USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Multi-elemental chemical analysis of anthropogenic soils as a tool for examining spatial use patterns at prehispanic pal...

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Multi-elemental chemical analysis of anthropogenic soils as a tool for examining spatial use patterns at prehispanic palmarejo, northwest honduras
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Rothenberg, Kara
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mesoamerica
Archaeology
Soil chemistry
Plazas
ICP-MS
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: Plazas and patios were important spaces for expressing power and social identity in prehispanic Mesoamerica. However, plazas can be analytically problematic, because they were often kept clean of material debris. Previous geoarchaeological studies of anthropogenic soils and sediments have shown that specific activities leave characteristic chemical signatures on prepared earthen surfaces. The research presented here uses soil chemical residue analysis and excavation data to examine use patterns in the North Plaza of Palmarejo, Honduras during the Late Classic period. The goal is to determine whether the plaza was used for residential or ceremonial purposes. The chemical results indicate that activities in the northern half of the plaza were distinct from those that occurred in the southern half. These results, along with the artifact assemblage recovered from excavations, suggest ceremonial use. Additionally, this research compares various soil properties, including pH and organic matter, from the North Plaza to broaden our reach in prospecting for activity loci using soil chemistry. Recent studies tend to rely on spatial differences in elemental concentrations for identifying activity patterns in the archaeological record. However, other related soil properties sometimes correlate with chemical residues, especially phosphates. The research presented explores these interconnections with the greater goal of identifying the ways and extent to which various soil properties are linked in the formation and preservation of ancient activity loci. Results suggest that the deposition and adsorption of chemical residues in anthropogenic soils at Palmarejo are generally too variable to be accurately characterized by either pH or organic matter. Chemical elements may best reveal the use of the North Plaza in antiquity.
Thesis:
Thesis (MA)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kara Rothenberg.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0004681
usfldc handle - e14.4681
System ID:
SFS0027993:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

MultiElemental Chemical Analysis of Anthropogenic Soils as a Tool for Examining Spatial Use Patterns at Prehispanic Palmarejo, Northwest Honduras by Kara A. Rothenberg A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Major Professor: E. Christian Wells, Ph.D. Karla L. Davis Salazar, Ph.D. Erin H. Kimmerle, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 2, 2010 Keywords: Mesoamerica, archaeology, soil chemistry, plazas, ICP MS Copyright 2010, Kara A. Rothenberg

PAGE 2

Acknowledgements I would like to graciously thank my advisor, Dr. Christian Wells, for introducing me to soil chemistry, guiding me through my studies and overall being a fantastic and helpful mentor. Thanks also to the other members of my committee, Dr. Karla Davis Salazar and Dr. Erin Kimmerle, for giving constructive comments to aid in the development of this thesis as well as being patient with my progres s. Funding for field work was supported by a grant from the National Geographic Society and the University of South Florida. ICP MS analysis would not have been possible without the help of Dr. Laure Dussubieux, Department of Anthropology, The Field Museum of Natural History, with funding from the National Science Foundation. I would also like to thank Dr. Don Storer from Southern State Community College, Hilllsboro, Ohio, for allowing me to invade his General Chemistry class to teach his students about arc haeology and soil chemistry. Thanks also to Dons General Chemistry class for aiding with some of the analyses for this project. Finally, I want to thank my friends and family for being supportive and always willing to listen to me gab on about how cool soil chemistry is. Specifically, I thank my Mom, Diane Rothenberg, for being my ultimate backbone in life and encouraging me to continue with every opportunity that comes my way.

PAGE 3

i Table of Contents List of Tables .......................................................................................................................ii List of Figures .....................................................................................................................i ii Abstract ................................................................................................................................v Chapter 1. Introduction........................................................................................................1 Organization of the Thesis ..............................................................................................3 Chapter 2. The Cultura l Importance of Plazas: The Built Environment and Spatial Theory .................................................................................................................5 Other Approaches to Studying Plazas ...........................................................................11 Chapter 3. Soil Chemical Residue Analysis: Description, History and Application .........13 Chapter 4. Case Study: Palmarejo, Honduras ....................................................................22 The Naco Valley ...........................................................................................................22 The Palmarejo Valley, Palmarejo and the North Plaza ................................................27 Previous Archaeological Investigations ........................................................................30 Resid ential Versus Ceremonial Space: Comparative Studies and Expectations ..........32 Chemical Methods and Analyses ....................... ...........................................................34 Reliability ......................................................................................................................38 Chapter 5. Results ..............................................................................................................40 Chemical C orrelations ..................................................................................................52 Chapter 6. Discussion........................................................................................................60 Chapter 7. Conclusion ........................................................................................................72 References Cited ................................................................................................................77 Appendix I. Raw Chemical Data .......................................................................................86 Appendix II. Additional Chemical Distributions .............................................................109

PAGE 4

ii List of Tables Table 3.1. Elements discussed and their respective symbols.............................................14 Table 5.1. Summary statistics for soil chemical data .........................................................42 Table 5.2. Beta weights from a multiple linear regression of ICP MS chemical elements on pH.............................................................................................................58 Table 5.3. Beta weights from a multiple linear regression of ICP MS chemical elements on SOM. .........................................................................................................58 Table A.I.1 pH, SOM and Foss extracted chemical data, part 1 .......................................87 Table A.I.2. Foss extracted chemical data, part 2 ..............................................................94 Table A. I .3. Mehlich 3extracted phosphorus data .........................................................101

PAGE 5

iii List of Figures Figure 4.1. Map depicting the study area and surrounding region....................................24 Figure 4. 2. Plan view of Palmarejo with the North Plaza, civic ceremonial plaza and elite residential patio identified .....................................................................................31 Figure 4.3. The North Plaza showing the location of the samples collected.....................36 Figure 4.4. Linear correlation of ICP OES and molybdate colorimetry P data. ................39 Figure 5.1. Boxplots of soil chemical data........................................................................43 Figure 5.2. Scatterplots of the first two factor scores from a principal components analysis for the North Plaza data..................................................................................44 Figure 5.3. Scatterplots of the first two factor scores from a discriminant function analysis for the North Plaza data..................................................................................45 Figure 5.4. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Fe in ppm .............................................................................................47 Figure 5.5. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Sr in ppm.............................................................................................48 Figure 5.6. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of pH..................................................................................................................................49 Figure 5.7. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of SOM in percentage.......................................................................................................50 Figure 5.8. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of Factor 1 scores from the principal components analysis..............................................51 Figure 5.9. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing t he distribution of extractable soil P in ppm...............................................................................................53 Figure 5.10. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil K in ppm ..............................................................................................54

PAGE 6

iv Figure 5.11. Matrix of Pearsons linear correlation coefficients. ......................................56 Figure 5.12. Scatterplot of soil organic matte r (SOM) against the Mehlich 3 extracted colorimetry phosphorus (P)...........................................................................................57 Figure 6.1. Location and names of test units within the North Plaza. ...............................61 Figure 6.2. Profile drawings of south and wes t walls of test unit A ..................................64 Figure 6.3. Ceramic artifacts recovered from test unit A. .................................................65 Figure 6.4. Profile drawings of east and south walls of test unit B ...................................65 Figure 6.5. Candelero fragments recovered from test unit B.............................................67 Figure 6.6. Profile drawings of east and south walls of test unit C...................................68 Figure 6.7. Profile drawings of east and south walls of test unit D...................................69 Figure 6.8. Ceramic artifacts recovered from test unit D. .................................................70 Figure 6.9. Faunal remains recovered from test unit D.....................................................70 Figure A.II.1. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Ba in ppm...........................................................................................110 Figure A.II.2. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Mg in ppm.........................................................................................111 Figure A.II.3. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Mn in ppm.........................................................................................112 Figure A.II.4. Kriged image ma p overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Zn in ppm...........................................................................................113

PAGE 7

v Multi Elemental Chemical Analysis of Anthropogenic Soils as a Tool for Examining Spatial Use Patterns at Prehispanic Palmarejo, Northwest Honduras Kara A. Rothenberg ABSTRACT Plazas and patios were important spaces for expressing power and social identity in prehispanic Mesoamerica. However, plazas can be analytically problematic, because they were often kept clean of material debris. Previous geoarchaeological studies of anthropogenic soils and sediments have shown that specific activities leave characteristi c chemical signatures on prepared earthen surfaces. The research presented here uses soil chemical residue analysis and excavation data to examine use patterns in the North Plaza of Palmarejo, Honduras during the Late Classic period. The goal is to determine whether the plaza was used for residential or ceremonial purposes. The chemical results indicate that activities in the northern half of the plaza were distinct from those that occurred in the southern half These results, along with the artifact assemb lage recovered from excavations, suggest ceremonial use Additionally, t his research compares various soil properties including pH and organic matter from the North Plaza to broaden our reach in prospecting for activity loci using soil chemistry. Recent studies tend to rely on spatial differences in elemental concentrations for identifying activity patterns in the archaeological record. However, other related soil properti es sometimes correlate with chemical residues, especially phosphates. The research presented explores these

PAGE 8

vi interconnections with the greater goal of identifying the ways and extent to which various soil properties are linked in the formation and preservat ion of ancient activity loci. Results suggest that the deposition and adsorption of chemical residues in anthropogenic soils at Palmarejo are generally too variable to be accurately characterized by either pH or organic matter Chemical elements may best r eveal the use of the North Plaza in antiquity.

PAGE 9

1 Chapter 1. Introduction Plazas and patios were important spaces for expressing power and social identity in prehispanic Mesoamerica. Private residential patios were intimate settings that provide d a space f or everyday household activities. Public plazas were typically much more open and could be used for a variety of activities including ceremonial and commercial purposes In this thesis, I examine ancient activity patterns within a Late Classic (ca. AD 600 900) plaza located at the site of Palmarejo, Honduras using soil chemical residue analysis. My aim is to determine the prehispanic function of this plaza ; whether the Nor th Plaza was used for residential or ceremonial purposes. Additionally, I plan to explore the North Plazas relationship with the rest of Palmarejo, where there already exists an elite residential patio and ceremonial plaza. Previous geoarchaeol ogical studies of anthropogenic soils and sediments (those altered by humans) have shown that specific activities leave characteristic chemical signatures on prepared earthen surfaces. Soil is the product of numerous natural processes. Physical, biological and chemi cal properties of soils can be altered not only by environmental factors such as erosion and climate, but also by human activities. Due to their chemical composition soils bear the stamp of human occupation by encoding the effects of these activities. So il particles hold anions that act like magnets to attract ions of an opposite charge, cations.

PAGE 10

2 Specific elements that are generated by human activities become attached and rapidly fixed t o soil particles (Wells 2006 ). Due to this strong bond, these element s tend to be very stable and resistant to movement, whether horizontal or vertical (Wells 2006 ). Examples of elements associated with human activit ies include calcium and strontium with the pr eparation of corn, iron with areas used for processing agave leaves, mercury and lead with craft production, potassium sodium and magnesium with wood ash from fires and phosphorus with food and beverage consumption and preparation (Holliday 2004:302303; We lls 2004:71; Wells et al. 2007:213214,217; Wells a nd Terry 2007b:385). By comparing elemental concentrations of soils, we can see where humans have changed the soil environment as well as what processes caused these changes. The study of anthropo genic alterations and their distributions can aid in the det ection of site boundaries as well as specific activity areas and features within a site (Holliday 2004:290). By using soil chemistry to examine relative elemental concentrations in soils throughout the plaza, I will be able to detect ancient activity patterns and interpret the plazas relationship with the rest of the settlement. Specifically, 22 elements (Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sr, U, V, and Zn) along with soil pH and organic matter were measured for activity analysis. Furthermore, the results of the chemical analyses were compared to artifact assemblages from excavation to further explore the use of space in the North Plaza. Chemical data indicate that activities in the northern half of the plaza were distinct from those that occurred in the southern half suggesting ceremonial use of the space. This inference is supported by the artifact

PAGE 11

3 assemblage recovered from excavations in the North Plaza. In addition to examining activity patterns, this research explores interconnections between soil properties with the greater goal of identifying the ways and extent to which various properties are linked (e.g. positively or negatively correlated) T he results suggest that the deposition and adsorption of chemical residues in anthropogenic soils at Palmarejo are generally too variable to be accurately characterized by either pH or organic matter Chemical elements may best reveal the use of the North Plaza in antiquity. This research is significant because it can help to better understand social and political relationships at Palmarejo as well as further inform general soil chemical residue methods and research. Organization of the Thesis This thesis is organized into seven chapters. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to how researchers have viewed the relationship between humans and constructed space and how spatial relationships are important for the formation and maintenance of social id entities. This chapter begins with different anthropologists ideas about the creation of space, then turns to the work of Setha Low to focus on Mesoamerican plazas as constructed space In Chapter 3 I detail what soil chemical residue analysis is and how it works along with the history of its use and applications. The case study of the plaza at Palmarejo which I have chosen to show the application of soil chemical residue analysis is presented in Chapter 4 This case study examines the use of an area designated as the North Plaza in an attempt to determine whether it was used for domestic or ceremonial purpose s The environmental and archaeological context of the region is discussed as

PAGE 12

4 well as past research t hat has been conducted. I also explain the difference between ceremonial and residential spaces how they compare chemically and thus what my expectations are for the North Plaza. The methods of data collection used for measuring elemental concentrations and soil properties within the North Plaza are outlined in this chapter along with a small section in which the reliability of different chemical methods is investigated. The results of the se analyses are presented in Chapter 5, and include exploratory dat a analysis, principal components analysis and discriminant function analysis along with spatial distributions using Kriging. Additionally, this chapter explore s interconnections between soil properties with the greater goal of identifying the ways and ext ent to which various soil properties are linked in the formation and preservation of ancient activity loci. Chapter 6 is the discussion portion of this thesis and ties together the theoretical ideas with the results of the case study. This chapter states my conclusion that the use of the North Plaza was ceremonial Additionally, excavation data from four test units conducted at the North Plaza are explored to evaluate and support this conclusion. Chapter 7 discusses i mplications of the North Plaza being ceremonial and how this fits into the larger community of Palmarejo K ey points from previous chapters are also reviewed in this chapter as well as additional concluding comments The greater goal of this thesis is to s how the usefulness and application of soil chemistry in archaeological research and interpretation.

PAGE 13

5 Chapter 2. The Cultural Importance of Plazas: The Built Environment and Spatial Theory Humans create spatial boundaries in many ways. Multiple factors, such as architecture, can define space within it or bound space around it. Lawrence and Low define the built environment as an abstract concept to describe the products of human building activity (Lawrence and Low 1990:454). In other words, thi s term refers to any human alteration of the natural environment. This can mean houses or other architecture as well as defined open spaces, including Mesoamerican plazas and patios. Moore defines plazas as culturally defi ned spatial settings for diverse public interactions that may be sacred or mundane (Moore 1996:789). The relationship between society and culture and the built environment is interactive; people create space and are, in turn, influenced by it (Lawrence and Low 1990). Understanding what a ctivities occurred within the built environment is integral to understanding social interactions of the people who used the space. Scholars have conceptualized the relationship between humans and the built environment for many years. At the turn of the 20th century, Mauss (1979[1906]) demonstrated the role of the built environment for modern Eskimo. He showed that the built environment had multiple levels of integration and adaptation, including ecological, social, and symbolic. Soon after, Durkheim (1995 [1915]) drew attention to the important

PAGE 14

6 connection between the built environment and social practices, specifically regarding religion. He argued that a peoples surroundings strongly influence religious practices. He demonstrated this in populations in di fferent parts of the world including the Pueblo and Australian aborigines. Other theories focusing on the creation and meaning of social space began to emerge in the 1970s. Lefebvre (1991[1974]) argued that space is a social construct that is based on soc ial meanings and values. The social construction affects spatial perceptions as well as practices. He goes on to relate this to power by arguing that those in leadership positions use the social space to exert dominance over their followers. Foucault (1995[1977]) also examined the spatialization of social control with his research on prisons. He explored the relationship between power and space through the analysis of spatial arrangements and architecture within modern and historical prisons in France. Also at this time, Bourdieu (1977) examined the spatialization of everyday behaviors and how social spatial order creates experiences and practices of these behaviors. Both Foucaults and Bourdieus work was significant because they connected social theory wit h both space and time. In the 1980s, Certeau (1984) demonstrated how spatial organization and the sociocultural production of space affect the way that people function and operate on an everyday basis. Hillier and Hanson (1984) went in a similar direction by arguing that built forms not only express but direct and shape social processes concerned with sociability and controlling behavior in host guest or insider outsider relations (Lawrence and Low 1990:472). Rabinow (1989) examined spatial relations by l inking political power to aesthetics, architecture and city planning of French colonists.

PAGE 15

7 Holstein (1989) continued this frame of thought by examining political domination in the form of state sponsored spatial and architectural design of the city of Brasi lia in Brazil. Both Rabinow and Holstein illustrate how architecture and spatial design contribute to the creation and maintenance of power by controlling the movement of people in space (Low 1996:862). More recently and specific to plazas as a form of the built environment Moore (1996) has investigated archaeological, ethnographic and ethnohistoric pre Hispanic Andean plazas. He views plazas as important spaces for social interaction and specifically looks at the relationship between constructed space, human perceptions and ritual communication. Low (1995, 1996, 2000) has done much of her work examining the social production of space in plazas in contemporary Costa Rica. Social, economic, ideological and technologica l factors are all taken into consideration when examining humanspatial relationships. Plazas exist in nearly every modern town throughout Mesoamerica. Some may argue that the grid plan town with a central plaza was the result of the direction and influ ence of the Spanish. In this sense, the architectural and spatial design represents colonial control and oppression (Low 1995:479, 1996:867). However, this type of urban design existed in the form of plaza temple complexes long before the first Spaniard st epped foot on American soil (Low 1995:749). Settlements throughout Mesoamerica and South America were centered on ceremonial plazas which were encircled by major temples and elite residences (Low 1995 :749750 ). Many early Spanish explorers wrote about the grandeur and order of the urban designs exhibited by settlements of the

PAGE 16

8 indigenous people they encountered (Low 1995:749750). Modern plazas tend to combine indigenous and Spanish aspects, but overall the concepts surrounding their creation do not differ much. Both Spanish and prehispanic Mesoamerican plazas were designed with similar aims of creating and manifesting social order (Low 1995 :749). In both instances, the central plaza was surrounded by residences of the elite as well as religious architecture ( e.g. churches or temples) and governmental buildings which represented the double hierarchy between the state and religious affairs (Low 1995:749). Additionally, many Spanish American towns were built directly on top of the existing settlement, thus co ntinuing the already established spatial organization and design (Low 1995:750). Between Mesoamerican plaza models and their post contact counterparts, spatial relations of plaza to buildings, hierarchy of spaces, and functions of the plaza remained the s ame, which means that the symbolic meaning of the spatialized material culture reflect aspects of both cultural histories (Low 1996:867). This also means that ethnographic observations of modern day plazas can represent similar ideas as prehispanic plaz as and give insight into ancient plaza uses Low (1996:863) argues that ethnographic approaches to spatial analysis are crucial for any adequate analysis of the contestation of values and meanings in complex societies. By s tudying the interaction between contemporary people and plazas, we can better understand those who used plaza spaces in past societies. Plazas are important spatial representations of social hierarchy and societal relations (Low 1995:748). The design of any urban space reflects the poli tical organization of the state (Low 1995:748). The built environment can provide insights

PAGE 17

9 into meanings, values, and processes that might not be uncovered through other observations (Low 1995:748). Spatial representations can be thought of as tangible e vidence that can describe intangible social ideals and expressions ( Lawrence and Low 1990:466). The built environment is of symbolic importance as an expression of the formation and maintenance of cultural identity (Low 1995:748). Factors, such as the environments configuration, associations or physical features, help to establish aspects of social life and relationships (Low 1995:748). The sociopolitical present is created by the manipulation of architecture and spatial representations (Low 1995:748). From a more symbolic perspective concerning the social importance of plazas, it has been suggested that people throughout prehispanic Mesoamerica, including the Maya and Aztec, created their cities as a replication of the supernatural world ( Carrasco 1981 ). This idea makes every planned design aspect an important part of the cosmology and ideology of the people that created the design. Quirigu in Guatemala provides an example of the connection seen between the natural and the supernatural among the Maya. A stela in the main ceremonial plaza refers to the site as Black Water Sky Place, evoking imagery that connects the plaza, constructed and used by humans, with spaces used by the supernatural ( Gube et al. 1991 ). In the Maya region, houses and other arch itecture were grouped around plazas; they were the focus of community life and pivotal gathering places, whether adjoined by temples or houses (Low 1995:752). Ashmore (1989, 1991, 2002) has argued that the Maya site of Copn, in Honduras, was designed an d planned based on principles deriving from cosmology. Copn and many other Mesoamerican centers were purposefully laid out to correspond to the design of the

PAGE 18

10 universe These urban settlements were created with the civic power at the center enforcing the states role as the center of everyday life. Research has suggested that this site planning tradition based on cosmology was replic ated throughout the Maya region and beyond and may ac count for similarities in civic ceremonial layout between major centers (e.g., Quirigu and Copn) (Low 1995:752 ). P lazas were not simply space left over where architecture did not lie, but rather, they were purposefully created spaces which were artificially cleared and leveled and often paved with plaster (Low 1995). Therefore, plazas held meaning to those that were involved with their creation as well as ones that used the space regularly. The plaza as the built environment represents different aspects of societal dynamics. From a social point of view, plazas were important spaces for creating and maintaining social identity. From a political perspective, plazas also helped to control the mo vement and actions of members of the society. A ctivities that occurred in the delineated space of the plaza assisted in the reinforcement of social ideals and power. Therefore, understanding spatial use and activity patterns within plaza spaces can aid in better understanding social and political relations Specifically, t he North Plaza was a purposefully created social space. The circumstances surrounding its use are directly related to societal perceptions, social identity and political control. Understan ding The North Plazas use and its relationship to the rest of Palmarejo can help to inform societal interactions.

PAGE 19

11 Other Approaches to Studying Plazas Plazalike spaces are common at human settlements throughout the world. Many archaeological studies ha ve preferred a descriptive approach to the plaza, rather than interpretive. Others that have chosen to take a slight step further tend to focus on attributes of architecture and data coming from an architecturally targeted sample design to interpret ancien t plaza and patio spaces. However, the architecture itself cannot always explain the variety of uses for the building nor can it reflect important activities that occurred outside of the buildings, in delineated open spaces (Smyth et al. 1995). Research ha s shown that formal characteristics of architecture are not always good indicators of their functions; the nearest artifact remains (often refuse) may not contextually r elate to individual architectural features and important activities occurred away from architecture (Smyth et al. 1995:322). Of course, architectural and refuse materials should not cease to be examined. Rather, I argue that archaeological soil chemistry research can be used to extend the reach of these other ki nds of studies By analyzin g the plaza independently, conclusions surrounding its use can then be compared to surrounding features and deposits Archaeologists may work with the tangible aspects of past societies (e.g. architecture and artifacts), but ultimately we are often search ing for the intangible parts, such as social relationships, interactions and activities (Smyth et al. 1995:321). Soil chemistry provides for a separate, independent line of evidence to support inferences about organization and use of social space. It also provides an opportunity to examine activities in which people participated in their everyday lives. It is a tool than can aid in understanding social relationships and temporal changes regardless

PAGE 20

12 of what physical material may remain. Further soil chemical residue analysis is not tied to the culture history of a region, and can therefore be used in m any archaeological setting s In other words, soil chemical residue analysis can be useful and utilized at nearly any archaeological site in the world. Theories surrounding the connection between society and the built environment including those mentioned previously, inform my research because I aim to go beyond a descriptive approach to the North Plaza, as many researchers have done with other plazas in the past. Rather, I approach the North Plaza from an interpretive standpoint using multiple lines of evidence. Activity patterns within the plaza are important for understanding the plazas use, even if these activities are not entirely represented by material remains. Theories about spatial order, arrangement, control and dominance will inform my interpretations of how the North Plaza relates to the larger site of Palmarejo, based on its func tion. Finally, w ho constructed the North Plaza and who used it (e.g. elite or the public) as well as for what activities (ceremonial or residential) holds implications for the societal value of the space and ultimately for its relationship to the rest of P almarejo.

PAGE 21

13 Chapter 3. Soil Chemical Residue Analysis: Description, History and Application Archaeological research is often based on material remains such as architecture and pottery. Unfortunately, much of ancient material culture was made from biodegradable material and has thus not survived in the archaeological record (Cavanagh et al. 1988). This is especially true in humid tropic and subtropic are as of Mesoamerica. Additionally, analysis of the use of space can be difficult at archaeological sites that were abandoned gradually. In sites such as these, important objects for interpretation are often carried away or their context, distribution, and pr esence are significantly affected and modified due to the process of abandonment (Fernndez et al 2002). I n plazas and patios in Mesoamerica, such spaces were often swept clean after use leaving even less material culture for archaeological interpretation Therefore, s oil chemical residue analysis is a powerful archaeological tool that can help researchers understand spatial usage patterns by allowing specific activity areas to be examined. The underlying premise of soil chemical residue analysis is that s pecific chemical compounds are generated as a result of particular human activities. The elements are deposited into the soil, then adsorbed and rapidly fixed to soil particles (Wells and Terry 2007b) This occurs because soil particles hold anions that act like magnets to attract ions of an opposite charge, cations which create a very strong bond (Wells 2006). Due to this

PAGE 22

14 bond, the deposited elements tend to be very stable and resistant to horizontal and vertical movement over time (Wells 2006; Wells an d Terry 2007b) By comparing relative concentrations and combinations of elements in the soils, activity patterns can be examined. Relative concentrations rather than absolute concentrations are recorded as many variables affect elemental levels in soils ( Wells et al. 2000; Wells et al. 2007) Soils that have been modified by human activity are often referred to as anthrosols (Wells and Terry 2007a). The elements discussed in this thesis are presented in Table 3.1 al ong with their chemical symbols, which will be used primarily in the text of this thesis Table 3.1. Elements discussed and their respective symbols. Element Symbol Silver Ag Aluminum Al Barium Ba Carbon C Calcium Ca Cobalt Co Chromium Cr Copper Cu Iron Fe Mercury Hg Potassium K Magnesium Mg Manganese Mn Nitrogen N Sodium Na Nickel Ni Phosphorus P Lead Pb Silicon Si Strontium Sr Zinc Zn

PAGE 23

15 Early soil chemistry research in archaeology focused heavily upon P compounds due to the prevalence and necessity of P in anything organic. Researchers concentrated on the relationship between P in soil and ancient human settlement areas (Wells and Terry 2007a). The analysis of P has been commonly used to locate and delimit archaeological sites, especially when surveying large areas ( Sjberg 1976; Wells and Terry 2007b). It can also be used to locate human habitation sites where other evidence of activity is limited or absent (Terry et al. 2000). This works because human activity causes the deposition of P (from food preparation and consumption as well as burning) and therefore human occupied areas will have a higher level of P in the soil relative to areas without past human occupation (Pollard 2007; Sjberg 1976). It has been shown that human occupation can increase P concentrations from 110 percent annually (Co nway 1983). This permanent signature of human occupation is extremely stable and can only be removed by erosion of the soil itself. Additionally, P has been popular because it can be easily and inexpensively measured both in the lab and in the field (Terry et al. 2000). Using P as a way to identify archaeological sites began with the influential work of Arrhenius, a Swedish chemist who first applied P analysis for use with archaeological research in the 1920s and 1930s (Sjberg 1976; Wells and Terry 2007a) While working for the Swedish Sugar Manufacturing Company and generating soil maps, Arrhenius (1929, 1931) observed that areas on which medieval occupation occurred had higher levels of P when compared with those which were unoccupied. Arrhenius (1955, 1963) later continued with archaeological soil studies, while other researchers (for examples, see: Dauncey 1952; Dietz 1957; Gay 1964; Lutz 1951; Lorch 1940; Mattingly and

PAGE 24

16 Williams 1962; McCawley and MacKerrell 1972; Proudfoot 1976; Provan 1971, 1973; Schw arz 1967; Sjberg 1976, White 1978) also aided in the developments and application of field and laboratory techniques designed to detect archaeological sites based on soil P levels (Wells and Terry 2007a). This work continued for decades after Arrheniuss original observations. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, many researchers, especially Eidt (1973, 1977, 1984, 1985), contributed to important methodological developments of soil chemistry (for examples, see Ahler 1973; Barba and Bello 1978; Berlin et al. 1977; Shackley 1975; van der Merwe and Stein 1972; Woods 1975, 1977). Since then, P analysis has been used for various archaeological purposes throughout the world. For example, in Queensland, Australia, Mulvaney and Joyce (1965) used this method to show rel ative occupation intensity over time. In North Wilshire, England, Smith and Simpson (1966) utilized P analysis to determine the presence of perishable artifacts in burials. At the site of Roders Shelter, Missouri, Ahler (1973) examined activity intensity a nd demonstrated the correlation between levels of P and lithic debris density. Davidson (1973) reconstructed the evolution of a tell (an archaeological mound formed by human occupation and long term abandonment) and investigated population growth at the si te of Sitagroi in northeastern Greece using P analysis. Also in Greece, Cavanagh and colleagues (1988) used P analysis to show how it can be used to identify human occupation sites and their boundaries. In Mesoamerica, Parnell and colleagues (2002a) examin ed the relationship between P and refuse disposal at Piedras Negras, Guatemala. Their research concluded that there was a positive

PAGE 25

17 correlation between ceramic density and P concentration, meaning that in field P testing can help to identify middens and gui de excavations. Relatively recently, researchers have begun to examine elements other than P in site formation pr ocesses. Multi elemental analyses have allowed for the exploration of connections between specific human activities and the elements that the y deposit. Along with P, other particularly useful elements include Ca, Mg and K. Additionally, C and N are commonly examined in association with human activities and to a lesser extent S, Cu and Zn (Fernndez et al. 2002; Holliday 2004). Much of what w e know about the relationship between these elements and human activities comes from various ethnographic studies on contemporary floors. Studies such as these, where human behavior is observed as well as how these activities affect soil chemistry, have pr imarily focused on nonindustrial, traditional societies (Wells et al. 2007). Most notably, Luis Barba and his colleagues at the Laboratory of Archaeological Prospection, part of the Institute for Anthropological Studies at the Mexican National Autonomous University, have worked with indigenous people in their households in small, rural villages throughout Mexico (see Barba 1986, 1990; Barba and Bello 1978; Barba and Densise 1984; Barba and Ortiz Butrn 1992; Barba et al. 1995). Other ethnoarchaeological s tudies have focused in different parts of Mesoamerica including, Oaxaca, Mexico (Middleton and Price 1996), Guatemala (Ferdandez et al. 2002; Terry et al. 2004), and Honduras (Wells and Urban 2002). These studies have found connections between specific dom estic activities, such as cooking, storage, and craft manufacture, and certain chemical elements, compounds, and soil properties (Wells et al. 2007). Information from studies of

PAGE 26

18 this kind can be used as tools to interpret chemical signatures on archaeologi cal floors and thus interpret ancient activity patterns. For instance, areas near ovens, fireplaces and hearths tend to have high pH values and low P concentrations while also maintaining high levels of Ca and carbonates (Wells et al. 2007:213214). The presence of wood ash, possibly from a hearth or kiln, is associated with high levels of K, Na and Mg (Holliday 2004:302; We lls 2004:71 ; Wells et al. 2007 :217). T he deposition of extremely high levels of P can be associated with food and beverage consumption and preparation with low pH indicating food consumption (Wells and Terry 2007b:385; Wells et al. 2007 :213214) More specifically, Ca and Sr have been shown to be associated with the pr eparation of corn whereas Fe has been shown to be associ ated with areas used for processing agave leaves (Wells et al. 2007 :214). The elements Ba Mn and P have been shown to indicate organic refuse disposal and Hg and Pb have been demonstrated to be associated with craft production (Holliday 2004:303). Addit ionally, the deposition of iron oxide and mercuric sulfide suggest the use of certain pigments, such as hematite and cinnabar, which were used in ceremonial settings including burials and caches (Wells and Terry 2007b:387) When interpreting concentrations of elements for archaeological purposes, it is not the absolute concentrations that are of interest, but rather the relative concentrations and spatial patterns of the elements that a re important (Wells et al. 2000; Wells et al. 2007). Therefore, by mappi ng concentrations of elements across archaeological surfaces, researchers can examine differences in spatial use as well as sometimes define areas where specific activities likely occurred.

PAGE 27

19 Multielemental analysis is typically conducted using spectroscop y This type of elemental analysis allows for a rapid determination of a wide range of soil chemicals including trace elements on a large number of samples (Holliday 2004:302). Two types of machines that are frequently used for spectroscopy are inductive ly coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometers (ICP AES) (also known as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers, or ICP OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP MS). These two machines differ from one another in the way that the element s are characterized. For both techniques, a mild acid extractant is added to the soil sample to extract chemical comp ounds into a liquid solution. The machine then spray s a portion of the liquid sample into an argon plasma torch that he ats the liquids to a temperature range o f 800010,000C. The high temperature excites the elements in the liquid sample and results in their molecular disassociation. To measure the concentration of elements within each sample, ICP OES detects the characte ristic wavelengths that each element gives off during the heating and disassociation process (Pollard et al. 2007). The other technique ICP MS separates the elements according to their unique mass to charge ratio and measures the amount that each element occurs in each sample (Pollard et al. 2007). In both techniques, the computer associated with the machine translates the elemental measurements into chemical concentrations. Multielemental analysis has been utilized in many areas of the world. For examp le, in Maine, Konrad and colleagues (1983) used Mg to define prehistoric hearths that corresponded with anomalies in magnetometric survey as well as P and Ca to differentiate between habitation and lithic production sites. On the Isle of Skye, Scotland,

PAGE 28

20 En twistle and colleagues (2000) used a variety of elements, including P, K, thorium ( Th ) and rubidium ( Rb ) to examine general site enrichments due to human activity. Within Mesoamerica, Wells and colleagues (2000) used the analysis of trace metals in soil to identify workshop and painting activity areas at Piedras Negras, Guatemala. In El Salvador, Parnell and colleagues (2002b) used P and heavy metals to determine activity areas and compared their findings to in situ artifacts that were available. Their research examined a site that was rapidly abandoned, and thus more straightforward when correlating chemical patterns with material remains. Their conclusions strengthened the integrity of using soil chemical research at gradually abandoned sites. In sum soil chemistry can be applied to archaeological research in a variety of ways. First, primarily using P analysis, archaeological sites and their boundaries can be identified. Second, ancient activity loci can be inferred by spatially examining chemical c oncentrations and combinations with the use of multi elemental analysis. This type of analysis can be beneficial because it can help guide excavations as well as provide information about ancient people and their lives that material remains cannot provide. The results of soil chemical residue analyses can be used in conjunction with material remains to provide a more complete picture of ancient lifestyles. Additionally, soil chemical residue analysis allows for a method of examining spaces in which little to no material evidence remains, such as the case of plazas and patios. This study utilizes multielemental analysis of 22 elements (Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sr, U, V, and Zn) as well as soil pH

PAGE 29

21 and organic matter to determine whether the North Plaza was used for residential or ceremonial purposes. Results from the chemical analyses are compared to similar plaza studies to reach a conclusion about the use of the North Plaza. Material remains recovered from excavations are examined in conjunction with soil chemical analysis to better interpret the space and support conclusions made based on chemical analysis. This study does not attempt to interpret specific activities, such as cooking or craft making, but rather, examines differences and patterns in the general use of space throughout the North Plaza.

PAGE 30

22 Chapter 4. Case Study: Palmarejo, Honduras As a case study of how spatial use can be inferred using soil chemistry, I will use the case of a Late Classic ( ca. AD 600900) plaza space, referred to as the North Plaza, from a prehispanic site in northwestern Honduras called Palmarejo. Palmarejo is loc ated in a region referred to as the Palmarejo Valley, which is a part of the larger Naco Valley. I aim to determine whether the North Plaza was used for residential or ceremonial purposes by examining the chemical characteristics of its soils. First, the e nvironmental and archaeological context of the area will be described, followed by previous archaeological research in the region. I will then discuss the chemical difference between residential and ceremonial spaces and what patterns I expect to see if th e plaza was used for each purpose. Methods and analyses used to determine activity loci are discussed next, followed by a short section about chemical reliability between different techniques. The Naco Valley The Naco Valley in northwestern Honduras (Fig ure 4.1) is located approximately 20 km southwest of modern day San Pedro Sula and occupies a 96 km2 area of relatively flat and fertile land ( Schortman and Urban 1994, 1996; Schortman et al. 2001; Urban 1986). It is surrounded by the mountainous terrain of the Sierra de Omoa range and

PAGE 31

23 watered year round by the Chamelecn River as well as seasonally by the streams that drain into it (Schortman and Urban 1996; Schortman et al. 2001; Urban 1996). The valley lies a t approximately 100 200 m eters above sea level and experiences about 1300 m illim eters of precipitation per year ( Schortman and Urban 1994; Schortman et al. 2001; Urban 1986). The amount of annual precipitation helps to contribute to the fertility of the so ils in the area The climate is conducive to supporting a tropical rainforest, but human activity has decreased the forest cover. A lluvial and colluvial fans and fluvial valley fills represent the predominant geomorphic landforms in the valley and the area lies on top of carbonate rock, most of which is schist and limestone ( Wells et al. 2011). In prehispanic times, maize and cacao were intensely cultivated in the fertile soils characteristic of these landforms ( Urban 1986). The region is home to a large va riety of plant and animal species, including deer, peccary, birds and rabbits, another factor that likely drew people to settle in the region ( Urban 1986). The valley acts as an environmental transition between the humid, densely vegetated plains of the Chamelecn and Ulua rivers and the lower temperature, higher elevation forests around Copn (Henderson 1977; Henderson et al. 1979). The Naco Valley is one of the few locations along the Chamelecn River in which its valley widens to create a large floodpl ain with level, fertile farmland (Henderson 1977; Henderson et al. 1979). Not surprisingly, most prehispanic settlements found in the Naco Valley are situated on these low, flat terraces of the valley, near a source of water (Henderson et al. 1979).

PAGE 32

24 Figure 4.1. Map depicting the study area and surrounding region. Surface surveys throughout the Naco Valley have documented 369 sites containing at least 1200 structures visible on the surface ( Urban 1986). Sites range in size from low mounds to major centers that contain hundreds of structures ( Urban 1986). Dispersed h uman occupation, represented by pattern burnished tecomates (a type of ceramic vessel) recovered throughout the valley, began in the Naco Valley during the Middle Preclassic Period ( 1000400 BC) (Wells et al. 2011). Earthen platforms at three sites suggest that a two tier hierarchical organization may have existed at this time (Wells et al. 2011) The valley was continuously inhabited through the 16th century AD with the

PAGE 33

25 Spanish Conquest and it is still occupied by Honduran farmers today (Schortman and Urban 1996). The Naco Valley is a part of a region that is often referred to as southeastern Mesoamerica (Henderson et al. 1979; Urban 1986). This area comprises northwestern and central Honduras as well as eastern Guatemala and El Salvador. The prehispanic residents of the Naco Valley are not considered to have been Maya based on linguistic traditions and southeast Mesoamerica is often considered a transitional region from Maya to nonMaya lan guage and cultural traditions (Henderson 1977; Henderson et al. 1979). However, archaeological investigations have shown evidence for strong ties and interactions between the Naco Valley people and their Maya as well as non Maya neighbors (Henderson 1977). Evidence suggests that they shared many beliefs and cultural practices with the Maya in cluding site planning, the ball game and bloodletting Architecture and ceramics also attest to connections with their neighbors to the north (Henderson 1977). The Naco Valleys geographical location facilitated connections and opportunities for trade with external settlements by providing easy access to the Copn region (only 120 km southwest) and the Guatemalan highlands as well as central Honduras and the coas t of the Gulf of Honduras via the Chamelecn River ( Henderson 1977 ) Additionally, trail systems, some of which are still in use today, connect the valley with the southern Maya lowlands (Henderson 1977; Schortman and Urban 1996). These systems provided opportunities for trade and commerce between regions within southeast Mesoamerica. Regionally s pecific styles of pottery, obsidian, jade and marine shell are evidence for regional trade ( Henderson et al. 1979; Schortman and Urban 1994 ).

PAGE 34

26 Politically, centralized regional control within the Naco Valley fluctuated. The site of Santo Domingo functioned as the regions center during the Late Preclassic (Henderson et al. 1979). This site contains 39 structures and contains ceramics that bear striking similarities to those found in the Copn region as well as other parts of the Maya world ( Henderson 1977). This suggests early wide spread connections, influence and trade between the Naco Valley inhabitants and their Maya neighbors. It does not appear that any one si te held primary control of the Naco Valley during the Early Classic period, though occupation density increased around the site of La Sierra ( Urban 1986). In the Late Classic p eriod (AD 600950) the Naco Valley operated as a major trade center, interacting with the Copn area as well as with the Ula Valley to the east ( Urban 1986). During this time, the site of La Sierra functioned as the regional capital of the Naco Valley while the region flourished socially and politically and population size increased dramatically (Henderson et al. 1979; Schortman and Urban 1996; Schortman et al. 2001). La Sierra is the largest site in the Naco Valley, occupying over 100 ha. and containing at least 468 structures at its peak, approximately 10 times the size of the next largest site within the valley (Henderson 1977; Henderson et al. 1979; Schortman and Urban 1996; Schortman et al. 2001). Due to the presence of a marine shell workshop along with many shell fragments and chert tools at La Sierra, it is thought that this s ite may have functioned as a major center for the production and trade of prestige marine shell jewelry (Schortman and Urban 1996). The site of Naco was the largest Late Postclassic settlement in the valley region, containing structures on an area of approximately 90 ha. on both sides of the Naco River. Naco was likely the political center during the Late

PAGE 35

27 Postclassic and continued to be one of the major centers in northwest Honduras during the Spanish conquest period (Henderson et al. 1979). The area was largely depopulated due to disease and conflict brought on by the arrival of Europeans, but a small population of i ndigenous people continued to occupy the valley into the 20th century. Currently, the area is primarily used for cattle herding as well as the farming of cash crops, including tobacco and sugarcane ( Urban 1986). The Palmarejo Valley, Palmarejo, and the N orth Plaza The Palmarejo Valley is a geographically isolated side pocket of the Naco Valley. It is located 2 km east of the larger valley and separated from it by a ridge of large hills ( Davis Salazar et al. 2007 ). The Palmarejo Valley is characterized by mountains to the east and west with at least three passageways that lead to the rest of the Naco V alley (Urban 1986) Generally, the approximately 15 km2 valley shares similar vegetation, landforms and climate as the Naco Valley ; however, the Palmarejo V alley lacks the rivers that supply water to the Naco Valley and, rather, is watered through multiple quebradas (seasonal streams) that are scattered across the region and fed by mountain runoff (Urban 1986). The soil record at Palmarejo includes a dark bro wn to black over thickened Mollisol epipedon with an argillic subsurface illuvial horizon overlying a limestone substrate. Soils are moderately acidic to neutral, where pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.5, and include clays varying from 5 to 25 percent and organics varying from 5 to 15 percent (Wells et al. 2011)

PAGE 36

28 A total of 96 prehispanic sites of various sizes with 665 visible surface structures have been recorded within the Palmarejo Va lley (Davis Salazar et al. 2007 ). Though Palmarejo Valley occupation stretches back to the Early Classic period, ceramic data suggests that occupation within the valley primarily dates to the Late Classic period (AD 600900). During this time, Palmarejo emerged as a major political and economic center within the Palmarejo Valley ( Da vis Salazar et al. 2007 ) With 93 structures visible on the surface, Palmarejo is the largest site in the Palmarejo Valley ( Davis Salazar et al. 2007 ). The settlement dates to the Classic Period (ca. A.D. 4001000) and appears to have been the politically dominant center in the valley, due to its large size and location as well as its site layout and architecture ( Wells at el. 2007). Excavations have shown a two stage construction history representing the Early and Late Classic periods. The grow th displayed at Palmarejo parallels that of the nearby contemporary site of La Sierra (Wells 2010). In regards to the larger Naco Valley, Palmarejo likely functioned as a secondary administrative center to La Sierra (Novonty 2007). Twenty eight of the buil dings represent monumental platforms with dressedstone architecture that may have had administrative or religious functions. The buildings circumscribe three large open spaces that represent plazas or patios and a possible ball court exists within the site limits Two quebrada branches pass through the site core and it has been suggested that the prehispanic residents created and maintained a water reservoir (Klinger 2008). Evidence also suggests that Palmarejo contained at least six artificially terraced f ields for agriculture (Klinger 2008). The placement of Palmarejo

PAGE 37

29 seems to be strategic, as it rests near water sources as well as sources for building materials, perlite and clay (Hawken 2007) Further, it is located near alluvial fans and floodplains containing the most productive and fertile soil in the valley which would have been ideal for intensive maize agriculture (Wells et al. 2011). The data for the present study come from a 40 m x 40 m open space within Palmarejo that has been design ated the No rth Plaza (Figure 4.2) This particular plaza was chosen for analysis because i t is unknown what this space was used for; possibilities include use as a ceremonial plaza as well as a patio that was part of an elite residential group. Excavations in the Nor th Plaza have been limited to test units and auger probes. Pottery from large serving dishes as well as censers for burning incense sugge st special, perhaps ceremonial and not residential, functions for this space. However, the buildings are similar in size and shape to the elite residential patio group at the site. It is hoped that the soil analysis of the North Plaza will help evaluate the use of this space, perhaps even revealing changes in the use of space over time. Interestingly, both a Late Classic civic ceremonial plaza and a large elite residential plaza, or patio, have already been identified and examined at Palmarejo (Figure 4.2) (Wells et al. 2007). If the North Plaza were contemporaneous with the other plazas, this would mean either dual elite patios or dual ceremonial plazas existed. This possibility holds potential implications for factors such as political organization. By examining the relative elemental concentrations of the soils within the North Plaza I will be able to explore the ranges and locations of activities that occurred within the plaza

PAGE 38

30 with the goal of determining the specific use of the North P laza in relation to the rest of Palmarejo Previous Archaeological Investigations The earliest inv estigations of the Naco Valley were headed by Strong, Kidder and Paul (1938) in the 1930s as the result of a three week long SmithsonianHarvard expedition (Henderson et al. 1979; Urban 1986, 1993). Their work focused on the major conquest period center of Naco. Though primarily they conducted test excavations at Naco, the expedition also located five other sites in the surrounding area and placed test units in two of them ( Henderson et al. 1979; Urban 1986, 1993). The Naco Valley was not revisited by archaeologists until the Naco Valley Archaeological Project through Cornell University in 1975, directed by Henderson until 1977 (Schortman and Urban 1994, 1996; Urban 1986, 1993). The major goals of the project were to explore the areas culture history and regional variation (Henderson et al. 1979). The investigations focused on survey and mapping of the region, though excavations were also conducted at La Sierra and a smaller contemporary site of El Regadillo as well as Naco and Santo Domingo (Henderson et al. 1979). The largely descriptive results of the Cornell investigations of the Naco Valley provided basic architectural and regional chronological data (Henderson et al. 1979). In 1978, Urban and Schortman undertook investigations of the area and completed a full coverage survey of the valley as well as test units at 19 sites (Schortman and Urban 1994, 1996; Urban 1986, 1993). Urban and Schortman continued to investigate the Naco Vall ey in the 1980s and 1990s while

PAGE 39

31 Figure 4.2. Plan view of Palmarejo with the North Plaza, civic ceremonial plaza and elite residential patio identified leading the Kenyon College Honduras field school. Hendersons work, along with Schortman and Urbans research, defined a regional occup ation sequence in the Naco Valley that began in the Middle Preclassic Period (ca. 800 BC) and continued to the Spanish Conquest in the early 16th century AD (Schortman and Urban 1994, 1996). In the Palmarejo Valley, Urban and Schortman conducted pedestrian survey in the late 1980s, marking the first archaeological visitation to this side valley. Less than 70 sites were recorded due to immensely overgrown vegetation. From 2003 to 2007,

PAGE 40

32 Palmarej o was revisited by archaeologists through the Palmarejo Community Archaeological Project ( Proyecto Arqueolgico Communidad Palmarejo in Spanish, abbreviated PACP) headed by co directors Christian Wells Karla Davis Salazar and Jos MorenoCorts ( Davis Sa lazar et al. 2007 ). This project sur veyed the entire valley, located and reco rded 96 sites, as well as conducted test excavations throughout the area and systematic excavations at the site of Palmarejo ( Wells et al. 2006). The collection of surface artifacts from the 96 sites sought to establish site chronology and function. Research associated with PACP also examined interactions and exchange between residents of Palmarejo and both their Naco Valley and western Maya neighbors as well as the influence of na tural resources on trade and production. Additionally, PACP aimed to examine the ways in which both ancient and modern communities manage scarce resources to deal with water and food insecurity ( Davis Salazar et al. 2007 ). The soil samples used in this stu dy were collected by Christian Wells in 2007. Residential Versus Ceremonial Space: Comparative Studies and Expectations Although there are other possibilities for the prehispanic usage of the North Plaza, two specific functions will be focused upon when e xamining the results of the soil analyses: ceremonial and residential These functions are explored because ceremonial and residential spaces have been researched elsewhere and thus allow for comparative studies By comparing the soil properties within the North Plaza with other plazas in which the function has been determined in a similar manner, I will examine the ways and

PAGE 41

33 extent to which the plazas are similar or different to better understand the function of the North Plaza in prehispanic times. As mentioned previously, a civic ceremonial plaza and a large elite residential patio have already been identified at Palmarejo. Both the plaza and patio spaces lie south of the North Plaza as seen in Figure 4. 2. The main civicceremonial plaza measures ap proximately 1000 m2 and the residential patio is an area of approximately 2500 m2 (Wells et al. 2007). These two spaces were investigated and compared chemically in a publication by Wells and colleagues (2007). This study provides an ideal opportunity to c ompare chemical signatures between the spaces investigated by Wells and colleagues and the North Plaza in attempt to better understand the use of the North Plaza. Several patterns emerged from the plazapatio chemical comparison by Wells and colleagues (2 007) In the ceremonial plaza, activities appear to be differentiated by the north versus south portions of the space. In other words, the northern part of the ceremonial plaza was used for different activities than the southern part. In contrast, in the r esidential patio, use of the space is differentiated by the west and east areas. Looking at more specific chemical signatures, the deposition of P across the spaces differs dramatically between the ceremonial plaza and the residential patio In the plaza, deposition is highly variable across the space whereas it is relatively homogenous within the patio. Wells and colleagues (2007:225) explain that this may have been caused by regularly patterned activity spaces in the plaza versus lack of fixed activity l oci in the patio or perhaps by differential cleaning practices (picking up versus sweeping debris). Further differences between the residential and ceremonial spaces were apparent when

PAGE 42

34 comparing the results of the principal components analyse s. In the pla za, the variance is primarily explained by Mg and Ba whereas the variance in the patio is explained mostly by Al, Ba, Mn and Fe. The plaza and patio represent differen t combinations of activities that occurr ed in each space. Similar chemical patterns have also been seen at other Mesoamerican sites. For example, at El Coyote, n orthwestern Honduras, the main civic ceremonial plaza exhibited highly variable P (with a concentration in the middle of the plaza), as w ell as a north south differentiation of chemical concentrations (Wells 2004). When examining soil characteristics across the North Plaza, I will compare the results to those from the other plaza spaces at Palmarejo mentioned previously If the North Plaza was used for residential purposes, I expect to find a differentiation of space between the west and east portions, a relatively homogenous distribution of P, and the variance within the space mostly explained by Al, Ba, Mn and Fe If the North Plaza was c eremonial in use, on the other hand, I expect to see a differentiation of space between the north and south portions, a highly variable distribution of P across the space, and the variance primarily explained by Mg and Ba. Chemical Methods and Analyses A total of 297 samples of soil were collected with a soil probe from the North Plaza. This space was sampled using a lattice grid matrix, collecting specimens at regular 2 m intervals (Figure 4.3 ). Samples were collected from roughly 25 cm below the modern ground surface, a depth that best approximates the ancient prepared soil surface. Collected samples were stored in sterilized WhirlP ak bags. Before analyses were

PAGE 43

35 conducted, all samples were air dried, then pulverized with a Coors porcelain mortar to break up aggregates and sieved through a 1 mm mesh. Every sample was not utilized for all of the following analysis due to various factors including time and financial constraints as well as the amount of soil collected and present in the sample. Some areas of the plaza were not able to be sampled because of the presence of architectural collapse and contemporary vegetation. The following laboratory analyses were conducted: h ydrogen potential, soil organic matter, molybdate spectrophotometry molybdate colorimetry, ICP OES and ICP MS. Hydrogen potential (pH) measures the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. A total of 270 samples were measured for pH using a glass electrode. The electrode was inserted into a 1: 1 soil:water mixture that was stirred thoroug hly. Soil organic matter was measured using loss onignition for 81 of the samples. S oil organic matter (SOM) is the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residue (Holliday 2004:298). Human activity provides a large amount of organic waste that can add high amounts of organic matter to the soil. In fact, SOM is the most common chemical compound that is added to soils by humans in agricultural and preagricultural societies (Holliday 2004:298). A total of 5.0 g of soil were measured into a small porcelain crucible. The samples were heated in an oven to 360 degrees Celsius two hours to burn off any organic material present in the soil The percent SOM present in the soil was determined based on the weight difference between th e samples before and after the heating process.

PAGE 44

36 Figure 4. 3. The North Plaza showing the location of the samples collected. Phosphor us was extracted using Mehlich 3 extracting solution (0.200 M CH3COOH + 0.250 M NH4NO3 + 0.015 M NH4F + 0.001 M EDTA + 0.013 M HNO3) and measured with molybdate spectrophotometry (using Hach reagents) on 273 of the samples. Additionally, P was measur ed using molybdate colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP OES) on 87 of the samples. T o characterize P colorimetrically, 1.0 gram of each soil sample was weighed, 10 mL of Mehlich 3 added, shaken for five minutes, and then filtered using ashless filter paper and a glass funnel Next, 8 mL of molybdate color dev elopment solution was added to 2 mL of each soil extract and left to develop for 10 minutes. Utilizing a portable colorimeter,

PAGE 45

37 the solution colors were related to the P concentration in the soil. For the ICP OES analysis, a sample of 2 mL of each extract was also used. The extracts wer e run through an ICP OES to detect wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation that are specific to certain elements. In this case, only the phosphorus findings were noted. Specifics regarding the ICP OES and molybdate colorimetry analyses are discussed in th e following section entitled Reliabaility Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) using the Foss mild acid extraction technique (0.60 M HCl + 0.16 M HNO3) was used to characterize chemical concentrations of P in 293 of the samples along wit h 21 other elements, including Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Ce Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, U, V and Zn. To prepare each sample for ICP MS analysis, 10 mL of Foss extrac ting solution were added to 1.0 g of soil in a clean polyethylene vial. Sampl es were shaken vigorously for 30 minutes on an electric shaker at 20 0 rpm The solutions were then filtered using ashless filter paper and decanted into clean polyethylene vials. The solutions were diluted with Type II deionized water (0.1 mL into 10 mL) to bring the elemental concentrations into the optimal measurement range of the analytical instrument. Indium was added to the solutions as an internal standard. An extraction procedure, rather than a total digestion of the samples, was chosen for chemi cal analysis because I am interested in anthropogenic inputs, not the total compositions of the soil (Wells 2010). Additionally, high elemental concentrations exhibited in total digestion samples can overwhelm the comparably small anthropogenic inputs (Mi ddleton and Price 1996). The extractant procedures used here have been

PAGE 46

38 experimentally determined to remove many major and minor elements, including heavy metals ( Linderholm and Lundberg 1994). Reliability As previously mentioned, a subset of 87 samples were tested for P using the Mehlich 3 extraction technique and measured using molybdate colorimetry and ICP OES. ICP OES provides a useful alternative to colorimetric analysis for P because it is rapid, accurate, and uses fewer reagents H owever, molybda te colorimetry is often less expensive. The results of the analyses were compared to each other using linear regression analysis to examine reliability between the two techniques. Although ICP OES produced generally lower concentrations of P (though this difference could have been due to the extraction procedures used) the results showed a close correlation between the ICP OES and colorimetric datasets (Figure 4.5) Since ultimately it is the relative concentrations of elements that archaeological soil che mical research is generally interested in, the same conclusions regarding the distribution of P can be reached using either ICP OES or molybdate colorimetry This study shows that colorimetric techniques, which are less expensive than ICP OES, can be used to characterize P concentrations accurately in archaeological soils and therefore aid in the detection of ancient activity loci.

PAGE 47

39 Figure 4.4. Linear correlation of ICP OES and molybdate colorimetry P data. R = 0.9599 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0ICP OES (mg/kg)Molybdate colorimetry (mg/kg)

PAGE 48

40 Chapter 5. Results The raw chemical data are presented in Appendix I Summary statistics for the results of the chemical analysis are displayed in Table 5.1. A selection of the hydrochloric/nitric acid extracted ICP MS chemical data are summarized in boxplots in Figure 5.1. Some elements, including Ag, Cr, and U, were not included in the boxplots because their concentrations were either below the detection limits of the machine or were zero for all samples. Additionally, the behavioral significance of Cr and U, along with Ce and V, is unknown. Therefore, these elements were excluded from the boxplots as well as further activity analysis. The relatively high concentrations of Ca overwhelm the lower concentrations exhibited in the remainder of elements and it was therefore also not included in the boxplots. Generally for activity analysis, we look for elemental data that have large ranges and high standard deviations ( Wells et al. 2007) This means that the deposition of the element varies spatially and is not homogenous across t he study region (Wells et al. 2007). The descriptive statistics show that the major elements, including some of the heavy metals, have wide ranges and outliers, suggesting that the chemical data vary across space. O ther elements, including Ag, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Pb, are much low er in concentration and do not appear to vary enough to be useful for detecting activity areas in this study. Therefore, these elements were excluded from the

PAGE 49

41 following activity analysis. Finally, Na was omitted because it is too r eactive to be useful in this type of study. T he soils and sediments sampled in this study were highly calcareous, having devel oped from a limestone substrate, and therefore including Ca in this activity analysis can be problematic. Therefore, Ca is dealt w ith carefully and omitted from some of the analysi s. Principal components analysis of a selection of the ICP MS chemical data was conducted using a correlation matrix. The results are summarized in Figure 5.2 as a scatterplot. The samples were separated according to north south location within the plaza to examine whether there was a difference in use between the areas. Together, Factors 1 and 2 account for the majority of the variation within the North Pla za (72 percent). Within Factor 1, which explains 43 percent of the variation within the North Plaza, Ca, Fe and Sr contribute the most. These elements represent anthropogenic inputs to the soil. In Factor 2, which explains 29 percent of the variation withi n the North Plaza, Al and Si contribute the most to the extraction. These elements are natural components of soil and thus Factor 2 represents the diagenetic components of the soils. The scatterplot shows that the soils from the north and south portions of the North Plaza have different elements that are contributing to their variation, suggesting different uses for the spaces. In the north, the soils vary primarily based on diagenetic components, whereas those in the south vary almost exclusively based on anthropogenic inputs. Additionally, the samples were examined for similar patterns based on west versus east location as well as quadrant. There did not appear to be a significant difference in variation when divided either way.

PAGE 50

42 Table 5.1. Summary S tatistics for Soil Chemical D ata. Variable n Min. Max. Mean SD CV* pH 266 6.5 7.9 7.4 0.2 0.0 SOM 81 8.8 14.6 12.0 1.1 0.1 Ag 293 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 75.6 Al 293 15.3 1341.4 707.0 245.6 34.7 Ba 293 50.1 149.5 99.3 18.2 18.4 Ca 293 3158.7 38515.2 19270.8 7964.4 41.3 Ce 293 0.1 5.9 3.7 1.0 27.6 Co 293 0.4 2.1 1.2 0.3 26.5 Cr 293 Cu 293 5.7 1.5 3.5 233.3 Fe 293 28.7 370.0 181.0 84.1 46.5 Hg 293 3.4 0.3 0.6 200.0 K 293 61.9 1139.4 343.9 171.4 49.9 Mg 293 238.5 1330.1 600.7 183.1 30.5 Mn 293 32.9 225.5 123.2 33.3 27.1 Na 293 69.2 26.8 17.7 66.0 Ni 293 4.4 2.0 1.0 50.0 P 1 293 46.1 1255.2 446.8 216.5 48.4 P 2 87 10.0 97.0 46.0 20.6 44.8 P 3 87 11.3 93.6 49.1 19.5 39.7 P 4 269 2.0 310.0 48.2 38.8 80.6 Pb 293 0.0 1.5 0.8 0.3 35.0 Si 293 38.2 1680.2 332.5 312.0 93.8 Sr 293 15.2 163.9 57.7 24.4 42.3 U 293 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 49.9 V 293 0.2 5.0 2.1 0.7 35.1 Zn 293 19.1 7.3 3.5 47.9 *The coefficient of variation, calculated by the standard deviation (SD) divided by the mean multiplied by 100 below detection limits 1 Foss extracted ICP MS 2 Mehlich 3extracted colorimetry 3 Mehlich 3extracted ICP OES 4 Mehlich 3extracted spectrophotometry

PAGE 51

43 Figure 5.1. Boxplots of soil chemical data. To evaluate the possibility that activity loci in the North Plaza varied by north versus south location, discriminant function analysis was conducted. For this analysis, soils were separated based on quadrant to better evaluate separation of space. The scatterplot of the data (Figure 5.3) shows that the north and south portions of the North Plaza have different chemical signatures (northwest and northeast versus southwest and southeast). There is more overlap between the northwest and northeast quadrants than there is between the southeast and southwest corners, suggesting that there may have been a difference in use between the southeast and southwest portions of the plaza, but

PAGE 52

44 not between the northeast and northwest portions of the plaza. However, this pattern is not strong. From the principal component and discriminant function analyses, we can see how the soils throughout the North Plaza vary by concentration and combination of elements. Next, it is useful to examine these differences spatially. K rigin g, an empirical Figure 5.2. Scatterplots of the first two factor scores from a principal components analysis for the North Plaza data. The plots show how the data vary by location (north versus south).

PAGE 53

45 Figure 5.3. Scatterplots of the first two fac tor scores from a discriminant function analysis for the North Plaza data. The plots show how the data vary by corner. model used for interpolating unknown values based on known values, was used to look at the spatial distributions of the elements ( Wells et al. 2007). Kriging assumes that areas close together are more similar than areas that are further apart, using a variogram model to characterize the degre e of spatial correlation ( Wells 2010). V ariograms were created to fit the data using the computer software program Surfer, version 7.0 ( manufactured by Golden Software, Inc., Golden, Colorado, USA ) The data were then plotted, based on the

PAGE 54

46 variogram, using a regular xyz grid, creating both an image map and overlying contour map of the K riged elemental data. The resulting images represent visual probability plots of each variable as it changes spatially. Different variogram models were utilized depending on the distributions of the data to interpolate concentrations across the plaza. The variograms are p resented next to their corresponding image maps. The spatial maps presented below show a clear distinction between the northern and southern portions of the North Plaza as seen in the principal components and discriminant function analyses. The northern ha lf exhibits low concentrations of Fe, Sr and pH and high concentrations of SOM, while the southern half shows the opposite ( Figures 5.4 5.7) The distribution of Factor 1 scores also shows a clear difference between the north and south halves ( Figure 5.8). Some elements, including Ba, Mg, Mn and Zn, were distributed rather homogenously across the North Plaza space (see Appendix II for spatial distribution maps). This may mean that activities associated with these elements may have been conducted without fixed locations and thus appear to be chemically spread evenly across the space. The distribution of P is interesting and more complicated than a strict north south differentiation. There appear to be two deposits of P distributed across the middle of the pl aza, while north and south of these areas is almost completely devoid of P enrichment (Figure 5.9). This pattern is also present, though to a lesser extent, for the distribution of K (Figure 5.10). These areas overlap with the southern enrichments of Fe, S r and pH. This region also corresponds to the middle of both the west and east buildings surrounding the plazas. The areas that display low concentrations of P may have been

PAGE 55

47 Figure 5.4. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Fe in ppm (kriging type = point, based on a linear variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher concentrations of Fe.

PAGE 56

48 Figure 5.5. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Sr in ppm (kriging type = point, based on a linear variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher concentrations of Sr.

PAGE 57

49 Figure 5.6. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of pH (kriging type = point, based on a linear variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher pH.

PAGE 58

50 Figure 5.7. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of SOM in percentage (kriging type = point, based on a Gaussian variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher SOM percentage.

PAGE 59

51 Figure 5.8. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of Factor 1 scores from the principal components analysis (kriging type = point, based on a linear variogram model, also pictured ; see the caption for Figure 5.2 for the results of the p rincipal components analysis).

PAGE 60

52 used for activities that did not involve organic substances. Alternatively, these regions may represent differential sweeping and cleaning of the area immediately following activities that would have prevented P from adheri ng to the soil surface (Wells 2003:333). High P levels would be expected in areas where food production and consumption occurred (Wells 2003:331). The principal components and discriminant function analyses along with the spatial distributions strongly support that there was a northsouth differentiation in spatial use and activity loci in the North Plaza. The meaning and implications of this patterning are discussed in the following chapters. Chem ical Correlations Soil properties, including pH and organic matter, sometimes correlate with chemical residues, especially phosphates. The research presented in this section explores these interconnections within the North Plaza with the greater goal of identifying the ways and extent to which various soil properties are linked in the formation and preservation of ancient activity loci. This research aims at broadening our reach in prospecting for activity loci using soil chemistry. Figure 5.11 shows a mat rix of Pearsons linear correlation coefficients comparing pH, soil organic matter (SOM in the illustration), and the Foss extracted ICP MS chemical data. The bold typeface indicates a stro ng positive linear correlation. T here are many significant correl ations, but none are too high to present problems with statistical analysis. Of particular interest, phosphorus and aluminum have a strong positive

PAGE 61

53 Figure 5.9. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil P in ppm (kriging type = point, based on a quadratic variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher concentrations of P.

PAGE 62

54 Figure 5.10. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil K in ppm (kriging type = point, based on a logarithmic variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher concentrations of K.

PAGE 63

55 correlation, and calcium appears to have strong correlations between many of the elements in this study. However, as mentioned previously, Ca needs to be dealt with carefully in this study due to the limestone (calcium carbonate) substrate from which the soil was developed. Figu re 5.12 depicts a scatterplot of soil organic matter against the Mehlich 3extracted colorimetry P. The least squares regression model indicates that approximately 20 percent of the variation in P can be explained by variation in SOM. Local soil forming fa ctors as well as cultural and natural formation processes at Palmarejo account for the remaining 80 percent of the variation in P. Table 5.2 shows beta weights from a multiple linear regression, where R squared is 0.68, of the ICP MS chemical elements on pH, showing P and K as contributing most significan tly to the model. Variation in these elements is likely related to anthropogenic inputs since human occupation can strongly affect P and K concentrations in the soil, as mentioned previously. Finally, Table 5.3 displays beta weights from a multiple linear regression, where R squared is 0.53, of the ICP MS chemical elements on SOM, showing Fe (and to a lesser extent, Mg, Al, and Si) as contributing most significantly to the model. Variation in these elem ents is likely related to soil minerals and not anthropogenic inputs because Al and Si are the primary elements that make up soil From this study, I conclude that the deposition and adsorption of chemical residues in anthropogenic soils at Palmarejo are generally too variable to be accurately characterized by either pH or organic matter, although pH appears to have a predictive

PAGE 64

56 Figure 5.11. Matrix of Pearsons linear correlation coefficients.

PAGE 65

57 Figure 5.12. Scatterplot of soil organic matter (SOM) against the Mehlich 3 extracted colorimetry phosphorus (P).

PAGE 66

58 Table 5.2. Beta weights from a multiple linear regression of ICP MS chemical elements on pH. R2 = 0.68 Element Beta t Al 0.317 0.943 0.349 Ba 0.020 0.108 0.914 Cu 0.080 0.451 0.654 Fe 0.246 0.818 0.416 K 0.429 2.751 0.008 Mg 0.036 0.157 0.876 Mn 0.169 1.114 0.269 Na 0.152 0.899 0.372 Ni 0.081 0.607 0.546 P 0.805 3.680 0.000 Si 0.053 0.309 0.758 Sr 0.035 0.112 0.912 Zn 0.175 1.309 0.195 Table 5.3. Beta weights from a multiple linear regression of ICP MS chemical elements on SOM. R2 = 0.53 Element Beta t Al 0.641 1.993 0.050 Ba 0.236 1.310 0.195 Ca 0.147 0.601 0.550 Cu 0.206 1.071 0.288 Fe 1.073 3.255 0.002 K 0.003 0.021 0.983 Mg 0.542 2.428 0.018 Mn 0.035 0.241 0.811 Na 0.152 0.909 0.367 Ni 0.008 0.060 0.952 P 0.385 1.844 0.070 Si 0.335 2.049 0.044 Sr 0.234 0.782 0.437 Zn 0.234 1.811 0.075

PAGE 67

59 relationship with P and K. While organic matter and P have a positive linear relationship, that relationship is not strong or predictable. Instead, chemical elements or combinations of elements may best reveal the use of this space in antiquity.

PAGE 68

60 Chapter 6. Discussion In the results presented in Chapter 5, a distinct difference appeared between the northern portion of the North Plaza and the southern portion. The north/ south differentiation is consistent with the patterning seen at the other ceremonial plaza at Palmarej o (Wells et al. 2007) Additionally, the distribution of P is not homogenous, but rather, is heterogeneous also like the Palmarejo ceremonial plaza (Wells et al. 2007) Also in regards to P, the concentration along the central part of the plaza is consist ent with the P patterning present at the ceremonial plaza at El Coyote (Wells 2004) However, the results of the principal components analysis are not as straightforward. In my expectations presented in Chapter 4, based on the residential patio and ceremonial plazas present at Palmarejo, I stated that in a ceremonial plaza I would expect the variance to be primarily explained by Mg and Ba Alternatively, I expect ed the variance in a residential patio to be explained mostly by Al, Ba, Mn and Fe In the North Plaza, Ca, Fe and Sr explain most of the variation (43 percent), followed by Al and Si (29 percent). Although there is some overlap, the North Plaza does not fit either expected outcome. However, due to the strong spatial patterns, I believe that the use of the North Plaza can still be determined. I conclude that the north south spatial differences are

PAGE 69

61 strong enough to support the idea that the North Plaza was used for nonresidential purposes. To evaluate this inference, I turn to excavation data from four test units conducted at the North Plaza. The location of the test units are displayed in Figure 6.1. All units were oriented north south. Test unit A was located in the northwest portion of the North Plaza. It measured 1 m by 1 m and was excavated to a depth of 1.7 m (Figure 6.2). A large amount of jutes (freshwater snails) were found in this unit along with a variety of ceramics that suggest Late Classic occupation. A selection of artifacts recovered is presented in Figure 6.3. Figure 6.1. Location and names of test units within the North Plaza.

PAGE 70

62 Materials include a ceramic foot, censer (incense burner) fragments, and two diagnostic painted ceramic sherds. The painted sherds appear to be Magdelena Redonnatural, Magdelena variety dating to the Late Classic period (Urban 1993:50 ). This variety is slightly more common in the early part of the Late Classic though it is unable to be determined to what part of the Late Classic these particular sherds date. Additionally, a bark beater, a ceramic device used for beating bark into cloth or paper, was found nearby unit A, in association with the nearest structure to the west. Test unit B was located in the southwest part of the North Plaza. It was 1 m by 1 m and excavated to a depth of 0.8 m (Figure 6.4). Jutes and a small amount of obsidian fragments were recovered from this unit, along with ceramics that suggest Late Classic occupation. Candelero (items used for burning incense or candles) fragments recovered from unit B are presented in F igure 6.5. Test unit C was located in the center part of the North Plaza. This unit also measured 1 m by 1 m and was excavated to a depth of 0.4 m (Figure 6.6). A small quantity of artifacts was recovered from unit C. This is likely due to its location in the middle of the plaza. Since materials were often swept to the periphery of plaza spaces, artifact density is higher around the edges and lower in the middle. Materials recovered include jutes and ceramic sherds along with a small amount of bajareque (b uilding material associated with perishable structures). No artifact pictures are presented here, because of the lack of diagnostic materials. Test unit D was located in the northeast corner of the North Plaza. This unit was larger in size than the previ ous three, consisting of 5 smaller units each measuring 1 m by

PAGE 71

63 1 m. These smaller units were excavated to varying depths, from 0.5 m to 1 m (Figure 6.7). Unit D produced the highest amount of material. This was due not only to the larger size of this test unit, but also to its location in the northeast corner of the plaza where trash was likely thrown or swept. L arge quantities of char coal and other typical features of a fireplace suggest that burning occurred in the plaza with the remnants of the burning e pisode being swept into the area of the test unit with the rest of the refuse. Other materials include jutes, bajareque animal bone, and obsidian. Ceramic m aterials recovered from unit D include a strap handle, figurine head likely in the shape of a macaw a censer lid and a whistle or ocarina (Figure 6.8). Faunal materials recovered include a sharpened bone awl and a Spondylus shell (Figure 6.9). For assemblage comparison, I turned to excavation data from El Coyotes main ceremonial plaza. Materials uncovered from this space included a variety of ceramic sherds, lithic debris from craft manufacturing, bark beaters, groundstone for food preparation or pigment processing, and censers for burning incense for ritual activities (Wells 2003:170; Wells 2004:70). In relation to one building in the south of the plaza, Spondylus shells along with censer and candelero fragments were recovered (Wells 2003:176). This building was inferred to be used for ritual purposes based on the artifact assemblage (Wells 2003:177). In excavation units throughout the plaza, many censer fragments were found as well as an abundance of jutes. The artifact assemblage from the main plaza at El Coyote suggested that the space was used for various ritual activities (Wells 2003:206). The idea that the main plaza was used for ceremonial purposes is further supported by chemical data, which was discussed previously in Chapter 4.

PAGE 72

64 Figure 6.2. Profile drawings of s outh and west walls of test unit A

PAGE 73

65 Figure 6.3. Ceramic artifacts recovered from test pit A. A foot fragment (upper left), censer fragments (upper right), painted sherds likely belonging to Magdelena Red on Natural: Magdelena (lower left and lower right).

PAGE 74

66 Figure 6.4. Profile drawings of east and south walls of test unit B.

PAGE 75

67 Figure 6.5. Candelero fragments recovered from test unit B.

PAGE 76

68 Figure 6.6. Profile drawings of east and s outh walls of test unit C

PAGE 77

69 Figure 6.7. Profile drawings of east and s outh walls of test unit

PAGE 78

70 Figure 6.8. Ceramic artifacts recovered from test unit D. A macaw figurine head ( upper left), strap handle (upper right), censer lid ( lower left) and whistle (lower right ). Figure 6.9. Faunal remains recovered from test unit D. A sharpened bone awl (left) and Spondylus shell (right).

PAGE 79

71 The artifact assemblages from the four excavation units at the North Plaza are similar to those at the main plaza at El Coyote. Ritual items, including c andelero and censer fragments along with Spondylus shells, were a major part of the artifacts uncovered from the ex c avation units. These items were not used for domestic activities, but for ritual ones. Based on the data from El Coyote, the North Plaza assemblage is consistent with what one would expect to find in a nonresidential specifically ritual and ceremonial, context. T he excavation data support my inference made in earlier in this chapter that the North Plaza was used for ceremonial purposes.

PAGE 80

72 Chapter 7. Conclusion In Chapter 6, I concluded that the North Plaza was used for ceremonial purposes. This conclusion was based on the differentiation of space between the north and south portions of the plaza as seen chemically in Chapter 5. Supporting this idea was the artif act assemblages recovered from excavation units throughout the plaza. This conclusion is unusual and interesting because this means that Palmarejo had two active nonresidential/ceremonial plazas potentially within the same time period. Both the other ceremonial plaza (the South Plaza) and North Plaza were used in the Late Classic period. H owever with the material available, it is not possible to determine if they were contemporary within that period. Despite this, the known hist ory of the region can be examined and possibilities as to their relationship can be considered It has been suggested that Palmarejos very fertile soils attracted the elite families of La Sierra at the start of the Late Classic when the Naco Valley land had been cultivated to its capacity (Schortman and Urban 1994; Wells 2010). It is during this time that the central zone of Palmarejo was remodeled significantly The large elite residential patio examined previously was established then and, interestingly, was created to be twice the size of the civic ceremonial plazas, placing an emphasis on the life of the elites. The new layout mimicked that of the plan of La Sierra (Novotny 2007). This abrupt

PAGE 81

73 change could be explained by elites from La Sierra establishing a strong presence at P almarejo, although it is unclear at this time whether this transition was peaceful or not (Wells 2010). In regards to the dual civic ceremonial plazas, perhaps the southern ceremonial plaza was utilized before the presence of La Sierra elites and then late r abandoned in favor of the newly constructed North Plaza. Th e North Plaza material is almost exclusively Late Classic, whereas the South Plaza contains artifacts dating to the Late Classic period, but also to earlier time periods. Earlier material in the South Plaza supports that it was used before the North Plaza, but it does not suggest whether or not the North Plaza and South Plaza were used at the same time. The strong influence of the La Sierra elites would have occurred within the Late Classic period which would explain why we see Late Classic material in both the South P laza and the North Plaza Perhaps the elites from La Sierra chose to demonstrate their power by constructing a new space that they controlled and influenced. They may have halted the use of the South Plaza in favor of the North Plaza to assert their dominance over the Palmarejo people Alternatively, both plazas could have been used at the same time. Perhaps they were used f or different types of ceremonies or rituals The La Sierra el ites may have still been involved in the creation of the North Plaza, but they may have allowed for the South Plaza to still be utilized since the use of it did not directly threaten their power. The La Sierra elites took control of the built environment ( via construction of the North Plaza) to exert dominance over the Palmarejo people. Additionally, this dominance was demonstrated by large size of the elite patio, which placed emphasis on the power and importance of the elite group living there. By control ling spatial order, the elites also had

PAGE 82

74 influence over everyday practice and behaviors. This scenario speaks to theoretical ideas discussed in Chapter 2. Specifically, Lefebvres (1991[1974]) theory of the relationship between leadership and the social con struction of space as well as Rabinows (1989) ideas that political power is linked to aesthetics, architecture and city planning. The elite group presumably used the construction of the North Plaza and the elite residential patio to control the use of soc ial space and demonstrate their power and authority. The spatial arrangement of the elite residential patio in regards to the South and North Plazas speaks to Foucault s (1 995[1977]) theories about power and space as shown through architecture. The elite p atio is not only much larger than both the North and South Plazas but it is also located very near to them perhaps so that the elite may have greater access to and control over these spaces. Additionally, the elite intrusion scenario shows the connection between human perception and ritual communication, the focus of Moores (1996) work. Whether or not the North and South Plazas were contemporaneous, it was important that the La Sierra elites addressed the people of Palmarejos perception of the plazas if they were to be successful in controlling ritual space. When the elites built the North Plaza, they had to either enforce the perception that it was better than the South Plaza and to therefore use it exclusively, or enforce that the two plazas were equal ly important and must both be used. With the elite residential patio located so close to both plazas, the elites living there would have been close enough to directly influence and perhaps manage the use of the North and South Plazas. Further research, pos sibly focused on exploring the occurrence of specific activities or examining the buildings immediately surrounding both plazas as well as the patio may shed light on the North and South

PAGE 83

75 Plazas relationships to the site as a whole and may help to determi ne the reasoning behind the dual ceremonial spaces. This study is important for further understanding sociopolitical relationships within Palmarejo as well as the settlements relationship with surrounding communities This also has the potential to affect how researchers view and approach other areas of southeastern Mesoamerica. In this thesis, the relationship between humans and the built environment as well as the social importance of constructed space, specifically in regards to Mesoamerican plazas has been explored and discussed. I have argued that soil chemical residue analysis, in conjunction with excavation data, is ideal for archaeologically examining spaces in which material remains are few, such as in the case of plazas. A case study was provided in which the use of space in the North Plaza, Palmarejo, Honduras was examined in attempts to determine whether it was for ceremonial or residential use. S patial patterns of soil characteristics along with excavation data lead to the conclusion that the North Plaza was used for ceremonial purposes. Through the case study, reliability between two techniques of P analyses was also examined showing that more expensive techniques are not necessarily more accurate. Finally, chemical correlations between so il characteristics were explored in hopes of discovering useful patterns that may aid in less expensive future analyses of this kind. Overall, this thesis has shown that soil chemistry is an important and valuable tool in the archaeologists kit. Soil chem ical residue analysis can help researchers better understand intangible aspects of societal relationships by directly examining activity patterns and loci. This manner of investigation is also beneficial to explore areas where there exists little or no material evidence of previous

PAGE 84

76 activities, such as in the case of many Mesoamerican ceremonial plazas where surfaces were often swept clean after use (Wells 2004:70). A major benefit to examining a site using soil chemical analysis is that the site can be unde rstood and studied without the need to excavate, which by definition destroys the site as well as posing a threat to the archaeological record. Hopefully, soil chemistry will become more prevalent in the field of archaeology, as it is sure to be able to aid in research as well as site preservation and management for public archaeology.

PAGE 85

77 References Cited Arrhenius, O 1929 Die phosphatfrage. Zeitschrift fr Pflanzenernhrung. Dngung und Bodenkunde 10:185194. 1931 Die bodenanalyse im dienst der Archologie. Zeitschrift fr Pflanzenernhrung. Dngung und Bodenkunde 10:427439. 1955 The Iron Age S ettlements on Gotland and the Nature of the S oil. In V allhagar: A Migration Period Settlement on Gotland/Sweden. Edited by O le Klin dt Jensen, pp. 10531064. Edjnar Munksgaards Forlag, Copenhagen, Denmark. 1963 Investigation of soil from old Indian sites. Ethnos 2:122136. Ahler, S .A. 1973 Chemical Analysis of Deposits at Rodgers Shelter, Missouri. Plains Anthropologist 18:116131. Ashmore, W 1989 Construction and Cosmology: Politics and Ideology in Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns. In Word and Image in Maya Culture Edited by W. F. Hanks an d Don S. Rice, pp. 272 286. University of Utah Press, S alt Lake City. 1991 Site Planning and Concepts of Directionality among the Ancient Maya. Latin American Antiquity 2:199226. 2002 Spatial Orders in Maya Civic Plans Latin American Antiquity (13 ): 201215. Barba, L 1986 La qumica en el estudio de reas de actividad. In Anlisis de unidades habitacionales mesoamericanas y sus reas de actividad. Edited by L. Manzanilla, pp 2139. Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, DF: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropolgic as, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico. 1990 El anlisis qumico de pisos de unidades habitacionales para determinar sus reas de actividad. In Etnoarqueologa coloquio Bosch Gimpera 1988. Edited by M. C. Serra Puche, pp 177200. Ciudad Unive rsitaria, Mexico, DF: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropolgicas, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico. Barba, L and G. Bello 1978 Anlisis de fosfatos en el piso de una casa habitada actualmente. Notas antropolgicas 1:188193.

PAGE 86

78 Barba, L and P. Denise 1984 Actividades humanas y anlisis qumico de los suelos: El caso de Osumacinta Viejo, Chiapas. Memorias de la XVII Mesa Redonda de la Sociedad Mexicana de Antropologa 2:263277. Barba, L and A .Ortiz Butrn 1992 Anlisis qumico de pisos de ocupacin: Un caso etnogrfico en Tlaxcala, Mxico. Latin American Antiquity 3:6382. Barba, L ., F. D Pierrebourg, C. Trejo, A Ortiz Butrn and K. Link 1995 Activites humaines refletees dans les sols sunites d habitation contemporaine et prehispanique de Yucatn (Mexique): Etudes chimiques, ethnoarchologiques et archologiques. Revue dArchomtrie 19:7995. Berlin, G. L ., J.R Ambler, R .H. Hevly, and G .G. Schaber 1977 Identification of a Sinagua A gricultural F ield by Aerial Thermography, S oil Chemistry, Pollen/Plant Analysis, and A rchaeology. American Antiquity 42:588600. Bourdieu, P 1977 Outline of a Theory of Practice. Translated by Richar d Nice. Cambridge University Press, Cambri dge. Carrasco, D. 1981 City as Symbol in Aztec Thought: The Clues from the Codex Mendoza History of Religions 20: 199223. Cavanagh, W.G., S. Hirst and C.D. Litton 1988 Soil Phosphate, Site Boundaries, and Change Point Analysis. Journal of Field Archaeology 15:6783. Certeau, M .d. 1984 The Practice of Everyday Life. Translated by Steven Rendall. University of California Press, Berkeley. Conway, J.S. 1983 An Investigation of Soil Phosphorus Distribution within Occupation Deposits from a RomanoBritish Hut Group. Journal of Archaeological Science 10:117128. Dauncey, K.D.M. 1952 Phosphate Content of S oils on Archaeological S ites. Advancement of Science 9:3337.

PAGE 87

79 Davidson, D.A. 1973 Particle Size and Phosphate Analysis Evidence for the Evolution of a Tell. Archaeometry 15:143152. Davis Salazar, K .L., E.C Wells and J .E. MorenoCorts 2007 Balancing Archaeological Responsibilities and C ommunity Commitments: A Case from Honduras. Journal of Field Archaeology 32:196205. Dietz, E .F. 1957 Phosphorus A ccumulation in Soil of an Indian Habitation S ite. American Antiquity 22:405409. Durkheim, E 1995[1915] The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life T ranslated by Karen E. Fields. Free Press, New York. Eidt, R .C. 1973 A Rapid Chemical F ield T est for A rchaeological S ite S urveying. American Antiquity 38:206210. 1977 Detection and E xamination of A nthrosols by P hosphate A nalysis. Science 197:13271333. 1984 Advances in A bandoned Settlement A nalysis: Application to P rehistoric A nthrosols in Columbia, South America. Center for Latin America, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. 1985 Theoretical and P ractical C onsiderations in the A nalysis of Anthrosols. In Archaeological geology. Edited by J.A. Gifford, p p. 155190. Yale University Press, New Haven Entwistle, J .A., P W. Abrahams and R.A. Dodgshon 2000 The Geoarchaeological Significance and Spatial Variability of a Range of Physical and Chemical Soil Properties from a Former Habitation Site, Isle of Skye. Journal of Archaeological Science 27:287303. Fernndez, F .G., R .E. Terry, T Inomata and M Eberl 2002 An E thnoarchaeological Study of Chemical R esidues in the F lo ors and S oils of Qeqchi Maya H ouses at Las Pozas, Guatemala. Geoarchaeology 17:487519. Foucault, M 1995[ 1977] Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translat ed by Alan Sheridan. Vintage Books, New York. Gay, F.W. 1964 Reports on Phosphoric Acid Content of S oil S amples fro m Ballymacdermot Court Cairn. Ulster Journal of Archaeology 27:2022.

PAGE 88

80 Gube, N., L. Schele, and F. Fahsen 1991 Odds and Ends from the Inscriptions of Quiriqua. Mexicon 13:106112. Hawken, J .R. 2007 SocioNatural Landscapes in the Palmarejo Valley, Honduras Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa. Henderson, J .S. 1977 The Valley de Naco: Ethnohistory and Archaeology in Northwestern Honduras. Ethnohistory 24:363377. Hend erson, J .S., I Sterns and A Wonderley 1979 Archaeological Investigations in the Valle de Nac o, Northwestern Honduras: A Preliminary Report. Journal of Field Archaeology 6:169192. Hillier, B and J Hanson 1984 The Social Logic of Space Cambr idge University Press, Cambridge. Holliday, V .T. 2004 Soils in Archeological Research. Oxford University Press, New York Holstein, J 1989 The Modernist City: An Anthropological Critique of Brasilia. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Kidder, T .R. 2004 Plazas as Architecture: An Example from the Raffman Site, Northeast Louisiana. American Antiquity 69:514532. Klinger, W .A. 2008 Quebrada Communities in the Palmarejo Valley, Northwest Honduras. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Uni versity of South Florida, Tampa. Konrad, V .A., R Bonnichsen, and V Clay 1983 Soil Chemical Identification of Ten Thousand Years of Prehistoric Human Activity Areas at the Munsungun Lake Thoroughfare, Maine. Journal of Archaeological Science 10:1328. Lawrence, D L. and S .M. Low 1990 The Built Environment and Spatial Form. Annual Review of Anthropology 19:453505.

PAGE 89

81 Le febvre, H 1991[1974] The Production of Space T rans lated by Donald NicholsonSmith. Blackwell, Oxford. Lorch, W. 1940 Die siedlungs geographische phosphat methode. Die Naturwissenschaften 28:633640. Low, S .M. 1995 Indigenous Architecture and the Spanish American Plaza in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean. American Anthropologist 97:748762. 1996 Spati alizing Culture: The Social Production and Social Construction of Public Space in Costa Rica. American Ethnologist 23:861 879 2000 On the Plaza: The Politics of Public Space and Culture The University of Texas Press, Austin. Lutz, H.J. 1951 The C oncentration of C ertain Chemical E lements in the S oils of Alaskan A rchaeological S ites. American Journal of Science 249:925928. Mauss, M. 1979[1906] Seasonal Variations of the Eskimo. Translated by James J. Fox. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. Mattingly, G.E.G. and R.J.B. Williams 1962 A Note on the Chemical Analysis of a Soil Buried S ince Roman times. Journal of Soil Science 13:254257. McCawley, J.C. and H. MacKerrell 1972 Soil Phosphorus L evels at Ar chaeological S ites. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 104:301306. Middleton, W.D. and T.D. Price 1996 Identification of Activity Areas by Multi Elemental Characterization of S ediments from Modern and A rchaeological House Floors Using I nductively Coupled P lasma Atomic E mission S pectroscopy. Journal of Archaeological Science 23:67387. Moore, J. D. 1996 The Archaeology of Plazas and the Proxemics of Ritual: Three Andean Traditions." American Anthropologist 98: 789802.

PAGE 90

82 Mulvaney, D.J. and E.B. Joyce 1965 Archaeological and Geomorphological Investigations on Mt. Moffatt Station, Queensland, Australia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 31:147212. Novotny, C 2007 Foraging Identities through Style: Elite Interactions and Identity Formation at Late Classic (AD 650900) Palmarejo, Northwest Honduras Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa. Parnell, J. J ., R .E. Terry, and Z Nelson 2002a Soil Chemical Analysis Applied As an Interpre tive Tool for Ancient Human Activities at Piedras Negras, Guatemala. Journal of Archaeological Science 29:379404. Parnell, J. J ., R .E. Terry, and P .D. Sheets 2002b Soil Chemical Analysis of Ancient Activities in Ceren, El Salvador: A Case Study of a Rapidly Abandoned Site. Latin American Antiquity 13:331342. Pollard, M ., C Batt, B Stern, and S .M.M. Young 2007 Analytical Chemistry in Archaeology Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Proudfoot, V.B. 1976 The Analysis and Interpretation of S oil Phosphorus in A rchaeological C ontexts. In Geoarchaeology. Edited by D.A. Davidson & M.L. Shackley, pp. 93113. Duckworth, London. Provan, D .M.J. 1971 Soil P hosphate Analysis as a T ool in A rchaeology. Norwegian Archaeological Review 4:3750. 1973 The Soils of an Iron Age F arm S ite: Bjellandsyn, S.W. Norway. Norwegian Archaeological Review 6:3041. Rabinow, P 1989 French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Social Environment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge. Schortman, E .M. and P .A. Urban 1994 Living on the Edge: Core/Periphery Relations in Ancie nt Southeastern Mesoamerica. Current Anthropology 35:401430. 1996 Actions at a Distance, Impacts at Home: Prestige Good Theory and a Pre Columbian Polity in Southeastern Mesoamerica. In Pre Columbian World Systems edited by Peter N. Peregrine and Gary M. Feinman, pp. 97114. Prehistory Press, Madison.

PAGE 91

83 Schortman, E .M., P .A. Urban and M Ausec 2001 Politics with Style: Identity Formation in Prehispanic Southeastern Mesoamerica. American Anthropologist 103:312330. Schwarz, G.T. 1967 A Simplified Chemical Test for Archaeological Field W ork. Archaeometry 10:58. Shackley, M.L. 1975 Archaeological S ediments: A Survey of A nalytical M ethods Wiley, New York. Sjberg, A 1976 Phosphate Analysis of Anthropic Soils. Journal of Field Archaeology 3:447454. Smith, I.F. and D.D.A. Simpson 1966 Excavation of a R ound B arrow at Overton Hill, North Wiltshire, England. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 32: 122155. Smyth, M .P., C .D. Dore and N .P. Dunning 1995 Interpreting Prehistoric Settlement Patterns: Lessons f rom the Maya Center of Sayil, Yucatn Journal of Field Archaeology 22:321347 Strong, W .D ., A Kidder II and A.J.D Paul, Jr. 1938 Preliminary Report on the SmithsonianHarvard University Archaeological Expedition to Northwest Honduras, 1936. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 97. Terry, R .E., F .G. Fernndez, J. J Parnell, and T Inomata 2004 The Story in the Floors: Chemical S ignatures of A ncient and M odern Maya A ctivities at Aguateca, Guatemala. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:12371250. Terry, R .E., P .J. Hardin, S .D. Houston, S .D. Nelson, M .W. Jackson, J Car r and J Parnell 2000 Quantitative Phosphorus Measurement: A Field Test Procedure for Archaeological Site Analysis at Piedras Negras, Guatemala. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 15:151166. Urban, P .A. 1986 Precolumbian Settlement in the Naco Valley, Northwestern Honduras. In The Southeast Maya Periphery pp. 275295, edited by Pat ricia A. Urban and Edward M. Schortman. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

PAGE 92

84 Urban, P.A. 1993 Naco Valley. In Pottery of Prehistoric Honduras edited by John S. Henderson and Marilyn Beaudry Corbett pp. 3063. Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles van der Merwe, N .J., and P .H. Stein 1972 Soil C hemistry of Postmolds and R odent B urrows: Identification W ithout E xcavation. America n Antiquity 37:245254. Wells, E. C 2003 Artisans, Chiefs, and Feasts: Classic Period Social Dynamics at El Coyote, Honduras. Ph.D dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe. ProQuest Information and Learning, Ann Arbor 2004 Investigating Activity Patterns in Prehispanic Plazas: Weak Acid Extraction ICP AES Analysis of Anthrosols at Classic Period El Coyote, Northwestern Honduras. Archaeometry 46:6784. 2006 Cultural Soilscapes. In Function of Soils fo r Human Societies and the Environment edited by E. Frossard, W.E.H. Blum and B.P. Warkentin, pp. 125132. Geological Society, London. 2010 Cultivated Landscapes as Inalienable Wealth in Southeastern Mesoamerica. In Inalienable Possessions in the Archaeology of Mesoamerica, edited by B. Kovacevich and M. G. Callaghan. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association. Wiley Blackwell, New York, under review. Wells, E. C ., K .L. Davis Salazar, and D .D. Kuehn 2011 Soilsc ape Legacies: Historical and Emerging Consequences of Socioecolo gical Interactions in Honduras. In Living on the Land: The Complex Relationship between Population and Agriculture in the Americas edited by J. Wingard and S. Hayes. University Pres s of Colorado, Boulder, under review. Wells, E. C ., J .E. MorenoCorts, and K L. Davis Salazar 2006 Proyecto Arqueologico Comunidad Palmarejo: Informe Preliminar, Tercera Temporada, 2006. Informe prepared for the Honduran Institute of Anthropology and History, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, C.A. Wells, E. C ., C Novotny, and J .R. Hawken 2007 Quantitative Modeling of Soil Chemical Data from Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy Reveals Evidence for Cooking and Eating in Ancient M esoamerican Plazas. In: Archaelogical Chemistry: Analytical Techniques and Archaeological Interpretation ( A.C.S. Symposium Series # 968) edited by Michael D. Glascock Robert J. Speakman, and Rachel S. PopelkaFilcoff pp. 210 230. Oxford Univers ity Press N ew Y ork

PAGE 93

85 Wells, E. C and R .E. Terry 2007a Introduction. Geoarchaeology 22:285290. 2007b Introduction. Geoarchaeology 22:387390. Wells, E. C ., R .E. Terry, J. J Parnell, P .J. Hardin, M .W. Jackson, and S .D. Houston 2000 Chemical Analyses of Ancient Anthrosols in Residential Areas at Piedras Negras, Guatemala. Journal of Archaeological Sciences 27:449462. Wells, E. C and P .A. Urban 2002 An Ethnoarchaeological Perspective on the M aterial and Chemical Residue s of Communal F easting at El Coyote, N orthwest Honduras. In Materials issues in art and archaeology VI. Edited by P. Vandiver, M. Goodway, & J. Mass, pp. 193198. Materials Research Society, Warrendale. White, E.M. 1978 Cautionary N ote on S oil P hosphate D ata I nte rpretation for A rchaeology. American Antiquity 43:507508. Woods, W .I. 1975 The A nalysis of A bandoned S ettlements by a N ew P hosphate F ield T est M ethod. The Chesopiean: A Journal of North American Archaeology 13:146. 1977 The Q uantitative Analysis of Soil P hosphate. American Antiquity 42:248252.

PAGE 94

86 Appendix I. Raw Chemical Data

PAGE 95

87 Table A.I.1 pH, SOM and Foss extracted chemical data, part 1. Sample pH SOM% Al Ba Ca Ce Co Cu Fe Hg 110E 001 7.4 685.4 97.4 18141.6 4.2 1.4 103.8 1.2 110E 002 7.3 695.1 86.4 8735.4 3.6 1.6 87.0 0.7 110E 003 7.2 593.4 77.5 6531.2 3.1 1.5 0.3 48.2 0.5 110E 004 7.2 12.4 612.5 70.0 4072.6 3.0 0.8 1.2 37.2 0.4 110E 005 7.0 636.5 73.6 4104.0 3.3 0.7 0.8 39.9 0.3 110E 006 6.7 665.0 68.0 3843.7 3.4 1.0 38.2 0.3 110E 007 7.4 12.4 646.4 73.3 5912.0 3.1 0.9 43.1 0.2 110E 008 7.4 755.5 90.5 10991.2 3.6 1.1 68.1 0.2 110E 009 7.3 739.2 91.2 9310.8 3.4 1.1 62.2 0.1 110E 010 7.3 811.5 99.8 15484.6 4.2 1.5 94.9 0.1 110E 011 7.4 748.3 97.7 11234.0 3.5 1.2 69.2 0.1 110E 012 7.5 690.1 83.7 11083.6 3.4 1.1 65.7 0.1 110E 013 7.4 12.8 746.1 83.0 9182.8 3.3 1.0 71.2 0.1 110E 014 7.4 743.3 75.3 10600.7 3.2 1.1 75.6 0.1 110E 015 7.3 903.9 83.4 7856.7 3.8 1.1 68.0 0.1 110E 016 7.4 12.6 744.3 68.2 7066.4 3.0 1.0 54.0 0.0 110E 017 7.4 946.9 83.0 15019.0 3.6 1.2 156.8 0.3 110E 018 645.5 74.7 14629.2 3.6 1.4 107.1 0.0 110E 019 7.3 12.8 614.3 53.5 3734.9 2.8 1.3 47.5 0.0 110E 020 7.1 537.5 51.7 3158.7 2.5 0.9 28.9 0.0 110E 021 7.3 566.4 50.1 3707.7 2.6 0.7 29.6 0.0 110E 022 6.5 13.7 757.3 65.5 3481.8 3.9 1.2 47.4 0.0 110E 023 6.5 622.4 51.9 3222.2 3.5 1.9 42.1 0.0 110E 024 7.0 643.1 63.8 3581.0 3.2 0.6 35.6 0.0 110E 025 549.5 59.1 3445.7 2.3 0.7 28.7 0.0 110E 026 759.3 80.1 6862.1 3.1 1.1 47.0 0.0 110E 027 7.5 825.5 82.7 7586.6 2.8 1.1 91.6 110E 028 7.5 12.0 697.4 96.9 12452.4 3.8 1.1 75.2 2.6 110E 029 7.6 680.2 95.2 12181.3 3.9 1.0 72.6 0.7 110E 030 7.4 700.3 87.3 8943.1 3.3 1.0 60.0 0.1 110E 031 7.4 12.0 786.0 90.1 10597.6 3.6 1.0 76.1 110E 032 7.6 892.9 110.1 17126.9 4.5 0.9 0.6 111.2 110E 033 755.0 87.2 7463.2 3.3 1.0 56.8 110E 034 7.5 10.4 773.7 102.3 26339.1 4.9 1.5 177.1 110E 035 7.1 689.8 72.4 5390.6 3.1 1.3 96.8 110E 036 7.4 639.8 75.6 24079.9 3.9 1.0 155.3 110E 037 7.2 12.0 582.9 68.3 5113.7 3.0 1.5 40.3 110E 038 7.1 605.5 69.0 4080.3 3.0 0.9 34.8 110E 039 7.3 824.0 92.2 17202.6 4.3 1.7 0.7 119.1 110E 040 7.4 13.6 792.8 101.5 14657.6 4.3 1.5 93.3 110E 041 7.5 748.7 72.4 4237.2 2.8 0.8 0.7 41.4 below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 96

88 Table A.I.1 pH, SOM and Foss extracted chemical data, part 1. (continued) Sample pH SOM% Al Ba Ca Ce Co Cu Fe Hg 110E 042 7.1 969.2 76.8 5199.6 3.4 1.6 46.5 110E 043 7.2 12.6 942.1 90.6 7870.9 3.1 1.6 0.0 57.6 110E 044 7.4 919.3 105.3 13429.4 3.6 1.6 0.8 82.8 110E 045 7.5 891.8 94.9 7587.3 3.0 1.1 0.7 55.2 110E 046 7.6 13.2 1109.9 108.5 13268.9 3.3 1.4 225.1 110E 047 966.6 109.7 16255.9 4.1 1.4 2.3 103.5 0.0 110E 049 7.3 12.0 956.9 98.9 15094.7 4.3 1.4 106.1 0.0 110E 050 7.2 731.1 74.4 7636.7 3.6 1.4 60.0 0.0 110E 051 7.4 931.4 93.6 10858.6 4.2 1.6 78.0 0.1 110E 052 7.3 13.0 786.8 86.5 11520.6 3.9 1.2 78.2 0.0 110E 053 7.2 862.7 97.8 14930.9 4.6 1.8 93.0 110E 054 7.4 847.6 86.7 9198.2 4.0 1.8 71.3 0.0 110E 055 792.5 78.9 6579.4 3.5 1.5 59.0 1.7 110E 057 7.2 848.3 76.7 5147.2 2.8 1.0 46.6 0.6 110E 058 7.1 706.7 76.7 5741.9 2.8 1.2 62.5 0.5 110E 059 764.0 63.2 4111.9 3.0 1.1 37.2 0.4 110E 060 7.4 790.7 87.8 5463.4 2.8 0.9 43.7 0.3 110E 061 7.5 11.8 822.2 121.6 18889.2 4.1 1.0 128.4 0.2 110E 062 7.5 899.1 110.2 18338.6 4.2 1.4 200.4 0.1 110E 063 7.5 723.8 97.1 15744.6 4.5 1.2 125.5 0.2 110E 064 7.6 12.0 831.2 101.5 9720.1 4.0 0.9 70.1 0.1 110E 065 794.6 115.3 20892.3 5.4 2.0 130.0 0.0 110E 066 7.2 637.2 84.3 13764.3 3.9 1.1 81.2 0.0 110E 067 7.5 12.6 841.2 99.6 18373.3 5.4 1.8 110.3 0.0 110E 068 7.6 788.6 95.9 13623.0 4.4 1.5 95.2 0.1 110E 069 7.4 715.0 87.8 8226.2 3.9 1.3 57.3 0.0 110E 070 6.6 12.6 699.6 71.8 3753.9 3.9 1.0 39.6 0.0 110E 071 664.2 58.5 3463.2 3.2 1.0 36.9 0.0 110E 072 7.1 731.0 72.2 6255.8 2.8 1.3 143.3 0.0 110E 073 7.2 12.2 968.3 72.4 15916.6 5.0 1.9 103.2 0.0 110E 074 7.4 846.4 77.2 9458.9 3.4 1.3 56.5 110E 075 7.4 900.7 96.4 15454.7 3.9 1.3 94.6 110E 076 7.4 12.0 824.5 101.1 21154.2 4.1 1.2 120.0 110E 077 7.4 761.3 110.5 13720.7 4.4 1.1 164.6 110E 078 7.3 799.4 103.0 24553.5 4.6 1.2 140.9 0.0 110E 079 7.6 13.2 695.9 88.6 10597.4 3.6 1.1 70.9 110E 080 7.5 751.5 95.5 21253.3 4.8 1.3 149.5 110E 081 7.4 793.9 108.1 23472.6 5.5 1.4 170.4 0.0 110E 082 7.4 11.6 1004.4 104.4 27124.8 5.8 1.9 297.1 0.0 110E 083 7.5 800.6 92.4 15935.9 4.7 1.3 99.1 0.0 110E 084 7.4 743.7 84.2 12364.8 3.9 1.4 1.0 80.8 2.2 110E 085 7.2 13.2 751.5 69.7 7350.5 3.7 1.3 0.6 60.9 0.7 below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 97

89 Table A.I.1 pH, SOM and Foss extracted chemical data, part 1. (continued) Sample pH SOM% Al Ba Ca Ce Co Cu Fe Hg 110E 086 7.2 609.1 60.9 5168.7 3.0 1.0 40.2 0.4 110E 087 7.3 740.1 84.0 11855.6 4.7 1.1 0.3 144.7 0.3 110E 088 7.4 10.8 645.0 95.3 18504.3 4.7 1.2 201.5 0.3 110E 089 7.4 762.3 101.2 22021.9 4.5 1.1 126.3 0.2 110E 090 7.3 861.3 108.9 25433.7 4.9 1.1 144.3 0.1 110E 091 7.9 797.1 112.7 15631.6 5.0 1.2 167.1 0.2 110E 092 7.3 726.8 119.5 18648.2 4.8 1.2 200.8 0.1 110E 093 7.2 819.0 108.0 24400.1 4.8 1.4 145.4 0.2 110E 094 7.4 709.9 85.3 7939.3 3.9 1.5 62.4 0.0 110E 095 7.0 736.7 101.5 21214.0 4.6 1.3 120.3 2.3 110E 096 7.5 706.8 96.9 18671.2 4.1 1.4 102.9 0.3 110E 097 7.4 804.0 110.9 12604.0 5.1 1.3 139.8 0.3 110E 098 7.5 891.3 93.8 16005.0 3.9 1.4 215.7 0.2 110E 099 7.5 876.3 93.3 14496.4 3.9 1.3 108.1 0.1 110E 100 7.2 12.4 934.6 93.4 21339.1 4.1 1.4 116.0 0.1 110E 101 7.2 937.9 78.3 7639.1 3.4 1.3 89.5 0.1 110E 102 7.1 843.1 76.0 9279.5 2.8 1.4 54.5 0.1 110E 103 7.3 976.8 82.4 20561.4 3.2 1.3 100.7 0.1 110E 104 7.5 974.1 113.0 17241.5 3.8 1.5 168.9 0.1 110E 105 7.7 988.5 119.1 19643.2 4.2 1.2 220.0 0.0 110E 106 7.5 11.4 961.8 98.1 14855.8 4.0 1.4 156.1 0.0 110E 107 7.5 949.4 96.3 19330.7 4.2 1.2 0.9 196.1 0.1 110E 108 7.7 926.4 117.6 23283.7 4.4 1.2 222.5 0.2 110E 109 7.4 12.0 1075.2 112.3 15049.1 4.0 1.5 136.4 0.1 110E 110 7.8 917.2 107.0 17497.8 4.5 1.3 179.3 0.0 110E 111 7.2 977.6 102.2 13648.9 4.3 1.6 149.6 0.1 110E 112 7.5 11.6 856.1 95.3 14833.0 4.0 1.1 153.8 0.1 110E 113 7.3 1016.7 104.0 18944.2 4.6 1.6 151.0 0.0 110E 114 7.6 1031.5 93.5 20079.9 3.9 1.5 113.3 0.0 110E 115 7.5 13.2 1019.0 94.5 20401.3 3.3 1.5 108.0 0.0 110E 116 7.0 1009.0 76.8 7855.1 2.6 1.7 56.2 0.0 110E 117 7.2 1250.5 79.2 12965.9 3.3 1.8 86.9 0.0 110E 118 7.1 11.6 1143.4 92.1 17702.8 3.2 1.4 101.7 0.0 110E 119 7.7 1004.2 100.6 15422.4 3.8 1.3 169.7 0.0 110E 120 7.7 944.0 122.8 26159.6 4.1 1.5 255.8 0.0 110E 121 7.5 11.4 982.0 110.7 21719.4 4.2 1.4 218.7 0.0 110E 122 7.6 996.3 119.0 19961.8 4.5 1.5 212.9 1.8 110E 123 7.2 1015.6 110.9 20213.1 4.2 1.5 210.0 0.7 110E 124 7.6 12.4 1041.0 116.5 13396.2 4.8 1.4 161.4 0.4 110E 125 7.4 881.3 115.3 18562.8 4.7 1.6 206.0 0.3 110E 126 7.5 1060.5 109.7 14786.9 4.7 1.6 176.0 0.2 110E 127 7.1 11.8 1067.4 108.9 15599.4 4.8 1.4 195.2 0.2 below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 98

90 Table A.I.1 pH, SOM and Foss extracted chemical data, part 1. (continued) Sample pH SOM% Al Ba Ca Ce Co Cu Fe Hg 110E 128 7.7 1082.4 100.1 15248.7 4.5 1.4 179.7 0.2 110E 129 7.7 1187.5 92.0 18890.7 4.0 1.4 127.4 0.1 110E 130 7.6 13.6 1341.4 102.7 19447.2 3.8 1.8 187.9 0.1 110E 131 7.1 1156.2 98.0 14621.0 3.9 1.5 0.2 162.7 0.1 110E 132 7.2 1227.0 96.8 14317.2 3.7 1.3 177.4 0.1 110E 133 7.3 12.4 1072.9 104.8 20908.3 4.1 1.5 225.2 0.1 110E 134 7.3 1012.2 96.3 19304.3 3.9 1.5 217.3 0.0 110E 135 7.9 1030.5 114.1 25210.7 4.7 1.8 258.3 0.0 110E 136 7.4 12.2 922.3 106.4 22736.3 4.4 1.3 223.3 0.0 110E 137 7.6 903.7 106.7 21800.1 4.0 1.3 215.7 0.0 110E 138 7.7 875.5 101.0 23986.3 4.5 1.4 1.1 254.5 0.0 110E 139 7.6 12.8 1038.9 117.5 17257.1 4.6 1.4 189.7 0.0 110E 140 7.7 866.6 86.4 19979.4 3.9 1.4 139.6 0.0 110E 141 7.4 1057.4 112.3 17073.7 4.5 1.6 209.1 0.0 110E 142 7.7 11.0 1054.8 135.5 29505.6 5.0 1.4 287.2 0.0 110E 143 7.6 1327.7 148.6 26547.4 5.9 1.7 293.5 0.0 110E 144 7.6 1063.0 108.6 22628.3 4.8 1.4 233.5 0.0 110E 145 7.6 12.0 976.3 115.2 26272.0 4.0 1.4 253.9 0.0 110E 146 7.6 890.0 112.1 34315.5 3.4 1.2 313.4 0.0 110E 147 7.6 936.5 99.7 31425.1 3.9 1.2 299.9 0.3 110E 148 7.7 11.0 909.8 111.8 37595.8 3.6 1.2 346.5 0.2 110E 150 7.7 1078.1 110.0 15755.4 4.8 1.5 197.2 0.2 110E 151 7.6 12.0 1082.4 100.1 15248.7 4.5 1.4 179.7 0.2 110E 152 7.4 1187.5 92.0 18890.7 4.0 1.4 127.4 2.6 110E 153 7.3 1341.4 102.7 19447.2 3.8 1.8 187.9 0.8 110E 154 7.5 12.4 1094.0 131.0 16101.4 5.2 1.5 178.4 0.5 110E 155 973.8 102.1 14032.3 4.5 1.6 158.8 0.3 110E 156 7.4 1110.2 123.4 22425.8 4.9 1.7 229.8 0.2 110E 157 7.6 11.8 1039.7 120.9 26895.1 4.4 1.2 268.1 0.2 110E 158 7.6 871.8 120.5 31144.3 3.8 1.2 299.9 0.1 110E 159 7.3 1052.3 125.9 31202.0 4.4 1.3 301.3 0.2 110E 160 7.6 13.6 1091.4 127.2 30099.2 4.4 1.5 294.6 0.1 110E 161 1014.3 102.7 23376.7 4.3 1.3 268.0 0.0 110E 162 740.3 102.1 36311.5 3.4 1.1 347.8 0.1 110E 163 7.4 14.2 1011.8 132.7 38515.2 4.2 1.6 370.0 0.0 110E 164 7.4 816.9 119.7 19293.9 4.8 1.4 201.4 2.9 110E 165 664.1 105.5 16644.3 4.6 1.0 187.6 1.1 110E 166 7.5 11.4 538.6 119.5 22337.7 4.9 1.3 234.8 0.7 110E 167 7.4 598.2 79.9 20545.0 5.2 1.2 234.7 0.5 110E 168 7.6 638.0 123.9 18740.0 5.2 1.2 208.3 0.4 110E 169 811.0 141.7 23081.6 5.5 1.6 135.8 0.1 110E 170 7.4 665.8 104.0 31533.5 4.8 1.1 167.4 0.2 below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 99

91 Table A.I.1 pH, SOM and Foss extracted chemical data, part 1. (continued) Sample pH SOM% Al Ba Ca Ce Co Cu Fe Hg 110E 171 719.6 116.0 18396.4 5.2 1.0 204.4 0.1 110E 172 7.5 13.4 732.8 123.5 19900.9 5.1 1.4 214.4 0.0 110E 173 694.9 148.1 20570.5 5.2 1.3 218.4 0.0 110E 174 7.5 528.0 113.6 25917.3 4.3 1.1 272.5 0.0 110E 175 7.3 12.0 726.0 121.1 24070.4 5.0 1.0 261.7 0.1 110E 176 724.3 119.6 21068.4 5.1 1.4 233.1 110E 177 7.3 520.9 131.2 31327.5 3.8 1.3 326.2 110E 178 7.3 11.6 547.2 129.0 27498.6 4.2 1.1 287.2 110E 179 7.6 658.0 110.2 17217.3 4.7 1.1 195.1 110E 180 7.5 664.5 125.8 21926.6 4.7 1.3 212.8 110E 181 7.5 13.4 574.8 117.1 18788.7 4.1 1.2 206.7 2.7 110E 182 585.5 149.5 21046.4 4.9 1.4 219.5 1.2 110E 183 7.4 520.1 107.2 15784.8 4.3 1.0 169.6 0.7 110E 184 692.7 121.2 23925.0 5.1 1.3 133.7 0.4 110E 185 7.4 654.1 98.3 22234.5 4.5 1.0 124.2 0.2 110E 186 7.6 622.9 103.9 32268.7 4.3 1.1 167.8 0.4 110E 187 7.6 14.6 602.7 100.4 31383.2 4.2 0.9 169.8 0.2 110E 188 7.5 671.2 113.7 20894.3 4.7 1.2 226.3 0.0 110E 189 7.6 680.2 127.4 25248.9 4.3 1.2 264.2 0.0 110E 190 7.6 12.0 439.8 106.0 27083.6 3.3 1.0 283.3 110E 191 7.5 416.7 108.9 29050.7 3.2 1.0 304.2 3.4 110E 192 7.5 466.6 116.8 27350.0 3.4 0.8 288.9 1.1 110E 193 7.8 11.8 239.1 101.2 22209.2 2.3 0.6 176.3 0.6 110E 194 7.5 363.6 103.1 21702.1 3.4 0.9 180.3 0.3 110E 195 7.8 356.2 135.0 23834.0 3.0 1.0 198.9 0.1 110E 196 7.4 339.0 145.2 24280.2 2.8 1.2 212.6 0.1 110E 197 7.5 475.0 133.1 19633.1 4.5 1.4 184.2 110E 198 7.5 533.1 125.6 19070.9 4.2 1.3 196.7 0.0 110E 199 7.8 12.8 612.9 124.1 17208.6 4.2 1.3 163.9 110E 200 756.8 110.1 13341.9 4.6 1.4 1.6 108.9 110E 201 7.9 701.1 104.6 13038.4 5.2 1.6 1.3 156.7 110E 202 7.4 13.4 741.6 110.2 19382.5 4.3 1.3 189.3 110E 203 7.7 698.3 102.8 20662.7 3.6 1.1 0.5 194.5 0.1 110E 204 7.5 597.0 100.7 22540.7 3.7 1.0 208.5 110E 205 7.5 11.4 542.3 85.3 22371.1 3.0 0.7 206.2 110E 206 7.4 357.7 95.3 28365.8 2.1 0.8 258.9 110E 207 7.9 15.3 57.8 24708.8 0.1 0.4 232.2 110E 208 7.8 11.4 261.2 86.7 28728.7 1.3 0.6 275.2 110E 209 7.7 178.5 78.0 27124.9 0.8 0.5 256.9 2.2 110E 210 7.7 394.1 85.9 25629.0 2.2 0.9 250.5 0.6 110E 211 7.5 10.6 251.2 93.6 23663.5 2.1 0.6 218.6 0.3 110E 212 7.4 356.8 105.2 24810.0 2.9 0.8 232.7 0.2 below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 100

92 Table A.I.1 pH, SOM and Foss extracted chemical data, part 1. (continued) Sample pH SOM% Al Ba Ca Ce Co Cu Fe Hg 110E 213 7.3 549.9 124.3 20313.4 4.2 1.4 206.8 0.1 110E 214 7.8 570.1 98.7 15281.6 5.0 2.0 1.0 187.6 0.0 110E 215 7.7 607.0 116.2 18077.1 5.3 1.7 209.9 0.0 110E 216 7.4 620.5 116.6 24959.1 4.1 1.3 241.2 0.0 110E 217 7.9 493.8 99.2 25542.8 3.0 0.8 245.7 0.0 110E 218 7.8 314.0 84.6 26458.7 2.1 0.7 248.0 110E 219 7.8 244.7 87.1 28260.3 1.0 0.5 271.3 110E 220 7.4 10.4 93.0 77.7 29711.9 0.3 0.4 285.3 110E 221 7.3 225.4 81.1 27858.7 1.0 0.5 272.9 110E 222 7.6 247.6 73.1 27457.7 1.2 0.5 264.5 110E 223 7.8 12.0 518.1 78.5 27284.7 2.7 0.9 266.2 110E 224 7.6 321.8 82.5 26207.4 2.0 0.7 250.7 110E 225 7.7 230.6 81.3 28117.2 1.6 0.7 275.9 110E 226 7.6 11.2 541.0 115.1 25640.3 3.4 1.0 256.9 110E 227 7.6 814.3 109.6 16505.1 4.9 1.7 0.4 194.3 110E 228 7.5 710.3 106.6 20067.3 4.7 1.4 217.8 110E 229 7.5 11.0 584.1 110.4 25730.3 3.9 1.1 253.7 110E 230 7.7 574.5 107.0 28307.3 3.4 0.9 278.2 110E 231 7.7 375.9 106.0 34755.0 1.6 0.8 336.4 110E 232 7.8 9.2 247.8 86.7 32808.0 0.9 0.5 317.1 110E 233 7.6 153.7 84.5 32719.5 0.5 0.5 321.8 110E 234 7.7 278.1 80.8 32782.3 1.2 0.6 328.4 110E 235 7.7 10.8 325.2 78.1 31536.7 1.6 0.7 309.5 110E 236 7.4 433.0 87.1 30490.2 2.3 0.8 298.6 110E 237 7.6 316.4 87.9 29559.8 1.8 0.6 290.0 110E 238 7.3 11.0 522.4 120.1 30969.2 2.8 1.1 309.0 110E 239 7.6 484.1 133.1 30055.5 2.9 1.3 297.6 1.7 110E 240 7.8 841.5 116.1 17348.9 4.2 1.5 192.9 1.0 110E 241 7.4 11.8 555.5 103.4 18501.7 4.4 1.1 2.4 183.8 0.4 110E 242 7.4 444.4 106.5 21927.6 4.0 1.0 217.4 0.3 110E 243 7.5 406.8 108.0 25561.6 3.3 0.9 250.6 0.2 110E 244 7.5 9.8 305.0 99.2 28633.7 2.3 0.8 276.0 0.0 110E 245 7.5 285.9 108.6 29050.3 2.3 0.8 281.1 0.0 110E 246 7.6 273.2 101.6 29055.2 1.7 0.8 279.8 0.0 110E 247 7.4 11.0 348.8 92.9 26986.4 1.9 0.7 259.8 110E 248 7.5 550.9 96.0 27480.8 3.0 0.8 2.9 269.0 110E 249 574.7 99.4 23795.3 3.1 1.1 231.7 110E 250 7.6 11.0 495.9 97.0 24739.9 3.0 0.8 241.7 110E 251 7.5 611.5 122.3 23402.3 3.8 1.2 233.2 110E 252 7.4 544.3 124.2 24263.9 4.0 1.3 241.4 110E 253 7.3 11.8 638.9 100.6 18584.6 4.3 1.1 0.1 194.3 110E 254 7.2 627.0 105.2 20621.1 4.1 1.3 1.8 211.2 below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 101

93 Table A.I.1 pH, SOM and Foss extracted chemical data, part 1. (continued) Sample pH SOM% Al Ba Ca Ce Co Cu Fe Hg 110E 255 7.6 622.5 107.4 19365.1 4.3 1.3 200.1 110E 256 7.4 12.6 598.6 110.2 24153.9 3.9 1.6 244.7 110E 257 7.5 444.8 105.7 27635.6 2.7 1.0 272.5 110E 258 7.8 369.6 112.1 29129.8 2.4 0.9 289.3 110E 259 7.3 11.4 401.6 104.6 28766.0 2.4 0.9 284.0 0.0 110E 260 7.1 601.5 107.9 26601.6 4.1 1.3 0.1 268.4 0.0 110E 262 7.4 352.3 93.8 27256.3 1.9 0.7 262.4 110E 263 550.9 96.0 27480.8 3.0 0.8 2.9 269.0 110E 264 7.6 603.4 104.3 24985.1 3.2 1.1 243.3 110E 265 495.9 97.0 24739.9 3.0 0.8 241.7 110E 266 7.8 611.5 122.3 23402.3 3.8 1.2 233.2 110E 267 7.4 544.3 124.2 24263.9 4.0 1.3 241.4 110E 268 7.6 12.6 638.9 100.6 18584.6 4.3 1.1 0.1 194.3 110E 269 639.5 107.3 21033.6 4.2 1.3 1.8 215.4 110E 270 7.5 622.5 107.4 19365.1 4.3 1.3 200.1 110E 271 7.6 11.8 598.6 110.2 24153.9 3.9 1.6 244.7 110E 272 7.2 444.8 105.7 27635.6 2.7 1.0 272.5 110E 273 7.3 369.6 112.1 29129.8 2.4 0.9 289.3 110E 274 7.5 11.6 401.6 104.6 28766.0 2.4 0.9 284.0 110E 275 7.4 701.2 102.4 20377.9 4.2 1.5 216.6 110E 276 7.6 609.4 118.2 26618.1 3.7 1.0 263.7 110E 277 7.2 9.4 403.8 91.7 27127.8 2.6 0.8 266.7 110E 278 7.4 470.8 103.8 27650.9 3.1 1.0 278.9 110E 279 7.7 255.4 95.8 30658.5 1.7 0.7 310.1 110E 280 7.5 213.1 87.1 30509.9 1.3 0.7 309.4 110E 281 7.7 333.1 111.8 30201.3 2.3 1.0 310.5 110E 282 7.6 480.3 115.2 27948.4 3.3 1.0 293.5 110E 283 7.5 13.2 757.5 105.4 17728.5 4.4 1.3 189.7 110E 284 7.3 727.4 106.8 19789.4 4.3 1.4 1.8 211.4 110E 285 698.6 97.3 20279.1 4.2 1.2 1.8 213.7 110E 286 7.4 12.8 636.0 101.2 23692.7 3.9 1.2 249.6 110E 287 7.5 660.7 108.7 25140.4 3.9 1.3 256.5 110E 288 7.1 742.7 105.3 18159.5 4.0 1.4 191.1 110E 289 7.3 13.4 665.3 99.6 19180.2 3.7 1.4 201.7 110E 290 855.6 98.8 12816.7 4.7 1.8 5.6 166.6 110E 291 7.5 782.3 94.7 13349.7 3.6 1.0 5.7 149.4 110E 292 689.2 87.0 15091.2 3.8 1.1 3.8 167.8 110E 293 7.6 550.9 81.4 18804.6 3.6 1.0 4.4 206.0 110E 294 7.7 354.2 62.6 24441.9 3.2 0.9 254.7 110E 295 7.5 8.8 335.6 73.3 22553.3 2.8 0.8 0.9 239.9 110E 296 7.6 374.0 71.5 21882.7 2.7 0.7 1.9 232.5 110E 297 7.6 334.4 112.2 30226.6 2.5 0.8 315.3 " below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 102

94 Table A.I.2. Foss extracted chemical data, part 2. Sample K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Si Sr V Zn 110E 001 300.7 611.6 127.4 15.8 1.3 601.7 1.4 160.3 51.9 2.0 6.7 110E 002 387.2 622.4 123.7 3.0 0.4 399.5 1.4 221.1 37.1 2.3 4.6 110E 003 331.1 488.7 114.7 6.8 1.1 297.8 1.4 169.3 33.6 1.8 6.2 110E 004 209.1 321.8 64.0 11.0 1.8 167.9 0.6 191.9 21.8 1.7 7.7 110E 005 184.9 367.5 58.7 10.2 1.4 94.8 0.6 214.1 22.2 1.6 3.8 110E 006 279.4 372.3 89.5 0.0 132.1 0.9 259.1 20.9 1.8 3.6 110E 007 263.6 326.8 73.9 202.8 0.6 212.2 20.9 1.9 0.8 110E 008 359.6 412.9 93.5 402.2 0.7 225.8 27.8 1.9 1.3 110E 009 368.3 398.9 92.8 393.4 0.7 231.5 24.9 1.7 4.6 110E 010 640.0 578.7 142.7 19.7 0.6 680.6 1.0 234.6 37.4 1.7 7.6 110E 011 374.3 416.3 117.0 588.1 0.6 235.2 28.1 1.3 3.9 110E 012 390.6 405.6 107.1 546.0 0.6 208.1 28.1 1.1 2.4 110E 013 360.5 376.7 91.2 9.1 0.3 457.7 0.5 272.7 23.9 1.5 3.0 110E 014 300.6 381.8 100.1 4.0 0.2 481.1 0.7 258.2 24.7 1.5 4.0 110E 015 288.0 298.5 104.9 4.6 418.6 0.5 285.4 24.3 1.8 0.9 110E 016 251.1 264.7 87.7 393.9 0.5 258.2 20.1 1.4 110E 017 315.6 644.8 94.1 446.9 0.6 454.3 29.3 1.8 110E 018 320.3 524.5 127.1 4.9 0.6 492.6 1.3 183.4 41.1 2.0 4.1 110E 019 247.8 355.0 93.9 134.9 0.9 209.1 21.1 2.2 110E 020 195.7 281.6 72.3 136.9 0.6 161.9 17.5 1.5 110E 021 186.7 238.5 59.3 106.2 0.4 170.5 15.2 1.4 110E 022 300.0 387.6 121.2 2.0 2.0 95.6 0.9 283.3 21.5 2.1 1.0 110E 023 369.1 334.9 156.7 113.9 0.9 229.2 18.4 1.7 1.0 110E 024 339.0 283.3 52.2 0.8 0.4 46.1 0.6 242.3 19.0 2.3 1.7 110E 025 296.7 268.1 53.5 1.9 97.7 0.5 192.7 15.3 1.6 1.5 110E 026 523.6 433.9 88.1 7.7 1.0 304.0 0.7 259.7 22.3 1.9 4.0 110E 027 442.6 596.0 83.5 1.6 409.5 0.5 341.0 22.7 1.7 1.3 110E 028 251.3 393.9 98.0 18.2 1.5 478.5 0.7 213.7 30.5 1.7 4.5 110E 029 302.3 362.2 88.2 15.2 1.2 588.7 0.7 212.8 30.4 1.7 3.5 110E 030 234.2 336.2 85.1 10.3 0.1 444.7 0.6 240.4 23.7 1.6 1.7 110E 031 199.8 296.0 84.2 19.2 1.9 396.5 0.6 268.1 25.8 1.9 2.7 110E 032 187.7 360.7 82.5 31.4 3.9 531.7 0.6 280.6 35.4 2.4 4.4 110E 033 198.6 331.4 90.3 9.1 0.7 469.2 0.7 263.3 22.4 1.6 2.5 110E 034 278.4 422.5 137.0 14.1 1.7 572.4 0.9 255.4 39.6 2.3 2.0 110E 035 295.4 586.6 90.8 20.9 233.0 1.0 283.7 29.1 2.3 3.5 110E 036 168.7 454.3 99.1 2.5 284.6 0.8 206.7 37.9 1.8 110E 037 172.2 345.8 121.6 9.7 179.6 0.7 199.8 24.4 1.8 110E 038 198.1 350.9 66.4 13.2 122.5 0.5 227.8 23.8 1.9 110E 039 228.5 519.6 150.9 39.2 1.2 345.0 0.9 256.3 45.2 2.5 6.7 110E 040 254.6 478.8 124.2 28.0 377.0 0.9 257.3 42.0 2.4 5.8 110E 041 346.0 373.5 53.2 30.8 82.3 0.5 303.0 19.2 2.5 1.9 " below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 103

95 Table A.I.2. Foss extracted chemical data, part 2. (continued) Sample K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Si Sr V Zn 110E 042 324.6 485.4 128.4 29.6 212.8 0.7 390.2 21.3 2.6 2.6 110E 043 494.8 602.1 135.9 32.1 340.5 0.6 364.4 27.9 2.1 3.5 110E 044 221.8 582.5 144.3 42.5 1.0 665.5 0.6 307.5 39.0 1.8 8.2 110E 045 235.1 460.6 91.5 45.8 0.2 363.2 0.5 327.8 24.6 1.9 5.1 110E 046 349.5 1001.7 99.3 26.5 518.4 0.6 587.9 32.0 1.9 2.7 110E 047 181.0 382.6 136.2 51.1 2.1 581.8 0.7 307.5 36.9 2.4 7.7 110E 049 220.6 392.9 129.5 30.8 546.1 0.7 301.0 31.7 2.5 2.3 110E 050 355.9 572.2 120.6 12.0 0.4 350.8 1.0 191.4 34.0 2.1 8.4 110E 051 240.0 517.3 147.4 13.7 0.7 450.4 0.9 248.1 39.4 2.3 7.1 110E 052 234.7 480.8 105.5 454.4 0.8 202.1 35.8 1.7 6.5 110E 053 476.7 578.3 159.2 482.5 1.0 213.2 41.2 2.1 5.6 110E 054 242.8 474.2 149.7 0.3 272.9 0.9 260.4 31.0 2.3 6.0 110E 055 430.1 518.2 121.2 214.0 0.9 253.8 27.5 2.2 4.5 110E 057 275.2 385.0 64.8 112.0 0.6 279.9 20.7 2.3 4.3 110E 058 263.8 487.8 107.2 11.2 0.4 209.5 0.8 273.2 21.2 1.7 7.1 110E 059 190.3 290.3 97.5 188.0 0.6 273.8 15.5 1.8 4.0 110E 060 166.3 310.2 73.1 276.4 0.5 272.8 19.3 1.7 2.8 110E 061 188.8 349.5 102.7 482.6 0.6 217.1 44.5 2.0 4.0 110E 062 191.5 720.5 106.6 1.7 520.3 0.8 384.1 36.7 2.0 6.6 110E 063 272.8 311.4 112.5 488.1 0.8 206.6 36.8 2.0 3.3 110E 064 184.0 312.6 85.1 7.9 372.8 0.6 253.2 23.3 2.2 5.3 110E 065 346.0 600.1 174.8 606.7 1.5 191.7 64.6 2.6 7.6 110E 066 174.8 385.3 114.5 403.1 0.9 132.5 38.4 1.5 4.2 110E 067 254.1 506.8 161.1 9.6 521.2 1.1 198.2 50.0 2.4 6.0 110E 068 187.5 421.9 132.0 417.1 0.8 182.7 45.6 2.1 6.2 110E 069 270.7 412.1 117.2 269.7 0.8 199.6 29.0 2.1 5.6 110E 070 315.2 363.0 109.4 73.3 0.9 241.8 20.6 2.1 2.3 110E 071 311.8 338.3 75.2 72.2 0.7 241.3 17.9 2.3 2.4 110E 072 207.8 411.9 109.6 171.1 0.7 259.4 19.5 2.2 2.4 110E 073 598.7 477.1 193.3 411.6 1.1 309.1 28.2 2.8 6.1 110E 074 211.6 269.6 122.9 285.9 0.7 280.9 21.1 2.3 2.4 110E 075 206.7 358.9 124.1 13.9 396.4 0.8 291.7 32.6 2.7 6.0 110E 076 218.8 392.8 114.9 7.1 495.6 0.7 238.3 42.0 2.6 5.3 110E 077 191.1 387.2 115.4 33.3 0.8 538.8 0.8 216.5 50.5 2.4 6.4 110E 078 228.6 385.4 126.1 582.0 0.9 221.9 42.4 2.4 5.0 110E 079 198.3 329.8 99.7 454.5 0.7 201.0 23.9 1.8 5.0 110E 080 308.7 749.9 128.7 1.1 556.1 0.9 204.9 61.0 2.3 6.0 110E 081 399.8 980.8 136.3 26.3 745.4 1.1 201.5 69.2 2.5 9.1 110E 082 575.2 901.9 165.6 603.5 1.2 448.0 58.1 2.8 6.2 110E 083 279.1 454.9 126.0 13.3 471.0 0.9 216.0 40.8 2.4 5.7 110E 084 222.3 455.6 123.3 23.5 1.8 282.8 0.8 217.4 35.5 2.6 5.9 110E 085 323.7 368.8 128.7 17.3 0.9 223.5 0.8 247.1 23.4 2.6 5.5 " below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 104

96 Table A.I.2. Foss extracted chemical data, part 2. (continued) Sample K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Si Sr V Zn 110E 086 225.5 313.2 89.7 1.8 122.2 0.7 219.6 18.7 2.3 2.9 110E 087 237.8 408.1 113.9 25.3 2.2 231.8 0.9 224.2 38.0 4.3 6.2 110E 088 241.0 474.4 138.6 22.6 1.7 300.2 0.9 165.6 52.4 2.9 5.9 110E 089 201.0 387.6 104.3 4.1 408.6 0.8 222.0 41.5 2.4 3.9 110E 090 337.4 375.3 116.0 450.3 0.9 258.9 41.0 2.8 2.3 110E 091 199.0 407.9 113.5 6.6 497.9 0.9 227.9 54.0 2.7 4.8 110E 092 182.1 394.9 123.5 572.8 0.8 193.7 61.3 2.5 2.5 110E 093 196.8 383.2 149.9 3.7 587.0 0.9 227.6 44.3 2.3 6.8 110E 094 376.1 482.0 152.6 647.2 1.0 238.6 27.4 1.7 10.4 110E 095 325.0 504.7 142.2 547.5 1.1 178.4 53.3 2.3 3.9 110E 096 197.4 518.8 140.3 451.7 0.9 178.2 49.1 1.9 2.5 110E 097 430.8 585.1 125.7 0.8 559.1 1.1 546.6 55.7 2.1 6.9 110E 098 324.1 745.9 112.6 0.7 446.0 0.8 1128.3 39.4 2.0 5.3 110E 099 512.5 540.3 117.5 3.8 399.3 0.8 707.1 45.0 2.4 8.0 110E 100 518.9 511.2 146.7 1.4 479.1 0.9 757.3 37.8 2.7 7.2 110E 101 468.5 527.4 113.4 41.5 2.8 327.3 0.7 1047.5 31.1 2.9 9.5 110E 102 453.8 457.4 111.8 0.4 254.2 0.7 993.3 21.6 3.0 7.3 110E 103 269.5 493.1 128.1 1.3 348.4 0.6 929.4 33.8 2.9 8.5 110E 104 520.5 737.0 153.9 0.1 2.0 776.5 0.8 767.8 57.8 2.4 9.5 110E 105 412.2 573.5 138.0 1.8 644.0 0.7 731.4 65.4 3.0 8.6 110E 106 462.8 550.1 146.4 1.9 663.3 0.9 776.6 44.2 2.9 11.7 110E 107 372.3 608.3 133.5 54.3 3.7 737.4 0.8 816.1 59.2 2.7 11.6 110E 108 562.8 731.1 126.0 15.8 2.8 972.5 0.7 722.2 75.3 2.5 9.1 110E 109 683.0 751.1 153.4 3.0 2.0 919.4 0.8 1018.5 43.0 1.9 10.8 110E 110 453.8 866.4 135.9 1.7 807.6 1.0 640.6 76.3 2.8 8.7 110E 111 492.3 729.0 153.3 12.1 2.3 712.3 1.1 781.7 56.8 2.7 9.5 110E 112 489.7 580.7 108.9 1.0 601.4 0.9 605.8 53.6 2.3 6.3 110E 113 584.8 745.0 148.3 1.6 686.6 1.1 860.7 50.9 2.8 8.9 110E 114 399.0 580.5 132.8 1.3 497.8 0.8 979.2 42.8 2.6 8.2 110E 115 251.1 544.7 137.7 1.0 425.2 0.7 959.6 42.9 2.2 7.9 110E 116 559.6 642.3 165.5 1.1 285.2 0.7 1276.5 25.4 2.3 10.0 110E 117 424.9 616.9 189.5 1.7 269.9 0.8 1647.6 24.5 3.0 9.3 110E 118 382.9 466.4 141.4 1.0 428.1 0.6 1379.6 31.1 2.8 7.9 110E 119 744.0 628.8 172.3 1.7 635.4 0.7 853.1 51.4 2.5 8.1 110E 120 442.5 909.3 164.2 19.8 3.0 937.1 0.7 658.4 86.3 2.3 11.5 110E 121 452.8 720.1 139.6 2.2 2.2 811.6 0.8 780.9 62.6 3.0 7.4 110E 122 711.0 772.7 142.2 2.0 1052.8 0.9 763.3 64.0 3.0 10.0 110E 123 575.2 666.5 144.2 2.2 865.5 0.8 813.1 56.2 2.8 9.1 110E 124 366.2 554.3 151.7 2.5 2.2 972.3 0.9 973.6 50.1 2.0 11.0 110E 125 595.3 769.1 166.1 1.0 2.8 927.3 1.3 676.7 80.1 2.5 10.6 110E 126 429.3 712.8 157.9 8.4 3.3 713.2 1.1 914.6 57.9 2.8 8.4 110E 127 396.8 653.7 153.4 1.9 739.3 1.1 832.4 55.7 2.6 7.1 " below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 105

97 Table A.I.2. Foss extracted chemical data, part 2. (continued) Sample K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Si Sr V Zn 110E 128 455.0 608.4 153.7 2.4 715.8 0.9 988.2 50.5 2.5 7.9 110E 129 477.5 541.8 147.4 1.1 599.3 0.8 1238.3 35.3 2.5 6.5 110E 130 330.0 676.4 173.7 1.9 600.7 0.8 1680.2 39.3 2.4 8.5 110E 131 469.5 679.8 169.1 8.3 1.8 590.2 0.9 1225.3 42.6 2.6 10.4 110E 132 334.9 638.1 163.0 1.3 495.0 0.7 1248.8 43.3 3.0 8.1 110E 133 432.3 777.7 169.4 13.4 2.1 575.0 0.9 1013.8 51.0 3.0 10.1 110E 134 518.6 703.8 149.3 1.1 535.1 1.0 997.6 49.8 3.2 9.2 110E 135 696.6 1100.0 173.8 1.2 1255.2 1.0 785.8 84.9 2.6 14.6 110E 136 957.7 931.3 133.4 1.5 1010.2 1.0 704.9 67.8 2.4 9.6 110E 137 407.9 646.1 135.5 1.5 683.1 0.8 689.2 56.3 2.3 7.2 110E 138 459.2 713.3 128.9 59.2 3.2 728.1 1.0 789.1 66.1 3.0 10.8 110E 139 429.5 609.4 142.7 3.4 1.4 870.9 0.9 944.7 55.5 2.4 11.0 110E 140 560.7 561.7 125.8 604.3 1.2 669.5 42.7 2.9 6.4 110E 141 428.8 742.5 155.5 1.7 686.9 1.2 893.1 63.8 2.5 8.1 110E 142 539.1 815.5 148.7 2.1 882.4 0.9 685.1 96.0 2.2 9.3 110E 143 839.0 873.1 185.4 1.6 1186.5 1.1 918.0 97.7 2.8 11.4 110E 144 529.3 753.4 163.6 1.5 751.2 0.9 740.6 62.7 2.7 7.8 110E 145 243.0 712.2 200.9 2.4 586.3 0.7 619.4 63.5 2.1 6.4 110E 146 325.9 805.4 208.3 2.4 545.4 0.6 574.7 71.4 2.0 7.0 110E 147 298.8 696.4 160.9 1.6 519.7 0.7 607.6 62.9 2.8 6.5 110E 148 477.1 914.8 141.9 1.8 565.8 0.7 522.3 78.3 2.3 6.1 110E 150 400.8 660.3 154.9 1.9 746.7 1.1 840.7 56.2 2.6 7.2 110E 151 455.0 608.4 153.7 2.4 715.8 0.9 988.2 50.5 2.5 7.9 110E 152 477.5 541.8 147.4 1.1 599.3 0.8 1238.3 35.3 2.5 6.5 110E 153 330.0 676.4 173.7 1.9 600.7 0.8 1680.2 39.3 2.4 8.5 110E 154 381.5 530.9 155.2 867.4 1.1 533.4 50.0 2.2 5.5 110E 155 641.0 677.1 148.2 644.8 1.3 340.2 49.2 2.9 5.1 110E 156 874.0 789.9 183.5 751.8 1.3 289.9 68.2 1.9 6.1 110E 157 711.5 761.1 125.0 902.2 0.9 365.0 80.7 1.5 6.0 110E 158 452.3 871.1 140.4 0.3 952.5 0.7 183.4 96.1 1.1 5.5 110E 159 456.7 790.6 152.9 0.2 839.3 0.7 337.9 83.9 1.9 4.7 110E 160 616.5 904.9 184.0 0.5 886.4 1.0 561.1 78.7 2.6 7.8 110E 161 457.5 737.2 154.5 0.3 685.1 0.9 587.7 54.9 2.9 6.7 110E 162 428.9 818.1 122.6 1.0 523.9 0.7 160.5 74.6 2.4 5.8 110E 163 750.0 1144.0 143.6 0.4 839.0 1.1 243.9 85.3 2.8 13.8 110E 164 143.0 459.1 121.7 428.4 1.0 201.8 57.5 3.1 0.9 110E 165 295.5 548.7 95.8 29.2 417.5 1.0 159.3 57.9 2.7 6.3 110E 166 273.8 540.7 121.3 12.0 326.1 1.2 110.3 74.1 2.7 3.9 110E 167 741.0 544.6 120.7 367.8 1.2 149.8 65.5 3.0 3.4 110E 168 177.0 422.0 117.7 429.3 1.1 150.6 62.5 3.0 1.6 110E 169 294.7 492.0 157.8 582.2 1.3 216.2 46.5 2.8 5.0 110E 170 202.3 441.1 107.4 357.3 1.1 150.0 56.5 2.5 " below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 106

98 Table A.I.2. Foss extracted chemical data, p art 2. (continued) Sample K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Si Sr V Zn 110E 171 278.7 551.6 108.8 32.4 464.3 1.1 160.0 68.2 2.2 7.3 110E 172 363.8 729.6 151.1 4.1 589.8 1.2 158.6 78.3 2.0 7.2 110E 173 139.3 493.7 116.1 584.6 1.1 146.6 79.4 2.4 4.3 110E 174 231.8 585.7 124.3 10.0 2.6 391.7 0.8 108.5 86.1 2.0 6.2 110E 175 174.2 525.7 106.6 1.8 463.9 0.8 155.8 78.1 3.0 5.4 110E 176 216.7 578.7 145.3 7.1 1.6 432.5 1.1 152.3 60.5 3.4 8.4 110E 177 245.2 699.9 126.9 1.8 361.9 0.9 87.3 80.4 2.6 5.1 110E 178 188.7 622.1 96.8 0.6 1.9 324.7 0.9 114.9 75.6 2.7 4.3 110E 179 245.0 476.1 91.0 1.0 352.1 0.9 164.8 52.9 2.8 5.8 110E 180 512.0 649.4 111.6 0.0 461.7 1.1 149.5 63.6 3.0 5.6 110E 181 239.4 536.0 96.4 0.9 360.6 1.0 119.6 64.5 3.7 6.0 110E 182 328.6 1179.5 110.1 0.0 606.8 1.4 127.2 89.8 5.0 6.9 110E 183 176.1 456.5 89.4 0.2 348.0 1.0 103.6 53.1 2.8 3.1 110E 184 317.9 461.2 120.7 565.3 1.1 169.5 42.7 2.2 4.8 110E 185 340.7 426.2 108.8 370.0 1.3 151.3 42.6 2.1 4.8 110E 186 272.2 456.0 126.1 332.9 0.9 125.4 54.3 2.0 4.3 110E 187 308.4 523.0 102.0 427.4 1.0 115.8 56.0 1.6 6.2 110E 188 310.8 606.4 139.3 0.5 411.0 0.9 135.1 73.1 2.0 4.3 110E 189 141.2 578.2 139.5 1.1 382.5 0.7 127.9 92.2 2.1 4.3 110E 190 365.7 594.5 120.2 0.9 316.9 0.7 68.3 84.2 1.7 2.9 110E 191 201.7 614.0 118.9 1.8 1.4 325.4 0.6 65.4 83.6 1.7 4.9 110E 192 172.0 517.4 81.3 0.3 357.6 0.6 67.7 78.0 1.9 1.4 110E 193 111.1 490.6 57.4 15.7 1.0 163.3 0.5 42.7 64.2 1.1 5.4 110E 194 171.6 650.3 78.0 18.4 1.4 231.8 0.8 86.3 68.7 1.9 7.3 110E 195 205.8 1264.8 98.3 20.4 1.1 837.1 0.7 91.3 127.8 1.7 8.8 110E 196 347.1 1330.1 113.0 21.9 1.3 1138.3 0.7 80.1 163.9 1.7 10.9 110E 197 473.6 769.9 115.8 23.2 1.6 514.9 1.5 129.0 83.8 4.4 10.7 110E 198 460.5 632.4 95.8 28.3 1.6 385.9 1.2 228.2 71.0 4.0 8.4 110E 199 403.2 610.6 117.1 44.4 1.4 494.5 1.0 237.8 63.5 2.8 10.2 110E 200 571.4 507.5 144.8 47.5 1.6 613.5 1.1 281.4 43.7 2.5 13.7 110E 201 1139.4 916.4 168.7 65.2 2.3 725.8 1.5 228.7 67.8 3.1 19.1 110E 202 474.4 683.0 154.0 47.1 2.9 463.7 1.0 233.6 76.0 2.4 13.0 110E 203 333.8 703.2 136.0 69.2 3.6 372.4 0.7 197.6 79.2 1.8 13.8 110E 204 320.1 746.1 134.1 54.0 3.4 395.4 0.8 182.3 87.6 1.8 12.6 110E 205 220.2 601.8 97.6 52.9 3.4 211.2 0.5 157.1 77.8 1.8 8.0 110E 206 195.4 716.7 95.3 31.9 2.2 242.2 0.5 118.5 92.5 1.3 8.4 110E 207 106.0 477.1 32.9 52.6 2.8 54.4 0.0 53.9 77.0 0.2 1.8 110E 208 106.0 629.1 66.7 51.6 3.4 208.4 0.2 100.0 82.6 0.8 7.3 110E 209 257.7 638.0 55.4 35.9 2.6 184.4 0.1 78.6 71.9 0.5 4.8 110E 210 364.3 726.3 90.7 41.8 3.0 270.7 0.5 125.8 69.9 1.6 7.3 110E 211 103.3 638.0 53.4 37.1 2.4 200.6 0.4 90.6 70.0 1.1 4.6 110E 212 145.3 623.6 78.0 33.4 2.7 267.4 0.6 122.3 67.4 1.9 6.6 " below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 107

99 Table A.I.2. Foss extracted chemical data, part 2. (continued) Sample K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Si Sr V Zn 110E 213 387.6 754.8 118.9 35.5 2.4 502.2 1.3 193.0 71.7 2.8 12.7 110E 214 1035.8 780.4 225.5 47.5 2.5 715.7 1.5 222.7 65.9 3.3 17.2 110E 215 751.7 842.6 201.0 33.8 2.7 675.7 1.5 214.0 72.5 3.5 15.0 110E 216 619.4 878.5 199.4 47.0 3.5 521.9 1.0 208.4 87.4 2.4 13.5 110E 217 386.4 676.8 123.4 43.6 3.2 285.3 0.5 175.3 88.9 1.5 8.6 110E 218 155.1 614.3 126.5 38.7 2.9 214.5 0.4 117.1 82.8 1.0 5.9 110E 219 173.7 616.6 71.9 39.3 2.9 167.0 0.2 108.0 89.2 0.5 5.7 110E 220 216.5 716.7 56.0 39.2 2.4 139.3 0.0 104.9 86.8 0.2 2.8 110E 221 170.3 679.7 67.8 41.6 3.2 224.9 0.2 107.5 77.0 0.6 5.1 110E 222 233.9 807.0 68.6 40.7 3.0 240.7 0.2 109.2 70.6 0.6 6.4 110E 223 211.2 872.2 95.1 63.4 4.4 299.2 0.4 166.7 70.0 1.6 9.6 110E 224 263.9 918.7 70.3 43.2 3.1 302.2 0.4 125.2 80.5 1.2 7.4 110E 225 210.3 896.8 63.7 38.2 2.9 275.1 0.4 104.3 79.2 1.1 6.5 110E 226 385.6 818.4 92.4 43.8 2.5 444.4 0.7 197.5 79.6 1.8 9.9 110E 227 890.5 780.1 184.6 41.7 3.0 603.4 1.3 308.5 69.2 3.3 12.0 110E 228 738.8 828.1 182.9 41.1 3.0 654.1 1.2 251.9 75.3 3.1 12.4 110E 229 542.3 794.1 171.2 43.1 3.3 434.8 0.8 205.8 84.0 2.5 10.0 110E 230 310.8 746.1 143.3 30.1 2.6 336.2 0.6 209.7 85.0 1.8 9.0 110E 231 165.1 887.4 147.5 53.8 4.1 266.5 0.3 147.5 99.7 0.9 8.9 110E 232 62.0 721.3 74.5 37.4 2.7 175.0 0.2 114.1 92.0 0.5 15.3 110E 233 149.8 701.8 61.1 48.6 3.4 180.6 0.1 105.9 88.0 0.4 15.7 110E 234 125.7 748.9 81.5 32.4 3.0 231.4 0.2 128.6 77.4 0.6 16.7 110E 235 220.3 818.8 84.2 34.5 3.0 263.0 0.4 134.2 70.6 0.8 17.8 110E 236 232.4 767.9 89.8 30.4 2.8 314.1 0.5 166.1 68.1 1.2 9.6 110E 237 193.0 764.4 63.9 47.8 3.3 217.5 0.3 128.4 76.8 0.9 7.8 110E 238 407.5 983.9 127.5 36.9 3.1 453.3 0.6 172.6 95.0 1.4 10.0 110E 239 501.9 1021.1 139.0 53.0 3.2 684.3 0.6 152.0 121.1 1.4 14.2 110E 240 358.2 776.3 160.8 24.5 2.1 618.4 0.9 304.5 77.7 2.2 13.0 110E 241 247.9 646.9 129.1 50.9 3.4 338.7 1.0 160.5 78.7 1.9 10.6 110E 242 418.7 680.3 136.5 24.9 2.5 397.2 1.1 133.4 78.6 1.9 12.0 110E 243 327.7 685.4 157.5 44.0 3.3 292.5 0.7 127.1 80.1 1.7 10.4 110E 244 286.5 616.7 132.6 26.7 2.6 251.2 0.5 103.3 84.4 1.1 7.3 110E 245 387.6 745.0 117.9 36.3 3.0 321.3 0.6 100.3 84.7 1.1 11.2 110E 246 132.3 654.9 98.3 40.7 3.1 232.1 0.4 101.3 90.4 0.8 8.6 110E 247 110.8 577.6 85.9 37.6 3.0 227.1 0.3 112.7 70.6 0.7 8.2 110E 248 123.2 547.7 94.3 68.6 4.3 257.3 0.5 163.0 69.4 1.2 8.6 110E 249 171.0 606.3 125.5 24.2 2.3 349.1 0.7 191.3 63.2 1.2 9.4 110E 250 267.9 626.1 89.1 46.6 3.4 401.6 0.5 156.3 77.7 1.2 9.5 110E 251 342.0 805.1 127.4 33.5 2.3 420.7 0.8 209.7 76.4 1.7 9.4 110E 252 426.2 749.7 128.8 40.7 2.7 493.3 0.8 164.2 89.4 1.9 12.8 110E 253 378.5 586.1 108.3 30.3 2.2 507.6 0.9 219.3 68.9 2.3 9.1 110E 254 371.0 675.5 131.9 53.3 3.6 428.1 0.9 217.5 82.1 2.0 12.9 " below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 108

100 Table A.I.2. Foss extracted chemical data, part 2. (continued) Sample K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Si Sr V Zn 110E 255 442.6 719.3 141.3 22.9 2.1 476.2 1.0 209.0 81.0 2.0 11.1 110E 256 407.8 785.6 169.6 28.8 2.8 447.6 1.0 188.2 91.4 1.9 11.4 110E 257 283.3 705.5 125.8 32.0 3.1 328.5 0.7 143.3 96.8 1.3 9.1 110E 258 143.3 646.3 115.7 54.4 3.7 329.1 0.5 118.6 105.4 1.1 11.4 110E 259 568.2 665.8 132.4 29.7 2.9 297.7 0.5 135.2 83.5 1.1 9.6 110E 260 903.1 805.2 180.6 63.4 4.1 460.1 0.9 185.2 78.3 2.2 15.4 110E 262 112.0 583.4 86.7 38.0 3.0 229.3 0.3 113.9 71.3 0.7 8.3 110E 263 123.2 547.7 94.3 68.6 4.3 257.3 0.5 163.0 69.4 1.2 8.6 110E 264 179.5 636.7 131.7 25.4 2.4 366.6 0.7 200.9 66.4 1.3 9.9 110E 265 267.9 626.1 89.1 46.6 3.4 401.6 0.5 156.3 77.7 1.2 9.5 110E 266 342.0 805.1 127.4 33.5 2.3 420.7 0.8 209.7 76.4 1.7 9.4 110E 267 426.2 749.7 128.8 40.7 2.7 493.3 0.8 164.2 89.4 1.9 12.8 110E 268 378.5 586.1 108.3 30.3 2.2 507.6 0.9 219.3 68.9 2.3 9.1 110E 269 378.5 689.0 134.5 54.3 3.6 436.7 0.9 221.8 83.7 2.0 13.1 110E 270 442.6 719.3 141.3 22.9 2.1 476.2 1.0 209.0 81.0 2.0 11.1 110E 271 407.8 785.6 169.6 28.8 2.8 447.6 1.0 188.2 91.4 1.9 11.4 110E 272 283.3 705.5 125.8 32.0 3.1 328.5 0.7 143.3 96.8 1.3 9.1 110E 273 143.3 646.3 115.7 54.4 3.7 329.1 0.5 118.6 105.4 1.1 11.4 110E 274 568.2 665.8 132.4 29.7 2.9 297.7 0.5 135.2 83.5 1.1 9.6 110E 275 351.5 542.7 197.6 0.3 405.2 1.0 180.8 61.6 1.6 10.2 110E 276 391.4 637.9 139.7 14.1 2.4 341.6 0.5 136.7 75.7 1.4 10.4 110E 277 187.5 555.9 105.8 1.3 244.9 0.4 67.0 70.6 1.0 4.6 110E 278 370.9 664.4 153.8 1.8 347.9 0.6 84.7 71.6 1.5 10.3 110E 279 172.7 685.9 103.3 0.0 3.4 215.5 0.3 38.2 77.5 0.6 2.9 110E 280 274.1 658.7 92.0 22.9 2.7 187.0 0.2 43.6 80.4 0.4 5.5 110E 281 312.3 795.9 120.5 18.4 1.8 302.1 0.5 58.1 83.3 0.9 5.2 110E 282 253.7 652.5 112.3 36.5 3.3 376.4 0.6 114.8 94.4 1.4 7.2 110E 283 397.2 590.6 136.8 0.2 501.1 0.9 192.3 66.5 1.5 9.6 110E 284 412.8 658.6 144.3 13.3 2.1 440.6 0.9 178.2 71.9 1.6 9.3 110E 285 381.5 561.2 125.0 12.7 2.1 339.7 0.9 184.7 67.5 1.6 10.4 110E 286 452.8 610.4 136.6 1.0 396.7 0.9 158.9 76.1 1.7 9.9 110E 287 264.5 574.7 140.5 1.1 366.7 0.8 172.8 82.2 1.7 8.8 110E 288 437.2 556.7 157.5 0.6 403.8 0.9 203.9 58.1 1.6 7.0 110E 289 357.9 573.8 155.8 0.2 1.2 384.5 0.8 163.1 66.8 1.5 11.2 110E 290 215.1 499.8 208.9 19.4 1.6 397.2 1.3 255.1 46.4 2.3 13.2 110E 291 102.6 415.3 114.8 29.8 1.6 320.1 0.7 207.2 49.3 1.6 11.2 110E 292 132.4 508.2 131.4 20.6 1.7 311.5 0.8 179.5 47.1 1.7 10.2 110E 293 176.2 499.3 124.3 29.9 2.1 262.4 0.7 143.7 51.1 1.7 9.2 110E 294 237.4 467.7 101.3 2.7 1.0 202.3 0.5 89.0 58.9 1.5 5.4 110E 295 179.7 489.0 101.8 19.2 1.8 164.6 0.5 90.3 54.4 1.3 6.5 110E 296 260.0 519.0 81.7 17.1 1.5 191.9 0.5 109.4 54.4 1.2 7.4 110E 297 122.2 712.3 97.7 25.9 2.9 320.0 0.4 81.1 87.1 1.1 3.8 " below detection limits Note for all samples: Ag=0, U=0, Cr < detection limits

PAGE 109

101 Table A.I .3 Mehlich 3 extracted phosphorus data Sample Spectrophotometry Colorimetry ICP 110E 001 100.0 110E 002 85.0 110E 003 82.0 110E 004 21.0 38.0 46.2 110E 005 18.0 110E 006 40.0 110E 007 18.0 32.0 33.7 110E 008 61.0 110E 009 62.0 110E 010 101.0 110E 011 100.0 110E 012 104.0 110E 013 84.0 97.0 93.6 110E 014 96.0 110E 015 70.0 110E 016 60.0 80.0 82.7 110E 017 40.0 110E 018 110E 019 51.0 56.0 61.0 110E 020 42.0 110E 021 33.0 110E 022 32.0 42.0 52.8 110E 023 48.0 110E 024 2.0 110E 025 48.0 51.5 110E 026 110E 027 48.0 110E 028 73.0 81.0 78.4 110E 029 121.0 110E 030 25.0 110E 031 34.0 50.0 56.2 110E 032 26.0 110E 033 110E 034 53.0 56.0 54.0 110E 035 59.0 110E 036 34.0 110E 037 36.0 28.0 35.0 110E 038 19.0 110E 039 43.0 110E 040 49.0 64.0 61.1

PAGE 110

102 Table A.1.3 Mehlich 3 extracted phosphorus data (continued) Sample Spectrophotometry Colorimetry ICP 110E 041 11.0 110E 042 55.0 110E 043 64.0 84.0 91.7 110E 044 135.0 110E 045 42.0 110E 046 54.0 65.0 62.4 110E 047 110E 049 37.0 42.0 46.3 110E 050 110.0 110E 051 53.0 110E 052 54.0 78.0 84.5 110E 053 70.0 110E 054 41.0 110E 055 59.0 72.0 75.2 110E 057 26.0 110E 058 67.0 110E 059 110E 060 39.0 110E 061 41.0 49.0 49.1 110E 062 56.0 110E 063 36.0 110E 064 36.0 45.0 44.1 110E 065 110E 066 65.0 110E 067 73.0 91.0 90.0 110E 068 64.0 110E 069 51.0 110E 070 19.0 26.0 34.9 110E 071 110E 072 49.0 110E 073 48.0 59.0 53.1 110E 074 40.0 110E 075 27.0 110E 076 55.0 76.0 70.8 110E 077 28.0 110E 078 49.0 110E 079 56.0 69.0 69.7 110E 080 96.0 110E 081 140.0 110E 039 43.0 110E 082 31.0 90.0 92.5 110E 083 52.0

PAGE 111

103 Table A.1.3 Mehlich 3 extracted phosphorus data (continued) Sample Spectrophotometry Colorimetry ICP 110E 084 43.0 110E 085 43.0 53.0 61.6 110E 086 52.0 110E 087 18.0 110E 088 29.0 31.0 26.4 110E 089 32.0 110E 090 29.0 110E 091 34.0 110E 092 24.0 110E 093 57.0 110E 094 102.0 110E 095 91.0 110E 096 43.0 110E 097 33.0 110E 098 33.0 110E 099 34.0 110E 100 25.0 31.0 33.5 110E 101 47.0 110E 102 34.0 110E 103 30.0 110E 104 30.0 110E 105 33.0 110E 106 61.0 51.4 55.8 110E 107 31.0 110E 108 48.0 110E 109 82.0 69.8 71.6 110E 110 52.0 110E 111 47.0 110E 112 35.0 35.9 39.5 110E 113 39.0 110E 114 26.0 110E 115 38.0 44.0 52.2 110E 116 33.0 110E 117 30.0 110E 118 19.0 30.0 37.2 110E 119 37.0 110E 120 65.0 110E 121 38.0 38.0 45.8 110E 122 66.0 110E 123 27.0 110E 124 53.0 73.7 75.5 110E 125 79.0

PAGE 112

104 Table A.1.3 Mehlich 3 extracted phosphorus data (continued) Sample Spectrophotometry Colorimetry ICP 110E 126 41.0 110E 127 39.0 69.0 68.9 110E 128 51.0 110E 129 37.0 110E 130 40.0 41.0 46.2 110E 131 41.0 110E 132 23.0 110E 133 38.0 50.0 50.4 110E 134 16.0 110E 135 121.0 110E 136 57.0 85.0 90.8 110E 137 29.0 110E 138 19.0 110E 139 48.0 58.3 59.0 110E 140 61.0 110E 141 35.0 110E 142 28.0 29.7 32.7 110E 143 67.0 110E 144 28.0 110E 145 20.0 32.0 36.5 110E 146 19.0 110E 147 21.0 110E 148 16.0 19.2 24.6 110E 150 34.0 110E 151 22.0 38.0 42.0 110E 152 24.0 110E 153 35.0 110E 154 22.0 39.0 38.9 110E 155 110E 156 71.0 110E 157 29.0 40.3 38.1 110E 158 70.0 110E 159 24.0 110E 160 41.0 43.0 46.2 110E 161 110E 162 110E 163 38.0 46.4 51.6 110E 164 15.0 110E 165 110E 166 17.0 18.5 25.2 110E 167 25.0 110E 168 32.0

PAGE 113

105 Table A.1.3 Mehlich 3 extracted phosphorus data (continued) Sample Spectrophotometry Colorimetry ICP 110E 169 60.0 68.9 110E 170 29.0 110E 171 110E 172 58.0 62.6 67.2 110E 173 110E 174 21.0 110E 175 21.0 26.0 33.6 110E 176 110E 177 22.0 110E 178 11.0 16.0 20.1 110E 179 42.0 110E 180 54.0 110E 181 31.0 35.0 32.0 110E 182 110E 183 32.0 110E 184 56.0 58.9 110E 185 27.0 110E 186 44.0 110E 187 49.0 77.0 66.1 110E 188 39.0 110E 189 32.0 110E 190 27.0 21.0 26.2 110E 191 18.0 110E 192 16.0 110E 193 21.0 15.0 17.0 110E 194 29.0 110E 195 310.0 110E 196 110E 197 151.0 110E 198 50.0 110E 199 86.0 61.0 67.8 110E 200 110E 201 206.0 110E 202 25.0 49.0 54.7 110E 203 44.0 110E 204 44.0 110E 205 17.0 14.0 21.1 110E 206 20.0 110E 207 17.0 110E 208 33.0 19.0 23.8 110E 209 29.0 110E 210 29.0

PAGE 114

106 Table A.1.3 Mehlich 3 extracted phosphorus data (continued) Sample Spectrophotometry Colorimetry ICP 110E 211 27.0 22.0 30.5 110E 212 27.0 110E 213 61.0 110E 214 278.0 110E 215 233.0 110E 216 117.0 110E 217 223.0 110E 218 21.0 110E 219 11.0 110E 220 14.0 15.0 20.3 110E 221 24.0 110E 222 37.0 110E 223 45.0 32.0 28.7 110E 224 28.0 110E 225 79.0 110E 226 28.0 30.6 37.6 110E 227 95.0 110E 228 159.0 110E 229 79.0 78.0 80.9 110E 230 41.0 110E 231 36.0 110E 232 7.0 10.0 11.3 110E 233 30.0 110E 234 17.0 110E 235 29.0 26.0 29.4 110E 236 112.0 110E 237 15.0 110E 238 59.0 45.0 45.2 110E 239 32.0 110E 240 117.0 110E 241 36.0 46.0 46.5 110E 242 100.0 110E 243 53.0 110E 244 41.0 44.0 49.2 110E 245 91.0 110E 246 39.0 110E 247 27.0 27.3 35.3 110E 248 13.0 110E 249 110E 250 35.0 45.0 42.1 110E 251 30.0 110E 252 39.0

PAGE 115

107 Table A.1.3 Mehlich 3 extracted phosphorus data (continued) Sample Spectrophotometry Colorimetry ICP 110E 253 34.0 38.0 41.8 110E 254 37.0 110E 255 51.0 110E 256 30.0 60.0 58.3 110E 257 14.0 110E 258 26.0 110E 259 31.0 38.0 45.0 110E 260 47.0 110E 262 130.0 110E 263 110E 264 19.0 110E 265 18.0 18.0 22.7 110E 266 52.0 110E 267 30.0 110E 268 33.0 36.0 42.1 110E 269 53.0 110E 270 53.0 110E 271 30.0 33.0 36.9 110E 272 51.0 110E 273 33.0 110E 274 32.0 31.0 35.0 110E 275 49.0 110E 276 40.0 110E 277 32.0 32.0 39.0 110E 278 68.0 110E 279 27.0 110E 280 16.0 110E 281 37.0 110E 282 21.0 110E 283 47.0 45.0 45.0 110E 284 43.0 110E 285 110E 286 43.0 51.0 50.3 110E 287 25.0 110E 288 28.0 110E 289 44.0 46.0 53.2 110E 290 110E 291 26.0 110E 292 38.0 38.0 48.8 110E 293 19.0 110E 294 35.0 110E 295 17.0 18.0 22.7

PAGE 116

108 Table A.1.3 Mehlich 3 extracted phosphorus data (continued) Sample Spectrophotometry Colorimetry ICP 110E 296 9.0 110E 297 25.0

PAGE 117

109 Appendix I I Additional Chemical Distributions

PAGE 118

110 Figure A.II.1. Kriged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Ba in ppm (kriging type = point, based on a logarithmic variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher concentrations of Ba.

PAGE 119

111 Figure A.II.2 K riged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Mg in ppm (kriging type = point, based on a logarithmic variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher concentrations of Mg.

PAGE 120

112 Figure A.II.3 K riged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Mn in ppm (kriging type = point, based on a logarithmic variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher concentrations of Mn.

PAGE 121

113 Figure A.II.4 K riged image map overlaid by a contour map showing the distribution of extractable soil Zn in ppm (kriging type = point, based on a logarithmic variogram model, also pictured). Darker hues correspond to higher concentrations of Zn.


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim
leader nam 22 Ka 4500
controlfield tag 007 cr-bnu---uuuuu
008 s2010 flu s 000 0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a E14-SFE0004681
035
(OCoLC)
040
FHM
c FHM
049
FHMM
090
XX9999 (Online)
1 100
Rothenberg, Kara.
0 245
Multi-elemental chemical analysis of anthropogenic soils as a tool for examining spatial use patterns at prehispanic palmarejo, northwest honduras
h [electronic resource] /
by Kara Rothenberg.
260
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2010.
500
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.
502
Thesis (MA)--University of South Florida, 2010.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
516
Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format.
538
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
3 520
ABSTRACT: Plazas and patios were important spaces for expressing power and social identity in prehispanic Mesoamerica. However, plazas can be analytically problematic, because they were often kept clean of material debris. Previous geoarchaeological studies of anthropogenic soils and sediments have shown that specific activities leave characteristic chemical signatures on prepared earthen surfaces. The research presented here uses soil chemical residue analysis and excavation data to examine use patterns in the North Plaza of Palmarejo, Honduras during the Late Classic period. The goal is to determine whether the plaza was used for residential or ceremonial purposes. The chemical results indicate that activities in the northern half of the plaza were distinct from those that occurred in the southern half. These results, along with the artifact assemblage recovered from excavations, suggest ceremonial use. Additionally, this research compares various soil properties, including pH and organic matter, from the North Plaza to broaden our reach in prospecting for activity loci using soil chemistry. Recent studies tend to rely on spatial differences in elemental concentrations for identifying activity patterns in the archaeological record. However, other related soil properties sometimes correlate with chemical residues, especially phosphates. The research presented explores these interconnections with the greater goal of identifying the ways and extent to which various soil properties are linked in the formation and preservation of ancient activity loci. Results suggest that the deposition and adsorption of chemical residues in anthropogenic soils at Palmarejo are generally too variable to be accurately characterized by either pH or organic matter. Chemical elements may best reveal the use of the North Plaza in antiquity.
590
Advisor: E. Christian Wells, Ph.D.
653
Mesoamerica
Archaeology
Soil chemistry
Plazas
ICP-MS
690
Dissertations, Academic
z USF
x Anthropology
Masters.
773
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.4681