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A case study examining the impact of adventure based counseling on high school adolescent self esteem, empathy, and racism

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Title:
A case study examining the impact of adventure based counseling on high school adolescent self esteem, empathy, and racism
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English
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Cale, Christopher
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Adventure based counseling
Racism
Self-esteem
Empathy
Discrimination
Adolescence
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychological & Social Foundations -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effectiveness of Adventure Based Counseling upon high school adolescents. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the effectiveness of ABC Counseling in increasing levels of self-esteem and empathy among adolescents; (b) study the efficacy of ABC counseling in reducing perceived racial discrimination, racist attitudes, or both; and (c) investigate the correlation between self-esteem, empathy, perceived racial discrimination, and racist attitudes as related to the effects of ABC counseling. In addition, the effects of ABC counseling on the school-related variables such as discipline, attendance, and academics, as well as possible outcome differences caused by demographic variables like gender and ethnicity were measured in relation to the effects of the ABC counseling treatment. Finally, this study also gathered descriptive data from participants through survey questionnaires regarding their prior knowledge and sensitivity to other races, their perception of racism occurring at the study site, and their experience in ABC counseling. Research indicates that adolescents struggle with and are confronted by many developmental, psychological, and social phenomena while in high school. Salient among these phenomena are self-esteem, empathy, and racism. Research shows that developmentally appropriate self-esteem and empathy have a positive effect on the well being and functioning of adolescents. Furthermore, research indicates that racism has a significant negative impact on the development of adolescents. Social Identity Theory suggests that increases in self-esteem could lead to decreases in racism (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Tajfel, 1978, 1981, 1982). Research based on this theory indicates a possible correlation between increased empathy and a decrease in racism (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). In addition, ABC counseling has been shown to produce a positive impact on both self-esteem and empathy in adolescents (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). A total of 108 African American, Latina/o, and Caucasian adolescents from one Southeastern high school participated in the study. Half the students received a one-day ABC counseling treatment, and half served as the control group receiving no treatment. Results of the study found significant increases for the ABC counseling group in both self-esteem and empathy, and significant decreases in perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes. In addition, a significant reduction in discipline referrals occurred from baseline to one-month follow-up. An ancillary analysis showed significance for the variables gender and ethnicity: males experienced a significantly greater increase in self-esteem and empathy as compared to females; Latina/os had the most significant decrease in racist attitudes and highest overall scores on the same measure; African Americans possessed significantly higher perceived racial discrimination scores than Caucasians or Latina/os. Limitations existed concerning the sample, instruments, and analysis. The sample was taken from a single high school in an affluent community; some of the instruments do not have reported reliability and validity or prior use with high school students in the study; and the absence of multicollinearity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF) and the assumption was violated with the outcome self-esteem. These limitations necessitate caution when making generalizations using the study's results. Similar to previous research, the ABC group experienced a significant increase in self-esteem and empathy. Participating in the program also produced significant decreases in both perceived racism and racist attitudes. The latter results support the hypothesis made by the theoretical models used in this research, but it is believed that this is the first time such an effect has received empirical support. In addition, the significant negative relationships found between self-esteem and perceived racism, and empathy and perceived racism verified the prediction that increases in self-esteem and empathy would correlate with decreases in racism.
Thesis:
Dissertation (PHD)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Statement of Responsibility:
by Christopher Cale.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.

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A Case Study Examining the Impact of Adventure Base d Counseling on High School Adolescent Self-Esteem, Empathy, and Racism by Chris Cale A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Psychological and Social Foundations College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Carlos Zalaquett, Ph.D. Herbert Exum, Ph.D. Debbie Osborn, Ph.D. Martin Lynch, Ph.D. Date of Approval: July 7, 2010 Keywords: adventure based counseling, racism, selfesteem, empathy, discrimination, adolescence. Copyright 2010, Chris Cale

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Dedication This dissertation is dedicated to my mother and fat her, Sandra and Bennett Cale. Thank you for who you are to me: unconditional support, s elfless expressions of love, generous contribution to others, and inspiration of all that is possible.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables .................................... ................................................... .............................. iv List of Figures .................................. ................................................... ............................ viii Abstract .......................................... ................................................... ................................. ix Chapter One: Introduction ......................... ................................................... .......................1 Background of the Study .......................... ................................................... ............1 Statement of the Problem ......................... ................................................... .............8 Significance of the Study ........................ ................................................... ..............9 Purpose of the Study ............................. ................................................... ..............10 Conceptual Framework ............................. ................................................... ..........11 Research Questions ............................... ................................................... ..............14 Definition of Major Terms ........................ ................................................... ..........14 Scope and Delimitation of the Study .............. ................................................... ....16 Overview of Dissertation Chapters ................ ................................................... .....17 Chapter Two: Literature Review .................... ................................................... ................19 Adventure Based Counseling ....................... ................................................... .......19 The Impact of ABC Counseling on Adolescent Self E steem ....................24 The Impact of ABC Counseling on Adolescent Empath y .........................27 The Impact of Racism on High School Adolescents .. ...........................................30 The Potential Impact of ABC Counseling on Racis m ...............................31 Summary .......................................... ................................................... ...................32 Chapter Three: Methodology ........................ ................................................... ..................34 Research Design................................... ................................................... ...............34 ABC Counseling Format.......................... ..................................................3 6 Participants ..................................... ................................................... .....................37 Sample Size Justification ......................... ................................................... ...........39 Sampling .......................................... ................................................... ...................41 School-Based Student Data......................... ................................................... ........42 Instruments ...................................... ................................................... ....................43 Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale ................... .................................................44 General Ethnic Discrimination Scale ........... ..............................................45 Basic Empathy Scale............................ ................................................... ...47 Modern Racism Scale ........................... ................................................... ..48

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ii Perception of Racism Existing in the School Sur vey ................................49 Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Othe r Races Survey .............................50 Experience in ABC Counseling Survey .. ................................................... 51 Perceptions of the Students’ Experienc e in ABC Counseling Survey .......52 Procedure ............................ ................................................... ....................52 Data Analysis .................................... ................................................... ..................55 Research Question 1 ........................... ................................................... ....56 Research Question 2 ........................... ................................................... ....57 Research Question 3 ........................... ................................................... ....58 Research Question 4 ........................... ................................................... ....60 Research Question 5 ........................... ................................................... ....61 Research Question 6 .......................... ................................................... .....62 Research Question 7 ........................... ................................................... ....63 Behavioral Outcome Variables .................. ................................................64 Limitations and Delimitations .................... ................................................... .........64 Chapter Four: Results ............................. ................................................... ........................66 Sample Demographics .............................. ................................................... ..........66 Teacher Demographics .............................. ................................................... .........67 Descriptive Statistics ........................... ................................................... ................68 Survey Questionnaires ............................. ................................................... ...........72 Pretest: Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to othe r Races ..............................72 Pretest: Perception of Racism Existing in the S chool ...............................74 Posttest: Adventure Based Counseling Experience ...................................76 Hypotheses ....................................... ................................................... ...................79 Hypothesis 1................................... ................................................... .........79 Hypothesis 2................................... ................................................... .........85 Hypothesis 3................................... ................................................... .........91 Hypothesis 4................................... ................................................... .........97 Hypothesis 5................................... ................................................... .......104 Hypothesis 6................................... ................................................... .......106 Hypothesis 7................................... ................................................... .......113 Behavioral Outcome Variables ..................... ................................................... ....135 Total Discipline Referrals .................... ................................................... .135 Racism-Related Discipline Referrals ........... ............................................137 Grade Point Average ........................... ................................................... ..139 Attendance .................................... ................................................... ........141 Summary and Conclusion ........................... ................................................... ......143 Chapter Five: Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions ................................................... 145 Summary of the Results ........................... ................................................... .........145 Discussion ....................................... ................................................... ..................146 Survey Questionnaires ............................ ................................................... ..........146 Hypotheses ....................................... ................................................... .................151 Behavioral Outcome Variables ..................... ................................................... ....166 Limitations ...................................... ................................................... ..................167

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iii Suggestions for Future Research .................. ................................................... ....168 Conclusion ....................................... ................................................... .................171 References ........................................ ................................................... .............................173 Appendices ........................................ ................................................... ............................194 Appendix A: Script to Recruit Participants ....... ..................................................1 95 Appendix B: Institutional Review Board Parent Cons ent ...................................196 Appendix C: Institutional Review Board Student Ass ent ....................................201 Appendix D: YMCA Parent Consent Form ............. ............................................204 Appendix E: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Sample ... .........................................205 Appendix F: General Ethnic Discrimination Scale Sa mple .................................206 Appendix G: Basic Empathy Scale Sample ........... ..............................................207 Appendix H: Modern Racism Scale Sample ........... ............................................208 Appendix I: Perception of Racism Existing in the S chool Survey ......................209 Appendix J: Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Othe r Races Survey ...................210 Appendix K: Experience in ABC counseling Survey .. ........................................211 Appendix L: Perceptions of the Students’ Experienc e in ABC Counseling Survey ........................................ ................................................... ...........212 About the Author .................................. ................................................... .............. End Page

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iv List of Tables Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of Participant s ................................................. ......67 Table 2. Demographic Characteristics of Teachers .. ................................................... ......67 Table 3. Means and Standard Deviations for Particip ant Scores on Four Test Instruments for each Time Period by Group (Contro l and ABC) ........................................ ....68 Table 4. Means and Standard Deviations for Particip ant Scores on Four Test Instruments for each Time Period by Gender ................. ................................................... ......70 Table 5. Means and Standard Deviations for Particip ant Scores on Four Test Instruments for each Time Period by Ethnicity (African Ameri can, Caucasian and Latina/o) ...................................... ................................................... ......................71 Table 6. Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Other Ra ces ............................................... .....74 Table 7. Student and Teacher Responses to Perceptio n of Racism Existing in the School ......................................... ................................................... ......................76 Table 8. Student and Teacher Responses to Adventure Based Counseling Experience ....78 Table 9. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary f or Adventure Based Counseling Predicting Self-Esteem from Baseline to One-week Posttest ..............................82 Table 10. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Adventure Based Counseling Predicting Self-Esteem from One-week Posttest to One-month Follow-up .................................... ................................................... ....................85 Table 11. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Adventure Based Counseling

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v Predicting Empathy from Baseline to One-week P osttest .................................87 Table 12. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Adventure Based Counseling Predicting Empathy from One-week Posttest to O ne-month Follow-up ...........90 Table 13. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Adventure Based Counseling Predicting Perception of Racial Discrimination from Baseline to One-week Posttest ..................................... ................................................... ......................93 Table 14. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Adventure Based Counseling Predicting Perception of Racial Discrimination from One-week Posttest to One-month Follow-up ........................... ................................................... ..........96 Table 15. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Adventure Based Counseling Predicting Racist Attitudes from Baseline to O ne-week Posttest ......................99 Table 16. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Adventure Based Counseling Predicting Racist Attitudes from One-week Post test to One-month Follow-up ................................... ................................................... ...................102 Table 17. Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Adventure Based Counseling Predicting Racism-Related Discipline Referrals from Baseline to One-month Follow-up ..................................... ................................................... .................105 Table 18. Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, P erceived Racial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem fo r the Control Group at Baseline ..............107 Table 19. Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, P erceived Racial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem fo r the ABC Group at Baseline ..................108 Table 20. Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, P erceived Racial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem fo r the Control Group at One-week

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vi Posttest ..................................... ................................................... .....................109 Table 21. Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, P erceived Racial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem fo r the ABC Group at One-week Posttest ...................................... ................................................... .....................110 Table 22. Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, P erceived Racial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem for the Contr ol Group at One-month Follow-up .................................... ................................................... ..................111 Table 23. Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, P erceived Racial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem for the ABC G roup at One-month Follow-up .................................... ................................................... ..................112 Table 24. Means and Standard Deviations of Self-Est eem ..............................................1 15 Table 25. Test of Within Subject of Self-Esteem ... ................................................... ......119 Table 26. Means and Standard Deviations of Empathy ................................................... 120 Table 27. Test of Within Subjects of Empathy ...... ................................................... .......124 Table 28. Means and Standard Deviations of Perceive d Racial Discrimination .............126 Table 29. Test of Within Subjects on Perceived Raci al Discrimination ..........................130 Table 30. Means and Standard Deviations of Racist A ttitudes .......................................131 Table 31. Test of Within Subject of Racist Attitude s ................................................. .....135 Table 32. Repeated Measures ANOVA with Between Subj ect’s Factors on Total Discipline Referrals by Group (Control vs. ABC )...........................................136 Table 33. Means and Standard Deviations for Total D iscipline Referrals by Group (Control vs. ABC) ............................ ................................................... .............137 Table 34. Repeated Measures ANOVA with Between Subj ect’s Factors on Racism

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vii Related Discipline Referrals by Group (Control vs. ABC) .............................138 Table 35. Means and Standard Deviations for RacismRelated Discipline by Group (Control vs. ABC) ............................ ................................................... .............139 Table 36. Repeated Measures ANOVA with Between Subj ect’s Factors on GPA by Group (Control vs. ABC) ................... ................................................... ...........140 Table 37. Means and Standard Deviations for GPA by Group (Control vs. ABC) .........140 Table 38. Repeated Measures ANOVA with Between Subj ect’s Factors on Attendance by Group (Control vs. ABC) ...................... ................................................... ........142 Table 39. Means and Standard Deviations for Attenda nce by Group (Control vs. ABC) ......................................... ................................................... ....................142

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viii List of Figures Figure 1. Self-Esteem Significant Interaction from Baseline to One-week Posttest .........83 Figure 2. Empathy Significant Interaction from Base line to One-week Posttest ..............88 Figure 3. Empathy Significant Interaction from Oneweek Posttest to One-week Follow-up ..................................... ................................................... ....................91 Figure 4. Perceived Racial Discrimination Significa nt Interaction from One-week Posttest to One-month Follow-up ............... ................................................... .....97 Figure 5. Racist Attitudes Significant Interaction from Baseline to One-week Posttest ...................................... ................................................... .....................100 Figure 6. Racist Attitudes Significant Interaction from One-week Posttest to One-month Follow-up ..................................... ................................................... ..................103 Figure 7. Overall Significant Differences for SelfEsteem, Empathy, Perceived Racial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes, and Racist-Re lated Discipline Referrals ..................................... ................................................... ....................161 Figure 8. Significant Positive and Negative Relativ es Established for Outcomes as Related to the Effect of ABC Counseling ....... ..................................................1 64

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ix A Case Study Examining the Impact of Adventure Base d Counseling on High School Adolescent Self-Esteem, Empathy, and Racism Chris Cale ABSTRACT This study investigated the effectiveness of Advent ure Based Counseling upon high school adolescents. The goals of this study w ere to (a) explore the effectiveness of ABC Counseling in increasing levels of self-esteem and empathy among adolescents; (b) study the efficacy of ABC counseling in reducing pe rceived racial discrimination, racist attitudes, or both; and (c) investigate the correla tion between self-esteem, empathy, perceived racial discrimination, and racist attitud es as related to the effects of ABC counseling. In addition, the effects of ABC counse ling on the school-related variables such as discipline, attendance, and academics, as w ell as possible outcome differences caused by demographic variables like gender and eth nicity were measured in relation to the effects of the ABC counseling treatment. Final ly, this study also gathered descriptive data from participants through survey questionnaire s regarding their prior knowledge and sensitivity to other races, their perception of rac ism occurring at the study site, and their experience in ABC counseling. Research indicates that adolescents struggle with a nd are confronted by many developmental, psychological, and social phenomena while in high school. Salient

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x among these phenomena are self-esteem, empathy, and racism. Research shows that developmentally appropriate self-esteem and empathy have a positive effect on the well being and functioning of adolescents. Furthermore, research indicates that racism has a significant negative impact on the development of a dolescents. Social Identity Theory suggests that increases in self-esteem could lead t o decreases in racism (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Tajfel, 1978, 1981, 1982). Research based on this theory indicates a possible correlation between increased empathy and a decreas e in racism (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). In addition, ABC counseling has been shown to produ ce a positive impact on both selfesteem and empathy in adolescents (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). A total of 108 African American, Latina/o, and Cau casian adolescents from one Southeastern high school participated in the study. Half the students received a one-day ABC counseling treatment, and half served as the co ntrol group receiving no treatment. Results of the study found significant increases fo r the ABC counseling group in both self-esteem and empathy, and significant decreases in perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes. In addition, a significant reduc tion in discipline referrals occurred from baseline to one-month follow-up. An ancillary anal ysis showed significance for the variables gender and ethnicity: males experienced a significantly greater increase in selfesteem and empathy as compared to females; Latina/o s had the most significant decrease in racist attitudes and highest overall scores on t he same measure; African Americans possessed significantly higher perceived racial dis crimination scores than Caucasians or Latina/os. Limitations existed concerning the sample, instrum ents, and analysis. The sample was taken from a single high school in an affluent community; some of the instruments

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xi do not have reported reliability and validity or pr ior use with high school students in the study; and the absence of multicollinearity was ass essed through examination of the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF) and the assumption was violated with the outcome selfesteem. These limitations necessitate caution when making generalizations using the study’s results. Similar to previous research, the ABC group experie nced a significant increase in self-esteem and empathy. Participating in the prog ram also produced significant decreases in both perceived racism and racist attit udes. The latter results support the hypothesis made by the theoretical models used in t his research, but it is believed that this is the first time such an effect has received empir ical support. In addition, the significant negative relationships found between self-esteem an d perceived racism, and empathy and perceived racism verified the prediction that incre ases in self-esteem and empathy would correlate with decreases in racism.

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1 Chapter One: Introduction Background of the Study The adolescent life period is characterized by many new social and psychological challenges (Newman & Newman, 2009). Adolescents in the present century are exposed to issues and demands that appear to be more severe prevalent, and multifaceted than adolescent experiences over the last 100 years (Ham burg, 1993; Newman & Newman, 2009). Current views define adolescence as a phase of transition in which physical, emotional, and cognitive changes generate challenge s and growth (Newman & Newman, 2009). According to Santrock (2008), adolescent cr ises and turmoil are often associated with high levels of stress and conflict. The funda mental process occurring within adolescence is identity development, and according to Erickson (1968), inadequate completion of this process results in identity conf usion. Furthermore, the common experiences of modern-day adolescence such as high parental divorce rates, adolescent pregnancy, increased mobility of families, lack of supervision and support from adults, and high rates of drug use function to confound ado lescent development (Newman & Newman, 2009; Santrock, 2008). In particular, thr ee key areas that empirical research established as significantly impacting adolescent d evelopment and well-being are selfesteem, empathy, and racism (Chen & Faruggia, 2002; Edwards & Romero, 2008; Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006; Newman & Newman, 2009).

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2 A substantial developmental task of adolescence is the formation of a positive sense of self (Mandara, Richards, Gaylord-Harden, & Ragsdale, 2009). Adolescence is thought to be the most critical time for the develo pment of self-esteem (DuBois & Tevendale, 1999). According to Rosenberg (1965), s elf-esteem is either a positive or negative attitude toward or about the self. Rosenb erg posits that an individual who views himself as a person of worth—who is respected for w ho he is—indicates positive selfesteem. Conversely, negative or low self-esteem im plies that an individual experiences self-dissatisfaction or self-contempt. Thus, a per son's self-esteem, particularly during the developmental stage of adolescence, may influence c ertain behaviors including racial discrimination (Butler, 1995; Chen & Faruggia, 2002 ). According to Mann, Hosman, Schaalma, and DeVries (2 004), the construct of self-esteem is generally thought to be one of the m ost significant psychological elements for adolescent mental health both as an indicator a nd contributor. In the development of adolescent behavior, self-esteem plays an important role, with high self-esteem serving as a source of resiliency or positive adjustment (Rutt er, 1987). Adolescents showing higher levels of self-esteem have been found to exhibit mo re positive mental health and are more resilient in the face of adversity as compared to t hose adolescents with low levels of selfesteem (Compas, Hinden, & Gerhardt, 1995; DuBois et al., 2002). On the contrary, low self-esteem has been associated with the occurrence and development of a wide range of maladaptive responses in adolescence such as depres sion, eating disorders, social withdrawal, and anxiety (Evans, Noam, Wertlieb, Pag et, & Wolf, 1994; Hammen, 1992). Empirical research has demonstrated that empathy pl ays a significant role in adolescent development as well as in adolescent wel l being and social performance

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3 (Bandura, 1999; Davis & Oathout, 1987; Del Barrio, Aluja, & Garcia, 2004). According to Eisenberg and Fabes (1998), empathy is an affect ive response originating from a person's comprehension or apprehension of another p erson’s emotional state or condition (p. 740). Empathy involves experiencing similar em otions and/or feelings that another person is experiencing, or would be expected to be experiencing. Over the last few decades, researchers have established that empathy is a fundamental social skill that allows an adolescent to anticipate, comprehend, and experience others’ points of view (Davis & Franzoi, 1991; Ivey, Ivey, & Zalaquett, 20 10). According to Newman and Newman (2009), empathy reac hes its highest developmental stage during late adolescence. Empir ical research conducted on empathy related to adolescence has highlighted the role emp athy plays in the attainment of social competence during this developmental stage. Examin ation of the social-emotional and cognitive components of empathy indicates that it h elps adolescents create and sustain friendships (Del Barrio et al., 2004), impacts the quality of relationships with family members (Guerney, 1988), increases the satisfaction level in close relationships (Davis & Oathout, 1987), and positively influences communica tion (Henry, Sager, & Plunkett, 1996). Consequently, adolescents lacking empathy c an experience difficulty in forming and maintaining relationships (Davis, 1994). A bi-directional effect exists regarding empathy an d relationships. Eisenberg and Fabes (1998) assert that in adolescence, the develo pment of peer relationships impacts and enhances a person’s empathic skills and ability Notably, the development of positive relationships and increased empathic skill s function to enhance each other.

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4 Research has established that empathy can serve as a cushion for all forms of aggression and is positively associated with increa sed levels of social intelligence in adolescence (Burke, 2001; Feshbach, 1987; Jolliffe & Farrington, 2004). In addition, lack of empathy has been shown to be related to bul lying and defending behavior in adolescents. Low levels of empathic responsiveness is correlated with adolescents’ being involved in the bullying of others (Endresen & Olwe us, 2001; Gini, Albiero, Benelli, & Altoe, 2007; Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006; Newman & Newman, 2009). Notably, McFarland (1998) describes that a lack of adolescen t empathy can lead to a predisposition toward prejudice and discrimination. In sum, the existing literature suggests that the constructs of self-esteem and empathy are central to the development of adolescen ts and they impact multiple social and psychological areas (Jolliffe & Farrington, 200 6; Mandara et al., 2009; Mann et al., 2004; Newman & Newman, 2009). For these reasons, b oth self-esteem and empathy are included in this dissertation. Racism is another significant issue affecting high school adolescent personalsocial development, emotional well being, and schoo l performance (Alladin, 1996; Dei, Mazzuco, Mcisaac, & Zine, 1997; Edwards & Romero, 2 008; Gillborn, 1995; McCarthy & Crichlow, 1993; McLaren & Torres, 1999; Troyna, 1 993; Troyna & Hatcher, 1992). For the purposes of this study two definitions of r acism will be used. One will serve to define racism as the perception and experience of t he victim, and the other to define racism as the attitude of the perpetrator: (a) Raci sm is a belief that one has been treated unfairly as a result of one’s origin and ethnicity (Mesch, Turjeman, & Fishman, 2008); and (b) racism is a system of dominance and power b ased on the beliefs, behaviors, and

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5 institutional arrangements that corroborate the sup eriority of certain racial/ethnic groups and denigrate others because of certain phenotypic characteristics (Clark, Anderson, Clark, & Williams, 1999). Several studies confirm the continued presence of racism in schools, and demonstrate this phenomenon has a nega tive impact on the well-being and mental health of adolescent minorities (Allison, 19 98; Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999; Phinney, Madden, & Santos, 1998; Sanders-Thom pson 1996). Research substantiates that high school age adolescents in the United States who perceive racial discrimination may experience outcomes such as depr ession, low self-esteem, delinquency, and substance abuse (Gibbons, Hsui-Che n et al., 2007; Greene, Way, & Phal, 2006; Lee, 2003, 2005; Romero & Roberts, 2003 a, 2003b; Rosenbloom & Way, 2004; Simons, Simons, Stewart, Chen, & Brody, 2003; Ying, Lee, & Tsai, 2000). In addition, studies have found that high school adole scents’ attitudes toward school, school functioning, and school accomplishments are negativ ely impacted by the presence of racial discrimination (Foster, 2000; Jasinskaja-Lah ti, Liebkind, Horenczyk, & Schmitz, 2003; Liebkin, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Solheim, 2004; V ega, Kolody, & Valle, 1987; Vega & Rumbaut, 1991). There is persuasive evidence supporting the idea th at adolescent academic success and failure are linked to race and issues of racism (Ryan, 2003). Some researchers go so far as to assert that institutional racism and disc rimination are the central reasons why minority adolescents perform poorly in schools (Ogb u, 1994; Young & Laible, 2000). American high schools in particular experience diff iculty in reducing racism (Wong, Eccles, & Sameroff, 2003). It is also likely that some adolescents emerge from their post-secondary education significantly impacted soc ially, emotionally, and / or

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6 academically by racism (Brown & Bigler, 2005). In fact, empirical research has established that high school students struggle indi vidually with the impact of racism (Lee, 2003, 2005; Romero & Roberts, 2003a, 2003b; Rosenbl oom & Way, 2004) and that groups of adolescents struggle with inter-group rac ism (Hong et al., 2004). The American School Counseling Association (ASCA) h as outlined recommendations for delivery systems and a National Model with standards for high school counseling programs (American School Counsel ing Association [ASCA], 2007). These standards include offering counseling program s that address the personal social development of high school adolescents. The recomm ended model-outcomes incorporate students acquiring the knowledge, attitudes, and in terpersonal skills to help them respect themselves and others. Over the past three years at the high school in Sou th Florida where this research was conducted, and where the primary researcher is an assistant principal, several instances of student violence related to racial dis crimination occurred. Two years ago, at a point where the school was experiencing weekly ph ysical and verbal altercations that were racially charged, a professional from the Safe and Drug Free Schools department suggested implementing an intervention called Unity Day. This day-long intervention is similar to Adventure Based Counseling and consisted of ropes course activities and a group counseling component focusing on issues of ra ce, tolerance, culture and diversity. The Unity Day intervention took place on the school campus, and the participants included 50 high school boys of various ethnic grou ps spanning grades 9 – 12. The participants were selected by the school administra tion either because they were seen as school leaders or because they had been involved in school violence.

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7 In the weeks following the intervention, the schoo l administration noticed a decline in student violence related to racial discriminatio n, a phenomenon that lasted 2 months. Although this intervention was not part of a formal study, the basic data collected indicated that there was a 9% decrease in violent i ncidents related to racial discrimination from the time of the intervention to the end of the school year, as measured by discipline referrals and encompassing both verbal and physical altercations. In the proposed study, the researcher has distinguished key issues that ad olescents are dealing with at the school where he is an Assistant Principal in South Florida This was accomplished through a review of standardized school data including discip line referrals, guidance counselor referrals, and teacher and student survey data. Th e primary issue examined was student violence related to racial discrimination. This wa s measured by the total number of discipline referrals from a discipline incident cat egory that indicates racial discrimination occurred. Discipline referral data reflected that the number of student violence incidents related to racial discrimination was higher than th e number of student violence incidents in other incident categories. Guidance counselor r eferrals revealed that these students were struggling with communication and relationship issues, which included self-esteem deficits, empathy, and relating to others. Based on the analysis indicating that violent incid ents related to racial discrimination continued to exist at the school the following year, the need to improve the school environment as reported by teachers and stud ents, the positive results observed at Unity Day, and the similarity of ABC counseling wit h the Unity Day program, this researcher decided to study the potential impact of Adventure Based Counseling on high school adolescents’ self-esteem, empathy and racism

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8 In the last decade, Adventure Based Counseling (ABC ) has emerged as a grouporiented approach to personal development and thera peutic activity. Empirical research has established the efficacy of adventure-based exp eriential programs as positively impacting the psychological, social, and vocational functioning of high school age adolescents (Niell, 2003). Research on ABC counsel ing reports increases in self-esteem, self-concept, and self-efficacy (Garst, Schieder, & Baker, 2001; Herbert, 2001; Neill, 2003; Neill & Richards, 1998; Sibthorp, 2003; Silka & Hart, 1994; Wick and Wick, 1997); empathy, social competence, and perceptions of others (Autry, 2001; Combs, 2001; Cook, 2008; Gillis & Speelman, 2008; Goldenbe rg, Klenosky, O’Leary, & Templin, 2000; McNamara, 2002); self confidence, lo cus of control and life-effectiveness (Cason & Gillis; 1994; Hattie, Marsh, Neill, & Rich ards, 1997; Newberry & Lindsay, 2000); and group cohesiveness and team building (Au try, 2001; Bolduc, 1998; Meyer & Wagner, 1998; Priest, 1998; Steinfel, 1997). In ad dition, two meta-analyses conducted by Hattie et al. (1997) and Cason and Gillis (1994) suggested that ABC counseling is beneficial to improving one’s life effectiveness an d dimensions of the self such as those listed above. Statement of the Problem High school is a psychologically, socially, and ac ademically challenging period for adolescents. Although there are many highly functio nal adolescents in the U.S. public school system, the number of students struggling wi th issues arguably related to low selfesteem and poor empathic skills is constant and doe s not appear to be decreasing. One implication is that as a result of low self-esteem and empathy, adolescents might be faced with more social, psychological, and behavioral bar riers than their higher-functioning

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9 peer counterparts. Adolescent minorities in partic ular are faced with additional obstacles, both in and out of school, related to racism and di scrimination. Furthermore, high schools in the U.S. continue to struggle with issue s of physical altercations and racismrelated violence. These issues negatively affect p ersonal, social, and academic development of these students and create a need for further investigation into schoolbased interventions that can impact these issues (H ong et al., 2004; Rosenbloom & Way, 2004; Young & Laible, 2000). Although school-based intervention programs desig ned to increase adolescent selfesteem and empathy do exist, many have not undergon e empirical examination and often fail to provide validation of the program for use w ith specific demographic populations. In addition, a very limited number of programs addr ess the problem of adolescent racism and discrimination, and an even smaller number poss ess experimental validation. It is important that we learn more about intervention pro grams that help adolescents thrive in their lives, benefitting from increased self-esteem enhanced empathy, and a diminished experience of racism. Based on the school’s positi ve results with an adventure based counseling program and the issues mentioned above, this investigation of the effects of ABC counseling on self-esteem, empathy, and racism was conducted. Significance of the Study Empirical research has established racism as havin g a significant negative impact on high school adolescents’ personal and social dev elopment, and academic performance (Edwards & Romero, 2008; Small et al., 2007; Wong e t al., 2003), a phenomenon also observed at the site at which this study took place Thus, this study investigates the variables of self-esteem, empathy, and racism with the goal of improving students’ social

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10 and emotional adjustment, and reducing student viol ence related to racial discrimination in the school. Efforts to find counseling interventions to impact self-esteem, empathy, and racism are promoted by counseling associations such as ASCA. Research that studies the potential efficacy of ABC counseling in increasing self-esteem and empathy, as well as in reducing racism, could be useful for educational ad ministrators, school counselors, and mental health workers interested in implementing e ffective counseling interventions in high school campuses. The proposed study is in alignment with the ASCA Na tional Model encouraging guidance departments to implement programs which su pport the personal and social development of high school adolescents through effe ctive processes and interventions (American School Counselor Association [ASCA], 2007 ). This research has practical implications for school counselors, both in practic e as well as in collegiate counselor training programs that prepare aspiring school coun selors, by further validating the efficacy of an intervention with adolescents and pr oviding an empirical link between selfesteem, empathy and racism. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this dissertation is to (a) study th e effectiveness of ABC counseling in increasing levels of self-esteem and empathy among adolescents; (b) investigate the potential efficacy of ABC Counselin g in reducing racism; and (c) investigate the correlation between self-esteem, em pathy, and racism. Accordingly, the study will explore whether increased self-esteem an d empathy contribute to reduced

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11 levels of perceived racism and racist attitudes amo ng those in the treatment group, compared to those in a no-treatment control group. ABC counseling was selected as the study treatment based on (a) its reported success in impacting self-esteem and empathy, and i n altering human perceptions of others; (b) its efficacy working with adolescents; and (c) our school’s positive experience with Unity Day, which is very similar to ABC counse ling but lacks research and formal structure, which consequently hinders its implement ation and replication. The Adventure Based Counseling program selected for this study originated with Project Adventure, which is currently the largest r opes course training company in the world. All staff members that operate the local AB C counseling program in Florida have attended the Project Adventure training course. Th is ABC counseling model includes incorporating both high and low ropes course elemen ts, both of which were used in this study. In addition, what makes this ropes course i ntervention unique is its inclusion of a group counseling component focused on group process around specific themes. For this study, the themes were tolerance and diversity. Th ese themes were not assessed; they function to provide guidance and meaning to the gro up process component of the program. A significant body of literature supports the use of ABC counseling with the adolescent population (Bunting & Donley, 2001; Cars on & Gillis, 1994; Hans, 2002; Neill, 2003). Therefore, ABC counseling is appropr iate for use with the developmental stage of adolescence. Conceptual Framework As previously stated, Adventure Based Counseling ha s been found to increase participant’s self-esteem (Herbert, 2001; Neill, 20 03; Neill & Richards, 1998; Sibthorp,

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12 2003; Silka & Hart, 1994; Wick & Wick, 1997), and i ncrease empathy and alter perceptions of others (Autry, 2001; Combs, 2001; Co ok, 2008; Gillis & Speelman, 2008; Goldenberg et al., 2000; McNamara, 2002). Based on these studies, the researcher hypothesizes that ABC counseling will have a positi ve impact on adolescent self-esteem and empathy, and will be helpful in reducing percei ved racism and racist attitudes. In addition, this study predicts a correlation will ex ist between increases in self-esteem and empathy, and decreases in perceived racism and raci st attitudes; alternatively, higher levels of self-esteem and empathy will be associate d with lower levels of perceived racism and racist attitudes. Historically, measuring the construct of racism has presented difficulties as a result of the many varying interpretations of the c oncept. It is the belief of the researcher that it is necessary to measure a collective occurr ence of racism, both from an adolescent’s experience as a perceived victim, and as expressed through racist attitudes or beliefs as a potential perpetrator. This approach to measuring racism takes into account both the experience of racism, and the expression o f racist attitudes.; therefore, the research provides a comprehensive representation of the phenomenon. For the purposes of this study, the researcher meas ured both experienced and expressed racism. Perceived racial discrimination is described as a belief that one has been treated unfairly because of one’s origin or et hnicity (Mesch et al., 2008, p. 593). Expressed racist attitudes include attitudes and be liefs that corroborate the superiority of certain racial/ethnic groups and denigrate others b ecause of certain phenotypic characteristics (Clark et al., 1999, pg. 237).

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13 Social Identity Theory describes the occurrence of racial discrimination as the result of an attempt to enhance self-esteem and col lective efficacy (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Tajfel, 1978, 1981, 1982). Drawing on the So cial Identity Theory, it is the prediction of the researcher that by increasing sel f-esteem and empathy by means other than the occurrence of discrimination (ABC counseli ng), a subsequent decrease in racial discrimination will occur. Terror Management Theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczyns ki, & Solomon, 1986) provides another account of the link between self-e steem and discrimination. This theory proposes that prejudice and discrimination may be r egarded as a specific type of worldview defense, where the mere existence of othe r worldviews poses a threat to selfesteem (Das, Bushman, Bezemer, Kerkhof, & Vermeulen 2009). One of the postulates of TMT is that high self-esteem reduces prejudice ( Das et al., 2009) Research by Davis (2004) describes a lack of empath y in adolescents as potentially negative to their worldview by not allo wing insight into another’s perspective and experience. Dovidio, Gaertner, and Loux (2000) suggest that enhancing empathy and social awareness can lead to a stronger inclusi ve group identity, resulting in a reduction in perceived racism. McFarland (1998) fo und a correlation between a lack of empathy and a predisposition toward experiencing an d expressing racism. This study predicts that ABC counseling will result in increased self-esteem and empathy scores, and a decrease in racism scores. O r articulated another way, for each group (ABC vs. control) there will exist a relation ship, such that higher scores on selfesteem and empathy will be associated with lower sc ores on the perception of racial discrimination, and with lower scores on racist att itudes.

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14 Research Questions The following questions will guide the inquiry of t his study: RQ1: Does Adventure Based Counseling increase high school students’ self-esteem? RQ2: Does Adventure Based Counseling increase high school students’ empathy? RQ3: Does Adventure Based Counseling decrease high school students’ perception of racial discrimination occurring in the school? RQ4: Does Adventure Based Counseling decrease high school students’ racist attitudes? RQ5: Does Adventure Based Counseling decrease high school students’ racism-related discipline referrals? RQ6: For each group (ABC vs. control) is there a re lationship between high school students’ perceived racial discrimination occurring racist attitudes, self-esteem and empathy at each time period (baseline, one-week pos ttest and one-month follow-up)? RQ7: Is there a significant difference in the obser ved effects of ABC counseling based on ethnicity, gender, or both? Definition of Major Terms Adventure based counseling. A collection or series of events and programs which provide activities for individuals and groups of persons to actively engage in unique problem-solving activities and group process for self-discovery, physical challenge, risk-taking, and group support (Davis-Be rman & Berman, 1994). Culture. Culture refers to the cumulative deposit of knowled ge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material o bjects and possessions acquired by a

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15 group of people in the course of generations throug h individual and group striving (Hofstede, 1997). Discrimination. Negative behaviors toward out-groups (Romero & Robe rts, 1998). Empathy. An affective response that originates from a person 's comprehension or apprehension of another person’s emotional state or condition (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1998). Ethnic group. A group in which the members have a similar social heritage involving practices, values, and beliefs (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1983; Ocampo, Bernal, & Knight, 1993). Perceived racial discrimination. A belief that one has been treated unfairly because of one’s origin or ethnicity (Mesch et al., 2008). Prejudice. Prejudice is described by Romero and Roberts (1998) as negative attitudes toward out-groups. Race. A biological category that is primarily based in ph ysical appearance and not related to learned cultural characteristics (Ph inney, 1996). Racial discrimination. Consists of those practices and actions of dominant groups that have a differential and negative effect on subordinate ethnic groups (Feagin & Eckberg, 1980). Racism. A system of dominance and power based on the belief s, behaviors, and institutional arrangements that corroborate the sup eriority of certain racial/ethnic groups and denigrate others because of certain phenotypic characteristics (Clark et al., 1999). A

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16 belief that one has been treated unfairly because o f one’s origin or ethnicity (Mesch et al., 2008). Self-esteem. An individual's sense of his or her value or worth, or the extent to which a person values, approves of, appreciates, pr izes, or likes him or herself (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991); a favorable or unfavor able attitude toward the self (Rosenberg, 1965). Scope and Delimitation of the Study For all human beings, the period of life called ad olescence has been described as a time when a person’s cognitive, social, psychologic al and biological characteristics are changing from child to adult (Siyez, 2008). For ad olescents, this period of life has been described by Lerner and Galambos (1998) as a time o f dramatic challenge, one that requires large adjustment to changes in themselves, in their families, and in their peer group. During adolescence, a significantly importa nt developmental task is identity development which includes elements of self-esteem and empathy (Erickson, 1968). Self-esteem has been described as a central factor of adolescent identity and is associated with pro-social development, positive ps ychosocial adjustment, mental health, and psychopathology (Swenson & Prelow, 2005). Empa thy has been described by Bandura (1999) as a central element of social intel ligence, and possession of empathic skills can help understand others, and can function as a shield against all forms of aggression and other difficult adolescent issues. Racism and racial discrimination are important issu es in the United States and around the globe. Racism is not limited to adolesc ents in schools, but rather is a phenomenon that negatively impacts millions of peop le around the world in any setting:

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17 places of employment, entertainment, recreation, ed ucation, and within families. As such, the study of racism is important and applicab le to fields of counseling, social work, education, psychology, medicine, business, and work industries. Specifically, this study focused on how the ABC cou nseling intervention affected self-esteem, empathy and racism in a sample of adol escents, not adults or older adults. The treatment in this study, ABC counseling, functi oned as the independent variable. Using a treatment and a control group, this study a nalyzed the effect of the ABC counseling on self-esteem, empathy, perceived, and expressed racism. In addition, the correlations between all four variables were examin ed and a prediction exploring the relationships between self-esteem, empathy, perceiv ed racism, and racist attitudes was made. An analysis of potentially different effects of ABC counseling based on variables of gender and ethnicity was also conducted. A clear limitation of this study is the generalizab ility of its results. Because the sample of this study is from a single high school i n the state of Florida, it is reasonable to assume that the external validity and generalizabil ity of the results to all high schools in the entire United States may not always be appropri ate. Overview of Dissertation Chapters This dissertation is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the topics discussed in the study. Chapter 2 in cludes the historical background in the form of a literature review, as well as the framewo rk on which this study is grounded. Chapter 3 provides a detailed description of resear ch design and the methodology used for this study, the participants, and sampling. Ne xt, the instruments are described as well as their respective psychometric properties; this i s followed by the study procedures and

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18 data analysis plan. Chapter 4 includes a comprehen sive review of the results of the study by exposition of the questions that guide the inqui ry of the study. In Chapter 5, a summary of the study results is presented, followed by a discussion of the study findings in relation to the hypotheses and related literatur e, and an investigation of study limitations. Finally, suggestions for future resea rch are highlighted, followed by a conclusion.

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19 Chapter Two: Literature Review In this section, I present a critical discussion of the literature related to ABC counseling and review the background and current st atus of this counseling method in the United States. This initial discussion is followed by a review of the literature discussing the impact of ABC counseling on self-esteem and emp athy. Next, I explore literature related to adolescent racism, and conclude with a d iscussion of the potential impact of ABC counseling on adolescent racism in high schools and a conclusion. Adventure Based Counseling Various groups and organizations in business, educa tion, and human services organizations have utilized outdoor experiential ed ucation programs since the 1960s (Niell, 2003). These programs have evolved over th e years and have been referred to as ropes courses, challenge courses, challenging outdo or personal experience (COPE), wilderness therapy, adventure based therapy, and Ad venture Based Counseling. Most of these different program names appear to be used int erchangeably to describe adventurebased outdoor experiential education and differ lit tle in content, with the exception of ABC counseling. ABC counseling has been described as a combination of experiential learning and outdoor education utilizing group coun seling techniques (Fletcher & Hinkle, 2002). According to Itin (2001) this is the only e xperiential adventure program that also incorporates group counseling techniques such as se lf-disclosure, dyads, active listening and encouragement into its processes (Itin, 2001). Because this study is based in a school

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20 setting and designed to create an opportunity to im pact the field of school counseling, and is similar to the United Day ropes program, the res earcher has selected to utilize ABC counseling as the primary treatment. In addition, ABC counseling was selected because it is the only experiential adventure program that also incorporates a meaningful and intentional element of group counseling into its pr ocesses. The history of ropes course programs began with a f ocus on children and adolescents. A ropes course can consist of either low or high elements, or both. Low element courses have a group-oriented focus and all ow for participants to engage in interactions that emphasize shared responsibility, which encourages cooperative problemsolving. High element ropes course consist of the same group interactions as in low element courses, and include a combination of both vertical challenges and horizontal challenges, constructed from wood, cable and ropes installed above the ground and strung between trees, wood poles or steel framework. Prev ious research by Glass and Meyers (2001) established that low and high element ropes courses are most successful when appropriate activities were utilized, proper equipm ent was used, and the staff was both experienced and well-trained. The trend of ropes course programs focusing on adol escents and children continued with a specific emphasis on youth ages 13 to 17 years old who are dealing with psychological, sociological, behavioral, emotional, cultural, academic, or family problems (Fletcher & Hinkle, 2002; Moote &Wodarski, 1997). This focus on youth atrisk has led to adventure education research in man y settings, such as camps, residential centers, and public schools. Empirical studies beg inning in the 1980s established the

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21 efficacy of adventure-based experiential programs p ositively impacting adolescents and adults in their psychological, social, and vocation al functioning (Niell, 2003). For the purposes of this literature review, my focu s is on existing research regarding adventure-based experiential programs suc h as ropes courses and other challenge course programs and their impact on socio logical and psychological issues and experiences. I specifically focus on addressing st udies conducted with adolescent populations; however, some studies are included tha t address particular areas I believe to be important in order to establish the overall effi cacy of adventure-based experiential education programs. Gibson’s (1979) historical account of experiential and outdoor adventure education programs explains that these programs fir st began in the United States in the 1930s, when medical professionals first discovered the benefits of outdoor activities such as therapeutic camping on the psychological needs o f their child patients. Fletcher and Hinkle (2002) assert that one of the first structur ed experiential education programs was Outward Bound. In the 1940s in Wales, Hahn and Hol t created the basic tenets of the Outward Bound experiential education program for yo uth that were planning to enter the armed services. These tenets included leadership s kills, communication, risk-taking, and team building. Hahn and Holt’s development of outdoor experiences revolved around the central themes that the program (1) has students pledge the mselves to their personal goals, (2) controls for time and location, (3) maintains eleme nts of adventure and risk, (4) operates in small groups to allow for leadership traits to e merge, and (5) includes a component of community service (Fletcher & Hinkle, 2002). Later after World War II, Outward

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22 Bound expanded the philosophies and guidelines of t he program to include additional principles such as fitness, initiative, memory, ski ll, self-discipline, and compassion. Outward Bound first emerged from Europe to the Unit ed States in the 1960s and laid the foundation and imputes for experiential education p rograms. Notably, ABC counseling draws its core principles f rom experiential education programs such as Outward Bound and group counseling (Itin, 2001). Existing literature provides a clear distinction between ABC counseling and other experiential outdoor education programs: this difference is ABC counseli ng’s inclusion of counseling strategies and techniques into the process of outdo or adventure experiences. Roberts and Yerkes (2000) assert that in the past 2 5 years, there has been an increase in research investigating the impact of ex periential education. Meyer and Wagner (1998) investigated the short and long-term effects of an ABC counseling process that took place on a single day. Their foc us was on examining the impact on team building in athletes, as well as the residual impact on the athlete’s performance in the team sport. The participants in this study wer e adolescent females on a tennis team. An analysis of the data concluded that both individ ual and group benefits relating to group cohesion were achieved as a result of their p articipation in the ABC counseling program. Although individual differences existed i n regard to the scope and magnitude of the gain, the study concluded that adolescent at hletes can attain psychosocial benefits through their participation in an ABC counseling co urse, such as increased self-esteem and increased leadership skills. In another study, Glass and Benshoff (2002) examine d ABC counseling in conjunction with clinically-based group counseling. Adolescent clients participating in

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23 group counseling were also exposed to the treatment of ABC counseling. This study also focused on a one-day low ropes challenge course foc using on increasing cooperation, while at the same time moving the clients to confro nt their emotional and physical comfort zones (Glass & Meyers, 2001). Glass and Be nshoff (2002) reported that the adolescents who participated in the ABC counseling experienced an increase in group cohesion, and allowed the participants to take resp onsibility and experience success in the group activities. In addition, the participating ad olescents reported they were able to find ways to transfer the learning from the program to t heir everyday lives. A study examining the effect of an adventure-based program on the development of resiliency in low-income minority youth was cond ucted by Green, Kleiber, and Tarrant (2000). In this study, an adventure based ropes co urse program was offered over the course of a summer and students ages 10-16 were ask ed to volunteer for participation. The program included low ropes course elements and the program facilitator conducted education processing with the participants prior to during, and after each activity. The result indicated that overall student resiliency im proved significantly. However, the scores declined six weeks after the treatment, indi cating a need to further examine the long-term impact of these types of programs. Neill (2003) asserted that the most effective and r elevant way to evaluate the effectiveness of adventure therapy programs was thr ough meta-analyses. Currently there are a few meta-analyses examining studies that have investigated various aspects of adventure based education programs (Bunting & Donle y, 2001; Carson & Gillis, 1994; Hans, 2002; Hattie et al., 1997), as well as studie s that have summarized meta-analyses in adventure or outdoor education (Neill, 2002; Neill & Richards, 1998). Neill (2003)

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24 summarized the results of all of the above mentione d studies representing a total sample population of 12,000 participants. This researcher concluded that adventure based education had an impact on outcomes such as an incr ease in self-confidence, locus of control, and self-esteem with an effect size betwee n .3 to .4. Two meta-analyses of particular importance are the work of Cason and Gillis (1994) and Hattie et al. (1997), whose research sug gests that adventure education programs are beneficial to improving one’s life eff ectiveness and dimensions of the self. One notable attribute asserted by Hattie et al. (19 97) was that these treatment effects were seen to increase with time as measured in periodic future intervals and that a theme emerged regarding the length of programs, in that l onger time lengths tended to yield more positive results. Because of the numerous typ es of adventure based experiential education programs, Neill (2003) cautioned making b lanket claims about the effectiveness of adventure therapy programs. Inste ad, Neill explains that existing studies examining varieties of adventure therapy programs “ suggest potential, and encourage closer analysis of particular types of adventure ba sed programming” (2003, p. 318). The impact of ABC counseling on adolescent self-est eem. Self-esteem has long been recognized as a vastly important construc t in adolescent development (Mandara et al., 2009; Newman & Newman, 2009). Res earch has established that ABC counseling is efficacious in enhancing adolescent s ense of self and self-esteem (Faulkner, 2001; Garst et al., 2001; Neill & Richards, 1998; W ick & Wick, 1997). This change in self-esteem is believed to be the result of partici pation in problem solving tasks, risktaking activities, and individual and group process ing of the events (Neill & Richards, 1998). Self Determination Theory (SDT) might sugge st these elements positively impact

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25 self-esteem by providing competence feedback; or mo re generally, by satisfying the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, an d autonomy. The following studies represent a sample of existing literature addressin g the topic of utilizing ABC counseling to increase levels of adolescent self-esteem. Wick and Wick (1997) investigated the efficacy of a dventure therapy improving self-esteem with elementary school children. Their study consisted of six brief sessions using adventure therapy and focused on employing sp ecific adventure therapy tasks based on Adlerian thought. The most significant ch aracteristics of these tasks are: (1) group, (2) unfamiliar, (3) noncompetitive, and (4) cooperative. The participants in this study were 42 fifth grade students at a single elem entary school. The researchers used the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale (Piers & Harris 1984) and found a significant increase in self-esteem scores following the advent ure therapy interventions. A study by Garst et al. (2001) examined studies of outdoor adventure programs and their impact on adolescent self-esteem and self perception. These researchers concluded that although some studies support that a positive impact on self-esteem and self perception occurs as a result of one’s partici pation in an adventure education program, other studies show mixed results. In rega rds to study design, Garst and colleagues found that most researchers examining ou tdoor adventure programs use quantitative experimental designs with pre-test and post-test questionnaires to evaluate the impact of outdoor adventure program participati on. Interestingly, the researchers found that few studies collected longitudinal data to establish the long-term impact of such programs.

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26 Sibthorp (2003) examined the relationship between a ntecedent factors of participants, self-efficacy, and participant percep tions of the characteristics of a particular outdoor adventure experience. The researcher found that participants’ perceptions of characteristics of the adventure experience were fo und to be associated with positive changes in individually reported self-efficiency. Herbert (2001) conducted a study with supported employment workers who were randomly assi gned to participate in an adventure based counseling program. The results in dicated those people who were in the experiential treatment group developed greater self -esteem than those from the control group. Faulkner (2001) evaluated the impact of a ropes cou rse on foster children and parents before and after participating in a low-ele ments ropes course. The study investigated the effect of the ropes course interve ntion on self-esteem and cohesion among family members and used a quasi-experimental design with pre and post tests. The scales used included the Self Report Family Ins trument, the Kansas Family Life Satisfaction Scale, the Self-Esteem Rating Scale, a nd the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. An analysis of covariance was conducted and control led for the variables of ethnicity and income. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale results were found to be significant F (1, 26) = 14.15. p = 0.001, indicating a significant increase in self-esteem scores occurred. Aghazarian (1996) conducted a mixed methods study o n ABC counseling to determine the impact on adolescent self-esteem. A one-day program of ABC counseling was utilized as the treatment for 17 high school st udents, with a control group comprised of 23 students who did not receive the treatment. Self-esteem was measured three times (pre, post and follow-up) by the Self-Perception Pr ofile for Adolescents, as well as

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27 qualitative data in the form of participant comment s. A two-way t-test was conducted to compare gain scores; the results showed a significa nt increase in global self-esteem for the treatment group as opposed to the control. In addition, a qualitative analysis of the participant comments and feedback on the treatment supported the self-esteem increase. The impact of ABC counseling on adolescent empathy. Emotional expression and understanding include both verbal and non-verba l expressions of individual feelings as well as focused listening skills and awareness o f others (Cook, 2008). ABC counseling programs provide group experiences that allow participants opportunities to experience, express and explore their emotions, as well as to listen and become aware of the emotions of others. This programmatic group ex periences has been shown to catalyze a potential increase in interpersonal skills includ ing understanding others and developing increased levels of empathy (Cook, 2008; Russell, 2 001). The following studies investigated the impact of ABC counseling in the ar eas of empathy development, social competence, self-awareness, and awareness of others A study conducted by Autry (2001) with adolescent, at-risk girls investigated the impact of ABC counseling on their feelings, their a ttitudes, and their perceptions of others. In this qualitative study, the researcher sought to explore the feelings, attitudes, and perceptions of at-risk girls subsequent to thei r participation in an adventure therapy program. Autry analyzed qualitative data from inte rviews of nine participants between the ages of 13 and 18 years old. Specific themes e merged from data gathered from the participants, including trust, understanding others empathy, empowerment, teamwork, and the recognition of personal value. The study al so indicated that the participants experienced empowerment in these thematic areas.

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28 Boudette (1989) conducted a study to examine a 24-d ay ABC counseling course as a supplemental component to a traditional probat ion program. The participants in this study were 69 juvenile offenders who were referred to the program by their probation offices or counselors. Control and treatment group s were utilized in this study and all participants completed the Jesness Inventory Scale, the Global Self-Esteem Scale, a Student Attitude Questionnaire, and a self-report s cale prior to their participation. The Jesness Inventory Scale and Global Self-Esteem Scal e were administered again at intervals of one month and four months after the co mpletion of the program. Results showed that participants experienced a significant increase in empathy and relatedness to others, self-awareness, and a sense of belonging. Combs (2001) completed a study to evaluate ABC coun seling with at-risk youth and found that the counseling intervention enhanced self-efficacy of the participants, including their experience of empathy and self-comp etence. This study included an 8week ABC counseling intervention. Participants com pleted the Children’s NowwickiStrickland Internal External Local of Control Scale (CNSIE), the Coopersmith SelfEsteem Inventory (SEI), and the Children’s Self-Eff icacy for Peer Interaction Scale (SSRS). Each participant completed the scales thre e times, one before the treatment and twice afterwards in intervals, one week and one mon th. Repeated measure ANOVAs were completed and the results indicated that the A BC counseling intervention produced a significantly positive change in participant leve ls of self-understanding and empathy as well as levels of self-efficacy. A study by Saunders (2002) examined the efficacy of an adolescent leadership program which was primarily based on outdoor, exper iential education. The program

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29 lasted one semester and included 67 contact hours w ith 25 participants. The finding of this qualitative study produced central themes whic h included increased confidence, self and social awareness, and empathy. A study by Eagle, Gordon, and Lewis (2000) investig ated the impact of a one-day ABC counseling program using challenge ropes course activities with 100 students in a Maryland school district. The 24-item Life Effecti veness Questionnaire (LEQ-H) was completed by all 100 participants who ranged in age from 10-18. The questionnaire was completed twice, once before the treatment and once again 30 days after the experience. A review of the data showed improvement in the area s of empathy, emotional control, emotional understanding, and task leadership. Additionally, McCormick (1995) completed a descript ive research study which utilized a naturalistic inquiry paradigm to gain in sight and understanding into the ways individuals perceive that an adventure counseling e xperience for couples is useful in building skills for healthy intimate relationships. The participants for this qualitative study included five couples. Interviews were condu cted with each participant prior to the 15 hour ABC counseling treatment, which included lo w and high element challenge activities as well as workshop time in a group coun seling format. Telephone interviews were conducted three months after the treatment wit h all participants. From the data analysis, themes emerged indicating that the partic ipants found value in the ABC counseling treatment relating specifically to selfawareness, empathy, awareness of other, and awareness of relationship issues. In sum, there have been several studies exploring A BC counseling with adolescents investigating outcomes such as self-est eem and empathy. Most studies have

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30 shown ABC counseling to be efficacious in increasin g both self-esteem and empathy of the participants. The Impact of Racism on High School Adolescents The impact of racism has been well established in t he literature as having detrimental effects on high school adolescents (All adin, 1996; Dei et al., 1997; Gillborn, 1995; Lee, 2003, 2005; McCarthy & Crichlow, 1993; M cLaren & Torres, 1999; Troyna, 1993). Research demonstrates that a substantial nu mber of adolescents in the United States experience discrimination on a consistent ba sis and these experiences have been found to be associated with negative outcomes such as delinquency and substance abuse (Greene et al., 2006; Gibbons et al., 2007; Rosenbl oom & Way, 2004; Seaton, 2006; Simmons et al., 2003). In addition, research inves tigating the impact of racism on adolescent psychological well-being shows that raci sm leads to lower self-concept and feelings of hopelessness (Nynorg & Curry, 2003). The impact of racism on adolescents in the public s chool setting is also significant. Research supports that adolescent min orities in the United States encounter numerous barriers in the educational system that im pact their ability to experience success in school and in their future career attain ment (Arbona, 1990; Constantine, Erickson, Banks, & Timberlake, 1998; D’Andrea, 1995 ; Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000; Wong et al., 2003). In particular, the schoo l setting has been described in studies as providing elements that support racism such as s ocial exclusion, presence and awareness of racial group stereotypes, and heighten ed racial salience (Rosenbloom & Way, 2004; Seidman, Allen, Aber, Mitchell, & Feinma n, 1994).

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31 Leibkind et al. (2004) examined racism with adolesc ents and asserted that school functioning is adversely impacted, resulting in def iciencies in academics, discipline, attendance, social skills, and peer relationships. Research also shows that a negative correlation exists between the academic achievement of adolescent ethnic minorities and racism (Fisher et al., 2000; Small et al., 2007; St eele, 1997; Wong et al., 2003). In addition, studies have found that adolescent school functioning, accomplishments achieved in school, and adolescent attitudes toward school are adversely effected by the perception that racial discrimination exists (Foste r, 2000; Liebkin et al., 2004; Vega et al., 1987; Vega & Rumbaut, 1991). The potential impact of ABC counseling on racism. ABC counseling has been found through empirical research to positively impa ct participant self-esteem, selfefficacy, and self-concept (Herbert, 2001; Neill, 2 003; Neill & Richards, 1998; Sibthorp, 2003; Silka & Hart, 1994; Wick & Wick, 1997), as we ll as to increase empathy, interpersonal skills, and understanding of others ( Autry, 2001; Combs, 2001; Cook, 2008; Russell, 2001). Although there have been many stud ies examining the impact of ABC counseling with adolescents in various areas, liter ature specifically addressing ABC counseling as a treatment for reducing racism is la cking. Searches based on PsycINFO (EBSCO), MEDLINE (CSA), ERIC (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts), Wilson Omnifile Full Text Mega Edition, and Academic Search Premier with key terms such as Adventure Based Counseling, ABC counseling, Ropes Course, Rac ism, Discrimination, and Racist produced no results. The potential impact of ABC c ounseling reducing racism is established by the theoretical assumptions of the S ocial Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner,

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32 1979) and research by Davis (2004), Dovidio et al. (2000), Hong et al. (2004), and McFarland (1998), and our own observations in our h igh school. Based on Social Identity Theory, adolescents treat their social group and other groups differently, often favoring their in-group w hile discriminating against out-groups (Tajfel, Flament, Billig, & Bundy, 1971). Houston and Andreopoulou (2003) assert that human beings possess an innate need for positive se lf-esteem, and as a result, threatened or low self-esteem will motivate individuals toward intergroup discrimination. Tajfel and Turner (1979) suggest that an individual’s self-est eem is viewed as being significantly linked to the actions and shared identities of the groups to which they belong. The Social Identity Theory describes the occurrence of discrim ination as the result of groups attempting to enhance individual self-esteem and co llective group efficacy (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Tajfel, 1978, 1981, 1982). Summary It is clear from existing literature that ABC couns eling produces positive outcomes with adolescents and adults in various are as including self-esteem, selfefficacy, and self-concept (Herbert, 2001; Neill, 2 003; Neill & Richards, 1998; Sibthorp, 2003; Silka & Hart, 1994; Wick & Wick, 1997), incre asing empathy, interpersonal skills, and understanding of others (Autry, 2001; Combs, 20 01; Cook, 2008; Russell, 2001); self confidence, locus of control and life-effectiveness (Cason & Gillis; 1994; Hattie et al., 1997; Newberry & Lindsay, 2000), group cohesiveness team building, and group perceptions (Bolduc, 1998; Glass & Benshoff, 2002; Meyer & Wagner, 1998; Priest, 1998; Steinfel, 1997), and adolescent resiliency (G reen et al., 2000). As a result of this

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33 comprehensive literature review, no studies were fo und that address the impact of ABC counseling on adolescent racism. It is clear that self-esteem and empathy are vitall y important elements in adolescent development and play key roles in the so cial-emotional experience of high school adolescents (Newman & Newman, 2009). In add ition, the efficacy of ABC counseling positively impacting these variables has been well-established in the literature. There were, however, no studies found that address self-esteem and empathy related to ABC counseling and racism. It is the be lief of the researcher after reviewing existing research that by enhancing self-esteem and empathy using ABC counseling, a reduction in perceived racism and racist attitudes may be achieved by those adolescents engaged in the treatment.

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34 Chapter Three: Methodology In Chapter three, I present the research questions structure, and design of the proposed study. I will provide a description of th e participants, sample size justification, sampling method, and a thorough explanation of the instruments to be used. Next, I will include a thorough explanation of the data collecti on and instrument implementation procedures. I will provide the data analysis plan, and conclude with a discussion of the limitations of the study. Research Design In this study, a cross-sectional quantitative resea rch design was used to investigate subset populations comparing differences among subj ects in two groups of a single treatment. A descriptive statistical approach was utilized for tabulating, depicting and describing sets of data collected from participants and teacher observers completing preand postsurveys (Glass & Hopkins, 1996). Inferen tial statistics were used to establish the occurrence of statistical difference between co ntrol and ABC counseling group for each outcome variable: self-esteem, empathy, percei ved racial discrimination, and racist attitudes. Correlational statistics were used to e xamine the relationships between outcome variables. Finally, an inferential statist ical approach was used to examine differences by group and time for the variables: ge nder, ethnicity, total discipline referrals, racism-related discipline referrals, att endance and grade point average.

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35 This study examined the dependent or criterion vari ables self-esteem, empathy, perceived racial discrimination, and racist attitud es. Additional dependent variables used in the ancillary analysis included total discipline referrals, racism-related discipline referrals, attendance, and grade point average. Th e independent or predictor variable for this study was ABC counseling serving as the treatm ent. Additional variables examined included gender and ethnicity; these were grouping variables—independent variables used in the analysis for hypothesis 7. The dependent variables self-esteem, empathy, perce ived racial discrimination, and racist attitudes were measured at baseline, one -week posttest, and one-month followup. The study specifically sought to establish any significant differences that occurred between the control and ABC groups for two time per iods: baseline to one-week posttest, and one-week posttest to one-month follow-up. The rational for measuring these two time periods was to establish if any significant ch anges occurred immediately following the treatment (baseline to one-week posttest), as w ell as to determine if the treatment continued to produce a significant effect from oneweek posttest to one-month follow-up. The ABC counseling facility selected for this stud y was the local YMCA. The facility is located on a 10-acre wooded property, a t a reasonable distance from the high school, and includes large open space for the low e lements; high elements include a 65 foot Alpine Tower, and a 55-foot multi-faced climbi ng wall. All the staff members at this YMCA are trained in the ABC counseling model. This four-day, 28-hour training is conducted at the Project Adventure headquarters in Massachusetts, which is recognized in the field as a premiere training site for this t ype of adventure counseling in the United States. The two trainers who conducted the ABC cou nseling program for this study

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36 completed the Project Adventure ABC counseling trai ning: one trainer was approaching completion of his master’s degree in counseling, an d one trainer had completed her bachelor’s degree in recreation. To reduce potential biases and threats to the study methodological precautions were taken. First, a double-blind experimental met hod was utilized. A double-blind experiment is an experimental method used to ensure impartiality, and avoid errors arising from bias (Shuttleworth, 2008). This appro ach was used to both ensure participants’ confidentiality and eliminate subject ive biases on the part of the student participants, the four teachers assisting with the research, and the researcher. Because the researcher and teachers work with this population o f students, the double-blind model greatly lessened the potential impact of conscious or unconscious biases by eliminating possible contamination of sample selection or data by subjectivity. Second, because the primary researcher is also an assistant principal a t the study site, arrangements were made for him to stay removed from the students; the teac hers handled sampling, instrument administration, data collection, and ABC counseling supervision. ABC counseling format. The ABC counseling format used for this intervent ion included team building activities, leadership skill building, problem solving, and physical challenges. The first half of the day consisted of several low rope course activities intermixed with group counseling and the second hal f of the day included the same group counseling component with two high ropes course ele ments. Each activity was always followed by a leader-led group process, similar to group counseling. The participants were asked to share perspectives on their personal contribution to the group, their experience in the group, and the group’s ability to function together as a whole. In each

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37 group process activity the leaders included themes of diversity, tolerance, world view, and perceptions of others. During the ABC counseli ng program the students were often divided into their respective groups of 18 and aske d to function as a group to solve various puzzles, problems, and activities. The gro up counseling components mostly took place in these smaller group formats. Prior to conducting this study, the study proposal was submitted to the University’s Institutional Review Board (IRB). Onc e approved by the IRB, participant recruitment began. Participants A sample of 108 students attending a large suburban high school in a southern state of United States participated in this study. Participants in this study included 36 (33.3%) African American, 36 (33.3%) Caucasian, and 36 (33.3%) Latina/o students attending grades 9-12. The gender of the participa nts was comprised of 54 (50%) males and 54 (50%) females. The age range of the partici pants was approximately 14-18 years old; data on age was not collected on participants. The participants in this study were recruited from four teachers’ classrooms at the high school where the researcher is an assistant pr incipal and special actions to reduce potential biases were taken (see Research Methods f or a description of these actions). These four teachers volunteered to assist with the study, and were recruited by the researcher because of their ethnically diverse clas srooms, and their willingness to further research in the area of the study. In addition, th ese teachers were recruited because the courses they teach are all “core” courses, meaning that the entire student body must take the courses, not a specific population or special s ubgroup. The teachers understood that

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38 by participating they would also chaperone the ABC counseling events functioning as ‘observers,’ assist with collecting the student mea surements, and complete two surveys. The four teachers announced the study to their stud ents, reading a script provided by the researcher (see Appendix A). Participation was voluntary and interested students received permission forms that included the Institu tional Review Board Parental Consent (see Appendix B) and the Institutional Review Board Student Assent (Appendix C), and the YMCA Ropes Course liability release (see Append ix D). Students were given one week to return the packets. The four teachers coll ected a total of 252 returned and completed permission packets out of 291 distributed a response rate of 86%. The permission packets were given by the teachers t o a secretary who has no knowledge of the research design and who agreed to assist with the returned information but was not involved in any other practical aspects of the research. The secretary was given instructions to assign a sequential number to each of the returned student permission packets. In addition, a letter was adde d next to the number to represent the student’s ethnicity; “L” for Latina/o, “A” for Afri can American, and “C” for Caucasian. Then, a second letter was added to represent the st udent’s gender, M or F accordingly. Thus, each student that returned a signed permissio n packet was assigned a number to represent him/her, a letter to represent their ethn icity, and a letter to represent their gender such as “31AF.” This would indicate student number 31 is an African American Female. Because this study is specifically examining Africa n American, Latina/o and Caucasian adolescents, nine permission packets received from students of other ethnicities were not included. A total of 243 completed packages were i ncluded in the study.

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39 To protect the confidentially of the participants, the 243 participant permission packets, each containing a code next to the student name, were entered by the secretary into a spreadsheet. This data included the student names and two identifying codes, each entered into a separate Excel cell. The data input was then double-checked for accuracy by a second secretary, who did not have any additio nal knowledge of the research nor participated in any other procedures involved in it The permission packets containing the student names were locked in a secure cabinet i n a locked private room. The master file containing the student names and identifying c odes was stored as an encrypted file, on a password protected computer in a locked and se cure office. The researcher was provided with a modified master list of coded poten tial participants (no student names), with the identifying codes only indicating student number, ethnicity and gender. Both secretaries were given explicit instructions on dat a input procedures including the importance of following protocol to maintain studen t confidentiality. Sample Size Justification Cohen (1992b) describes the importance in research of establishing an appropriate sample size necessary for the statistical analysis with considerations of power, population effect size, and level of significance. Cohen (1992 b) wrote: Statistical power analysis exploits the relationshi ps among the four variables involved in statistical inference: sample size (N), significance criterion (ft), population effect size (ES), and statistical power. For any statistical model, these relationships are such that each is a function of t he other three. For example, in power reviews, for any given statistical test, we c an determine power for given a

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40 N, and ES. For research planning, however, it is mo st useful to determine the N necessary to have a specified power for given a and ES. (p. 99) It is important to determine when to reject the nul l hypothesis (i.e., the probability of committing a Type I error), and this is accompli shed through the determination of an acceptable significance level. For this study the standard values for significance level represented by a are set according to Aczel and Sounderpandian (2006 ) at 10%, 5%, and 1%. An a = .05 corresponds to (1 a ) = 0.95 probability of a correct statistical conclusion when the null hypothesis is true (Lipsey 1990). A .95 probability is equivalent to a 95% confidence level to reject 0H (Aczel & Sounderpandian, 2006). For the purposes of this research, the level a = .05, the most commonly designated value in social science research for this parameter, was use d for the analysis (Lipsey, 1990). The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis wh en the null hypothesis is false is referred to as the power of significance test. An acceptable level of power for the proposed study is .80, making the Type II error fou r times as likely as the Type I error. Cohen (1992a) asserts that because it is usually mo re serious to make a false positive claim than it is to make a false negative claim, .8 0 is an acceptable level and for this study was considered in determining the sample size a priori. Regarding regression, Cohen (1992a) asserts that ef fect sizes are small if they are .02, medium if they are .15 and large if they are 35. Regarding a correlation, effect sizes are small if they are .10, medium if they are .30, and large if they are .50. Cohen discusses that in choosing an effect size, research ers need to decide how small a difference they are willing to accept and still fin d the results worthwhile. A large sample is required in order to allow a very small effect s ize. On the contrary, a small sample size

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41 is required to allow a large effect size. Thus, th e power of a test is proportionate to the sample size with greater power from a larger effect size. A medium effect size is appropriate for the proposed study and was used in the determination of the sample size. The proposed study includes correlations, ANOVAs, a nd regression analyses. Of these, the correlation analyses require the most st ringent sample size. Considering the medium effect size of .30, a generally accepted pow er of .80, and a .05 level of significance, the necessary sample size to achieve empirical validity is a total of 85 participants (Cohen, 1992a). The size of the sampl e used in this study is 108 and exceeds the required sample size. Sampling A stratified sampling method, also known as propor tional random sampling was used for this study. The students were divided int o homogeneous subgroups and then assigned using a simple random sample into 6 groups This sampling approach was most appropriate because the study sought to examine dis tinct categories of ethnicities; African American, Latina/o, and Caucasian. The coded list of 243 potential participants was organized by the researcher into separate categorie s containing 48 Caucasian males, 30 Latino males, 23 African American males, 70 Caucasi an females, 41 Latina females, and 31 African American females. Each stratum was then sampled as an independent subpopulation, out of which individual elements were r andomly selected. Based on the sample size justification, this study included a to tal of 108 participants. To insure that the sample represented a balanced number of Caucasian, African America, Latina/o, male and female students, the stratified sampling proces s allowed the researcher to randomly and anomalously[sp?] select 6 groups of 18 students Each group contained the following

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42 categories: 3 African American males, 3 African Ame rican females, 3 Latino males, 3 Latina females, 3 Caucasian males, and 3 Caucasian females. The researcher used a random number table to create the 6 randomly balanced groups. The coded data was provided to the secreta ry who created a list of student names. The list with the student names was given t o the four teachers with instructions to notify the students who were selected for study and the group number that they were assigned. All students were informed that the selection proce ss was random, and the four teachers were asked to present a short classroom le sson on basic statistical random selection that the researcher supplied. Students w ho were not selected as participants were placed on a waiting list and informed that if a place opened, they may be asked to participate. During the day of the ABC counseling event four substitute teachers taught the remaining students. No additional class work w as given to this group; the day was used as review time and a study hall. All student participants and parents were informed that students could refuse to participate in the study at any time with no conseq uence. During the course of this study, three students chose to withdraw or were unable to participate in the ABC counseling event. For sampling purposes, these three particip ants were replaced with students from the original waiting list. School-Based Student Data At the high school where this study took place, int er-racial violence and racial discrimination are measured through discipline inci dents and documented on discipline referrals. Specific codes are used to indicate if an incident was racism-related. In order

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43 to operationally define and measure the behavioral occurrence of racism, as well as the potential impact of the ABC counseling treatment, s tudent behavioral data were gathered. This behavioral data included the number of general discipline referrals from all categories and the number of specific discipline re ferrals that were racism-related. In addition, data on student attendance and academic p erformance were collected to establish if there was any residual impact from the ABC counseling treatment on these variables. Attendance data measured truancy repres ented by the total number of unexcused absences. Unexcused absences are those w here the student is unaccounted for and recognized by the school district as truant. B aseline data for discipline referrals and attendance was collected for a period of one month prior to the intervention, while outcome data was collected for one month after the intervention. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA). Baselin e was taken from the semester GPA before the ABC counseling treatment, and outcom e was taken from the third quarter GPA after the treatment, given that the follow-up w as only a month afterwards. All student behavioral data information was pulled from the school database by a secretary nave to the research and total numbers f or each student, control and experimental, were entered into a master spreadshee t. All data entered was nonidentifiable to any of the participants. The parti cipants’ confidentiality was protected on the master data sheet by coding each participant wi th a corresponding number. Instruments The instrument utilized in this study will be descr ibed and explained in the following sections.

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44 Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (see Appendix E) was developed by Rosenberg (1965) and used as a global measure of self-esteem, including self-respect and self-acceptance. The 10 -item self-report questionnaire utilizes a 4-point Likert-type scale that ranges from “stron gly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (4). A few sample items from the instrument are (1 ) I feel that I'm a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others, and (2) I feel that I have a number of good qualities. Total points range from 0-30; 30 indicates the high est possible score and high scores relate to greater self-esteem. The Rosenberg SelfEsteem Scale operationally defines self-esteem with this instrument as scores above 25 indicating high self-esteem, scores between 15 and 25 within normal range, and scores b elow 15 suggesting low self-esteem. This instrument was developed on a sample of 5,024 high school students in New York State and is shown to have high reliability. Test-retest correlation coefficients range from .77 to .85 and Cronbach’s alpha range fr om .74.80, depending upon the sample (see Mccarthy & Hoge, 1982; Silbert & Tippet t, 1965; and Shahani, Dipboye, & Phillips, 1990 for details). Multiple studies have validated use of the Rosenber g Self-Esteem Scale with various adolescent populations such as Latina/o, Af rican American, Caucasian, and biethnic adolescents (Connor, Poyrazli, Ferrer-Wreder & Grahame, 2004), Chinese adolescents (Song, Thompson, & Ferrer, 2009), and a cross age groups with White and African American adolescents and adults (WhitesideMansell & Corwyn, 2003). This instrument is known as the most widely used an d accepted measurement of self-esteem. It was selected for use in this study based on its extensive usage with and established appropriateness for research with the a dolescent population.

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45 General Ethnic Discrimination Scale. The General Ethnic Discrimination Scale (GEDS) is an 18-item self-report questionnaire that measures perceived ethnic discrimination. This scale (see Appendix F) measu res the degree to which participants feel discriminated against. This instrument provid es the opportunity to measure participant responses related to perceiving racial discrimination in “the past year,” in their “entire life,” and the stress level experienced as a result of the racism. For the preset study, the researcher measured the participants’ pe rception of racism in the “current school year.” This was clearly indicated in the di rections for the students completing the instrument. The 18-item self-report questionnaire utilizes a 6point Likert-type scale that ranges from 1 “never” to 6 “almost all the time.” The first two items of the scale are: (1) How often have you been treated unfairly by teacher s because of your race/ethnic group? And, (2) How often have you been treated unfairly b y your employers, bosses and supervisors because of your race/ethnic group? Total points range from 0-90; 90 indicates the high est possible score. Originally developed for use with African Americans, the GED s cale has been utilized with other race/ethnic groups (Landrine, Klonoff, Corral, Fern andez & Roesch, 2006). Internal consistency reliability was shown to be high for fo ur major ethnic groups with Cronbach’s alpha ranging between .91-.95 for Whites .93-.95 for African Americans, .93-.94 for Latinos and .91-.94 for Asian Americans (Landrine et al, 2006). It has a reading level of grade 5.4 (Flesch, 1948, 1974 in L andrine et al, 2006). Factorial validity supports the scale as a measure of the underlying construct of perceived ethnic discrimination, with strong factor loadings that range between .82 and

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46 .99 for a sample of multi-ethnic adults, and betwee n .80 and .98 for a sample of collegeage students from four ethnic groups, African Ameri can, Asian, Latina/o, and Caucasian (Landrine et al, 2006). This study used the GED to examine several ethnic groups and found that women experience less discrimination tha n men, and that African Americans report more discrimination than Asian Americans. A sian Americans report higher levels than Latinos over their lifetime, and all groups re ported more perceived discrimination than Caucasian Americans (Landrine et al., 2006). Previous research has indicated that the GED demons trates high internal consistency ( r =.94 –.95), one-month test–retest reliability ( r =.95–.96) and validity (Klonoff & Landrine, 1999, 2000; Landrine & Klonoff 1996, 2000; Landrine et al., 2006), and adequately differentiates frequency of d iscriminatory events across ethnic groups (Landrine et al., 2006). In a study by Hwan g and Goto (2008), the researchers examined perceived discrimination with a sample of 186 Latina/o and Asian young adults from a local college. In this study, the GED demon strated strong internal consistency ( r =.94 –.95). There is no published cut-off that defines excessiv e perceptions of racism occurring related to this scale. For the purposes of this study the following operational definitions of perceived racism were used; above 60 indicates an elevated level of perceived racial discrimination, 30-60 indicates a moderate amount, and below 30 indicates a low amount. This decision was based on a similar model provided by McConahay (1986) for the Modern Racism Scale There are a very limited number of instruments exam ining perceived ethnic discrimination. This instrument was selected for u se with this study because it is the only

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47 existing scale measuring perceived racism that has established reliability with the three ethnic groups in this study, African Americans, Lat ina/os, and Caucasians. Basic Empathy Scale. The Basic Empathy Scale (BES) was developed by Jolliffe and Farrington (2006), who examined the re lationship between low empathy and aggressive behaviors with adolescents such as bully ing (see Appendix G). The scale measures two components of empathic responsiveness, including emotional congruence with another individual’s emotions (affective empat hy) and the ability to understand another individual’s emotions (cognitive empathy). The 20-item questionnaire asks participants to endorse their level of agreement wi th items based on a 5-point Likert scale that ranges from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“str ongly agree”). Sample items from the instrument include (a) My friend’s emotions don’t a ffect me much, and (b) After being with a friend who is sad about something, I usually feel sad. There is a possible total score of 80, and no publi shed operational definition exists regarding the BES. For this study, scores above 54 indicate an elevated level of perceived racial discrimination, 28-54 a moderate l evel, and below 28 a low level. This was created after Rosenberg’s (1965) model for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The instrument includes two subscales, the Affectiv e BES subscale and the Cognitive BES subscale, which can be used individua lly or combined for a total score (BES Total score). For this study, the BES Total s core was used to provide a single measure of empathy. Factorial validity supports th e scale as a measure of two underlying constructs (affective empathy and cognitive empathy ). Cronbach’s alpha values for the cognitive scale (alpha = .79) and the affective sca le (alpha = .85) were sufficient or better. Nine items correspond to the cognitive sca le and 11 items correspond to the

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48 affective scale. The two subscales were shown to b e well-correlated with a sample of 720 adolescents; males ( r = .41) and females (r = .43). Furthermore, convergent validity was demonstrated with other measures on sympathy, p erspective taking, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness (Jolliffe & Farring ton, 2006). A study by D’Ambrosio, Olivier, Didon, and Besche ( 2008) utilized the BES with a sample of 446 French adolescents. Although no sp ecific ethnicities were reported in this study, results showed an internal consistency of the BES as measured by the Cronbach coefficient of 0.80 (0.77 for affective em pathy measured on 11 items and 0.66 for cognitive empathy measured on 9 items). The te mporal stability coefficient (with correction for attenuation) was 0.83. This instrument has been established as having suff icient construct validity, both convergent and divergent, and was originally design ed for young persons and adolescents (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006). For these reasons, the Basic Empathy Scale was selected for use with this study for this study. Modern Racism Scale. The Modern Racism Scale (see Appendix H) was developed in 1986 by McConahay. The scale was orig inally developed to measure the extent of persons’ racial attitudes and beliefs tow ard African Americans, but DucoteSabey (1999) modified the wording by substituting t he word minority for Black to apply the measure to all minority groups. The scale has seven items, and responses are rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (“strongly di sagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”). Sample items from the instrument include (a) It is easy to understand the anger of minority people in America, and (b) Discrimination against minorities is no longer a problem in the United States. A total score of 28 is obtained by summing the ratings on

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49 each of the seven items. No research exists that o perationally defines the cut-offs for racists attitudes. For the present study, a score above 19 indicates an elevated racist attitude, 9-19 a moderate level, and below 9 a low level or lack of racist attitude. Internal consistency reliability estimates were est ablished in several samples with alpha coefficients ranging from .75 to .86, conside red moderate to moderately high. Test-retest reliabilities range from moderate to hi gh (.72 to .93) among these samples, factor analysis supported the items as a distinct c onstruct (McConahay, 1986). There is sound evidence that supports the Modern Ra cism Scale’s convergent, divergent, and predictive validity. The MRS correl ates with political conservatism (Feldman & Huddy, 2005) as well as with other measu res of prejudice (Ziegert & Hanges, 2005). The MRS predicts attitudes toward r acial policies (Henry & Sears, 2002; McConahay, 1986), and political conservatism and ot her forms of prejudice (Sears & Henry, 2005). The Modern Racism Scale has been ref ined (Henry & Sears, 2002), primarily to fit modern social contexts and minorit y groups such as women (Swim, Aikin, Hall, & Hunter, 1995), Asians (Son Hing, Li, & Zanna, 2002) and visible minorities (Bobocel, Son Hing, Davey, Stanley, & Za nna, 1998). The Modern Racism Scale is the most widely used and recognized instrument designed to measure racists attitudes (Ziegert & Ha nges, 2005). Convergent, divergent, and predictive validity has been established with m ultiple populations. It is for these reasons that this scale was selected for use in thi s study. Perception of Racism Existing in the School Survey. This survey (see Appendix I) was created by the researcher for this study for th e purpose of reporting student participant and teacher observers’ percepti ons of racism existing in the school.

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50 This survey serves an important function by reporti ng the perceptions of both students and teachers regarding perceived presence of racism in the school, and thereby confirming the need for this research. The survey has three items, and responses are rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (“st rongly disagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”). The three items on the instrument include (a) I believe that students in this school often act in a racist manner toward other st udents who are of a different race from themselves, (b) I believe that teachers in this sch ool often act in a racist manner toward students or other teachers who are of a different r ace from themselves, and (c) I believe that administrators in this school often act in a r acist manner toward students or teachers who are a different race from themselves. The surv ey was designed to be given one time to all participants and teacher observers prior to the intervention. Currently no psychometric properties have been established for t he survey, and no consistency alphas exist. The survey results were presented with desc riptive statistics, differentiating gender, ethnicity, control, experimental, and teach er observers. Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Other Races Surve y. This survey (see Appendix J) was developed by the researcher with th e purpose of examining participants’ prior exposure and sensitivity to other races. As discussed, each of the 6 sample groups is mixed ethnically and contains equal amounts of A frican American, Latino, and Caucasian students. A body of literature exists di scussing how mere exposure to the outgroup and cross-racial contact can reduce bias and prejudice (Ebert, 2004; Pettigrew, 2008; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006; Zajonc, 1968, 2001). This survey examines participants’ previous exposure to other races, and sensitivity t o other cultures and ethnicities. Sample questions include (a) In my life, I have NOT been e xposed to a lot of people who are of a

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51 different race than I am (reverse coded), (b) I am sensitive to the experiences of people of other cultures and races that are different from my own culture or race, and (c) I have traveled around the United States and/or foreign co untries and have experienced cultures and races different than my own. The survey has fo ur items. Responses are rated on a 5point Likert scale ranging from 1 (“strongly disagr ee”) to 5 (“strongly agree”). The survey was designed to be given one time to all par ticipants prior to the intervention. Currently no psychometric properties have been esta blished for the survey, and no consistency alphas exist. The survey results were presented with descriptive statistics, differentiating gender, ethnicity, control, and exp erimental. Experience in ABC Counseling Survey. This survey (see Appendix K) was created by the researcher for the purpose of report ing the student participants’ experience in the ABC counseling event. In particular, the su rvey asks about the participants’ experience with physical touch in the ABC counselin g event, their opinion on whether the intervention altered their perception of other people, and whether it influenced how they feel about themselves and the potential of ABC counseling reducing racism. The survey has five items. Participant responses a re rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“s trongly agree”). Sample questions include (a) The physical contact with other student s made me uncomfortable, (b) The Adventure Based Counseling experience changed how I view others in a positive way, and (c) I believe that Adventure Based Counseling h as the potential to reduce racism in high schools. The survey was designed to be given one time to all participants in the experimental group one week after the intervention. Currently no psychometric properties have been established for the survey, an d no consistency alphas exist. The

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52 survey results were presented with descriptive stat istics, differentiating gender and ethnicity. Perceptions of the Students’ Experience in ABC Coun seling Survey. This survey (see Appendix L) was developed by the resear cher to gather information on the teacher observers’ perceptions of the students’ exp erience in the ABC counseling event. Similar to the student ABC counseling experience su rvey, this instrument asked the same questions, worded from the teacher’s perspective. The survey has five items. Teacher responses are rated on a 5-point Likert scale rangi ng from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”). Sample questions include (a) I believe the physical contact with other students made some students uncomfortable, (b) I fe el the Adventure Based Counseling experience changed how students view other students leading them to view others in a more positive way, and (c) I believe that Adventure Based Counseling has the potential to reduce racism in high schools. The survey was desi gned to be given one time to teacher observers one week after the intervention. Current ly no psychometric properties have been established for the survey, and no consistency alphas exist. The survey results were presented with descriptive statistics. ProcedureTwo events of ABC counseling took place, the first included students from groups 1, 3, and 5. The second ABC counseling event took place approximately 1 month later for groups 2, 4, and 6. To support the double-blin d methodology, neither the teachers nor the participants knew if the first or second ABC co unseling event was the experimental or the control. The researcher established that the f irst ABC counseling event would serve as the experimental group, and the second as the co ntrol. For this reason, all the

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53 instruments were administered to the control group before they completed their ABC counseling event, including the pretest, one-week f ollow-up, and one-month follow-up. The control groups’ ABC counseling event took place shortly after the one-month followup instruments were administered. Because a secret ary did all the data input, the researcher was not exposed to any of the participan t names during the entire study. A total of seven instruments were administered to t he student participants in this study; four scales and three surveys. Regarding wh ich participants specifically completed each instrument, a small variance exists between the control and experimental groups as noted below. The instruments were admini stered on three separate occasions, two days prior to the ABC counseling event, one wee k after, and one month after. All measurements were administered to the student parti cipants in a classroom setting by a teacher participant. At each of the three occurren ces, adequate time (fifty minutes) was given for students to complete the instruments in c lass. Each instrument packet was previously labeled with a number that corresponded to a student participant. Teachers distributed the instrument packets to the respectiv e students according to a master list that proctors were provided identifying students and the ir assigned number. This same number was used on all measurements administered to the participants. Teachers informed student participants each time before comp leting the documents that the materials they were completing were confidential. While participants were completing the measurements, other students in the class who w ere not completing an instrument were engaged in a silent reading activity. After each instrument was administered, the teacher proctor bundled the completed instruments in a sealed envelope and pers onally delivered it to the researcher

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54 the same day. The completed instruments were then given to the data secretary for input and afterwards secured in a locked cabinet. Teache rs in this State are very experienced with handling and proctoring high-stakes exams: in fact, each year, mandatory professional development training occurs communicat ing the importance of maintaining test security and confidentiality. This includes p rocedures for securing raw test data and transporting materials from room to room. Two days prior to the ABC counseling treatment, all student participants (control and experimental) completed two surveys and four sc ales: Perception of Racism Existing in the School, Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Ot her Races, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Basic Empathy Scale, General Ethnic Discrimination, and Modern Racism. The six instruments were combined together into a single pa cket for ease and organization. The packet was copied in light blue paper to distinguis h it as the pretest. One week after the experimental group completed ABC counseling, the experimental and control groups completed four scal es; Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Basic Empathy Scale, General Ethnic Discrimination, and M odern Racism. The experimental group completed an additional survey; Experience in the ABC counseling Event. The control group did not complete this survey. The fi ve instruments for the experimental group and the four instruments for the control grou p were combined together into two different packets and copied in white paper (experi mental) and pink paper (control) to signify the one-week posttest. One month after the experimental group completed th e ABC counseling event, the experimental and control groups completed four scal es: Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Basic Empathy, General Ethnic Discrimination, and Modern Racism. The four instruments

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55 were combined together into a single packet and cop ied in lime-green paper to distinguish it as the one-month follow-up. Two days prior to the ABC counseling event, the fou r teacher observers completed the Perception of Racism Existing in the School survey. This was the same survey that the students completed. After witnessi ng the ABC counseling event, the same teachers completed a survey that measured thei r Perceptions of the Students’ Experience in the ABC Event. Teacher observers were given a two-day window to complete each of the surveys. Teachers returned th e completed surveys directly to the data entry secretary. The four teacher participant s did not write their name on the surveys; they were assigned an identifying number w hich was pre-printed on both the preand post-surveys. Data Analysis Data were entered into SPSS version 18.0 for Window s for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample charact eristics. This included material collected on demographic information as well as dat a related to baseline (pretest) and outcome (posttest). Baseline and outcome records w ere collected on the following student behavioral data: total number of discipline referrals, the number of racism-related discipline referrals, the total number of unexcused absences (Attendance), and student Grade point average (GPA). Baseline data for stude nt behavior was collected for a period of one month prior to the intervention, whil e outcome data was collected for one month after the intervention. Students completed a pretest survey about their Perception of Racism Existing in the School, and a survey about their Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Other Races.

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56 Students who participated in ABC counseling first, completed a questionnaire regarding their Experience in Adventure Based Counseling Similarly, teacher observers completed a post intervention questionnaire about their Perceptions of the Students’ Experience in ABC Counseling and a pretest survey about their Perception of Racism Existing in the School Information obtained from these questionnaires i s described in frequencies and percentages. The descriptive statistics will include the frequen cies and percentages, means and standard deviations. Means and standard deviations were carried out on interval/ratio data, and for categorical or nominal data, frequenc ies and percentages were conducted (Howell, 2010). For all analyses Adventure Based Counseling group ( i.e., a predictor variable) was dichotomous (students either participated in th e counseling [yes] or they did not [no]). These were dummy coded to 1 (participated) and 0 (did not participate). Research question 1. Does Adventure Based Counseling increase high schoo l students’ self-esteem? H2o1: Adventure Based Counseling will not increase high school students’ selfesteem from baseline to one-week posttest. H2o2: Adventure Based Counseling will not increase high school students’ selfesteem from one-week posttest to one-month follow-u p. H2a1: Adventure Based Counseling will result in increas es in high school students’ self-esteem from baseline to one-week pos ttest. H2a2: Adventure Based Counseling will result in increas es in high school students’ self-esteem from one-week posttest to one -month follow-up.

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57 To investigate research question 1, hierarchical re gressions were conducted to assess if Adventure Based Counseling impacts high s chool students’ self-esteem. Selfesteem at baseline, one-week, and one-month are con tinuous or interval variable measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale The first regression examined whether self-esteem s cores changed from baseline to one-week as a result of the ABC intervention. At step 1, the mean-centered self-esteem baseline scores were entered into the model along w ith the group membership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered bas eline self-esteem) were entered which investigated the interaction between the self-estee m baseline score and group. The outcome variable in this regression was self-esteem at one-week. The second regression examined whether self-esteem scores changed between one-week and one-month. At step 1, the mean-center ed self-esteem one-week scores were entered into the model along with the group me mbership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered self-esteem one-we ek posttest) was entered which investigated the interaction between the self-estee m one-week scores and group. The outcome variable in this regression was self-esteem at one-month. Research question 2. Does Adventure Based Counseling increase high schoo l students’ Empathy? H2o1: Adventure Based Counseling will not increase high school students’ empathy from baseline to one-week posttest. H2o2: Adventure Based Counseling will not increase high school students’ empathy from one-week posttest to one-month followup.

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58 H2a1: Adventure Based Counseling will result in increas es in high school students’ empathy from baseline to one-week posttes t. H2a2: Adventure Based Counseling will result in increas es in high school students’ empathy from one-week posttest to one-mon th follow-up. To investigate research question 2, hierarchical re gressions were conducted to assess if Adventure Based Counseling impacts high s chool students’ empathy. Empathy at baseline, one-week, and one-month are continuous or interval variable measured by the Basic Empathy Scale The first regression examined whether empathy score s changed from baseline to one-week as a result of the ABC intervention. At st ep 1, the mean-centered empathy baseline scores were entered into the model along w ith the group membership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered bas eline empathy) were entered which investigated the interaction between the empathy ba seline score and group. The outcome variable in this regression was empathy at one-week The second regression examined whether empathy scor es changed between oneweek and one-month. At step 1, the mean-centered e mpathy one-week scores were entered into the model along with the group members hip variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered empathy one-week p osttest) was entered which investigated the interaction between the empathy on e-week scores and group. The outcome variable in this regression was empathy at one-one-month. Research question 3. Does Adventure Based Counseling decrease high schoo l students’ perception of racial discrimination occur ring in the school?

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59 H3o1: Adventure Based Counseling will not decrease high school students’ perception of racial discrimination occurring from baseline to one-week posttest. H3o2: Adventure Based Counseling will not decrease high school students’ perception of racial discrimination occurring from one-week posttest to one-month follow-up. H3a1: Adventure Based Counseling will result in decreas es in high school students’ perception of racial discrimination occur ring from baseline to one-week posttest. H3a2: Adventure Based Counseling will result in decreas es in high school students’ perception of racial discrimination occur ring from one-week posttest to onemonth follow-up. To investigate research question 3, hierarchical re gressions were conducted to assess if Adventure Based Counseling impacts high s chool students’ perception of racial discrimination. Perception of racial discriminatio n at baseline, one-week, and one-month are continuous or interval variable measured by the General Ethnic Discrimination Scale (GEDS). The first regression examined whether GEDS scores c hanged from baseline to one-week as a result of the ABC intervention. At st ep 1, the mean-centered GEDS baseline scores were entered into the model along w ith the group membership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered bas eline GEDS) were entered which investigated the interaction between the GEDS basel ine score and group. The outcome variable in this regression was GEDS at one-week.

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60 The second regression examined whether GEDS scores changed between oneweek and one-month. At step 1, the mean-centered G EDS one-week scores were entered into the model along with the group membership vari able. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered GEDS one-week posttest) was entered which investigated the interaction between the GEDS one-week scores and group. The out come variable in this regression was GEDS at one-one-month. Research question 4. Does Adventure Based Counseling decrease high schoo l students’ racist attitudes? H4o1: Adventure Based Counseling will not decrease high school students’ racist attitudes from baseline to one-week posttest. H4o2: Adventure Based Counseling will not decrease high school students’ racist attitudes from one-week posttest to one-month follo w-up. H4a1: Adventure Based Counseling will result in a decre ase in high school students’ racist attitudes from baseline to one-wee k posttest. H4a2: Adventure Based Counseling will result in a decre ase in high school students’ racist attitudes from one-week posttest t o one-month follow-up. To investigate research question 4, hierarchical re gressions were conducted to assess if Adventure Based Counseling impacts high s chool students’ MRS. MRS at baseline, one-week, and one-month are continuous or interval variable measured by the Modern Racism Scale (MRS). The first regression examined whether scores change d from baseline to one-week as a result of the ABC intervention. At step 1, the mean-centered MRS baseline scores were entered into the model along with the group me mbership variable. At step 2, the

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61 interaction term (group*centered baseline MRS) were entered which investigated the interaction between the MRS baseline score and grou p. The outcome variable in this regression was MRS at one-week. The second regression examined whether MRS scores c hanged between one-week and one-month. At step 1, the mean-centered MRS on e-week scores were entered into the model along with the group membership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered MRS one-week posttest) was entered which investigated the interaction between the MRS one-week scores and group. The outc ome variable in this regression was MRS at one-one-month. Research question 5 Does Adventure Based Counseling decrease high schoo l students’ racism-related discipline referrals? H5o: Adventure Based Counseling will not decrease high school students’ racismrelated discipline referrals from one-month prior t he intervention, to one-month after the intervention. H5a: Adventure Based Counseling will result in a decre ase of high school students’ racism-related discipline referrals from one-month prior to the intervention, to one-month after the intervention. To investigate research question 5, hierarchical re gressions were conducted to assess if Adventure Based Counseling impacts high s chool students’ racism-related discipline referrals. Racism-related discipline re ferrals at baseline, one-week, and onemonth are continuous or interval variable. The first regression examined whether scores change d from baseline to one-week as a result of the ABC intervention. At step 1, the mean-centered referrals baseline scores

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62 were entered into the model along with the group me mbership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered baseline referrals ) were entered which investigated the interaction between the referrals baseline score an d group. The outcome variable in this regression was referrals at one-week. The second regression examined whether referrals sc ores changed between oneweek and one-month. At step 1, the mean-centered r eferrals one-week scores were entered into the model along with the group members hip variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered referrals one-week posttest) was entered which investigated the interaction between the referrals one-week scores and group. The outcome variable in this regression was referrals a t one-one-month. Research question 6. For each group (ABC vs. control) is there a relat ionship between high school students’ perceived racial disc rimination occurring, racist attitudes, self-esteem and empathy at each time period (baseli ne, one-week posttest and one-month follow-up)? H6o: For each group (ABC vs. control) there is no rela tionship between high school students’ perceived racial discrimination oc curring, racist attitudes, self-esteem and empathy. H6a: For each group (ABC vs. control) there is a relat ionship, such that higher scores on self-esteem and empathy are associated wi th lower scores on the perception of racial discrimination, and with lower scores on rac ist attitudes. To examine research question 6, 36 Pearson r correlations (6 for each group) were conducted to assess if relationships exist between high school students’ perceived racial discrimination, racist attitudes, self-esteem and e mpathy. Twelve correlations were

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63 conducted for each time period (baseline, one-week posttest and one-month follow-up). Correlation is an appropriate statistical measure w hen the research purpose is to determine if a relationship exists, and the magnitu de of any relationship (Pagano, 1990). Given that all variables are continuous (interval/r atio data) and the hypothesis seeks to assess the relationships, or how the distribution o f the z scores vary, Pearson r correlations are the appropriate bivariate statisti c. Continuous scores were taken from the four survey instruments ( General Ethnic Discrimination Scale, Modern Racism Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Basic Empathy Scale ). To evaluate the correlation coefficient, Cohen’s (1992a) standard was used, where .10 represents a weak association between the two v ariables, .30 represents a moderate association, and .50 represents a strong associatio n. Research question 7. Is there a significant difference in the observed effects of ABC counseling based on gender, ethnicity or both? H7o: There is a significant difference in the observed effects of ABC counseling based on gender, ethnicity or both. H7a: There is no significant difference in the observe d effects of ABC counseling based on gender, ethnicity or both. To examine research question 7, four mixed model AN OVAs were conducted to examine if differences exist on self-esteem, empath y, perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes, within assessment periods (baseli ne vs. one-week posttest vs. one-month follow-up), between gender (male vs. female), ethni city (African American vs. Caucasian vs. Latina/o), and group membership (control vs. AB C).

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64 Behavioral outcome variables. In order to investigate the impact of ABC counseling on the behavioral outcome variables (tot al discipline referrals, racism-related discipline referrals, GPA and attendance), an ancil lary analysis of four repeated measures ANOVAs with between-subjects factors were conducted To assess whether or not there were differences by group (control vs. ABC) on the four behavioral outcome variables by time (base line vs. one-month follow-up) repeated measures ANOVAs with between-subjects fact ors were conducted. In preliminary analysis, Box’s Test of Equality of Cov ariance Matrices was examined to verify that the assumption of equality of covarianc e was met in addition, the Levene’s test for the equality of error variances were exami ned to verify that the assumption of equal variances was met. Limitations and Delimitations The proposed study is focused on assessing the impa ct of ABC counseling on high school adolescent self-esteem, empathy, percei ved racism, and racist attitudes. The participants in this study were from one high schoo l in a large urban site of a southern state of the United States. This element of the st udy presents the largest limitation in regards to the external validity and generalizabili tyof the results and conclusions to high school adolescents in other states and regions of t he United States. As a result, it is possible that the results are not generalizable to other schools, states or regions. Another limitation of this study relates to selfselection by participants or their parents. Based on requirements from the Institutio nal Review Board process, the students and parents were aware that the study invo lved looking at ABC counseling’s impact on self-esteem, empathy, and racism. The re searcher feels that this presented a

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65 study limitation regarding students who chose not t o participate, and parents who may have prevented their children from participating ba sed on their own social, political or personal views concerning racism. Fundamentally, a limitation exists where potentially racist students, or students experiencing significa nt racism occurring, did not participate in the study, as these students may have been most in need of such an intervention. A final limitation relates to the lack of reliabili ty and validity established for the survey questionnaires. As stated the researcher cr eated these instruments to function as a stand-alone analysis to gather additional informati on on the participants’ perceptions and experience related to ABC counseling. Data from th e surveys are therefore reported descriptively with frequencies and percents.

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66 Chapter Four: Results In the following chapter, the results of analyses will be concisely presented, beginning with a thorough presentation of demograph ic data, followed by descriptive statistical data relating to the four test instrume nts, and distinguished by group, gender, and ethnicity. Next, data collected from the surve y questionnaires will be reviewed, followed by a sequential presentation of all data r elating to each of the seven hypotheses. The chapter will conclude with a review of the data obtained from the participant behavior outcome variable analysis, summary and con clusion. Sample Demographics One hundred and eight individuals participated in t he study, and of these 54 (50%) were female and 54 (50%) were male. Participants we re placed into one of two groups. There were 54 (50%) participants in the control gro up and 54 (50%) participants in the Adventure Based Counseling (ABC) group. Participan ts were then classified by three ethnic groups, of which 36 (33.3%) participants wer e African American, 36 (33.3%) were Caucasian and 36 (33.3%) were Latina/o. The frequen cies and percentages for gender, group and ethnicity are presented in Table 1.

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67 Table 1 Demographic Characteristics of Participants Characteristic N % Gender Male 54 50.0 Female 54 50.0 Group Control 54 50.0 ABC 54 50.0 Ethnicity African American 36 33.3 Caucasian 36 33.3 Latina/o 36 33.3 Teacher Demographics Four teachers completed surveys as part of the stud y, and of these, the majority (3, 75%) were female and Caucasian (2, 50%). The frequ encies and percentages for teacher gender and ethnicity are presented in Table 2. Table 2 Demographic Characteristics of Teachers Characteristic N % Gender Male 1 25.0 Female 3 75.0 Ethnicity African American 1 25.0

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68 Caucasian 2 50.0 Hispanic/Latino 1 25.0 Descriptive Statistics Means and standard deviations for participant score s on the four test instruments for each time period and each group (control and AB C) are presented in Table 3. In addition, in Table 3 Cronbach’s Alphas are reported for this study for each instrument by each time period. The scores for each group on the four instruments varied slightly. The most notable discrepancies were found on racist att itudes, where the control group had a mean score of 2.47 ( SD = 0.87) on the one-month follow up as compared to t he ABC group ( M = 2.21, SD = 0.64); self-esteem where the control group had a mean score of 2.49 ( SD = 0.63) on one-week follow-up as compared to the A BC group ( M = 2.60, SD = 0.52) and the control group had a mean score of 2.5 3( SD = 0.56) on one-month follow-up as compared to the ABC group ( M = 2.79, SD = 0.58). Table 3 Means and Standard Deviations for Participant Score s on Four Test Instruments for each Time Period by Group (Control and ABC) Control ABC Instrument and time period Alpha n M SD n M SD BES (BES) Baseline .98 53 3.25 0.96 53 3.32 0.96 1-week .98 53 3.24 0.96 54 3.50 0.76 1-month .96 53 3.24 0.97 54 3.45 0.69

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69 GEDS (perceived racial discrimination) Baseline .96 54 3.17 1.31 54 3.10 1.23 1-week .96 54 3.16 1.26 54 2.98 1.16 1-month .96 54 3.15 1.29 54 2.97 1.13 MRS (racist attitudes) Baseline .76 54 2.46 0.90 54 2.38 0.86 1-week .74 54 2.46 0.90 54 2.30 0.75 1-month .74 54 2.47 0.87 54 2.21 0.64 RSES (self-esteem) Baseline .85 54 2.49 0.63 54 2.48 0.70 1-week .85 54 2.49 0.57 54 2.60 0.52 1-month .75 54 2.53 0.56 54 2.79 0.58 The means and standard deviations for participant s cores on the four test instruments for each time period and each gender ar e presented in Table 4. The scores for each gender (males and females) on the four ins truments varied, with the largest discrepancies noted on empathy, perceived racial di scrimination, and self-esteem. Overall, females received higher mean scores than m ales for each time period measured on empathy and self-esteem, and males received high er mean scores than females for each time period measured on perceived racial discr imination. For racist attitudes, the mean scores were fairly similar by gender.

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70 Table 4 Means and Standard Deviations for Participant Score s on Four Test Instruments for each Time Period by Gender Male Female Instrument n M SD n M SD BES (empathy) Baseline 54 2.83 0.98 52 3.76 0.67 1-week 54 2.97 0.91 53 3.77 0.61 1-month 54 2.95 0.86 53 3.75 0.59 GEDS (perceived racial discrimination) Baseline 54 3.39 1.29 54 2.88 1.19 1-week 54 3.33 1.25 54 2.81 1.12 1-month 54 3.30 1.25 54 2.82 1.14 MRS (racist attitudes) Baseline 54 2.41 0.92 54 2.42 0.83 1-week 54 2.40 0.87 54 2.35 0.79 1-month 54 2.37 0.80 54 2.32 0.75 RSES (self-esteem) Baseline 54 2.06 0.44 54 2.91 0.57 1-week 54 2.36 0.53 54 2.74 0.49 1-month 54 2.47 0.53 54 2.85 0.58 The means and standard deviations for participant s cores on the four test instruments for each time period and each ethnicity (African American, Caucasian and Latina/o) are presented in Table 5. Mean scores var ied among several of the instruments by ethnic group and time period assessed. The Lati na/o group stood out as having the

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71 highest mean scores for empathy at baseline ( M = 3.37, SD = 0.91), posttest ( M = 3.48, SD = 0.81) and one-month follow-up ( M = 3.44, SD = 0.77) and for racist attitudes at baseline ( M = 3.33, SD = 0.86), posttest ( M = 3.23, SD = 0.83) and one-month follow-up ( M = 3.12, SD = 0.81) when compared to the other two groups. Th e African American group displayed the highest mean scores for perceiv ed racial discrimination baseline ( M = 4.07, SD = 1.00), posttest ( M = 3.95, SD = 0.96) and one-month follow-up ( M = 3.96, SD = 0.97) when compared to the other two groups. Th e three groups scored relatively similarly on self-esteem across each time period. Table 5 Means and Standard Deviations for Participant Score s on Four Test Instruments for each Time Period by Ethnicity (African American, Caucasi an and Latina/o) African American Caucasian Latina/o Instrument n M SD n M SD n M SD BES (empathy) Baseline 36 3.17 0.96 33.31.033.30.9 1-week posttest 36 3.24 0.86 33.30.933.40.8 1-month follow-up 36 3.23 0.84 33.30.933.40.7 GEDS (perceived racial Baseline 36 4.07 1.00 33.31.032.00.7 1-week posttest 36 3.95 0.96 33.21.032.00.6 1-month follow-up 36 3.96 0.97 33.21.031.90.6 MRS (racist attitudes)

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72 Baseline 36 1.99 0.39 31.90.433.30.8 1-week posttest 36 2.01 0.37 31.80.333.20.8 1-month follow-up 36 1.99 0.35 31.90.333.10.8 RSES (self-esteem) Baseline 36 2.41 0.58 32.50.732.50.6 1-week posttest 36 2.52 0.45 32.50.532.50.6 1-month follow-up 36 2.55 0.39 32.70.632.70.7 Survey Questionnaires Student participants and teacher observers complete d pre and post-intervention surveys in the form of a questionnaire. All studen ts completed a pretest survey about their Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Other Races and a survey about their Perception of Racism Existing in the School. Students who participated in the ABC treatment completed an additional posttest questionnaire to e valuate their Adventure Based Counseling Experience Teachers completed a pretest survey about their Perception of Racism Existing in the School and a posttest survey of their Perceptions of the Students’ Experience in the ABC Event All data collected from these surveys are report ed in frequencies and percentages. The following section s will present survey results by participant, participant group (control and ABC), a nd teacher. Pretest: prior exposure and sensitivity to other ra ces. Students were asked about their prior exposure and sensitivity to other races in the Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Other Races pretest survey, which contained four items upon which Participants were asked to rate their level of agre ement using a five-point Likert scale (1= strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither agree nor disagree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly

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73 agree). The scaling was combined for analysis into disagree (strongly disagree + disagree), neither agree nor disagree, and agree (a gree + strongly agree). For students who participated in ABC, the majority of students (34, 63%) disagreed regarding their prior experience of other cultures and races through travel (Question 1). Twenty-one (38.9%) selected neither agree nor disagree regarding their lack of exposure to people who were of a different race than themselves (Question 2). Twenty-five (46.3%) selected neither agree nor disa gree regarding their lack of experience in communicating with people who were of a different race than themselves (Question 3). Half (27, 50%) selected neither agre e nor disagree regarding their sensitivity to the experiences of people of other c ultures and races different from their own (Question 4). For the control group, the majority of students (33 61.1%) disagreed regarding their prior experience of other cultures and races through travel (Question 1). Twentyone (38.9%) selected neither agree nor disagree reg arding their lack of exposure to people who were of a different race them themselves (Quest ion 2). Twenty-five (46.3%) selected neither agree nor disagree regarding their lack of experience in communicating with people who were of a different race than thems elves (Question 3). Twenty-five (46.3%) selected neither agree nor disagree regardi ng their sensitivity to the experiences of people of other cultures and races different fro m their own (Question 4). Responses from the control and ABC groups differed only slightly. Overall, students indicated they had not traveled around the United States or foreign countries to experience different cultures and races. Students n either agreed nor disagreed with regard to their level of exposure, communication and sensi tivity to people of different cultures

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74 and races. Frequencies and percentages for student life experiences are presented by group (ABC vs. control) in Table 6. Table 6 Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Other Races ABC Control Item n % n % 1.I have traveled around the United States and / or foreign countries and have experienced cultures and races d ifferent than my own. Disagree 34 63.0 33 61.1 Neither agree nor disagree 12 22.2 9 16.7 Agree 8 14.8 12 22.2 2. In my life, I have NOT been exposed to a lot of people who are of a different race than I am. Disagree 14 25.9 14 25.9 Neither agree nor disagree 21 38.9 21 38.9 Agree 19 35.2 19 35.2 3. I feel that in my life I have NOT communicated w ith many other people who are a different race than I a m. Disagree 13 24.1 10 18.5 Neither agree nor disagree 25 46.3 25 46.3 Agree 16 29.6 19 35.2 4. I am sensitive to the experiences of people of other cultures and races that are different from my own c ulture or race. Disagree 21 38.9 20 37.0 Neither agree nor disagree 27 50.0 25 46.3 Agree 6 11.1 9 16.7 Pretest: perception of racism existing in the schoo l. Students and teachers were asked about their prior exposure and sensitivi ty to other races in the Perception of

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75 Racism Existing in the School survey, which contained four items Students and teachers completed the survey which provided participants wi th a definition of the term racist/racism as well as response options for level s of agreement (1= strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither agree nor disagree; 4 = agr ee; 5 = strongly agree) with three questions. The scaling was combined for analysis i nto disagree (strongly disagree + disagree), neither agree nor disagree, and agree (a gree + strongly agree). Question 1 asked students and teachers about their beliefs on whether students in their school often act in a racist manner toward ot her students who are of a different race than themselves. The majority of students in both g roups (ABC= 30, 55.6%; control = 32, 59.3%) agreed with this statement, while the teache rs were split, with half of the teachers (2, 50%) selecting neither agree nor disagree, 1 (2 5%) selecting agree and 1 (25%) selecting disagree. Question 2 asked students and teachers about their beliefs that teachers in their school often act in a racist mann er toward students or other teachers who are of a different race than themselves. The majori ty of students in both groups (ABC= 28, 51.9%; control = 26, 48.1%) disagreed with this statement, while the majority of the teachers (3, 75%) disagreed with this statement. Question 3 asked students and teachers about their belief that administrators in their sch ool often act in a racist manner toward students or other teachers who are of a different r ace than themselves. The majority of students in both groups (ABC= 24, 44.4%; control = 23, 42.6%) disagreed, whereas the teachers were split, with half of the teachers (2, 50%) selecting neither agree nor disagree, 1 (25%) selecting agree and 1 (25%) selec ting disagree. Frequencies and percentages for school climate are presented in Tab le 7.

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76 Table 7 Student and Teacher Responses to Perception of Raci sm Existing in the School Students ABC Control Teachers Item n % n % n % 1.Beliefs that students at their school often act i n a racist manner toward other students who are of a different race than themselves Disagree 16 29.6 15 27.8 1 25.0 Neither agree nor disagree 8 14.8 7 13.0 2 50.0 Agree 30 55.6 32 59.3 1 25.0 2.Beliefs that teachers in their school often act i n a racist manner toward students or other teachers who are of a different race than themselves Disagree 28 51.9 26 48.1 3 75.0 Neither agree nor disagree 9 16.7 10 18.5 1 25.0 Agree 17 31.5 18 33.3 0 0.0 3. Beliefs that administrators in their school ofte n act in a racist manner toward students or other teachers who are of a different race than themselves Disagree 24 44.4 23 42.6 1 25.0 Neither agree nor disagree 13 24.1 12 22.2 2 50.0 Agree 17 31.5 19 35.2 1 25.0 Posttest: adventure based counseling experience. The Adventure Based Counseling Experience survey provided students an opportunity to rate th eir experiences in ABC and provided teachers an opportunity to rate their perceptions of students’ experiences in ABC. These surveys were used to gai n a deeper understanding of the effectiveness of ABC counseling. Only students who participated in the ABC treatment and teacher observers completed this survey; studen ts in the control group did not

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77 complete this survey. The five items in these surv eys provided a Likert-scale for rating the level of agreement with each item (1= strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither agree nor disagree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree) with three questions. The scaling was combined for analysis into disagree (strongly disag ree + disagree), neither agree nor disagree, and agree (agree + strongly agree). Question 1 asked participants to rate the benefits of ABC; the majority of students (35, 64.8%) agreed that ABC was beneficial while al l of the teachers (100%) neither agreed nor disagreed. Question 2 asked participant s about the physical contact with other students, more specifically the uncomfortable natur e of that contact; the majority of students (34, 63%) disagreed while half of the teac hers (2, 50%) neither agreed nor disagreed and half (2, 50%) of the teachers agreed, perceiving the physical contact as uncomfortable for students. Question 3 asked parti cipants about a positive change in how they (the student) viewed others or how teachers pe rceived the students’ view of others following ABC participation; twenty-five students ( 43.6%) agreed, while most of the teachers (3, 75%) agreed that students viewed other s more positively. Question 4 asked participants about the change in how they (the stud ent) viewed themselves or how teachers perceived this change following ABC partic ipation; twenty-six students (48.1%) and most of the teachers (3, 75%) neither agreed no r disagreed. Question 5 asked participants about the potential for ABC to reduce racism in high schools; twenty-five students (46.3%) and most of the teachers (3, 75%) agreed there was potential for ABC to reduce racism in high schools. Overall, participants agreed that ABC had the poten tial to reduce racism in high schools, and that the experience resulted in positi ve changes in the way students view

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78 others. Teachers and students perceived the physic al contact differently: while students tended to disagree that the physical contact in ABC was uncomfortable for them, some teachers perceived the contact as uncomfortable for students. Also, while students tended to agree that ABC was beneficial, all of the teache rs neither agreed nor disagreed. The majority of students and teachers neither agreed no r disagreed that ABC changed how students felt about themselves in a positive way. Frequencies and percentages for ABC experience are presented for students and teachers in Table 8. Table 8 Student and Teacher Responses to Adventure Based Co unseling Experience Students Teachers Item n % n % The Adventure Based Counseling experience was beneficial. Disagree 4 7.4 0 0.0 Neither agree nor disagree 15 27.8 4 100.0 Agree 35 64.8 0 0.0 The physical contact with other students was uncomfortable. Disagree 34 63.0 0 0.0 Neither agree nor disagree 15 27.8 2 50.0 Agree 5 9.3 2 50.0 The ABC experience changed how students view others in a positive way. Disagree 9 16.7 0 0.0 Neither agree nor disagree 20 37.0 1 25.0 Agree 25 46.3 3 75.0 The ABC experience changed how students feel about themselves in a positive way.

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79 Disagree 19 35.2 0 0.0 Neither agree nor disagree 26 48.1 3 75.0 Agree 9 16.7 1 25.0 ABC has the potential to reduce racism in high scho ols. Disagree 10 18.5 0 0.0 Neither agree nor disagree 19 35.2 1 25.0 Agree 25 46.3 3 75.0 Hypotheses Four test instruments served as the primary depende nt variables for analysis of the hypotheses. These included: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Basic Empathy Scale (BES) the General Ethnic Discrimination Scale (GEDS) and the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) Participants completed the instruments at three tim e periods (baseline, one-week posttest and one-month follow-up). Partic ipant scores on each instrument and each time period were examined by group (control an d ABC), gender (male and female) and ethnicity (African American, Caucasian, and Lat ina/o). Hypothesis 1. To examine hypothesis 1—Adventure Based Counseling will have a positive impact on high school students’ self-est eem, such that self-esteem will increase from baseline (T1) to one-week posttest (T2), or fr om one-week posttest to one-month follow-up (T3)—a hierarchical linear regression was conducted. Two analyses were performed, one to assess the outcome at one-week po sttest (from baseline) and one to assess the outcome at one-month follow-up (from one -week posttest). The first regression determined the outcome at oneweek posttest. In preliminary analysis, the assumptions of multiple regression we re assessed. The assumptions of

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80 normality, linearity and homoscedasticity were eval uated through an examination of the residual scatter plots. Tabachnick and Fidell (200 1) state, “the residual scatter plot should reveal a pileup of residuals in the center o f the plot at each value of predicted score and a normal distribution of residuals traili ng off from the center” (p. 127). The assumptions were met. The absence of multicollinea rity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF) ; VIF values over 10 will suggest the presence of multicollinearity (Stevens, 2002). The assumption was violated due to correlation between the centered pretest self-estee m score and the interaction term and caution should be given to interpretation of the re sults; the pretest self-esteem score was highly correlated with the interaction term. For th is particular analysis, no control was available; generalization of results should be made with caution. Group membership (control vs. ABC) and the mean-cen tered self-esteem baseline scores were entered into the first block of the reg ression. Group membership was dummy coded as 1 = ABC group membership and 0 = non ABC group membership prior to analysis. At step 1, the mean-centered self-est eem pretest scores were entered into the model along with the group membership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered self-esteem pretest) was entered to investigate the interaction between the self-esteem pretest score and group. The results of the first block regression with the group and baseline self-esteem scores predicting one-week self-esteem posttest sco res was significant, F (2, 105) = 71.94, p = .000. As expected, baseline self-esteem account ed for variance in self-esteem at one-week posttest ( = .75, p <.01 ) ; the greater one’s self-esteem at baseline, the gr eater one’s self-esteem at follow-up. Group membership a nd baseline self-esteem scores

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81 accounted for (R2) 57.8% of the variance in one-week self-esteem pos ttest scores in block one. The results of the first block regression wit h group and baseline self-esteem scores predicting one-week self-esteem posttest scores are summarized in Table 9. The interaction term (group*centered baseline selfesteem) was entered into the second block of the regression. The results of the second block regression with the interaction of group and baseline self-esteem predi cting one-week self-esteem posttest scores was significant, F (3, 104) = 51.04, p = .000, suggesting that the combined independent variables predict one-week self-esteem posttest scores after controlling for group membership and baseline self-esteem scores. The results for the second block of the regression with the interaction of group and ba seline self-esteem predicting one-week self-esteem posttest scores are summarized in Table 9 which suggest that after controlling for group membership and centered-baseline self-est eem scores, the interaction between baseline self-esteem scores and group was significa nt. However, within the model, only the pretest self-esteem score was a significant pre dictor; group membership, when entered into the model independently, was not a pre dictor. However, after controlling for group and centered pretest self-esteem scores, for every one unit increase in the interaction variable, the outcome variable (self-es teem posttest score) will decrease by .22 units. The alternative hypothesis, that ABC co unseling will result in increases in student self-esteem from baseline to one-week postt est is accepted.

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82 Table 9 Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Advent ure Based Counseling Predicting Self-Esteem from Baseline to One-week Posttest Step and predictor variable B SE B R 2 R 2 Step 1: .58** .58** Group membership 0.11 0.07 .10 Baseline self-esteem score 0.62 0.05 .75** Step 2: .60* .02* Group membership 0.11 0.07 .11 Baseline self-esteem score 0.96 0.17 1.17** Interaction term (group*baseline self-esteem score) -0.22 0.10 -.43* Note. p<.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001. The significant interaction (Figure 1) indicates th at at baseline self-esteem, the treatment group had higher one-week-self-esteem sco res than the control group, while those with high self-esteem baseline scores both gr oup had about the same one-weekself-esteem scores.

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83 Figure 1 Self-Esteem Significant Interaction from Baseline t o One-week Posttest The second regression assessed the outcome at one-m onth follow-up. In preliminary analysis the assumptions of multiple re gression were assessed. The assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedast icity were evaluated through an examination of the residual scatter plots. The ass umptions were met. The absence of multicollinearity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF); the assumption was met. Group membership (control vs. ABC) and the mean-cen tered self-esteem oneweek posttest scores were entered into the first bl ock of the regression. Group membership was dummy coded as 1 = ABC group members hip and 0 = non ABC group membership prior to analysis. At step 1, the cente red self-esteem one-week posttest 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Low PretestHigh PretestDependent variable Control ABC

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84 scores were entered into the model along with the g roup membership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered self-esteem po sttest) was entered to investigate the interaction between the self-esteem one-week postte st score and group. The results of the first block regression with the group and one-week posttest selfesteem scores predicting one-month follow-up self-e steem scores was significant, F (2, 105) = 107.45, p < .001, suggesting that group membership and one-w eek posttest selfesteem scores predict one-month follow-up self-este em scores. Group membership and one-week posttest self-esteem scores accounted for (R2) 67.2% of the variance in onemonth follow-up selfesteem scores. The results o f the first block regression with group and one-week posttest selfesteem scores predictin g one-month follow-up self-esteem scores are summarized in Table 10. The interaction term (group*centered self-esteem po sttest scores) was entered into the second block of the regression. The results of the second block regression with the interaction of group and one-week posttest self-est eem predicting one-month follow-up self-esteem scores was significant, F (3, 104) = 71.37, p < .001, suggesting that the independent variables predict one-month follow-up s elf-esteem scores after controlling for group membership and posttest self-esteem score s. However, the independent variables accounted for an additional ( R2) 0.0% of the variance in one-month follow-up selfesteem scores which was not a significant inc rease, F (1, 104) = .417, p = .520, the total (R2) for the model is 67.3%. The results for the seco nd block of the regression with the interaction of group and one-week posttest self -esteem predicting one-month followup self-esteem scores are summarized in Table 10, a nd suggest that after controlling for group membership and one-week posttest self-esteem scores, the interaction between

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85 one-week posttest self-esteem scores and group is n ot significant. The alternative hypothesis, that ABC counseling will increase high school students’ self-esteem from one-week posttest to one-month follow-up is accepte d. Table 10 Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Advent ure Based Counseling Predicting Self-Esteem from One-week Posttest to One-month Fol low-up Step and predictor variable B SE B R 2 R 2 Step 1: .67*** .67*** Group membership 0.17 0.07 .15* Posttest self-esteem score 0.85 0.06 .79** Step 2: .67 .00 Group membership 0.17 0.07 .15* Posttest self-esteem score 0.96 0.19 .90** Interaction term (group*posttest self-esteem score) -0.08 0.12 -.11 Note. p<.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001. Hypothesis 2. To examine hypothesis 2—Adventure Based Counseling will have a positive impact on high school students’ empathy, such that empathy will increase from baseline (T1) to one-week posttest (T2), or from on e-week posttest (T2) to one-month follow-up (T3)— hierarchical linear regressions wer e conducted. Two analyses were conducted, one to assess the outcome at one-week po sttest and one to assess the outcome at one-month follow-up posttest.

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86 The first regression assessed the outcome at one-we ek posttest. In preliminary analysis the assumptions of multiple regression wer e assessed. The assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity were eval uated through an examination of the residual scatter plots; the assumptions were met. The absence of multicollinearity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflat ion Factors (VIF); the assumption was met. Group membership (control vs. ABC) and the mean-cen tered empathy baseline scores were entered into the first block of the reg ression. Group membership was dummy coded as 1 = ABC group membership and 0 = non ABC group membership prior to analysis. At step 1, the mean-centered empathy pretest scores were entered into the model along with the group membership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered empathy pretest) was entered which will investigate the interaction between the empathy pretest score and group. The results of the first block regression with the group and baseline empathy scores predicting one-week empathy posttest scores was significant, F (2, 103) = 1400.37, p < .001, suggesting that group membership and basel ine empathy score predicts one-week posttest empathy score. Group me mbership and baseline empathy scores accounted for (R2) 96.5% of the variance in one-week empathy posttes t scores. The results of the first block regression with grou p and baseline empathy scores predicting one-week empathy posttest scores are sum marized in Table 11. The interaction term (group*centered baseline selfesteem) was entered into the second block of the regression.

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87 Table 11 Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Advent ure Based Counseling Predicting Empathy from Baseline to One-week Posttest Step and predictor variable B SE B R 2 R 2 Step 1: .97*** .97*** Group membership 0.23 0.03 .13** Baseline BES score 0.88 0.02 .97** Step 2: .98*** .02 Group membership 0.23 0.02 .13** Baseline BES score 1.22 0.04 1.34** Interaction term (group*baseline BES score) -0.23 0.03 -.39** Note. p<.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001. The interaction was significant, such that for the control group, those who were initially high in empathy showed a greater increase in empathy at 1-week than those who were initially low in empathy (Figure 2).

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88 Figure 2 Empathy Significant Interaction from Baseline to On e-week Posttest The second regression assessed the outcome at one-m onth follow-up. In preliminary analysis the assumptions of multiple re gression were assessed. The assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedast icity were evaluated through an examination of the residual scatter plots; the assu mptions were met. The absence of multicollinearity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF); the assumption was met. Group membership (control vs. ABC) and the mean-cen tered empathy one-week posttest scores were entered into the first block o f the regression. Group membership was dummy coded as 1 = ABC group membership and 0 = non ABC group membership prior to analysis. At step 1, the mean-centered em pathy one-week posttest scores were 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Low PretestHigh PretestDependent variable Control ABC

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89 entered into the model along with the group members hip variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered empathy posttest) was entered to investigate the interaction between the empathy one-week posttest s core and group. The results of the first block regression with the group and one-week posttest empathy scores predicting one-month follow-up empat hy scores were significant, F (2, 104) = 5421.27, p < .001, suggesting that group membership and one-w eek posttest empathy scores predict one-month follow-up empathy scores. Group membership and one-week posttest empathy scores accounted for (R2) 99.0% of the variance in one-month follow-up empathy scores. The results of the first block regression with group and oneweek posttest empathy scores predicting one-month f ollow-up empathy scores are summarized in Table 12. The interaction term (group*centered posttest selfesteem) was entered into the second block of the regression. The results of the second block regression with the interaction of group and one-week posttest empathy predicting one-month follow-up empathy scores were significant, F (3, 103) = 4801.77, p < .001, suggesting that the independent variables predict one-month follow-up e mpathy scores after controlling for group membership and one-week posttest empathy scor es. The independent variables accounted for an additional ( R2) 0.2% of the variance in one-month follow-up empat hy scores which was a significant increase, F (1, 103) = 34.84, p = .000, the total (R2) for the model is 99.3%. The results for the second block o f the regression with the interaction of group and one-week posttest empathy predicting onemonth follow-up empathy scores are summarized in Table 12, and suggest that after controlling for group membership and one-week posttest empathy scores, the interaction b etween one-week posttest empathy

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90 scores and group was significant. For every one un it increase in the interaction variable, the outcome variable (empathy follow-up score) will decrease by .10 units. The alternative hypothesis that ABC counseling will inc rease high school students’ empathy from one-week posttest to one-month follow-up is ac cepted. Table 12 Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Advent ure Based Counseling Predicting Empathy from One-week Posttest to One-month Followup Step and predictor variable B SE B R 2 R 2 Step 1: .99*** .99*** Group membership -0.06 0.02 -.03** Posttest BES score 0.97 0.01 1.00*** Step 2: .99*** .002*** Group membership -0.05 0.01 -.03*** Posttest BES score 1.10 0.03 1.14*** Interaction term (group*posttest BES score) -0.10 0.02 -.15*** Note. p<.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001. The significant interaction (Figure 3) indicates th at at pretest empathy, the treatment group had about the same 1-month post-emp athy scores as the control group, while those in the control group had higher 1-month empathy scores compared to the treatment group at higher pre-treatment empathy sco res.

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91 Figure 3 Empathy Significant Interaction from One-week Postt est to One-week Follow-up Hypothesis 3. To examine hypothesis 3—Adventure Based Counseling will have a positive impact on high school students’ percepti on that racial discrimination is occurring, such that perceived racism will decrease from baseline (T1) to one-week posttest (T2), or from one-week posttest (T2) to on e-month follow-up (T3)—a hierarchical linear regression was conducted. Two analyses were performed, one to assess the outcome at one-week posttest and one to assess the outcome at one-month follow-up posttest. The first regression assessed the outcome at one-we ek posttest. In preliminary analysis the assumptions of multiple regression wer e evaluated. The assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity were asse ssed through an examination of the residual scatter plots; the assumptions were met. The absence of multicollinearity was 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Low PosttestHigh PosttestDependent variable Control ABC

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92 assessed through examination of the Variance Inflat ion Factors (VIF); the assumption was met. Group membership (control vs. ABC) and the mean-cen tered perception of racial discrimination baseline scores were entered into th e first block of the regression. Group membership was dummy coded as 1 = ABC group members hip and 0 = non ABC group membership prior to analysis. At step 1, the meancentered GEDS pretest scores were entered into the model along with the group members hip variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered GEDS pretest) was entered to investigate the interaction between the GEDS pretest score and group. The results of the first block regression with the group and baseline perception of racial discrimination scores predicting one-week pe rception of racial discrimination posttest scores were significant, F (2, 105) = 8346.57, p < .001, suggesting that group membership and baseline perception of racial discri mination scores predict one-week posttest perception of racial discrimination scores Group membership and baseline perception of racial discrimination scores accounte d for (R2) 99.4% of the variance in one-week perception of racial discrimination postte st scores. The results of the first block regression with group and baseline perception of racial discrimination scores predicting one-week perception of racial discrimina tion posttest scores are summarized in Table 13. The interaction term (group*centered baseline perce ption of racial discrimination) was entered into the second block of the regression The results of the second block regression with the interaction of group and baseli ne perception of racial discrimination predicting one-week perception of racial discrimina tion posttest scores were significant,

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93 F (3, 104) = 5681.11, p < .001, suggesting that the independent variables p redict oneweek perception of racial discrimination posttest s cores after controlling for group membership and baseline perception of racial discri mination scores. However, the independent variables accounted for an additional ( R2) 0.0% of the variance in oneweek perception of racial discrimination posttest s cores which was not a significant increase, F (1, 104) = 3.18, p = .077, the total (R2) for the model is 99.4%. The results for the second block of the regression with the int eraction of group and baseline perception of racial discrimination was not signifi cant (Table 13). The alternative hypothesis that ABC counseling will decrease high s chool students’ perception of racial discrimination baseline to one-week posttest is rej ected. Table 13 Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Advent ure Based Counseling Predicting Perception of Racial Discrimination from Baseline t o One-week Posttest Step and predictor variable B SE B R 2 R 2 Step 1: .99*** .99*** Group membership -0.11 0.02 -.05*** Baseline perception of racial discrimination score 0.95 0.01 1.00*** Step 2: .99 .00 Group membership -0.11 0.02 -.05*** Baseline perception of racial discrimination score 0.99 0.02 1.04***

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94 Interaction term (group*baseline perception of racial discrimination score) -.003 0.02 -.04 Note. p<.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001. The second regression assessed the outcome at one-m onth follow-up. In preliminary analysis the assumptions of multiple re gression were assessed. The assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedast icity were evaluated through an examination of the residual scatter plots; the assu mptions were met. The absence of multicollinearity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF); the assumption was met. Group membership (control vs. ABC) and the mean-cen tered perception of racial discrimination one-week posttest scores were entere d into the first block of the regression. Group membership was dummy coded as 1 = ABC group membership and 0 = non ABC group membership prior to analysis. At s tep 1, the mean-centered GEDS one-week posttest scores were entered into the mode l along with the group membership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*c entered GEDS posttest) was entered to investigate the interaction between the GEDS one-we ek posttest score and group. The results of the first block regression with the group and one-week posttest perception of racial discrimination scores predicti ng one-month follow-up perception of racial discrimination scores were significant, F (2, 105) = 7616.81, p < .001, suggesting that group membership and one-week posttest percept ion of racial discrimination score predicts one-month follow-up perception of racial d iscrimination scores. Group membership and one-week posttest perception of raci al discrimination scores accounted

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95 for (R2) 99.3% of the variance in one-month follow-up perc eption of racial discrimination scores. The results of the first block regression with group and one-week posttest perception of racial discrimination scores predicti ng one-month follow-up perception of racial discrimination scores are summarized in Tabl e 14. The interaction term (group*centered posttest perce ption of racial discrimination) was entered into the second block of the regression The results of the second block regression with the interaction of group and one-we ek posttest perception of racial discrimination predicting one-month follow-up perce ption of racial discrimination scores were significant, F (3, 104) = 5526.84, p < .001, suggesting that the independent variables predict one-month follow-up perception of racial discrimination scores after controlling for group membership and one-week postt est perception of racial discrimination scores. The independent variables ac counted for an additional ( R2) 1% of the variance in one-month follow-up perception of r acial discrimination scores which was a significant increase, F (1, 104) = 10.21, p = .002, the total (R2) for the model is 99.4%. The results for the second block of the regression with the interaction of group and oneweek posttest perception of racial discrimination p redicting one-month follow-up perception of racial discrimination scores are summ arized in Table 14. This suggests that after controlling for group membership and one-week posttest perception of racial discrimination scores, the interaction between oneweek posttest perception of racial discrimination scores and group is significant; for every one unit increase in the interaction term, one-month follow-up perception of racial discrimination scores will decrease by 0.5 units. The alternative hypothesis that ABC counseling will decrease high

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96 school students’ perception of racial discriminatio n one-week posttest to one-month follow-up is accepted. Table 14 Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Advent ure Based Counseling Predicting Perception of Racial Discrimination from One-week P osttest to One-month Follow-up Step and predictor variable B SE B R 2 R 2 Step 1: .99*** .99*** Group membership 0.00 0.02 .00* Posttest perception of racial discrimination score 1.00 0.01 1.00*** Step 2: .99** .00** Group membership 0.00 0.02 .00 Posttest perception of racial discrimination score 1.07 0.02 1.07*** Interaction term (group*posttest perception of racial discrimination score) -0.05 0.02 -.08** Note. p<.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001. The interaction was statistically significant (Figu re 4). For the control group, those who were high in GED at 1-wk were likely to b e even higher in GED at 1-month followup, compared to those in the ABC group.

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97 Figure 4 Perceived Racial Discrimination Significant Interac tion from One-week Posttest to Onemonth Follow-up Hypothesis 4. To examine hypothesis 4—Adventure Based Counseling will have a positive impact on high school students’ racist a ttitudes, such that racist attitudes will decrease from baseline (T1) to one-week posttest (T 2), or one-week posttest (T2) to onemonth follow-up (T3)—a hierarchical linear regressi on was conducted. Two analyses were performed, one to assess the outcome at one-we ek posttest and one to assess the outcome at one-month follow-up posttest. The first regression assessed the outcome at one-we ek posttest. In preliminary analysis the assumptions of multiple regression wer e evaluated. The assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity were asse ssed through an examination of the 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Low PosttestHigh PosttestDependent variable Control ABC

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98 residual scatter plots; the assumptions were met. The absence of multicollinearity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflat ion Factors (VIF); the assumption was met. Group membership (control vs. ABC) and the mean-cen tered racist attitudes baseline scores were entered into the first block o f the regression. Group membership was dummy coded as 1 = ABC group membership and 0 = non ABC group membership prior to analysis. At step 1, the mean-centered MRS pretest scores were entered into the model along with the group membership variable. At step 2, the interaction term (group*centered MRS pretest) was entered to investi gate the interaction between the MRS pretest score and group. The results of the first block regression with the group and baseline racist attitudes scores predicting one-week racist attitud es posttest scores were significant, F (2, 105) = 1264.57, p < .001, suggesting that group membership and basel ine racist attitudes scores predicts one-week posttest racist attitudes scores. Group membership and baseline racist attitudes scores accounted for (R2) 96.0% of the variance in one-week racist attitudes posttest scores. The results of the firs t block regression with group and baseline racist attitudes scores predicting one-week racist attitudes posttest scores are summarized in Table 15. The interaction term (group*centered baseline racis t attitudes) was entered into the second block of the regression. The results of the second block regression with the interaction of group and baseline racist attitudes predicting one-week racist attitudes posttest scores were significant, F (3, 104) = 1003.52, p < .001, suggesting that the independent variables predict one-week racist attit udes posttest scores after controlling

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99 for group membership and baseline racist attitudes scores. The independent variables accounted for an additional ( R2) .6% of the variance in one-week racist attitudes posttest scores which was a significant increase, F (1, 104) = 20.15, p = .000, the total (R2) for the model is 96.7%. The results for the seco nd block of the regression with the interaction of group and baseline racist attitudes predicting one-week racist attitudes posttest scores are summarized in Table 15, and sug gest that after controlling for group membership and centered-baseline racist attitudes s cores, the interaction between baseline racist attitudes scores and group was sign ificant. For every one unit increase in the interaction term, one-month follow-up perceptio n of racial discrimination scores will decrease by 0.15 units. The alternative hypothesis that ABC counseling will decrease high school students’ racist attitudes from baselin e to one-week posttest is accepted. Table 15 Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Advent ure Based Counseling Predicting Racist Attitudes from Baseline to One-week Posttest Step and predictor variable B SE B R 2 R 2 Step 1: .96*** .96*** Group membership -0.09 0.03 -.05* Baseline racist attitudes score 0.92 0.02 .98*** Step 2: .97*** .00*** Group membership -0.08 0.03 -.05** Baseline racist attitudes score 1.14 0.05 1.21***

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100 Interaction term (group*baseline racist attitudes score) -0.15 0.03 -.25*** Note. p<.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001. The significant interaction (Figure 5) indicates th at at baseline racial attitudes, the treatment group and control group had about the sam e one-week posttest racial attitudes, while those with high levels of baseline racial att itudes scores the control group had greater one-week posttest racial attitudes compared to the treatment group. Figure 5 Racist Attitudes Significant Interaction from Basel ine to One-week Posttest The second regression assessed the outcome at one-m onth follow-up. In preliminary analysis the assumptions of multiple re gression were assessed. The assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedast icity were evaluated through an 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Low PosttestHigh PosttestDependent variable Control ABC

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101 examination of the residual scatter plots; the assu mptions were met. The absence of multicollinearity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF); the assumption was met. Group membership (control vs. ABC) and the mean-cen tered racist attitudes oneweek posttest scores were entered into the first bl ock of the regression. Group membership was dummy coded as 1 = ABC group members hip and 0 = non ABC group membership prior to analysis. At step 1, the meancentered MRS one-week posttest scores were entered into the model along with the g roup membership variable. At step 2, interaction term (group*centered MRS posttest) was entered to investigate the interaction between the MRS one-week posttest score and group. The results of the first block regression with the group and one-week posttest rac ist attitudes scores predicting onemonth follow-up racist attitudes scores were signif icant, F (2, 105) = 1604.49, p < .001, suggesting that group membership and one-week postt est racist attitudes scores predict one-month follow-up racist attitudes scores. Group membership and one-week posttest racist attitudes scores accounted for (R2) 96.8% of the variance in one-month follow-up racist attitudes scores. The results of the first block regression with group and one-week posttest racist attitudes scores predicting one-mon th follow-up racist attitudes scores are summarized in Table 16. The interaction term (group*centered posttest racis t attitudes) was entered into the second block of the regression. The results of the second block regression with the interaction of group and one-week posttest racist a ttitudes predicting one-month followup racist attitudes scores were significant, F (3, 104) = 1209.73, p < .001, suggesting that the independent variables predict one-month followup racist attitudes scores after

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102 controlling for group membership and one-week postt est racist attitudes scores. The independent variables accounted for an additional ( R2) 0.4% of the variance in onemonth follow-up racist attitudes scores which was a significant increase, F (1, 104) = 14.28, p = .000, the total (R2) for the model is 97.2%. The results for the seco nd block of the regression with the interaction of group and on e-week posttest racist attitudes predicting one-month follow-up racist attitudes sco res are summarized in Table 16, and suggest that after controlling for group membership and one-week posttest racist attitudes scores, the interaction between posttest racist att itudes scores and group is significant, for every one unit increase in the interaction term, on e-month follow-up racist attitudes scores will decrease by 0.12units. The alternative hypothesis that ABC counseling will decrease high school students’ racist attitudes one -week posttest to one-month follow-up is accepted. Table 16 Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Advent ure Based Counseling Predicting Racist Attitudes from One-week Posttest to One-mont h Follow-up Step and predictor variable B SE B R 2 R 2 Step 1: .968*** .968*** Group membership -0.11 0.03 -.07*** Posttest racist attitudes score 0.91 0.02 .98*** Step 2: .972*** .004*** Group membership -0.11 0.03 -.07***

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103 Posttest racist attitudes score 1.08 0.05 1.15*** Interaction term (group*posttest racist attitudes score) -0.12 0.03 -.19*** Note. p<.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001. The significant interaction (Figure 6) indicates th at at one-week posttest racial attitudes, the treatment group and control group ha d about the same one-month follow-up racial attitudes, while those with high levels of o ne-week posttest racial attitudes scores the control group had greater one-month follow-up r acial attitudes compared to the treatment group. Figure 6 Racist Attitudes Significant Interaction from One-w eek Posttest to One-month Follow-up 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Low PosttestHigh PosttestDependent variable Control ABC

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104 Hypothesis 5. To examine hypothesis 5—Adventure Based Counseling will have a positive impact on high school students’ racism-r elated discipline referrals, such that racism-related discipline referrals will decrease f rom baseline (T1) to one-month followup (T3)—a hierarchical linear regression was conduc ted. The regression assessed the outcome at one-month follow-up. In preliminary ana lysis the assumptions of multiple regression were assessed. The assumptions of norma lity, linearity and homoscedasticity were evaluated through an examination of the residu al scatter plots; the assumptions were met. The absence of multicollinearity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF); the assumption was violate d due to correlation between the centered racism specific discipline referrals and t he interaction term and caution should be given to interpretation of the results Group membership (control vs. ABC) and the mean-cen tered racism-related discipline referrals baseline values were entered i nto the first block of the regression. Group membership was dummy coded as 1 = ABC group m embership and 0 = non ABC group membership prior to analysis. At step 1, the mean-centered racism-related discipline referrals baseline values were entered i nto the model along with the group membership variable. At step 2, the interaction te rm (group* mean-centered racismrelated discipline referrals baseline) was entered to investigate the interaction between the racism-related discipline referrals baseline values and group. The results of the first block regression with the group and baseline racism-related discipline referrals predicting follow-up racism-re lated discipline referrals were significant, F (2, 26) = 4.84, p = .016, suggesting that group membership and basel ine racism-related discipline referrals predict one-mon th follow-up racism-related discipline

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105 referrals. Group membership and baseline racism-re lated discipline referrals accounted for (R2) 27.1% of the variance in one-month follow-up raci sm-related discipline referrals. The results of the first block regression with grou p and baseline racism-related discipline referrals predicting one-month follow-up racism-rel ated discipline referrals are summarized in Table 17. The interaction term (group*centered baseline racis m-related discipline referrals) was entered into the second block of the regression The results of the second block regression with the interaction of group and baseli ne racism-related discipline referrals predicting one-month follow-up racism-related disci pline referrals were not significant, F (3, 25) = 3.10, p = .045, suggesting there was no significant interaction between group and baseline (Table 17). The alternative hypothesis that ABC counseling will reduce high school students’ racism-related discipline ref errals from baseline to one-month follow-up is rejected. Table 17 Hierarchical Regression Analysis Summary for Advent ure Based Counseling Predicting Racism-Related Discipline Referrals from Baseline t o One-month Follow-up Step and predictor variable B SE B R 2 R 2 Step 1: .27* .27* Group membership -0.33 0.15 -.39* Baseline racism-related discipline referrals 0.27 0.12 .39*

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106 Step 2: .27 .00 Group membership -0.33 0.42 -.39 Baseline racism-related discipline referrals 0.27 0.37 .39 Interaction term (group*baseline racismrelated discipline referrals) 0.00 0.24 .00 Note. p<.05, ** p <.01, *** p <.001. Hypothesis 6. To examine hypothesis 6—for each group (ABC vs. con trol) there is a relationship, such that higher scores on selfesteem and empathy will be associated with lower scores on the perception of racial discr imination, and with lower scores on racist attitudes—36 Pearson correlations were condu cted. Correlations were conducted for each group (ABC vs. control) and for each time period (baseline, one-week posttest and one-month follow-up). For the control group at baseline, there was a sign ificant positive correlation between empathy and self-esteem ( r =.62, p < .01), and between perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes ( r = .40, p < .01), suggesting that as the empathy scores increase, self-esteem scores also increase, and as perceived racial discrimination scores decrease, racist attitude scores also decrease. Th ere was a significant negative relationship between several variables, including, perceived racial discrimination and empathy ( r = -.43, p < .01), and perceived racial discrimination and sel f-esteem ( r = -.40, p < .01), suggesting that as perceived racial discrim ination scores decrease the scores on self-esteem and empathy increase. See Table 18.

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107 Table 18 Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, Perceived R acial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem for the Control Group at Baseline Note. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 -tailed); Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). For the ABC group at baseline, there was a signific ant positive correlation between empathy and self-esteem ( r =.62, p < .01), and between perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes ( r = .37, p < .01), suggesting that as the empathy scores increase, self-esteem scores also increase, and as perceived racial discrimination scores decrease, racist attitude scores also decrease. Th ere was a significant negative relationship between several variables, including p erceived racial discrimination and empathy ( r = -.44, p < .01), and perceived racial discrimination and sel f-esteem ( r = -.29, p < .01), suggesting that as perceived racial discrim ination scores decrease the scores on self-esteem and empathy increase. See Table 19. Baseline Variables Empathy Perceived Racial Discrimination Racist Attitudes Perceived Racial Discrimination -.43 ** --Racist Attitudes .03 .40 ** -Self-Esteem .62 ** -.40 -.03

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108 Table 19 Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, Perceived R acial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem for the ABC Group at Base line Note. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 -tailed); Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). For the control group at one-week posttest, there w as a significant positive correlation between empathy and self-esteem ( r =.60, p < .01), and between perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes ( r = .39, p < .01), suggesting that as the empathy scores increase, self-esteem scores also increase, and as perceived racial discrimination scores decrease, racist attitude scores also decrea se. There was a significant negative relationship between several variables, including p erceived racial discrimination and empathy ( r = -.43, p < .01), and perceived racial discrimination and sel f-esteem ( r = -.42, p < .01), suggesting that as perceived racial discrim ination scores decrease the scores on self-esteem and empathy increase. See Table 20. Baseline Variables Empathy Perceived Racial Discrimination Racist Attitudes Perceived Racial Discrimination -.45 ** --Racist Attitudes -.02 .37** -Self-Esteem .62** -.29* -.08

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109 Table 20 Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, Perceived R acial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem for the Control Group at One Week Posttest Note. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 -tailed); Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). For the ABC group at one-week posttest, there was a significant positive correlation between empathy and self-esteem ( r =.65, p < .01), and between perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes ( r = .34, p < .01), suggesting that as the empathy scores increase, self-esteem scores also increase, and as perceived racial discrimination scores decrease, racist attitude scores also decrea se. There was a significant negative relationship between several variables, including p erceived racial discrimination and empathy ( r = -.44, p < .01), and perceived racial discrimination and sel f-esteem ( r = -.32, p < .01), suggesting that as perceived racial discrim ination scores decrease the scores on self-esteem and empathy increase. See Table 21. One Week Posttest Variables Empathy Perceived Racial Discrimination Racist Attitudes Perceived Racial Discrimination -.43 ** --Racist Attitudes .00 .39** -Self-Esteem .60** -.42** .07

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110 Table 21 Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, Perceived R acial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem for the ABC Group at Oneweek Posttest Note. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 -tailed); Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). For the control group at one-month follow-up, there was a significant positive correlation between empathy and self-esteem ( r =.66, p < .01), and between perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes ( r = .38, p < .01), suggesting that as the empathy scores increase, self-esteem scores also increase, and as perceived racial discrimination scores decrease, racist attitude scores also decrea se. There was a significant negative relationship between several variables, including p erceived racial discrimination and empathy ( r = -.43, p < .01), and perceived racial discrimination and sel f-esteem ( r = -.37, p < .01), suggesting that as perceived racial discrim ination scores decrease the scores on self-esteem and empathy increase. See Table 22. One Week Posttest Variables Empathy Perceived Racial Discrimination Racist Attitudes Perceived Racial Discrimination -.44** --Racist Attitudes -.03 .34** -Self-Esteem .65** -.32** -.20

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111 Table 22 Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, Perceived R acial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem for the Control Group at One-month Follow-up Note. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 -tailed); Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). For the ABC group at one-month follow-up, there was a significant positive correlation between empathy and self-esteem ( r =.53, p < .01), and between perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes ( r = .32, p < .01), suggesting that as the empathy scores increase, self-esteem scores also increase, and as perceived racial discrimination scores decrease, racist attitude scores also decrea se. There was a significant negative relationship between several variables, including p erceived racial discrimination and empathy ( r = -.38, p < .01), and perceived racial discrimination and sel f-esteem ( r = -.35, p < .01), suggesting that as perceived racial discrim ination scores decrease the scores on self-esteem and empathy increase. See Table 23. One Month Follow-up Variables Empathy Perceived Racial Discrimination Racist Attitudes Perceived Racial Discrimination -.43 ** --Racist Attitudes .00 .38** -Self-Esteem .66** -.37** -.07

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112 Table 23 Pearson r Correlations between Empathy, Perceived R acial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes and Self-Esteem for the ABC Group at Onemonth Follow-up Note. ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2 -tailed); Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). In reviewing the interrelationships among the varia bles at each time period, significant relationships were found. The signific ant correlation coefficients were evaluated according to Cohen’s standard, where .30 or less represents a small association, .30-.49 represents a medium association, and .50 or larger correlations represent a large size effect or correlation between the two variable s (Cohen, 1988). Significant positive relationships with a large eff ect size (.50 or larger) were noted at all three time periods between empathy and selfesteem and perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes for both groups (control and ABC), suggesting that as empathy scores increase, self-esteem scores also in crease, and as perceived racial discrimination scores decrease, racist attitude sco res also decrease. Significant negative relationships were found among the other variables. This includes for each time period between perceived rac ial discrimination and empathy for One Month Follow-up Variables Empathy Perceived Racial Discrimination Racist Attitudes Perceived Racial Discrimination -.38** --Racist Attitudes .02 .32* -Self-Esteem .53** -.35** -.24

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113 both the ABC and control group, suggesting that as perceived racial discrimination decreases, empathy increases. Significant negative relationships were found at each time period between perceived racial discrimination and self-esteem both groups, suggesting that as perceived racial discrimination decreases, self-esteem increases. Many of the negative relationships were found to have a medium effect size (between 30-.49) but a small effect size (less than .30) was found for the ABC group at baseline between perceived discrimination and empathy and self-estee m (less than .30). Overall, the strength of the relationships remained relatively c onstant over time. The alternative hypothesis—for each group (ABC vs. control) there is a relationship, such that higher scores on self-estee m and empathy will be associated with lower scores on the perception of racial discrimina tion, and with lower scores on racist attitudes— is partially accepted. Both significant positive and significant negative relationships were found among several variables. Hypothesis 7. To examine hypothesis 7 — there is no significant difference in the observed effects of ABC counseling based on ethnici ty or gender—4 mixed model ANOVAs were conducted to examine if significant dif ferences exist on the outcomes of self-esteem, empathy, perceived racial discriminati on, and racist attitudes within assessment periods (baseline vs. one-week follow-up vs. one month follow-up) and between gender (male vs. female), ethnicity (Africa n American vs. Caucasian vs. Latina/o) and group membership (control vs. ABC). Self-Esteem. To examine if significant differences exist on self -esteem within assessment periods (baseline vs. one-week fo llow-up vs. one month follow-up) and between gender (male vs. female), ethnicity (Af rican American vs. Caucasian vs.

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114 Latina/o) and group membership (control vs. ABC) a mixed model ANOVA was conducted. Several interactions were statistically significant. Self-esteem, group, ethnicity, and gender interact ion Self-esteem, group, ethnicity, and gender interaction was statis tically significant. Post-hoc tests revealed for males in the ABC counseling group, Afr ican Americans had significantly greater self-esteem scores at one-week follow-up co mpared to baseline, and had significantly greater one-month follow-up compared to one-week follow-up scores. For males in the ABC counseling group, Caucasians had s ignificantly greater self-esteem scores at one-week follow-up compared to baseline, and had significantly greater onemonth follow-up compared to one-week follow-up scor es. For males in the ABC counseling group, Latinos had significantly greater one-week follow-up compared to baseline scores. For males in the control group, A frican Americans’ self-esteem scores were significantly greater at one-week follow-up co mpared to baseline. For Latino males in the control group, one-month follow-up scores we re significantly greater than at baseline. For female African American and Caucasian participa nts in the ABC counseling group, baseline self-esteem scores were significant ly greater than at one-week follow-up. For Latina females in the ABC counseling group, one -month follow-up self-esteem scores were significantly greater than both their b aseline and one-week. For African American females in the control group, baseline sel f-esteem scores were significantly greater than at one-week. For Caucasian women in t he control group, one-month followup self-esteem scores were significantly greater th an at baseline. For Latina females in

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115 the control group, both baseline and one-week follo w-up self-esteem scores were significantly greater than one-month follow-up scor es. Self-esteem and gender interaction Self-esteem and gender interaction was statistically significant. Males had significa ntly greater one-week follow-up and one-month follow-up self-esteem scores compared to baseline, and one-month follow-up scores were significantly greater than at one-week follow-up. For females, baseline and one-month follow-up selfesteem scores were significantly greater than one-week follow-up score s. For baseline, one-week, and onemonth follow-up, females had significantly greater self-esteem scores than males. Self-esteem and group interaction Self-esteem-group interaction was statistically significant. One-month follow-up sel f-esteem scores were significantly greater than at both baseline and one-week. At one -month follow-up, the ABC counseling group had significantly greater self-est eem scores than controls. Self-esteem overall. There was a main effect on self-esteem scores. On emonth follow-up self-esteem scores were significant ly greater than at both baseline and one-week. No other post-hoc tests were statistically signific ant. Table 24 Means and Standard Deviations of Self-Esteem Group Gender Ethnicity M SD n Control Male African American 2.03 0.41 9 Caucasian 1.99 0.20 9 Latina/o 2.27 0.53 9

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116 Total 2.10 0.40 27 Female African American 2.73 0.49 9 Caucasian 3.06 0.58 9 Latina/o 2.84 0.63 9 Total 2.88 0.56 27 Total African American 2.38 0.57 18 Caucasian 2.52 0.69 18 Latina/o 2.56 0.64 18 Total 2.49 0.63 54 ABC Male African American 1.99 0.41 9 Caucasian 1.96 0.30 9 Latina/o 2.10 0.67 9 Total 2.01 0.47 27 Female African American 2.90 0.38 9 Caucasian 3.17 0.60 9 Latina/o 2.78 0.69 9 Total 2.95 0.58 27 Total African American 2.44 0.61 18 Caucasian 2.56 0.77 18 Latina/o 2.44 0.75 18 Total 2.48 0.70 54 Total Male African American 2.01 0.40 18 Caucasian 1.97 0.24 18 Latina/o 2.18 0.59 18 Total 2.06 0.44 54 Female African American 2.82 0.44 18 Caucasian 3.11 0.57 18 Latina/o 2.81 0.64 18 Total 2.91 0.57 54 Total African American 2.41 0.58 36 Caucasian 2.54 0.72 36 Latina/o 2.50 0.69 36

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117 Total 2.48 0.66 108 Control Male African American 2.23 0.35 9 Caucasian 2.27 0.54 9 Latina/o 2.40 0.71 9 Total 2.30 0.54 27 Female African American 2.51 0.47 9 Caucasian 2.77 0.64 9 Latina/o 2.78 0.53 9 Total 2.69 0.55 27 Total African American 2.37 0.43 18 Caucasian 2.52 0.63 18 Latina/o 2.59 0.64 18 Total 2.49 0.57 54 ABC Male African American 2.57 0.43 9 Caucasian 2.30 0.31 9 Latina/o 2.39 0.77 9 Total 2.42 0.53 27 Female African American 2.78 0.44 9 Caucasian 2.84 0.44 9 Latina/o 2.73 0.49 9 Total 2.79 0.44 27 Total African American 2.67 0.43 18 Caucasian 2.57 0.47 18 Latina/o 2.56 0.65 18 Total 2.60 0.52 54 Total Male African American 2.40 0.42 18 Caucasian 2.28 0.43 18 Latina/o 2.39 0.72 18 Total 2.36 0.53 54 Female African American 2.64 0.46 18 Caucasian 2.81 0.54 18 Latina/o 2.76 0.50 18

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118 Total 2.74 0.49 54 Total African American 2.52 0.45 36 Caucasian 2.54 0.55 36 Latina/o 2.58 0.64 36 Total 2.55 0.55 108 Control Male African American 2.22 0.28 9 Caucasian 2.27 0.60 9 Latina/o 2.50 0.69 9 Total 2.33 0.54 27 Female African American 2.66 0.48 9 Caucasian 2.89 0.59 9 Latina/o 2.64 0.44 9 Total 2.73 0.50 27 Total African American 2.44 0.44 18 Caucasian 2.58 0.66 18 Latina/o 2.57 0.57 18 Total 2.53 0.56 54 ABC Male African American 2.69 0.31 9 Caucasian 2.62 0.32 9 Latina/o 2.51 0.74 9 Total 2.61 0.48 27 Female African American 2.62 0.33 9 Caucasian 3.11 0.59 9 Latina/o 3.19 0.77 9 Total 2.97 0.63 27 Total African American 2.66 0.31 18 Caucasian 2.87 0.53 18 Latina/o 2.85 0.81 18 Total 2.79 0.58 54 Total Male African American 2.46 0.38 18 Caucasian 2.44 0.50 18 Latina/o 2.51 0.69 18

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119 Total 2.47 0.53 54 Female African American 2.64 0.40 18 Caucasian 3.00 0.59 18 Latina/o 2.92 0.67 18 Total 2.85 0.58 54 Total African American 2.55 0.39 36 Caucasian 2.72 0.61 36 Latina/o 2.71 0.70 36 Total 2.66 0.58 108 Table 25 Test of Within Subject of Self-Esteem Note: Used Sphericity Empathy. To examine if significant differences exist on empa thy within assessment periods (baseline vs. one-week follow-up vs. one month follow-up) and between gender (male vs. female), ethnicity (Africa n American vs. Caucasian vs. Source df Mean Square F Sig. Time 1 2 0.86 13.18 .000 Time 1 Group 2 0.48 7.42 .001 Time 1 Gender 2 2.06 31.57 .000 Time 1 Ethnicity 4 0.07 1.00 .410 Time 1 Group Gender 2 0.07 1.10 .336 Time 1 Group Ethnicity 4 0.11 1.62 .172 Time 1 Gender Ethnicity 4 0.13 2.05 .089 Time 1 Group Gender Ethnicity 4 0.23 3.53 .008 Error( Time 1) 192 0.07 (0.07)

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120 Latina/o) and group membership (control vs. ABC) a mixed model ANOVA was conducted. Several interactions were statistically significant. Empathy, gender, group. Gender, group, empathy interaction was statistically significant. For males in the ABC co unseling group, empathy scores were significantly greater in the one-week and one-month follow-up compared to baseline. Empathy, gender. For males overall, empathy scores were significan tly greater in the one-week and one-month follow-up com pared to baseline. Females had significantly greater empathy scores compared to ma les at baseline, one-week and onemonth follow-up empathy scores. Empathy, group. The control group had significantly greater basel ine empathy scores compared to one-week follow-up empat hy scores. Empathy overall. One-week follow-up had significantly greater empa thy scores compared to baseline and one-month follow-up empathy scores. One-month follow-up had significantly greater empathy scores compared to baseline scores. No other post-hoc tests were statistically signifi cant. Table 26 Means and Standard Deviations of Empathy Group Gender Ethnicity M SD n Control Male African 2.59 1.03 9 Caucasian 2.77 1.04 9 Latina/o 2.93 0.92 9 Total 2.76 0.97 27 Female African 3.65 0.66 9 Caucasian 3.82 0.76 9

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121 Latina/o 3.83 0.60 8 Total 3.76 0.66 26 Total African 3.12 1.00 18 Caucasian 3.30 1.03 18 Latina/o 3.35 0.89 17 Total 3.25 0.96 53 ABC Male African 2.79 1.03 9 Caucasian 2.86 1.03 9 Latina/o 3.03 1.04 9 Total 2.89 1.00 27 Female African 3.65 0.66 9 Caucasian 3.82 0.84 9 Latina/o 3.79 0.68 8 Total 3.75 0.71 26 Total African 3.22 0.94 18 Caucasian 3.34 1.04 18 Latina/o 3.39 0.95 17 Total 3.32 0.96 53 Total Male African 2.69 1.00 18 Caucasian 2.81 1.01 18 Latina/o 2.98 0.95 18 Total 2.83 0.98 54 Female African 3.65 0.64 18 Caucasian 3.82 0.78 18 Latina/o 3.81 0.62 16 Total 3.76 0.67 52 Total African 3.17 0.96 36 Caucasian 3.32 1.02 36 Latina/o 3.37 0.91 34 Total 3.28 0.96 106 Control Male African 2.58 1.02 9 Caucasian 2.77 1.04 9

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122 Latina/o 2.88 0.90 9 Total 2.75 0.96 27 Female African 3.59 0.65 9 Caucasian 3.82 0.76 9 Latina/o 3.83 0.60 8 Total 3.74 0.66 26 Total African 3.09 0.98 18 Caucasian 3.30 1.03 18 Latina/o 3.33 0.89 17 Total 3.24 0.96 53 ABC Male African 3.09 0.82 9 Caucasian 3.12 0.87 9 Latina/o 3.39 0.80 9 Total 3.20 0.81 27 Female African 3.68 0.51 9 Caucasian 3.87 0.66 9 Latina/o 4.00 0.47 8 Total 3.84 0.55 26 Total African 3.39 0.73 18 Caucasian 3.49 0.84 18 Latina/o 3.68 0.72 17 Total 3.52 0.76 53 Total Male African 2.84 0.94 18 Caucasian 2.94 0.94 18 Latina/o 3.14 0.86 18 Total 2.97 0.91 54 Female African 3.64 0.57 18 Caucasian 3.84 0.69 18 Latina/o 3.91 0.53 16 Total 3.79 0.60 52 Total African 3.24 0.86 36 Caucasian 3.39 0.93 36

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123 Latina/o 3.50 0.82 34 Total 3.38 0.87 106 Control Male African 2.58 1.04 9 Caucasian 2.76 1.04 9 Latina/o 2.89 0.87 9 Total 2.74 0.96 27 Female African 3.60 0.66 9 Caucasian 3.85 0.74 9 Latina/o 3.86 0.61 8 Total 3.77 0.66 26 Total African 3.09 0.99 18 Caucasian 3.30 1.04 18 Latina/o 3.35 0.89 17 Total 3.24 0.97 53 ABC Male African 3.12 0.75 9 Caucasian 3.08 0.80 9 Latina/o 3.26 0.66 9 Total 3.15 0.72 27 Female African 3.61 0.44 9 Caucasian 3.82 0.63 9 Latina/o 3.92 0.43 8 Total 3.78 0.51 26 Total African 3.36 0.65 18 Caucasian 3.45 0.80 18 Latina/o 3.57 0.64 17 Total 3.46 0.69 53 Total Male African 2.85 0.92 18 Caucasian 2.92 0.92 18 Latina/o 3.08 0.77 18 Total 2.95 0.86 54 Female African 3.60 0.54 18 Caucasian 3.84 0.67 18

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124 Latina/o 3.89 0.51 16 Total 3.77 0.58 52 Total African 3.23 0.84 36 Caucasian 3.38 0.92 36 Latina/o 3.46 0.77 34 Total 3.35 0.84 106 Table 27 Test of Within-Subjects on Empathy Note: Used Greenhouse-Geisser Perceived racial discrimination. To examine if significant differences exist on perceived racial discrimination within assessment p eriods (baseline vs. one-week followup vs. one-month follow-up) and between gender (mal e vs. female), ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian vs. Latina/o) and group memb ership (control vs. ABC), a mixed model ANOVA was conducted. Several interactions we re statistically significant. Perceived racial discrimination, gender and group Perceived racial discrimination, gender and group interaction was st atistically significant. Post-hoc tests Source df Mean Square F Sig. Time 1 1.11 0.43 14.10 0.00 Time 1 Group 1.11 0.60 19.62 0.00 Time 1 Gender 1.11 0.18 5.95 0.01 Time 1 Ethnicity 2.22 0.02 0.64 0.55 Time 1 Group Gender 1.11 0.23 7.37 0.01 Time 1 Group Ethnicity 2.22 0.03 0.95 0.40 Time 1 Gender Ethnicity 2.22 0.03 1.12 0.34 Time 1 Group Gender Ethnicity 2.22 0.01 0.26 0.80 Error( Time 1) 104.27 .031 (.031)

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125 revealed for males in the ABC counseling group, bas eline perceived racial discrimination scores were significantly greater than one-week fol low-up and one-month follow-up scores, and one-week scores were significantly grea ter than one-month follow-up perceived racial discrimination scores. For females in the ABC counseling group, baseline p erceived racial discrimination scores were significantly greater th an both their one-week and one-month follow-up perceived racial discrimination scores. For females in the control group, one-week perceive d racial discrimination scores were significantly greater than one-month follow-up perceived racial discrimination scores. Perceived racial discrimination and ethnicity Perceived racial discrimination and ethnicity interaction was statistically signifi cant. For African Americans, baseline perceived racial discrimination scores were signifi cantly greater than both one-week follow-up and one-month follow-up perceived racial discrimination scores. For Caucasians, baseline perceived racial discrimin ation scores were significantly greater than both one-week follow-up and one-month follow-up perceived racial discrimination scores. For Latinos, one-week follow-up perceived racial di scrimination scores were significantly greater than one-month follow-up perc eived racial discrimination scores. At baseline, one-week, and one-month follow-up perc eived racial discrimination scores, African Americans had significantly greater perceived racial discrimination scores than both Caucasians and Latina/os, and Caucasians had significantly greater perceived racial discrimination scores than Latina/os.

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126 Perceived racial discrimination and group. Perceived racial discrimination by group interaction was statistically significant. P ost hoc tests for the control group revealed that perceived racial discrimination basel ine scores were significantly greater than one-month follow-up perceived racial discrimin ation scores. For the ABC counseling group, baseline perceived racial discrim ination scores were significantly greater than both one-week and one-month follow-up perceived racial discrimination scores. Perceived racial discrimination overall. Results showed that baseline perceived racial discrimination scores were significantly gre ater than both one-week and one-month follow-up perceived racial discrimination scores. No other post-hoc tests were statistically signific ant. Table 28 Means and Standard Deviations of Perceived Racial D iscrimination Group Gender Ethnicity M SD n Control Male African American 4.22 1.03 9 Caucasian 4.06 1.04 9 Latina/o 2.09 0.77 9 Total 3.46 1.35 27 Female African American 4.11 0.99 9 Caucasian 2.70 0.71 9 Latina/o 1.86 0.68 9 Total 2.89 1.22 27 Total African American 4.17 0.99 18 Caucasian 3.38 1.11 18 Latina/o 1.98 0.71 18 Total 3.17 1.31 54

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127 ABC Male African American 3.98 1.07 9 Caucasian 3.84 0.99 9 Latina/o 2.16 0.82 9 Total 3.33 1.25 27 Female African American 3.96 1.06 9 Caucasian 2.75 0.68 9 Latina/o 1.90 0.75 9 Total 2.87 1.19 27 Total African American 3.97 1.03 18 Caucasian 3.29 1.00 18 Latina/o 2.03 0.77 18 Total 3.10 1.23 54 Total Male African American 4.10 1.03 18 Caucasian 3.95 0.99 18 Latina/o 2.12 0.77 18 Total 3.39 1.29 54 Female African American 4.04 1.00 18 Caucasian 2.72 0.67 18 Latina/o 1.88 0.69 18 Total 2.88 1.19 54 Total African American 4.07 1.00 36 Caucasian 3.34 1.04 36 Latina/o 2.00 0.73 36 Total 3.14 1.26 108 Control Male African American 4.14 1.02 9 Caucasian 4.04 1.01 9 Latina/o 2.14 0.77 9 Total 3.44 1.30 27 Female African American 4.06 0.99 9 Caucasian 2.68 0.68 9 Latina/o 1.93 0.66 9 Total 2.89 1.18 27

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128 Total African American 4.10 0.98 18 Caucasian 3.36 1.09 18 Latina/o 2.03 0.70 18 Total 3.16 1.26 54 ABC Male African American 3.87 1.03 9 Caucasian 3.68 1.01 9 Latina/o 2.11 0.77 9 Total 3.22 1.21 27 Female African American 3.74 0.92 9 Caucasian 2.65 0.65 9 Latina/o 1.83 0.65 9 Total 2.74 1.08 27 Total African American 3.81 0.95 18 Caucasian 3.16 0.98 18 Latina/o 1.97 0.70 18 Total 2.98 1.16 54 Total Male African American 4.01 1.01 18 Caucasian 3.86 1.00 18 Latina/o 2.12 0.74 18 Total 3.33 1.25 54 Female African American 3.90 0.94 18 Caucasian 2.66 0.64 18 Latina/o 1.88 0.64 18 Total 2.81 1.12 54 Total African American 3.95 0.96 36 Caucasian 3.26 1.03 36 Latina/o 2.00 0.69 36 Total 3.07 1.21 108 Control Male African American 4.15 1.08 9 Caucasian 4.06 1.03 9 Latina/o 2.12 0.76 9 Total 3.44 1.33 27

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129 Female African American 4.06 1.01 9 Caucasian 2.64 0.66 9 Latina/o 1.85 0.64 9 Total 2.85 1.20 27 Total African American 4.10 1.01 18 Caucasian 3.35 1.11 18 Latina/o 1.99 0.70 18 Total 3.15 1.29 54 ABC Male African American 3.81 0.97 9 Caucasian 3.60 0.92 9 Latina/o 2.04 0.70 9 Total 3.15 1.16 27 Female African American 3.84 0.94 9 Caucasian 2.67 0.61 9 Latina/o 1.83 0.61 9 Total 2.78 1.10 27 Total African American 3.82 0.93 18 Caucasian 3.14 0.90 18 Latina/o 1.94 0.65 18 Total 2.97 1.13 54 Total Male African American 3.98 1.01 18 Caucasian 3.83 0.97 18 Latina/o 2.08 0.71 18 Total 3.30 1.25 54 Female African American 3.95 0.95 18 Caucasian 2.65 0.62 18 Latina/o 1.84 0.61 18 Total 2.82 1.14 54 Total African American 3.96 0.97 36 Caucasian 3.24 1.00 36 Latina/o 1.96 0.66 36 Total 3.06 1.21 108

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130 Table 29 Test of Within-Subjects on Perceived Racial Discrim ination Source df Mean F Sig. Time 1 1.78 0.22 32.86 .000 Time 1 Group 1.78 0.12 17.86 .000 Time 1 Gender 1.78 0.01 1.63 .201 Time 1 Ethnicity 3.56 0.04 5.31 .001 Time 1 Group Gender 1.78 0.05 7.46 .001 Time 1 Group Ethnicity 3.56 0.00 0.23 .902 Time 1 Gender Ethnicity 3.56 0.01 0.84 .488 Time 1 Group Gender Ethnicity 3.56 0.01 1.19 .315 Error(Time1) 170.75 0.01 (0.01) Note: Used Greenhouse-Geisser Racist attitudes. To examine if significant differences exist on raci st attitudes within assessment periods (baseline vs. one-week fo llow-up vs. one-month follow-up) and between gender (male vs. female), ethnicity (Af rican American vs. Caucasian vs. Latina/o) and group membership (control vs. ABC), a mixed model ANOVA was conducted. Several interactions were statistically significant. Racist attitudes, group and ethnicity For racist attitudes, group and ethnicity interaction was statistically significant For the ABC counseling group, Latina/os’ baseline racist attitude scores were sig nificantly greater than both the onemonth follow-up and one-month follow-up racist atti tude scores. One-week follow-up racist attitude scores were significantly greater t han one-month follow-up racist attitude scores.

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131 For the control group at baseline, one-month follo w-up and one-month follow-up, Latina/os had significantly greater racist attitude scores than both African American and Caucasians. Racist attitudes and ethnicity. Racist attitudes and ethnicity interaction was statistically significant. At baseline, Latina /os had significantly greater racist attitude scores than both African American and Caucasians. For Latina/os, baseline racist attitude scores were significantly greater than both one-wee k and one-month follow-up racist attitude scores, and one-week racist attitude score s were significantly greater than onemonth follow-up racist attitude scores. Racist attitudes and group. Racist attitudes and group interaction was statistically significant. Post-hoc tests revealed that for the ABC counseling group baseline had significantly greater racist attitude scores than both those in the one-week follow-up and one-month follow-up, and the ABC coun seling group had significantly greater one-week racist attitude scores than one-mo nth follow-up scores. Racist attitudes. Racist attitudes main effect was statistically si gnificant. Overall, participants had significantly greater bas eline racist attitude scores compared to both one-week scores and one-month follow-up scores and had significantly greater oneweek follow-up racist attitude scores compared to o ne-month follow-up scores. No other post-hoc tests were statistically signific ant. Table 30 Means and Standard Deviations of Racist Attitudes Group Gender Ethnicity M SD n Control Male African American 1.92 0.26 9

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132 Caucasian 1.79 0.35 9 Latina/o 3.68 0.65 9 Total 2.47 0.98 27 Female African American 2.16 0.52 9 Caucasian 2.13 0.50 9 Latina/o 3.08 1.03 9 Total 2.46 0.83 27 Total African American 2.04 0.42 18 Caucasian 1.96 0.45 18 Latina/o 3.38 0.89 18 Total 2.46 0.90 54 ABC Male African American 1.84 0.13 9 Caucasian 1.78 0.28 9 Latina/o 3.46 0.61 9 Total 2.36 0.88 27 Female African American 2.05 0.49 9 Caucasian 2.05 0.52 9 Latina/o 3.08 1.03 9 Total 2.39 0.85 27 Total African American 1.94 0.36 18 Caucasian 1.91 0.43 18 Latina/o 3.27 0.84 18 Total 2.38 0.86 54 Total Male African American 1.88 0.20 18 Caucasian 1.79 0.31 18 Latina/o 3.57 0.62 18 Total 2.41 0.92 54 Female African American 2.10 0.49 18 Caucasian 2.09 0.50 18 Latina/o 3.08 1.00 18 Total 2.42 0.83 54 Total African American 1.99 0.39 36

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133 Caucasian 1.94 0.44 36 Latina/o 3.33 0.86 36 Total 2.42 0.88 108 Control Male African American 1.97 0.23 9 Caucasian 1.81 0.32 9 Latina/o 3.71 0.63 9 Total 2.50 0.97 27 Female African American 2.13 0.56 9 Caucasian 2.11 0.45 9 Latina/o 3.02 1.07 9 Total 2.42 0.83 27 Total African American 2.05 0.42 18 Caucasian 1.96 0.41 18 Latina/o 3.37 0.92 18 Total 2.46 0.90 54 ABC Male African American 1.87 0.17 9 Caucasian 1.76 0.19 9 Latina/o 3.27 0.45 9 Total 2.30 0.76 27 Female African American 2.06 0.42 9 Caucasian 1.89 0.34 9 Latina/o 2.92 0.92 9 Total 2.29 0.75 27 Total African American 1.97 0.33 18 Caucasian 1.83 0.28 18 Latina/o 3.10 0.73 18 Total 2.30 0.75 54 Total Male African American 1.92 0.20 18 Caucasian 1.79 0.26 18 Latina/o 3.49 0.58 18 Total 2.40 0.87 54 Female African American 2.10 0.48 18

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134 Caucasian 2.00 0.40 18 Latina/o 2.97 0.97 18 Total 2.35 0.79 54 Total African American 2.01 0.37 36 Caucasian 1.89 0.35 36 Latina/o 3.23 0.83 36 Total 2.38 0.83 108 Control Male African American 2.00 0.28 9 Caucasian 1.90 0.34 9 Latina/o 3.70 0.65 9 Total 2.53 0.94 27 Female African American 2.08 0.51 9 Caucasian 2.14 0.42 9 Latina/o 3.00 1.04 9 Total 2.41 0.81 27 Total African American 2.04 0.40 18 Caucasian 2.02 0.39 18 Latina/o 3.35 0.92 18 Total 2.47 0.87 54 ABC Male African American 1.84 0.15 9 Caucasian 1.78 0.16 9 Latina/o 2.97 0.36 9 Total 2.20 0.60 27 Female African American 2.05 0.38 9 Caucasian 1.84 0.31 9 Latina/o 2.81 0.85 9 Total 2.23 0.69 27 Total African American 1.94 0.30 18 Caucasian 1.81 0.24 18 Latina/o 2.89 0.64 18 Total 2.21 0.64 54 Total Male African American 1.92 0.23 18 Caucasian 1.84 0.26 18 Latina/o 3.33 0.63 18 Total 2.37 0.80 54 Female African American 2.06 0.44 18 Caucasian 1.99 0.39 18 Latina/o 2.90 0.93 18 Total 2.32 0.75 54 Total African American 1.99 0.35 36 Caucasian 1.92 0.34 36 Latina/o 3.12 0.81 36 Total 2.34 0.77 108

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135 Table 31 Test of Within Subject of Racist Attitudes Source df Mean Square F Sig. Time 1 1.44 0.21 8.72 .001 Time 1 Group 1.44 0.28 11.35 .000 Time 1 Gender 1.44 0.04 1.57 .215 Time 1 Ethnicity 2.89 0.17 7.09 .000 Time 1 Group Gender 1.44 0.04 1.57 .216 Time 1 Group Ethnicity 2.89 0.10 3.91 .011 Time 1 Gender Ethnicity 2.89 0.04 1.68 .176 Time 1 Group Gender Ethnicity 2.89 0.04 1.51 .215 Error(Time 1) 138.2 0.03 (0.025) Note: Used Greenhouse-Geisser Behavioral Outcome Variables In order to investigate the impact of ABC counselin g on the behavioral outcome variables (total discipline referrals, racism-relat ed discipline referrals, GPA and attendance), an ancillary analysis of four repeated measures ANOVAs with betweensubjects factors was conducted. These behavioral o utcome variables were included to provide measurements of school-based objective data relating that could potentially be impacted by ABC counseling. The results of the fou r ANOVAs are presented in Tables 3239. Total discipline referrals. To assess whether or not there were differences b y group (control vs. ABC) on total discipline referra ls by time (baseline vs. one-month follow-up) a repeated measures ANOVA with between-s ubjects factors was conducted.

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136 In preliminary analysis, Box’s Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices was examined, and the assumption of equality of covariance was me t. The Levene’s test for the equality of error variances was examined and the assumption of equal variances was met. The Wilks’ statistic was used. Results indicate there was n o significant main effect for total discipline referrals, F (1, 50) =.063, p = .802, 2 = .001, suggesting there was not a significant difference on total discipline referral s by group and time. For the betweensubjects effects, results were not significant, F (1, 50) =.031, p = .860, 2 = .001, suggesting there was not a significant difference o n total discipline referrals by group. For the within-subjects effects, results were signi ficant, F (1, 50) =9.19, p = .004, 2 = .155, suggesting there was a significant difference on total discipline referrals by time. The interaction term between total discipline refer rals and group was not significant, F (1, 50) =.06, p = .802, 2 = .001. While there was a difference on total dis cipline referrals by time, there was no difference on discipline refe rrals by group and time. Results of the ANOVA are presented in Table 32 and means and stand ard deviations are presented in Table 33. Table 32 Repeated Measures ANOVA with Between-Subjects’ Fact ors on Total Discipline Referrals by Group (Control vs. ABC) Source df SS MS F p 2 Between-subjects Group 1 .03 0.03 0.03 .860 .001 Error 50 54.12 1.08 Within-subjects

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137 Table 33 Means and Standard Deviations for Total Discipline Referrals by Group (Control vs. ABC) Control ABC Total Outcome variable M SD M SD M SD Baseline Total Discipline 1.84 0.97 1.90 0.83 1.87 0.91 Follow-up Total Discipline 1.52 0.63 1.52 0.93 1.52 0.75 Racism-related discipline referrals. To assess whether or not there were differences by group (control vs. ABC) on racism-re lated discipline referrals by time (baseline vs. one-month follow-up) a repeated measu res ANOVA with between-subjects factors was conducted. In preliminary analysis, B ox’s Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices was examined, and the assumption of equali ty of covariance was met. The Levene’s test for the equality of error variances w as examined and the assumption of equal variances was met. The Wilks’ statistic was used. Results indicate no significant main effect for racism-related discipli ne referrals, F (1, 27) =3.73, p = .064, 2 Total Discipline 1 3.10 3.10 9.19 .004 .155 Total Discipline x Time 1 .021 .02 0.06 .802 .001 Error 50 16.86 .34

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138 = .121, suggesting there was not a significant diff erence on racism-related discipline referrals by group and time. For the between-subje cts effects, results were not significant, F (1, 27) =.258, p = .616, 2 = .009, suggesting there was not a significant difference on racism-related discipline referrals b y group. For the within-subjects effects, results were significant, F (1, 27) =13.121, p = .001, 2 = .327: there was a significant difference on racism-related discipline referrals b y time, suggesting that the number of discipline referrals for both the control and ABC g roups significantly decreased from baseline to posttest. The mean number of racism-re lated discipline referrals was lower at follow-up ( M = 1.24, SD = 0.62) in comparison to baseline ( M = 1.62, SD = 0.44). The interaction term between racism-related discipline referrals and group was not significant, F (1, 27) = 3.73, p = .064, 2 = .121. There was a difference on racism related referrals by time, but not by group or by group and time. Re sults of the ANOVA are presented in Table 34 and means and standard deviations are pres ented in Table 35. Table 34 Repeated Measures ANOVA with Between-Subjects Facto rs on Racism-Related Discipline Referrals by Group (Control vs. ABC) Source Df SS MS F P 2 Between-subjects Group 1 0.10 0.10 0.26 .616 .01 Error 27 10.62 0.39 Within-subjects Racism-related discipline referrals 1 2.31 2.31 13.12 .001 .33 Racism-related referrals x Time 1 0.66 0.66 3.73 .064 .12

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139 Table 35 Means and Standard Deviations for Racism-Related Di scipline by Group (Control vs. ABC) Control ABC Total Outcome variable M SD M SD M SD Baseline Racism-related discipline referrals 1.56 0.63 1.69 0.63 1.62 0.62 Follow-up Racism-related discipline referrals 1.38 0.50 1.08 0.28 1.24 0.44 Grade point average. To assess whether or not there were differences b y group (control vs. ABC) on GPA by time (baseline vs. onemonth follow-up) a repeated measures ANOVA with between-subjects factors was co nducted. In preliminary analysis, Box’s Test of Equality of Covariance Matr ices was examined, and the assumption of equality of covariance was met. The Levene’s test for the equality of error variances was examined and the assumption of equal variances was met. The Wilks’ statistic was used. Results indicate no significa nt main effect for GPA, F (1, 106) =.763, p = .384, 2 = .007, suggesting there was not a significant dif ference on GPA by group and time. For the between-subjects effects, result s were not significant, F (1, 106) =.002, p = .966, 2 = .000, suggesting there was not a significant dif ference GPA by group. For the within-subjects effects, results were not signi ficant, F (1, 106) = 3.42, p = .067, 2 = Error 27 4.76 .18

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140 .031, suggesting there was no significant differenc e on GPA by time. The interaction term between GPA and group was not significant, F (1, 106) =0.76, p = .384, 2 = .007. There were no differences on GPA by time or by grou p and time. Results of the ANOVA are presented in Table 36 and means and standard de viations are presented in Table 37. Table 36 Repeated Measures ANOVA with Between-Subjects Facto rs on GPA by Group (Control vs. ABC) Table 37 Means and Standard Deviations for GPA by Group (Con trol vs. ABC) Control ABC Total Outcome variable M SD M SD M SD Baseline GPA 2.23 0.94 2.22 0.92 2.22 0.93 Source df SS MS F p 2 Between-subjects Group 1 0.03 0.03 0.02 .966 .00 Error 106 54.12 1.08 Within-subjects GPA 1 0.14 0.14 3.42 .067 .031 GPA x Time 1 0.03 0.03 0.76 .384 .007 Error 106 4.35 0.04

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141 Follow-up GPA 2.26 0.88 2.29 0.91 2.28 0.89 Attendance. To assess whether or not there were differences b y group (control vs. ABC) on attendance by time (baseline vs. one-mo nth follow-up) a repeated measures ANOVA with between-subjects factors was conducted. In preliminary analysis, Box’s Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices was examine d, and the assumption of equality of covariance was violated and equality of covariance could not be assumed. The Levene’s test for the equality of error variances was examin ed and the assumption of equal variances was met. The Pillai’s Trace statistic wa s used. Results indicate no significant main effect for att endance, F (1, 58) =.000, p = 1.00, 2 = .000, suggesting there was not a significant dif ference on attendance by group and time. For the between-subjects effects, result s were not significant, F (1, 58) =.193, p = .662, 2 = .003, suggesting there was not a significant dif ference attendance by group. For the within-subjects effects, results were not s ignificant, F (1, 58) =1.94, p = .169, 2 = .032, suggesting there was no significant differe nce on attendance by time. The interaction term between attendance and group was n ot significant, F (1, 58) =.000, p = 1.00, 2 = .000. There was no difference on attendance by time or by group and time. Results of the ANOVA are presented in Table 38 and means and standard deviations are presented in Table 39.

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142 Table 38 Repeated Measures ANOVA with Between-Subjects Facto rs on Attendance by Group (Control vs. ABC) Table 39 Means and Standard Deviations for Attendance by Gro up (Control vs. ABC) Control ABC Total Outcome variable M SD M SD M SD Baseline attendance 2.90 1.77 3.10 1.90 3.00 1.82 Follow-up attendance GPA 2.70 1.99 2.90 1.73 2.80 1.85 Source df SS MS F p 2 Between-subjects Group 1 1.20 1.20 0.19 .662 .00 Error 58 360.60 6.22 Within-subjects Attendance 1 1.20 1.20 1.94 .169 .03 Attendance x Time 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.000 .00 Error 58 35.80 0.62

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143 Summary and Conclusion The results of this study indicate that regarding h ypothesis 1 ABC counseling significantly increased participant self-esteem fro m baseline to one-week posttest (see Table 9). For hypothesis 2 ABC counseling was also effective in significantly increasing participant empathy from baseline to one-week postt est, and from one-week posttest to one-month follow-up (See Table 11 and 12). Results partially supported hypothesis 3 validating that ABC counseling significantly decrea sed perceived racial discrimination from one-week posttest to one-month follow-up (see Table 14). Hypothesis 4 was fully supported: racist attitudes significantly decreased from baseline to one-week posttest and one-week posttest to one-month follow-up (see Table 15 and 16). In addition, the prediction articulated in hypothesis 6 was validate d: an increase in self-esteem and empathy is correlated to a decrease in racism (see Tables 19-23). The analysis of hypothesis 7 confirmed males experi enced a significantly greater increase in self-esteem and empathy as compared to females (see Table 25 and 17), Latina/os had the most significant decrease in raci st attitudes and highest overall scores on the same measure (see Table 31), and African Ame ricans possessed significantly higher perceived racial discrimination scores than Caucasians or Latina/os (see Table 29). The ancillary analysis established a significant re duction occurred for total discipline referrals and racism-related discipline referrals f or both the control and ABC counseling groups from baseline to one-month follow-up (see Ta ble 32 and 34): This change occurred independently of group membership. Survey results provided greater insight and understanding of the participants as well as re porting their perceptions on ABC

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144 counseling, the school climate, and their past expo sure and sensitivity to other races (see Tables 6-8). Overall, study results showed all hypotheses, with the exception of hypothesis 5, were supported. Although the results for behaviora l outcome variables showed little significance, the analysis that did find significan ce, total and racism-related discipline referrals, functions to corroborate the prediction of hypothesis 5: there would be a significant reduction on racism-related discipline referrals.

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145 Chapter Five: Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions This study investigated the potential effect of A BC counseling on high school adolescent self-esteem, empathy, perceived racism, and racist attitudes. Additionally, it explored the behavioral outcome variables—total dis cipline referrals, racism-related discipline referrals, attendance, and GPA, as well as the variables gender and ethnicity— as related to the effects of ABC counseling. In th is chapter, I present a summary of the study results, discuss its findings in relation to the hypotheses and related literature, and explore its limitations. Finally, suggestions for future research are presented followed by the conclusions of the study. Summary of the Results Overall, analysis of this study’s results indicates that ABC counseling was effective in significantly increasing participant s elf-esteem from baseline to one-week follow-up (Hypothesis 1). ABC counseling also bols tered participant empathy for both baseline to one-week follow-up, and one-week follow -up to one-month follow-up (Hypothesis 2). Results further indicate that ABC counseling significantly decreased perceived racial discrimination from one-week follo w-up to one-month follow-up (Hypothesis 3) and significantly decreased racist a ttitudes from baseline to one-week follow-up, and one-week follow-up to one-month foll ow-up (Hypothesis 4). In addition, the prediction articulated in hypothesis 6 was vali dated: an increase in self-esteem and empathy is correlated to a decrease in racism. Als o, significant reduction in the number

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146 of total discipline referrals and racism-related di scipline referrals was observed within groups. An ancillary analysis showed significance for the variables gender and ethnicity; males experienced a significantly greater increase in self-esteem and empathy as compared to females; Latina/os had the most signifi cant decrease in racist attitudes and highest overall scores on the same measure; African Americans possessed significantly higher perceived racial discrimination scores than Caucasians or Latina/os. Results from of the overall pretest survey data dem onstrated that the control and ABC groups were similar; their baseline survey scor es varied slightly, indicating that students viewed themselves as not sensitive to othe r races, as having limited exposure to people of races different from their own, and as ha ving marginal travel experience that could have exposed them to other cultures or races. Discussion The discussion will be presented sequentially follo wing the same format as the results: (a) survey questionnaires; (b) hypotheses; and (c) behavioral outcome variables. Pretest: Prior exposure and sensitivity to other ra ces. Data from this survey suggests that prior to the ABC counseling intervent ion, most students viewed themselves as not sensitive to other races, as having limited communication with and exposure to people of other races and as having marginal travel experience where they were exposed to other cultures or races different from their own A possible cause of this phenomenon is the overall limited number of ethnicities, other than Caucasians, that are represented in both the school and the community featured in the study. I hypothesized that because the comm unity is affluent, there would have

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147 been a larger number of students reporting that the y had traveled and been exposed to unfamiliar cultures and races. A limitation regarding this survey and other subseq uent surveys is that they were all created by the researcher and they have not bee n fully validated. Despite the stated limitation, the survey had face value and its descr iptive presentation suggests that students have not travelled much to destinations wh ere they could interact with different cultures and races, see themselves as not sensitive to diverse persons, and perceive racism as being present at their school. However, because of the limitation stated above, caution should be exercised when evaluating these results a nd only tentative implications can be presented. A second limitation hinges on the survey’s design. Number three response on the five-point Likert scale (neither agree nor disagree ) was unnecessary for some of the survey questions. For example, question number one reads, “I have traveled around the United States and / or foreign countries and have e xperienced cultures and races different than my own.” A response option of neither agree n or disagree appears to be inappropriate for the survey, and added to the diff iculty in interpreting and presenting the results. Future research should consider using a d ifferent Likert scale where no potentially neutral response is offered (1= strongl y disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = agree; 4 = strongly agree). As previously discussed, the use of a stratified sa mpling scheme allowed for both the control and experimental groups to be mixed and balanced by gender and ethnicity, containing equal representations of African America n, Latina/o, and Caucasian students. A body of literature exists discussing how mere exp osure to the out-group and cross-

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148 racial contact can reduce bias and prejudice (Ebert 2004; Pettigrew, 2008; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006; Zajonc, 1968, 2001). When considering both existing literature and the results of the survey suggesting the participants’ limited exposure and sensitivity to cultures and races other than their own, it could b e argued that the participants’ mere exposure to other races and cultures contributed to the significant reduction in both perceived racial discrimination and racist attitude s. In contrary, because all students in the study attend that same high school, it could be postulated that this constitutes previous exposure. Students see each other in the s chool and interact with one another in different classes, assignments, and group projects. Thus, mere exposure is part of the students daily experiences, despite of which racial and ethnic tension still exists. It is possible that exposure per se acted as a facilitato r or that different levels of exposure influenced the degree of change observed in each pa rticipant. Because this was not measured empirically in this study, the potential i nfluence of mere exposure cannot be ruled out completely. Future research is needed to establish if exposure to the out-group, in relation to the specific parameters of this study, is responsib le for variance in the study outcomes. Pretest: perception of racism existing in the schoo l. Data from this survey suggests that a majority of students agreed on that students at their high school often act in a racist manner toward other students. The stude nts’ perceived racism corroborates what have been observed by the researcher and other school personnel and supports the choice to study an intervention to help students im prove in this area. The survey data also reveal that school teachers do not share that perception with the students. This is an important outcome, despit e the small number of teachers

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149 involved, because it demonstrates a measurable disp arity in the perception of racism at the school between staff and students. Lack of reco gnition of students’ experience may prevent teachers from responding to perceived racis m and prevent its negative consequences for the students and their high school Additional results indicate that the majority of te achers and students do not perceive teachers often acting in a racist manner t oward other students at their high school. The limitations of this survey are similar to thos e listed in the previous survey. The results from this survey support the literature on school-based racism, which describes the school setting as possessing elements that support racism, including social exclusion, presence and awareness of racial group s tereotypes, and heightened racial salience (Rosenbloom & Way, 2004; Seidman et al., 1 994). Despite lack of reliability and validation studies, the results of this survey suggest that the study was needed at the school site to address and investigate student-rela ted racism. In addition, the results suggest that a study and intervention focused on ra cism and school administration are needed. Posttest: experience in adventure based counseling. The results of this survey suggest that most of the teachers and students view ed ABC counseling as beneficial, having positively changed how students view others, and having the potential to reduce racism. A majority of teachers and students stated that ABC counseling changed how students feel about themselves in a positive way. In addition, on the survey question asking about their experience with the physical nat ure of ABC counseling participants reported that physical contact with other students was uncomfortable.

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150 A possible cause of physical contact being uncomfor table for the students is the limited number of experiences provided at high scho ols for physical contact. This type of contact is frequently discouraged between boys and girls, and often enforced in discipline policy. Given this marked infrequency, the survey results reporting that the physical contact was uncomfortable for the students appear r easonable. Another possible explanation could be the specific ABC counseling ac tivities that took place in this study: there are literally hundreds of low and high ropes course activities that can be used in ABC counseling. For this study, activities were se lected by the ABC counseling leaders based on input from the researcher, focusing on the mes of tolerance and diversity. Course leaders stated that the activities they sele cted were not out of the ordinary and are used with multiple populations and organizations. The limitations for this survey mirror those previo usly discussed. In addition, this particular survey asked the teacher-observers how t hey viewed the students’ experience regarding the ABC event. Because the teachers did not participate in the ABC event and only functioned as observers themselves, the interp retation of their responses may be subjective and difficult to accurately assess given study constraints. Despite these limitations, it appears that the resu lts of this survey support the prediction presented in hypothesis 6: students and teachers reported that they viewed ABC counseling as efficacious, having changed how s tudents view others in a positive way, and possessing the potential to reduce racism. The survey results are in alignment with existing research on the efficacy of ABC couns eling increasing empathy, interpersonal skills, and understanding others (Aut ry, 2001; Combs, 2001; Cook, 2008; Russell, 2001).

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151 Hypothesis 1. Participants who received the ABC treatment showed a significant increase in self-esteem scores as compared to the c ontrol group (see Table 9). The results from this study support previous research, confirmi ng Adventure Based Counseling as efficacious in enhancing adolescent self-esteem (Fa ulkner, 2001; Garst et al., 2001; Neill & Richards, 1998; Wick & Wick, 1997). These results also establish that ABC counseling pa rticipants experienced the largest gain in self-esteem scores from the time of the event to one-week after the event. Although statistical significance was not found for the one-month outcome, data implies that an increase in self-esteem scores was maintain ed from one-week to one-month follow-up. An important limitation regarding the results of th is hypothesis for baseline to one-week follow-up is that the assumption of multic ollinearity was violated, due to correlation between the centered pretest self-estee m score and the interaction term. The pretest self-esteem score was highly correlated wit h the interaction term. As a result of this assumptions violation, generalizations of the results are made cautiously (Stevens, 2002). A difference was observed by gender. Males appea r to have experienced an increase in self-esteem scores both from T1 to T2, and from T2 to T3; females showed a decrease in mean scores from T1 to T2, and an incre ase from T2 to T3; notably, female scores dropped from baseline to one-week follow-up. In addition, the mean baseline selfesteem score for females was higher than the mean b aseline score for males (see Table 4). It could be that the increases in male scores are r elated to the lower baseline scores,

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152 where the males started with a lower overall level of self-esteem and experienced a larger impact from the event. Another possible explanation of this phenomenon may relate to the physical nature of the ABC intervention. The males’ increas e in self-esteem scores may be a result of their relatedness to the physical nature of the ropes course activities, especially the high-element climbing events. The opposite cou ld hold true for females, whose decrease in scores might result from their exposure to the physical activities of the program. This explanation is not congruent with th e research of Neill and Richards (1998), who believe the increase in participant sel f-esteem to be the result of participating in the ABC risk-taking elements and physical challe nges. Interestingly, Selfdetermination theory (SDT) suggests these elements could positively impact self-esteem by providing competence feedback, or more generally by satisfying the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Another possible explanation for the differences in male and female scores could relate to the participants’ past exposure to ABC co unseling or group counseling. Perhaps a difference exists between the two genders’ prior exposure to these activities which was not measured as part of this study. An examination of the significant interaction (see Figure1) indicates that students with lower baseline self-esteem scores had higher s elf-esteem scores after ABC counseling, as compared to students with higher bas eline self-esteem scores who showed no statistical increase. Chen and Faruggia (2002) assert that self-esteem plays a large role during the developmental stage of adolescence, when the adolescent is swiftly nearing adulthood, and is beginning to take on adul t roles and responsibilities. Mandara

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153 et al. (2009) propose that a substantial developmen tal task of adolescence is the formation of a complete and positive sense of self. The find ings of this study suggest that some students may have previously achieved a higher deve lopmental level of self-esteem, and these students benefitted the least from ABC counse ling. As such, the results of this study imply that this intervention is most appropri ate for students that are pre-identified as possessing low self-esteem. Based on the results of this study, it could be sug gested that Adventure Based Counseling is appropriate for increasing male adole scent self-esteem. This recommendation should be cautiously adopted and it is recommended that future research is completed to more comprehensively explore the ef fects of ABC counseling on different genders. It could be suggested that Self -Determination theoretically explains the efficacy of ABC counseling increasing self-este em as a result of the activities providing competence feedback. This explanation do es, however, require further investigation to empirically establish if ABC couns eling satisfies participants’ psychological needs for competence, relatedness, an d autonomy. Hypothesis 2. This hypothesis was fully accepted. Empathy signif icantly increased for the ABC counseling group for both tim e periods (see Tables 11 and 12). Results support previous research on ABC counseling which attributes increases in empathy and relatedness to others to the treatment’ s focus on experiencing, expressing and exploring emotions in a group setting (Autry, 2 001; Combs, 2001; Cook, 2008; Russell, 2001). Furthermore, results indicate that ABC counseling h as the potential to increase adolescent empathy longitudinally. This was suppor ted as the intervention shifted the

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154 participants’ empathic relatedness to others, quant ified by a significant increase in empathy scores for both time periods. It may also be suggested that the personal awareness and insight gained through the interventi on has a lasting impact, and that adolescents gained an enhanced insight into themsel ves which allowed for a continued developmental process to occur. Future research sh ould investigate the impact of ABC counseling on adolescent empathy over a longer peri od of time, with follow-up testing at six months, one year and two years. One limitation exists concerning the implications a nd generalizations of the results concerning the Basic Empathy Scale. The sc ale was developed in England and previous research using the instrument was primaril y conducted with adolescents in European countries such as Italy (Gini et al., 2007 ), France (D’Ambrosio, et al., 2008), and England (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006). Althoug h reliability and validity have been established and the instrument was developed origin ally in English, cultural differences may exist that impact the participants’ responses t o questions, thereby influencing results. Aligned with previous empathy research (Davis, 1983 ; Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006; Lennon & Eisenberg, 1987), females in this st udy have higher mean scores than males on all three administrations of the BES (see Table 4). Jolliffe & Farrington (2006) posit that because females are socialized to be mor e attuned than males to the feelings of other people, or because females are socially expec ted to respond more comprehensively to the feelings of others, females may respond to q uestionnaires in concordance with these sex-role stereotypes. Similar to the self-es teem scores, males showed an increase in empathy scores, while female scores remained relati vely constant. It could be that males, operating from traditional gender roles toward comm unication and understanding of the

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155 feelings of others, were more impacted by the group counseling element of the ABC event. Future research that specifically measures what elements of ABC counseling increased empathy would be helpful to more thorough ly understand these phenomena. The Latino group stood out as having the highest me an scores for empathy (see Table 5). This could be the result of an increased focus placed on the Latina/o population at the study site by both the site administration a nd personnel from the district ESOL office. Two years ago, a mentoring program was est ablished at the site and a focus was placed on recruiting Latina/o mentors and placing t hem with ethnically similar students. A future study examining the dimensions of the ment oring program would be valuable in measuring its true impact. Previous research on adolescent empathy has establi shed a negative correlation between high empathy and an increase pro-social beh avior (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006). It could be cautiously generalized that ABC counsel ing has the potential to increase adolescent pro-social behavior, especially with mal es. Because bullying is such an important topic in schools, future research could h elp determine if ABC counseling reduces these psychologically and physically domina ting behaviors. What can be generalized from the results of this study is that ABC counseling significantly increases high school adolescents’ empathic abilities. Hypothesis 3. Results indicate a significant difference exists be tween groups (ABC and control) for the outcome perceived racism assessed at one-month follow-up posttest (see Table 14), however no significance wa s established for the outcome at oneweek posttest (see Table 13).

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156 A limitation that exists regarding perceived discri mination is that it is difficult to distinguish between actual discrimination occurring or the perception that discrimination is occurring. There is, however, an abundance of l iterature indicating that the perception of being discriminated against is sufficient to dec rease the health and mental health status of ethnic minorities (Landrine et al., 2006; Smedle y & Smedley, 2005). For this study the measurement of perceived racial discrimination appraises the victim’s perception; and as such, the presence of perceived discrimination i ndicates the existence of racism. A review of descriptive data by ethnicity shows tha t males had higher mean scores for perceived racial discrimination as compa red to females (see Table 4). This indicates that males in the sample possessed an inc reased perception of racism occurring in their lives as compared to females in the sample notably at the baseline score. Research by Rodriguez (2008) examined different for ms of perceived discrimination related to gender and found that some forms of discrimination may be gendered, specifically issues related to violence and harassment. Some researchers contend that masculinity is often associated with being or actin g violent (Johnson 2005; Kimmel 2004; Messner 1992). Most notably, Kimmel (2004) suggest s that males are socialized to be prepared for violence in their lives, and that defe nding oneself is a sign of masculinity The male participants would therefore be more likel y than the females to encounter and perceive discrimination. This could suggest that t he racially-related violence previously discussed as occurring at the study site impacts th e male participants’ perception of racism. Therefore, the presence of the racial-viole nce functions to sustain its own existence.

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157 Regarding gender, not all research supports the fin dings of this study. Some studies investigating the effect of gender on perce ptions of discrimination generally find that women are more likely than men to perceive dis crimination (Gutek, Cohen, & Tsui, 1996; Inman & Baron, 1996 ; Levin, Sinclair, Veniegas, & Taylor, 2002). The reasons behind this occurrence are described as related to historical discrimination against women in the United States. The African American group had the highest mean sco res for perceived racial discrimination when compared to the Latina/os and C aucasians (see Table 5). This suggests that African Americans adolescents at the study site have a notably higher perception of racism at the study site than both ot her groups. Literature supports these findings where Caucasians likewise reported signifi cantly less discrimination than did African Americans (Brondolo, Kelly, Coakley, Gordon Thompson, & Levy, 2005). The findings of this study also supports research by La ndrine et al. (2006), whereby African Americans reported more discrimination than Asian A mericans, Latina/os, and Caucasians. It could be that the study findings re flect real differences among ethnic minority groups in being discriminated, e.g. Africa n Americans are discriminated against more frequently than other minority groups. Altern atively, these findings may reflect ethnic differences in perceiving discrimination as such, e.g. Latina/os experience a n equal amount of discrimination, however they perceive les s occurring. Rodriguez (2008) asserts that minority group status does not always predict perceived discrimination; however, the social barriers hypothesis provides a potential explanation for the heightened African American scores in this study. This hypothesis contends that African

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158 Americans could perceive more personal discriminati on due to actual institutionalized practices and prejudice. Based on the analysis above, a possible generalizat ion from the study results is that African American adolescents may benefit the m ost with this intervention in regards to reducing perceptions of racial discrimination. Hypothesis 4. A significant reduction in racist attitudes occurre d for the ABC group as compared to the control group for both tim e-periods (see Tables 18 and 19). Limitations exist regarding self-reported participa nt scores on the Modern Racism Scale McConahay (1986) acknowledged that the MRS can some times be unstable, particularly if respondents perceive the racial implications of the items. The questions on this scale and other extrinsic racism instruments are worded s uch that the participant could infer the implications of the items. Consequently, a limitat ion exists concerning the potential reactivity of the adolescent participants to the ra cism items, and a potential for conscious deception by the participants is possible. This ph enomenon was not controlled for in the study and the researcher must acknowledge that the results could potentially be impacted. Studies have validated the MRS for use with both ma les and females and all three ethnicities represented in this study. In addition various age groups have been examined, including college students and young adults ages 17 to 23 (Son Hing, Chung-Yan, Hamilton, & Zanna, 2008). As such, a second limita tion is that no research was found testing the MRS specifically with adolescents, whic h again bears some impact on the conclusiveness of the results. The Latina/o group stood out as having the highest mean scores for racist attitudes when compared to the other two groups (see Table 5) This is quite a large discrepancy

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159 as compared at baseline to Caucasians and African A mericans. Data suggests that the Latina/os at the study site possess an elevated lev el of racist attitudes as compared to the other two groups. As previously mentioned, the adm inistration placed focus on the Latina/o population at the high school over the las t few years, based on the groups’ dropout, discipline and academic data. It could be that the high mean scores on the MRS for the Latina/os reflect the overall climate of La tina/o students at the study site. Studies indicate that Latina/o adolescents report discrimin ation as pervasive, and characterize it based on English fluency, immigration concerns, neg ative stereotypes, poverty, and skin color. (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000; Romero & R oberts, 2003a, 2003b). It could be suggested that Latina/o adolescents deal with uniqu e issues related to discrimination that trigger heightened defensive response manifesting a s racist attitudes toward out-groups. A review of the significant interaction for both ba seline to one-week and oneweek to one-month indicates that the reduction occu rred for ABC participants with high levels of baseline racial attitudes scores compared to the control group. It can be suggested from the results that ABC counseling is m ost effective for adolescents who previously possess a high level of racist attitudes and also with adolescents with previous low levels of racist attitudes. The sample for thi s study was selected initially through recruitment, then through a stratified sampling pro cess to balance groups. Students may have self-selected or omitted themselves from the s tudy, presenting a limitation regarding the results. Results suggest that ABC counseling is appropriate for specifically identified populations that traditionally struggle with racist attitudes, such as juvenile offenders or adolescents with identified school-based discipline issues. At the high school level,

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160 selecting specific students to participate in ABC c ounseling (those with identified high levels of racist attitudes) could see a larger decr ease in racist attitudes with the sample. On the contrary, the communication and interaction between students with both high and low levels of racist attitudes may have contributed to the effectiveness of the program. Hypothesis 5. No significant difference was found to exist betw een groups (ABC and control) for the outcome racism-related discipl ine referrals (see Table 17). Several factors could have impacted these results. It is plausible that the 5-week period of time was not enough to measure a signific ant change in the number of discipline referrals. At the study site, data-repo rts often show increases and decreases in the number of discipline referrals at different tim es during a given school year. The data collection for this hypothesis took place in the sp ring, one-month after high-stakes State testing; perhaps stress associated with this event influenced student behavior, wherein students shifted their attention to the high-stakes exams and away from other social or school-based issues. It may also be possible that State testing shifted the climate of the school and classroom practices by adding a school-wide focus o n the event. Other external factors influencing the results could be varying teacher at titudes on discipline and school culture, and changing family and social issues related to th e economy. Figure 7 represents overall significant differences found in hypotheses 1 – 5.

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Figure 7 Overall Significant Differences for Self Discrimination, Racist Attitudes, and Racist Hypothesis 6 and empathy, and perceived racism and racist attitu des for each time period (see Tables 18 – 23); significant negative relationships were found between discrimination and empathy, esteem. The results suggest scores on selfesteem and empathy the significant increases in self discrimination in hypotheses 1 The results for this hypothesis confirm the predict ion that was made: a significant relationship exists between high self Again, in this study two types of racism were measu red, perceived racism (experienced) nrnn Significant 161 Overall Significant Differences for Self Esteem, Empathy, Perceived Racial Discrimination, Racist Attitudes, and Racist Related Discipline Referrals Significant positive relationships were found between self and empathy, and perceived racism and racist attitu des for each time period (see Tables 23); significant negative relationships were found between perceived racial discrimination and empathy, and between p erceived racial discrimination and esteem. The results suggest that as perceived racial discrimination scores decr ease esteem and empathy increase This directional effect was established by the significant increases in self -este em and empathy, and decreases in perceived racial discrimination in hypotheses 1 – 4. The results for this hypothesis confirm the predict ion that was made: a significant relationship exists between high self esteem and empathy, and lower scores on racism. Again, in this study two types of racism were measu red, perceived racism (experienced) n nnn n rnn n nn Significant Decrease Significant Decrease No significant difference Significant Increase Significant Increase Esteem, Empathy, Perceived Racial Related Discipline Referrals relationships were found between self -esteem and empathy, and perceived racism and racist attitu des for each time period (see Tables perceived racial erceived racial discrimination and selfthat as perceived racial discrimination scores decr ease the This directional effect was established by em and empathy, and decreases in perceived racial The results for this hypothesis confirm the predict ion that was made: a significant esteem and empathy, and lower scores on racism. Again, in this study two types of racism were measu red, perceived racism (experienced) nnn n

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162 and racist attitudes (expressed). For this hypothe sis, the perception that racism is occurring was found to significantly decrease as se lf-esteem and empathy increase. As expected, these relationships existed for both the control and ABC group, and are supported by existing research. The results of thi s study are consistent with Social Identity Theory predictions. This theory describes the occurrence of racial discrimination as the result of an attempt to enhance self-esteem and collective efficacy (Tajfel, 1978, 1981, 1982; Tajfel & Turner, 1979), and suggests th at by increasing self-esteem and empathy by means other than the occurrence of discr imination (ABC counseling), a subsequent decrease in racial discrimination would occur. Student participants that increased self-esteem demonstrated reductions in bo th measures of racism. Dovidio, Gaertner, and Loux (2000) suggest that enh anced empathy and social awareness can lead to a stronger inclusive group id entity resulting in a reduction in perceived racism. McFarland (1998) found a correla tion between a lack of empathy and a predisposition toward experiencing and expressing racism. Butler (1995) discusses how low self-esteem may influence certain behaviors including racial discrimination. The strongest relationship consistently existed bet ween empathy and self-esteem. Being that empathy and self-esteem are both describ ed in literature as crucial developmental elements for a high-functioning adole scent (Chen & Faruggia, 2002; Newman and Newman, 2009), it is expected that this relationship would exist. It could be suggested from the study that adolescents with h igh self-esteem will also possess high empathic abilities; on the contrary, those with low self-esteem would likely possess poorly developed empathic skills.

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163 The strongest negative relationships consistently f ound were between empathy and perceived racial discrimination, and between se lf-esteem and perceived racial discrimination. Results suggest that the study fin ding support both the Social Identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979) and Terror Managemen t Theory (Greenberg et al., 1986). Both theories discuss the relationship between self -esteem and discrimination. This study sought to establish that ABC counseling produced significant increases in self-esteem and empathy, and significant decreas es in both perceived racism and racist attitudes; these conjectures were all supported in the regression analyses. What this means is that participating in ABC counseling produ ced even greater decreases in racist attitudes and perceived racism, and greater increas es in self-esteem and empathy than the control group. Results suggest that the prediction was met: as compared to the control, ABC counseling participants experienced a significa nt increase in self-esteem and empathy and a subsequent significant decrease in pe rceived racism and racist attitudes. Figure 8 displays the significant positive and nega tive relationships found in hypothesis 6.

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Figure 8 Significant Positive and Negative Relatives Establi shed for Outcomes as Related to the Effect of ABC Counseling Hypothesis 7. this chapter related to descriptive data; however, some additional conclusions can be drawn from this analysis that established significa nt differential effects of gender and ethnicity related to ABC counseling. For this ancillary analysis, males in the ABC c statistically significant increase in self females; females had statistically greater self compared to males. This dichotomy in the self supports prior research (Davis, 1983; Jolliffe & Fa rrington, 2006; Lennon & Eisenberg, 1987) and provides more clarity into the social adolescents by gender. In addition, the results of the curre nrnn 164 Significant Positive and Negative Relatives Establi shed for Outcomes as Related to the Effect of ABC Counseling Many of the implications of these finding were disc ussed earlier in chapter related to descriptive data; however, some additional conclusions can be drawn from this analysis that established significa nt differential effects of gender and ethnicity related to ABC counseling. this ancillary analysis, males in the ABC c ounseling group experienced a statistically significant increase in self esteem and empathy scores as compared to females; females had statistically greater self esteem and empathy scores overall as compared to males. This dichotomy in the self -esteem and empathy scores by gender supports prior research (Davis, 1983; Jolliffe & Fa rrington, 2006; Lennon & Eisenberg, 1987) and provides more clarity into the social emotional developmental level of adolescents by gender. In addition, the results of the curre nt analysis suggest that ABC n nnn n Significant Positive and Negative Relatives Establi shed for Outcomes as Related to the Many of the implications of these finding were disc ussed earlier in chapter related to descriptive data; however, some additional conclusions can be drawn from this analysis that established significa nt differential effects of gender and ounseling group experienced a esteem and empathy scores as compared to esteem and empathy scores overall as empathy scores by gender supports prior research (Davis, 1983; Jolliffe & Fa rrington, 2006; Lennon & Eisenberg, emotional developmental level of nt analysis suggest that ABC n

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165 counseling may be more appropriate for use with mal es. Additional studies should be made to determine the appropriateness of using ABC counseling with both genders. A single-sex study is recommended to further investig ate this phenomenon. Latina females experienced a statistically greater increase in self-esteem scores compared to African American or Caucasian females. For racist attitudes, Latina/os experienced a significant reduction on their scores as compared to African Americans and Caucasians. In addition, Latina/os had significant ly greater racist attitude scores overall as compared to African Americans and Caucasians (se e Tables 24 – 31). Overall, African Americans had significantly greater perceived racia l discrimination scores than both Caucasians and Latina/os. Caucasians had overall s ignificantly greater perceived racial discrimination scores than Latina/os. These result s support prior research (Brondolo, 2005; Landrine et al., 2006) and imply that African Americans at the school site struggle the most with the perception of racism occurring. In regards to increasing self-esteem, it can be gen eralized that ABC counseling is more effective for males than females. Regarding em pathy, the results suggest that the ABC counseling treatment is more effective for incr easing male empathy. Again, future research as well as studies examining a single-sex sample would be useful in confirming these conclusions. In addition, the results of this study suggest that ABC counseling may be more effective for use with African American males, Cauc asian males, and Latina females for increasing self-esteem. A final generalization is that ABC counseling may be most appropriate for Latina/os for reducing racist attit udes.

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166 Behavioral outcome variables. Results for both total discipline referrals and racism-related discipline referrals indicate signif icant differences exist within groups from baseline to one-month follow-up (see Tables 32 – 35). The fact that both total and racism-related discipline referrals decreased for b oth the control and ABC groups could have several possible causes. First, the overall e ffect of the ABC counseling could have influenced the school climate and caused the overal l reduction in referrals to occur. The students who participated in the intervention may h ave either been responsible for many of the school discipline issues or influential at t he school site in implementing change, resulting in this overall reduction. It could also be that the reduction merely reflects the time of year, economy, school social trends or othe r external factors. What is clear is that the number of discipline incidents were reduced sig nificantly after ABC counseling took place. The results suggest that ABC counseling may have been the catalyst behind this reduction; however, this cannot be firmly substanti ated through this analysis. Results for attendance and GPA indicated that no s ignificant change occurred (see Tables 36 – 39). The most apparent cause is the sh ort time period that was used to measure this data. Examining a change in GPA or at tendance between two consecutive months is likely not adequate time to reveal a meas urable change. Perhaps looking at grades and attendance over the period of a one to t wo-year period would substantiate the impact of ABC counseling. Research on racism and e thnic minorities shows a positive correlation exists between the academic achievement of adolescent ethnic minorities and racism (Fisher et al., 2000; Small et al., 2007; St eele, 1997; Wong et al., 2003). Leibkind et al. (2004) examined racism with adolescents and asserted that academics, discipline, and attendance are negatively impacted. This resea rch suggests that as a result of the

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167 significant decrease in racism as established in th e regressions, it can be reasonably assumed that a subsequent increase in attendance or grades would have occurred. Limitations In addition to the limitations discussed earlier in this chapter, additional limitations regarding this study are included here. Regarding sampling, the generalizability of this study is limited, as the s tudy investigated one sample in one state. Therefore, results are generalized with caution to other populations. The IRB Committee required that no deception were u sed in this study and that full description of the study were provided to pote ntial participants. As a result of the IRB process, the participants were aware that the study was examining the variables selfesteem, empathy and racism. All participants comple ted the instruments three times and it is foreseeable that some may have realized that the researcher was seeking to determine if ABC counseling would subsequently increase or decre ase these scores. It is therefore possible that biased responding occurred on the par t of participants as a result of the three test administrations and their basic knowledge of t he study intent. The county that this study took place in is also af fluent. Consequently, the sample reflects this demographic and again is generalized with caution to other populations. Regarding the instruments, limitations exist regard ing their established reliability and validity concerning the specific population that is represented in this study. In particular, the surveys used in this study were created by the researcher and currently possess no tested reliability and validity. Results from thes e surveys should therefore be considered with prudence.

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168 Suggestions for Future Research Although the findings of this study produced signif icant data, several suggestions for future research subsequently emerged. It is re commended that future research with ABC counseling examine other ethnicities beyond Afr ican American, Latina/os and Caucasians. Because ABC counseling was found to be effective in reducing elements of racism, expanding this research to include other et hnicities will give a broader picture of the potential effect of the intervention. African Americans, possessing a significantly higher perception of racism, substantiate the need for a continued emphasis of research to address this broad, societal issue. Future research with ethnicities should seek to est ablish if exposure to the outgroup, in relation to the specific parameters of th is study, is responsible for variance in the study outcomes. In addition, it would also be recommended that future studies examine ABC counseling with all male and all female groups to determine if there are any differential effects when the intervention is c ompleted homogeneously by gender. As previously stated, an ancillary analysis was con ducted after hypotheses 1 – 6 to determine the differential effects of gender and ethnicity relating to ABC counseling. This study did not, however, control for variance f rom gender and ethnicity which cut into the outcomes of self-esteem, empathy, perceive d racial discrimination and racist attitudes in the regressions. It is recommended th at future research include this process into the analysis. This study is neither a systemic study nor a truly longitudinal study; it was a specific intervention study. As such, some recomme ndations for future research are studying the school as a system, performing longer or repeated trainings, and conducting

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169 longitudinal studies. It would be recommended that the intervention is measured every six months for a year or two after the study; follo w-up ABC counseling should also take place once every six months to a year for the longi tudinal study. Additionally, this study should be duplicated using a longer ABC counseling intervention. A two, three, or four day event is recommended and could produce an enhan ced effect on the outcomes. Moreover, it is recommended that future research on ABC counseling controls for participants’ prior exposure to ABC counseling or g roup counseling. Although this study did address school-based data s uch as discipline referrals, attendance and grade point average, these were not the focus of the ABC counseling training. Academic achievement and behavioral vari ables like discipline and attendance represent data that educators and administrators of ten use to evaluate their effectiveness with students. It is the recommendation of the res earcher that future studies investigate ABC counseling related specifically to academic ach ievement of adolescents as well as variables such as attendance, truancy, and discipli ne. Future research on empathy should attempt to determ ine what underlies the significantly higher empathy of females. This is e specially relevant as some researchers have suggested that these empathy differences may u nderpin the disparity between males and females with school discipline issues and crimi nal involvement (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006). Furthermore, future research wo uld be helpful in determining if ABC counseling reduces bullying behaviors. Another recommendation is implementing and measurin g ABC counseling for specific populations which possess pre-existing hig h levels of racist attitudes or perceived discrimination. Selecting students to participate who have documented issues with racial

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170 intolerance would likely produce positive results i n the school climate. Alternatively, implementing ABC counseling as a school-wide interv ention has the potential to positively impact the entire school culture by enha ncing self-esteem, empathy, and ultimately increase communication, sense of self, a nd relatedness to others. In addition, utilizing this intervention in jails, prisons or ju venile detention centers might change inmate interactions in the facility and potentially reduce inmate violence. The nature of ABC counseling lends itself to being described as an alternative learning environment, where students are exposed to a non-traditional format of learning and personal growth. The benefits of this approach are clear as related to the outcomes examined in this study. The positive results lead the researcher to recommend that ABC counseling continue to be investigated as an altern ative to traditional education, examining more closely the impact of ABC counseling on student academic achievement and standardized testing. A final recommendation for future research is to st udy ABC counseling to determine what specific activities or processes cau se the changes in self-esteem, empathy and racism. It is clear from the result of this st udy that ABC counseling produced significant increases in self-esteem and empathy, a nd significant decreases in perceived racism and racist attitudes. Future research shoul d seek to explain why these changes occurred related to specific ABC counseling techniq ues and procedures. ABC counseling remains an intervention that requires additional in vestigation to further its credibility in the educational and scientific community as a viabl e treatment for adolescent social and emotional issues.

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171 Conclusion This study was originally conceptualized by the res earcher as a way to determine if ABC counseling could be used to respond to the r acial violence occurring at the high school where he is an assistant principal. The res earch was driven by the lack of available intervention programs and the need to inv estigate potentially useful programs, such as ABC counseling. Aligned with previous research, the ABC group exper ienced a significant increase in self-esteem and empathy. The program also produ ced significant decreases in both perceived racism and racist attitudes. The latter was a result predicted by the theoretical models used in this research, but it is believed th at this is the first time such an effect has received empirical support. In addition, the signi ficant negative relationships found between self-esteem and perceived racism and empath y and perceived racism verified the prediction that increases in self-esteem and empath y would correlate with decreases in racism. Although this study examined the social-emotional i ssues of self-esteem and empathy, the driving force behind the study was pin pointing the effect of ABC counseling on adolescent racism and race-related vi olence. Therefore, the application for this study’s findings upon future research should n ot be underestimated. The quantifiable impact of racial discrimination in the United State s is evidenced by the disproportionate number of ethnic minorities arrested, committed to prison, put to death, and the national poverty rate. Minorities are overrepresented in th e high school drop-out rate, in their poor performance on standardized academic assessmen ts, and in Special Education programs. This research not only contributes to th e body of literature on ABC

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172 counseling, self-esteem and empathy; it also provid es empirical research and broader insight into the issue of racism in the United Stat es.

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187 challenge course training on locus of control of yo uth from residential care. Journal of Experiential Education, 23 (1) 39-42. Newman, B., & Newman, P. (2009). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompson. Ocampo, K. A., Bernal, M. E. & Knight, G. P. (1993) Gender, race, and ethnicity: The sequencing of social constancies. In Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities Bernal, M. E. and Knight, G. P. (Eds). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, pp. 11-30. Ogbu, J. (1994). Racial stratification and educatio n in the United States: Why inequality persists. Teachers College Board. 96 264-271. Pagano, R. R. (1990). Understanding statistics in the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company. Pettigrew, J. S. (2008). Future directions for inte rgroup contact theory and research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 3 2 (3). 187-199. Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A metaanal ytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 751-783. Phinney, J. S. (1996). When we talk about American ethnic groups, what do we mean? American Psychologist, 51, 1-10. Phinney, J. S., Madden, T. & Santos, L. J. (1998). Psychological variables as predictors of perceived ethnic discrimination among minority a nd immigrant adolescents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 28, 937-953. Piers, E. V. & Harris, D. B. (1984). Piers-Harris children self-concept scale. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

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188 Priest, S. (1998). Research update: Physical challe nge and the development of trust through corporate adventure training. Journal of Experiential Education, 21 (1), 31-34. Roberts, N. & Yerkes, R. (2000). Experiential Educ ation Research: Where do we go from here? Journal of Experiential Education, 23 (2) 61-63. Rodrigues, M. (2008. Perceived discrimination: Mult iple measures and the intersections of race and gender. Journal of Amrican American Studies, 12 348-364. Romero, A. J. & Roberts, R. E. (1998). Perception o f discrimination and ethnocultural variables in a diverse group of adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 641-656. Romero, A. J. & Roberts, R. E. (2003a). The impact of multiple dimensions of ethnic identity on discrimination and adolescent’s self-es teem. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 2288-2305. Romero, A. J. & Roberts, R. E. (2003b). Stress wit hin a bicultural context for adolescents of Mexican descent. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9, 171-184. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Rosenbloom, S. R. & Way, N. (2004). Experiences of discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino adolescents i n an urban high school. Youth & Society, 35 (4) 420–451. Russell, K. C. (2001). What is wilderness therapy? The Journal of Experiential Education, 24, 70-79. Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and prot ective factors. American Journal of

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193 Zajonc, R. B. (2001). Mere exposure: A gateway to t he subliminal. Current Directions In Psychological Science, 10, 224-228. Ziegert, J. C., & Hanges, P. J. (2005). Employment discrimination: The role of implicit attitudes, motivation, and a climate for racial bia s. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 553–562.

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194 Appendices

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195 Appendix A: Script "Students, a research project is taking place this Spring to examine if Adventure Based Counseling has any impact on self-esteem, empathy a nd racism. If you choose to participate in this study, you will have the opport unity of participating in a 1-day Adventure Based Counseling "Ropes Course" at the YM CA Alpine Towers in Sarasota. The Ropes Corse will include multiple group activit ies, small and large group discussion and climbing the YMCA Alpine Tower and climbing wal l. This will occur during a school day and you were required to make up any wor k that you miss. As part of the study, you were asked to complete a questionnaire o nce before the Rope Course event, and twice after. If you are interested, please ask your teacher for a permission form. If you are under 18, both you and your parent will nee d to read and sign the form. Whether or not you participate in this study will have no i mpact on your grade in this class. If you have any questions, please ask your teacher and the y will get back to you within a day with the answer. Please turn in your completed per mission slip to your teacher. You have one week from today to return your completed permis sion packet. You were notified by your teacher if you are selected to participate in the study. Thank you"

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196 Appendix B: Institutional Review Board Parent Conse nt Parental Permission to Participate in Research Information for parents to consider before allowing their child to take part in this research study IRB Study # 00000573 The following information is being presented to hel p you/your child decide whether or not your child wants to be a part of a research stu dy. Please read carefully. Anything you do not understand, ask the investigator. We are asking you to allow your child to take part in a research study that is called: A Case Study Examining the Impact of Adventure Base d Counseling on High School Adolescent Self-Esteem, Empathy, and Racism The person in charge of this study is Chris Cale of the University Of South Florida. He is being guided in this research by Dr Carlos Zalaquet t. The research was done at YMCA Ropes Course facility 8301 Potter Park Drive, 34243. Transportation and lunch were provided. There is no cost to your child. Should your child take part in this study? This form tells you about this research study. You can decide if you want your child to take part in it. This form explains: Why this study is being done. What will happen during this study and what your ch ild will need to do. Whether there is any chance your child might experi ence potential benefits from being in the study. The risks of having problems because your child is in this study. Before you decide: Read this form. Have a friend or family member read it. Talk about this study with the person in charge of the study or the person explaining the study. You can have someone with you when you talk about the study. Talk it over with someone you trust. Find out what the study is about. You may have questions this form does not answer. You do not have to guess at things you don’t understand. If you have questions ask the person in charge of

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197 Appendix B (Continued) the study or study staff as you go along. Ask the m to explain things in a way you can understand. Take your time to think about it. It is up to you. If you choose to let your child b e in the study, then you should sign this form. If you do not want your child to take part i n this study, you should not sign the form. Why is this research being done? By doing this study, we hope to learn is participat ing in an adventure based counseling program helps students self-esteem and empathy and well as racists beliefs. Why is your child being asked to take part? Your child is being asked to take part in a researc h study about how an adventure based counseling course will impact students self-esteem, empathy and beliefs about race and racism. Your child is being asked to take part in t his research study because he/she is a student at this school. If your child takes part in this study, he/she will be one of about 100 people in this study. There will be two different groups of studen ts established. If your child participates in this study, he/she will be randomly assigned to a group. Group One will complete the ABC Ropes Course first, and Group Two will complete it approximately a month later. Once before and twice after the ABC Ropes Course event, your child will complete a questionnaire abo ut their self-esteem, empathy and feelings about race and racism. What will happen during this study? Your child w asked to participate in teambuilding a ctivities, and have discussions with other students and adults. The information collected will be input into a comp uter system and analyzed to get results. Your child will complete a questionnaire that has q uestions about their self-esteem, empathy and feeling about race and racism. Your child will complete the questionnaire one time before the ABC course, once after and once again 1 month after. How many other people will take part? About 100 students will take part in this study. What other choices do you have if you decide not to let your child to take part? If you decide not to let your child take part in th is study, that is okay. Instead of being in this research study your child can choose not to participate. Will your child be paid for taking part in this stu dy? We will not pay your child for the time he/she volu nteers while being in this study. What will it cost you to let your child take part i n this study? It will not cost you any amount let your child take part in the study. The study will pay the costs of: food, transportati on. The absence for the day will be excused by the school.

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198 Appendix B (Continued) What are the potential benefits to your child if yo u let him / her take part in this study? We do not know if your child will get any benefits by taking part in this study. What are the risks if your child takes part in this study? Your child will participate in a Ropes Course. This will include climbing an ‘Alpine Tower’. Your child may choose to climb or assist wi th belaying other climbers. There is the possibility of a physical injury. The greatest level of safety is taken to insure your child’s safety in this event. *Please note, you are also required to complete the YMCA Parental Permission Form in addition to this form. If your child is harmed while taking part in the st udy: If you believe your child has been harmed because o f something that is done during the study, you should call Chris Cale immediately at 94 1-955-0181. It is important for you to understand that the University of South Florida will not pay for the cost of any care or treatment that might be necessary because your chil d gets hurt or sick while taking part in this study. That cost will be your responsibility. Also, the University of South Florida will not pay for any wages you may lose if your chi ld is harmed by this study. The University of South Florida is considered a state a gency and therefore cannot usually be sued. What will we do to keep your child’s study records private? There are federal laws that say we must keep your c hild’s study records private. We will keep the records of this study private by storing t he data in a locked area that no other persons have access to. We will keep the records of this study confidential by taking your child’s name off of the questionnaire and assigning a number to represent y our child’s data. However, certain people may need to see your child’ s study records. By law, anyone who looks at your child’s records must keep them co mpletely confidential. The only people who will be allowed to see these records are : Certain government and university people who need t o know more about the study. For example, individuals who provide oversight on t his study may need to look at your child’s records. These include the University of South Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the staff that work for the IRB. Individuals who work for USF that provide other kinds of oversight to re search studies may also need to look at your child’s records. Other individuals who may look at your child’s reco rds include: agencies of the federal, state, or local government that regulates this research. This includes the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Office for Human Research Protections. They also need to make sure t hat we are protecting your child’s rights and safety. We may publish what we learn from this study. If w e do, we will not let anyone know your child’s name. We will not publish anything el se that would let people know who your child is.

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199 Appendix B (Continued) What happens if you decide not to let your child ta ke part in this study? You should only let your child take part in this st udy if both of you want to. You or child should not feel that there is any pressure to take part in the study to please the study investigator or the research staff. If you decide not to let your child take part: Your child will not be in trouble or lose any right s he/she would normally have. You child will still get the same services he/she w ould normally have. Your child can still get their regular education You can decide after signing this informed consent document that you no longer want your child to take part in this study. We will keep you informed of any new developments which might affect your willingness to allow your child to continue to participate in the study. However, you can decide y ou want your child to stop taking part in the study for any reason at any time. If you de cide you want your child to stop taking part in the study, tell the study staff as soon as you can. We will tell you how to stop safely. We will tell you if there are any dangers if your child stops suddenly. If you decide to stop, your child can go on getting his/her regular education Even if you want your child to stay in the study, t here may be reasons we will need to take him/her out of it. Your child may be taken out of this study if: Your child experiences emotional distress on the ro pes course (ie. fear of heights) You can get the answers to your questions, concerns or complaints. If you have any questions, concerns or complaints a bout this study, call Chris Cale at 941-955-0181. If you have questions about your child’s rights, ge neral questions, complaints, or issues as a person taking part in this study, call the Div ision of Research Integrity and Compliance of the University of South Florida at (8 13) 974-9343. If your child experiences an adverse event or unant icipated problem call Chris Cale at 941-955-0181 Consent for Child to Participate in this Research S tudy It is up to you to decide whether you want your chi ld to take part in this study. If you want your child to take part, please read the state ments below and sign the form if the statements are true. I freely give my consent to let my child take part in this study. I understand that by signing this form I am agreeing to let my child tak e part in research. I have received a copy of this form to take with me. ________________________________________________ __________________ Signature of Parent of Child Taking Part in Study Date ________________________________________________

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200 Appendix B (Continued) Printed Name of Parent of Child Taking Part in Stud y ________________________________________________ __________________ Signature of Parent of Child Taking Part in Study Date ________________________________________________ Printed Name of Parent of Child Taking Part in Stud y Signatures of both parents are required unless one parent is not reasonably available, deceased, unknown, legally incompetent, or only one parent has sole legal responsibility for the care and custody of the chil d. When enrolling a child participant, if only one signature is obtained, the person obtaining the consent must check on of the reasons listed below: The signature of only one parent was obtained becau se: The other parent is not reasonable available. Exp lain: The other parent is unknown. The other parent is legally incompetent. The parent who signed has sole legal responsibilit y for the care and custody of the child. Statement of Person Obtaining Informed Consent I have carefully explained to the person taking par t in the study what he or she can expect. ___________________________________________ ____________ Signature of Person Obtaining Informed Consent Date ___________________________________________ Printed Name of Person Obtaining Informed Consent

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201 Appendix C: Institutional Review Board Student Asse nt Assent to Participate in Research Information for Persons under the Age of 18 Who Are Being Asked To Take Part in Research IRB Study # 00000573 Title of study: A Case Study Examining the Impact of Adventure Base d Counseling on High School Adolescent Self-Esteem, Empathy, and Ra cism Why am I being asked to take part in this research? You are being asked to take part in a research stud y about how an adventure based counseling course will impact students self-esteem, empathy and beliefs about race and racism. You are being asked to take part in this re search study because you are a student at this school. If you take part in this study, you will be one of about 100 people in this study. Who is doing this study? The person in charge of this study is Chris Cale of the University Of South Florida. He is being guided in this research by Dr Carlos Zalaquet t. Other people who you may see while you are on the study are: Col. F. Thibault, C haperone. What is the purpose of this study? By doing this study, we hope to learn is participat ing in an adventure based counseling program helps students self-esteem and e mpathy and well as racists beliefs. Where is the study going to take place and how long will it last? There are two different groups who will participate in the study. Group one will complete the ABC Rope Course first, and Group 2 will complet e the ABC Ropes Course second. You will be randomly assigned to either group 1 or 2 and notified of the date that you will participate in the ABC Ropes Course. The study will take place at Sarasota YMCA Ropes Course Facility. The total amount of time you will be asked to volunteer for this study is one full day of school. This day will be e xcused.

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202 Appendix C (Continued) What will you will be asked to do? You will be asked to participate in teambuilding ac tivities, and have discussions with other students and adults. The information collected will be input into a comp uter system and analyzed to get results. You will complete a questionnaire that have questio ns about your self-esteem, empathy and feelings about race and racism. You will complete the questionnaire one time before the ABC course, once after and once again 1 month after. What things might happen that are not pleasant? To the best of our knowledge, the things you will b e doing will not harm you or cause you any additional unpleasant experience. Although we have made every effort to try and make sure this doesn’t happen, you may find some questions we ask you upset you. If so, we will tell you and your parents about some people who may be able to help y ou with these feelings. In addition to the things that we have already talk ed about, listed above, you may experience something uncomfortable that we do not k now about at this time. Will something good happen if I take part in this s tudy? We cannot promise you that anything good will happe n if you decide to take part in this study. What other choices do I have if I do not participat e? You have the alternative to choose not to participa te in this research study. Do I have to take part in this study? You should talk with your parents or anyone else th at you trust about taking part in this study. If you do not want to take part in the study, that is your decision. You should take part in this study because you really w ant to volunteer. If you do not think you want to take part in this s tudy, you should talk this over with your parents and decide together. If I don’t want to take part in this study, what wi ll happen? If you do not want to take part in the study, there are other choices such as: If you do not want to be in the study, nothing else will happen. Will I receive any rewards for taking part in this study? You will not receive any reward for taking part in this study.

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203 Appendix C (Continued) Who will see the information about me? Your information will be added to the information f rom other people taking part in the study so no one will know who you are. Can I change my mind and quit? If you decide to take part in the study you still h ave the right to change your mind later. No one will think badly of you if you decid e to quit. Also, the people who are running this study may need for you to stop. If th is happens, they will tell you why. What if I have questions? You can ask questions about this study at any time. You can talk with your parents or other adults that you trust about this s tudy. You can talk with the person who is asking you to volunteer. If you think of other q uestions later, you can ask them. Assent to Participate I understand what the person running this study is asking me to do. I have thought about this and agree to take part in this s tudy. __________________________________________ ________ ___ Name of person agreeing to take part in the study D ate _________________________________________ _________ __ Name of person providing information to subject Dat e

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204 Appendix D: YMCA Parent Consent Form

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205 Appendix E: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Sample BELOW IS A LIST OF STATEMENTS DEALING WITH YOUR GEN ERAL FEELINGS ABOUT YOURSELF. IF YOU STRONGLY AGREE CIRCLE SA IF YOU AGREE WITH THE STATEMENT, CIRCLE A IF YOU DISAGREE CIRCLE D IF YOU STRONGLY DISAGREE CIRCLE SD 1. STRONGLY DISAGREE 2 DISAGREE 3. AGREE 4. STRONGLY AGREE 1. I feel that I'm a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others. SD D A SA 2. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. SD D A SA 3. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. SD D A SA 4. I am able to do things as well as most other people. SD D A SA 5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of. SD D A SA 6. I take a positive attitude toward myself. SD D A SA 7. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. SD D A SA 8. I wish I could have more respect for myself. SD D A SA 9. I certainly feel useless at times. SD D A SA

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206 Appendix F: General Ethnic Discrimination Scale Sam ple We are interested in your experiences with racism. As you answer the questions below, please think about this school year For each question, please circle the best capture s the things that have happened to you in the current school year How often have you been treated unfairly by teachers because of your race/ethnic group? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Never Once in a while Sometimes A lot Most of the time Almost all the time How often have you been treated unfairly by your employers, bosses and supervisors because of your race/ethnic group? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Never Once in a while Sometimes A lot Most of the time Almost all the time How often have you been treated unfairly by your fellow students and colleagues because of your race/ethnic group? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Never Once in a while Sometimes A lot Most of the time Almost all the time How often have you been treated unfairly by people in service jobs (by store clerks, waiters, bank tellers, etc) because of your race/ethnic group? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Never Once in a while Sometimes A lot Most of the time Almost all the time How often have you been treated unfairly by strangers because of your race/ethnic group? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Never Once in a while Sometimes A lot Most of the time Almost all the time

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207 Appendix G: Basic Empathy Scale Sample The following are characteristics that may or may n ot apply to you. Please pick one answer for each statement to indicate how much you agree or disagree with ea ch statement. Please answer as honestly as you can. 1. My friend’s emotions don’t affect me much. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 2. After being with a friend who is sad about somethin g, I usually feel sad. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 3. I can understand my friend’s happiness when she/he does well at something. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 4. I get frightened when I watch characters in a good scary movie. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

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208 Appendix H: Modern Racism Scale Sample Please mark the response that most accurately repre sents your views. 1. Over the past few years, minorities have gotten mor e economically than they deserve. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 2. Over the past few years, the government and news me dia have shown more respect for minorities than they deserve. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 3. It is easy to understand the anger of minority peop le in America. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 4. Discrimination against minorities is no longer a pr oblem in the United States. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

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209 Appendix I: Perception of Racism Existing in the Sc hool Survey Please pick and circle one answer for each statemen t to indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement. Please answ er as honestly as you can. Racist / Racism: a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an i nherent superiority of a particular race. 1. I believe that students in this school often act in a racist manner toward other students who are of a different race from themselve s. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 2. I believe that teachers in this school often act in a racist manner toward students or other teachers who are of a different race from themselves. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 3. I believe that administrators in this school often act in a racist manner towards students or teachers who are a different race from themselves. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

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210 Appendix J: Prior Exposure and Sensitivity to Other Races Survey Please pick and circle one answer for each statemen t to indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement. Please answ er as honestly as you can. 1. I have traveled around the United States and / or f oreign countries and have experienced cultures and races different than my ow n. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 2. In my life, I have NOT been exposed to a lot of peo ple who are of a different race than I am. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 3. I feel that in my life I have NOT communicated with many other people who are a different race than I am. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 4. I am sensitive to the experiences of people of other cultures and races that are different from my own culture or race. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

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211 Appendix K: Experience in the ABC Counseling Event Survey Please pick and circle one answer for each statemen t to indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement. Please answ er as honestly as you can. 1. I found the Adventure Based Counseling experience b eneficial. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 2. The physical contact with other students made me un comfortable. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 3. The Adventure Based Counseling experience changed h ow I view others in a positive way. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 4. The Adventure Based Counseling experience changed h ow I feel about myself in a positive way. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 5. I believe that Adventure Based Counseling has the p otential to reduce racism in high schools. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

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212 Appendix L: Perceptions of the Students’ Experience in ABC Counseling Survey Please pick and circle one answer for each statemen t to indicate how much you agree or disagree with each statement. Please answ er as honestly as you can. 1. I found the Adventure Based Counseling experience b eneficial for the students. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 2. I believe the physical contact with other students made some students uncomfortable. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 3. I feel the Adventure Based Counseling experience ch anged how students view other students leading them to view others in a more positive wa y. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 4. I feel that Adventure Based Counseling experience c hanged how students feel about themselves in a positive way. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 5. I believe that Adventure Based Counseling has the p otential to reduce racism in high schools. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

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213 About the Author Chris Cale completed his Bachelor of Science in Cri minology and Master of Science in Marriage, Family, & Child Counseling, an d School Counseling at California State University Sacramento. He completed his Mast er of Education at the University of South Florida, Tampa. Chris grew up in a family wi th an FBI Agent father and a social worker / counselor mother. Subsequently, he develo ped a passion for advocating social justice, tolerance, and possibility. Chris is als o a professional musician and an avid traveler who has trekked across 47 countries. He i s completing his Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction with a focus in Counselor Education and Supervision at the University of South Florida in Tampa. Chris is an Assistant Prin cipal at a large suburban high school and loves his job.


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A case study examining the impact of adventure based counseling on high school adolescent self esteem, empathy, and racism
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effectiveness of Adventure Based Counseling upon high school adolescents. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the effectiveness of ABC Counseling in increasing levels of self-esteem and empathy among adolescents; (b) study the efficacy of ABC counseling in reducing perceived racial discrimination, racist attitudes, or both; and (c) investigate the correlation between self-esteem, empathy, perceived racial discrimination, and racist attitudes as related to the effects of ABC counseling. In addition, the effects of ABC counseling on the school-related variables such as discipline, attendance, and academics, as well as possible outcome differences caused by demographic variables like gender and ethnicity were measured in relation to the effects of the ABC counseling treatment. Finally, this study also gathered descriptive data from participants through survey questionnaires regarding their prior knowledge and sensitivity to other races, their perception of racism occurring at the study site, and their experience in ABC counseling. Research indicates that adolescents struggle with and are confronted by many developmental, psychological, and social phenomena while in high school. Salient among these phenomena are self-esteem, empathy, and racism. Research shows that developmentally appropriate self-esteem and empathy have a positive effect on the well being and functioning of adolescents. Furthermore, research indicates that racism has a significant negative impact on the development of adolescents. Social Identity Theory suggests that increases in self-esteem could lead to decreases in racism (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Tajfel, 1978, 1981, 1982). Research based on this theory indicates a possible correlation between increased empathy and a decrease in racism (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). In addition, ABC counseling has been shown to produce a positive impact on both self-esteem and empathy in adolescents (Tajfel & Turner, 1979). A total of 108 African American, Latina/o, and Caucasian adolescents from one Southeastern high school participated in the study. Half the students received a one-day ABC counseling treatment, and half served as the control group receiving no treatment. Results of the study found significant increases for the ABC counseling group in both self-esteem and empathy, and significant decreases in perceived racial discrimination and racist attitudes. In addition, a significant reduction in discipline referrals occurred from baseline to one-month follow-up. An ancillary analysis showed significance for the variables gender and ethnicity: males experienced a significantly greater increase in self-esteem and empathy as compared to females; Latina/os had the most significant decrease in racist attitudes and highest overall scores on the same measure; African Americans possessed significantly higher perceived racial discrimination scores than Caucasians or Latina/os. Limitations existed concerning the sample, instruments, and analysis. The sample was taken from a single high school in an affluent community; some of the instruments do not have reported reliability and validity or prior use with high school students in the study; and the absence of multicollinearity was assessed through examination of the Variance Inflation Factors (VIF) and the assumption was violated with the outcome self-esteem. These limitations necessitate caution when making generalizations using the study's results. Similar to previous research, the ABC group experienced a significant increase in self-esteem and empathy. Participating in the program also produced significant decreases in both perceived racism and racist attitudes. The latter results support the hypothesis made by the theoretical models used in this research, but it is believed that this is the first time such an effect has received empirical support. In addition, the significant negative relationships found between self-esteem and perceived racism, and empathy and perceived racism verified the prediction that increases in self-esteem and empathy would correlate with decreases in racism.
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Advisor: Carlos Zalaquett, Ph.D.
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Adventure based counseling
Racism
Self-esteem
Empathy
Discrimination
Adolescence
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