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Ecological, behavioral, and curricular interventions to prevent student problem behavior :

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Title:
Ecological, behavioral, and curricular interventions to prevent student problem behavior : an approach to implementing effective practices
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Merritt, Lindsey
Publisher:
University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Classroom
Curriculum
Behavior rating scale
Teacher
Fidelity
Dissertations, Academic -- Child & Family Studies -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: While classroom management has been a highly researched topic in Applied Behavior Analysis, there are few empirically validated methods to effectively disseminate classroom techniques into school settings. There are three main classroom management areas that exist in the literature. These are: a) ecological factors, b) behavior principles, and c) curricular modifications. These three areas have been researched independently and in combination to find best classroom management practices. Although these areas are highly researched, dissemination of these materials into public and private classrooms has fallen far behind. However, researchers are finding specific variables that positively influence the success of programs in the environment. These variables include: (a) selection, (b) coaching and consultation, (c) determining intervention outcomes based on data analysis, (d) contextual fit, (e) social validity, (f) time efficiency, and (g) treatment integrity. The present study utilized these seven variables to train teachers how to create personal classroom management programs using ecological, behavioral, and curricular modifications. Results indicate that the program was effective in training teachers how to create their own classroom management system. In turn, the classroom management system increased appropriate student behavior and decreased inappropriate student behavior.
Thesis:
Thesis (MS)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lindsey Merritt.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.

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University of South Florida
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usfldc doi - E14-SFE0004596
usfldc handle - e14.4596
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SFS0027911:00001


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ABSTRACT: While classroom management has been a highly researched topic in Applied Behavior Analysis, there are few empirically validated methods to effectively disseminate classroom techniques into school settings. There are three main classroom management areas that exist in the literature. These are: a) ecological factors, b) behavior principles, and c) curricular modifications. These three areas have been researched independently and in combination to find best classroom management practices. Although these areas are highly researched, dissemination of these materials into public and private classrooms has fallen far behind. However, researchers are finding specific variables that positively influence the success of programs in the environment. These variables include: (a) selection, (b) coaching and consultation, (c) determining intervention outcomes based on data analysis, (d) contextual fit, (e) social validity, (f) time efficiency, and (g) treatment integrity. The present study utilized these seven variables to train teachers how to create personal classroom management programs using ecological, behavioral, and curricular modifications. Results indicate that the program was effective in training teachers how to create their own classroom management system. In turn, the classroom management system increased appropriate student behavior and decreased inappropriate student behavior.
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Ecological, Behavioral, and Curricular Interventions to Prevent Student Problem Behavior: An Approach to Implementing Effective Practices by Lindsey M. Merritt A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Child and Family Studies College of Behavioral and Community Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: Rose Iovannone, Ph.D. Kim Crosland, Ph.D. Donald Kincaid, Ed.D. Date of Approval: June 28, 2010 Keywords: classroom, curriculum, behavior rating scale, teacher, fidelity Copyright 2010, Lindsey M. Merritt

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Dedication I would like to thank my husband and family for giving me encouragement through all phases of my resear ch study. Without them I would not be where I am today.

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Acknowledgements I would like to thank Dr. Iovannone for her continuous words of encouragement and dedication to help ing me complete this study. Also, I would like to thank the graduate students for participating as resear ch assistants during the study. I could not have completed such a daunti ng task without their help.

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i Table of Contents List of Tables................................................................................................................. ....iii List of Figures ............................................................................................................... .....iv Abstract....................................................................................................................... .........v Introduction................................................................................................................... .......1 Method......................................................................................................................... ......16 Participants.............................................................................................................16 Schools.......................................................................................................16 Teachers.....................................................................................................17 Consent..................................................................................................................17 Ecological-Behavioral-Curricular Pre-Screening Measure.......................18 Procedure...............................................................................................................18 Materials................................................................................................................18 Meeting 1: Initial Meeting.........................................................................19 Activities Between Meeting 1 and Meeting 2............................................24 Meeting 2: Goal Setting.............................................................................25 Meeting 3: Classroom Management Strategies.........................................26 Activities Between Meeting 3 and Meeting 4............................................27 Meeting 4: Coaching..................................................................................27 Coaching Assistance..................................................................................28 Meeting 5: Data Based Decision Making..................................................28 Case 1: Jill..............................................................................................................29 Ecological Strategies.................................................................................. 29 Behavioral Strategies.................................................................................30 Curricular Strategies.................................................................................. 31 Case 2: Amy...........................................................................................................31 Ecological Strategies.................................................................................. 32 Behavioral Strategies.................................................................................3 3 Case 3: Nancy........................................................................................................33 Ecological Strategies...................................................................................33 Behavioral Strategies..................................................................................34 Curricular Strategies................................................................................... 35

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ii Measures................................................................................................................35 Teacher Measures......................................................................................35 Questionnaire About Teachers and Challenging Behaviors..........36 Teacher/Classroom Survey............................................................36 Social Validity Scale......................................................................37 Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale..................................................37 Ecological-Behavioral-Curricula r Pre-Screening Assessment......37 Coaching Checklist........................................................................38 Teacher Fidelity Measure..............................................................39 Student Measures.......................................................................................40 Behavior Rating Scale....................................................................40 Engagement Check II.....................................................................42 Dependent Measures..................................................................................43 Research Design.........................................................................................43 Interobserver Agreement .........................................................................44 EBC Pre-Screening Measure.........................................................44 Engagement Check II.....................................................................45 Social Validity.......................................................................................................45 Results ................................................................................................................................46 Research Question 1: Could the EBC Process effectively coach teachers to increase or impr ove classroom manage ment techniques?.........................46 Baseline Measures; Teacher Outcomes.....................................................46 Teachers and Challenging Behavior Questionnaire.......................47 Coaching Checklist........................................................................50 Pre-Post Measures...................................................................................... 50 EBC Classroom Pre-Screening Measure.......................................50 Post-Test Measures....................................................................................5 2 Teacher Fidelity Measure..............................................................52 Research Question 2: Does the improvement of classroom management skills increase student task engagement?............................................................52 Behavior Rating Scale................................................................................52 Engagement Check II.................................................................................55 Interobserver Agreement...................................................................................................55 Engagement Check II.................................................................................55 EBC Pre-Screening Measure.....................................................................56 Social Validity and Efficacy..............................................................................................56 Social Validity...........................................................................................56 Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale..............................................................58 Discussion..........................................................................................................................60 Research Question 1: C ould the EBC Process effectively coach teachers to incr ease or improve classroom management techniques?.........................61 Behavior Rating Scale................................................................................64 Social Validity and Efficacy......................................................................66

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iii Teacher Variables Impacting Intervention.................................................67 Research Question 2: Does the improvement of classroom management skills increase student task engagement?............................................................68 Engagement Check II.................................................................................68 Relation to Literature............................................................................................. 69 Limitations a nd Future Research Considerations..................................................70 Conclusion.........................................................................................................................73 References..........................................................................................................................74 Appendices.........................................................................................................................82 Appendix A: Recruitment Flier............................................................................83 Appendix B: Recruitment Letter...........................................................................84 Appendix C: Informed Consent Form..................................................................85 Appendix D: Efficacy Scale..................................................................................89 Appendix E: Teacher Demographic Survey.........................................................90 Appendix F: Teacher/Classroom Survey..............................................................97 Appendix G: Social Validity Scales...................................................................101 Appendix H: Pre-Screening Tool........................................................................106 Appendix I: Behavi or Rating Scale....................................................................111 Appendix J: Engagement Check II Data Collection Sheet.................................112 Appendix K: EBC Process Team Manual..........................................................115

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List of Tables Table 1. Curricular, ecological and behavioral references................................................3 Table 2. Teacher and classroom demographics................................................................17 Table 3. Target behavior definitions for the behavior rating scale...................................21 Table 4. Behavior rating scale definitions for Jill.............................................................22 Table 5. Behavior rating scale definitions for Amy..........................................................23 Table 6. Behavior rating s cale definitions for Nancy.......................................................24 Table 7. Strategies used during intervention.....................................................................27 Table 8. Teacher measures timeline..................................................................................40 Table 9. Student measures timeline...................................................................................42 Table 10. Meeting lengths.................................................................................................47 Table 11. Teacher beliefs about challenging behavior.....................................................48 Table 12. Teacher confidence ratings...............................................................................48 Table 13. Effects of challenging behavior........................................................................49 Table 14. EBC Pre-screening scores.................................................................................51 Table 15. Engagement check II scores.............................................................................55 Table 16. Social validity scores........................................................................................57 Table 17. Teachers sense of efficacy scale scores...........................................................59 iv

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List of Figures Figure 1. Inappropriate stude nt behavior ratings on the behavior rating scale.................53 Figure 2. Appropriate student behavior ratings on the behavior rating scale ...................54 v

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vi Ecological, Behavioral, and Curricular Interventions to Prevent Student Problem Behavior: An Approach to Implementing Effective Practices Lindsey Merritt Abstract While classroom management has been a highly researched topic in Applied Behavior Analysis, there are few empiri cally validated methods to effectively disseminate classroom techniques into school settings. There are three main classroom management areas that exist in the literature. These are: a) ecological factors, b) behavior principles, and c) curricular modifications. These three areas have been researched independently and in combination to find best classroom management practices. Although these areas are highly researched, diss emination of these ma terials into public and private classrooms has fallen far behind. However, researchers are finding specific variables that positively influence the succe ss of programs in the environment. These variables include: (a) selection, (b) coach ing and consultation, (c) determining intervention outcomes based on data analysis, (d ) contextual fit, (e) social validity, (f) time efficiency, and (g) treatment integrity. The present study utilized these seven variables to train teachers how to create personal classr oom management programs using ecological, behavioral, and curricular modifica tions. Results indicate that the program was effective in training teachers how to crea te their own classroom management system. In turn, the classroom management system increased appropriate student behavior and decreased inappropriate student behavior.

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Chapter 1 Introduction While specifi c classroom management inte rventions have been highly researched and proven effective, research shows these procedures are not successfully transferred to public classrooms. Recent research suggest s that many classroom management programs available to teachers lack important variab les which hinder their success. (Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005; Stage & Quioz, 1997). Variables have been found to increase the effectiveness of cla ssroom management program implementation, including social validity, coach ing, consultation, and time effici ency. However, many of these implementation variables are not avai lable in existing classroom management programs, nor do they implement empirically validated strategies based on applied behavior analysis (Nationa l Advisory Mental Health Council Workgroup on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Intervention Development and Deployment, 2001). Several meta-analyses have revealed be havior analysis, as well as behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy, to be superior to psychotherapy methods in changing human behavior through behavioral interventions (Kazdin, Bass, Ayres, & Rogers, 1990; Weisz, Weiss, Alicke, & Klotz, 1987). The term beha vioral interventions describes strategies from behavior models including applied behavior analysis (ABA), social learning theory, cognitive behavior theory, and neobehavioristic S-R theory (Gresham, 2004). Although in terventions based on the prin ciples of ABA have been proven effective, there is evidence show ing teachers do not use the strategies 1

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(Wielkiewics, 1995). Several reasons for th is dearth of teacher use are suggested including not being knowledgeab le about strategies (W alke r, 2004), lack of training (Kauffman & Wong, 1991), and selecting stra tegies based on preference and ease of implementation rather than empirical support (Gottfredson & Gottredson, 2001). A review of effective research-based classroom management literature reveals three main categories of interventions including curricular modi fications, behavior principles, and ecological set tings. Curriculum modificati ons include: (a) changing the method of presenting a task or (b) adapting the content. Beha vior principles include: (a) classroom rules, (b) reward systems, and (c) disciplinary actions Ecological settings consist of manipulating: (a) the place in wh ich a behavior occurs, (b) the classroom or activity schedule, or (c) the person or group of pe oples that the activity is associated with. These modifications and principles are us ed to improve classroom management. Empirically validated curricula r, behavioral, and ecological strategies are summarized in Table 1. 2

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Table 1. Curricular, Ecological, and Behavioral Modifi cation References Behavioral Intervention Background references Curricular Modifications Task difficulty Incorporate student interests Task alternation (intersperse activities) Modality (adapt presentation) Format materials Providing choices Adapting student responses/modality Adapting student responses/format/ materials Lannie & Martens (2004) Hinton & Kern (1999) Sailor, Guess, Rutherford, & Baer (1968) Pierce & Schreibman (1994) Neef, Trachtenberg, & Loeb (1991) Tiger, Hanley, & Hernandez (2006) Munro & Stephensen (2009) Armendariz & Umbreit (1999) Ecological Modifications Where (adapt place) When (adapt schedule) Who (adapt staff or grouping) Weinstein (1977) Dooley, Wilczenski, & Torem (2001) Lelaurin & Risley (1972) Behavioral Modifications Reward students independently Reward students in small groups Reward students in whole groups Use 3-5 positively stated rules Robinson, Newby, & Ganzell (1981) Coen (2006) Filcheck, McNeil, & Greco (2004) McGinnis, Frederick, & Edwards (1995) Using these three categories of beha vioral interventions, multi-component strategies have been created for teachers (De Martini-Scully, Bray, & Kehle, 2000; Mottram, Bray, Kehle, Broudy, & Jenson, 2002; Musser, Bray, Kehle, & Jenson, 2001; Stage & Quioz, 1997; Weisz & Hawley, 1998). Multi-component studie s consist of two or more behavioral interventions from one or more categories. Mottram et al. (2002) implemented a multi-component intervention using a multiple baseline across participants design with three male 7-year -old students diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder. Three 7-year-old boys not labeled as having oppositional defiant disorder served as a control in addition to the multiple baseline design. Researchers used 3

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classroom r ules, token economy, response cost, and mystery motivators, which are all interventions in the behavior systems categ ory, to decrease disruptive behavior among participants. Response cost occurs when something is taken away from a person based on inappropriate behavior, and in return, decr eases that behavior. Mystery motivators are secret prizes that children can earn. Results indicated that all thr ee students disruptive behaviors decreased 40% to 43% and conti nued to stay low during follow-up when all treatment interventions were removed and data was taken for three weeks. High treatment acceptability among teachers was indica ted on the social validity scale after the study. Teachers stated a desire to incorporate the intervention into daily instructional practice. Some of the key implementation component s are: (a) selection, (b) coaching and consultation, and (c) determining intervention effectiveness through data analysis. First, selection refers to the methods of choosing a qualified person to disseminate programs into the community to train teachers who w ill be implementing the program. A qualified person refers to someone who has the knowledge about effective practices concerning the program, willingness to learn, good judgment, a nd should be selected according to these criteria. Selection is important because e ffective training cannot be transferred to the trainee unless the trainer has the knowledge a nd the skills to teach the trainee. While there has not been much research involving selection, studies have shown that education and background, exchange of information, and role play/behav ior vignettes were effective techniques used to train program staff (McDaniel, Whentzel, Schmidt, & Maurer, 1994). 4

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Second, coaching and consultation has been proven to effectively increase teachers accurate implem entation of programs into their classrooms. Desired behaviors taught by coaching and consulta tion are heightened when the program trainer has been selected using the criteria from the previous paragraph. Coaching techniques include modeling, role plays, discussi ons, question and answer sess ions, and feedback. Bennett (1987) found that teachers learning informa tion by way of readings, lectures, and discussions had posttest scores that showed an effect size of .50. When the information was given, along with demonstrations, practi ce, and feedback during practice, posttest scores increased to an effect size of 1.31. These results indicate that demonstrations, practice, and feedback during practice were highly beneficial to the accurate implementation of new knowledge. Third, determining intervention outcomes based on data analysis refers to the range of data information that is used to make informed decisions about program outcomes (Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005). Facilitative administration should be used to: (a) he lp teachers determine whether specific interventions are having the intended effects on the students, and (b) to determine the frequency and intensity of st udents behavior change. Th is type of information is necessary so that interventions can be accura tely monitored and manipulated to achieve desired student behavior s (Joyce & Showers, 2002). While there have been many scientifica lly valid multi-component interventions for classroom management, res earch on implementing these pr actices into the community has fallen far behind (National Advisory Me ntal Health Council Workgroup on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Interventi on Development and Deployment, 2001). 5

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Successful programs can only be achieved wh en scien tifically based research is implemented effectively (Washington State Inst itute for Public Policy, 2002). Fixsen et al. (2005) researched 743 articl es pertaining to research impl ementation. A review of the research reveals core implementation components that can be used to successfully achieve implementation of programs. While the key components that Fixsen et al., (2005) discuss he lp to support the transference of knowledge to the trainee, more variables have been found that help increase program acceptability which in turn increase the probability of continued use of the program after the trainer has left. These include: (a) contex tual fit, (b) social validity, (c) time efficiency, and (d) treatment integrity. Contextual fit has been defined by Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, & Flannery (1996) as the consistency of plan procedures with the values, skills, resources, and administrative support of those who must implement the plan. Interventions created s hould be designed with the char acteristics of the person for whom the plan was designed in mind, as well as specific variables, such as family values, and environment. Deitrich (1999) emphasized the importance of paralleling the proposed intervention with current clas sroom practices to ensure treatment acceptability and goodness of fit. If contextual fit is not achieved, the probability of teacher implementation after the trai ner has gone decreases. Social validity refers to the way in which teachers, students, and the rest of society view the meaningfulness of the contents a nd goals in classroom management programs. Telzrow and Beebe (2002) found that teache rs approve interventi ons that are more positive and easy for them to implement, such as modeling, coaching, or token economies. When teachers perceive that the intervention addresses the problem 6

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behaviors at hand, social validity of the intervention is said to be achieved. Deitrich (1999) explains that treatme nt acceptability can be attained when contextual fit has been achieved and interventions have been crea ted to coexist within existing classroom routines. Social validity is an important variable in classroom management programs because it will increase the proba bility that teachers learning a program from a consultant will continue implementing a program after the consultant has left the classroom. Time efficiency refers to the amount of time a pa rticipant needs to spend learning a specific skill or skills in a program as well as the time it will take to incorporate these skills into their daily routines. If a classroom management program takes to long to learn or a large amount of time to implement in the classroom, teachers may be less likely to learn or incorporate the program into their classroom. In a previous study by Slider, Noell, & Williams, (2006) the researchers designed their program to be time efficient. They used three small training packages, inst ruction cards, and videotapes to instruct teachers how to use time out, praise, and inst ruction-giving. The videotape consisted of role plays for each skill and a brief test on th e videotape where the teacher had to identify which step was omitted from the role play. All answers were given at the end of the tape. The video for each skill lasted about 15 to 25 minutes long. The teacher could study these materials on their own time. A multiple baseline including three preschool teachers was used to determine the training effects. Each teacher was give n a pre-test and posttest and was observed in their classroom usi ng these skills. Results indicate that one teacher increased their pre-test score by 6.67% while two other teach ers increased their pre test scores by 33.33%. Results also indicate d and increased use of the skills correctly in the classroom. The time efficient tr aining method characteri zed by the teachers 7

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ability to study the ma nual and video when they wanted to, as well as the brief video clips and small instruction cards, may have been a va riable in the teachers ability to learn the material and apply it to their classrooms. Treatment integrity refers to how closely the teacher adheres to following the interventions exactly as intended. How well the interventions are carried out may positively affect the behavioral outcomes of the interventions (Gresham, 1989). If the program is not being implemented with an acc eptable degree of treatment integrity, then student disruptive behavior may not change, decreasing the social validity of the program and hindering the probability that the teacher will continue the progr am in the future. A review of behaviorally based interventions published between 1980 and 1990 shows that only about 15% of the studies monitored treat ment integrity (Gresham, Gansle, & Noell, 1993). If the interventions are not being implem ented correctly it is harder to connect the dependent variable with the independent variab le, therefore treatment integrity is a vital part to creating an effect ive classroom management program (Gresham, 2004). Furthermore, variables more specifically related to school settings have been found to increase the quality of school-based programs. Payne (2009) polled 544 school principals to inquire about tw o types of school programs: (a) individual-level programs consisting of prevention curriculum, instruct ion, or training, behavi oral programming or behavior modification, counseling, social, psychological, or therapeutic activity, mentoring, tutoring, coaching, or job appr enticeship, and (b) environmental-level programs consisting of improvements to instructional practices, improvements to classroom organization and management prac tices, activities to change or maintain culture, climate, or expectations for behavi or, intergroup relations and school-community 8

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interaction, interventions i nvolving a school planning struct ure or process to ma nage change, and youth participation in school discipline. Surv eys completed by principals indicated schools that were engaged in a pr ogram selection and tr aining process at the local level are more likely to choose standard ized environmental-level programs. Also, programs were implemented with a greater inte nsity when principals were supportive of the programs and the programs could be in tegrated into normal school routines. Reid et al (2003) evaluated a program containing many successful training elements for supervisors of staff working in residential group homes. The program, titled the Carolina Curriculum on Positive Beha vior Supports, was developed under the auspices of the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and Special Needs and the Center for Disability Resources. Supervisors participated in three days (seven hours each day) of classroom training. During these trainings, supervisors learned 19 positive behavior support practices by lecture from a knowledgeable instructor, paper and pencil activities, role-play demonstrations, and in structor feedback. On the fourth day, instructors observed supervisors on-the-job to ensure supervisors were performing skills taught in the class at master y level. If mastery level wa s not observed on-the-job, the instructor provided feedback and observations continued un til supervisors mastered the skills. Supervisors then pa rticipated in a fourth cla ss, which was seven hours long, before completing the program. Supervisors were evaluated on how well they performed and trained residential staff on each of the 19 positive behavior support practices. A onemonth follow-up probe was conduc ted by on-the-job observations. Results indicated that 17% of supervis ors participating in the program met mastery criterion for the observational skills during a pre-test. 33% of supervisors met 9

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ma stery criterion for training staff members during a pre-test. During the post-test probe, 100% of supervisors met mastery criterion for observational skills and training staff members on the 19 positive behavior support pr actices. In addition, 95% of supervisors attending the program reported th e training to be very useful. 99% of supervisors said they would recommend this program to other supervisors. The Carolina Curriculum on Positive Behavior Support uses a knowledgeable instructor, coaching, consultation, and data an alysis to determine the effectiveness of skills training on supervisors. Also, the program contains high scores of social validity. However, there are a few limitations. This program only uses one follow-up probe to ensure treatment integrity of the skills learne d. Also, there is no evaluation as to whether or not implementation of the positive be havior support practices by staff members increases appropriate behaviors in the residential settings. Furthermore, this program consumes a weeks worth of valuable s upervisors time to complete. Given the wealth of information on effective classroom management interventions and key components for successf ul programs and implementation, there are few readily available classroom management programs for teachers (Reid, WebsterStratton, & Hammond, 2003; Dishion & Andrews, 1995). Two classroom management programs, CHAMPS and The Incredible Years Program, have been implemented in school systems (The School Board of Brow ard County, Florida Office of the Interim Superintendent, 2007; Reid, Webster-Stratton, & Hammond, 2003). School districts can buy the CHAMPs progr am to train hundreds of teachers in the district by using manuals and a one day workshop to inform teachers how to use the classroom management program. Consultant s will also provide individual teacher 10

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consultation in the classroom, although it is un clear how long services are provided or for how m any hours the consultant provides th is service in the cl assroom. Some school districts may opt for specific teachers to e ngage in the CHAMPs program. For instance, the Broward County, Florida School District used the CHAMPs program to train incoming teachers. Only 70 out of 813 teachers trained in the 2006-2007 school year had 11 or more years of teaching experience. Teach ers interested in the program who are not in a district already using the CHAMPs program can purchase two CHAMPs books on classroom management for 90 dollars. While the CHAMPs program does not have any empirically validated research conducted on the program, there is some evid ence of the programs success worth noting from the program completed by teachers in Broward County, Florida as well as some potential downfalls to the programs implemen tation. Through the collection of data as noted earlier, researchers found that teacher s completing a pre and post-program survey of their perceptions of cl assroom management knowledge increased their perceptions from 2.5 to 16 points on a 20 point scale. Also, 17 teachers were observed pre and postprogram. Their implementation of CHAM Ps classroom management techniques increased from 29.1% to 51.2%. It should be noted that th e one-group research design used to collect this data does not control for any environmental variables that may have had an effect on the implementation of cl assroom management. The CHAMPs program has collected information via an on-line su rvey from teachers that have completed the program. Survey results indicate that 92% of teachers surveyed thought the objectives were clearly stated, 90% t hought the content was well or ganized, and 88% thought the instructors were effective in delivering the co ntent. 56% of teachers surveyed indicated 11

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that follow-up activities were not helpful. In a 2006-2007 CHAMPs evaluation report, the superintendent st ates that they will l ook into why the followup activities received such a low rating and try to make changes to increase the effectiveness of follow-up activities. While the CHAMPs program seems to have high social validity and what little research has been done looks promising, resear ch using sound research designs, such as group designs or multiple baselines across subj ects should be used to further validate program effectiveness. Only two research articles, which happened to be conducted by the creator of the Incredible Years Program, were f ound (Reid, Webster-Stratton, & Hammond, 2003; Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Hammond, 2004) Reid, Webster-Stratton, & Hammond (2003) explored the Incredible Years program s effectiveness on students, ages 4 to 7, with oppositional defiant disorder by investig ating two year follow-ups. Each child was randomly assigned to parent training, parent plus teacher training, child training, child plus teacher training, parent plus child plus teacher training, or a waitlist for control. For the purpose of this study, only th e parent training plus teacher training, child plus teacher training, and parent plus child plus teacher training will be assessed. The results indicated that treatment res ponse during school was most effe ctive with the child training plus teacher training. Parent tr aining plus teacher training re sulted in no effect and parent training plus child training, pl us teacher training had a 16% increase in chil d appropriate behavior at school. Besides the Incredible Years program, some of the reasons for the increases in student appropria te behavior may be the introduction of new therapies during the two year period. 49.5% of the children received medication, 39.6% were placed in special education, and 26.7 became involved with child therapy during those two years. 12

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These confounds ma y discredit the Incredible Years program as being the sole change agent for student behavior. The EcologicalBehavior al-Curricular (EBC) process. was designed to closely resemble University of South Floridas Pr event-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) project, which utilized ABA principles and positive behavior su pports that are effective yet easy to do in a typical classroom context. The program us ed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether it was a more effective behavioral intervention than services as usual. The PTR program was funded by the U.S. Depa rtment of Education (H324P040003) and was developed to help school-based teams develop robust behavior support plans on a tertiary level (University of South Florida & University of Colora do at Denver, 2006). Research is currently being implemented to help standardize the PTR program. During the PTR program, teachers met in dividually with consultants that had knowledge about applied behavior analysis. Meetings were conducted on the teachers school campus. The process was based upon teacher identification of one student with severe behaviors which hindered their success in the classroom. A team comprised of a teacher, consultant, and any other significant person in the targeted childs life that wanted to join the team was created. Team members participated in five meetings that addressed: (a) teaming, (b) goal setting, (c) functional behavioral assessment, (d) training and coaching, and (e) evaluation. A manual w ith chapters directly relating to each meeting topic helped the teacher identif y academic, social, and behavioral goals, functions of problem behaviors, and relevant interventions to help decrease disruptive behavior. 13

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There are several articles that validate PTRs success in effectively guiding school staff through developing a behavior support pl an and effectively coaching school staff on how to im plement the behavior support plan in the classroom. In addition, the behavior support plan effectively decrea sed disruptive behavior and in creased appropriate behavior within the children targeted. (Dunlap, Iovannone, Wilson, Kincaid, and Strain 2010; Dunlap, Iovannone, Wilson, Strain, & Kin caid 2010; Iovannone et al 2009). The PTR process was chosen as a model when developing the EBC process due to PTRs core key components in which research states are crucial to an effective program. These include: (a) PTRs use of a qualif ied consultant having knowledge of research based behavioral practices to guide teachers, (b) PTRs use of coaching and consultation to educate teachers on how to correctly im plement behavioral strategies in their classroom, and (c) PTRs use of data analysis to evaluate the effec tiveness of the support and make changes. In addition, the PTR pro cess was designed to involve teachers in all steps of developing and implementing the behavior support plans to increase the likelihood of contextual fit, social validity, and treatment integrity. The EBC process incorporated a prescriptiv e, teacher driven approach to develop and implement classroom management interv entions. These included helping the teacher identify classroom goals, understand their strengths and weaknesses in classroom management, and integrate teacher ideas into a new classroom management program. The program was designed to be as time efficient as possible with five meetings located in the teachers choice of setting and tim e lasting approximately one hour for each meeting. Teachers learning the process were e xpected to collect data on a daily basis to 14

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help guide their classroom ma nagement interventions. There were two research questions. 1. Could the EBC process effectively coach teachers to increase or improve classroom management techniques? 2. Does this improvement of classroom management skills increase student task engagement? 15

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Chapter 2 Method The present study intend ed to explore two questions: (1) whether teachers can improve their use of classroom management interventions using the EBC Process Manual coupled with guidance from a researcher a nd (2) whether the impr ovement of classroom management skills increase student task e ngagement. This section will include the method in which the study was conducted and each participants classroom management plan. Participants Schools Participants in the study were from two elementary schools located in two Central Florida area public school district s. Using each school districts website, thirty schools located closest to the res earchers residence were identified. The researcher communicated with each schools pr incipal by phone to secure permission to recruit teachers. If a principal indicated in terest, a recruitment letter (Appendix B) for dissemination to teachers was provided to th e principal. The principal could choose to receive an electronic version of the lette r or a hard copy. A flyer (Appendix A) highlighting participants potential positive outcomes in the study was also given to schools contingent upon their willingness to post them around campus in high traffic areas such as the teacher lounge. The resear chers goal was to recruit between three to five teachers from at least two different sc hools. Of the 30 schools contacted, 11 schools 16

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were willing to le t the researcher post flie rs and send out recruitment information via email. Teachers Three teachers from two school districts responded to the recruitment letter. After being provided a description of the study, one teacher decided not to participate. A third teacher in a different school di strict was recruite d by word of mouth from a committee member. All three teacher s were White females who taught general education students and were the primary academ ic instructors for their students. Two teachers were located in rural schools, while the third teacher was located in a suburban school. Table 2 displays teacher a nd classroom demographic information. Table 2. Teacher and classroom demographics Teacher Degree and Certificate Years Exp Grade Taught Class size Number typically developing children Number children with disabilities Jill Bachelors/Standard Certificate 2216 15 1 Amy Bachelors/Standard Certificate 20118 18 0 Nancy Masters/Standard Certificate 1K23 23 0 Consent Prior to beginning the study, informed consents/assents approved by the researchers university Institutional Review Board was obtained for all potential teacher participants. In addition, approval to conduct the study in the schools was granted from each districts research appr oval office. Teachers who responded to the recruitment flyers met with the researcher to receive an explanation of the project. 17

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Teachers who agreed to participate s igned th e informed consent document (see Appendix C) Ecological, Behavioral, Curricu lar Pre-Screening Measure (EBC) The EBC measure is an instrument that examines teac her use of pre-existi ng empirically validated ecological, behavioral, and curricular strategi es during targeted routines. The measure was used to determine whether the three part icipating teachers qualified for inclusion in the study. If the teacher was using 50% or less of the strategies lis ted in the EBC, she was eligible to be included in the study. Each teacher iden tified a classroom routine in which they experienced the most disruptiv e behavior from their students (e.g., math, reading groups, centers). A data collector completed the EBC based on an observation of the targeted activity. Pre-sc reening results indicated that all three teachers met the requirements for participation in the study. A more in depth description of the EBC Classroom Pre-Screening Measure wi ll follow in the measures section. Procedure Materials. Each teacher received a us er friendly manual titled the Ecological Behavioral Team Manual (see Appendix K). The EBC Guide helped facilitate teachers through the intervention. This manual was adapted from two others: (a) Prevent-TeachReinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support, (Dunlap et al (2010); and (b) the Classroom Positive Behavior Support Team Consultation Guide (Floridas Positive Behavior Support Project, 2007). The manual consisted of four chapters aligned with the five-step EBC process including: (a) Overview of EBC-Initial Meeting, (b) Chapte r 1-Classroom Management Goal Setting, (c) Chapter 2-Classroom Management Stra tegies; and (d) Chapter 3 Data-Based 18

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Decision Making. Each chapter included cont ent related to the t opic, examples of classroom implem entation and homework assignment templates. Meetings The EBC process consisted of five i ndividual teacher/researcher meetings conducted in the teachers classroom. Meeting 1: Initial Meeting During the Initial Meeting teacher manuals were handed out by the researcher, and a written copy of teacher and researcher expectations was reviewed and signed by both parties. This meeting was estimated to last 60 minutes. Each teacher was asked to identify a specific daily routine in whic h their students were most disruptive, displaying exte rnalizing behaviors. The res earcher gave them behavioral examples such as students acting disinter ested, loudly talking w ithout permission, not participating in class, and being out of area. Next, the teacher and researcher discussed specific behaviors within the routine that the teacher wanted to address. Each teacher chose one behavior to decrease a nd one behavior to increase. After identifying the target behaviors, th e researcher guided the teacher in setting up a daily data gathering instrument, the Behavior Rating Scale (BRS) (Kohler & Strain 1990) The BRS is a five-point Likert scale that allows a teacher to evaluate their perception of behavior occurrence. When guiding the teachers to set up the BRS, the researcher asked questions about the current estimation of occurre nce of each targeted behavior. Problem and appropriate behavior s had different anchors on the BRS. For problem behaviors, an anchor of represen ted the estimate of behavior occurrence on a typical day, represented, a very bad day, a nd represented a reasonable goal or a great day. For appropriate behaviors, an anchor of remained the same. However, a 19

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repr esented a reasonable goal or a great day and a represented a very bad day. Table 3 lists the behaviors each teacher target ed for the BRS. Tables 4, 5, and 6 list the anchors Jill, Amy, and Nancy chose, respectiv ely. Lastly, the researcher verbally reviewed the homework for the next meeting and answered any questions the teachers had. 20

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Table 3. Target behavior definitions for the behavior rating scale Teacher Behavior definitions Jill 1. Talking During the math lesson, score the number of times you have to redirect the class from talking. When the teacher is giving instructions, no children should be talking unless the teacher gives them permission. When the children are completing the lesson, th ey are allowed perm ission to talk. However, if the children are not talk ing about information related to the assignment and are verbally redirected by the teacher, score this as talking 2. Participation Count a child as participati ng in the math lesson if they raise their hand to respond to a questi on given by the teacher, or provide a comment related to the lesson. Also, scor e the child as partic ipating if they use their white board to solve problems and hold up for the teacher to see when she asks for the answer. Amy 1. Talking Score the number of times students had to be redirected per minute to get back on task due to off topic talking and/or talking above a quiet voice during literacy centers 2. Following directions Score the number of times students had to be redirected per minute to follow directions due to being out of their assigned area, working on a task unrelated to the assignment, or staring into space. Nancy 1. Talking Circle the appropriate number that corresponds to the percentage of time students in the cl ass call out during instruction time without permission and/or talks to other students during the writing lesson without permission from the teacher. 2. Hand raising Circle the appropriate number that corresponds to the percentage of time students in the class raise their ha nds to ask a question or respond to a question asked by the teacher. If the student raises their hand and calls out at the same time, do not count this as a hand raise. 21

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Table 4. BRS anchors for Jill Behavior Rating Definition Talking 5 4 or less verbal redirects from teacher to stop talking 4 5 to 10 verbal redirects from teacher to stop talking 3 9-15 verbal redirects fr om teacher to stop talking 2 14-20 verbal redirects fr om teacher to stop talking 1 21 or more verbal redirects from teacher to stop talking Participation 1 9 or more stude nts participated during math 2 7-8 students participated during math 3 5-6 students participated during math 4 3-4 students participated during math 5 Less than 3 students participated during math 22

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23 Table 5. BRS Anchors for Amy Behavior Rating Definition Talking 5 Teacher redirected students from talking 1 time every 12 minutes or longer 4 Teacher redirected students from talking 1 time every 10 to 12 minutes 3 Teacher redirected students from talking 1 time every 7 to 9 minutes 2 Teacher redirected students from talking 1 time every 4 to 6 minutes 1 Teacher redirected students from talking 1 time every 3 minutes or less Following directions 1 Teacher redirected students to get back on task 1 time every 13 minutes or more 2 Teacher redirected students to get back on task 1 time every 11 to 12 minutes 3 Teacher redirected students to get back on task 1 time every 9 to 10 minutes 4 Teacher redirected students to get back on task 1 time every 7 to 8 minutes 5 Teacher redirected students to get back on task 1 time every 5 to 6 minutes

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Table 6. BRS Anchors for Nancy Behavior Rating Definition Talking 5 20% or less 4 21% to 40% 3 41% to 60% 2 61% to 80% 1 81% or more Hand Raising 1 86% or more 2 71% to 85% 3 56% to 70% 4 40% to 55% 5 Less than 39% Activities between Meeting 1 and Meeting 2. The researcher prepared an electronic version of the BRS and distributed the BRS to each teacher with instructions to begin collecting data on the same day. Be tween Meeting 1 and M eeting 2 each teacher was asked to identify broad goals. Teachers used a blank table template which included space for teachers to write one broad goa l for each category: (a) ecological, (b) behavioral, and (c) curricular (see Appendix K, Chapter 2). Underneath each broad goal there was space for the teacher to define particular dimensions of the behavior that they would like to increase and decrease. For exam ple, an ecological goal might be that the teacher would like students to decrease the amount of trash thrown on the floor during center time. A specific goal to increase might be to have the children throw the trash 24

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away in their assigned trash cans. A specifi c goal to decrease m ight be that the children will stop throwing small pieces of paper into the isles. The researcher observed the targeted activity before the second meeting to become familiar with the current classroom management plan. Here, the researcher rated the EBC classroom assessment themselves and took notes on student behavior and classroom atmosphere. Meeting 2: Goal Setting The purpose for this meeting was to review the ecological, behavioral, and curricular goals e ach teacher selected. This meeting was estimated to last 60 minutes. Also, information was discussed to inform the teacher of their current classroom management practices and to explain how to use the information in Chapter 2 to choose classroom manageme nt strategies that would benefit their classrooms. Homework was reviewed to identify teacher goals and ensure that the teacher chose goals relevant to its ecological, behavioral, or curricular category. If the goals were not relevant to the category, the researcher helped the teachers modify the goals. The researcher then explained th e homework for Meeting 3. This included reading a description about th e interventions available acro ss the three categories: (a) curricular, (b) ecological, and (c) behavior systems. To help guide the teachers on which interventions may work best for their cl assroom, a copy of their EBC pre-screening assessment results was given to them so th ey could view categories in which they obtained the lowest scores. The teachers we re instructed to ra nk order a minimum of three strategies within each category. The t eacher rated these strategies from 1 to 3, with a being the most preferred strategy Although teachers could select any strategies within each category, they were mandated to select the strategy of providing 3 to 5 25

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positively s tated rules under the category of Behavior Systems. This strategy was mandated to help increase student knowledge of expectations in the classroom. Before ending the meeting, the researcher asked the teacher if there are any questions. Meeting 3: Classroom Management Strategies The purpose of Meeting 3 was to discuss teacher and resear cher selected strategies ranked under each of the three categories and create a classroom management plan. This meeting was estimated to last 90 to 120 minutes. The teacher and researcher compared the ecological, behavioral, and curricular strategies they chos e. Strategies ranked the hi ghest by both parties and which related to sections of the EBC Pre-Screeni ng Measure earning low sc ores were chosen. After determining the strategies that woul d be implemented in the classroom, the researcher gave the teacher suggestions on how it might be implemented in her context. For instance, a teacher might choose incorpora te student interests from the curricular category. The teacher and the researcher w ould brainstorm ideas on how the strategy may look in the teachers classroom. This w ould include identifying student interests, determining in which situations they would be incorporated and the method for doing so. The brainstorming method was used for each intervention selected under each of the three categories. Any materials needed for implementing the proposed interventions were discussed and development of the material s was assigned to either the researcher or the teacher. The researcher was assigned to purchase any needed materials. Table 7 displays the ecological, behavioral, and curri cular strategies chosen for implementation by the teacher and researcher at the conclusion of Meeting 3. A more in depth description of each teachers classroom management plan will be discussed following the meeting summaries. 26

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Table 7. Strategies used during intervention Teacher Ecological Intervention s Behavioral Interventions Curricular Interventions Jill 1. Where 1. 3 to 5 positively stated rules 2. Independent 3. Group 1. Provide Choices 2. Incorporate student interests Amy 1. When 1. 3 to 5 positively stated rules 2. Group None Nancy 1. Where 1. 3 to 5 positively stated rules 2. Independent 3. Group 1. Modality 2. Adapting student responses or output Activities between Meeting 3 and Meeting 4 The researcher created an electronic version of the classroom manage ment support plan, and created the coaching checklist for the teacher. Meeting 4: Coaching The purpose of this meeting was to ensure that the plan was written accurately and that the interventi ons would be implemented as intended. This meeting was estimated to last 45 to 60 mi nutes. The researcher corrected any errors on the classroom management support plan a nd coaching checklist by crossing out errors and writing in the correct information. Th e coaching checklist was a chart consisting of each step to the teachers new classroom management pl an and possible methods of training (i.e. verbal discussion, Q&A, role-playing, and/or modeling). The researcher used the coaching checklist to train the teacher in implementing the strategies by explaining each step of the proposed cl assroom management intervention. While reviewing the coaching checkli st, the researcher checked of the specific method of training used with the teacher. The teacher demonstrated understanding of each step by 27

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verbally reciting the step s co rrectly, role-playing each step, or a combination of both. The researcher also used the coaching checklist to mark whether or not the teacher accurately recited or role-played each step. Coaching was considered finished after the teacher accurately demonstrated all of the classroom management steps. Coaching assistance The purpose of coaching assistance was to ensure teachers were implementing the classroom manageme nt plan with high fidelity. Coaching assistance was provided by the researcher on the first day the teacher began the intervention. Revised versions of the co aching checklist and classroom management support plan were distributed to the teachers on the first day of coaching assistance. The researcher observed the teacher implementing th e intervention during th e targeted activity and offered verbal feedback on the teachers performance. A minimum of two fidelity measures were taken by the consultant on two separate days. Teachers obtaining fidelity scores of 80% on two consecutive measures graduated from the coaching stage and moved into post-test. If the teacher obtained a fidelity score less than 80%, the researcher verbally offered constructive feedback once th e targeted activity was finished. If the teacher received 12 hours of coaching without reaching 80% or higher on their fidelity checklists, the consultant ended the coach ing phase and begin post-test. Coaching stopped at 12 hours for practical reasons. Sin ce this process was designed to use widely throughout school districts, it w ould not be practical for a researcher to spend more time with a teacher who was not implementing the plan. This extra time might take away from another teacher in need of help. Meeting 5: Data Based Decision Making The purpose of the final meeting was to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of th e interventions and to discuss next steps. 28

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This meeting was estim ated to last 30 minutes. Due to the hectic teacher schedules at the end of the year, two teachers opted to ha ve the final meeting via e-mail with the researcher, while one teacher met face-to-face w ith the researcher. The researcher gave each teacher a computer generated copy of th eir BRS graphs, analyzed the BRS data, and instructed the teachers to continue using the scale to monitor the effectiveness of their classroom management programs. Fadi ng procedures for token economies were discussed with teachers who chose to impl ement token economies as part of their classroom management plan. All three teachers, Jill, Amy, and Nancy, participated in the EBC meetings and created a new classroom management plan with help from the researcher. A more in depth description of each teach ers classroom management plan is described below. Case 1: Jill During the initial meeting Jill chose to target math tim e as the activity in which she experienced the most student disruptive be havior. The math lesson occurred daily at noon immediately following lunch. Jill taught her children a math lesson or reviewed previous lessons using whole gr oup instruction duri ng the first half of the math period. Students worked independently on math worksh eets for the remainder of the math period. Next, Jill targeted student talking as her behavior to decrease on the BRS and student participation as the behavior to increase on the BRS. Definitions of these behaviors can be seen in Table 4 in Appendi x I. Table 5 in Appendix I displays BRS anchors for Jill. Ecological Strategies Jill chose to use the ecological strategy Where to move student desks into a position where all students could have easy access to the overhead 29

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projector and where she could eas ily view each child. Student desks were formed into a U shaped pattern with th e open end facing the board where the teacher often stood when teaching the class. Behavioral Strategies Next, in the behavioral cate gory, she create d three rules for math time. These rules were: (a) talk abou t math during math, (b) participate in class, and (c) stay on task. Each rule and definition was printed on a 4 by 5.5 piece of laminated construction paper. Students were responsible for keepi ng the rules in their desks when the math activity was over. The teacher reminded students to take the rules out of their desks put them on top of their desks at the beginning of the math activity. Jill also chose the Independent strategy. E ach child was able to earn tokens in the form of fake $1.00 bills during the math lesson if they were caught on task. Tokens were given to students on a classroom-wide intermittent reinforcement schedule where children had the opportunity to earn tokens three times during the math lesson. Jill also either provided verbal praise or made a verbal comment to the entire class about the childs behavior simultaneously when handing out the tokens. Each student was able to earn multiple tokens during each math lesson. When a student accumulated five tokens, they could choose an item from the treasure chest. Items in the treasure chest were chosen based on a preference assessment conducted by having each student write down their favorite candy and an item they would like to see in the treasure box. Children were able to exchange their tokens for a prize from the treasure box immediately following the conclusion of the math lesson. Next, Jill chose the group st rategy in the behavioral sect ion. She copied the class roster and kept it near her when she was teaching the math lesson. Each time a student 30

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participated by raising their hand to ask or answer a quest ion, commented about ma th, or worked out math problems on their dry erase boards, the teacher would cross out their name on the roster. At the end of the lesson, th e teacher checked the roster to see if every student present for the lesson pa rticipated. If all present st udents participated, the class would earn five minutes of free time at the e nd of the lesson to talk with friends. Curricular Strategies. In the curricular category, Jill provided choices to her students by allowing them to select the order in which they could complete independent math work and by allowing them to choose where to sit during independent math work. On some occasions, the teacher allowed the stud ents to choose a partner to work with. Lastly, Jill chose the curricular strategy incorporate student interests into the lesson. Jill identified wrestling, football, and Hannah Montana as some of her students interests. She used these themes to co me up with math problems used during wholegroup instruction. For example, Jill put th is problem on the overhead projector and had the class use dry erase boards to solve the problem: a Hannah Montana fan wants to buy a ticket to see her in concert. The tick ets cost $80.50. She gives them $100.00. How much should she get back in change? Case 2: Amy During the initial meeting, Amy identified daily literacy centers at 10:00 a.m as the time of day she experienced the most disr uptive behavior from her students. During the beginning of literacy centers, Amy explai ned the activities in each center and gave students instructions for completing their work. Then, the students independently completed a mandatory, or must do, worksheet before going to cen ters. Students were allowed to choose what center they wanted to complete provided there was an empty 31

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chair at the center. Stud ents rotated to another center after co mpleting that centers assignment. This occurred until literacy centers were over. Next, Amy targeted student talking as her behavior to decrease on the BRS and following directions as the be havior to increase on the BRS. Definitions of these behaviors can be seen in Appendix I. Duri ng baseline, Amy rated her children highly on the BRS for following directions (the children were followi ng directions better than previously estimated). The anchors on the BRS were changed to ensure that a reflected a typical day. However, after th e anchors were change d, Amy continued to highly rate following directions. Definitions of targeted behaviors can be seen in Table 4 in Appendix I. Table 6 in Appe ndix I displays BRS anchors for Amy. Ecological Strategies Amy chose to implement the ecological strategy when by having each student carry a self-monitoring checklist during literacy centers. During literacy centers, students independently worked at their desks on a must do activity. Then they circulated around four centers to complete other activities related to the current academic theme. The self monitoring checklist contained seven steps students needed to check off when circulating through centers. The first step was Must Do work is complete. The next five steps had to do with centers. These were: (a) choose a center, (b) trash is thrown away, (c) materials are put away (d) materials are neat, and (e) chair is pushed in. Before leaving each center, each studen t was required to fill out the checklist. The last item on the checklist f older is back in desk was to be completed when centers were finished. When literacy centers were over Amy viewed each students checklist as she collected them. Then she inspected each cen ter to ensure that they were neat and tidy and that everyone had put their folders away. 32

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Behavioral Strategies Amy alread y had four positively stated rules posted in two easily visible places around the classroom prior to the study. Her rules included: (a) keep hands and feet to self, (b) show respect to everyone, (c) be re sponsible, and (d) use self-control. During intervention, these rule s were posted onto the backs of the selfmonitoring checklist as an extra reminder to students. Amy reviewed the rules during the beginning of literacy cen ters each day. Amy chose the group strategy in the behavioral category. If all students used the checklist and centers were neat and tidy following the conclusion of literacy centers, students were allowed to pl ay the spelling bee game i mmediately following literacy centers for approximately 10 minutes. Amy ch ose a spelling bee as a reinforcer because her students enjoyed playing the game and asked for it often. Case 3: Nancy During the Initial Meeting, Nancy chose to target writing block as the time of day she experienced the most disruptive behavior from her students. Writing block occurred daily at 9:10 a.m. During this activity, students received whole group instruction while being seated on a carpet facing the teacher a nd dry erase board. Af ter the whole group instruction, students independently comple ted writing assignments at their desks. Next, Nancy targeted student talking as he r behavior to decrease on the BRS and hand raising as the behavior to increase on the BRS. Definitions of th ese behaviors can be seen in Table 4 in Appendix I. Table 7 in Appendix I displays BRS anchors for Nancy. Ecological Strategies Nancys intervention during wr iting block included one ecological strategy, where. A new seating pattern was created during instructional time on the carpet. Children were seated in two half moon shaped rows, one in front of the 33

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other, around the teacher. Nancy also sepa rated students whom she frequently had to redirect from talking during instruction tim e by placing them at opposite ends of the seating arrangement Behavioral Strategies Nancy also created three posit ively stated rules for the writing block. These include: (a) sit Indian style or sit in your chair, (b) raise your hand to answer or ask a question, and (c) only talk to your neighbor if the teacher says its OK. Each rule was written and included a picture beside it to describe the rule. There was a picture of a girl sitting Indian style and a girl sitting in her seat to describe the first rule. There was a picture of a student raising her hand to describe the second rule and a picture of students attentively looking at a teacher with their mouths closed to describe the third rule. A list of the rules, along with thei r pictures, was posted on the dry erase board, which was centered right in front of the child ren during instructional time on the carpet. Rules were also posted at each cluster of desks for the children to view when completing writing assignments at their seat. A cluster of desks included four desks pushed together to complete a square. The rules were poste d on both sides of a triangle-shaped display and remained in the area where all four corners of the desks touched. Nancy also chose independent and group in the behavioral category. Using the independent strategy, Nancy would reinforce childre n raising their hands during writing block by giving them a high five when she called on them. Each time Nancy gave a student a high five, she also used specific praise, such as awesome hand. Students were reinforced in a group if th e teacher rated the students as talking only with permission during at least 80% of the writing block. If students met this criterion they were praised by the teacher and allowed talk time immediately following 34

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the writing block where they could freely talk to their neighbors for two minutes as long as they used a norma l voice level. Curricular Strategies. In the curricular category, Nancy chose modality and adapting student responses or output. The t eacher assigned helpers to assist the teacher during instruction time when possible. Nancy used a student helper at least twice during the writing block each day. Some duties in cluded children collecting or distributing materials to classmates and students holding ma terials to show the class. Nancy adapted student output by asking questions or asking st udents to make statements relating to the writing lesson at least once every five minutes Nancy used this strategy during group instruction time on the carpet. Measures Teacher Measures During the initial meeting, the researcher gave each teacher a packet that included a modified version of the Questionnaire about Teachers and Challenging Behaviors (Westling 2004) and excerpts from the Teacher/Classroom Survey (adapted from the PTR st udy; Iovannone et al., 2009). The researcher briefly explained the purpose of the surveys and in structions on how to complete them. Teachers were asked to complete these surveys in the absence of the researcher and prior to the next meeting. Information gathered fr om these surveys helped identify similarities and differences between each participant. A social validity measure (adapted from Reimers & Whacker 1988), and the Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy 2001) were given to teachers at baselin e and post-test. Information gathered from these surveys was used to identify diffe rences in teacher beliefs following the intervention. The packet of baseline measur es was collected by the consultant prior to 35

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the chapter 2 m eeting and the post-test measur es were given to the teacher within 1-2 days of reaching their final fi delity. Table 4 displays the times when the measures were given. Questionniare about Teachers and Challenging Behaviors. The Questionnaire about Teachers and Challenging Behaviors (W estling 2004) gathered student and teacher demographic information including the num ber of students disp laying challenging behaviors (see Appendix E). This survey ga thered information pertaining to teacher beliefs about challenging behavior, professiona l preparation for dealing with challenging behavior, teacher confidence in their ability to deal with challenging behavior, current strategies used for dealing with challenging behavior, and effects of challenging behavior on teachers and their students. The measure used a 5point Likert scale with a representing strongly agree, a represen ting do not agree nor disagree, and a representing strongly disagree. Teachers independently filled out this survey by circling the Likert scale number that best represented their beliefs. Teacher/Classroom Survey The Teachers/Classroom Survey (adapted from the PTR study; Iovannone et al., in press) was a set of 14 questions that gathered teacher demographic information, such as teaching style, level of education, number of years teaching, ethnicity, and gender (see Appendi x F) There were also classroom demographic questions, such as grade leve l taught and general student information. General student information consisted of numb er of students within the classroom that were considered general and special education students. Teachers independently read the questions and answered the survey by filling in the blanks with the correct answer or by 36

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checking off a box that most applied to them. Infor mation gathered from the Teachers/Classroom survey is summarized in table 3. Social Validity Scale. The Social Validity Scale (adapted from Reimers & Whacker 1988) was used to obtain informa tion on teacher acceptability of current classroom management procedures in base line and post-test (s ee Appendix G). The social validity measure consisted of 14 questi ons that were answered in the form of a 5point Likert scale. A al ways contained the answer with the lowest magnitude (very acceptable and strongly agree) and a was always the answer containing the highest magnitude (not acceptable and str ongly disagree). Numbers 3, 4, 7, and 10 were negatively worded on the social validity measure. Therefore, these questions were reverse scored by the researcher when compu ting the total mean score for each teacher. Teachers filled out this survey by circling the Likert scale number that best represented their views. Teachers filled out the survey in the ab sence of the researcher. Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale. The Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy 2001) consisted of 12 questions using a 9-point Likert scale. These questions assessed the teachers per ceptions of how much control teachers had over problem behavior in their classroom. Fo r example, one of the questions reads How much can you do to motivate students who s how low interest in you class? A represented nothing, a represented very little, a represented some influence, a represented quite a bit, a nd a represented a great deal. Teachers circled the number that best described their own perceptions for each question. Ecological-Behavioral-Curricular (EBC) Pre-screening Assessment The EBC Pre-Screening Assessment (adapted from Floridas Posi tive Behavior Support Project, 37

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2007) was used to gather information on the use of e mpirically validated ecological, behavioral, and curricular strategies in a classroom (see Appe ndix H). The strategies in the EBC Pre-Screening Assessment were the same strategies highlighted in Chapter 2 of the EBC Process Manual. The EBC Pre-Sc reening Assessment c onsisted of four ecological questions, two behavioral questions, and six curricul ar questions. The researcher and data collector observed the te achers targeted activity and marked whether or not the strategy was fully used, partially us ed, or not used at al l. There was also a space below each question where the data coll ector or researcher could write comments about the current classroom management procedure pertaining to the specific EBC question. Coaching Checklist. The coaching checklist (ada pted from the PTR study; Iovannone et al., 2009) was a check list used by the researcher to ensure each teacher was competent in their new classroom manage ment plan before implementation (see Appendix I). This checklist was individualized towards each teachers classroom management plan. The coaching checklist contained each step to the teachers new classroom management plan in the left ha nd column. Optional coaching methods were inserted in columns to the right titled: (a ) discussion, (b) verbal question and answer, (c) written question and answer, (d) modeling, and (e) role play, observation, and feedback. To the far right, there were two columns titled implementer demonstration. During coaching, each teacher had the option of learni ng each step of the classroom management plan by using any of the coaching strategies listed above. Each coaching method used during training was checked off beside the specific step of the classroom management plan. After coaching, the teacher was asked to demonstrate their knowledge of the new 38

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classroom managem ent plan. The resear cher circled either a yes or no under implementer demonstration based on the teach ers ability to demonstrate each step of the plan. Teachers were coached on each step of the classroom mana gement strategies until they could effectively demonstrate the classroom management plan with 100% accuracy. Teacher Fidelity Measure. The Teacher Fidelity Measur e (adapted from the PTR study; Iovannone et al., in press) was used by the researcher to observe the total number of classroom management steps implemented correctly by the teacher during intervention (see Appendix J). The teacher fidelity sheet contained an indi vidualized task analysis of each teachers classroom management plan on the left and two columns on the right, titled adherence, and quality. Adherence and quality were defined in measurable terms for each step of the intervention. The rese archer marked whether each step of the classroom management plan was implemented with adherence and quality. Then the sum of each column, adherence and quality, was divided by the number of steps to compute the fidelity score. 39

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Table 8. Teacher Measu res Timeline Teacher Measures Baseline Post-Test Questionnaire About Teacher s/Challenging Behavior Teacher/Classroom Survey Coaching Checklist Teacher Fidelity Measure Social Validity Survey Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale E-B-C Pre-Screening Assessment Student Measures Two measures were included in the st udy that assessed the new classroom management systems impact on student beha vior. These were the Behavior Rating Scale and the Engagement Check II. Tabl e 9 displays the times when each of the measurements were given and how often when were used. Behavior Rating Scale. The BRS recorded direct stude nt behavior ratings based on teacher perceptions in a 5-point Likert scale format (Kohler & Strain 1990) (see Appendix K). This measure was chosen based on its practicality. By using the BRS, teachers took seconds to record student behavior and were therefore easy to use on a day to day basis. Also, the BRS allowed teache rs to monitor student behavior on a daily basis. Teachers could then use the information to make inferences about the effectiveness of the classroom management program and make changes, if necessary. 40

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The BRS consisted of one target behavior the teacher wanted to increas e and one target behavior the teacher wanted to decreas e. A key was located at the bottom of the BRS that contained the targeted behaviors and their definitions. At the end of the targeted activity, the teacher would ra te students behavior using the BRS. One may argue that data collected using the BRS is not reliable. However a few studies suggest the BRS and ot her similar direct behavior rating data collection systems are compatible with systema tic direct observation. Iovannone et al., 2010 found that when the BRS was used by teachers to rate in dividual students in a classroom, reliability measures were agreeable. During the st udy, three behaviors were measured by the teacher and a data collector using the BRS. Resulting Kappa coefficients indicated scores of 0.83 for problem behavior one, 0.77 for pr oblem behavior two, a nd .61 for appropriate behavior one. Riley-Tillman, Methe, and Weegar 2009 al so support recent re search suggesting direct rating scales are agreeable with syst ematic direct observation. It should be especially noted that the direct observation tool in this study was used to rate class-wide behavior, much like the BRS in the EBC Process. During this study, a teacher used a Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) form to rate the percentage of class-wide engagement directly after a reading activity. A data coll ector also collected class-wide engagement using a modified partial interval recording system. Results indicated that both data collection instruments had similar trend lin es during the A-B-A-B research design. Cohen Kappa coefficient scores suggest s ubstantial agreement be tween the two data collection instruments. 41

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Engagement Check II. The Engageme nt Check II (McWilliam, 1998) was an observation used to gather the percentage of time students remained academically engaged during the targeted activity for the EBC Process (see Appendix J). The researcher defined academic engagement by observing if the student was attending, making appropriate motor responses, and asking for assistance. A more in-depth definition of engagement is stated in Appendix J. Stude nt engagement was recorded during the same targeted activity on two sepa rate days during baseline and two separate days during post-test. The observation was conducted during the activity teachers targeted for intervention. A data collector used headphones plugged into a tape player to listen to a recorded tape which said repeti tive cycle of the word observe followed by 20 seconds of silence, then the word record followed by 5 seconds. The data collector counted the number of students engaged and present during the 20 s econd interval, then recorded the information using a pencil and pa per in the 5 second in terval (See Appendix C). The Engagement Check II took a tota l of 20 minutes to complete. Student engagement was computed by dividing the number of students engaged by the number of students present and then multiplying the dividend by 100. Next, each percentage was added together and divided by the total number of percentages. Table 9. Student Measures Timeline Student Measures Baseline Post-test Behavior Rating Scale (observed daily by teacher) (observed daily by teacher) Engagement Check II (observed twice by data collector) (observed twice by data collector) 42

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Dependent measures The dependent measures were student di sruptive and appropriate behavior as highligh ted on each teachers BRS, student a cademic engagement, and teacher fidelity. Student behavior was observed by the BRS ratings. Data collected from each teachers behavior rating scale helped the research er understand whether an improvement in classroom management skills would increase task engagement by decreasing student disruptive behavior and in creasing appropriate student behavior. Student academic engagement was assessed using the Engagement Check II. Observations using the Engagement Check II helped the researcher understand whether there was a correlation between an improvement of classroom management skills and student academic engagement. Teacher fidelity data was collected using the fidelity checklist during coaching and intervention to examine whether the EBC Guide coupled with coaching from the researcher could improve teacher implemen tation of a classroom management plan. Research design The researcher originally chose to use a concurrent multiple baseline across teachers design. However, due to a limited number of days teachers were available and teacher absences, the research was changed to a non-concurrent multiple baseline. This design best represented teacher behavior on ea ch of the dependent measures and allowed for visual inspection of the effects of the independent variable. A non-concurrent multiple baseline across subjects design was c hosen based on practical concerns. While parts of the intervention could be withdrawn, such as a displa y of classroom rules, there were parts of the intervention, such as classr oom rules that the stude nts learned to recite, 43

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that could not be unlearned. Therefore, an ABAB design would not be practical and could potentially contain many confounds. Also, teachers may have been more reluctant to withdraw a classroom management system that decreased disruptiv e behavior in their classroom and increased positive behavior, such as participation in class, and increased academic activity. In addition, the multiple baselines helped to control for both within and between subjects variability through several comparisons. These are: a) across phases (within subject) to evaluate interv ention related effects and, b) between the interrupted data series and series for each phase of the independent variable. Interobserver Agreement Interobserver agreement was calculated for at least one third of all Engagment Check II and EBC Pre-Screening Measure observations. Interobserver agreement was computed for the 12 components of the E BC Pre-Screening Measure by dividing the number of agreements into agreements plus disagreements. Interobserver agreement was computed for the Engagment Check II by divi ding agreements over agreements plus disagreements. EBC Pre-Screening Measure The primary investigator verbally explained the EBC Pre-Screening Measure for an independe nt data collector ( not the same data collector used for the Engagement Check II). Next, the investigator and the data collector observed an actual classroom (not targeted in the study) and completed the EBC prescreening tool individually. The answers were reviewed and any discrepancies in answers were discussed. Observation conti nued in different elementary classrooms until 80% or above agreement was achieved three times in a row. IOA was calculated by dividing agreements into agreements plus disagreements. 44

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Engagement Check II. Prior to data collection, the primary investigator described the procedures for observing and recording the Engagem ent Check II to an independent data collector. Definitions of st udent engagement were discussed, as well as examples and non-examples of student engageme nt. Next, the investigator and the data collector watched video clip s of classroom instruction time and recorded student engagement. Video clips were watched and r ecorded until the investigator and the data collector reached 80% or highe r agreement for three consecuti ve sessions. If 80% was not reached, the primary investigator and da ta collector reviewed the Engagement Check II results and discussed behavior al definitions for scoring. Social Validity Social validity was measured using the soci al validity measure highlighted in the measures section above. The social valid ity measure was included in the packet of measures during baseline that the teacher fill ed out independently. All social validity measures were collected before Meeting 2. Po st-test social validity measures were given to teachers during meeting 3. Teachers were asked to fill out the social validity measure independently and return to th e researcher at a later date. 45

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Chapter 3 Results The present study intend ed to explore two questions: (1) whether teachers can improve their use of classroom management interventions using the EBC Process Manual coupled with guidance from a researcher a nd (2) whether the impr ovement of classroom management skills increase student task engagement. The researcher used a non concurrent multiple baseline across teachers de sign to answer the research questions. This section will include results from the EBC process, teacher measures, student measures, and social validity measures. Research Question 1: Could the EBC proce ss effectively coach teachers to increase or improve classroom management techniques? Teacher outcomes; Baseline measures. The estimated meeting lengths for all five meetings totaled from 255 minutes to 330 minutes. Actual meeting lengths for all th ree teachers were shorter then estimated meeting times. Table 10 depicts the estimat ed meeting length and the actual meeting length for each teacher. 46

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Table 10. Meeting lengths Teacher Meeting 1 Est./Act. Meeting 2 Est./Act. Meeting 3 Est./Act. Meeting 4 Est./Act. Meeting 5 Est./Act. Total Est./Act. Jill 60/45 60/25 90-120/30 45-60/20 30/10 130 Amy 60/60 60/30 90-120/45 45-60/15 30/10 160 Nancy 60/45 60/25 90-120/45 45-60/30 30/15 160 Teachers and Challenging Behavior Questionnaire. During baseline, each teacher completed the Teachers and Challenging Behaviors Questionnaire to evaluate their philosophies toward problem behaviors and their perceived self efficacy. There are many different sections in this questionnaire. For purposes of this study, the researcher concentrated on three sub domains: a) teacher beliefs about cha llenging behavior, b) teacher confidence ratings, and c) effects of challenging behaviors. These three sub domains were evaluated because they help ed the researcher understand how teacher philosophies related to challenging behavior s impacted their impl ementation of EBC. Table 11, 12, and 13 displays information from the Teachers and Challenging Behavior Questionnaire. 47

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Table 11. Teacher b eliefs about challenging behavior Question Jill Amy Nancy 1. Many challenging behaviors are due to a persons personality 4 4 2 2. Many challenging behaviors are due to a medical or physical reason 4 4 2 3. Many challenging behaviors are due to a persons disability 3 4 2 4. Many challenging behaviors originate in the home or community 4 4 4 5. Many challenging behaviors are learned 4 4 2 6. Many challenging behaviors can be improved 4 5 5 Table 12. Teacher confidence ratings Question Jill Amy Nancy 1. I had adequate pre service professional training to deal with most challenging behaviors. 3 4 1 2. I had adequate in service training to deal with most challenging behaviors. 4 4 1 3. Since I have been teaching, I have increased my ability to deal with most challenging behaviors. 5 5 4 4. At this time, I have sufficient knowledge and skills to deal with most challenging behaviors. 3 4 2 48

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Table 13. Effects of challenging behaviors Question Jill Amy Nancy 1. Challenging behaviors takes up a significant amount of my time 3 4 3 2. Challenging behavior increases my level of stress 5 4 3 3. Challenging behavior causes me to be a less effective teacher 5 4 2 4. Challenging behavior makes me think about quitting teaching 4 1 4 5. A student with challengi ng behavior learns less because of the behavior 5 4 4 6. Other students learn less because of the behavior of their classmate 5 4 4 In general, Amy and Jill believed that challenging behaviors originated from several different areas, such as personalities, home environments, and disabilities. Nancy believed that challenging behaviors only origin ated in home and community settings. All three participants agreed that challenging behavior could be improved. In regards to teacher confidence ratings, all three teachers ag reed that they increased their abilities to deal with challenging behavi ors since they have been teaching. Nancy was the only teacher that reported having sufficient pre-se rvice and in-service training. Moreover, she was the only teacher who reported having sufficient knowledge to deal with challenging behaviors. In regards to effects of cha llenging behaviors on te achers, Amy and Jill agreed that challenging behaviors often makes them think about quitting. In general, all 49

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three teachers agreed that challengin g behavior negatively affects the rate of learning for all students in the classroom. Coaching Checklist The Coaching Checklist was admi nistered during baseline to train teachers in the steps of the plan and evaluate the competence of their performance prior to beginning implementation. All three teachers chose to le arn their classroom management plans by discussing them with th e researcher and all achieved scores of 100% after the first training. Pre-Post Measures EBC Classroom Pre-Screenig Measure Teachers were given the EBC PreScreening Assessment at baseline and again at post-test to determine changes in the use of ecological, behavioral, and curricular st rategies. Results show that Jill, Amy, and Nancy increased their use of strategies dur ing their targeted ac tivities by 51%, 55%, and 25% respectively. Table 14 displays teacher pre and post-test scores on the EBC PreScreening Assessment. In general, teachers implemented few ecological strategies during baseline. However during post-test teachers implemented all four ecological strategies with 100% accuracy. Also, none of the t eachers used a reinforcement system during baseline. During post-test, all teachers used a reinforcement system. In general, the increase in implementation of curricular strate gies occurred because teachers chose those strategies to implement in their new classroom management plans. 50

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Table 14. EBC Classroom Pre-Sc reening Assessm ent scores Ecological Questions Jill BL/PT Amy BL/PT Nancy BL/PT 1. Activity centers have well-defined parameters and have barriers or are spaced far enough apart to prevent student contact. n/a/1.0 0.5/1.0 0.5/1.0 2. Walkways can be easily accessed and teachers can easily access students at their desks. 1.0/1.0 0.5/1.0 1.0/1.0 3. There are no barriers in th e line of student sight when the teacher is lecturing, showing th e students a visual, or showing instructional displays. 0.5/1.0 1.0/1.0 1.0/1.0 4. 3-5 positively stated and well defined classroom rules are posted in a position that is easily accessible for all students to see while they are sitting in their seats. 0.5/1.0 0.0/1.0 0.0/1.0 Behavioral Questions 1. Rules are taught to children on a weekly basis. 0.5/1.0 0.0/1.0 1.0/1.0 2. A reinforcement system is in place for rewarding appropriate student behavior. 0.0/1.0 0.0/1.0 0.0/1.0 Curricular Questions 1. The teacher provides choice s throughout the activity or a choice of activities to students. 0.0/1.0 0.5/1.0 0.5/0.5 2. Student interest is incorporated into the lesson or activity. 0.0/1.0 0.0/1.0 0.0/0.0 3. Teacher reviews previously learned material during new lessons. 0.0/1.0 0.5/n/a 0.5/1.0 4. Assignments have meaningful outcomes for students. 0.5/0.5 0.5/0.5 0.5/0.5 5. Teacher uses other materials, methods of providing instructions other than vocal instructions. 1.0/1.0 n/a/1.0 1.0/1.0 6. Students have different ways of responding to questions or working out problems other than traditional methods. 1.0/1.0 1.0/1.0 0.0/0.0 Total .45/.96 .4 0/.95 .50/.75 51

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Post-Test Measures. Teacher Fidelity Measur e. The Teacher Fidelity Meas ure was used during posttest to ensure teachers were implementing the new classroom management plan during their targeted activity as intended. All three t eachers were able to achieve fidelity scores above 80% consecutively. Fide lity evaluations scored by th e researcher during post-test were highest for Jill and Amy and lowest fo r Nancy. Three fidelity measures were conducted with Jill yielding scores of 100%, 100%, and 100% respectively. There was a lapse in time longer than two days between the second fidelity check and post-test data collection. Jills third fidelity check was obtained to ensure treatment integrity was above 80% before the data collector gathered posttest data. Two fidelity measures were recorded for Amy with scores of 91% and 100% respectively. Fidelity scores for Nancy were 86.0%, 76.9%, 84.0%, and 92.8% respectivel y. After the second fidelity check score of 76.9%, Nancy was given more cons tructive feedback by the researcher and colored tape was put on the carpet to mark the seating arrangement. Two more fidelity checks were obtained to ensure that Nancy was implementing the classroom management plan above 80%. Research Question 2: Does this impr ovement of classroom management skills increase student task engagement? Behavior Rating Scale. The Behavior Rating Scale recorded dire ct student behavior ratings based on teacher perceptions in a 5-point Likert scale format. Teac her ratings on the BRS helped the researcher understand whether teacher implementation of an empirically valid classroom management plan affected student be havior. Figure 1 displays teacher ratings 52

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of student b ehaviors targeted to decrease in the classroom. Jill and Nancy rated decreases in inappropriate behaviors while Amy rated student inappropriate behavior remained consistent from baseline to intervention. Jill Student Talking Amy Student TalkingBehavior Rating Scale ScoreBegan implimentation of CM Strategy unrelated toEBC Process Session Student Talking N anc y Figure 1. Inappropriate st udent behavior ratings on the behavior rating scale 53

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Jill Amy Following DirectionsBehavior Rating Scale Score Session Student Particip at ion Began implementation of CM Strategy unrelated to EBC Process Hand Raising N anc y Figure 2. Appropriate student behavior ratings on the behavior rating scale 54

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Figure 2 dis plays teacher BRS ratings of behaviors targeted for improvement. Jill and Nancy rated increases in appropriate be haviors while Amy rated consistent student behavior from baseline to intervention. Engagement Check II. The Engagement Check II observe d students in each classroom to determine the percentage of time student s remained academically engaged during the targeted activity for the EBC Process. Th is measure was conducted to explore whether a correlation exists between the independent variable and student engagement. Table 15 shows the Engagement Check II results for baseline and post-tes t. Overall, two classrooms experienced a decrease in student academic engagement while one classroom experienced an increase. Table 15. Engagement check II (EC II) scores Teacher BL EC II Obs. 1 BL EC II Obs. 2 Mean engaged PT EC II Obs. 1 PT EC II Obs. 2 Mean engaged Difference Jill 92.8% 91.2% 92.0% 80.3% 91.2% 85.7% -6.3% Amy 91.2% 90.0% 90.6% 82.7% 96.1% 89.4% -1.2% Nancy 81.8% 85.4% 83.6% 89.9% 90.7% 90.3% +6.7% Interobserver Agreement Engagement Check II During training, the researcher and the data collectors mean IOA was 93.5%, while the range was 90% to 96%. During the study, interoberver agreement ch ecks were conducted in participants classrooms during 33% of all Engagement Check II observations to identify, and if necessary, correct observer drift. The mean IOA was 91% for the Engagement Check II, 55

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while the range was 87.5%-96%. IOA was cal culated by computing agreements divided by agreem ents plus disagreements. EBC Pre-Screening Measure During training, the mean IOA for the EBC Pre-Screening Tool was 91.5% with a range of 83%-100%. During the study, IOA was calculated for 66% of all EBC Pre-Screening assessments. The mean IOA was 76.8% a nd the range was 58%-91.6% for the EBC PreScreening Tool. Social Validity and Efficacy Social Validity Teachers completed Social Validity measures at pre and post-test to measure their acceptance of the EBC in tervention compared to their previous classroom management program. Pre and post-te st social validity results can be seen in Table 16. Social validity scores improved fr om baseline to post-test by 0.2 for Jill and 0.6 for both Amy and Nancy. In general, all three teachers found the EBC plan at posttest to be more socially va lid, acceptable, and effective th en their previous ratings at baseline. Also, all three teachers rated the E BC plan as having no undesirable side effects in post-test. 56

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Table 16. Social validity scores Question Jill BL/PT Amy BL/PT Nancy BL/PT 1. Given the classs behavior problems, how acceptable do you find the current CM plan used? 4.0/5.0 4.0/5.0 3.0/4.0 2. How willing are you to carry out the CM plan? 5.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 3. To what extent do you think there are disadvantages in following this CM plan? 2.0/1.0 1.0/1.0 5.0/1.0 4. How much time is n eeded each day for you to carry out the CM plan? 3.0/3.0 4.0/1.0 1.0/1.0 5. How confident are you that the CM plan will be effective for this class? 4.0/5.0 4.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 6. How likely will the CM plan make permanent improvements in this classrooms behavior? 4.0/5.0 4.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 7. How disruptive will it be to carry out this CMs plan? 2.0/1.0 2.0/1.0 1.0/1.0 8. How much do you like the procedures used in the CM plan? 4.0/5.0 4.0/5.0 3.0/5.0 9. How willing will other staff members be to help carry out this CM plan? 3.0/4.0 3.0/n/a 5.0/5.0 10. To what extent are undesirable side-effects likely to result from this CM plan? 3.0/2.0 1.0/1.0 4.0/1.0 11. How much discomfort is the class likely to experience during this behavior plan? 2.0/1.0 4.0/1.0 1.0/1.0 12. How willing would you be to change your routines to carry out this CM plan? 5.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 13. How well will carrying out this CM plan fit into the existing routine? 4.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 14. How effective will the CM plan be in teaching your class appropriate behavior? 4.0/4.0 5.0/5.0 5.0/5.0 15. How well does the goal of the CM plan fit with your goals to improve the classs behavior? Total Mean Score 4.0/5.0 4.0/4.2 3.0/5.0 3.8/4.4 5.0/5.0 3.8/4.4 57

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The Teacher Efficacy Scale The Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale wa s given pre and post-test to assess teacher perceptions of how much control they believed they had in addressing problem behavior in their classroom. Efficacy scores can be seen in Table 17. Jill and Nancy rated increases in self-efficacy from baseline to post-test. Overall, Amy and Nancy rated having more confidence in dealing with challenging behavior and motivating students in their classroom. Jill rated a significant increase in confidence to calm a disruptive student. Am y showed minimal increases in self-efficacy from pre to post-test. Overal l, total mean efficacy scores rose for Jill, Amy, and Nancy by 1.3, 0.4, and 0.6 respectively. 58

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Table 17. Teachers sen se of efficacy scale scores Question Jill BL/PT Amy BL/PT Nancy BL/PT 1. How much can you control the disruptive behavior in the classroom? 6.0/8.0 9.0/9.0 5.0/8.0 2. How much can you do to motivate students who show low interest in school work? 4.0/7.0 9.0/9.0 5.0/7.0 3. How much can you do to get students to believe they can do well in school work? 7.0/8.0 9.0/9.0 9.0/9.0 4. How much can you do to help your students value learning? 7.0/7.0 9.0/9.0 7.0/9.0 5. To what extent can you craft good questions for your students? 9.0/9.0 9.0/9.0 9.0/9.0 6. How much can you do to get children to follow class rules? 6.0/7.0 9.0/9.0 9.0/8.0 7. How much can you do to calm a student who is disruptive or noisy? 3.0/6.0 9.0/9.0 9.0/7.0 8. How well can you establish a classroom management system with each group of students? 9.0/8.0 9.0/9.0 9.0/9.0 9. How much can you use a variety of assessment strategies? 6.0/7.0 9.0/9.0 9.0/9.0 10. To what extent can you provide an alternative explanation or example when students are confused? 7.0/8.0 9.0/9.0 9.0/9.0 11. How much can you assist families in helping their children do well in school? 5.0/8.0 5.0/8.0 9.0/9.0 12. How well can you implement alternative strategies in your classroom? Total Mean Score 6.0/8.0 6.3/7.6 7.0/9.0 8.5/8.9 9.0/9.0 8.2/8.5 59

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Chapter 4 Discussion The presen t study intended to explore two questions: (a) whether teachers can improve their use of classroom management interventions using the EBC Process Manual coupled with guidance from a researcher a nd (b) whether the impr ovement of classroom management skills increase student task enga gement. Results indicated that teachers can improve their classroom management skills by participating in the EBC Process. All three teachers achieved scores of 100% on th eir coaching checklists within one meeting. Also, an increase in ecological, behavioral, and curricular st rategies were observed from baseline to post-test using the EBC Pre-screening Measure and all teachers met criterion for fidelity. Furthermore, social validity and efficacy increased from baseline to posttest. Student task engagement increased for one of the three teachers during post-test. These results suggest that the EBC Process is an effective tool to educate teachers how to create and implement effective classroom mana gement plans. Results also suggest that the improvement of classroom management implementation may not increase task engagement in students. Due to the complexities of data collection in a classroom setting, data points were not collected by all three teachers on the sa me days, creating a non-concurrent multiple baseline across subjects design. This occu rred for many reasons. First, the study was conducted towards the end of the school year. There were a limited number of days left before summer vacation and the researcher wanted to ensure there was ample time for 60

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teachers to collect baseline data. Two teacher s b egan collecting baseline within two days of each other. Due to a school scheduled holiday, the third teacher began collecting baseline 9 days after the last teacher began collecting baseline. Second, teacher absences accounted for an interruption in data collecti on. Nancy was absent for 14 days during the study due to medical reasons and was unable to collect data. Third, data collection could not be consistent each day due to interruptions in targeted activity routines (e.g. school functions such as field trips and school assemblies). Theref ore data points for all three teachers in baseline and intervention are prob es to determine maintenance of behavior and transfer of behavior to other situations or settings. The next two sections discuss results regarding both research questions. Research Question 1: Could the EBC proce ss effectively coach teachers to increase or improve classroom management techniques? Information from the Coaching Checklist, Teacher Fidelity Measure, and Behavior Rating Scale indicate that the EBC process can effectively coach teachers to improve classroom management techniques a nd, in turn, increase student appropriate behavior and decrease student inappropriate behavior. Thes e results replicate similar results from the P-T-R program stating that the P-T-R program (which used similar coaching methods) was effective in coaching teachers to perform interventions in their classrooms and reducing problem behaviors and increasing prosocial behaviors among students (Dunlap, Iovannone, Wilson, Kincai d, & Strain 2010; Iova nnone et al., 2009). Results of the Coaching Checklist indicated that all three teachers chose verbal discussion to learn their classroom management plans. In addition, each teacher quickly gained a full understanding (100%) of their new classroom management plan using their 61

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coaching me thod of choice. There are two possible reasons for teacher quick verbal mastery of the new classroom management pl ans. First, teachers had significant input into creating the classroom management plan which may have increased teacher buy-in and the likelihood that they were willing to learn and implement th e strategies. Turnbull 2002 found that support from program developers, and teachers control over classroom implementation are predictors of teacher buy-in and ultimately their willingness to participate. Second, coaching involved one to one discussion with th e researcher. This result closely correlates with an evaluation of a statewide, performance based program (The Carolina Curriculum on Positive Behavior Support) that found high fidelity scores after a consultant used verbal discussion, m odeling, and role-play to educate trainees how to prevent and treat challenging behaviors residing in adults with developmental disabilities (Reid et al 2003). It was noted that only one coaching strategy was needed during the EBC Process. The options of l earning the new classroom management plan available to all three teachers included; a) verbal discussion, b) verbal question and answer, c) written question and answer, d) m odeling, and e) role-pla y. All three teachers chose verbal discussion as their method of l earning the plan and ach ieved the criteria for mastery (100%) using this method. This co aching method was also the least intrusive choice, taking the least amount of time. Res earch shows that people often select the least intrusive methods that may result in the desired outcome (Neef, Mace, Shea, & Shade 1992). Teacher Fidelity Measure s during post-test showed that Jill, Amy, and Nancy implemented their new classroom management plans with an average of 100%, 95.5%, and 84.9% fidelity respectively. Several reason s are apparent for t eachers high fidelity 62

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scores. First, teachers previously de monstrated full knowledge of their classroom management plans using the coaching checkli st during a one to one meeting with the researcher. During the coaching meeting, t eachers also had the opportunity to practice and ask questions relating to their classroom management plans. Second, the researcher was on site to give the teachers immediate po sitive and constructive feedback during the first day of intervention. Also, the researcher helped teachers make modifications to their plans, if necessary, on the first day of in tervention. Dunlap, Iovannone, Wilson, Kincaid, & Strain 2009 also used a similar coaching checklist and fidelity method to aid teachers in learning behavior plans. Results indicat ed that teachers demons trated high treatment fidelity in their classrooms after engaging in these steps. The coaching checklist and constructive feedback method during fidelity checks appeared to be associated with the success of the teachers implementation of classroom management plans. However, there seemed to be small individual teacher differences that may have also contributed to their success. Jills flawless fidelity scores could be attributed to her previous year participation in the original Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (P-TR) study. The P-T-R study used a consulta nt to help coach teachers on behavioral strategies and collected fidelity data using the same methods as the EBC Process. Therefore, Jill was familiar with the EBC pro cedures which may have contributed to her comfort and competence levels when implemen ting the new classroom management plan. Nancys overall fidelity score, while falling above the 80% benchmark, was the lowest of the three teachers and reflected diverse implementation during individual fidelity sessions. For example, in her sec ond fidelity observation, she obtained a 76.9T scores, failing to meet the 80% criteria. This lower fidelity score was primarily due to the 63

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lack of implem enting one specific component of her classroom management plan. Within Nancys plan, students were to sit within specific shapes on the floor during instruction time which was not implemented during the second fidelity check. Before conducting a third fidelity check, the researcher put tape on the floor to help Nancy and her students form the correct shape during in struction time. This adjustment helped Nancys fidelity scores improve to over 80% during the following two fidelity checks. Behavior Rating Scale. Jill and Nancy rated increases in student appropriate behavior and decreases in st udent disruptive behaviors usi ng the Behavior Rating Scale from baseline to post-test. However, Amy ra ted increases in appropriate behavior and decreases in inappropriate behavior during the baseline phase and rated no behavior change during post-test. It is noteworthy th at Amy rated her student s as engaging in high levels of appropriate behavior and low levels of inappropria te behavior during baseline, leaving little room for improvement. One variable that may account for Amys baseline recordings of the rise in appropriate student behavior a nd decrease in inappropriate st udent behaviors could be the changes Amy made to her classroom manageme nt plan independent from the researcher before post-test. A couple weeks before the start of post-test, Amy began having students write the rule they broke and how they broke it. Then the students parents signed the rule before returning it to the teacher. After noticing high ratings on Amys BRS, the researcher adjusted the BRS dur ing baseline after the first week so that a on the scale would represent a normal day. However, Amys ratings of appropriate student behavior continued to increase and ina ppropriate behaviors continued to decrease during baseline. 64

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While Amys BRS ratings were high in base line, it is noteworthy that her ratings continued to stay high for appr opriate behavior and stay lo w for inappropriate behavior. There are a few reasons that can be attrib uted to Jill and Nancys positive ratings of student behavior. F irst, Jill and Nanc y may have seen larger gains in student appropriate behavior and decr eases in student inappropria te behavior because their students had a larger room for improvement. Second, the strategies used in the new classroom management plans were research based and proven effective. Third, teacher fidelity ratings showed teachers accurately impl emented the new plans into their targeted activities. Jills inappropriate behavior (talking) ratings were vari able in the first two weeks of post-test. One reason for va riability during the first couple weeks of post-test may be due to the lack of preferred items in the trea sure chest for students to choose from. A preference assessment was conducte d after the second week and more items were put into the treasure chest that were more specific to student interests. This modification to the classroom management plan correlated with Jills more stable ra tings of and during post-test. Amy implemented a strategy that she deve loped (unrelated to the EBC Process) between meetings 1 and 2. During this time Amy rated that her students improved their behavior on the BRS. Amys consistent ratings from baseline to post-test may have been intentional by her desire to show implementation of th e strategy she developed was effective and not the EBC strategies implemented during literacy centers. It is noteworthy that while all three te achers chose group contingencies in their new classroom management plans, two teach ers, Jill and Nancy, chose independent group 65

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contingencies in their new classroom m anageme nt plans. Jill and Nancy were also the two teachers whom rated the most improvement on the BRS. Social Validity and Efficacy Teachers rated social validity and effi cacy questions highly during baseline. These high ratings left little room for improvement during posttest. It is noteworthy that while ratings were high during baseline, all th ree teachers increased mean social validity and efficacy scores in post-test. The increase in social valid ity suggests the EBC Process was effective in improving teacher perceptions of their classroom management plans. The increase in efficacy suggests teachers felt mo re confident in dealing with challenging behaviors after participati ng in the EBC Process. During the social validity questionnaire, a ll three teachers felt their new classroom management (CM) plan was more acceptable th an their old plan. A ll three teachers rated that they liked the new CM procedures more than their previous CM procedures. Also, all three teachers rated that they were very willing to carry out the new CM plan. However, it should be noted that all three teach ers rated that they were very willing to carry out their previous CM plan. Two of th e three teachers rated confidence increases in their CM plan effectiveness while the third teacher maintained the highest rating during post-test. In relation to efficacy scores, all three teachers felt they could control disruptive behavior better during post-test. Two out of three teachers (the third teacher maintained the highest rating) felt they could control di sruptive behavior mo re easily and motivate students better during post-test. Also, two out of three teachers (the third teacher 66

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maintained the highes t rating) felt more confident in implementing alternative strategies in the classroom during post-test. Teacher variables impacting intervention Two teacher characteristics seemed to co rrelate with teachers success using the EBC Process. These characteristics incl uded a) teaching experience and b) teacher perceptions. First, teaching experience seemed to correlate with teachers ratings on the Behavior Rating Scale. Jill and Nancy were the youngest and less experienced (less than three years teaching experience) teachers that participated in this study. They were also the teachers that rated gains in appropriate behavior and decreas es in inappropriate behavior during post-test using the Behavior Rating Scale. On the other hand, Amy recorded that student behavior was consistent from baseline to post-test on the BRS. She also had been teaching the longest at 20 year s and may have acquired a larger classroom management repertoire during her experiences teaching. Second, teacher perceptions seemed to co rrelate with teacher success during the EBC Process. Teacher ratings on the T eachers and Challenging Behaviors Survey revealed that the less experienced teachers, Jill and Nancy, were less confident about their abilities to manage challenging behavior in the classroom than Amy, who had more teaching experience. Both Jill and Nancy stated that challenging behaviors made them think about quitting, which was the opposite answer for Amy. Therefore less confident teachers coached using the EBC process manual earlier in their careers may see larger gains in appropriate behaviors and larger decreases in inappropr iate behavior. 67

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Research Question 2: Does this impr ovement of classroom management skills increase student task engagement? Engagement Check II Task engagement did not increase for all teachers following the successful implementation of research-based classroom management techniques. Jill and Nancys student task e ngagement decreased during post-test by 6.3% and 1.2% respectively. Student task enga gement increased by 6.7% in Nancys classroom during post-test. Academic engageme nt data and Fidelity data were collected on separate days. Therefore, the resear cher cannot be sure that teachers were implementing the EBC strategies correctly on days academic engagement data was collected. It is noteworthy that the trend line for Jill and Amys student task engagement scores does not reflect the tre nd line for their BRSs. However, AET scores do not reflect the accuracy of teacher ratings on the Beha vior Rating Scale. While AET scores encompass behaviors rated in the BRS, the AE Ts definition of engagement is more broadly defined. Students could have been mo re talkative during baseline and quieter in intervention. However, they could have been off task by looking around when they were supposed to be looking down at their paper, sitting incorrect ly on the carpet or walking around the classroom without permission. Also, the post-test engagement checks we re conducted close to the end of the school year when children had a lo t of extra activities to attend, such as plays, field days, assemblies, and picnics. The change in rout ine and more leisure activities interspersed throughout the day may have decreased student academic engagement because they were focused on end-of-the-school-year and summe r activities. Nancy wrote Mondays the 68

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students are usually tired and le ss cha tty. When there is a disruption in routine, they become more chatty on th e bottom of her BRS. Relation to Literature Results from the EBC process support re cent research stating that programs utilizing a) selection, b) coach ing and consultation, c) data analysis, and d) time efficient trainings, may yield positive result s. High levels of treatment integrity and social validity may also increase positive results during inte rventions (Albin et al, 1996; Fixen et al, 2005; Slider, Noell, & Williams, 2006). By using the EBC process, all three teachers were effectively coached by the consultant and increased their classroom management techniques, as can be seen by the high fidelity scores. Social validity for the improved classroom management system during interven tion remained high or increased for all three teachers. Compared with previous studies and cl assroom management packages, the EBC process was more time efficient. Other packaged classroom management programs required 1-6 day workshops (Incredible Year s Dinosaur Program, Discipline Associates, CHAMPS) which required more time than all EBC meetings combined. While the total predicted time needed to complete the EBC Process was significantly lower than previously researched classroom management programs, the actual time needed for each meeting was even shorter (Reid, Webster-Stratton, & Hammond, 2003; Dishion & Andrews, 1995). The presumed time allowance for all EBC meetings totaled between 255 minutes and 330 minutes. The actual time spent in all meetings combined ranged from 130 minutes to 160 minutes. Jill had th e shortest meeting times, with a combined time of 2 hours and 10 minutes for all five me etings. The researcher did not have to 69

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spend as mu ch time explaining the measures, meeting agendas, and homework assignments to Jill because of her prior experience with the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce project that used the same or similar mate rials. Amy and Nancy both had meeting times of 2 hours and 40 minutes for their five meeti ngs combined. These short meeting lengths could be an advantage for teachers who have limited time and a critical asset to any classroom management program. The EBC Process, which shared many of the same general methods as the PTR Program, had similar results as the PTR pr ogram. Results from Dunlap et al 2009 suggest that the PTR Program, which consis ted of: a) teaming, b) goal setting, c) assessment, d) intervention, e) coaching, a nd f) evaluation, was an effective way to increase a single students appropriate beha vior and decrease st udent inappropriate behavior. Likewise, the EBC Process included: a) goal setting, b) assessment, c) intervention, d) coaching, and e) evaluation. Results from the EBC Process and PTR Program show teacher ratings of similar improvements in student behavior during posttest. Limitations and Future Research Considerations Several limitations to this study are appa rent. The data collection method (BRS) was an approximation of student behavior based on teacher views. While the BRS may not be as reliable as other forms of data collection, it was a measur e that teachers could easily incorporate into their daily routines to evaluate target be haviors. Therefore, teachers may continue to use the BRS even af ter the end of the study. Also, two of the teachers chose to rate a behavior on the BRS based on their actions, as opposed to student behavior. They rated the number of times they had to respond to negative student 70

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behavior. While a behavioral definition for the students woul d have been better, it was important to culminate a definition that was easy for the teacher to measure. Another limitation to the study involved th e small number of participants and the characteristics of the teachers who participated in the study. Two of the teachers had less than three years teaching experience, while one teacher had more than 20 years teaching experience. All three teachers were motivat ed to create and implement a new classroom management plan in their clas srooms, as can be seen by their willingness to participate in the study. Future research would be furthered by a larger sample size which incorporates a diversity of teachers with respect to teaching experience, views on challenging behavior, confidence levels in dealing with challenging beha vior, and motivation levels for improving their classroo m management system. An estimated 240 teachers were solicited e ither by word of mouth, e-mails, or printed letters. Only three teachers responded and were willing to pa rticipate. All three teachers were motivated to learn new strategi es to apply to their classroom management system. These motivational variables may have influenced the intervention effects and served to skew and/or infl ate the effects of the study. Because this study was conducted in a rea l world setting, many variables could not be kept constant such as school activities, student attendance, and consistent classroom management practices. It was une thical to require teachers to hold their classroom management systems constant du ring baseline. Amy changed her classroom management program during baseline and it was unclear whether Ji ll and Nancy were practicing consistent behavior manageme nt programs on a day to day basis. 71

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One m ay also argue that the fidelity scores collected by the researcher may not have been accurate due to researcher biases. The researcher collected the fidelity measures due to the researcher having an extensive knowledge about each teachers classroom management plan. While the re searcher could have been unconsciously persuaded to increase fidelity ratings, each teachers fidelity checklists were very descriptive of how fidelity scores were earned to encourage accurate and reliable scoring. Recommendations for future research in clude using the EBC process to expand classroom management techniques from one act ivity per day to the whole school day. Also, combining some of the meetings such as chapter 1 and chapter 2 may be more time efficient. The behaviors teachers targeted in chapter 1 were the behaviors teachers targeted for goals in Chapter 2. Therefore, these meetings may be easily combined. Future studies should assess th e accuracy of teacher ratings using the behavior rating scale, as well as researcher accuracy using the fidelity check measures. During this study, all three classrooms contained high academic engagement scores in baseline. Future research shoul d include classrooms consisting of low academic engagement scores to evaluate whether teach ers using the EBC Process continue to rate positive outcomes. Future studies may accomplish this by setting an engagement criterion of 75% or less usi ng the Engagement Check II in order to be accepted for the study. The EBC manual was designed with the noti on that it could become an easy way to provide research-based classroom management techniques to a large quantity of teachers. Future research should examine a way to teach school personnel and behavior specialists how to coach teachers through th e EBC process. Then research should 72

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evaluate the effectiveness of classroo m management programs created by the school administrator/behavior specialist and the teacher. While social validity was scored by the teachers on the use of the classroom management strategies, a social validity survey on the EBC Process was not given. Future studies should assess teacher acceptabil ity of the EBC Process so as to better understand how to make the process more conv enient and user frie ndly for teachers. During the EBC process, reliability data was not collected using the behavior rating scale. While literature suggests the BRS is a reliab le tool to rate individual students in the classroom, it has never b een used to rate classrooms as a whole (Iovannone et al. 2010). Future research shoul d also evaluate the validity and reliability of the BRS to monitor classroom behavior. Conclusion This study explored a program that aided teachers in creating and implementing meaningful classroom management plans using empirically valid strategies. This study also explored whether the improvement of classroom management plans improved task engagement in students. This study demons trated that the EBC Process can successfully aid teachers in creating and implementing cl assroom management plans that increase appropriate behavior and decr ease inappropriate behavior in students. However, the improvement of classroom management had li ttle effect on student engagement. 73

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References Albin, R., Lucyshyn, J., Horner, R., & Flannery, K. (1996). Contextual fit for behavior support plans: A m odel for a goodness of fit. Positive Behavior Support: Including People With Difficult Behavior In The Community (pp. 81-98). Baltimore: Brookes. Anhrentzen, S., & Evans, G. (1984). Distra ction, privacy, and classroom design. Environment and Behavior 16, 437-454. Bennett, B. (1987). The effectiveness of st aff developm ent training practices: a metaanalysis. Unpublished doctoral disse rtations, University of Oregon. Coen, C. (2006). Seeking the com parativ e advantage: the dyna mi cs of individual cooperation in single vs. multiple-team environments. Oganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 2, 145-159. Daly, T. The ADHD Solutions for te achers, Retrieved August 13, 2007 from http://www.adhdsolution.com/teachers/ Deitrich, R. (1999). Increasing treatment fidelity by matching interventions to contextual variables within the educational setting. School Psychology Review 28(4), 608-620. De Martini-Scully, D., Bray, M., & Kehle, T. (2000). A packaged intervention to reduce disruptive behaviors in gene ral education students. Psychology in the Schools 37, 149-156. 74

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Discipline Associates. C lassroom manage ment specialists welcome to discipline associates. Retrieved August 13, 2007 fr om http://www.disciplineassociates.com/ Dishion, T., & Andrews, D. (1995). Preventi ng escalation in problem behaviors with high-risk young adolescents: immediate and one-year outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63, 1-11. Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Kincaid, D., Wilson, K., Christiansen, K., Strain, P. & English, C. (2010). Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A sc hool-based model of positive behavior support. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Wilson, K., Kincaid, D., & Strain, P. (2010) Prevent-TeachReinforce: A Standardized Model of School-Based Behavioral Intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 9-22. Filcheck, H., McNeil, C., & Greco, L. (2004). Using a whole-cl ass token economy and coaching of teacher skills in a presch ool classroom to m anage disruptive behavior. Psychology in the Schools 41, 351-361) Fixsen, D., Naoom, S., Blase, K., Fr iedman, R., & W allace, F. (2005). Implementation research: a synthesis of the literatur e. Louis de la Parte Fl orida Mental Health Institute, University of South Flor ida: National Implementation Research Network. Gresham, F. (1989). Assessment of treatm ent integrity in school consultation and prereferral intervention. School Psychology Review 18, 37-50. Gresham, F. (2004). Current status and future directions of school-based behavioral interventions. School Psychology Review 33, 326-343. 75

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Gresham, F., Gansle, K., & Noell, G. (1993) Treatm ent integrity in applied behavior analysis with children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 26, 257-263. Gottsfredson, G., & Gottsfredson, D. (2001). What schools can do to prevent problem behavior and promote safe environments. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 12, 313-344. Incredible Years Dinosaur Program. (2007). Teacher classroom management program. Retrieved July 24, 2007, from http://www.incredibleyears.com/program/teacher.asp Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P., Wang, W., Kincaid, D., & Dunlap, G. (2010). Individualized Behavior Rating S cale-Strategy for Teachers (IBRS-ST): Preliminary reliability metrics of a Teir 3 response to behavior intervention progress monitoring tool. Manuscript submitted for publication. Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P., Wei, W., Kincai d, D., Dunlap, G., & Strain, P. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of a tertiary behavior intervention for students with problem behaviors: Preliminary outcomes. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17, 213-225. Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002). Stude nt achievement through staff development (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Asso ciation for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Kauffman,J., & Wong, K. (1991). Effective teachers of students with behavioral disorders: Are generic teaching skills enough? Behavioral Disorders, 16, 225237. 76

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Kazdin, A., Bass, D., Ayres, W., & Rogers, A. (1990). Em pirical and clinical focus of child and adolescent psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 729-740. Kohler, F.W., & Strain, P.S. (1990). Peer Assissted Interventi ons: Early promises, notable achievements, and future aspirations. Child Psychology Review 10, 441452. Lelaurin, K., & Risley, T. (1972). The or ganization of day-care environments: zone versus man to man staff assignments. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 5, 225-232. Long, J., Williams, R. (1973). The compara tive effectiveness of group and individuality contingent free time with inner c ity junior high school students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 6, 465-474. McDaniel, M., Whentzel, D., Schmidt, F., & Maurer, S. (1994). The validity of employment interviews: a comprehe nsive view and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology 79, 103-117. McGinnis, C.J., Frederick, B.P., & Edward s, R. (1995). Enhancing classroom management through proactive rules and procedures. Psychology In The Schools 32, 220-224. McKenzie, H., Clark, M., Wolf, M., Kothera, R., & Benson, C. (1969). Behavior modification with children with learning di sabilities using grades as tokens and allowances as back-up reinforcers. Exceptional Children 34, 745-752. 77

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Monro, D., Stephensen, J. ( 2009). The effects of response cards on student and teacher behavior during vocabulary instruction. Journal of Applied Be havior Analysis 42, 795-800. Mottram, L., Bray, M., Kehle, T., Broudy, M., & Jenson, W. (2002). A classroom-based intervention to reduce di sruptive behaviors. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19, 65-74. Musser, E., Bray, M., Kehle, T., & Jenson, W. (2001). Reducing disruptive behaviors in students with serious emotional disturbance. School Psychology Review 30, 294304. National Advisory Mental Health Council Workgroup on Child and Adolescent Mental Health Intervention Development and Deployment. (2001). Blueprint for change: research on child and adolescent mental health. Washington, DC: National institute of Mental Health. Neef, N., Trachtenberg, S., Loeb, J. (1991) Video-based traini ng of respite care providers: an interactional analysis of presentation format. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 24, 473-486. Oleary, K., Becker, W., Evans, R., & Saude rgas, R. (1969). A token reinforcement program in a public school: a replic ation and systematic analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 27, 3-13. Pierce, K. & Schreibman, L. (1994). Teachi ng daily living skills to children with autism in unsupervised settings through pictorial self-management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 27, 471-481. 78

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Reid, D. et al. (2003). Tr aining Human Service Supervisors in Aspects of PBS. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 5, 35-46. Reid, M., Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (2003). Follow-up of children who received the incredible years intervention for oppositional defiant disorder: maintenance and prediction of 2-year outcome. Behavior Therapy 34, 471-491. Reimers, T., & Wacker, D. (1988). Parents ratings of the acceptab ility of behavioral treatment recommendations made in an outpatient clinic: A preliminary analysis of the influence of trea tment effectiveness. Behavioral Disorders 14, 7-15. Riley-Tillm an, C., Methe, S., & Weegar, K. (2009). Examining the use of direct behavior rating on for mative assessm ent of class-wide engagement. Assessment for Effective Intervention 34, 224-230. Ringer, V. (1973). The use of a token help er in the ma nagement of classroom behavior problems and in teaching training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 6, 671677. Robinson, P., Newby, T., & Ganzell, S. (1981). A token system for a class of underachieving hyperactive children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 307-315. Sailor, W ., Guess, D., Rutherford, G., Baer, D. (1968). Control of tantrum behavior by operant techniques during expe rime ntal verbal training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1, 237-243. Slider, N., Noell, G., & Williams, K. (2006) Providing practicing teachers classroom management professional developmen t in a brief self-study format. Journal of Behavioral Education 1-17. 79

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Vaughn, B., & Horner, R. (1997). Identif ying instructional ta sks that occasion problem behaviors and assessing the effects of st udent ve rsus teacher choice among these tasks. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 30, 299-312. Walker, H. (2004). Commentary: use of evidenced based interventions in schools: where weve been, where we are, and where we need to go. School Psychology Review 33, 398-407. Washington State Institute fo r Public Policy. (2002). Washington States Implementation for Functional Family Therapy for Juvenille Offenders: Preliminary Findings (No. 02-08-1201). Olym pia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy. Weinstein, C. (1977). Modifyi ng student behavior in an op en classroom through changes in the physical design. American Education Research Journal 14, 249-262. Weisz, J., & Hawley, K. (1998). Finding, evaluating, refining, and applying empirically supported treatments for child ren and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 206-216. Weisz, J., Weiss, B., Alicke, M., & Klotz, M. (1987). Effectiveness of psychotherapy with children and adolescents: a meta-analysis for clinicians. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55, 542-549. Westling, D.L. (2004). Teachers and Challenging Behavior: Knowledge, Views, and Practices. Unpublished manuscript, Western Carolina University Wielkiewicz, R. (1995). Behavior management in the schools: principles and procedures (2nded.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. 81

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Appendices 82

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Appendix A: Recruitme nt Flier Do they listen to your directions? Do you have to keep repeating instructions over and over? Do you keep redirecting your students to their assignments? If you said yes to one or more of these questions, you may want to participate in a research study on cl assroom management. The ecological, behavioral, and curricular(EBC) process includes five meetings that help teachers learn how to create their own classroom-wide interventions. A friendly consultant will personally m eet with you around your schedule to help guide you through the EBC program to create a classroom management program specifically tailored for your classroom. Interested teachers should contact Lindsey Hillyard at lhillyard_able@yahoo.com or (863)604-3771 to set up a simple pre-screening appointment. All participants accepted into th e study will receive a free manual for creating classroom manageme nt strategies in their classrooms. They will also receive free consultant services and coaching to help them implement the program in their classrooms. Contact: Lindsey Hillyard lhillyard_able@yahoo.com (863)604-3771 Lindsey Hillyard lhillyard_able@yahoo.com (863)604-3771 Lindsey Hillyard lhillyard_able@yahoo.com (863)604-3771 Lindsey Hillyard lhillyard_able@yahoo.com (863)604-3771 Lindsey Hillyard lhillyard_able@yahoo.com (863)604-3771 Lindsey Hillyard lhillyard_able@yahoo.com (863)604-3771 83

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84 Appendix B: Recruitment Letter Dear Teachers Kindergarten through Second Grade, My name is Lindsey Merritt. I am a graduate student at the University of South Florida. I am currently starting a stu dy on classroom management called the EBC Process and am looking for teachers interested in participating. Teachers would identify an activity or time during the day when their students engage in the most problem behavior (This behavior could even be shouting out instead of raising hands). This would be the activity targeted during the study where the teacher would apply the new classroom management strategies. Teachers interested in participating would have someone observe their classroom during the ta rgeted activity for a bout 30 minutes to see if they qualify for the study. If a teacher qualifie s and would still like to participate, they would meet with me individually at a tim e convenient for them once a week. Most teachers prefer meeting before school, during their planning period, or after school. The meeting itinerary would look as follows: Initial Meeting: approx. 60 minutes Overview of the EBC Process and signing of consents Meeting 1Goal setting: approx. 60 minutes Teacher and consultant identify st udent goals for targeted activity Meeting 2-Creating Classroom Man agement Plan: approx. 60-90 minutes Strategies are created by teacher and consultant to increase classroom management Coaching meeting: approx. 45-60 minutes The teacher and consultant come together to review strategies and make changes if necessary before the teacher begins using them. Meeting 3Follow-up: approx. 30 minutes The teacher and consultant talk about the results of the classroom management strategies and discuss supports within th e school and community that may help them continue using the strategies once the consultant leaves During these meetings, the teacher and I woul d collaborate together to come up with a classroom management program that is spec ific to the needs a nd behaviors in their classroom. This study could greatly benefit your classroom. By creating a successful classroom management program, teachers can increase student engagement in academic activities and decrease disruptive behavior in their classrooms. Teachers will also receive a free manual that they can keep with them to continue using classroom management strategies for years to come. I hope this letter clarifies more inform ation about the study. I would be more than happy to come to your school and talk with you about the process if you have more information. Feel free to contact me at (863)604-3771 or by e-mail at LHILLYARD_ABLE@yahoo.com Thank you so much for your interest in th is study. It would be my pleasure to work with you to design a classroom mana gement program for you and your class! Thank you very much, Lindsey Merritt, BCABA

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Appendix C: Informed Consent Informed C onsent to Participate in Research Info rmation to Consider Before Taking Part in this Research Study Researchers at the University of South Florida (USF) study many topi cs. To do this, we need the help of people who agree to take pa rt in a research study. This form tells you about this research study. We are asking you to take part in a resear ch study that is ca lled: The EcologicalBehavioral-Curricular (EBC) Program The person who is in charge of this research study is Lindsey Hillyard, B.A. The research will be done within the teachers school setting. We want to learn more about teacher behavior and their interactions with their students at school. We will visit the school to see how the teacher interacts with their students and engages in activities. You will be asked to attend meetings, complete data collection forms, and learn new strategies to prevent classroom behavior problems and support positive development. Purpose of the study The purpose of this study is to find out if the EBC Program can be an effective way for teachers to learn how to manage their classrooms disruptive behaviors. In turn, we would like to understand how the teachers interactions affect student behavior. Study Procedures If you take pa rt in this study, you will be asked to participate in a pre-screening evaluation, which includes thre e short interview que stions about the daily activities in your classroom. A data collector will al so observe your classroom during a time or activity that you believe is a high ly chaotic or disruptive time. The first four participants that score below our criterion of .50 on this measurement will be asked to participate in the EBC program. Teachers that score above .50 on our pre-screening assessment will not be able to participate in the study. Teachers participating in the five meeting program will be asked to attend one meeting a week with the consultant lasting approximately one hour. Teachers will also complete small homework assignments before each meeting. The c onsultant will work with the teacher to evaluate their clas srooms and create classroom management interventions to target behavior problems The researcher anticipates teacher involvement in this study to last abou t two months from start to finish. 85

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Appendix C (Continued) Alternatives You have the alternative to choose not to participate in this research study. There are no penalties for dropping out of this stud y at any time. Your status or employment will not be affected for dropping out of this study. Benefits We dont know if you will get any benefits by taking part in this study. Potential benefits m ay be the decrease in your classroom s disruptive behavior and an increase in their academic engaged time. Risks or Discomfort There are no known risks to those who take part in this study. Compensation We will not pay you for the time you volunt eer while being in this study. Confidentiality We mu st keep your study reco rds confidential. All records containing information about this study will be kept in a locked filling cab inet. However, certain people may need to see your study records. By law, anyone who looks at you records must keep them confidential. The only people who will be allowed to see these records are: Study staff People who make sure that we are doing the study in the right way. They also make sure that we protect your rights and safety: o The USF Institutional Review Board o The United States Department of Health and Human Services(DHHS) We may publish what we learn from this study. If we do, we will not let anyone know your name. We will not publish anything else that would let people know who you are. Voluntary Participation / Withdrawal You should only take part in this study if you want to volunteer. Y ou should not feel that there is any pressure to take part in the study, to please contact th e investigator or the research st aff. You are free to participate in this research or withdr aw at any time. There will be no penalty or loss of benefits you are entitled to receive if you stop taking part in this study. Questions, concerns, or complaints If you have any questions, concerns or compla ints about this study, call Lindsey Hillyard at (863)604-3771. 86

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Appendix C (Continued) If you have questions about your rights, gene ral questions, comp laints, or issues as a person taking part in this study, call the Di vision of Research In tegrity and Compliance of the University of Sout h Florida at (813) 974-9343. Consent to Take Part in this Research Study It is up to you to decide whether you want to take part in this study. If you want to take part, please sign the form, if the following statements are true. I freely give my consent to take part in this stu dy. I understand that by signing this form I am agreeing to take part in research. I have received a copy of this form to take with me. Signature of Person Taking Part in Study Date Printed Name of Person Taking Part in Study Statement of Person Obtaining Informed Consent I have carefully explained to the person taki ng part in the study what he or she can expect. I hereby certify that when this person signs th is form, to the best of m y knowledge, he or she understands: What the study is about. What procedures/interventi ons/investigational drugs or devices will be used. What the potential benefits might be. What the known risks might be. I also certify that he or she does not have any problems that could make it hard to understand what it means to take part in this research. This person speaks the language that was used to explain this research. This person reads well enough to understand this form or, if not, this person is able to hear and understand when the form is read to him or her. This person does not have a medical/psychological problem that would compromise comprehension and therefore makes it hard to understand what is being explained and can, therefore, give informed consent. This person is not taking dr ugs that may cloud their judgment or make it hard to understand what is being explained and can, therefore, give informed consent. 87

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88 Appendix C (Continued) _______________________________________________________________________ Signature of Person Obtaining Informed Consent Date Printed Name of Person Obtaining Informed Consent

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Appendix D: Efficacy Scale Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale (short form) Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001 Teacher Beliefs How much can you do? Directions: This questionnaire is designed to help us gain a better understanding of the kinds of things that create difficulties for teachers in their school activities. Please indicate your opinion about each of the statements below. Your answers are confidential. Nothing Very Little Some Influence Quite a Bit A Great Deal 1. How much can you do to control the disruptive behavior in the classroom? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2. How much can you do to motivate students who show low interest in school work? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3. How much can you do to get students to believe they can do well in school work? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4. How much can you do to help your students value learning? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5. To what extent can you craft good questions for your students? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6. How much can you do to get children to follow class rules? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7. How much can you do to calm a student who is disruptive or noisy? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8. How well can you establish a classroom management system with each group of students? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9. How much can you use a variety of assessment strategies? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. To what extent can you provide an alternative explanation or example when students are confused? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11. How much can you assist families in helping their children do well in school? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12. How well can you implement alternative strategies in your classroom? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 89

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Appendix E: Teacher De mographic Survey Questionnaire about Teachers and Challenging Behaviors Created by: David L. Westling, Ed.D. Department of Human Services Western Carolina University Cullowhee, North Carolina 28723 Purpose of the Questionnaire This questionnaire is designed to gather in formation about practicing teachers views and approaches to dealing with challenging behavior exhibited by their students. It is designed for elementary and secondary classroom teachers, sp ecial education teachers, and specialty area teachers (e.g., music, PE, art). It is not intended for school administrators, school psychologists, counselors, behavioral consultants, or others not involved in directly teaching students on a day to day basis. If you are not a teacher, please indicate so and return the noncompleted questionnaire to the address below. The results of the questionnaire may be helpful in designing preservice or inservice instruction, assessing the effects of past instruction, or recommending reforms to assist teachers in addressing challenging behaviors. In order for the results to have maximum utility, candid responses are required. An alphanumeric code is attached to the ques tionnaire in order to allow follow-up of nonreturned questionnaires. Individual respon ses will remain anonymous and no individual responder will be identified. The purpose of the questionnaire is not to evaluate the information provided by a single responder, but to assess responses from large groups. Your participation is greatly appreciated and it will make a helpful professional contribution. You should be able to complete the questi onnaire in 20 to 30 minutes. Thank you. DLW 90

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Appendix E (Continued) Definition and Examples of Challenging Behavior As used on this questionnaire, challenging behaviors are intense behaviors that present physical, instructional, or social concerns to the teacher. They disrupt learning are dangerous to the student or others, cause physical pain cause property damage or seriously disrupt the teaching-learning process Challenging behaviors are demonstrated frequently by a student and are difficult to manage Challenging behavior can include any of the following: Defiance and non-compliance: Refusing to follo w directions, e.g. not participating in required activities, challenging authority, purposefully ignoring rules, etc. Destruction: Damaging significant property, e.g. intentionally breaking windows, tearing up books or other material, breaking classroom equipment, etc. Disruption: Interfering with the normal flow of activities, e.g. interrupting instruction, group activities, etc. Illegal behavior: Engaging in acts that violate public laws, e.g. theft, vandalism, technology abuse, substance abuse, etc. Physical aggression: Physically attacking another person, e.g. hitting, kicking, fighting, etc. Self-injury: Causing physical damage to oneself, e.g. self-hitting, self-biting, etc. Social withdrawal: Demonstrates reluctance to participate in normal activities, tends to retreat and avoid interpersonal contacts, e.g. does not like to participate in typical classroom or recreational activities with other students Socially inappropriate behavior: Engagi ng in unacceptable behavior, e.g. making inappropriate sounds, talking too loud, talking about an inappropriate subject, making offensive gestures, etc. Stereotypy: Engaging in repetitive acts, e.g. hand flapping, spinning, twirling, etc. Verbal aggression: Verbally attacking another person, e.g. taunting, challenging, name calling, threatening, etc. Your Beliefs about Challenging Behavior Directions: Please indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements about the challenging behaviors that occur in your classroom Use this scale: 5: I strongly agree 4: I agree 3: I do not agree or disagree 2: I disagree 1: I strongly disagree Many challenging behaviors are due to the persons personality 5 4 3 2 1 Many challenging behaviors are due to a medical or physical reason 5 4 3 2 1 Many challenging behaviors are due to a persons disability 5 4 3 2 1 Many challenging behaviors originate in the home or community 5 4 3 2 1 Many challenging behaviors are lear ned 5 4 3 2 1 Most challenging behaviors can be improved 5 4 3 2 1 91

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Appendix E (Continued) Your Students and Their Behavior (Part 1) Directions: Enter the number of students that yo u teach in each of the following categories, and of that number, the number of students who exhibit any type of challengi ng behavior, based on the definition given above Use only the students primary category, do not count a student in more than one category. If you are not sure, please use approximate numbers Category of Students Number of Students in this Category Number in this Category Who Exhibit Challenging Behavior No Identified Disabilities ADHD Autism or other PDD Deaf-Blindness Emotional Disturbance/ Behavior Disorders Hearing Impairment/ Deafness Mild Moderate Mental Retardation Severe Profound Mental Retardation Developmental Disabilities Multiple Disabilities Orthopedic Impairments Other Health Impairments Specific Learning Disabilities Speech or Language Impairments Traumatic Brain Injury Visual Impairment/ Blindness 92

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Appendix E (Continued) Your Students and Their Behavior (Part 2) Directions: How many of your students exhibit behaviors in the following categories. (Use the definition and examples previously given.) You can count a student more than once if the student exhibits a behavior in more than one category. If you are not sure, please use approximate numbers Category of Challenging Behavior Number of Students Who Exhibit This Kind of Behavior Defiance and non-compliance Destruction Disruption Illegal behavior Physical aggression Self-injury Social withdrawal Socially inappropriate behavior Stereotypy Your Professional Preparation for Dealing with Challenging Behaviors Directions: Please indicate the quality of preser vice preparation and inservice preparation you have received in the following areas, and your confidence in your ability to apply the skills you have learned in these areas. Use the rating system provided for your response. Degree of Preservice Preparation Degree of Inservice Preparation Confidence in Ability to Apply Area of Training 3: Extensive 2: Adequate 1: Minimal 0: None 3: Extensive 2: Adequate 1: Minimal 0: None 3: Highly confident 2: Confident 1: Little confidence 0: Unconfident Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 Functional Behavioral Assessment 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 Classroom Management 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 Individual Behavioral Interventions 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 Data Collection and Assessment 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 School-wide Positive Behavior Supports 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 Other Training (specify) 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 93

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Appendix E (Continued) Your Confidence in Your Ability to Deal with Challenging Behaviors Directions: Please indicate your level of agreemen t with each of the following statements. Use this scale: 5: I strongly agree 4: I agree 3: I neither agree nor disagree 2: I disagree 1: I strongly disagree I had adequate preservice professional training to deal with most challenging behaviors. 5 4 3 2 1 I had adequate inservice professional training to deal with most challenging behaviors. 5 4 3 2 1 Since I have been teaching, I have increased my ability to deal with most challenging behaviors. 5 4 3 2 1 At this time, I have sufficient knowledge and skills to deal with most challenging behaviors. 5 4 3 2 1 Current Strategies You Use for Dea ling with Challenging Behaviors Directions: Please indicate how often you use each of the following strategies when attempting to improve challenging behavior. Use the following scale: 5: I always use this strategy 4: I usually use this strategy 3: I sometimes use this strategy 2: I rarely use this strategy 1: I never use this strategy I observe the student and take notes about the behavior to determine what causes the behavior to occur. 5 4 3 2 1 I interview and take notes from other people, like parents or other teachers, to try to determine what causes the behavior to occur. 5 4 3 2 1 I try to identify conditions that trigge r the behavior (antecedents) so that they can be avoided. 5 4 3 2 1 I try to determine the purpose or function of the behavior and teach a more acceptable behavior or skill. 5 4 3 2 1 I try to reinforce desirable behavior and avoid accidentally reinforcing undesirable behavior. 5 4 3 2 1 When I use positive reinforcement, I use social reinforcement such as praise and attention for appropriate behavior. 5 4 3 2 1 When I use positive reinforcement, I use tangible reinforcement such as food, rewards, or free time for appropriate behavior. 5 4 3 2 1 I frequently measure the behavior (by counting it or timing it) to see if it is occurring more or less often when I try to improve it. 5 4 3 2 1 I try to improve out of classroom conditions that might affect the behavior (such as diet, home c onditions, or other factors). 5 4 3 2 1 94

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Appendix E (Continued) I change my interactions with student s to try improve their behavior, e.g. by offering choices, by the way I speak. 5 4 3 2 1 I change the physical arrangements or conditions in my classroom to try to improve behavior. 5 4 3 2 1 I change my curriculum or teaching ap proach with some students to try to improve their behavior. 5 4 3 2 1 When challenging behavior occurs, I ignore it. 5 4 3 2 1 When challenging behavior occurs, I place the student in time out. 5 4 3 2 1 When challenging behavior occurs, I ta ke away a privilege or desirable activity. 5 4 3 2 1 When challenging behavior occurs, I verbally reprimand the student. 5 4 3 2 1 When challenging behavior occurs I send the student to the office. 5 4 3 2 1 Overall, I use a behavior interven tion plan based on observational data and information acquired through interviews. 5 4 3 2 1 Support and Collaboration You Receive When Dealing with Challenging Behaviors Directions: Please indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements about the support you receive when you must deal with challenging behaviors. Use this scale: 5: I always have this type of support 4: I usually have this type of support 3: I sometimes have this type of support 2: I rarely have this type of support 1: I never have this type of support Support from other teachers or paraeducators 5 4 3 2 1 Support from behavioral specialists 5 4 3 2 1 Support from building administrators 5 4 3 2 1 Support from district administrators 5 4 3 2 1 Support from parents and family members 5 4 3 2 1 Support from community agency professionals 5 4 3 2 1 Support from a team in developing a written behavi or intervention plan 5 4 3 2 1 95

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Appendix E (Continued) The Effects of Challenging Behavior on On You and Your Students Directions: Please indicate your level of agreement with each of the following statements about the effect challenging behavior has on you or your students. Use this scale: 5: I strongly agree 4: I agree 3: I do not agree or disagree 2: I disagree 1: I strongly disagree Challenging behavior takes up a significant am ount of my time 5 4 3 2 1 Challenging behavior increases my level of stress 5 4 3 2 1 Challenging behavior causes me to be a less effective teacher 5 4 3 2 1 Challenging behavior makes me think about quitting teaching 5 4 3 2 1 A student with challenging behavior learns less b ecause of the behavior 5 4 3 2 1 Other students learn less because of the behavior of their classmate 5 4 3 2 1 Please write any other comments you wish to add about students with challenging behaviors. 96

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Appendix F: Teacher/Classroom Survey Teacher/Classroom Survey Dear Thank you for your participation in the Ecological-Behavioral-Curricular Project and for your help in completing this brief questionnaire about your own teaching experiences and your classroom. If you have questions about the study or the questionnaire, please call Lindsey Hillyard at 863-604-3771. 97

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Appendix F (Continued) Date completed ABOUT THE CLASSROOM (Check that apply): ) [i.e., Limited-English-Proficient (LEP) or E nglish-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students] (Enter number on each line. If none, enter ): students students teachers teachers ABOUT YOUR LANGUAGE ARTS, READING, OR ENGLISH INSTRUCTION (Check box in each row): Whole cla ss instruction Small group instruction by adult Cooperative groups or peer-assisted learning Individual instruction from a teacher Individual inst ruction from another adult (Check box in each row): Completes a writing assignment Read aloud Read literature, poetry, plays or dramas Read informational materials Practice phonics or phonemic skills Practice/learn vocabulary Read silently 98

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Appendix F (Continued) ABOUT YOU 13. (i.e., the activity at which you spend most of your time) (Check that apply): (i.e., provide instruction at more than 1 school) at this school 14. (Check box): e 15. (Check box ): 16. (Check that apply): 17. (Check that apply): 99

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Appendix F (Continued) ABOUT THE LEVEL OF SUPPORT YOU RECEIVE IN YOUR CLASS (Check that apply): None Thank you very much for comp leting this questionnaire! 100

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Appendix G: Social Validity Baseline Social Validity Please score each item by ci rcling the number that best indicates how you feel about the intervention(s) you are currently using. 1. Given this classs behavior problems, how a cceptable do you find the current classroom management plan used? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very acceptable acceptable 2. How willing are you to carry out the classroom management plan(s)? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very willing willing 3. To what extent do you think there are disadvantages in following the classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 None Neutral Many likely likely 4. How much time is needed each day for you to carry out the classroom management plan(s)? 1 2 3 4 5 Little time Neutral Much time will be needed will be needed 5. How confident are you that the classroom management plan(s) will be effective for this class? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very confident confident 6. How likely will the classroom management plan(s) make permanent improvements in this classrooms behavior? 1 2 3 4 5 Unlikely Neutral Very likely 7. How disruptive is it to carry out the classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very disruptive Disruptive 101

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Appendix G (Continued) 8. How much do you like the procedures used in the classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Do not like Neutral Like them them at all very much 9. How willingly do other staff members help carry out the classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very willing willing 10. To what extent are undesirable side-effects likel y to result from the classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 No sideNeutral Many sideeffects likely effects likely 11. How much discomfort is this student likely to experience during the classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 No discomfort Neutral Very much at all discomfort 12. How willing are you in changing your routines to carry out the classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very willing 13. How well will carrying out the classroom management plan fit into the existing routine? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very well well 14. How effective will the classroom management plan be in teaching your class appropriate behavior? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very effective effective 15. How well does the goal of the classroom management plan fit with the teams goals to improve the classs behavior? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very much (Adapted from the TREATMENT ACCEPTABILITY RATING FORMREVISED; TARF-R, Reimers & Wacker, 1988) 102

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Appendix G (Continued) Post-test Social Validity Please score each item by ci rcling the number that best indicates how you feel about the intervention(s) you are currently using 16. Given this students behavior problems, how acceptable do y ou find the current classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very acceptable acceptable 17. How willing are you to carry out this classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very willing willing 18. To what extent do you think there might be disadvantages in following this classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 None Neutral Many likely likely 19. How much time will be needed each day for you to carry out this classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Little time Neutral Much time will be needed will be needed 20. How confident are you that the classroom management plan will be effective for your class? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very confident confident 21. How likely is this classroom management plan to make permanent improvements in your classs behavior? 1 2 3 4 5 Unlikely Neutral Very likely 22. How disruptive will it be to carry out this classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very disruptive Disruptive 103

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Appendix G (Continued) 23. How much do you like the procedures used in the proposed classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Do not like Neutral Like them them at all very much 24. How willing will other staff members be to help carry out this classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very willing willing 25. To what extent are undesirable side-effects likely to result from this classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 No sideNeutral Many sideeffects likely effects likely 26. How much discomfort is the class likely to experience during this behavior plan? 1 2 3 4 5 No discomfort Neutral Very much at all discomfort 27. How willing would you be to change your routines to carry out this classroom management plan? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very willing 28. How well will carrying out this classroom management plan fit into the existing routine? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very well well 29. How effective will the intervention be in teaching your class appropriate behavior? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very effective effective 30. How well does the goal of the intervention fit with your goals to improve the classs behavior? 1 2 3 4 5 Not at all Neutral Very much (Adapted from the TREATMENT ACCEPTABILITY RATI NG FORMREVISED; TARF-R, Reimers & Wacker, 1988) 104

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Appendix G (Continued) Addendum to Social Validity Do you have any additional comments to make about the intervention and its effect on the student and/or the class? For exampl e, are other students now making additional social invites to the student, or does the st udent seem to do better in other routines not targeted for the intervention? 105

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Appendix H: Pre-Screening Tool EBC Pre-Screening Classroom Assessmen t Tool Date:___________________ Rater:____________________ Teacher:______________ Directions: First, interview the teacher and provide their score. Next, observe the classroom and rate the activity based on obser vations. The row below the question is for comments during observations. I. Ecological Factors Score 1. Activity centers have well-defined parameters and have barriers or are spaced far enough apart to prevent student contact. 1all activity centers are properly positioned .5some of the activity centers have well defined parameters, however 1 or 2 centers are not either spaced apart or have barriers to help define parameters 0activity centers are located within a close approximation of each other, allowing easy contact between cente rs and do not have well defined parameters Observations: 2. Walkways can be easily accessed and teachers can easily access students at their desks 1All walkways are easy to maneuver and debris free .5Some walkways are tiny and hard to walk down (1-2) 0There is debris in the isles and/or mo st are hard to walk down due to small walkways or protruding objects Observations: 3. There are no barriers in the line of student sight when the teacher is lecturing, showing the students a visual, or showing instructional displays. 1-All children have access to the teacher and/or other important visual cues, such as pictures in a book, material she writes on the board .5Students temporarily loose sight (up to one minute) of teacher/materials 0Some students do not have visual access to teacher/materials for longer than 1 minute. 106

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Appendix H (Continued) Observatio ns: 4. 3-5 positively stated and well defined classroom rules are posted in a position that is easily accessible fo r all students to see while they are sitting in their seats. 1-There are 3-5 positively stated and well defined rules and all students can view classroom rules from their assigned seats .51-2 students cannot view classroom ru les while sitting in their seats and/or some of the rules are positively stated and have definitions while 1-2 rules do not. (there can be no more than 5 rules) 0More than 2 children cannot view classroom rules while sitting in their seats and/or there are more than 2 rules that are not positively stated or have definitions or there are more than 5 rules. Observations: II. Behavioral Factors Score 1. Rules are taught to children on a weekly basis 1Teacher has planned review/teaching times for rules at least once a week .5Teacher has planned review/teaching times for rules once every two weeks or longer 0There are no planned review/teaching tim es for rules built into the schedule Observations: 107

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Appendix H (Continued) 2. A reinforcement system is in place for rewarding appropriate student behavior 1Rewards are given multiple times a day as reinforcement for appropriate behavior. Everyone has a chance to earn tokens throughout the day. .5Some rewards are given out duri ng the day. Children are not always eligible to earn tokens. 0There is no reinforcement system in place/ rewards are given for other reasons unrelated to appropriate behavior. Observations: III. Curricular Factors Score 1. The teacher provides choices throug hout the activity or a choice of activities to students 1Teacher provides two or more choices during activity(observation period?) .5Teacher provides one choice during activity 0The teacher does not provide any choices to student s during activities (observation period) Observations: 2. Student interest is incorporated into the lesson or activity 1Teacher has knowledge of student inte rests and incorporates those interests into assignments when possible .5Teacher does not have direct knowledge of student interests, but tries to incorporate age appropriate interests into assignments 0Student interests are not in corporated into assignments 108

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Appendix H (Continued) Observations: 3. Teacher reviews previously learned material during new lessons. 1Teacher reviews mastered materials before teaching new material (related to same subject) and intersperses some of the mastered material into various parts of the new assignments .5Teacher reviews mastered materi als only at the beginning of new assignments 0Mastered material is not review ed prior or during new assignments Observations: 4. Assignments have meanin gful outcomes for students 1Approx. 100%-50% of assignments are co mpleted to be used (letter written for Santa Claus, assignment to be displaye d in the halls, art created to give to nursing homes, stories created for class competition) .5Approx. 49%-10% of assignments are completed to be used 0Approx. 9% or less of papers/assignments are graded and are not handed back to the child or they are handed b ack to the child to take home with no functional purpose Observations: 109

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110 Appendix H (Continued) 5. Teacher uses other materials, meth ods of providing instructions other than vocal instructions 1Teacher provides other methods of inst ructions (visual charts, tables, flow charts, songs, teacher advises students to take 2 minutes to recite instructions to neighbors, specific hand gestures) .5Teachers only other method of provi ding instructions other than vocal instructions are written inst ructions on childs worksheet 0Teacher only provides vocal instructions during activity Observations: 6. Students have different ways of responding to questions or working out problems other than traditional methods. 1Teacher allows students to respond in different ways (dry erase board, buzzer, tell another student, write answer on board) 0Students only use traditional me thods for answering/responding to questions (raising hand, calli ng out answers randomly) Observations: Consultant Score__________________ Teacher Interview Score_________________ IOA data collector Name______________________________ IOA data collector Score_________________ IOA interview type________________

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Appendix I: Behavi or Rating Scale Teacher: _______ __________ Behavior Date 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Target Behavior Definitions: 1. 2. 111

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Appendix J: Engageme nt Check II Data Collection Sheet Engaged/Present CS Engaged/Present CS Engaged/Present CS Engaged/Present CS Engaged/Present CS Engaged/Present CS 1 2 3 4 5 6 / / / / / / 7 8 9 10 11 12 / / / / / / 13 14 15 16 17 18 / / / / / / 19 20 21 22 23 24 / / / / / / 25 26 27 28 29 30 / / / / / / 31 32 33 34 35 36 / / / / / / 37 38 39 40 41 42 / / / / / / 43 44 45 46 47 48 / / / / / / 49 50 / / 112

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Appendix J (Continued) Teacher:_______________________________ Date:_________________________________ Data Collector:_________________________ Tim e Started:__________________________ Time Ended:___________________________ Academic Engagement: Academic engaged time means that the student is appropriately engaged in working on assigned academic material that is geared toward his/her ability and skill levels. While academically engaged, the student is: Attending to the material or task Making appropriate motor responses Asking for assistance Examples of appropriate AET student activities include the following: Interacting with the teac her or classmates about academic matters Following established classroom rules Following teacher directions Listening to the teacher give instru ctions, directions, or explanations Complying with teacher requests Attending to activities Cooperating and sharing Interacting appropriately with other children Gaining other childrens attention appropriately 113

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114 Appendix J (Continued) Gaining teacher attention appropriately Participating well in group activities Initiating positive social interactions with peers Expressing anger appropriately Initiating positive social interactions with peers Having appropriate social c ontact with other children Showing positive social behavior with other children Participating in games and activities Joining in with others. Some non-examples of engagement include: Not attending to or work ing on the assigned task Breaking classroom rules Daydreaming Being very demanding of teacher attention Disturbing other students Arguing with a teacher or student Not participating in assigned activity

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Appendix K: EBC Process Team M anual Ecological-Behavioral-Curricular Process Team Manual August 2007 Adapted from: University of South Florida & University of Colorado at Denver. (2006). Prevent-teach reinforce model team manual Unpublished manual. And Floridas Positive Behavior Support Project. (2007). Classroom PBS: team consultation guide. Unpublished manual. 115

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Appendix K (Continued) Ecological-Behavioral-Curricular(EBC) Program: Agreement of Responsibilities EBC Consultant Responsibilities The EBC consultant assigned to work with me agrees to: Attend all meetings as scheduled Be on time and prepared to facilitate each meeting in a professional and efficient manner Review assignments at the end of each meeting and check for clarity Remain open to and address questions, comments and concerns Review, analyze, and summarize information and data collected by you Provide up to twelve hours of coaching/tr aining in your classroom prior to fidelity implementation Teacher Responsibilities As a participant in the EBC program, I agree to: Attend all meetings with the EBC consulta nt, as scheduled with the consultant Be on time and actively participate in every meeting by being open, asking questions, and addressing concerns Provide data (including baseli ne and posttest) as scheduled with the data collector Complete and submit all assignmen ts by the due dates agreed upon Select and implement a cl assroom management plan Actively participate in up to 12 hours of coaching sessions with the EBC consultant Allow the EBC consultant to observe implementation of the selected interventions and collect data I have read the information contained in th is document and fully understand my role and responsibilities for par ticipating in the EBC Project. I ag ree to comply with the activities outlined in this EBC Letter of Agreement. _____________________________________ __________________ Teacher Signature Date _____________________________________ __________________ EBC Consultant Date 116

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Appendix K (Continued) EBC Meeting Overview Initial Meeting: 60 minutes Distribute and review materials Complete paperwork Overview of EBC Process Overview of data collection Develop data collection measure (Behavior rating scale-BRS) Meeting 1Goal setting: 60 minutes Review behavior rating scale data Identify short term and long term goals Review results from the Classroom mana gement assessment pre-screening tool Review next assignment and confirm meeting date Meeting 2-Creating Classroom Ma nagement Plan: 60-120 minutes Review behavior rating scale Review EBC interventions scoring table Develop behavior intervention plan Discuss coaching process & sche dule coaching/training session Discuss fidelity measures Review assignments and confirm meeting date Coaching meeting: 45-60 minutes Review planned interventions Make necessary changes Discuss and role-play planned cl assroom management strategies Meeting 3Evaluation: 30 minutes Review behavior rating scale data Discuss technical assistance procedures Distribute and review post-test assessment measures 117

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Appendix K (Continued) Assessments completed by the teacher: Behavior rating scale(BRS) : Measures the intensity, frequency, and/or duration of targeted behaviors Classroom/Teacher Characteristics Survey(CTS) Addresses the overall classroom and instructional design and the teachers professional training. Teachers and challenging behaviors questionnaire(QTCB) Addresses the classroom design, the teachers professional training and the teachers experience with and beliefs concerning problem behaviors. Social validity Measures teacher acceptability of interventions Efficacy scaleAccesses the behaviors that teacher s find difficult in their classrooms Assessments Completed by the data collector: Student Engagement TimeMeasures all students ontask behavior. Conducted during two twenty minute work sessions, preferably on different days. 118

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Appendix K (Continued) Preface I. EBC Overview Welcom e to the Ecological-Behavioral-Curricul ar research project. You are involved in a project that may have an impact on how classroom management programs are created in the future. Your participation is greatly appreciated. This manual is designed to guide teache rs through the EBC process for supporting classrooms with student disruptive behavior EBC is a model of positive behavior support and is aligned largely on the principl es and procedures of applied behavior analysis (ABA). While EBC can be used with students at a ll levels of functioning, it may be of limited effectiveness if the behavi or problems are related to or caused by medical or psychological factors or temporary disruptions in a st udents living situation. If medical, psychological, or severe disruptions in the students home life are suspected, it is recommended that appropriate professionals address these factors before initiating the EBC process. The EBC model consists of three components. Classroom interventions include procedures involving the manipulat ion of the environment, or ecological factors, behavior systems, and modifications to the curriculum. The environment can be modifies by rearranging furniture, materials on walls, and seating arrangements. Behavior systems can be modified by creating specific classr oom rules, implementing a classroom token economy, and teaching appropriate behavior skills regularly. Finally, the curriculum can be modified by giving instructions differently or arranging the act ivities in different orders. It is important that all classrooms receive supports from at least two of these areas. The EBC Manual consists of three chapters one for each step of the EBC process. 1. Goal setting 2. Creating interventions 3. Evaluation Some of the chapters may be completed quickly, depending upon your experience and the amount of planning that has already occurre d. Most of the time will be centered around meeting 2. 119

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120 Appendix K (Continued) II. Behavior Rating Scale Today, we will be discussing the classroom behaviors that you would like to target during this process. A Behavior Rati ng Scale will be used to assist you in collecting data on the classs targeted behaviors. The EBC consul tant assist you in de veloping the BRS data sheet during Meeting 1 and teach you how to use it. The Behavior Rating Scale may be copied and should be completed twice a day for the duration of your involvement with the EBC project. Behavior Rating Scale Directions 1. Look at the sample Behavior Rating Scale. You will notice a place on the left to list the target behaviors identified for the cla ss. Next to the targeted behaviors are key words to define which number to circle. De finitions should be iden tified by describing what the behavior looks like. For each behavior goal sele cted, the team should decide on the anchor points for measurement purposes. The values range from 1 to 5 and relate to the intensity, frequency, or duration of the targeted behavi or. A 1 should represent the behavior on the worst day. A 5 should be define d as an appropriate goal for the behavior. 2. Now that you have set up the Behavior Rating Scale, now you must use it. Behavior ratings will occur twice a day. Mi nutes before, or during your students lunch, circle the behavior sc ale ratings for the morning. Als o, minutes before your students leave to go home, or once the class has left your classroom for the day, circle the behavior scale ratings for the afternoon. Pl ace a circle over the ratings for the morning and an X over the ratings for the afternoon. Place a circle and an X over the same number if the ratings are the same for that day.

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Appendix K (Continued) Behavior Rating Scale Teacher ID _________ Behavior Date 2-12-07 Leaving the Area 2 times or less 3-4 times 5-6 times 7-8 times 9 times or more 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Aggresion Never 1time 2 times 3 times 4times or more 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Following Directions 90% or higher 80-90% 70-79% 60-69% 70% or lower 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 KEY: Leaving the Area : When a student leaves his or her activity center without permission during centers. Aggression : Any time another student hits, kicks, punches, or pinches another student during the day. Following directions: Any time students comply with teacher requests within two teacher prompts. 121

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122 Appendix K (Continued) Behavior Rating Scale Classroom ID_______ _____ Behavior Date 2-12-07 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1

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Appendix K (Continued) Chapter 1: Goal Setting I. Overv iew and Objectives The next step in the process regards your visions for the broad, future outcomes of your classroom. The development of short-term goals will involve sp ecific activities that need to occur to achieve the desired vision. During meeting 1, you will discuss your vision for you and your classroom as a whole and determine appropria te short-term goals. Chapter 1 will assist you to: 1. Establish short-term goals for the classroom 2. Identify antecedents, behaviors, and c onsequences within your classroom as observed by the consultant II. Goal setting: Establishing Sho rt-Term Goals of Intervention Before determining short-term goals for the classroom, you should think about the vision or the broad outcomes they hope the cl assroom to achieve. Examples of shortterm goals are on the next page. If your students are primarily Exceptiona l Student Education (ESE), you can look into their Individua l Educational Plans and try to find common goals among the students in your classroom. You can use the annual goals established for these children as your vision or broad outcomes in this process. There are four main areas to think about when determining broad outcomes. These include: 1. The setting (educational or community) in which the class will be included 2. Social relationships the student s will have in their lives 3. Curriculum or academic success 4. Behavior outcomes Next, apply your vision to assist you in developing short-term goals for the classroom. Short term goals are the specifi c outcomes that need to occur to obtain the broad goals that you ha ve determined. These goals will be referred to throughout the EBC intervention process. The short-term goals considered by your team need to address the following areas: A reduction of the specific problem behavior(s) the majority of the class displays An increase in pro-social and/or academic behaviors you would like to see your students achieve. An increase in the appropriate, desired replacement behavior(s) you would like to see the students display. 123

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Appendix K (Continued) Developing Short-Term Goals Directions: Complete the following page by filling in possible short-term goals (6 months) for the student in each area listed. Steps for establishing short-term goals 1. Be as specific as possible when defi ning behaviors to be increased and decreased. 2. Make sure goals address problem behavi ors and pro-social behaviors. The goals should be clearly defined or oper ationalized. Check to make sure each goal is: a. Observable(can be seen or heard) b. Measurable(can be counted or timed) c. Significant(impact on students life) 3. After reviewing and discussing the goals during meeting 1, you and the consultant will come to a consensus of the top three to five short-term goals. Example: Short-Term Goals for Mrs. Smiths class Ecological Behavioral Curricular Broad Goal Stu d ents will keep the room neat and orderly Students will respect their peers Increase task engagement and complete all assignments Students will stop throwing their backpack and lunchboxes down by their desks, blocking the isle way. Students will decrease talking out during lessons during another peers turn to talk Students will stop talking with each other during independent work assignments Students will hang up their lunchboxes and backpacks when they arrive in the classroom so no one trips on them Students will be supportive of one another by waiting their turn to answer questions or raising their hands Students will work on their assignments quietly at their own seats for at least 80% of the activity. Decrease Increase 124

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Appendix K (Continued) Developing Short Term Goals Short-Term Goals for ___________________________________________ Ecological Behavioral Curricular Broad Goals Decrease Increase Congratulations! You have completed your assignment for Meeting 1! Please continue to the next page 125

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Appendix K (Continued) Chapter 2: EBC Intervention I. Overvie w and Objectives Based on the classroom assessment outcomes and the ABC information collected from the consultant, we will collaborate to develop an Intervention Plan. The intervention plan should compliment the shor t-term goals from chapter 1. The EBC Intervention Plan will include at least two of the three areas: 1. Ecology, or environment 2. Curriculum revisions 3. Behavior systems II. EBC Interventions To develop an intervention plan, you s hould refer to the short-term goals, ABC information, and the classroom management assessment conducted in your classroom prior to this program. These materials w ill assist you in selec ting the appropriate interventions that will most lik ely by effective for your classroom. It is important to select at least one ecological and behavioral intervention and at least three curricular interventions, although not all of the interventions chosen will be implemented in the final plan. 126

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Appendix K (Continued) Ecological Behavior Interventions The following are intervention descriptions that can be used to m anipulate the ecological settings in your classroom to reduce disrupt ive behaviors and may be considered for the use within the ecological section of the interventi on. Please select at least one type of ecological adaptation that you think would best act as a preventative measure for disruptive behavi or in your classroom. Ecological Adaptations Research shows that the most effective schools are those with a well-ordered environment and high academic expectations Ecological adaptations involve modifying the environment rather than the curriculum or instruction. Modifying classrooms so as to create an orderly learning environment where academic performance is expected of all students is therefore one way to enable st udents with social, behavioral, or emotional needs to cope with demands while learning new skills. Three Types of Ecological Adaptations Where Adapt the place When Adapt the schedule Who Adapt the staff or grouping 1. Where Modifying the place may include: Providing access to privacy for a studen t who has difficulty concentrating or staying on task (study carrel, tr ip to another teachers room) Minimizing congestion and clearing traffic lanes Positioning groups/stations to minimize distractions Clearing lines of vision to students Allowing students to see a ll instructional displays Posting behavioral expectations clearly For example, when the Mr. Whiteheads kinderg arten students walk into the classroom in the morning, they often throw their backpacks on the floor su rrounding their desks, causing the walkways to become inaccessible. Mr. Whitehead, as well as the students, are constantly having to step over and around backpacks when participating in center activities. To avoid the bac kpack congestion, Mr. Whitehead had the janitor install hooks by the door so the children can hang their backpacks away from the desk areas. 127

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Appendix K (Continued) 2. When Modifying the schedule ma y include: Adapting daily schedule to provide additional breaks Finding opportunities for a student to spe nd extra time with preferred adults or peers Posting the daily class schedule Developing individual stude nt schedules as needed Utilizing visuals if necessary Posting procedures for transiti on time and non-transition times Labeling the classroom Establishing pred ictable routines Color coding information For example, Mrs. Cassie often has a constant stream of children at her desk in the morning asking when they will be performing certain activities throughout the day. The line of children seems longer on days when special events will be taking place in the auditorium. To avoid this problem, Mrs. Cassie designs a picture schedule of all the activities they will be doing throughout the da y and hangs the schedule in the front of the classroom. The teacher moves a large red arro w with Velcro on the back over to the next activity to signal to the children when activities are changing. 3. Who Modifying people the student works with may include: Using a different teacher for a pa rticular subject or activity Reducing the adult-to-student ratio Changing the number of peers with whom the student is grouped for instruction Promoting friendships betweens studen ts with and without disabilities Providing opportunities for social inclusion for st udents with disabilities Embedding mechanisms for daily communi cation between student and teacher For example, Jimmy and Henry are best frie nds and are often talk ing with each other when the teacher is giving directions. Ther efore, Jimmy and Henry often do not hear the directions so they begi n disrupting other students around them by asking for the instructions. To prevent this problem, the teacher separates Jimmy and Henry during instructions by placing each of them on opposite sides of the room and by students who are consistently quiet when th e teacher gives instructions 128

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Appendix K (Continued) Behavior Systems Interventions The following are intervention descriptions that can be used to ma nipulate the behavior system in your classroom to reduce disruptive behaviors and may be considered for the use within the behavior system section of the interven tion. Please select at least one type of behavior system adaptation th at you think would best act to decrease disruptive behavior in your classroom. Developing a Classroom Reward System Why develop a Classroom Reward System? Increases the likelihood that desi red behaviors will be repeated Focuses staff and student atte ntion on desired behaviors Fosters a positive climate Reduces the need for engaging in tim e consuming disciplinary measures Reward System Guidelines Reward frequently in the beginning Reward contingent on desired behavior Refrain from threatening the loss of rewards/taking earned items away as a strategy for motivating desired behaviors Students are ALWAYS eligible to earn rewards Keep ratios of reinforcement to correction high (4:1) Should complement and supplement the school-wide reward system Use the same school-wide token (i f your school has a token system) Give special privileges/rewards for ea rning tokens in the class (e.g., Tommy earned 3 tokens so he is able to par ticipate in the review game on Friday) Types of Classroom Reward Systems: 1. Independent Each students behavior determin es independently, whether he/she receives a reward Each student receives the same consequence for stated behavior 129

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Appendix K (Continued) EXAMPLE: Mrs. Robinson gives Tommy a token for a ppropriate classroom behavior. If he earns 10 tokens, he may participate in the Spelling Bee Challenge or the Who Wants To Be A Millionaire game at the end of the day. 2. Small Group The reward is given to all members of a group Individual performance can effect the entire group Members must perform at or better than a specified le vel to receive a reward and are competing with other groups in the class EXAMPLE: Mrs. Robinsons class is divided into 4 groups : Ex. A Members of the group help earn t okens for their group and groups that earn at least 20 tokens by the end of the day are admitted to compete in the Spelling Bee or Who Wants To Be A Millionaire game. Ex. B Mrs. Robinsons class is divided in to 4 groups. Each member must earn 5 tokens each day in order for the entire group to participate in the game (receive a reward). Ex. C The 2 groups receiving the highest number of tokens for the day participate in the game (receive a reward). 3. Group The entire class is considered one gr oup and work together towards a goal. An individuals inapprop riate behavior effects the reward for the entire class. Example: Ex. A If the class earns a total of 30 tokens collectively, there will be a Spelling Bee or Who Wants To Be A Millionaire game at the end of the day. Ex. B If each member of the class earns 5 tokens, the class is rewarded with participation in a Spelling Bee or W ho Wants To Be A Millionaire game at the end of the day. If anyone does not earn 5 tokens, the class does not play. (More advanced level) 130

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Appendix K (Continued) 4. Classroom Rules You will be asked to sele ct three to five cl assroom rules that are positively stated and defined. Below is an example of classroom rules and how two teachers defined these rules to make them relevant in their classr oom. The consultant can help you construct your rules, definitions, and ways to teach th ese rules to your classroom during meeting 2. Some examples that may help you with these tasks are written below. Example: 1. Be Safe Walk in the Classroom 2. Be Respectful Be to Class on time, Use an indoor voice 3. Be Responsible Stay on task, Do your Homework Be sure to create rules for your classroo m based on the specific problem behaviors exhibited by your class. Rules for the Classroom Setting = Specific skill s and procedures that you want students to engage in while in the classroom. Guidelines for Creating Class Rules Select a maximum of 5 rules for the classroom Positively stated rules Rules should be observable and measurable Rules should be enforceable You do not need to create a rule for each expectation Choose your rules based on th e needs in your classroom EXAMPLE: How Mrs. Hale chose her classroom rules: 1. Data Collection: Total=28 students Last month they had 31 discipline referrals Referrals summary: Disrespect = 10 Fighting = 2 Refusal to comply/follow directions = 19 Average students tardy per day = 5 Average students absent per day = 0.5 Percentage of completed assignments = 98% 131

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Appendix K (Continued) 2. Mrs. Hale then identified her top 3 problem behaviors: Top 3 Problem Behaviors: Tardiness Refusal to follow directions Disrespect 3. Selection of rules for the classr oom based on needs in the classroom: School-wide Expectations Mrs. Hales Class Mrs. Lees Class Be Safe Walk Sit with your chair on all 4 legs Be Responsible Be on time for class Follow the teachers instructions Bring your homework every day Be Respectful Use appropriate language Keep your hands, feet & objects to yourself Talk when it is your turn to talk Once you have developed classroom rules, it is not enough to just post the words on the walls of the classroom YOU MUST TEACH THEM! If a child doesnt know how to read, we teach . If a child doesnt know how to swim, we teach . If a child doesnt kn ow how to multiply, we teach . If a child doesnt know how to drive, we teach. If a child doesnt know how to behave, we teach? punish? Why cant we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others? (Herner, 1998) 132

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Appendix K (Continued) Why Develop a System for Teaching Classroom Rules? Behaviors are prerequisites for acad emics To proactively address skill deficits To facilitate a positive & unified class culture Procedures and routines create structure Repetition is key to learning new skills: For a child to learn something new it needs to be repeated on average of 8 times For a child to unlearn an old behavior and replace with a new behavior, the new behavior must be repeated on average 28 times (Harry Wong) Ways to Teach Classroom Rules: 1. Introductory Events: Teaching students expectations and rules 2. On-going Direct Instruction: Specially designed lessons and character education 3. Embedding in the Curriculum 4. Keeping it Out There: Visual Displays (posters, agenda covers, etc.) Daily Announcements Songs Guidelines for Teaching Rules (see sample lesson plan on next page) 1. Review the rationale and/or application cues for the expectation(s) 2. Describe the specific, obser vable skill(s) for a targeted lo cation and provide examples and non-examples 3. Engage students in an activity that will allow them to practice the desired behavior 4. Reward appropriate behavior Sample Lesson Plan for Rules Teaching Rules (skill level) Cafeteria 1. List Expectations (Circle those that apply to selected setting): 1. Be Safe 2. Follow directions 3. Be Respectful 2. Activity for Reviewing Expectations: Discuss the school-wide expectations while presenting st udent generated posters, icons, and/or photographs 133

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Appendix K (Continued) 3. Generate Specific Rules for S etting: Expectation 1: Be Safe Rule A: Leave length of two hands between you and the person in front of you in line. Example Non-example Student stands at a good Student bumps into student distance behind others in front of line Rule B: Touch only items you want and need Example Non-example Student picks up plate Student picks up apple to With desired food item show other student Expectation 2: Follow Directions Rule A: Bring your money or lunch ticket Example Non-example Student has ticket/money Student does not have ticket/money Rule B: Decide what you want to eat Example Non-example Student orders pizza Student stands looking at menu for 5 minutes when asked for order 134

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Appendix K (Continued) 3. Generate Specific Rules for Se tting (Continued): Expectation 3: Be Respectful Rule A: Stand behind last person in line Example Non-example Student approaches line and stands in back Student gets in line between t wo others Rule B: Move forward when its your turn Example Non-example Student wal ks ahead when line moves up Student is talking and is out of line 4. Activities to Allow Students to Practice Desired Behaviors: Arrange to have a snack served in the cafe teria immediately after the lesson. 5. Plan for Rewarding Appropriate Behavior: 1) The snack can be used as a reward durin g the initial le sson. Students who do not follow the rules will need to practice the co rrect behavior before having the snack. 2) The class can earn extra minutes for pref erred activities on Friday if they exhibit the correct behaviors in the cafeteria dur ing the week. An apple representing 2-3 minutes earned can be posted on the bulletin board each day after lunch. 135

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Appendix K (Continued) Embedding Expectations/Rules into Curriculum Behavior curriculum does not have to be separate Helps to eliminate tim e crunches Provides a rationale for studenthelps students to see how the expectations fit into everyday life Meets best practices approach: Hands on activities Meets all learning styles (o ral, visual, kinesthetic) Higher order learning activates (synthesize, analyze, etc.) EXAMPLES: Social Studies: Have students research different cu ltures to find out how they define Respectful Talk about how different historical events occurred because of conflict and come up with solutions on how the conflict could have been resolved Language Arts and Reading: Use a novel that has an expectation as a theme Discuss characters in a novel and how they did not show respect, then have the students write the story with the character showing respect Have the students develop their own e xpectations and/or rules and then have them write a persuasive essay or debate why theirs should be used instead of the schools Fine Arts (Music, Art, Computers, Graphics): When choosing a school play, choose one with a theme centered around one of the school expectations or write your own play Have the students compose a song/rap with the expectation Have students come up with a campaign for promoting expectations to the entire student body Science and/or Math: Have students develop a hypothesis a bout what they th ink are the top behavior problems at school. Have them survey students, parents, & teachers; make graphs; and reach a conclusion about the hypothesis Have the students count the number of tickets redeemed monthly for prizes & graph them. You can include ratio of number of tickets to student, # of tickets per teacher, etc. 136

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Appendix K (Continued) Curricular Intervention s The following are intervention descriptions that can be used to manipulate the curriculum in your classroom to reduce disrup tive behaviors and may be considered for the use within the curricular s ection of the intervention. Plea se select at least one type of curricular adaptation that you think would best act to decr ease disruptive behavior in your classroom. Curriculum & Instruction Adaptations A well-managed classroom typically has students deeply involved in their work. Students know what is expected of them and are usually successful. There is little wasted time, confusion, or disruption evident in a well-managed classroom. The teacher has a discipline plan in place, starts class on-tim e, and has assignments posted for students. The climate is work-oriented, however relaxed a nd pleasant. The teacher has invested time in practicing procedures until th ey become class routines. Th e teacher of a well-managed classroom can be observed consistently pr aising students and encouraging them to do their best. Absence of these effective teacher behavi ors may result in inappropriate student behavior. An Educational Approach to Behavior Support Because behavior problems are often a reflection of skill deficits, teaching is often the best intervention. Because instructional and curricular variables have been found to influence student behavior, adaptation of instructi on and curriculum can result in improved behavior and increased opportunity for learning. When to Address Curriculum & Instruction Understanding the function of problem behaviors aides in determining the appropriate intervention. Upon receiving instructions or directions problem behavior may occur in the form of: o Off-task o Out-of-area o Non-compliant o Misuse of materials o Escalation upon redirection to task 137

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Appendix K (Continued) Curricular/Instructional Adaptations Adaptations CurricularAdapt what is taughtInstructionalAdapt how it is taught and how learning is demonstrated Instructional Presentation Meaningful/ Functional Preference/ Interest Student Response Alternation Modality Format/Materials Task Division Choice Modality Format/Material Difficulty Curriculum Adaptations Adaptations to curricula broaden or alte r the scope and sequen ce to accommodate a greater range of student learni ng goals. In addition, curriculu m adaptations are defined as any change to part of the teachi ng-learning process and may include: Teacher instructional methods and strategies Learning activities and instructional materials Performance requirements Testing procedures. Three Types of Adaptations to Curriculum Difficulty Preference/Interest Meaningfulness 1. Task Difficulty Task difficulty of curricula may be adapted by: Incorporating and alternating mastered skil ls/activities into novel skills/activities Adjusting the difficulty level (i.e., sa me story at a lower reading level) Providing errorless learning opportunities Shortening length of di fficult assignments Completing task steps at a lower difficulty (i.e., science projects) 138

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Appendix K (Continued) For example, In Ms. Sm iths classroom, half of the class seems to get lost during the math lessons each day. They are having trouble staying on task and often do not complete the assignment. Mrs. Smith decide s to change the curricu lum by incorporating mastered skills in with the new math lesson. Now, Mrs. Smith has the children complete two digit addition equations wh ile incorporating single digit addition equations into the lesson to keep the childrens attention. 2. Incorporate student interests into curriculum Preference/Interest of curricula may be adapted by: Incorporating students preferences in task For example, many of the childre n in Mrs. Smiths class love Pokemon cards. They talk about them often and sometimes bring them to school. After learning some of the Pokemon characters names, the teacher deci des to incorporate the characters into the math lesson. For instance, Mrs. Smith will say Picachu has twenty poke balls. If Ash takes away five poke balls, how many will Picachu have? The teacher also uses math materials provided by the Pokemon website create d just for teachers to give a visual aid for the students in the classroom. Alternating preferred wi th non-preferred tasks Incorporating students interests in task For example, have the students participate in a handwriting activity based upon a topic of his/her interest or with a number concept lesson, have student use items of interest as the manipulative (i.e., cars, dolls, dogs, coins). Keep in mind that the instructional obj ectives remain constant even though you are adapting the items used within the lesson. 3. Make Tasks More Meaningful Task Meaningfulness may be adapted by: Teaching skills that help the student participate fully in individual community activities Making traditional tasks more purposeful by developing functional activities that meet overall objectives o General community and/ or vocational skills o Recreational o Creation of a useful product or outcome 139

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Appendix K (Continued) For example, Mr. Terry often had his students write sto ries related to the writing style he was teaching during the month. After the stude nts were finished writing their stories, they would be graded and given back to the students to put in their desks. A more meaningful or functional way to accomplish the same objective would be to have the students write their storie s to showcase in the hall for th e other second grade classes or to send to a retirement community for th e elderly to read. Another good use for the writing assignments might be for a home folder that their parents will receive to see how well they are doing at school. Instructional Adaptations ADAPTING INSTRUCTIONAL PRESENTATION Adaptations to instruction invol ve changing the way in which ma terial is presented and/or the way the student practices or demonstrates learning. Two Types of Instructional Adaptations Instructional Presentation o Alternation o Modality o Format/Materials o Task Division o Choices Student Responses or Output o Modality o Format/Material Adapting the Instructional Presentation You can adapt the presentation by modifying: The information provided during a lesson or the directions (i.e., difficulty level), The manner in which the information is provided (i.e., brief lectures, cues/prompts), and The materials provided for a student dur ing a practice or evaluation activity. 4. Task Alternation Intersperse activities Novel with familiar Preferred with non-preferred Teacher directed with independent Lecture with interactive activities 140

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Appendix K (Continued) During Mrs. Harmons writing block, all stude nts are asked to write a story using a different typ e of writing style each week. This week they are writing persuasive essays. The children are asked to write a persuasive essay on how to get a foreigner to relocate to America. After receiving the assignment, the children are observed being off task talking with their neighbors and asking to get drinks of water and go to the bathroom. The teacher decides to make the task more preferred by changing the assignment. She directs the students to write a persuasive essay to ge t their parents to buy a t oy they really want. The children were excited to write how they could manipulate their parents into buying their favorite toy and were observed as more on task by Mrs. Harmon 5. Modality Adapting the presentation modality may include: Reading text aloud to students Accompanying oral information with ove rheads, graphic organizers, visual pictures, or outlines Providing audio or videotap es to accompany textbooks Providing models or demonstrations For example, Mrs. Elliot usually reads a chapter from the Shiloh book every other day to her fifth grade students. Du ring this reading period, the te acher often obser ved students fidgeting with objects, looking away, and passi ng notes to other students. To keep students attention, she decided to assign each student a page to read during the day. If there were not enough pages to accompany ever yone in the class, the students who did not read during the activity would be chosen dur ing the next reading time in two days. 6. Format/Materials Adapting the presentation format/materials may include: Conducting demonstrations and role plays Highlighting a content area textbook (yel low for vocabulary words, blue for definitions) Providing large-print materials Providing answer boxes or more room to write on test and worksheets Adding pictures and/or symbols to text Mr. Jefferson often gave math worksheets to his fourth grade class with lists of times tables and multiplication problems. The work sheets were black and white with twenty problems on the front side and twenty problem s on the reverse side. His students have 25 minutes to finish the assignment, however many of the students do not have the last 10 problems finished when the math period is ove r. To stimulate student interest in the worksheets, Mr. Jefferson decides to insert cl ip art of smiley faces after every row and a 141

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Appendix K (Continued) thumbs up picture on the bottom of every page. Mr. Jefferson notices that more students spend more time working on their math work sheets with the new look and more math problems were finished when math period was over. 7. Task division Adapting the presentation by dividing the task may include: Breaking up the task into smaller units For example, a math worksheet could be cut into rows, using each row as a separate strip. The teacher would provide the student with one strip of math problems to complete at a time. After the student completed all probl ems on the strip, the instructor provides feedback and repeats the sequence until the entire math worksheet is completed. 8. Providing Choices Adapting the presentation by presenting choices may include: Choices in task Choices in response method Choices in who to work with Choices in where to complete task For example, during the geography lesson, Ms. Th omas regularly asks students questions in which they are supposed to raise their hands and wait to be called upon. Instead, no one raises their hands except for Timmy. Timmy always rais es his hand and it seems like he is the only one who provides answers. The rest of the students seem to be daydreaming during the lesson. In order to incr ease participation, the teacher decided to give the students a choice between a dr y erase board or small boxes of sand. The children can decide which met hod they would like to display the answers to the questions that Ms. Thomas asks. The children can ei ther write the answers down on a dry erase board, or the children can write the answer with their fingers in the sand. By allowing the children a choice between their method of answering questi ons, participation in the geography lesson greatly increased. 142

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Appendix K (Continued) Adapting Student Responses or Output Student response or output is defined as the behavior required by the student. Student responses ma y include: Listening to a lecture Reading a resource book Taking notes Organizing and writing information Multiple choice format 9. Adapting Student Resp onses or Output/Modality Adapting student response or output modality may involve: Listening to someone else read a test aloud rather than reading it silently Giving oral rather than written directions Using the computer to answ er questions to a test verses paper/pencil task Communicating spelling words ora lly rather than writing them Mrs. Robertsons class loves to play games. They look forward to game time every Friday. Mrs. Robinson notices that many of her students are competitive with one another. Students are often talking loudly and getting out of th eir seats during the 30 minute spelling activity when they should be reviewing their spelling words and looking up definitions in the dictionary. Mrs. Robins on decides to create a spelling game to use during the spelling activity by splitting the class into two teams. She provides the students with the new spelling words and defi nitions and allows them to study the sheet for 15 minutes independently. Then the two teams compete in a spelling bee. Points are awarded to teams that spell the word correct and bonus point s are given if the team can give the correct definition of the word. Af ter redesigning the 30 minute spelling period to include the spelling game, Mrs. Robinson notic es a reduction of students out of seat behavior and talking and an increase in spelling test scores. 10. Adapting Student Responses or Output/Format Material Adapting student response or output format/material may involve: Solving functional math problems rather than practicing isolated skills (count money rather than using plastic counters) Completing a chart, map, or outline inst ead of writing an essay about a novel or story Using a computer rather than pencil/paper 143

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Appendix K (Continued) Mr. Conner teaches a third grade class. For geography, he often has the students sit on the carpet while he lectures the new lesson to his students. During this period, students are often off-task and Mr. Conner m ust spend a quarter of the lesson redirecting students back to the lesson and sending students to time-out chairs. An example of adapting student responses or out put/Format material would be to have the class fill out a worksheet with the answers provided by Mr. Conner throughout the ge ography lesson. If the students fill in all the missing blanks on the worksheet by listening to Mr. Conner, they will be allowed to not answer one of the geography questions assigned as homework for that night. Mr. Conner observed students on-task for the majority of the lesson after distributing the worksheets and had to redi rect students back on task fewer times. 144

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Appendix K (Continued) EBC In terventions Checklist Classroom ID__________Date________________ Short Term Goals____________________________________________________ ABC observations to keep in mind: Ecological Interventions Behavior Systems Interventions Curricular Interventions Where *3-5 Positively Stated Rules Task Difficulty When Independent Incorporate Student Interests into Curriculum Who Small Group Make Tasks More Meaningful Group Task Alternation Modality Format/Materials Task Division Providing Choices Adapting Student Responses or Output/Modality Adapting Student Responses or Output/Format Material 145

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Appendix K (Continued) Chapter 3: Evaluation I. Overvie w and Objectives Congratulations! You are at the final st ep of the EBC Intervention. Now that you have selected interventions to decrease problem behavior and increase prosocial behavior, it is important to con tinue to collect outcome data that will let you know if the intervention is effective. This information will allow you to problem-solve situations that are unsuccessful and discuss fu ture technical assistance that may be available with the EBC consultant. Due to the nature of this program, there will be no follow-up assessments or appointments with the consultant. Chapter 3 will assist you to: 1. Discuss the continued use of the behavior rating scale 2. Determine an evaluation/monitoring sche dule and a method for knowing when the intervention is not working. 3. Decide upon future techni cal assistance available II. Measuring and Evaluating Outcome Data Outcome data are necessary to know whether or not your intervention is successful. The Behavior Rating Scale you have been using since the start of the process can continue to be used to collect data on the effectiveness of your interventions. The scale ratings will help you determine if you perceive the behaviors to be improving, not improving, or getting worse. If you would like to collect information on behaviors that have not been targeted using the Behavior Rating Scale, you may want to find out how many times (frequency) the class exhibits the behavior or you may want to know how long (duration) the majority of the class spends engaged in the beha vior. If you wish to collect additional information, you can use the behavior rating scale sheet at the end of th is chapter to help define the five anchor points used in the behavior rating scale. If a reduction in problem beha vior and/or an increase in prosocial behavior are not observed, you may need to modify th e classroom management plan. 146