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The intentions of florida educational leadership graduate students to pursue administrative positions

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Title:
The intentions of florida educational leadership graduate students to pursue administrative positions
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English
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Eadens, Daniel
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University of South Florida
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Subjects / Keywords:
Educational leadership
Assistant principal
Licensure
Masters
Dissertations, Academic -- Leadership Development -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This study examined the intentions of educational leadership students in Florida university graduate programs in regards to demographics and self-assessed leadership characteristics. The study employed a non-experimental design wherein Regression, ANOVA, and Multiple Regression statistical techniques were employed to explore intent. It examined the influences that self-assessed leadership behavior, gender, number of credits completed, and age had on respondent intentions as measured by the Leadership Practice Inventory and the Demographics and Intentions Questionnaire. The highest assessed priori sample size was 159 when power was set at 0.80, alpha was 0.05, and the expected effect size was set at .10. This study is important because it identified additional reasons administrative pools have perceived shortages of quality candidates using job choice theory as a frame of reference and identified. Results were made available in order to offer the Florida Department of Education, school district leadership academies, and university educational leadership departments valuable insight for reform of selection, recruitment, and retention.
Thesis:
Dissertation (EDD)--University of South Florida, 2010.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
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System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Eadens.
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Title from PDF of title page.
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Document formatted into pages; contains X pages.

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usfldc handle - e14.4702
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the intentions of educational leadership students in Florida university graduate programs in regards to demographics and self-assessed leadership characteristics. The study employed a non-experimental design wherein Regression, ANOVA, and Multiple Regression statistical techniques were employed to explore intent. It examined the influences that self-assessed leadership behavior, gender, number of credits completed, and age had on respondent intentions as measured by the Leadership Practice Inventory and the Demographics and Intentions Questionnaire. The highest assessed priori sample size was 159 when power was set at 0.80, alpha was 0.05, and the expected effect size was set at .10. This study is important because it identified additional reasons administrative pools have perceived shortages of quality candidates using job choice theory as a frame of reference and identified. Results were made available in order to offer the Florida Department of Education, school district leadership academies, and university educational leadership departments valuable insight for reform of selection, recruitment, and retention.
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The Intentions of Florida Educational Leadership Graduate Students to Pursue Administrative Pos i tions b y Daniel Wayne Eadens A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Darlene Y Bruner Ed.D. William Black, Ph.D. Bobbie Greenlee, Ed.D. John Ferron, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 8, 2010 Keywords: educational leadership assistant principal, licensure, masters Copyright 2010, Daniel W ayne Eadens

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Dedication I dedicate this study to the memory of my loving mother, Catherine Marie Eadens, and to my wonderful father, Charles Allen Eadens.

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Acknowledgements F oremost, I want to thank my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. W ithout him, none of this would be possible The unending support and encouragement of my loving wife Danielle Maya Eadens and my precious children Joshua, Jacob, and Zachary have paved the way fo r my work I am forever grateful for the prayers and support of Pastors Gary, Billy, and Doug. Dr. Bruner my super hero and committee chair, believed in me continually and was always there for me. My outstanding c ommittee members Dr. Black, Dr. Ferron, and Dr. Greenlee were also integral to the process and supported me above and beyond what was expected of any professor They all have provided tremendous insight high motivation, and strong direction every step of th is long journey. I also want to tha nk my outside proposal defense chair Dr. Young who is an inspiration to me S pecial thanks to my brilliant final defense outside chair Dr. James who set me straight many times. I want to thank all the university representatives who allowed me to study their departments and the Educational Leadership Graduate Student participants throughout Florida who took time to respond to my surveys

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i Table of Contents List of Tables .......................................................................................................................v List of Figure s ................................................................................................................... vii Abstract ............................................................................................................................ viii Chapter I: Introduction and Background .............................................................................1 Methodological Framework .....................................................................................5 Paradigm ......................................................................................................6 Theoretical Framework ............................................................................................6 Job Choice T heory. ......................................................................................6 Statement of the Problem .........................................................................................7 Purpose of the Study ................................................................................................8 Research Q uestions. .....................................................................................9 Participants, Instrumentation, and Data Gathering ................................................10 Participants. ................................................................................................10 Instrumentation. .........................................................................................10 Demographic and Intentions Questionnaire. ..................................11 Analysis. .....................................................................................................12 Limitations, Assumptions, and Design Controls ...................................................13 Delimitations. .............................................................................................13 Limitations. ................................................................................................13 Assumptions. ..............................................................................................14 Definition of Key Terms ............................................................................15 Summary ................................................................................................................16 Organization of the Study ......................................................................................16 Chapter II: Review of the Literature ..................................................................................17 Gap .........................................................................................................................19 Claims for Principal S hortages. .............................................................................20 Sufficient Supply of C ertified A dministrators ..........................................22 Academic D rift. ..............................................................................23 Overproduction. .............................................................................23 Shortage of Willing and Qualified A dministrators. ...................................24 Reshaping the P rincipalship. ..................................................................................25 Job Choice Theory. ................................................................................................27

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ii Differentiated Labor M arket. .................................................................................30 Personal I ssues. ......................................................................................................31 Ethnicity. ....................................................................................................32 Age. ............................................................................................................34 Gender. .......................................................................................................34 Leadership Style and A ptitude. ..................................................................37 When to Obtain an AP P osition? ...........................................................................38 Other Potential F actors. .............................................................................38 Career Path. ................................................................................................39 Program Issues .......................................................................................................40 Recruitment and S election. ........................................................................41 Programs L ook at C andidate I ntentions. ......................................43 Recruitment and C ommitment. ..................................................................44 District P artnerships .......................................................................46 Program Competition. ................................................................................46 Academic Drift ...........................................................................................50 Summary of Literature ...........................................................................................51 Chapter III: Methods ..........................................................................................................55 Introduction ............................................................................................................55 Pros and Cons of Survey Research. ...........................................................56 Research Methodology. .............................................................................56 Research Design. ........................................................................................57 Appropriateness of D esign. ............................................................57 Research Questions ................................................................................................58 Population and Sample ..........................................................................................59 Sample Size ................................................................................................62 Power Analysis ..........................................................................................63 Data Collection ......................................................................................................65 Instrumentation. .....................................................................................................67 Pilot Study ..................................................................................................68 Validity ......................................................................................................69 Reliability ...................................................................................................70 Analysis of Data .....................................................................................................71 Internal Validity .........................................................................................75 External Validity ........................................................................................76 Ethical Assurances .....................................................................................76 Summary ................................................................................................................77 Chapter IV: Findings ..........................................................................................................78 Introduction ............................................................................................................78 Description of the Sample ......................................................................................80 Response Rate ............................................................................................80 Criteria for Exclusion of Missing Data ......................................................81 Description of Participants Demographics ...........................................................82 Summary of Demographic Information .....................................................88

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iii Overview of Analysis ............................................................................................88 Reliability Analysis ................................................................................................89 Findings Related to Research Questions ................................................................91 Summary of Analysis Overview ................................................................91 Re search Question 1 ..............................................................................................94 Tests of Normality .....................................................................................96 Homoscedasticity and Linearity. ...............................................................98 Multicollinearity. .......................................................................................99 Multiple Regression Analysis. ...................................................................99 Research Question 2 ............................................................................................100 Univariate Outliers ...................................................................................101 Tests of Normality ...................................................................................101 Test of Homogeneity ................................................................................102 ANOVA Analysis ....................................................................................102 Research Question 3 ............................................................................................104 Univariate Outliers ...................................................................................105 Tests of Normality ...................................................................................105 Regression Analysis .................................................................................107 Research Question 4 ............................................................................................109 Univariate Outliers ...................................................................................110 Tests of Normality ...................................................................................110 Regression Analysis .................................................................................112 Research Question 5 ............................................................................................113 Self Assessed Behavior Constructs Relationships ...................................114 Length of Wait until Seeking Assistant Principal Position ......................115 Analysis of OpenE nded Question.......................................................................116 Data Reduction .........................................................................................117 Data Display .............................................................................................117 Additional Findings .............................................................................................118 Exploratory Analysis ...........................................................................................120 Encourage ................................................................................................121 Model .......................................................................................................122 En able ......................................................................................................123 Inspire ......................................................................................................124 Challenge .................................................................................................125 Limitations ...........................................................................................................126 Summary of the Findings .....................................................................................127 Chapter V: Discussion .....................................................................................................128 Introduction ..........................................................................................................128 Procedures ............................................................................................................129 Summary of the Findings .....................................................................................130 Discussion of the Findings ...................................................................................130 The Relationship between Intention to Seek a Leadership Position and Self Assessed Leadership Behavio r ............................................130

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iv The Influence of Gender on the Intention to Pursue a Leadership Position ..............................................................................................130 The Influence of Degree Progress on the Intention to Pursue a Leader ship Program ...........................................................................131 The Influence of Age on the Intention to Pursue a Leadership Position ..............................................................................................131 How the Variables Come Together to Create the Intention to Seek a Leadership Position .........................................................................132 Limitations Restated ............................................................................................132 Conclusions, Implications, and Reflections .........................................................133 The Relationship Between Intention to Seek a Leadership Position and Self Assessed Leadership Behavior ............................................133 The Influence of Gender on the Intention to Pursue a Leadership Position ..............................................................................................135 The Influence of Degree Progress on the Intention to Pursue a Leadership Program ...........................................................................137 The Influence of Age on the Intention to Pursue a Leadership Position ..............................................................................................139 The Influence of Leadership Behavior, Gender, Degree Progress, and Age on the Intention to Pursue a Leadership Position ................142 Discussion of OpenE nded Resul ts ......................................................................144 Discussion of Exploratory Analysis .....................................................................145 R ecommendations for Further Study ...................................................................146 Recommendations for Practice ............................................................................149 Summary and Conclusion ....................................................................................150 References ........................................................................................................................152 Appendices .......................................................................................................................162 Appendix A: L PI, LPI by Construct, and Permission to Reproduce .................163 Appendix B: Demographics and Intentions Questionnaire ...............................167 Appendix C: Raffle ............................................................................................169 Appendix D: Informed Consent Letter and IRB Approval Letter .....................173 Appendix E: Open Ended Question Coding .....................................................181 Appendix F: Power Analysis ............................................................................182 Appendix G: List of Variables En tered into SPSS ............................................186 About the Author ................................................................................................... End Page

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v List of Tables Table 1 Sample Size V ariations D ue to D iffering E ffect S izes ....................................65 Table 2 Correlations of Positive Workplace Attitude with Five Leadership Practices ...........................................................................................................69 Table 3 Strong Internal Reliability Coefficients (Cronbachs Alpha) for the Five Constructs w ith All Scales Above the 0.70 Level ...................................70 Table 4 Responses per University .................................................................................81 Table 5 Frequency Distribution for Year s of Teaching Experience .............................83 Table 6 Distribution of Re sponses by Race ..................................................................83 Table 7 Distribution of Responses by County ..............................................................84 Table 8 Distribution of Responses by Current Position ................................................85 Table 9 Distribution of Responses by Current Teaching Grade Level .........................86 Table 1 0 Distribution of Responses by School Setting...................................................86 Table 1 1 Distribution of Responses by Previous Experience as a Guidance Counselor or Special Education Teacher .........................................................87 Table 12 Distribution of Responses by Degrees Earned .................................................88 Table 1 3 Cronbach Alpha for the Entire LPI is Strong (> .70) .......................................90 Table 1 4 Results Table Indicating No Statistical Significant Differences ......................93 Table 1 5 General Descriptive Statistics for Criterion and Predictor Variables ..............98 Table 1 6 Model Summary of Graduate Students Intentions to Seek an Assistant Principal Position and Leadership Beha viors ................................................100

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vi Table 17 Distribution of Responses by Gender ............................................................101 Table 18 Descriptive Statistics of the Dependent Variable by Gender .........................102 Table 19 Descriptive Statistics Generated from ANOVA Analysis Indicating a Significant Difference between Intentions and Gender .................................103 Table 2 0 Distribution of Responses by Educational Leadership Graduate College Credits ...............................................................................................105 Table 2 1 Descriptive Statistics for Criterion and Predictor Variables ..........................107 Table 2 2 Model Summary Generated from Regression Analysis Indicating No Significant Relationship between Credits Completed and Intentions ............108 Table 2 3 Distribution of Responses by Age .................................................................110 Table 2 4 Descriptive Statistics for Criterion and Predictor Variables ..........................112 Table 2 5 Model Summary Generated from Regression Analysis Indicating No Significant Relationship between Age and Intentions ...................................112 Table 2 6 Model Summary Generated from Regression Analysis Indicating No Significant Relationship between Intentions and a R egression M odel C ontaining LPI Total, Gender, Age, Credits, LPI x Gender, LPI x Age, and LPI x Credits (Omnibus Model) .............................................................114 Table 2 7 Relationship between Constructs ...................................................................115 Table 2 8 Frequency Distribution Indicating When Participant s Will Seek an Assistant Principal Position ...........................................................................116 Table 29 Frequency Distribution of Res ponses for Open Ended Question ..................118 Table 30 Frequency Distribution of Responses for Influence of Salary .......................119 Table 31 Frequency Distribution Summary of Exploratory Analysis for Assistant Principal Preference .......................................................................120 Table 32 Summary of LPI Exploratory Analysis Searching for Trends and Patterns ...........................................................................................................121

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vii List of Figure s Figure 1 Graduate Student Intentions to Seek an Assistant Principal Position Upon Program Completion ..............................................................................94 Figure 2 LPI Individual Construct Scores ......................................................................95 Figure 3 Histogram of the Criterion Variable Intentions to Illustrate Normality .........97 Figure 4 Estimated Marginal Means P lot I ndicating N o D ifference in Intentions across Gender .................................................................................................104 Figure 5 Histogram of the Credits Completed P redictor V ariable with N ormal C urve S uperimposed ......................................................................................106 Figure 6 Scatter D ot P lot I ndicating N o S ignificant R elationship between Intentions and Credits Completed ..................................................................109 Figure 7 Histogram of the Age P redictor V ariable with N ormal C urve S uperimposed .................................................................................................111 Figure 8 Scatter D ot P lot I ndicating N o S ignificant R elationship between Intentions and Age .........................................................................................113 Figure 9 High Intentions Scores Correlate with High Encourage Scores. ...................122 Figure 10 High Intentions Scores Correlate with High Model Scores ...........................123 Figure 11 High Intentions Scores Correlate with High Enable Scores ..........................124 Figure 12 High Intentions Scores Correlate with High Inspire Scores ..........................125 Figure 13 High Intentions Scores Correlate with High Challenge Scores .....................126

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viii Abstract This study examined the intentions of educational leadership students in Florida university gra duate programs in regards to demographics and self assessed leadership characteristics The study employed a nonexperimental design wherein Regression, ANOVA, and Multiple Regression statistical techniques were employed to explore intent. It examined the influences that self assessed leadership behavior, gender, number of credits completed, and age had on respondent intentions as measured by the Leadership Practice Inventory and the Demographics and Intentions Questionnaire The highest assessed prior i sample size was 159 when power was set at 0.80, alpha was 0.05, and the expected effect size was set at .10 This study is important because it identified additional reasons administrative pools have perceived shortages of quality candidates using job c hoice theory as a frame of reference and identif ied. Results were made available in order to offer the Florida Department of Education, school district leadership academies, and university educational leadership departments valuable insight for reform of selection, recruitment, and retention.

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1 Chapter I: Introduction and Background Today, in the field of Educational Leadership, new pathways to administrator certification are being forged to enlarge administrator pools with quality candidates Longstanding Department of Education policies and statutes are being rewritten to facilitate these changes (Archer, 2002) Lips and Ladner (2008) said, In education reform, no sta te has been a more ambitious laboratory of democracy than Florida ( p. 2) Floridas accountability movement has brought about reform that creates new pathways for both hiring and compensating quality. O nly a little more than half of those who graduate fr om administrator preparation programs ever end up in an administrative position (Darling Hammond, LaPointe, Meyerson, & Orr, 2007) Despite increasingly flexible processes for obtaining administrative certification and growing pools of credentialed candid ates, there remains a shortage of quality administrators in many states, including Florida (Davis, Darling Hammond, LaPointe, & Meyerson, 2005) This shortage of quality school administrators could put a strain on s chool systems. The U.S. Department of Labor and Statistics predicted a 23.6% increase in the need for elementary and secondary administrators by the year 2012 (Hecker, 2004) However research on supply and demand found little evidence of a nationwide crisis in the market for certified schoo l administrators (RAND, 2003, p. 1) The answer to this

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2 gap or type of seemingly conflicting literature lies in the distinction of terms There is a distinction between certified administrator shortages and shortages of willing and qualified administrator candidates In other words, there are many candidates who will receive educational leadership Level One certification, but are not ready for the complexities of the position of assistant principal and/or are not willing to take the jobs that are offered. This becomes more evident as supply and demand were examined more closely and light is shed on the gap between those who intend only to be certified and those who intend to be certified assistant principals Boehlert and OConnell (1999) stated the number of educational administration jobs were higher than in the past and are continuing to increase Boehlert, OConnell (1999) and Tallerico and Tingley (2001) contended that misleading district reported data and reports of under representation of women and minorities were of concern since schools are becoming more diverse T his research might offer a partial explanation for the seemingly contradictory perceptions in that there may not be an overall shortage, but only a shortage within the areas of geography, gender and race An administrator shortage can be shown through ratios of unfilled positions to qualified candidates Hammond, Muffs, and Sciascia (2001) claimed a nationwide shortage of school principals Likewise, Gewertz (2000) denoted a looming jobvacancy problem due in part to a large number of administrators approaching retirement and a reluctance to enter administration because of pressure to produce higher student academic achievement In addition, low pay and lack of respect couple d with increasing responsibilities, as well as not enough preparation for administrators difficult financial and political challenges of running a school all create a lack of willing and qualified applicants While reasons for

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3 shortages were beginning to surface as early as a decade ago, others still debated whether a shortage really existed at all Roza, Celio, Harvey, and Wishon (2003) acknowledged that school districts were aware of not only shortages in the number of administrative applicants, but they were keenly aware of shortages of the quality of their labor pools and anticipated increases in principal openings mainly due to age and retirement turnovers School districts realized it would be more difficult to f ind certified quality candidates as time passed In the height of the hysteria, Pounder and Crow (2005) proposed the shortage of qualified administrators was alarming A year later, Flessa and Grubb (2006) argued that many districts continued to face pri ncipal shortages and reported that Floridas school districts in particular, are faced with dramatic teacher and administrator shortages Despite the literature that speaks of an alarming shortage, there is literature that suggests the looming vacancies a re only for certain kinds of schools in certain locations for certain jobs (Flessa & Grubb, 2006) In these challenging times, the issue of administrator shortages in school districts has intensified (Grubb & Flessa, 2006) S hortage of administrators larg ely exists for specific administrative positions in rural or challenging urban communities (Forsyth & Smith, 2002; Pounder, Crow, & Shepherd, 2003) Many districts purport to face a shortage of quality certified administrator candidates, especially in the high needs s chools High needs districts are often identified as areas of low socio economic status or those containing several inner city schools This finding affirms claims that there are areas of greater and lesser need, and that the areas of highes t need are those who would most benefit from competent and enthusiastic leadership and administration.

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4 M uch of the literature written during the last decade is dominated by perceived shortages of certified, qualified, and willing administrators (Flessa & G rubb, 2006). Even today, this literature exists and is varied and often seemingly dichotomous Some of the literature claimed principal shortages and the subsequent national crisis that was sure to ensue, while other areas of literature simply say no sho rtage exists (RAND, 2003) Still, another area of literature offers specific reasons for shortages and speaks of solutions to the problem both of which are discussed (Hammond, Muffs, & Sciascia, 2001) Finally, t antamount to that specific literature, other areas pointed not at the quantity of administrative candidates, but at quality of the applicants as being the real issue (Herrington & Wills, 2005). If school districts in Florida want to be successful in recruiting positive and capable leadership for the role of principal, it becomes important that school districts identify and maintain current job satisfaction data to assess what satisfies and dissatisfies assistant principals (Taylor, 2007) To fully explore the dynamics of why a quality administrator shortage may be occurring, it is important to consider the intentions of educational leadership graduate students ( Gates, Ringel, Institute, & Santibanez, 2003) T his degree is a precursor to seeking administrative certification and entering into administrative applicant pools This research study examined reasons why Florida educators pursuing graduate degrees in educational leadership administration intend, or do not intend, to pursue an assistant principal position.

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5 Methodolo gical Framework Gall, Gall and Borg (2006) articulate that descriptive, casual comparative, and correlational nonexperimental research designs involve the study of behavior, cognition, and other attributes of individuals without researcher intervention and claim the purpose of correlational research is to discover relationships between variables through the use of correlational statistics Reality can be shaped by empirical data derived from the senses In non experimental research, the researcher do es not manipulate the independent variables Even though it is not possible to identify the cause and effect between variables, an examination of the relationship between variables is still possible In understanding the difference between dependent and independent variables, it is also important to understand the different characteristics amongst variables This study assumed that information gathered, via the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI ) as shown in Appendix A and Demographics and Intentions Questionnaire (DIQ ) as shown in Appendix B are reality that can be measured and quantified into variables that can be statistically measured The assumption for quantitative research assumes that reality exists, is fixed, and is measurable (Creswell, 2003) The almost symbiotic nature of research and statistics is a result of research design producing data that need analyzing; and, statistical techniques requiring data in order to perform their function (Johnson & Farmer, 2007, p. 4) Pegues (2007) stated, The quantitative paradigm is induction to construction and experimental phenomena are used inductively to construct theory (p.317) Quantitative r esearch is consistent with the positivist philosophy in research (Johnson & Farmer, 2007)

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6 Paradigm It is the combination of data interpretations that yield ed the construction of knowledge from this study (Huglin, 2003) Since a paradigm is a basic set of assumptions and values that guides our actions, both that are routine and those actions t hat result in purposeful scientific inquiry (Guba, 1990) T his stud y s data collection and design len t itself more towards positivism, because it used mathematics to represent and analyze features of social reality, the variables are expressed as a numerical scales, it use d a deductive analysis to identify underlying themes and patterns and it search e d through the data for instances (Johnson & Farmer, 2007) Overall, t he theoretical framework for this study c ame from this paradigm under the umbrell a theory of job choice Theoretical Framework Job choice theory The job choice theory is essentially the examination of why individuals select one job over another It is based upon the presumption that jobs are selected based on objective factors, such as financial incentives (Pounder & Merrill, 2001) S election based on objective factors is considered rational, Rational choice is a general theory of human behavior that views all humans as complex, fallible learners who seek to do as well as they can given the constraints that they face and who are able to learn heuristics, norms, rules, and how to craft rules to improve achieved outcomes. (McGinnis, 2000, p. 487) Job choice theory can be considered a type of rational choice Behling, Labovitz, and Gainer (1968) originated job choice theory and it was furthered in the educational arena later by Young, R ine hart, and Place (1989) Young et al (1989) developed three separate theories of job choice: objective, subjective, and critical contact Objective theory refers to job applicants as mainly economic and applicants join organizations that are the most economically competitive Subjective

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7 theory refers to app licants as psychological beings motivated by getting their psychological needs fulfilled via the jobs work environment Critical contact theory of job choice says applicants are concerned with the work expectations and requirements communicated during the initial interview In all three job choice theories, individuals seem to draw their motivation either externally or internally In this study, the incentive for selecting an administrative position was examined by comparing these external to in ternal motivators The two internal factors considered were the self assessed leadership on the Leadership Practice Inventory (subjective theory) and the self assessed role economic incentives (objective theory) each play on graduates in seeking an admini strative position after Level One certification The external factors were equated to the direct amount of graduate program credits complet ed and demographic s and intentions questionnaire criteria. Statement of the Problem Some authors espouse there are more applicants than openings (Boehlert & OConnell, 1999; Tallerico &Tingley, 2001) One researcher claims more people are earning administrative certificates, but fewer were actually applying for available positions (MacAdams, 1998, p. 37) Simpl y stated, in many places there are enough certified candidates States are certifying more school administrators than there are positions available Georgia, for example, has less than 2,000 schools and there are 3,200 current administration licens es, yet they report not having enough qual ified applicants (Herrington & Wills, 2005) In New York, two thirds of individuals who hold certification work in other areas Many students obtain the graduate degrees and certification with no intention of obt aining an administrative position (Mazzeo, 2003)

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8 However, quality administrator applicants are apparently not applying for certain district or schools in certain location and socioeconomic regions According to the State Action for Education Leadership Project (2003), only about 25% of certified principals apply and accept principal positions The literature supports the notion that there is not a shortage in the number of certified applicants for administrative positions The literature also supports that school districts have concern s regarding the quality of applicants in their administrative applicant pool Could the quality of the pool be affected by the numbers who are certified and choose not to apply for administrative positions? If this is the case, the question becomes why do some educators who become certified for administrative positions through educational leadership pursue an assistant principal position and others do not Boehlert and OConnell (1999) suggest ed that further stud ies of administratively certified teachers may provide answers to questions like this one. Purpose of the Study The studys purpose was to analyze factors that influence the intentions of education al leadership graduate students enrolled in university educ ational leadership programs in Florida The study analyzed wh ich characteristics of graduate students in Florida might be associated with level of inten tion to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion via the lens of examining self ass essed leadership behaviors To seek an assistant principal position in Florida, a candidate must have Level One certification It requires all candidates obtain an Educational Leadership professional certification by successfully passing a comprehensive written state examination known as the Florida Educational Leadership Examination (FELE) and complet ion of a n approved

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9 Masters Degree in school administration (6A 4.0081 Florida School Leaders Certification, 2007) The researcher surve yed pre certified graduate students, that is, ones who ha d not yet graduated with the Masters degree in Educational Leadership Administration. The study looked at the influences of various defined elements of leadership behavior, number of graduate credits completed, gender, and age may have had on the intent of educational leadership students to pursue an assistant principal position with emphasis on those qualities that incline and disincline students. The measureable research questions that guide d this study are presented below The questions were designed to investigate why educational leadership graduate students in Florida are more or less likely to intend to seek an assistant principal position via the lens of examining self assessed leadership behaviors Self assessed leadership behaviors were measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory ( LPI). Appendix A t he LPI measured leadership behaviors that were categorized i nto five practices or construct s The construct titles are shortened to read: Encourage, Model, Enable, Inspire, and Challenge Each construct is a composite variable of its own. The DIQ ( Appendix B ) flushed out the intentions of the graduate students and yielded demographic characteristics and other important dat a Research Questions: 1. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior? 2. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and gender (Male, Female)?

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10 3. Is th ere a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and number of credits successfully completed (< 3, 39,1015, 1621, 2227, 2833,> 33)? 4. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and age groups ( 2530, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 )? 5. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior, gender (Male, Female), number of credits successfully completed (< 3, 39, 10 15, 1621, 2227, 2833, > 33) and age groups ( 2530, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 ) ? Participants, Instrumentation, and Data Gathering Participants With the assistance of university department chairs, the researcher survey ed College of Education graduate students seeking Masters degrees in Educational Leadership. These graduate students w ere enrolled in any of the following F loridas public and private campus based universities including: University of Florida, University of South Florida, University of Central Florida, Florida State University Saint Leo University and National Louis University This degree is a precursor to Level One administrator certification and these universities are listed as a StateApproved Educat ional Leadership Programs (Bureau of Educator Recruitment, Development, and Retention, 2009) Convenience sampling was the type of purposeful sampling Instrumentation. Leadership Practices Inventory ( Appendix A ) and Demographic and Intentions Questionnaire ( Appendix B ) w ere the primary means of data collection for this study While the researcher developed the DIQ the LPI assessment is based on over 25 years of research (Posner, 2009) It was created for use with college

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11 students and is des igned to assess leadership practices in five dimensions with its 30 items (Posner, 2009) T he LPI measures leadership personality characteristics It is one of the most tested leadership inventories of its kind with 1.3 million test administrations to date ( Posner 2010; Zagorsek, Stough, & Jaklic, 2006) The LPI is an assessment tool, not a test Its 30 items are written as behavioral statements It utilizes a 10 point scale to detect level of agreement with the behavioral s tatement. The LPIs reliability was tested through analysis of internal reliability (Zagorsek et al., 2006) All of the five key leadership practices had strong consistent internal reliability (Posner, 2009 ) The LPIs validity was tested using a positive workplace attitude scale where respondents were asked 10 Likert scale type questions regarding their feelings and assessments about several factors (Posner, 2009) Test results show LPI has high face validit y and predictive validity Furthermore, the LPI has been applied extensively and is highly regarded in both academic and practitioner realms (Posner, 2009) Demographic and Intentions Questionnaire Several demographic characteristics were compared in the studys analyses using the demographic data obtained through the DIQ (Appendix B) Some of the demographic type characteristics within the questionnaire were gender, age, and ethnicity Included in the questionnaire were t he number of graduate credi ts completed, current teaching grade level and assignment, areas of certification, total years of any experience in public or private school teaching, county, and the type of de grees previously completed This questionnaire asked if the participant had ever worked as a guidance counselor or special educat ion teacher and it probe d regarding the amount of influence that salary advances and personal

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12 reasons have played in their decision to pursue a degree in educational leadershi p. T he DIQ (Appendix B) ask ed about their intention to seek an assistant principal position or another administrative type position, if it w ould be secondary or elementary, and how long after completion of their graduate program did they plan to seek an administrative position. Analysis The LPI assessment and DIQ data w ere analyzed to investigate self assessed leadership behaviors intentions and if they were impacted by demographic factors In order to analyze the quantitative data, it was first c ollected, coded, and entered into a spreadsheet using Microsoft Excel 2007 and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows versions 17.0 (SPSS, 2009) The data w ere analyzed using applicable descriptive and inferential statistics including Simple Linear Regression and Multiple Regression Demographic information about participants w as used to present a descriptive profile of the sample collected Next, a Zero order correlation table of the LPI instrument ( Appendix A ) was produced to evaluate internal relationships betw een variables Further more a Cronbachs alpha coefficient w as produced to measure degree of internal consistency of the questions asked. Prior to conducting inferential analyses, parametric assumptions w ere analyzed to ensure variables were normally dis tributed and met general assumptions related to the statistical tests conducted Simple Linear Regression and Multiple Regression w ere used to answer the f ive research questions Specifically, for Research Question 1 a multiple regression w as used to test the relationship between intent to seek and assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior For Research Question 2, a simple linear regression w as

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13 used to test differences in intent to seek an assistant principal positio n and levels of gender For Research Question 3, a multiple regression w as used to test dif ferences in intent to seek an assistant principal position numbers of credits successfully completed For Research Question 4, a multiple regression w as used to te st differences in intent to seek and assistant principal pos i tion and age levels Finally, for Research Question 5, a m ultiple r egression will be used to test the differences between self assessed leadership behavior, gender, number of credits successfully completed, and age T he dependent variable for each research question remained consistent : I ntent to seek and assistant principal position (as measured by the DIQ) The predictor variables were: s elf assessed leadership behavior as measured by the LPI gender number of credits successfully completed, and age Limitations, Assumptions, and Design Controls Delimitations. This study survey ed state of Florida university students only Th e scope of this study was limited to graduate students seeking educational leadership Master s Degrees Those graduate students that are seeking a Specialist Degree or Doctorate Degree in Educational Leadership w ere not surveyed in this study Limitations Limitations of the study include d the methodological design, survey design, population characteristics, and sampling procedure For example, the methodological design was strictly cross sectional quantitative and did not observe phenomenological behaviors or behaviors over time In addition, the study use d a survey that is reasonably restrictive. That is, the LPI is a Likerttype instrument and it did not allow personal insight or suggestions within its design ( Appendix A )

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14 The focus of this study concerned individual graduate st udent s and their intentions to seek an assistant principal position. While there are many other district and school based leadership positions a Masters degree in Educational L eadership may qualify graduates for this study did not attempt to examine why graduate studen ts intend to seek or not seek any other of these administrative positions Additionally, t he studys focal point was not concerned with how each graduate student perceived supply and demand or any particular scho ol dis tricts promotion competitiveness Th is study focused on the intentions of the graduate students to seek or not to seek an assistant principal position. Furthermore, the purposeful sample w as drawn from only the Florida public campus based and online universities and private universities that serve the Tampa Bay Metropolitan a rea Purposeful sampling is a common sampling technique However, it does restrict degree of variance and limits its generalizability Finally, as warned by Rynes (1 991), intentions and perceptions are very different from job choices This study focus ed on intention s not actual behavior s Assumptions Th is study include d several assumptions First, there was an assumption that professors w ould allow ample time for the LPI and DIQ There was an assumption that some students enrolled in an educational leadership graduate program would intend to seek an assistant principal position at some point in their K 12 career A nother assumption wa s the e xpectation that students would have been willing to complete the LPI and DIQ accurately and honestly

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15 Definition of Key Terms To clarify several key terms that were frequently used throughout the study, a list of their definitions follows: Administrative Certification refers to educational leadership Level One certified educators with licenses which legally allow them to hold an administrative position. Assistant Principals were staff members assisting the administrative head of the school This classification also included assistant principals for discipline, administration, and curriculum Educator was an individual who holds a teaching license. Educational Leadership Graduate Students were students currently working towards earning a Masters Degree in Educational Leadership or School Administration. Intention refers to an objective that one plans to do. Pool was a group of assistant principals seeking a principalship or administratively certified educators seeking an assistant prin cipal position Principal was one who legally serves in the role of the head administrator of a school. Qualified individuals described administratively certified educators with additional skills and talents that make them ideal in the role of an assis tant principal or a principal

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16 Summary This study attempted to analyze factors that influence d the intentions of educational leadership graduate students currently enrolled in university educational leadership programs in Florida The study analyzed why th ose graduate students in Florida were more or less likely to intend to seek an assistant principal position or another administrative position upon program completion via the lens of examining self assessed leadership behaviors T he study use d stat istical techniques to analyze the influences that leadership style, number of graduate credits completed, gender, race/ ethnicity, and age may have on respondent intentions as measured by the L PI a nd the DIQ As a result, the study identif ied additional re asons administrative pools have perceived shortages of quality candidates using job choice theory as a frame of reference. Results are available to offer the Florida Department of Education, school district leadership academies, and university educational leadership departments valuable insight for re form of selection, recruitment, and retention and also offer a better understanding of the nature of perceived quality administrator shortages. Organization of the Study This study was organized into five consecutive chapters The first chapter provided an overview of the problem and offers a view of the research efforts The second chapter review ed the literature Chapter three explain ed the design of the st udy The forth chapter d escribed the findings of the resea rch The last chapter summarized the findings, presents st udy conclusions, and made recommendations for further research

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17 Chapter II: Review of the Literature Examining how intentions of educational leadership graduate students may be influenced by leadership style, gender, and age is of primary importance in this study Being able to identify how these factors shape an individuals willingness to pursue an assistant principal position may a ssist educational leaders in school districts, departments of educational leadership and departments of education in better addressing the perceived benefits and detractors of the position of assistant principal This might aid in understanding recruitment and selection. In so doing, the pipeline for the assistant principalships in many districts can be come more productive producing stronger and higher quality administrator candidates. At the crux of the problem lies the question of why professional educators do or do not pursue an assistant principal position after obtaining a graduate degree in educational leadership administrative Boehlert and OConnell (1999) suggest further studies of administratively certified teachers may provide answers to remaining questions in r egards to administrative applicant pools However, m uch of the literature written during the last couple decades is dominated by perceived shortages of certified and/or qualified and willing administrators ( Gates, Ringel, Institute, & Santibanez, 2003; He rrington & Wills, 2005) Even today, this literature exists and is varied and seemingly dichotomous It has emerged in differing venues and often has tangents Some of the

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18 literature makes claims to principal shortages and the subsequent national crisis that is sure to ensue (RAND, 2003), while other areas of literature simply proclaim no shortage exists (Board of Governors, Public School Administrator Supply and Demand Connecticut, 2003; Boehlert & OConnell, 1999; Hess 2003; Levine, 2005 ; Roza et al., 2003; Tallerico & Tingley, 2001) Still, another corner of the literature offers specific reasons for shortages (Forsyth & Smith, 2002; Pounder, Crow, & Shepherd, 2003) a nd even speaks of solutions to the problem (Hammond, Muffs, & Sciascia, 2001) Tantamount to that literature, other areas point not at quantity (Roza et al, 2003) of administrators candidates, but the quality as being the real issue ( Gates, Ringel, Institute, & Santibanez, 2003; Herrington & Wills, 2005) The latter study offers an explanation of perceived shortages based on the intentions of graduate students prior to them becoming administratively certified Chapter two is an inclusive literature review that provides the foundation for the entire study This literature surveys scholarly articles, books, dissertations and other sources relevant to the topic Consideration has been given to asses s each scholarly piece for its objectivity, persuasiveness, and value The purpose of the literature review is to offer an overview of literature published on this topic It places each work in context to develop a clearer understanding of the subject and describe relationships between pieces The review shed s light on gaps in previous literature and resolve conflicts among seemingly cont radictory previous studies. The literature review begins with an identification of the problem and a discussion about the gap in the literature F or principal shortage literature c laims are reviewed and clarified This section begins by reviewing li terature claims about critical principal

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19 shortages and ends with a clarification that the shortages largely exist for specific positions in challenging areas The next section of the literature review, entitled sufficient supply of certified administrator s discusses the overproduction of certified administrators and discusses academic drift This section is followed by a discussion of the shortages of willing qualified administrators and how the numbers of highly capable candidates were decreasing Afte r these areas of the literature shed light on seemingly contradictory works, an explanation follows in the next section entitled reshaping the principalship. In order to understand the intentions of graduate students who may seek administration, this part of the review focuses on the job and how its responsibilities have changed affecting the positions desirability and job choice theory The literature reviews last sections turn to differentiated labor markets and highlights literature that claims not a ll positions are equal Next, personal issues and factors such as gender, age, race/ ethnicity, leadership style, timing, and career path that might affect intentions of graduate students are covered The review then focuses on programs issues such as selection, recruitment, commitment, and candidate intentions followed by district partnerships, program competition, and academic drift Finally, the chapter ends with a summa ry of the literature review. Gap When political changes occur with state regulations and policies, it warrants responses and obligates the school districts to keep abreast with the changes According to Flessa and Grubb (2006), these politics and accountability efforts calling for better leadership places hi gh demands on principals It is challenging to strive to increase the quality of administratively certified educator s in administrative pools and make

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20 administrative positions more desirable amidst continual changes and complexities of the job. Some states including Florida, Colorado, Michigan, and South Dakota have relaxed their certification requirements leaving district level certification increasingly attractive in order to increase their pools with quality candidates. The U.S. Department of Labor and Statistics predicted a 23.6% increase in the need for elementary and secondary administrators by the year 2012 (Hecker, 2004) But, research on supply and demand found little evidence of a nationwide crisis in the market for certified school administrators (RAND, 2003, p. 1) The answer to this gap or type of seemingly conflicting literature in part lies in a distinction of terms There is a difference between certified administrator shortages and shortages of willing and qualified administrator candidates In other words, there are many candidates that will receive educational leadership Level One certification, but are not ready for the complexities of the position of assistant principal or are not willing to take the jobs that are offered This becomes more evident as su pply and demand within the gap are examined more closely and light is shed on the gaps between those that intend to be certified and those who intend to be certified and become assistant principals The literature review attempts to separate the literatur e voic es to make sense of the themes. Claims for P rincipal S hortages Boehlert and OConnell (1999) stated the number of educational administration jobs were higher than in the past and continued to increase Fenwick and Pierce (2001, p. 25) say "states ar e reporting shortages of qualified principal candidates and many school districts are struggling to fill vacancies." These shortages occurred among all types of schools rural, urban, suburban" (Whitaker, 2001, p. 82) Boehlert, OConnell, and

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21 Raymond (1999) and Tallerico and Tingley (2001) contended misleading district reported data, along with reports of under representation of women and minorities, w ere concern s as schools were becoming more diverse and that might offer a partial explanation for the see mingly contradictory perceptions Their research indicated that a closer look at the data suggests there may not be an overall shortage, but one strongly influenced by geography, gender and race. The degree to which an administrator shortage was an actu al crisis appears, from the literature, to be in dispute with varying perceptions about the ratios of unfilled positions to qualified candidates At the turn of the century, Gewertz (2000) denoted a looming jobvacancy problem due in part to a large number of administrators approaching retirement, reluctance to enter administration because of pressu re to produce increasingly higher student academic achievement, pay and respect that is not commensurate with the position, i ncreasing responsibilities, and not enough preparation for an administrators difficult financial and political challenges of running a school While reasons for shortages were beginning to surface as early as this, others still debated whether a shortage really existed at all Hammond, Muffs, and Sciascia (2001) studied if there really was a leadership crisis or if the crisis was not real In their research, they claimed to have found a nationwide shortage of school principals Additionally, they offer ed reasons for the shortage and even suggested a few solutions such as inhouse women and minority teacher development and veteran principal retention strategies. Likewise, Roza et al (2003) acknowledged that school districts were aware of not only size shortages, but shortages of the quality of their labor pools and anticipated increases in principal openings mainly due to age and retirement turnovers They

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22 realized it would be more difficult to find certified and qualified quality candidates as time pa ssed Flessa and Grubb (2006) argued that many districts continued to face shortages of appropriate candidates for the job and too few hero principals exist for all openings available, especially in high needs districts Some literature alleges the sho rtage of administrators largely exists for specific positions like high school principals, particularly in rural areas or challenging urban communities (Forsyth & Smith, 2002; Pounder, Crow, & Shepherd, 2003) Many districts purport a shortage of quality certified administrator candidates, especially in the high needs districts High needs typically are areas of low socio economic status or inner city schools This finding affirms claims that there are areas of greater and lesser need, and it is unfortunate that the areas of highest need are those who would most benefit from competent and enthusiastic leadership and administration. Sufficient supply of certified administrators MacAdams (1998) said, more people are earning administrative certificates, but fewer were actually applying for available positions (p. 37) Boehlert and OConnell (1999), Tallerico and Tingley (2001), Board of Governors, Public School Administrator Supply and Demand Connecticut (2003), and Roza et al (2003) claim there are more certified applicants than administrative openings Likewise, Roza et al (2003) reveal ed that no districts school has ever closed because it could not find a principal to lead it The bottom line is in many cases, there are enough certified candidates However, quality applicants are apparently not applying for certain district s or schools in certain locations and socioeconomic regions

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23 Academic drift This leads to more questions about quality Administrative candidate quality might be affected by production numbers from higher educational institutions Baker, Orr, and Young (2007) found on the production side, the number of graduate degree programs and degrees granted in educational leadership increased considerably from 1993 to 2003. Mast ers degree programs in Educational Leadership increased by 16% and educational leadership Masters d egrees granted increased by 90% Additionally, degree production has shifted by institutional type For example, comprehensive colleges and universities enjoyed a four fold increase while research universities declined in their production of master's, specialist, and doctoral degrees (Baker, Orr, & Young, 2007) Degree production fluctuates widely among states, unrelated to school population estimates With the emergence of for profit institutions offering the M aster s in E ducational L eadership, graduate s tudents might have more options, thus influencing their intentions on where to earn their degree how they earn it, and subsequent administrative certification (Ruch, 2003) Overproduction Ov erproduction of graduate students in educational leadership may not be the answer to filling shortages of willing administrative candidates in pools The B oard of Governors, Public School Administrator Supply and Demand Connecticut (2003) reported that Connecticuts higher educational institutions awarded 670 graduate degrees and that the state issued only 412 administrator certificates, yet only 223 vacanci es existed in the 20002001 school year Roza et al (2003) observed other studies that showed training programs are overproducing certified graduates in California, where 34,000 hold credentials and only 23,000 principal positions actually exist The magnitude of the problem of supply versus demand is not unique In fact, it is

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24 indicative of the situation across the nation. Even though surpluses exist nationwide, it is too often the case that not enough certified and highly qualified educators apply for administrative positions, especially at high needs schools So, if overproduction is occurring, yet many states claim shortages of quality, questions of intentions arise Why are professional educators earning administrative certification and why a re so many not applying for administrative positions after earning it? Some professional educators might seek educational leadership Masters Degrees because it is might be a flexible and easy degree program to enter into and in most cases, it will earn th em a salary increase. Shortage of willing and qualified administrators Herrington and Wills (2005) claimed, During the past few years, superintendents and district human resource officers have reported increasing difficulty in filling vac ant school leadership positions (p. 182) W ith so many principals retiring and others exiting administrators 22% to 25% and entry only being 22% to 25%, there is an increasing deficit of qualified school leaders ( Gates, Ringel, & Santibanez, 2003; Herrington & Wills, 2005) Roza et .al (2003), Center on Reinventing Public Education, claimed that for many school districts with a fairly stable supply of principal candidates, the quality of candidates was the real issue, not quantity Almost two decades ago, Anderson (1991) asserted that although many candidates possess the required certification, there is a perception that the number of highly capable applicants may be tapering off In some cases, willingness is an issue Herrington and Wills (2005) found Ge orgia has less than 2,000 schools, yet has 3,200 administration licenses and still claims to have a lack of qualified applicants So, this is evidence that qualified candidates are not always pursuing leadership positions even

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25 when they are available. Connecticuts Board of Governors (2003) sites Connecticut as having 2,400 educators that hold administrative licenses yet choose not to work in administrative roles In New York, Herrington, and Wills (2005) note d that two thirds of its educators hold cer tification, yet work in other than administrative positions Principal shortages, Borja (2001) claim ed were not because there were not enough qualified ready individuals who are willing Thus, this latter literature assumes a certified pool of profess ionals exists But, the problem still remains, almost half of all teachers in some places possess a masters degree, but do not many want the extra responsibility, additional stress, and time consuming work that administrative positions so often require Looking at these working conditions of school administration, as cited in Howley, Andrianaivo, and Perry (2005): M any educators are reluctant to pursue administrative positions because of the demands of the job, the increased pressure to show "results," and the inadequate remuneration (Cooley & Shen, 2000; Gewertz, 2000; Houston, 1998, 2000) Those who hold administrative positions, however, report that one of their greatest sources of satisfaction is the ability to make a difference. (Wesson & Grady, 1993, p. 758) It would appear then, that the priority may not need to be in the training of new leaders, but also in identifying new ways of attracting, showing support for current school leaders and reshaping the perception of the position its elf Reshaping the P rincipalship The literature suggests that among these fundamental challenges, the role of principal is not so much viewed as particularly desirable by many teachers The work of

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26 the principal is often seen as politically difficult, time intensive, stressful and lonely (Cranston, 2007; Rousmaniere, 2007; Tillman, 2003) Principals are furthermore often considered neither administrator nor teacher caught between two roles and accused by both sides of being out of touch wit h the daily realities of each function (Rousmaniere, 2007) Thus, the profession itself has some negative publicity to overcome if it is to become more desirable to those who might otherwise pursue the opportunity How it evolved to this point, one might ask The first principal positions were created in the mid nineteenth century, primarily in urban districts to address the organizational demands of increasingly complex, multi grade schools This early principal role was assigned to act as an overar ching authority to the whole, organizing the separate courses of study, administering discipline and supervising the operation of all classes (Rousmaniere, 2007, p. 7) The focus of the principalship at this time was not on strategic planning, but on dai ly management and expediency, and there was no process for vetting, preparing or evaluating these early school leaders. As the role of the principal became more professionalized and separate from that of the role of teacher, early criticisms from teachers took hold that principals were not sufficiently engaged with the classroom and its challenges, and from students that their role is only that of disciplinarian Because one ascends to the principalship over time, it is postulated that these early criticisms, many of which persist today, play a role in the negative image of the position and the hesitation of people to pursue the role (Rousmaniere, 2007) By the mid twentieth century, the principals office existed in nearly all schools, and its professional status continued to evolve Specific career

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27 pathways to the principalship evolved that included both experience in the classroom and education beyond teacher education to include coursework in management, budgeting and curriculum (Rousmaniere, 2007) At that time, g raduate programs in educational administration emerged to meet the professional development needs of aspiring school leaders, and states created standards for certification to create uniformity in preparation Maintaining graduate programs in principal preparation continues to be important to school districts and departments of education. The role of the principal has grown enormously and the required amount of competency and tasks principals are responsible for is staggering (Davis, Darl ingHammond, LaPointe, & Meyerson, 2005) Many scholars believe the job requirements far exceed the reasonable capacity for one individual Teachers are not oblivious to the situation as they see policy makers placing increased pressure on principals T he lack of interested candidates in positions of educational leadership at the level of principal is problematic Fewer aspiring administrators see the appeal of administration because it is seen as a burnout position, particularly at the high school leve l, and the job must be redefined if it is going to attract good candidates ( Boehlert & OConnell, 1999) Job Choice Theory Redefining the roles and benefits of the position of assistant principal remains in the control of individual school districts I ncentive s and disincentives for choosing a n assistant principal position may vary greatly among graduate students Each individual has their own internal and external motivators that may affect their intentions and behavior This research study was not a bout the way each graduate perceives district supply and demand, promotion competitiveness, or how hard a promotion might be to

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28 obtain. Because this study has limits, it did not address individual school districts labor markets or institutional constrain ts The focus of this study was on individual graduate student s intentions The foundation of Job Choice Theory lies in w hy i ndividuals select one job over another The question in this study is closely related, which is why graduate students would intend, or not intend, to seek and assistant principal position upon program completion Pounder and Merrill (2001) say the presumption is that jobs are selected based upon objective factors of incentives and disincentives and motivators Job applicants get their motivation either externally or internally By comparing these external and internal motivators, th e incentive for selecting an assistant principal position can be examined O ne of the three j ob c hoice theories, objective t heory, focuses on the economic reasons job applicants consider a position (Young et al., 2001) External factors are considered through objective measures An external factor studied in this research, was that of the self assessed role salary play ed on an individuals intent to seek an assistant principal position or not It can be seen as an advantage to receive a pay raise that often accompanies a promotion to assistant principal This external factor w as measured using the DIQ Question number 11 within the DIQ ask ed respondents to rate the influence that salary played in their decision to pursue this graduate degree in educational leadership. Another external factor considered in this study was the amount of credits completed in the graduate p rogram Number four of the DIQ asked respondents to identify the numbers of educational leadership graduate college credits successfully completed Each credit might represent a graduate students economic investment

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29 In s ubjective t heory, applicants see the job environment as their motivation because they may receive psychological fulfillment though the work setting (Young et al., 2001) Internal factors can be considered subjective. One internal factor to be considered wa s self assessed leadership as measured by the LPI The LPI measures five different leadership behavior constructs as individual composites The psychometric properties of each construct are listed in chapter three. Can the work environment be a motivat ion? Two longs tanding mot ivation theorists Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1959) have ideas about work environments as a motivating factor Maslow's theory is hierarchical and based on the following needs : a ) Physiological, b) Safety, c) Social d) Esteem and e ) Self actualization Each need is said to motivate behavior This theory claims lower level need s must be achieved prior to one ascend ing to a next higher level Herzberg's theory supports the presence of two types of factors in every organization: hygienes that are extr insic and motivators that are intrinsic These extrinsic hygiene fa ctors include : working conditions, supervision, company policy, interpersonal relations and salary The intrinsic motivators include : recognition, achievement, opportunities for advancem ent and responsibili ty The dynamics involved with job a pplicants concerns with work requirements and expectations during the initial interview is the basis for Critical Contact Theory (Young, et al., 2001) T he job requirements for the position of assistant principal are usually vague, undefined, grayed and job conflicts and overload are frequent Many agree there is a national principal shortage, and although myriad commissions have been formed to find out why this is so, most principals will tell you that they know the reason: Too many teachers perceive the principalship to be no fun" (Capelluti & Nye, 2005, p. 8) They

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30 continue to complain that the hours are long and the stress level is high; however, for the right person, the job of principa l can not only be fun, but also it can provide an opportunity to make significant contributions in the lives of myriad children as well as the entire school community (p. 8) The following section of the review looks at both the perceptions and realitie s of the principal shortage, with particular emphasis on how this shortage is impacting education. Differentiated L abor M ark et Pounder and Merrill (2001) suggest the perceived shortages of applicants for administrative openings in high schools is not only about having numbers of certified candidates, but also an issue of perceptions of desirability of different principal positions T here is no shortage of qualified administrative candidates in some states but there is a shortage of quality highly qualified candidates committed to work in under served communities (Davis, Darling Hammond, LaPointe, & Meyerson, 2005) According to Roza et al (2003), finding principals for high needs schools with lower socioeconomic status living situations and low test scores is problematic There seems to be a need to redistribute principal applicants from affluent districts to high need areas because districts in low in come areas seem to have more problems attracting principals (Roza et al 2003) Many applicants were simply unwilling or unable to go where the jobs were located Even unions and associations get involved in recruitment to get the favored administrator s for the right locations OKeef f es (2005) dissertation investigat ed if there was much variation among states, but she found that the majority of associations were engaged in recruiting principals The study consisted of a national survey, document

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31 analysis, and a qualified informant interview They found progr ams specifically targeting aspir ing principals and association memberships for aspiring principals are two primary recruitment tools (OKeeffe, 2005, p. 80 ) However, there are concerns wit h an absence of a formal process to identify potential administrators and the lack of materials to use with recruits (OKeef f e, 2005) Aside from not being selected for administration, may educators self select to not pursue administration for some of the reasons in the following section Personal I ssues Many l egitimate concerns, fears, and personal complexities like ethnicity, age, gender, and leadership style may contribute to affecting intentions of educational leadership graduate students and their choices for career pathways Howley, Andrianaivo, and Perry (2005, p. 760) say s everal studies conclude that teachers, even those who hold certificates as principals, steer clear of the principalship because of perceived difficulties and frustrations ass ociated with the job. Clearly, t here are disincentives and issues of leaving the educators ranks and becoming an administrator Jordan, McCauley, and Comeaux (1994) surveyed Louisiana teachers and found more than 80% professed no interest in the princip alship Similar results were found in California (Adams, 1999) and Indiana (Malone, 2001) According to Howley et al. (2005), Teachers ranked the disincentives associated with the principalship in the following order: the profession is growing significa ntly more complex and constraining; it is a source of considerable stress; principals lack the means and support for doing a good job; the salary is too low; daily and yearly hours are too long; and finally, family

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32 life suffers from the demands of the posi tion ( p. 760) O thers might have personal issues with negative perceptions about administration for a variety of other reasons A perception about preferential hiring practices based upon gender or ethnicity was found in a New York study (Hammond, Muffs, & Sciascia, 2001) Different types of disincentives were found in the Midwest, where guidance counselors, coordinators, and urban school educators ha d issues and concern s about tenure, family life, stressful workload, and reduced vacation time (Win ter, Rinehart, & Munoz 2001) I n this latter study, t hey identified satisfaction with current work conditions as educators as actually being a nother major deterrent to enter into administration Just as disincentives and issues may influence intentions, incentives may have similar influenc e upon intentions Malone et al. (2001) highlighted that prospects most wanted to become administrators to make a difference and to influence school direction Enwall and Fabal (1998) discovered that some educators were ready for more responsibility, wanted the financial increase, independent status, and a higher level of professional achievement Thus far, these issues, disincentives, and incentives are not innate in nature like the following personal issues. Ethnicity In hiring, cultural bias does exist Administrators favor candidates with backgrounds similar to their own (Roza et al., 2003, p. 45) Minorities are forced then to tend to have more credentials than their counterparts (Fenwick & Pierce, 2000) Minority student populations have changed as globalization is occurring and demographics are shifting According to McCarthy ( 2002 ): As to demographic shifts, already less than half of the students are Caucasian in California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mi ssissippi, New Mexico, and Texas, with Florida

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33 and New York close to the tipping point (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2000) Furthermore, students of color dominate many urban districts; indeed, the 100 largest school districts house more than two thirds of the minority stude nts in our nation (NCES, 2001). ( p. 210) Despite an increasingly diverse world, the role of the high school principal did remain one populated mostly by white males (Rousamiere, 2007) Less than 10% of all American high school principals were African American, and only 4% were Hispanic Even in urban schools where minority students make up the majority of enrollments, only one third of all high school principals in those schools were African American In 19992000, 18% of public school administrators were from and ethnic/racial minority (Gates et al ., 2004) Similarly, the Indiana five year study showed programs produced licensed building administrators that were 91.3% White, 7.8% Black, and 1% other initially minority (Black, et al ., 2007) In 19992000, 18% of public school administrators were from an ethnic/racial minority (Gates, et al ., 2004) Ogletree (2004) suggests that African Americans in particular are still deeply impacted by the widespre ad discrimination against African American educators following the Brown decision. McCray, Wright and Beachum (2007) note that even when African American or Mexican American candidates were selected for principal positions, it is most often in schools that are similarly populated, while similarly white administrators find themselves hired most often in white schools Race was identified in New York, according to Boehlert and OConnell (1999) as reasons potential applicants did not seek an administrative career

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34 As candidates for principal conditions perceive their likelihood of gaining a position as influenced by their race or ethnicity, their likelihood to pursue the opportunity can be impacted The critical shortage of minority candidates cannot be appropriately addressed without confronting the historic trends in minority hiring for these positions and the legacy that has left for those coming up through the educational system (Whittaker, 2001) Age In the past, a ccording to Boehlert and OConnell (1999), men we re more likely to be discriminated against due to their age Out of a total of 146 aspirant assistant principals taking the Aspirant Principal Questionnaire Cranston (2007) found no statistically significa nt differences in responses with regards to age and he found no influence of age between those interested or disinterested in an administrative position However, both Pounder and Merrill (2001) and Murphy, Elliott, Goldring and Porter (2007) noted that experience played a strong role in the evolution of principal leadership skills and in interest in the position Thus, age may not play a direct role in the likelihood of a candidate pursuing an assistant principal or principal administrative position, but experience does Age may also play a role in the stated fears of principal candidates with regard to work life balance ( Murphy, Elliott, Goldring and Porter 2007) Gender. Some research suggests preservice administrators, professional educators, in some cases are groomed very early for administration An American Association of School Administration study at the turn of the century shows women superintendents tend to actively encourage and recruit women and minorities more than their male superin tendent counterparts do (Glass, Bjork, & Bruner, 2000) Administratively certified men, women, and minority seeking administrative careers face

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35 barriers Women and minorities were underrepresented in the administrative fields ( Banks, 1995; Buell, 2001; DeFelice, 1999) However, times are changing and more women are entering school administration So maybe this will not be for much longer According to McCarthy (2002, p. 209), there has been a significant increase in the number of women being licens ed for administrative positions since the 1970s It is now common across universities for more than half of the educational leadership students to be women. Educational Leadership programs in the last two decades continue to shift from mostly white male students to having a majority of white female students (Greenlee, Bruner, & Hill, 2009) In Greenlee et al (2006) their study of 25 educational leadership programs faculty indicated 65% of their students were female In the Indiana five year study, 51% of the licenses issued were to females and 49% were males Yet only 39% presently employed administrators were women (Black et al ., 2007) Black et al (2007) purports: In comparison, nationally there was a 7% rise in principal positions between 1987 and 19992000, with a dramatic increase in female administrators and a much more modest increase in minority administrators In particular, in 1993 1994, only 35% of public school administrators were women, while in 1999/2000 54% of new principals (w ith less than three years experience) were women and 44% of all principals were women During that same academic year, 55% of public elementary schools were led by women administrators, while women were leading in administrative roles at 21% of high schools ( p. 38) Less research has been conducted on the reasons why male administratively certified educators do not pursue administrative positions Females traditionally face

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36 balancing family with career causing many barriers Work stress, family stress economic stress, parenting stress, and workfamily conflicts studies showed no significant difference between male and female (Carbone, 1991) Women tend to have more credentials than their male counterparts (Fenwick & Pierce, 2000) and tend to stay in the classroom more years before pursuing administration (Buell, 2001) Wilmores (2002) study addressed the Graduate Record Examination scores (GRE), race, gender, and undergraduate grade point average (GPA) as predictors of principal certification exa mination success at a university with three administration certification masters degree programs: students not in a cohort, those in a scholar cohort, and students in a paid administrative internship. In the latter program, all variables except undergrad uate GPA were predictors of certification examination results Gender was more significant in this program than in the other two. Likewise, in Britain, a female deputy primary school head had problems getting promoted for headship (Denison, 2004) On the other hand, Cranston (2007) found no gender differences between those interested or disinterested in an administrative position, but did find that males were much more likely to pursue openings when they occurred. Female respondents rated the demands of the roles and responsibility higher as a barrier than male respondents, and made stronger references to challenges of work life balance than males Males rated perceived status more highly than female respondents, and placed less emphasis on professional development opportunities Statistical significances found between gender and the discrimination reasons for not applying supports reasons to support women in administrative pursuits (Boehlert & OConnell, 1999) Also, gender was identified as a

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37 basis not to apply for an administrative position in New York where nearly 42.5 % of women chose not to apply because of gender discrimination (Boehlert & OConnell, 1999) Leadership style and aptitude Effective leadership at the level of building administrator demands a complex set of skills and abilities Murphy, Elliott, Goldring and Porter (2007) propose that high performing leaders must demonstrate aptitudes that include having a vision for learning, an understanding of instructional programs, curriculum and assessment, the ability to establish and promote communities of learning, resource allocation and use, the ability to develop a healthy organizational culture and to act as a social advocate. Aspiring principals must bring to the role a ba se of experience and knowledge that establishes expertise for the role, but with that must also come personal characteristics, values and beliefs that will entice them to pursue the role and succeed in it. This constellation of knowledge and experience, p aired with personal characteristics, values and beliefs provides some insight into what types of leaders are drawn to this type of work. Aspiring principals in Cranstons study indicated that leadership styles of effective principals must include strong i nterpersonal skills, the ability to make fair and ethical decisions, and the ability to inspire others and share vision (2007) Administrative skills took a back seat to instructional and interpersonal skills in Cranstons study (2007) and this mirrors Murphy, Elliott, Goldring and Porters (2007) tenet of learningcentered leadership as a model for successful principal candidates Pounder and Merrill (2001) echo these findings in noting that aspiring principals report

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38 finding the opportunity to make a difference, to empower school change, to grow personal and to offer a vision for a school as primary motivators in their application. The emphasis on interpersonal and learning endeavors as part of the ideal principal model, however, does not necessarily match reality Current principals often reflect frustration over the large proportion of time spent away from the teaching enterprise and away from strategic planning, mired down in daily administrative tasks and managing accountability activities impose d by government and state departments of education (Cranston, 2007; Rammer, 2007; Rousmaniere, 2007) The fact that the majority of the work lies outside the functions that are most attractive about the position, often influences the willingness of a qual ified candidate to pursue a position. The bottom line with issues, according to Howley et al (2005, p. 759) is, t he body of empirical literature prioritizing teachers' perspective on school administration likewise argues that the degree of readiness of potential principals depends on their ability to strike a suitable balance between their expectations and misgivings . If an individual strikes that balance of those issues, then comes the question of when to obtain an assistant principal position. When to Obtain an AP P osition? Managing young families in conjunction with a challenging task to assist the principal may not make one any less interested in the role, but may deter ones actual pursuit of the position. Thus, some potential candidates may opt to postpone their candidacy for positions until they are beyond the age of having a young family at home The sense of limited support in managing personal and work demands appears to be a strong deterrent for otherwise qualified candidates (Institute for Educational Leadership,

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39 2000) It would appear that there is a strong need to address this aspect of candidacy if the administrative pipeline is to be strengthened Other P otential F actors Principal roles have become increasingly complex with a wide scope of job responsibilities As schools are trying to provide more and more societal needs, administrators roles bro aden and more complex skill sets are required Unfortunately, the perceived shortage of applicants for available positions suggests that the system is not piquing the interest of most potential candidates and this is an issue that must be addressed if the preservation of quality education is to be accomplished. Lack of experience was the number one reason in New York, according to Boehlert and OConnell ( 1999), that individuals did not apply for administrative positions Until educational systems can strategically address and manage the perceived benefits and detractors of the principalship, it is likely that the pipeline for these positions will remain at their current levels School Boards might want to recognize the demands of the job and be more r ealistic in regards to salary ranges, eliminate residency requirements, offer tuition reimbursements, add retirement benefits, and conduct further studies with administratively certified teachers if they want answers and solutions related to administrative pipeline problems and poor quality administrative applicant pools (Boehlert & Connell,1999) Career Path Many administratively certified graduates could seek district level positions such as curriculum specialists, supervisors, and program coordinators that might be thought to be much easier and contain far fewer issues and controversial struggles Past career choices and intent, commitment, and retention are all factors that might

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40 influence professional educators future career decisions For example, the experiences and roles guidance counselors, females, and special education teachers have had might affect self assessed leadership and career pathways A Stanford study researched exemplary preservice and in service administrator preparation programs It found the y shared common features They discovered graduates of exemplary programs were more likely to be female, members of an ethnic minority group, had strong relevant teaching experiences, served frequently as coaches of other teachers, department chairs, team leaders, were committed to their communities, and capable of becoming instructionally grounded transformational leaders (Darling Hammond. et al ., 2007) D iscrimination might also be an influencing factor that could steer some to or away from seeking entrance into an assistant principal pool or position affecting their career paths DeFlice ( 1999) reports men typically enter into education with administration in mind and generally go from teacher to assistant principal, principal, and finally district level administration with only about five years teaching experience in the classroom Females generally tend to be very committed because they typically spend about ten to fifteen years in the classroom before entering administration and subsequently do well as instructional leaders Males, females, and minorities experience internal and external barriers entering into administration But, women are more likely to be discriminated against due to their gender and men are more likely to be discriminated against due to their age (Boehlert & OConnell, 1999) Program Issues The U.S Department of Education (USDOE, 2005) described conventional educational leadership graduate programs as having a lack of purpose, vision, and

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41 coherence. Hale and Moorman (2003) and Levine (2005) both critic ize and doubt that colleges of education can overcome forces to foster change and believe they use leadership preparation programs as primary revenue source According to Orr, Silverberg, and LeTendre (2006, p. 4), In the past, university based leadership preparation programs have been criticized for low quality (Griffiths, Stout & Forsyth, 1988), lack of rigo r (Bridges & Hallinger, 1997), outdated content, inappropriate pedagogy, and poor student recruitm ent and retention strategies (Bredeson, 1996) . Due to heavy criticism and mounting pressure and accountability, some programs have aligned to national standards Black et al (2007) reported in their five year study, programs were aligning to the Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards Whether these past criticism claims were substantiated or not, the latter claims of poor recruitment strategies is of primary interest. Recruitment and selection must be addressed as th ey are crucial to understanding initial graduate intentions. Recruitment and selection Educational Leadership principal preparation programs have changed (Young, 2009) Some key factors may have contributed to these changes more than others First, the Interstate School Licensure Consortium (1996) introduced administrative practice national standards which forced universities to revise their programs to meet accreditations standards (National Policy Board for Educational Administration 2002b), but congruent student admission requirements were not forced. Next, accountability requirements for schools receiving Title I funds, (No Child Left Behind Act, 2002) forced close looks at student learning Then, the quality of principals came into question as w ell as calls for reform when the projection of nationwide principal

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42 shortage was disproven (Hess 2003; Levine, 2005) The U. S. Department of Education (USDOE, 2005) claim s students enroll themselves without any consideration of a candidates leadership experience and students complete courses without connection to real practice in local schools Black, Bathon, and Pointdexter (2007) contend, c ritics question the purpos e, coherence, content, and rigor of university based programs, while some champion alternative means of licensing educational administrators Other concerns include the overproduction of licensed administrators who have no intention to apply for principal ships and the existence of low quality administrator preparation programs that are nonetheless financially attractive to universities ; a cash cow argument (Fordham & Broad Foundations, 2003 ; Hess, 2003; Hess & Kelly, 2007; Levine, 2005). How do progr ams recruit and select educational leadership students? It seems there is much research on the effectiveness of program design and learning activities, but far fewer empirical studies on candidate characteristics or intentions inside preparation programs ( Murphy, 2006) More studies should be conducted from student entry to exit and career choices upon completion. Conventional programs were criticized for having self enrolled students who have not been selected on the basis of leadership experience or pot ential (Black et al., 2007) Darling Hammond et al. (2007) study on pre and inservice administrator development programs observed programs that worked with school districts to actively recruit candidates who were known to have been excellent teachers with strong leadership potential. Most of the data for this report was derived from self reported from candidates, principals, and program faculty with observations But, Darling Hammond et al. (2007) did research that was designed to actually examine wh at

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43 graduates of effective educational leadership programs can actually do as seen by superintendents, principals, colleagues, and the graduates themselves These candidates were also more likely to have strong relevant teaching experiences and served freq uently as coaches, team leaders, department chairs, and were committed to their communities and capable of becoming instructionally grounded transformational leaders. The Department of Education in Indiana funded a study of 17 leadership preparation progr ams approved by the Indiana Department of Professional (Black et al., 2007) In this study, the use of recruitment tools varied. For mostly financial reasons, from most used to least, the following represented recruitment techniques utilized: word of mouth, brochures, websites, targeted radio, newspaper, billboard advertising, targeted direct mailings, and presentations (Black et al ., 2007) The study also found some f ormalized recruitment connections and formal links and contractual agreements with scho ols, districts, or professional entities that serve to recruit candidates Few formalized recruitment connections between building level leadership programs and the teacher education programs within the same universities existed (Black, et al., 2007) Ho wever, there were many informal and adhoc connections between building level leadership faculty and undergraduate teacher education faculty in regards to recruitment Programs look at candidate intentions The field of educational administration and leadership continues to use nonselective approaches to determining admissions to educational administration and leadership program programs nationwide ( Young, 2009, p. 212) For admission into a principal preparation program, some university based progra ms still require Graduate Record examinations (GRE) scores, letters of recommendations, writing samples, and an interview To be licensed as an administrator,

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44 some states require a minimum of two years of teaching experience, completion of a state approve d principal preparation program, or a state issued credential According to Brown Ferrigno and Shoho (2004), 11 states currently do not require teaching experience to be licensed as an administrator The bottom line is that if program recruitment and sel ection even occurs at all, it is informal, haphazard, and casual (Murphy, 1992, p. 80) The Indiana study examined entry req uirements at the 17 institution s in Indiana Their study reported the following admission requirement s from most to least requ ired: c omposite state wide composite admission Grade Point Average (GPA) of 2.82, letters of r ecommendations, interview, prior teaching experience, valid teaching license, Graduate Record Exam (GRE) statewide average rates of a minimum score of 837.5, tran scripts, writing sample, current resume, masters degree, and performance in the first class (Black et al., 2007) The acceptan ce rates in most cases were over 95% and statewide in nearly a third of the building level leadership programs, 100% of the appli cants that applied were admitted. Recruitment and commitment The role of the principal has grown enormously and the required amount of competency and tasks principals are responsible for is staggering (Davis, Darling Hammond, LaPointe, & Meyerson, 2005) Many scholars believe the job requirements far exceed the reasonable capacity for one individual Teachers are not oblivious to the situation as they see policy makers placing increased pressure on principals Over a fiveyear period in the Indiana study, about half of program graduates were employed as administrators. This is consistent with national critiques that highlight

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45 the fact that administrator preparation programs are just as likely to prepare non administrators as administrators (Black et al., 2007, p. 52) In the Indiana study, from those completers that did get placed 42% were at the Elementary level, 27% Junior High/Middle School, and 31% were administrators in High Schools (Black, et al., 2007) According to Buell (2001), the t op reasons administratively certified educators in Tennessee do not apply for administrative positions is that they liked their current position and did not want the added responsibility Forty two percent felt encouraged pursuing administration and 67% w ere not willing to relocate (Buell, 2001) Pounder and Crow (2005) cite an alarming shortage of qualified administrators available to fill current principal openings and call for a system approach to cultivate novice and experienced administrators Furth ermore, they claim the entire professional education community should systematically coordinate resources in order to develop and sustain a robust pipeline of competent and caring leaders Systematically strengthening field experiences, lengthening intern ships, redefining the role of the assistant principalship with shared leadership, and de stressing the role of the principal are some of the systematic changes that are required to attract and retain committed mid career quality administrators Moving for m heroic leadership to distributed leadership roles may not be easy for many veteran administrators Pounder and Merrill (2001) found principal workloads, not enough altruistic aspects of the job, and the toll on a typical administrators personal life co upled with increasing intensity and complexity of the job make it harder for schools to attract new administrators Another way to redesign the role of the assistant principal and principal is by implementing shared leadership

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46 District partnerships Absent significant changes to a web of social, economic, and institutional factors, the likelihood that deregulation policies will affect educational leadership and school organizations is very low(Smith, 2008, p. 30) Notwithstanding, s chool reform is changing the landscape and is forcing districts to forge new partnerships and new avenues for certification To maintain numbers in administrative applicant pools, some districts might be forced to consider circumventing university principal preparation programs or consider administrative alternative certification programs Anthes (2004) claims 13 states already offer alternative certification such as these. Forty eight out of 50 states still require principals to first obtain a license or certification (National Center for Education Information, 2003) Almost half of the states have created leadership academies (McCarthy, 2003) The majority of states still require a couple years teaching experience and a graduate degree from a college of education ( Mazzeo, 2003) However, some states now do not require the two years of teaching experience in order to enter into a graduate educational leadership degree program The bottom line is that school districts should keep abreast with the changing policies r egarding their states certification requirements and maintain information flow to its future administrators so their intentions are well versed Program Competition S ince the 1970s there has been little variation in the number of institutions offering educational leadership graduate degrees and licensure programs, with about 370 375 institutions offering degrees in educational administration/leadership and about 100 additional institutions offering only administrative licensure programs (McCa rthy, 1999) Despite calls to reduce the 500

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47 programs to around 200 (maintaining those at research institutions), more than half of the nation's school leaders continue to be prepared by institutions with limited or no doctoral offerings (McCarthy, 200 2, p. 207) It makes sense that the master's remains the most popular educational leadership graduate degree because of the substantial revenue generated by master's and licensure programs (McCarthy, 2002) The Indiana Building Level Leadership Prepara tion Study examined licensure and Masters plus licensure programs that lead to building level certification They studie d over a five year period 20012005 looking at state, regional, and institutional licensure production trends During that five year period, Black et al (2007) noted a rise in educational leadership programs from 10 to 17, the number of building level administrators rose from 368 to 435, but the total number of employed school administrators remained relatively constant. While more pro grams have been approved, there has been a trend towards fewer programs accounting for a larger percentage of licensure production (Black et al., 2007) A rise in programs is correlated to a rise in graduates According to Black et al. ( 2007): In a study of national educational administration degree production, Baker, Orr, and Young (2005) found that there has been an increase in degree production, with much of the growth occurring not at Carnegie Research 1 institutions, but rather at newer i nstitutions like comprehensive universities They found that the number of Master s Degree programs in educational administration grew 16% from 19902003, while educational administration degree production increased 90% from 1993 to 2003. ( p. 38)

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48 These days many comprehensive institutions are offering master s degrees in education Some of these institutions are forprofit universities and offer attractive advantages such as increased flexibility in the delivery models to include in person or complete ly on line, shorter semesters, weekend classes, job placement assistance, and less stringent admittance standards and requirements For example, NOVA Southe ast ern University, National Louis University, Rider University, Argosy Education Group, University of Phoenix, Liberty University, Kaplan University, and DeVr y University are a few that offer masters degrees in education. Since 1990 the number of for profit, degree granting college and university campuses in the United States has quietl y increased by 112 percent, from approximately 350 to 750 campuses During that period, 200 nonprof it colleges closed their doors (Ruch 2003, p. 4) In the past, for profit institutions str uggled to meet accreditation standards, and even when they did, the accrediting bodies were sometimes reluctant to grant accreditation to these institutions because of th eir proprietary status (Ruch 2003, p. 5) Currently, in Florida, the r e are 11 public and nine private universities that have State Approved Educational Leadership programs (Bureau of Educator Recruitment, Development, and Retention, 2009) Today, not granting accreditation to a nonprofit university t hat met all published standards would probably would bring a lawsuit of charges (Ruch, 2003) S ome educators assume for profit schools offer poor quality education due to less regulation (Ruch 2003) Regardless, many graduate students probably simply want the masters degree and subsequent administrative license so they may obtain some admi nistrative position. With the emergence of for profit institutions offering the master s in

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49 educational leadership, graduate students might have more options which may influence their intention s on where to earn their degree, how they earn their master s degree, and subsequent administrative certification Opportunities for differing types of programs and competition among programs is growing. T he following is a list of non traditional programs that could have an impact on the educators in graduate programs or those considering graduate programs: The Boston Principal Fellowship, First Ring Leadership Academy in Cleveland, Leadership Academy and Urban Network for Chicago, New Jersey Expedited Certification for Educational Leadership, New Leaders for New Schools in New York and Washington D.C., and Principals excellence Program in Kentucky ( U.S. Department of Education, 2004) The Boston Principal Fellowship Program (BPF), mentioned first, is designed to expedited principal preparation and focuses on developing effective leaders Wouldbe graduate students could directly earn a Massachusetts Administrative Credential without needing to return to school in only one year and be supposedly prepared to take the helm of an urban school ( U.S. Department of Education, 2004) It is debatable whether or not these programs were effective However, Florida DOE has approved one district level Educational Leadership program in Duval County and its certification lasts until the year 2013 (Bureau of Educator Recrui tment, Development, and Retention, 2009) The following is a list of the State Approved Public University programs Florida A & M University Florida Atlantic University Florida Gul f Coast University Florida International University

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50 Fl orida State University University o f Central Florida University o f Florida University o f North Fl o r ida University of South Florida University of South Florida S t Peter sburg University o f West Florida The following is a list of the State Approved Private Uni versities American College of Education Barry University Jacksonville University Lynn University National Louis University NOVA Southe a s ter n University Stetson University Saint Leo University Southern University Academic Drift Principal preparation graduate programs are changing and should continue to change to maintain their relevancy But, academic drift of doctoral programs away from Research institutions to Comprehensive and Liberal Arts institutions that have less institutional capacity to supp ort rigorous doctoral programs has

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51 implications for the quality of administrative candidates they pro duce (Baker et al 2007) If doctoral degree programs become more accessible through less selective institutions, the Ed.D and Ph.D may lose some of its value as a symbol of prestige Preparing advanced school leaders for the field may end up falling more and more on Comprehensive institutions while Research institutions focus on preparing future researchers and faculty members Huisman and M orphew (1998) argue that government policy can guide institutions in certain directions: Comprehensive institutions prepare assistant principals, teacher leaders, and principals; while superintendents and central office leaders could be prepared by Doctoral instituti ons; and Research institutions would be left preparing future faculty researchers Summary of Literature Examining how the interest and intentions of educational leadership graduate students may be influenced by leadership style, gender, ethnicity and a ge yields the potential identification in how these factors shape an individuals willingness or intent to pursue an assistant principal position. In so doing, the pipeline for the assistant principalships in many districts might be more productive and pr oduce stronger and higher quality administrator candidates At the crux of the problem lies the question of why professional educators do or do not pursue an assistant principal position after obtaining a graduate degree in educational leadership administ rative Boehlert and OConnell (1999) suggested further studies may provide answers with regard to this question regarding a dministrative applicant pools The U.S. Department of Labor and Statistics predicted an increase in the need for school administrators by the year 2012 (Hecker, 2004) and Flessa and Grubb (2006) even argued Floridas school districts faced

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52 dramatic administrator shortages, but research on supply and demand found little evidence of a nationwide crisis in the market for certified school administrators (RAND, 2003, p. 1) Boehlert and OConnell (1999), Tallerico and Tingley (2001), Board of Governors, Public School Administrator Supply and Demand Connecticut (2003), and Roza et al (2003) all contend there are more certified applicants than administrative openings Roza et al (2003) observed studies that showed training programs were overproducing certified graduates. This gap of conflicting literature in studies is clarified by distinguishing terms between certified administrator shortages and shortages of willing and qualified administrator candidates Boehlert and OConnell (1999), Gewertz (2000), Roza et al (2003), and Pounder and Crow (2005) claimed the issue is a shortage of quality principal candidates Forsyth and Smith ( 2002) and Pounder, Crow, and Shepard (2003) sa y shortages of willing administrators exist for specific positions like high school principals in rural or challenging urban communities This might be because the work of the principal is often seen as politically difficult, time intensive, stressful and lonely (Cranston, 2007; Rousmaniere, 2007; Tillman, 2003) N o shortage of qualified administrative candidates exists but there is a shortage of quality committed candidates willing to work in under served communities (Davis, DarlingHammond, LaPointe, & Meyerson, 2005) In the end, school boards should be more realistic in regards to salary ranges, eliminate residency requirements, offer tuition reimbursements, and add retirement benefits if they want solutions to administrative pipeline problems and poor quality administrative applicant pools (Boehlert & Connell, 1999)

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53 Concerns, fears, and personal complexities like ethnicity ( Fenwick & Pierce, 2000; Rousamiere, 2007; Shakeshaft, 1989), age ( Boehlert & OConnell, 1999; Cranston, 2007; Murphy, Elliott, Goldring & Porter, 2007; Pounder and Merrill, 2001), gender ( Banks, 1995; Buell, 2001; DeFelice, 1999; Glass, Bjork, & Bruner, 2000; Grady, 1992), and leadership style (Cranston, 2007; Murphy, Elliott, Goldring & Porter, 2007; Pounder & Merrill, 2001) may affect intentions of educational leadership graduate students and their choices for career pathways Discrimination might also be an influencing factor that could steer some to or away from seeking entrance into an assistant principal pool or position influencing their career paths (DeFlice, 1999) Additionally, simply managing young families in conjunction with a challenging task to assist the principal may deter pursuit of the assistant principal position. Thus, some may postpone their candidacy for positions until they are beyond the age of having a young family due to limited support in managing personal and work demands (Institute for Educational Leadership, 2000) Because the requirements of the principalship has grown so enormously, the required amount of competency and tasks principals are responsible for is staggering (Davis, Darling Hammond, LaPointe, & Meyerson, 2005) So, the quality of principals came into question when the projection of nationwide principal shortage was disproven (Hess 2003; Levine, 2005) Even though much research on the effectiveness of program design and learning activities has been conducted, but far fewer empirical studies on candidate characteristics or intentions inside preparation programs has been done (Murphy, 2006) Programs in institutions must try to stay relevant, if they want to maintain graduate enrollment Huisman and Morphew (1998) looked at guiding institutions as they change: c omprehensive institutions prepare assistant principals,

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54 teacher leaders, and principals; while superintendents and central office leaders could be prepared by doctoral institutions; and r es earch institutions would be are left preparing future faculty researchers When programs do not change and become outdated, competition increases and alternatives certifications or district partnerships begin to emerge. Thirteen states are currently offering alternative certifications, according to Anthes (2004), but 48 out of 50 states still require principals to first obtain a license or certification (National Center for Education Information, 2003) While this literature review included a variety of research, it offers essential perspective for the foundation of the study The literature review also provided the required background information necessary for objectively analyzing the results of the collected data that was identified in the next cha pter Additionally, this review of the literature enabled a basis for impartial discussion of the results and conclusion. Next, is chapter three, a presentation of the methods and analysis of the study

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55 Chapter III: Methods Introduction This chapt er includes a description of the resear ch design and methods used in the investigation It begins with an introduction and contains sections on pros and cons of survey research, research methodology, research design, appropriateness of design, research qu estions, populations and sample, sample size, power analysis, data collection, instrumentations, validity of the L eadership Practices Inventory (LPI) reliability of the LPI, analysis of data, internal and external validity, ethical assurances, and a summary ( Appendix A ) The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that influence the intentions of educat ional leadership graduate students currently enrolled in university educational leadership programs in Florida The study analyzed why these graduate students are more or less likely to intend to seek an assistant principal position upon graduation, via the lens of examining self assessed leadership on the LPI, amount of program completion, and demographic criteria such as age and ge nder This study may identify additional reasons administrative pools have perceived shortages of quality candidates using job choice theory as a frame of reference. The importance of the intent for this study is to disseminate, share, and publish a report of the findings in order to offer the Florida Department of Education (FDOE), school district leadership academies, and

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56 university educational leadership departments valuable insight for restructuring to remain relevant Pros and c ons of s urvey r esea rch According to Cohen, Manion, and Morrison (2007), questionnaire s with open and closed questions have distinct advantages and disadvantages Highly structured, closed questions are useful in that they can generate frequencies of response amenable to statistical treatment and analysis ( Cohen et al ., 2007, p. 321) Furthermore, these types of questions enable comparisons, are quicker to code and analyze, and are often directly to the point and are more focused and do not discriminate unduly on the ba sis of how articulate respondents Open ended items are useful if the possible answers are unknown or the questionnaire is exploratory, or if there are so many possible categories of response that a closed question would contain an extremely long list o f options (Cohen, et al., 2007, p. 321) Surveys are supposed to combine sampling, questions design, and data collection methodologies for those who want to collect and analyze data (Fowler, 2008) A survey s precision, accuracy, an d credibility can be affected by how it is implemented According to Fowler (2008): The choice of data collection mode, mail, telephone, the Internet, personal interview, or group administration, is related directly to the sample frame, research topic, characteristics of the sample, and available staff and facilities; it has implications for response rates, questions form, and survey costs (p. 69) Research m ethodology. The methodological approach for the study was quantitative confirmatory and deductive in nature ( Creswell 2003) T his study assume d that information gathered through our senses was reality that can be measured P hysical and social realities are independent of those who observe d it and unbiased observations

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57 are considered scientific knowledge (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2003) This perspective purports that reality should be shaped by empirical data derived from the senses In this study, the information gathered through our senses via the Leadership Practices Inventory ( LPI ) and the Demographics and Intentions Questionnaire (DIQ), was reality that can be measured and quantified (Appendix B) The theoretical framework for this study c ame from th is paradigm under the umbrella theory of job choice Research d esign This study employed a quantitative nonexperim ental research design wherein two statistical techniqu es Simple Linear Regression and Multiple Regression were used The basic design of a c omparative study is to identify a difference between groups as a function of the identified dependent variable Since the researcher did not have complete control over the variables of interest (participants or groups were not randomly assigned) the study was nonexperimental and suggestive rather than rig orously causative No attempt by the researcher w as made to influence respondent attitudes Appropriateness of design A quantitative nonexperimental research design was determined appropriate for the research project since it enabled the collection of data from a large number of human participants fitting a s pecific demographic/attitudinal profile Furthermore, a broad number of participants (e.g., greater than 50) was necessary to ensure differences and commonalities were appropriately represented within a sample, as reflected by the power analyses An experimental design, first put forth by Mill (1874), allows the researcher to observe difference s in participants performance and infer differences This research approach enabled a single researcher with limited resources the ability to collect and anal yze data from a sample in a comparatively short

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58 time period That is, data w ere collected within days and analyzed within weeks rather than weeks or months, respectively, for other types of designs. Research Questions The measureable research questions t hat guide d this study are presented below The items directly following the questions in the analysis section were key chara cteristics associated with the research questions These characteristics included the Dependent variable, Independent variable, St atistical strategy, P opulation and Sample Size These data to fully answer these research questions will be gathered with th e LPI and DIQ Research Questions: 1. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position (DIQ) and se lf assessed leadership behavior (LPI) ? 2. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and Gender (Male, Female)? 3. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and number of credits successful ly completed (< 3, 39, 1015, 1621, 2227, 2833, > 33) ? 4. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and age groups ( 2530, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 ) ? 5. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an a ssistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior, g ender (Male, Female), number of credits successfully completed (< 3, 39, 1015, 1621, 2227, 2833, > 33) and age ( 2530, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 ) ?

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59 Population and Sampl e This quantitative study assumed the population was educators seeking administrative certification in the continental United States The identified initial pool of sample subjects were currently enrolled Florida Educational Leadership graduate students attending on campus or online at any of the following public or private universities: University of South Florida, University of South Florida Saint Petersburg, Univer sity of Central Florida Florida State University, University of Florida, NOVA Universi ty, S aint Leo University, and National Louis University While there were many more private universities, these specific universities were chosen because of their involvement in the Tampa Bay Metropolitan area and five surrounding counties The population selected for the study consisted of educational leadership graduate students who were participants willing to respond to a survey Since the sample was pooled, the researcher closely track e d from which university the data came Florida's Educational Leadership graduate programs have many similarities and differences compared with each other and with other programs around the United States Clarifying th is support ed th e studys generalizability later There are a few professional organizations which attempt to keep abreast with principal preparation graduate programs and are very involved with guiding the professional field and licensing One such organization is t he Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) It is an affiliate group authorized by National Council for Accreditation of Teacher education ( NCATE ) to review education administration preparation programs nationwide The ELCC use d the standards developed by the National Policy Board for Educational Administra tion (NPBEA) for their review of graduate degree programs in school administration

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60 Approximately 632 colleges of education have volunteered to be accredited through NCATE Since 1996, over 90 universities and colleges have participated in the ELCC program approval process F loridas main graduate programs used in this study were accredited and were listed on the state approved program list They ha d similar curricular design s and met Floridas minimum qualifications Many Educational Leadership graduate programs require d between 33 and 39 credit hours and most consist of core courses, electives, and a field experience. Some require d portfolios or comprehensive examinations Merriam (1998) asserts that there are two basic types of s ampling, probability and nonprobability Probability is described as being set up to allow the researcher to conduct a random sample and generalized the results to a population. Non probability, on the other hand, does not deal with generalization and is described as attempting to logically solve qualitative problems such as discovering what occurs, the implications of what occurs, and the relationships linking occurrences (Honigmann, 1982, p. 84) There are several different types of purposeful sampli ng to include typical, unique, maximum variation, convenience, snowball, chain and network. Convenience sampling was the type of purposeful sampling that was used in this study as it encompasse d the person that is readily available to be researched Additionally, this type of purposeful sampling included a traditional and important preparation pathway that reflected the different demographic subsets studied. Specifically, Merriam (1998) offers this type of sample is based on time, money, location, availability of sites or respondents, and so on ( p. 63). This method was referred to as convenience sampling and w as used to select participants for this study Convenience sampling is regularly used in exploratory

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61 research to collect data that is generally representative of the population being studied. This method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of results, without incurring the cost or time required to select a random sample (StatPac, 2007, p.1) This sampl ing method enables the researcher to act within a certain period and under conditions that facilitate data collection By its nature, convenience sampling sacrifices generalizability and therefore, may not provide sufficient representation of the target p opulation. This means that those selected for the study may only partially have represent ed the population investigated. As such, replication may be necessary to fully validate study results (Keppel & Zedeck, 2001) Despite its deficiencies, convenience sampling is the best method of obtaining a population when time and conditions prohibit random sampling (Neuman, 2003) For example, convenience sampling cannot be used to randomly select participants from a population consisting of male Caucasians over the age of 35 years One would have to somehow identify and contact up 35 million Caucasians fitting the profile and randomly select from that group: an improbable task. Thus, convenience sampling enables the researcher to seek an approximation of the t ruth when obtaining the truth (i.e ., via random sampling) is conditionally prohibitive Convenience sampling does have an impact on study reliability and validity Reliability relates to the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedur e gives the same results on repeated trials That said, study reliability may have been marginalized because a pure random sample was not obtained That is, results obtained from this study may not be categorically replicated later using a convenience or random sample from the same population.

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62 Similarly, study validity may be degraded as well. Conceptually, validity is concerned with how successful the study is at measuring what needs to be measured. Although results from the study may be valid for the population selected, it may not necessarily have been valid for the entire population. This study attempted to successfully measure what need ed to be measured, but this may not be necessarily generalized to the greater population of educators. Sample s ize. While it is ideal to have large sample sizes, practicality plays a role in what can be realistically used The scope of participants in this study wa s limited to those participants currently enrolled in an Educational Leadership graduate program from t he targeted public and private campus based and online universit ies These graduate students were identified with the assistance of each Universitys Educational Leadership Department Chair who in t urn request ed compliance from professors in their respective departments While it would be ideal to have t he first sample of graduate students situated in the beginning of their programs and a nother sampling of students surveyed with graduate students in the last semester of their graduate programs it was not feasible in this study The general rules of thumb for determining the minimum sample size depends on the expected effect size and the statistical procedure used In this case, the regression was the statistical technique utilized and the suggested sample size w as 20 per independent variable; for a medium effect size N 104 + k where k is the number of independent variables; 40 per independent variable if stepwise regression w a s being used In this study, t he sample size was calculated using G* power version 3.1.2 (Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, & Buchner, 2007) This free software program used Cohens tables

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63 (Cohen, 1992).There are criticisms with Cohens tables claiming they produce underestimates of power and overestimates of sample size for factorial designs (Bradley, 1995) Cohen (1992) says : in research planning, the investigator needs to know the N necessary to obtain the ES N increases with an For statistical tests involving two or more groups, N as here defined is t he necessary sample size for each group ( p. 156) The ES stands for population effect size N was the sample size number was the significance criterion Power analysis When calculating the proposed sample size for the study there were several factors that were consider ed These factors included the intended power of the study, the effect size of the phenomena under study, and the level of significance used in rejecting the null hypotheses (alpha) The power of the study was the probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis As matter of con vention, the power a dequate to reject a false null hypothesis was .80 (Kuehl, 2000) The next factor of importance was the size of the expected effect, which was an estimate measurement of the strength of the relationship between the predictor / independent variables and dependent variable s (Cohen, 1988) F or multiple and multiple partial correlations and regressions the effect size can be characterized as small .05, medium .10, or large .15 (Cohen, 1992) Additionally, the level of significanc e for alpha was set at .05. To validate sample size, a formal power analysis (Appendix F ) was conducted to statistically determine the number of participants needed to conduct the study F our

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64 separate power analyses were conducted because four of the re search questions ha d differing amounts of predictor variables and require d different stat istical techniques The power analysis with the largest sample size, from the five research questions, w as used as the requisite number of participants needed for the study In a priori power analyses, the s ample size N is computed as a function of the required power level (1ected with probability (1. As such to assess a priori sample size, for Research Question 1, power was set at .80 and the expected effect size was set at .10 Accordingly, for research question 1, the sample size necessary to likely determine a statist ical difference was 134 participants where alpha = .05 This means that there was an 80% probability that 134 participants w ere sufficient to find a statistical relationship (effect size of .10) between variables where alpha = .05 For Research Question s 2, 3, and 4, sample size required was 81 part icipants where effect size = 10, power = .80 and alpha = .05. This was true only if Research Questions 3 and 4 predictor variables were considered continuous This was conditional under certain circumstances as the relationship of the data was examined Lastly, for Research Question 5, the sample size required was 159 where power = .80 effect size = .10, and alpha = .05 (Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, & Buchner, 2007) Thus, the minimum sample size necessary to conduct the study was 159. Table 1 illustrates the sample size choices and how they var ied due to differing effect sizes for each Research Question respectively

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65 Table 1 Sample Size V ariations D ue to D iffering E ffect S izes. Effect Size 5 Variables ( R Q1) n 1 Variable ( R Q2, R Q3, R Q4) n 8 Variables ( R Q5) n .05 263 159 309 .10 134 81 159 .15 92 55 109 Data Collection The LPI and DIQ w ere the primary means of data collection for this study A copy of the LPI is located within Appendix A Appendix A contains a letter from Kouzes and Posner authorizing the researcher to utilize and reproduce the LPI for this study only Anyone else must obtain permission directly from Kouzes and Posner to use or reproduce the LPI All of the surveys questions in this data collection method were Likert type response options The survey was distributed or made available via Survey Monkey, to all respondents who participate d in the study Interaction with participants w as conducted via direct contact through Survey Monkey online That is, the researcher distribute d a package containing the Leadership Practices Inventory ( LPI ) survey and Demographics and Intentions Q uestionnaire (DIQ) and supporting documen ts to participants in a college classroom setting or they received these same items online through a web link. A cover letter, intent, and importance of the study w ere included in the package that was distributed. Participants w ere not timed and w ere not e ncouraged to hurry Respondent s were asked to complete the LPI as they rated themselves on the frequency with which they think they engag ed in each of the 30 behaviors It was

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66 expected that participants w ould have spent around 10 to 15 minutes completing the LPI survey and about five minutes complet ing the DIQ Participants w ere instructed to complete the LPI and DIQ and immediately submit it to the proctor upon completion Once all surveys were collected, the completed packages w ere transported and stored by the researcher in accordance with the Internal Review Boards ( IRB ) protocol (Appendix D) Participants were not compensated for completing the surveys, but did have an opportunity to create a unique username and enter it into a free online raffle to win an iPod Touch to be claimed from their professor (Appendix C ) As a contingency, if there were some reason the researcher was not able to be present during the LPI and DIQ administra tion, the class instructor w as to follow the same protocol listed above to remain consistent The following script taken from the cover letter, listed in Appendix D w as read by the researcher or the instructor: You have been identified as an individual student who is enrolled in an approved graduate degree program in the field of educational leadership from a private or public campus based and online universit ies Thank you for volunteering to participate in this study regarding the LPI and DIQ While national and statewide reports suggest there is a shortage of quality certified administrative applicants, it is anticipated that there are a number of graduates seeking Level One administrative certification in Florida who will subsequently seek, or not s eek, an assistant principal position Your participation in this study is essential to my research and greatly appreciated In addition, Florida universities, Florida Department of Education, and School Districts may use the collective Executive

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67 Summary results from this study for program improvement purposes However, your individual answers and personal informat ion will be kept confidential Instrumentation The Leadership Practice Inventory (LPI) is a seasoned leadership inventor y with over 1.3 million administrations to date ( Posner, 20 10) The LPI was developed through a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative research methods, indepth interviews, and written case studies from personal best leadership experiences This generated th e conceptual framework, which consists of five practices or constructs of exemplary leadership: Model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart (Posner, 2009) It is a survey tool with 30behavioral statements Six statements represent each of the five leadership behavioral practices for a total of 30 items ( Zagorsek et al., 2006) The LPI inventory used a 10point Likert scale to detect level of agreement with the thirty behavioral statement s Participants were asked to choose the rating scale number from 1 to 10 that best applie d to each statement based upon how frequently do they engage d in the described behavior The LPIs Likert scales span was set as follows:1 = Almost Never; 2= Rarely 3= Seldom, 4= Once in a While, 5=Occasionally, 6=Sometimes, 7= Fairly Often, 8=Usually, 9=Very Frequently, and 10=Almost Always Question numbers 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, and 26 were associated with the leadership behavior practice entitled Model the Way Question s numbers 2, 7, 12, 17, 22, and 27 were associated with Inspiring a Shared Vision. Challenge the Process deals with numbers 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, and 28. Numbers 4, 9, 14, 19, and 29 were associated with Enable Others to Act The remaining questions number 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 were associated with

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68 the leadership behavior practice entitled Encourage the Heart T he LPI s five practices or construct s titles wer e shortened to read: e ncourage, m odel, e nable, i Inspire, and c hallenge. The inventory normally takes approximately 10 to 15 minutes to complete Several demographic characteristics were compared in this study These demographic characteristics and intentions w ere gathered using the DIQ The DIQ has 15 questions The DIQ w as piloted in a Saint Petersburg College class Some of the demographic type characteristics that w ere compared include d self assessed leadership behavior, as measured by the LPI, and number of graduate credits completed. Gender, race/ ethnicity, and age were other demographic characteristics included in the questionnaire In addition, the number of graduate credits completed, total years of any experience in public or private school teaching, level, county, and the type of degrees previously completed were a ll included in the questionnaire This questionnaire asked if the participant had worked in special education or as a guidance counselor and probed regarding any influence salary advances and personal reasons had on their decision to pursue a degree in educational leadership T he DIQ ask ed about their intentions of whether or not to seek an assistant principal position, if it will be secondary or elementary level, and when they intende d to seek an assistant principal position after completion of their gra duate program s All of these questions were vital to the study and student motivation and intentions. Pilot s tudy A pilot was conducted using these two instruments simply for instrument integrity and usability Due to the limited number of educational leadership graduate students, the researcher utilized eight post bachelors degree education major students from Saint Petersburg College, a local educator preparation institute to test the

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69 usability of the study The results identified two errors in this online survey, that questions 19 and 20 were the same and that the age group 5055 years was also missing As a result, the online DIQ instrument was modified The researcher was able to make these corrections pr ior to the actual administration These students only took the survey online and not in person. Validity T he LPI has been applied extensively and is highly regarded in both academic and p ractitioner realms (Posner, 2010; Zagorsek et al., 2006) Over 1. 3 million total respondents have participated in the LPI O nline from 20052009. The LPIs validity was tested using a positive workplace attitude scale where respondents were asked 10 questions using a five point Likert type scale regarding their feelings and assessments abo ut several factors (Posner, 2009) The internal reliability, Cronbach alpha, for this scale was 0.92 The correlations shown in Table 2 between Positive Workplace Attitude and the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership were all statis tically significant ( p < .001) Table 2 Correlations of Positive Workplace Attitude with Five Leadership Practices LPI Construct Observer Response Challenge .30 Inspire .29 Enable .29 Model .32 Encourage .31

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70 The data collected concluded that the LPI remains a valid and reliable instrument (Posner, 2009) In other aspects of validity, t est results show LPI has high face validity and predictive validity ( Posner 2009) The psychometric properties of the LPI have also been studied by others as well Zagorsek et al. ( 2006) They suggest ed the LPI is best used for training and development purposes Reliability The extent that an instrument contains errors that can skew scores for reasons that are not directly related to respondent selections is an indication of instrument reliability The more reliable the instrument is, the fewer measurement errors it contains The test and retest reliability was found to be high in the LPI (Posner, 2009) Generally, i nstruments that have r eliabilities h igher than .70 are considered to be very good. The LPIs standard reliability was tested through analysis of internal reliability and all of the five leadership practices had strong consistent internal reliability Their Cron bach Alpha coefficients were .79, .88, .73, .74, and .86 with ( N = 101,403) respectively as reflected in Table 3 Since the coefficients were all greater than .70, they are generally regarded as being very good. This means that the items are highly correlated within each scale (Posn er, 2009) Table 3 Strong Internal Reliability Coefficients (Cronbachs Alpha) for the Five Constructs With All Scales Above the 0.70 L evel LPI Construct Self Challenge .79 Inspire .88 Enable .73 Model .74 Encourage .86

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71 Analysis of Data Research Question 1: Is the re a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior? Statistics: Multiple Regression Dependent V ariable: Intent to seek an assistant principal position (DIQ) Level of Measurement: Interval Predictor Variable: Self Assessed Leadership Behavior (LPI) Level of Measu rement: Interval Sample Size: 134 (from a power analysis where effect size = .10 alpha = .05, power = .80) Population: Educational Leadershi p Graduate students Research Question 2: Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and gender (Male, Female ) ? Statistics: Simple Linear Regression Dependent V ariable: Intent to seek an assistant principal position (DIQ) Level of Measurement: Interval level Predictor Variable: Gend er ( Male, Female ) Level of Measurement: Di chotomous Sample Size: 81 (from a power analysis where effect size = .10 alpha = .05, power = .80)

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72 Population: Educational Leadership Graduate students Research Question 3: I s there a difference in intent to seek and assistant principal position and numbers of credits successfully completed (< 3, 39, 1015, 1621, 2227, 2833, > 33) Statistics: Multiple Regression Dependent Variable: Intent to seek an assistant principal position (DIQ) Level of Measurement: Interval level Predictor Variable: Number of credits successfully completed (< 3, 39, 1015, 1621, 2227, 2833, > 33) Level of Measurement : Interval or Conti nuous Sample Size: 81(from a power analysis where effect size = .10 alpha = .05, power = .80) Population: Educational Leadership Graduate students Research Question 4: Is there a difference in intent to seek and assistant principal position and ag e ( 2530, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 ) ? Statistics: Multiple Regression Dependent Variable: Intent of seeking an assistant principal position Level of Measurement: Interval Statistics: Multiple Regression Criterion Variable: Intent to seek an assistant principal position (DIQ)

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73 Level of Measurement: Interval Predictor V ariable: Age ( 2530, 31 35, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 ) Level of Measurement: Interval or Continuous Sample Si ze: 81 (from a power analysis where effect size = .10 alpha = .05, power = .80) Population: Educational Leadership Graduate students Research Question 5 : Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior, gender, number of credits completed, and age ? Statistics: Multiple Regression Dependent Variable: Intent to seek an assistant principal position (DIQ) Level of Measurement: Interval Predictor Variable1: Self Assessed Leadership Behavior (LPI) Level of Measurement: Interval Predictor Variable2: Gender (Male, Female) Level of Measurement: Dichotomous Predictor Variable3: Number of credits successfully completed (< 3, 39, 1015, 1621, 2227, 2833, > 33) Level of Measurement: Interval Predictor Variable4: Age ( 2530, 31 35, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 ) Level of Measurement: Interval

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74 Sample Size: 159 (from a power analysis where effect size = .10, alpha = .05, power = .80) Population: Educational Leadership Graduate students The studys purpose was to analyze factors that influence the intentions of educational leadership graduate students enrolled in university educational leadership programs in Florida The study analyzed which characteristics of graduate students in Florida might be associat ed with level of intention to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion. Differences in self assessed leadership behavior, number of graduate credits completed, gender, and age were examined The generalizability of the study to Florid a w as determined from reliability and validity factors An in depth analysis of the surveys findings are discussed in chapter four In addition to the 30 items associated with the LPI instrument ( Appendix A ) participants w ere asked to respond to DIQ items (Appendix B) such as years of teaching experience, highest degree earned, gender, race, and likelihood to seek an assistant principal position. The DIQ w as piloted in a Saint Petersburg College class The results of the survey items were assessed by compiling the information and entering it into a spreadsheet using Microsoft Excel 2007. The list of variables entered into SPSS is found in Appendix G. A secondary qualified individual verif ied input and accuracy Statistical Package for Social Scien ce (SPSS) for Windows v ersion 17.0 SPSS ( 2009 ) was used for the analysis of data. Finally, applicable descriptive and inferential statistics w ere examined as the data was run though Simple Linear Regression s and Multiple Regressions R egression here, refers to a group of techniques which allow for measurement of the degree of relationship between a dependent variable and more than

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75 one independent variables According to Cohen (1992) within m ultiple and multiple partial correlation s, f or k independent variables, the significance test is the standard F test for df =k, N k 1. The ES index, f2, is defined for either squared multiple or squared multiple partial correlations (R2) (p. 157) Additionally, a regression analysis w as conducted as a residual analysis to identify any possible outliers The analysis procedure used SPSS software This data analysis include d descriptive statistics, means, standard deviation s and frequency counts where applicable. In addition, histogr ams have been presented as well as z scores and Normal P P plots to support assumptions of normality in chapter 4 Further, an ANOVA table, and supporting figures are displayed, providing a main effect of condition is f ound. For this analysis alpha was set at p = .05 provided assumptions of normality are m et When assumptions were violated, the researcher determin e d the appropriate next steps For example, when assumptions are slightly violated, the researcher had the option to reduce the chance of com mitting a Type 1 error (rejecting the null when it is true) by resetting alpha to .01. Internal v alidity Internal validity is defined as how confidently one can conclude that the change in the dependent variable was produced solely by the independent variable and not extraneous ones (Campbell & Stanley, 1966) Accordingly, there are eight empirically identif ied conditions that can threaten confidence in a study These threats to internal validity include history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, statistical regression, selection, experimental mortality, and selection interaction However, although all threats may be relevant, specific threats to this study potentially involve d two That is, these two threats may involve selection and testing A selection

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76 threat suggests that participants may not be functionally equivalent at time of testing In the case of this study, efforts to mitigate this threat have been addressed by gathering a sample size that was sufficient for the study and statistical technique s used A testing threat entails testing participants at different times or under differen t circumstances That being said, the study design expects to test all participants at the same time and under the same environmental conditions. External v alidity The concept of external validity is defined as the extent to which the study can be gener alized to the greater population. Generally, studies that employ randomization to select participants from the study population have more external validity than those that do not That said, for this study, convenience sampling of students attending a university w as used to sample the study population, which may weaken external validity This strategy was used because random sampling of the study population wa s outside the scope of the researchers resources Thus, results may not necessarily reflect st udy population attitudes In this case, where convenience sampling was used, repeating the test to compare results may be advised but was not done in this case. Ethical a ssurances This study w as conducted in accordance with the University of South Fl oridas Internal Review Board research protocols in recognition that Learners acting as researchers are faced with ethical concerns Researchers must obtain informed consent from all participants (Gall, Gall & Borg, 2003) Elements of informed consent include notifying the participants of who will conduct the study; letting the participant know the time commitment required, explaining the study in easily understandable language; offering to answer any questions; informing pa rticipants that their involvement

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77 is voluntary; informing participants that they can withdraw at any time; letting participants know the limits of confidentiality (Rudestam & Newton, 2001) and ensuring that participants will emerge from the research unharmed Summary This study use d the LPI and DIQ to investigate why educators seeking Educational Leadership graduate degrees in Florida public and private campus based or online universities were more or less likely to intend to seek assistant principal posi tion It identif ied additional reasons administrative pools have perceived shortages of quality candidates using job choice theory as a frame of reference. The intent of the researcher wa s to share an Executive Summary of the findings in order to offer the Florida Department of Education (FDOE), school district leadership academies, and university educational leadership departments insight s for restructuring and to remain relevant Internal and external reliability were addressed and strict adherence t o the IRB process was followed for all constituent protection. Finally, survey data w ere analyzed to investigate self assessed leadership behavior and how it is impacted by conditional factors The study was analyzed and a discussion is presented in chapt er four as to why these graduate students may be more or less likely to intend to seek an assistant principal position upon graduation, via the lens of examining self assessed leadership on the LPI, amount of program completion, and several demographic cri teria.

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78 Chapter IV: Findings Introduction This chapter is delineated into major and minor sections Following this introduction are major sections that detail response rates, demogr aphics, analysis of participant s intentions, and scoring guidelines Reliability analysis and research question findings comprise the next two sections Following i s an analysis of openended question responses, additional findings, and a final summary The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship betwee n sel f assessed leadership behaviors of educational leadership graduate students from Florida universities and their intentions to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion Additionally, this study compared the strength of the association among factors of self assessed leadership behavior, gender, age, number of credits completed and all of these factors together with regard to participants intentions to seek an administrative position upon graduation. Each individual respondents self assessed leadership behavior was identified by using the Leadership Practices Inventory ( LPI ) and analyzing the five separate constructs : model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart (Pos ner, 2009) The LPI was developed through a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative research methods, indepth interviews, and written case studies from personal best leadership experiences

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79 (Posner, 2009) The LPI is a survey tool with 30 behaviora l statements Each of the five leadership behavioral practices listed above have six statements for a total of 30 items The Demographics and Intenti ons Questionnaire (DIQ) contained 15 questions that sought to document the respondents intentions so the y could be analyzed and understood more fully C onsecutively administered, the LPI and DIQ were the only survey tools utilized in this study The research questions that framed this study were as follows: 1. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior? 2. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and Gender (Male, Female)? 3. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and number of credits successfully completed (< 3, 39,1015, 1621, 2227, 2833,> 33)? 4. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and age g roups ( 2530, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 )? 5. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership b ehavior, Gender (Male, Female), number of credits successfully completed (< 3, 39, 10 15, 1621, 2227, 2833, > 33) and age groups ( 2530, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 )?

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80 Description of the Sample Response rat e Not including the pilot study participants, students from seven different universities were surveyed. Surveys were distributed online and face to face depending on the needs of the institution. It is not possible to determine how many students were given access to the link online due to the fact that some of the university professors volunteered to forward the survey link to their students rather than having the instrument administer ed in person. The number of responses below was based on both the willingness of universities to respond to the request for participation and the willingness of students to complete the su rvey online All students surveyed in person returned the survey As shown in Table 4, out of the 223 surveys submitted, two hard copy and two online surveys were incomplete (two from the U niversity of South Florida St Petersburg one from the U niversity of Central Florida and one from the U niversity of South Florida Lakeland ) and were not used as they were missing more than five question responses Additionally, when two respondents submitted their inperson survey, they admitted they had completed the survey already online; therefore, these two hard copy in person surveys were not included in the data analyses As promised to the institutions to get them to participate, all data once collected w ere combined so institutional data w ere unidentifiable wi thin the data s et. This ma de the actual number of participants who were used in the study data 217. Some survey data w ere not used. The next section discusses how many surveys were not utilized and why some surveys were not used by stating the criteria for exclusion

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81 Table 4 Responses per University University Hard Copy n Online n Total n 1: University of South Florida Tampa (USF Tampa) 36 23 59 2: University of South Florida St Petersburg (USF SP) 40 4 44 3: University of Central Florida (UCF) 20 16 36 4: Florida State University (FSU) 0 13 13 5: Saint Leo University (SLU) 0 30 30 6: NOVA Southeastern University (NOVA) 0 0 0 7: National Louis University (NL) 0 1 1 8: University of South Florida Polytechnic (USF Poly) 12 28 40 Total 108 115 223 Criteria for e xclusion of m issing d ata After administering the LPI and DIQ surveys and reviewing the raw data, it was noted that some participants failed to respond to one or more questions on the survey instrument s If the missing response was in the demographics and intentions questionnaire, it was left blank. If it was in the LPI, then the following rules were applied The first rule is that if five or more questions out of the survey were left blank, that participant was exclu ded from both the demographic/intention and LPI data This rule applied to four of the 223 submitted surveys If the participant failed to answer more than one question from any individual behavioral c onstruct on the LPI th e information from the LPI for that participant was excluded from calculations If the participant was missing only one question from any individual construct, then the average for that construct was used to replace the missing data point From the entire LPI, out of the 217 surveys analyzed, exactly 100 were

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82 missing no more than one response to one question from any single behavioral construct Additionally, any LPI surveys that were missing two or more responses within any single construct were excluded from the an alysis After the criteria was used and all inclusions and exclusions were calculated, the next section describes associated the numerical values of the participants demographics These descriptions are displayed in tables so patterns can be more easily viewed and discussed. Description of Participants Demographics After exclusions were completed, the data from 217 surveys yielded demographic results with regards to years of teaching experience, race/ ethnicity, county, current position, grade level, setting, degrees, and whether or not the participants had guidance or special education teaching experiences First, as shown in Table 5, t he respective means of the y ears of teaching experience revealed that the majority of participants (89.5%) had between 014 years of experience However, the mean was between 5 9 years of teaching experience, meaning that the majority of educational leadership students in this study did not have 10 years of teaching experience or more before entering an educat ional leadership graduate program

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83 Table 5 Frequency Distribution for Year s of Teaching Experienc e Years of Experience n % 0 4 52 24.0 5 9 95 43.8 10 14 47 21.7 15 20 16 7.4 >20 7 3.2 Total 217 100.0 T he race/ ethnicity of respondents was dominated by the White/Caucasian population with 84.3% of participants identifying themselves with this category according to Table 6. As explored in the research question two findings, 75.6% of the participants in the study were female. Based on this data, the conclusion can be made that the majority of participants in this study were white females, which is commensurate with the finding s in the study of educational leadership programs by Bruner, Greenlee and Hill (2007) Table 6 Distribution of Responses by Race Race Category n % Black 14 6.5 White 183 84.3 Hispanic 11 5.1 Asian 1 0.5 Other 6 2.8 Missing response 2 0.9 Total 217 100.0

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84 In examining the county in which the participants work, the four largest groups (between 11.5% 12.4%) came from Hillsborough, Pasco, Pinellas, and Polk as depicted in Table 7. This question on the survey had a large number of participants who did not respond (n = 39) Table 7 Distribution of Responses by County County n % Alachua 2 0.9 Baker 1 0.5 Bay 2 0.9 Brevard 1 0.5 Citrus 1 0.5 Collier 1 0.5 Duval 6 2.8 Flagler 2 0.9 Hardee 2 0.9 Hernando 3 1.4 Highlands 7 3.2 Hillsborough 25 11.5 Lafayette 1 0.5 Lake 5 2.3 Leon 5 2.3 Levy 1 0.5 Manatee 5 2.3 Marion 1 0.5 Orange 14 6.5 Osceola 3 1.4 Palm Beach 1 0.5 Pasco 26 12.0 Pinellas 27 12.4 Polk 26 12.0 St Lucie 1 0.5 Sarasota 1 0.5 Seminole 8 3.7 Missing response 39 18.0 Total 217 100.0

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85 A majority (75%) described themselves as current teachers as depicted in Table 8. If the scores for teachers and resource/lead teachers are combined, it represents 87.9% of the participants Since many administrative jobs in the public school setting are not available to persons without an educational leadership graduate degree, thi s percentage was expected Table 8 Distribution of Responses by Current Position Position n % Teacher 162 74.7 Administrator 10 4.6 Resource/Lead Teacher 29 13.4 Other 14 6.5 Missing response 2 0.9 Total 217 100.0 The distribution of the participant s grade level was split between elementary (38.2%) and secondary teaching (46.5%) as demonstrated in Table 9. This is an 8.3% difference That is, in this study, more participants were working in the secondary schools, not elementary It sho uld also be noted that the eight participants who answered exceptional may have also qualified as elementary or secondary as well

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86 Table 9 Distribution of Responses by Current Teaching Grade Level Position n % Elementary 83 38.2 Secondary 101 46.5 Exceptional 8 3.7 Alternative 3 1.4 Post secondary 2 0.9 Non Classroom role 19 8.8 Missing response 1 0.5 Total 217 100.0 Not only were the majority secondary teachers, but after examining current teaching assignment s the majority of participants who responded to the question (62.7%) work ed in the public school setting as evidenced in Table 1 0. It should be noted though that a large number of participants did not respond to this question (n=60). Table 1 0 Distribution of Responses by School Setting Setting n % Public 136 62.7 Private 10 4.6 Magnet 3 1.4 Charter 4 1.8 Other 4 1.8 Missing response 60 27.9 Total 217 100.0 To expand on the aspect of previous experience, participants were asked if they had ever had experience as a guidance counselor or spe cial education teacher (SPED) Table 11

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87 shows that majority of respondents (74.2%) had not had such experiences However, in the Standford study, they also discovered graduates of exemplary programs were more likely to be female, members of an ethnic minority group, had strong relevant teaching experiences, served frequently as coaches of other teachers, department chairs, team leaders, were committed to their communities, and capable of becoming instructionally grounded transformational leaders (Darling Hammond et al 2007) In this study, 25.8% indicating experiences as guidance counselor or SPED (special education) teachers is fairly high considering the national average is notably lower. Table 1 1 Distribution of Responses by Previous Experience as a Guidance Counselor or Special Education Teacher Guidance or Special Education n % Yes, had experience 56 25.8 No, no experience 161 74.2 Total 217 100.0 Table 1 2 confirms the fact that the highest level of degree earned for the majority of respondents (77.4%) is only a baccalaureate degree, which was expected since those surveyed were enrolled in a master degree program However, 21.9% did have m asters degrees in other areas More stud y is needed to investigate the certification areas of those who hold masters degrees to see if there is a trend by school level and/or subject matter

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88 Table 1 2 Distribution of Responses by Degrees Earned Degree N % BS/BA 168 77.4 MA/MS 46 21.2 Ed.S 2 0.9 Ph.D./Ed.D 1 0.5 Total 217 100.0 Summary of d emographic i nformation Of the 217 population of graduate students who participated in the study, 74.7% described the mselves as t eacher s and 75.6% percent w ere female The majority, 84.3% identified themselves as White and/or Cau casian The mean age range of persons in the study was between 31 35 years old The vast majority (89.5%) of participants had between 014 years of teaching experience in the secondary (46.5 %) public setting (62.7%) Additionally, most of the participants had only a Bachelors degree (77.4%) More discussion of the results of the demographic characteristics and analysis discussion occur in Chapter 5. The ne xt section is the analysis which is followed by the findings of the research questions Overview of Analysis The second level of analysis utilized inferential statistics to determine the relationship between the independent variables ( intent to seek an assistant principal position as measured by the LPI, number of credits successfully completed or program completion progress, gender, and age ) and the dependent variable (intentions to seek an assistant principal position as measured by the DIQ ) One ques tion from the DIQ was used to measure graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position upon

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89 program completion. The question was scaled using a six point Likert type scale from 1 = Strongly Disagree to 4 = Strongly Agree, with the latter representing the greatest intent in seeking an assistant principal position. The LPI consisted of 30 behavioral statements designed to measure self assessed leadership behavior Inferential statistics were used to draw conclusions from the sample populati on tested The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to enter data collected from the survey, conduct analyses and provide summarized values where applicable including the median, mean, central tendency, variance, and standard deviat ion. In addition, demographic data was processed using frequency statistics and a reliability analysis was conducte d using Cronbachs alpha test Then, prior to analyzing the five research questions, data analysis options were conducted to ensure the var iables of interest met appropriate statistical assumptions The dependent variable was evaluated for normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity Finally, regression, multiple regression, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) w ere used to detect amount of shared variance and strength of relationship between the variables Reliability Analysis Reliability analysis allows one to study the properties of measurement scales and the items that compose the scales (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2 007) Cronbachs alpha reliability analysis procedure calculates a reliability coefficient that ranges between 0 and 1. The reliability coefficient is based on the average inter item correlation It i s a measure of internal consistency and a high value of alpha is evidence that the items measure an underlying construct Scale reliability is assumed if the coefficient is greater than or equal to 0.70.

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90 Table 1 3 displays the results of the reliability analysis Cronbachs alpha coefficients greater th an .70 were assumed to be reasonably reliable Overall, the instrument for this studys sample proved to be reliable wit h Cronbachs alphas ranging from .695 to .937. LPI results revealed that four LPI constructs were sufficiently reliable. That is, for each of the four 6item constructs, Cronbachs alpha was calculated at greater than .70 for Encourage, Model, Inspire, and Challenge constructs Even though the psychometric properties of the LPI from the author s report Enable as having a Cronbach alpha of .73, in this study the Cronbachs a .695) was slightly lower than the critical value B ut it is not significant enough to cause concern That could be the result of some missing responses in the data Cronbachs alpha for the entire 30item LPI was greater than .70. Table 13 Cronbach Alpha for the Entire LPI is Strong ( > .70 ) LPI Sub Constructs Cronbachs Alpha Inter Item Correlation Mean Min Correlation Max Correlation Encourage .846 48.677 .284 .694 Model .718 49.677 .169 .478 Enable .695 51.774 .114 .431 Inspire .827 46.240 .267 .587 Challenge .816 47.415 .281 .546 Leadership Practices Inventory .937 243.783 .009 .694 Note N = 217

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91 Findings Related to Research Questions Summary of analys is overview Research question one sought to determine if there was a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior The results of research question one indicated no significant relationship was found between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position (Intentions) and their self assessed leadership behaviors ( R2 = .014, p = .715) The data showed the majority of respondents (83.9%) do intend to seek an assi stant principal position upon program completion. Research question two examined if there was a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and gender The descriptive statistics of the dependent variable by gender showed 53 male and 164 females responded indicating their intent to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion. Even though the majority of respondents were female, results of research question two indicated no significant difference was found between g raduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and their gender ( R2 = .020, p = .074) Research questions three investigated if there was a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and number of credits successfully completed In the 83.9% of respondents claimed they would seek an assistant principal position upon program completion and in the DIQ, 64.1% of respondents rated the influence salary had on their decision to pursue a degree in educational lea dership as either somewhat important or one of the primary reasons Each graduate credit represent s a graduate students economic investment in their future and one step closer to program completion. While there could be many reasons to progress towards graduation, the results of research

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92 question three indicated no significant relationship was found between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and the number of credits successfully completed ( R2 = .006, p = .251) Research question four explored if there was a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and age group. The highest percentage of respondents in this study were between 25 to 30 years of age Since the age categories ranged from 25 to gr eater than 55, the actual design of this research question had to change in order to analyze it due to the skewness of the age range distribution. This variable had to be normalized to better represent any relationships in the data Regardless of this change, the results of research question four still indicated no significant relationship was found between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and their age ( R2 = .004, p = .384) Research question five studied if there was a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior, gender, number of credits successfully completed, and age No individual relationships between predictor and dependent variables were found because this research question did not yield statistically significant results The fact that the variables did not synergize with one another suggests that no significant relationships existed between leadership behavior scores via LPI, gender, number of credits completed, and age However, 83.9% of the respondents did proclaim they intended to seek az an assistant principal position after graduation and 14.3% claimed they intend ed to never seek an assistant principal position or that it is unknown when they w ould ever seek an assistant principal position. In Research question five, there was no significant difference between graduate students

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93 intent to seek an assistant principal position and a regression model containing l eadership total, g ender, c redits, a ge, l eadership multiplied by g ender, l eadership multiplied by c redits, and l eadership multiplied by a ge ( R2 = .047, p = .188) as further shown in Table 14. Table 14 Results Table Indicating No Research Question Reached Statistical Significant Differences Research Question Analysis Criterion Variable Predictor Variable Sig. 1 Multiple Regression Intentions Encourage, Model, Enable, Inspire, and Challenge .715 2 ANOVA Intentions Gender .074 3 Regression Intentions Credits Completed .251 4 Regression Intentions Age .384 5 Multiple Regression Intentions Leadership total, Gender, Credits, Age, Leadership X Gender, Leadership X Credits, and Leadership X Age .188

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94 Research Question 1 The first research question addressed the relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior To analyze this research question, a multiple regression analysis was conducted. Figure 1, participant intentions to seek an assistant principal position, shows that the major ity of respondents ( 83.9% ) intend to seek an assistant principal position. Figure 1. Graduate s tudent i ntentions to s eek an a ssistant principal position upon program c ompletion Figure 1 shows that intention is significantly skewed with more participants indicating they strongly agreed on this Likert scale that ranged from strongly dis agree, represented n =14 n =15 n =27 n =47 n =44 n =70

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95 by a one, through to strongly agree, indicated with a six Self assessed leadership behaviors were measured using the Leadership Pra ctices Inventory ( Appendix A ) It measured leadership behaviors categorized into five practices or constructs The construct titles were shortened to read: e ncourage, m odel, e nable, i nspire, and c hallenge. Each construct is a composite variable of its own. In Figure 2 below, the scores within the individual leadership behavior constructs show that Model and Enable have the hig hest average score while Inspire, Challenge, and Encourage scored approximately one point lower than the latter The distribution of scores is highest within the constructs of Inspire and Challenge. Figure 2. LPI i ndividual c onstruct s cores Model Inspire Challenge Enable Encourage 2 4 6 8 10 195 189 123 107 202 191 182 149 114 101 101 135 107 123 195 182 129 117 107 8 101 80 101 Rating (1 is Almost Never and 10 is Almost Always)

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96 Research Question 1 (RQ1) was analyzed using multiple regression Multiple regression was employed to determine if a relationship exists between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position (Intentions) and self assessed leadership behavior The criterion variable, Intentions, was measured on a six point Likert type sc ale. Scores ranged from 1 to 6 with a mean of 4.392 and standard deviation of 1.527. The predictor variables for RQ1 were Encourage, Model, Enable, Inspire, and Challenge The predictor variables were derived by adding up case scores across respected co nstructs and then dividing by the number of questions per construct ( 6) to produce an average score. The questions were scaled using a 10point Likert type scale where 1 = Almost Never 2 = Rarely, 3 = Seldom 4 = Once in a while 5 = Occasionally 6 = Sometimes 7 = Fairly Often 8 = Usually 9 = Very Frequently, and 10 = Almost Always Scores for all five variables ranged from 2.33 to 10.00. Descriptive statistics for the criterion and predictor variables are shown in Table 15. Missing da ta were investigated by running frequency counts in SPSS No cases with missing data were found in the data s et. T hus, for RQ1, 217 responses from participants were received and all 217 were retained; N = 217 Tests of n ormality. Before RQ1 was analyzed, basic parametric assumptions were assessed That is, for the criterion variable and predictor variables, assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity of variance were evaluated That said graphical devices were created to enable the researcher to visually evaluate the

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97 aforementioned assumptions In Figure 3, s pecifically, a s tandardized frequency histogram was produced to provide visual evidence of normality or nonnormality Figure 3. Histogram of the c riterion variable i ntentions to illustrate n ormality As depicted in Figure 3, the normalized histogram suggests negative skewness and no identifiable kurtosis; skewness = 0.690, kurtosis = .486. Associated descriptive statistics for the predictor and criterion variables are presented in Table 16. Using z scores to evaluate normality, the criterion variable may have violated parametric assumptions That is, z scores were created by dividing the skewness coefficient ( 0.690) by the standard error of skewness ( 0.165) The resulting z score coefficient of 4.18 was compared to +/ 3.29, p > .001 and found to exceed the critical value of +/ 3.29. Tabachnick and Fidell (2007) suggest that z scores exceeding this critical value

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98 may represent a non normal distribution Although a non normal distribution may exist, transformation of the criterion variable was not conducted to normalize the distribution. The predictor variables were investigated in the same manner and found to be negatively skewed ( see Table 1 5 for details) Although being negatively skewed, the predictor variables were not transformed. The reason not to transform was made due to lack of impact on outcome Table 1 5 General Descriptive Statistics for Criterion and Predictor Variables Variable Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Skewness Kurtosis Encourage 2.33 10.00 8.11 1.229 1.148 2.135 Model 4.00 10.00 8.28 1.009 0 .970 1.42 Enable 5.17 10.00 8.63 0 .766 1.066 2.24 Inspire 2.50 10.00 7.71 1.332 0 .914 0 .851 Challenge 3.67 10.00 7.90 1.208 0 .790 0 .561 Intentions 1.00 6.00 4. 39 1.5 27 0 690 0 .4 86 Note N = 217, Skewness Std Error = 0.165, Kurtosis Std Error = 0.329 H omoscedasticity and l inearity The assumption of homoscedasticity was evaluated by examining the Norm al P P plot of standardized residuals. Linearity was evaluated by examining the scatter plot. Support for the assumptions of linearity and homoscedasticity was evident due to error terms s ymmetrically distributed around the mean an d oval shaped pattern of observed data points depicted in the scatter plot. The oval shaped pattern implies that the variables were linearly related and the variability in scores for the dependent variable was rou ghly the same at all values of the predictor variable.

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99 Multicollinearity The assumption of multicollinearity was tested by calculating correlations between variables and collinearity statistics (Tolerance and Variance Inflation Factor) Correlations bet ween criterion and predictor variables were not too low and correlations between predictor variables did not exceed 0.780. Tolerance is calculated using the formula T = 1 R2 and variance inflation factor (VIF) is the inverse of Tolerance (1 divided by T) Commonly used cut off points for determining the presence of multicollinearity are T > 0.10 and VIF < 10. Results from the evaluation suggest there were no violations of m ulticollinearity Additionally, g iven the preponderance of evidence provided, normality of the criterion variable and predictor variables is conditionally affirmed That is, after examining the Normalized Frequency Histograms, descriptive statistics, Nor mal Q Q, scatter plot and multicollinearity statistics, the variables are assumed to meet parametric assumptions Multiple regression a nalysis There was no significant difference found in graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position between a model containing five predictor variables (Encourage, Model, Enable, Inspire, and Challenge); R = .116, R2 = .014, F (5, 211) = 0.580, p = .715 (twotailed) Table 19 displays a model summary of the multiple regression analysis of R Q1

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100 Table 1 6 Model Summary Generated from Multiple Regression Analysis of Graduate Students Intentions to Seek an Assistant Principal Position and Leadership Behaviors Regression Model Detail R R2 Standard Error F Sig Omnibus Model .116 .014 1.535 0 .580 .715 Non standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig B Std Error Beta (Constant) 2.563 1.210 2.118 .035 Encourage 0 .106 0 .137 0 .085 0 .770 .442 Model 0 .040 0 .183 0 .026 0 .218 .827 Enable 0 .220 0 .195 0 .110 1.123 .263 Inspire 0 .085 0 .136 0 .074 0 .624 .533 Challenge 0 .024 0 .157 0 .019 0 .154 .878 No predictor variables made a statistically significant contribution to the prediction of intention scores Only, 1.4% of variance in Intentions was accounted for by leadership behaviors Thus, results from analysis of R Q1 suggest no significant relationship between graduate students intention to seek an assistant principal position and leadership behaviors exists as identified by the LPI Research Question 2 The second research question addressed the relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and gender Research Question 2 (RQ2) was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) ANOVA was employed to determine if differences exist between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position (Intentions) and their gender The dependent variable for the question was student s intent (Intentions) to seek an assistant principal position as measured by the LPI The student s gender

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101 (Gender) serves as the independent variable for RQ2. The parameters for Gender were measured by 0 being Male and 1 being Female Table 17 represents the gender variable illustrating the fact that the majority of the survey respondents were femal e Table 17 Distribution of Responses by Gender Gender n % Male 53 24.4 Female 164 75.6 Total 215 100.0 Univariate outliers A test for univariate outliers was conducted and no cases were found to exist within the distribution. Moreover, no cases with missing data were found; thus, for RQ2, 217 responses from participants were received and 217 were entered into the ANOVA model; N = 217. Tests of n ormality. Before the RQ2 was analyzed, basic parametric assumptions were assessed R efer to Research Question 1 for parametric assumptions of the dependent variable (Intentions) Descriptive statistics for the dependent variables by gender is presented in Table 18.

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102 Table 18 Descriptive Statistics of the Dependent Variable by Gender Variable by Sub Group N Minimum Maximum Mean Std Deviation Male Intentions 53 1.00 6.00 4.72 1.59 Female Intentions 164 1.00 6.00 4.29 1.50 Note Standard Error skew = .327, Standard Error Kurtosis = 0.644 Test of h omogeneity. To examine the assumption of homogeneity of variance Levenes test was run Homogeneity of variance is evaluated to determine if distributions are equal across the two levels of the i ndependent variable (Male, Female) Results from Levenes test found that the distributions were equal across groups, F (1, 215) = 0.491, p = .484. These results suggest that the two distributions were equally distributed. Given the preponderance of evidence provided, normality is c onditionally affirmed That i s, after examining the descriptive statistics, Normalized Frequency Histogram, and Levenes test, the distributions were assumed to meet parametric assumptions ANOVA a nalysis Using SPSS, Analyze/Compare Means/OneWay ANOVA, no significant difference in Intention scores were found between male and female students; F (1, 215) = 3.214, eta squared = .015, p = .074. For details, s ee Table 19 an d Figure 4 for details Table 19 pro vides descriptive statistics generated from the ANOVA analysis including sums of squares, degree of freedom ( df ), mean square, F statistics ( F ), significant level (sig), and eta squared.

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103 Table 19 Descriptive Statistics Generated from ANOVA Analysis Indicating No Significant Difference between Intentions and Gender Source Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Eta Squared Between Groups 7.420 1 7.420 3.214 .074 .015 Within Groups 496.285 215 2.308 Total 503.705 216 Mean scores for Gender are found in Figure 4 E ta squared indicates that only 1.5% of the variance found in the dependent variable was accounted for by Gender Based on these results, there is no difference between male and female students and their intent to seek an assistant principal position.

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104 Figure 4. Estimated m arginal m eans plot indicating no difference in i ntentions across gende r Research Question 3 The third research question addressed the relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and the number of credits completed within the educational leadership masters program For Research Question 3 (RQ3), least squares regression analysis was used to analyze relationships between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position (Intentions) and the number of credits successfully completed. The criterion variable for the question was students intent (Intentions) to seek an assistant principal position The number of cre dits successfully completed (Credits

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105 Completed) serve d as the predictor variable for RQ3. The parameters for Credits Completed were measured by 1 being Less than 3 credits 2 being 3 9 credits, 3 being 1015 credits 4 being 16 21 credits, 5 being 22 27 c redits, 6 being 2833 credits, and 7 being More than 33 credits All participants in this study were currently enrolled in a educational lead ership m asters degree program Table 2 0 describes the large variety in the distribution of the number of credits completed Table 2 0 Distribution by Educational Leadership Graduate College Credits Number of Credits n % <3 22 10.1 3 9 47 21.7 10 15 34 15.7 16 21 25 11.5 22 27 14 6.5 28 33 48 22.1 >33 27 12.4 Total 217 100.0 Univariate outliers A test for univariate outliers was conducted and none were found to exist within the distributions Standardized values were calculated by converting observed scores into z scores Any values that exceed the critical value of 3.29 were considered outliers (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007) Furthermore, no missing values were found in the distributions; thus for RQ3, 217 responses from participants were received and 217 were entered into the regression model; N = 217. Tests of n ormality. Before the RQ3 was analy zed, basic parametric assumptions were assessed To avoid repetition, refer to Research Question 1 for parametric

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106 assumptions of the criterion variable (Intentions) For the predictor variable Credits Completed, assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity were evaluated That said, a graphical device was created to enable the researcher to visually evaluate the aforementioned assumptions Specifically in Figure 6 the Standardized Credits Completed frequency histogram was presented to pr ovide visual evidence of nonnormality or normality Figure 5. Histogram of the c redits c ompleted predictor variable with normal curve superimposed. The normalized histogram indicates a slight positive skewness = .092 and some detectable kurtosis (kurtosis = 1.411) as shown in Figure 5. To test if this deviation

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107 from normality was significant, a zscore was calculated using the standard error of the skew ( std error skew = .165) Results indicated that the con struct was normally distributed; (skewness = .092, z = .558, p > 3.29). Descriptive statistics for the criterion and predictor variables were presented in Table 21. Note that credits completed was coded in SPSS so the mean in Table 21 reflects a mean at n early the 16 21 credit mark (credits is coded as 1, 3 9 is 2, 1015 is 3, and 1621 credits is 4, 2227 is coded as 5, 2833 is and >33 credits is ). Table 2 1 Descriptive Statistics for Criterion and Predictor Variables Descriptive Statistics for Criterion and Predictor Variables Variable Mean Std Deviation Skewness Kurtosis Min Max Credits Completed 3.99 4.023 .092 1.411 1.00 7.00 Intentions 4.392 1.527 .690 0.486 1.00 6.00 Note Standard Error skew = .165, Standard Error Kurtosis = .329 Regression analysis Using SPSS, there was no significant relationship found between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and the amount of credits completed; r = .078, R2 = .006, F (1, 215) = 1.327, p = .251 (two tailed) see Table 22 for details Table 24 provides a model summary generated from the regression analysis including standard error (Std. Error), Beta, t statistics (t), and significant level (sig).

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108 Table 2 2 Model Summary Generated from Regression Analysis Indicating No Significant Relationship between Credits Completed and Intentions Unstandarized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model R R2 B Std Error Beta t Sig. Omnibus Model .078 .006 .251 Constant 4.629 .231 20.051 .000 Credits 0 .060 .052 .078 1.152 .251 Note DV: Intentions The scatter plot presented in Figure 6 reflects no significant relationship between the criterion variable and predictor variable R squared (.006) might suggest that 0.6% of the reason why graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position varies might be due to the amount of credits successfully completed. Given the results, the predictor variable (Credits Completed) cannot accurately predict student intentions.

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109 Figure 6. Scatter dot plot indicating no significant relationship between i ntentions and c redits c ompleted Research Question 4 Research Question 4 (RQ4) was analyzed using regression Regression was employed to determine if a relationship exists between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position (Intentions) and age groups The criterion variable for the question was students intent (Intentions) to seek an assistant principal position. The students age group (Age) serves as the predictor variable for RQ4 The parameters for Age were measured by 1 being 2530, 2 being 3135, 3 being 36 40, 4 being 4145, 5 being 4650, 6 being 5155, and 7 being 55+ As represented in Table 23, the highest percentage of participants came from the 25 30 years age range, but note that the mean

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110 age range was 31 35. One of the participants missing a response in Table 2 3 commented that she was 23 years of age and that there was no 2024 age range l isted. Table 2 3 Distribution of Respondents by Age Years of Age n % 25 30 83 38.2 31 35 46 21.2 36 40 30 13.8 41 45 27 12.4 46 50 19 8.8 51 55 5 2.3 > 55 5 2.3 Missing response 2 0.9 Total 217 100.0 Univariate outliers A test for univariate outliers was conducted and no cases were found to exist within the distribution. Moreover, two cases with missing data were found and removed; thus, for RQ4, 217 responses from participants were received and 215 were entered into the regression model; N = 215. Tests of n ormality. Before the RQ4 was analyzed, basic parametric assumptions were assessed To avoid repetition, please refer to Research Question 1 for parametric assumptions of the criterion variable (Intentions) For the predictor variable A ge, assumptions of normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity were evaluated. A graphical device was created to enable the researcher to visually evaluate the aforementioned assumptions Specifically, the Standardized Age frequency histogram was present ed to provide visual evidence of non normality or normality see Figure 7.

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111 Figure 7. Histogram of the a ge predictor variable with normal curve superimposed. The normalized histogram indicates positive skewness = .934 and slight kurtosis (kurtosis = .018) To test if this deviation from normality was significant, a zscore was calculated using the standard error of the skew ( std error skew = .166) Results indicated that the construct was not normally distrib uted; (skewness = .934, z = 5.626, p > 3.29) Z scores that exceed the critical value of +/ 3.29 suggests a nonnormal distribution (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007) Descriptive statistics for the criterion and predictor variables were presented in Table 24.

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112 Table 2 4 Descriptive Statistics for Criterion and Predictor Variables Variable Mean Std Deviation Skewness Kurtosis Min Max Age 2.48 1.600 .934 0 .018 1 7 Intentions 4.386 1.530 .687 0 .498 1 6 Note Standard Error skew = .166, Standard Error Kurtosis = .330 Regression analysis Using SPSS, there was no significant relationship between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and their age; r = .060, R2 = .004, F (1, 213) = 0.760, p = .384 (twotailed) see Table 2 5 for details Table 2 5 provides a model summary generated from the regression analysis including standard error (Std Error), Beta, t statistics (t), and significant level (sig). Table 2 5 Model Summary Generated from Regression Analysis Indicating No Significant Relationship between Age and Intentions Model R R2 Unstandarized Beta (B) Std Error Standardized Beta t Sig. Omnibus Model .060 .004 .384 Constant 4.245 0 .193 22.008 .000 Age 0 .057 0 .065 0 .060 0 .872 .384 The scatter plot presented in Figure 8 reflects no significant relationship between the criterion variable and predictor variable R squared (.004) might suggest that 0.4% of the reason why graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position varies might be due to their age Given the results, the predictor variable (Age) cannot accurately predict student intentions.

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113 Figure 8. Scatter dot plot indicatin g no significant relationship between i ntentions and a ge Research Question 5 The final research question addressed the relationships between intent to seek an assistant principal position, self assessed leadership behavior, gender, number of credits comp leted, and age Research Question 5 (RQ5) was analyzed using Multiple Regression (MR). Regression was employed to determine if a relationship exists between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position (Intentions) and a model containing LPI, Gender, Credits, and Age The criterion variable for the question was students

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114 intent (Intentions) to seek an assistant principal position and the predictors were LPI, Gender, Credits, and Age, LPI (x) Gender, LPI (x) Credits, and LPI (x) Age The three interaction terms were derived by using the Compute tab in SPSS Using SPSS, there was no significant relationship between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and a regression model containing LPI Construct T otal, Gender, Age, Credits, LPI (x) Gender, LPI (x) Age, and LPI (x) Credits (Omnibus Model); r = .216, R2 = .047, F (1, 207) = 1.446, p = .188 (twotailed) see Table 2 6 for details Table 2 6 provides a model summary generated from the regression analysi s including standard error (Std Error), Beta, t statistics (t), and significant level (sig) for each predictor No individual relationships between predictor and dependent variables were found Table 2 6 Model Summary Generated from Regression Analysis Indicating No Significant Relationship between Intentions and a regression model containing LPI Total, Gender, Age, Credits, LPI x Gender, LPI x Age, and LPI x Credits (Omnibus Model) Unstandarized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Model R R2 B Std Error Beta t Sig. Omnibus Model .216 .047 .188 Constant 1.808 2.997 0 .603 .547 Leadership Total 0 .013 0 .012 0 .242 1.090 .277 Gender 1.573 2.259 0 .444 0 .696 .487 Age 0 .096 0 .252 0 .100 0 .381 .704 Credits 0 .033 0 .501 0 .043 -0 .066 .948 Leadership (x) Gender 0 .009 0 .009 0 .625 -0. 950 .343 Leadership (x) Age 0 .000 0 .006 0 .034 -0 .126 .900 Leadership (x) Credits 0 .000 0 .002 0 .084 0 .123 .902 Note DV = Intentions Self Assessed Behavior Constructs Relationships To analyze the strength of the relationships among the LPI constructs, the Pearson Product Moment Correlation

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115 values are presented in Table 27 for each of the respective domain relationships in a five by five correlation matrix According to the correlation testing, every domain was significant at the .01 level with a 2 tailed test with each of the other domains and the total LPI score The strongest relationship appears to be between the constructs Inspire and Challenge and the construct most predictive of the total LPI score is Challenge. Table 2 7 Relationship Between Constructs Construct Model Inspire Challenge Enable Encourage Model .65 ** .65 ** .55 ** .71 ** Inspire .76 ** .42 ** .57 ** Challenge .55 ** .66 ** Enable .59 ** Encourage LPI Overall .85 ** .8 3 ** .88 ** .70 ** .85 ** Note ** = p < .01 Length of w ait until s eeking assistant p rincipal p osition Upon graduation from the Educational Leadership program, participants were asked how quickly they would begin seeking an assistant principal position As shown in Table 28, over half (61.3%) plan to pursue the position within two years of graduation. Exactly 14.3% claim they never will seek and assistant principal position or it is unknown when they will or wil l not ever seek and assistant principal position.

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116 Table 2 8 Frequency Distribution Indicating When Participant s Will Seek an Assistant Principal Position Rating n % Immediately 61 28.1 1 2 years 72 33.2 3 5 years 39 18.0 >5 years 10 4.6 Unknown 24 11.1 Never 7 3.2 Missing response 4 1.8 Total 217 100.0 In examining why participants would choose to wait, students were asked to explain their response to this question and the responses were coded and analyzed as described in the next section. Analysis of Open E nded Question The qualitative question was analyzed by a theme anal ysis The responses to each question were categorized into response categories by grouping similar answers together Each of the respective response themes w ere quantifi ed and a qualitative coding key was developed (Appendix E ) First, the data reduction process for the openended questions is discussed. Then, frequency distributions for each respective domain are presented f or both answer categories and themes Inter rater reliability was performed between the researcher and another professor, in the categorization of responses within each theme It was determined to be within acceptable limits There was only one conflict within one of the

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117 openended question responses Additionally, t he researcher clarified the rules based on this conflict to ensure that the coding system was reliable. Data r eduction The data from the exploratory question w ere categorized The exploratory question is the latter portion of this question: When do you intend to seek an assistant principal position? Explain Th is question was analyzed for themes and most com mon responses were identified The themes were coded A key for response and theme coding is presented in Appendix E and later in this paragraph. Of the 217 submitted surveys, only 85 respondents participated in these openended responses T he content of each open ended questions responses were analyzed and categorized into categories by grouping similar answers toge ther Then, general categories of responses were quantitatively coded to measure respectively Each of the respective response categories was quantified and an open ended questionnaire coding key was developed (Appendix E ) The coding guide categories are as follows: not waiting (on seeking an assistant principal position), waiting to get more experience in current or next position, waiting to earn more degrees, certifications, or professional development, waiting to get a district level, higher education, DOE, or specific position, and waiting due to family related reason. The data from the openended response analysis w ere converted into response categories by taking the content of t he response and assigning it to a value. Data d isplay After the red uction of data, an analysis of each questions response categories and respective themes was completed through frequency distributions which are presented below in Table 29. From the 217 respondents, 85 responded to the openended question. Within these 85 respondent surveys, 22 respondents (25.9%) indicated

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118 they would seek an assistant principal position immediately upon program completion Finally, 63 (74.1%), the majority, said they would wait to seek an administrative position. The prep onderance, 33 respondents (38.8% of those who responded to the open ended question), of the reasons for waiting was because they wanted more experience in their current position or the next position before seeking an assistant principal position. Of the r emaining 35.3% indicat ed they were choosing to wait to seek an assistant principal position: 10.6% were waiting to earn another degree, more certifications, or other professional type development; 18.8% claimed to not be seeking an assistant principal pos ition, but were waiting to get a district level position, higher education position, Department of Education position, or another specific position other than an assistant principalship; and 9.4% intended to wait due to family related reasons Table 29 Frequency Distribution of Responses for OpenEnded Question Response Category n % 0: not waiting 22 25.9 1: waiting to get more experience in current or next position 33 38.8 2: waiting to earn more degrees, certifications, or professional development 9 10.6 3: waiting to get a district level, higher ed., DOE, or specific position 16 18.8 4: waiting due to family related reason 8 9.4 Total who responded to this question 85 100 Missing responses (not used to calculate %) 132 60.8 Additional Findings Motivation and intention are inexplicably intertwined One of the questions on the DIQ asked participants to rate the influence salary played in their decision to pursue a

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119 deg ree in educational leadership As seen in Table 3 0, 64.1% of respondents rated salary as either somewhat important or one of the primary reasons Table 3 0 Frequency Distribution for Influence of Salary Rating n % No role 35 16.1 Not that important 42 19.4 Somewhat important 105 48.4 One of the primary reasons 34 15.7 Missing response 1 0.5 Total 217 100.0 According to Table 3 1, it appears that participants were split when asked w hich level of assistant principal they intended to become However, a very slight majority (52.5%) indicated they intended to seek an Elementary assistant principal position upon program completion It was noted that when asked on the DIQ if respondents intended to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion, 26 out of 53 (49%) selected strongly agree. But, only 44 out of 164 (27%) of the females selected strongly agree. While these findings reveal DIQ respondent demographic differences, the next section contains an exploratory analysis of the LPIs self assessed leadership b ehavior individual constructs to find search for more patterns or trends within the data

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120 Table 3 1 Frequency Distribution of Responses for Assistant Principal Preference Level n % Elementary 114 52.5 Secondary 102 47.0 Missing response 1 0.5 Total 217 100.0 Exploratory Analysis Table 3 2 displays the results from the exploratory analysis conducted to investigate if there were any trend s or patterns in the data that might be relevant to the study Specifically, a second look at the LPI and intent to seek an assistant principal position from the DIQ was conducted T he LPIs self assessed behavioral constructs w ere standardized and categorized by intensity G roups were specified by retrieving cases with z scores 0.5 and cases with z scores 0.5. This strategy remove d approximately 34% of the cases clustered around the mean Effectively, only those responding with high and low scores were retai ned to determine if any trend s or differences existed between groups with regards to intent to seek an assistant principal position. In sum instead of jus t examining overall intent only those most likely to seek an assistant principal position were retained C ases with z scores greater than 1.0 were retained for analysis This strategy onl y extracted those participants likely to seek an assistant principal position Those unlikely to intend to seek the position were categorically removed This same procedure was d uplicated for all five constructs

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121 Results from th is analysi s found a distinct trend in the data listed in Table 3 2. It seems f or the construct s low leadership practice construct scores on intent to seek an assistant principal position were lower than those wi th high leadership practice construct scores These findings s uggest that those respondents likely to intend to seek an assistant principal position have more self assessed leadership behavior qualities Table 3 2 Summary of LPI Exploratory Analysis Searching for Trends and Patterns DV IV F Sig Mean Low Mean High High Intentions Encourage 3.465 0.066 4.64 5.03 High Intentions Model 7.490 0.008** 4.54 5.22 High Intentions Enable 2.809 0.098 4.42 4.86 High Intentions Inspire 2.922 0.092 4.7 0 5.12 High Intentions Challenge 4.355 0.040* 4.65 5.16 Note = p < .05, ** = p < .01 Encourage Encouraging the heart construct measured respondents view of how well they recognize d contributions or others and celebrating others values and victories To search for trends and patterns in the data, constructs associated with the LPI were standardized and categorized by intensity G roups were specified by extracting cases with z scores 0.5 and cases with z scores 0.5. Thus, 21 cases were removed leaving only those likely to intend to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion Figure 10 illustrates r esults from th is analysis found no significant difference existed between groups at the alpha .05 level ; F (1,101) = 3.465, p = .066.

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122 However, a trend was evident in mean scores across groups Specifically, participants with low encourage scores were less likely to seek an assistant principal position than those with higher scores ( M = 4.64, M = 5.03 respectively) as seen in Figure 9 Figure 9. High intentions scores co r relate with high e ncourage scores Model Modeling the way construct measured respondents consistency with clarifying values and setting the example for others To identify any trends in the data, constructs associated with the leadership inventory were also standardized and categorized by intensity That is groups were specified by extracting cases with z scores 0.5 and cases with z scores 0.5. In Figure 10 r esults f rom th is analysis found a significant difference existed between groups at alpha .05 level ; F (1, 71) = 7.490, p = .008. A s ignificant trend was evident in mean scores across groups Speci fically,

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123 participants with low M odel construct scores were less likely to seek an assistant principal position than those with higher scores ( M = 4.54, M = 5.22 respectively). Figure 10. High intentions scores correlate with high model scores. Enable Enabling others to act construct on the LPI was designed to solicit self feedback on respondents view of how they foster collaboration and strengthen others To investigate trends in the data, self assessed leadership behavior constructs associated with the LPI were standardized and categorized by intensity That is groups were specified by extracting cases with z scores 0.5 and cases with z scores 0.5. Resul ts from the analysis found that no significant difference existed between groups at alpha .05 level ; F (1,67) = 2.809, p = .098 as can be viewed in Figur e 1 1. However, despite the nonsignificant p value, a trend was evident in mean scores across groups Speci fically,

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124 participants with low E nable construct scores were less likely to seek an assistant principal position than those with higher scores ( M = 4.42, M = 4.86 respectively). Figure 11. High intentions scores correlate with high enable scores. Inspire Envisioning the future and enlisting others was the focus of the LPIs construct that measured how respondents indicated they inspire shar ed vision. To investigate trends in the data, self assessed leadership behavior constructs associated with the LPI were standardized and categorized by intensity G roups were specified by extracting cases with z scores 0.5 and cases with z scores 0.5. As illustrated in Figure 1 2, r esults from th is particular analysis found no significant difference existed between groups at alpha .05 level ; F (1,72) = 2.922, p = .092. However, a trend was evident in mean scores across groups Speci fically, participants with low I nspire

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125 construct scores were less likely to seek an assistant principal position than those with higher scores ( M = 4.70, M = 5.12 respectively). Figure 12. High intentions scores correlate with high inspire scores. Challenge Challenge the process construct measured how respondents search for opportunities and experiment and take risks To investigate trends in the data, self assessed c onstructs associated with the LPI were standardized and categorized by intensity G roups w ere specified by extracting cases with z scores 0.5 and cases with z scores 0.5. In Figure 1 3, r esults from the analysis found a significant difference existed between groups at alpha .05 level ; F (1,73) = 4.355, p = .040. A trend was evident in mean scores across groups Specifically, participants with low challenge scores were less likely to seek an assistant principal position than those with higher scores ( M = 4.65, M =

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126 5.16 respectively) In order to be objective about the data within these tables, figures and paragraphs, readers must be cognizant of the limitations of this study After Figure 1 3 is statement of actualized study limitations to maintain perspectives Figure 13. High intentions scores correlate with h igh challenge scores. Limitations T his s tudy reliability may have been marginalized somewhat because a pure random sample was not obtained and the study was limited in methods design, survey design, population characteristics, and sampling procedure s Th e strictly cross sectional quantitative methodological design does not observe phenomenological behaviors or behaviors over time This was administered once, not replicated many times Addi tionally, the s tudy s survey s were r estrictive Likert type inst rument s do not allow personal suggestions or insight by design and there is no guarantee in accuracy with self

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127 reporting Even with these limitations the findings still offer perspective of graduate students in Florida who may or may not pursue administrative positions upon program completion. Summary of the Findings Five research questions were posed for investigation in this study Results of Research Question 1 indicated no significant relationship was found between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and their self assessed leadership behaviors ( p = .715) Results of Research Question 2 indicated no significant difference was found between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and the ir gender ( p = .074) Results of Research Question 3 indicated no significant relationship was found between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and the number of credits successfully completed ( p = .251) Likewise, r esults of Research Question 4 indicated no significant difference was found between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and their age ( p = .384) The r esults of Research Question 5 also indicated no significant difference was found between graduate students intent to seek an assistant principal position and a regression model containing Leadership total, Gender, Credits, Age, Leadership x Gender, Leadership x Credits, and Leadership x Age ( p = .188) Finally, t he largest theme of open ended responses as to why educational leadership students plan to wait after graduation to seek an assistant principal position is that they were waiting to get more experience in their current or next position. Chapter five follo ws with a detailed discussion of these findings.

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128 C hapter V: Discussion Introduction Chapter five briefly summarizes the methods and procedures used in this study It also includes a discussion of major findings, implications, and recommendations for future research The study set out to investigate the relationship between self assessed leadership behaviors and intentions to seek an assistant principal position as well as to compare the strength of the association among factors such as gender, age, a nd number of credits completed with regard to participants intentions to seek an administrative position after finishing their m asters degree. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence the intentions of educational leadership graduate students currently enrolled in university educational leadership programs in Florida This was accomplished by analyzing the characteristics of graduate students in Florida that were associated with the intention to seek an assistant principal posit ion upon program completion. Of particular interest was the influence of self assessed leadership behaviors on intention to pursue an assistant principal pos i tion The research questions that framed this study were as follows : 1. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior?

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129 2. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and Gender (Male, Female)? 3. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and number of credits successfully completed (< 3, 3 9,1015, 1621, 22 27, 2833, > 33)? 4. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and age groups ( 25 30, 3135, 3640, 4145, 4650, 51 55, > 55 )? 5. Is there a relationship between intent to seek an assistant principal position and self assessed leadership behavior, Gender (Male, Female), number of credits successfully completed (< 3, 39, 1015, 16 21, 2227, 2833, > 33) and age groups ( 2530, 3135, 36 40, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 )? Procedures The research questions were answered through a comparative study that employed quantitative nonexperimental research design using linear and multiple regression and Analysis of Variance statistical techniques The study design included a sample of 217 educational leadership masters degree seeking graduate students i n universities across Florida The instruments used for this study were the Leadership Practices Inventory ( Appendix A ) and Demographic and Intentions Questionnaire ( Appendix B ), both of which were distributed either via an online survey or in person. T he sample population was Florida Educational Leadership graduate students attending campus es at select ed universities T wo hundred seventeen participants from seven universities took part in the study Chapter 4 provides a full account of the data and results of the survey, while Appendices F provide s a list of variables used in the SPSS program The following

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130 section provides an overview of the findings. Summary of the Findings Of the respondents in the study, 74.6% described their current positions as a teacher and another 13.4 % reported their current position as a re source or l ead t eacher Three quarters of the respondents were fe male and 84.3% identified themselves as White and/or Caucasian The average age range of respondents was 3135 years The majority (89.5%) of participants had between 014 years of teaching experience, but the most of respondents in this sample had between 59 years of teaching experience. Respondents provided data that explored the research questions that framed this st udy The following sections provide a brief summary of the findings for each of those questions Discussion of the Findings The r elationship b etween i ntention to s eek a l eadership p osition and s elf assessed l eadership b ehavior Research Question 1 exp lored the possibility of a relationship between the respondents intention to seek an assistant principal position and their self assessed leadership behavior The data did not reflect significance with regard to the respondents self assessment but 83.9 % of the respondents did intend to seek an assistant principal positio n. The i nfluence of gender on the i ntention to p ursue a l eadership p osition While the self assessed leadership behavior of the respondents did not appear to exert influence on the intention to pursue an assistant principal position, gender also was not f ound to be a significant factor A significant difference between male and female s tudents was not found. This means that the estimated marginal means for females w as not significantly higher than males, indicating neither gender had significantly stronger

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131 intentions to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion. It is noted that 75.6% of the population surveyed were female, but it appears that females do not necessarily have stronger intentions to seek assistant principal positions than males It was noted that when asked on the DIQ if respondents intended to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion, 26 out of 53 male participants (49%) selected strongly agree. But, only 44 out of 164 (27%) of the females selected strongly agree. The i nfluence of d egree p rogress on the i ntention to p ursue a l eadership p rogram The third research question sought to understand how a graduate students progress in their degree program might influence their intentionality toward an assistant principal position. Similar to self assessed leadership behavi ors using the LPI not indicating significant differences degree progress was not shown to be a significant factor in determining intentionality toward seeking an assistant principal position upon program completion either While it might seem that the further a graduate student progresses in the educational leadership program, the stronger the intent to seek an assistant principal position might become the data did not support this conclusion (or a conclusion in the other direction) No such prediction to the general population can be made since statistical significance was not found. The i nfluence of age on the i ntention to p ursue a leadership p osition Age was not found to exert an influence on the likelihood to pursue an assistant principal posi tion Data in this study did not support age as a factor in graduate students intentions to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion. However, it must be mentioned that the average age range of Florida's educational leadership graduate

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132 programs in t his study was 31 to 35 years These findings mirror Cranston (2007) who found no differences with regards to age and no influence between those interested or not in an a dministrative position However, experience seems to have played a strong role in the evolution of administrative leadership skills and in interest in a principalship ( Murphy, Elliott, Goldring, & Porter, 2007; Pounder & Merrill 2001) How the variabl es come t ogether to c reate the i ntention to s eek a l eadership p osition The final research question sought to determine whether any of the factors explored individually in the first four research questions might intermingle to create a significant interaction influence when analyzed in conjunction with one another The multiple regression analysis of the four variables did not reflect any significant interaction s with the graduate students intentions to seek an assistant principal position These results were not surprising based upon the separate findings presented. Limitations Restated Some of the l imitations of th is study were the methodological design, survey design, population characteristics, and sampling methods During the research, the limitations did not appear to influence the results themselves However, it does c onstrain the generalizability of the results That said, study reliability may have been marginalized because a pure random sample was not obtained T his is a study co nducted with a small number of respondents number of institutions, and incorporates only a specific setting, these limitations must be recognized These few limitations should not diminish th e research value. This studys focus was not concerned with st udent perceptions of supply and demand or competitiveness, but on perceptions of intentions which can be different from the actual job choice behaviors (Rynes, 1991) Finally, the

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133 sample was drawn only from Floridas public campus based universities and a few from private institutions that serve the Tampa Bay Metropolitan area Additionally, there is no guarantee of response accuracy with self reporting This restricts the degree of variance and limits generalizability Notwithstanding all of these limitations, the following sections consider the conclusions and im plications of this study. Conclusions Implications and Reflections The r elationship between i ntention to s eek a l eadership position and self assessed l eadership b ehavior Some research suggests leadership behavior aptitudes can be measured (Posner, 2009) R espondent s self assessed leadership behavior scores using the LPI instrument were not significantly correlated with graduate students intentions to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion. This does not mean there is no t a link between these two variables, but this study in this setting did not reveal one. However, t he strongest relationship appears to be between the constructs Inspire and Challenge and the construct most predictive of the total LPI score was Challenge. It was noted that 83.9% of this surveys respondents intended to seek an assistant principal position, 3.2% indicated that they never intend to seek an assistant princ ipal position, and 11.1% claim it is unknown when they would seek an assistant principal position. The remaining percentages were due to missing responses However, concerns, fears, and personal complexities like age (Boehlert & OConnell, 1999; Cranston, 2007; Murphy, Elliott, Goldring & Porter, 2007; Pounder & Merrill, 2001), gender (Banks, 1995; Buell, 2001; DeFelice, 1999; Glass, Bjork, & Bruner, 2000; Grady, 1992), and leadership style (Cranston, 2007; Murphy, Elliott, Goldring & Porter, 2007; Pounde r &

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134 Merrill, 2001) may indeed affect intentions of educational leadership graduate students and their choices for career pathways Through the absence of a correlation, this study found that there was no link between self assessed lead ership behavior and intention to seek an assistant principal position In the face of more flexible processes for obtaining certification and growing pools of credentialed candidates, there still remains a shortage of quality administrators in many states, including Florida (Davis, Darling Hammond, LaPointe, & Meyerson, 2005) T his problem is exacerbated by the numbers of teachers who are potential leaders, but who do not want to be school principals They m ost often cited the stress of the job, time required for the job, and societal problems as reasons for not pursuing school leadership positions ( Hewittt, Pijanowski, Carnine, & Denn y, 2008) According to Pounder and Merrill (2001), professional development incentives might attract minority candidates, who are especially needed if leadership demographics are to approach that of school student enrollment. Graduate student p aid administrative Internships field experiences and specific in house training might all aid in luring qualified candidates (Pounder & Merrill, 2001) Di stricts also need to explore other ways to improve the daily work life of administrators and workload management. These are only a couple techniques that might assist in recruitment, selection, and retention. Subsequently, only a little more than half of those who graduate from administrator preparation programs ever end up in an administrative positions (Darling Hammond, LaPointe, Meyerson, & Orr, 2007) and the vast majority ( 83.9% ) in this study claim they intend to seek an assistant principal position So, the question shifts to what happens to the other s a fter program completion?

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135 The i nfluence of gende r on the i ntention to p ursue a l eadership p osition More fully u nderstanding the role that gender may play in influencing the intention of educators to pursue administrative positions has implications for public policy, scholarship, and incentive decisions In this study the estimated marginal means of intentions for females were not significantly higher than males ; this means that females do not indicate stronger intentions to seek an assistant principal position upon program completion than males While the data from this study did not reveal a statistical significance in the relationship between gender and intent to seek an assistant principal position, it does not necessarily mean difference s were nonexistent. I n this current studys population of Florida graduate school respondents, it appear s that there were more females in educational leadership programs This current st udy revealed high numbers of females (75.6%) in the population sample of Florida educational leadership programs surveyed. These findings are consistent with the literature and mirror the prior work of Greenlee, Bruner, and Hill ( 2009) who claim ed it is common that women make up more than half of the educational leadership students across universities Educational Leadership programs in the last two decades continue to shift from mostly white male students to having a majority of white female stud ents Bruner, Greenlee, and Hill s study (2007) of 25 educational leadership programs held that 65% of their students were female This current studys findings support s that research since 75.6% of respondents were female and 84.3% identified themselves as White This is a 10% rise in the number of educational leadership graduate student females in proportion to the 65% in found in Brun er et al (2007)

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136 If there is a decrease in male graduate students in educational leadership programs or a n increase in female graduate students in educational leadership administration, a re females graduating and seeking assistant principal positions? A decade ago, t he literature suggest ed women are underrepresented in the administrative fields (Banks, 1995; Buell, 2001; DeFelice, 1999; Grady, 1992), but that landscape has chang ed McCarthy (2002) claimed that there has been a significant increase in the number of women being licensed for administrative positions Similarly, 51% of the licenses in the Indiana five yea r study were issued to females (Black et al ., 2007) The School and Staffing Survey (SASS) 20072008 support that school principalships are equally held by males (49.7%) and females (50.03%). F rom this current study, it does not appear that females in Florida were necessarily more likely to seek an assistant principal position than males Likewise, Cranston ( 2007) found no gender differences between those interested or disinterested in an administrative position On the other hand, Boehlert and OConnell (1999) did find statistical significances between gender and intention. The bottom line is that w hile this study does support and affirm the literature that cites increases in females pursuing educational leadership degrees it did not address the gaps be tween female underrepresentation in school administration positions and where the link is between gender and intentions Clearly, m ore studies in this area are needed to examin e the gap between graduate student completing certification and actually seekin g an assistant principal position If these studies are conducted, such insight can aid in recruitment efforts in practical settings For instance, armed with the knowledge that either female graduate students seeking school administration might be risin g or male

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137 graduate students seeking school administration is shrinking, recruitment efforts can be appropriately adjusted to match the upcoming population reality with current and projected administrative openings in relation to gender if disp r oportionality exists Additionally, this study and the literature listed above coupled with gender trend analysis, could be examined by DOE officials and school districts in order to maintain administrative gender balance efforts particularly in the number of females in leadership positions in secondary schools The i nfluence of d egree p rogress on the i ntention to p ursue a l eadership p rogram This research question sought to identify if there was a statistical relationship between a graduate student's prog ress in the degree program and their intentions to seek an assistant principal position Strahan and Wilson (2006) claim ed that proximity to a future possible self has an impact on current motivation to act in ways to achieve future goals However, t he n umber of credits successfully completed and degree progress was not shown to be a significant factor in determining intentions towards seeking an assistant principal position upon program completion in this current study P reconceived notions that the more credits completed in the educational leadership program the more the intent to seek an assistant principal position, is simply not supported in this study s population. T he lack of a significant finding in the influence of degree progress and intent ions may suggest there is no relationship between the number of credits a respondent has completed and their intention whether to become an assistant principal in the future or not What f actors are influencing and motivating graduate students in the sam ple population causing 83.9% to indicate on the DIQ they intend to seek an assistant

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138 principal job? Even though this studys data did not reveal statistical significance linking degree progress and intent to seek and assistant principal position, the DIQ does offer insight into what is driving their intentions Is it the job itself or the possibility for economic gain that drives their intentions? Maslow (1954) and Herzberg (1959) leaned toward the work environments as a motivating factor but job choice t heories claim individuals seem to draw their motivation either externally or internally In Young et al (1989), objective choice theory refers to applicants join ing the most economically competitive jobs and subjective theory refers to applicants as psychological beings motivated by getting their psychological needs fulfilled via the jobs work environment In this study, incentives for seeking an assistant principal position can be examined by comparing these external to int ernal motivators Two internal factors self assessed leadership on the LPI (subjective theory) and the self assessed role economic incentives (objective theory) each play a role in seeking an administrative position upon program completion. The external factors are equated to the direct amount of graduate program credits completed and the DIQ criter ia In the DIQ, 64.1% of respondents rated the influence salary had on the ir decision to pursue a degree in educational leadership as either somewhat import ant or one of the primary reasons E ach graduate credit represent s a graduate students economic investment as well So, while these graduate students might be motivated to graduate and stop paying tuition, many might also be rewarded with a pay increase due to the graduate degree incentive pay Additionally, these students potentially could be one step closer to another pay raise and promotion to assistant principal where their psychological fulfillment needs could be m et. So, external and internal ( obj ective and subjective)

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139 incentives are in place respectively for program completion. With 83.9% of respondents indicating they will seek an assistant pr incipal position upon program completion, it appears to affirm and support this notion. Additionally, 38.8% of those who responded to the open ended question, as to the reasons for waiting, they revealed it was because they wanted more experience in their current position or another position such as an academic coach before seeking an assistant principal po sition. It could be the case that some might be getting fulfillment from their current position or they were not yet receiving the psychological fulfillment to the levels they need before wanting to seek an assistant principal position. The 9.4% that inten ded to wait to seek an assistant principal position stated it was due to family related reasons. The i nfluence of age on the intention to p ursue a l eadership p osition Data in this study did not support the age as having a significant impact on graduate student intentions to seek an assistant principal position Because th e average age range of Florida's educational leadership graduate programs in this study was 31 to 35 years old, t he design of the analysis of thi s research question had to change due to the skewness of the age range distribution. The mean age of the respondents in this study was between 31 and 35 years Categories on the original design had ranges that exceeded 55 years of age. This variable had to be normalized to better show any relationships in the data The fact that age does not appear to be a factor of influence in the pursuit of an administrative position supports other perspectives This finding affirms the work of Cranston (2007) O ut of a total of 146 aspirant assistant principals taking the Aspirant Principal Questionnaire Cranston found no statistically significant differences in responses with regard to age and he found no influence of age between those interested or

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140 disinterested in an administrative position Additionally, this studys results are mirrored by both Pounder and Merrill (2001) and Murphy, Elliott, Goldring and Porter (2007) who posited that even though experience may have played a strong role in the evolution of principal leadership skills and in interest in the position, age may not have played a direct role in the likelihood of a candidate pursuing an assistant principal or principal administrative position With regard to experience, t he majority (89.5%) of this studys participants had between 0 14 years of experience which corresponds to the fact that the mean average of participants were between 31 and 35 years of age The vast majority of respondents were Caucasian female (74.3%), secondary teache rs or lead teachers (46.5%), holding at least one bachelors degree (77.4%), and working in a public school (62.7%) This median description or respondent profile mostly appears to be career oriented experienced teachers Yet Mazzeo (2003) claims many st udents obtain the graduate degree and certification with no intention of obtaining an administrative position W hat happens to the graduate students intentions post program completion might play a role in the many who do not actually seek an administrato r p osition O nly 14.3% of this studys respondents claim they never intend to seek an assistant principal position or claim they do not know how long they would wait Examining the median description of a typical graduate student respondent in this study, it would not be unreasonable to surmise that many may not seek an assistant principal pos i tion due to family related reasons There were varied responses on the DIQ for reasons for waiting to seek a position due to family. Some o f the reasons were: I have children in the system and want to wait until they are out of high school; I just started a family and plan to pursue a career in leadership after

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141 having children; I want my children to be in middle school before I become an admi nistrator; I want my children to be old enough to be in Kindergarten first; Im taking time off to raise my daughter and when she is school age, Ill apply, probably in five years; and my wife and I just had a child so when things settle down, I will send resumes out. But, they all are claiming to wait until the right time when their children are old enough. More research is needed in this area. However the DIQ data indicated only ( 9.4%) of respondents were waiting for family related reasons Actually, according to the DIQ results in this study, most of the applicants that claimed they would wait to seek an assistant principal position indicated they were waiting to get more experience (38.8 %) Some (18.8%) said they were waiting for a specif ic district level position, higher education position, Department of Education position, or a very specific position. O ther studies confirm that qualified candidates are waiting or are not even pursuing leadership positions, even when they are available Connecticuts Board of Governors (2003) claimed to have 2,400 educators and twothirds of all of New Yorks ( Herrington & Wills 2005) educators actually already hold administrative licenses, yet choose not to work in a dministrative roles C ritical contac t theory of job choice says many do not seek positions due to concern s with the work expectations and requirements Since the role of the principal has grown enormously and required competencies and tasks are staggering, job requirements far exceed the reasonable capacity for an administrator (Davis, Darling Hammond, LaPointe, & Meyerson, 2005) Teachers are not oblivious to the increased pressure on principals and are many become genuinely disinterested in becoming administrative candidates Fewer aspir ing administrators see

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142 the appeal of administration because it is seen as a burnout position, particularly at the high school level ( Boehlert & OConnell, 1999) The i nfluence of l eadership b ehavior, gender, d egree p rogress, and age on the i ntention to p ursue a l eadership p osition The final research question was designed to uncover if there were any interaction relationships between intent to seek an assistant principal position and the following variables: self assessed leadership behavior, gender, number of credits successfully completed, and age This research question did not yield statistically significant results The fact that the variables did not synergize with one another suggests that no significant relationships existed between leadership behavior scores via LPI, gender, number of credits completed, and age No significant link was found between graduate students intentions to seek an assist ant principal position and the factors in this study However, 83.9% of the respondents did pro claim they intend ed to seek an assistant principal position after graduation. What about the 14.3% of that claim they intend to never seek an assistant principal position or that it is unknown when they would ever seek an assistant principal position? Accor ding to the literature, there are other options that could be linked and affect graduate studen t s intentions I t might be easier and reduce controversial struggles if some administratively certified graduates w ould seek district level positions such as curriculum specialists, supervi sors, program coordinators, etc Past career choices and intent, commitment, and retention are all factors that might influence professional educators and graduate students future career decisions This current study in part, supports the literature finding in the Stanford study where exemplary preservice and in service administrator preparation programs were researched, finding that graduate

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143 students were more likely to be female, members of an ethnic minority group, ha d strong relevant teaching experiences, served frequently as coaches of other teachers, department chairs, team leaders, were committed to their communities, and capable of becoming instructionally grounded transformational leaders (Darling Hammonds et al. 2007) This current study did affirm part of the Stanford findings in that the preponderance of respondents were highly capab le experienced female teachers. Males, females, and minorities experience internal and external barriers entering into administration In was reported that men typically enter into education with administration in mind from the beginning and that they generally go from teacher to assistant principal, principal, and finally district level administration with only about fiv e years teaching experience in the classroom (DeFlice, 1999) Females generally tend to be very committed to teaching because they typically spend about ten to fifteen years in the classroom before entering administration and subsequently do well as instr uctional leaders This study supports DeFlices research with the females in this sample having more than 10 have years of teaching experience. Although this study did not investigate a possible link between discrimination and intent to seek and assistant principal position, much literature claims women are more likely to be discriminated against due to their gender and men are more likely to be discriminated against due to their age (Boehlert & OConnell, 1999) Finally, Murphy, Elliott, Go ldring and P orter (2007) state d that aspiring principals must bring to the role a base of experience and knowledge that establishes expertise for the role, but with that must also bring personal characteristics, values and beliefs that will entice them to pursue the role and succeed in it A combination of experience and these

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144 factors paired with personal characteristics, values and beliefs provides some insight into what types of leaders are drawn to this type of work ( Cranston, 2007) Pounder and Merrill (2001) not ed that aspiring administrator s claimed the opportunity to make a difference, to empower school change, to grow personal and to offer a vision for a school as primary motiv ators in their administrative application s However, since the majority of the work lies outside the functions that are most attractive about the position, the willingness of a qualified candidate to pursue a position may be influenced In the end, t he b ottom line according to Howley et al. (2005 ) is that t he body of empirical literature prioritizing teachers' perspective on school administration likewise argues that the degree of readiness of potential principals depends on their ability to strike a suitable balance between their expectations and misgivings ( p. 759) Discussion of O pen E nded R esults The largest theme of responses as to why educational leadership students plan to wait after graduation to seek an assistant principal position is that they are waiting to get more experience in their current or next position. One thing that should be noted from th is studys results is that 18.8% (nearly 1 in 5) of the 85 openended respondents plan to seek something other than an assistant principal pos ition This study is supports the findings of Darling Hammond, LaPointe, Meyerson, and Orr (2007) who claimed that little more than 50% of those who graduate from administrator preparation programs ever end up in an administrative positions Th is studys participants indicated they were waiting to get a district level position, higher education position, Department of Education position, or another specific position other than an assistant principalship. Additionally, 10.6% were waiting to earn another degree, more certifications, or other

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145 professional type development This has implications for educational leadership curriculum and instructional programming whereby it needs to meet the needs of learners seeking district, higher education, and/or DOE positions in addition to those who seek the more traditional assistant principal administrative route upon program completion Discussion of Exploratory A nalysis A second look at the LPI and intent to seek an assistant principal position was conducted t o search f or any trends in the data Self assessed Leadership behavior c onstructs associated with the LPI (encourage, model, enable inspire, and challenge) were standardized and categorize d by intensity G roups were specified by extracting cases with z scores 0.5 and cases with z scores 0.5. This strategy removed approximately 34% of the cases clustered around the mean. E ssentially, only those responding with high and low scores wer e retai ned to determine if any trends or differences existed between group s on intent to seek an assistant principal position. In addition, instead of only investigating overall intent construct, only those most likely to seek an assistant principal posit ion were retained Specifically, cases with z scores greater than 1.0 were retained for analysis This strategy only extracted those participants likely to seek an assistant principal position Those unlikely to seek the position were categorically rem oved. Results from the analyses found a distinct trend in the data For every subconstruct, low leadership practice construct scores on intent to seek an assistant principal position were lower than those with high leadership practice construct scores These findings suggest that those likely to intend to seek an assistant principal position (high

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146 intensity) have higher self assessed leadership behavior potential and/or qualities It further suggests that students with low self assessed leadership behavior quality c onstruct scores (encourage, model, enable, inspire, and challenge) may be self selecting themselves out That is, participants with low scores may want to be in a leadership position, but temper their intent due to a lack of self efficac y about their self assessed l eadership The se exploratory findings may suggest that universities need to concentrate more on teaching and training leadership behaviors to ensure those who would like to be in a n assistant principal but feel they may not i mbue high leadership behavior qualities, will be given the needed assistance to reach their goal After all, whatever an individuals learning style may be, they continually do more to improve themselves (Posner, 2009) Recommendations for Further Study The findings of this study challenge some of the existing literature focusing on educational administration Specifically, studies such as Davis, Darling Hammond, LaPointe, & Meyerson (2005); Hecker (2004), Gewertz (2000); and Hammond, Muffs, and Scias cia (2001) that examined claims about shortage s of administrative candidates yet the results of th e DIQ in this study indicated that 83.9% of this respondent s intend to pursue an assistant principal position. The question, then, is whether there is truly a contradiction in these findings or if the intentions of applicants change s over time after program completion. F uture research needs to be conducted to discover what changes graduates intentions and it should address the reasons so many graduates complete the program and obtain certification without the intent of using their degrees in educational leadership for career advancement.

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147 My first recommendation is that future researchers examine more closely what happens to their intentions to seek an assis tant principal position after graduation, particularly at those graduates who intend to wait extended times prior to applying for assistant principal positions Research needs to be conducted on wait times by comparing those who claimed they intended to w ait and the actual wait times before individuals are hired into administration More extensive r esearch needs to be conducted on what motivates or hinders graduates with regards to intent to seek an assistant principal position since no signi ficant link was found with self assessed leadership behavior, gender, age, and degree progress Using DOE records, t his future research could examine what occurs after graduate school and completing the program and after certification In this study, the data does not support using the LPI as an instrument to find a statistical relationship to intent to seek an assistant principal position This dissertation creates a need for further study of graduate intentions regarding administrative applicant pools as also reco mmended by Boehlert and OConnell (1999) T he research should examine if and how the intentions change and see how many actually do pursue or obtain a position. Via FDOE public record, the names of those recently certified graduates could be found and investigate to see why some never applied for an assistant principal position A new DIQ could be sent to check their current intentions In th e current s tudy and in the motivation literature (Pounder & Merrill, 2001) economics (Young, et al., 2001) do play a role in intentions While s ome metropolitan school districts reimburse exam fees and license update fees along with awarding pay supplements for earned masters degree these funds are not available in other school

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148 districts In addition, suppl ements for advanced degrees should be examined in regards to motivation for advanced degrees or vice versa Discovering more about how much these economic factors play a role in affecting intentions needs to be examined Further study is required with regard to gender differences In addition to the findings in this study and the literature that expressed a dministrator shortages of quality candidates in assistant principal pools, it also purports g ender differences in that f emale graduate student s in educational leadership programs and females certification rates are on the rise ( Black et al., 2007; McCarthy 2002) Even though this study revealed higher numbers of females in the population sample of Florida educational leadership programs, this study needs to be done in a larger setting Although gender had no significance in this study, more research needs to be conducted to uncover more specifically which gender specific factors may affect intentions to seek assistant principal positions after program completion. Finally, student s could be tracked at two, five, seven, and ten years for comparison. T his study could also be replicated in the future, in possibly five to ten years, to capture the impact of changes in educational leadership curricula, certification standards, accountability expectations, demography, and other characteristics Convenience sampling was used to collect data in this study because random sampling of the s tudy population is outside the scope of the researchers resources Since results may not necessarily reflect study population attitudes repeating the test to compare results may be advised The study could also be replicated to emphasize breakdown by g eographic area or county, the specialized training background, or other variables It would be interesting to compare respondents between institutions in the future as well

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149 although getting permission from those institutions may prove to be difficult. I n this current study, one online university refused to give permission, another institution in this study only agreed to participate if their institutions data was not compared with another and another institution did not support the effort a s only one r espondent participated. Beyond research, the application of this study also shows potential for improving practice in educational leadership and teacher education The final section of the paper provides recommendations for improving practice based on the results of the research Recommendations for Practice Recommendations for practice based on this study include developing and/or revising higher education curricular programming for those who do not seek an assistant principal position. Since 21.9 % did have Masters Degrees in other areas, more study is needed to investigate the certification areas of those who hold masters degrees to see if there is a trend by school level and/or subject matter Given the fact that many respondents were pursuing the degree without a goal of seeking an administrative position, university programs might develop two tracks within the educational leadership masters degree, one for those seeking Educational Leadership FLDOE certification and others who simply want more knowledge about leadership and administrative practices to enhance their teacher leadership skills In addition, it is evident that there is a need for more effort put forth to support female an d minority students to increase enrollment and retention in administrative credentialing programs to increase the diversity of the assistant principal pool of candidates.

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150 Summary and Conclusion N o statistical significance was found between the variables that provided the focus for this study H istorically, wo men have been underrepresented in the administrative fields (Banks, 1995; Buell, 2001; DeFelice, 1999; Grady, 1992), but the market continues to rapidly chang e T his study is yet another that affirms the fact that the majority of graduate students in Educ ational Leade rship programs are female ( Bruner et al., 2007; McCarthy, 2002) and that more than half of administrative licenses being issued are for women (Black et al., 2007) D egree progress based upon number of college credits successfully completed was not shown to be a significant factor in determining intentionality toward seeking an assistant principal position upon program completion. Like gender not exert ing a significant influence on the likelihood to pursue an assistant principal position, ne ither did age Although, it is interesting to note that the mean average age range of Florida's educational leadership graduate programs in this study was 31 to 35 years old. However, if these individuals remained in education, they would have another 30 years of time to wait to apply for an assistant principal position As could be expected, none of the factors explored individually had statistical significance in their interaction either These latter results were not surprising based upon the separat e findings presented The importance of the study is ident ifying graduate students self assessed leadership behavior a nd their intent ions to practice in formal school leadership roles in Florida Educational Leadership departments can benefit from the knowledge of these results and better understand e ducational leadership graduate students intentions In this sample the majority of respondents were female, which is consistent with literature that

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151 claims a higher female population in educational leade rship graduate programs and the vast majority do intent to seek a ssistant principal positions upon program completion A lbeit almost a third claim ed to inten d to seek an assistant principal position immediately only a tenth of respondents claim they will wait to seek an assistant principal position so they can earn another degree, more certifications, or obtain other professional type development Finally, a substantial amount of students claimed they intend to never seek an assistant principal position or that it is unknown when they would ever seek an assistant principal position. This information may be very important for developing educational leadership programs This research has benefitted the field because it has examined where the links between research and practice do and do not exist The study uniquely contributed to identifying graduate students intention before they seek school leadership roles These findings and insight is available to offer the Florida Department of Educa tion, school district leadership academies, and university educational leadership departments valuable information for administrative reform of selection, recruitment, and retention

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157 Malone, B G., Sharp, W L., & Walter, J K (2001, April) What's right about the principalship?(Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the MidWestern Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ED 458 710) Maslow, A H (1954) Motivation and personality New York NY: Harper. Mazzeo, C (2003) Issue brief: Improving teaching and learning by improving school leadershi p. Washington, DC: National Governors Association. McCarthy, M M (2002) Educational leadership preparation programs: a glance at the past with an eye toward the future Leadership and Policy in Schools 1(3), 201221. McCray, C R., Wright, J V., & Beachum, F D (2007) Beyond Brown: Examining the perplexing plight of African American principals Journal of Instructional Psychology 34 (4), 247255. McGinnis, M (2000) Polycentric games and institutions Ann Arbor, MI: Univ of Michigan Press. Merriam, S B (1998) Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco CA : Jossey Bass. Mill, J S (1874) A System of Logic Rational and Inductive Chapter VII of Observation and Experiment & Chapter VIII of the Four Methods of Experimental Inquiry, pp. 272291. New York, NY: Malkman Publishing Murphy, J (1992) The landscape of leadership preparation: Reframing the education of school adm in is trat ors Newbury Park, CA: Corwin. Murphy, J (2006, September/October) How the ISLLC standards are shaping the principalship. Principal 82(1), 2226. Murphy, J., Elliott, S N., Goldring, E & Porter, A C (2007) Leadership for learning: A research based model and taxonomy of behaviors School Leadership and Management, 27(2), 179201. National Center for Education Information. (2003) School administrator certification in the Uni ted States, state by state 2003: Principals and superintendants Washington DC: Author. National Center for Education Statistics (20072008) School and Staffing Survey (SASS) Retrieved October 18, 2010 from http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/sass/tables/sass0708_2009323_p1s_03.asp

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158 National Policy Board for Education Adminsittration, (2002) Standards for advanced programs in educational leadership for principals, superintendents, curriculum directors, and supervisor s Retrieved April 12, 2002, from http://www.npbea.org/ELCC Neuman, W L (2003) Social research methods (5th Ed. ) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Ogletree, C J (2004) All deliberate speed New York: W W Norton Company O'Keef f e, P. (2005) The Role of principal associations in the recruitment of new principals (Doctoral Dissertation, Oakland University, 2005) Dissertation Abstracts International (UMI No 3173701) Orr, M.T., Silverberg, R., & L eTendre, B (2006) Comparing leadership development from pipeline to preparation to advancement: a study of multiple institutions Proceedings of the Annual Conference of AERA San Francisco CA : UCEA/TEA SIG Taskforce on Evaluating Leadership Preparation Programs. Pegues, H (2007) Of paradigm wars: Constructivism, objectivism, and postmodern stratagem The Educational Forum, 71, 317. Posner, B (2009, August) Leadership practices inventory (lpi) data analysis Retrieved from http://media.wiley.com/ass ets/2034/63/LPIAnalysisAug2009.pdf Posner, B (2010, September ) Leadership practices inventory (lpi) data analysis Retrieved http://media.wiley.com/assets/2260/07/LPIDataAnalysisSept2010.pdf Pounder, D ., & Crow, G (2005) Sustaining the pipeline of school administrators Educational Leadership, (May), 5660. Pounder, D., Crow, G ., & Shepard, P. (2003) An Analysis of the United States educational administrator shortage Australian Journal of Education, 47(2), 133145. Pounder, D & Merrill, R ., (2001) Job desirability of the high school principalship: A job choice theory perspective Educational Administration Quarterly 37(1), 27 57. RAND, (2003) Are schools facing a shortage of qualified administrators? Retrieved December 19, 2009, from http: //www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB8021/RB8021.pdf Rousmaniere, K (2007) Go to the principals office: Toward a social history of the school principal in North America History of Education Quarterly, 47(1), 1 22. Roza, M., Celio, M., Harvey, J., & Wishon, S (2003) A matter of definition: Is there truly a shortage of school principals ? A Report to the Wallace Foundation from

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159 the Center on Reinventing Public education. Daniel Evans School of Public Affairs University of Washington. Ruch, R.S (2003) Higher ed inc ., T he rise of the for profit university Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Univ Pr ess Rudestam, K E ., & Newton, R R ., (2001) Surviving your dissertation: A comprehensive guide to content and process (2nd ed.) Newbury Park, CA: Sage. R ynes, S (1991) Recruitment, job choice and post hire consequences: A call for new research directions In M.D Dunnette & L.M Houghs (Eds.) Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 399444) Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Shakeshaft, C., Gilligan, A., & Pierce, D (1989 ) Preparing women school administrators Phi Delta Kappan, 66 (1), 67 68. Smith, B (2008) Deregulation and the new leader agenda: outcomes and lessons from michigan Educational Admi nistration Quarterly 44(1), doi: 10.1177/0013161X07306454 State Action for Education Leadership Project (2003) Final summary report champions for change: SAELP national results conference Washington DC: Council of chief State School Officers StatPac (2007) Sampling methods Retrieved August 29, 2007 from: http://www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.htm Strahan, E ., & Wilson, A ., (2006) emporal comparisons, identity, and motivation: the relation between past, present, and possible future selves New York NY: Nova Science. Tabachnick, B G., & Fidell, L S (2007) Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.) Boston, MA : Allyn and Bacon. Tallerico, M. & Tingley, S (2001) The declining interests of candidates in administration could be reversed by removing barriers for women The School Administrator, Nov 2001. Syracuse, NY: AASA Taylor, J (2007) Job satisfaction among high school assistant principals in seven f lori da counties Ed.D dissertation, University of South Florida, United States Florida Retrieved ( April 17, 2010) from Dissertations & Theses at the University of South Florida FCLA. (Publication No. AAT 3260095). Teach in Florida (n.d.) Educator Recruitment Retrieved December 28, 2009 from http://www.teachinflorida.com/Recruitment/tabid/195/Default.aspx

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160 Tillman, L C (2003) From rhetoric to reality? Educational administration and the lack of racial and ethnic diversity within the profession University Council for Educational Review, 14(3), 14. U.S. Department of Education (2004) No child left behind: A toolkit for teachers Office of the Deputy Secretary, Washington, DC U.S. Department of Education. (2004) Innovations in education: innov ative pathways to school leadershi p. Washington, DC: U.S. Educational Publication Center, U.S. Department of Education U S Department of Education (2005) FY 2005 School Leadership Application for Grants Washington, DC: U. S Department of Education, Office of Innovation and Improvement. Whittaker, K (2001) Where are the principal candidates? Perceptions of superintendents National Association for Secondary School Principals, 85(625), 8292. Wilmore E (2002) A s ubgroup analysis of predictors t o c ertification e xamination s uccess in differing principal preparation programs Paper presented, Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA, April 1 5, 2002. Winter, P. (2004) Recruiting certified personnel to be principals: A statewide assessment of potential job applicants Norman, IL: Department of Education Administration and Foundation. (ERIC Document reproduction Service No. EJ737630) Young, M (2009) Handbook of research on leadership education. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Routledge. Young, I ., Rinehart, J ., & Place, A (1989) Theories for teacher selection: objective, subjective, and critical contact Teaching and Teacher Education, 5(4), 329336. Zagorsek, H ., Stough, S ., & Jaklic, M (2006) Analysis of the reliability of the leadership practices inventory in the item response theory framework. International Journal of Selection and Assessment 14(2), 180191.

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161 Appendices

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162 Appendix A : LPI LPI by Construct, and Permission to Reproduce 1. LPI

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163

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164 2. L PI by C onstruct Questions Construct 1 Sets a personal example of what is expected Model 2 Talks about future trends influencing our work Inspire 3 Seeks challenging opportunities to test skills Challenge 4 Develops cooperative relationships Enable 5 Praises people for a job well done Encourage 6 Makes certain that people adhere to agreed on standards Model 7 Describes a compelling image of the future Inspire 8 Challenges people to try new approaches Challenge 9 Actively listens to diverse points of view Enable 10 Expresses confidence in people's abilities Encourage 11 Follows through on promises and commitments Model 12 Appeals to others to share dream of the future Inspire 13 Searches outside organization for innovative ways to improve Challenge 14 Treats people with dignity and respect Enable 15 Creatively rewards people for their contributions Encourage 16 Asks for feedback on how his/her actions affect people's performance Model 17 Shows others how their interests can be realized Inspire 18 Asks "What can we learn?" Challenge 19 Supports decisions other people make Enable 20 Recognizes people for commitment to shared values Encourage 21 Builds consensus around organization's values Model 22 Paints "big picture" of group aspirations Inspire 23 Makes certain that goals, plans, and milestones are set Challenge 24 Gives people choice about how to do their work Enable 25 Finds ways to celebrate accomplishments Encourage 26 Is clear about his/her philosophy of leadership Model 27 Speaks with conviction about meaning of work Inspire 28 Experiments and takes risks Challenge 29 Ensures that people grow in their jobs Enable 30 Gives team members appreciation and support Encourage

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165 3. Permission to Reproduce

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166 A ppendix B : Demographics and Intentions Questionnaire 1. Gender ( M ale, F emale ) 2. Age ( 2530, 31 35, 3640, 4145, 4650, 5155, > 55 ) 3. Ethnicity ( Black, White, Hispanic, Asian, Other ) 4. Numbers of educational leadership graduate college credits successfully completed prior to the current semester (< 3, 3 9, 1015, 1621, 2227, 2833, > 33) 5. Current Teaching Grade level ( Elementary, Secondary, Exceptional A lternative, Post S econdary NonClassroom Role ) 6. Total years of any experience in public or private school teaching ( 04, 59, 1014, 15 20, > 20 years ) 7. Type of degrees previously completed ( BS/BA, MA/MS, Ed.S, Ph.D/Ed.D ) 8. Have you ever worked as a guidance counselor ( Y es/ N o) or special education teacher ( Yes/No) 9. Current teaching assignment ( Pre K, Elementary, Middle, High, Alternative, Other) and ( Public, Private, Magne t, C harter, or O ther ) and County (______________) 10. Current position ( T eacher, Administrator, Resource/Lead T eacher, or O ther )

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167 11. Rate the influence that salary played in your decision to pursue this graduate degree in educational leadership 1= No R ole 2 = N ot that important 3 = S omewhat important 4 = O ne of the primary reason s 12. I intend to seek an assistant principal position upon completion of this program Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree more than Agree Agree more than Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 13. I f I seek an assistant principal position upon completion of this program I prefer it would be at the Elementary Level more than at the Secondary Level Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree more than Agree Agree more than Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 14. I intend to seek another administrative position other than assistant principal upon completion of this program Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree more than Agree Agree more than Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 15. Upon program completion, when will you likely seek an assistant principal position? ( Immediately, 1 to 2 years, 3 to 5 years, > 5 years, Unknown, Never ) (Explain Open Ended)____________________________________________________________ Survey Feedback (Open Ended)________________________________________________

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168 Appendix C : Raffle 1. Raffle Content Post

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169 2. Raffle Responses Spreadsheet

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170 3. Ra ndom Number Generator Result

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171 4. Raffle Winner Post

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172 A ppendix D : Informed Consent Letter and IRB Approval Letter 1. Informed Consent Letter Classroom ICF Information to Consider Before Taking Part in this Research Study IRB Study # ID: Pro00000913 Researchers at the University of South Florida (USF) Tampa and Saint Petersburg Campuses and the University of Central Florida (UCF) study many topics To do this, we need the help of people who agree to take part in a research study This form tells you about this research study. We are asking you to take part in a research study that is called: T HE INTENTIONS OF FLORIDA EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP GRADUATE STUDENTS

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173 The person who is in charge of this research study is Daniel W Eadens This person is called the Principal Investigator However, other research staff may be involved and can act on beh alf of the person in charge. The person explaining the research to you may be someone other than the Principal Investigator, namely your department chair or professor Other research personnel who you may be involved with include: Dr Darlene Bruner, Dr William Black, Dr Bobbie Greenlee, and Dr John Ferron. The research will be done at USF (Tampa), USF (Saint Petersburg), and UCF Purpose of the study The purpose of this study is to You have been identified as an individual student who is enrolled in an approved graduate degree program in the field of educational leadership from a Florida university Thank you for volunteering to participate in this study regarding the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) and Demographics and Intentions Qu estionnaire (DIQ) While national and statewide reports suggest there is a shortage of quality certified administrative applicants, it is anticipated that there are a number of graduates seeking Level One administrative certification in Florida who will s ubsequently seek, or not seek, an assistant principal position. Your participation in this study is essential to my research and greatly appreciated In addition, Florida universities, Florida Department of Education, and School Districts may use the

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174 col lective results from this study for program improvement purposes However, your individual answers and personal information will be kept confidential This study is being conducted as partial fulfillment for my doctoral degree in Educational Leadership and Policy Studies from USF. Study Procedures If you take part in this study, you will be asked to Participants will be instructed to complete the LPI and DIQ and immediately submit it to the proctor upon completion. While there is no time requirement, it should only require between 10 and 15 minutes for the LPI and about 5 minutes for the DIQ for a total of approximately 15 to 20 minutes This is a one time survey and there will be no other requirements. The LPI and DIQ will be the only means of data collection The researcher will provide the LPI and DIQ on Survey Monkey or personally distribute to each voluntary participant the package that contains a cover letter, LPI, and DIQ Once the LPI, DIQ, and informed consent letters are collected, the co mpleted packages will be transported and stored by the researcher in accordance with the Institutional Review Boards (IRB) protocol As a contingency, for the in person surveys, if there is some reason the researcher cannot be present during the adminis tration, the class instructor will follow the same protocol listed above to remain consistent The script taken from the cover letter will be read by the researcher or the class instructor. You have the alternative to choose not to participate in this res earch study Benefits

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175 We dont know if you will get any benefits by taking part in this study Risks or Discomfort This research is considered to be minimal risk That means that the risks associated with this study are the same as what you face every day There are no known additional risks to those who take part in this study Compensation We will not pay you for the time you volunteer while being in this study If you do choose to participate in this study, you will have an opportunity to receive a free raffle ticket number On a later date, one winner will have the opportunity to claim a free prize from your professor Confidentiality We must keep your study records as confidential as possible The privacy of participants will be accomplished through anonymous submission of survey packets and the pooling of packets prior to monitoring the data During collection, each submission will be anonymous All survey packets will be pooled together and put into a folder for transport U pon collection of all data, all survey packets from each university will be pooled together by term in order that no one individual can be identified. For storage, the survey packets with informed consent letters, LPIs, and DIQs will be stored in locked filing cabinets or on disc at the researchers home for five years after the final report has been submitted Once the data is entered, the files on the researchers computer are password protected so that no one else has access to individual data All documents and computer files will be shredded and/or deleted after five years

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176 Anonymous aggregated data results will be shared with professionals at the Florida Department of Education, school district leadership academies, and university educational l eadership departments for valuable insight towards reform However, certain people may need to see your study records By law, anyone who looks at your records must keep them completely confidential The only people who will be allowed to see these re cords are: The research team, including the Principal Investigator, study coordinator, and all other research staff Certain government and university people who need to know more about the study For example, individuals who provide oversight on this s tudy may need to look at your records This is done to make sure that we are doing the study in the right way They also need to make sure that we are protecting your rights and your safety These include: The University of South Florida Institutional R eview Board (IRB) and the staff that work for the IRB Other individuals who work for USF that provide other kinds of oversight may also need to look at your records The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). We may publish what we learn from this study If we do, we will not let anyone know your name We will not publish anything else that would let people know who you are Voluntary Participation / Withdrawal You should only take part in this study if you want to volunteer You should not feel that there is any pressure to take part in the study, to please the investigator or the research staff You are free to participate in this research or withdraw at any time. There will be no penalty or loss of benefits you are entitled to receive if you stop taking part in this

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177 study Your decision to participate or not to participate will not affect your graduate student status or job status Questions, concerns, or complaints If you have any questions, concerns or complaints about this study, call Daniel Eadens at my cellular phone (727) 8311968 or my home phone (727) 2300257. If you have questions about your rights as a participant in this study, general questions, or have complaints, concerns or issues you want to discuss with someone outsi de the research, call the Division of Research Integrity and Compliance of the University of South Florida at (813) 9749343. If you experience an unanticipated problem related to the research call Dr Darlene Bruner at (813) 9743420. Consent to Take Part in this Research Study It is up to you to decide whether you want to take part in this study Statement of Person Obtaining Informed Consent I have carefully explained to the person taking part in the study what he or she can expect.

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178 2. Internal Review Board Consent May 25, 2010 Daniel Eadens Educational Leadership RE: Exempt Certification for IRB#: Pro00000913 Title: Graduate Student's Intentions Dear Daniel Eadens: On 5/24/2010 the Institutional Review Board (IRB) determined that your research meets USF requirements and Federal Exemption criteria as outlined in the federal regulations at 45CFR46.101(b): (2) Research involving the use of educational tests (cognitive, diagnostic, aptitude, achievement), survey procedures, intervi ew procedures or observation of public behavior, unless: (i) information obtained is recorded in such a manner that human subjects can be identified, directly or through identifiers linked to the subjects; and (ii) any disclosure of the human subjects' res ponses outside the research could reasonably place the subjects at risk of criminal or civil liability or be damaging to the subjects' financial standing, employability, or reputation. As the principal investigator for this study, it is your responsibilit y to ensure that this research is conducted as outlined in your application and consistent with the ethical principles outlined in the Belmont Report and with USF IRB policies and procedures Please note that changes to this protocol may disqualify it fro m exempt status Please note that you are responsible for notifying the IRB prior to implementing any changes to the currently approved protocol The Institutional Review Board will maintain your exemption application for a period of five years from th e date of this letter or for three years after a Final Progress Report is received, whichever is longer If you wish to continue this protocol beyond five years, you will need to submit a continuing review application at least 60 days prior to the

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179 exempti on expiration date Should you complete this study prior to the end of the five year period, you must submit a request to close the study. We appreciate your dedication to the ethical conduct of human subject research at the University of South Florida a nd your continued commitment to human research protections If you have any questions regarding this matter, please call 8139749343. Sincerely, Krista Kutash, PhD, Chairperson USF Institutional Review Board Cc: Various Menzel, CCRP, USF IRB Professional Staff

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180 Appendix E : Open Ended Question Coding Question Upon program completion, when will you likely seek an assistant principal position? ( Immediately, 1 to 2 years, 3 to 5 years, > 5 years, Unknown, Never) Explain. Theme coding (respons es to Explain) Code Theme Example(s) of responses coded in this theme 0 not waiting I feel that as soon as I graduate, I will begin the process of qualifying to be a candidate in the administrative pool. 1 waiting to get more experience or time in current or next position Gain more experience. I would like to have at least 6 years teaching experience prior to becoming an AP. 2 waiting to earn more degrees or certifications or professional development May obtain a Specialist degree before entering into an Assistant Principal position. 3 waiting to get a district level or higher ed or specific position or DOE position Ideally, I would prefer to seek a position at the district level in Staff Development or in Curriculum though other departments are not out of the question. Seeking a position as an Elementary AP would be a second choice I will seek a position change as soon as the opportunity presents itself upon my completion of my degree. 4 waiting due to family related reason

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181 Appendix F : Power Analysis QUESTION #1 [4] -Monday, March 29, 2010 -22:32:57 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = .05 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 5 = 5 Output: = 13.1500000 Critical F = 2.2491449 Numerator df = 5 Denominator df = 257 Total sample size = 263 Actual power = 0.8015305 [5] -Monday, March 29, 2010 -22:34:26 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = .10 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 predictors = 5 = 5 Output: = 13.4000000 Critical F = 2.2850398 Numerator df = 5 Denominator df = 128 Total sample size = 134 Actual power = 0.8002857 [6] -Monday, March 29, 2010 -22:34:39 F te sts Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = .15 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 5 = 5 Output : = 13.8000000 Critical F = 2.3205293 Numerator df = 5 Denominator df = 86 Total sample size = 92 Actual power = 0.8041921

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182 QUESTIONS #2 [10] -Monday, March 29, 2010 -22:36:42 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = .05 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 1 = 1 Output: = 7.9500000 Critical F = 3.9013722 Numerator df = 1 Denominator df = 157 Total sample size = 159 Actual power = 0.8001975 [11] -Monday, March 29, 2010 -22:36:53 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = .10 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 1 = 1 Output: = 8.1000000 Critical F = 3.9618920 Numerator df = 1 Denominator df = 79 Total sample size = 81 Actual power = 0.8027075 [12] -Monday, March 29, 2010 -22:37:01 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = .15 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 1 = 1 Output: = 8.2500000 Critical F = 4.0230170 Numerator df = 1 Denominator df = 53 Total sample size = 55 Ac tual power = 0.8050826

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183 QUESTION s # 3 & 4 [1] -Monday, April 26, 2010 -22:59:32 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = 0.05 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 1 = 1 Output: = 7.9500000 Critical F = 3.9013722 Numerator df = 1 Denominator df = 157 Total sample size = 159 Actual power = 0.8001975 [2 ] -Monday, April 26, 2010 -23:01:13 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = 0.10 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 rs = 1 = 1 Output: = 8.1000000 Critical F = 3.9618920 Numerator df = 1 Denominator df = 79 Total sample size = 81 Actual power = 0.8027075 [3] -Monday, April 26, 2010 -23:04:24 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = 0.15 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 1 = 1 Output: Non = 8.2500000 Critical F = 4.0230170 Numerator df = 1 Denominator df = 53 Total sample size = 55 Actual power = 0.8050826

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184 QUESTION #5 [1] -Tuesday, April 27, 2010 -00:20:00 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = 0.05 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 8 = 8 Output: = 15.4500000 Cri tical F = 1.9693231 Numerator df = 8 Denominator df = 300 Total sample size = 309 Actual power = 0.8011506 [2] -Tuesday, April 27, 2010 -00:20:07 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required s ample size Input: Effect size f = 0.10 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 8 = 8 Output: = 15.9000000 Critical F = 2.0006249 Numerator df = 8 Denominator df = 150 Total sample size = 159 Actual power = 0.8027471 [3] -Tuesday, April 27, 2010 -00:20:14 F tests Linear multiple regression: Fixed model, R increase Analysis: A priori: Compute required sample size Input: Effect size f = 0.15 = 0.05 Power (1 = 0.80 = 8 = 8 Output: = 16.3500000 Critical F = 2.0323276 Numerator df = 8 Denominator df = 100 Total sample size = 109 Actual power = 0.8040987

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185 Appendix G : List of Variables Entered into SPSS Source (Institution) Method (Online/Hard copy) I set personal example of what I expect of others. I talk about future trends that will influence how our work gets done. I seek out challenging opportunities that test my own skills and abilities I develop cooperative relationships among the people I work with I praise people for a job well done I spend time and energy making certain that the people I work with adhere to the principles and standar ds we have agreed on I describe a compelling image of what the future could be like. I challenge people to try out new and innovative ways to do their work. I actively listen to diverse points of view. I make it a point to let people know about my confidence in their abilities. I follow through on the promises and commitments that I make. I appeal to others to share an exciting dream of the future I search outside the formal boundaries of my organization for innovative ways to improve what we do. I treat others with dignity and respect. I make sure that people are creatively rewarded for their contributions to the success of our project I ask for feedback on how my actions affect other people's performance I show others how their long term interests can be realized by enlisting in a common vision. I ask, "What can we learn?" when things don't go as expected I support the decision that people make on their own. I publicly recognize people who exemplify commitment to shared values. I build consens us around a common set of values for running our organization. I paint the "big picture" of what we aspire to accomplish. I make certain that we set achievable goals, make concrete plans, and establish measurable milestones for the projects and programs th at we work on. I give people a great deal of freedom and choice in deciding how to do their work. I find ways to celebrate accomplishments. I am clear about my philosophy of leadership. I speak with genuine conviction about the higher meaning and purpose of our work. I experiment and take risks, even when there is a chance of failure. I ensure that people grow in their jobs by learning new skills and developing themselves. I give the members of the team lots of appreciation and support for their contributions. Model Inspire Challenge Enable Encourage

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186 Total AVG Gender Age Ethnicity Numbers of educational leadership graduate college credits successfully completed prior to the current semester Current Teaching Grade level Total years of any experien ce in public or private school teaching Type of degrees previously completed Have you ever worked as a guidance counselor or special education teacher (Yes/No)? Grade Level Setting County Current position Rate the influence that salary played in your d ecision to pursue this graduate degree in educational leadership Intent ( I intend to seek an assistant principal position upon completion of this program) If ( If I seek an assistant principal position upon completion of this program, I prefer it would be at the Elementary Level more than at the Secondary Level ) I another ( I intend to seek another administrative position other than assistant principal upon completion of this program) Upon ( Upon program completion, when will you likely seek an assist ant principal position? ( Immediately, 1 to 2 years, 3 to 5 years, > 5 years, Unknown, Never ))

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About the Author Daniel Wayne Eadens earned a Bachelors degree in Education in 1992 and a Masters in Educational Leadership in 1996 from the University of South Florida. While in the Masters program, Daniel worked as a teacher and a citizen soldier He has taught in public schools at the Elementary, Middle, and High School setting s and has served as school Administrator on more than one occasion. Additionally, Daniel has experience in Adult Education and Special Education. He has directly worked with self contained autistic spectrum primary students and main streame d students with mild disabilities at the secondary level. In 2000, D aniel entered the Educational Leadership Ed.D program at th e University of South Florida. Daniel served a tour with the Army Reserves in Iraq from 2006 to 2007. He has taught colle ge c ourses a t the University of South Florida, University of Tampa, and St. Petersburg College. Daniel has presented at UCEA in 2002, FCEC in 2010, and at AAER in 2010.