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A canine audience :

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Material Information

Title:
A canine audience : the effect of animal-assisted therapy on reading progress among students identified with learning disabilities
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Griess, Julie
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Informal reading inventory
Running record
Single case design
Dissertations, Academic -- Special Education -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This study explored the use of animal-assisted therapy with students identified with a learning disability and limited reading success. Initially, reading progress was defined as the participants' comprehension rate obtained from an oral Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) passage. The nature of the Informal Reading Inventory requires the introduction of more difficult reading passages as the student's comprehension rate increases, potentially masking the overall effect of the intervention. Due to this factor and erratic student performance, which is a common characteristic of students with learning disabilities, obtaining consistent comprehension rates was difficult. Therefore, progress was defined only as total amount of time the student was engaged in reading under each condition. A reversal replication, single case design was implemented to determine the effects of reading to the therapy dog on the students' reading progress as measured by total amount of time read. The analysis indicated a statistically significant increase in the total amount of reading time as determined by the participants in the presence of the therapy dog. Positive student feedback about their experience reading with the therapy dog supported the effect of the intervention on reading progress.
Thesis:
Dissertation (PHD)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Julie Griess.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0004566
usfldc handle - e14.4566
System ID:
SFS0027881:00001


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A C a ni ne A udi e nc e : T he E f f e c t o f A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on R e a di ng P r og r e s s A m ong S t ude nt s I de nt i f i e d w i t h L e a r ni ng D i s a bi l i t i e s by J ul i e O m odi o G r i e s s A di s s e r t a t i on s ubm i t t e d i n pa r t i a l f u l f i l l m e nt of t he r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he de g r e e of D oc t or of P hi l os ophy D e pa r t m e nt of S pe c i a l E duc a t i on C ol l e ge of E duc a t i on U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da M a j or P r of e s s or : A nn C r a ns t on G i ngr a s P h. D B e t t y C E pa nc hi n E d. D J ohn F e r r on, P h. D J a m e s K i ng, E d D J e a nni e K l e i nha m m e r T r a m i l l P h D D a t e of A ppr ova l : J une 9, 2010 K e yw or ds : I nf or m a l r e a di ng i nve nt o r y, r unni ng r e c or d, s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn C opyr i ght 2010 J ul i e O m od i o G r i e s s

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D e di c a t i on I w oul d l i ke t o de di c a t e t hi s di s s e r t a t i on t o m y t w o be a ut i f ul da ught e r s R i l e y a nd M a ya w ho w i t ne s s e d t ha t e duc a t i on i s a n ongoi ng j our ne y a nd r e m i nd m e t ha t l i f e i s a bout ha vi ng f un a nd f e e di ng t he duc ks

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A c know l e dgm e nt s I w oul d l i ke t o e xpr e s s m y s i nc e r e gr a t i t ude t o D r A nn C r a ns t on G i ngr a s f or he r c ont i nua l s uppor t a nd be l i e f i n m e t h r oughout m y pr oc e s s S he ha s pr ovi de d m e w i t h a n e xe m pl a r y m ode l of hi gh s t a nda r ds a nd ba l a nc e i n hi ghe r e duc a t i on. D r B e t t y C E pa nc hi n a f f o r de d a s ol i d f ounda t i on t h r ough ha nd s on e xpe r i e nc e s a nd oppor t uni t i e s bot h i n a nd be yond t he U ni ve r s i t y e nvi r o nm e nt D r J ohn F e r r on ge ne r ous l y s ha r e d hi s know l e dge of s i ngl e s ubj e c t de s i gn, e xpa ndi ng m y know l e dge of qua nt i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h m e t hods D r J a m e s K i ng s ha r e d hi s e nt hus i a s m f o r t hi nki ng o ut s i de t he box a nd c ont i nua l l y s uppor t e d m y r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t i n A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py. D r J e a nni e K l e i nha m m e r T r a m i l l ge ne r a t e d t hough t f ul que s t i ons t o e nc our a ge a de e pe r l e ve l of unde r s t a ndi ng of m y r e s e a r c h. M y s uppor t i ve doc t or a l c ohor t a nd l i f e l ong f r i e nd s i n t he f i e l d: D r S a r a h S e m on M s G l e nda K os hy, D r M i c ha e l S m i t h D r B e t s y D oone D r K a t i S t e i n, D r K a r e n V oyt e c ki D r P e t e M a r s h, D r M i c he l l e D uda D r B e n G r a f f a m a nd D r T a ndr i a C a l l i ns M y m ot he r R e a t ha ha s a l w a ys be l i e ve d i n m e a nd pr ovi de s w i s dom a nd hum o r i n a ny s i t ua t i on. M y f a t he r J i m i s t he r e t o he l p a n d a l w a ys w i t h a s m i l e F or B e c ke t t s t a i l w a ggi ng e nt hus i a s m a nd i ns pi r a t i on f or t hi s r e s e a r c h. M y s i s t e r a nd be s t f r i e nd T i f f a ny pr ov i de s e m ot i ona l s uppor t a nd e nc our a g e m e nt t ha t I c a n ha ve a pos i t i ve e f f e c t on e duc a t i on M y hus ba nd, C h uc k, ha s be e n a m e nt o r c oa c h a nd a dvi s or t hr oughout m y pr ogr a m H i s unc ondi t i ona l l ove a nd s uppor t ne ve r f a de s a nd e nc our a ge s m e t o s e e t he j oy i n a l l of l i f e s m o m e nt s

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i T a bl e of C ont e nt s L i s t of T a bl e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i v L i s t of F i gur e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v A bs t r a c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi C ha pt e r O ne I n t r oduc t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 S t a t e m e nt of t he P r ob l e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 P ur pos e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 R a t i ona l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 L i m i t a t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 D e f i ni t i on of T e r m s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 O r ga ni z a t i on of R e m a i ni ng C ha pt e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 C ha pt e r T w o L i t e r a t u r e R e vi e w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 R e a di ng T he or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 L e a r ni ng D i s a bi l i t i e s a nd R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 R e a di ng I nt e r ve nt i ons f or S t ude nt s w i t h L e a r ni ng D i s a bi l i t i e s a nd L ow R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or i e s R unni ng R e c or ds R e s e a r c h a nd S t ude nt s w i t h L e a r ni ng D i s a bi l i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A ni m a l s i n L i t e r a c y I nt e r ve nt i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 S um m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 P opul a t i on C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 S a m pl i ng P r oc e dur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 S a m pl i ng S c he m e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 S a m pl e S i z e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 S a m pl e C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 S e t t i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 P a r t i c i pa nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 S e l e c t i on E l i gi bi l i t y C r i t e r i a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 C ons e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 S i ngl e C a s e D e s i gn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 R e s e a r c h P r oc e dur e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 M e t hod of A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

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i i D a t a C ol l e c t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 S i ngl e C a s e D e s i gn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 F ol l ow up Q ue s t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 P r e s e nt a t i on of R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 S um m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A na l ys i s of D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 I ndi vi dua l R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 P a r t i c i pa nt A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 D e s c r i pt i ve A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 I nf e r e nt i a l A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 S um m a r y of P a r t i c i pa nt A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 P a r t i c i pa nt B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 D e s c r i pt i ve A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 I nf e r e nt i a l A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 S um m a r y of P a r t i c i pa nt B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 P a r t i c i pa nt C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 D e s c r i pt i ve A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 I nf e r e nt i a l A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 S um m a r y of P a r t i c i pa nt C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 A na l ys i s of P ool e d D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 S um m a r y of D e s c r i pt i ve a nd I nf e r e nt i a l A na l ys i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 F ol l ow up I nt e r vi e w D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 I nt e r r a t e r A gr e e m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 R e a di ng t o B e c ke t t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 I nc r e a s e d M ot i va t i on a nd E nj oym e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 E m ot i ona l B ond a nd S e nt i m e nt a l A t t a c hm e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 R e a di ng w i t h R e s e a r c he r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 V a r yi ng L e ve l s of I nt e r e s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 E m ot i ona l A t t a c hm e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 E f f e c t o f S pe c i f i c B ook a nd B ook S e l e c t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 S um m a r y of I nt e r vi e w D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 S um m a r y of R e s ul t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 C ha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i on 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 S um m a r y of F i ndi ngs a s R e l a t e d t o R e s e a r c h Q ue s t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 L i m i t a t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 R e c om m e nda t i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e a r c h a nd P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 C onc l us i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 R e f e r e nc e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

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i i i A ppe ndi c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 A ppe ndi x A : P a r t i c i pa t i on S e l e c t i on F or m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 A ppe ndi x B : R e a di ng a nd A s s e s s m e nt M a t r i x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 A ppe ndi x C : R e s e a r c h A ppr ova l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A ppe ndi x D : R e s e a r c h C ons e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A ppe ndi x E : O bs e r va t i on L og . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 A ppe ndi x F : I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y A s s e s s m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 A ppe ndi x G : S A S C ode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 A ppe ndi x H : P r oc e dur a l P r ot oc ol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 A bout t he A ut hor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E nd P a ge

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i v L i s t of T a bl e s T a bl e 1. T i m e l i ne of S t udy P ha s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 T a bl e 2. D e s c r i pt i on of P a r t i c i pa nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 T a bl e 3. I nt e r r a t e r R e l i a bi l i t y: R unni ng R e c or d P a s s a ge s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 T a bl e 4. L a be l V a l ue s of d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 T a bl e 5. P a r t i c i pa nt A : D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s a nd C ohe n s d E f f e c t S i z e . . . . . . . 60 T a bl e 6. P a r t i c i pa nt B : D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s a nd C ohe n s d E f f e c t S i z e . . . . . . . 64 T a bl e 7. P a r t i c i pa nt C : D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s a nd C ohe n s d E f f e c t S i z e . . . . . . . 68 T a bl e 8. C ova r i a nc e P a r a m e t e r E s t i m a t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 T a bl e 9. S ol ut i on f o r F i xe d E f f e c t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 T a bl e 10. I nt e r r a t e r R e l i a bi l i t y: I nt e r vi e w C a t e gor i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

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v L i s t of F i gur e s F i gur e 1. D e s c r i pt i on of A na l ys i s P r oc e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 F i gur e 2. S a m pl e R e a di ng P r e a nd P os t A s s e s s m e nt G r a ph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 F i gur e 3. S a m pl e R e a di ng T i m e G r a ph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 F i gur e 4. I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y O r a l R e a di ng S c o r e s P a r t i c i pa nt s A B & C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 F i gur e 5. P a r t i c i pa nt A P r e a nd P os t O r a l R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt D a t a . . . . . . . . . . 59 F i gur e 6. P a r t i c i pa nt A T ot a l R e a di ng T i m e D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 F i gur e 7. P a r t i c i pa nt B P r e a nd P os t O r a l R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt D a t a . . . . . . . . . . 63 F i gur e 8. P a r t i c i pa nt B T ot a l R e a di ng T i m e D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 F i gur e 9. P a r t i c i pa nt C P r e a nd P os t O r a l R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt D a t a . . . . . . . . . . 66 F i gur e 10. P a r t i c i pa nt C T ot a l R e a di ng T i m e D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

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vi A C a ni ne A udi e nc e : T he E f f e c t o f A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on R e a di ng P r og r e s s A m ong S t ude nt s I de nt i f i e d w i t h L e a r ni ng D i s a bi l i t i e s J ul i e O m odi o G r i e s s A B S T R A C T T hi s s t udy e xpl or e d t he us e of a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py w i t h s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y a nd l i m i t e d r e a di ng s uc c e s s I ni t i a l l y, r e a di ng p r ogr e s s w a s de f i ne d a s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c om p r e he ns i on r a t e obt a i ne d f r om a n or a l I nf o r m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y ( I R I ) pa s s a ge T he na t ur e of t he I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y r e qui r e s t he i nt r oduc t i on of m or e di f f i c ul t r e a di ng pa s s a ge s a s t he s t ude nt s c om pr e he ns i on r a t e i nc r e a s e s pot e nt i a l l y m a s ki ng t he ove r a l l e f f e c t o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on. D ue t o t hi s f a c t or a nd e r r a t i c s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e w hi c h i s a c om m on c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r n i ng di s a bi l i t i e s obt a i ni ng c ons i s t e nt c om pr e he ns i o n r a t e s w a s di f f i c ul t T he r e f o r e pr ogr e s s w a s de f i ne d onl y a s t ot a l a m oun t of t i m e t he s t ude nt w a s e nga ge d i n r e a di ng unde r e a c h c ondi t i on. A r e ve r s a l r e pl i c a t i on, s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn w a s i m pl e m e nt e d t o de t e r m i ne t he e f f e c t s of r e a di ng t o t he t he r a py do g on t h e s t ude nt s r e a di ng pr og r e s s a s m e a s ur e d by t ot a l a m ount o f t i m e r e a d T he a na l ys i s i ndi c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i nc r e a s e i n t he t ot a l a m ount o f r e a di ng t i m e a s de t e r m i ne d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t he p r e s e nc e of t he t he r a py dog. P os i t i ve s t u de nt f e e dba c k a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng w i t h t he t he r a py dog s uppor t e d t he e f f e c t of t he i nt e r ve nt i on on r e a di ng pr ogr e s s

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1 C ha pt e r O ne I nt r oduc t i on R e a di ng i s f unda m e nt a l t o f unc t i on i n our l i t e r a t e s oc i e t y ye t onl y t hi r t y t hr e e pe r c e nt of ou r na t i on s f our t h gr a de r s a nd t w e nt y s i x pe r c e nt of e i ght h g r a de r s a r e r e a di ng a t a ba s i c a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l ( 2008) T he N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s de f i ne d ba s i c r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s pa r t i a l m a s t e r y of pr e r e qui s i t e know l e dge a nd s ki l l s t ha t a r e f unda m e nt a l f or pr of i c i e nt w or k a t e a c h gr a de ( I E S N a t i ona l C e nt e r f o r E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s 2009 ) L e w i s ( 2003 ) c l a i m e d t ha t a n e s t i m a t e d one ha l f m i l l i on A m e r i c a n hi gh s c hool s t ude nt s gr a dua t e w i t h onl y r udi m e nt a r y r e a di ng s ki l l s A m ong t hi s gr oup of l ow a c hi e ve r s i n r e a di ng a r e s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng s pe c i f i c l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ( K a va l e & R e e c e 1992) O ve r t he l a s t s e ve r a l de c a de s s e ve r a l na t i ona l s t udi e s s ugge s t t ha t unl e s s t he s e a t r i s k s t ude nt s pa r t i c i pa t e i n e f f e c t i ve i nt e r ve nt i on pr ogr a m s a nd r e c e i ve a s ol i d r e a di ng f ounda t i on, t he y r i s k s l ow e r r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt a nd f a l l i ng f ur t he r be hi nd t he i r pe e r s ( M us t i R a o & C a r t l e dge 2007; S t a novi c h, 1986) D r opout da t a a l s o i ndi c a t e t ha t s t ude nt s w ho a r e be hi nd i n r e a di ng a r e a t hi ghe r r i s k f o r une m pl oym e nt a nd a dj udi c a t i on ( C or nw a l l & B a w de n, 1992; W e r ne r 1993) A ddi t i ona l l y, t he r e a r e b r oa de r s oc i a l i m pl i c a t i ons f or s t ude nt s w ho r e a c h young a dul t hood not ha vi ng a t t a i ne d pr o f i c i e nc y i n r e a di ng. L ow l i t e r a c y ha s be e n l i nke d t o c r i m e a nd une m pl oym e nt r a t e s T he N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e f or L i t e r a c y ( N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e f o r L i t e r a c y, 1998 ) r e por t e d t ha t s e ve nt y pe r c e nt of pr i s one r s f a l l i nt o t he t w o l ow e s t l e ve l s of pr o f i c i e nc y. F u r t he r m or e m o s t j obs i n ou r c oun t r y r e qui r e a ni nt h gr a de r e a di ng l e ve l ye t t w e nt y pe r c e nt o f A m e r i c a ns a r e r e a di ng a t t he f i f t h g r a de l e ve l ( N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e f or

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2 L i t e r a c y, 1998 ) C or c or a n a nd D a vi s ( 2005) s t a t e d t ha t s e ve nt y f i ve pe r c e nt o f s t ude nt s i n t hi r d gr a de i de nt i f i e d a s poo r r e a de r s w i l l c ont i nue t o be l ow a c hi e vi ng i n n i nt h g r a de a nd l i ke l y i nt o a dul t hood. I n a ddi t i on, m a ny s t udi e s i ndi c a t e a l i nk be t w e e n l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s ( F uc hs e t a l 2000; F uc hs e t a l 2001 ; K a va l e & R e e c e 1992) I n r e s pons e t o de c l i ne s i n a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( N C L B ) a m ode r n r e vi s i on of t he 1965 E l e m e nt ar y and Se c ondar y E duc at i on A c t w a s i m pl e m e nt e d t o i nc r e a s e a c c ount a bi l i t y f or s c hool s a nd t e a c he r s A m a j or c om pone nt of N C L B w a s a c a l l f or a c c ount a bi l i t y a t t he l oc a l l e v e l F l o r i da l i ke m a ny s t a t e s r e s ponde d t o de c l i ni ng s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt a nd c a l l s f or i nc r e a s e d a c c ount a bi l i t y a t a l l l e ve l s by i nt r oduc i ng t he F l or i da C om pr e he ns i ve A s s e s s m e n t T e s t ( F C A T ) t o t r a c k a nd m e a s ur e s t ude nt s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a s out l i ne d by t he N C L B m a nda t e s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2009a ) S ubs e que nt l y, m a ny t e a c he r s ha ve de vot e d a m a j or i t y of i n s t r uc t i ona l t i m e t o t he r e a di ng c ur r i c ul um a nd ha ve be e n r e qui r e d t o a dhe r e t o c l e a r i ns t r uc t i ona l gui de l i ne s a s out l i ne d by N C L B H ow e ve r f or m a ny s t ude nt s t he out c om e s ha ve not i ndi c a t e d s t r ong r e s pons e s t o t he s t r i c t i nt e r ve nt i on s ( N e a l & S c ha nz e nba c h, 2007 ) I n 2008, t w e nt y e i ght pe r c e nt o f F l o r i da s t hi r d g r a de s t ude nt s s c or e d be l ow a t hr e e a ve r a ge on a f i ve poi nt s c a l e a nd t he a ve r a ge of f i f t h gr a de r s w ho s c or e d a t hr e e o r hi ghe r dr oppe d by f i ve poi nt s ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E du c a t i on, 2008) D e s pi t e i nc r e a s e d i ns t r uc t i ona l e f f or t s t o i m p r ove a c hi e ve m e nt r e c e nt s c or e s do not r e f l e c t s i gni f i c a nt l y i m pr ove d r e s ul t s C l e a r l y s t ude nt s s c or i ng a t t he b ot t om t i e r of t he F C A T a s s e s s m e nt a r e i n ne e d of i nt e ns i ve a c a de m i c i nt e r ve nt i on t o pr e ve nt t he m f r om f a l l i ng f a r t he r be hi nd. T hi s gr oup i nc l ude s a s i gni f i c a nt num be r of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s ( F l or i da

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3 D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2009b) I n 2008, da t a i n di c a t e d t ha t of t he 13, 640 t e nt h gr a de s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a s pe c i f i c l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y, 77% di d n ot pa s s t he r e a di ng por t i on of t he F C A T ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2009b) T he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t ( U S D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2009a ) ha s m a nda t e d t ha t s c hool s m e e t A de qua t e Y e a r l y P r og r e s s ( A Y P ) a nd m e a s ur e pe r f or m a nc e f or a l l s t ude nt s T hi s A c t r e de f i ne s t he f e de r a l r ol e i n K 12 e duc a t i on a nd pr opos e s t o he l p c l os e t he a c hi e ve m e nt ga p be t w e e n di s a dva nt a ge d, di s a bl e d a nd m i nor i t y s t ude nt s a nd t he i r pe e r s ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 20 09a ) M or e ove r f r om i t s i nc e pt i on, N C L B ha s r e qui r e d publ i c r e por t i ng of t he r e s ul t s of s uc h a c hi e ve m e nt t e s t s not onl y i n t he a ggr e ga t e but a l s o di s a ggr e ga t e d by r a c e e t hni c i t y, s oc i oe c onom i c s t a t us di s a bi l i t y, a nd E ngl i s h l a ngua ge l e a r ne r s t a t us ( B or kow s ki & S ne e d, 2006) B or kow s ki a nd S ne e d ( 2006) s t a t e d t ha t t he di s a ggr e ga t i on o f i n f or m a t i o n i s c r i t i c a l t o e ns ur e t ha t our na t i on s publ i c s c hool s a r e s e r vi ng a l l g r oups of s t ude nt s r e ga r dl e s s of t he i r ba c kgr ound c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s or s pe c i a l ne e ds N C L B m a nda t e s t ha t s c hool s pr ovi de s t a nda r di z e d a s s e s s m e nt da t a t ha t de m ons t r a t e s A de qua t e Y e a r l y P r ogr e s s ( A Y P ) f o r t he t ot a l s t ude nt popul a t i on ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2009a ) I n de t e r m i ni ng A Y P s t a t e s a nd s c hool s a l s o m us t e ns ur e t ha t 95 pe r c e nt o f t he t ot a l s t ude nt popul a t i on i s a s s e s s e d a nd t ha t 95 pe r c e nt o f s t ude nt s i n va r i ous s ubgr oups e c onom i c a l l y di s a dva nt a ge d s t ude nt s s t ude nt s f r om r a c i a l a nd e t hni c gr oups s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s a nd s t ude nt s w i t h l i m i t e d E ngl i s h pr of i c i e nc y a r e a l s o t e s t e d ( B or ko w s ki & S ne e d, 2006) E a c h o f t he s ubgr oups m us t de m ons t r a t e pr ogr e s s t ow a r d 100 pe r c e nt pr of i c i e nc y, w he r e a s f a i l ur e of a ny s ubgr oup t o m a ke A Y P m e a ns f a i l u r e f o r t he s c hool or t he di s t r i c t ( B or kow s ki & S ne e d, 2006)

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4 P r o gr a m s s uc h a s R e adi ng F i r s t w hi c h w e r e de s i gne d t o i nc r e a s e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s ha ve f a i l e d t o p r oduc e t he ga i ns t o m e r i t t he f i na nc i a l r e i nve s t m e nt ( G a m s e e t a l 2008) C ons e que nt l y, r e s e a r c h ha s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he R e adi ng F i r s t i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd e f f o r t s t o i m pr ove poo r r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ha ve not ha d a s i gni f i c a nt i m pa c t on s t ude nt s r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on r e f l e c t e d i n t he s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s c or e s pa r t i c ul a r l y i n gr a de s 1 3 ( G a m s e e t a l 200 8) T h e s e pr ogr a m s w e r e de s i gne d t o i nc r e a s e m ot i va t i on a nd a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s ye t ha ve not p r oduc e d t he i nt e nde d out c om e s I t i s e vi de nt t ha t t he r e i s a ne e d t o l ook a t ne w a ppr oa c he s t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or s t r uggl i ng s t ude nt s O ve r t he pa s t 30 ye a r s s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y ha ve i nc r e a s e d by a bout 150% a nd r e pr e s e nt 5 % of a l l s t ude nt s i n s c hool ( S c r uggs & M a s t r opi e r i 2002) F o r a m a j or i t y of t he s e s t ude nt s r e a di ng i s a s t r uggl e ye t e duc a t or s l a c k c l e a r di r e c t i on on be s t i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ( S w a ns on, 1999) E vi de nc e i ndi c a t e s t ha t e duc a t or s ne e d t o f oc us on e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i on a nd a ddr e s s r e a di ng c ha l l e nge s i n t he pr i m a r y y e a r s ot he r w i s e t he s e s t ude nt s w ho e xpe r i e nc e e a r l y a nd pe r s i s t e nt r e a di ng f a i l ur e a r e l e s s l i ke l y t o r e a d i n a nd out of s c hool ( F uc hs e t a l 2001 ) N e w i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s t o i nc r e a s e r e a di ng a nd ove r a l l a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s a r e ne e de d. O ne a ppr oa c h i s t hr ough t he us e o f A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py. A l t h ough t hi s a ppr oa c h i s r e c e i vi ng i nc r e a s e d a t t e nt i on ( J a l ongo e t a l 2004; N e w l i n, 2 003a ) i t ha s not be e n s ys t e m a t i c a l l y s t udi e d w i t h t hi s popul a t i on of l ow a c hi e vi ng r e a de r s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s A ni m a l s ha ve pl a ye d a pi vot a l r ol e w i t h va r i ous po pul a t i ons i n t he r a py s e t t i ngs r a ngi ng f r o m ps yc hot he r a py pa t i e nt s t o c hi l dr e n w i t h a u t i s m ( J a l ongo e t a l 2004;

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5 L e vi ns on, 1984; R ol l i n, 2006) R ol l i n ( 2006) s t a t e d t ha t a ni m a l s a c t a s nonj udgm e nt a l f ount a i ns of l ove a nd l oya l t y a nd i t i s t h r ough t hi s c onne c t i on t ha t t he us e of dog a s s i s t e d i nt e r ve nt i ons c oul d hol d pr om i s e f o r i m pa c t i ng a c hi l d s r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt A l t hough a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py ha s be e n us e d i n va r i ous m e di c a l a nd t he r a pe ut i c s e t t i ngs l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h e xi s t s w i t h s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y. T hi s s t udy w i l l e xpl or e t he e f f e c t of t he r a py dogs on r e a di ng pr ogr e s s f or s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s St at e m e nt of t he P r obl e m S e ve r a l m a j or r e s e a r c h s t udi e s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he f oc us e d i ns t r uc t i on a nd c onc e nt r a t i on on r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on a nd r e a di ng i m pr ove m e nt a s m a nda t e d by N C L B i s not r e f l e c t e d i n ou r c hi l dr e n s r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s ( M c G i l l F r a nz e n e t a l 2006 ; P i nne l l e t a l 1995) P oo r r e a di ng de ve l o pm e nt i s c or r e l a t e d w i t h l ong t e r m e f f e c t s on be ha vi or M or ga n e t a l s ( 2008) s t udy h i ghl i ght e d t hi s e f f e c t a nd i ndi c a t e d t ha t poor r e a di ng a bi l i t y i n f i r s t gr a de a c t e d a s a s i gni f i c a nt pr e di c t or o f pr ob l e m s c hool be ha vi or i n t hi r d g r a de t he r e f or e a dd r e s s i ng t he ne e d f or e a r l y pr e ve nt a t i ve a ppr oa c he s t o i m pr ove a s t ude nt s r e a di ng p r obl e m s ( M or ga n e t a l 2008) E duc a t or s ha ve de di c a t e d hour s of c l a s s r oom i ns t r uc t i on ut i l i z i ng t he va r i ous f e de r a l l y f unde d r e a di ng c ur r i c ul um p r ogr a m s ye t ha ve m a de m i ni m a l a c hi e ve m e nt pr ogr e s s pa r t i c ul a r l y w i t h s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s ( G e r t s e n e t a l 2001; M c G i l l F r a nz e n e t a l 2006 ) I t i s e vi de nt t ha t ne w t e c hni que s m us t be e xpl or e d t o m e e t t he di ve r s e l e a r ni ng ne e ds of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni n g di s a bi l i t i e s i n our publ i c s c hool s ys t e m O ne a ppr oa c h t ha t a ppe a r s t o hol d p r om i s e i s A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py. T hi s a ppr oa c h i s be i ng us e d t o s om e e xt e nt i n va r i ous s e t t i ngs a nd w i t h c hi l d r e n f r om di f f e r e nt

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6 ba c kgr ounds ye t ha s n t be e n s ys t e m a t i c a l l y s t udi e d w i t h s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s F ur t he r m o r e t he us e of s i ngl e c a s e r e s e a r c h, t he de s i gn us e d f o r t hi s s t udy, ha s not be e n a ppl i e d w i t h t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on P ur pos e T hi s s t udy e xpl or e d t he e f f e c t of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr og r e s s a nd s t ude nt pe r c e pt i ons of t he e xpe r i e nc e P a r t i c i p a nt s w e r e i nt e r m e di a t e gr a de e l e m e nt a r y s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s i n a publ i c e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i n w e s t c e nt r a l F l or i da R at i onal e L i m i t e d r e s e a r c h e xi s t s r e ga r di ng t he us e of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py. A ddi t i ona l l y, r e s e a r c h s pe c i f i c a l l y f oc us i ng on A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a s a t a r ge t e d r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on w i t h s t ude nt s ha vi ng a l e a r ni n g di s a bi l i t y i s e xt r e m e l y s pa r s e T he r e f or e t hi s s t udy s ys t e m a t i c a l l y e xpl or e d A n i m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a s a pot e nt i a l m e a ns f or r e a di ng i m pr ove m e nt a m ong s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons T he f ol l ow i ng r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w e r e a ddr e s s e d i n t hi s s t udy: 1. D oe s c a ni ne A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a f f e c t r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ? 2. W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons o f s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y r e ga r di ng t he us e of c a ni ne A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r r e a di ng pr ogr e s s ? L i m i t at i ons T he na t ur e o f t he de s i gn i t s e l f ha s l i m i t a t i ons a s a s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn ( K a z di n, 1982) a nd i n t r a ns f e r a bi l i t y s i nc e i t w a s c onduc t e d i n one publ i c s c hool s e t t i ng i n a w e s t

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7 C e nt r a l F l or i da s c hool d i s t r i c t T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d ba s e d on pr e de t e r m i ne d c r i t e r i a e s t a bl i s he d by t he r e s e a r c he r D e f i ni t i on of T e r m s F or t he pu r pos e of t hi s s t udy, t he f ol l ow i ng t e r m s w e r e de f i ne d t o pr ovi de c l a r i t y: 1. A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py ( A A T ) : a goa l di r e c t e d i nt e r ve nt i on i n w hi c h a n a ni m a l t ha t m e e t s s pe c i f i c c r i t e r i a i s a n i n t e gr a l pa r t of a t r e a t m e nt pr oc e s s ( D e l t a S oc i e t y, 2009) 2. D og H a ndl e r : a n i nd i vi dua l s pe c i f i c a l l y t r a i ne d t o w or k w i t h a dog i n a c ont r ol l e d s e t t i ng 3. F l o r i da C om pr e he ns i ve A c hi e ve m e nt T e s t ( F C A T ) : i s t he s t a t e w i de c r i t e r i on r e f e r e nc e d a s s e s s m e nt gi ve n a nnua l l y t o F l or i da s t ude nt s i n gr a de s 3 11 de s i gne d t o m e a s ur e a nnua l pr ogr e s s of t he S uns hi ne S t a t e S t a nda r ds ( F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt o f E duc a t i on, 2009a ) 4. I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y ( I R I ) : a n i nf or m a l a nd di a gnos t i c r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt t ha t c ol l e c t s i nf or m a t i on o f m ul t i pl e a s pe c t s of a s t ude n t s r e a di ng s ki l l s ( P a r i s 2003 ) 5. N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd ( N C L B ) : T he N o C hi l d L e f t B e hi nd A c t of 2001 r e a ut hor i z e d t he E l e m e nt a r y a nd S e c onda r y E duc a t i on A c t o f 1 965 ( E S E A ) a f f e c t i ng pr i m a r y a nd s e c onda r y s c hool s w i t h a n e m pha s i s on r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt N C L B i s ba s e d on t he f ou r pr i nc i pl e s : a c c ount a bi l i t y f o r r e s ul t s m or e c hoi c e s f o r pa r e nt s gr e a t e r l oc a l c ont r ol a nd f l e xi bi l i t y, a nd a n e m pha s i s on doi ng w ha t w o r ks ba s e d on s c i e nt i f i c r e s e a r c h ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 200 9a ) 6. L e a r n i ng D i s a bi l i t y: I ndi v i dua l s w i t h D i s a bi l i t i e s A c t 2004 ( I D E A ) de f i ne d a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y a s a di s or de r i n one or m or e of t he ba s i c ps yc hol ogi c a l pr oc e s s e s i nvol ve d i n unde r s t a ndi ng or i n us i ng l a ngua ge s poke n o r w r i t t e n, t ha t m a y m a ni f e s t i t s e l f i n a n

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8 i m pe r f e c t a bi l i t y t o l i s t e n, t hi nk s pe a k, r e a d, w r i t e s pe l l or t o do m a t he m a t i c a l c a l c ul a t i ons i nc l udi ng c ondi t i ons s uc h a s pe r c e pt u a l di s a bi l i t i e s br a i n i nj ur y m i ni m a l br a i n dys f unc t i on, dys l e xi a a nd de ve l opm e nt a l a pha s i a ( T e a c hi ng L D 2009) 7. P r of i c i e nt R e a de r : a r e a de r w ho d r a w s upon a r a nge of a bi l i t i e s s uc h a s de c odi n g a nd c om pr e he ndi ng ne w voc a bul a r y t o a s s i s t i n ga t he r i ng i nf or m a t i on a bout t he t e xt t o m a ke m e a ni ngf ul c onne c t i ons ( N a t i ona l A c c e s s i bl e R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt P r oj e c t s ( N A R A P ) 2007) 8. R unni ng R e c or d: a n a s s e s s m e nt m e t hod t ha t m e a s ur e s a nd t r a c ks a s t ude nt s r e a di ng pr oc e s s a nd pr ovi de s e vi de nc e of how w e l l c hi l dr e n a r e l e a r ni ng r e a di ng l e ve l by e xa m i ni ng a c c ur a c y r a t e s a nd t ype s of e r r o r s m a de ( C l a y, 2005 ) 9. R e gi s t e r e d T he r a py D og: A dog, a m i ni m um of one ye a r ol d, w i t h a s ound t e m pe r a m e nt t ha t pa s s e s a t e m pe r a m e nt e va l ua t i on w hi c h i nc l ude s t he A m e r i c a n K e nne l C l ub s C a ni ne G ood C i t i z e n T e s t ( C G C ) T he t e s t i nc l ude s a n e va l ua t i on of t he dog s be ha vi or a r ound pe opl e w i t h t he us e of s e r vi c e e qu i pm e nt s uc h a s a w he e l c ha i r o r c r ut c he s ( T he r a py D ogs I nt e r na t i ona l 2009) O r gani z at i on of R e m ai ni ng C hapt e r s T he r e m a i nde r of t hi s di s s e r t a t i on i s or ga ni z e d i n t he f ol l ow i ng m a nne r A r e vi e w of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t ur e i s a ddr e s s e d i n c ha pt e r t w o t o pr ovi de a c ont e xt a nd e s t a bl i s h a ne e d f or t he s t udy. E xi s t i ng r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s i s r e v i e w e d. R e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng t he i nt e r ve nt i ons us i ng a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py w i t h s t ude nt s i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on a nd t hos e i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r n i ng di s a bi l i t i e s i s r e vi e w e d t o c onf i r m t ha t t hi s s t udy w i l l c ont r i but e t o t he r e s e a r c h i n t he f i e l d of s pe c i a l e duc a t i on a nd a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py.

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9 C ha pt e r t hr e e pr ovi de s t he m e t hodol ogy us e d t o c o nduc t t he s t udy. A de s c r i pt i on of t he p r oc e dur e m e a s ur e m e nt i ns t r um e nt s da t a c ol l e c t i on pr oc e s s e s s t udy va l i di t y a nd r e l i a bi l i t y, a nd m e t hod of a na l ys i s a r e t ho r oughl y e xpl a i ne d. P opul a t i on c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s i nf or m a t i on a bout t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd a de t a i l e d a na l ys i s i s pr ovi de d. C ha pt e r f our r e por t s t he f i ndi ngs of t he s t udy D a t a obt a i ne d f r om t he I nf o r m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y a s s e s s m e nt s i nt e r ve nt i on obs e r va t i ons i nt e r vi e w da t a pr oc e dur a l r e l i a bi l i t y, i nt e r r a t e r a gr e e m e nt a nd da t a a na l ys i s a r e s ha r e d a nd e xpl a i ne d. T he f i f t h c ha pt e r t he di s c us s i on s e c t i on, de s c r i be s t he pur pos e r e s ul t s a nd i m pl i c a t i ons of t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. A n ove r vi e w i s pr ovi de d o f t he f i ndi n gs a nd how t he s t udy a ddr e s s e d t he pr obl e m A di s c us s i on of t he r e s ul t s a c om pa r i s on w i t h c i t e d l i t e r a t ur e l i m i t a t i ons o f t he s t udy a nd i m pl i c a t i on s f or f ut ur e r e s e a r c h a nd pr a c t i c e a r e pr e s e nt e d.

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10 C ha pt e r T w o L i t e r a t ur e R e vi e w S t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni n g di s a bi l i t i e s of t e n s t r uggl e w i t h r e a di ng f l ue nc y a nd r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on, a s w e l l a s ot he r c om p one nt s of t he r e a di ng pr oc e s s I nnova t i ve i ns t r uc t i ona l a ppr oa c he s a nd r e s e a r c h ba s e d s t r a t e gi e s ha ve be e n i m pl e m e nt e d a s a m e a ns t o i nc r e a s e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a m ong s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py i s one a ppr oa c h t ha t ha s be e n us e d i n va r i ous c a pa c i t i e s but l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h e xi s t s r e ga r di ng i t s us e i n t he a r e a of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w i t h s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s T he f ol l ow i ng s e c t i on i nc l ude s a r e vi e w o f r e l e va nt l i t e r a t ur e r e ga r di ng l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd hi ghl i ght s t he r e s e a r c h ga p i n r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i ons f o r s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd t hos e w i t h l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt R e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng t he us e of R unni ng R e c or d a nd i t s r e l a t i ons hi p t o t he I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y us e d i n t hi s s t udy ( C l a y, 1985) w i t h s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s i s pr ovi de d A br i e f hi s t or y of a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py i s di s c us s e d de m ons t r a t i ng a ga p i n e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h t ha t e xa m i ne s t he e f f e c t o f a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py t o be ne f i t s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt R e adi ng T he or y R e a di ng i s a r e c e pt i ve a nd s e l e c t i ve l a ngua ge pr oc e s s w i t h a n e s s e nt i a l i nt e r a c t i on be t w e e n l a ngu a ge a nd t hought i n r e a di ng, ( G oodm a n, 1967, 1975) I n r e a di ng t he a bi l i t y t o c om pr e he nd a va r i e t y of t e xt s a t a hi gh l e ve l de t e r m i ne s t he l e ve l of a s t ude nt s pr of i c i e nc y ( F a gge l l a L uby & D e s hl e r 2008) G oo dm a n ( 1975) e xpl a i ne d t ha t p r of i c i e nt

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11 r e a de r s us e a m i ni m a l a m ount of e f f or t t o a c hi e ve e f f e c t i ve ne s s a nd m i ni m i z e de pe nde nc e on vi s ua l de t a i l T he pr oc e s s of l e a r ni ng t o r e a d c a n be de s c r i be d i n c yc l e s w he r e t he f oc us of t he r e a de r i s on m e a ni ng or c ont e xt s o t ha t e a c h c yc l e bl e nds w i t h t he ne xt b r i ngi ng t he r e a de r c l os e r t o m e a ni ng ( G o odm a n, 1975) T he c y c l e s : opt i c a l pe r c e pt ua l s ynt a c t i c a nd m e a ni ng a l l ow t he r e a de r t o e m p l oy t he f i ve p r oc e s s e s of t he b r a i n t o obt a i n t he g r e a t e s t a m ount of i n f or m a t i on w i t h m i ni m a l e f f or t T he pr oc e s s e s w hi c h ha ve a n i nt r i ns i c s e que nc e a r e r e c ogni t i on i ni t i a t i on p r e di c t i on, c o nf i r m a t i on, c or r e c t i on a nd t e r m i na t i on ( G oodm a n, 1975 ) R e a di ng doe s not c om e e a s i l y f or a l l l e a r ne r s a nd s om e s t ude nt s s t r uggl e w i t h t he a c qui s i t i on of t he s e pr oc e s s e s G oodm a n ( 1975) hi ghl i ght e d t ha t s hor t c i r c ui t s oc c ur w he n r e a di ng doe s not c onc l ude w i t h m e a ni ng. T he r e a r e va r i ous e xpl a na t i ons f or s uc h s hor t c i r c ui t s a nd G oodm a n ( 1975) s pe c ul a t e s t ha t i ns t r uc t i on c oul d be t he c a us e of s om e o f t he s hor t c i r c ui t s R e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on, pa r t i c ul a r l y be gi nni ng i ns t r uc t i on, pl a ys a v i t a l r o l e i n c r e a t i ng a nd e nha nc i ng t he c ondi t i ons t ha t w i l l br i ng t he r e a de r s na t u r a l l a ngua ge l e a r ni ng c om pe t e nc e i nt o pl a y ( G oodm a n & G ood m a n, 1979) I ns t r uc t i on doe s not t e a c h c hi l dr e n t o r e a d, but r a t he r r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on he l p s c hi l dr e n t o l e a r n ( G oodm a n & G oodm a n, 1979) B y t he a ge of f i ve c hi l dr e n di f f e r m a r ke dl y i n t he i r s uc c e s s i n r e a c hi ng t he s e de ve l opm e nt a l goa l s ( E nt w i s l e & A l e xa nde r 1993) T he r e f or e E nt w i s l e a nd A l e xa nde r ( 1993) f ur t he r e m pha s i z e d t ha t c hi l dr e n m us t de ve l op m a ny l i ngui s t i c a nd c ogni t i ve s ki l l s be f or e t he y e nt e r e l e m e nt a r y s c hool t o m a ke l a t e r a c a de m i c l e a r ni ng pos s i bl e H oni g ( 1997) c l a i m e d one a pp r oa c h of e f f e c t i ve i ns t r uc t i on i s t o us e pr og r a m s gr ounde d i n be s t p r a c t i c e s w hi c h e na bl e 85 90 pe r c e nt of s t ude nt s t o r e a d a nd

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12 c om pr e he nd gr a de l e ve l m a t e r i a l by t he m i ddl e o f f i r s t gr a de T e a c hi ng p l a ys a vi t a l r ol e t o he l p s t ude nt s unde r s t a nd r e a di ng c onc e pt s a nd r e a di ng a c qui s i t i on s ki l l s how e ve r s om e s t ude nt s c ont i nue t o s t r uggl e w i t h r e a di ng. S uc c e s s i n l i t e r a c y l e a r ni ng du r i ng t he pr i m a r y gr a de s i s i ndi c a t i ve of l a t e r l i t e r a c y a c hi e ve m e nt ( F l e t c he r & L yon, 1997) S e v e nt y f our pe r c e nt of c hi l dr e n w ho pe r f or m poo r l y i n r e a di ng i n t h i r d g r a de c ont i nue t o do s o i nt o hi gh s c hool f u r t he r unde r l i ni ng t he i m por t a nc e of pr e pa r i ng c hi l dr e n t o e nt e r s c hool r e a dy t o l e a r n ( F l e t c he r & L yon 1997) S om e s t ude nt s do w e l l i n s c hool a nd ge t s a t i s f a c t i on f r o m t he p r a i s e of t e a c he r s a nd s ys t e m i c r e w a r ds how e ve r t ha t i s no t t he c a s e f or a l l l e a r ne r s ( G oodm a n, 1998) S ha na ha n ( 2008) s t a t e d t ha t e a r l y di f f e r e nc e s i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt c a n ha ve l a s t i ng e f f e c t s on a c hi l d s s c hool i ng, e i t he r l i m i t i n g or a c c e l e r a t i ng l e a r ni ng s uc c e s s H i e be r t a nd T a yl o r ( 2000) c l a i m t ha t s t r ugg l i ng r e a de r s c a n m a ke e duc a t i ona l ga i ns i n r e a di ng w i t h a ppr op r i a t e e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i ons w hi c h ha ve i m pl i c a t i ons on r e a di ng pr of i c i e nc y f o r c hi l dr e n w ho e nt e r s c hool w i t h l ow l i t e r a c y l e ve l s H ow e ve r t he r e i s no e duc a t i ona l pol i c y t o t e a c h t he s e s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s w ho of t e n f a l l t h r ough t he c r a c ks ( A a r on e t a l 2008) S t ude nt s r e a di ng be l ow g r a de l e ve l m i s s e s s e nt i a l de t a i l s a nd know l e dge obt a i ne d t hr ough r e a di ng gr a de a ppr opr i a t e t e xt s ( R obe r t s e t a l 2008) R obe r t s e t a l ( 2008) e xpl a i ne d t ha t m a ny ol de r s t r ugg l i ng r e a de r s l a c ke d e a r l y e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd w i l l c ont i nue t o f a l l f u r t he r be hi nd w i t hout t he a ppr opr i a t e i n t e r ve nt i on. A ddi t i ona l l y R obe r t s e t a l ( 2008) c l a i m e d t ha t t he s e s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s a r e of t e n g r oupe d w i t h s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s due t o t he l a c k of e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n t he pr i m a r y g r a de s a nd m a y be c a t e gor i z e d w i t h s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s T hus i t i s

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13 m a ki ng i t di f f i c ul t t o c l a i m t ha t s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s l ow a c hi e ve m e nt i s a r e s ul t of a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y ( H oni g, 1997) L e ar ni ng D i s ab i l i t i e s and R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt A c c or di ng t o t he U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2 009b) o f t he a l m os t 6 m i l l i on s t ude nt s r e c e i vi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s a ppr oxi m a t e l y 2. 6 m i l l i on a r e i de nt i f i e d w i t h a s pe c i f i c l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y. I n a r e c e nt s t udy F us a r o a nd S hi bl e y ( 2008) e xa m i ne d r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt of e i ght h gr a de s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd f ound t ha t t he s e s t ude nt s s c or e d l ow e r t ha n t he i r non di s a bl e d pe e r s on t he r e a di ng por t i on of t he P e nns yl va ni a S ys t e m of S c hool A s s e s s m e nt ( P S S A ) T hi s f i ndi ng s uppor t e d H o r n s ( 2003) r e s e a r c h t ha t m a ny s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s ha ve r e a di ng de f i c i t s A l t hough c ont r ove r s y c ont i nue s t o e xi s t s ur r oundi ng t he i de nt i f i c a t i on pr oc e s s of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s i t i s unque s t i ona bl e t ha t a va s t m a j or i t y o f t he s e s t ude nt s ha ve di f f i c ul t y l e a r ni ng t o r e a d ( G e r t s e n e t a l 2001 ; K a va l e & R e e c e 1992) H i s t or i c a l l y, l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd l e a r n i n g di s a bi l i t i e s ha ve be e n l i nke d t o poor e duc a t i ona l out c om e s K a va l e a nd R e e c e s ( 1992) m e t a a na l ys i s of I ow a s t ude nt s f ound t ha t s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ha d a c hi e ve m e nt di f f i c ul t i e s w i t h r e a di ng be i ng t he a c a de m i c a r e a i n w hi c h m os t s t ude nt s de m ons t r a t e d di f f i c ul t y F u r t he r m o r e t he s t udy hi ghl i ght e d t ha t m os t s t u de nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s w e r e a m ong t he l ow e s t of a c hi e ve r s f a l l i ng a bout t h r e e t o f our ye a r s be hi nd g r a de l e ve l ( K a va l e & R e e c e 1992) A ddi t i ona l l y, a m e t a a na l ys i s by F uc hs e t a l ( 2000 ) r e ve a l e d t ha t t he r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt of s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y i s s i gni f i c a nt l y di f f e r e nt t ha n t ha t of ot he r l ow a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s T he s e f i nd i ng s s ugge s t t ha t s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ha ve m or e s e ve r e r e a di ng p r obl e m s t ha n t he i r non di s a bl e d pe e r s ( F uc hs e t

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14 a l 2000 ) F uc hs e t a l ( 2001) i ndi c a t e d t ha t i f s t ud e nt s e xpe r i e nc e pe r s i s t e nt f a i l ur e w i t h r e a di ng s ki l l s a c qui s i t i on, t he y w i l l be l e s s l i ke l y t o r e a d i n a nd out of s c hool T he r e f o r e w i t h t he l a c k o f i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng t he f ounda t i ona l s ki l l s s uc h a s voc a bul a r y g r ow t h a nd s c he m a t i c de ve l opm e nt e l e m e nt s ne c e s s a r y f or pr o f i c i e nt r e a di ng c om p r e he n s i on, a r e a f f e c t e d ( F uc hs e t a l 2001) W he n t he s e s t ude nt s a r e not r e a di ng f or e nj oym e nt t he y a r e not pr a c t i c i ng t he s ki l l s a c qui r e d t hr ough r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. I n a r e c e nt s t udy t ha t e xa m i ne d s t r ugg l i ng r e a de r s i n ur ba n hi gh s c hool s r e s e a r c he r s c om pa r e d t he r e a di ng s c or e s of pr of i c i e nt a nd of s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s a c r os s s ubgr oups s uc h a s r a c e e t hni c i t y, s oc i o e c onom i c s t a t us a nd di s a bi l i t y c a t e gor y ( H oc k e t a l 2009 ) F i ndi ngs i nd i c a t e d t ha t s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s s c or e d s i gni f i c a nt l y l ow e r t ha n t he pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s w i t h t he gr e a t e s t va r i a nc e i n f l u e nc y a nd c om pr e he ns i on. S t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s s c o r e d l ow e r i n w or d l e ve l a nd f l ue nc y t ha n a dol e s c e nt s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s T he r e f o r e t he a ut hor s r e c om m e nde d c om pr e he ns i ve i ns t r uc t i ona l i nt e r ve nt i ons t ha t a ddr e s s i m pr ovi ng r e a di ng s ki l l s i n t he a r e a of f l ue nc y, c om pr e he ns i on, a nd voc a bul a r y ( H oc k e t a l 2009 ) A ddi t i ona l l y, t he s t udy a ddr e s s e d t he i m por t a nc e of c r e a t i ng s c r e e ni ng a s s e s s m e nt s f or u s e i n t he uppe r e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i d dl e s c hool gr a de s t o i de nt i f y r e a di ng c ha l l e nge s t ha t w e r e not de t e c t e d i n t he e a r l y e l e m e nt a r y gr a de s ( H oc k e t a l 2009) N e l s on a nd M a ns e t W i l l i a m s on ( 2006) e xpl a i ne d t ha t s t ude nt s i n t he uppe r e l e m e nt a r y gr a de s i de nt i f i e d w i t h r e a di ng di s a bi l i t i e s a r e of t e n a t r i s k f o r de ve l opi ng m ot i va t i ona l pr obl e m s r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng. D e c l i ne i n m ot i va t i on ha s be e n a t t r i but e d t o poor r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt i n s t ude nt s e s pe c i a l l y a s t he y r e a c h t he uppe r e l e m e nt a r y gr a de s ( N e l s on & M a ns e t W i l l i a m s on, 2006) A n e xa m pl e of t hi s de c l i ne i n m ot i va t i on i s

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15 hi ghl i ght e d i n a s t udy t ha t f ound t ha t 40% of poor r e a de r s a t f our t h gr a de l e ve l w oul d r a t he r c l e a n t he i r r oom t ha n r e a d ( J ue l 1988) O ne r a t i ona l e f o r t he c ha nge i n m o t i va t i on c oul d be a t t r i but e d t o t he na t ur e o f r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd s c hool ba s e d r e a di ng t a s ks a s s t ude nt s pr ogr e s s t hr ough s c hool T he f ounda t i on of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n t he uppe r e l e m e nt a r y a nd m i ddl e s c hool g r a de s s hi f t s f r om l e a r ni ng t o r e a d, t o r e a di ng t o l e a r n ( A l l i ngt on & J ohns t on, 2002) S t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a r e f a c e d w i t h a c a de m i c a nd s oc i a l c ha l l e nge s w hi c h of t e n r e s ul t i n l ow s e l f e s t e e m ( E l ba um & V a ughn, 2003) D ue t o c ont i nua l a c a de m i c c ha l l e nge s m os t s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s of t e n e xpe r i e nc e l i m i t e d s uc c e s s or f a i l ur e i n a nd ou t of t he c l a s s r oom ( M c D e r m ot t e t a l 2006) E l ba um a nd V a ughn ( 2003) e xpl o r e d t he s e l f c onc e pt s of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s f ol l ow i ng a n i nt e r ve nt i on a nd f ound t ha t t he i nt e r ve nt i on ha d ha d pos i t i ve e f f e c t s on s t ude nt s w i t h l ow s e l f c onc e pt s T hi s r e s e a r c h hi ghl i ght e d t he ne e d f or i nt e r ve nt i ons f o r s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l ow s e l f c onc e pt s a nd l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s A t t i t ude s t ow a r d r e a di ng c a n ha ve a l a s t i ng e f f e c t on f ut ur e r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt a nd pr ogr e s s ( L a z a r us & C a l l a ha n, 2000) I n a s t udy t ha t e xa m i ne d t he a t t i t ude s of l e a r ni ng di s a bl e d a nd non di s a bl e d e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s t ude nt s L a z a r us a nd C a l l a ha n ( 2000) f ound t ha t l e a r ni ng di s a bl e d s t ude nt s a t t i t u de s t ow a r d r e c r e a t i ona l r e a di ng de c l i ne d a c r os s t he pr i m a r y t o i nt e r m e di a t e gr a de s A l t hough pr i m a r y g r a de s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s l i ke d r e c r e a t i ona l r e a di ng m o r e t ha n non di s a bl e d f ou r t h o r f i f t h gr a de r s bot h gr oups i ndi c a t e d a de c l i ne i n i n t e r e s t a s t he y pr ogr e s s e d t hr ough s c hool ( L a z a r us & C a l l a ha n, 2000) T he s e f i ndi ngs a r e c r i t i c a l i n t ha t t he y hi ghl i gh t l i nks be t w e e n a t t i t ude a nd a c hi e ve m e nt f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s w hi c h c oul d

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16 i nf or m i ns t r uc t i ona l pr a c t i c e s t o c r e a t e pr ogr a m s t ha t pos i t i ve l y a f f e c t r e a di ng a t t i t ude s a c r os s a l l gr a de l e ve l s S t ude nt s w i t h r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s a r e i n a ne ga t i ve c yc l e t ha t hi nde r s r e a di ng gr ow t h, t he r e f or e t e a c he r s m us t he l p br e a k t he c yc l e a nd m ove t he m f r o m de pe nde nt t o i nde pe nde nt r e a de r s ( D a yt on S a ka r i 1997 ) W a t c hi ng r e a de r s a nd t e a c he r t ut o r s dur i ng one t o one i ns t r uc t i on i n a uni ve r s i t y r e a di ng c l i ni c D a yt on S a ka r i ( 1997 ) obs e r ve d t ha t t he t e a c he r s r a t he r t ha n t he c hi l dr e n w e r e t he one s doi ng t he phys i c a l a nd m e nt a l w or k of r e a di ng w hi l e t he s t r ugg l i ng r e a de r s r e m a i ne d pa s s i ve A n e f f e c t i ve a ppr oa c h t o r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s t o e nga ge t he w hol e c hi l d a nd a l l ow t he r e a de r t o t a ke c ont r ol of t he l e a r ni ng, i nc l udi ng t he s t ude nt s e m ot i ona l ne e ds ye t t he s e ne e ds a r e of t e n ove r l ooke d H ow e ve r D a yt on S a ka r i ( 1997) obs e r ve d t ha t a f f e c t c ons i s t e nt l y s upe r s e de s c ogni t i on a nd be l i e ve s e duc a t or s m us t a c c om m oda t e t he e m ot i ona l ne e ds of s t ude nt s be f or e t he y a r e s uc c e s s f ul a t r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd c a n be gi n t e a c hi ng s t ude nt s t o be c om e pr of i c i e nt r e a de r s R e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng hi ghl i ght s a c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n i nt e r e s t a nd a c hi e ve m e nt ( L e nt e r s 2006) A s s t ude nt s pr og r e s s t hr ough s c hool a s hi f t oc c ur s i n how r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i s de l i ve r e d a nd a s s e s s e d. O l de r or a dol e s c e nt s t ude nt s a r e a w a r e of t he a c a de m i c r e l a t i ons hi p now a s s i gne d t o r e a di ng t he r e f or e r e pl a c i ng t he j oy of r e a di ng w i t h a pr e s s ur e t o pe r f or m ( L e nt e r s 2006) B i nt z ( 1993) a s s i gne d t he t e r m r e s i s t a nt r e a de r t o de s c r i be t h i s be ha vi or a m ong s t r uggl i ng s t ude nt s A ddi t i ona l l y t he e m pha s i s on t e xt book i ns t r uc t i on a nd c ont e nt dr i ve n r e a di ng m a t e r i a l c ont r i but e s t o s t ude nt s l a c k of i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng ( R e e ve s 2004) ye t s t ude nt s e xpr e s s e d a m ot i va t i on t o r e a d w he n p r ovi de d w i t h a ut he nt i c pur pos e s f or r e a di ng ( I vy 1999 )

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17 P oor m ot i va t i on a nd s e l f e s t e e m a r e c om m on c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s s ha r e d by s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s S uc h c onc e pt s a r e l i ke l y t o c ont r i but e t o l i m i t e d a c a de m i c s uc c e s s a nd of t e n di s c our a ge s t ud e nt s t o pe r f or m a t or a bove t he i r l e a r ni ng pot e nt i a l T hr ough t he us e of c ogni t i ve be ha vi or a l t he r a py ( C B T ) s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng a nd m ot i va t i ona l d i f f i c ul t i e s s how e d s i gni f i c a nt i m pr ove m e nt i n r e a di ng s c or e s a s w e l l a s i n m ot i va t i on a nd s e l f e s t e e m ( T o l a nd & B oyl e 2008) A n i nt e r ve nt i on of C B T w a s i nt r oduc e d t o a gr oup o f s t ude nt s w i t h l ow s e l f e s t e e m a nd t a ught t he s t ude nt s how t ho ught s a f f e c t e d a c t i ons T he be ne f i t s of pos i t i ve t hought s y i e l de d a f e e l i ng of c ont r ol ove r t he i r l e a r ni ng w hi c h be ga n a pos i t i ve c yc l e be t w e e n be l i e f s a nd r e s ul t s ( T ol a nd & B oyl e 2008 ) M a ny s t ude nt s w i t h poor m o t i va t i on m a y f a l l i nt o a ne ga t i ve s pi r a l w hi c h c oul d be c ha l l e ngi ng t o r e ve r s e T e a c hi ng s t ude nt s t o a r t i c ul a t e e m ot i ons r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng w i l l pr ovi de t he m w i t h t he e m ot i ona l a w a r e ne s s a nd m a t ur i t y of how t he i r t hought s ha ve a di r e c t i m pa c t on t he i r a c a de m i c pr ogr e s s a nd i f ne c e s s a r y, s e e k a s s i s t a nc e w i t h c ha l l e ngi ng s ubj e c t s or c ont e nt R e adi ng I nt e r v e nt i ons f or St ude nt s w i t h L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s and L ow R e adi ng A c hi e v e m e nt A s de s c r i be d i n c ha pt e r one t he N o C hi l d L e f t B e h i nd A c t ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2009a ) ha s m a nda t e d t ha t s c hool s m e e t a de qua t e ye a r l y pr og r e s s a nd m e a s ur e pe r f or m a nc e f o r a l l s t ude nt s A l t hough t he pr e m i s e of N C L B i s t o be ne f i t a l l s t ude nt s t he e xpe c t a t i on t ha t a l l s t ude nt s a r e c a pa bl e of a c hi e vi ng t he hi gh s t a nda r ds a t t he e xpe c t e d r a t e ha s be e n que s t i ona bl e E xt e r na l c i r c um s t a nc e s c a n a l s o c ont r i but e t o l i m i t e d l i t e r a c y s ki l l s f or c hi l d r e n t ha t a r e not e xpos e d t o a pr i nt r i c h e nvi r onm e nt a nd r a i s e d i n c om m uni t i e s w i t h l i m i t e d l a ngua ge s ki l l s T he s e s t ude nt s of t e n e nt e r s c hool l e s s pr e pa r e d

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18 t ha n t he i r pe e r s w ho ha ve ha d e xpos ur e t o a nd p r a c t i c e w i t h e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s ( H a y e t a l 2007 ) H a y e t a l s ( 2007) r e s e a r c h i ndi c a t e d t h a t e xpos ur e t o l i t e r a t ur e i s not t he onl y de t e r m i ni ng f a c t or c ont r i but i ng t o e a r l y l i t e r a c y s ki l l s but r a t he r t he c om m uni c a t i on a bout t he c ont e xt a nd r i c h di a l ogue t ha t a l s o ha ve a di r e c t i m pa c t on t he de ve l opm e nt of a c hi l d s r e a di ng s ki l l s A ddi t i ona l l y, r e s e a r c h ha s i n di c a t e d t ha t young c hi l d r e n w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s m a ke gr e a t e r pr ogr e s s w i t h m ul t i f a c e t e d i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd c om bi ne d a ppr oa c he s ( H a y e t a l 2007) T o m e e t t he s t a nda r d t ha t l oc a l r e s our c e s m us t f oc us on pr ove n e duc a t i ona l m e t hods one of t he r e qui r e d us e s of R e a di ng F i r s t f undi ng i s t o pr ovi de a r e s e a r c h ba s e d pr ogr a m of r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t o c hi l dr e n f r om K 3 gr a de w ho m a y ha ve r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s a r e a t r i s k of be i ng r e f e r r e d t o s pe c i a l e duc a t i on ba s e d on t he s e di f f i c ul t i e s ha ve be e n e va l ua t e d but not i de nt i f i e d unde r t he I D E A a r e be i ng s e r ve d unde r t he I D E A a s a c hi l d w i t h a s e ve r e l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y ( S L D ) r e l a t e d t o r e a di ng, or a r e de f i c i e nt i n e s s e nt i a l c om pone nt s or r e a di ng s ki l l s ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on, 2009a ) S t a t e s m us t pr ovi de e vi de nc e t ha t a ddi t i o na l f und i ng r e s o ur c e s a r e be i ng ut i l i z e d f or pr of e s s i ona l de ve l opm e nt t o m e e t t he e duc a t i ona l ne e ds of s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h s pe c i a l ne e ds ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 200 9a ) I n r e s pon s e t o t he na t i ona l m a nda t e s s t a t e s ha ve i m pl e m e nt e d i nt e r ve nt i ons t o pr ovi de e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or a l l s t ude nt s ye t l i t t l e da t a e xi s t s on t he i m pa c t of s uc h pr a c t i c e s f or s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s ( E l ba u m e t a l 2000 ) E l ba um e t a l s ( 2000) m e t a a na l ys i s of gr oupi ng f or m a t i ons f or r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f ound t ha t s a m e a ge or pe e r t ut or i ng ha d m ode r a t e e f f e c t s i z e s a nd a pos i t i ve i m pa c t on w a ys t e a c he r s us e s t ude nt pa i r i ng f o r s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s T he pe e r t ut o r i ng s e s s i on s houl d be us e d a s pr a c t i c e

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19 s e s s i ons not i n pl a c e o f t e a c he r i ns t r uc t i on a nd ho l d t he pot e nt i a l t o i m p r ove t he s oc i a l r e l a t i ons hi ps f or o f c hi l dr e n ( E l ba um e t a l 2000) T he a na l ys i s i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s be ne f i t e d f r om pa r t i c i pa t i ng i n c r o s s a ge t ut or i ng of a c hi l d t ha t i s one gr a de be l ow t he t ut o r T he M e nt or i ng i n O hi o f or R e adi ng E x c e l l e nc e P r oj e c t ( P r oj e c t M O R E ) i m pl e m e nt e d a r e a di ng t ut or pr ogr a m t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t on r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt of s t ude nt s w i t h r e a di ng di s a bi l i t i e s ( O s bor n e t a l 20 07) T he t ut o r s r e c e i ve d i ns t r uc t i ona l m a t e r i a l s t ha t s uppor t e d c l a s s r oom i ns t r uc t i on a nd m e t w i t h t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t hr e e t o f ou r t i m e s pe r w e e k, f or s e s s i ons l a s t i ng a bout t hi r t y m i nut e s F i ndi ngs f r om t he s t udy i ndi c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i nc r e a s e i n r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd a one m ont h ga i n f or e ve r y m ont h o f i nt e r ve nt i on ( O s bor n e t a l 2007) S i m m ons e t a l ( 1995 ) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of pe e r t ut or i ng a nd e xpl i c i t t e a c hi ng on t he r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s T he s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t l ow a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s e t t i ngs r e a d f or onl y 18 % o f t he t i m e a l l oc a t e d f or r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on P a r t i c i pa nt s r e c e i ve d t r a i ni ng on t he pu r pos e of t he pe e r t ut or i ng pr ogr a m a nd, a l t hough t he t ut or s c or r e c t e d m i s c ue s t he y w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o us e pos i t i ve f e e dba c k f ol l ow i ng t he s e s s i ons ( S i m m ons e t a l 1995) S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t s on pe e r t ut or i ng s ugge s t e d t ha t t hi s i nt e r ve nt i on w a s a n e f f e c t i ve s uppl e m e nt t o t e a c he r i ns t r uc t i on a nd be ne f i t s i nc l ude d i nc r e a s e d oppor t uni t i e s t o r e s pond, a ddi t i ona l p r a c t i c e i nc r e a s e d t i m e on t a s k a nd on goi ng pe r f o r m a nc e m oni t or i ng ( S i m m ons e t a l 1995)

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20 W i t h t he N C L B m a nda t e s e duc a t or s a r e he l d a c c o unt a bl e t o pr ovi de e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on a nd ha ve a r e s pons i bi l i t y t o m a i nt a i n or i m pr ove t he i r s t ude nt s r e a di ng s c or e s S e o e t a l s ( 2008) qua l i t a t i ve s t udy e xpl or e d be gi nni ng t e a c he r s a bi l i t y t o e nga ge s t ude nt s dur i ng i ns t r uc t i on a s w e l l a s t e a c he r e f f e c t i ve ne s s i n r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s e t t i ngs T he r e s e a r c h c onc l ude d t ha t how t e a c he r s c r e a t e a c l a s s r oom c l i m a t e ha d a n e f f e c t on s t ude nt e nga g e m e nt T e a c he r s w ho w e r e qui c k t o r e c ogni z e a s t ude nt s ne e d f or a s s i s t a nc e ha d a s uppor t i ve e nvi r onm e nt a nd e f f e c t i ve r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ha d t he hi ghe s t l e ve l o f s t ude nt e nga ge m e nt ( S e o e t a l 2008 ) F i ndi ngs f r om t hi s s t udy s uppor t e d pr e vi ous r e s e a r c h t ha t hi ghl y e nga gi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s r e s e m bl e d e xe m pl a r y r e a di ng t e a c he r s i n ge ne r a l e duc a t i on s e t t i ngs T he m os t e f f e c t i ve s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s w e r e t hos e t ha t us e d hi ghe r or de r t hi nki ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd pr ovi de d e xpl i c i t r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ( S e o e t a l 2008 ) T e a c he r s a r e f a c e d w i t h a c ha l l e nge t o m e e t t he ne e ds of e ve r y s t ude nt a nd s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s of t e n pr ovi de a ddi t i ona l c ha l l e nge s I t i s t he t e a c he r s r e s pons i bi l i t y t o r e s e a r c h s t r a t e gi e s t ha t a r e e f f e c t i ve a nd m e e t t he ne e ds of t he di ve r s e a c a de m i c popul a t i on. R e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on of t e n oc c ur s t hr ough gr oupe d i ns t r uc t i on, e i t he r t hr ough he t e r oge ne ous l y a nd ho m oge nous l y f or m e d g r oups ( C l a y, 1993; P ool e 2008) R e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t a l t ho ugh gr oupi ng s t r a t e gi e s m a y be m or e m a na ge a bl e i ns t r uc t i ona l l y, s uc h a ppr oa c he s ha ve not de m ons t r a t e d ha vi ng a pos i t i ve e f f e c t on r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt ( C l a y, 1993; P oo l e 2008) I ndi vi dua l i z e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on or e f f e c t i ve va r i a t i ons t o t he hom oge no us gr oupi ng a r e r e c om m e nde d a s e f f e c t i ve a ppr oa c he s w i t h t he e m pha s i s on m a i nt a i ni ng s t ude nt i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng a nd r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ( C l a y, 1993; P ool e 2008; S w a ns on, 1999)

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21 T he F ai l ur e F r e e R e adi ng P r ogr am pr ovi de s a f o unda t i on f or r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on f or s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h r e a di ng di f f i c u l t i e s t hr ough t he us e of a ge a ppr opr i a t e m a t e r i a l s r e pe t i t i on a nd i m m e di a t e f e e dba c k ( R a n khor n e t a l 1998) A n a na l ys i s of t he pr ogr a m s e f f e c t s on r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt f or s t ud e nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s r e por t e d a 50 % de c r e a s e i n t he num be r o f s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h di s c r e pa nc i e s i n r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l a bi l i t y f ol l ow i ng pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy ( R a nkhor n e t a l 1998) S i gni f i c a nt r e duc t i ons o f d i s c r e pa nc i e s be t w e e n r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e a nd i nt e l l e c t ua l a bi l i t y w e r e f ound r e s ul t i ng i n a de c l i ne i n t he num be r o f s t ude nt s w ho onc e qua l i f i e d f o r s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s I nf or m al R e adi ng I nv e nt or i e s R unni ng R e c or ds R e s e ar c h and St ude nt s w i t h L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s M a r i e C l a y de s c r i be d R unni ng R e c or ds a s a s ys t e m a t i c pr oc e dur e f o r r e c or d i ng r e a di ng be ha vi or s obs e r ve d du r i ng t e xt r e a di ng, a t ool f or r e c or di ng t he n i nt e r pr e t i ng how c hi l dr e n w or k on t e xt a n obs e r va t i ona l l e ns di r e c t e d t o t e xt r e a di ng ( C l a y, 2001) A l t hough R unni ng R e c or ds a r e c ha l l e nge d by s e ve r a l r e s e a r c he r s due t o t he l a c k of c onf or m i t y t o s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s C l a y ( 2001 ) f ur t h e r de s c r i be d R unni ng R e c or ds a s a n obs e r va t i ona l t ool or r e s e a r c h m e t hodol ogy w hi c h ga t he r e d de t a i l e d da t a on c ha nge s i n l i t e r a c y pr oc e s s i ng ove r s hor t i nt e r va l s of t i m e f r o m s ubj e c t s w ho w e r e r e a di ng o r w r i t i ng c ont i nuous t e xt s ( p. 46 ) S t a f f o r d ( 2000) e xpl a i ne d t ha t R unni ng R e c or ds a r e a n e f f e c t i ve a s s e s s m e nt t ha t a na l yz e s s t ude nt s t hi nki ng a nd l i t e r a c y a nd i nf o r m s i ns t r uc t i ona l pl a nni ng ( p 57 ) A ddi t i ona l l y t e a c he r s c a n us e t he da t a t o f a c i l i t a t e s t ude nt s de ve l opm e nt of r e a di ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd us e t he i nf o r m a t i on t o pr ovi de doc um e nt a t i on of e a c h s t ude nt 's l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt a nd j our ne y ( S t a f f o r d, 2000)

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22 A n I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt o r y ( I R I ) de s i gne d m or e t ha n f i f t y ye a r s a go, a s s e s s e s s t ude nt s r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a nd c ol l e c t s qu a nt i t a t i ve a nd qua l i t a t i ve r e a di ng da t a ( P a r i s 2003 ) T he I R I c ont a i ns a r e a di ng a c c ur a c y c om pone nt t hr ough t he us e of R unni ng R e c or d a na l ys e s ( P a r i s 2003) R unni ng R e c or ds a r e us e d a s a c om pone nt a m ong t h e ba t t e r y of r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt s i n a n I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y R unni ng R e c or ds pr ovi de di f f e r e nt i nf o r m a t i on t ha n t ha t ga t he r e d f r om c om pr e he ns i on or w or d t e s t s pr ovi di ng a di f f e r e nt pe r s pe c t i ve of t he s t ude nt s pr ogr e s s ( C l a y, 2001) R a t he r t ha n f oc us i ng on va r i a t i on i n t e s t s c or e s R u nni ng R e c or ds pr ovi de t he t e a c he r w i t h i ndi vi dua l c ha nge s t ha t c a n be obs e r v e d i n da i l y r e a di ngs a nd c a n be us e d t o m oni t or a s t ude nt s i ndi vi dua l p r ogr e s s ( C l a y, 200 1, 2005) D e s i gne d t o be t a ke n a s a c hi l d r e a ds or a l l y, t he R unni ng R e c or ds a r e a s ys t e m a t i c un t i m e d t e s t of c on t e xt ua l r e a di ng a c c ur a c y a nd pr ovi de e vi de nc e of how w e l l c hi l dr e n a r e ut i l i z i ng t he c onc e pt s of pr i nt t o m a ke s e ns e of t he t e xt ( C l a y, 2005; F a w s on e t a l 2006 ) C l a y ( 2005 ) i ndi c a t e d r e s e a r c h ha s s how n t ha t a c hi l d s houl d be r e a di ng a t a n i ns t r uc t i ona l l e ve l 90 94% a c c ur a c y r a t e i n or de r f or e f f e c t i ve l i t e r a c y l e a r ni n g t o oc c ur Y a t e s a nd N a ge l ( 1997) pi l ot e d a R unni ng R e c or d a s s e s s m e nt pr ogr a m f or s e ve n f i r s t gr a de c l a s s e s i n t he C e nt r a l S c hool D i s t r i c t be c a us e t he t e a c he r s f e l t t he c ur r e nt a s s e s s m e nt s di d not pr ov i de t he ne c e s s a r y i nf or m a t i on t o unde r s t a nd t he r e a di ng pr ogr e s s of t he i r f i r s t gr a de s t ude nt s T he i n f or m a t i on ge ne r a t e d f r om t he R unni ng R e c or ds he l pe d t he t e a c he r s t o c r e a t e a s i x poi n t r e a di ng de ve l opm e nt a l s c a l e a s t he di s t r i c t w i de s t a nda r ds of a c c om pl i s hm e nt e xpe c t e d f or f i r s t g r a de r e a de r s by t he l a s t m ont h o f s c hool ( Y a t e s & N a ge l 1997 ) A s a r e s ul t o f t he pi l ot p r o gr a m Y a t e s a nd N a ge l ( 1997) r e por t e d

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23 t ha t t he r e s ul t s w e r e p r om i s i ng i n t ha t t he t e a c he r s be l i e ve d t ha t t he R unni ng R e c or ds pr ov i de d c l e a r e r r e a di ng s ki l l s i nf o r m a t i on on e a c h s t ude nt A s a pa r t of t he O hi o L i t e r a c y I ni t i a t i ve a nd l ow r e a di ng pr of i c i e nc y s c or e s M c C om b E l e m e nt a r y S c hool de ve l ope d a R unni ng R e c or d a s s e s s m e nt t ha t r e a l i gne d s t a nda r ds f r om e l e m e nt a r y t hr ough h i gh s c hool ( S t a f f or d, 2000) R unni ng R e c or d a s s e s s m e nt s w e r e c om pl e t e d t hr e e t i m e s a ye a r pr ogr e s s w a s r e c or de d on i ndi vi dua l c ha r t s a nd t he i nf o r m a t i on w a s pl a c e d i n s t ude nt s por t f ol i os A s a r e s ul t o f t he pr ogr a m t e a c he r s s a w not a bl e pr ogr e s s i n t he i r s t ude nt s w h o w e r e a t r i s k bu t di d not qua l i f y f or s pe c i a l pr ogr a m s ( S t a f f or d 2000 ) T he r e s ul t s of t hi s c a s e s t udy i ndi c a t e d t ha t s t ude nt s de ve l ope d m or e i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng a nd t e a c he r s w e r e i ndi vi dua l i z i ng t he i r r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on t o be t t e r m e e t t he ne e ds of t he i r s t ude nt s ( S t a f f o r d, 2000) S pe c i f i c a l l y S t a f f or d ( 2000) i ndi c a t e d t ha t t hr ough t he us e of t h e R unni ng R e c or ds one l ow f unc t i oni ng s t ude nt i m p r ove d t w o r e a di ng l e ve l s d ur i ng t he f i ve m ont h s t udy a nd a not he r s t ude nt w a s r e c om m e nde d f or a s pe c i a l e duc a t i on pl a c e m e nt R os s ( 2004) e xa m i ne d t he e f f e c t s of t e a c he r s us e of s e l e c t e d i ns t r uc t i ona l m a t e r i a l on s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt I n t he c ont r ol l e d e xpe r i m e nt c l a i m s f r om e f f e c t i ve s c hool s r e s e a r c h of t he be ne f i t s of t he us e of R unni ng R e c or ds w e r e t e s t e d. T he r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d t ha t pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he R unni ng R e c or d t r e a t m e nt ha d a g r e a t e r pos i t i ve e f f e c t i n r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng t ha n di d t he a c t i on r e s e a r c h c ondi t i on. T he s c hool s t ha t w e r e a s s i gne d t o t he R unni ng R e c or d t r e a t m e nt i m pr ove d t he i r r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng s c or e s a nd out pe r f or m e d t he s c hool s t ha t w e r e a s s i gne d t o a s i m i l a r t r e a t m e nt c ondi t i on i n r e a di ng a nd w r i t i ng ( R os s 2004)

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24 I n a r e c e nt s t udy, R unni ng R e c or ds w e r e c om pa r e d t o t he c om m onl y us e d s t a nda r di z e d a s s e s s m e nt s a s a va l i d m e a s ur e of r e a di ng a bi l i t y. B ur gi n a nd H ughe s ( 2009) us e d R unni ng R e c or ds a s da i l y f or m a t i ve a s s e s s m e nt s t o e s t i m a t e t he r e l i a bi l i t y s c or e s of a n a nnua l a s s e s s m e nt c a l l e d t he D e ve l opm e nt a l R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt T he f i ndi ngs de m ons t r a t e d t ha t R unni ng R e c or ds a r e a va l i d a nd r e l i a bl e m e a s ur e of r e a di ng a bi l i t y a nd t he r e s e a r c he r s pr ove d t ha t R unni ng R e c or d a s s e s s m e nt s pr ovi de d a be t t e r m e a s ur e of r e a di ng a bi l i t y t ha n s t a nda r di z e d m ul t i pl e c hoi c e a s s e s s m e nt s T he r e s e a r c h pr ovi de d f ur t he r s uppor t f or t he us e o f R unni ng R e c or ds a s va l i d a nd r e l i a bl e m e a s ur e s f or bot h f or m a l pr og r a m e va l ua t i on a nd i nf o r m a l c l a s s r oom a s s e s s m e nt A ddi t i ona l l y, t he c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s t ha t c onduc t e d t he a s s e s s m e nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he a s s e s s m e nt c oul d be c om pl e t e d w i t h m i ni m a l c l a s s r oom di s r upt i on ( B ur gi n & H ughe s 2009) L udw i g e t a l ( 2008) de s i gne d a s t udy t ha t e xa m i n e d t he us e of R unni n g R e c or ds a nd t he D yna m i c I ndi c a t o r s of B a s i c E a r l y L i t e r a c y S ki l l s D I B E L S w i t h s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s a nd t he m a nne r i n w hi c h t hi s i nf o r m a t i on w oul d a s s i s t t e a c he r s w i t h r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. T he goa l o f t he s t udy w a s t o de m ons t r a t e how t he da t a f r om R unni ng R e c or ds a nd D I B E L S w oul d i nf or m i ns t r uc t i on a n d a f f e c t s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt ( L udw i g e t a l 2008) S i nc e i ni t i a l R unni ng R e c or d da t a i nd i c a t e d s t ude nt s w e r e not r e a di ng on gr a de l e ve l t he s c hool s r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on s pe c i a l i s t f a c i l i t a t e d w e e kl y m e e t i ngs t o a s s i s t t he t e a c he r s unde r s t a ndi ng of s t ude nt a c hi e ve m e nt ( L udw i g e t a l 2008) F ol l ow i ng R unni ng R e c or d da t a c ol l e c t i on, c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s us e of i nt e r ve nt i ons w a s i nc l ude d i n t he s t udy T he r e s ul t s de m ons t r a t e d a p os i t i ve c or r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he D I B E L S a nd R unni ng R e c or d a s s e s s m e nt s bot h of w hi c h i nf o r m e d i ns t r uc t i ona l

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25 pr a c t i c e s a nd ha d a pos i t i ve e f f e c t on t he i ndi vi dua l i z e d i ns t r uc t i on f o r s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s ( L udw i g e t a l 2008 ) A ni m al A s s i s t e d T he r apy H i s t or i c a l l y, t he us e o f dom e s t i c a ni m a l s i n t he r a p y f or hum a ns da t e s ba c k t o t he ni nt h c e nt ur y w he n t he G r e e ks us e d hi ppot he r a py, t he r a py w i t h t he he l p of a ho r s e w i t h t e r m i na l l y i l l pa t i e nt s ( M i l l e r 2004 ) I n t he 1850 s E ng l i s h m e nt a l l y i l l pa t i e nt s w e r e i nt r oduc e d t o pe t s a s a t e c hni que t o l e a r n t o c a r e f o r a not he r l i vi ng be i ng T hi s pr og r a m w a s de ve l ope d t o a s s i s t t he pa t i e nt s w i t h s e l f c ont r ol be c a us e t he s e w e a ke r be i ngs w e r e de pe nde nt upon t he m f o r t he i r ba s i c s ur vi va l ne e ds ( L e vi ns on, 1997) L a t e r t he r ol e t ha t dom e s t i c a ni m a l s pl a ye d i n f a m i l y l i f e be c a m e a f oc us w he n B os s a r d ( 1944) publ i s he d hi s w or k f r om a s oc i ol o gi c a l pe r s pe c t i ve B os s a r d ( 1944) de s c r i be d a ni m a l s a s a s our c e of unc ondi t i ona l l ov e a nd a n out l e t f or pe opl e s de s i r e t o e xpr e s s t ha t l ove a s w e l l a s a t e a c he r f or c hi l dr e n on t opi c s r e l a t e d t o pe r s ona l hygi e ne a nd a s w e l l a s c om pa ni ons I t w a s t hi s a r t i c l e t ha t s pa r ke d t he publ i c s i n t e r e s t i n hum a n a ni m a l i nt e r a c t i ons ge ne r a t i ng i nt e r e s t t ha t ha s not s i nc e di m i ni s he d. L e vi ns on ( 1962) a n A m e r i c a n c hi l d ps yc hol ogi s t e xpa nde d on B os s a r d s w or k t o i nc l ude t he r a py s e t t i ngs t hr ough pe t t he r a py: o r pe t or i e nt e d c hi l d ps yc hol ogy. L e vi ns on s w or k w i t h a ni m a l s oc c ur r e d r a t he r a c c i de nt a l l y w he n hi s dog, J i ngl e s r e m a i ne d i n t he r oom dur i ng a t he r a py s e s s i on w i t h a m ot he r a nd c hi l d W he n t he dog r a n t o t he c hi l d a nd di s pl a ye d a f f e c t i on t ow a r d t he c hi l d, t he c hi l d r e s ponde d w i t h s i m i l a r a f f e c t i on. T hr ough t he dog s i nt e r a c t i ons L e v i ns on w a s a bl e t o bui l d a r a ppor t w i t h t he c hi l d, w hi c h r e s ul t e d i n t he c hi l d s r e ha bi l i t a t i on ( L e vi ns on, 1997) A l t hough hi s c ol l e a gue s r i di c ul e d L e vi ns on f or hi s i nt e r e s t i n a n i m a l t he r a py, he c ont i nue d t o r e s e a r c h

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26 a nd w r i t e a bout t he e f f e c t s o f t hi s i n t e r ve nt i on ( M a l l on e t a l 2000) L e vi ns on s pi one e r w or k ge ne r a t e d a n i n t e r e s t f or f u r t he r a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py r e s e a r c h i n t he m e nt a l he a l t h i nd us t r y. W i l s on, c r e a t e d t he t e r m bi ophi l i a o r i nna t e i nt e r e s t i n l i f e E s s e nt i a l l y bi ophi l i a i s a r e s ul t of c o e vol ut i on w i t h ot he r a ni m a l s pe c i e s a nd hum a ns bi ol ogi c a l l y ba s e d a t t r a c t i on f or na t ur e a nd a l l i t s l i f e f or m s ( M e l s on, 2000) M e l s on ( 2000 ) e xpl or e d t he i m pl i c a t i ons of t he bi ophi l i a hypo t he s i s f or unde r s t a ndi ng t he r ol e of a ni m a l s i n c hi l dr e n s de ve l opm e nt a nd how a ni m a l s i nf l ue nc e c hi l dr e n. I n t he a na l ys i s M e l s on ( 2000) c ons i de r e d t h r e e de ve l opm e nt a l que s t i ons a nd r e vi e w e d e vi de nc e t o d r a w i m pl i c a t i ons f or a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py w i t h c hi l d r e n. T he f i nd i ngs s ugge s t t ha t hum a ns ha ve a n e m ot i ona l a t t r a c t i on t o a ni m a l s a nd na t ur a l s e t t i ngs a nd t hi s e ne r gy s houl d m ot i va t e c hi l dr e n s d r i ve t o e xt r a c t m e a ni ng f r om t he w or l d a r ound t he m ( M e l s on, 2000) A ddi t i ona l l y, M e l s on ( 2000) f ound t ha t : bi ophi l i a s ugge s t s t ha t c hi l dr e n r e a di l y vi e w a ni m a l s a nd m i nde d a c t or s i ndi vi dua l s w i t h i nt e nt i ons a nd de s i r e s w hos e a c t i ons a r e a t l e a s t pot e nt i a l l y, i nt e l l i gi bl e f r om t he i r m e nt a l s t a t e s F ur t he r m o r e b i ophi l i a pos i t s t ha t hum a ns a r e i nt r i ns i c a l l y m ot i va t e d t o de c ode t he m e a ni ng of a ni m a l be ha vi or a nd i n doi ng s o, ga i n i ns i ght i nt o t he i r ow n m i nds ( p 38 0) T he i m pl i c a t i ons of bi ophi l i a i nc l ude i nt r i ns i c a l l y m ot i va t e d c hi l dr e n t ha t a r e n t a t t a c he d t o t he a ni m a l w i t h he i ght e ne d e f f e c t s w i t h a ni m a l s ( M e l s on, 2000) T he r e f or e bi ophi l i a s uppor t s r e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng t he e f f e c t of a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py ( A A T ) w i t h c hi l dr e n. C ur r e nt l y, A A T p r ogr a m s a r e be i ng us e d i n va r i ous s e t t i ngs w i t h a va r i e t y o f a ni m a l s A ni m a l s s uc h a s hor s e s c a t s r a bbi t s dog s dol phi ns a nd bi r ds a r e c ons i de r e d a c c e pt a bl e c om pa ni ons de pe ndi ng on t he ne c e s s a r y t r e a t m e nt a nd on i ndi vi dua l

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27 pr e f e r e nc e ( G r a nge r & K oga n 2000) T he t ype of a ni m a l a nd t he r a py r e c e i ve d de pe nds on t he ne e ds of t he i ndi vi dua l a nd pur pos e o f t he t he r a py pr ovi de d. T he D e l t a S oc i e t y i s a n i nt e r na t i ona l non pr of i t o r ga ni z a t i on t ha t s uppor t s A A T a nd r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h. T he i r m i s s i on i s t o c onne c t i n di vi dua l s w i t h a ni m a l s w i t h t he i nt e nt t ha t t he hum a n w i l l be he a l t hi e r m or e i nde pe nde nt a nd e nj oy a n e nha nc e d qua l i t y o f l i vi ng. T he D e l t a S oc i e t y s obj e c t i ve of A A T i s t o i nc r e a s e publ i c a w a r e ne s s of t he be ne f i t s of a ni m a l s f o r f a m i l y he a l t h a nd hum a n de ve l opm e nt ; t o r e duc e t he obs t a c l e s t ha t pr e ve nt a ni m a l s f r om be i ng i nvol ve d i n e ve r y da y l i f e ; t o pr ovi de a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py t o m o r e pe opl e ; a nd t o i nc r e a s e t he num be r of w e l l t r a i ne d s e r vi c e dogs a va i l a bl e t o pe opl e w i t h d i s a bi l i t i e s ( D e l t a S oc i e t y 2009) K e y f e a t ur e s of t he pr og r a m i nc l ude s pe c i f i c i ndi vi dua l i z e d goa l s a nd m e a s ur a bl e p r og r e s s A l t hough t he i nd i vi dua l t ypi c a l l y de t e r m i ne s goa l s of t he A A T s om e obj e c t i ve s m a y i nc l ude i m pr ove d m e nt a l he a l t h r e duc e d a nxi e t y, i nc r e a s e d ve r ba l i nt e r a c t i ons i m p r ove d know l e dge of c onc e pt s a nd e duc a t i ona l i m pr ove m e nt s ( D e l t a S oc i e t y 2009 ) H or s e s ha ve be e n us e d a s a n a ni m a l f a c i l i t a t e d t he r a py t o p r ovi de t he r a pe ut i c ps yc hot he r a py a c t i vi t i e s t o pa t i e nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s s uc h a s c e r e br a l pa l s y, w i t h t he obj e c t i ve t o i m pr ove s e l f c onf i de nc e a n d s oc i a l c o m pe t e nc e ( B e c k, 2000) O ne f or m of hor s e t he r a py, c a l l e d h i ppot he r a py, i s ba s e d on t he i de a of t r a ns f e r o f m ove m e nt f r om hor s e t o pa t i e nt a nd i s us e d a s t r e a t m e nt i n s t r a t e gy i n phys i c a l oc c upa t i ona l a nd s pe e c h l a ngua ge t he r a py s e s s i ons f or i ndi vi dua l s w i t h d i s a bi l i t i e s ( A m e r i c a n H i ppot he r a py A s s oc i a t i on, 2009; B e c k, 2000; G r a nge r & K oga n, 2000) H i ppot he r a py ha s be e n s how n t o i m pr ove m us c l e t one ba l a nc e pos t ur e c oor di na t i on, m ot o r de ve l opm e nt a s w e l l a s e m ot i ona l w e l l be i ng ( A m e r i c a n H i ppot he r a py A s s oc i a t i on, 2009)

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28 D ol phi ns ha ve be e n us e d a s t he r a py a ni m a l s pr i m a r i l y due t o t he i r i nt e l l i ge nc e l e ve l a nd s t r e s s r e duc i ng c a pa bi l i t i e s ( G r a nge r & K oga n, 2000) M ove m e nt t hr ough w a t e r i s t he r a pe ut i c a nd f ound t o be he l pf u l t o i nc r e a s e m ot or s ki l l s a nd f l e xi bi l i t y, a s w e l l a s w i t h de pr e s s i on a nd a nxi e t y ( G r a nge r & K oga n, 2000) F ounde d i n 1986 by D r L udm i l a L uki na of t he U k r a i ne dol ph i n a s s i s t e d t he r a py w a s de s i gne d t o f i nd us e of s pe c i a l l y t r a i ne d dol phi ns t o r e ha bi l i t a t e i ndi vi dua l s s uf f e r i ng f r om ne r vous di s e a s e s w hi c h a r e n ot w e l l c ove r e d by c onve nt i ona l m e di c a l a ppr oa c he s D ol phi n a s s i s t e d t he r a py a l s o be ne f i t e d i ndi vi dua l s d i a gnos e d w i t h c e r e br a l pa l s y, de pr e s s i on, a nd phobi a s t o a i de t he m i n be c om i ng s oc i a l l y a da pt e d a nd i n i nc r e a s i ng m obi l i t y. A ddi t i ona l l y, r e s e a r c h s upp or t e d c ha nge i n f unc t i oni ng f o r c hi l d r e n di a gnos e d w i t h a t t e nt i on de f i c i t a nd a ut i s m s pe c t r um di s or de r s w ho pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he dol phi n t he r a py pr ogr a m I t i s be l i e ve d t ha t t he dol phi n's a c ous t i c s i gna l s c ont r i b ut e d t o t he t he r a pe ut i c e f f e c t s i n hum a ns a s a r e s ul t of t he dol phi n t he r a py ( D ol phi n A s s i s t e d T he r a py, 2009) T he us e of a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py f or c hi l dr e n w i t h a ut i s m s pe c t r um di s or de r i s r e l a t i ve l y ne w ye t g r ow i ng i n popul a r i t y A s r e c e nt a s 1997, a C a na di a n t r a i ni ng or ga ni z a t i on, N a t i ona l S e r vi c e D ogs w a s c r e di t e d w i t h pl a c i ng t he f i r s t s e r vi c e dog w i t h a c hi l d w i t h a ut i s m ( B ur r ow s e t a l 2008 ) N a t i ona l S e r vi c e D ogs t r a i ns 10 16 dog s pe r ye a r a nd i s r e s pons i bl e f or pl a c i ng 92 dogs w i t h c h i l dr e n w i t h a ut i s m ( B ur r ow s e t a l 2008) I n t he f i r s t s t udy t o e xpl or e t he e f f e c t of t he s e r vi c e dog pr og r a m w i t h c hi l dr e n w i t h a ut i s m s pe c t r um di s or de r s B ur r ow s e t a l ( 20 08) r e por t e d t ha t t he a ni m a l s w e r e a bl e t o pr ovi de a s s i s t a nc e t o t he c hi l d m os t l y r e l a t e d t o s a f e t y bot h i n a nd out s i de o f t he r e s i de nt i a l s e t t i ng. T he dogs w e r e t r a i ne d t o pr e ve nt t he c hi l d f r om r unni ng a w a y f r om

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29 a ny gi ve n s i t ua t i on, but a l s o a s s i s t e d t he c hi l d by a l e r t i ng t he pa r e nt of a da nge r ous s i t ua t i on, pr ovi di ng c om f o r t a nd c om pa ni ons hi p t o t he c hi l d ( B ur r ow s e t a l 2008) I n 1947, t he R os s f a m i l y pur c ha s e d a da i r y f a r m s i xt y m i l e s f r o m N e w Y or k C i t y t o be us e d a s a n i nde pe nde nt boa r di ng s c hool f o r y oung c hi l dr e n. G r e e n C hi m ne ys S e r vi c e i nc or por a t e d t he da i r y f a r m i nt o t he da i l y l i ve s of t he c hi l d r e n not r e a l i z i ng t he t he r a pe ut i c be ne f i t s t o be ga i ne d by t he c hi l dr e n i n w or ki ng w i t h t he a ni m a l s ( G r e e n C hi m ne ys 2009; M e l s on, 2000) O ve r t he ye a r s t he S e r vi c e t r a ns f or m e d i nt o a R e s i de nt i a l T r e a t m e nt C e nt e r f o r c hi l d r e n w i t h e m ot i ona l di s or de r s a nd l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd be c a m e a s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s c hool c a l l e d t he G r e e n C hi m ne ys S c hool ( G r e e n C hi m ne ys 2009) M a ny o f t he r e s i de nt s e xpe r i e nc e d l i m i t e d s uc c e s s i n s c hool w e r e s ui c i da l de pr e s s e d, l i ve d i n pove r t y a nd ha d hi s t or i e s of ne gl e c t a bus e a nd s uf f e r e d f r om ps yc hos oc i a l s t r e s s or i n t he i r hom e s c ho ol a nd c om m uni t i e s ( M e l s on, 2000) T he s c hool c ont i nua l l y e vol ve d t o m e e t t he ne e ds of t he s t ude nt s a nd r e s i de nt s but t he e xpos ur e t o t he a ni m a l s r e m a i ne d c ons i s t e nt be c a us e t he s t a f f r e a l i z e d t he be ne f i t s of t he i nt e r a c t i ons ( M e l s on, 2000) C ur r e nt l y t he s c hool i s a ye a r r ound ho m e t o ove r one hundr e d e m ot i ona l l y t r oubl e d c hi l dr e n be t w e e n t he a ge s of 6 a nd 21 w h o ha ve be e n r e f e r r e d by c hi l d w e l f a r e a ge nc i e s s c hool c ouns e l or s or ps yc hi a t r i c hos pi t a l s ( G r e e n C hi m ne ys 2009; P e t e r s on, 1997) T he goa l of t h e s c hool i s f o r t he s t ude nt s t o l e a r n t o c a r e f or pe t s a nd pl a nt s a nd de ve l op a s e ns e of r e s pons i bi l i t y, w i t h a ni m a l s a s t he m e di a t or s be t w e e n t he a dul t a nd c hi l d t o c r e a t e a non t h r e a t e ni ng e xpe r i e nc e ( P e t e r s on, 1997) T he be ne f i t s of t he pr ogr a m c a n be s e e n i n t he a c t i ons o f t he s t ude nt s w he n t he y r e t ur n t o t he i r hom e s t o

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30 a t t e nd c om m uni t y s c hool s a nd be c om e pr oduc t i ve m e m be r s of t he i r c om m uni t y ( P e t e r s on, 1997 ) A ni m al s i n L i t e r ac y I nt e r v e nt i ons A ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py ha s be e n m os t c om m onl y us e d i n pr i va t e s e t t i ngs or t r e a t m e nt f a c i l i t i e s i nc l udi ng p r ogr a m s s uc h a s G r e e n C hi m ne ys r e s i de nt i a l s e t t i ng. M a ny pr ogr a m s a r e of f e r e d a t publ i c l i b r a r i e s or c om m uni t y ba s e d pr ogr a m s I n B a l t i m or e F i dos f or F r e e dom e xt e nde d t he i r pr og r a m i nt o t he s c hool s ys t e m t o pr ovi de a r e a di ng l i t e r a c y p r ogr a m t ha t i m pr ove s t he r e a di n g s ki l l s of e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s t ude nt s by e nc our a gi ng t he m t o r e a d one on one w i t h a t he r a py dog i n a r e l a xe d l e a r ni ng e nvi r onm e nt ( F i dos f o r F r e e dom 2009; H ughe s 2 002) T he r a py D ogs I nt e r na t i ona l ( T D I ) of f e r s a r e a di ng t ut or i ng pr og r a m T ai l W ag gi n T ut or s t ha t b r i ngs c e r t i f i e d t he r a py dogs i nt o t he c l a s s r oom T he i r w e bs i t e c l a i m e d t ha t r e a di ng s c or e s w e r e i m p r ove d a s a r e s u l t of t he a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py s e s s i ons how e ve r e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h da t a i s not pr ovi de d ( T he r a py D ogs I n t e r na t i ona l 2009) R e c e nt l y, a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py ha s be e n i nt r odu c e d i nt o t he publ i c s c hool s e t t i ng a s a t e c hni que t o a s s i s t s t ude nt s w i t hi n t he i r l e a r ni ng e nvi r o nm e nt A publ i c s c hool i n W i l m i ngt on, N or t h C a r ol i na pa r t ne r e d w i t h C ar ol i na C ani ne s t o pr ovi de l i s t e ni ng pa r t ne r s t o s t ude nt i n ne e d of e xt r a r e a di ng a s s i s t a nc e F i f t e e n s t ude nt s w ho w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s r e a di ng be l ow gr a de l e ve l w e r e i nvi t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he P a w s f or R e a di ng pr ogr a m A l t hough not a n e m pi r i c a l s t udy t he s t ude nt s r e a di ng pr og r e s s w a s m e a s ur e d by t he A c c e l e r a t e d R e a de r a s s e s s m e nt a nd f i ndi ngs i ndi c a t e d a n i m pr ove m e nt of t w o g r a de l e ve l s i n r e a di ng a t t he e nd of t he s c h ool ye a r I n a ddi t i on t o t he r e a di ng

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31 gr ow t h, t e a c he r s not e d a n i nc r e a s e i n s e l f c on f i de nc e of t he s t ude nt s t ha t pa r t i c i pa t e d i n t he pr ogr a m ( N e w l i n, 2003) I n 1999, a r e gi s t e r e d nur s e c r e a t e d a p r ogr a m t ha t i s now r e f e r r e d t o a s R E A D ( R e a di ng E duc a t i on A s s i s t a nc e D ogs ) t hr ough t he I nt e r m ount a i n T he r a py A ni m a l s ( I T A ) T he pr ogr a m w a s e s t a bl i s h e d t o he l p c hi l dr e n i m pr ove t he i r l i t e r a c y a nd r e a di ng s e l f c onf i de nc e w hi l e r e a di ng t o a dog T hr ough a pi l ot s t udy a t a n e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i n S a l t L a ke C i t y, U t a h t he f a c i l i t a t or s obs e r ve d a s i gni f i c a nt c ha nge i n t he c hi l d r e n s r e a di ng s c or e s a nd ove r a l l pe r f or m a nc e s of s t ude nt s t ha t w e r e r e a di ng be l ow g r a de l e ve l a t t he t i m e of t he s t udy. I n a ddi t i on t o t he i m p r ove m e nt i n r e a di ng s c or e s a ddi t i ona l i m pr ove m e nt s w e r e obs e r ve d w hi c h i nc l ude d: i nc r e a s e d r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on, gr e a t e r s e l f c onf i de nc e c om pl e t e d hom e w or k a s s i gnm e nt s de c l i ne i n t r ua nc y a nd a bs e nt e e i s m a nd a s t r ong r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h a ni m a l s ( I nt e r m ount a i n T he r a py A ni m a l s 2009) Sum m a r y T he r e i s s t r ong s uppor t i n t he r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t ur e f o r a c onne c t i on be t w e e n r e a di ng f a i l ur e a nd poo r l i f e out c om e s C ons i s t e nt r e a di ng f a i l ur e ha s a ne ga t i ve e f f e c t on a s t ude nt s f ut ur e a c a de m i c s uc c e s s a nd ha s be e n l i nke d t o dr oppi ng out of s c hool A ddi t i ona l l y, t he e f f e c t poo r l i t e r a c y ha s on a t t i t ud i na l c ha l l e nge s a nd a c a de m i c m ot i va t i on of s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s w a s e xpl or e d. T he l i t e r a t ur e l i nke d s t ude nt s w i t h poor l i t e r a c y l e ve l s a s ha vi ng l ow s e l f e s t e e m or l i m i t e d a c hi e ve m e nt m ot i va t i on. R e s e a r c h r e ga r di ng t he us e of a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py ha s i ndi c a t e d pos i t i ve be ne f i t s f or i ndi vi dua l s w i t h a va r i e t y o f l i m i t a t i on s or di s a bi l i t i e s Y e t l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h e xi s t s i n t he a r e a of t he e f f e c t of a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py on r e a di ng pr ogr e s s w i t h

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32 s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s T hi s s t udy s ought t o f i l l t hi s ga p a nd p r ovi de e m pi r i c a l da t a on t he e f f e c t of a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py on s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd l ow r e a di ng s uc c e s s

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33 C ha pt e r T hr e e M e t hod T he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons w e r e de ve l ope d f ol l ow i ng a t hor ough r e vi e w of t he l i t e r a t ur e a nd a r e t he f ounda t i on f or t h i s s t udy. T he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons gui de d t he m e t hodol ogy a nd ha ve i n f l ue nc e d t he r e s e a r c h pr o t oc ol T he f ol l ow i ng t opi c s a r e di s c us s e d: R e s e a r c h P r oc e dur e s S i ngl e C a s e D e s i gn a nd F ol l ow U p I nt e r vi e w s D a t a A na l ys i s R e s ul t s a nd R e s e a r c h I m pl i c a t i ons R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons D oe s c a ni ne A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a f f e c t r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ? W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons o f s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng a l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t y r e ga r di ng t he us e o f c a ni ne A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r r e a di ng pr ogr e s s ? P opul at i on C har ac t e r i s t i c s T he t a r ge t popu l a t i on f o r t h i s s t udy w a s s t ude n t s i n gr a de s t hi r d t hr ough f i f t h i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y a nd a t r i s k f or r e a di ng f a i l ur e F r om t he popul a t i on s a m pl e f our s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y a nd r e c e i vi ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s a s out l i ne d i n t he i r I ndi vi dua l i z e d E duc a t i on P l a n ( I E P ) w e r e s e l e c t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. A l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y i s de f i ne d a s a di s c r e pa nc y be t w e e n i nt e l l e c t ua l c a pa c i t y a nd a c a de m i c a c hi e ve m e nt w hi c h r e s ul t s i n a f a i l ur e t o l e a r n a nd s t a t e d t ha t w hi l e s t ude nt s w i t h a l e a r ni n g di s a bi l i t y pos s e s s t he ne c e s s a r y c ogni t i ve t ool s t o pr oc e s s i nf or m a t i on t he y do s o i ne f f i c i e nt l y ( G e r t s e n e t a l 2001)

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34 Sam pl i ng P r oc e dur e Sam pl i ng s c he m e V ol unt a r y pa r t i c i pa t i on a nd pur pos e f ul s a m pl i ng w e r e us e d f or t hi s s t udy. T he pu r pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o be t t e r unde r s t a nd t he phe nom e na of a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py w i t h e l e m e nt a r y a ge s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y s pe c i f i c a l l y i n t he a r e a o f r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt T h i s s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o obt a i n a n i n de pt h unde r s t a ndi ng of t he s t ude nt s s e l e c t e d, not t o a c hi e ve popul a t i on va l i di t y ( G a l l e t a l 1996 ) T hi s s a m pl e w a s s e l e c t e d t o p r ovi de r i c h i nf or m a t i on f o r t he pur pos e of t he s t udy ( G a l l e t a l 1996) T he s t udy w a s c onduc t e d i n a s ubur ba n publ i c e l e m e n t a r y s c hool l oc a t e d i n a l a r ge s c hool di s t r i c t i n t he s out he r n r e gi on o f t he U ni t e d S t a t e s T he s t udy w a s c onduc t e d dur i ng s c hool hour s a nd on s c hool p r ope r t y i n a c o m m onl y us e d a r e a of t he s c hool t ha t w a s f r e e of o r ha d l i t t l e d i s t r a c t i ons Sam pl e s i z e T hi s s t udy us e d a s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn w i t h a s a m pl e s i z e of f our s t ude nt s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e s e l e c t e d ba s e d on t he f ol l ow i ng c r i t e r i a P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s r a ngi ng f r om m ode r a t e t o s e ve r e a nd a d i a gnos e d de f i c i t i n r e a di ng f l ue nc y a nd c om p r e he ns i on. S pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s r e c om m e nde d s t ude nt s w i t h poor r e a di ng s ki l l s ba s e d on c onf i de nt i a l a s s e s s m e nt da t a or be l ow gr a de l e ve l s c or e s on r e a di ng R unni ng R e c or d a nd I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y a s s e s s m e nt m e a s ur e s T e a c he r r e c om m e nda t i ons of s t ude nt s w ho di s pl a ye d a s t r ong a ve r s i on t o r e a di ng or a l l y a nd m i ni m a l r e a di ng c onf i de nc e w e r e s ol i c i t e d. S t ude nt s w i t h l ow s t a nda r di z e d t e s t s c or e s w e r e gi ve n f i r s t p r i or i t y f o r s e l e c t i on.

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35 Sam pl e c har ac t e r i s t i c s T o a s s i s t w i t h f ur t he r r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t hi s t opi c de m ogr a phi c da t a i s pr ovi de d f or t he s c hool di s t r i c t a nd pa r t i c ul a r e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i n w hi c h t he s t udy w a s c onduc t e d. C ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e a l s o de s c r i be d i n de t a i l Se t t i ng T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d i n a s ubur ba n p ubl i c s c hool di s t r i c t l oc a t e d i n a w e s t c e nt r a l F l or i da s c hool di s t r i c t A s of J une 2010, i t i s t he 11t h l a r ge s t di s t r i c t i n t he s t a t e a nd 58 t h l a r ge s t c ount y i n t he c ount r y. T he di s t r i c t s e r ve s 67, 136 s t ude nt s i n t he 82 t r a di t i ona l s c ho ol s e t t i ngs ( 45 e l e m e nt a r y, 15 m i dd l e s c hool s 12 hi gh s c hool s a nd 4 e duc a t i on c e nt e r s ) a nd i s e xpe r i e nc i ng t r e m e ndous gr ow t h a t a r a t e of m or e t ha n 2, 400 s t ude nt s a nnua l l y. A t t he t i m e of t hi s s t udy, ove r 17 000 m i no r i t y s t u de nt s w e r e s e r ve d i n t he di s t r i c t of w hi c h t he H i s pa ni c popul a t i on r e pr e s e nt s t he l a r ge s t pe r c e nt a ge a t 14 % E ngl i s h L a ngua ge L e a r ne r ( E L L ) s t ude nt s ha ve i n c r e a s e d ove r 127% s i nc e 1999, r e pr e s e nt i ng 3. 8% of t he s t ude nt popul a t i on I n 20 06 2007, g r a dua t i on r a t e s w e r e s l i ght l y hi ghe r t ha n t he s t a t e s a ve r a ge a t 73 7% y e t t he dr opout r a t e w a s s l i ght l y hi ghe r t ha n t he s t a t e s a t 3 5% c om pa r e d t o 3 3% i n F l or i da F or t y t w o pe r c e nt of s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s r e c e i ve d a s t a nda r d di pl om a w hi c h w a s s l i ght l y a bove t he s t a t e s a ve r a ge of f or t y pe r c e nt T he e l e m e nt a r y s c hool i n w hi c h t he s t udy w a s i m pl e m e nt e d, i s i n i t s s e c ond ye a r of e xi s t e nc e I t ha s a t ot a l popul a t i on o f 796 s t ude nt s of w hi c h 11 % a r e A f r i c a n A m e r i c a n, 52% C a uc a s i a n, 20% H i s pa ni c 6% A s i a n a nd 9% a r e c ons i de r e d ot he r S t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s r e pr e s e nt 10% of t he t ot a l popul a t i on ( S c hool D i s t r i c t of P a s c o C ount y, 2008) I n 2007 2008 t he s c hool r e por t e d a 22. 5% f r e e a nd r e duc e d l unc h r a t e w i t h a t ot a l s t ude nt popul a t i on o f 796 s t ude nt s ( S c hool D i s t r i c t o f P a s c o C ount y, 2008)

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36 T he us e of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py i s a c om m on pr a c t i c e i n t he e l e m e nt a r y s c hool a nd a pr ogr a m i n e xi s t e nc e pr i or t o t he i ni t i a t i on of t hi s s t u dy. P ar t i c i pant s A t t he ons e t o f t he s t udy, f our pa r t i c i pa nt s qua l i f i e d a nd w e r e s e l e c t e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy, how e ve r a f t e r a n i n i t i a l a s s e s s m e nt a nd upon c ons ul t a t i on w i t h di s s e r t a t i on c om m i t t e e m e m be r s one pa r t i c i pa nt w a s om i t t e d f r om t he s t udy I t w a s c onc l ude d t ha t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a ddi t i ona l p r oc e s s i ng di s a bi l i t y w oul d a f f e c t hi s a bi l i t y t o pr oc e s s a nd r e s pond t o t he r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on que s t i ons T he t hr e e s e l e c t e d pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e c ur r e nt l y e nr ol l e d i n t he e l e m e nt a r y publ i c s c hool i n w hi c h t he s t udy w a s c onduc t e d. T he a ge a nd gr a de l e ve l s va r i e d be t w e e n f our t h a nd f i f t h gr a de s i nc e t he s e ve r i t y of t he i r di s a bi l i t y a nd pr e s e nc e of a n I E P de t e r m i ne d t he i r e l i gi bi l i t y i n t he s t udy. H ow e ve r s t ude nt s s ol i c i t e d f or pa r t i c i pa t i on i n t he s t udy w e r e r e a di ng on a s i m i l a r gr a de l e ve l s o t ha t t he s e l e c t e d I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt o r i e s a r e a ppr opr i a t e a m ong t he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s A l t hough t he s c hool w a s c ur r e nt l y us i ng A A T a nd r e c e i ve d s uppor t f r om t he pr i nc i pa l t he s e pa r t i c i pa nt s d i d not pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he dog t he r a py p r ogr a m i n p r e vi ous s e m e s t e r s T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t h i s s t udy w e r e not a r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s a m pl e of a l l s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s i n r e a di ng o r l i t e r a c y be c a us e s t ude nt s w i t h e m ot i ona l or be ha vi or a l di s a bi l i t i e s w e r e e xc l ude d f r o m t hi s s t udy. A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e na t i ve E ngl i s h s pe a ke r s t o e xc l ude a ny pot e nt i a l l a ngua ge ba r r i e r s Se l e c t i on e l i gi bi l i t y c r i t e r i a. T he r e s e a r c he r pr e s e n t e d t he s t udy t o t he s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t i on a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s a nd e xp l a i ne d t he e l i gi bi l i t y c r i t e r i a r e qui r e m e nt s S u r ve ys w e r e di s t r i but e d t o t he a dm i ni s t r a t or s a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s t o us e a s a t ool t o s ol i c i t t he i r t op f our c a ndi da t e s t ha t m e t t he e l i g i bi l i t y r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he s t udy ( A ppe ndi x A ) T he r e s u l t s f r om s ur ve y a s s i s t e d t he t e a c he r s

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37 a nd a dm i ni s t r a t or s i n r e c om m e ndi ng pa r t i c i pa nt s w i t h l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt s c or e s a s w e l l a s i nt e r e s t i n dogs a nd l i t t l e or no i nt e r e s t r e a di ng i nde pe nde nt l y or o r a l l y. T he s ur ve y a s ke d f or ve r i f i c a t i on of a n I ndi vi dua l i z e d E duc a t i on P l a n ( I E P ) i de nt i f i e d a s S pe c i f i c L e a r ni ng D i s a bi l i t y ( S L D ) a nd s t ude nt s w i t h gr a de l e ve l c om m uni c a t i on s ki l l s I t w a s i m por t a nt t ha t t he s t ude nt s ha ve a t l e a s t gr a de l e ve l ve r ba l s ki l l s i n or de r t o e f f e c t i ve l y c om m uni c a t e f e e dba c k f o r t he f ol l ow u p que s t i ons a t t he c onc l us i on of t he s t udy. T he s t ude nt s w e r e i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng hi gh or l ow c om m uni c a t i on s ki l l s w hi c h w e r e ba s e d on t he c r i t e r i a out l i ne d i n t he I E P F or e xa m pl e i f a s t ude nt di d not r e c e i ve a ny s pe e c h a nd l a ngua ge t he r a py, t he y w e r e r a nke d a s hi gh. H ow e ve r i f a s t ude nt r e c e i ve d s pe e c h a nd l a ngua ge t he r a py w e e kl y a s o ut l i ne d i n t he I E P t he y w e r e r a nke d a s l ow S t ude nt s a t t he l ow e nd or be l ow t he m i ni m um s c or e of t he c ount y s r e a di ng a nd a s s e s s m e nt m a t r i x, w e r e t a r ge t e d a s a pot e nt i a l pa r t i c i pa nt ( A ppe ndi x B ) B a s e d on t he l i s t of r e c om m e nde d pa r t i c i pa nt s ge ne r a t e d by t he s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s a nd a dm i ni s t r a t or s t he r e s e a r c he r s e l e c t e d a c onve ni e nc e s a m pl e of t hr e e s t ude nt s a s pa r t i c i pa nt s f or t he s t udy. A l e t t e r e xpl a i ni ng t he p r e m i s e of t he s t udy a nd pa r t i c i pa t i on c om m i t m e nt w a s s e nt hom e w i t h t he s e l e c t e d pa r t i c i pa nt s f or t he pa r e nt s or gua r di a ns c ons e nt C ons e nt T o e ns ur e c onf i de nt i a l i t y a nd p r ot e c t a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy, a ppr ova l w a s s ought t hr ou gh t he I ns t i t ut i ona l R e vi e w B oa r d I R B f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of S out h F l or i da a nd f r om t he c ount y i n w hi c h t he s t udy w a s c ondu c t e d ( A ppe ndi x C ) T he r e s e a r c he r a l s o s ought w r i t t e n c ons e nt f r om t he s c hool a dm i ni s t r a t or s pe c i a l e duc a t i on a nd ge ne r a l e duc a t i o n t e a c he r s pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd pa r e nt s o r l e ga l gua r di a ns of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n or de r

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38 t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t he s t udy. F ul l di s c l os ur e of t he s t udy w a s pr ovi de d i n w r i t i ng a nd c opi e s di s t r i but e d t o a l l pa r t i c i pa nt s pa r e nt s / l e ga l gua r di a ns t e a c he r s a nd s c hool a nd c ount y di s t r i c t a dm i ni s t r a t or s ( A ppe ndi x D ) Si ngl e c as e de s i gn. A s i ngl e c a s e A B A B ( G a l l e t a l 1996; K a z di n 1982) r e s e a r c h de s i gn w a s us e d t o a na l yz e t he e f f e c t s of t he i nde p e nde nt va r i a bl e ( t he r a py dog, A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py) on t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e ( r e a di ng pr ogr e s s de f i ne d by a m ount o f t i m e s pe nt r e a di ng) S i ngl e c a s e e xpe r i m e nt a l s t udi e s a l l ow t he r e s e a r c he r t o de s c r i be c a us e a nd e f f e c t r e l a t i ons hi ps be t w e e n i nde pe nde nt a nd de pe nde nt va r i a bl e s ( N e um a n & M c C or m i c k, 2000) N e um a n & M c C or m i c k ( 2000 ) e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he e m pha s i s of s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn i s on e xa m i ni ng t he f unc t i ona l r e l a t i on s hi p be t w e e n a n i nde pe nde nt a nd de pe nde nt va r i a bl e f or a pa r t i c ul a r i ndi vi dua l w he r e i n t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e f oc us e s on m e a s ur a bl e be ha vi or s t ha t a r e i m po r t a nt f o r s t ude n t s uc c e s s T he i ndi vi dua l da t a a na l ys i s i s a n i m por t a nt c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of a s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn s i nc e i ndi vi dua l di f f e r e nc e s c a n of t e n be m a s ke d w he n da t a a r e a ve r a ge d a nd r e por t e d a s a gr oup, t he r e f o r e s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn m a i nt a i ns t he hum a n va r i a bi l i t y a s a s ol ut i o n t o s pe c i f i c p r obl e m s ( N e um a n & M c C or m i c k, 2000) F ur t he r m or e N e um a n a nd M c C or m i c k ( 2000) e xpl a i ne d t ha t s i ngl e s ubj e c t e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gn c a n pr ovi de l i t e r a c y r e s e a r c he r s w i t h a m e c ha ni s m f or e xa m i ni ng t he t he or e t i c a l na t u r e o f r e a di ng T he r e ve r s a l r e pl i c a t i on de s i gn ( A B A B ) ha s be e n us e d i n s e ve r a l a ppl i e d s e t t i ngs a nd c om pa r e s t he ba s e l i ne ( A 1) w i t h t he i nt e r ve nt i on ( B 1) pha s e t o de t e r m i ne i f t he c ha nge s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt T he r e ve r s a l d e s i gn pr ovi de d a n a c c e pt a bl e de gr e e of e xpe r i m e nt a l c ont r ol t hr ough t he us e of br i e f t r e a t m e nt w i t hdr a w a l be t w e e n t r e a t m e nt c ondi t i ons G a s t a nd T a w ne y ( 1984) s t a t e d t hi s de s i gn pe r m i t s t he m os t pow e r f ul

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39 de m ons t r a t i on of e xpe r i m e nt a l c ont r ol s be c a us e i t r e qui r e s t he r e pe a t e d i nt r oduc t i on a nd w i t hdr a w l of a n i nt e r ve nt i on s t r a t e gy, ( p. 200) F ur t he r m or e t he r e ve r s a l de s i gn i s t he m os t s t r a i ght f or w a r d e va l ua t i on pa r a di gm s how i ng c a us a l i t y ( T a w ne y & G a s t 1984 ) E s s e nt i a l l y, t he r e ve r s a l r e pl i c a t i on A B A B de s i gn m a ke s a nd t e s t s pr e di c t i ons a bout a pe r f or m a nc e unde r va r i ous c ondi t i ons a nd i s a pow e r f ul t ool f o r de m ons t r a t i ng i nt e r ve nt i on e f f e c t s ( K a z di n, 1982 ) T hi s s t udy w a s c onduc t e d ove r a 13 w e e k pe r i od be gi nni ng i n O c t obe r a nd e ndi ng i n J a nua r y, w hi c h i nc l ude d t he t w o w e e k w i nt e r br e a k. T he du r a t i on of e a c h of t he f our pha s e s ( ba s e l i ne A 1 i nt e r ve nt i on B 1 w i t h dr a w A 2 a nd r e i n t r oduc e d i nt e r ve nt i on B 2 ) w a s 9 s e s s i ons or t w o t o t hr e e w e e ks w i t h t he be gi nni ng da t e s of e a c h pha s e be i ng s pe c i f i c a l l y c hos e n. S i gni f i c a nt w e e ks w e r e de s i gn a t e d f or pha s e c ha n ge t r a ns i t i ons t o oc c ur be t w e e n pha s e s A 1 B 1 A 2 a nd B 2 ( T a bl e 1 ) T he pa r t i c ul a r or de r of s t ude nt s t o be gi n t he pha s e w a s r a ndom l y de t e r m i ne d by d r a w i ng na m e s out of a ha t T he A B A B de s i gn c ons i s t e d of ni ne s e s s i ons i n e a c h pha s e w i t h a s t udy t ot a l of 36 s e s s i ons N i ne s e s s i ons pe r pha s e a nd 36 s e s s i ons ove r a l l w a s i nc or por a t e d i nt o t he s t udy de s i gn t o e ns ur e t ha t t he r e w a s a s uf f i c i e nt a m ount o f t i m e t o c ol l e c t da t a T odm a n a nd D uga r d ( 2001) s t a t e t ha t a t l e a s t e i ght s e s s i ons a r e ne e d e d pe r pha s e w i t h a n ove r a l l of a t l e a s t 36 s e s s i ons s uppor t i ng t he du r a t i on of t hi s s t udy. E a c h r e a di ng s e s s i on l a s t e d a m a xi m um o f t w e nt y m i nut e s w hi c h i s t he r e c om m e nde d a m ount of t i m e t o i m p r ove r e a di ng f l ue nc y ( L e vi n, 2006) H ow e ve r t he s e s s i on c onc l ude d e a r l i e r i f t he pa r t i c i pa nt ha d c o m pl e t e d t he r e a di ng pa s s a ge or r e que s t e d t o t e r m i na t e t he s e s s i on. T he l e ngt h of e a c h s e s s i on w a s c a ppe d a t t w e nt y m i nut e s due t o pr e ve nt m i ni m um i nt e r r upt i on t o t h e pa r t i c i pa nt s c l a s s r oom i n s t r uc t i on

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40 a nd t o m a i nt a i n c ons i s t e nt a t t e nt i on of t he t he r a py dog t hr oughout e a c h s e s s i on. T he s e s s i ons w e r e he l d i n a c o r ne r o f t he c om m on a r e a be t w e e n t he s ha r e d c l a s s r oom s t o m i ni m i z e di s t r a c t i ons or i nt e r r upt i ons D ur i ng t he i ni t i a l pha s e t he pa r t i c i p a nt s r e a d or a l l y t o t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or T he dog w a s i n t r oduc e d dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a nd r e m ove d dur i ng t he t r a ns i t i on or A 2 w e e k. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e gui de d t o s e l e c t books a t a n i nde pe nde nt r e a di ng l e ve l a nd c oul d br i ng m ul t i pl e books i f t he y s e l e c t e d a book w i t h a f e w pa ge s T abl e 1. T i m e l i ne of S t udy P ha s e s We e k s P h as e P r e s t udy dat a: I n f or m al R e adi ng I nv e nt or y / I ni t i al R unni ng R e c or d l e v e l as s e s s m e nt 1, 2 3 A 1 ( B a s e l i ne ) : pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d t o a dul t 9 s e s s i ons 4, 5 6 P ha s e B 1 ( I nt e r ve nt i on ) : pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d t o dog, 9 s e s s i ons 7, 8 9 P ha s e A 2 ( W i t hdr a w a l ) : pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d t o a dul t 9 s e s s i ons 10, 11 12 P ha s e B 2 ( I nt e r ve nt i on R e i nt r oduc e d) : pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d t o dog 9 s e s s i ons 13 C om pl e t e pos t s t udy I R I / C onduc t F ol l ow up I n t e r vi e w s E a c h s e s s i on w a s vi de o r e c or de d t o a s s i s t w i t h i nt e r r a t e r r e l i a bi l i t y c a l c ul a t i ons a nd f or r e f e r e nc e dur i ng t he f ol l ow up i nt e r vi e w s T he vi de os a l s o pr e ve nt e d a ny pot e nt i a l i nt e r r upt i ons t o t he obs e r va t i ons on t he p a r t of t he r e s e a r c he r T he r e s e a r c he r w a s pr e s e nt dur i ng e a c h i nt e r ve nt i on a nd w i t hd r a w a l pha s e of t he s t udy A l og w a s us e d t o r e c or d da t a f r om t he pha s e s us i ng a t i m e d i nt e r v a l obs e r va t i on, i n w hi c h t he r e s e a r c he r r e c or de d obs e r va t i ons e ve r y 2 m i nut e s I nf or m a t i o n a bo ut t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd dog s

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41 be ha vi or w a s not e d t o a s s i s t t he r e s e a r c he r w i t h i nf or m a t i on t ha t m a y be us e f ul f or f ut u r e da t a a na l ys i s ( A ppe ndi x E ) R e s e ar c h P r oc e dur e S ys t e m a t i c a nd de t a i l e d pr oc e dur e s w e r e f ol l ow e d i n or de r t o a c c ur a t e l y a ns w e r t he pr o pos e d r e s e a r c h que s t i ons I n or de r t o e ns ur e c a r e f ul m a ni pul a t i on of t he i nde pe nde nt va r i a bl e a s w e l l a s e a s e of r e pl i c a t i on t he p r oc e dur e s of t hi s s t udy a r e de s c r i be d. L i m i t a t i ons o f t h i s de s i gn pe r t a i n t o e t hi c a l c ons i de r a t i ons due t o t he na t u r e of r e m ovi ng a n e f f e c t i ve i nt e r ve nt i on ( T a w ne y & G a s t 1984) P r e c a ut i ons w e r e t a ke n w i t h t hi s s t udy t o e ns ur e t he he a l t h a nd s a f e t y o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s t a f f a nd pe e r s T he i ni t i a l pr oc e dur e o f t he s t udy w a s t o i de nt i f y t he pa r t i c i pa n t s t ha t m e t t he pr e de t e r m i ne d r e qui r e m e nt s a nd s e e k w r i t t e n c ons e nt ( T a bl e 2 a nd A ppe ndi x A ) P r i or t o t he f i r s t s t udy pha s e da t a on e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt w a s c ol l e c t e d f r om a n I nf o r m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y ( I R I ) pr e i nt e r ve nt i on a s s e s s m e nt t o de t e r m i ne a r e a di ng ba s e l i ne s c or e T he I R I c ont a i ns r e a di ng w o r d l i s t s a nd l e ve l e d r e a di ng m a t e r i a l f r om t he pr e p r i m e r l e ve l t o hi gh s c hool l e ve l s a nd e s t a bl i s he s r e a di ng gr a de l e ve l s A s ur ve y de s i gne d t o he l p de t e r m i ne a s t ude nt s i ns t r uc t i ona l ne e ds i n t he a r e a s of w or d r e c ogni t i on, w or d m e a ni ng, r e a di ng s t r a t e gi e s a nd c om pr e he ns i on, t he I R I s a r e us e d a s a n i ns t r uc t i ona l gui de f or s t ude nt pl a c e m e nt i n r e a di ng g r oups a nd f o r i nd i vi dua l i z e d r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ( N i l s s on, 2008) T he I R I s c ont a i n a n i n f or m a l a s s e s s m e nt of or a l r e a di ng a c c ur a c y ba s e d on R unni ng R e c or ds w hi c h i s t a i l or e d t o e a c h s t ude nt w i t hout a n e m pha s i s on c om pa r a t i ve da t a ( P a r i s 2003 ) A R unni ng R e c or d i s a t ool f o r c odi ng, s c or i ng a nd a na l yz i ng a c hi l d s pr e c i s e r e a di ng be ha vi or s ( F o unt a s & P i n ne l l 1996) R unni ng R e c or ds a r e a

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42 qui c k m e t hod t o obt a i n i n f or m a t i on a bout a c hi l d s r e a di ng be ha vi or a nd i s obt a i ne d w he n a t e a c he r l i s t e ns a nd c ode s t he c hi l d s o r a l r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e o f a r e a di ng pa s s a ge ( F ount a s & P i nne l l 1996) T abl e 2. D e s c r i pt i on of P a r t i c i pa nt s P a r t i c i pa nt G e nde r G r a de I E P F C A T / S A T V e r ba l I nt e r e s t N a t i ve L e ve l ( R e a di ng) S ki l l s i n dogs E ngl i s h A M 5 t h Y B e l ow G r a de L e ve l M Y Y B F 4 t h Y B e l ow G r a de L e ve l H Y Y C M 5 t h Y B e l ow G r a de L e ve l H Y Y T he pr ot oc ol f or a dm i ni s t e r i ng t he R unni ng R e c or d i s a s f ol l ow s A s t ude nt w a s gi ve n a r e a d i ng pa s s a ge a t a s pe c i f i e d l e ve l a nd i ns t r uc t e d t o r e a d i t or a l l y o r s i l e nt l y U pon c om pl e t i on, que s t i ons w e r e a s ke d t o c ol l e c t i nf or m a t i on a bout how t he s t ude nt c om pr e he nde d t he pa s s a ge T he c om pr e he ns i on r a t e w a s c a l c ul a t e d by de t e r m i ni ng t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t ot a l c o r r e c t que s t i ons di vi de d by t he t ot a l c om pr e he ns i on que s t i ons f r om t he pa s s a ge I f t he s t ude nt obt a i ne d a s c or e a bove 80% a pa s s a ge a t t he ne xt l e ve l w a s pr ovi de d. T hi s pr oc e s s c ont i nue d unt i l t he s t u de nt no l onge r de m ons t r a t e d a n i nc r e a s e i n c om pr e he ns i on a bove 80% T he l e ve l a t w hi c h t he s t ude nt s c om p r e he ns i on no l onge r i nc r e a s e d w a s c ons i de r e d t he i r i ns t r uc t i o na l l e ve l a nd s ubs e que nt pa s s a ge s w e r e pr ovi de d a t t hi s l e ve l unt i l t he s t ude nt de m on s t r a t e d a n i nc r e a s e i n r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on. A de c i s i on w a s m a de be t w e e n t he r e s e a r c he r a nd r e a di ng pr of e s s or on t he di s s e r t a t i on c om m i t t e e t ha t t he a c c ur a c y r a t e w a s n ot a t r ue i ndi c a t i on o f t he s t ude nt s

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43 r e a di ng l e ve l ba s e d on t he f ol l ow i ng c i r c um s t a nc e s S t ude nt s i ni t i a l l y s c or e d hi gh on a c c ur a c y, but obt a i ne d l ow s c or e s on c om pr e he ns i on, w hi c h i nd i c a t e d t ha t a l t hough t he y r e a d t he pa s s a ge w e l l t he s t ude nt s di d not unde r s t a nd t he m e a ni ng o f t he pa s s a ge T he r e f or e t he r e s e a r c he r de c i de d t o r e l y on t he c o m pr e he ns i on r a t e a s t he m e a s ur e t o de t e r m i ne t he s c or e f o r e a c h pa s s a ge T he da t a c ol l e c t e d w e r e us e d t o e ns ur e t ha t e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt r e a d pa s s a ge s a t a 80% o r hi ghe r c om pr e he ns i on r a t e ( C l a y, 1993; F ount a s & P i nne l l 1996 ) A s t ude nt r e a di ng a t a 69% o r be l o w i s a t t e m pt i ng t o r e a d t e xt t ha t i s t oo di f f i c ul t I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y da t a w a s c a l c ul a t e d f ol l ow i ng e a c h o r a l r e a di ng s e s s i on a nd i ndi vi dua l s c or e s w e r e pl ot t e d on a gr a ph t o pr ov i de a vi s ua l r e pr e s e nt a t i on of t he s t ude nt s pr ogr e s s O nc e c ons e nt w a s r e c e i ve d, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s be ga n w i t h pha s e one of t he s t udy. T o e ns ur e t r e a t m e nt i nt e gr i t y e a c h pha s e a nd r e a di ng s e s s i on w a s vi de ot a pe d t he n r e vi e w e d by a n i nde pe nde nt r e vi e w e r f ol l ow i ng t he c om pl e t i on of t he s t udy t o c ode t he e xt e nt t o w hi c h t he pr ot oc ol ( A ppe ndi x H ) w a s f ol l ow e d T hi s pr ot oc ol w a s f ol l ow e d t o e ns ur e t he r e s e a r c he r s ne ut r a l i t y t hr oughou t t he s t udy. P r i or t o t he s e s s i ons t he pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or c ons ul t e d w i t h t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t e a c he r s t o doc um e nt e xt e r na l f a c t or s o r pe r s ona l c i r c um s t a nc e s out s i de of s c hool t ha t m a y ha ve oc c ur r e d i n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c l a s s r oom s a nd hom e e nvi r onm e nt a nd w hi c h m a y ha ve i m pa c t e d t he i r be ha vi or a nd l e a r ni ng. T he s e s s i ons be ga n onc e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s e l e c t e d a book. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a w a r e of t he i r i nde pe nde nt r e a di ng l e ve l ba s e d on s c hool w i de a nd c l a s s r oom a s s e s s m e nt s a nd a s ke d t o s e l e c t books on t he i r i nd e pe nde nt r e a di ng l e ve l f r om t he s c hool or c l a s s r oom l i br a r y w hi c h c a t e gor i z e d books a c c or di ng t o r e a di ng l e ve l s C l a s s r oom

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44 t e a c he r s w e r e a l s o a s ke d t o a s s i s t s t ude nt s i n s e l e c t i ng a ppr opr i a t e l e ve l e d books f r o m t he s c hool l i br a r y t o be us e d dur i ng t he r e a di ng s e s s i ons I f a s e l e c t e d book w a s a bove or be l ow t he i nde p e nde nt r e a di ng l e ve l t he r e s e a r c he r w oul d e nc our a ge t he pa r t i c i pa nt t o s e l e c t a di f f e r e nt book D ur i ng t he ba s e l i ne pha s e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s e l e c t e d a book f r om t he s c hool or c l a s s r oom l i br a r y on he r o r hi s i nde pe nde nt r e a di n g l e ve l t o r e a d w i t h t he a dul t r e a di ng pa r t ne r t he s t udy s pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or i n t he de s i gna t e d r e a di ng a r e a of t he c om m on a r e a be t w e e n c l a s s r oom s T hi s a r e a w a s f r e e of d i s t r a c t i ons on t he c a r pe t o r f l oor a nd a c om f or t a bl e s e t t i ng f o r t he s t ude nt a nd a dul t T he a dul t l i s t e ne d t o t he s t or y w i t hou t t a ki ng not e s a nd pr ovi de d a s s i s t a nc e w i t h a w or d o r c ont e xt i f a s ke d. T he r o l e of t he a dul t w a s t o l i s t e n a nd not c om m e nt or e nga ge i n c onve r s a t i on unl e s s i ni t i a t e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt F o l l ow i ng e a c h a dul t r e a di ng s e s s i on, t he s t ude nt w a s t he n a s ke d t o m ove t o qui e t e r l oc a t i on, f r e e o f di s t r a c t i ons a nd a w a y f r o m t he i ni t i a l r e a di ng a r e a a nd s e a t e d a t a t a bl e or de s k. T he a dul t r e a di ng pa r t ne r c onduc t e d t he I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y a s s e s s m e nt w i t h t he pa r t i c i pa nt T he pa r t i c i pa nt w a s i ns t r uc t e d t o do he r o r hi s be s t a nd s e e k a s s i s t a nc e i f ne c e s s a r y. T he s e s e s s i on s w e r e a l s o vi de ot a pe d a nd r e vi e w e d by a n i nde pe nde nt r e vi e w e r A t t he c onc l us i on o f t he a s s e s s m e nt t he s t ude nt w a s e s c or t e d ba c k t o c l a s s a nd t he ne xt pa r t i c i pa nt be ga n t he r e a di ng s e s s i on. D ur i ng t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i nt r oduc e d t o t he t he r a py dog a nd dog ha ndl e r T he ha ndl e r i nv i t e d a nd e nc our a g e d t he s t ude nt s t o pe t t he dog p r i or t o r e a di ng, a nd e xpl a i ne d t ha t t he dog i s i nt e r e s t e d i n he a r i ng t he s t or y T he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e i ns t r uc t e d t o r e a d t o t he dog a nd t ha t t he ha ndl e r w a s onl y t he r e t o he l p t he dog H ow e ve r s houl d t he y ne e d a s s i s t a nc e w i t h a n unf a m i l i a r w or d or c onc e pt t he ha ndl e r

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45 pr ovi de d a s s i s t a nc e but onl y i f a s ke d. T he pa r t i c i p a nt s s e l e c t e d a book on he r or hi s i nde pe nde nt r e a di ng l e ve l t o r e a d w i t h t he dog i n t he de s i gna t e d r e a di ng a r e a of t he c om m on a r e a be t w e e n c l a s s r oom s O n s ubs e que nt da ys t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d one t e xt e a c h da y of t he t r e a t m e nt a nd c ont i nue d t he t r e a t m e nt onc e a da y f or a t ot a l o f ni ne s e s s i ons T he s t udy s pr i nc i pa l i nve s t i ga t or w a s s i t ua t e d a t c l os e pr oxi m i t y of t he A A T s e s s i ons t o c ol l e c t obs e r va t i ona l da t a a t t w o m i nu t e i nt e r va l s ( A ppe ndi x E ) C ha nge s i n be ha vi or body l a ngua ge or t one of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e not e d a nd us e d t o i n f or m t he qua l i t a t i ve a na l ys i s of t he i nt e r ve nt i on. F ol l ow i ng e a c h r e a di ng s e s s i on, t he r e s e a r c he r e s c or t e d t he s t ude nt t o t he de s i gna t e d a s s e s s m e nt a r e a a nd c ol l e c t e d I R I da t a f r om e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt D ur i ng t he t r a ns i t i on w e e k, t he do g w a s r e m ove d a nd dur i ng r e a di ng s e s s i ons i n w hi c h t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d w i t h t he a dul t r e a di ng pa r t ne r t he r e s e a r c he r i n t he s a m e a r e a a s t he A A T s e s s i ons F ol l ow i ng t he r e a di ng s e s s i on, t he s t ude nt w a s e s c or t e d t o t he a s s e s s m e nt a r e a of t he c om m on a r e a a nd I R I da t a w e r e obt a i ne d. F ol l ow i ng t he s e c ond pha s e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on t h e s t ude nt s w e r e i ndi vi dua l l y i nt e r vi e w e d t o de s c r i be t he i r e xpe r i e nc e w i t h t he A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py s e s s i ons T he i nt e r vi e w que s t i ons w e r e us e d t o e xpl or e t he s t ude nt s pe r c e pt i on of bot h t he A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a nd a dul t r e a di ng s e s s i on. M e t hod of A nal y s i s D at a c ol l e c t i on. A ppr oxi m a t e l y f or t y I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or i e s I R I w hi c h c ont a i n t hr e e 100 w or d pa s s a ge s of va r yi ng r e a di ng di f f i c u l t y, w e r e s e l e c t e d a nd us e d t o a s s e s s t he s t ude nt s r e a di ng pr og r e s s P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e r a ndom l y a s s i gne d a n I R I t o r e a d du r i ng e a c h da t a c ol l e c t i on s e s s i on, a s r a ndom a s s i gnm e nt of di f f e r e nt I nf o r m a l R e a di ng

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46 I nve nt or i e s l i m i t e d p r a c t i c e e f f e c t s T o e ns ur e i nt e gr i t y of s c or e s a n i n de pe nde nt r a t e r r e vi e w e d s e ve n s e s s i ons or t w e nt y pe r c e nt o f t he vi de ot a pe d s e s s i on s a nd a s s i gne d s t ude nt s a r e a di ng pe r f or m a nc e s c or e T he f ol l ow i ng f or m ul a w a s us e d t o c a l c ul a t e i nt e r r a t e r a gr e e m e nt : T ot a l N um be r of A gr e e m e nt s di vi de d by t he ( T ot a l N u m be r o f A gr e e m e nt s + D i s a gr e e m e nt s ) m ul t i pl i e d by 100 ( K a z di n, 1982) I nt e r r a t e r a gr e e m e nt w a s c a l c ul a t e d a t 94% a gr e e m e nt ba s e d on t he s c or e s obt a i ne d f r om t he s e c a l c ul a t i ons a nd t he c a l c ul a t i ons of t he i nde pe nde nt r a t e r ( T a bl e 3) T abl e 3 I nt e r r a t e r R e l i a bi l i t y: R unni ng R e c or d P a s s a ge s S t ude nt P a s s a ge N um be r of T ot a l num be r of P e r c e nt of a gr e e m e nt s a gr e e m e nt s + di s a gr e e m e nt s A gr e e m e nt A pa s s a ge 1 10 10 100% A pa s s a ge 2 10 10 100% B pa s s a ge 1 6 6 100% B pa s s a ge 2 4 5 80% C pa s s a ge 1 8 8 100% C pa s s a ge 2 6 8 75% C pa s s a ge 3 10 10 100% Si ngl e c as e de s i gn. T hi s s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o de t e c t c ha nge f r om one pha s e t o t he ne xt w i t hout s how i ng s e r i a l de pe nde nc y ( K a z di n, 1982) A v i s ua l i ns pe c t i on of g r a phi c a l da t a w a s c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne i f t he i nt e r ve nt i on ha d a n e f f e c t a nd pa t t e r ns w e r e a na l yz e d ( K a z di n, 1982; K e nne dy, 2005 ) A l t hough i t i s of t e n r e por t e d t ha t l e s s T ype I e r r o r s a r e m a de i n vi s ua l a na l ys e s of da t a t r e nds a s c om pa r e d t o s t a t i s t i c a l a na l ys i s ( K a z di n, 1982 ) c onf l i c t i ng s t udi e s ha ve a l s o s how n t he oppos i t e t o be t r ue ( M a t ya s & G r e e nw ood, 1990)

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47 T he r e f or e a m e t a a na l ys i s w a s i nc or por a t e d t o a gg r e ga t e da t a a f t e r t he vi s ua l a na l ys i s t o gi ve i nf or m a t i on a bout t he ove r a l l e f f e c t a nd t he e f f e c t of t he i ndi vi dua l c a s e s ( V a n de n N oor t ga t e & O nghe na 2003) w hi c h a l l ow e d f or s t r onge r pr e di c t i ons a bout t r e nds r a t he r t ha n t he de pe nde nc e on a vi s ua l a na l ys i s of t he da t a F or e xa m pl e V a n de n N oor t ga t e a nd O n ghe na ( 2003) de s c r i be d a s i m pl e hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l a s one or m or e r e gr e s s i on e qua t i ons a t e a c h l e ve l i n w hi c h t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he uni t s f r om t ha t l e ve l a r e us e d a s pr e di c t or s i n de s c r i bi ng t he c oe f f i c i e nt s of t he e qua t i ons of t he l e ve l j us t be l ow ( p. 329) F ol l ow up que s t i ons P a r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d i ndi v i dua l f ol l ow up que s t i ons a t t he c onc l us i on of t he s e c ond pha s e of t he i nt e r ve nt i on A n uns t r uc t u r e d i nt e r vi e w w a s i ni t i a t e d t hr ough t he us e of ope n e nde d que s t i ons ( F ont a na & F r e y, 2000 ) V i de o c l i ps o f t he pha s e s w e r e us e d t o pr om pt r e c a l l of s t ude nt s i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h a nd w i t hout t he dog S pe c i f i c c l i ps w e r e s e l e c t e d ba s e d on t he l e ve l of e nga ge m e nt w i t h t he dog a nd pr e s e nc e of dog i n t he v i de o s a m pl e T he pr e s e nc e of t he r e s e a r c he r i n t he f r a m e w a s t he m a i n s e l e c t i on c r i t e r i a f or t he w i t hdr a w a l vi de o s a m pl e T he que s t i ons w e r e us e d a s a gui de t o s e e k i nf or m a t i on f r om t he s t ude nt s a bout t he i r e xp e r i e nc e r e a di ng w i t h a nd w i t hout t he dog ( G a l l e t a l 1996 ) E a c h s e s s i on w a s t a pe r e c or de d t o m a i nt a i n t he i n t e gr i t y o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s T he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons w e r e e xpl or e d: 1. T e l l m e a bout r e a di ng t o B e c ke t t 2. T e l l m e a bout r e a di ng w i t h, m e M s G r i e s s T he s t ude nt s r e s pons e s w e r e t he n t r a ns c r i be d a nd a na l yz e d f or t he m e s a c r os s t he r e s pons e s ( S e i dm a n, 1998) T he i nt e r vi e w s w e r e a na l yz e d or ope ne d t o e xpos e t he t hought s a nd i de a s of t he s t ude nt pa r t i c i pa nt s ( S t r a us s & C or bi n, 1998 ) F ol l ow i ng t he

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48 a na l ys i s t he t he m e s w e r e c ode d t o c a t e gor i z e or c l a s s i f y t he r e s pons e s l ooki ng f or s i m i l a r i t i e s a m ong t he r e s pons e s ( S e i dm a n, 1998) S i m i l a r e ve nt s or e xpe r i e nc e s w e r e l a be l e d a s phe nom e non a nd i de nt i f i e d w i t h t he i r o w n c ode s T hi s p r oc e s s c ont i nue d unt i l a l l c onc e pt s or t he m e s w e r e c a t e gor i z e d ( S t r a us s & C or bi n, 1998) A xi a l c odi ng de t e r m i ne d s ubc a t e gor i e s a nd w e r e us e d a s a m e a n s t o e s t a bl i s h t he m e s a c r os s t he i nt e r vi e w s w hi c h l a t e r e m e r ge d a s a t he m e gr ound e d i n d a t a ( S t r a us s & C or bi n 1998 ) T he t he or y of t he s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e ba s e d on t h e r e s pons e s pr ovi de d da t a on t he pe r s ona l e xpe r i e nc e of t he i ndi vi dua l p a r t i c i pa nt s P r e s e nt at i on of r e s ul t s T he f i ndi ngs of t hi s s t udy w e r e a na l yz e d a s f ol l ow s I n i t i a l l y, a vi s ua l a na l ys i s of t he da t a w e r e g r a phe d a nd a na l y z e d t hr ough t he us e of de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s F ol l ow i ng t he de s c r i pt i ve a na l ys i s i n f e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s w e r e e xpl or e d ( F i gur e 1) F i gur e 1 D e s c r i pt i on o f A na l ys i s P r oc e s s A vi s ua l a na l ys i s of t he g r a phi c a l da t a w a s pr e s e nt e d by gr a phi ng t he pr e a nd pos t I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y a s s e s s m e nt s c or e s ( F i gur e 2) a nd t ot a l or a l r e a di ng t i m e ( F i gur e 3 ) f or e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt T he r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt da t a w e r e vi s ua l l y a na l yz e d f or

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49 t r e nds a nd pe r f o r m a nc e va r i a bi l i t y not e d a t t he ons e t a nd c onc l us i on of t he s t udy a nd w a s pr e s e nt e d a s f ol l ow s T he ve r t i c a l a xi s i nc l ude s t he s c or e obt a i ne d on t he I n f or m a l R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt a t t he gi ve n gr a de l e ve l T he hor i z ont a l a xi s i ndi c a t e s t he t i m e of t he a s s e s s m e nt i n t e r m s of o r de r i n w hi c h t he I R I w a s a dm i ni s t e r e d. A n a ddi t i ona l vi s ua l a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d t o de t e r m i ne t he t ot a l a m ount o f r e a di ng t i m e a s c ont r o l l e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s du r i n g e a c h of t he s t udy pha s e s a nd t he c ons i s t e nc y of t he pa t t e r ns a c r os s pha s e s ( K a z di n, 1982) a nd w a s pr e s e nt e d a s f ol l ow s T he ve r t i c a l a xi s i nc l ude s t he t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e i n m i nut e s a nd t he hor i z ont a l a xi s doc um e nt e d t he da t a poi nt w i t hi n t he gi ve n pha s e D e s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s of t he da t a w e r e c a l c ul a t e d a nd pr ovi de d f o r bot h s e t s of da t a how e ve r due t o t he l i m i t e d a m ount o f da t a poi nt s obt a i ne d f r om pr e a nd pos t a s s e s s m e nt s i nf e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s c oul d onl y be c a l c ul a t e d f or t h e r e a di ng t i m e da t a F i gur e 2. S a m pl e R e a di ng P r e a nd P os t A s s e s s m e nt G r a ph N ot e : t he v al ue i n e ac h dat a po i nt i ndi c at e s gr ade l e v e l

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50 F i gur e 3. S a m pl e R e a di ng T i m e G r a ph C ohe n s d w a s c om put e d by di vi di ng t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he t r e a t m e nt m e a ns by t he s t a nda r d de vi a t i on of t he ba s e l i ne pha s e ( C ohe n, 1998; P a t t e n, 2007) I n a ddi t i on, i nf e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s i n t he f or m of a hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l ( H L M ) a na l ys i s of e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a di ng t i m e w a s c om put e d t o e s t i m a t e a nd t e s t t he i ndi vi dua l a nd ove r a l l e f f e c t s i z e s ( V a n de n N oor t ga t e & O nghe na 2003) A n a na l ys i s w a s c onduc t e d of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s t o t he f ol l ow up que s t i ons A s pr e vi ous l y de s c r i be d i n t hi s doc um e nt r e s pons e s w e r e c a t e gor i z e d by a nd p r e s e nt e d t o hi ghl i ght t he pa r t i c i pa n t s va r i ous de s c r i pt i ons of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng t o t he dog. I nt e r r a t e r r e l i a bi l i t y w a s c a l c ul a t e d t o e ns ur e c ons i s t e nt a nd a c c ur a t e a na l ys i s of t he i nt e r vi e w da t a Sum m ar y T hi s s t udy e xpl or e d t he us e of a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py w i t h s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y a nd l i m i t e d r e a di ng s uc c e s s T hr ough t he us e of I nf o r m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or i e s da t a on e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a di ng pr ogr e s s w e r e c ol l e c t e d a nd

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51 a na l yz e d. F ol l ow up que s t i ons w e r e a s ke d a nd a na l yz e d t o pr ovi de a ddi t i ona l i nf or m a t i on a bout t he pa r t i c i pa nt s va r i ous de s c r i p t i ons of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e i n t he s t udy T he pur pos e of t hi s s t udy w a s t o e xpl or e t he f ol l o w i ng que s t i ons : ( a ) D oe s c a ni ne A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a f f e c t r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ? a nd ( b) W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons of s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y r e ga r d i ng t he us e of c a ni ne A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r r e a di ng p r ogr e s s ? T he r e s ul t s a r e pr ovi de d i n t he f ol l ow i ng c ha pt e r

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52 C ha pt e r F our R e s ul t s T hi s s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o e xpl or e t he e f f e c t of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y. D a t a w e r e c ol l e c t e d a nd a na l yz e d ba s e d upon t he s t ude nt s pe r f o r m a nc e on I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y r e a di ng pa s s a ge s t he a m ount of t i m e e nga ge d i n r e a di ng a nd t he s t ude nt s r e s pons e s t o f ol l ow up que s t i ons a bout t he i r pe r c e pt i ons a bout r e a di ng t o a dog A nal y s i s of D at a A s i ngl e c a s e r e s e a r c h de s i gn w a s us e d t o de t e r m i ne t he a m ount o f c ha nge i n t he de pe nde nt va r i a bl e r e a di ng pr ogr e s s I ni t i a l l y r e a d i ng pr ogr e s s w a s m e a s ur e d by c a l c ul a t i ng a c om pr e he ns i on r a t e on t he R e a di ng R unni ng R e c or d por t i on of t he I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y. T he r a t e i s de t e r m i ne d by c om put i ng t he t ot a l c or r e c t r e s pons e s t o c om pr e he ns i on que s t i ons di vi de d by t he t ot a l num be r of c om pr e he ns i on que s t i ons on t he gi ve n I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt o r y. S c or e s w e r e t h e n s e pa r a t e d i nt o or a l a nd s i l e nt c om pr e he ns i on pe r f or m a nc e a nd g r a phe d f or vi s ua l a na l ys i s T he i ni t i a l vi s ua l a na l ys i s of t he c om p r e he ns i on pe r f or m a nc e i ndi c a t e d e r r a t i c r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on r e s ul t s t ypi c a l of s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ( F i gur e 4 ) T he na t u r e of t he I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nv e nt or y r e qui r e s t he i nt r oduc t i on of m or e di f f i c ul t r e a di ng pa s s a ge s a s t he s t ude nt s c o m pr e he ns i on r a t e i nc r e a s e s pot e nt i a l l y m a s ki ng t he ove r a l l e f f e c t of t he i nt e r ve nt i on. A s a r e s ul t of t he s e e r r a t i c r e s ul t s upon c ons ul t a t i on w i t h t he di s s e r t a t i on c om m i t t e e a de c i s i on w a s m a de t o onl y us e a m ount of t i m e s pe nt r e a di ng a s t he m e a s ur e of r e a di ng pr og r e s s T hi s a na l ys i s w a s a be t t e r m e a s ur e

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53 of e nga ge m e nt not r e a di ng pr og r e s s f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt s of t hi s s t udy due t o t he na t ur e o f t he i r l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s A v i s ua l a na l ys i s w a s c o nduc t e d of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e a s de t e r m i ne d by e a c h pa r t i c i pa nt dur i ng e a c h r e a di ng s e s s i on w i t h a nd w i t hout t he t he r a py dog. T hi s v i s ua l a na l ys i s da t a not e d c ha nge s oc c ur r e d i n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e A ddi t i ona l l y t he p a r t i c i pa nt s s c or e s f r om t he pa r t i c i p a nt s pr e a nd pos t I nf o r m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y r e a di ng pa s s a ge s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d a nd gr a phe d f or vi s ua l a na l ys i s

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54 F i gur e 4 I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt o r y O r a l R e a di ng S c or e s P a r t i c i pa nt s A B & C I n a ddi t i on t o t he vi s ua l a na l ys i s de s c r i pt i ve s t a t i s t i c s w e r e c om put e d f or t he m e a n a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i on o f t he ba s e l i ne t he i n t e r ve nt i on a nd t he w i t hdr a w a l r e a di ng e nga ge m e nt da t a T he m e a n w a s c hos e n a s t he s t a t i s t i c a l m e a s ur e m e nt be c a us e i t

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55 pr ovi de s t he e s t i m a t i on f o r t he c e nt r a l t e nde nc y du r i ng e a c h ph a s e a nd a s a c om pa r i s on o f e nga ge m e nt pa t t e r ns be t w e e n pha s e s of t he s t udy ( K e nne dy, 2005) C ohe n s d w a s c a l c ul a t e d t o r e f l e c t t he m a gni t ude of t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he m e a ns of t he t r e a t m e nt pha s e s ( C ohe n, 1998; P a t t e n, 2007) T hi s e f f e c t s i z e i s c a l c ul a t e d on a s t a nda r di z e d s c a l e w hi c h r e s ul t i n a m e a ni ngf ul c om pa r i s on of t he r e s ul t s ( P a t t e n, 2007) F or t hi s s t udy, C ohe n s d w a s c a l c ul a t e d us i ng t he di f f e r e nc e of t he t r e a t m e nt pha s e ( B 1 a nd B 2 ) m e a ns di vi de d by t he s t a nda r d de vi a t i on t he ba s e l i ne p ha s e ( A 1 ) ( D uns t H a m by, & T r i ve t t e 2004 ) : d = ( M B2 M B1 ) / S D A 1 A l t hough t he r e i s no a gr e e d upon s t a nda r d f o r i nt e r pr e t i ng t he m a gni t ude of e f f e c t s i z e s t he va l ue s a s s i gne d t o d, C ohe n s ( 1998 ) gui de l i ne s r e por t va l ue s i n t e r m s of s m a l l m e di um l a r ge ( T a bl e 4) ( D uns t H a m by & T r i ve t t e 2004) T he us e of t hi s s c a l e w i t h s i ngl e c a s e da t a ha s be e n que s t i one d s i nc e t he s e va l ue s a r e ba s e d on be t w e e n pe r s on va r i a t i on a nd not s pe c i f i c t o a w i t h i n pe r s on va r i a t i on a s r e por t e d i n s i ngl e c a s e de s i gn s t udi e s ( G r e s ha m M c I nt yr e O l s on T i nke r D ol s t r a M C L a ughl i n & V a n, 2004 ) H ow e ve r D uns t H a m by & T r i ve t t e ( 2004) s uppor t c a l c ul a t i ng m a gni t ude o f t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t s i n s i ngl e c a s e de s i gns i n or de r t o p r oduc e a m e a s ur e s i m i l a r t o e f f e c t s i z e s c om put e d f r om da t a i n s t u di e s us i ng ot he r r e s e a r c h de s i gns T he r e f o r e C ohe n s ( 1998) va l ue s w e r e a s s i gne d t o e f f e c t s i z e s obt a i ne d i n t hi s s t udy.

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56 T abl e 4. L a be l V a l ue s of d V a l ue of d L a be l 0. 20 S m a l l 0. 50 M e di um 0. 80 L a r ge I nf e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s w e r e t he n c om put e d us i ng a hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l ( H L M ) a na l ys i s w hi c h pool e d t he da t a f r om t he t h r e e c a s e s us i ng a r e gr e s s i on e qua t i on a t e a c h l e ve l ( V a n de n N oor t ga t e & O nghe na 2003) T he d a t a w e r e a na l yz e d f or s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e ut i l i z i ng a hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l ( H L M ) p r ogr a m t o pr ovi de i n f or m a t i on a bout t he ove r a l l e f f e c t a s w e l l a s t he e f f e c t s f o r t h e i ndi vi dua l c a s e s ( V a n de n N oor t ga t e & O nghe na 2003 ) V a n de n N oor t ga t e a nd O nghe na ( 2003) s uppor t t he us e o f a hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l f o r s i ngl e c a s e de s i gns w hi c h p r ovi de i n f or m a t i on of t he ove r a l l or m e a n e f f e c t a nd de t e r m i na nt s of t he e f f e c t ( p. 327 ) M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, t he us e of a t w o l e ve l m ode l i n w hi c h m e a s ur e m e nt s a r e gr oupe d w i t hi n c a s e s i s de m ons t r a t e d by t he f ol l o w i ng e qua t i on: Y i t = 0 i + 1 i pha s e + r 0 i 0 i = Y 0 0 + u o i 1 i = Y 1 0 + u 1 i T he va l ue s of t he e qua t i on a r e de f i ne d w he r e Y i t i s t he t i m e s pe nt r e a di ng by t he i t h pa r t i c i pa nt a t t he t t h t i m e P ha s e i s a dum m y c ode d i ndi c a t or of pha s e ( 0= ba s e l i ne 1= t r e a t m e nt ) 0 i i s t he a ve r a ge ba s e l i ne l e v e l f o r t he i t h pa r t i c i pa nt 1 i i s t he t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t or s hi f t be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne a nd t x f or t he i t h pa r t i c i pa nt Y 0 0 i s t he a ve r a ge ba s e l i ne l e ve l

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57 a c r os s t he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s Y 0 0 i s t he a ve r a ge t x e f f e c t a c r os s t he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s R 0 i u 0 i a nd u i i a r e t he e r r o r t e r m s a s s um e d t o be nor m a l l y di s t r i but e d ( N oor t ga t e & O nghe na 2003) T he hi e r a r c hi c a l m o de l w a s e s t i m a t e d i n S A S ( 200 8) w i t h t he M I X E D pr oc e dur e us i ng a r e s t r i c t e d m a xi m um l i ke l i hood e s t i m a t i on a nd t he K e nw a r d R oge r a dj us t e d de gr e e s of f r e e dom T he e f f e c t s i z e of t he c a s e s a r e of s pe c i f i c i nt e r e s t i n t hi s s t udy I ndi v i dual R e s ul t s P ar t i c i pant A T he r e s ul t s f r o m P a r t i c i pa nt A s p r e a nd pos t I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y or a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge s c or e s a r e pr e s e nt e d ( F i gur e 5) P r i or t o a nd f ol l ow i ng t he da t a c ol l e c t i on pha s e s a r e a di ng pa s s a ge w a s pr ovi de d a t t he i ndi c a t e d gr a de l e ve l s a nd t he s c or e s w e r e c a l c ul a t e d us i ng t he t ot a l num be r of c or r e c t r e s pons e s di vi de d by t he t ot a l num be r o f que s t i ons on t he a s s e s s m e nt t o de t e r m i ne t he i ni t i a l a nd f i na l r e a di ng g r a de l e ve l f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt A de c i s i on w a s m a de t o us e t he s c or e s f r om t he or a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge s r a t he r t ha n t he s i l e nt pa s s a ge s a s t hi s i s t he m os t c om m o n m e t hod i n w hi c h s t ude nt s r e a di ng pr ogr e s s i s m e a s ur e d ( C l a y, 2001; G oodm a n, 1975 ) T he gr a ph i ndi c a t e s P a r t i c i pa nt A s pr e a s s e s s m e nt or a l r e a di ng l e ve l a t a t h i r d g r a de a s 80% a c c ur a t e T he pos t a s s e s s m e nt da t a i ndi c a t e s t he s t ude nt i s r e a di ng be t w e e n a 4 t h a nd 5 t h gr a de l e ve l w i t h a 70% a c c ur a c y r a t e B a s e d on a vi s ua l i ns pe c t i o n, t he da t a i ndi c a t e s t ha t P a r t i c i pa nt A i nc r e a s e d one gr a de l e ve l f r om t he ons e t of t he da t a c ol l e c t i o n pha s e t o t he c onc l us i on of t he s t udy T he r e s ul t s of P a r t i c i pa nt A s t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e a r e pr e s e nt e d ( F i gur e 6) R e a di ng t i m e w a s ba s e d on t he s t ude n t s t ot a l a m ount o f r e a di ng t i m e a s doc um e nt e d by t he r e s e a r c he r dur i ng ba s e l i ne i n t e r ve nt i on a nd w i t hdr a w a l pha s e s M e a ns a nd s t a nda r d

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58 de vi a t i ons w e r e c om put e d f or t he r e a di ng t i m e f or e a c h pha s e a s w e l l a s t he e f f e c t s i z e us i ng C ohe n s d t o c om pa r e a c r o s s c a s e s A n a na l ys i s of t he e f f e c t w a s i nt e r pr e t e d us i ng gui de l i ne s e s t a bl i s he d by C ohe n ( 1988) T he vi s ua l a na l ys i s of P a r t i c i pa nt A s g r a phe d r e s u l t s ( F i gur e 6) i ndi c a t e s a pos i t i ve c ha nge i n t he a m ount of r e a di ng t i m e pe r s e s s i on a s de t e r m i ne d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt i n t he pr e s e nc e of t he dog. F r om ba s e l i ne A 1 t o i nt e r ve nt i on B 1 t he s t ude nt e l e c t e d t o r e a d f o r a l onge r du r a t i on a ve r a gi ng 12. 00 m i nut e s i n pha s e B 1 D ur i ng t he w i t hdr a w a l pha s e A 2 a dr op i n r e a di ng t i m e i s not e d, a nd a n i nc r e a s e i s t he n n ot e d on t he f i na l i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e B 2 a ve r a gi ng 14 67 m i nut e s i n pha s e B 2 A ddi t i ona l l y, t he f i na l i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e B 2 i ndi c a t e s a c ons i s t e nt pa t t e r n of t o t a l r e a di ng t i m e a s be i ng a bove t e n m i nut e s pe r s e s s i on. T he vi s i bl e dr op i n t he s i xt h a nd s e ve nt h s e s s i on of B 1 a nd t he f i f t h s e s s i on of B 2 w a s t he r e s ul t o f t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t e xt s e l e c t i on. T he s e s pa s s a ge s w e r e l e s s t ha n f i f t e e n pa ge s t he r e f or e not r e qui r i ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt t o r e a d m or e t ha n s e ve n m i nut e s dur i ng t he s e pa r t i c ul a r s e s s i ons A ddi t i on a l l y, du r i ng t he s e c ond w i t hdr a w a l pha s e A 2 t he s t ude nt c ons i s t e nt l y s e l e c t e d books w i t h f e w e r t ha n t w e nt y pa ge s r e s ul t i ng i n a l ow e r ove r a l l r e a di ng t i m e I t i s not e d dur i ng p ha s e B 2 t he s t ude nt s e l e c t e d books w hi c h r e qui r e d m o r e r e a di ng t i m e t o c om pl e t e t he r e f or e a ve r a gi ng f our t e e n m i nut e s pe r s e s s i on.

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59 F i gur e 5 P a r t i c i pa nt A P r e a nd P os t O r a l R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt D a t a *N ot e : t he v al ue i n e ac h dat a po i nt i ndi c at e s gr ad e l e v e l F i gur e 6 P a r t i c i pa nt A T ot a l R e a di ng T i m e D a t a

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60 D e s c r i pt i v e anal y s i s A c o m pa r i s on of t he m e a ns f or e a c h pha s e de m ons t r a t e d a n obs e r ve d i nc r e a s e i n t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e ( T a bl e 5 ) T he ba s e l i ne m e a n of 11. 33 m i nut e s i nc r e a s e d t o 12. 00 m i nut e s f or t he f i r s t i nt e r ve nt i o n pha s e a nd 14. 67 m i nut e s f or t he s e c ond i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e T he m e a n of t he c om bi ne d i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s w a s 13. 33 m i nut e s 2. 33 m i nut e s a bove t he ba s e l i ne m e a n o f 11. 33 m i nut e s M i ni m a l va r i a bi l i t y w a s not e d be t w e e n t he f i r s t i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e w i t h a s t a nda r d de vi a t i on ( S D ) of 4. 77 a nd a S D o f 4 24 i n t he s e c ond i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e i ndi c a t i ng a n i nc r e a s e i n t he t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e du r i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s T o de m ons t r a t e t he l e ve l of t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on, t he e f f e c t s i z e us i ng C ohe n s d w a s c a l c ul a t e d. T he r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d a l a r ge e f f e c t of 0. 97 be t w e e n t r e a t m e nt pha s e s A di f f e r e nc e of 0. 67 m i nut e s f r o m ba s e l i ne t o t he f i r s t i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e w a s obt a i ne d i ndi c a t i ng a 6% i nc r e a s e i n r e a di ng t i m e A n i nc r e a s e of 3. 34 m i nut e s or a 30 % i nc r e a s e i n a m ount of t i m e r e a d f r om ba s e l i ne t o f i na l i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e w a s obt a i ne d. T abl e 5 P a r t i c i pa nt A D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s a nd C ohe n s d E f f e c t S i z e D e s c r i pt or s P ha s e A 1 P ha s e B 1 P ha s e A 2 P ha s e B 2 M e a n 11. 33 12. 00 8. 44 14. 67 S t a nda r d D e vi a t i on 2. 06 4. 77 5. 50 4. 24 E f f e c t S i z e : C ohe n s d ( l a be l ) 0. 97 ( l a r ge ) I nf e r e nt i al anal y s i s T he da t a w e r e a na l yz e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e ut i l i z i ng a hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l ( H L M ) pr og r a m w r i t t e n w i t h S A S P R O C M I X E D c ode

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61 ( A ppe ndi x G ) ( S A S 2008 ) T he e m pi r i c a l B a ye s e s t i m a t e of P a r t i c i pa n t A s c ha nge i n r e a di ng t i m e ( 1 A ) w a s 2. 88 m i nut e s T he t t e s t of t hi s c ha nge s how e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e ( t ( 81 7) = 2 08, p= 040 ) T he obt a i ne d p va l ue of 0. 04 i s l e s s t ha n t he p r e s e t a l pha l e ve l of 05 c onc l udi ng t ha t t he s t udy r e s ul t s w e r e s how n t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e j e c t i ng t he nul l hypot he s i s Sum m ar y of par t i c i pant A F ol l ow i ng t he v i s ua l a nd s t a t i s t i c a l da t a a na l ys i s f or P a r t i c i pa nt A r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he t ot a l a m ount of r e a di ng t i m e i nc r e a s e d dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s T he da t a s ugge s t s t he pr e s e nc e of a t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t s uppor t i ng t he e f f e c t s of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr o gr e s s f or t hi s P a r t i c i pa nt i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y. P ar t i c i pant B T he r e s ul t s f r o m P a r t i c i pa nt B s pr e a nd pos t I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y or a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge s c or e s a r e pr e s e nt e d ( F i gur e 7) T he gr a ph i ndi c a t e s P a r t i c i pa nt B s pr e a s s e s s m e nt or a l r e a di ng l e ve l a t a t hi r d gr a de a s 70 % a c c ur a t e T he pos t a s s e s s m e nt da t a i ndi c a t e s t he s t ude nt i s r e a di ng a t a t hi r d gr a de l e ve l w i t h a n 80 % a c c ur a c y r a t e B a s e d on a vi s ua l i ns pe c t i on, t he da t a i ndi c a t e s t ha t P a r t i c i pa nt B ha d t e n pe r c e nt i nc r e a s e i n r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on a c c ur a c y f r om t he ons e t o f t he da t a c ol l e c t i on pha s e t o t he c onc l us i on of t he s t udy. T he r e s ul t s of P a r t i c i pa nt B s t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e a r e pr e s e nt e d ( F i gur e 8) R e a di ng t i m e w a s ba s e d on t he s t ude nt s t ot a l a m ount o f r e a di ng t i m e a s doc um e nt e d by t he r e s e a r c he r dur i ng ba s e l i ne i n t e r ve nt i on a nd w i t hdr a w a l pha s e s M e a ns a nd s t a nda r d de vi a t i ons w e r e c om put e d f or t h e r e a di ng t i m e a s w e l l a s t he e f f e c t s i z e us i ng C ohe n s d

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62 f or e a c h pha s e of t he s t udy. A n a na l ys i s of t he e f f e c t w a s i nt e r pr e t e d us i ng gui de l i ne s e s t a bl i s he d by C ohe n ( 1988) T he vi s ua l a na l ys i s of P a r t i c i pa nt B s gr a phe d r e s ul t s ( F i gur e 8) i ndi c a t e a po s i t i ve c ha nge i n t he a m ount of r e a di ng t i m e pe r s e s s i on a s de t e r m i ne d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e F r om ba s e l i ne A 1 t o i nt e r ve nt i on B 1 t he s t ude nt e l e c t e d t o r e a d f o r a l onge r du r a t i on a ve r a g i ng 17. 56 m i nut e s i n pha s e B 1 D ur i n g t he w i t hdr a w a l pha s e A 2 a s i gni f i c a nt dr op i n r e a di ng t i m e i s no t e d, a nd a n i nc r e a s e i s t he n not e d on t he f i na l i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e B 2 a ve r a gi ng 14. 11 m i nut e s i n pha s e B 2 A ddi t i ona l l y, t h i s pa r t i c i pa nt s e l e c t e d a nd r e a d t he s a m e r e a di ng s e r i e s t hr oughout t he s t udy. U pon c om pl e t i on of one book, t he pa r t i c i pa nt t he n s e l e c t e d t he ne xt book w i t hi n t he s a m e s e r i e s A l t hough t he pa r t i c i pa nt c ons i s t e nt l y s e l e c t e d t he s a m e book, he r i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng va r i e d ba s e d on t he e ve nt s t ha t oc c ur r e d pr i or t o t he s e s s i ons T h i s pa r t i c i pa nt e xhi bi t e d s e ve r a l e m ot i ona l r e s pons e s t o pe e r a nd t e a c he r i nt e r a c t i ons pr i or t o ou r r e a di ng s e s s i ons I t w a s c om m on f or t hi s pa r t i c i pa nt t o s ha r e un r e l a t e d pe r s ona l i nf or m a t i on pr i or t o a nd du r i ng t he s e s s i ons a nd w he n t he r e s e a r c he r r e di r e c t e d t he c onve r s a t i on, a not a bl e c ha nge i n be ha vi or w a s obs e r ve d, t he r e f o r e r e s ul t i ng i n a de c r e a s e d r e a di ng t i m e f or t he s e s s i on.

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63 F i gur e 7 P a r t i c i pa nt B P r e a nd P os t O r a l R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt D a t a *N ot e : t he v al ue i n e ac h dat a po i nt i ndi c at e s gr ad e l e v e l F i gur e 8 P a r t i c i pa nt B T ot a l R e a di ng T i m e D a t a

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64 D e s c r i pt i v e anal y s i s A c om pa r i s on of t he m e a ns f or e a c h pha s e de m ons t r a t e d a n obs e r ve d i nc r e a s e i n t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e ( T a bl e 6 ) T he ba s e l i ne m e a n of 12. 22 m i nut e s i nc r e a s e d t o 17. 56 m i nut e s f or t he f i r s t i nt e r ve nt i o n pha s e a nd 14. 11 m i nut e s f or t he s e c ond i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e T he m e a n of t he c om bi ne d i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s w a s 15. 83 m i nut e s 3. 61 m i nut e s a bove t he ba s e l i ne m e a n o f 12. 22 m i nut e s R e l a t i ve l y hi gh va r i a bi l i t y w a s not e d be t w e e n t he f i r s t a nd s e c ond i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s w i t h a s t a nda r d de vi a t i on ( S D ) of 3. 84 i n t he f i r s t i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a nd a S D of 4. 62 i n t he s e c ond i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e T hi s va r i a bi l i t y c a n be a t t r i but e d t o e xt e r na l f a c t or s t ha t oc c ur r e d pr i or t o or f ol l ow i ng t he t r e a t m e nt s e s s i ons w hi c h a f f e c t e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s be ha vi or dur i ng t he t r e a t m e nt pha s e s T o de m ons t r a t e t he l e ve l of t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on, t he e f f e c t s i z e us i ng C ohe n s d w a s c a l c ul a t e d. T he r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d a l a r ge e f f e c t of 2. 15 be t w e e n t r e a t m e nt pha s e s A di f f e r e nc e of 5. 34 m i nut e s or a 44% i nc r e a s e f r om ba s e l i ne t o t he f i r s t i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e w a s obt a i ne d. A di f f e r e nc e of 1 89 m i nut e s or a 16% i nc r e a s e f r om ba s e l i ne t o f i na l i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e w a s obt a i ne d. T abl e 6 P a r t i c i pa nt B D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s a nd C ohe n s d E f f e c t S i z e D e s c r i pt or s P ha s e A 1 P ha s e B 1 P ha s e A 2 P ha s e B 2 M e a n 12. 22 17. 56 7. 78 14. 11 S t a nda r d D e vi a t i on 1. 86 3. 84 2. 22 4. 62 E f f e c t S i z e : C ohe n s d ( l a be l ) 2. 15 ( l a r ge )

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65 I nf e r e nt i al anal y s i s T he da t a w e r e a na l yz e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e ut i l i z i ng a hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l ( H L M ) pr og r a m w r i t t e n w i t h S A S P R O C M I X E D c ode ( A ppe ndi x G ) ( S A S 2008 ) T he e m pi r i c a l B a ye s e s t i m a t e of P a r t i c i pa nt B s c ha nge i n r e a di ng t i m e ( 1 A ) w a s 5. 06 m i nut e s T he t t e s t of t hi s c ha nge s how e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e ( t ( 81 7) = 3 67, p= 0004 ) T he ob t a i ne d p va l ue of 0. 0004 i s l e s s t ha n t he pr e s e t a l pha l e ve l of 05 c onc l udi ng t ha t t he s t udy r e s ul t s w e r e s how n t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e j e c t i ng t he nul l hypot he s i s Sum m ar y of par t i c i pant B F ol l ow i ng t he v i s ua l a nd s t a t i s t i c a l da t a a na l ys i s f or P a r t i c i pa nt B r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he t ot a l a m oun t of r e a di ng t i m e s i gni f i c a nt l y i nc r e a s e d dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s T he da t a s ugge s t s t he pr e s e nc e of a t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t s uppor t i ng t he e f f e c t s of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr ogr e s s f or t hi s P a r t i c i pa nt i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t y. P ar t i c i pant C T he r e s ul t s f r o m P a r t i c i pa nt C s pr e a nd pos t I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y or a l r e a di ng pa s s a ge s c or e s a r e pr e s e nt e d ( F i gur e 9) T he gr a ph i ndi c a t e s P a r t i c i pa nt C s pr e a s s e s s m e nt or a l r e a di ng l e ve l a t a t hi r d gr a de a s 70 % a c c ur a t e T he pos t a s s e s s m e nt da t a i ndi c a t e s t he s t ude nt i s r e a di ng be t w e e n a s i xt h a nd s e ve nt h gr a de l e ve l w i t h a 60% a nd 75% a c c ur a c y r a t e r e s pe c t i ve l y. B a s e d on a vi s ua l i ns pe c t i on, t he da t a i ndi c a t e s t ha t P a r t i c i pa nt C ha d a n i nc r e a s e i n t h r e e gr a de l e ve l s f r om t he ons e t of t he da t a c ol l e c t i on pha s e t o t he c onc l us i on of t he s t udy. T he r e s ul t s of P a r t i c i pa nt C s t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e a r e pr e s e nt e d ( F i gur e 10) R e a di ng t i m e w a s ba s e d on t he s t ude nt s t ot a l a m ount of r e a di ng t i m e a s doc um e nt e d by t he r e s e a r c he r dur i ng ba s e l i ne i nt e r ve nt i on a nd w i t hdr a w a l pha s e s M e a ns a nd s t a nda r d

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66 de vi a t i ons w e r e c om put e d f or t he r e a di ng t i m e a s w e l l a s t he e f f e c t s i z e us i ng C ohe n s d f or e a c h pha s e of t he s t udy. A n a na l ys i s of t he e f f e c t w a s i nt e r pr e t e d us i ng gui de l i ne s e s t a bl i s he d by C ohe n ( 1988) T he vi s ua l a na l ys i s of P a r t i c i pa nt C s gr a phe d r e s ul t s ( F i gur e 10) i ndi c a t e s a c ons i s t e nt pa t t e r n of r e a di ng t i m e a c r os s a l l f our p ha s e s T he a ve r a ge of pha s e s A 1 a nd A 2 w a s 13. 89 m i nut e s R e a di ng t i m e i n p ha s e B 1 i nc r e a s e d t o s e ve nt e e n m i nut e s a nd pha s e B 2 i nc r e a s e d t o 16. 33 m i nut e s S t ude nt C ha d a s l i ght i nc r e a s e i n t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s how e ve r t he dr op i n t he f i na l s e s s i on of pha s e B 2 i s a r e s ul t of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c om pl e t i on of t he s e l e c t e d t e xt F i gur e 9 P a r t i c i pa nt C P r e a nd P os t O r a l R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt D a t a *N ot e : t he v al ue i n e ac h dat a po i nt i ndi c at e s gr ad e l e v e l

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67 F i gur e 10 P a r t i c i pa nt C T ot a l R e a di ng T i m e D a t a D e s c r i pt i v e anal y s i s A c om pa r i s on of t he m e a ns f or e a c h pha s e de m ons t r a t e d a n obs e r ve d i nc r e a s e i n t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e ( T a bl e 7 ) T he ba s e l i ne m e a n of 13. 89 m i nut e s i nc r e a s e d t o 17. 33 m i nut e s f or t he f i r s t i nt e r v e nt i o n pha s e a nd 16. 33 m i nut e s f or t he s e c ond i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e T he m e a n of t he c om bi ne d i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s w a s 16. 83 m i nut e s 2. 94 m i nut e s a bove t he ba s e l i ne m e a n o f 13. 89 m i nut e s M i ni m a l va r i a bi l i t y w a s not e d be t w e e n t he f i r s t a nd s e c ond i nt e r ve nt i on ph a s e s w i t h a s t a nda r d de vi a t i on ( S D ) of 3. 04 a nd a S D o f 4 24 i n t he s e c ond i nt e r ve nt i on p ha s e i ndi c a t i ng a pos i t i ve t r e nd i n t he t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e dur i ng t he i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e s T o de m ons t r a t e t he l e ve l of t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t o f t he i nt e r ve nt i on, t he e f f e c t s i z e us i ng C ohe n s d w a s c a l c ul a t e d. T he r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d a s m a l l e f f e c t of 0 35 be t w e e n t r e a t m e nt pha s e s A di f f e r e nc e of 3. 44 m i nut e s f r o m ba s e l i ne t o t he f i r s t i n t e r ve nt i on

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68 pha s e w a s obt a i ne d i ndi c a t i ng a 25% i nc r e a s e i n r e a di ng t i m e A di f f e r e n c e of 2. 44 m i nut e s or a n 18 % i nc r e a s e f r om ba s e l i ne t o f i na l i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e w a s obt a i ne d. T abl e 7. P a r t i c i pa nt C D e s c r i pt i ve S t a t i s t i c s a nd C ohe n s d E f f e c t S i z e D e s c r i pt or s P ha s e A 1 P ha s e B 1 P ha s e A 2 P ha s e B 2 M e a n 13. 89 17. 33 14. 11 16. 33 S t a nda r d D e vi a t i on 2. 85 3. 04 4. 62 4. 24 E f f e c t S i z e : C ohe n s d ( l a be l ) 35 ( s m a l l ) I nf e r e nt i al anal y s i s T he da t a w e r e a na l yz e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e ut i l i z i ng a hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l ( H L M ) pr og r a m w r i t t e n w i t h S A S P R O C M I X E D c ode ( A pp e ndi x G ) ( S A S 2008 ) T he e m pi r i c a l B a ye s e s t i m a t e of P a r t i c i pa nt C s c ha nge i n r e a di ng t i m e ( 1 A ) w a s 2. 95 m i nut e s T he t t e s t of t hi s c ha nge s how e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i gni f i c a nc e ( t ( 81 7) = 2 14, p= 036 ) T he ob t a i ne d p va l ue of 0. 036 i s l e s s t ha n t he p r e s e t a l pha l e ve l of 05 c onc l udi ng t ha t t he s t udy r e s ul t s w e r e s how n t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e j e c t i ng t he nul l hypot he s i s Sum m ar y of par t i c i pant C F o l l ow i ng t he vi s ua l a n d s t a t i s t i c a l da t a a na l ys i s f or P a r t i c i pa nt C r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e t ha t t he t ot a l a m oun t of r e a di ng t i m e i nc r e a s e d dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s T he da t a s ugge s t s t he pr e s e nc e of a t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t s uppor t i ng t he e f f e c t s of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr o gr e s s f or t hi s P a r t i c i pa nt i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y.

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69 A nal y s i s of P ool e d D at a A n a na l ys i s of t he c om bi ne d da t a f r o m t he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s w a s a na l yz e d us i ng t he hi e r a r c ha l l i ne a r m ode l ( H L M ) R e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i nc r e a s e f or t he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s t ot a l r e a di ng t i m e dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e a s c om pa r e d t o t he ba s e l i ne pha s e T he e s t i m a t e of t he va r i a nc e be t w e e n t he ba s e l i ne pha s e m e a n i s 3. 35 m i nut e s T he e s t i m a t e o f t he va r i a nc e of t he t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t i s s ubs t a nt i a l a t 16 06 m i nut e s ( T a bl e 8 ) A l t hough t he ove r a l l i nt e r c e pt i s s m a l l t he ove r a l l e f f e c t i s l a r ge a nd s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt ( p < 0001) A n i nc r e a s e of 4. 04 m i nut e s f r om t he c om bi ne d m e a n t i m e of 11 30 m i nut e s w a s obt a i ne d ( Y 1 0 = 4 04, t ( 2. 38) = 5 01, p = 026) A p va l ue of 03 w a s c a l c ul a t e d, i ndi c a t i ng a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt p va l ue ba s e d on p < 05 t he r e f or e r e j e c t i ng t he nul l hypot he s i s ( T a bl e 9) T abl e 8. C ova r i a nc e P a r a m e t e r E s t i m a t e s C ova r i a nc e S ubj e c t E s t i m a t e S t a nda r d Z va l ue P r > Z P a r a m e t e r E r r o r I nt e r c e pt P e r s on 3. 35 3. 89 0. 86 0. 195 P ha s e P e r s on 0. 16 1. 80 0. 09 0. 465 R e s i dua l 16. 06 2. 26 7. 11 < 0001 T abl e 9. S ol ut i on F or F i xe d E f f e c t s E f f e c t E s t i m a t e S t a nda r d D F t va l ue P r > |t | E r r o r I nt e r c e pt 11. 30 1. 19 2. 38 9. 50 0. 006 P ha s e 4. 04 0. 81 2. 38 5. 01 0. 026

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70 Sum m ar y of D e s c r i pt i v e and I nf e r e nt i al A nal y s i s T he da t a f r om t he de s c r i pt i ve a nd i n f e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s i ndi c a t e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt e f f e c t f r om t he us e of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr og r e s s a m ong t he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y. T hi s s i ngl e c a s e A B A B de s i gn pr ovi de d c ons i s t e nt i nc r e a s e s i n r e a di ng pr o gr e s s a c r os s t he t a r ge t e d popul a t i on. T he r e s ul t s f r o m t hi s s t udy i ndi c a t e t he pot e nt i a l f o r t hi s s t udy t o be r e pl i c a t e d w i t h a l a r ge r popul a t i on of s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h m i l d l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s F ol l ow U p I n t e r v i e w D at a U pon c om pl e t i on of t he r e a di ng da t a c ol l e c t i on ( i e B 2 ) t he pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d t o r e s pond t o t w o f ol l ow up que s t i ons t o e xp l a i n t he i r e xpe r i e nc e i n t he s t udy. T he que s t i ons e xpl or e d w e r e : 1. T e l l m e a bout r e a di ng t o B e c ke t t 2. T e l l m e a bout r e a di ng w i t h m e M s G r i e s s I nt e r r at e r agr e e m e nt F ol l ow i ng t he i nt e r v i e w s t he da t a w e r e t r a ns c r i be d a nd t he m e s e m e r ge d r e l a t e d t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng t o t he dog a nd w i t h t he r e s e a r c he r T he f ol l ow i ng f or m ul a w a s us e d t o c a l c ul a t e i nt e r r a t e r a gr e e m e nt : T ot a l N um be r of A gr e e m e nt s di vi de d by t he ( T ot a l N um be r o f A gr e e m e nt s + D i s a gr e e m e nt s ) m ul t i pl i e d by 100 ( K a z di n, 1982) T he r e s e a r c he r a nd a n out s i de c o r a t e r c a m e t o a c ons e ns us w i t h a 95% a gr e e m e nt r a t e on t he t he m e s a nd s ub t he m e s ( T a bl e 10) T he t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om r e a di ng w i t h t h e dog a r e : ( 1) i nc r e a s e d m ot i va t i on a nd e nj oym e nt ( 2) de ve l opm e nt of e m ot i ona l bon d a nd s e nt i m e nt a l a t t a c hm e nt T he t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om r e a di ng w i t h t he r e s e a r c he r i nc l ude : ( 1 ) va r yi ng l e ve l s of

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71 i nt e r e s t ( 2 ) e m ot i ona l bond, a nd ( 3 ) e f f e c t of book a nd book s e l e c t i on E a c h a r e a w i l l be di s c us s e d a l ong w i t h t he s ub t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om e a c h t he m e T abl e 10 I nt e r r a t e r R e l i a bi l i t y: I n t e r vi e w C a t e gor i e s R e s e a r c he r s N um be r T ot a l num be r of P e r c e nt of i nt e r r a t e r O r i gi na l T he m e s of A gr e e m e nt s a gr e e m e nt s a nd a gr e e m e nt a nd Subt he m e s di s a gr e e m e nt s I nc r e a s e d M ot i va t i on 3 4 75% a nd e nj oym e nt f un/ e nj oya bl e a t t e nt i on D e ve l opm e nt of 4 4 100% E m ot i ona l B ond a nd S e nt i m e nt a l A t t a c hm e nt t o dog s e nt i m e nt a l a t t a c hm e nt i ns t i l l e d pos i t i ve f e e l i ngs ( hum a n qua l i t i e s ) V a r yi ng L e ve l s of 1 1 100% I nt e r e s t E m ot i ona l B ond 2 2 100% R e l a t i o ns hi p t o T e xt 1 1 100% R e adi ng t o B e c k e t t I nc r e as e d m ot i v at i on and e nj oy m e nt T he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i on of r e a di ng t o t he t he r a py dog s uppor t s t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t u r e on t he e f f e c t s of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py ( L e vi ns on, 1962; M e l s on, 2000) T he p a r t i c i pa nt s r e por t e d r e a di ng t o t he dog a s f un a w e s om e a nd c ool F un o r e nj oym e nt w a s a c om m on t he m e ye t t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d

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72 di f f e r e nt e xpl a na t i ons o f f un e xpe r i e nc e s r e a di ng t o B e c ke t t T he c om m e nt s i nc l ude d, i t w a s f un t o ge t t o pe t he r be c a us e s h e s s of t A not he r r e s pons e w a s r e a di ng t o t he dog w a s f un be c a us e I ne ve r got t o r e a d t o a dog be f or e W he n a s ke d t o e l a bor a t e on w ha t w a s f un, a pa r t i c i pa nt i ndi c a t e d t ha t he l i ke d gi vi n g hi m ( B e c ke t t ) t r e a t s T w o pa r t i c i pa nt s i ndi c a t e d a s e ns e of e nj oym e nt i n pe t t i ng o r a t t e ndi ng t o t he dog w hi l e r e a di ng by s t a t i ng, I l i ke d pe t t i ng he r w hi l e r e a di ng a nd I ge t t o pe t he r be c a us e I l ove dogs A l l pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpr e s s e d a s e ns e of m ot i va t i on i n r e a di ng t o B e c ke t t a nd de s c r i be d r e a di ng t o t he t he r a py dog a s a f un a c t i vi t y E m ot i onal bond and s e nt i m e nt al at t ac hm e nt P a r t i c i pa nt s de s c r i be d a f e e l i ng of a n e m ot i ona l bond a nd s e nt i m e nt a l a t t a c hm e nt be t w e e n t he m s e l ve s a nd t he r a py dog. T he y de s c r i be d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e i n t e r m s of f r i e nds hi p a nd r e l a t e d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e a s de ve l opi ng a r e l a t i ons hi p w i t h t he dog T he s e s s i ons pr ovi de d pos i t i ve f e e l i ngs a nd a s e ns e of a n e m ot i ona l bond a nd s e nt i m e nt a l a t t a c hm e nt t o t he t he r a py dog T he pa r t i c i pa nt s i ndi c a t e d t ha t r e a di ng t o t he dog m a d e m e f e e l good a nd i t w a s l i ke r e a di ng w i t h a f r i e nd. T w o pa r t i c i pa nt s e xpr e s s e d t ha t r e a di ng t o B e c ke t t r e m i nde d t he m of t he i r ow n pe t s s t a t i ng he ( B e c ke t t ) r e m i n de d m e of m y dog be f or e he di e d. T hi s s e nt i m e nt w a s e c hoe d by a not he r s t ude nt t ha t s t a t e d, t hi s ( r e a di ng t o B e c k e t t ) r e m i nde d m e of m y dog a nd c a t be f or e m y c a t di e d A s e ns e of s e nt i m e nt a l a t t a c hm e nt w a s e xpr e s s e d t hr ough t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pa s t a nd c ur r e nt e xpe r i e nc e s w i t h a pe t T hi s a t t a c hm e n t w a s e xpr e s s e d a s i t w a s a w e s om e ( r e a di ng t o B e c ke t t ) be c a us e I f e l t l i ke I w a s r e a di n g t o m y dog on t he g r a s s I w oul d r e a d unt i l m y m om c a l l e d m e be c a us e i t w a s da r k. A c onne c t i on w a s m a de t ha t r e a di ng w i t h

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73 t he t he r a py dog w a s l i ke r e a di ng t o a f r i e nd a nd t h e pa r t i c i pa nt de s c r i be d a f r i e nd a s s om e one you pl a y w i t h. T he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s i ndi vi dua l l y de s c r i be d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng t o t he t he r a py dog i n t e r m s of a n e m ot i ona l bond o r s e nt i m e nt a l a t t a c hm e nt I t i s t h i s e m ot i ona l bond t ha t N e w l i n ( 2003) i ndi c a t e d t r a ns f e r s t o r e a d i ng c onf i de nc e a nd r e a di ng i m pr ove m e nt R e adi ng w i t h R e s e ar c he r V ar y i ng l e v e l s of i nt e r e s t T he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e i ve d t he i r e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng w i t h t he r e s e a r c he r di f f e r e nt l y t ha n r e a di ng t o t he t he r a py d og. A c ont r a s t i ng opi ni on w a s e xpr e s s e d i n t ha t t he s t ude nt s f e l t r e a di ng t o t he r e s e a r c he r w a s bor i ng a nd not m uc h t i m e i n t he m i ddl e but t ow a r d t he e nd, I s t a r t e d ha vi ng m or e f un. O ne pa r t i c i pa nt c om m e nt e d on not l i ki ng t he s t or i e s a nd t ha t s om e w e r e ha r de r t o r e a d how e ve r i t i s pos s i bl e t ha t t he s t ude nt c onf us e d t he f o r m a l a s s e s s m e nt s e s s i on s w i t h t he i nf o r m a l r e a di ng s e s s i ons t ha t t ook pl a c e i n t he c om m on a r e of t he c l a s s r oom s A l t hough w e r e a d i n t he s a m e c l a s s r oom c om m on a r e a w i t h a nd w i t hout t he t he r a py dog, t w o s t ude nt s de s c r i be d t he i r phys i c a l c om f or t l e ve l s w he n r e a di ng w i t h t he r e s e a r c he r E xa m pl e s i nc l ude d, w e w e r e s i t t i ng o ut s i de a nd s t uf f a nd on t he t i l e a nd i t w a s be t t e r be c a us e I di dn t ha ve t o s i t on m y kne e s T he l a t t e r s t a t e m e nt c oul d ha ve be e n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c onf us i on be t w e e n r e a di ng i n a c ha i r du r i ng t he a s s e s s m e nt s e s s i ons a nd r e a di ng on t he f l oor w i t h t he r e s e a r c he r i n t he c om m on a r e a T hi s pa r t i c i pa nt m a y ha ve be e n m or e c om f or t a bl e i n t he c ha i r how e ve r s uc h c om pa r i s on w a s not m a de w he n de s c r i bi ng r e a di ng w i t h t he t he r a py dog.

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74 E m ot i onal at t ac hm e nt A n i nt e r e s t i ng f i nd i ng e m e r ge d f r om t he i nt e r v i e w s i n t ha t t he s t ude nt s r e l a t e d r e a di ng t o t he r e s e a r c he r l i ke w i t h r e a di ng w i t h t he i r m ot he r T he r e s pons e s i nc l ude d, i t f e l t l i ke you w e r e m y m om be c a us e I w a s r e a di ng t o you T h i s s t ude nt di s c us s e d t he phys i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s be t w e e n he r m ot he r a nd t he r e s e a r c he r A not he r s t ude nt a dde d, I ge t t o r e a d t o m y m om a t hom e a nd I ge t t o r e a d t o s om e body e l s e a t s c hool a nd s he he l ps m e l i ke you do. A di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n r e a di ng w i t h a f r i e nd a nd a pa r e nt w a s m a d e i n t ha t a m om i s s o m e one t ha t t a ke s c a r e of you a l l t he t i m e a nd a f r i e nd i s s om e one you pl a y w i t h i t w a s a w e s om e be c a u s e s om e ni ght s I ha ve r e a di ng hom e w or k a nd I ha ve t o r e a d ne xt t o m y m om L i ke l a s t ye a r w e us e d t o ha ve a f l ue nc y f ol de r A ddi t i ona l i nf or m a t i on w a s s ha r e d a bout how t hi s pa r t i c i pa nt s m ot he r a s s i s t e d he r w i t h m a na gi ng hom e w or k r e s pons i bi l i t i e s E f f e c t of s pe c i f i c book and book s e l e c t i on. I n c ont r a s t t o di s c us s i ons r e l a t i ng t o r e a di ng t o t he dog w he n pa r t i c i pa nt s w e r e a s ke d a bout r e a di n g t o r e s e a r c he r t he y f oc us e d on t he books or t ype s of books r e a d. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s di s c us s e d how t he book a nd book s e l e c t i on a f f e c t e d t he r e a di ng s e s s i ons i nc l udi ng t he a s s e s s m e nt s e s s i ons C om m e nt s i nc l ude d t ha t i t w a s ha r d t o c onc e nt r a t e a nd f o c us on t he book a nd ge t t i ng t o know a bout t he book, s om e s t or i e s w e r e ha r de r t o r e a d, I di d n t r e a d t he m be f or e T hi s pa r t i c i pa nt e xpa nde d on hi s c om m e nt s a bout t he t e xt a s N or m a l l y I s e l e c t a book I di dn t r e a d be f or e s om e t i m e s t hos e books w e r e bor i ng t oo. I di dn t a l w a ys w a nt a ne w book s o I c a n l e a r n a bout s om e m o r e books S e e how t he y w e r e a nd s om e w e r e good a nd s om e w e r e n t S pe c i f i c a l l y, t h i s pa r t i c i pa nt a dde d t ha t da y t ha t I r e a d t he one a bout t he s ur ge r y t he m a n ha d I di dn t l i ke t ha t one

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75 A not he r pa r t i c i pa nt i ndi c a t e d t ha t he l i ke d t he s t or i e s a nd t he y w e r e f un t o r e a d, w hi c h w a s s i m i l a r t o t he pa r t i c i pa nt t ha t l i ke d l e a r ni ng m or e s t uf f a bout r e a di ng a nd r e a di ng m or e books I t s houl d be no t e d he r e t ha t t he r e s e e m e d t o be c on f us i on a b out t he a s s e s s m e nt r e a di ng pa s s a ge s a nd t he s e s s i ons i n w hi c h t he pa r t i c i pa nt s s e l e c t e d t he book t o r e a d i n t he c om m on a r e a o f t he c l a s s r oom s A l t hough I r e f e r r e d t he s t ude nt s t o t he vi de o a f e w t i m e s t he r e s pons e s s e e m e d t o i nc l ude bot h r e a di n g s e s s i ons Sum m ar y of I nt e r v i e w D at a T he pa r t i c i pa nt s p r ovi de d i l l us t r a t i ve de s c r i pt i ons of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng w i t h a nd w i t hout t he t he r a py dog. R e s pons e s s ha r e d hi ghl i ght t he pos i t i ve e f f e c t of t he t he r a py dog on r e a di ng p r ogr e s s a m ong t hi s popul a t i on of s t ude nt s T he r e s ul t s f r om t he a na l ys i s of t he i nt e r vi e w s s uppor t t he pot e nt i a l f or a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t he pe r c e pt i ons of e xpe r i e nc e s r e a di ng t o a t he r a py do g a m ong s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y. Sum m ar y of R e s ul t s T hi s c ha pt e r pr e s e nt e d vi s ua l a nd de s c r i pt i ve r e s ul t s of t he da t a a na l ys i s of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a nd pe r c e pt i on of t h r e e pa r t i c i pa nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y T he r e s ul t s de m ons t r a t e d a n i nc r e a s e i n r e a di ng t i m e a s de m ons t r a t e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s dur i ng t he t r e a t m e nt pha s e s f or a l l t h r e e pa r t i c i pa nt s S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt i ndi vi dua l a nd gr oup e f f e c t s i z e s w e r e obt a i ne d a nd r e s ul t s f r om a hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l a na l ys i s i n di c a t e d s i gni f i c a nc e i n t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t ot a l a m ount o f t i m e r e a d w he n c om pa r e d t o t he ba s e l i ne pha s e s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he

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76 pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s t o t he f ol l ow up que s t i ons r e s ul t e d i n pos i t i ve f e e dba c k a bout t he i r e xpe r i e nc e s r e a di ng t o t he dog

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77 C ha pt e r F i ve D i s c us s i on T he pur pos e of t hi s r e s e a r c h w a s t o i nve s t i ga t e t he e f f e c t of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on t he r e a di ng p r ogr e s s of s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r n i ng di s a bi l i t y a nd l i m i t e d r e a di ng s uc c e s s I ni t i a l l y r e a di ng pr og r e s s w a s de f i ne d a s t he pa r t i c i pa nt s c om pr e he ns i on r a t e obt a i ne d f r om a n or a l I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y pa s s a ge H ow e ve r t he na t ur e of t he I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y r e qui r e s t he i nt r oduc t i on of m or e d i f f i c ul t r e a di ng pa s s a ge s a s t he s t ude nt s c om pr e he ns i on r a t e i nc r e a s e s pot e nt i a l l y m a s ki ng t he ove r a l l e f f e c t o f t h e i nt e r ve nt i on D ue t o t hi s f a c t or a nd e r r a t i c s t ude nt pe r f o r m a nc e w hi c h i s a c om m on c ha r a c t e r i s t i c o f s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s obt a i ni ng c ons i s t e nt c om pr e he ns i on r a t e s w a s di f f i c ul t T he r e f or e p r ogr e s s w a s de f i ne d a s c ha nge s i n t ot a l a m ount of t i m e t he s t ude nt w a s e nga ge d i n r e a di ng unde r e a c h c ondi t i on A ddi t i ona l l y, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r c e pt i ons of t he i r e xpe r i e nc e w i t h c a ni ne A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py w e r e e xpl or e d. T he r e s e a r c h f oc us e d on t he f ol l ow i ng t w o que s t i o ns : R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on 1 D oe s c a ni ne A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a f f e c t r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ?

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78 R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i on 2 W ha t a r e t he pe r c e pt i ons o f s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng a l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t y r e ga r di ng t he us e o f c a ni ne A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py i n r e l a t i on t o t he i r r e a di ng pr ogr e s s ? Sum m ar y of F i ndi ngs as R e l at e d t o R e s e ar c h Q ue s t i ons T he de pe nde nt m e a s ur e of t hi s s t udy w a s r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a s m e a s ur e d by a m ount of t i m e s t ude nt s s pe nt e nga ge d i n r e a di ng. D a t a i ndi c a t e d t ha t t he a m ount of t i m e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d w a s s i gni f i c a nt l y gr e a t e r du r i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e t ha n t he a m ount of t i m e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d w i t h t he r e s e a r c he r T he r e s ul t s obt a i ne d f r om t he vi s ua l a na l ys e s a nd s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gni f i c a nt r e s ul t s of t he da t a i ndi c a t e d a n i nc r e a s e i n t he t ot a l a m ount o f r e a di ng t i m e a s de m ons t r a t e d by t he pa r t i c i pa nt s dur i ng t he i nt e r ve nt i on pha s e s O n a ve r a ge t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a d f or 4 04 m or e m i nut e s i n t he pr e s e nc e of t he t he r a py dog. T hi s i nc r e a s e i n r e a di ng i nt e r e s t i s a pr om i s i ng f i ndi ng s i nc e a l a c k of i nt e r e s t i n r e a di n g m a y a f f e c t e l e m e nt s ne c e s s a r y f or pr of i c i e nt r e a di ng ( F uc hs e t a l 2001) A ddi t i ona l l y, t he s e f i ndi ngs s uppor t r e s e a r c h l i nki ng t he e f f e c t of l i t e r a c y e nga ge m e nt a nd s uc c e s s f ul l i t e r a c y a c t i vi t i e s t o i nc r e a s e d m ot i va t i on a nd f r e que nc y of r e a di ng a c t i vi t i e s ( G u t hr i e e t a l 1996) T he pa r t i c i pa nt s s e e m e d t o e nj oy r e a di ng m o r e t he r e f or e pr a c t i c i ng t he s ki l l s a c qui r e d t h r ough r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on. A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py c oul d be r e c om m e nde d a s a n e f f e c t i v e va r i a t i on t o hom oge nous gr oupi ng t o m a i nt a i n s t ude nt i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng a nd r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ( C l a y, 1993; P ool e 2008; S w a ns on, 1999) A vi s ua l a na l ys i s of t he p r e a nd pos t I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y a s s e s s m e nt w a s c onduc t e d. D e s c r i pt i ve a nd i nf e r e nt i a l s t a t i s t i c s w e r e not c a l c ul a t e d f or t h i s da t a due t o

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79 t he l i m i t e d a m ount of da t a obt a i ne d. A l t hough t he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s s c or e s on t he I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y i nc r e a s e d ove r t he du r a t i on of t he s t udy, t hi s i nc r e a s e c a nnot be i nt e r pr e t e d a s a d i r e c t r e s ul t of t he r e s e a r c h. E xt e r na l f a c t or s s uc h a s c l a s s r oom or i ndi vi dua l i z e d i ns t r uc t i on, m a y ha ve i n f l ue nc e d t h e I R I a s s e s s m e nt da t a I t i s i m por t a nt t o not e t ha t t he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s w ho a r e i de nt i f i e d a s ha vi ng l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s de m ons t r a t e d a n i nc r e a s e i n t he I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y a s s e s s m e nt s ove r t he t hr e e m ont h pe r i od T he da t a f r om t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s t o t he i r e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng w i t h t he t he r a py dog i ndi c a t e d pr om i s i ng r e s ul t s M ot i v a t i on t o r e a d a nd pos i t i ve f e e l i ngs a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he t he r a py dog w e r e c om m on t he m e s t ha t e m e r ge d f r om t he r e s pons e s A ddi t i ona l l y, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s m a de e m ot i ona l a nd s e nt i m e nt a l c onne c t i ons t o t he t he r a py dog of t e n de s c r i bi ng t he i r e xpe r i e nc e i n t e r m s of f r i e nds hi p. T he s e r e s ul t s s uppor t t he l i t e r a t ur e on t he e f f e c t s o f A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s T he t he r a py d ogs c a n a c t a s a s our c e of unc ondi t i ona l l ove a n out l e t f o r s t ude nt s de s i r e t o e xp r e s s t ha t l ove a nd a s t r a t e gy t o bui l d a r a ppor t w i t h t he s t ude nt ( B os s a r d, 1944 ; L e vi ns on s 1997) T he r e f or e t he s e f i ndi ngs s uppor t t he e f f e c t s of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr o gr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y a nd m a y be a us e f ul r e a di ng s t r a t e gy f or t hi s popul a t i on L i m i t at i ons L i m i t a t i ons of t h i s s t udy ne e d t o be a ddr e s s e d i nc l udi ng r e s e a r c h s t udy de s i gn, a m ount a nd popul a t i on of pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd r e a di ng a s s e s s m e nt m e a s ur e T he s t udy us e d a n A B A B de s i gn i n w hi c h t he ba s e l i ne a nd i n t e r ve nt i on pha s e s w e r e not s t a gge r e d. D ue t o s c he dul e c ons i de r a t i ons of t he s t ude nt s t e a c he r a nd t he r a py dog ha ndl e r t he i ni t i a l s t a r t da t e of t he pha s e s w e r e i m pl e m e nt e d on a pr e de t e r m i ne d da t e A c c or di ng t o T odm a n

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80 a nd D uga r d ( 2001 ) t he r e c om m e nde d 36 s e s s i ons w e r e i m pl e m e nt e d f o r t hi s s t udy i n w hi c h a t ot a l o f ni ne s e s s i ons pe r pha s e w e r e i ni t i a t e d be f or e c ont i nui ng t o t he ne xt pha s e A ddi t i ona l l y, c a ppi ng t he r e a di ng s e s s i on l e ngt h t o t w e nt y m i nut e s m a y ha ve pr ovi de d a c ons e r va t i ve r e s ul t o f t he t r e a t m e nt e f f e c t a s w e l l a s a f f e c t i ng t he pe r c e nt a ge of non ove r l a ppi ng da t a s i nc e no s e s s i on c oul d e xc e e d t w e nt y m i nut e s T he r e s ul t s of t hi s s t udy a r e l i m i t e d t o t hr e e f our t h a nd f i f t h gr a de s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h ha vi ng a m i l d l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y a n d qua l i f i e d t o pa r t i c i pa t e i n t hi s s t udy ba s e d on t he pr e de t e r m i ne d c r i t e r i a e s t a bl i s he d by t he r e s e a r c he r ( A ppe ndi x A ) E xt e r na l f a c t or s s uc h a s a pe e r o r pa r e nt r e l a t e d c on f l i c t or l a c k of s l e e p, m a y ha ve ha d a gr e a t e r i m pa c t on t he ove r a l l out c om e due t o t he s m a l l s a m pl e s i z e of onl y t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s I nt e r na l va l i di t y m a y ha ve be e n t hr e a t e ne d a s a r e s ul t of t he r e s e a r c he r s m ul t i pl e r ol e s a s s i gne d t hr oughout t he s t udy. T he r e s e a r c he r r e pl a c e d t he r ol e o f t he t he r a py dog i n t he ba s e l i ne a nd w i t hd r a w a l pha s e s A l t hough a pr oc e dur a l pr ot oc ol w a s c l os e l y m a i nt a i ne d unde r bot h c ondi t i ons ( A ppe ndi x H ) t he pa r t i c i pa nt s ha d oppor t un i t i e s t o i nt e r a c t w i t h t he r e s e a r c he r out s i de o f t he t r e a t m e nt c ondi t i on, pot e nt i a l l y e s t a bl i s hi ng a r e l a t i ons hi p i nde pe nde nt f r om t he r e s e a r c h i nt e r ve nt i on. F u r t he r m o r e t he r e s e a r c he r a l s o a dm i ni s t e r e d t he I nf o r m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y a nd gui de d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s t h r ough t he f ol l ow up c om p r e he ns i on que s t i ons a t t he c onc l us i on of t he s t udy. T he r e s e a r c he r m a y ha ve i nf l ue nc e d t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s t o t he q ue s t i ons due t o t he r e l a t i ons hi p t ha t w a s c r e a t e d ove r t he c our s e of t he s t udy A n i nf or m a l r e l a t i ons hi p m a y ha ve de ve l ope d a s a r e s ul t of t he m ul t i p l e r ol e s o f t he r e s e a r c he r a f f e c t i ng t he pa r t i c i pa nt s be ha vi or t hr oughout t he s t udy.

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81 A l l da t a s our c e s poi nt e d t o t he f a c t t ha t t he s t ude nt s w e r e m ot i va t e d a nd r e a d f or l onge r pe r i ods of t i m e t hr oughout t he c our s e of t he s t udy w hi l e i n t he p r e s e nc e of t he t he r a py dog, how e ve r t ha t m ot i va t i on d i d not t r a ns f e r t o t he a c hi e ve m e nt m e a s ur e s T he us e of t he I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y t o m e a s ur e r e a di ng pr ogr e s s pr ove d t o be a poor m e a s ur e f or t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy. T he pa r t i c i pa nt s pe r f or m a nc e c onf i r m e d r e s e a r c h t ha t r e a di ng di f f i c ul t i e s a r e c ont e xt r e l a t e d, i n w hi c h s t ude nt s w i l l pe r f or m be t t e r i n s om e c ont e xt s a nd poor l y i n o t he r s ( R e e ve s 200 4; I ve y, 1999) A ddi t i ona l l y i ndi vi dua l s l a c k of i nt e r e s t i n s om e of t he I R I r e a d i ng pa s s a ge s c oul d ha ve c ont r i but e d t o t he e r r a t i c pe r f or m a nc e o r e ve n r e s i s t a nc e t o pe r f or m ( R e e ve s 2004) T he pa r t i c i pa nt s a r e i de nt i f i e d w i t h ha vi ng a l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y a nd di d not t r a ns f e r t he us e of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py t o t he I nf o r m a l R e a di ng I nve nt o r y a s s e s s m e nt por t i on of t he s t udy r e s ul t i ng i n e r r a t i c r e s ul t s S t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s m i ght m a s t e r s ki l l s w he n t a ught i n i s ol a t i on but ha ve di f f i c ul t y ge ne r a l i z i ng t hos e s t r a t e gi e s t o ot he r a c t i vi t i e s ( L e r ne r 2000 ) C ons e que nt l y, t he r e w a s no t r a ns f e r of t he t r e a t m e nt pha s e t o t he I n f or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y a s s e s s m e nt T he I R I m e a s ur e s c om pe t e nc e c a pa b i l i t y or c a pa c i t y not a c hi e ve m e nt or g r ow t h, t he r e f o r e i t w a s not a t r ue m e a s ur e of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e a di ng c om p r e he ns i on ( P a r i s 2003) F o r s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s t he i r a bi l i t y of t e n e xc e e ds a s i ngl e i ns t a nc e of di a gnos e s a nd t he i r pe r f or m a nc e r e f l e c t e d t hi s dyna m i c A ddi t i ona l l y, t he s e l e c t i on of s hor t e r books c oul d be w ha t a f f e c t e d t he t i m e s pe nt r e a di ng ve r s us t he m o t i va t i on t o c ont i nue r e a di ng t he book. R e c om m e ndat i ons f or F ut ur e R e s e ar c h and P r ac t i c e T he pos i t i ve f i nd i ngs of t hi s s t u dy s uppor t t he ne e d f or a ddi t i ona l r e s e a r c h of t he e f f e c t of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr o gr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a

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82 l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y. A s a r e s ul t o f t hi s s t udy s e ve r a l que s t i ons e m e r ge d t ha t c oul d be ne f i t f ut ur e r e s e a r c h s t udi e s S pe c i f i c a l l y, us i ng a pe r f o r m a nc e a s s e s s m e nt t o m e a s ur e r e a di ng pr ogr e s s f or s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h a l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t y pr ove d t o be a n i na de qua t e a s s e s s m e nt T he r e f or e : a ) W ha t i s t he be s t r e a di ng m e a s ur e f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ? b) S h oul d t he e f f e c t of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s be m e a s ur e d t hr ough r e a di ng pr ogr e s s ? c ) A r e s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s m or e m o t i va t e d t o r e a d i n t he pr e s e nc e of a t he r a py dog? T he s e que s t i ons pr ovi de a ba s i s f or f ur t he r r e s e a r c h. V i de o obs e r va t i ons a nd i nt e r va l da t a w e r e ke pt t h r oughout t he s t udy f or t r e a t m e nt va l i di t y a nd i nt e r r a t e r r e l i a bi l i t y pur pos e s T he s e da t a w e r e not a na l yz e d, a s t he y di d not r e l a t e t o t he r e s e a r c h que s t i ons F ut ur e r e s e a r c h c oul d i nc l ude t hi s da t a t o e xpl or e t he be ha vi or of t he pa r t i c i pa nt s a nd t he r a py dog or t i m e on t a s k r a t e s dur i ng t he t r e a t m e nt s e s s i ons F ol l ow up que s t i ons ba s e d on t he s e vi de os c oul d f a c i l i t a t e pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s of t he i r pe r c e pt i ons of t he r e a di ng s e s s i o ns i n t he pr e s e nc e a nd a bs e nc e of t he t he r a py dog. A n a na l ys i s of t h i s da t a w oul d e nha nc e t he r e s ul t s of t hi s c ur r e nt r e s e a r c h s t udy. L i m i t e d e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h e xi s t s on t he e f f e c t o f A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py f or s t ude nt s i de nt i f i e d w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s T he l i t e r a t ur e i nc l ude d m ul t i pl e obs e r va t i ona l da t a a nd qua l i t a t i ve s t udi e s ye t l i t t l e e m pi r i c a l r e s e a r c h i s a va i l a bl e on t he popul a t i on e xpl or e d f or t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. F ur t he r r e s e a r c h c oul d i nc l ude a r e pl i c a t e d s t udy i nc l udi ng a l a r ge r po pul a t i on of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s i n w hi c h t o be t t e r ge ne r a l i z e t he e f f e c t s of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py on r e a di ng pr ogr e s s

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83 I m pl i c a t i ons f r om t hi s s t udy c oul d be us e d t o i nf or m t e a c he r e duc a t i on a nd pr e pa r a t i on pr og r a m s on t he r e a di ng be ne f i t s o f i nt e r ve nt i ons s uc h a s A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py. R e s e a r c h hi ghl i ght e d a l i nk be t w e e n i nt r i ns i c m ot i va t i on a nd i nc r e a s e d l i t e r a c y e nga ge m e nt ( G ut hr i e e t a l 1996 ; M e l s on, 2000 ) a nd t hi s r e s e a r c h c oul d i n f or m f ut ur e e duc a t or s t o i nc or por a t e s i m i l a r pr og r a m s or oppor t uni t i e s i nt o t he i r c l a s s r oom s R e a di ng pr ogr e s s a s m e a s ur e d by r e a di ng c om pr e h e ns i on c ont i nue t o be t he f oc us f or t he publ i c s c hool s a nd i ns t r uc t i on i s he a vi l y c o nc e nt r a t e d on t he s e s pe c i f i c a r e a s T he us e of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py s houl d be e xpl or e d a s a n a ppr oa c h t o i nc r e a s e r e a di ng m ot i va t i on a nd p r ogr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r n i ng di s a bi l i t i e s T he t r a di t i ona l us e of s t a nda r di z e d or pe r f o r m a nc e ba s e d a s s e s s m e nt s do not pr ov i de a t r ue m e a s ur e of t he pr ogr e s s of s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s T hi s w a s e vi de nt i n t he us e of t he I nf o r m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y i n t hi s r e s e a r c h s t udy. T he r e f o r e A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py c oul d pr ovi de s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s t he m ot i va t i on or i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng ne c e s s a r y t o a f f e c t t he i r r e a di ng pr og r e s s T he s i gni f i c a nt r e s ul t s of t hi s r e s e a r c h m a y ge ne r a t e m or e i nt e r e s t i n t he us e o f A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s T he r e s ul t s obt a i ne d f r om t hi s s t udy w i l l e nha nc e t he e xi s t i ng l i t e r a t ur e on A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a nd p r ovi de ne w r e s e a r c h on t he e f f e c t f o r r e a di ng p r ogr e s s a m ong s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s C onc l us i on I n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s a l m os t 6 m i l l i on s t ude nt s r e c e i ve s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e r vi c e s a nd of t he s e s t ude nt s a ppr oxi m a t e l y 2. 6 m i l l i on a r e i de nt i f i e d w i t h a s pe c i f i c l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t y ( U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on 2009b) H i s t or i c a l l y, l ow r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a nd l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s ha ve be e n l i nke d t o poo r e duc a t i ona l out c om e s F uc hs e t a l

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84 ( 2001) i ndi c a t e d t ha t i f s t ude nt s e xpe r i e nc e pe r s i s t e nt f a i l ur e w i t h r e a di ng s ki l l s a c qui s i t i on, t he y w i l l be l e s s l i ke l y t o r e a d i n a nd o ut of s c hool T he r e f or e w i t h t he l a c k of i nt e r e s t i n r e a di ng, t he f ounda t i ona l s ki l l s s uc h a s voc a bul a r y gr ow t h a nd s c he m a t i c de ve l opm e nt e l e m e nt s ne c e s s a r y f or p r of i c i e nt r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on, a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d ( F uc hs e t a l 2001 ) W he n t he s e s t ude nt s a r e not r e a di ng f or e nj oym e nt t he y a r e l e s s m ot i va t e d t o r e a d a nd not pr a c t i c i ng t he s ki l l s a c qui r e d t hr ough r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on ( L e nt e r s 2006 ) S t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s of t e n s t r uggl e w i t h r e a di ng f l ue nc y a nd r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on, a s w e l l a s ot he r c om p one nt s of t he r e a di ng pr oc e s s I nnova t i ve i ns t r uc t i ona l a ppr oa c he s a nd r e s e a r c h ba s e d s t r a t e gi e s ha ve be e n i m pl e m e nt e d a s a m e a ns t o i nc r e a s e r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt a m ong s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py i s one a ppr oa c h t ha t ha s be e n us e d i n va r i ous c a pa c i t i e s but l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h e xi s t s r e ga r di ng i t s us e i n t he a r e a of r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt w i t h s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s T hi s s t udy w a s de s i gne d t o a ddr e s s t he ga p t ha t e xi s t e d i n t he l i t e r a t ur e r e ga r d i ng t he us e of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a s a n e f f e c t i ve s t r a t e gy t o i m pr ove r e a di ng pr og r e s s a nd i nt e r e s t a m ong t he t hr e e pa r t i c i pa nt s of t hi s s t udy. F i ndi ngs s upp or t e d t he us e of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py a s a n a ppr oa c h t o i nc r e a s e r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a s m e a s ur e d by t he t ot a l a m ount o f t i m e t he pa r t i c i pa nt s e l e c t e d t o r e a d dur i ng t he t r e a t m e nt pha s e s D ur i ng t he t r e a t m e nt pha s e s t he s t ude nt s r e a d f or a n a ve r a ge of 4 04 m o r e m i nut e s i n t he pr e s e nc e of t he t he r a py dog. A ddi t i ona l l y, t he i ndi vi dua l r e s ul t s i ndi c a t e d a s i gni f i c a nt i nc r e a s e i n t he t ot a l a m ount of t i m e r e a d dur i ng t he t r e a t m e nt pha s e s

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85 T he pa r t i c i pa nt s r e s pons e s t o t he i r e xpe r i e nc e r e a di ng t o t he t he r a py do g i ndi c a t e d pr om i s i ng r e s ul t s a s t he s t ude nt s i ndi c a t e d a m ot i va t i on t o r e a d a nd pos i t i ve f e e l i ngs a s s oc i a t e d w i t h t he t he r a py dog. A ddi t i on a l l y, t he pa r t i c i pa nt s m a de e m ot i ona l a nd s e nt i m e nt a l c onne c t i ons t o t he t he r a py dog o f t e n de s c r i bi ng t he i r e xpe r i e n c e i n t e r m s of f r i e nds hi p. T he s e r e s ul t s s uppor t t he l i t e r a t ur e o n t he e f f e c t s o f A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py t o pr ovi de a s our c e of unc ondi t i ona l l ove a n out l e t f or s t ude nt s de s i r e t o e xpr e s s t ha t l ove a nd a s t r a t e gy t o bui l d a r a ppo r t w i t h t he s t ude nt on r e a di ng p r ogr e s s ( B os s a r d, 1944; L e vi ns on s 1997 ) T he r e f o r e t he us e of A ni m a l A s s i s t e d T he r a py f o r s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s i s a n i nnova t i ve r e a di ng i nt e r ve nt i on T he r e s ul t s f r o m t hi s s t udy s uppor t t he be ne f i t s on r e a di ng pr ogr e s s a nd r e a di ng i nt e r e s t a m ong t he pa r t i c i pa nt s i n t hi s s t udy a nd a ne e d f o r a ddi t i ona l r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h.

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86 R e f e r e nc e s A a r on, P G J os hi R M G oode n, R & B e nt um K E ( 2008 ) D i a gnos i s a nd t r e a t m e nt of r e a di ng d i s a bi l i t i e s ba s e d on t he c om pone nt m o de l of r e a di ng: A n a l t e r na t i ve t o t he di s c r e pa nc y m ode l of L D J our nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 41 ( 1) 67 84. A l l i ngt on, R L & J ohns t on, P H ( 2002 ) R e a di ng t o l e a r n: L e s s ons f r om e xe m pl a r y f our t h g r a de c l a s s r oom s N e w Y or k, N Y : G ui l f or d A m e r i c a n H i ppot he r a py A s s oc i a t i on. ( 2009 ) A bo ut A H A R e t r i e ve d f r om w w w a m e r i c a nhi ppot he r a pya s s oc i a t i on. or g B e c k, A M ( 2000) T he us e of a ni m a l s t o be ne f i t hum a ns : A ni m a l A s s i s t e d t he r a py. I n F i ne ( E d ) A ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py: T he or e t i c a l f o unda t i ons a nd gui de l i ne s f or pr a c t i c e ( pp 21 37. ) S a n D i e go C A : A c a de m i c P r e s s B i nt z W P ( 1993) R e s i s t a nt r e a de r s i n s e c onda r y e duc a t i on: S om e i ns i ght s a nd i m pl i c a t i ons J our nal of R e adi ng 36, 604 615 B or kow s ki J W & S ne e d, M ( 2006) W i l l N C L B i m pr ove or ha r m publ i c e duc a t i on? H ar v ar d E duc at i onal R e v i e w 76( 4 ) B os s a r d, J H S ( 1944) T he m e nt a l hygi e ne of o w ni ng a dog. M e nt al H y gi e ne 28 408 413. B ur gi n, J & H ughe s G D ( 2009 ) C r e di bl y a s s e s s i ng r e a d i ng a nd w r i t i ng a bi l i t i e s f or bot h e l e m e nt a r y s t ude nt a nd p r ogr a m a s s e s s m e nt A s s e s s i ng W r i t i ng, 14 25 37. B ur r ow s K E A da m s C L & M i l l m a n S T ( 2 008) F a c t or s a f f e c t i ng be ha vi or a nd w e l f a r e of s e r vi c e dogs f or c hi l dr e n w i t h a ut i s m s p e c t r um di s o r de r J our nal of A ppl i e d A n i m al W e l f ar e Sc i e nc e 11 42 62

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87 C l a y, M M ( 1993) R e a di ng r e c ove r y: A gu i de book f or t e a c he r s i n t r a i ni ng. P or t s m out h N H : H e i ne m a nn. C l a y, M M ( 2001) C ha nge ove r t i m e i n c hi l d r e n's l i t e r a c y de ve l opm e nt P or t s m out h, N H : H e i n e m a nn. C l a y, M M ( 2005) A n obs e r va t i on s ur ve y o f e a r l y l i t e r a c y a c hi e ve m e nt P or t s m out h, N H : H e i ne m a nn E duc a t i on. C ohe n, J ( 1998 ) S t a t i s t i c a l P ow e r A na l ys i s f or t h e B e ha vi or a l S c i e nc e s H i l l s da l e N J : L a w r e nc e E a r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s C or c or a n, C A & D a vi s A D ( 2005 ) T he s t udy of t he e f f e c t s of r e a de r s t he a t r e on s e c ond a nd t hi r d gr a de s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s t ude nt s f l ue nc y gr ow t h. R e adi ng I m pr ov e m e nt 42( 2) 105 111 C or nw a l l A & B a w de n, H ( 1992 ) R e a di ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd a ggr e s s i on: A c r i t i c a l r e vi e w J our nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 25 281 2 88. D a yt on S a ka r i M ( 1997 ) S t r ugg l i ng r e a de r s don't w or k a t r e a di ng: T he y j us t ge t t he i r t e a c he r s t o! I nt e r v e nt i on i n Sc hool and C l i ni c 32 ( 5) 295 D e l t a S oc i e t y. ( 2009) W ha t i s A A T ? R e t r i e ve d f r o m : ht t p: / / w w w de l t a s oc i e t y. or g/ P a ge a s px? pi d= 320 D ol phi n A s s i s t e d T he r a py. ( 2009) D ol phi n a s s i s t e d t he r a py e s s e nt i a l s R e t r i e ve d f r om : w w w dol phi na s s i s t e dt he r a py. c om D uns t C J H a m by, D W & T r i ve t t e C M ( 2004 ) G ui de l i ne s f or C a l c ul a t i ng E f f e c t S i z e s f or P r a c t i c e ba s e d R e s e a r c h S ynt he s e s C e nt e r s c ope : E v i de nc e B as e d A ppr oac he s t o E ar l y C hi l dhood D e v e l opm e nt 3 ( 1) 1 10

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88 E l ba um B & V a ughn S ( 2003) F or w hi c h s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s a r e s e l f c onc e pt i nt e r ve nt i ons e f f e c t i ve ? J our nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 36 ( 2 ) 101 108 E l ba um B V a ughn, S H ughe s M T M oody, S W & S c hum m J S ( 2000 ) H ow r e a di ng out c om e s of s t ude nt s w i t h di s a bi l i t i e s a r e r e l a t e d t o i ns t r uc t i ona l g r oupi ng f or m a t s : A m e t a a na l yt i c r e vi e w I n R G e r s t e n, E P S c hi l l e r & S V a ughn ( E ds ) C ont e m por a r y s pe c i a l e duc a t i on r e s e a r c h: S ynt he s e s of t he know l e dge ba s e on c r i t i c a l i ns t r uc t i ona l i s s u e s ( pp. 105 135. ) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s E nt w i s l e D R & A l e xa nde r K L ( 1993 ) E nt r y i nt o s c hool : T he be gi nni ng s c hool t r a ns i t i on a nd e duc a t i ona l s t r a t i f i c a t i on i n t he U ni t e d S t a t e s A nnual R e v i e w of Soc i ol ogy 19 401 423 F a gge l l a L uby, M N & D e s hl e r D D ( 2008) R e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on i n a dol e s c e nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s : W ha t w e know ; w ha t w e ne e d t o l e a r n L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t y R e s e ar c h and P r ac t i c e 23 ( 2 ) 70 78 F a w s on, P C L udl ow B C R e ut z e l D R S ud w e e k s R & S m i t h J A ( 2006 ) E xa m i ni ng t he r e l i a bi l i t y of R unni ng R e c or ds : A t t a i ni ng ge ne r a l i z a bl e r e s ul t s T he J our nal of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h 100( 2) 113 126. F i dos f or F r e e dom I ( 2009) F i dos f or f r e e dom I nc : A n a s s i s t a nc e dog a nd t he r a py dog t r a i ni ng or ga ni z a t i on R e t r i e ve d f r om w w w f i dos f o r f r e e dom o r g F l e t c he r J M & L yon, G R ( 1997) R e a di ng: A r e s e a r c h ba s e d a ppr oa c h. I n W M E ve r s ( E d ) W ha t 's gone w r ong i n A m e r i c a s c l a s s r oom s ? S t a n f or d C A : H oove r I ns t i t ut i on P r e s s

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89 F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2008) S t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e r e s ul t s : S t a t e r e a di ng de m ogr a phi c r e por t R e t r i e ve d f r om w w w f l doe or g F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2009a ) R e a d i n g s c or e s s t a t e w i de c om pa r i s on f or 2001 t o 2008 R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t p: / / f c a t f l doe or g F l or i da D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on. ( 2009b ) S t ude nt pe r f or m a nc e r e s ul t s : S t a t e r e a di ng de m ogr a phi c r e por t R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t ps : / / a pp1. f l doe o r g/ F C A T D e m ogr a phi c s / S e l e c t i ons a s px? l e ve l = S t a t e & s ubj = R e a di ng. F ont a na A & F r e y, J H ( 2000 ) T he i n t e r vi e w : F r om s t r uc t ur e d que s t i ons t o ne got i a t e d t e xt I n N K D e nz i n & Y S L i nc ol n ( E ds ) T he ha ndbook of qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h ( 2nd e d. ) ( pp 645 672. ) T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge P ubl i c a t i ons I nc F ount a s I C & P i nne l l G S ( 1996) G ui de d r e a di ng: G ood f i r s t t e a c hi ng f or a l l c hi l dr e n P o r t s m out h, N H : H e i ne m a nn. F uc hs D F uc hs L S M a t he s P G & L i ps e y, M W ( E ds ) ( 2000) R e a di ng di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n l ow a c hi e vi ng s t ude nt s w i t h a nd w i t hout l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s : A m e t a a na l ys i s M a hw a h, N J : E r l ba um F uc hs D F uc hs L S M a t he s P G L i ps e y, M W & R obe r t s P H ( 2001) I s l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s j us t a f a nc y t e r m f or l ow a c h i e ve m e nt ? A m e t a a na l ys i s of r e a di ng di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n l ow a c hi e ve r s w i t h a n d w i t hout t he l a be l L e a r n i ng D i s a bi l i t i e s S um m i t : B ui l di ng a F ounda t i on f or t he F ut ur e W a s hi ngt on, D C : S pe c i a l E duc a t i on P r ogr a m s

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90 F us a r o, J A & S hi bl e y, I A ( 2008 ) L e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd r e a di ng/ m a t he m a t i c s a c hi e ve m e nt of e i ght h g r a de r s i n t he U S A T he J o ur nal of t he I nt e r nat i onal A s s oc i at i on of Spe c i al E duc at i on, 9 ( 1) 51 56. G a l l M D B or g, W R & G a l l J P ( 1996) E du c a t i ona l r e s e a r c h: A n i nt r oduc t i on ( 6t h e d. ) W hi t e P l a i ns N Y : L ongm a n. G a m s e B C J a c ob, R T H or s t M B oul a y, B & U nl u, F ( 2008 ) R e a di ng F i r s t i m pa c t s t udy: F i na l r e por t ( N C E E 2009 4038 ) I n U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( E d. ) : N a t i ona l C e nt e r f or E duc a t i on E va l ua t i on a nd R e gi ona l A s s i s t a nc e G e r t s e n, R F uc hs L S W i l l i a m s J P & B a ke r S ( 2001) T e a c hi ng r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on s t r a t e gi e s t o s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s : A r e vi e w o f r e s e a r c h. R e v i e w of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h, 71 ( 2) 279 320. G r a nge r B P & K oga n, L ( E ds ) ( 2000) A ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py i n s pe c i a l i z e d s e t t i ngs S a n D i e go, C A : A c a de m i c P r e s s G r e s ha m F M M c I nt yr e L L O l s on T i nke r H D ol s t r a L M c L a ughl i n, V M a i V ( 2004) R e l e va nc e of f unc t i ona l be ha vi or a l a s s e s s m e nt r e s e a r c h f or s c hool ba s e d i nt e r ve nt i ons a nd pos i t i ve be ha vi or a l s uppor t R e s e ar c h i n D e v e l opm e nt al D i s abi l i t i e s 25( 2004) 19 37. G oodm a n, K S ( 1967 ) R e a di ng: A ps yc hol i ngui s t i c gue s s i ng ga m e I n A D F l ur ke y & J X u ( E ds ) O n t he r e vol ut i on of r e a di ng: T he s e l e c t e d w r i t i ngs of K e nne t h S G oodm a n ( pp. 46 58) P or t s m out h, N H : H e i ne m a n n. G oodm a n, K S ( 1975 ) T he r e a di ng pr oc e s s I n A D F l u r ke y & J X u ( E ds ) O n t he r e vol ut i on of r e a di ng: T he s e l e c t e d w r i t i ngs o f K e nne t h S G oodm a n ( pp 94 106) P or t s m out h, N H : H e i ne m a nn.

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91 G oodm a n, K S ( 1998 ) L a ngua ge a nd l e a r ni ng: T ow a r d a s oc i a l pe r s ona l vi e w I n A D F l ur ke y & J X u ( E ds ) O n t he r e v ol ut i on of r e adi ng: T he s e l e c t e d w r i t i ngs of K e nne t h S. G oodm an P or t s m out h N H : H e i ne m a nn. G oodm a n, K S & G oodm a n, Y M ( 1979) L e a r ni ng t o r e a d i s na t ur a l I n A D F l ur ke y & J X u ( E ds ) O n t he r e vol ut i on of r e a di ng: T he s e l e c t e d w r i t i ngs of K e nne t h S G oodm a n ( pp. 352 374) P or t s m out h, N H : H e i ne m a nn. G r a nge r B P & K oga n, L ( E ds ) ( 2000) A ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py i n s pe c i a l i z e d s e t t i ngs S a n D i e go: A c a de m i c P r e s s G r e e n C hi m ne ys ( 2009) A H i s t or y o f G r e e n C hi m ne ys R e t r i e ve d f r om w w w gr e e nc hi m ne ys or g G ut hr i e J T V a n M e t e r P M c C a nn, A D W i gf i e l d, A B e nne t t L P ounds t one C C R i c e M E F a i bi s h, F M H unt B M i t c he l l A M ( 1996 ) G r ow t h o f L i t e r a c y E nga ge m e nt : C ha nge s i n M ot i va t i ons a nd S t r a t e gi e s dur i ng C onc e pt O r i e nt e d R e a di ng I ns t r uc t i on. R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 31( 3) 306 332 H a y, I E l i a s G F i e l di ng B a r ns l e y, R H om e l R & F r e i be r g, K ( 2007) L a ngua ge de l a ys r e a di ng de l a ys a nd l e a r ni ng di f f i c ul t i e s : I nt e r a c t i ve e l e m e nt s r e qui r i ng m ul t i di m e ns i ona l pr ogr a m m i ng J our nal o f L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 40 ( 5 ) 400 409 H i e be r t E H & T a yl or B M ( 2000) B e gi nni ng r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on: R e s e a r c h on e a r l y i nt e r ve nt i ons I n M L K a m i l P B M os e nt ha l P D P e a r s on & R B a r r ( E ds ) H a ndbook of r e a di ng r e s e a r c h ( V ol 3 pp 455 48 2) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um a nd A s s oc i a t e s H e r s e n, M & B a r l ow D H ( 1976) S i ngl e c a s e e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gns : S t r a t e gi e s f or s t udyi ng be ha vi or c ha nge N e w Y o r k, N Y : P e r ga m on P r e s s

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92 H oc k, M F B r a s s e ur I F D e s hl e r D D C a t t s H W M a r qui s J G M a r k, C A e t a l ( 2009 ) W ha t i s t he r e a di ng c om pone nt s ki l l pr o f i l e of a dol e s c e nt s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s i n ur ba n s c hool s ? L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t y Q ua r t e r l y 32, 21 38 H oni g, B ( 1997) P r e ve nt i ng f a i l ur e i n e a r l y r e a di ng pr ogr a m s : A s um m a r y of r e s e a r c h a nd i ns t r uc t i ona l be s t pr a c t i c e I n W M E ve r s ( E d ) W ha t 's gone w r ong i n A m e r i c a s c l a s s r oom s ( pp. 91 116 ) S t a nf o r d, C A : H oove r I ns t i t ut i on P r e s s H or n, C ( 2003 ) H i gh s t a ke s t e s t i ng a nd s t ude nt s : S t oppi ng or pe r pe t ua t i ng a c yc l e of f a i l ur e ? T he or y i nt o P r ac t i c e 42 ( 1) 30 41 H ughe s K ( 2002) S e e s pot r e a d. P ubl i c L i br ar i e s 41 ( 6 ) 328 330 I E S N a t i ona l C e nt e r f o r E duc a t i on S t a t i s t i c s ( 200 9) T he N A E P r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt l e ve l s R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t p: / / nc e s e d. gov / na t i ons r e por t c a r d/ r e a di ng/ a c hi e ve a s p I nt e r m ount a i n T he r a py A ni m a l s ( 2009 ) R e a d pr o gr a m R e t r i e ve d f r om w w w t he r a pya ni m a l s or g I vy, G ( 1999) A m ul t i c a s e s t udy i n m i ddl e s c hool : C om pl e xi t i e s a m ong young a dol e s c e nt r e a de r s R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 34, 172 192 J a l ongo, M R A s t or i no T & B om boy, N ( 2004 ) C a ni ne vi s i t or s : T he i nf l ue nc e of t he r a py dogs on young c hi l d r e n's l e a r ni ng a nd w e l l be i ng i n c l a s s r oom s a nd hos pi t a l s E ar l y C hi l dhood E duc at i on, 32 ( 1) 9 16. J ue l C ( 198 8) L e a r ni ng t o r e a d a nd w r i t e : A l ong i t udi na l s t udy of 54 c hi l d r e n f r om f i r s t t hr ough f ou r t h g r a de s J our nal O f E duc at i onal P s y c hol ogy 80 4 37 447 K a va l e K A & R e e c e J H ( 1992) T he c ha r a c t e r of l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s : A n I ow a pr of i l e L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t y Q uar t e r l y 15 ( 2 ) 74 9 4.

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93 K a z di n, A E ( 1982 ) S i ngl e c a s e r e s e a r c h de s i gn: M e t hods f or c l i ni c a l a nd a ppl i e d s e t t i ngs N e w Y or k, N Y : O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s I nc K e nne dy, C H ( 2005 ) S i ngl e c a s e de s i gns f or e duc a t i ona l r e s e a r c h B os t on, M A : P e a r s on. L a z a r us B D & C a l l a ha n, T ( 2000) A t t i t ude s t o w a r d r e a di ng e xpr e s s e d by e l e m e nt a r y s c hool s t ude nt s di a gnos e d w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s R e adi ng P s y c hol ogy 21 271 282. L e r ne r J ( 2000) L e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s : T he or i e s d i a gnos i s a nd t e a c hi ng s t r a t e gi e s B os t on, M A : H ought on M i f f l i n L e vi n, D P ( 2006) T i ps f or pr ac t i c i ng r e adi ng at hom e t o i nc r e as e r e adi ng f l ue nc y : T he H e l p G r oup U C L A N e ur ops yc hol ogy P r ogr a m L e vi ns on, B M ( 1962) T he dog a s c o t he r a pi s t M e nt al H y gi e ne 46 59 65. L e vi ns on, B M ( 1984) H um a n/ c om pa ni on a ni m a l t he r a py. J our nal of C ont e m por ar y P s y c hot he r apy 14 ( 2) 131 144 L e vi ns on, B M ( 1997) P e t o r i e nt e d c hi l d ps yc hot he r a py ( 2nd e d ) S p r i ngf i e l d M A : C ha r l e s C T hom a s L e w i s L S ( 2003) W i l l e duc a t i on r e f or m c r e a t e m or e oppor t uni t y? Soc i e t y 40 57 61. L udw i g, J M i l l e r W R ope r K S u r i a n, J & T i dba l l K ( 2008 ) A r e D I E B E L S a nd r unni n g r e c or ds e f f e c t i ve t ool s f or gu i di ng c l a s s r oom t e a c he r s t ow a r ds c hoos i ng i nt e r ve nt i ons f or s t ude nt s a t r i s k o f r e a di ng f a i l ur e R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t p: / / w w w oa i s d. or g/ 109 21056115915200/ bl a nk/ br ow s e a s p? a = 383& B M D R N = 2 000& B C O B = 0& c = 55156.

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94 M a l l on, G P R os s S B & R os s L ( E ds ) ( 200 0) D e s i gni ng a nd i m pl e m e nt i ng a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py pr ogr a m s i n he a l t h a nd m e nt a l he a l t h or ga ni z a t i ons S a n D i e go, C A : A c a de m i c P r e s s M c D e r m ot t P A G ol dbe r g, M M W a t ki ns M W S t a nl e y, J L & G l ut t i ng, J J ( 2006) A na t i onw i de e pi de m i o l ogi c m ode l i ng s t udy of L D : R i s k, pr ot e c t i on, a nd uni nt e nde d i m pa c t J our nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 39 ( 3) 230 251. M c G i l l F r a nz e n, A Z m a c h, C S ol i c K & Z e i g J L ( 2006) T he c onf l ue nc e o f t w o pol i c y m a nda t e s : C or e r e a di ng p r ogr a m s a nd t h i r d gr a de r e t e nt i on i n F l o r i da T he E l e m e nt ar y Sc hool J our nal 107 ( 1 ) 67 91 M e l s on, G F ( E d. ) ( 2000 ) C om pa ni on a ni m a l s a nd t he de ve l opm e nt o f c hi l dr e n: I m pl i c a t i ons of t he bi ophi l i a hypot he s i s S a n D i e g o, C A : A c a de m i c P r e s s M i l l e r K ( 2004 ) A ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py ( A A T ) : T he he al i ng pow e r of t he f our f oot e d c o t he r api s t E a u C l a i r e W I : M e di c a l E duc a t i ona l S e r vi c e s I nc M or ga n, P L F a r ka s G T u f i s P A & S pe r l i ng R A ( 2008) A r e r e a di ng a nd be ha vi or pr obl e m s r i s k f a c t or s f o r e a c h ot he r ? J ou r nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 41 ( 5) 417 436 M us t i R a o, S & C a r t l e dge G ( 2007 ) E f f e c t s of a s uppl e m e nt a l e a r l y r e a di ng i nt e r v e nt i on w i t h a t r i s k u r ba n l e a r ne r s T opi c s i n E ar l y C hi l dhood Spe c i al E duc at i on, 27 ( 2) 70 85. N a t i ona l A c c e s s i bl e R e a di ng A s s e s s m e nt P r oj e c t s ( N A R A P ) ( 2007) D e f i ni ng r e a di ng pr of i c i e nc y f o r a c c e s s i bl e l a r ge s c a l e a s s e s s m e nt s : S om e gui di ng p r i nc i pl e s a nd i s s ue s R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t p: / / w w w na r a p. i n f o/ publ i c a t i ons / r e por t s / de f i ni n gr e a di ngpr of ht m

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95 N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e f o r L i t e r a c y. ( 1998) F a s t f a c t s o n l i t e r a c y & f a c t s he e t on c or r e c t i ona l e duc a t i on. N e a l D & S c ha nz e nba c h, D W ( 2007) L e f t be h i nd by de s i gn: P r of i c i e nc y c ount s a nd t e s t ba s e d a c c ount a bi l i t y. C hi c a go, I L : U ni ve r s i t y of C hi c a go P r e s s N e l s on, J M & M a ns e t W i l l i a m s on, G ( 2006) T he i m pa c t of e xpl i c i t s e l f r e gul a t or y r e a di ng c om pr e he ns i on s t r a t e gy i ns t r uc t i on on t he r e a di ng s pe c i f i c s e l f e f f i c a c y, a t t r i but i ons a nd a f f e c t o f s t ude nt s w i t h r e a di ng di s a bi l i t i e s L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t y Q uar t e r l y 29 ( S um m e r ) 213 230. N e um a n, S B & M c C or m i c k, S ( 20 00) A c a s e f or s i ngl e s ubj e c t e xpe r i m e nt s i n l i t e r a c y r e s e a r c h. I n M K a m i l P B M os e nt ha l P D P e a r s on & R B a r r ( E ds ) H a ndbook of r e a di ng r e s e a r c h: V ol um e I I I ( pp 18 1 194) M a hw a h, N J : L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s N e w l i n, R B ( 2003a ) P a w s f or r e a di ng: A n i nnov a t i ve pr ogr a m t ha t us e s dogs t o he l p ki ds r e a d be t t e r Sc hool L i br ar y J our nal 49 ( 6 ) 43 44. N i l s s on, N L ( 2008) A c r i t i c a l a na l ys i s of e i ght i nf or m a l r e a di ng i nve nt or i e s T he R e adi ng T e ac he r 61 ( 7 ) 526 536 N oor t ga t e W V d. & O nghe na P ( 2003) C om b i ni ng s i ngl e c a s e e xpe r i m e nt a l da t a us i ng hi e r a r c hi c a l l i ne a r m ode l s Sc hool P s y c hol o gy Q uar t e r l y 18 ( 3) 325 346 O s bor n, J F r e e m a n, A B ur l e y M W i l s on, R J one s E & R yc he ne r S ( 2007) E f f e c t of t ut or i ng on r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt f o r s t ude nt s w i t h c ogni t i ve di s a bi l i t i e s s pe c i f i c l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s a nd s t ude nt s r e c e i vi n g t i t l e I s e r vi c e s E duc at i on and T r ai ni ng i n D e v e l opm e nt al D i s abi l i t i e s 42 ( 4) 467 474

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96 P a r i s ( 2003 ) F A Q s a bout I R I s C e nt e r f or t he I m p r ov e m e nt of E a r l y R e a di ng A c hi e ve m e nt T he R e adi ng T e ac he r 56( 6 ) p578. P a t t e n, M L ( 2007) U nde r s t a ndi ng R e s e a r c h M e t hods : A n O ve r vi e w of t he E s s e nt i a l s G l e nda l e C A : P yr c z a k P ub l i s hi ng. P e t e r s on, L ( 1997) D r R os s R x f or t r oubl e d ki ds : L ove unde r s t a ndi ng a nd 38 0 a ni m a l s B i ogr aphy 1 ( 11) 30 36. P i nne l l G S P i kul s ki J W i xs on, K K C a m pbe l l J G ough P & B e a t t y, A ( 1995 ) L i s t e ni ng t o c hi l d r e n r e a d a l oud U npubl i s he d m a nus c r i pt W a s hi ngt on, D C P l a nt y, M ( 2008 ) T he c ondi t i on of e duc a t i on. R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t p: / / s f x. f c l a e du. pr oxy us f e du/ us f ? @ r f t a ui ni t = M & r f t ge nr e = book& r f t ye a r = 20 08@ r f t a uf i r s t = M i c ha e l & @ r f t a ul a s t = P l a nt y& r f t a t i t l e = T he C ondi t i on of E duc a t i on P ool e D ( 2008 ) I nt e r a c t i ona l di f f e r e nt i a t i on i n t h e m i xe d a bi l i t y g r oup: A s i t ua t e d vi e w of t w o s t r uggl i ng r e a de r s R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 43 ( 3) 228 250 R a nkhor n, B E ng l a nd, G C ol l i ns S M L oc ka v i t c h, J F & A l g oz z i ne B ( 199 8) E f f e c t s of t he f a i l ur e f r e e r e a di ng pr ogr a m on s t ud e nt s w i t h s e ve r e r e a di ng di s a bi l i t i e s J our nal of L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s 31( 3) 307 312 R e e ve s A R ( 2004) A dol e s c e nt s t a l k a bout r e a di ng: e xpl or i ng r e s i s t a nc e t o a nd e nga ge m e nt w i t h t e xt N e w a r k, D E : I nt e r na t i ona l R e a di ng A s s oc i a t i on. R e a di nga z c om ( 2009) R e t r i e ve d f r om : ht t p: / / w w w r e a di nga z c om / gui de d/ r un r e c / s c or i ng. h t m l

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97 R obe r t s G T o r ge s e n, J K B oa r dm a n, A & S c a m m a c c a N ( 2008) E vi de nc e ba s e d s t r a t e gi e s f or r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on of ol de r s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t i e s R e s e ar c h and P r ac t i c e 23 ( 2 ) 63 69. R oe B D B ur ns P C ( 2007 ) I nf or m a l R e a di ng I nve nt or y: P r e p r i m e r t o T w e l f t h G r a de S e ve nt h E di t i on B e l m ont C A : W a ds w or t h C e nga ge L e a r ni ng. R ol l i n, D B E ( 2006 ) F or e w or d I n A H F i ne ( E d. ) H a ndbook on a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py: T he or e t i c a l f ounda t i ons a nd gui de l i ne s f o r pr a c t i c e ( 2nd e d. pp 534 ) : S a n D i e go, C A : A c a de m i c P r e s s R os s J A ( 2004) E f f e c t s of r unni ng r e c or ds a s s e s s m e nt on e a r l y l i t e r a c y a c hi e ve m e nt T he J our nal of E duc at i onal R e s e ar c h, 97( 4) S A S f or W i ndow s 9. 2 ( 2002 2008) S A S I ns t i t ut e I nc C a r y, N C S c hool D i s t r i c t o f P a s c o C ount y. ( 2008) B ui l di ng a f ounda t i on f or s uc c e s s L a nd O L a ke s S c r uggs T E & M a s t r opi e r i M A ( 2002) O n b a bi e s a nd ba t hw a t e r : A ddr e s s i ng t he pr obl e m s of i de nt i f i c a t i on o f l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s L e ar ni ng D i s abi l i t y Q uar t e r l y 25 ( 3) 155 168 S e i dm a n, I ( 199 8) I n t e r vi e w i ng a s qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h: A gui de f or r e s e a r c he r s i n e duc a t i on a nd t he s oc i a l s c i e nc e s N e w Y or k, N Y : T e a c he r s C ol l e ge P r e s s S e o, S B r ow ne l l M T B i s hop, A G & D i ng l e M ( 2008 ) B e gi nni ng s pe c i a l e duc a t i on t e a c he r s c l a s s r oom r e a di ng i ns t r uc t i on: P r a c t i c e s t ha t e nga ge e l e m e nt a r y s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng d i s a bi l i t i e s E x c e pt i onal C hi l dr e n, 75 ( 1 ) 97 122.

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98 S ha na ha n, T ( 2008 ) I nt r oduc t i on t o t he r e por t o f t he na t i ona l e a r l y l i t e r a c y pa ne l D e v e l opi ng E ar l y L i t e r ac y : R e por t of t he N at i onal E ar l y L i t e r ac y P ane l ( pp. 21 23) : N a t i ona l I ns t i t ut e f o r L i t e r a c y. S i m m ons D C F uc hs L S F uc hs D M a t he s P & H odge J P ( 1995 ) E f f e c t s of e xpl i c i t t e a c hi ng a nd pe e r t ut o r i ng on t he r e a di ng a c hi e ve m e nt of l e a r ni ng di s a bl e d a nd l ow pe r f or m i ng s t ude nt s i n r e gul a r c l a s s r oom s T he E l e m e nt ar y Sc hool J our nal 95 ( 5 ) 387 408 S t a f f or d F E ( 2000 ) R unni ng r e a di ng r e c or ds : A n e f f e c t i ve i ndi vi dua l i z e d a s s e s s m e nt f or t he r e gul a r pr i m a r y c l a s s r oom T he D e l t a K app a G am m a B ul l e t i n 66 ( 3) 50 57. S t a novi c h, K E ( 1986) M a t t he w e f f e c t s i n r e a di n g: S om e c ons e que nc e s of i ndi vi dua l di f f e r e nc e s i n t he a c qui s i t i on of l i t e r a c y. R e adi ng R e s e ar c h Q uar t e r l y 21 361 407. S t r a us s A & C or bi n, J ( 1998) B a s i c s of qua l i t a t i ve r e s e a r c h: T e c hni que s a nd pr oc e dur e s f or de ve l opi ng gr ounde d t he or y ( 2nd e d. ) T hous a nd O a ks C A : S a ge S w a ns on, H L ( 1999 ) I nt e r ve nt i on r e s e a r c h f or s t ude nt s w i t h l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s : A m e t a a na l ys i s of t r e a t m e nt out c om e s K e ys t o S uc c e s s f ul L e a r ni ng S um m i t W a s hi ngt on, D C T a w ne y, J W & G a s t D L ( 1984) S i ngl e s ubj e c t r e s e a r c h i n s pe c i a l e duc a t i on C ol um bus O H : C ha r l e s E M e r r i l l P ubl i s hi ng C om pa ny. T e a c hi ngL D ( 2009) U nde r s t a ndi ng l e a r ni ng di s a bi l i t i e s R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t p: / / w w w t e a c hi ngl d. or g / unde r s t a ndi ng/ de f a ul t h t m

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99 T he r a py D ogs I nt e r na t i ona l ( 2009) T a i l w a ggi n' t ut or s : T D I 's r e a di ng pr og r a m R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t p: / / w w w t di dog. o r g/ O ur P r ogr a m s a s px? P a ge = C hi l dr e n+ R e a di ng+ t o+ D ogs T odm a n, J B & D uga r d, P ( 2001 ) S i ngl e c a s e a nd s m a l l n e xpe r i m e nt a l de s i gns L ondon, E ngl a nd: L a w r e nc e E r l ba um A s s oc i a t e s P ubl i s he r s T ol a nd, J & B oyl e C ( 2008) A ppl yi ng c ogni t i ve be ha vi our a l m e t hods t o r e t r a i n c hi l dr e n's a t t r i but i ons f o r s uc c e s s a nd f a i l ur e i n l e a r ni ng. Sc hool P s y c hol ogy I nt e r nat i onal 29 ( 3) 286 302 U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2009a ) E d G ov. R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t p: / / a ns w e r s e d. gov/ c gi bi n/ e duc a t i on. c f g/ php / e ndus e r / s t d_a dp. php? p_f a qi d= 4 U S D e pa r t m e nt of E duc a t i on ( 2009b) I D E A da t a R e t r i e ve d f r om ht t ps : / / w w w i de a da t a or g/ t a bl e s 30t h% 5C a r _1 3. ht m W e r ne r E ( 1993) R i s k, r e s i l i e nc e a nd r e c ove r y: P e r s pe c t i ve s f r om t he K a ua i l ongi t udi na l s t udy. D e v e l opm e nt and P s y c hopat hol ogy 5 503 513 Y a t e s S L & N a ge l S ( 1997 ) H ow do w e know J ohnny c a n r e a d? T hr us t f or E duc at i onal L e ade r s hi p 26 ( 5) 22 25.

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100 A ppe ndi c e s

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101 A ppe ndi x A : P a r t i c i pa t i on S e l e c t i on F or m S t u d e n t s N a m e ( L a s t F i r s t ) C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r / G r a d e I E P S L D ( Y / N ) S A T / F C A T r e a d i n g s c o r e V e r b a l S k i l l s ( H L ) I n t e r e s t i n D o g s ( Y / N ) N a t i v e E n g l i s h S p e a k e r ( Y / N )

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102 A ppe ndi x B : R e a di ng a nd A s s e s s m e nt M a t r i x D i s t r i c t E l e m e nt a r y R e a di ng M a t r i x 2008 2009 K i nde r ga r t e n 1 s t G r a de 2 n d G r a de 3 rd G r a de 4 t h G r a de 5 t h G r a de R unni ng R e c or d E nd of Y e a r ( E O Y ) 3 4/ C 16/ I 28/ M 38 40/ P R 50/ S 60/ V L e xi l e ( E O Y ) 550 700 650 800 750 800 S A T S t a ni ne 5 6 51 s t P e r c e nt i l e

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112 A ppe ndi x E : O bs e r va t i ona l L og S t ude nt / D a t e : X X X 12/ 18/ 09 P ha s e / S e s s i on: B 2 9 B e gi nni ng obs e r va t i on t i m e : 11: 55 E ndi ng O bs e r va t i on T i m e : 12: 15 P a r t i c i pa nt s B e ha vi or D og s B e ha vi or 11: 57: r e a di ng, no a t t e nt i on t o dog r oc ki ng ba c k a nd f or t h l a yi ng ne xt t o ha ndl e r a w a y f r o m s t ude nt ha ndl e r pe t t i ng a nd f i xi ng w hi s ke r s 11: 59: r e a di ng, no a t t e nt i on t o dog l a yi ng dow n a s l e e p ne xt t o ha ndl e r 12: 01: r e a di ng qui e t l y, no a t t e nt i on t o dog s a m e / no c ha nge 12: 03: s a m e / no c ha nge s a m e / no c ha nge ha ndl e r pe t t i ng dog 12: 05: s a m e / no c ha nge s a m e / no c ha nge 12: 07 s i t t i ng a ga i ns t w a l l s how i ng pi c t ur e t o dog s l e e pi ng ne xt t o ha ndl e r 12: 09: r e a di ng a nd pe t t i ng dog s be l l y c om m e nt e d on noi s e c om i ng f r om dog M ove d pos i t i ons c l os e r t o s t ude nt l a yi ng on s i de l e t t i ng s t ude nt pe t he r 12: 11 r e a di ng w hi l e dog m ove d l a ughe d a t dog s s ne e z e dog got up a nd w a l ke d a w a y f r om a r e a t ow a r d door ha ndl e r m ove d dog ba c k t o a r e a 12: 13 r e a di ng r e s t i ng a ga i ns t w a l l no a t t e nt i on t o dog dog l a i d ba c k dow n 12: 15 C ha pt e r 10, I ve r e a d a l ot T hi s i s t he l a s t c ha pt e r R e a di ng, no a t t e nt i on t o dog. E N D O F B O O K dog l a yi ng ne xt t o s t ude nt s f oo t

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114 A ppe ndi x G : S A S C ode M u l t i l e ve l M od e l i n g C od e d at a j 2; s e t j 1; y= y1; pha s e = pha s e 1; t i m e = t i m e ; pe r s on= 1; out pu t ; y= y2; pha s e = pha s e 2; t i m e = t i m e ; pe r s on= 2; out pu t ; y= y3; pha s e = pha s e 3; t i m e = t i m e ; pe r s on= 3; out pu t ; dr op y1 y2 y3 pha s e 1 pha s e 2 pha s e 3; p r oc s or t ; by pe r s on t i m e ; p r oc p r i n t ; p r oc m i xe d da t a = j 2 c ovt e s t ; c l a s s pe r s on; m ode l y = pha s e / s ol ut i on df m = k r ; r a ndom i nt e r c e pt pha s e / s ub= pe r s on; p r oc m i xe d da t a = j 2 c ovt e s t ; c l a s s pe r s on; m ode l y= / s ol ut i on d f m = kr ; r a ndom i nt e r c e pt pha s e / s ub= pe r s on s ol ut i on; r u n ;

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115 A ppe ndi x H : P r oc e dur a l P r ot oc ol R e a di ng w i t h R e s e a r c he r 1 R e s e a r c he r c onf i r m s w i t h c l a s s r oom t e a c he r t ha t s t ude nt m a y be r e l e a s e d t o r e a d 2. S t ude nt s e l e c t s a book f r om t he de s i gna t e d c l a s s r oom l i b r a r y o r s c hool l i b r a r y a t t he a ppr opr i a t e r e a di ng l e ve l 3. R e s e a r c he r w a l ks w i t h s t ude nt t o de s i gna t e d r e a di ng a r e a i n t he m i ddl e of t he f ou r c l a s s r oom s 4. R e s e a r c he r t e l l s s t ude nt t o be gi n r e a di ng t he boo k a nd t o r e a d unt i l s t ude nt w a nt s t o s t op or r e s e a r c he r w i l l s t op t he s t ude nt a t t w e nt y m i nut e s 5. R e s e a r c he r t e l l s s t ude nt t ha t a s s i s t a nc e m a y be p r ovi de d f or di f f i c ul t w o r ds 6. S t ude nt be gi ns r e a di ng 7. A t s t oppi ng poi nt e i t he r by s t ude nt o r r e s e a r c he r r e s e a r c he r t he n i ndi c a t e s t ha t t he y w i l l now w a l k t o t he i s ol a t e d t e a c he r w or k a r e a t o c om pl e t e t he ne xt r e a di ng s e s s i on 8. R e s e a r c he r s t a r t s vi de ot a pi ng 9. R e s e a r c he r ha nds s t ude nt pr e s e l e c t e d R unni ng R e c or d pa s s a ge a nd gi ve s di r e c t i ons t o r e a d a l oud or s i l e nt l y a nd que s t i ons w i l l be a s ke d f ol l ow i ng t he pa s s a ge 10. U pon c om pl e t i on of bot h pa s s a ge s r e s e a r c he r t ha nks s t ude nt a nd s e nds s t ude nt ba c k t o c l a s s A A T R e a di ng S e s s i on 1. R e s e a r c he r f ol l ow s pr ot oc ol s t e ps 1 3 2. R e s e a r c he r t e l l s s t ude nt t ha t t he y a r e goi ng t o r e a d t o B e c ke t t a nd t he ha ndl e r i s a va i l a bl e t o h e l p w i t h di f f i c ul t w or ds 3. R e s e a r c he r i ndi c a t e s t ha t s e s s i on w i l l be vi de ot a pe d a nd w i l l be pr e s e nt t o obs e r ve t he s e s s i on 4. R e s e a r c he r r e c or ds i nt e r va l da t a e ve r y t w o m i nu t e s of r e a di ng s e s s i on 5. S t ude nt s e l f s t ops or i s s t oppe d r e a di ng a t t w e nt y m i nu t e s 6. S t ude nt i s i nvi t e d t o gi ve B e c ke t t a t r e a t a nd w a t e r t hr ough t he us e of a s qui r t bot t l e 7. R e s e a r c he r w a l ks s t ude nt t o i s ol a t e d t e a c he r w o r k a r e a a nd c ont i nue s w i t h s t e ps 8 10 of pr ot oc ol

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A bout t he A ut hor J ul i e O m odi o G r i e s s gr a dua t e d i n 1994 w i t h a B S de gr e e i n E l e m e nt a r y E duc a t i on a nd l a t e r r e c e i ve d a M a s t e r s of A r t s de g r e e i n V a r yi ng E xc e pt i ona l i t i e s f r om t he U ni ve r s i t y of S ou t h F l o r i da i n 1999. S he e a r ne d he r P h D i n 2010 i n C ur r i c ul um a nd I ns t r uc t i on w i t h a n e m pha s i s i n S pe c i a l E duc a t i on f r om U S F H e r c l a s s r oom t e a c hi ng e xpe r i e nc e r a nge s f r om p r e s c hool t hr ough t hi r d gr a de i n bot h ge ne r a l a nd s pe c i a l e duc a t i on s e t t i ngs I n a ddi t i on t o he r c l a s s r oom e xpe r i e nc e J ul i e O m o di o G r i e s s w a s t he r e c i pi e nt o f t he C a t hy L ynne R i c ha r ds on doc t or a l s c hol a r s hi p a nd e l e c t e d t o s e r ve a s t he s t ude nt r e pr e s e nt a t i ve t o t he T e a c he r E duc a t i on D i vi s i on o f t he C ounc i l f or E xc e pt i ona l C hi l d r e n. S he ha s pr e s e nt e d a t na t i ona l c onf e r e nc e s t a ught u nde r gr a dua t e c our s e s a nd s upe r vi s e d s t ude nt a nd be gi nni ng t e a c he r s H e r r e s e a r c h i nt e r e s t s i nc l ude : t e a c he r e duc a t i on, a ni m a l a s s i s t e d t he r a py, a nd r e s e a r c h ba s e d i ns t r uc t i ona l s t r a t e gi e s f or a l l l e a r ni ng a bi l i t i e s


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Griess, Julie.
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A canine audience :
b the effect of animal-assisted therapy on reading progress among students identified with learning disabilities
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by Julie Griess.
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[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
2010.
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Dissertation (PHD)--University of South Florida, 2010.
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ABSTRACT: This study explored the use of animal-assisted therapy with students identified with a learning disability and limited reading success. Initially, reading progress was defined as the participants' comprehension rate obtained from an oral Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) passage. The nature of the Informal Reading Inventory requires the introduction of more difficult reading passages as the student's comprehension rate increases, potentially masking the overall effect of the intervention. Due to this factor and erratic student performance, which is a common characteristic of students with learning disabilities, obtaining consistent comprehension rates was difficult. Therefore, progress was defined only as total amount of time the student was engaged in reading under each condition. A reversal replication, single case design was implemented to determine the effects of reading to the therapy dog on the students' reading progress as measured by total amount of time read. The analysis indicated a statistically significant increase in the total amount of reading time as determined by the participants in the presence of the therapy dog. Positive student feedback about their experience reading with the therapy dog supported the effect of the intervention on reading progress.
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Advisor: Ann Cranston-Gingras, Ph.D.
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Informal reading inventory
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