer days, there was a difference of up to 6 degrees Fahrenheit between the temperature above exposed pavement, and the temperature above the ground shaded by a high and dense shrub fence. Additionally, not only was the air under the shrub cooler, but the shrub also provided shade from solar heat gains to a nearby wall.6 Thus, the temperature of the air decreases as it moves from the garden and into the classroom. The manner in which a garden space accomplishes this depends on a variety of factors, such as the height, density, and location of trees, shrubs, vines, and groundcover. The vegetation decrease the air velocity based on the shape and density of the plants. Also, air quality.7 By layering garden spaces, and thinking of the classroom as a garden itself, a variety of thermal zones can be created, each with its own sensory of varied thermal qualities and sensory associations into the design of classroom Diagram illustrating the cooling potential of trees and shrubs. Fig. 31. Vegetation can be used as a passive means of directing air, as well as cooling air, along its path into a building.5 Fig. 32. have on air movement. Grass, shrubs and trees can all provide guidance, 8

PAGE 54

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 42 garden classroom that suits their comfort needs.

PAGE 55

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 43 Research and Design MethodsThe variables throughout this thesis will be researched via architectural case studies, observation studies, site analysis, and program analysis. The case studies will demonstrate the positive and negative characteristics of passively and mechanically cooled educational buildings in subtropical hot, humid climates. The three case studies will focus on air movement around the building envelope, air movement through interior spaces, direct and indirect solar heat gain of building surfaces, the role of vegetation in the perception of cooling, and how these factors relate to the function of the architectural spaces. The observation studies will analyze human interaction within the open-air breezeway of an educational building, demonstrating thermal factors that affect how individuals choose their location within a space to achieve comfort. In addition, a handbook of hybrid cooling will be compiled, based on the most pertinent factors to creating a passive and mechanically cooled educational building in a subtropical hot, humid climate. The project will be designed based upon meso-climatic and microclimatic site analysis, and the formulation of a building program. The meso-climatic data will be used to understand the monthly weather patterns of Tampa. The microclimatic data will consist of observation studies conducted

PAGE 56

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 44 at the site to understand the ambient air temperature, relative humidity, sun and effects of thermal mass on the site. Next, a conceptual program will be created the site. This program will be based upon the observation studies conducted on the site, as well as methods from the handbook of hybrid cooling. In order to establish a scale for the school campus and classroom communities, a functional program will be created, based on a maximum number of students. From the integration of these two programs and analysis taken from the site, the masterplan for the primary school campus will be designed. Conclusions made from the case studies and human observation studies will further supplement the design of the masterplan and classroom communities.

PAGE 57

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 45 Passive and Mechanical Cooling HandbookThe Passive and Mechanical Cooling Handbook is a compilation of cooling approaches and methods, each accompanied by a brief written description and diagram. The purpose of the handbook is to provide the designer with the basic knowledge of passive and supplemental cooling concepts. It can be used as a reference tool, as well as a starting point for architectural projects. lists methods of locating, sizing and orienting building groups to maximize their passive cooling potential. This section applies predominantly to the mesoclimatic scale. The second section, buildings, lists concepts and architectural features that can maximize the passive cooling potential of individual buildings and spaces. This section applies to the microclimatic scale. The third section, supplementing passive systems, lists methods of mechanically moving air to aid in the cooling process. This section also applies to the microclimatic scale. The Sun, Wind and Light: Architectural Design Strategies. The hope is that, by presenting them in an approachable format, architects will be able to incorporate these ideas from the start of the design process.

PAGE 58

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 46 Building Groups Radial Ventilation Corridors Spaces between buildings are organized in a radial pattern to facilitate Shared Shade Siting buildings to take advantage of the shade created by each other, as well as the shade created by surrounding the surrounding context. Topographic Microclimates Placing buildings on areas of the site that take advantage of unique microclimatic elements, such as wind currents, due to the topography. Loose Urban Patterns Providing ample space between buildings to facilitate air movement. Passive and Mechanical Cooling Handbook. Fig. 33. 1

PAGE 59

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 47 Breezy Streets Orienting streets or pathways to take advantage of the prevailing winds. Dispersed Buildings Providing wide, open spaces to maximize exposure to breezes. Interwoven Buildings and Planting Cooling spaces through air movement and shade by designing plantings and vegetation around and within buildings. Interwoven Buildings and Water water features around and within buildings.

PAGE 60

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 48 Windbreaks bushes, and rows of trees. Green Edges Cooling and humidifying moving air with irrigated vegetation. Overhead Shades Protect outdoor spaces, and interior spaces along the outer-edge of buildings, from direct solar gain. Buildings Migration of Occupants Interior and exterior spaces, designed to function as warmer or cooler spaces, can provide extended durations of comfort. Occupants can move from one space to another based upon the respective comfort level.

PAGE 61

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 49 Layer of Shades Architectural shading elements such as a trellis and roof overhangs can provide protection from the summer sun. Louvres can provide sun protection from the lower winter sun. Clustered Rooms can be consolidated into one building, as opposed to three or four. As a result, heat loss and gain is minimized. Permeable Buildings ventilation and the stack effect. Buffer Zones Interior and exterior spaces, whose function can handle greater variations in temperature, can be located between protected rooms and the exterior climate.

PAGE 62

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 50 Interior and exterior spaces, can be located at different heights to take advantage of the differences in temperature occuring, due to the Roof Ponds A shallow layer of water contained on the roof of a building can lessen the impact of solar heat gain. Cross-ventilation The location of openings on opposite sides of a space allows air to move through the space, cooling the occupants as a result of pressure differences. Stack-ventilation The location of openings along the lower and upper edges of a space allows hot air to rise and exit, while cool air enters and cools occupants as a result of air temperature and density.

PAGE 63

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 51 Wind Catchers Towers capture winds moving at higher altitudes, unobstructed by the spaces. The tower also functions in the opposite fashion by allowing air movement through the interior spaces, cooling the occupants. Night Cooled Mass In climates in which the ambient air temperature is cooler in the evenings than in the daytime, thermal mass that absorbs heat during the day radiates the heat into the interior in the evening. Consequently, the loss of heat in the evening means that the wall remains cool for most of the day. Evaporative Cooling Towers Moist pads located at the inlet of the tower enables the air to cool as it is down into the space, cooling the occupants. Earth Edges Entire spaces, or just a portion of the space, can be built into the earth to lessen the impact of solar heat gain during the day. The thermal mass of the earth also helps to regulate temperatures in the evening, leading to a more thermally balanced space from day to night.

PAGE 64

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 52 Water Edges Water features surrounding buildings can cool breezes through movement. Breezy Courtyards By maintaining open pathways for air to enter and exit courtyards, the courtyard can function as a space of cooling, and also as a space to redirect breezes to interior spaces. Shady Courtyards Tall and narrow, these courtyards provide shade, especially at the lower levels, and can be used as cold air sinks. Supplementing Passive Systems Mechanical Mass Ventilation Fan-assisted means of ventilating thermal mass can aid in the removal of heat from the mass, during evening hours, in areas with poor natural air movement.

PAGE 65

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 53 Mechanical Space Ventilation Fan-assisted means of ventilating spaces and occupants can increase the rate of cooling in areas with poor natural air movement. Ducts and Plenums Cool air can be carried to spaces for ventilation through ducts and plenums. Passive Buffer Zones Air temperatures of outside air are lowered through buffer zones that serve as intermediary spaces, which can cool the air through a variety of passive methods before entering an interior space. Earth-Air Heat Exchangers The temperature of air traveling through pipes in the ground can be lowered due to the often cooler temperatures of the earth during the day.

PAGE 66

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 54 Site Analysis Meso-climatic Analysis For the purpose of this thesis, all climatological data is sourced from the National Climatic Data Center. The source data, referred to as climatological normals, is compiled by the NCDC into average values for each meteorological element over a period of 30 years. The normals organized and published by the NCDC for the city of Tampa come from the climate recording station located at Tampa International Airport. Although this station is located approximately six miles from the site, this data gives an accurate description of the meso-climate of Tampa. city of Tampa is at the southernmost cusp of the North American subtropics. Characterized by milder winters than its northern subtropical counterparts, the abundance of water helps to lessen the extremes of summer and winter often attainable in a subtropical climate. The prevailing winds in Tampa are known as easterlies, which come from the east, but westerly winds often make their presence in the afternoon and evening time throughout the year. Prevailing NASA Landsat image of the Tampa Bay area. Fig. 34.

PAGE 67

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 55 june july august september october november december january february march april may Max Temp (F) Min Temp (F) Relative Humidity (%) 100 90 80 70 60 50 Avg Monthly Precipitation (in) 8 6 4 2 0 Meso-climatic chart for the city of Tampa. Fig. 35.

PAGE 68

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 56 winds are often determined by the direction from which the highest number of wind gusts, for the longest duration, occur. However, as evidenced in the monthly wind rose plots, months such as January, February and March also contain comparable winds from almost every direction. The average monthly speed to provide comfort ventilation to occupants. Because the city is located in the Northern Hemisphere, June produces the highest sun angle with the longest duration of daylight hours, and December contains the lowest sun angle with the shortest duration of daylight hours. Maximum annual temperatures seldom reach above 90 degrees and below 70 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer, and the winter temperatures rarely rise above 70 degrees or drop below 50 degrees. Summer temperatures in Tampa infrequently climb above 90 degrees because of the afternoon sea breeze. Another afternoon occurrence that prevents climbing summer temperatures is the afternoon thunderstorms which seem to happen almost every day. The late-day release of precipitation helps temperatures to drop to the 70s. The frequency of thunderstorms, and the winds associated with them, suggests a need for architecture that protects occupants from the relative humidity reaches from 70 percent in April to 79 percent in August and September. Daily summer humidity patterns often start out around 87 percent at midnight, increase further to 90 percent at sunrise, and then drop to around 63 percent in the afternoon.

PAGE 69

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 57 In order to understand when, and which, cooling strategies will be emphasized for the design of this project, the annual, as well as daily, interval greatest amount of cooling must be established. The method used to interpret the climatological data is based on a method developed by Boutet. Derived from the Human Comfort Chart, he constructed a Temperature and Humidity Matrix to quantify the times of a month in which human comfort occurs. The matrix also helps the designer to understand how often the given climate falls outside of the comfort zone, and what those climate conditions are. Daily observations, recorded at three-hourly intervals, were tabulated on the Temperature and Humidity Matrix, based on the number of occurrences. The totals were then converted to percentages of time, with the duration of time being the respective month. For example, the climate in Tampa during the month of November, 2007, fell within the comfort zone 34 percent of the month, which was one of the highest comfort zone percentages that year. For 27 percent of the month the climate was cool, 17 percent of the month the climate was cool and humid, and 8 percent of the month it was comfortable, yet humid. The monthly percentages were compiled into a Climate-Comfort Analysis Chart to understand how often the Tampa climate affords comfort, and how often heating, cooling, Heating is most needed during January and, especially February, during which temperatures fall within the cool and cold zones 85 percent of The temperature and humidity chart converted Fig. 36. to a 15 cell Temperature and Humidity Matrix.1

PAGE 70

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 58 Example of the hourly totals of temperature and humidity for November and December. Fig. 37.

PAGE 71

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 59 the time. Throughout the year, the climate is rarely dry enough to require with the lowest percentages being the spring months of March, April and May. Consequently, these months, as well as November and December, tend to have higher percentages of temperature and humidity within the comfort zone. These matrices can be misleading, however. For example, according to the ClimateComfort Analysis Chart, the matrix for May contains the highest comfort zone percentage of 2007. At 44 percent, the matrix would lead one to believe that a day spent in Tampa, during the month of May, would be more comfortable than one spent during the month of November. However, upon viewing the Summary by Hour Charts for May and November, it is apparent that the daytime temperatures of May do not fall within the comfort zone, and yet the November daytime temperatures do. In fact, it is the nighttime temperatures of May that fall within the comfort zone, while the daytime temperatures imply a need for Climate-Comfort Analysis Chart must be viewed in tandem with the Summary by Hour Chart for any given month, which is an average of the three-hourly observations for that month, displayed over a period of twenty-four hours. According to the Climate-Comfort Analysis Chart, July and August contain the greatest percentages of time that cooling is needed. The pairing of data from both charts show that the month which requires the greatest amount of cooling is August. August averages the least number of hours under 80 degrees

PAGE 72

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 60 APRILHot Warm Comfort Cool ColdJANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH AUGUSTHot Warm Comfort Cool ColdMAY JUNE JULY DECEMBERHot Warm Comfort Cool ColdSEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER Dry Normal Humid Dry Normal Humid Dry Normal Humid Dry Normal Humid 1 1 21 12 1 27 20 1 13 3 21 1 2 15 1 44 8 7 1 11 14 27 2 12 34 12 10 17 19 37 4 1 13 18 22 2 18 25 2 1 1 1 9 3 1 31 22 22 9 11 1 1 33 5 2 24 15 1 6 1 12 1 1 2 1 2 29 6 1 29 13 2 1 5 34 31 6 6 18 2 29 38 6 3 22 5 1 34 8 1 27 17 6 1 7 27 11 22 26 6 1 Climate-Comfort Analysis Chart. Fig. 38.

PAGE 73

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 61 JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURJANUARY 2007 KTPA WBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WIND PRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0718 JAN 25 SUNSET: 1803 01 OVC 027 7.00 -RA 52 48 50 86 6 04 30.01 30.01 04 OVC 030 4.00 -RA BR 51 49 50 93 10 03 29.97 29.98 07 OVC 046 2.00 -RA BR 47 45 46 93 10 01 30.04 30.05 10 OVC 055 6.00 -RA BR 49 46 48 89 9 01 30.08 30.09 13 BKN 150 8.00 60 49 54 67 15 33 30.04 30.05 16 BKN 140 10.00 58 40 49 51 13 35 30.03 30.03 19 FEW 100 10.00 52 39 46 61 6 34 30.06 30.07 22 CLR NC 10.00 50 42 46 74 3 01 30.12 30.13 SUNRISE: 0718 JAN 26 SUNSET: 1804 01 CLR NC 10.00 48 39 44 71 7 01 30.14 30.14 04 CLR NC 10.00 46 32 40 58 11 01 30.16 30.16 07 CLR NC 10.00 43 28 37 56 11 04 30.19 30.20 10 CLR NC 10.00 49 32 42 52 9 05 30.23 30.24 13 CLR NC 10.00 60 35 48 39 5 03 30.20 30.21 16 CLR NC 10.00 61 42 51 50 11 27 30.15 30.16 19 CLR NC 10.00 53 40 47 62 8 34 30.16 30.17 22 CLR NC 10.00 50 41 46 71 7 01 30.17 30.18 SUNRISE: 0717 JAN 27 SUNSET: 1805 01 CLR NC 9.00 50 41 46 71 6 04 30.16 30.17 04 SCT 250 9.00 49 43 46 80 6 06 30.12 30.13 07 SCT 250 10.00 50 42 46 74 6 07 30.13 30.14 10 FEW 120 10.00 62 50 56 65 6 VR 30.15 30.16 13 SCT 130 10.00 71 52 60 51 8 15 30.06 30.07 16 BKN 120 9.00 71 51 60 49 8 17 29.95 29.96 19 OVC 250 10.00 -RA 67 57 61 70 6 18 29.97 29.98 22 OVC 080 8.00 -RA 65 58 61 78 7 15 29.92 29.93 SUNRISE: 0717 JAN 28 SUNSET: 1805 01 OVC 095 5.00 -RA BR 65 62 63 90 13 19 29.90 29.91 04 OVC 250 6.00 BR 66 64 65 93 15 19 29.82 29.83 07 OVC 038 8.00 -RA 67 63 65 87 13 27 29.85 29.86 10 BKN 250 9.00 59 51 55 75 17 34 29.97 29.98 13 BKN 027 8.00 62 49 55 63 14 31 29.98 29.98 16 OVC 034 10.00 59 46 52 62 17 30 29.99 30.00 19 OVC 047 10.00 58 48 53 70 13 33 30.05 30.06 22 FEW 024 10.00 57 49 53 75 9 33 30.09 30.10 SUNRISE: 0716 JAN 29 SUNSET: 1806 01 CLR NC 10.00 56 45 50 67 11 32 30.09 30.10 04 FEW 055 10.00 50 37 44 61 10 35 30.14 30.15 07 FEW 250 10.00 41 25 35 53 14 02 30.24 30.24 10 CLR NC 8.00 44 19 35 37 11 03 30.28 30.29 13 SCT 250 9.00 52 18 39 26 8 35 30.24 30.25 16 FEW 250 10.00 53 29 43 40 7 25 30.18 30.19 19 FEW 250 10.00 46 30 39 54 7 33 30.22 30.22 22 BKN 250 10.00 45 32 40 60 3 02 30.25 30.26 SUNRISE: 0716 JAN 30 SUNSET: 1807 01 BKN 250 10.00 44 33 39 65 6 04 30.21 30.22 04 BKN 250 10.00 40 32 37 73 5 07 30.18 30.19 07 BKN 250 9.00 41 34 38 76 3 03 30.27 30.27 10 BKN 250 9.00 51 34 43 52 0 00 30.30 30.31 13 BKN 250 7.00 55 32 45 42 5 35 30.23 30.24 16 OVC 250 8.00 55 36 46 49 5 27 30.14 30.15 19 OVC 250 10.00 53 39 46 59 5 33 30.16 30.17 22 BKN 250 10.00 52 35 44 53 7 03 30.17 30.18 SUNRISE: 0716 JAN 31 SUNSET: 1808 01 OVC 120 10.00 51 35 44 54 3 36 30.16 30.17 04 SCT 120 10.00 51 37 45 59 5 04 30.13 30.14 07 SCT 250 10.00 50 38 44 64 3 05 30.15 30.16 10 SCT 250 9.00 56 34 46 44 9 05 30.20 30.20 13 BKN 060 9.00 64 36 50 36 6 05 30.15 30.16 16 BKN 090 10.00 68 41 54 38 6 05 30.08 30.09 19 BKN 100 10.00 65 41 53 42 5 11 30.08 30.09 22 OVC 100 10.00 61 45 53 56 10 12 30.08 30.09 01 62 55 58 78 30.16 30.16 8.32 6 4 05 02 61 54 57 78 30.15 30.16 8.15 6 4 04 03 61 54 57 79 30.14 30.15 8.21 6 4 05 04 60 53 57 79 30.14 30.15 8.05 6 3 05 05 60 53 56 79 30.14 30.15 8.22 7 4 05 06 59 52 56 79 30.15 30.16 7.93 7 3 05 07 59 52 56 79 30.17 30.18 7.59 6 4 05 08 59 53 56 80 30.18 30.19 6.92 6 4 05 09 61 53 57 76 30.20 30.21 7.24 8 4 06 10 64 53 59 70 30.21 30.22 7.53 8 4 06 11 67 54 60 64 30.21 30.22 8.10 9 5 06 12 69 54 61 62 30.19 30.20 8.40 8 3 05 13 70 54 61 59 30.16 30.17 8.55 8 2 36 14 71 53 61 56 30.13 30.14 8.61 8 2 35 15 71 53 61 56 30.12 30.13 8.61 8 3 33 16 70 54 61 57 30.12 30.13 8.81 9 3 32 17 70 54 61 59 30.12 30.13 8.81 8 3 35 18 67 54 60 63 30.13 30.14 8.87 7 3 32 19 66 54 59 67 30.14 30.15 9.35 7 2 01 20 65 54 59 69 30.16 30.16 8.90 7 2 02 21 64 54 58 71 30.16 30.17 9.06 6 3 04 22 63 54 58 74 30.17 30.18 8.71 6 3 05 23 62 54 58 76 30.17 30.18 8.87 6 3 04 24 62 54 58 77 30.16 30.17 8.65 6 4 06 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURMARCH 2007 KTPA WBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WIND PRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0629 MAR 25 SUNSET: 1844 01 SCT 250 10.00 67 59 62 76 6 04 30.25 30.25 04 FEW 250 10.00 64 59 61 84 5 05 30.22 30.22 07 CLR NC 10.00 62 58 60 87 5 07 30.24 30.24 10 FEW 030 10.00 74 58 64 58 8 06 30.26 30.27 13 FEW 250 10.00 82 52 64 35 8 10 30.21 30.22 16 FEW 250 10.00 85 52 65 32 7 VR 30.14 30.15 19 FEW 250 10.00 79 51 63 38 7 VR 30.16 30.17 22 CLR NC 10.00 72 55 62 55 7 VR 30.23 30.24 SUNRISE: 0628 MAR 26 SUNSET: 1845 01 CLR NC 10.00 66 57 61 73 3 06 30.22 30.23 04 FEW 031 10.00 63 58 60 84 3 05 30.19 30.20 07 FEW 250 9.00 63 59 61 87 3 05 30.22 30.23 10 FEW 035 9.00 75 60 66 60 10 11 30.23 30.23 13 SCT 055 10.00 82 55 66 40 10 08 30.18 30.19 16 SCT 065 10.00 85 55 67 36 9 09 30.12 30.13 19 FEW 250 9.00 79 56 65 45 7 VR 30.15 30.15 22 FEW 250 10.00 74 61 66 64 6 VR 30.19 30.20 SUNRISE: 0626 MAR 27 SUNSET: 1845 01 BKN 250 10.00 71 62 65 73 6 VR 30.18 30.19 04 SCT 250 9.00 68 63 65 84 6 05 30.13 30.14 07 BKN 250 6.00 BR 68 64 66 87 5 06 30.16 30.17 10 OVC 250 6.00 HZ 75 63 67 66 8 09 30.19 30.19 13 BKN 250 8.00 79 59 67 50 6 VR 30.15 30.16 16 OVC 250 7.00 83 54 66 37 8 06 30.10 30.10 19 OVC 250 10.00 79 55 65 44 3 VR 30.10 30.10 22 FEW 250 10.00 73 59 65 62 6 VR 30.16 30.16 SUNRISE: 0625 MAR 28 SUNSET: 1846 01 CLR NC 10.00 68 59 63 73 5 VR 30.12 30.13 04 CLR NC 10.00 65 58 61 78 3 04 30.09 30.09 07 FEW 250 8.00 62 58 60 87 3 07 30.14 30.14 10 SCT 250 10.00 75 57 64 54 7 VR 30.16 30.17 13 FEW 045 10.00 80 56 65 44 0 00 30.10 30.10 16 SCT 050 10.00 83 56 66 40 9 29 30.05 30.06 19 FEW 060 10.00 73 58 64 59 9 33 30.08 30.08 22 CLR NC 10.00 70 61 65 73 7 03 30.13 30.14 SUNRISE: 0624 MAR 29 SUNSET: 1846 01 CLR NC 10.00 70 60 64 71 5 10 30.12 30.12 04 CLR NC 10.00 66 59 62 78 0 00 30.08 30.09 07 CLR NC 10.00 65 60 62 84 0 00 30.11 30.12 10 FEW 030 9.00 75 62 67 64 6 VR 30.15 30.16 13 BKN 055 9.00 81 55 65 41 7 04 30.12 30.13 16 SCT 065 10.00 84 55 66 37 5 VR 30.08 30.09 19 FEW 065 10.00 81 53 64 38 7 09 30.09 30.10 22 CLR NC 10.00 73 58 64 59 9 09 30.17 30.18 SUNRISE: 0623 MAR 30 SUNSET: 1847 01 CLR NC 10.00 68 60 63 76 6 05 30.19 30.19 04 FEW 150 10.00 66 60 62 81 5 VR 30.17 30.18 07 SCT 250 8.00 65 61 63 87 8 05 30.21 30.22 10 SCT 250 9.00 74 60 65 62 10 05 30.22 30.22 13 BKN 250 9.00 80 59 67 49 7 VR 30.16 30.16 16 SCT 250 10.00 84 56 67 38 6 VR 30.07 30.08 19 SCT 250 10.00 76 62 67 62 10 08 30.09 30.10 22 BKN 090 10.00 72 63 66 73 7 VR 30.15 30.15 SUNRISE: 0622 MAR 31 SUNSET: 1847 01 SCT 250 10.00 70 62 65 76 6 VR 30.13 30.14 04 BKN 250 10.00 70 60 64 71 3 VR 30.11 30.12 07 SCT 250 10.00 67 60 63 78 5 VR 30.14 30.14 10 BKN 250 10.00 74 60 65 62 11 14 30.15 30.16 13 BKN 250 10.00 80 57 66 45 7 VR 30.11 30.12 16 BKN 250 10.00 83 54 66 37 6 VR 30.06 30.06 19 OVC 250 10.00 75 61 66 62 8 33 30.07 30.07 22 SCT 250 10.00 73 54 62 52 7 VR 30.13 30.14 01 64 55 59 72 30.14 30.15 9.87 6 3 06 02 63 54 58 73 30.13 30.14 9.90 6 3 07 03 62 54 58 76 30.12 30.13 9.69 5 3 06 04 62 54 57 76 30.12 30.13 9.68 6 4 07 05 61 54 57 78 30.12 30.13 9.77 6 3 06 06 61 53 57 78 30.14 30.14 9.47 6 3 07 07 61 54 57 79 30.16 30.16 8.71 6 4 07 08 63 55 59 75 30.17 30.18 8.26 7 4 07 09 67 55 60 65 30.18 30.19 8.73 9 5 08 10 71 54 61 58 30.18 30.19 9.03 9 5 08 11 73 53 62 52 30.18 30.19 9.31 9 5 07 12 75 54 63 49 30.16 30.17 9.15 9 3 06 13 77 53 63 45 30.14 30.15 9.53 9 2 05 14 77 51 62 42 30.12 30.12 9.65 10 1 04 15 78 51 62 41 30.10 30.10 9.55 10 1 02 16 78 51 62 41 30.09 30.10 9.58 10 1 33 17 76 51 62 44 30.09 30.10 9.44 10 1 33 18 74 52 62 48 30.10 30.10 9.45 9 1 01 19 71 52 61 54 30.11 30.12 9.71 8 1 01 20 69 53 60 59 30.13 30.14 9.74 7 1 02 21 68 54 60 62 30.15 30.15 9.81 7 2 06 22 67 54 60 65 30.16 30.17 9.77 7 2 04 23 66 55 60 68 30.16 30.17 9.68 6 3 05 24 65 55 59 70 30.16 30.16 9.84 6 3 06 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURAPRIL 2007KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0556APR 25 SUNSET: 1900 01CLRNC 10.00 716265 73 7VR30.1030.11 04FEW065 10.00 706366 79 91530.0830.09 07SCT250 10.00 706466 81 61530.1230.13 10BKN250 10.00 776469 64112130.1230.12 13BKN250 10.00 816269 53 92230.0730.08 16BKN250 10.00 816269 53112630.0130.01 19SCT250 10.00 756066 60 82630.0230.03 22BKN075 10.00 745663 54 00030.0630.07 SUNRISE: 0555APR 26 SUNSET: 1901 01SCT055 10.00 735965 62 3VR30.0330.03 04SCT250 10.00 716064 68 3VR30.0130.02 07SCT250 10.00 716567 81 81630.0530.06 10BKN250 10.00 806570 60132030.0630.07 13BKN250 10.00 836571 55102030.0430.05 16SCT250 10.00 836571 55102129.9930.00 19SCT250 10.00 786570 64 72329.9829.98 22SCT095 10.00 756870 79 61830.0130.01 SUNRISE: 0554APR 27 SUNSET: 1901 01FEW100 10.00 736870 84 71630.0030.01 04SCT250 10.00 726970 90 61729.9729.97 07BKN250 9.00 736970 87 7VR30.0330.04 10BKN130 10.00 807174 74132030.0530.06 13BKN250 10.00 807073 72111930.0430.05 16SCT120 10.00 847074 63112530.0030.01 19SCT250 10.00 786972 74102430.0230.02 22SCT019 10.00 757172 87 92330.0630.07 SUNRISE: 0553APR 28 SUNSET: 1902 01SCT250 10.00 716768 87 63230.0430.05 04FEW020 10.00 686365 84 63330.0530.06 07BKN250 10.00 696164 76 33130.0830.09 10BKN250 10.00 796369 58 93530.1130.11 13BKN250 10.00 826169 49 82530.0630.07 16OVC250 10.00 825365 37113230.0530.05 19BKN250 10.00 735562 53 83230.0630.06 22FEW250 10.00 706064 71 63230.1030.11 SUNRISE: 0552APR 29 SUNSET: 1903 01FEW250 10.00 666062 81 00030.0930.10 04CLRNC 10.00 656163 87 33330.0730.08 07CLRNC 10.00 686466 87 63530.1230.12 10SCT250 10.00 815565 41130230.1430.15 13SCT250 10.00 865165 30 93030.0830.09 16CLRNC 10.00 855064 30133230.0430.04 19CLRNC 10.00 775363 43103330.0430.05 22CLRNC 10.00 726266 71 73130.0830.09 SUNRISE: 0552APR 30 SUNSET: 1903 01CLRNC 10.00 706064 71 30430.0830.09 04CLRNC 10.00 655861 78 00030.0530.06 07FEW250 8.00 685762 68 3VR30.0830.09 10FEW250 7.00 835767 41 3VR30.0930.09 13SCT250 7.00 865868 39 82630.0530.06 16FEW055 8.00 875969 39102829.9930.00 19FEW085 9.00 805766 45 73429.9930.00 22CLRNC 10.00 775664 48 5VR30.0630.06 01 6657617230.0130.019.805236 02 6657617430.0030.009.836201 03 6557607629.9930.009.805236 04 6457607729.9930.009.675202 05 6456607730.0030.009.605202 06 6456607730.0130.029.435202 07 6556607530.0230.038.976203 08 6857626930.0330.048.938204 09 7156626030.0430.059.439103 10 7355635630.0430.059.2810231 11 7555645230.0430.059.2510231 12 7755644930.0330.049.2510230 13 7854644730.0130.029.2810528 14 7955654629.9930.009.389628 15 7854644629.9829.999.3811728 16 7854644729.9729.979.3811728 17 7654634829.9729.979.3211728 18 7454635129.9729.989.4810528 19 7254625729.9829.999.739529 20 7055626229.9930.009.708329 21 6956616530.0130.029.578230 22 6856616730.0230.039.437232 23 6857616930.0230.029.736234 24 6757617030.0130.029.906332 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURMAY 2007 KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0536MAY 25 SUNSET: 1918 01SCT080 10.00 726467 76100630.1630.17 04CLRNC 10.00 696365 81 70530.1630.16 07CLRNC 10.00 716265 73 70530.1830.18 10BKN060 10.00 796168 54100630.1630.17 13SCT055 10.00 855667 37110630.1130.11 16SCT085 10.00 855466 35100730.0730.07 19FEW060 10.00 815565 41 90830.0930.09 22CLRNC 10.00 755865 56 7VR30.1530.15 SUNRISE: 0536MAY 26 SUNSET: 1918 01FEW049 10.00 715763 61 70530.1330.14 04FEW065 10.00 696164 76 70530.1230.12 07FEW070 10.00 706165 73 70330.1430.14 10SCT100 10.00 805866 47 80730.1330.13 13BKN060 10.00 845968 43 90630.0930.10 16SCT090 10.00 855768 39 7VR30.0330.03 19SCT085 10.00 825666 41110830.0530.05 22CLRNC 10.00 765765 52 6VR30.1230.12 SUNRISE: 0536MAY 27 SUNSET: 1919 01CLRNC 10.00 726065 66 50430.1030.10 04CLRNC 10.00 665962 78 33630.0830.09 07SCT250 10.00 686063 76 80530.1230.13 10BKN040 10.00 806068 51 7VR30.1230.13 13BKN055 10.00 855969 41 7VR30.0730.08 16SCT085 10.00 895869 35110630.0230.03 19SCT090 10.00 836068 46101030.0330.04 22FEW045 10.00 765966 56 7VR30.1030.11 SUNRISE: 0535MAY 28 SUNSET: 1919 01FEW150 10.00 725964 64 5VR30.1030.11 04BKN250 10.00 706064 71 3VR30.0830.09 07CLRNC 10.00 716165 71 5VR30.1230.13 10SCT250 10.00 796067 52 6VR30.1230.13 13BKN065 10.00 865567 35 7VR30.0830.09 16BKN065 10.00 885970 38 52630.0230.02 19BKN250 10.00 855768 39101030.0230.03 22SCT150 10.00 786268 58 81130.0930.10 SUNRISE: 0535MAY 29 SUNSET: 1920 01CLRNC 10.00 746367 69 5VR30.0830.09 04CLRNC 10.00 716366 76 3VR30.0730.08 07SCT250 6.00HZ 726568 79 5VR30.1030.11 10BKN250 7.00 806470 58 80830.1230.12 13BKN250 8.00 855969 41 6VR30.0730.08 16SCT080 10.00 885668 34 7VR30.0130.01 19SCT080 10.00 845968 43111130.0230.03 22SCT250 10.00 786268 58 91130.0830.09 SUNRISE: 0535MAY 30 SUNSET: 1920 01SCT100 10.00 746468 71 6VR30.0730.08 04SCT250 9.00 716467 79 3VR30.0530.05 07BKN250 5.00HZ 726568 79 6VR30.0730.08 10BKN250 7.00 806269 54 81030.0930.10 13OVC250 9.00 855667 37 7VR30.0730.07 16OVC250 9.00 875266 30101430.0330.04 19OVC250 10.00 835465 37 7VR30.0330.04 22OVC250 10.00 776066 56 7VR30.0630.07 SUNRISE: 0535MAY 31 SUNSET: 1921 01BKN250 10.00 746267 66 6VR30.0530.06 04SCT250 10.00 716265 73 30730.0330.03 07BKN250 6.00HZ 716366 76 6VR30.0530.06 10BKN250 7.00 786368 60 7VR30.0730.08 13BKN250 9.00 855868 40 91030.0330.03 16OVC250 10.00 875668 35 90929.9829.98 19OVC250 10.00 835867 43 80829.9829.98 22OVC250 10.00 786268 58101330.0330.03 01 7262667130.0230.039.135304 02 7162667330.0030.019.155304 03 7162657430.0030.019.135305 04 7062657630.0030.019.165304 05 6962657830.0030.018.975305 06 6962657830.0130.028.085305 07 7162667430.0330.047.476405 08 7462676630.0430.047.477405 09 7762686030.0430.057.758406 10 7961685430.0430.058.188305 11 8160685030.0330.048.409201 12 8459684530.0230.038.5010203 13 8558694230.0130.018.7610331 14 8658694029.9930.008.6510430 15 8658694029.9729.988.7410331 16 8558684029.9629.978.8111231 17 8458684229.9629.979.0311234 18 8258674529.9629.978.8710204 19 8058675029.9829.998.949305 20 7859675430.0030.009.238306 21 7661675930.0130.029.237406 22 7561676330.0330.049.267405 23 7462676630.0330.049.327507 24 7362666830.0330.039.295404 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURJUNE 2007 KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0536JUN 25 SUNSET: 1930 01BKN250 10.00 807375 79 00030.1030.11 04SCT250 10.00 767273 87 00030.1030.11 07BKN250 4.00FU 797274 79 30430.1430.15 10BKN250 9.00 876975 55 63530.1830.18 13BKN250 8.00 936675 41 7VR30.1330.14 16BKN250 10.00 956273 34 80530.0930.09 19BKN250 10.00 847074 63 6VR30.1030.11 22BKN250 10.00 817275 74 5VR30.1730.17 SUNRISE: 0536JUN 26 SUNSET: 1930 01SCT250 10.00 797174 77 6VR30.1830.18 04CLRNC 10.00 757072 85 3VR30.1630.16 07SCT250 7.00 767072 82 60430.1930.20 10SCT250 10.00 857075 61 7VR30.2030.20 13SCT250 10.00 916775 45 6VR30.1630.17 16SCT060 10.00 936574 40 7VR30.0930.10 19SCT250 10.00 886573 47 90930.0930.09 22SCT250 10.00 836873 61 90930.1430.15 SUNRISE: 0536JUN 27 SUNSET: 1930 01FEW250 10.00 786972 74 60730.1130.11 04FEW250 10.00 777173 82 50730.0830.09 07FEW250 9.00 787274 82 6VR30.1030.11 10SCT030 10.00 857075 61 7VR30.1330.14 13BKN090 9.00 916875 47 5VR30.0930.09 16OVC250 10.00 837074 65 71930.0730.07 19OVC250 10.00 816973 67 33430.0430.04 22BKN250 10.00 807174 74 60630.1030.10 SUNRISE: 0536JUN 28 SUNSET: 1930 01CLRNC 10.00 797174 77 5VR30.0730.07 04CLRNC 10.00 777173 82 00030.0430.05 07SCT250 10.00 787274 82 5VR30.0630.07 10SCT250 10.00 856874 57 60930.0730.07 13SCT250 10.00 906674 45 71130.0230.03 16OVC250 10.00 826973 65 7VR30.0130.01 19OVC250 10.00 807174 74 90130.0130.01 22SCT250 10.00 807073 72 6VR30.0430.04 SUNRISE: 0537JUN 29 SUNSET: 1930 01SCT250 10.00 777173 82 60530.0330.04 04SCT250 10.00 757172 87 50630.0230.02 07SCT250 10.00 777274 85 50630.0230.03 10BKN250 10.00 847175 65 60730.0330.04 13BKN250 10.00 887076 55 5VR30.0030.01 16BKN250 9.00 867176 61 7VR29.9629.97 19SCT150 9.00 847175 65 80529.9729.98 22FEW250 9.00 817174 72 3VR30.0130.02 SUNRISE: 0537JUN 30 SUNSET: 1930 01SCT250 10.00 797274 79 50530.0030.01 04FEW250 10.00 767273 87 30529.9729.98 07SCT250 10.00 777374 88 30429.9930.00 10BKN250 10.00 857276 65 50130.0130.01 13BKN250 10.00 867377 65102429.9829.99 16SCT250 10.00-RA 887679 68112829.9229.93 19SCT033 9.00TS 846974 61 90529.9629.96 22SCT250 10.00 777274 85 00030.0130.02 01 7770728029.9829.999.575127 02 7670728229.9729.979.635127 03 7670728329.9629.979.635036 04 7670728329.9629.979.305127 05 7570728429.9629.979.774127 06 7570728529.9729.989.334027 07 7771738229.9930.008.605127 08 7971747630.0030.018.356127 09 8171747230.0030.018.786227 10 8371756830.0130.019.177227 11 8471756530.0130.019.338427 12 8670756030.0030.009.338527 13 8770755829.9829.999.408727 14 8770755729.9729.979.609627 15 8669755829.9529.969.3310527 16 8669755929.9529.959.379727 17 8469746129.9429.959.139627 18 8369746329.9429.959.479427 19 8269736629.9629.969.538227 20 8070737229.9729.979.537027 21 7970737429.9829.999.537009 22 7870737630.0030.019.246027 23 7870737830.0030.019.705327 24 7770727929.9930.009.575327 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURJULY 2007 KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0549JUL 25 SUNSET: 1925 01SCT250 10.00 787073 77 00030.0330.04 04SCT250 10.00 777173 82 51830.0030.01 07BKN250 10.00 787274 82 00030.0430.04 10SCT250 10.00 877075 57 3VR30.0730.08 13BKN250 10.00 916976 49 5VR30.0630.07 16SCT250 10.00 877176 59 62530.0330.03 19BKN250 10.00 876975 55 00030.0330.04 22SCT250 10.00 817375 77 00030.0830.09 SUNRISE: 0549JUL 26 SUNSET: 1924 01FEW250 10.00 807375 79 00030.0730.08 04SCT250 10.00 787375 85 31430.0630.06 07BKN250 10.00 807476 82 00030.0930.09 10BKN250 10.00 877578 68 52430.1130.12 13BKN250 10.00 917076 50 82630.0830.09 16SCT250 10.00 937278 51 82730.0230.02 19SCT250 10.00 886975 53 93330.0430.05 22BKN250 10.00 837376 72 60230.0830.09 SUNRISE: 0550JUL 27 SUNSET: 1924 01BKN250 10.00 817275 74 00030.0530.06 04SCT250 10.00 797174 77 00030.0130.02 07OVC250 10.00 817375 77 00030.0430.05 10BKN250 10.00 867377 65 90130.0630.06 13BKN250 10.00 917378 56 83630.0230.03 16OVC250 10.00 936775 43 83629.9429.95 19OVC250 10.00 886673 48 50429.9629.97 22BKN250 10.00 807073 72 00029.9930.00 SUNRISE: 0550JUL 28 SUNSET: 1923 01BKN250 10.00 807174 74 00029.9529.96 04SCT250 10.00 787173 79 00029.9329.93 07SCT250 10.00 807375 79 00029.9429.95 10SCT140 10.00 887579 65 52529.9529.96 13BKN100 1.00TSRA 777173 82133629.9429.95 16BKN250 10.00 877277 61 3VR29.8829.89 19OVC250 10.00 847175 65 93129.8929.90 22OVC250 10.00 827376 74 00029.9129.92 SUNRISE: 0551JUL 29 SUNSET: 1922 01BKN250 10.00 817476 79 00029.8929.89 04BKN250 10.00 807476 82 00029.8629.86 07BKN250 10.00 807476 82 31629.9029.91 10BKN250 10.00 867679 72 92129.9229.93 13OVC250 10.00 867276 63 71829.9229.93 16BKN250 10.00 887377 61 51929.8929.90 19BKN120 10.00 857276 65112429.9029.91 22BKN250 10.00 817275 74 62829.9329.94 SUNRISE: 0552JUL 30 SUNSET: 1922 01BKN250 10.00 817275 74 82429.9029.90 04SCT250 10.00 817275 74 62329.9029.91 07SCT250 10.00 817476 79 3VR29.9329.93 10SCT250 10.00 877478 65112529.9429.95 13BKN250 9.00 867578 70182629.9429.95 16BKN250 10.00 887579 65132629.9129.92 19OVC250 10.00 847477 72102529.8829.89 22BKN250 10.00 837376 72102429.9229.93 SUNRISE: 0552JUL 31 SUNSET: 1921 01BKN060 7.00-RA807577 85 92429.9229.92 04BKN250 10.00 827678 82 82429.8829.89 07BKN250 7.00TS 827678 82 82729.9129.91 10SCT150 10.00 867880 77 72029.9129.92 13BKN021 4.00-TSRA BR797677 91142129.8929.90 16BKN025 5.00-TSRA807577 85 82929.8729.88 19SCT025 7.00-TSRA767273 87 30529.8829.89 22BKN065 9.00-RA767374 90 00029.8929.90 01 8073757930.0130.019.903131 02 7973758029.9930.009.873131 03 7973758129.9929.999.903132 04 7973758129.9929.999.943130 05 7973758129.9930.009.903230 06 7973758130.0130.019.532131 07 8174767930.0230.029.264230 08 8274767530.0330.039.444131 09 8474777230.0330.049.655328 10 8674786830.0330.049.656328 11 8774786630.0430.049.658527 12 8774786530.0330.049.408528 13 8773776330.0230.029.268627 14 8773776330.0030.019.428627 15 8773776329.9930.009.688727 16 8772776329.9829.999.378527 17 8672766429.9829.989.238627 18 8572766529.9829.999.617428 19 8471756729.9930.009.846428 20 8272757330.0030.009.656328 21 8172757430.0130.019.814228 22 8172757630.0230.039.744229 23 8073757830.0230.039.844229 24 8073757930.0230.029.693131 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURAUGUST 2007KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0605AUG 25 SUNSET: 1859 01BKN250 10.00 757273 90 30429.9829.98 04SCT250 10.00 757273 90 00029.9529.96 07SCT250 8.00 777374 88 00029.9829.99 10SCT250 10.00 847376 70 52630.0130.02 13SCT250 10.00 907277 56 62329.9729.98 16BKN250 10.00 897579 63 82329.9129.92 19BKN250 10.00 867276 63 00029.9329.94 22OVC250 10.00 777475 91 00029.9429.95 SUNRISE: 0606AUG 26 SUNSET: 1858 01SCT250 10.00 787375 85 31829.9529.95 04SCT250 10.00 777374 88 00029.9329.94 07BKN250 10.00 777274 85 3VR29.9729.97 10BKN250 10.00 847477 72 82130.0030.01 13BKN250 10.00 877478 65 82729.9829.98 16BKN250 10.00 867478 68 92729.9329.93 19SCT030 6.00-TSRA837275 70101529.9629.97 22OVC200 10.00 807174 74 00029.9829.99 SUNRISE: 0606AUG 27 SUNSET: 1857 01BKN250 10.00 787274 82 50530.0030.01 04SCT150 10.00 777374 88 00029.9930.00 07SCT250 10.00 797476 85 3VR30.0030.01 10SCT250 9.00 877478 65 5VR30.0530.05 13SCT250 10.00 897378 59 72430.0330.03 16SCT250 10.00 917177 52 82529.9729.98 19OVC250 1.00TS+RA BR767374 90103130.0130.02 22SCT085 10.00 797576 88 00030.0730.08 SUNRISE: 0607AUG 28 SUNSET: 1856 01FEW250 10.00 807577 85 00030.0630.06 04CLRNC 10.00 797476 85 00030.0030.00 07SCT250 9.00 787576 91 3VR30.0330.04 10SCT250 10.00 867478 68 6VR30.0730.07 13BKN250 10.00 897680 66 82430.0630.06 16SCT250 10.00 917378 56 32829.9930.00 19SCT250 10.00 867377 65 73430.0030.01 22SCT250 10.00 847477 72 50530.0630.06 SUNRISE: 0607AUG 29 SUNSET: 1855 01CLRNC 10.00 837477 74 00030.0530.06 04CLRNC 10.00 817476 79 00030.0330.03 07FEW250 10.00 807577 85 00030.0530.05 10SCT250 10.00 897478 61 5VR30.0830.09 13SCT250 9.00 937178 49 5VR30.0430.05 16BKN250 10.00 957178 46 50129.9829.98 19BKN250 10.00 847376 70 73129.9930.00 22BKN250 10.00 847276 67 60530.0330.04 SUNRISE: 0608AUG 30 SUNSET: 1853 01SCT250 10.00 827275 72 00030.0230.03 04FEW250 10.00 797174 77 60629.9829.98 07SCT250 8.00 787173 79 30330.0030.01 10SCT250 9.00 867176 61 52430.0230.02 13SCT250 6.00HZ 896975 52 82229.9729.97 16SCT250 8.00 916674 44 92629.8929.90 19BKN250 10.00 866673 51 93029.8829.89 22BKN100 10.00 857578 72 33129.9329.93 SUNRISE: 0608AUG 31 SUNSET: 1852 01SCT080 10.00 837577 77 60129.9029.91 04SCT250 10.00 817275 74 00029.8829.89 07BKN250 7.00 817375 77 71929.8929.89 10BKN250 9.00TS 897680 66 72229.9129.92 13BKN250 10.00 847477 72 71929.9129.91 16OVC250 10.00TS 877578 68 62329.8829.89 19OVC250 10.00 847376 70 00029.8829.88 22BKN250 10.00 817577 82 00029.9229.93 01 8174768029.9930.009.613113 02 8074768129.9829.999.612211 03 8074768229.9729.989.352115 04 7973758329.9729.979.422212 05 7973758429.9729.989.292211 06 7973758429.9829.999.292112 07 8074768430.0030.008.583113 08 8274777730.0130.027.984116 09 8574777130.0230.028.874112 10 8774786730.0230.038.815426 11 8874786330.0230.039.036426 12 8973786030.0130.028.907427 13 9073785930.0030.018.778527 14 8972775929.9829.998.548627 15 9072775829.9629.979.007427 16 9072775729.9529.969.138327 17 8972775929.9529.959.197327 18 8772776329.9529.959.168427 19 8572766729.9629.979.106427 20 8373767229.9729.989.505023 21 8273767529.9930.009.484017 22 8273767630.0030.019.423114 23 8173767730.0030.019.683124 24 8173767830.0030.019.653112 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURSEPTEMBER 2007KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0620SEP 25 SUNSET: 1823 01FEW150 10.00 777173 82 70530.0330.04 04CLRNC 10.00 757072 85 70430.0030.01 07SCT250 7.00 757172 87 50530.0330.04 10SCT250 9.00 837074 65100630.0530.05 13SCT250 10.00 906976 50131130.0130.01 16SCT250 10.00 886874 52 6VR29.9629.96 19SCT250 10.00 856974 59 5VR29.9829.99 22SCT250 10.00 807073 72 3VR30.0330.03 SUNRISE: 0620SEP 26 SUNSET: 1822 01FEW250 10.00 777173 82 50730.0030.01 04FEW250 10.00 757172 87 3VR29.9829.99 07SCT250 10.00 757172 87 30529.9930.00 10SCT250 9.00 857175 63 5VR30.0130.01 13SCT250 9.00 906875 48 70529.9429.95 16BKN250 10.00 836974 63 70729.9129.92 19SCT250 10.00 826873 63 00029.9429.95 22CLRNC 10.00 776972 76 60329.9629.97 SUNRISE: 0621SEP 27 SUNSET: 1821 01CLRNC 10.00 756971 82 60329.9529.96 04CLRNC 10.00 737071 90 30329.9429.94 07FEW012 10.00 737071 90 50129.9429.95 10BKN025 10.00 837175 67 7VR29.9629.97 13SCT050 10.00 857075 61 63329.9329.94 16SCT040 10.00 897076 54 6VR29.8729.88 19SCT250 10.00 817074 69 73429.8929.90 22CLRNC 10.00 787274 82 53629.9529.95 SUNRISE: 0621SEP 28 SUNSET: 1820 01CLRNC 10.00 787375 85 00029.9529.96 04CLRNC 10.00 767273 87 00029.9429.94 07SCT250 10.00 777274 85 00029.9729.98 10SCT250 10.00 877277 61 63530.0230.02 13SCT250 10.00 926775 44 3VR29.9829.99 16BKN250 10.00 887076 55 93329.9229.93 19SCT120 10.00 827174 69 73429.9529.96 22SCT120 10.00 817074 69 5VR30.0130.02 SUNRISE: 0622SEP 29 SUNSET: 1819 01BKN150 10.00 797174 77 5VR30.0130.01 04BKN150 10.00 777274 85 50529.9930.00 07CLRNC 6.00BR 767273 87 50430.0330.04 10FEW022 9.00 837275 70100430.0830.09 13FEW041 10.00 906875 48110530.0430.04 16SCT250 10.00 876975 55100630.0330.04 19BKN070 10.00 797073 74 90430.0630.07 22FEW030 10.00 787173 79110530.1130.12 SUNRISE: 0622SEP 30 SUNSET: 1818 01FEW250 10.00 766971 79 90330.1030.11 04CLRNC 10.00 746568 74 80530.0830.09 07SCT038 10.00 736367 71 90330.1230.12 10FEW045 10.00 826269 51110630.1430.14 13FEW060 10.00 875969 39150530.1030.10 16SCT250 10.00 865667 36160630.0630.06 19SCT250 10.00 815766 44140530.0830.09 22SCT250 10.00 746367 69 90130.1030.11 01 7872748229.9930.009.874405 02 7772738329.9829.999.875405 03 7771738429.9729.989.834505 04 7671738529.9729.979.524505 05 7671738529.9729.989.634505 06 7671738529.9929.999.634504 07 7771738430.0030.018.895505 08 7972747830.0130.029.095505 09 8272757230.0230.039.406405 10 8472766830.0330.039.477404 11 8672766330.0230.039.608303 12 8771765930.0130.029.708302 13 8871765729.9930.009.507302 14 8771765829.9729.989.429201 15 8771765929.9529.969.679203 16 8671766129.9529.959.739203 17 8571756329.9529.969.609236 18 8471756529.9629.979.568303 19 8271747029.9729.989.596303 20 8171747229.9929.999.977405 21 8071747530.0130.019.736405 22 7971737730.0130.029.836405 23 7971747830.0130.029.934505 24 7871748030.0130.019.904405 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOUROCTOBER 2007KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0637OCT 25 SUNSET: 1752 01OVC040 10.00 695963 71 00029.8729.88 04SCT090 10.00 675862 73 00029.8629.86 07SCT120 10.00 675962 76 00029.8929.89 10BKN250 10.00 755764 54 53429.9529.96 13BKN250 10.00 785665 47 62529.9229.93 16OVC075 10.00 755865 56 6VR29.9229.93 19OVC095 10.00 735965 62 70529.9629.97 22OVC055 10.00 725964 64 80530.0130.02 SUNRISE: 0637OCT 26 SUNSET: 1751 01OVC090 10.00 676063 78 60729.9930.00 04BKN095 10.00 676163 81 80329.9729.98 07OVC047 10.00-RA 686164 78 70430.0130.02 10BKN250 10.00 766569 69100330.0330.04 13BKN250 10.00 806771 65100530.0030.01 16OVC023 10.00 796872 69110429.9829.98 19BKN250 10.00 746669 76110430.0130.02 22BKN120 10.00 736669 79 80530.0530.06 SUNRISE: 0638OCT 27 SUNSET: 1750 01BKN120 10.00 736769 82 70430.0430.04 04BKN120 10.00 736870 84100430.0130.02 07OVC150 10.00 736970 87 50630.0530.06 10OVC150 8.00-RA 747172 90 70430.0830.09 13OVC060 10.00 807275 77 90130.0430.04 16BKN140 10.00 797274 79 90330.0330.03 19OVC130 9.00 746870 82110430.0530.06 22OVC200 10.00 726769 84100430.0930.10 SUNRISE: 0638OCT 28 SUNSET: 1749 01OVC130 10.00 716768 87 60330.0830.09 04BKN130 10.00 716668 84 80430.0430.05 07BKN120 10.00 716768 87 90430.0930.09 10BKN120 10.00 797073 74130630.1030.11 13BKN130 10.00 856773 55100630.0530.06 16BKN090 10.00 846873 59130430.0230.03 19BKN250 10.00 786771 69180530.0730.07 22BKN130 10.00 736669 79140330.1130.12 SUNRISE: 0639OCT 29 SUNSET: 1748 01BKN090 10.00 736769 82130430.0930.09 04BKN110 10.00 716668 84100330.0630.07 07OVC100 10.00 726668 82 90430.1030.10 10OVC014 10.00 766871 76130430.1430.14 13OVC075 10.00 767072 82110630.1330.13 16BKN110 10.00 786771 69 90530.0830.09 19BKN120 10.00 746870 82130530.1130.11 22SCT250 10.00 736870 84100530.1330.13 SUNRISE: 0640OCT 30 SUNSET: 1748 01BKN120 10.00 726668 82110330.1030.11 04BKN050 10.00 726568 79110530.0830.09 07OVC050 10.00 726467 76130330.1030.11 10BKN250 10.00 766670 71140430.1230.13 13BKN060 10.00 806771 65110530.0730.07 16OVC050 10.00 806671 62180630.0330.04 19BKN047 10.00 766569 69140530.0530.06 22BKN043 10.00 746769 79130530.0530.06 SUNRISE: 0641OCT 31 SUNSET: 1747 01BKN040 10.00 746971 84130530.0230.03 04BKN020 10.00 746971 84100429.9829.99 07BKN013 10.00 736970 87130529.9930.00 10BKN080 10.00 796872 69140630.0130.01 13BKN250 10.00 846773 57170429.9429.95 16SCT060 10.00 856471 49150629.9029.91 19BKN150 10.00 796469 60140529.9229.93 22BKN150 10.00 756669 74110429.9229.93 01 7569718129.9529.9510.006605 02 7468708129.9429.9410.006505 03 7468708329.9329.9410.006505 04 7468708329.9229.9310.005604 05 7468708429.9329.949.816605 06 7468708429.9429.959.907605 07 7468708529.9529.969.486605 08 7569718229.9729.988.906605 09 7869727529.9829.989.658605 10 8170737029.9829.999.658605 11 8269746529.9729.989.619606 12 8469746229.9629.969.509505 13 8569746029.9429.949.528504 14 8568745929.9129.929.848504 15 8568745829.9029.919.848403 16 8468745929.9029.919.729404 17 8368736129.9029.919.7710505 18 8168726429.9129.929.818504 19 7968727029.9329.939.908505 20 7868717229.9429.959.948506 21 7768717529.9529.969.947505 22 7768717629.9629.9710.007604 23 7668717729.9629.969.877605 24 7668717929.9529.9510.006605 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURNOVEMBER 2007KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0659NOV 25 SUNSET: 1735 01OVC110 10.00 726568 79 3VR30.1330.14 04BKN150 10.00 706567 84 6VR30.0830.09 07SCT250 9.00 686466 87 3VR30.1130.12 10BKN055 10.00 766670 71 5VR30.1530.16 13BKN036 10.00 826571 56 91730.0830.09 16FEW043 10.00 816470 56 72130.0530.05 19FEW040 10.00 736568 76 32430.0830.09 22BKN055 10.00 756770 76 30530.1230.13 SUNRISE: 0700NOV 26 SUNSET: 1735 01FEW045 10.00 736669 79 6VR30.1030.11 04FEW150 10.00 706667 87 5VR30.0930.10 07SCT250 10.00 706667 87 81530.0930.10 10SCT250 10.00 766770 74 91630.1330.14 13BKN250 10.00 826772 61142030.0930.09 16SCT250 10.00 796771 67102130.0830.09 19SCT250 10.00 746870 82 52230.1330.14 22BKN250 10.00 746870 82 51730.1530.16 SUNRISE: 0701NOV 27 SUNSET: 1735 01FEW100 10.00 726869 87 81630.1330.14 04SCT150 10.00 696566 87 00030.1330.14 07BKN250 10.00 706667 87 00030.1630.17 10OVC038 10.00 726769 84113530.2030.20 13SCT130 10.00 776770 71 62630.1430.14 16BKN250 10.00 756367 66103230.1230.12 19OVC060 10.00 686264 81 83430.1530.16 22BKN100 10.00 676264 84 90130.1830.19 SUNRISE: 0702NOV 28 SUNSET: 1735 01OVC016 10.00 696265 79110530.1730.18 04SCT250 10.00 676163 81 80630.1530.15 07OVC021 10.00 665861 76100430.1830.19 10SCT100 10.00 736166 66 80730.2030.21 13BKN130 10.00 816571 58 7VR30.1330.14 16BKN065 10.00 816671 60 6VR30.1030.11 19SCT040 10.00 776770 71 70630.1230.13 22BKN060 10.00 746769 79 5VR30.1430.15 SUNRISE: 0702NOV 29 SUNSET: 1734 01SCT050 10.00 726769 84 3VR30.1430.15 04BKN250 7.00 716768 87 00030.1430.14 07SCT250 5.00BR 706667 87 00030.1530.15 10BKN250 6.00BR 736970 87 52230.1830.18 13SCT050 10.00 766971 79 62430.1130.12 16BKN250 10.00 766871 76 00030.0730.08 19BKN110 10.00 716668 84103530.1230.13 22CLRNC 8.00 686566 90 70130.1530.15 SUNRISE: 0703NOV 30 SUNSET: 1734 01FEW025 6.00BR 696667 90 6VR30.1230.13 04OVC002 2.00BR 696768 93 30830.1230.13 07OVC001 0.50BR 686667 93 33630.1630.16 10OVC003 2.50BR 696768 93 73530.2130.22 13OVC011 6.00HZ 726568 79 90430.1830.19 16SCT060 10.00 746468 71 6VR30.1630.16 19CLRNC 10.00 706466 81 60630.1930.19 22CLRNC 9.00 676365 87 70330.2330.24 01 6356597730.0930.109.675504 02 6356597830.0830.099.636404 03 6256597930.0830.099.406405 04 6255588030.0830.099.235504 05 6255588030.0830.099.236505 06 6155588030.0930.109.116405 07 6154577930.1130.128.876505 08 6355597730.1230.138.556505 09 6755606730.1330.148.918405 10 7155626030.1430.159.359405 11 7356635630.1330.149.538404 12 7556645230.1130.129.738303 13 7655645030.0830.099.568335 14 7755645030.0630.079.508433 15 7755645030.0530.069.808432 16 7655645130.0530.0610.008432 17 7455635430.0530.069.908335 18 7156626030.0730.079.978334 19 6956616530.0830.0910.007301 20 6856616730.0930.1010.007303 21 6756617030.1030.119.976403 22 6656607130.1130.129.906404 23 6556607330.1130.129.776404 24 6456607530.1130.129.775504 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURDECEMBER 2007KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0719DEC 25 SUNSET: 1742 01BKN130 10.00 625056 65 80430.1030.11 04BKN130 10.00 595054 72 60630.0530.06 07BKN250 10.00 585456 87 30330.0530.06 10BKN250 9.00 675962 76 5VR30.1030.10 13SCT250 10.00 736367 71 82530.0330.03 16SCT250 10.00 756166 62 72529.9729.97 19SCT250 10.00 696265 79 73329.9929.99 22SCT250 10.00 635961 87 63530.0130.01 SUNRISE: 0719DEC 26 SUNSET: 1742 01SCT250 10.00 595758 93 00029.9829.99 04BKN060 10.00 605859 93 33629.9729.98 07OVC050 8.00 605758 90 50329.9930.00 10OVC060 7.00 625759 84 70130.0530.05 13BKN250 10.00 725261 50 70330.0030.01 16SCT250 10.00 705461 57 82729.9729.98 19SCT250 10.00 655559 70 00029.9729.98 22FEW250 10.00 605356 78 33630.0330.03 SUNRISE: 0720DEC 27 SUNSET: 1743 01BKN250 10.00 605356 78 50430.0530.06 04BKN250 10.00 595456 84 3VR30.0430.04 07OVC001 0.25BR 615960 93 5VR30.0430.04 10FEW250 7.00 696164 76 7VR30.0830.09 13SCT250 9.00 746468 71 52230.0630.07 16SCT250 10.00 786268 58 52030.0430.05 19FEW250 10.00 716064 68 32730.0830.08 22SCT250 10.00 696265 79 50630.1130.11 SUNRISE: 0720DEC 28 SUNSET: 1743 01CLRNC 10.00 696365 81 5VR30.1030.11 04CLRNC 10.00 696566 87 5VR30.1130.11 07FEW250 10.00 686466 87 3VR30.1430.14 10SCT250 9.00 736669 79 81630.1730.17 13SCT250 10.00 806671 62 72230.1130.12 16SCT250 10.00 806369 56 71830.0930.10 19CLRNC 10.00 736669 79 62030.1130.12 22FEW050 10.00 706667 87 00030.1430.15 SUNRISE: 0720DEC 29 SUNSET: 1744 01BKN130 10.00 706667 87 00030.1230.13 04SCT130 10.00 706667 87 3VR30.1030.11 07SCT250 10.00 696667 90 00030.1230.13 10FEW013 10.00 756870 79 72030.1530.16 13SCT250 10.00 796872 69 92230.1130.11 16SCT250 10.00 796771 67 82130.0730.08 19CLRNC 10.00 706768 90 32630.0830.09 22VV001 0.25FG 686767 97 00030.1130.11 SUNRISE: 0721DEC 30 SUNSET: 1745 01BKN150 10.00 676666 97 00030.0730.08 04OVC002 0.50-RA BR686667 93 3VR30.0530.06 07BKN110 8.00 696768 93 3VR30.0530.05 10BKN250 10.00 746971 84101630.0730.08 13BKN250 10.00 796872 69111930.0330.03 16BKN100 10.00 766770 74132029.9829.99 19OVC080 10.00 746870 82 82030.0030.01 22BKN060 10.00 736970 87 62030.0330.04 SUNRISE: 0721DEC 31 SUNSET: 1745 01BKN045 10.00 737071 90 61830.0130.02 04BKN006 8.00 727071 93 52330.0030.01 07BKN015 2.00BR 727071 93 31830.0530.05 10BKN021 6.00BR 747071 87 52130.0930.09 13BKN041 9.00 777173 82 61930.0530.06 16BKN060 10.00 786871 71 71830.0330.03 19BKN120 10.00 747071 87 32030.0630.07 22BKN038 8.00 727071 93 00030.0930.10 01 6558617930.1130.129.605306 02 6458608130.1030.119.475306 03 6357608230.1030.108.944305 04 6257608430.1030.108.834305 05 6257598530.0930.108.295306 06 6257598530.1030.118.405206 07 6257598530.1230.138.135305 08 6257598430.1330.147.185306 09 6558618030.1530.157.317305 10 6959637230.1630.168.697202 11 7159646630.1530.169.247236 12 7459656130.1330.149.707331 13 7559655930.1130.119.617330 14 7559665830.0830.099.778429 15 7658655630.0730.089.777429 16 7558655630.0730.079.847329 17 7458655930.0730.089.947330 18 7159646630.0830.099.976230 19 6959637030.0930.1010.006134 20 6859637430.1030.119.815202 21 6759627530.1230.129.745202 22 6659627730.1230.139.565203 23 6659627830.1230.139.395305 24 6559617930.1130.129.335305 OBSERVATIONS AT 3-HOURLY INTERVALS TAMPA, FLSUMMARY BY HOURFEBRUARY 2007KTPAWBAN # 12842 3-HOURLY OBSERVATION NOTESPAGE 6 Sky Cover is the amount of the sky obscured. CLR or SKC = 0, FEW = 1/8-2/8, SCT = 3/8-4/8, BKN = 5/8-7/8, OVC = 8/8, W = Vertical Visibility = 8/8 Ceiling is reported in hundreds of feet above ground level for clouds at or below 12,000 feet. NC = No Ceiling detected. & = Original observation containted additional weather elements. See page 3 for additional notes.HOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHEREff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)SPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of Deg STATION SEA LEVELHOUR (LST) SKY COVER CEILING 100's of FT. Observation Time (LST)WEATHER AVERAGESHOUR (LST)Eff Cld Amt Oktas VISIBILITY (MILES)SATELLITE TEMPERATURE FDRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITY (PCT)WINDSPEED (MPH) DIRECTION Tens of DegPRESSURE (INCHES, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL CEILOMETER EFF CLD AMT DRY BULB DEW POINT WET BULB RELATIVE HUMIDITYPRESSURE (Inches, HG)STATION SEA LEVEL VISIBILITY (Miles) WIND SPEED (MPH)RESULTANT WIND (MPH)SPEED DIRECTIONSUNRISE: 0659FEB 25 SUNSET: 1828 01BKN250 10.00 655459 68 91430.0130.02 04FEW250 10.00 635558 75 6VR29.9729.98 07BKN250 10.00 635659 78 81430.0130.01 10SCT060 10.00 726165 68 91730.0430.05 13BKN250 10.00 756367 66152029.9930.00 16OVC250 9.00 726467 76102029.9429.95 19OVC250 10.00 696466 84 71929.9429.95 22OVC250 10.00 696566 87 72129.9129.91 SUNRISE: 0658FEB 26 SUNSET: 1828 01SCT110 10.00 686365 84 62229.9129.92 04BKN110 10.00 666264 87 32329.8829.89 07BKN110 10.00 696566 87 62229.9129.92 10OVC180 6.00-RA BR706667 87 92429.9729.98 13OVC200 7.00 766871 76 92029.9229.93 16OVC250 7.00 766871 76 72229.8929.89 19OVC250 5.00BR 716869 90 91829.8829.88 22OVC007 1.00BR 696868 97 81929.9129.92 SUNRISE: 0657FEB 27 SUNSET: 1829 01OVC007 1.00BR 696868 97 81829.8929.90 04OVC001 1.00BR 696868 97 51929.8729.87 07VV001 0.25FG 696868 97 52029.9129.92 10OVC008 1.50BR 717171100 61829.9429.94 13BKN018 10.00 786771 69 73629.9229.93 16BKN250 10.00 776670 69 82529.8929.90 19FEW250 10.00 706366 79 63229.9229.93 22VV001 0.25FG 646263 93 52729.9629.96 SUNRISE: 0656FEB 28 SUNSET: 1830 01BKN001 0.25BR 616060 97 60129.9529.96 04OVC003 1.00BR 595858 97 50329.9529.96 07BKN001 0.25BR 575656 96 70429.9829.99 10FEW016 5.00HZ 686164 78 6VR30.0330.04 13CLRNC 6.00HZ 805565 42 7VR29.9930.00 16SCT250 10.00 845064 31 5VR29.9329.93 19OVC080 10.00 815264 37 70829.9429.95 22OVC250 10.00 725663 57 81329.9930.00 01 5750537930.0830.098.475101 02 5650538130.0830.098.404136 03 5549528130.0730.077.976101 04 5548528030.0630.077.944103 05 5548528030.0730.087.785206 06 5448518030.0830.097.945205 07 5448518030.1030.118.006206 08 5548527830.1130.127.646105 09 5849547230.1330.147.497207 10 6149556630.1430.158.489106 11 6449566030.1430.158.849103 12 6648575630.1330.139.219230 13 6749585530.1030.118.549229 14 6849585430.0730.089.329329 15 6848585330.0630.069.3910328 16 6849585430.0530.069.469328 17 6648575630.0530.069.399328 18 6549565930.0630.079.618329 19 6249556430.0730.089.577130 20 6149556730.0930.099.397131 21 6050557130.0930.108.866131 22 5950547330.1030.108.795131 23 5850547530.1030.108.694134 24 5850547830.0930.108.405102 MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER Summary by Hour Chart. Fig. 39.

PAGE 74

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 62 Fahrenheit in a twenty-four hour period, and the highest afternoon temperatures which reach 90 degrees. As such, this thesis will establish August as the month of peak cooling. The relative humidity within a twenty-four hour period during the summer months is typically highest when the temperature is lowest, and it is typically lowest when the temperature is at its highest. In comparing the Human Comfort Chart with the results found for these two months, the ventilation comfort zone increases the time spent within the comfort zone by only 5 percent in July, and 2 percent in August. However, with increased air movement, the temperature and humidity of the remaining 71 percent and 73 percent, respectively, in the hot and warm zones, can be greatly decreased. Shading of occupants, and the site, during the summer months can also drastically reduce the effective temperature.2 data illustrates the spectrum of occupant needs to be expected in relation to thermal comfort. Despite the fact that, for the majority of the year, cooling is required, the architecture of this thesis should be capable of adapting to the full cooling months require architectural interventions that maximize shade and air movement, the months of comfort imply an architecture that provides minimal interference with the exterior climate, and the heating months suggest an architecture that minimizes air movement and maximizes solar radiation. The months providing the most daytime comfort are March, April, November and

PAGE 75

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 63 December. November has the greatest monthly percentage, but April contains the longest average duration of comfort throughout the day, with temperatures in the 70s from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. February is, by far, the peak heating month, with temperatures considered cool or cold occurring 85 percent of the time. Additionally, February is characterized by the lowest average daytime and nighttime temperatures in a twenty-four hour period. Microclimatic Analysis selected for its hot and humid climate, urban context, proximity to natural water features, and growing community. Approximately 1000 feet from the Ybor Channel, the northernmost portion of waters associated with the Port of Tampa, the site has the capability to take advantage of winds generated by the difference in temperature between the land and the water of the channel. The eight-storey residential and mixed-use structures. Individual lots are designed property lines, allowing for increased density within city blocks. In addition to the winds created by the Ybor Channel, the man-made context of the urban environment also has a unique effect on the microclimatic characteristics, such as air movement, solar radiation, temperature and humidity, found at the Aerial view of the site in relation to downtown Tampa. Fig. 40. Aerial view of the site in relation to immediate context. Fig. 41.

PAGE 76

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 64 View of the site looking southwest. Fig. 42.

PAGE 77

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 65 site. The building heights, proximities and densities all play major roles in the localized air movement, and the radiation of absorbed heat of asphalt streets, humidity, and levels of indirect light.3In order to understand the physical factors having the most direct impact on the microclimate of the site, a series of Site Observation Studies were conducted. Due to the timing of this thesis, they began in November 2009, and ended in December of the same year. The studies focused on ambient air temperature, relative humidity, thermal zones, sun and shade, perception of surrounding surfaces, and radiation of thermal mass at the site. Each to different times of the day and night. In addition, the temperature, humidity and wind direction recordings were compared with the climatological data recorded at Tampa International Airport for the same day and time. Despite the fact that these studies were conducted during the cooler and more comfortable months of the year, conclusions can be made about the microclimate of the site from the implications of the information gathered at the site. The average ambient air temperature at the site was warmer than the temperature recorded at TIA, from noon to 5 p.m., by approximately 2 degrees Fahrenheit. The rest of the evening and early morning, the average observed

PAGE 78

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 66 Site Observation Study A. Fig. 43.

PAGE 79

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 67 Site Observation Study B. Fig. 44.

PAGE 80

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 68 25 Aug First Day of School 21 Dec First Day of Winter Break 4 Jan Last Day of Winter Break 10 June Last Day of School 6am 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8pm june july august september october november december january february march april may dec 21, 8:00 am SUNRISE dec 21, 9:00 am dec 21, 12:00 pm dec 21, 4:00 pm dec 21, 5:00 pm SUNSET june 21, 6:00 am SUNRISE june 21, 11:00 am june 21, 1:00 pm june 21, 7:00 pm SUNSET june 21, 8:00 am june 21, 6:00 pm Shade studies of the summer and winter sun in relation to the academic calendar. Fig. 45.

PAGE 81

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 69 temperatures and recorded temperatures were the same. Temperatures in areas of sun differed from temperatures in areas of shade by as much as 4 degrees. Areas of asphalt reached 3 degrees higher than areas of grass, during the late afternoon, and in the evening, radiated the solar transmission absorbed during the day to create temperature differences of a couple degrees. The observed analysis and hourly shade studies show that the majority of the site is shaded, primarily by the building to the east, until 10 a.m. in the summer, and 11 a.m. in the winter. The northern end of the site is shaded in the summer afternoons by the building to the northwest, and during the winter, shade from the building to the south moves across the southern portion of the site. The wind moving through the site is affected most by the surrounding buildings, especially those to the east and south, due to their scale. Most of the time, wind gusts from any direction can be felt at any location on the site, the east or south. For example, when the wind is blowing from any direction south of east and west, an area of calm can be found along the northern face of the building to the south of the site. Another example takes place when the wind blows from any direction east of north and south. In this case, the height and width of the building to the east of the site will oftentimes block a large area of wind and cause an area of calm on the western side of the building. However, wind moves through the vehicular circulation path which begins on the east side of the building, and pushes out into the site from the opening on

PAGE 82

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 70 the western side of the building. The difference in pressure causes the air to move at an increased velocity. This east-west wind corridor could be of great advantage if continued through the site. The streets connecting to the site also supply air movement at increased velocities via the urban wind corridor effect that results from the continuous surfaces of building facades lining the streets. The increased air velocities that exist around the site as a result of the urban context will be captured as much as possible to facilitate air movement within the site. Additionally, these increased air velocities will aid in creating pressure differentials in, and around, the site to encourage air movement in what would otherwise be areas of calm. The northern party wall of the building to the south of the site is the only source of thermal mass, in addition to the soil of the site, itself. Temperatures were recorded along the face of the party wall, and a temperature difference of three degrees Fahrenheit was observed around 12 p.m. This was most likely due to the fact that the ground in front of the face of the wall had mass properties, since the remainder of temperatures recorded in the shade was very similar. One can imagine, though, that if this party wall, and the air effectively surrounding it, were to remain shaded throughout the day, then the temperature difference would be greater during the evening. Furthermore, if the face of the wall was cooled as a means of structural ventilation in the evening, then the temperature difference would be greater during the day.

PAGE 83

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 71 the site is the west faade of the building to the east of the site. Roughly 85 and feature balconies with glass enclosures and dividers, in addition to glass doors and windows. Solar radiation bounces off of these surfaces and onto the site after around 2 p.m. in the summer, and 1 p.m. in the winter. This indirect heat and light could cause temperatures to rise within the site, as well as visual building to the northwest and the surrounding concrete sidewalks. The former has a direct impact on the site until 11 a.m. in the summer, and throughout the entire day during the winter. The latter could affect the project any time of day and year. Minimizing the effect of solar radiation on the proposed buildings and occupants will be an important factor in reducing the overall heat gains of this project. Lessening the heat gains will, in turn, decrease the cooling load required.

PAGE 84

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 72 Program AnalysisThe program of this project can be viewed in two different ways: conceptually and functionally. The conceptual program is based on creating the potential for air movement throughout the site. It consists of designing areas of varied air temperature and density, as well as captured breezes, to utilize buoyancy and pressure forces in creating air movement. The functional program is the number and size of spaces, as they relate to the occupants of the school.

PAGE 85

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 73 Number of Spaces Description of Area Minimum Unit Sq Ft Total Sq Ft Student Stations Each Student Stations TotalKINDERGARTEN 6 Classrooms 800 4800 18 108 6 Student Toilet Rooms 40 240 3 Material Storage Rooms 120 360 2 Teacher Planning Areas 400 2 Activity Rooms 1130 2260 Subtotal 8060 PRIMARY 18 Classrooms 800 14400 18 324 4 Teacher Planning Areas 800 18 Student Toilet Rooms 40 720 4 Activity Rooms 1130 4520 Subtotal 20440 INTERMEDIATE 12 Classrooms 800 9600 22 264 3 Teacher Planning Areas 600 12 Student Toilet Rooms (Boys/Girls) 40 480 3 Activity Rooms 1130 3390 Subtotal 14070 MUSIC 1 Classroom 1400 1 Material Storage Room 100 Subtotal 1500 ART 1 Kiln Room 55 Subtotal 55 Functional Program. Fig. 46.

PAGE 86

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 74 Number of Spaces Description of Area Minimum Unit Sq Ft Total Sq Ft Student Stations Each Student Stations TotalGIFTED CLASSROOMS 1 Gifted Science Classroom 800 22 1 Gifted Math Classroom 800 22 2 Student Toilet Rooms (Boys/Girls) 40 80 Subtotal 1680 PHYSICAL EDUCATION 1 Teacher Planning Area 100 1 Material Storage Room 200 1 Staff Shower/Toilet Room 50 1 Fenced Storage Area (225) 1 Kindergarten/Primary Playcourt TBD 1 Intermediate Playcourt TBD 1 Kindergarten/Primary Turf Area (22500) 1 Intermediate Turf Area (260000) Subtotal 350 MEDIA CENTER 1 Reading Room with Computer Lab Area 4000 1 Technical Processing Room 250 1 Teacher Workroom 250 1 Staff Toilet Room 40 1 Audio Visual (AV) Storage/CCTT Room 700 1 120 Subtotal 5360 ADMINISTRATION 1 Administrative Reception 255 1 Secretarial Area 450

PAGE 87

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 75 Number of Spaces Description of Area Minimum Unit Sq Ft Total Sq Ft Student Stations Each Student Stations Total1 200 1 150 1 150 1 150 1 Production/Workroom 200 1 Conference Room 250 2 Clinic Rooms 100 200 2 Clinic Toilet/Shower Rooms 50 100 1 Administrative Storage Room 200 1 Records Room 200 1 Textbook Storage Room 200 2 Staff Toilet Rooms (Men/Women) 40 80 Subtotal 2785 GUIDANCE 1 Reception/Secretarial Area 100 2 150 300 1 Group Activity Room 200 Subtotal 600 FOOD SERVICE 1 Student Dining Room 3000 1 Servery 575 1 Chair Storage Room 150 1 Kitchen 1000 1 Receiving Area 25 1 100 1 Cooler 120 1 Freezer 160 1 Dry Storage Room 190

PAGE 88

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 76 Number of Spaces Description of Area Minimum Unit Sq Ft Total Sq Ft Student Stations Each Student Stations Total1 Faculty Dining Room 400 2 Faculty/Staff Toilet Rooms (Men/Women) 40 80 Subtotal 5800 MULTI-PURPOSE 1 Multi-Purpose Room 1700 1 Stage 700 1 Chair Storage Room 150 1 Stage Storage Room 300 2 Public Toilet Rooms (Boys/Girls) 200 400 Subtotal 3250 CUSTODIAL 1 Central Receiving 200 1 100 8 Service Closets 20 160 2 Locker Rooms (Men/Women) 40 80 2 Toilet Rooms (Men/Women) 40 80 1 Flammable Storage Room 250 1 Equipment Storage Room 250 Subtotal 1120 Net Subtotal 65070 Mechanical (%4) 2600 Subtotal: 67670 Circulation, Walls, etc. (%27) 18270 TOTAL GROSS: 85940 S.S.: 740

PAGE 89

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 77 Design Solution

PAGE 90

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 78 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. ART KILN ROOM TEACHER PLANNING MATERIAL STORAGE ROOM SHOWER / TOILET 2. MUSIC CLASSROOM MATERIAL STORAGE ROOM 3. GUIDANCE RECEPTION / SECRETARIAL AREA OFFICES GROUP ACTIVITY ROOM 4. ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE RECEPTION SECRETARIAL AREA PRINCIPALS OFFICE ASSISTANT PRINCIPALS OFFICE DATA PROCESSING OFFICE PRODUCTION / WORKROOM CONFERENCE ROOM CLINIC ROOMS CLINIC TOILET / SHOWER ROOMS ADMINISTRATIVE STORAGE ROOM RECORDS ROOM TEXTBOOK STORAGE ROOM STAFF TOILET ROOMS (MEN / WOMEN) 5. CUSTODIAL CENTRAL RECEIVING CUSTODIAL OFFICE SERVICE CLOSETS LOCKER ROOMS (MEN / WOMEN) TOILET ROOMS (MEN / WOMEN) EQUIPMENT STORAGE ROOM GENERATOR MAIN ELECTRICAL CENTRAL HVAC PLANT COOLING TOWERS DUMPSTER GROUND FLOOR PLAN n Ground Floor Plan. Fig. 47.

PAGE 91

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 79 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 9. 10. n SECOND FLOOR PLAN 6. MEDIA CENTER READING ROOM W. COMPUTER LAB STUDENT TOILET TECHNICAL PROCESSING ROOM TEACHER WORKROOM PUBLIC / STAFF TOILET ROOM AUDIO VISUAL (AV) STORAGE OFFICE 7. MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM STAGE CHAIR STORAGE ROOM STAGE STORAGE ROOM PUBLIC TOILET ROOMS (BOYS / GIRLS) 8. FOOD SERVICE STUDENT DINING ROOM SERVERY CHAIR STORAGE ROOM KITCHEN RECEIVING AREA KITCHEN MANAGERS OFFICE COOLER FREEZER DRY STORAGE ROOM FACULTY DINIG ROOM FACULTY / STAFF TOILET ROOMS (MEN / WOMEN) 9. KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS (6) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (6) MATERIAL STORAGE ROOMS (3) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (2) ACTIVITY ROOMS (2) 10. PRIMARY CLASSROOMS (18) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (18) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (4) ACTIVITY ROOMS (4) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 9. 10. n SECOND FLOOR PLAN 6. MEDIA CENTER READING ROOM W. COMPUTER LAB STUDENT TOILET TECHNICAL PROCESSING ROOM TEACHER WORKROOM PUBLIC / STAFF TOILET ROOM AUDIO VISUAL (AV) STORAGE OFFICE 7. MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM STAGE CHAIR STORAGE ROOM STAGE STORAGE ROOM PUBLIC TOILET ROOMS (BOYS / GIRLS) 8. FOOD SERVICE STUDENT DINING ROOM SERVERY CHAIR STORAGE ROOM KITCHEN RECEIVING AREA KITCHEN MANAGERS OFFICE COOLER FREEZER DRY STORAGE ROOM FACULTY DINIG ROOM FACULTY / STAFF TOILET ROOMS (MEN / WOMEN) 9. KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS (6) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (6) MATERIAL STORAGE ROOMS (3) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (2) ACTIVITY ROOMS (2) 10. PRIMARY CLASSROOMS (18) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (18) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (4) ACTIVITY ROOMS (4) Second Floor Plan. Fig. 48.

PAGE 92

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 80 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 9. 10. 10. 10. 10. n THIRD FLOOR PLAN 10. PRIMARY CLASSROOMS (18) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (18) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (4) ACTIVITY ROOMS (4) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 9. 10. 10. 10. 10. n THIRD FLOOR PLAN 10. PRIMARY CLASSROOMS (18) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (18) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (4) ACTIVITY ROOMS (4) Third Floor Plan. Fig. 49.

PAGE 93

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 81 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 9. 10. 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 12. 11. n FOURTH FLOOR PLAN 11. INTERMEDIATE CLASSROOMS (12) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (12) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (3) ACTIVITY ROOMS (3) 12. GIFTED GIFTED SCIENCE CLASSROOM (1) GIFTED MATH CLASSROOM (1) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (4) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 9. 10. 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 12. 11. n FOURTH FLOOR PLAN 11. INTERMEDIATE CLASSROOMS (12) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (12) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (3) ACTIVITY ROOMS (3) 12. GIFTED GIFTED SCIENCE CLASSROOM (1) GIFTED MATH CLASSROOM (1) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (4) Fourth Floor Plan. Fig. 50.

PAGE 94

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 82 Garden Classroom Section A-A. Fig. 51. Section A-A

PAGE 95

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 83 Classroom Community Section B-B. Fig. 52.

PAGE 96

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 84 Thermal Chimney Mode Fan-Assisted Thermal Chimney Mode Windcatcher Mode Sealed A/C Mode Passive Cooling Mode: Thermal Chimney. Fig. 53.

PAGE 97

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 85 Thermal Chimney Mode Fan-Assisted Thermal Chimney Mode Windcatcher Mode Sealed A/C Mode Passive Cooling Mode: Windcatcher. Fig. 54.

PAGE 98

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 86 Thermal Chimney Mode Fan-Assisted Thermal Chimney Mode Windcatcher Mode Sealed A/C Mode Mechanically Assisted Cooling Mode: Thermal Chimney. Fig. 55.

PAGE 99

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 87 Thermal Chimney Mode Fan-Assisted Thermal Chimney Mode Windcatcher Mode Sealed A/C Mode Full Mechanical Cooling Mode: Air Conditioning. Fig. 56.

PAGE 100

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 88 Fig. 57.

PAGE 101

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 89 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 9. 10. n SECOND FLOOR PLAN 6. MEDIA CENTER READING ROOM W. COMPUTER LAB STUDENT TOILET TECHNICAL PROCESSING ROOM TEACHER WORKROOM PUBLIC / STAFF TOILET ROOM AUDIO VISUAL (AV) STORAGE OFFICE 7. MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM STAGE CHAIR STORAGE ROOM STAGE STORAGE ROOM PUBLIC TOILET ROOMS (BOYS / GIRLS) 8. FOOD SERVICE STUDENT DINING ROOM SERVERY CHAIR STORAGE ROOM KITCHEN RECEIVING AREA KITCHEN MANAGERS OFFICE COOLER FREEZER DRY STORAGE ROOM FACULTY DINIG ROOM FACULTY / STAFF TOILET ROOMS (MEN / WOMEN) 9. KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS (6) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (6) MATERIAL STORAGE ROOMS (3) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (2) ACTIVITY ROOMS (2) 10. PRIMARY CLASSROOMS (18) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (18) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (4) ACTIVITY ROOMS (4) Planting Key A. Fig. 58. Sensory Dune. Fig. 59.

PAGE 102

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 90 Garden Court: Timber Bamboo. Fig. 60.

PAGE 103

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 91 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 9. 10. n SECOND FLOOR PLAN 6. MEDIA CENTER READING ROOM W. COMPUTER LAB STUDENT TOILET TECHNICAL PROCESSING ROOM TEACHER WORKROOM PUBLIC / STAFF TOILET ROOM AUDIO VISUAL (AV) STORAGE OFFICE 7. MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM STAGE CHAIR STORAGE ROOM STAGE STORAGE ROOM PUBLIC TOILET ROOMS (BOYS / GIRLS) 8. FOOD SERVICE STUDENT DINING ROOM SERVERY CHAIR STORAGE ROOM KITCHEN RECEIVING AREA KITCHEN MANAGERS OFFICE COOLER FREEZER DRY STORAGE ROOM FACULTY DINIG ROOM FACULTY / STAFF TOILET ROOMS (MEN / WOMEN) 9. KINDERGARTEN CLASSROOMS (6) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (6) MATERIAL STORAGE ROOMS (3) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (2) ACTIVITY ROOMS (2) 10. PRIMARY CLASSROOMS (18) STUDENT TOILET ROOMS (18) TEACHER PLANNING AREAS (4) ACTIVITY ROOMS (4) Planting Key B. Fig. 61. Garden Court. Fig. 62.

PAGE 104

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 92 Canopy Forest: Cathedral Live Oak. Fig. 63.

PAGE 105

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 93 Site model. Fig. 64.

PAGE 106

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 94 View showing shade of deep roof overhangs. Fig. 65.

PAGE 107

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 95 Parking garage, sensory dune and classrooms. Fig. 66.

PAGE 108

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 96 View into canopy forest. Fig. 67.

PAGE 109

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 97 Circulation paths looking over the shaded canopy forest. Fig. 68.

PAGE 110

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 98 Section model showing the garden court. Fig. 69.

PAGE 111

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 99 View of classrooms and circulation along east side. Fig. 70.

PAGE 112

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 100 Foliage screen upon the sensory dune. Fig. 71. View of classrooms along the west side. Fig. 72.

PAGE 113

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 101 View of southwest corner. Fig. 73. Fig. 74.

PAGE 114

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 102 View into the garden court from the activity space. Fig. 75.

PAGE 115

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 103 ConclusionIt is clear that a model is needed for subtropical architecture, one in which passive and mechanically assisted methods of cooling are the baseline, and mechanical air conditioning serves as the last resort. This need arises from issues such as climate determinism, thermal neutrality and the steadystate approach, which are the main factors of abuse and over-reliance of air conditioning. These issues were to be resolved, in this thesis, by achieving evaporative cooling of occupants throughout the spaces of school buildings located in hot, humid climates through natural and induced ventilation methods such as cross-ventilation and buoyancy. In situations where natural air movement was poor, forced ventilation methods, such as the use of fans, were to be integrated into the design. The second goal was to minimize the reliance on air conditioning systems within interior spaces of school buildings in hot, humid climates. And the third goal was to facilitate the localized control of microclimates within the school building. The conceptual basis for achieving these goals, termed the garden classroom, was to create garden spaces within and surrounding classrooms to provide positive, thermal qualities of human comfort to their occupants.

PAGE 116

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 104 The research process began with three case studies, each representing a different outlook on cooling strategies. They ranged from sealed, air conditioned boxes without any windows, to sealed boxes that featured operable high windows which were probably never opened, to a fully open-air structure featuring a wide range of degrees of enclosure. While the case studies demonstrated a number of cooling strategies, none provided a hybrid solution to provide passive cooling most of the time, reserving the assistance of air conditioning to temper the summer extremes. When asked their opinion, most prospect to visit, but not to work or attend class in everyday. Consequently, the sealed, air conditioned school buildings did little to excite, due to their sequestering nature. This only further emphasized the reality of the subtropical cooling dilemma. It became obvious that a handbook of passive and mechanical cooling strategies for the subtropics needed to be compiled to understand an array of methods in a simple fashion, such that they could be integrated into the initial phase of the design process. The concepts found in the handbook became A major turn in this thesis was the realization of the cooling potential of the garden. The most important idea distilled from the Denham Oaks Elementary School case study was the implementation of gardens around the classroom communities at a variety of scales. At the largest scale exists an oak preserve. Stepping down in scale, students are greeted by foliage in

PAGE 117

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 105 a courtyard, along whose edges are the entrances to the classrooms where students are greeted by even smaller gardens. The exploration of this idea, in Thermal Delight in Architecture, inspired the garden classroom concept. The garden classroom is the appropriate link between the student and thermal comfort. It provides the sensorial aspect of cooling, while also accomplishing the biological mechanics of cooling. Scented breeze, rustling leaves and dappled light, as well as, lower air temperatures, lower ground temperatures, lower building surface temperatures and After completing research and analysis of the case studies, it became evident that in order to assess the contemporary cooling issues in the subtropics, one has to fully understand the climate of the subtropics, and its effect on the human body and psyche. The main factors related to cooling in the hot, humid subtropics include thermal comfort, the comfort zone, the Human Comfort Human Comfort Chart, to this thesis, is that up until this point in the research, comfort, along with the ambient air temperature, making it an ideal method for subtropical climates. Understanding human comfort in relation to the hot, breeze, the stack effect, or fan-assisted ventilation, air movement across the

PAGE 118

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 106 human body is quite possibly the most important concept learned in this thesis. Understanding the microclimate is one way of anticipating the strength and consistency of air movement at a particular site. Analysis of the microclimate particular which passive cooling strategies will be employed, such as those listed under Building Groups in the handbook. The meso-climate, on the other hand, covers a much broader area. With the aid of the Human Comfort Chart, meso-climatic data such as ambient temperature and relative humidity readings can help the designer to understand the range of temperatures to be expected daily, monthly and annually, and how they fall in relation to the comfort zone. The next portion of the research, site analysis, consisted of mesoclimatic and microclimatic analysis of the site which was selected in downtown Tampa. Other than being located in the subtropics, there were two main reasons challenge of an urban microclimate in which the winds are unpredictable and extremely calm in some areas. The second was to apply the garden classroom concept to a multi-story school. The meso-climatic data collected was used four hour period requiring peak cooling. Other important factors were the high precipitation values. The microclimatic data was collected in a series of observation studies on-site. A psychrometer was used to establish the dry bulb temperature and relative humidity at varying points across the site, and

PAGE 119

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 107 effects of thermal mass on the site were recorded. The wind, in particular was buildings. Most of the breezes that happened on-site were eddies created by negative pressure zones on the leeward side of surrounding buildings. The eight-story condominium building to the east posed the largest windbreak, and probably had the biggest impact of any contextual feature on the school design. Due to the fact that the prevailing winds come from east-northeast, the building prevents almost all of the prevailing winds from reaching the site. Accordingly, the selected site is in a wind shadow until the afternoon when the winds typically switch directions. Furthermore, the only prevailing winds that cross the site are approximately sixty feet in the air, sailing off the top of the condo building. This factor became the starting point for the conceptual program of the school campus, in particular the classroom communities. A functional program, based on local public elementary schools, was introduced into the design process to determine the scale of the campus. The allotted mechanical spaces in the program were reduced to accommodate wall and window mounted air conditioners, since the anticipated load, in terms of duration, would be greatly reduced. Using strategies from the handbook, a microclimate-responsive solution was reached. First, building groups were laid out based on hourly wind and shade diagrams. The wind diagrams indicated that the ideal location for the

PAGE 120

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 108 classroom communities to catch the prevailing winds coming off the top of the condo bldg would be the west side of the site. The shade diagrams indicated that the ideal location to share shade from the condo building was along the east edge of the site, but that the only shade to be offered was in the early morning. Seeing that there was no shared shade to be offered from the surrounding context during midday and afternoon heat, it became evident that in order to lower the temperature of the site, the majority of the site and the proposed buildings would need to be shaded in some way. There was also the issue of the height of the prevailing wind current. At three stories high, the classroom communities were a raised ground plane, lifting up the classrooms, and designing the roof as a windcatcher, the prevailing breeze could be brought down into the classroom garden courts. Grasses, shrubs and trees could be planted on the raised ground plane to create a series of gardens that would provide passive cooling to the students through shade, evapotranspiration, and the sensorial connection. Furthermore, the underneath of the raised earth was designed as a parking garage that serves as a buffer against the heat of the street. Wrapped in a porous skin, the hot air moving into the garage is cooled in the well-shaded space before moving into the surrounding campus buildings. This would seem like a perfect scenario. The wind catchment system relies on a constant, moderate wind to be brought down into the classrooms via

PAGE 121

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 109 Additionally, although most of the surrounding context is not higher than the roofs of the classroom buildings today, in an urban setting it is very likely that will change. The realization at this point in the design process was that the entire design depended on a constant breeze that did not exist. The solution to the problem was a solar chimney, using the same central garden court that the breeze is intended to move down through in windcatcher mode, before entering the individual classrooms. As a solar chimney system, the roof would be fabricated of corrugated metal which heats up very quickly. The roof heats the air around it, causing the air to rise. As a result, hot air from the classrooms would be drawn out through high windows into the court, while cool air is brought in through low windows along the outside of the building. On overcast days, fans along the roof would increase the velocity of the air, as it is drawn out, into the court and up past the roof. For the solar chimney system to work the air being brought into the classrooms through the low windows would have to be cool. Because these windows were located along the outside of the classroom buildings, the temperature of the air around the outside of the building would need to be lowered. By shading the building with a series of layers, the interior spaces can architectural screens covered with foliage, louvers, white insect screens, operable windows and doors, and moveable interior partitions. By separating

PAGE 122

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 110 these elements to appropriate distances, shaded spaces are created within the air is further cooled in these tertiary spaces by shaded ground ponds, which remove heat from the air without contributing to the humidity. Each individual ground pond, has the potential to lower the temperature from 1 to 3 degrees, and sometimes more. When the combination of shading elements in one particular area of a classroom building is added up, the sum of cooling has the potential to approach 10 degrees. Having stated that, imagine a hot summer day with an ambient temperature recording of 88 degrees, a high which Tampa rarely reaches. Presuming the air being drawn into the classrooms was 78 degrees, that would mean that the air moving across the students falls within the comfort zone. Which means that according to the Human Comfort Chart, ___ percent of the students are comfortable inside the classroom. Furthermore, the supplement of fans would only increase the sensation of cooling. the goals of this thesis. The potential to place the incoming ventilation air at a temperature within, or just beyond the cusp of, the comfort zone during peak highs implies a reduction in the need for air conditioning. The integration of multiple layers, many including operable characteristics, imply localized control windows promotes air movement and evaporative cooling of occupants.

PAGE 123

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 111 The architecture of hybrid cooling suggests an architecture of inhabitable layers that range from natural to man-made, based around cooling the surrounding air. Whether promoting cross-ventilation or the stack effect, it offers the opportunity to blur the boundaries between nature inside and nature outside. It offers humans the opportunity to have a closer relationship with the thermal delight of the surrounding natural world that is so often shut out.

PAGE 124

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 112 NotesAbstract Richard Hyde 1. Climate Responsive Design: A Study of Buildings in Moderate and Hot Humid Climates. New York: E & FN Spon, 2000. Page 78 Ibid. 2. Francis Allard 3. Natural Ventilation in Buildings: A Design Handbook. London: James and James Ltd, 1998. Page 2 Subtropical Hot, Humid Climates Allan Konya 1.

PAGE 125

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 113 Design Primer for Hot Climates. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1980. Pages 24-27 Ibid. 2. Pages 18-19 Terry S. Boutet 3. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Edited by Nadine M. Post and Galen H. Fleck. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1987. Page 4 Thermal Comfort and the Comfort Zone Quoted in Boutet 1. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Pages 11-12 Ibid. 2.

PAGE 126

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 114 Page 12 Victor Olgyay 3. Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1963. Page 18 Boutet 4. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Page 12 Olgyay 5. Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism. Page 17 Boutet 6. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Page 13

PAGE 127

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 115 Konya 7. Page 26 Boutet 8. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Pages 12-15 Ibid. 9. Page 19 Ibid. 10. Page 16 The Importance of Air Movement in Hot, Humid Climates Baruch Givoni 1. Passive and Low Energy Cooling of Buildings. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994. Page 17 Allan Konya 2.

PAGE 128

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 116 Design Primer for Hot Climates. Page 52 Boutet 3. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Page 2 Ibid. 4. Meso-climate and Microclimate Boutet 1. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Page 3 Ibid. 2. Konya 3. Design Primer for Hot Climates. Page 35

PAGE 129

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 117 Case Studies Philip Goad 1. Troppo Architects. Singapore: Periplus Editions, 2005. Page 35 Ibid. 2. Page 25 Ibid. 3. Page 35 Problem Statement Hyde 1. Climate Responsive Design: A Study of Buildings in Moderate and Hot Humid Climates. Page 77 Ibid. 2.

PAGE 130

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 118 Boutet 3. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Page 134 Hyde 4. Climate Responsive Design: A Study of Buildings in Moderate and Hot Humid Climates. Page 77 Lisa Heschong 5. Thermal Delight in Architecture. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1979. Page 9 Ibid. 6. Page 15 Hyde 7. Climate Responsive Design: A Study of Buildings in Moderate and Hot Humid Climates.

PAGE 131

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 119 Page 77 Ibid. 8. Pages 77-78 Ibid. 9. Pages 78-79 Heschong 10. Thermal Delight in Architecture. Page 55 Hyde 11. Climate Responsive Design: A Study of Buildings in Moderate and Hot Humid Climates. Page 79 Ibid. 12. Heschong 13. Thermal Delight in Architecture.

PAGE 132

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 120 Page 26 Olgyay 14. Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism. Page 18 Ibid. 15. Pages 17-18 Heschong 16. Thermal Delight in Architecture. Page 18 Ibid. 17. Pages 19-21 Project Goals and Description Ryan Swilley, Substitute teacher 1. personal communication

PAGE 133

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 121 Unknown. 2. Tampa, Florida. 2009. [http://www.city-data.com/city/Tampa-Florida.html]. November 2009. Project Concept Heschong 1. Thermal Delight in Architecture. Page 23 Ibid. 2. Page 19 Quoted in Heschong 3. Thermal Delight in Architecture. Pages 25-26 Heschong 4. Thermal Delight in Architecture.

PAGE 134

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 122 Page 29 Konya 5. Design Primer for Hot Climates. Page 52 Givoni 6. Passive and Low Energy Cooling of Buildings. Page 35 Boutet 7. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Pages 47-48 Ibid. 8. Page 48 Passive and Mechanical Cooling Handbook G.Z. Brown and Mark DeKay. 1. Sun, Wind and Light: Architectural Design Strategies.

PAGE 135

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 123 New York: John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, 2001. Pages viii-xiii Site Analysis Boutet 1. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Page 37 Ibid. 2. Pages 36-39 Hyde 3. Climate Responsive Design: A Study of Buildings in Moderate and Hot Humid Climates. Page 39

PAGE 136

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 124 Works CitedAllard, Francis, ed. Natural Ventilation in Buildings: A Design Handbook. London: James and James Ltd, 1998. Boutet, Terry S. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Edited by Nadine M. Post and Galen H. Fleck. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1987. Brown, G.Z., and Mark DeKay. Sun, Wind and Light: Architectural Design Strategies. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, 2001. Givoni, Baruch. Passive and Low Energy Cooling of Buildings. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994. Goad, Philip. Troppo Architects. Singapore: Periplus Editions, 2005. Heschong, Lisa. Thermal Delight in Architecture. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1979. Hyde, Richard. Climate Responsive Design: A Study of Buildings in Moderate and Hot Humid Climates. New York: E & FN Spon, 2000. Konya, Allan. Design Primer for Hot Climates. New York: Watson-Guptill

PAGE 137

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 125 Publications, 1980. Olgyay, Victor. Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1963. Unknown. Tampa, Florida. 2009. [http://www.city-data.com/city/TampaFlorida.html]. November 2009.

PAGE 138

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 126 BibliographyAllard, Francis, ed. Natural Ventilation in Buildings: A Design Handbook. London: James and James Ltd, 1998. Bay, Joo-Hwa, and Boon Lay-Ong. Tropical Sustainable Architecture: Social and Environmental Dimensions. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd, 2006. Boutet, Terry S. Controlling Air Movement: A Manual for Architects and Builders. Edited by Nadine M. Post and Galen H. Fleck. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1987. Brown, G.Z., and Mark DeKay. Sun, Wind and Light: Architectural Design Strategies. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, 2001. Cecilia, Fernando Marquez, and Richard Levene, ed. El Croquis: Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa. Madrid: El Croquis Editorial, 2001. Givoni, Baruch. Man, Climate, and Architecture. New York: American Elsevier Publishing Company, 1969. Givoni, Baruch. Passive and Low Energy Cooling of Buildings. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994.

PAGE 139

AC/DC: Let There Be Hybrid Cooling 127 Goad, Philip. Troppo Architects. Singapore: Periplus Editions, 2005. Heschong, Lisa. Thermal Delight in Architecture. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1979. Hyde, Richard. Climate Responsive Design: A Study of Buildings in Moderate and Hot Humid Climates. New York: E & FN Spon, 2000. Konya, Allan. Design Primer for Hot Climates. New York: Watson-Guptil Publications, 1980. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. The World of Perception. Translated by Oliver Davis. New York: Routledge, 2004. Olgyay, Victor. Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1963. Ruan, Xing, and Paul Hogben, ed. Twentieth-Century Human Habitat. New York: Routledge, 2007. Unknown. Tampa, Florida. 2009. [http://www.city-data.com/city/TampaFlorida.html]. November 2009.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam 22 Ka 4500
controlfield tag 007 cr-bnu---uuuuu
008 s2010 flu s 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0003500
035
(OCoLC)
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
XX9999 (Online)
1 100
Podes, Christopher.
0 245
Ac/dc :
b let there be hybrid cooling
h [electronic resource] /
by Christopher Podes.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
2010.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
502
Thesis (M.Arch.)--University of South Florida, 2010.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
3 520
ABSTRACT: In today's increasingly energy conscious society, the methods of providing thermal comfort to humans are constantly under scrutiny. Depending on the climate, and the comfort requirements of the occupants, buildings can be designed to heat and cool occupants with passive methods, as well as mechanical methods. In the subtropics, where buildings often need to be heated in the winter and cooled in the summer, a synthesis of these two methods would be ideal. However, there is a disconnect between the integration of passive cooling and mechanical air conditioning, in subtropical architecture. A study of user attitudes, based out of Australia, found that, "Central control of temperatures has been used to cut demand by preventing users from altering thermostats and other parts of the building for microclimate control. In particular, windows are sealed to prevent tampering."1 Reliance on air conditioning has the everyday person convinced that if we save energy in the right places, we can use air conditioning as much as we like. The same study goes on to state, "Air-conditioning has been assumed to replace the need for climate design features in buildings creating poor thermal design and high energy use."2 This can be most clearly seen in our public buildings. Fully conditioned buildings pump cool air into sealed envelopes, adjusting the thermostat to regulate thermal comfort year-round, often in a climate in which mechanical air conditioning is needed only four months of the year, and during the warmest hours of the day. Inversely, ventilated buildings provide passive cooling in a climate in which the temperature and humidity are often too high for thermal comfort during the same four months of the year. In his book Natural Ventilation in Buildings, Francis Allard points out that the global energy efficiency movement, begun in the early 1990s, has now emerged as a concept that incorporates active air conditioning and site-specific climate design of buildings into one holistic approach.3 However, these buildings exist in more dry and temperate climates, and do not fully apply to the subtropics as cooling models. A model is needed for subtropical architecture allowing a building to reach both ends of the spectrum; from natural ventilation, through mechanical ventilation, to mechanical air conditioning. The goal of this thesis is to design a hybrid model for subtropical architecture which maximizes the use of natural and mechanical ventilation, and minimizes the use of mechanical air conditioning. The vehicle for this explanation is the design of an educational facility. Research of thermal comfort needs for occupants in the subtropics was accompanied with observation studies. This research was compared with case study, site and program analysis. The analysis was supplemented by a handbook of passive and mechanical cooling which was compiled to aid in establishing cooling strategies for the design process. The implementation of the research and analysis was brought to a conclusion that successfully achieved the goals of this thesis. By using passive methods to lower the temperature of the air surrounding the classroom buildings, the incoming air used to cool the occupants reached temperatures low enough to be considered comfortable inside the classrooms.
590
Advisor: Daniel S. Powers, M. Arch
653
Subtropical architecture passive cooling thermal comfort garden classroom educational building
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x School of Architecture and Community Design
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.3500