xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam 22 Ka 4500
controlfield tag 007 cr-bnu---uuuuu
008 s2010 flu s 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0004513
Visionary of control :
b the efficiency, expertise, and exclusion of alexander james inglis
h [electronic resource] /
by Heidi Kramer.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
Thesis (MA)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
ABSTRACT: Alexander James Inglis was the key contributor to changes enacted in education during the Progressive era. He instituted an administrative and curricular hierarchy in order to create social organization during a chaotic time in American history, thus advancing professionalism in teaching and systematizing a future workforce teaching previously had no standards, and throngs of immigrants overwhelmed the school system. While necessary at the time, this system of centralization, homogenization, and sorting continues to result in exclusion in secondary education and middle schools. Categorization is Inglis' hallmark in his work in education, following Frederick W. Taylor's managerial practices, and he influenced Ellwood P. Cubberley and James B. Conant. Using John Dewey's words but with different meanings and purposes Inglis and his associates reworked education in a way that made the state responsible for choosing academic or vocational training for pupils despite family objections. Michel Foucault reveals the control techniques used by schools: the examination, normalizing judgment, and hierarchical observation. These parallel Inglis' categorizing standards.
Advisor: Daniel Belgrad, Ph.D.
x Humanities/Cultural Studies/American Studies
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Visionary of Control: The Efficiency, Expertise, and Exclusion of Alexander James Inglis by Heidi Tilney Kramer A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Humanities and Cultural Studies College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Daniel M. Belgrad, Ph.D. Robert E. Snyder, Ph.D. Elaine Y. Smith, Ph.D. Date of Approval: July 9, 2010 Keywords: Dewey secondary, education, Conant, Cubberley Copyright 2010, Heidi Tilney Kramer
i Table of Contents Abstract ............................................................................................................................... ii Introduction ..........................................................................................................................1 Chapter 1: Formulating the Problems i n American Secondary Education ........................10 Chapter 2: Transformation of Secondary Education in the United States .........................26 Chapter 3: Legacy of Alexander James Inglis ...................................................................40 Conclusion .........................................................................................................................51 Notes ................................................................................................................................55 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................61 About the Author
ii Visionary of Control: The Efficiency, Expertise, and Exclusion of Alexander James Inglis Heidi Tilney Kramer A bstract Alexander James Inglis was the key contributor to changes enacted in education during the Progressive era. He instituted an administrative and curricular hierarchy in order to create social organization during a chaotic time in American history, thus advancing professionalism in teaching and systematizing a future workforce teaching previously had no standards, and throngs of immigrants overwhelmed the school system. While necessary at the time, this system of centralization, homogenization, and sorting c ontinues to result in exclusion in secondary education and middle schools. Categorization is Inglis hallmark in his work in education, following Frederick W. T aylor s managerial practices, and he influenced Ellwood P Cubberley and James B Conant. Using John Deweys words but with different meanings and purposes Inglis and his associates reworked education in a way that made the state responsible for choosing academic or vocational training for pupils despite family objections. Michel Foucault reveals the control techniques used by schools: the examination, normalizing judgment, and hierarchical observation. These parallel Inglis categorizing standards.
1 Introduction Alexander James Inglis was a proponent of efficiency and expertise in the Progressive era. He was largely responsible for creating the structure under which newly created high schools would conduct themselves. Though his name is not heard often in academic circles today he was influential in many ways. Inglis not only increased the mandatory age for compulsory school attendance by reinventing secondary education he made suggestions for middle schools, such as implementing sorting lo ng before high 1 expertise both in the classroom and in control over it. This system al so initiated the categoriz ation of students and academic discusses the importance of promoting certain students over others, in effect, to guarantee the continuation of the republic: The American democracy depends for its existence and success on the social consciousness and social cooperation of its citizens. Unless the school can make a significant contribution t o the development of social consciousness and social cooperation it must fail in one of its most important purposes. In the endeavor to make that contribution great responsibility must rest on the secondary school wherein is trained that somewhat select group of individuals who must ultimately exert the greatest influence on our social and civic life. 2
2 Inglis was a major figure in using education to encourage the intellectual elite to fulfill their duties to protect the country y et there is little scholarship about the man who devoted himself to changing American education. The only major Progressive Pioneer: Alexander James Inglis (1879 1924) and American Education a portrayal of Inglis as an unsung American hero of the Progressive era. Praised by some, bu of categorization imprinted on the school system the class stratification which was also taking place in society at large. The i ndustrialization, immig ration, and urbanization that disrupted America after the Civil War provid ed American education. Nineteenth century American school systems were locally based and there was little interac tion between them; in addition, no regulation of the teaching profession existed. Robert H. Wiebe calls the whole of America during the nineteenth 3 During the 1880s and 1890s, an emergence of social scientists a s professional problem solvers launched alternative plans which brought cohesive administrative and curricular changes to education As cities filled with Among them was Danish i mmigrant, Jacob Riis, who became an expert on urban reform at the turn of the century. He proposed the three step process of language training, craft training, and model tenements, yet this did not provide the extensive overhaul educational leaders wished. Their plan involved using the school system as the ideal place in which to socialize mass society.
3 Scholars place the Progressive era within distinct dates and in different contexts. presidency, until the United States entered World War I. Robert H. Wiebe places it between 1877 and 1920, and sees it as a time when society broke down and formed a new system around 4 Glenn Porter suggests in The Rise of Big Business 1860 1920 that the Gilded Age w most cr 5 It was the many problems during this era which advanced solutions in the period which followed. 6 The education system provides a way to a naly ze the whole society. Changes in education during the Progressive era are illustrative of what occurred in all professions of the day and these changes had far reaching effects on American society. After Reconstruction (1877), the United States quickly indu strialized in railroads, meat packing, iron and steel, manufactured goods, etc. Under laissez faire, this rapid growth resulted in safety concerns, sanitary problems, slums, and crime. Natural resources coal, lumber, oil, precious metals, minerals were explo ited along with human resources. Independent, small businesses were taken over by monopolies. Trusts provided hegemony over disorganized business dealings, but came with costs competitive and human. The government finally, had to step in to contro l and order through the courts, Congress, and state legislature s It is this historical context which brought the education system under scrutiny. As business expanded, times became more desperate for workers. In 1877, workers oppos ing wage cuts ignited the Great Railroad Strike. Over the next few decades, membership in national movements, such as the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor rose dramatically. The slump in crop prices during the
4 final two decades of the nineteenth century ma de it more difficult to own land. In the 1880s, cattle barons in the west fenced off large tracts of grazing land with barbed wire, edg ing out small farmers and ranchers. The number of women in the workforce increased as some struggled for suffrage. The la st decade brought an economic depression which hurt small business, as railway and steel workers staged strikes in Chicago and Pittsburgh (Pullman and Homestead). 7 By 1910, Ford introduced the symbol of dehumanization in his Highland Park, Michigan, facility: assembly line production. 8 was the German phrase of the day. 9 Worker dissatisfaction was not the only indication of serious social problems. Competition for employment in over crowded cities exacerbated an already dangerous situation. From 1916 through the 1920s, S outhern African Americans moved north in unprecede nted numbers to find jobs and escape Southern repression and racism. Asian and European immigrant workers settled in large cities in the United States, which increased racial and ethnic tension s 10 At the turn of the century, immigrants in the United States composed thirty Americans from the first wave of immigration felt that incentives and penalties were needed to inculcate American values in the new citizens. In 1919, nationwide race riots resulted in hundreds injured and dead. 11 S chools of the late nineteenth century were charged with acculturating and assimilating the children of southern and eastern Europe an immigrants whose numbers surg ed in the 1890s. The compulsory school laws passed between 1870 and 1890 required educating children who would normally have been in the workforce ; the
5 increasingly overwhelmed schools were given the additional heterogeneous population of children to function in the complex and fluid urban 12 In fact, it became imperative to industrialists and find the right type of workers to fill jobs. Twelve percent of whites could not read, compared with fifty percent of African Americans. Between 1880 and 1900, American public schools dramatically increased from eight hundred to six thousand. College enroll ment grew from 52,000 in 1870 to 157,000 in 1890, and professors increasingly had doctorates. 13 Many immigrant workers were suspicious of anything meant to assimilate their offspring into the mainstream. Some wanted their children alongside them in the wo rkforce, but many were convinced that school attendance might provide a better life. In 1904, the National Child Labor Committee was formed to fight employment of young children. Investigative m the expose journalists of the time aroused the consci through the press. 14 Photographs of immigrant worker slums and the children who resided there at once shocked, repulsed, and solicited sympathy from the public. As different types of people were pitted against one another in the 1890s, the Doctrine of Social Darwinism fueled debate. 15 Approximately forty years earlier, in 1851, the British philosopher and sociologist Herbert Spencer (1820 1903) applied domination, as well as Western hegemony and the unequal distribution of power and wealth, he appropriated pie As Jacob Riis
6 pointed out in How the Other Half Lives afforded an excuse for the wealthy and powerful that ive. 16 Darwin began to use the term himself interchangeably with th edition of Origin of Species published in 1869, despite objections by naturalist Alfred Wallace and others. 17 Francis Galton, an English scientist and a cousin to describe the notion that the mentally and physically handicapped, the poverty stricken, the criminal, etc. are so due to heredity. Galton and others believed in perfecting the human race by 18 This idea that some races, ethnicities, and types of individuals (women, for example) were inferior led men, like Edward L. Thorndike (1874 1949) and G. Stanley Hall (1844 1924), prominent in Progressive educational reform, to devise test s to measure an individual s Hall was the first person in the United States to receive a Ph.D. in psychology (1878). After going to Germany for post graduate study, he returned eager to lead American experimental psychology; in 1881, he acce pted a lectureship in pedagogy and philosophy at Harvard. Hall was a Social Darwinist who felt that social reforms might retard natural social progress. 19 Hall surrounded himself with eugenicists of the day, including E. A. Ross and J. F. Bobbitt Bobbitt Pedagogical Seminary 20 Hall taught L. H. Terman, H. H. Goddard, J. McKeen Cattell, and John Dewey. 21 Hall initiated the American child study movement, and worked with the National Education Association, creat ing instructional booklets for teachers on how to observe children
7 properly. He founded the American Journal of Psychology in 1887, an d organized the American Psychological Association in 1892, becoming its first president. 22 These are all signposts in the maturation of the field. While arguments flared over the potential of certain individuals, theories were formed by many educators whi ch advanced disparity between races, ethnicities, classes, and genders. Many Americans were terrified of the changes facing society, including the newly industrialized landscape; however, the aspiration of the people was increasingly changing from one of virtuous self sufficiency to new, capitalist system workers bent on becoming part of a new consumer culture. 23 Michael McGerr quotes the economist Richard T. Ely who sta ted 24 The rising middle class refused to become thwarted; indeed, th is 25 Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States from 1913 to 1921, had much to as a professor in 1896. Wilson eventually became president of Princeton University (1902), where he severely enforced academic standards, added administrative departments, and took control of faculty nominations from the trustees for himself. In American higher educat 26 He revolutionized the teaching system a year later, made the university non sectarian, a nd added buildings for
8 instruction, a gymnasium, over two hundred acres of prime real estate, and Lake Carnegie. 27 An argument between Wilson and other colleagues over the placement of the graduate college prompted Wilson to accept the Democratic nomination for the New Jersey governorship. He was elected, and this became a stepping stone to the White House. The Democrats found in Wilson a man of high standards and impeccable 28 In this tumultuous age, measurement, organization, and categorization became the keys to imposing order on perceived chaos Frederick Winslow Taylor came up with the idea of scientific management study ing and compiling data in order to problem solve to control workers in factories and other American institutions, including education. Taylorism in education emphasized the benefits of streamlining the classroom; placing trained, administrative experts i n the school system; and reworking pedagogy as a way to ensure an effective labor force in a rapidly changing world. As class warfare seemed to loom on the horizon, Alexander James Inglis sought to protect the nation by instituting changes in the education system. establish him as the primary architect of the education system of today. By building on Inglis who influenced Ellwood P. Cubberley, education administration leader, and James B. Conan t, Harvard president became the key designer of changes enacted in
9 education during the Progressive era. He instituted an administrative and curricular hierarchy in order to create social organization during a chaotic time in American history, thus advan cing professionalism in teaching and systematizing a future workforce.
10 Chapter 1 : Formulating the Problems in American Secondary Education Educational reformers tried to shape American schools in transformation, but the y disagree d about what exactly should be implemented. Many academics felt all should be guaranteed a college preparatory high school education, while others thought secondary schools should offer a range of subjects to accommodate all types; still others fel t there should be a division between academic and terminal students (those not going on to college after high school), the latter often being judged according to ethnic, social, and economic status. One of the major thinkers in education was John Dewey. Clearly, Dewey did not intend for his words to promote the expertise movement Dewey felt that his college level students ought to be trained as experts in pedagogy and become specialists in education; 29 One finds, however, that this attribution is not exactly accurate, because his words were misdirected by social organizers of the era. John Dewey had founded his experimental University Elementary School at the University of Chicago before the turn of the century taken over by university administrators ; in addition, the university added another primary and two secondary sc hools one high school with a vocational curriculum, and the other college preparatory. The new primary school was specifically designed to be a
11 school ought to be. 30 N ot long after the administration changed the name and spirit of his school Dewey left Chicago Harper prompted Dewey to accept an appointment at Columbia University in 1904. 31 Dewey was, and is, seen a agree with what was said or done in his name and at times scolded some of his followers 32 Dewey did not like th e idea of categorizing people according to their rac e, ethnic ity intelligence, gender, or class He argued against Colgate University President sustain a democratic government. Cutten believed the tests should be used to identify the Dewey was against tests and vocational programs which slotted individuals into categories. 33 that it shall be demonstrated to the eye that there is no lower and higher, but simply 34 Dewey wanted elementary and secondary educat ors to have at their disposal the same skill s knowledge, and training as higher education. 35 Dewey felt that 36 He attempted to blend views of psychology and philosophy, and he 37 The p hilos o phy view than an integrated assemblage of empirically grounded facts and principles. It was
12 an outlook on human nature, one that depicted humans as actively striving to explore and to master their world rather than passively reacting to forces impinging upon them from 38 Dewey bemoaned the fact that household and farm related tasks were missing from the well to do lives of c ity c hildren, and he was annoyed that the atmosphere of traditional classrooms made it a school crime for one child to help another in his task. 39 D ewey felt that providing a child with the proper tools, motives, and participation 40 The active engagement of students with their materials wa classro om setting. Dewey advocated, for example, that pupils engag e in cooking as a way of learning chemistry and measurements, shop work to learn construction basics and geometry, and the fundamentals of wool carding and spinning in order to teach historical r elevance of clothing. The latter was done in conjunction with the difficult task of processing cotton; in this way, the children learned why their ancestors preferred to wear wool. These tasks are not for the sake of vocational training, but to allow the b rain and hands to work with materials thus engaging the whole person. As part of the fundamental layout for his school, actual laboratories and workshops were available to encourage utdoor activities in forests and fields. 41 Other objectives include aesthetics and exercise, 42 thus life experience. Dewey felt that if material for a child material as purely symbolic
13 developed. 43 teacher ratio was small eight or ten in a class allowing for individual attention. 44 Many have implied that just about any teaching method will students must have contributed to their success. Dewey did not believe that a student should have to sit a t a desk all day long, and he objected to cramped desks which were nailed to the floor. His ideal classroom was openly linked to other rooms to allow for interaction between students, teachers, and equipment. When setting up his classrooms, he had trouble finding suitable desks and chairs to accommodate the educational, hygienic, and artistic needs of the children. One something at which the children may work; these are al 45 Dewey wanted the students to have space in which to work, and he use d like structures, spruced up with castle lit, clean, climate controlled, well ventilate d spaces with good quality equipment and room for children to play. 46 Dewey believe d in an integrated curriculum, which to him meant incorporating practical and technical studies as a way of revitalizing and challenging traditional education. He did not b elieve in separating the vocational from the academic, and felt that incorporating social, manual, and industrial activities would help all youth in their quest to earn a living and become useful citizens. 47 Dewey grappled with the issues of the day;
14 after all, he was living in an age that extolled efficiency and expertise. He dreamed of a cohesive education which led an individual from pre primary through the university level, yet he was aware of the effect of the technical revolution on education. He did not nor did he wish for students understanding of the nature of industry and technology, a respect for the d ignity of work, 48 Yet Dewey never wished for students to be either on an academic or a vocational track. 49 He a lso felt that ethnicity. 50 The difference between Dewey and Inglis is that the former wished for students to on of the working man to be elevated in society ; while the latter wanted to train groups of students for the needs of industry 51 One can see how these vague expressions could be interpreted in many ways. Dewey believed in engaging the mind of a pupil as well as his hands, but statements of this kind could easily lead to systematized testing of collective effort which appreciated the unique qualities of an individual, others meant for good; democracy in the latter mean ing indicated rote patriotism and subjugation of the individual.
15 Many attribute modern education to Dewey, yet it was men like Inglis who used institute long lasting changes. When Dewey left Chicago, many of his asso ciates, whom he had appointed, left with him; he never again directly worked in pre collegiate education I n 1909, Charles H. Judd was appointed to educational testing. 52 Like minded educators including David Snedden, were enacting the same measures In the 1931 issue of Eugenics magazine, Snedden cast the only vote against A n ationally recognized leader in the social efficiency movement he felt that married women should not be in the workforce, even as teachers. 53 Yet long before 1931 Snedden was influencing policy. In 1916, he was the first to propose replacing a part of the traditional curriculum with vocational blocks. 54 called them, were tiny units which, for example, represented a single spelling word. The hundred peths, but in order for a student to suf ficiently learn to be a good homemaker or farmer, 200 to 500 or the ground considered, by learners of modal characteristics (as related to the activity covered) in sixty c Herbert M. 55 Snedden and Charles Prosser (another advocate of trade training), 56 Smith Hughes Act (also known as the Act for Vocational Education), which, with the major support of business groups and even
16 57 Under the United States Federal Board for Vocational Education, m illions of federal dolla rs we nt to the newly created Departments of Agriculture, Labor, Education, Commerce, and others. The B oard was to initiate reports and studies, and administer funds granted to the states to train and pay directors, teachers, and supervisors for industrial trade subjects, including home economics and agriculture. 58 Yet the school system still desperately needed an overhaul. In 1892, a team known as the Committee of Ten (officially called the Committee on Secondary School Studies), was organized by the N ational Education Association to determine the best standard curriculum. Th eirs was the first attempt to standardize curriculum across America. Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot was chair of this committee composed predominantly of educators many were college or university presidents. Their report, issued in 1893, advocated eight years of elementary education to be followed by four years of secondary education. Four separate curricula were designed for high schools: two defined as following a classical trend, and two a more contemporary track. Basic courses such as one sees today history, English, science, foreign languages ( language was included in only three out of the four new disciplines), and mathematics were included. 59 In essence, t hese new tracks the Classical, the Latin Scientific, the Modern Language, and the English facilitated college matriculation with no vocational training given to the student not planning to attend college. Having had the benefit of four years of weighty study from high school coursework it was thought that the brain of the terminal student
17 fewer subjects would be studied over a longer time period. 60 Th is system had two a dvantages over future plans : (1) all students were still offered mainly traditional, academic lessons, and (2) these students were tracked, but not tested. This report was the first successful nationwide change proposed by centralized education reformers As it was implemented it began to shift power from local governing bodies to state and national school boards and paved the way for more reforms to come. Education in the U.S. was in the process of change. By 1900, nearly all states in the North and We st had compulsory school attendance laws, whereas in 1871, this rule existed in only six states. 61 Not only did this group introduce standardized curricula and issue a decree that all should attend high school, the Committee of Ten also helped standardize admissions requirements for colleges and universities; moreover, the group should assist in training teachers [and] u niversities should estab lish training courses [for to instituting said changes. One of the members who served on the Latin panel was Julius Sachs, head of the Collegiate Institute for Boys in New Yo rk City He was professors. 62 Issued by the Department of the Interior Bureau of Education in 1918 was the nother National Education Association report ). P urportedly an extension of the Co report and c ontrary to its insistence otherwise, the c conclusion was that very few we re worthy of advanced education. There was a distinct shift from the idea of universal education ( which included abstract thinking ) to a moralistic, separatist curriculum. Inglis was a
18 member of this committee, and his independent work, The Principles of Secondary Education came out in the same year. The committee recommended that high schools focus on: health command of fundamenta l processes worthy home membership vocation civic education worthy use of leisure and ethical character. These would come It behooves one to understand the definitions and ramifications of these princip les 63 Health meant literally through effective physical activity and proper health instruction which involved training in sanitation and hygiene, and the provision of proper equipment and safe environs. Command of fundamental processes encompassed oral and written instruction, mathematics, and reading English language was emphasized to inculcate patriotism. Worthy home membership housekeeping for girls, even for those planning to enter college or the workforce. It was believed that wome n would eventually become homemakers even if they expressed other goals. The committee recognized that many women wanted to pursue the professions, but saw the necessity of keeping family pursuits as their main goal women had the important job of caring for children and keeping the home for working men. Boys were encouraged to appreciate a well run home, and to understand fundamentals of household budgeting, food values, and sanitation; mainly, the duty of boys was to be in the workforce. This delineatio n of gender was to have dire consequences for women. Vocational education enlightened student s as to their own aptitudes and capacities, and was emphatically recommended, hence the onslaught of excessive testing and measuring.
19 64 Civic education require encouraged volunteerism. Worthy use of leisure fostered extra curricular interests, and recreational activities organized by the school. thical character was listed as a paramount objective of secondary education. The report conclude s that these ideas must not be presented in a single ethics course, but integrated into the curriculum. 65 66 Of utmost importance to the commission appeared to be keeping girls and boys in prescribed roles, and preaching values, yet the overriding goal was to bring all secondary schools in line with the main goal of reorganization i.e., standardization. In addition to this report, Inglis also directed a separate account issued called ch focuse d exclusively on ethics in the reorganization of secondary education. Specifically, it call ed for teaching students to voluntar ily participate in group activities for the sake of the common good. This imperative was to be taught in each subject in of democracy. This treatise encompasses a full range of ethical notions, including sex hygiene as part of physical education (as long as it is not too prominently featured in front of the youth), and the stressing trained, moral, scientifically adept homemaker. 67 Of particular note wa s the idea that vocational training wa s a new place to learn promptness, a sense of responsibility, self
20 we re noted. The idea of seeing both the employer and employee wa s presented, along with the importance of staying in school as long as possible due to the demand for educated persons who would replac e of yore In speeches to student s who w ould be future laborer s teachers we re specialized process in the factory with the opportunity offered to the employer or interested in the point that 68 The strategists chose to prepare the bulk of American students for their roles in life by way of inspirational rhetoric arise as to why this extreme intensification occurred. Surely, the First World War played a part. The war was influential in many ways, including c ombining patriotic duty with work, and encouraging militarization of public schooling. Although the situation in Europe in 1915 helped to boost the United States economy, war mobilization caused widespread rationing in the following years. In 1918 and 1919 an epidemic of influenza killed 500,000 Americans. When the war ended, extensive strikes had partially paralyzed the economy, regulations were being instituted in the workplace, and rioters were in the streets. 69 brought home to us the failure of our individualistic methods to solve the problems which no monopoly of autocratic governments, but th at self governing democracies too can 70
21 The changes between the 1892 report and the one in 1918 are also an acknowledgement of a new and different high school demographic, one modified by the entrance of large numbers of pupils of widely varying capacities, wa s a primary cause for reworking secondary education, and include d the introduction of aptitude and intelligence testing. Another cause wa use of machinery in place of manua withdrawal of the father and sometimes the mother from home occupations to the factory he authors also mention ed 71 There w ere many more children to be educated going from a half million in 1900 to nearl 72 But fewer were graduating: third of the pupils who enter the first year of elementary school reach the four year high school, and only about one in nine is Because the new educational psycholog y emphasized a reworking of necessary along with o traditional scientific investigation in study. 73 Vocational guidance led not only to testing, but to ability grouping and differentiated curriculum.
22 One of the main reasons given for the reorganization wa s combating problems, which ar o se in order to ful fill duties as a citizen, a worker, and as an independent person with more leisure time. The authors state d the result o higher edu cation. In fact, the result was standardization for college entrance among even specialty schools, such as law and medical schools. 74 Recommendations by the framers include d not only increasing the number of teachers in the school, but the in stitutio n of directors who would be in charge of certain principles. Working under the principal would be Curriculum directors, a Citizenship director, and a director of Preparation for Leisure. The latter w as to make sure pupils develop ed proper outside interests in musical organizations, art classes and clubs, and the school library, so that they w ould have correct interests in later life. The Health director was instructed to outside of school, and devise means for gaining the cooperation of parents in the proper 75 The authors state d the leading reason for the reorganizati democracy depends in no small measure upon adequate provision for specialization in 76 It was felt that students must be aided in determining the quite literal course their lives would take, so vocational and educational goals we re to be selected
23 would separate the vocational programs from the educational elite P rograms such as agricultural, business, clerical, industrial, fine arts, and household arts curricul a were added To accommodate various types of students, subjects were to vary widely. For instance, it was thought that chemistry should be vocational or domestic in nature, thus [ emphasiz ing] different phases in agricultural, commercial, in dustrial, and household and even for slow or rapid progress by pupils. 77 Further, it was recommended that ork of pupils 78 It was important to society to keep children attending through high school in order to socialize them properly. 79 encouraged to remain in school to the age of fruition. 80 [which] should contribute definitely to unification [and] the curriculum variables to reaching, especially psychological ly The way to unification wa 81 Friendships formed between pupils with w idely differing goals would learn what they have in common, and this bonding w ould, in turn, help prepare for life in a democracy. This wa s more than 82 This wa s a good way to prevent class warfare. In fact, the authors even issued a warning:
24 It is only as the pupil sees his v ocation in relation to his citizenship and his citizenship in the light of his vocation that he will be prepared for effective membership in an industrial democracy. Consequently, this commission enters its protest against any and all plans, however wel l intentioned, which are in danger of divorcing vocation and social civic education. It stands squarely for the infusion of vocation with the spirit of service and for the vitalization of culture by 83 Certainly, there was cause for instituting these significant changes in the education of the United States. The country was in desperate need for organization during the Progressive era. The children of immigrant workers in overcrowded cities provided the impetus for socialization in schools. Workers were needed to fill jobs defense sector. There was a growing fear of instability among the people as two of the class order. These key moments changed education forever, but perhaps no report or 1940s and early 1950s. 84 aims and wrote them down on tests. Practically all statements of aims that appeared as 85 In addition to Ing more thorough blueprint for socialization by the high school came in his Principles of Secondary Education The substantive contribution this book made to administrative education continue 86 Identifying the problems of, and
25 implementing changes to, a disconnected system of schools in order to establish a single, reliable method of indoctrination was a challenge which Inglis handled remarkably well. T hrough his guiding work secondary education bec a me the managerial institution it remains.
26 Chapter 2 : Transformation of Secondary Education in the United States E.L. Thorndike Th is quot ation sugg ests the role measurement played in Progressive era education. Inglis and his contemporaries (Thorndike, Yerkes, Terman, etc.) devoted themselves to charting potential performances by testing and calculating aspects of students and their lives. In order to replace existing education with a standardized, scientifically organized system, Inglis worked to establish the organized and effective Prussian school system in America, particularly in secondary schools. 87 Professionalism dictated a newly enforced hierarchy as efficiency was instituted in education. Michel Foucault the twentieth century philosopher, developed a way of understanding the means by which people create social power through control of discourses knowledge, an instrument of power, const analysis helps to explain the idea of developing in the late nineteenth century, as each discipline sought definition. What are often accepted as truisms in modern human sciences (social, psychological, and biological) are merely expressions of ethical or political values of various interested social groups. Foucault examine s the histories of mental illness, modern medicine, and the prison syst em from th e perspective of language, knowledge, and power His method of
27 analysis and social critique is also beneficial when seeking to understand another disciplinary system, namely education. C ontrol of learning by professional educators makes education an object of purportedly scientific disciplines, which at once dominate subjects and extend a form of controlled knowledge. In Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (1975), Foucault argues that punishment is the model of control for society, and that this model extends from the prison to hospitals, factories, and schools. Power, he argues, comes from rhetoric and imposing precise norms H e examines the three primary techniques of control : the examination, normalizing judgment, and hierarchical obs ervation. Reporting of deviant behavior is in place from lower to higher levels in an attempt to normalize standards. 88 These methods of control, standardization, and power exist in academic institutions, e.g., national standards for admission to and con tinuance in educational programs, and certification and training for teachers. Foucault offers an analytical angle on Taylor and Inglis. He unveiled, many years after the fact, the primary control techniques put in place during the Progressive period which gave the school system its power. As the nineteenth century was coming to a close, Foucault explains in Power there came a shift in punishment from punishing what an individual did to being alert to what an individual might do. This gave rise to the co ntrol of future behavior of control and constant supervision. 89 The work of Frederick Winslow Taylor is a fine example of using power over subordinates to effect change.
28 Frederick Winslow Taylor wished to shape the American public by implementing time/motion studies to many area s of life including the school H is need to observe, test, norm Principles of Scientific Management published in 1911, was seminal to the theory and Shop Management (1903), analyzed his research at the Midvale Steel Company. Taylor began work there as an ordinary employee, but when he was promoted to s upervisor he started pressuring a clearly defined task, (2) The worker must have the correct conditions and tools with which to complete the task, (3) High pay for suc cessful completion of task, and (4) Penalty for not completing task. 90 To supplement and support these basic rules, Taylor enact ed strong measuring and supervisory devices to keep workers on target T hose who did not work the hardest were discarded. This w as easy to do, because one of the net effects of revamping the factory was making workers expendable. Any worker could fill any other cogs in the process of production. The are : well as from workers by creating a new central core: the planning department. This department wa s not to be tampered with by employer or worker, and it was in charge of all decisions in the factory. The authority of this centralized structure was predicated on its scientific T he old chain of command system was no longer adequate, in part because it allowed
29 room for undirected choice. a foreman did not assign tasks or make hiring and firing decisions d T raditional 91 Taylor attempted to enforce a common work ethic as well. He thought that men should be trained i work would one find well being and morality. 92 An example of Taylorism as applied to morality took place in the southwest coal towns. In an effort to defend against 93 Sociological D 94 Such measures extended scientific management into the moral and educational spheres. Examining the relation ship between and those of Inglis is imperative to understanding education and its organization, because bureaucracy came to rule the school system. As Samuel Haber explains: Scientific management prescribed the centralization of authority and the close supervision of a ll tasks. As applied to the schools, it increased the authority of the administrator and limited the freedom of the teacher. In the midst of the efficiency craze, the new profession of public school administrator took form. 95
30 Standardized operating proc edures were dictated from above with no input from teacher become the school superintendent, a central authority figure who se job it was to ma k e workers effective and consi sten t all of human activity came to pass in education: The schedule of the school day was planned; curriculum was streamlined and categorized; students were measured and segregated; standardized testing was implemented; and supervision became the norm. Educators were giving a report on university notes, and invented a new administrative efficiency. 96 Inglis was to the schools what Taylor was to the factory he created the professional discourse for education. For unknown reasons, early path had abruptly change d direction. Inglis began as a classicist who had written Latin textbooks. He entered Teachers College at Columbia University to advance his teaching credentials in ancient and modern languages; however, he emerged repudiating academic traditionalism. Ingl work, Principles of Secondary Education written in 1918 and edited by Ellwood P. Cubberley, advanced the same three approaches Taylor instituted homogenization, centralization, and sorting as methods which would ensure st udents prepar ation efficient participation in social Many important functions are therein involved, e.g., means of adjusting the social cohesion among groups of individuals, the adjustment of individual differences to the differentiated needs of society, control of the factor of
31 selection in secondary education, educational, moral, social, and vocational guidance. 97 Presented with an increasingly heterogeneous population, Inglis realized the importance of a cohesive mentality among students who would become workers. Inglis amassed a large amount of scientific data in order to assist the schools in implementing homogenization. Th is f unction aimed to integrate students into the social system. One facet involved addressing the affects of puberty on student behavior. The work of G. Stanley Hall and others was used to investigate how the mental traits of adolescent students affected their training. Another study addressed the impact of fathers. 98 vocations. 99 Laggard s in Our Schools to examine the many reasons for retardation (a child who lags behind the average in grade level) and acceleration (a child who excels above the average in grade level), and the ways in which these variations affected high school graduation rates. 100 In addition to age, other factors, like home conditions poverty, students beginning their education late, etc. were examined for graduate). 101 Inglis state pupil becomes the stronger is the force of those economic and social influences which compulsory attend ance age of fourteen was reached, but then left in great numbers. 102 These studies were important in defining student populations.
32 I n regard to homogenization, Inglis stated that changes in the home made the school responsible for inculcating moral social behavior I n many cases, the parents were away from home at jobs; urban settings made family activities more difficult; there was more divorce; religion was no longer a big part of family life; there were differences between parents born in another country and the children born in America; children did saving devices; often parents themselves were not well educated. 103 Therefore, it became part of the domain of the education system to teach morality an d social responsibility to the collective. mindedness, of unity in thought, habits, ideals, and standards, requisite for social cohesion and social larly in a democracy; this was necessary due to heterogeneity of the opulation, increased common knowledge, diversity of industrial jobs and living conditions, and the fact that formerly integrating agencies, like the churches, had a diminished role. 104 I nglis felt that there were certain reasons why institutions did not have as much influence as in years past. For instance, many churches had split into different denominations, and there was a separation between church and state. 105 As people began finding income in places other than their hometowns, the church was no longer the center of the community. Moreover, people did not say prayers at home as they once did, and the influence of clergy was no longer as pronounced. The school, therefore, becam e the leader in teaching communal ideas of social conscience and social responsibility, so that this would be habitual to all. 106 Common ideals were needed to unite the people in this new industrial democracy. 107
33 The necessity to unite pupils led to curriculum reform. The school curriculum according to Inglis, ought to encourage the four efficiencies: physical mental, moral and aesthetic 108 ination of useless material, reduction of review work, and the inclusion of material more suited to the lives the children will eventually lead. 109 There are three major points for creating unified, efficient members of American society: (a) an ability eff ectively to execute the formal and informal duties of citizenship and carry the burden of political responsibility; (b) an ability to produce and labor leisure time and act in a n individual capacity without interfering with the interests of others or of society at large. 110 It is these which became the guiding force behind the changing curricula, organization, and philosophy of the public school system, as civic minded, socio mor al training was used to enforce homogenization. Inglis stressed that homogenization was to be dictated by a central authority. Centralization in curricula and hierarchical control came in fashioning the American system after the Prussian. While this syste m was more rigid, the graduates of its higher schools were considered as advanced as sophomores in American colleges. 111 Inglis 112 When speaking of the Prussian and French systems, the features Inglis highlighted were the division of classes, and centralized State educational administration and control. 113 In addition, he admired the idea of separate vocational education. 114 Inglis addressed the Board of Education in En
34 that this meth od had been quite successful in the United States. 115 Thus, this new control provided not only for solidarity and social cohesion in students, but also enforce d national standards. Inglis felt that, in order to maintain social solidarity and bring homogene ity to the heterogeneous population, students had to be sorted according to ability. This would ifferentiated 116 The new vocational track trained the non professional classes to play their part in the economy, and vocational guidance would be there to assist them. 117 In addition, educat ion had to guarantee the finest education for those few who would continue into higher institutions. the attainment of the ultimate aims of education may be extende d over a longer period of 118 These students theoretically the best and the brightest needed more extensive and intensive preparation for social civic activities. They were to have no vocational activities. For th 119 Inglis included a report which described the Prussian s ystem: Boys intended for the learned professions are educated in the classical courses of period in the study of science High
35 enter upon professional study; it should prepare another group for active business life. 120 ideol ogy was implemented in American high schools. Demands would become more rigorous as education proceeded, and capacities of individuals had to be great enough for a productive return on investment. The Prussian ment allowed to continue into higher education. It was, therefore, the foremost duty of secondary schools to weed out those not academically gifted, in order to further assist those for whom the higher stages of education were created. Inglis was not for assisting those not well suited for the task of higher education. 121 There was to be selection first by elimination, then by differentiation. 122 Inglis explained: It is clear that, as education demands more and more capacity, with certain individuals the limits of their capacity are reached, or, what is more common, the point is approached at which given possible amounts of training produce results incommensurate with the amount of teaching and learning energy expended, and the point of diminishing returns is reached. No amount of training can ever equalize the abiliti es of individuals whose native capacities differ to any marked degree. 123 Efficiency could only be achieved through categorization, since output had to outweigh input. Inglis felt that the efficiency of the system relied upon not wasting training time and cost on those from whom a return on investment would not be guaranteed.
36 Therefore, Inglis charted individual differences among secondary school pupils, indicating that there might be a difference between races. 124 He quoted M. J. Mayo, and introduced the customs) m ight have been responsible for the differences in scores between native whites and African Americans. 125 gave a breakdown of years and countries from which immigrant parents of the new children arrived, and discussed the problems with second generation students who had no 126 thinking proce abilities between the two groups. 127 He also compared differences in lung function and head circumference. 128 ation 129 Inglis mentioned that in the Prussian school system, there were three nearly separate divisions: 1) schools for girls and boys of the common d 3) higher schools for upper class girls. 130 Although girls were provided education in Prussia arts or becoming an elementary school teacher. 131 The sorting of females into similar fields was encouraged in the United States as well, since every woman will be involved with home and family. 132 This was at once an attempt to make females more efficient in the home, but also a way to provide so cio moral education to all.
37 Intelligence testing was a subset of sorting. In presenting an individual with a full range of activities and guidance, secondary education had to test, diagnose, and direct in the narrower sense, moral, social, physical, and vocational guidance. 133 In 1921, Inglis Intelligence Quotient Values was published. It is a tiny book filled with intelligence quotients of youth, and divided into mental ages (three years and no months to seventeen years and no months) and chronological ag es (five years and no months to sixteen years g custom of converting scores in achievement tests into educational ages and dividing these by the chronological ages of the pupils to find 134 Inglis suggested that all students be given the chance to test However, this encourag develop; rather, it was a way to engage the bulk of students in vocational subjects. In an effort to bring order out of disorder, Alexander James Inglis instituted extreme and long las ting changes to secondary education that affected curricula and teacher training; in addition, his new school system, with its centralizing authority, homogenized and sorted students, and lengthened the mandatory time in spent in school. Michel Foucault ex plain s how this era enforced new rules of reward, punishment, and control, as Frederick Winslow Taylor and others compelled obedience to a systemization and forced observance of workers and students. In creating this bureaucratic system, a disparate popula tion was organized: those who would become leaders, and the multitude
38 aided in spreading this constitution to national heights. Inglis influenced the influential and, u nder the guise of policies to improve the lives of children, instituted the ideals of efficiency, expertise, and exclusi vity in schools. The disparity between students placed on an academic track and those forced into vocational coursework grows wider than ever ; teachers have less and less control over classrooms, and parents have reduced authority over decisions affecting their children. Inglis and other social organizers of the time period redesigned the classroom, created school administration, and trans formed Progressive era education into the Taylorite institution it remains today. As Foucault described it the age of conflict expanded control over institutions through normalizing judgment s hierarchical observation s and examination s Inglis approved of the Taylorite need to intensely examine and adapt the school system in order to make future citizens malleable enough to fit specific industrial needs. Gilded Age and Progressive era difficulties called for stern measures that could br ing order to chaos, and the high school was the ideal place to enact widespread change. Although Inglis died in 1924 at age forty four, others were waiting to institute n Bryant Conant, both of whom worked with Inglis, 135 extended his thinking for decades and advanced homogenization, centralization, and sorting. No other educator has had m ore of an effect on education than Alexander James Inglis. For what they conceived to
39 be the betterment of society, Inglis, and the like minded men who followed in his footsteps, organized and standardized secondary education.
40 Chapter 3 : Legacy of Alexander James Inglis Patterson Cubberley and James Bryant Conant, continued to spread the word. Both men numero us speeches and books led the way in curriculum reform, teacher training, and plans might not have continued. Ellwood Patterson Cubberley was trained at Columbia University, taught at Harvard, became Superintendent of Schools in San Diego, California, and was Dean of the School of Education at Stanford University from 1917 until 1933. Cubberley wrote The History of Education Salient Dates in American Education 1635 1964 Readings in Public Education in the United States Further, Cubberley wrote Changing Conceptions of Education (1909), Public School Administration (1916), and Public Education in the United States (1919). According to the memorial Stanford University gave for him he wrote twenty volumes which cover every aspect of the history of education and school 136 He served Stanford
41 in various capacities for thirty five years, with two sabbatical appointments as Col umbia and Harvard faculty. 137 In his first year at Stanford alone, Cubberley t raveled over seven thousand miles to deliver over seventy lectures touting the importance of higher education for educators 138 He was instrumental in developing the profession of school administration, and he believed in using measurements, tests, and scientific accuracy as a presented a case for the reconstruction of the education system, and he created textbooks for education while working with Inglis. He felt that the interests of the nation and o f o rganized labor should determine the character of education Cubberley was aware of the need to homogeniz e a varied population. He wrote that the school system was asked to help assimilate the newcomers, since many did not and many additions and concessions had to be mad e, especially to the Germans, to get 139 ty schools will soon be forced to give up the exceedingly democratic idea that all are equal, and that our society is devoid of classes, as a few cities have already in large part done, and to begin a specialization of educational effort along many new lin es in an attempt better to adapt the school to the 140
42 In Changing Concepts of Education Cubberley gave a summarized history of ucation 141 He explained why the school system had to change to accommodate energy to some more definite purpose, to train the eye and the hand for direct and useful 142 143 He political, 144 145 Cubberley reinforce d idea of the school as training ground, yet expanded of an increasing centralization of management which will ultimately lead to greater ay will in time be changed into 146 of the child is likely to change. Each year the child is coming to belong more and more to will not be accepted much longer by society. Our future welfare is too thoroughly in the keeping of the child to perm 147 Thus, Cubberley wanted to lengthen the period of childhood dependence by removing children from the workforce and placing them in school.
43 In Public School Administration Lengthening of assert authority both to regulate types of schools and to force compliance of school exposed the interests behind this: It has become desirable that children should not engage in productive labor. On the contrary, all recent thinking and legislation have been opposed to their doing so. Both the interests of organized labor and the interests of the Nation have set 148 Accordingly children were removed from the workforce and placed in the school system, just as Inglis had planned, despite attempts to thwart compulsory attendan ce. over the next forty years in the work of James Bryant Conant, leader of the next generation of efficiency advocates. The highly notable speeches and books, thus ensur ing th at the transformation begun by Inglis survived and thrived amidst various challenges during the Cold War F ederal funding was increasingly used to expand vocational training. he was an early proponent of standardized testing, including the S.A.T., and he was on the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. In tribute to his friend and colleague, he instituted the Inglis Lectureship at Harva 149
44 e amount of time to studying the high school, putting aside his work as a chemist, college president, and ambassador to Germany to quietly work full time on the issue of secondary education. The importance of guiding adolescents soon to be in the workforce or military was taken seriously by the changed between 1905 and 1930. This translates as th e removal of traditional courses like Latin, with the replacement of vocational education. 150 those who satisfactory programs for those whose vocations will depend on their subsequent 151 Thus, the division between differently able d students was maintained. Conant wrote The American High School Today: A First Report to Interested Citizens in 1959. Inside the front cover are one recommendations for 152 These can be categorized into the same three achieved his ambitious plan for middle, secondary, and higher education Conant guarded lan for education. Conant discussed modern secondary education in terms of evaluating and improving the comprehensive high school ( i.e., a secondary school which houses both traditional and vocational education under one roof
45 and under one administration f or nearly all children of high school age in one neighborhood or town). 153 Comprehensive high schools must provide for a diverse population; therefore, Conant spelled out numerous mechanisms for sorting and tracking students. He recommended individualized programs to differentiate students of vocational, commercial, and academic interest. 154 He paid close attention to vocational and trade training, including providing diversity in these programs. 155 Conant advised subject by subject ability grouping, 156 and d iscouraged ranking pupils according to their grades in all subjects. 157 He charted separately the academic subjects of interest to boys and girls, 158 and created career commitment diagrams showing the differences between the plans of girls and those of boys; 159 hence, the programs for girls would be different than those for boys. 160 Science courses were to be given in three sections grouped by ability. 161 There ought to be special consideration for very slow readers these students, Conant advised, should be gi ven remedial help, but also placed in very simple vocational work apart from the regular vocational programs. 162 Finally, there would be special, but separate 163 For gifted students, there would be academic honors lists. Conant also advised speed reading for the college bound, and he saw the benefit in providing tuition free summer programs and materials for advanced students. 164 Other special electives and programs were instituted for the a cademically gifted, like Advanced Placement Programs (which work under the aegis of the College Entrance Examination Board). 165 The yearly inventory of the academically gifted was to be given to the school board through the
46 superintendent. 166 Finally, there would be prerequisites for advanced academic courses. 167 In order to enhance similarity and cohesion, a required core curriculum was instituted for all, with emphasis on four years of English. 168 English composition was specifically required. S tudents were to write a theme per week. 169 Homerooms were to purpose of developing an understanding between students of different levels of academic ability and vocational goals ; [they w ere to be] o rganized in such a way as to make them 170 Conant also recommended a twelfth grade social studies course that concentrated on economics, and were conducted in heterogeneous classes specifically to 171 Perhaps 1959, like four decades earlier, called for centrally enforced rules mandating homogeneity in terms of democratic thinking, in order to avoid class conflict. Conan t concentrated on both the status and specific aspects of the high school in terms of a central authority: documenting comprehensive enrollment numbers in all states; 172 recording the percentage of students in grades nine and ten who were academically talen ted; 173 analyzing enrollment numbers in federally funded vocational programs; 174 appo inting guidance counselors who supplement ed parental advice, beginning on the elementary level. 175 He recommended that all schools have at least six periods per day. 176 Upon g raduation, in addition to a diploma, a record of courses taken, in the form of a card, should be carried in a wallet for future employers. 177
47 F D iversified programs f urthered the development of marketable skills Conant s uggested federal money be made available for programs which provided advisory committees for each trade, composed of labor and management representatives. 178 The new guiding legislation for the schools was the George 179 Once again, federal funds were given to encourage student enrollment in vocational education as an alt ernative to academic education, which allowed training in specialized programs in separate schools for all comprehensive schools. 180 The launching of Sputnik by the U .S.S.R. in 1959 changed everything, and the sig nificance of the federal response to Soviet technological advances cannot be overstated. Not only did the national curriculum change in science, math, and foreign languages, federal monies went to the purchase of new materials and teacher training. In addition to the National Defense Education Act provisions, federal programs such as the National Science Foundation, the Physical Science Study Committee, the School Mathematics Study Group, the American Institute of Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Group, and the Chemical Education Material Study Group were given huge grants to advance these subjects, and especially those directed at the identification and encouragement of the more capable required to put more focus on the ac ademically gifted pupils 181
48 Conant stimulated these changes, and initiated others, including reducing the number of school districts from 40,520 to fewer than 18,000; in addition, he closed small high schools that could not offer quality vocational and academic programs. Conant established the Educational Testing Service and advanced placement in an effort to channel the academically gifted into technological universities. According to Conant that the ideological struggles with communism in the next fifty yea rs will be won on the 182 in 1959 as a response to the Soviet space program success in 1957. The Soviet launch of S putnik, the first satellite, sent waves of panic across the United States. Not only did the Soviet Union seem superior technologically, but fears mounted that such superiority ore an illusion than a reality, but this conflict resulted in the proliferation of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), the 1958 creation of NASA, and the Congressional enactment al grants training in mathematics, science, and modern languages, as well as student loans and 183 At a time when Sputnik sparked criticism of American educators, and the education system in general, Conant successful ly counteract ed public pressure and used the situation to further solidify administrative and curricular changes in education. When the Russians had success in their rocket program, some Americans began to mistrust the school system, think the compulsory school age shou ld again be lowered, and wish a
49 reversal in the social change which had occurred. 184 Conant reminded critics of the current school system (1959) to look at the employment picture, and the ways in which 185 In fact, he a out the benefit of beginning vocational education even earlier, in grades seven and eight, thus decreasing required subjects and increasing electives, including foreign languages; moreover, he used the controversy to encour age the necessary separation between students studying commercial arithmetic and those learning algebra in the seventh and eighth grades. 186 from traditional family guardians allowing guidance counselors to protect students from He e still widely held belief that students must be segregated according to their abilities despite parental wishes; the latter, a call to acceptance of central power. Policy was also to be used against parents who wished to take their children on extended va cations which exceed the time period of regular school holidays. 187 As with Inglis and Cubberley before him, Conant believed that decisions regarding children should be out of parental hands. In his 1959 book, The Child, t he Parent, and the State their schools. This is true in most communities and is a consequence of our system of local control through elected school boards whose members are bound to listen to the pleas of outraged fat 188
50 189 Conant complained that, has been the increasi ng demands of parents in certain suburbs for a purely academic 190 Yet this went against the idea that only a small percentage w ere to be given that advantage in the secondary public school system. Conant saw the logic of the Soviet system, and he quoted Khrushchev, who demanded that the interests of the state override those of the parents. 191 In the name of the future welfare of the state, Khrushchev said, there will be no objections of parents to the 192 Despite his early death at age forty decades, and was considered the blueprint for high school development. But his influence did not stop there, beca use Inglis worked with Ellwood Patterson Cubberley and James Bryant Conant whose The importance of continuing rk was to make secondary education more effective for the whole population The se men were advocates of functionality in secondary schools with the same end in mind as the previous generation, that of disciplining and training pre selected workers, while preparing the minority of students for college.
51 Conclusi on The Progressive era enacted changes in many institutions in the United States, but the reworking of secondary education enforced a hierarchy on the general population like no other. The shift in economic ideology from nineteenth century laissez faire to a twentieth century increase in government control created leaders in the education system like Alexander James Inglis who became a key figure in ensuring that Progressive ideals were actuated and disseminated to the public. Michel Foucault c oncentrate s on how, during this time period, the professions created themselves through rhetoric and control, and illustrate s how the field of education was no exception. He explain ed how homogenization, centralization, and sorting were used by leaders to form a common ground for students of different classes while, at the same time, creating a cohesive administrative system. Foucault unfolds this larger perspective, allowing historians to view the leaders of education in the same light as other social organizers of the era. time studies and systemization of the factory and other institutions fit well with the testing and measurement of social psychologists of the time period. It was Taylor who suggested streamlining and categ orizing the workforce according to ability. He also created a centralized system from which orders would be
52 suggestions for the study of work and workers became the foun dation of modern management. the greater good was transformed by Inglis and his associates into the list of duties a high school w as to impose upon its students: a sense of citizenship; a work ethic; and leisure time spent in a productive fashion. These educational goals, once activated, forged a compliant citizenship thus creating order out of disorder. Students of various backgrounds were a challenge to an educational system which was not standardized Through Inglis, a new model was implemented which emphasized homogenization, centralization, and the sorting of immigrant and native children. Th ese policies were not only put in place to acquaint the new students with what was expected of them as Americans, but also to encourage camaraderie between the students who would become managers and those who would be come line workers. It was t hought that placement in the workforce; hence, society would flow in a more logical and less conflicted way. Another important piece of the new system came in arranging a comprehensiv e, singular minded network of school systems which held to the same standards. his Principles of Secondary Education worked in tandem with Ellwood Patterson Cubberley Cubberley fashioned extensive administrative manuals to establish a longer high school stay He
53 worked tirelessly, writing books and delivering speeches, trying to convince educators to further their training, a nd make managerial and curricular changes His work was continu ed into future decades by Harvard president James Bryant Conant who revisited secondary education, and extended the same recommendations that Inglis had before him. A new generation of American school children was to be affected through his devotion to br inging Prussian efficiency and control to American schools Like Inglis and Cubberley, Conant wrote several books regarding the importance of state controlled schools, and suggest ed that students be relegated by plans laid out for them by the state, rather than by their parents. As the institutional structure of these educational ideas w ere embedded the distance between well intentioned words and bureaucratic disregard for unfit students widened. As American education gained definition, Inglis helped to standardize it; thus, a hierarchical structure was put in place under the guise of helping each high school student live up to their potential in fields selected for them by train ed guidance counselors. Th rough testing, th e newly structured secondary schools directed and marginalized students according to their perceived abilit ies Inglis radically changed American education, and his influence is still felt. Central control throug h identical s chool boards, mandatory teacher certification, and required curricula has been the model of education since his time. The most notable result of his work is channeling purportedly unfit students away from the opportunities which only advanced education provides. In his aim to improve society, regulating and standardizing measures may have been necessary during the chaos of the Progressive era,
54 but the net effect of such changes left a legacy of class ethnic, racial, and gender division s which have left the United States with a system which categorizes rather than celebrates the individual.
55 Notes: 1 William G. Wraga. Progressive Pioneer: Alexander James Inglis (1879 1924) and American Secondary Education (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 2007), cover notes. 2 Alexander James Inglis. Principles of Secondary Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin C ompany, 1918), 719. 3 Robert H. Wiebe. The Search for Order 1877 1920 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1967), preface. 4 Ibid. preface. 5 Glenn Porter. The Rise of Big Business 1860 1920 (Wheeling IL: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 2006), preface. 6 For further information on the political, economic, and cultural aspects of the period consult: Richard Hofstadter The Age of Reform (1955) and Social Darwinism in American Thought 1860 1915 (1944) Progressive Historians (1985) and Great Issues in American History from Reconstruction to the Present Day, 1846 1969 (1969) ; Richard L. McCormick Progressivism (coauthored with Arthur S. Link, 1983) and The Party Period and Public Policy: American Politics from the Age of Jackson to the P rogressive Era (1986); and Peter Filene American Views of Soviet Russia 1917 1965 (1968). 7 G eorge Brown Tindall and David Emory Shi. America: A Narrative History Brief (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2007), v. II 523 525. 8 Porter. The Rise of Big Business 106. 9 Ibid., 111. 10 Tindall and Shi. America v. II 523. 11 Ibid., 645. 12 Alice Boardman Smuts. Science in the Service of Children 1893 1935 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), 33. 13 Tindall and Shi. America 525. 14 Ibid., v. II, 645. 15 Ibid., v. II 524 525. 16 Jacob A. Riis. How the Other Half Lives (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1971). 17 April 10, 2010. http://anthro.palomar.edu combination of traits t 18 Daniel J. Kevles. In the Name of Eugenics (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995) preface. 19 Smuts. Science 33. 20 Steven Selden. Inheriting Shame: The Story of Eugenics and Racism in America ( New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1999), 40 41. 21 Ibid., 43. According to Smuts, Cattell worked with Galton developing mental te sts, which were replaced the intelligence scale for use in testing mentally retarded children (William Healy used it on juvenile delinquents); Term Smuts, 44. Selden explains that Dewey was decidedly against eugenics, and he did not believe in published on social policy and biological science regarding the discredited theory of acquired 22 Smuts. Science 34 36. 23 Porter. The Rise of Big Business 1 3.
56 24 Michael McGerr. A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America 1870 1920 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 62. 25 Ibid., 72. 26 http://etcweb.princeton.edu/CampusWWW?Companion/wilson_woodrow.html 27 Ibid. 28 McGerr. A Fierce Discontent 111. 29 http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890/dewey/dewey.html 30 John Dewey. The School and Society and The Child and the Curriculum (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990), xviii. 31 Herbert M. Kliebard. The Struggle for the American Curriculum 1893 1958 (New York: Routledge Falmer, 2004), 72 73. 32 Edward A. Krug. Salient Dates in American Education 16 35 1964 (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1966), 124. 33 Selden. Inheriting Shame 114 116. 34 McGerr. A Fierce Discontent 237. 35 Dewey. The School and Society 177. 36 http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890/dewey/dewey.html 37 Ibid. 38 Dewey. The School and Society introduction. 39 Ibid., 16. 40 Ibid., 112 113. 41 Ibid., 35. 42 Ibid., 170. 43 Ibid., 202 204. 44 Ibid., 169. 45 Ibid., 31. 46 Arthur G. Wirth. John Dewey as Educator: His Design for Work in Education (1894 1904) (Lanham: University of America Press, 1989), 39 40. 47 Ibid., 227. 48 Ibid., 230 231. 49 Ibid., 228. 50 Selden. Inheriting Shame 114. 51 Dewey. Th e School and Society xix. 52 Wirth. John Dewey as Educator 223. 53 Selden. Inheriting Shame 48. 54 Kliebard The Struggle 133. 55 Ibid., 95 96. 56 Ibid., 124. 57 Krug. Salient Dates 111 113. 58 Ibid., 113 114. 59 http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/neacom10.html 60 http://www.personal.kent.edu/~whelton/cd007 .html 61 Wiebe. The Search for Order 119. 62 http://www.archive.org 63 ry: Seven Cardinal Principles of http://www.oise.utoronto.ca.html
57 64 The idea of vocation once meant a personal calling f ed to level 65 http://www.oise.utoronto.ca. html 66 http://www.archive.org ., 7. 67 http://www.archive.org 68 Ibid. 69 Tindall and Shi. America v. II, 644 645. 70 http://www.archive.org 71 http://www.archive.org ., 6. 72 Krug. Salient Dates 117. 73 http://www.archive.org ., 6. 74 Ibid., 4 5. 75 Ibid., 19. 76 Ibid., 14. 77 Ibid., 15. 78 Ibid., 12. 79 Ibid., 12. 80 Ibid., 20. 81 Ibid., 16. 82 Ibid., 17. 83 Ibid., 11. 84 Krug. Salient Dates 133. 85 Ibid., 120. 86 Samuel Haber. Efficiency and Uplift: Scientific Management in the Progressive Era 1890 1920 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1964.), 24. The fundamental difference between Dewey and social efficiency experts is clear school were dismantled. The school still remains and is part of the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, yet its fundamentals are very different from what Dewey intended. Statistica lly, these schools are some of the best, yet they are not what Dewey describes in The School and Society and The Child and the Curriculum caused the administration to change the co to significantly change curriculum. Ironically, of the schools begun during this time period which are hat Dewey envisioned. Dewey and President Harper agreed that a university should study aspects of education scientifically; they differed dramatically on new ideal in educat ion which incorporates all ages, and 2) applying certain humanistic, psychological principles to help young minds perform at their best, whereas Harper obviously saw the comparison of centered versus the administrative goals of Harper. 87 http://history world.org/prussia.htm 5/7/10. Prussia is most commonly referred to as being the same as Germany; however, the area of Prussia was a separate German state which was its own kingdom. In the late 19 th century, its height of expansion included land along the North and Baltic seas, from Belgium, the N etherlands, France, and Luxembourg on the west, to the Russian Empire on the east, Austria Hungary on the east, southeast, and Switzerland on the south. It was considered a successful kingdom with a fierce, devoted army; however, it lost much territory aga inst Napolean, but came back victorious when Napolean lost the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Prussia ia in 1866, and the Franco
58 It was seen as the leading state in Germany after these wars. After this point, its history coincides with Germany. The state of Prussia was abolished in 1947 after World War II. 88 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Sept. 17, 2008. 1/16/2010. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/foucault 6. 89 Michel Foucault. Power (New York: The New Press, 2000), 57 59. 90 Frederick Wi nslow Taylor. Shop Management (New York and London: Harper and Brothers, Publishers, 1911), 63 64. 91 Haber. Efficiency and Uplift 25. 92 Ibid., 20. 93 Sarah Deutsch. No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on an Anglo Hispanic Frontier in the Americ an Southwest, 1880 1940 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), 89 91. 94 Ibid., 96. 95 Haber. Efficiency and Uplift 64. 96 Ibid., 65 66. 97 Alexander James Inglis. Principles of Secondary Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1918), 375. 98 Ibid., 101 103. 99 Ibid., 105 106. 100 Ibid., 118 131. 101 Ibid., 131 155. 102 Ibid., 131. 103 Ibid., 351 353. 104 Ibid., 377 378. 105 Ibid., 360 361. 106 Ibid., 369. 107 Ibid., 377. 108 Ibid., 375. 109 Ibid., 275 289. 110 Ibid., 342. 111 Ibid., 228 229. 112 Ibid., 229. 113 Ibid., 231 232. 114 Ibid., 239. 115 Ibid., 251. 116 Ibid., 378. 117 Ibid., 369 370. 118 Ibid., 379 380. 119 Ibid., 379. 120 Ibid., 158 159. 121 Ibid., 380 382. 122 Ibid., 381 382. 123 Ibid., 381. 124 This thesis mainly deals with white education, but much was occurring in the African American community as well. The Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court decision of 1896 formalized race relations in the ph ysical separation of races became a hegemonic influence on life in the United States. Booker T. Washington and William E.B. Dubois offered different educational philosophies for African Americans. Washington focused on vocational education, while Dubois decision remained in effect until the 1954 Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education 125 Alexander James Inglis. Principles of Secondary Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1918), 89 95. 126 Ibid., 96 100. 127 Ibid., 108 111. 128 Ibid., 15.
59 129 Alexander James Inglis. The Rise of the High School in Massachusetts (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1911), 150. 130 Inglis. Principles 208. 131 Ibid., 216 219. 132 Ibid., 611 615. 133 Ibid., 382 383. 134 Alexander James Inglis. Inglis Intelligence Quotient Values (Yonkers On Hudson, NY: World Book Company, 1923), foreward. 135 These men worked with one another in various capacities. John Dewey (1859 1952) was at the University of Chicago from 1894 1904, and at Columbia University from 1904 1952. G. Stanley Hall was one of his professors. Both Dewey and E. L. Thorndike (1874 19 49) studied under William James. E. L. 1941) got his MA in School Administration from Columbia University, Teachers College, in 1901, and his Ph.D. at Col umbia in 1905. He spent 1910 1911 at Harvard. The bulk of his career was spent at Stanford as Dean of Education. He was a friend of Inglis and Conant Inglis (1879 1924) earned his Ph.D. from Columbia University, Teachers College, in 1911. Conant (1893 197 8) got his Ph.D. in Chemistry at Harvard in 1916, and was president of Harvard from 1933 1953. 136 Edgar C. Rohman, Jesse B. Sears, and Lewis M. Terman, Chairman of the Academic Council of 8 http://www.histsoc.stanford.edu/pdfmem/CubberleyE.pdf. 5/13/10 137 Ibid. 138 8 School. http://www.lcubberley.schoolloop.com 2/10/10. 139 Ellwood P. Cubberley. Changing Conceptions of Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1909), 41 42. 140 Ibid., 56 57. 141 Ibid., 34. 142 Ibid., 40. 143 Ibid., 49. 144 Ibid., 53. 145 Ibid., 54 55. 146 Ibid., 62 63. 147 Ibid., 63. 148 Ellwood P. Cubberley. Public Education in the United States (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1919), 355 356. 149 The Inglis Lecture 1959 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), dedication. 150 Ibid., 2 4. 151 James Bryant Conant. The American High School Today: A First Report to Interested Citizens (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc., 1959), 17. 152 Ibid., inside cover. 153 Ibid., ix. 154 Ibid., 46 47. 155 Ibid., 51 52. 156 Ibid., 49. 157 Ibid., 66. 158 Ibid., 114 121. 159 Ibid., 28 31. 160 Ibid., 51 55. 161 Ibid., 73. 162 Ibid., 55 56. 163 Ibid., 67. 164 Ibid., 67 68. 165 Ibid., 62 63.
60 166 Ibid., 63 64. 167 Ibid., 65 66. 168 Ibid. 47 48. 169 Ibid., 50 51. 170 Ibid., 74 75. 171 Ibid., 75 76. 172 Ibid., 132 133. 173 Ibid., 62 63. 174 Ibid., 128 129. 175 Ibid., 44 45. 176 Ibid., 64 65. 177 Ibid., 50. 178 Ibid., 52. 179 http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html 180 Conant. The American High School 12 13. 181 L. Dean Webb. The History of American Education: A Great American Experiment (Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006), 265 266. 182 Ibid., 266 267. 183 Tindall, and Shi. America v II, 1214. 184 Conant. The American High School 7 8. 185 Ibid., 27. 186 Ibid., 36. 187 Ibid., 93 94. 188 James Bryant Conant. The Child, t he Parent, and the State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), 15. 189 Ibid., 67. 190 Ibid., 68. 191 Ibid., 7. 192 Ibid., 9.
61 Bibliography Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education: A Report. Canadian Libraries. http://www.archive.org Conant, James Bryant. The American High School Today: A First Report to Interested Citizens New York: McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1959. Conant, James Bryant. The Child, the Parent, and the State Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. Conant, James Bryant. The Revolutionary Transformation of the American High School. The Inglis Lecture 1959 Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. Cubberley, Ellwood P. Changing Conceptions of Education Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1909. Cubberley, Ellwood P. Public Ed ucation in the United States Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919. Cubberley K 8 School. Who Was Ellwood P. Cubberley? http://www.lcubberley.schoolloop.com Deutsch, Sarah. No Separate Refuge: Cu lture, Class, and Gender on an AngloHispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 18801940 New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Dewey, John. The School and Society (1900) and The Child and the Curriculum (1902) Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1990. Ecker, Pam. John Dewey, 18591952. Bowling Green State University. http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/acs/1890/dewey/dewey.html Foucault, Michel. Power New York: The New Press, 2000. Guisepi, Robert. Prussia: The International History Project. http://history world.org/ prussia.htm
62 Gutting, Gary. Michael Foucault. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 9/ 17/2008. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/foucault Haber, Samuel. Efficiency and Uplift: Scientific Management in the Progressive Era 18901920 Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1964. Helton, Gene. Curriculum Development in Twentieth Century United States: Committee of Tens Recommendations 1892. Kent State University. http://www.personal.kent.edu/~whelton/cd007.html Inglis, Alexander James. Inglis Intelligence Quotient Values Yonkers On Hudson, New York: World Book Company, 1923. Inglis, Alexander James. Principles of Secondary Education Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1918. Inglis, Alexander James. The Rise of the High School in Massachusetts New York: Teachers College, Columbia University 1911. Kevles, Daniel J. In the Name of Eugenics Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Kliebard, Herbert M. The Struggle for the American Curriculum, 18931958 New York: Routledge Falmer, 2004. Krug, Edward A. Salient Dates in American Education 1635 1964 New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1966. Link, Arthur S. Woodrow Wilson. Princeton University. http://etcweb.princeton.edu/Campuswww?Companion/wilson_woodrow.html McGerr, Michael. A Fierce Discontent: The Rise and Fall of the Progressive Movement in America New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. Moral Values in Secondary Education: A Report. http://www.archive.org O Neil, Dennis. Darwin and Natural Selection. Palomar Community College. http://anthro.palomar.edu Porter, Glenn. The Rise of Big Business 18601920 Wheeling IL: Harlan Davidson, Inc., 2006. Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies . http://www.archive.org Riis, Jacob A. How the Other Half Lives New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1971.
63 Rohman, Edgar C., Jessie B. Sears, and Lewis M. Terman, Chairman of the Academic Council of Stanford University. Memorial Resolution: Ellwood P. Cubberley (18681941). Schugurensky, Daniel. Selected Moments of the Twentieth Century: Seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education, 1918. University of Toronto for Studies in Education. http://www.oise.utor onto.ca.html Selden, Steven. Inheriting Shame: The Story of Eugenics and Racism in America New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1999. Smuts, Alice Boardman. Science in the Service of Children, 18931935 New Haven and London: Yale Unive rsity Press, 2006. Taylor, Frederick Winslow. The Principles of Scientific Management New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1911. Taylor, Frederick Winslow. Shop Management New York: Harper and Brothers, Publishers, 1911. Tindall, George Brown a nd David Emory Shi. America: A Narrative History New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2007. U.S. Department of Education. The Federal Role in Education. http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html Webb, L. Dean. The History of American Education: A Great American Experiment Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. Wiebe, Robert H. The Search for Order 18771920 New York: Hill and Wang, 1967. Weidner, Linda. The N.E.A. Committee of Ten. http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/neacom10.html Wirth, Arthur G. John Dewey as Educator: His Design for Work in Education (18941904) New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966. Wraga, William G. Progressive Pioneer: Alexander James Inglis (1879 1924) and American Secondary Education New York: Peter Lang, 2007.
About the Author Heidi Tilney Kramer was born in Atlanta, Georgia, and earned her B.A. at Eckerd College in Saint Petersburg, Florida. Having achieved success as an illustrator and elementary school art teacher, she decided to attend the University of South Florida for an M.A. in American Studies. Ms. Kramer is the winner of numerous art awards, as well as recipient of the Osher Scholarship. Her primary interest is the study of childhood in the United States. She enj oys visiting other countries in order to compare motherhood and childhood in America with other cultures, and has been to over a dozen other lands pursuing that interest.