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Factors that influence faculty intentions to support the community college baccalaureate

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Title:
Factors that influence faculty intentions to support the community college baccalaureate
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English
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Kielty, Lori
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University of South Florida
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Community college baccalaureate
Post-secondary education
Theory of Planned Behavior
Faculty perceptions
Florida community colleges
Dissertations, Academic -- Leadership Development -- Masters -- USF   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Abstract:
ABSTRACT: An increasing number of community colleges in the United States are becoming baccalaureate-granting institutions. Proponents of the community college baccalaureate (CCB) argue that the CCB provides students with access to higher education, while others argue the CCB will compromise the community college's core values. The purpose of this study is to explore faculty members' intention to support the CCB transition. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior provides the theoretical framework for the study. The theory assumes that changes in behavior are intentional and, therefore, can be planned. This theory posits that attitudes, subjective (social) norms, and perceived behavioral control predict intentions to support a behavior and, ultimately, to behave in a certain way. Full-time faculty members from two community colleges in Florida were invited to participate in the Web-based survey; 95 of the 317 faculty members invited to participate in the study chose to complete the survey, representing a 30% response rate. Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated among the direct measures and their underlying beliefs indicate significant relationships among (a) attitude and behavioral beliefs (r = .46, p = .01) and (b) subjective norms and normative beliefs (r = .48, p = .01). Correlation analysis among the direct measures and behavioral intention indicate significant relationships among (a) attitude and behavioral beliefs (r = .82, p = .01), (b) subjective norms and normative beliefs (r = .22, p = .05), and (c) perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention (r = .34, p = .01). The multiple linear regression analysis indicated the linear combination of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control account for 69% of the variability in faculty members' intention to support the CCB transition, with greatest the contribution from perceived behavioral control, (b = .87), followed by attitude (b = .22), and subjective norms contributing the least (b = .05). The findings from this study can be used to reflect upon CCB transitions that have already occurred or are in process. In addition, the findings can inform future efforts by community colleges to develop more effective and efficient processes for making the transition to CCB institutions. Lastly, the findings provide insight of the CCB transition from a faculty members' perspective, as well as to contribute to existing literature on the theory of planned behavior.
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Dissertation (EDD)--University of South Florida, 2010.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Lori Kielty.
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Factors that Influence Faculty Intentions to Support the Community College Baccalaureate by Lori Kielty A d issertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education Department of Adult, Career & Highe r Education College of Education University of South Florida Major Professor: Donald Dellow, Ed.D. Jim Eison, Ph.D. Robert Sullins, Ed.D. Cheryl Fante, Ed.D. Date of Approval : September 28 2010 Keywords: community college baccalaureate, post second ary education, Theory of Planned Behavior, faculty perceptions, Florida community colleges Copyright 2010, Lori S. Kielty

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A cknowledgements I would like to thank my family, friends and colleagues who continually encouraged and supported me through out the dissertation process. I am especially grateful to my colleagues who participated in the pilot study as well as the final survey. My proofreaders, wh o all volunteered for the task M ary Kate, Janice and Brenda di d an outstanding job. I would like t o thank my dissertation committee: Dr. Donald Dellow, Dr. Jim Eison, Dr. Robert Sullins, and Dr. Cheryl Fante for their support, guidance and direction. In addition a sincere thank you to two very important people in my life: Cheryl and Margarida. Cheryl has been my teacher boss, mentor and most importantly a friend for almost 20 years. Margarida who always goes above and beyond to share her knowledge and expertise, provide guidance and encouragement I would not have made it without you! I will alway (and nights) working on our dissertations. An d finally, a s pecial thank you to my husband who continually encouraged and supported me to pursue my education. I am particularly grateful for h is patie nce and understanding

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i Table of Contents List of Table ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... v List of Figures ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. vii i Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. ix Chapter 1: Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 1 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ......................... 4 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 5 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 5 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 6 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 Limitation s of the T heory of Planned B ehavior ................................ .......... 8 Assumptions ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 8 Definitions of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ 9 Organization of Study ................................ ................................ ............................ 12 Summary of Chapter 1 ................................ ................................ ........................... 12 Chapter 2: Literature Review ................................ ................................ ............................. 1 4 The Baccalaureate W ithin the Community College System ................................ .. 14 History of the C ommunity C ollege ................................ ............................ 14 Histor y of the Community College B accalaureate ................................ .... 15 The Baccalaureate Movement Within the Florida Community College S ystem ................................ ................................ .............. 17 The Florida B accalaureate Pilot P rogram ................................ ...... 19 Challenges P resented by the CCB ................................ ............................. 21 Summary of the CCB ................................ ................................ ................. 22 Theory of Planned Behavior ................................ ................................ .................. 23 Behavior al B eliefs and Attitudes Toward Behavioral I ntention ............... 24 Normativ e Beliefs and Subjective Norms A bout the B ehavioral I ntention ................................ ................................ ......................... 2 5 Control Beliefs an d Perceived Behavioral Control O ver the Behavioral I ntention ................................ ................................ ....... 2 7 Summary of C onstructs ................................ ................................ .............. 29 Studies U sing the T heory of Planned B ehavior ................................ ......... 29

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ii Summary of Chapter 2 ................................ ................................ ........................... 33 Chapter 3: Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 34 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 3 5 Questionnaire Development ................................ ................................ ................... 3 5 Elicitation S tudy ................................ ................................ ......................... 3 5 Final S urvey ................................ ................................ ............................... 3 6 Elicitation Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 36 Survey Development ................................ ................................ .............................. 42 Attitude ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 43 Subjective N orms ................................ ................................ ....................... 47 Perceived B ehavioral C on trol ................................ ................................ .... 51 Behavioral I ntention ................................ ................................ ................... 55 Demographic V ariables ................................ ................................ ............. 5 6 Survey Testing ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 5 7 Testing for Comprehension and C larity ................................ ..................... 57 Pilot Testing of Survey I nstrument ................................ ............................ 58 Survey Administration ................................ ................................ ........................... 58 Use of Human Subjects in R esearch ................................ .......................... 59 Data Collection and A nalysis ................................ ................................ ..... 59 Reliabil ity ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 60 Summary of Chapter 3 ................................ ................................ ........................... 60 Chapter 4: Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 61 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 62 Supplemental Questions to the Model ................................ ................................ ... 6 3 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 66 Hypotheses Results ................................ ................................ ................................ 68 Hypothesis 1: Behavioral Beliefs A bout the CCB Transition are S i gnificantly Associated W ith A ttitudes T oward th e CCB T ransition ................................ ................................ ....................... 6 8 Behavioral B eliefs T hat Underlie A ttitude ................................ .... 6 8 Correlation Between A ttitude Behavioral Beliefs and A ttitude ................................ ................................ .......................... 7 1 Hypothesis 2: Normative Beliefs A bout the CCB Transition are Significantly A ssoc iated W ith Subjective Norms About the CCB T rans ition. ................................ ................................ ............. 7 1 Normative B e liefs That Underlie Subjective N orms ..................... 7 2 Correlation Between N o rmative Beliefs and Subjective N orm s ................................ ................................ ............................. 7 5 Hypothesis 3: Control Beliefs About the CCB Transition are Significantly Associated With Perceived Behavioral Control About the CCB T ransition ................................ ................ 7 6 Control Beliefs That Underlie P erc eived Behavioral C ontrol ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 6 Correlation B etween Control B e liefs and Perceived

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iii Behavioral C ontrol ................................ ................................ ......... 79 Hypotheses 4 and Perceived Behavioral Control as P redicti v e Factors of Intention to S upport the CCB ................................ ........................ 79 Hypothesis 4: Faculty A ttitudes About the CCB Transition are Significantly A s sociated With Their B ehavioral Intentions to Support the CCB Tr ansition ................................ ...................... 8 1 Correlation Between Attitude and Behavioral I ntention ............... 8 2 H ypothesis 5: Faculty Subjective Norms A bout the CCB Transition are Significantly Associated With Their B ehavioral Intentions to Support the CCB T ransition ................... 8 3 Correlation Between Subjective N orms and Behavioral I ntention ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 4 Hypothesis 6: e r ceived Behavioral Control Over the CCB T ransiti on are Significantly A s sociated With Their Behavioral Intentions to Support the CCB T ransition ......... 8 4 Correlation B etween Perceived Behavioral C on trol and Behavioral I ntention ................................ ................................ ....... 8 5 Hypothesis 7: Attitude, S ubjectiv e Norms, Perceived Behavioral C o ntrol Predict F a Support the CCB T ransition ................................ ........................... 8 6 Summary of Chapter 4 ................................ ................................ ........................... 8 8 Chapter 5 : Findings Implications and Recommendations ................................ ............... 9 1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 9 1 Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 9 2 Hypothesis 1: Behavioral Be liefs About the CCB T ransition are Si gnificantly Associated With Attitudes Toward the CCB T ransition ................................ ................................ ....................... 9 2 Hypotheses 2: Normative Beliefs About the CCB T ransition are Significantly Associated With Subjective Norms About the CCB T ransition ................................ ................................ .............. 9 2 Hypotheses 3: Co ntrol Beliefs About the CCB T ransition are S igni ficantly Associated W ith Perceived Behavioral Control About the CCB T ransition ................................ ................ 9 3 Hypotheses 4: Faculty Attitudes About the CCB Transition are Significantly A s sociated With Their B ehavioral Intentions to Supp ort the CCB T ransition ................................ ...................... 9 3 Hypotheses 5: Faculty Subjective Norms About the CCB Transition are Significantly Associated With Their B ehavioral Intentions to Support the CCB T ransition ................... 9 4 Hypotheses 6: ehavioral Control Over the CC B Transition are Significantly A s sociated With Their Behavioral Intentions to Support the CCB T ransition ......... 9 4

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iv Hypotheses 7: Attitude, S ubjective N orms Perceived Behavioral ehaviora l Intention to Support the CCB T ransition ................................ ........................... 9 4 Implications for Practice ................................ ................................ ........................ 9 5 Maintain the C omm unity College Core V alues ................................ ......... 9 5 Provide F aculty Members Professional D evelopment ............................... 9 6 Include Faculty Members in the Decision Making P rocess .................... 10 0 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 10 1 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ............................... 10 2 R eference s ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 10 5 A ppendices ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 11 1 Appendix A: Faculty Questionnaire ................................ ................................ .... 11 2 Appendix B: Extra Tables Table B 1 : Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Behavioral Intention ................................ ................................ ................. 11 8 Table B 2 : Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Attitud e, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioral Control ............................ 119 Table B 3 : Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Behavioral Beliefs ................................ ................................ .................... 12 0 Table B 4 : Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Normative Beliefs ................................ ................................ .................... 12 1 Table B 5 : Descriptive Sta tistics for Survey Questions Measuring Control Beliefs ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 12 2 Table B 6 : Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Demographic Information ................................ ................................ ........ 12 3 About the Author ................................ ................................ ............................... END PAGE

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v List of Tables Table 1 : Sample S tudies using the T heory of Planned Behavior as a T heoretical F ramework ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 3 1 Table 2 : Factors Influencing Beliefs C oncerning the CCB T ransition I dentified in the Elicitation Study ................................ ................................ ............................ 40 Table 3 : Survey Questions to Elicit Faculty M embers Attitude Toward Supporting the CCB T ransition ................................ ................................ .......... 4 4 Tabl e 4 : Survey Questions to Elicit Faculty M embers Behavioral Beliefs U nderlying their A ttitude ................................ ................................ .................... 4 5 Table 5 : Scoring of Survey Questions M easuring Faculty M A ttitude ................ 4 7 Table 6 : Survey Questions to E licit Faculty M ember s Subjective N orms about Su pporting the CCB T ransition ................................ ................................ ........... 4 8 Table 7 : Survey Q ue stions to Elicit Faculty M ember s Normative Beliefs Underlying their Subjective N orms ................................ ................................ .... 50 Table 8 : Scoring of Survey Questions M easuring Faculty M S ubjective N orms ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 5 1 Table 9 : Survey Questions t o Elicit Faculty M embers Perceived Behavioral C ontrol ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 5 2 Table 10 : Underlying their Perceived Behavioral C ontrol ................................ ................ 5 4 Table 11 : Scoring of Survey Questions M easuring Faculty M Perceived Be havioral C ontrol ................................ ................................ ............................ 5 5 Table 12 : Survey ntention ................. 5 6 Table 13 : ehavioral I ntentions ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 56

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vi Table 14 : Tes t Retest of the Faculty Survey Assessing the Faculty M S upport of the CCB T ransition ................................ ................................ .......... 5 8 Table 15 : Demographic Data ................................ ................................ ............................. 6 3 Table 16 : Behavioral Beliefs Direct Questions ................................ .............................. 6 5 Table 17 : Control Beliefs Direct Questions ................................ ................................ .... 6 5 Table 18 : Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Behavioral Beliefs and Outcome Evaluation ................................ ................................ .......................... 69 Table 19 : Example of R esponse to Survey Questions Measuring Behavioral Beliefs ................................ ................................ ........... 70 Table 20: Correlations Between Be havioral Beliefs and Attitude ................................ ..... 71 Table 21 : Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Normative Beliefs a nd Motivation to Comply ................................ ................................ ....................... 7 3 Table 22 : Example of R esponse to Survey Questions Measuring Normative Beliefs ................................ ................................ ............ 7 4 Table 23: Correlations Between Normative Beliefs and Subjective Norms ...................... 75 Table 2 4 : Responses to Survey Questions Measuring C ontrol Beliefs and Perceived Power ................................ ................................ ................................ 7 7 Table 25 : Example of R esponse to Survey Questions Measuring Control Beliefs ................................ ................................ ................. 80 Table 26: Correlations Between Control Beliefs and Perceived Behavioral Control ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 79 Table 2 7 : Responses to Survey Q uestions Measuring Behavioral Intention ..................... 80 Table 28 : Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Attitude ................................ ......... 8 2 Table 29 : Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Subjective Norms ......................... 8 3 Table 30 : Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Perceived Behavioral Control ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 8 6 Table 31 : Multiple Linear Regression for Behavioral Intention ................................ ........ 8 7

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vii Table B 1: Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Behavioral Intention ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 118 Table B 2: Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioral Control ................................ .... 119 Table B 3: Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Behavioral Intention ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 120 Table B 4: Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Normative Beliefs ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 121 Table B 5: Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Control Beliefs ....... 122 Table B 6: Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Demographic Information ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 123

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viii List of Figures Figure 1. Model of theory of planned b ehavior ................................ ................................ 3 Figure 2 Theory of planned behavior and h y potheses ................................ ..................... 7 Figure 3 Senate Bill 1716, State College Pilot Project ................................ .................. 20 Figure 4 Theories of r easo ned action and planned b ehavior ................................ ......... 2 4 Figure 5 Direct and indirect measures of intention and behavior as adapted from Jeong, 2008 ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 2 6 Figure 6 Theor y of planned b ehavior showing the elicitation questionnaire ................ 38 Figure 7 Research model of the theory of planned behavior adapted for the CCB t ransition ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 4 1 Figure 8 Indirect attitudinal measures of intention ................................ ....................... 4 5 Figure 9 Indirect subjective no rms measures of intention ................................ ............. 49 Figure 1 0 Indirect perceived behavioral control measures of intention ......................... 5 3 Figure 1 1 T heory of planned behavior m odel with results ................................ .............. 6 7 Figure 1 2 Correlations between behavioral beliefs and attitude ................................ ...... 68 Figure 13 Correlatio ns between normative beliefs and subjective norms ....................... 72 Figure 1 4 Correlations between control beliefs and perceived behavioral control ......... 7 6

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ix A bstract An increasing number of community colleges in the United States are becoming bacca laureate granting institutions. Proponents of the community college baccalaureate (CCB) argue that the CCB provides students with access to higher education, while The purpose of th is study is to explore CCB transition Theory of Planned Behavior provides the theoretical framework for the study. The theory assumes that changes in behavior are intentional and, therefore, can be planned This theory posits that attitudes, subjective (social) norms, and perceived behavioral control predict intentions to support a behavior and, ultimately, to behave in a certain way. Full time faculty members from two community colleges in Florida were in vited to parti cipate in the Web based survey; 95 of the 317 faculty members invited to participate in the study chose to complete the survey representing a 30 % response rate. Pearson product moment c orrelation s were calculated among the direct measures an d their underlying beliefs indicate significant relationships among (a) attitude and behavioral beliefs ( r = .46, p = .01) and (b) subjective norms and normative beliefs ( r = .48, p = .01). Correlation analysis among the direct measures and behavioral inte ntion indicate significant relationships among (a) attitude and behavioral beliefs ( r = .82, p =

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x .01) (b) subjective norms and no rmative beliefs ( r = .22, p = .05 ) and (c) perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention ( r = .34, p = .01). The mul tiple linear r egression analysis indicate d the linear combination of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control account for 69 % of the t the CCB transition, with greatest the contribution from per ceived behavioral control, ( b = .87 ), followed by attitude ( b = .22 ), and subjective norms contributing the least ( b = .05 ). The findings from this study can be used to reflect upon CCB transitions that have already occurred or are in process. In addition, the findings can inform future efforts by community colleges to develop more effective and efficient processes for making the transition to CCB institutions L astly, t he findings provide insight of the CCB transition ective as well as to contribute to existing literature on the theory of planned b ehavior

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1 Chapter 1 : Introduction The c ommunity college system in the United States has existed since 1901 (Walker, 2005) and throughout its history it has undergon e significant changes. One of the most recent changes, the transition to a community college baccalaureate system, has created controversy among educational leaders, politicians, business leaders, students and policy makers. Those who support two year coll eges becoming baccalaureate granting institutions, for example, argue that community colleges can provide students with access to baccalaureate degrees in h igh demand fields at an affordable price ( Walker 2005) Walker (2005) reports that those who oppos e the movement argue that the community door access, learner centeredness, affordability, will be compromised (p. 19) Although the conflicting perspectives surrounding the community college bac calaureate (CCB) have not been addressed adequately ( Floyd 2005 ) community colleges throughout the United States and Canada are proceeding with the baccalaureate transition George Boggs, former president of the American Association of Community Colleges colleges as they transition to four year institutions (Lane, 2003) Boggs questions how community colleges can create a cohesive group of faculty when the CCB has the potenti al to divide faculty into two tiers : upper and lower division faculty A former

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2 president of a northwestern state college adds that reconciling faculty disagreements has been one of the greatest CCB challenges (Lane, 2003) While research on the CCB has explored the CCB transition from both an administrative perspective (Burrows, 2003; Floyd 2005; Petry, 2006) and a student perspective (Caporrimo, 2008) the literature lacks meaningful research from a faculty perspective. What is lacking is research expl oring faculty concerns and how these concerns can be addressed to facilitate the CCB transition. T his study attempts to address this gap by exp loring faculty attitudes toward to the baccalaureate degree granting ins titutions This study is contextualized in the Florida baccalaureate movement. Community colleges transitioning to baccalaureate granting institutions involve a number of significant changes. Changes in the comm unity college system typically e ffect classr oom practices and require the support of faculty to be successful (Latiolais, Holland, & Sutter, 2009) The effects of the transition to the baccalaureate will similarly impact the community college classrooms and, therefore, require faculty suppo rt to be successful. Based upon the history of previous changes, such support is not always forthcoming. In fact, faculty have, at times, undermined change effort s, especially changes related to the work environment (Bolman, 2003) The theory of planned b ehavior has been used in a number of contexts to study how people negotiate expectations of behavioral change (c.f., health, Schifter, 1985; leisure activities, Ajzen, 1992; alcohol consumption, Huchting, Andrew, and LaBrie, 2008; education, Kalivoda, 2003 ; and marketing, King, 2008 ; s ee Figure 1 )

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3 The theory assumes that changes in behavior are intentional and, therefore, can be planned. This theory posits that attitudes, subjective (social) norms, and perceived b ehavioral control predict intentions to support a behavior and, ultimately, to behave in a certain way. (Ajzen, 1991, p. 206 ) Knowledge about the predictive factors from the theory of planned b ehavior is used to design interventions that can shape the intentions toward more desirable behaviors (Sauter, 2003) According to Francis et al. ct relationship between behavioural intention and actual behaviour, intention can be used as a proximal (p. 8) Figure 1 Model of theory of planned b ehavior (Ajzen, 1991) In the context of this research, the theory of p lanned b ehavior provides a framework for studying faculty intentions toward the CCB transition. In particular, this study will explore fa the transition to college baccalaurea ntentions to support the transition will be determined by faculty attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the context of changes to their work enviro nment which

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4 result from the C CB transition. In the tradition of previous studies using the theory of planned b ehavior an elicitation questionnaire and a final survey were used to elicit faculty intentions ; thus, actual behavior was not be the focus of this study Data were analyzed using cross product s correlation s and regression analyses. The following sections begin with a statement of the problem and are followed by the significance of the study, purpose of the study, research questions, limitations of the st udy, assumptions made in conducting this study, and definition of terms to ensure a shared understanding of the vocabulary and concepts in this study. These sections conclude with a summary of Chapter 1. Statement of the Problem Changes in academia typical ly occur as follows : administrators and policy makers formulate decisions to implement organizational change and then inform faculty members about these decisions. Faculty members in turn, adapt the implications of the decisions for the classroom. Researc h indicates that faculties often resist such organizational changes and this resistance negatively impacts change efforts. One of the reasons that faculty members resist such changes may be that they perceive that these changes will require additional skil ls that they may not have. Furthermore, faculty members may agree with the critics who argue that t he CCB transition will compromise door access, learner centeredness affordability, convenience, and responsi veness ) The CCB transition inevitably, will require more advanced knowledge and skills as community colleges extend their missions to include upper division coursework. Thus, f aculty members may resist the transition to community college baccalaureate sy stems (Bolman, 2003)

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5 Significance of the Study The significance of this study i s threefold : (1) it can inform the literature base on the CCB, (2) it can provide insights into how to include faculty members in the CCB transition process and, thereby, impr ove its success and (3) it can test the model of the theory of planned b ehavior intention to support the CCB transition The CCB literature recognizes that faculty perspectives are typically not considered in research on the CCB transition. This study addressed this gap by focus ing on faculty intentions toward the CCB transition. Faculty members are viewed as the change agents for the classroom, as well as for the institution (Rousef f Baker, 2002) ; therefore it is important to understand faculty perspectives toward the CCB transition and to gain their support. An understanding of faculty perspectives and what factors shape their intentions toward the CCB will help community colleges to develop interventions that can gain faculty members support for the CCB transition. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to use the t heo ry of planned b ehavior to explore faculty intentions toward their communit y college s transition to a CCB institution. The study was contextualized in the Florida college system It was expected that faculty would yield insights into their intentions toward supporting the CCB transition (Bolman, 2003) The f indings from this study can then be used to reflect upon CCB transitions that have already occurred or are in process. In addition, the findings can inform future efforts by community colleges to develop more effective and efficient processes for making th e transition to CCB institutions.

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6 Hypotheses When placed in the context of the theory of planned b ehavior the following hypotheses guide the study : Hypothesis 1 Behavioral Beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with Attitudes towar d the CCB transition. Hypothesis 2 Normative Beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with Subjective Norms about the CCB transition Hypothesis 3 Control Beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with Perceived Be havioral Control about the CCB transition Hypothesis 4 significantly associated with their behavioral Intentions to support the CCB transition. Hypothesis 5 the CCB transition are significantly associated with their behavioral Intentions to support the CCB transition Hypothesis 6 transition are significantly associated with their behavioral Intention s to support the CCB transition Hypothesis 7 Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioral Control transition.

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7 orces us to questions (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2003, p. 45) Figure 2 presents the hypothese s as related to the theory of planned b ehavior framework. Figure 2 Theory of p lan ned behavior and h ypotheses. Limitations of the Study The researcher has identified t he following limitations to this study: 1. An increasing number of Florida colle ges are moving to baccalaureate granting institutions; therefo re, this study provides only a snapshot of the Florida college system. Therefore, results may not be generalizable to community colleges in other states. 2. The researcher collect ed data from faculty members at public, two year institutions in Florida. T here is a possibility that faculty members did not want to participa te in the study. 3. This study explore d

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8 Limitations of the theory of planned b eha vior 1. Factors such as personality and demographic variables were not taken into consideration. 2. There is much ambiguity regarding how to define perceived behavioral control and this ambiguity creates measurement problems. 3. The a ssumption was made that perc eived behavioral control predicts actual behavioral control. This may not always be the case. 4. The theory of planned behavior only works when some aspect of the behavior is not under volitional control. 5. The longer the time interval between behavioral int ent and behavior, the less likely the behavior will occur. 6. The theory is based on the assumption that human beings are rational and make systematic decisions based on available information. Unconscious motives are not considered. Assumptions 1. The researc her assumed that faculty members would answer the survey questions honestly. 2. The CCB transition was a timely issue for Florida colleges and faculty members; therefore, they would be willing to participate in the study. 3. Since access to the Internet has inc reased dramatically and since colle ge s utilize the Internet for communication with faculty members the research er assumed that faculty members would be more inclined to respond to a W eb based survey, as opposed to a traditional mail survey (Kiernan, 2005)

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9 Definition of Terms Attitude is defined as has a favorable or unfavorable (Ajzen, 1991, p. 188) Baccalaureate degre e: a degree conferred by a college or university to a person who has completed a 4 or 5 year program of study or its equivalent ( Floyd & Skilnik 2005) Behavior is defined as (Fr ancis et al., 2004, p. 32) Behavioral beliefs (Francis et al., 2004) Content analysis underlying topics or themes. References to these them es are often then counted to determine the most frequently mentioned themes (Francis et al., 2004, p. 32) Control beliefs : (Franci s et al., 2004, p. 32) Community college has been institution regionally accredited to award the associate in arts or the associate science as (p. 5) However, as some community colleges expa nd their mission to become baccalaureate granting institutions, the definition of the community college may change. Community college baccalaureate (CCB) is a institutions approved for associate degree awards with the addit ion of limited

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10 (Floyd & Walker, 2009, p. 101) Elicitation study of a subset of a population under investigation, to discover the salient behavioural, normative and control beliefs about the behaviour" (Francis et al., 2004, p. 32) Endpoints are defined as [v] erbal labels that are written at each end of a row of numbers to indicate the meanings of the most extreme numbers (Francis et al., 2004, p. 32) Intention : (Francis et al., 2004, p. 32) Internal consistency A statistic for assessing the equivalence of different items in a s cale. It is appropriate for measuring the reliability of a scale composed of multiple items, if it is valid to assume that the items are parallel measures of the same attitude content domain (Francis et al., 2004, p. 33) According to Francis et al., item s need an internal consistency co efficient > 0.6 to be included in the study. Florida College System year and four year public institutions. Based on their mission, level of accreditation and appropriate authorization, the colleg (Florida Legislature 2008, p. 2) Motivation to comply The extent to which a person feels inc lined to match his or her behaviour to various sources of social pressure (Francis et al., 2004, p. 32) Multiple regression A quantitative analytic procedure that either simultaneously or cumulatively assesses correlations between a number of independe nt variables and one

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11 dependent variable (Francis et al., 2004, p. 32) Non traditional student is defined by Eric J. Smith, Commissioner of the Florida time or who have (p. 1) Normative beliefs (Francis et al., 2004, p. 32) Norms Perception s about what important people think a person should do Perceived social pressure to perform a behaviour (Francis et al., 2004, p. 32) Outcome evaluations (Francis et al., 2004, p. 33) Perceived behavioral control : (Francis et al., 2004, p. 33) Reliability A property of a measuring instrument, indicating the extent to which it yields consistent results over rep eated observations (Francis et al., 2004, p. 33) Self efficacy The conviction that one can successfully execute a given behaviour (Francis et al., 2004, p. 33) Subjective norm s: not perfor (Francis et al 2004, p. 9) TACT principle is a description of behavior in terms of its target, the action itself, the context in which it is performed, and when it is performed (Francis et al. 2004)

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12 Test retest: r determining the extent to which scores from an instrument are reliable over time by correlating the scores from two administrations of (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2003, pp. 1 8) T heory of planned b ehavior states the intent to perform a behavior is dependent Validity A property of measuring instruments or of respo nses, indicating the extent to which they measure what they are supposed to measure (Francis et al. 2004, p. 33) Organization of Study This dissertation includes four additional sections. The first section is a review of the literature related to the CC B movement. T his section contains the history of the community college and the community college baccalaureate. The second section describe s the research methods for the study, sample population, instrument, and pilot test. The results of the data analysis were presented in the third section. The final section include d a discussion of the results and recommendations for future research study. Summary of Chapter 1 With an increased demand for access to higher education throughout the United States, community colleges are experiencing vertical extensions (Burrows, 2003) This emerging trend has created controversy among educational leaders, politicians, business leaders, students and policy makers ( Floyd & Skolnik 2005) The CCB is a relativ ely recent develop ment and, therefore, will continue to create new challenges and opportunities for higher education. Current literature focuses on the CCB from an

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13 administrative or student perspective, while minimal research derives from the faculty perspective. To improve comprehension of the impact that the baccalaureate movement has on faculty members and how this impact affects faculty intentions to support the movement, it is important that more research be conducted from a faculty member s perspecti ve. The theory of planned b ehavior provides a theoretical and conceptual framework for this study. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty intentions regarding the CCB transition. The findings from this study can then be used to inform th e process of the CCB transition to ensure the support of faculty members

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14 Chapter 2 : Literature Review The literature review provides a framework for this study. The literature review begins with an overview of the c ommun ity college system and how the b accalaureate movement fits within this system. The second section situates the community college baccalaureate (CCB) movement within the Florida community colleges. The third section reviews the theory of planned b ehavior to create a methodological fr amework for exploring faculty memb accalaureate transition at Florida community colleges. The application of the theory of planned b ehavior in the context of this study is embedde d within the discussion of t he t heory. The Baccalaureate within the Community College System The Community College Baccalaureate (CCB) affords students the opportunity to continue with their advanced education and to achieve an undergraduate degree in a community college setting Eco nomic demands for a higher educated workforce as well as increased educational demands by non traditional college aged students make the community college baccalaureate a viable option for higher education (Florida Department of Education, 2008 b ; Florida Legislature, 2008) History of the community college. In 1901, the first public community college Joliet Junior College was established in Illinois Joliet was designed to accommodate students who wanted a higher education but did not want to leave the i r community (Joliet

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15 Junior College, 2007) The purpose of community colleges (once called junior college s) was to provide the first two years of a four year college education (Bailey & Morest, 2004) T he role of the community college, however, evolved as t he needs of the community changed. For example, a fter WWII the community college expanded its mission to include retraining the surge of veterans to acquire new skills so that they could re enter the workforce. Altbach (2005) GI Bill led to the (p. 288) From the late 1950s to the 1980s community colleges experienced an almost 400 % growth in enrollment (Vaughan, 1982; Manias, 2007) An increase of unde r prepared stu d ents accompanied this influx, spurring the need for expanding rem ed ial education. The introduction of non credit courses created the next significant expansion in community colleges. Bailey and Morest (2004) contend that non credit courses a re (p. 2) The 1990s was marked by colleges expanding into distance education. The concept of being able to a and place bound students. The most significant change community colleges have experienced in the 21 st century has been the transition of community colleges to bacca laureate granting i nstitutions. History of the community college baccalaureate According to the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (2004) the community college baccalaureate evolved in response to the following concerns : (a) i ncreased demand by nontrad itional student s who are time and place bound, (b) i ncreased labor market

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16 demand in specialized fields (e .g., health care and education), (c) i ncreased demand in specific geographic areas, (d) i ncreased demand for new kinds of baccalaureate degrees in app lied and technical fields, (e) overcrowded four year campuses, wi th demands exceeding capacity, and (f) l imited higher education resources In response to these concerns, community colleges and universities have collaborated to implement delivery models (e .g., articulation model, university center model, university extension models, CCB; Floyd & Skolnik 2005) to increase access to higher education: As the economic landscape changes both nationally and internationally, the necessity of preparing citizens to compete in a global market becomes critical. The expansion of the community college mission to include a baccalaureate degree option paves the way for specific populations served by these institutions to access further education in a cost effective manner readily compete in an increasingly globalized market. Several of broadened their mission to meet the growing education demands of the state Some institutions are developing new baccalaureate programs while maintaining their commitments to providing open access, developmental education, workforce training, service to their surrounding communities, and awarding associate degrees for transfer t o four year institutions (Florida Department of Education, 2008a p. 1) Community Colleges in s e veral states Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, and West Virginia offer baccalaureate degrees. Although public community colleges are offering baccalaureate programs, they lag behind the number of independent community colleges that offer such programs. At the time of this writing, 18 of the 28 Florida community college s offer of science, and The community colleges include: Broward College Chipola College, College of Central Florida Daytona State College Edison State College Florida State College at Jacks onville, Gulf Coast Community College, Indian River State College, Miami Dade College Northwest Florida State College, Palm Beach

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17 State College, Pensacola State College, Polk State College, Santa Fe College, S eminole State College of Florida St. Johns Ri ver Community College, St. Petersburg College and State College of Florida, Manatee Sarasota, (Florida Department of Education, 2008 a ; Florida Department of Educa tion, 2008b ) Community colleges in Florida are in the forefront of developing baccalaureate programs to meet the critical needs of the state in areas of teacher preparation, nursing, and applied sciences to supplement the crop of professionals that colleges and universities are already producing (Florida Department of Education, 2008 a p. 2) Th e following section reviews the historical timeline of the community college baccalaureate movement in Florida. The baccalaureate m ovement within the Florida c ommunity college s ystem In 1998, the State Board of Community Colleges, the Postsecondary Educat ion Planning Commission (PEPC) and the Senate Education Committee found that access to the baccalaureate in Florida had become a major i ssue for many community college students. These students found for example, that continuing their baccalaureate educati on at a university would result in major disruptions in their personal and professional lives, such as relocation and greater financial burdens to pay for a university baccalaureate. The State Board, PEPC and the Florida s enate recognized that community co lleges could potentially reduce the disruptions for students by providing baccalaureates at community colleges ( Florida Department of Education 2008 a ). In 1999, the Florida legislature passed a bill allowing Florida community colleges to offer baccalaure ate programs. Two years later, in 2001, Senate Bill 1162 was passed: petition the Florida Board of Education for authorization to offer baccalaureate programs in high dem (Burrows, 2003, p. 7) Senate Bill 1162 also

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18 reestablished St. Petersburg Junior College as St. Petersburg College. The college was given $1,000,000 toward developing baccalaureate programs in high need areas such as education, nursing and applied sciences (Burrows 2003 ; Plecha, 2007) As of Fall 2010 St. Petersburg College offered 24 ba In 2002, Chipola Community College and Miami Dade Community College were granted approval by the Florida Stat e Board to confer baccalaureate degrees. Chipola developed the following program areas: secondary education in mathematics and science. Miami Dade developed program areas in exceptional student education and secondary education in mathematics and science. In 2003 Okaloosa Walton was granted approval by the Florida State Board to confer baccalaureate degrees in project and acquisitions management. In 2005, Daytona Beach Community College and Edison Community College were granted baccalaureate programs in man agement and supervision and public safety management, respectively. During the same year, the State Board of Education initiated a new process for approving community college baccalaureate proposals. By 2006, 30 baccalaureat e degrees were approved. By 2010 20 community colleges were approved to offer degrees in the following critical needs areas: education, nursing, and applied s ciences In 2004, 123 students graduated from St Petersburg College, the first in the Florida baccalaureate program. Since then, the cumulative number who have graduated from all Florida community colleges conferring baccalaureate degrees has risen from the initial 123 to 569 by 2007 ( Florida Department of Education, 2008 a )

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19 The Florida baccalaureate pilot program In June 2008, G overnor Crist signed what is being called whereby he created the Florida C ollege S ystem for the purpose of improving local access to higher education for students (Walker 2008) The 2008 Florida Legislature passed Senate Bill 1716 ( see Figure 3 ) to unify the individual community college baccalaureate efforts under the umbrella of the Chipola College Daytona State College Edison State College Indian River State College Mia mi Dade College Northwest Florida State College Polk College Santa Fe College and St. Petersburg College (Florida Legislature, 2008). The Florida Legislature articulated the following vision and rationale for the pilot program: The vision for state co term economic potential by providing Florida residents with readily available means to maximize their own productivity through higher education. The Florida College System has grown over time to become the stat foremost resource for postsecondary academic and workforce credentials including the Associate in Arts, Associate in Science, Associate in Applied Science degrees, selected baccalaureate degrees, and many workforce certificates (Florida Legislature 2 008, p. 2) One of the guiding principles that community colleges are expected to follow and upper division courses. Specifically, faculty memb philos ophy, which requires that all courses be treated equally within a community college. This principle was included to avert the possibility of a two tiered system (Florida Legislature 2008, p. 4) Critics of the CCB, however, indicate that this may not be achieved.

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20 Senate Bill 1716. Senate Bill 1716, Section 1004.875, requires that institutions participating in the pilot project shall: (a) Maintain, as the institution's primary mission, responsibility for responding to community needs for postsecondary acad emic education and career degree education as prescribed in s. 1004.65(6), Florida Statutes. (b) Maintain an open door admissions policy for associate level degree programs and workforce education programs. (c) Require, as a condition of admission to upper division programs, successful completion of the college level communication and mathematics skills examination established pursuant to s. 1008.29, Florida Statutes, unless the student has been awarded an associate degree from a community college or state university. (d) Continue to provide outreach to underserved populations. (e) Continue to provide remedial education. (f) Comply with all provisions of the statewide articulation agreement which relate to 2 year and 4 year public degree granting institution s as adopted by the State Board of Education pursuant to s. 1007.23, Florida Statutes. (g) Be prohibited from awarding graduate credit or graduate 126 degrees. (h) Be prohibited from participating in intercollegiate athletics beyond the 2 year level. (i) Deliver the programs and services in providing associate and baccalaureate degrees in a cost effective manner that demonstrates substantial savings to the student and the sta t e over the cost of providing the degree at a state university (2008) Figure 3 S enate Bill 1716, State College Pilot Project

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21 Challenges p resented by the CCB Although adaptability to change is a hallmark of community colleges, change has seldom come without controversy from faculty members Faculty attitudes have generally r to (Altbach, Gumport, & Johnstone, 2001) Faculty issues at the community college have revolved around institutional expectations and around concern that they may not be able or may not wish to meet institutional expectatio ns For example, faculty members who perceive that they lack the skills and confidence to implement change s in expectations may resist the change efforts (Bolman, 2003) egarding changes in expectations focus on new expe ctations dictated by a more demanding work environment. Whereas community college faculty members have to conduct research, publish, and are a part of a local community, baccalaureate faculty me mbers have additional responsibilities and become part of a national community of scholars. ( Townsend, 2005 ) Furthermore, f co mmunity colleges are committed first and foremost to teaching and to enabling many students who would not traditionally be viewed as college material to Townsend (2005), in a study of community college faculty members, found that they comfortably to achieve professional fulfillment, sometimes combined with raising a family (Townsend, 1998, p. 660) time in a two having a career and ra (p. 49)

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22 Another concern expressed by faculty members is the emergence of a multi tiered system whereby higher division faculty members will receive greater benefits than lower division faculty (Seidam, 1985) Grubb (2005) found stinctions between career and academic faculty (p. 4) n remains the highest st a tus activity in most 2 year campuses and academic faculty tend to dominate faculty lead (p. 4) A c omplementary concern to the multi members are required by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to have a doctorate in the discipline iscipline or a 18 graduate hours in the discipline Furthermore, a t least 25% of the baccalaureate level courses must be taught by faculty members with a terminal degree (Pappas Consulting, 2001) Community college faculty members m ay find that the co st and time needed to meet the requirements to teach upper level courses as a barrier to pursuing additional education. Conversely, faculty members with such credentials may demand higher salaries and resist teaching lower division cours es (Laden, 2005). Summary of the CCB. The CCB represents an effort to meet local economic and educational needs. According to the Florida Legislature (2008), the CCB is expected to bolster and by increasing access to affordable baccalaureate degrees, thus helping to supply the projected 2.15 million baccalaureate graduates needed to bring Florida to the level of the 10 most productive states by 2027 (Florida Legislature, 2008, p. 3) Florida c ommunity colleges are leading the nation in broadening their mission to meet the emerging needs of the state. This effort, however, is not without criticism.

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23 as a poten tial factor that may undermine the success of the CCB. The following section reviews the theory of planned b ehavior as a potential framework for exploring faculty Theor y of Planned B ehavior The t h eory of planne d b ehavior (Ajzen, 2009) is an extension of the theory of reasoned a ction (Ajzen 2009) which has been used as a psychological model to predict a person's behavior. Whereas the theory of reasoned a ction examines attitudinal and normative factors that infl theory of planned b ehavior (see Figure 4 ) adds a third construct: perceived behavioral control, w theory of self e fficacy The rationale for adding the third construct lies their ability to perform the behavior. In both theories, intention is used to predict behavior. In this study, the t heory of planned b ehavior provides a theoretical framework for e intentions and behaviors toward s and intentions toward the CCB transition, we may be able to better predict whether they intend to support the CCB transition. Attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control represent direct measures of intention to perform a behavior. The t heory of planned b ehavior also includes indirect measures conc ( see Figure 5 behavioral beliefs determine th eir attitudes toward a

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24 behavior, their normative beliefs determine their subj ective norms about the behavior, and control beliefs determine their perceived behavioral control of the behavior. The following sections detail the indirect and direct measures in the theory Figure 4 Theories of r easo ned action and planned b ehavior (Ajzen, 1991 ) Behavioral beliefs and a ttitudes toward b ehavior al i ntention Ajzen (1991) has a favorable or unfavorable (p. 188) It is measured on a spectrum from favorable to unfavorable (Ajzen, 2006) beliefs a person holds concerning the behavior. These beliefs are decomposed into two E) related to the behavior (Ajze n & Fishbein, 1980; see Figure 5 ) The strength of each belief (i.e., B = {b 1 m } ) is weighted by the evaluation of the outcome (i.e., E = {e 1 n }) a nd the cross product (i.e., BxE; see Figure 5 : Attitude) is summed to calculate the attitude score as shown in the following equation (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) : Attitude = A b i e i

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25 If faculty members, for example, believe that it is too costly to pursue further education, then they will be less likely to engage in educa tion related behaviors. Research has found that attitude is the strongest predictor of behavioral intentions ( r = .67, p < .001, Sheppard, Hartwick, & Warshaw, 1988; r =.49, p < .001, Armitage & Conner, 2001). In the context of this study, the behavior of of the CCB transition. The corresponding hypotheses become Hypothesis 1 Behavioral Beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with Attitudes toward the CCB transition Hypothesis 4 ttitudes about the CCB transition are significantly associated with their behavioral Intentions to support the CCB transition. Normative beliefs and subjective norms about the behavioral intention According to Ajzen (n.d.), e beliefs (i.e., N) concerning how important others, such as family, friends, and colleagues perceive the behavior and how motivated comply (e.g., M) with what important others

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26 Figure 5 Direct and indirect measures of intention and behavior as adapted from Jeong, 2008

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27 perceive as the right or wrong thing to do (see Figure 5 ). The strength of each normativ e belief (i.e., N = {n 1 m } ) is weighted by the evaluation of the motivation to comply (i.e., M = {m 1 n }) and the cross p r oduct (i.e., NxM; see Figure 5 : Subjective Norms) is summed to calculate the subjective norms score as shown in the following equation (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) : Subjective Norms = SN nb i m i If faculty members, for example, believe that colleagues want them to support the baccalaureate transition and faculty members want to do what their colleagues perceive as important, then faculty members are more likely to support the CCB transition. Research has found that subjective norms toward the behavior are the second strongest predictor of behavioral intentions ( r = .62, p < .001, Sheppard, Hartwick & r =.34, p < .001, Armitage & Conner, 2001). In the context of this study, the behavior of interest is faculty support of the CCB transition. The corresponding hypotheses become Hypothesis 2 Normative Beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associa ted with Subjective Norms about the CCB transition Hypothesis 5 significantly associated with their behavioral Intentions to support the CCB transition. Control b eliefs and p erceived b ehaviora l c ontrol over the b ehavioral i ntention Ajzen (n.d.) defines perceived and abilities to perform the behavior. A pe

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28 about the presence of factors that may facilitate or impede performance of the behavior (Ajzen, n.d.) and the perceived power (i.e., P) a person has over each of thes Figure 5 ). The strength of each belief (i.e., C = {c 1 m } ) is weighted by the perceived power of the control factor (i.e., P = {p 1 n }) a nd the cross product (i.e., CxP; see Figure 5 : Perceived Behavioral Control) is summed to calculate the perceived behavioral control score as shown in the following equation (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) : Perceived Behavioral Control = PBC c i p i If faculty members, for example, believe they have the requisite credentials (e.g., a terminal de gree in the teaching field) to support the baccalaureate transition, they may feel that they have more control over the changes that will result from CCB transition. Thus, they may be more likely to support the CCB transition. Research has found a weak cor relation between behavioral intention and perceived behavioral control over the behavior ( r = 43, p < .001 Armitage & Conner, 2001). Perceived behavioral control adds minimally to the prediction of intention. Specifically, it has been found to add, on av erage, six percent to the prediction of behavioral intention. According to the theory of planned b ehavior model, perceived behavioral control also has a direct influence on behavior. This relationship is discussed in the following section. In the context o of the CCB transition. The corresponding hypotheses become Hypothesis 3 Control Beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with Perceived Behavioral Control about the CCB transition.

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29 Hypothesis 6 transition are significantly associated with their behavioral Intentions to support the CCB transition Summary of constructs. Intention to perform a behavior is a combina tion of (Ingram et al. 2000, p. 216) These three predictors also directly influence one another ; that is, more positive a ttitudes and subjective norms are directly related to a more positive sense of perceived behavioral and, as such, shape their intentions toward the behavior. In the cont ext of the CCB transition, faculty intentions to support the transition will be determined by various degrees of faculty attitudes, subjective norms, behavio (Ajzen, 1991, p. 206) The following section provides an overview of different studies that have used the theory of p lan ned b ehavior to explore behavioral change in different domains. Stu dies using the theory of planned b ehavior The theory of planned b ehavior has been used in a number of contexts to study how people negotiate expectations of behavioral change (c.f., health, Schifter, 1985; leisure activities, Ajzen, 1992; alcohol consumpt ion, Huchting, Andrew, and LaBrie, 2008; education, Kalivoda, 2003 ; and marketing, King, 2008. Francis et al. (2004) report that the theory of planned b ehavior has been used as the theoretical framework for 222 studies published in the Medline database and 610 studies pub lished in the PsycINFO database from 1985 to January

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30 2004. In a meta analysis of 185 of these studies, Armitage and Conner (2001) found the average correlation between behavioral belief and attitude to be r =.50, between normative belief an d subjective norms to be r =.50, and between control belief and perceived behavioral control to be r =. 27. Each was significant at p < .001. Although some authors focus on studies that incorporate the complete theory of planned b ehavior other studies simp ly focus on an aspect (e .g., attitude, beliefs) of the t heory. Francis et questionnaire, but it is important that researchers are clear about the purpose of the research and understan d which research questions can and cannot be answered by a theory of planned b ehavior to predict and explain middle and high d ress code violations. The researcher modified the theory of planned b ehavior to include ent may be considered a background factor by Ajzen. A background factor influences behavior indirectly through its association with beliefs and attitudes (Ajzen, 2005) Amidon analyzed the data using regression analysis and path analysis. The regression an alysis for cigarette violations indicated teacher attitude and internal control normative beliefs were better predictors for the dress code violations. The path analysis was 2008, p. 60).

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31 Table 1 Sample S tudies using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a Theoretical F ramework Author & Date Indicator of attitude change Amid on, 2008 Facu lty intention to report student s dress code and cigarette violations Barnett & Presley, 2004 Faculty intention to adopt Internet and Web technologies Beck, 1997 Faculty intention to implement constructivism in their classroom Crawley, 1990 Faculty intention to use investigative teaching methods Martin, 1994 Faculty intention to use service learning Barnett and Presley (2004) used the theory of planned b ehavior to predict avior in adopting Internet and W eb t echnologies. The purpose of their study was: (1) to determine if theory of planned b ehavior would be an appropriate method for accessing the intent to adopt W eb technologies to supplement course delivery, (2) to elicit possible items for a fully developed survey instrument and (3) to conduct a pilot study to validate the instrument. They developed an open ended questionnaire, collected data, and analyzed them in accordance with the guidelines for conducting a study using the theory of planned b ehavior model The researchers used the results of the open ended questionnaire to develop a survey instrument to predict faculty avior in adopting Internet and W eb technologies. Fifteen faculty members participated in the pilot study, which represented a 15 % response rate. The researchers indicated the low response rate may have been due to the survey being mailed at the end of the semester and the length of the survey. Survey item direct measures (i.e., intention, attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control)

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32 that shape the theory of planned b ehavior were .89, .59, .91, and .96 respectively A Crombach alpha score of .59 for attitude indicated a problem (e.g., uncl ear wording or confusing response scale) with the survey questions measuring attitude. Reliability scores for the indirect measures (i.e., behavioral beliefs, outcome evaluations, normative beliefs, motivation to comply, control beliefs, and perceived powe r) that shape the theory of planned b ehavior were within the acceptable level of .60, with the exception of normative beliefs which had a score of .17. An item analysis report revealed specific questions that needed to be revised to increase the Crombach a lpha scores for attitude and normative beliefs. The pilot data indicated that attitude toward adopting Internet and Web technologies and perceived behavioral control over adopting Internet and Web technologies tention to adopt Internet and W eb technologies. theory of planned b ehavior to examine the beliefs regarding their intention to implement constructivism in their classroom. Beck analyzed data using multiple regres sion and ANOVA techniques. The results indicated that a attitude toward the implementation of constructivism in the their classroom ion to implement constructivism in the classroom. Additionally, (Beck, 1997, p. iv) The theory of planned b ehavior therefore, has been used in a variety of domains and behaviors A review of the literature revealed numerous studies that tested and validated the theory of planned b ehavior model.

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33 Although t hese studies revealed multiple regression and path analysis as the preferred statistical framework, the research er chose to use multiple linear regression which is in accordance with Francis et al. (2004) guide to constructing questionnaires: Constructing Questionnaires Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Francis et al. 2004) The theory of planned b ehavior is, therefore, a useful framework for this study since the focus of this study is to explore toward the CCB transition. Summary of Chapter 2 With an increased demand for access to higher education throughout the United States, community colleges are experiencing vertical extensions. This emerging trend has created controversy among educational leaders, politicians, business leaders, students and policy makers (Floyd & Skolnik 2005) T he CCB is a relatively recent development i n higher education ; thus it will continue to create new challenges and opportunities for higher education. Current literature focuses on the CCB from an administrative or student perspective, while minimal research has been conducted from the faculty memb perspective. This study will provide a better understand ing of the impact that the baccalaureate movement exerts on faculty members, thus researchers should conduct more studies from faculty perspective. The purpose of this study was to explo d the community college transitions to college baccalaureates. The findings from this study can then be used to inform the process of the CCB transition and to illuminate methods that ensure the support of faculty members

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34 Chapter 3 : Method s This quantitative study use d survey methods (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2003) to assess support their institution's transition to a b accalaureate system. As shown in Figure 6 the theory of planned behavi or was used to develop a model of faculty intentions. The theory of planned b ehavior posits that behavioral intentions are shaped directly by attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control and indirectly by behavioral, normative, and control beliefs, respectively. which were then used to construct the final survey instrument. Faculty members from public, two year Florida colleges currently in the process of tran sitioning to b accalaureate institutions were asked to complete a W eb based survey. The survey was designed using the guidelines for theory of planned b ehavior survey development (Francis et al. 2004) and W eb survey development (Dillman, Tortora, & Bowker, 1999) Dillman, Tortora, and Bowker reco mmend that W participants have the option to exit the survey at any tim e. The purpose of the survey was beliefs and their intentions to support the CCB transition. These findings can then be used

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35 we re analyzed using cross multiplication, Pearson product moment correlation and m ultiple linear regression Multiple linear regression reveal ed which factors have the greatest predictive power for the targeted behavior. Descriptive statistics were computed for the demographic information. Participants The possible pool of participants consist ed of f ull time faculty members at two public, two year colleges in Florida that are in the process of transitioning to a CCB system. Questionnaire Development Francis et al. (2004) have constructed specific guidelines for developing an theory of planned b ehavior Ajzen (2009) provides these guidelines, as well as sample survey questions and other resources fo r the theory of planned b ehavior on his W eb site. Francis et al. (2004) guidelines for constructing an elicitation questionnare and a final survey are implemented in the following steps: Elicitation s tudy 1. Define the population of interest and select a rep resentative sample. 2. Carefully define the behavior under study. Use this definition to construct a general introductory statement for the start of the questionnaire. 3. Conduct a test retest study of the elicitation questionnaire. 4. nses, identify the a. most frequently perceived advantages/disadvantages of the behavior.

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36 b. most important people/groups of people who would approve/disapprove of the behavior. c. perceived barriers/facilitating factors that could make it easier/more difficult to adopt the behavior. Final s urvey 5. Use the findings from the elicitation study to create survey questions that measure the direct and indirect constructs. 6. Test the draft to determine if the survey questions are readable and understandable. Reword items, if necessary. a. Conduct a pilot test retest on the revised survey. Assess the test retest reliability of the indirect measures by administering the questionnaire twice to the same group of people, with an interval of at least two weeks. 7. Conduct final survey. 8. An alyze responses using multiple linear regression. The following sections detail these steps and apply them to the current study. Elicitation Study Francis et al. (2004) recommend that researchers conduct an elicitation study to informally ascertain the sa lient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the targeted behavior in the current research study. In the context of this research effort, the targeted behavior was the intention to support the CCB transition T o study fac ulty toward this behavior, first it was necessary to conduct an elicitation

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37 and perceived behavioral control with respect to the CCB transition. This was an informal, col laborative effort that identified what factors to include in the final study. An elicitation study was conducted at a local community college in central Florida which was in the process of assessing and implementing the CCB. A convenience sample of 25 f ull time faculty members across various disciplines were asked to participate in a survey consisting of nine open ended questions that attempted to elicit faculty beliefs concerning the CCB transition. The questions for the elicitation study were constructed following the theory of planned b ehavior guide to constructing questionnaires: Constructing Questionnaires Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Francis et al. 2004) The questions were formed such that they elicited the advantages, disad vantages, or each of the belief areas in t he theory of planned b ehavior (s ee Figure 6 ). Each belief, therefore, was elicited using three questions. The three questions for the Behavioral Beliefs appeared first in the survey. They were followed by the three questions for the Subjective Norms and three questions for the Perceived Behavioral Control, respectively. The elicitat ion study was implemented in a W eb based environment and was administered twice (i .e., test retest) over a two week interval. The purpose of the test retest method was to increase the reliability of the findings.

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38 Figure 6 Th eory of planned b ehavior showing the elicitation questionnaire

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39 Twenty f ive faculty members responded to the elicitation study. As suggested by Francis et al. (2004), t wo researchers independently analyzed the content of the responses to determine the themes that emerged from them. Inter rater reliability was 89%. T he themes were listed, in order of frequency, for each belief construct (i.e., behavioral, normative, and control). The top 75% of the beliefs were chosen to be included in the main study (Francis et al. 2004) The results of this survey appear in Table 2 Faculty members identified access credentials and participation as three important, behavioral belief constructs that indirectly influence their support of the CCB transition; that is, faculty members identified these construc ts as factors that will influence their attitude toward the CCB transition that in turn, may predict their behavioral intention to support the CCB transition as well as their actual support of the CCB transition. In addition, faculty members identified a dministrators s tudents and b usiness and i ndustry l eaders as important people in their lives who influence their normative beliefs which indirectly influence their support of the CCB transition; that is, tive norms that in turn, predict

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40 Table 2 Factors Influencing Beliefs Concerning the CCB Transition I dentified in the Elicitation Study Beliefs and Factors Facult Behavioral Beliefs Access complete a four year degree without extensive travel perhaps Credentials entials, they will have Participation participate in the creation of an acceptable program that will serve the community and and [ sic Normativ e Beliefs Administrators of the college would approve. I assume they perceive such a transition to be in there [ sic Students ot be able Business and Industry Leaders Other Faculty Control Beliefs Faculty Support available to faculty to seek advanced Program Needs Assessment Program Quality Finally, faculty members identified facu lty support, program needs assessment, and program quality as three key constructs that behavioral control concerning their sup port of the CCB transition. Given the results of the Elicitation Study, the research model for this study is shown in Figure 7

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41 Figure 7 Research model of the theory of planned behavior adapted for the CCB t ransition.

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42 Survey D evelopment on study were used to create a W eb transition ( s ee Appendix A.) The survey consists of two sections with a total of 46 questions that were measured using a 7 point Likert scale. Section 1 contains 35 subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control concerning the target beha vior. In variables) concerning the target behavio r as well. Section 2 contains 11 questions to elicit d in accordance with the guidelines established for questionnaires based upon the theory of planned b ehavior : Constructing Questionnaires Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Francis et al. 2004) Attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control represent direct measures of the theory of planned b ehavior concerning the intent ion to perform a behavior. The t heory also includes indirect measures about eliefs determine th eir attitudes toward a behavior, ective norms about the behavior, of the behavior. The following sections detail the direct and indirect measures in the theory of planned b ehavior that were used to construct the final survey instrument.

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43 Attitud e. Survey items 1 4 were ude toward the CCB transition. Two types of questions were used to elicit the direct measures of attitude: experiential and instrumental. Experiential items assess how faculty members feel (e.g., pleasant/ unpleasant) when they perform the behavior (i.e, s upport the CCB transition); whereas, instrumental items assess whether faculty members feel that the behavior achieves something (e.g., useful/worthless). The direct measures of attitude require a single stem that is repeated with the use of at least thre e pairs of bipolar adjectives that are evaluative (e.g., good/bad). The behavior is presented in the stem with a pair of evaluative bipolar endpoints. The values of the endpoints must be varied such that some questions end with a negative evaluative wherea s others end with a positive evaluative (Francis et al. 2004) The stem used to Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is is followed by the following pairs of bipolar adjectives: the wrong thing to do/the right th ing to do, good/ bad, beneficial for m e/ harmful for me, and harmful for college/ beneficial for college Table 3 provides a summary of the variables, the survey question number, and the survey questions for the direct measure of att itude. Direct measures of attitude are scored by recoding the items with negative endpoints on the right, so that higher numbers always reflect a positive attitude to the target behavior (e.g. for good/bad an answer of 6 becomes score of 2; a score of 4 remains a 4). For example, survey question 2 Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is good 1..7 ba d, has a negative ly worded endpoint (e.g., bad). Thus, the question requires recoding so that a high score represents a positive attitude toward

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44 supp orting the CCB transition. In addition to survey item 2, item 3 requires recoding. After scores are recoded, the mean of the four items is calculated to give an overall attitude score. In addition, the internal consistency between the items is verified (Fr ancis et al. 2004) Table 3 T ransition Attitude Survey Question Stem: Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is Variable SQ# Bipolar Endpoint Scale Bipolar Endpoint ATT_DM_OSW 1 the wrong thing to do 1..7 the right thing to do ATT_DM_OSG 2 good 1..7 bad ATT_DM_OSB 3 beneficial for me 1..7 harmful for me ATT_DM_OSH 4 harmful for college 1..7 beneficial for college Behavioral beliefs captur e the indirect measures for attitude. Beliefs are measured (Franc is et al. 2004, p. 9; s ee Figure 8 ) The elicitation study identified access credential s and participation attitudinal beliefs about supporting the CCB transition. Direct measures of attitude were scored by recodin g the items with negative endpoints on the right Survey items 6, 28, and 33 measure behavioral beliefs Items 29, 31, and 12 measure the evaluations of outcome corresponding to these beliefs. Table 4 provides a su mmary of the variables, the survey question number, and the survey questions for the indirect measures of attitude.

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45 Figure 8 Indirect attitudinal measures of intention. Table 4 Survey Questions to Elici nderlying their A ttitudes Behavioral Belief s Variable SQ# Survey question (complete) ATT_IM_BB_A 6 By supporting the CCB transition, I am providing students with access to a baccalaureate degree. ( L ikely 1..7 U n likely ) ATT_IM_BB_C 28 Supporting the CCB transition will require that I update my credentials. ( L ikely 1..7 U nlikely ) ATT_IM_BB_P 33 If I support the CCB transition, then I will be expected to help implement it. ( L ikely 1..7 U nlikely ) Evaluation of Out come Variable SQ# Survey question (incomplete) ATT_IM_OE_A 29 Providing students with access to a baccalaureate degree is undesirable 1..7 desirable ATT_IM_OE_C 31 Updating my credentials to meet the CCB requirements is undesirable 1..7 desirable A TT_IM_OE_P 12 For me, participating in the CCB transition is undesirable 1..7 desirable

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46 Survey questions measuring behavioral beliefs (e.g., 6, 28, and 33) were measured on the likely/unlikely scale and were scored by recoding the items with negative en dpoints on the right, so that higher numbers always reflect a positive attitude to the target behavior. For each behavioral belief (i.e., access credentials, and participation) the total belief score on the likely /un likely scale is multiplied by the r ele vant outcome evaluation score, which was measured on the undesirable / desirable scale The resulting products across all the beliefs are summed to create an overall a ttitude score. Given the three behavioral beliefs identified by the elicitation study, the formula for calculating the A = ( Access Behavioral Belief x Access Outcome Evaluation) + ( Credentials Behavioral Belief x Credentials Outcome Evaluation) + ( Participation Be havioral Belief x Participation Outcome Evaluation) which, in terms of the variables, becomes A = (ATT_IM_BB_A x ATT_IM_OE_A) + (ATT_IM_BB_C x ATT_IM_OE_C) + (ATT_IM_BB_P x ATT_IM_OE_P) Table 5 provides a summary of the scoring for the survey items that elicit the direct and indirect measures of attitude.

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47 Table 5 Scoring of Survey Questions M easuring Faculty M A ttitud e Attitude Construct Survey Question Response format Reverse scor ing Internal consistency analysis Requires multiplication Direct 1 4 1 7 2 and 3 1 4 Indirect Behavioral beliefs 6, 28, 33 1 7 6, 28, 33 6 x 29; 28 x 31; Outcome Evaluations 29, 31, 12 33 x 12 Subjective Norms. Survey questions 26, 14, 10, and 35 are constructed to elicit norms toward the CCB transition. Two different types of question formats were used to elicit the direct measures of subjective norms : incomplete sentences and complete sentences. Incomplete sentences embed the response scale (e.g., should/should not) within the question. Complete sentences append the response scale (e.g., disagree/agree) at the end of the question. A summary of variable s, survey question number, and the survey question for the direct measure of subjective norms are provided in Table 6 Direct measures of subjective norms were scored by recoding the items with negative endpoints on the right, so that higher numbers always reflect a greater social pressure to perform the behavior. Survey item 26 has a response scale of I should/ should not and, therefore, requires recoding. After scores were recoded, the mean of the four items was calculated to giv e an overall subjective norms score. In addition, the internal consistency between the items was verified (Francis et al. 2004)

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48 Table 6 orms about S upporting the CCB T ransi tion Subjective Norms Variable SQ# Survey question (incomplete) SN_DM_MP 26 Most people who are important to me think that I should 1..7 should not support the CCB transition. Subjective Norms Variable SQ# Survey question (complete) SN_DM_SP 14 I feel under social pressure to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) SN_DM_E 10 People who are important to me expect me to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) SN_DM_W 35 People who are important to me want me to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) Normative beliefs capture the indirect measures of subjective norms. Beliefs were who may in some way be important to the person, w (i.e., motivation to comply ; s ee Figure 9 ) The elicitation study identified administrators, students, business and industry leaders a nd other faculty members as the indirect measures of su bjective norms that influence the decision to support the CCB transition.

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49 Figure 9 Indirect subjective norms measures of intention. Two types of questions were used to eli cit the indirect measures of the normative think actually One type of question was used to el icit responses on the motivation to comply. This (Francis et al. 2004, p. 19) [emphasis in the original]. Survey items 20, 22, and 34 measure injunctive norm ative beliefs and question 30 measures the descriptive normative beliefs. In addition, two different types of question formats were used to measure the normative beliefs: incomplete sentences and complete sentences. Incomplete sentences embed the response scale (e.g., should/should not) within the question. Complete sentences append the response scale (e.g., not at all/very much) at the end of the question. Survey items 7, 18, 25, and 21 measure the motivation to comply corresponding to these beliefs. Table 7 provides a summary of the variables, the survey question number, and the survey questions for the indirect measures of subjective norms

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50 Table 7 efs Underlying their Subjective N orms Normative Belief s Variable SQ# Survey question (i njunctive, incomplete) SN_IM_NB_I_A 20 Administrators think that I should not 1..7 should support the CCB transition. SN_IM_NB_I_S 22 Students think that I shoul d not 1..7 should support the CCB transition. SN_IM_NB_I_BIL 34 Business and industry leaders think that I should not 1..7 should support the CCB transition. Normative Belief s Variable SQ# Survey question (d escriptive, incomplete) SN_IM_NB_D_O F 30 Ot her faculty in my college do not 1..7 do support the CCB transition. Motivation to Comply Variable SQ# Survey question (complete) SN_IM_MC_A 7 Doing what administrators think I should do is important to me. ( Not at all 1..7 V ery much ) SN_IM_MC_S 18 D oing what students think I should do is important to me. ( Not at all 1..7 V ery much ) SN_IM_MC_BIL 25 Doing what business and industry leaders think I should do is important to me. ( Not at all 1..7 V ery much ) SN_IM_MC_OF 21 Doing what other faculty think I should do is important to me. ( Not at all 1..7 V ery much ) Table 8 provides a summary of the scoring for the survey items that elicit the direct and indirect measures of subjective norms.

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51 Table 8 Scoring of Survey Q uestions Measuring Faculty M Subjective N orms Subjective Norm s Construct Survey Question Response format Reverse coded Internal consistency analysis Requires multiplication Direct 26, 14, 10, 35 1 7 26 26, 14, 10, 35 Indirect Normative beliefs Injunctive 20, 22, 34 1 7 20 x 7; 22 x 18; Descriptive 30 34 x 25; 30 x 21 Motivation to comply 7, 18, 25, 21 1 7 Perceived behavioral c ontrol Survey questions 8, 5, 13 and 16 were constructed to elic behavioral control toward the CCB transition. Two different types of questions were used to elicit the direct measures of perceived behavioral control: self efficacy and con trollability. Self (Francis et al. 2004, p. 21) whether factors beyond their control determine their behavio u (Francis et al. p. 21) A summary of the variables, the survey question number, and the survey question for the direct measure of perceived behavioral control are provided in Table 9

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52 Table 9 ontrol Self Efficacy Variable SQ# Survey question (complete) PBC_DM_SE_C 8 I am confident that I could support the CCB transition if I wanted to. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) PBC_DM_SE_S 5 For me to support the CCB transition is easy 1..7 difficult Controllability Variable SQ# Survey question (complete) PBC_DM_C_D 13 The decision to support the CCB transition is beyond my control. ( D isag ree 1..7 A gree ) PBC_DM_C_I 16 Whether I support the CCB transition or not is entirely up to me. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) Direct measures of perceived behavioral control were scored by recoding the items with negative endpoints on the right, so that high er scores always reflect a greater level of control over the target behavior Survey item 5 required recoding. After the score was recoded, the mean of the items was calculated to give an overall perceived behavioral control score. In addition, the internal c onsistency between the items was verified (Francis et al. 2004) Control beliefs capture the indirect measures for perceived behavioral control. Beliefs were control beliefs and (2) t (Francis et al. 2004, p. 22; see Figure 10 ) The elicitation study identified faculty support, program needs assessment, and program quality as factors that shape faculty havioral control over the CCB transition.

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53 Figure 10 Indirect perceived behavioral control measures of intention Survey questions 19 and 24 measure the control belief s. Items 17, 9, and 32 measure the perceived power corresp onding to these beliefs. In addition, two different types of question formats were used to elicit the direct measures of perceived behavioral control: incomplete sentences and complete sentences. Complete sentences append the response scale (e.g., unlikely /likely) at the end of the question. Incomplete sentences embed the response scale (e.g., less likely/more likely) within the question. Table 10 provides a summary of the variables, the survey question number, and the survey ques tions for the indirect measures of perceive d behavioral control. For each control belief (i.e., faculty support, program needs assessment, and program quality), the total belief score on the unlikely/likely scale was multiplied by the relevant perceived po wer score, which was measured on the less likely/more likely scale. The resulting products across all the beliefs are summed to create an overall perceived behavioral control score. Given the three control beliefs identified by the elicitation study, the f PBC) toward supporting the CCB transition becomes

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54 PBC = ( Faculty Support Control Belief x Faculty Support Perceived Power) + ( Program Needs Assessment Control Belief x Program Needs Assessment Perceived Power) + ( Program Quality Control Belief x Program Quality Perceived Power) PBC = (PBC_IM_CB_FS x PBC_IM_PP_FS) + (PBC_IM_CB_NA x PBC_IM_PP_NA) + (PBC_IM_CB_ PQ x PBC_IM_PP_ PQ ) Table 10 Survey Questions to Elicit Faculty M Control Beliefs Underlying their Perceived Behavioral C ontrol Control Beliefs Variable SQ# Survey question (complete) PBC_IM_CB_FS 15 If the college does not provide faculty support, it is difficult for me to support the CCB transition. ( Unlikely 1..7 L ikely ) PBC_IM_CB_NA 19 If a program needs assessment is not conducted, then it is difficult for me to support the CCB transition. ( Unlikely 1..7 L ikely ) PBC_IM_CB_PQ 24 I feel that the college will not provide quality baccala ureate programs, so it makes it difficult for me to support the CCB transition. ( Unlikely 1..7 L ikely ) Perceived Power Variable SQ# Survey question (incomplete) PBC_IM_PP_FS 17 When the college provides faculty support, I am less likely 1..7 more like ly to support the CCB transition. PBC_IM_PP_NA 9 When the college does not conduct a program needs assessment, I am less likely 1..7 more likely to support the CCB transition. PBC_IM_PP_PQ 32 Feeling that the college will not provide quality baccalaureat e programs, I am less likely 1..7 more likely to support the CCB transition.

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55 A summary of the scoring for the survey items that elicit the direct and indirect measures of perceived behavioral control are presented in Table 11 Table 11 Scoring of Survey Questions M easuring Faculty M Perceived Behavioral C ontrol Subjective Norms Construct Survey Question Response format Reverse coded Internal consistency analysis Requires multiplication Direct Self efficacy 8, 5 1 7 5 8, 5, 13, 16 Controllability 13, 16 1 7 Indirect Control belief 15, 19, 24 1 7 15x17; 19x9; Perceived power 17, 9, 32 1 7 24x32 Behavioral i ntention Survey items 11, 23, and 27 were constructed to elicit to their behavioral intentions toward the CCB transition. Three different types of question formats were used to elicit behavioral intentions: expect, want, and intend to support the CCB transition. These three different formats ensure the internal consist ency of behavioral intentions (Francis et al., 2004) The mean score of the responses provide s an overall behavioral intention score. A summary of the variables, survey question number, and survey questions are provided in Table 12

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56 Table 12 ntention Behavioral Intention Variable SQ# Survey question (complete) BI_E 11 I expect to support the CCB transition. ( Disagree 1..7 A gree ) BI_W 23 I want t o support the CCB transition. ( Disagree 1..7 Agree ) BI_I 27 I fully intend to support the CCB transition. ( Disagree 1..7 Agree ) The mean of the three items was calculated to give a behavioral intention score: BI = mean (expect + want + intend) which, in terms of the variables, becomes BI = mean (BI_E + BI_W + BI_I). Table 13 provides a summary of the scoring for the survey items that elicit the direct measures of behavioral intention. Table 13 Scoring of Survey Questions M easuring Faculty M Behavioral I ntention Behavioral Intentions Construct Survey Question Response format Reverse coded Internal consistency analysis Requires multiplication Direct 11, 23, 27 1 7 11, 23, 27 Demographic v ariables Section 2 of the survey was designed to elicit demographic information (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, and highest degree earned to date )

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57 Survey T esting The survey was tested for comprehension and clarity as well as for relia bility. The following sections detail the procedures that were used for survey testing. Testing for comprehension and c larity After the survey was developed, five faculty members from a local community college in central Florida were asked to review the q uestions to ensure their comprehension and clarity (Francis et al., 2004) They were asked to address the following questions from the theory of planned b ehavior guidelines: Are any items ambiguous or difficult to answer? Does the questionnaire feel too re petitive? Does it feel too long? Does it feel too superficial? Are there any annoying features of the wording or formatting? Are there inconsistent responses that might indicate that changes in response endpoints are problematic for respondents who complet e the questionnaire quickly? (p. 27) Their feedback was used to revise the survey questions. The researcher adhered to the guidelines of the theory unless the clarity of the question was compromised. For example, faculty members identified survey question s with double negatives as confusing should answer Therefore, the survey was revised to enhance the clarity of the survey questions and res ponse scales.

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58 Pilot testing of survey i nstrument The survey was pilot tested with five participants representative of the sample (Francis et al., 2004) The reliability of the survey was measured using test retest. The refore, participants were asked to t ake the survey twice within a two week period. A test retest reliability coefficient was then computed for each survey item (Rudner & Schafer, 2001 ; see Table 14 ) Table 14 Tes t Retest of the Faculty Survey Assessing Faculty Member upport of the CCB T ransition Construct Test Retest Intention .85 Direct Measures Attitudes .61 Subjective Norms .83 Perceived Behavioral Control .76 Indirect Measures Behavioral Beliefs Beliefs .65 Behavioral Beliefs Evaluation of Outco me .72 Normative Belief Beliefs .92 Normative Belief Motivation to Comply .90 Control Beliefs Beliefs .99 Control Beliefs Perceived Power .91 Survey Administration In Spring 2010 faculty members receive d an email inviting them to participate in this research study. One week after receiving the invitation to participate, faculty members receive d an email con taining the link to access the W eb based survey. To facilitate an adequate response rate two weeks after the initial email faculty member s

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59 received an email reminding them to complete the survey. Faculty members had another week to submit their responses before the researcher close d the survey. A W eb based survey was used for the final survey. Data were stored on a password protected serve r to which only the researcher has access. The researcher could delete the survey and data at any time. Data were exported from the server and imported into Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) for data analysis. Use of human s ubjec ts in r esearch Faculty m ember participation in the survey was voluntary. In addition, the researcher took the appropriate measures to ensure faculty ed anonymous (e.g., names will not be associated with faculty membe choosin g to withdraw from the study were able to do so by exiting the browser at any time and their responses were not used in the study. Data c ollection and a nalysis Data were collected in Spring 2010. Data from completed surveys were imported into SAS for data analysis. Initial data analysis include d descriptive statistics to identify the overall sample. Another set of analyses focus ed on the relationships between the direct measures (e.g., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) and the i ndirect measures (e.g., beliefs). The goal of the correlational analysis was to determine whether and to what extent ( a ) behavioral subjective norms, and perceived behavior al control concerning the CCB transition ; ( b ) s to support the CCB transition; and ( c intentions and perceived behavioral con trol predict faculty member behavior toward supporting the CCB transition.

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60 Reliability Reliability for direct measures (e.g., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) was established using an index of internal consistency to ensure th e items were measuring the same construct. Reliability for indirect measures was established using test retest reliability. The reliability ranged from .61 .99, indicating the survey questions were reliable. In accordance with the theory of planned b ehav ior surveys, the survey was administered twice with a two week lapse between surveys. Twenty five faculty members responded to nine open ended questions directed to elicit their behavioral belief (e.g., outcome of the behavior and outcome evaluation), norm ative belief (e.g., normative expectation and motivation to comply ) and control belief (e.g., control belief and perceived power). The 25 faculty members who responded to the elicitation questionnaire were from one of the two community colleges that were invited to participate in this study. Summary of Chapter 3 The purpose of this study was to ex toward the CCB transition. Specifically, this study focus ed support the CCB transition. A W eb bas ed survey was utilized to gather descriptive data from faculty members in two public, two year colleges in Florida. The survey was used to gather quantitative data that wer e imported into SAS for data analysis. The hypotheses were tested using Pearson prod uct moment c orrelation and multiple linear regression.

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61 Chapter 4 : Results the CCB transition, so that a prediction could be made about their actual behavior in suppor theory of planned behavior provided the theoretical framework for studying faculty intentions as well as for making a prediction about their behavior toward supporting the CCB transition. The theory of planned b ehavio r proposes t hat an assessment of individual s beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control can determine their intention and predict their actual behavior. A survey was developed to assess each one of these constructs. Cross produ ct s correlation s and regression analyses were performed using the data gathered to predict data were predictor variables (i.e., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) and (2) how the framework for analyzing the data to assess the corresponding hyp otheses. Stage One addressed hypotheses 1 3 and Stage Two addressed hypotheses 4 7. These analyses were

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62 This chapter is organized in three parts: (1) demographic data, (2) data from ques tions that supplement the model, and (3) data results corresponding to the hypotheses Demographics A total of 319 ful l time faculty members from two public two year colleges in Florida were inv ited to complete a W eb based survey. Ninety five of thos e responded, repr esenting a 30 % response rate. Seventy eight percent of the faculty members surveyed were 45 years or older. The population was almost evenly spl it between the two genders, with females consisting of 58% and males consisting of 42%. The population was predominately White (91 %) with the remainder belonging to various minority groups. Sixty three percent of the faculty members have 21% have a doctorate, 6% have a specialist degree, and the remaining facu lty members degree or less. Sixty four percent of the respondents were from College A, while the remainder (36 %) were from College B. A summary of the d emogra phic data is presented in Table 15 The two colleges that participated in the study were in the process of becoming baccalaur eate granting institutions; however, both colleges were not at identical stages within the transition. Co llege A was waiting for approval by the state and regional accrediting agency. College B was in their first term of offering one community college baccalaureate degree. However, the demographics for each college were similar, with the overwhelming majority of the faculty members being White females 45 or older, holding a masters The demographics of the faculty members who res ponded to the survey were representati ve of the ir college.

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63 Table 15 Demographic Data Demographic Variable N % Age 26 34 7 .07 35 44 14 .15 45 54 33 .35 55 and over 41 .43 Gender Female 55 .58 Male 40 .42 Race/Ethnicity American Indian or Alaska Native 1 .01 Asian 4 .04 Black or African American 3 .03 White 86 .91 Hispanic or Latino 1 .01 Highest Degree Certificate 1 .01 Associate 4 .04 Bachelor 4 .04 Master 60 .63 Specialist 6 .06 Doctorate 20 .21 Institution School A 61 .64 School B 34 .36 Supplemental Questions to the Model Three questions were added to solicit d irect information about behavioral belief s and three questions were added to solicit direct information about control beliefs The t hree behavioral belief questions were rated on a

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64 7 point Likert scale ( 1 = Disagree, 7 = Agree ; see Table 16 ) whereas the three c ontrol belief questions were rated dichotomous ly (yes/no ; see Table 17 ). Fifty seven percent of the f aculty members (see Table 16) responded nega tively (e.g., selected a 1 or 2 on a 7 point Likert scale ) when asked I feel providing core values (e.g., open door access, learner centeredness, affordability, convenience or responsiveness ). Twenty five percent of the faculty members reported feeling that the CCB may compromise the core values (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on a 7 point Likert scale) When faculty members were asked if they planned to pursue a terminal degree 35% responded negatively (e.g., selected a 1 or 2 on the 7 point Likert scale) 26% resp onded neutrally (e.g., selected a 4 on a 7 point Likert scale), and 20% responded positively (e.g., selected 6 or 7 on a 7 point Likert scale). The faculty members seem ed to be split among teaching or not teaching baccalaureate courses. Twenty seven percent of the faculty members responded positively (selected a 6 or 7 on a 7 point Likert scale) 30% responded negatively (e.g., selected 1 or 2 on a 7 point Likert scale ) and 24% showed no preference (e.g., selected a 4 on a 7 point Likert scale) Faculty members indicated that they perceived they had control over the CCB transition (see Table 17 ) Specifically, they felt that their college would provide them with the nece ssary funds to update their credentials ( 54% ) perform a needs assessment ( 77% ), and provide hig h quality baccalaureate degrees ( 90% ).

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65 Table 16 Behavioral Beliefs Supplemental Q uestions Survey q uestion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N (%) I feel providing baccalaureate degrees at community colleges may compromise the community open door access, learner centeredness, affordability, convenience, or responsiveness). ( Disagree 1..7 A gree ) 36 (37.9 ) 18 (19 ) 2 (2.1 ) 7 (7.4 ) 8 (8.4 ) 10 (10.5 ) 14 (14.7 ) I plan to get a terminal degree in my field. (Disagree 1..7 Agree) 29 (30.5 ) 4 (4.2 ) 7 (7.4 ) 25 (26.3 ) 11 (11.6 ) 5 (5.3 ) 14 (14.7 ) I plan to teach baccalaureate level courses at my college ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 23 (24.2 ) 7 (7.4 ) 8 (8.4 ) 23 (24.2 ) 8 (8.4 ) 8 (8.4 ) 18 (19 ) Table 17 Control Beliefs Direct Q uestions Survey q uestion Yes No My college will provide me with the funds to update my credentials. 51 (53.7) 44 (46.3) My colleg e performed a needs assessment for the CCB. 73 (76.8) 22 (23.2) My college will provide high quality baccalaureate degrees. 85 (89.5) 10 (10.5)

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66 Hypotheses T he hypotheses that guide th is study as well as how the hypotheses fit in the theory of planned b ehavior model are presented below and in Figure 11 Hypothesis 1 Behavioral Beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with Attitudes toward the CCB transition. Hypothesis 2 Normative Beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with Subjective Norms about the CCB transition Hypothesis 3 Control Beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with Perceived Behavioral Control about the CCB transition Hypothesis 4 transition are significantly associated with their behavioral Intentions to support the CCB transition. Hypothesis 5 significantly associated with their behavioral Intentions to support the C CB transition Hypothesis 6 transition are significantly associated with their behavioral Intentions to support the CCB transition Hypothesis 7 Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavior al Control transition.

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67 Figure 1 1 Theory of planned behavior m odel with hypotheses results.

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68 Hypotheses Results Hypothesis 1: Behavioral b eliefs about the CCB tra nsition are significantly associated with a ttitudes toward the CCB transition Hypothesis 1 posits that b ehavioral b eliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with a ttitudes toward the CCB transition A corr elational analysis between the behavioral b eliefs that underlie attitude and actual attitude questions shows a statistically significant and positive relationship ( r = .46, p = .01) between the behavioral beliefs and actual attitude measures. Behavioral beliefs that underlie a ttitude The attitude score was derived by about supporting the CCB transition. These beliefs were constructed using two components: (1) the behavioral beliefs about the consequences of the behavior (i.e., supporting th e CCB transition) and (2) the corresponding positive and negative judgments about each of these behavioral beliefs. In an elicitation study faculty members identified access (i.e., access to a baccalaureate degree), credential s and participation as featur es of the behavioral beliefs Figure 12 shows the relationship among a ttitude and its components as well as the survey questions that measured them. Table 18 shows the responses for each of the behavioral beliefs and their corresp onding outcome evaluation Figure 1 2 Relationshi p between behavioral beliefs and a ttitude

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69 Table 18 Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Behavioral Beliefs and Outcome Evalu a tion Survey Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N (%) Behavioral Beliefs 6. By supporting the CCB transition, I am providing students with acce ss to a baccalaureate degree. ( Likely 1..7 U nlikely ) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 10 (10.5) 15 (15.8) 25 (26.3) 45 (47.4) 28. Supporting the CCB tra nsition will require that I update my credentials. ( Likely 1..7 U nlikely ) 37 (39) 12 (12.6) 7 (7.4) 8 (8.4) 7 (7.4) 8 (8.4) 16 (16.8) 33. If I support the CCB transition, then I will be e xpected to help implement it. ( Likely 1..7 U nlikely ) 12 (12.6) 6 (6 .3) 6 (6.3) 17 (17.9) 7 (7.4) 21 (22.1) 26 (27.4) Outcome Evaluation 29. Providing students with acces s to a baccalaureate degree is Undesirable / D esirable 1 (1.1) 0 (0) 1 (1.05) 8 (8.4) 9 (9.5) 23 (24.2) 53 (55.8) 31. Updating my credentials t o meet the CCB requirements is Undesirable / D esirable 11 (11.6) 8 (8.4) 8 (8.4) 24 (25.3) 8 (8.42) 15 (15.8) 21 (22.1) 12. For me, particip ating in the CCB transition is Undesirable / D esirable 1 (1.1) 3 (3.2) 6 (6.3) 14 (14.7) 19 (20) 18 (19) 34 (35.8) No te : In accordance to the theory of planned b ehavior the validity of the survey questions measuring behavioral beliefs three items had negative endpoints: survey questions 6, 28, and 2 3. T he responses to survey questions 6, 28, and 23 were recoded so tha t higher numbers reflect a positive behavioral belief about the target behavior Care was taken to invert the responses on the reverse scored statements in order to analyze them in a consistent manner (1 becomes 7, 2 becomes 6, 3 becomes 5, 4 stays a 4, 3 becomes 5, 2 becomes 6, 1 becomes 7).

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70 An example of one faculty member s response s to the survey questions (SQ) measuring behavioral beliefs and the corresponding outcome evaluations, as well as attitude score is presented in Table 19 Table 19 Example of Response to S urvey Questions M easuring Behavioral Beliefs Behavioral Beliefs Response Outcome Evaluation Response Calculation Result Access SQ 6 6 Access SQ 29 6 6 x 6 36 Credent ials SQ 28 4 Credentials SQ 31 4 4 x 4 16 Participation SQ 33 1 Participation SQ 12 5 1 x 5 5 Attitude Score: 57 Note : The f aculty member attitude score is 57 out of a maximum possible score of 147. The m aximum possible score is calculated by mult iplying the highest score on the Likert scale (7) for each question then summing the maximum score for each attribute The attitude score for each faculty member was computed by adding the cross product of each behavioral belief and the corresponding outc ome evaluation (see Table 19 ) Given the survey questions, attitude was then computed : Attitude = ( SQ 6 x SQ 29) + ( SQ 28 x SQ 31) + ( SQ 33 x SQ 12). For example, the faculty member responded as follows: 6, 4, 1 for survey questio ns 6, 28, and 33, respectively and 6, 4, 5 for survey Attitude score = (6 x 6) + (4 x 4) + (1 x 5) = 57 out of a maximum possible score of 147. Attitude scores were comp uted for each faculty member. A total attitude score for all participants was then computed by taking the average of the individual attitude scores. The total at titude score was found to be 81 out of a maximum possible score of 147.

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71 Correlation between at titude behavioral beliefs and a ttitude Pearson product moment correlation coefficient statistics were computed to calculate the correlatio n between the faculty eliefs that underlie attitude and their actual a ttitudes The results indi cated a statistically significant and positive relationship between them, with less than a 1% chance for Type I error. As attitude ratings among survey questions 1 4 increased, so did behavioral belief ratings for access, credentials, and participation Th e correlation between the behavioral beliefs and attitude was r = .46, p = .01, with the strongest correlation ( r = .61 p = .01 ) between attitude ratings and access ratings. Table 20 shows the relationship between a ttitude and i ts components. Table 20 Correlations Between Behavioral Beliefs and Attitude Variable r P Behavioral Beliefs .46 .01 Accessibility .61 .01 Credentials .27 .01 Participation .50 .01 Hypothesis 2: Normative b eliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with subjective n orms about the CCB transition. Hypo thesis 2 posits that normative beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with subjective norms about the CCB transition A correlation analysis between normative b eliefs that underlie subjective norm s and actual subjective norm s questions shows a statistically significant and positive relationship ( r = .48, p = .01) between normative beliefs and actual subjective norm s measures.

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72 Normative belie fs that underlie subjective n orm s The subjective norm s score about supporting the CCB er people who may in some way be important to the person, would how motivated the faculty members are to comply with (i.e., motivation to comply; Francis et al., 2004, p. 9) In an elicitatio n study faculty members identified administrators, students, business and industry leaders and other faculty members as features of normative beliefs Figure 13 shows the relationship between subjective n orm s and its components as well as the survey ques tions that measured them. Table 21 shows the responses for each of the normative beliefs and their corresponding motivation to comply. Figure 13 Relationship between normative beliefs and subjective norms

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73 Table 21 Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Normative Beliefs and Motivation to Comply Survey Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N (%) Normative Beliefs 20. Administrators think that I should not 1..7 should support the CCB transition. 0 (0) 1 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 30 (31.6) 10 (10.5) 21 (22.1) 32 (33.7) 22. Students think that I should not 1..7 should support the CCB transition. 1 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 5 (5.3) 54 (56.8) 11 (11.6) 9 (9.5) 14 (14.7) 34. Business and industry leaders think that I should not 1..7 should support the CCB transition. 1 (1.1) 0 (0) 5 (5.3) 41 (43.2) 11 (11.6) 13 (13.7) 24 (25.3) 30. Other faculty in my college do not 1..7 do support the CCB transition. 1 (1.1) 1 (1.1) 3 (3.2) 43 (45 .3) 8 (8.4) 17 (17.9) 22 (23.2) Motivation to Comply 7. Doing what administrators think I should do is important to me. ( Not at all 1..7 V ery much ) 7 (7.4) 8 (8.4) 10 (10.5) 18 (19) 26 (27.4) 16 (16.8) 10 (10.5) 18. Doing what students think I should do is important to me. ( Not at all 1..7 V ery much ) 6 (6.3) 4 (4.2) 7 (7.4) 26 (27.4) 30 (31.6) 11 (11.6) 11 (11.6) 25. Doing what business and industry leaders think I should do is important to me. ( Not at all 1..7 V ery much ) 9 (9.5) 8 (8.4) 8 (8. 4) 21 (22.1) 20 (21.1) 13 (13.7) 16 (16.8) 21. Doing what other faculty think I should do is important to me ( Not at all 1..7 V ery much ) 12 (12.6) 14 (14.7) 10 (10.5) 19 (20.0) 25 (26.3) 14 (14.7) 1 (1.1)

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74 A re sponses t o the survey questions measuring normative beliefs and the corresponding motivation to comply, as well as the normative beliefs score is presented in Table 22 Table 22 Example of Resp onse to Survey Questions Measuring Normative Beliefs Normative Beliefs Response Motivation to Comply Response Calculation Result Administrators SQ 20 7 Administrators SQ 7 3 7 x 3 21 Students SQ 22 6 Students SQ 18 5 6 x 5 30 Business & Industry Leade rs SQ 34 6 Business & Industry Leaders SQ 25 7 6 x 7 42 Other Faculty SQ 30 6 Other Faculty SQ 21 5 6 x 5 30 Subjective Norms Score: 123 subjective norms score is 123 out of a maximum possible score of 196. The m aximum possib le score is calculated by multiplying the highest score on the Likert scale (7) for each question then summing the maximum score for each attribute The subjective norm s score for each faculty member was computed by adding the cross product of each normat ive belief and its corresponding motivation to comply (see Table 22 ) Given the survey questions, subjective norms were then computed: Subjective Norms = ( SQ 20 x SQ 7 ) + ( SQ 22 x SQ 18 ) + ( SQ 34 x SQ 25 ) + ( SQ 30 x SQ 21) For ex ample, the faculty member responded as follows: 7, 6, 6, 6 for survey questions 20, 7, 22, & 18, respectively, and 3, 5, 7, 5 for survey questions 34, 25, 30 and 21 subjective norms score was computed: S ubjective

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75 N orms Score = (7 x 3) + (6 x 5) + (6 x 7 ) + (6 x 5) = 123 out of a maximum possible score of 19 6 Subjective norms scores were computed for each faculty member. A total subjective norm s score for all participants was then computed by taking the average of th e individual subjective norm s scores. The total subjective norm s score was found to be 8 7.9 out of a maximum possible score of 196 Correlation between n ormative b eliefs and s ubjective n orms Pearson product moment correlation coefficient statistics were t hen calculated to determine the correlation n ormative b eliefs that underlie subjective norm s and their actual subjective n orm s The results indicated a statistically significant and positive relationship ( r = .48 p = .01 ) As subjective norm s ratings among survey questions 10, 14, 26, and 35 increased, so did normative belief ratings for administrators students business and industry leaders, and other faculty members The correlation between normative beliefs and subjective n orms was r = .4 8 p = .01, with th e strongest correlation ( r = .59 p = .01) among subjective norms ratings and administrators ratings Table 23 shows the relationship between subjective n orms and its components. Table 23 Correlati ons Between Normative Beliefs and Subjective Norms Variable r p Normative Beliefs .48 .01 Administrators .59 .01 Students .44 .01 Business and Industry Leaders 44 .01 Other Faculty .44 .01

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76 Hypothesis 3: Control b eliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with perceived behavioral c ontrol about the CCB transition. Hypothesis 3 posits that control beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with perceived behavioral control over the CCB transition. A correlational a nalysis between the c ontrol b eliefs that underlie perceived behavioral control and actual perceived behavioral control questions shows a c orrelation of r = .08, p = .01 between the normative beliefs and actual perceived behavioral control measures. Control beliefs that u nderlie perceived behavioral c ontrol The perceived behavioral control control beliefs about supporting the CCB transition. These beliefs were constructed using two components: (1) the strength (Francis et al., 2004, p. 22) The elicitation study identified faculty support, program needs assessment, and program quality as features of contr ol belief s Figure 14 shows the relationship among perceived behavioral control and its components as well as the survey questions that measured them. Table 24 shows the responses for each of the control beliefs and their corresp onding perceived power Figure 14 Relationship between perceived behavioral control and control beliefs.

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77 Table 24 Reponses to Survey Questions Measuring Control Beliefs and Perceived Power Survey Que stion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N (%) Control Beliefs 15. If the college does not provide faculty support, it is difficult for me to support the CCB transition. ( U nlikely 1..7 L ikely ) 9 (9.5) 3 (3.2) 5 (5.3) 22 (23.2) 16 (16.8) 21 (22.1) 19 (20.1) 19. If a program needs assessment is not conducted, then it is difficult for me to support the CCB transition. ( Unlikely 1..7 L ikely ) 7 (7.4) 7 (7.4) 4 (4.2) 23 (24.2) 23 (24.2) 15 (15.8) 16 (16.8) 24. I feel that the college will not provide quality baccal aureate programs, so it makes it difficult for me to support the CCB transition. ( Unlikely 1..7 L ikely ) 41 (43.2) 2 (22.1) 5 (5.3) 13 (13.7) 6 (6.3) 5 (5.3) 4 (4.2) Perceived Power 17. When the college provides faculty support, I am less likely 1 ..7 more likely to support the CCB transition. 1 (1.1 ) 2 (2.1 ) 1 (1.1 ) 14 (14.7 ) 10 (10.1 ) 24 (25.3 ) 43 (45.3) 9. When the college does not conduct a program needs assessment, I am less likely 1..7 more likely to support the CCB transition. 23 (24.2 ) 1 8 (19.0 ) 21 (22.1 ) 25 (26.3 ) 3 (3.2 ) 2 (2.1 ) 3 (3.2 ) 32. Feeling that the college will not provide quality baccalaureate programs, I am less likely 1..7 more likely to support the CCB transition. 24 (25.3 ) 16 (16.8 ) 12 (12.6 ) 31 (32.6 ) 7 (7.4 ) 2 (2.1 ) 3 (3.2 ) An example of one faculty member s responses to the survey questions measuring control beliefs and the corresponding perceived power, as well as the perceived behavioral contr o l score is presented in Table 25

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78 Table 25 Example Response to Survey Questions Measuring Control Beliefs Control Beliefs Response Perceived Power Response Calculation Result Faculty Support SQ 15 6 Faculty Support SQ 17 7 6 x 7 42 Program Needs Ass essment SQ 19 5 Program Needs Assessment SQ 9 1 5 x 1 5 Program Quality SQ 24 2 Program Quality SQ 32 5 2 x 5 10 Perceived Behavioral Belief Score: 57 o l beliefs score is 48.9 out of a maximum possible score of 149. The ma ximum possible score is calculated by multiplying the highest score on the Likert scale (7) for each question, then summing the maximum score for each attribute The perceived behavioral control score for each faculty member was computed by adding the cros s product of each control belief and its corresponding perceived power Given the survey questions, perceived behavioral control was then computed: Perceived Behavioral Control = ( SQ 15 x SQ 17 ) + ( SQ 19 x SQ 9 ) + ( SQ 24 x SQ 32 ) For example, the faculty member responded as follows: 6, 5, 2, for survey questions 15, 1 9 and 24 respectively and 7, 1, and 5 for survey questions 17 9 and 32 respectively. The perceived behavioral control score was computed: Perceived Behavioral Control Sc ore = ( 6 x 7) + (5 x 1) + (2 x 5 ) = 57, out of a maximum possible score of 147. Perceived behavioral control scores were computed for each faculty member. A total perceived behavioral control score for all participants was then computed by taking the aver age of the individual perceived behavioral control scores. A total perceived behavioral control score was found to be 48.9 out of a maximum possible score of 147.

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79 Correlation between control beliefs and perceived behavioral c ontrol Pearson product moment correlation coefficient statistics were calculated to determine the c ontrol b eliefs that underlie perceived behavioral control and their perceived behavioral control The results indicated no significant relationshi p between them As perceived behavioral control ratings among survey questions 5, 8, 13, and 16 increased, control belief ratings for faculty support, program needs assessment, and program quality remained the same The correlation between control beliefs and perceived behavioral control was r = .08, p = .55 with the strongest correlation ( r = 17 p = .10 ) among perceived behavioral control and program needs assessment ratings. Table 26 shows the relationship between Perceived Behavioral Control and its co mponents. Table 26 Correlations Between Control Beliefs and Perceived Behavioral Control Variable r p Control Beliefs .08 .55 Faculty Support .06 .58 Program Needs Assessment .17 .10 Program Quality .01 .97 Hypothese s 4 7: F p erceived behavioral control as predictive factors of intention to s upport the CCB transition Hypotheses 3 7 posit that a ttitude, subjective norm s and perceived behaviora l control, individually and collect ively, predict CCB transition Hypothes e s 4 6 measure the predictor variables individually Hypothesis 7 measures the predictability of all three measures combined.

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80 A correlational analysis between (a) attitude a nd behavioral intentions shows a statistically significant and positive relationship ( r = .82, p = .01 ; (b) subjective norms and behavioral intention shows a statistically significant and positive relationship ( r = .22, p = .05) ; and (c) perceived behavior al control and behavioral intention shows statistically significant and positive relationship ( r = .34, p = .01) A multiple linear regression on attitude, subjective norm s and perceived behavioral control indicates that attitude, subjective norms and per ceived behavioral control account for 69 % of the variability in faculty members intention to support the CCB transition Survey items 11, 23, and 27 he CCB transition (see Table 27) Three different types of question formats with a 7 point Likert scale were used to elicit behavioral intentions: expect, want, and intend to support the CCB transition. These three different formats ensure the internal con sistency of behavioral intentions (Francis et al., 2004) had an internal consistency of .95 Table 27 Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Behavior al Intention Survey Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N (%) 11. I expect to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 1 (1.1 ) 2 (2.1 ) 4 (4.2 ) 6 (6.3 ) 13 (13.7 ) 17 (17.9 ) 52 (54.7 ) 23. I want to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 3 (3.2 ) 1 (1.1 ) 2 (2.1 ) 15 (15.8 ) 13 (13.7 ) 18 (19 ) 43 (45.3 ) 27. I fully intend to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 1 (1.1 ) 2 (2.1 ) 3 (3.2 ) 15 (15.8 ) 15 (15.8 ) 19 (20) 40 (42.1 )

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81 A close examination of the survey questions that measured behav ioral intention shows that 73% of the faculty members expect to support the CCB transition (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on the 7 point Likert scale) 64% wan t to support the CCB transition (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on the 7 point Likert scale) and 62% fully in tend to support the CCB transition (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on the 7 point Likert scale) Hypothesis 4 : a ttitudes about the CCB transition are signi ficantly associated with their behavioral i ntentions to support the CCB transition Hypothe sis 4 posits that about the CCB transition are significantly associated with behavioral intentions to support the CCB transition A correlational analysis between a ttitude and behavioral intention shows a statistically significant and positive relationship ( r = .82, p = .01) A close examination of the survey questions that measured attitude shows that the maj ority of the faculty members (67 %) indicated supporting the CCB transition is the right thing to do (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on the 7 point Likert scale), as well as 73% indicated that supporting the CCB transition is good (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on the 7 point Likert scale). Seventy seven percent o f the faculty members indicated that supporting the CCB transition is bene ficia l to the college (e.g., selected a 6 o r 7 on the 7 p oint Likert scale), while 53% of the faculty members indicated that supporting the CCB transition would be beneficial to them (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on the 7 point Likert scale ) Overall, faculty member s indicated a positive attitude toward supporting the CCB transition The responses for each surv ey question measuring attitude are presented in Table 28

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82 Table 28 Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Attitude Survey Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N (%) 1. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is the wrong thing to do/the right thing to do. 1 (1.1 ) 2 (2.1 ) 4 (4.2 ) 8 (8.4 ) 16 (16.8 ) 15 (15.8 ) 49 (51.6 ) 2. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is good/bad 0 (0) 5 (5.3 ) 3 (3.2 ) 9 (9. 5 ) 9 (9.5 ) 16 (16.8 ) 53 (55.8 ) 3. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is beneficial to me/ harmful to me. 0 (0) 4 (4.2 ) 3 (3.2 ) 23 (24.2 ) 15 (15.8 ) 14 (14.7 ) 36 (37.9 ) 4. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is harmful to colle ge/ beneficial to college. 0 (0) 2 (2.1 ) 4 (4.2 ) 9 (9.8 ) 7 (7.4 ) 21 (22.1 ) 52 (54.7 ) Note: In accordance to the theory of planned b ehavior the validity of the survey questions measuring attitude, two items had negative endpoints: survey questions 2 and 3 The r esponses to survey questions 2 and 3 were recoded so that higher numbers reflect s a positive attitude to the target behavior. Care was taken to invert the responses on the reverse scored statements in order to analyze them in a consistent manner (1 becomes 7, 2 becomes 6, 3 becomes 5, 4 stays a 4, 3 becomes 5, 2 becomes 6, 1 becomes 7). Correlation between attitude and behavioral intention A Pearson product moment correlation was used to calculate the strength and direction of relationship between attitude scores (i.e., cumulative summary of survey questions 1 4 ratings), and behavioral intention (i.e., cumulative summary of survey questions 11, 23 and 27 ratings). The results indicated a statistically significant and positive relationship ( r = .82, p = .01) between attitude and behavioral intention. As attitude ratings increased, so did behavioral intention ratings. attitude had an internal consistency of .89.

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83 Hypothesis 5: Faculty members subjective n orms about the CCB transition are signi ficantly associated with their behavioral i ntentions to support the CCB transition Hypothesis 5 posits that faculty members subjective norms about the CCB transition are signi ficantly associated with the ir behavioral i ntention s to support the CCB transition A correlational analysis between subjective norms and behavioral intention shows a statistically significant and positive relationship ( r = .22, p = .05) The responses for each survey question measur ing subjective norms are presented in Table 29 Table 29 Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Subjective Norm s Survey Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N (%) 10. People who are important to me expect me to support the CCB transition. ( Disagree 1..7 Agree ) 2 (2.1 ) 0 (0) 2 (2.1 ) 45 (47.4 ) 14 (14.8 ) 14 (1 4.7 ) 17 (17. 9) 14. I feel under social pressure to support the CCB transition. ( Disagree 1..7 Agree ) 42 (44.2 ) 17 (17. 9) 8 (8.4 ) 16 (16.8 ) 4 (4.2) 5 (5.3 ) 3 (3.2 ) 26. Most people who are important to me think that I should/should not support the CCB transition. 10 (10.5 ) 5 (5.3 ) 7 (7.4 ) 30 (31.6 ) 16 (16.8 ) 17 (17. 9) 10 (10.5 ) 35. People who are important to me want me to support the CCB transition. ( Dis agree 1..7 Agree ) 2 (2.1 ) 0 (0) 9 (9.5 ) 39 (41.1 ) 15 (15.8 ) 13 (13.7 ) 17 (17. 9) Note: In accordance with the theory of planned b ehavior survey question 26 was scored by recoding the item so that a higher number reflects a greater social pressure to perfo rm the behavior. The responses to survey question 2 6 was recoded so that higher numbers reflect a positive subjective norms about the target behavior. Care was taken to invert the responses on the reverse scored statement in order to analyze them in a cons istent manner (1 becomes 7, 2 becomes 6, 3 becomes 5, 4 stays a 4, 3 becomes 5, 2 becomes 6, 1 becomes 7).

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84 A close examination of the survey questions that measured subjective norms shows that 62% of the faculty members indicated they do not feel under soc ial pressure to sup port the CCB transition (e.g., selected a 1 or 2 on the 7 point Likert scale) Thirty two percent of Most people who are important to me think that I should/should not support the CCB tr ansition ( e.g., selected a 4 on the 7 point Likert scale) Additionally 47% of the faculty members responded neutrally when asked if people who were important to them expected them to support the CCB transition, or 41% when asked if people who were impor tant to them wanted them to support the CCB transition. Correlation between subjective norms and behavioral i ntention A Pearson product moment correlation was used to calculate the strength and direction of relationship between subjective norms (i.e., cu mulative summary of survey questions 10, 14, 26, and 35 ratings), and behavioral intention (i.e., cumulative summary of survey questions 11, 23 and 27 ratings) The results indicated a statistically signif icant and posit ive relationship ( r = .22, p = .05 ) between subjective norms and behavioral intention As subjective norms ratings increased, so did behavioral intention ratings. The four survey questions used to e consistency of .67 Hypothesis 6: Facu ontrol over the CCB transition are significantly as sociated with their behavioral i ntentions to support the CCB transition over the CCB transition ar e signi ficantly associated with their behavioral i ntentions to support the CCB transition A correlational analysis between perceived behavioral

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85 control and behavioral intention shows a statistically significant and positive relationship (r = .34, p = .01) A close examination of the survey questions that measured perceived behavioral control shows that 78% of the faculty members indicated supporting the CCB transition would be easy ( e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on a 7 point Likert scale; see Table 30 ) Further more, 70% of the faculty members were confident they could support the CCB transition if they wanted to do so (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on a 7 point Likert scale) Therefore, faculty members responded positively (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on a 7 point Likert scale) to the surv ey questions measuring self efficacy. F aculty members were split between agreeing ( e.g., 39% selected a 6 or 7 on the 7 point Likert scale ) and disagreeing ( e.g., 34% selected a 1 or 2 on the 7 point Likert scale ) that the decision to sup port the CCB was beyond their control. Fifty one percent of the faculty members felt strongly (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on the 7 point Likert scale) that support for the CCB transition was up to them. Table 30 shows the responses for each survey question measuring perceived behavioral control Correlation between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention A Pearson product moment correlation was used to calculate the strength and direction of relationship between perce ived behavioral control (i.e., cumulative summary of survey questions 5, 8, 13 and 16 ratings) and behavioral intention (i.e., cumulative summary of survey questions 11, 23 and 27 ratings). The results indicated a statistically significant and positive rel ationship ( r = .34, p = .01) between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention. As perceived behavioral control ratings increased, so did behavioral

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86 intention ratings. behavior al control had an internal consistency of .61. Table 30 Responses to Survey Questions Measuring Perceived Behavioral Control Survey Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N (%) Self efficacy 5. For me to support the CCB transitio n is difficult 1..7 easy 3 (3.2 ) 0 (0) 1 (1.1 ) 6 (6.3 ) 11 (11.6 ) 25 (26.3 ) 49 (51.6 ) 8. I am confident that I could support the CCB transition if I wanted to. ( Disagree 1..7 Agree ) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 17 (17. 9) 12 (12.6 ) 30 (31.6 ) 36 (37. 9) Controllabili ty 13. The decision to support the CCB transition is beyond my control. ( Disagree 1..7 Agree ) 19 (20) 13 (13.7 ) 5 (5.3 ) 15 (15.8 ) 6 (6.3 ) 13 (13.7 ) 24 (25.3 ) 16. Whether I support the CCB transition or not is entirely up to me. ( Disagree 1..7 Agr ee ) 11 (11.6 ) 7 (7.4 ) 5 (5.3 ) 12 (12 .6 ) 12 (12.6 ) 15 (15.8 ) 33 (34.7 ) Hypothesis 7: Attitude, subjective n orms, and perceived behavioral c ontrol predi ehavio ral i ntention to support the CCB transition Hypothe sis 7 posits that attitud e, subjective norms and pe rceived behavioral control ratings will predict behavioral intention toward supporting the CCB transition A multiple linear regression was calculated to predict behavioral intention to support the CCB transition The prediction is based on the cumulative ratings of attitude subjective norms and perceived behavioral control Table 31 presents the variables and corresponding estimates for the multiple linear regression

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87 Table 31 Multiple Linear Regression for Behavioral Intention Variable b /Estimates Intercept constant .642 X 1 = Attitude .221* X 2 = Subjective Norms .050 X 3 =Perceived Behavioral Control .870* Note: n = 95 R 2 = 69.2 F [3, 91 ] = 68.21, p = .0001 for all predictor v ariables. Adjusted R 2 = 68.2 statistical significance, p = .01 As presented in Table 31 attitude and perceived behavioral control have significant b/estimates. A statistically significant R 2 value ( .69 ) represents the percentage of variance in behavior al intention that is accounted for by the linear combination of predictor variables (e.g., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control). Therefore, attitude, subjective norms, and percei ved behavioral control explain 69 % of faculty members with the greatest independent contributions from perceived behavioral control ( b = 87 ) and attitude ( b = .22 ). The accuracy of the prediction is increased by adding the intercept constant ( 642 ), which represents the value of behavioral intention when all the variable s (e.g., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control ) are zero (Hatcher & Stepanski, 1994) The multiple linear re gression coefficient, or b reveal s the amount of weight th at the vari able is given when computing behavioral intention As can be seen in Table 28, a ttitude and perceived behavioral control were statistically significant.

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88 attitude increased by .22 points and perceived behavioral control increased by .87. Summary of Chapter 4 Based on the data analysis above, the following conclusions were reached: 1. H ypothesis 1 posits that behavioral beliefs about the CCB transition are significan tly associated with attitudes toward the CCB transition. This hypothesis is accepted There were statistically significant ( r = .46, p = .01) relationships between a ttitude and behavioral b eliefs (e.g., behavioral beliefs (B) x evaluation of o utcomes (E) c ategorized by access, cred entials, and participation. As attitude scores among survey questions 1 4 increased, so did behavioral b elief scores for access, credentials, and participation with the strongest correlation ( r = .61 p = .01 ) among attitude and a ccess 2. H ypothesis 2 posits that normative beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with subjective norms toward the CCB transition. This hypothesis is accepted There were statistically significant ( r = .48, p = .01) relationships betw een s ubjective n orms and normative b elief ( e.g., normative beliefs (N) x motivation to c omply (M) categorized by administrators, students, business/industry leaders, and other faculty members. As subjective norms scores increased, so did scores for normati ve b eliefs scores among categories of administrators, students, business and industry leaders, and other faculty members with the strongest correlation ( r = .59 p = .01 ) among subjective norms and administrator motivation to comply

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89 3. H ypothesi s 3 posits that control beliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with p erceived behavioral c ontrol over the CCB transition. This hypothesis is rejected There were no statistically significa nt relationships between perceived behavioral control an d control beliefs As p ercei ved behavioral c ontrol scores increased, scores for control beliefs among categories of faculty support, program needs assessment, and program quality remained essentially the same. 4. H ypothesis 4 posits that attitudes about the CCB transition are significantly associated with behavioral intention This hypothesis is accepted with statistical significance. There was a statistically significant ( r = .82, p = .01) relationship between attitude and behavioral intention. As attitude scores increased, so did behavioral intention scores 5. H ypothesis 5 posits that subjective norm s about the CCB transition are significantly assoc iated with behavioral intention There was a statistically significant ( r = .22, p = .05) relationship between subjective norms and behavioral intention. This hypothesis is accepted with statistical significance. As subjective norm s scores increased, so did behavioral intentions scores 6. H ypothesis 6 posits that perceived behavioral control about the CCB transition is significantly assoc iated with behavioral intention There was a statistically significant ( r = .32, p = .01) relationship between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention. This hypothesis is accepted with statistical significance. A s percei ved behavioral control scores increased, so did behavioral intentions scores

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90 7. H ypothesis 7 posits that attitude subjective norm s and perceived behavioral control scores will predict behavioral intention related toward the CCB transition. This hypothesis is accepted with statistical significance. Attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control account for 69 % of the variability with the greatest contribution s from perceived behavioral control ( b = .87 ) and attitude ( b = .22 ). The findings i mplications, and recommendations for future research will be discussed in Chapter 5.

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91 Chapter 5 : Findings Implications and R ecommendations Introduction Community colleges have more than a 100 year history of adapting to meet the needs of the commun ity. Walker (2001) contends that community colleges have survived in the past by being adaptive and responsive to community needs. The most recent movement that has led to changes in the community college system is the community college baccalaureate (CCB) demand and specialized fields. Those who support the two year colleges becoming baccalaureate granting institutions argue that community colleges can provide students with access to baccalaureate degrees in high demand fields, at an affordable price ( Walker 2005). Those who oppose the movement argue that the c ommunity college core values of open door access, learner centeredness, affordability, convenience, and responsiveness will be compromised (Walker, 2005). The purpose of this study was to explore faculty members intentions toward supporting their college

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92 community colleges to develop interventions that can gain faculty members support for the CCB transition Three hundred and nineteen full time faculty members from two community colleges that were in th e process of transitioning to CCB institution s were invited to participate in this study. Ninety five of those responded, representing a 30% response rate. T he faculty members from the two colleges were in different stages of the transition when completing the survey in January, 2010. College A was waiting to be approved to offer baccalaureate degrees and College B was offering their first BAS program. The fol lowing section provides a summary of the results of hypotheses that guided this study. Findings Hypothesis 1: Behavioral b eliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated w ith a ttitudes toward the CCB transition Faculty members identified prov iding students with access to a baccalaureate degree, updating their credentials, and participating in the CCB transition as the important behavioral beliefs that will influence their attitude toward supporting the CCB transition. The results of this study indicate that the three factors access, credentials, and participation attitudes toward their intention to support the CCB transition. Of the three factors, access had the strongest relationship (r = 46, p = .01) with faculty member supporting the transition. Faculty members believe that providing students with access to earning a baccalaureate degree is important. Hypothesis 2: Normative b eliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with subjective n orms about the CCB transition Faculty members identified administrators, students, business and industry leaders and other faculty as

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93 important individuals or groups who could influence their perception of the social pressure toward the CCB transition The results of this study indicate that the four groups administrators, students, business and industry leaders, and other faculty shape s of the social pressure toward their intention to support the CCB transition. Of the four groups, administrators had t he strongest correlation ( r = .59 p = .01) with faculty members subjective norms social pressure to perform or not perform the target behavior). In other words, faculty members indicate f eeling social pressure from college administrators to support the CCB transition. Hypothesis 3: Control b eliefs about the CCB transition are significantly associated with perceived b eh avioral c ontrol about the CCB transition Faculty members identified f aculty support, program needs assessment, and program quality as the important control beliefs that will influence their perception of control over the CCB transition. However, the results of this study indicate no relationship between the three factors an Hypothesis 4: ttitudes about the CCB transition are significantly as sociated with their behavioral i ntentions to support the CCB transition The results of this study ind s about the CCB transition are associated with their behavioral intention to support the transition. The relationship between attitude and behavioral intention was the strongest (r = .82, p = .01) of the three direct measures attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control

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94 Hypothesis 5: orms about the CCB transition are significantly as sociated with their behavioral i ntentions to support the CCB transition The results of this study s subjective norms (i.e., social norms) about the CCB transition are associated with their behavioral intention to support the transition. The relationship between behavioral intention and subjective norms was the weakest relationship (r = .22, p = .01) of the three direct measures attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control Hypothesis 6: ontrol over the CCB transition are significantly as sociated with their b ehavioral i ntentions to support the CCB transition control over the CCB transition is associated with their intentions to support the CCB transition. The relationship between behavioral in tention and perceived behavioral control was the second strongest (r = .32, p = .01) of the three direct measures attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control Hypothesis 7: Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioral Control predi The subjective norms (i.e, social pressure) about the CCB transition, and perceived control ove transition. The combination of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control account for 69% of the variability, leaving 31% of the variability unexplained

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95 Implications for P ractice critical problem. Faculty members are viewed as the change agents for the classroom, as well as for the institution (Rouseff Baker, 2002) ; theref ore, it is important to understand reported in Chapter 4 of this study, faculty members indicate they want to intend to and plan to support the CCB transition. Administ rators need to identify ways to continually opposed to the CCB transition, to support to the transition. The results of this study would seem to indicate that administrators can help gain the support of faculty members by (a) emphasizing how offering the CCB maintains the core values of the community college, especially the long held tradition of access, (b) providing fa culty members professional development opportunities to obtain advanced degrees if they would like to teach upper division courses, and (c) including faculty members in the decision making process for their Mainta in community college core v alues Findings of this study indicate that faculty members believe the community college door access, learner 19) are importa nt. They believe that by providing students with access to a CCB degree, they are providing students with greater access to a baccalaureate degree. Since a high percentage of community college students are learners who work full time, have families, and ar

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96 providing students with access to a baccalaureate degree is a reasonable assumption. One faculty member stated, in the elicitation study to develop the survey questions, tha t an them to complete a four year degree without extensive travel perhaps and maybe at less about access are supported i n the literature by proponents of the CCB. For example, proponents of the CCB argue that community colleges can provide students with access to baccalaureate degrees in high demand fields, at an affordable price ( Walker 2005) The community college core values are important to faculty members, and likely very important to community college leaders themselves. However, it will be important for college administrators to reassure faculty members that the introduction of baccalaureate programs will not compro expand the definition of access in ways that are very compatible with the democratic miss ion of the community college. Any major change requires greater focus on communicating the purpose and the goals of t he change. Kotter ( 1996 ) suggests that getting buy in for any change requires effectively communicating the purpose and goal of announce that the CCB is another dimens ion of student acce ss; t he message must be communicated in many different ways to many different audiences, until it becomes part Provide f aculty members with professional d evelopment As community colleges expand their mission to include baccalaureate programs, the required entry level credentials for faculty members may change (Townsend & Twombly, 2007). Some

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97 166) and a terminal degree will be come mandatory (Skolnik, 2005). As a result, faculty members, particularly tenured faculty, may resist updating their credentials. F aculty members teaching in baccalaureate programs in Florida are r equired by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) to have a doctorate in the discipline or a hours in the discipline Furthermore, at least 25% of the baccalaureate lev el courses must be taught by faculty members with a terminal degree (Pappas Consulting, 2001) According to Townsend (2007 ), many community college faculty members seek terminal degrees in higher education or educational leadership, not in a discipline. Th us, some faculty members with terminal degrees may not have the credentials to meet SACS requirements. Community college faculty members may find the co st and time needed to meet the requirements to teach upper division courses as barrier s to pursuing add itional education. However, p roviding faculty members with support to earn a higher level degree is an efficient strategy for increasing the number of faculty members with terminal degrees (Townsend & Twombly, 2007). As community colleges transition to CCB institutions and the baccalaureate programs within those institutions expand, additional funds for faculty professional development may be needed. While some colleges already offer faculty members support, such as tuition assistance or release time to tak e graduate level courses, additional support may encourage more faculty members to seek terminal degrees. The results of this study show that 54% of the faculty members believe their college will provide them with the funds to update their credentials (e.g ., selected a 6 or 7

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98 on a 7 point Likert scale) Thus, more than half the faculty members surveyed believe that their college will support professional development. Community college professional development programs that provide additional tuition assista nce to faculty members seeking terminal degrees in specific, high demand fields have the potential of increasing credentialed faculty members Recruiting current faculty members to obtain terminal degrees may be challenging due to the length of time it t akes to complete a doctoral degree, as well as the expense. Doctoral programs can take four or five years to complete; therefore, it may be difficult to find faculty members willing to make such a long term commitment. In addition to the commitment of time d octoral programs are expensive. Considering the length of time and expense to complete a doctoral program, faculty members may expect a raise or, at the very least, additional compensation for developing and teaching baccalaureate level courses. It is n ot unreasonable to assume faculty members may be unwilling to seek terminal degrees without the possibility of an increase in compensation. Without a raise or additional compensation for developing and teaching baccalaureate level courses, faculty members have little incentive to seek terminal degrees. Furthermore, faculty members with terminal degrees in a discipline that is offered at the baccalaureate level may be expected to develop and teach the higher level courses whether they want to or not. The al ternative to providing current faculty members with the funds or sabbaticals to seek terminal degrees is to hire new faculty members with the required credentials Hiring faculty members with the required credentials may become challenging due to the (a) i ncreased demand for credentialed faculty members to teach at CCB institutions (b)

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99 expected increase in faculty members retiring, and (c) faculty members with terminal degrees in a discipline may demand higher salaries (Laden, 2005). 28 community colleges are offering bacc alaureate programs, which mean s 1 8 community colleges are seeking faculty members with terminal degrees. Therefore, community colleges may have difficulty attracting credentialed faculty members due to an increased de may make it even more difficulty for community coll eges to attract credentialed faculty members to teach baccalaureate level courses For example, o ne of the community college s that participated in this study has been looking for a faculty member with a Ph.D. in busines s and organizational management; howe ver, only one qual ified candidate has applied thus far Faculty members are concerned that CCB institutions may create a multi tiered system whereby higher division faculty members will receive greater benefits than lower division faculty (Seidam, 1985) Critics of the CCB also believe that the CCB will create multi tier systems (Lane, 2003). T herefore, if community colleges pay baccalaureate faculty members more to attract them to the institution, lower division faculty members may view the difference i n salaries as a multi tiered system. In addition to the possible salary difference upper division faculty members may expect to teach few courses According to Laden (2005), faculty members teaching baccalaureate courses are hat include much more theory and provide opportunities for than developing curriculum for lower division courses. However, any variance in

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100 teaching load between lower and upper division faculty members may be viewed as a multi tiered system. The CCB is a relativ ely recent development and will continue to create new challenges in higher education. Establishing and maintaining equity among upper and lower division fac and teaching load s may be a few of the challenge s college administrators encounter in the near future. Include faculty m embers in the decision making p rocess Although adaptability to change is a hallmark of community colleges, chang e has seldom come without controversy from faculty members (Altbach, Gumport, & Johnstone, 2001) Research indicate s that faculty members often resist organizational changes and this resistance negatively impact s change efforts (Bolman, 2003). Transitionin g to a baccalaureate institution will require the support of faculty members to be successful (Latiolais, Holland, & Sutter, 2009) Laden (2005) contends that the success of baccalaureate programs is ultimately up to the faculty members teaching the course s. process at their institution by including faculty members in the decision making process This the changes that occur as a result of becoming a CCB institution The results of this study show that 54% of the faculty members surveyed indicate a desire to participate in the CCB transition (e.g., selected a 6 or 7 on the 7 point Likert scale) C olle ge administrators should encourage faculty members to participate in al l phases of the CCB transition. Fifty three percent of the faculty members indicate that they feel administrators think they should support the CCB transition (e.g., selected a 6 or

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101 7 on the 7 point Likert scale) However, only 26 faculty members indicate that doing what administrators thought they should do is important. An even greater concern is that 25 faculty members responded negatively (e.g., selected a 1 or 2 on a 7 point Liker t scale). It is not unusual for faculty members and administrators to have different viewpoints, particularly regarding the change associated with the CCB transition Some faculty members inevitably find change difficult and unsettling (Remington, 2005). I t is important that faculty members who oppose the transition do not undermine the transition (Bolman, 2003). Including faculty members in the decision making process of all phases of the CCB transition may reduce any resistance faculty members feel towar d their Limitations of the S tudy The researcher attempted to use community colleges that were in the developm ent stage of the CCB transition. D ue to a delay in sending out the link to the survey College B was in its first semester of offering a baccalaureate program. Therefore, the data were gathered from faculty members in the development and implementation stages of the CCB transition. It is unknown how this difference in implementation of the CCB influenced sur vey responses. Survey questions were constructed in accordance with the guidelines established for questionnaires based upon the Theory of Planned Behavior : Constructing Questionnaires Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Francis et al., 2004) T here is a concern that faculty members may have found some survey questions unclear, particularly due to some of the response scales. Nineteen faculty members began the

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102 survey but did not complete the survey. Although the researcher has no way of knowing why fa culty members exited the survey prematurely, it is a reasonable assumption that faculty members may have found some survey questions unclear and chose not to complete the survey. The number of faculty members who chose not to complete the survey could also be explained by faculty members following the instructions for the survey, which stated that if the faculty member chose not to participate they could withdraw from this survey at any time by exiting the survey. Researchers using the theory of planned b e havior as a theoretical framework should consider conducting a second pilot study which would provide additional feedback for enhancing the clarity and understanding of the survey questions and response scales, as well as identifying and defining key terms Recommendations for Future Research The CCB is a relatively recent development in higher education, a nd will continue to create new challenges and opportunities for higher education. As a result, there are many opportunities for further research. Curre nt literature focuses on the CCB from an administrative or student perspective, while minimal research has been con ducted from perspective. To better understand the impact that the baccalaureate movement has on faculty members and how intentions to support the CCB transition, it is important that more research be conducted future research that will help fill this gap. Proponents of the CCB argue that community colleges can provide students with access to baccalaureate degrees in high demand fields, at an affordable price ( Walker

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103 2005) Critics of the movement argue that the CCB will compromise the community colleg e core values of open door access, learner centeredness, affordability, convenience, and responsiveness (Walker, 2005). A study should be conducted to determine if faculty members believe the CCB is compromising the community college core values. If so, w hat core values are compromised, and how? Currently, 18 of the 28 community colleges in Florida are offering 111 ograms would be valuable information to instituti ons in the process of becoming bacca laureate granting institution s be defined and measured? As community colleges co ntinue to ex pand their mission to include baccalaureate degrees, the need for faculty members with terminal degrees will increase. Some faculty members may have the credentials to teach baccalaureate courses, but have no desire to teach upper level courses Will faculty members who have the credentials be required to teach upper level courses? It will be important to determine if faculty members feel they have a choice of whether they develop and teach baccalaureate level courses. Laden (2005) contends ba courses that include much more theory and provide opportunities for students to do assess than lower level curriculu m. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that faculty members believe more time would be needed to prepare for teaching baccalaureate level courses. Therefore, a study should be conducted to determine if

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104 faculty members teaching baccalaureate lev el courses have the same workload (i.e., number of courses, number of students in each course, and additional duties and responsibilities) as faculty members teaching lower level courses. If not, how do the workloads between upper and lower division facul ty compare? s to support the CCB transition may change over time, more specifically, change at different stages (e.g., development and implementation) of the CCB transition. A study to identify faculty m embers perceptions at different stages of the CCB transition would yield insights on CCB transitions that have already occurred or are in process.

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105 References Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human De cision Processes, 50 179 211. Ajzen, I. (1992). Application of the theory of planned behavior to leisure choice. Journal of Leisure Research, 24 201 224. Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality, and behavior (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Pres s. Ajzen, I. (2006). Behavorial intentions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from Icek Ajzen Professor of Psychology Professor University of Massachusetts: http://www unix.oit.umass.edu/~aizen/pdf/tpb.intervention.pdf Ajze n, I. (2009, April 12). Constructing the TPB questionnaire: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from Theory of Planned Behavior: http://www.people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.html Ajzen, I. (n.d.). TpB diagram Retrieved June 1 7, 2009, from Icek Ajzen, Professor of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Theory of Planned Behavior: http://www unix.oit.umass.edu/~aizen/tpb.diag.html Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englew ood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Altbach, P. G. (2005). Harsh Realities: The professoriate faces a new century. In P. G. Altbach, R. O. Berdahl, P. J. Gumport, P. G. Altbach, R. O. Berdahl, & P. J. Gumport (Eds.), American Higher Education in the Twenty Fir st Century (pp. 287 314). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Altbach, P. G., Gumport, P. J., & Johnstone, D. B. (2001). In Defense of American Higher Education. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. American Association of Community Colleges. (2008, January 1 ). Community College Statistics Retrieved October 17, 2008, from American Association of Community Colleges: http://www2.aacc.nche.edu/research/index.htm

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106 American Association of State Colleges and Universities. (2004, July). Policy Matters. Retrieved Dec ember 21, 2008, from American Association of State Colleges and Universities: http://www.aascu.org/policy_matters/vol_one/default.htm Amidon, A. J. (2008). Predictors of teachers' intentions to report student infractions related to amendments I and IV: A n application of the Theory of Planned Behavior ( Doctoral d issertation ). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3326304 ) Armitage, C. J. & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior: A meta analytic review. British Journal of Social Psycholog y 40, 471 499 Bailey, T. R., & Morest, V. S. (2004, February). The organizational efficiency of multiple missions for community colleges. Columbia. Barnett, W., & Presley, A. (2004). Theory of planned behavior model in electronic leanring: A pilot study. Issues in Information Systems, 5 (1), 22 28. Beck, J. (1997). Teacher's beliefs regarding the implementation of constructivism in their classroom ( D octoral d issertation ) Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Thes es datase. (UMI No. 9729139) Bolman, L. G. (2003). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Burrows, B. (2003). The v ertical e xtension case study of politics and entrepreneurial leadership ( D octoral di ssertation ) Available from ProQuest Disertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3108475) Caporrimo, R. (2008). Community college students: Perceptions and paradoxes. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 32 25 37. Cohen, A. M., & Brawer, F. B. (2003). The American Community College. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Crawley, F. E. (1990). Intentions of science teachers to use investigative teaching methods: A test of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 27(7 ), 685 697. Dillman, D. A., Tortora, R. D., & Bowker, D. (1999, March 5). Principles for constructing web surveys. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from Don A. Dillman: http://www.sesrc.wsu.edu/dillman/papers/websurveyppr.pdf Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2009). Pr edicting and Changing Behavior. New York: Psychology Press.

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107 Florida Department of Education. (2008 a March). Baccalaureate Programs in Community Colleges Retrieved December 17, 2008, from Florida Department of Education: h ttp://www.fldoe.org/cc/Vision/PD Fs/PR2008_02_Baccalaureate_Program_Revie w.pdf Florida Department of Education. (2008 b ). State Colleges in Florida: A pilot project report create by the 2008 Florida Legislature. Florida Department of Education. (2009). Division of Accountability, Research and Measurement. Retrieved December 19, 2008, from Florida Department of Education: http://www.fldoe.org/arm/cctcmis/pubs/factbook/fb2009/fb2009.pdf Florida Legislature. (2008). The 2008 Florida Statutes Retrieved December 6, 2008, from Online Sunshine : http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&Searc h_String=&URL=Ch1004/SEC875.HTM&Title= %3E2008 %3ECh1004 %3ESection%20875 Floyd, D. L ., (2005). Community college baccalaureate in the U.S.: Models, programs, and issues. In D. L. Floyd, M. L. Skolnik, & K. P. Walker (Eds.), The Community College B accalaureate: Emerging Trends & Policy I ssues (pp. 25 47). Sterling, VA: Stylus. Floyd, D. L. Skolni k, M. L., and Walker, K. P. (2005). Perspectives on the community college baccala ureate. In D. L. Floyd, M. L. Skolnik, & K. P. Walker (Eds.), The Community College Baccalaureate : Emerging Trends & Policy Issues (pp. 1 7). Sterling VA : Stylus. Floyd, D. L., & Walker, K. P. (2009). The community college baccalaureate: Putting the piec es together. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 33 90 124. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2003). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (5th ed.). New York, New York: McGraw Hill. Francis, J. J., Eccles, M. P., Johnston, M. Walker, A., Grimshaw, J., Foy, R., et al. (2004, May). Constructing a TpB Questionnaire. Retrieved June 2, 2009, from Icek Ajzen: http://www unix.oit.umass.edu/~aizen/pdf/tpb.measurement.pdf Grubb, W. N. (2005). Is the tech vs. liberal arts debate out o f date? Two views. Community College Week 4 5. Hatcher, L. and Stepanski, J. (1994). A step by step approach to using the SAS systems for univariate and multivariate statistics NC: SAS Institue Inc.

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108 Huchting K., L Andrew, and LaBrie, J. W. (2008) An application of the theory of planned behavior on sorority alcohol consumption. Addictive Behav ior 33(4): (pp. 583 551). Ingram, K. L., Cope, J. G., Harju, B. L., & Wuensch, K. L. (2000). Applying to graduate school: A test of the theory of planned beha vior. Journal of Social and Behavior and Personality, 15 (2), 215 226. Jeong, M. (2008). Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs and Intentions Toward Teaching Students with Disabilities ( Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and The ses database. (UMI No. 3327000 ) Joliet Junior College. (2007). History of Joliet Junior College Retrieved October 17, 2008, from Juliet Junior College: http:/ /www.jjc.edu/admin/history.html Kalivoda, K. S. (2003). Creating access through universal instr uctional design. In J. L. Higbee (Ed.), Multiculturalism in Developmental Education (pp. 25 34). Minneapolis: Univesity of Minnesota. Kiernan, N. E. (2005). Is a web survey as effective as a mail survey? A field experiement among computer users. American Journal of Evaluation, 26 (2), 245 252. King, T. D., Dennis, C., & Wright, L. T. (2008). Myopia, customer returns and the theory of planned behaviour. Journal of Marketing Management, 24 185 203. Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading Change Harvar d Business Sc hool Press, MA: Boston Laden, B. V. (2005). The new ABDs. In D. L. Floyd, M. L. Skolnik, & K. P. Walker (Eds.), The Community College Baccalaureate (pp. 153 178). Sterling VA : Stylus. Lane, K. (2003, April 4). 2 + 2 =? Retrieved December 21, 2008, from Community College Baccalaureate Association: http://www.accbd.org/articles/2+2.pdf Latiolais, M. P., Holland, B. A., & Sutter, K. (2009). Investigating faculty attitudes toward teaching. Portland State University Web site, http://www.mth.pdx.edu/ paul/pre prints/article.doc Manias, N. (2007). The baccalaureate community colleges in Florida: A policy evaluation ( Doctoral d issertation ). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3292527) Martin C. (1994). Faculty perceptions toward service learning wi thin a large public university (Doctoral d issertation ). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 9424188)

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109 Pappas Consulting, G. (2001). Principles of Accreditation. Retrieved May 15, 2009, from Southern Ass ociation of Colleges and Schools: http://www.sacscoc.org/pdf/PrinciplesOfAccreditation.PDF Pappas Consulting Group. (2007). Proposing a Blueprint For Higher Education in Florida. Retrieved February 5, 2007, from http://www.unf.edu/acadaffairs/PappasBOGStr uctureReport.pdf Petry, D. K. (2006). The transformation of five Florida community colleges: Converting to baccalaureate degree producing programs ( D octoral d issertation ). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3203247) Plec ha, M. D. (2007). Does the community college baccalaureate presage institutional diversity or isomorphism? ( D octoral dissertation ). Available from ProQuest Dissertions and Theses database. (UMI No. 3299537) Remington, R. and Remington, N. (2005). The bacc alaureate as agent of change In D. L. Floyd, In D. L. Floyd, M. L. Skolnik, & K. P. Walker (Eds.), The Community College Baccalaureate: Emerging Trends & Policy Issues (pp. 139 152 ). Sterling, VA: Stylus. Rouseff Baker, F. (2002 Winter ). Leading change through faculty development. New Directions for Community Colleges 35 42. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Rudner, L. M., & Schafer, W. D. (2001, April). Reliability. ERIC Digest. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from ERIC Digests: www.ericdigests.org/2002 2/reliabi lity.htm Sauter, V. L. (2003). Web design studio: A preliminary experiment in facilitating faculty use of the web. In A. Aggarwal, Web Based Education: Learning from Experience (pp. 131 154). Idea Group : Harrisburg, PA Schifter, D. E. (1985). Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: An applicat i on of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49 843 851. Skolnik, M. L. (2005). The community college baccalaureate in Canada In D. L. Floyd, M. L. Skolnik, & K. P. Walker (Eds.), The Community College Baccalaureate (pp. 49 72 ). Sterling, VA: Stylus. Seidam, E. (1985). In the words of th e faculty. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Sheppard, B. H., Hartwick, J., & Warshaw, P. R. (1988). The theory of reasoned action: A met aanalysis of past research with recommendations for modifications and future research. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 325.343.

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110 Townsend, B. K. (2005). A cautionary view. In D. L. Floyd, M. L. Skolnik, & K. P. Walker (Eds.), The Community College Baccal aureate (pp. 179 190). Sterling VA : Stylus. Townsend, B. K. and Twombly, S. B. (2007). Community College Faculty: Overlooked and Undervalued (Vol. 32). San Francisco: Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Townsend, B. K. (1998). Women faculty: Satisfaction with emplo yment in the community college. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 22 655 662. Townsend, B. (2001). The community college transfer function in the 21st century: Where hopes and dreams collide. Ofice of Community College Research and Lead ership, 12 (2). Townsend, B. (2001). Redefining the community college transfer mission. Community College Review, 29 (2), 29 42. Twente, U. O (n.d.). Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action Retrieved January 27, 2009, from Theorienoverzicht TCW: ht tp://www.cw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/ Vaughan, G. (1982). The community college in America. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Community and Junior Colleges. Community College Review 29 (18), 18 28. Walker, K. P. (2005). History, rationale, and the community college baccalaureate association. In D. L. Floyd, M. L. Skolnik, & K. P. Walker (Eds.), The Community College Baccalaureate (pp. 9 23). Sterling VA : Stylus. Walker, K P. (2008). A letter from Dr. Walker. Community College Baccalaureate Association 1 4.

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111 Appendices

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112 Appendix A: Faculty Questionnaire Faculty Questionnaire Understanding Your Participation Please read this page carefully. Although established res earch exists on administrator and student attitudes and beliefs regarding the Community College Baccalaureate (CCB) transition, the research literature is lacking in exploring search effort to understand is very important as it will provide faculty input into the CCB transition. Such feedback can help to facilitate a more su ccessful transition. The study uses the Theory of Planned Behavior by Ijek Ajzen as its theoretical framework. Ajzen has created specific guidelines for designing surveys based upon his theory. One feature of these guidelines is that questions are asked f rom different perspectives. The differences are very subtle and, therefore, may make you think that they are the same questions. In fact, however, they are measuring different constructs. The Theory of Planned Behavior measures attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control toward a behavior. Each question is, therefore, phrased from these three perspectives. This may give you the impression that a question is repeated, but, as you can see, it is not. It simply appears so because it is asked from three different subtle perspectives. Thus, please be sure you answer all the questions. postsecondary institutions approved for associate degree awards with the addition of limited baccalaureate This survey is conducted anonymously, so your identity will be protected at all times. Although what you said will be reported, your name will not be associated with your responses. Your participation in this survey will also be accepted as your consent to participate. You may withdraw from this survey at any time by exiting the survey. If you do choose to participate, please be sure to answer all t he questions because incomplete surveys cannot be used as part of this study. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me. My contact information is Lori Kielty (352) 237 2947 kieltyl@cf.edu Thank you, Lori Kielty

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113 1. Overall I think supporti ng the CCB transition is the : W rong thing to do : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : R ight thing to do 2. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is: G ood : ___1 ___2 ___3 ___4 ___5 ___6 ___7 : B ad 3. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is : B eneficial to me : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : H armful to me 4. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is: Harmful to college : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : B eneficial to college 5. For me to support the CCB transition is: E asy : __ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : D ifficult 6. By supporting the CCB transition, I am providing students with access to a baccalaureate degree. Likely : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Unlikely 7. Doing what administrators think I should do is important to me. Not at all : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Very much 8. I am confident that I could support the CCB transition if I wanted to. Disagree : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree 9. When the college does not conduct a program needs assessment I am ( less likely /more likely) to support the CCB transition. L ess likely : ___1 ___2 ___3 ___4 ___5 ___6 ___7 : M ore likely 10. People who are important to me expect me to support the CCB transition. Disagree : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree 11. I expect to support the CCB transition. Disagree : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree 12. For me, p articipating in the CCB transition is : U ndesirable : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : D esirable 13. The decision to support the CCB transition is bey ond my control. Disagree : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree

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114 14. I feel under social pressure to support the CCB transition. Disagree : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree 15. If the college does not provide faculty support, it is difficult for m e to facilitate the CCB transition. Unlikely : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Likely 16. Whether I support the CCB transition or not is entirely up to me. Disagree : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree 17. When the college provides faculty support I am (less likely/more likely) to support the CCB transition. L ess likely : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : M ore likely 18. Doing what students think I should do is important to me. Not at all : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Very much 19. If a pr ogram needs assessment is not conducted, then it is difficult for me to support the CCB transition. Unlikely : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Likely 20. Administrators think that I (should not/should) support the CCB transition. S hould not : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : S hould 21. Doing what other faculty think I should do is important to me. Not at all : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Very much 22. Students think that I (should not/should) support the CCB transition. S hould not : ___ 1 ___ 2 __ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : S hould 23. I want to support the CCB transition. Disagree : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree 24. I feel the college will not provide quality baccalaureate programs, so it makes it difficult for me to support the CCB transiti on. Unlikely : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Likely 25. Doing what business and industry leaders think I should do is important to me. Not at all : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Very much

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115 26. Most people who are important to me think that I (shou ld/should not) support the CCB transition. S hould : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : S hould not 27. I fully intend to support the CCB transition. Disagree : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree 28. Supporting the CCB transition will require that I upd ate my credentials. Likely : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Unlikely 29. Providing students with access to a baccalaureate degree is : U ndesirable : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : D esirable 30. Other faculty in my college (do not/do) support the CCB t ransition. D o not : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : D o 31. Updating my credentials to meet the CCB requirements is : U ndesirable : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : D esirable 32. Feeling that the college will not provide quality baccalaureate programs, I am (less likely/more likely) to support the CCB transition. L ess likely : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : M ore likely 33. If I support the CCB transition, then I will be expected to help implement it. Likely : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Un likely 34. Business and industry leaders think that I (should not/should) support the CCB transition. S hould not : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : S hould 35. People who are important to me want me to support the CCB transition. Disagree : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree

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116 Demographic Information A. I feel p roviding baccalaureate degrees at community colleges may compromise the door access, learner centeredness, affordability, convenience, or responsivene ss). Disagre e : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree B. I plan to get a terminal degree in my field. Disagre e : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree C. I plan to teach baccalaureate level courses at my college. Disagre e : ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ 6 ___ 7 : Agree D. My college will provide me with the funds to update my credential s ____ Yes ____No E. My college performed a ne eds assessment for the CCB. ____Yes ____ No F. My college will provide high quality baccalaureate degree s. ____ Yes ____ No G. What is your age? ______ Under 25 ______ 26 34 ______ 35 44 ______ 45 54 ______ 55 and over H. What is your gender? ________ Male ________ Female

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117 I. Race/Ethnicity: _________ American Indian or Alaska Native _________ Asian _________ Black or Afri can American _________ Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander _________ White _________ Hispanic or Latino J. Highest degree earned to date: _________ No degree to date _________ Certificate _________ Associate _________ Bachelor _________ Master _________ Specialist _________ Doctorate K. What institution are you employed? ____ Central Florida Community college ____ Seminole State College Thank you for participating in this survey. Lori Kielty

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118 Appendix B : Extra Tables Table B 1 Descriptive S tati stics for Survey Questions M easuring Behavioral I ntention Survey Question N x sd Range 11. I expect to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 6.02 1.4 1 7 23. I want to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 5.74 1.5 1 7 27. I fully intend to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 5.72 1.4 1 7

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119 Appendix B: Extra Tables Table B 2 Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Perceived B ehavioral C ontrol Survey Question N x sd Range Direct Measure: Attitude 1. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is the wrong thing to do/the right thing to do. 95 5.92 1.4 1 7 2. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is good/bad 95 5.97 1.5 2 7 3. Overall I think supportin g the CCB transition is beneficial to me/ harmful to me. 95 5.47 1.5 2 7 4. Overall I think supporting the CCB transition is harmful to college/ beneficial to college. 95 6.07 1.3 2 7 Direct Measure: Subjective Norms 10. People who are important to me expect me to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 4.35 1.7 1 7 14. I feel under social pressure to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 2.47 1.7 1 7 26. Most people who are important to me think that I should/should not support the CCB transition. 95 4.89 1.3 1 7 35. People who are important to me want me to support the CCB transition. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 4.81 1.4 1 7 Direct Measure: Perceived Behavioral Control 5. For me to support the CCB transition is diffic ult 1..7 easy 95 5.89 1.1 4 7 8. I am confident that I could support the CCB transition if I wanted to. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 6.08 1.3 1 7 1 3. The decision to support the CCB transition is beyond my control. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 4.17 2.3 1 7 1 6 Whether I support the CCB transition or not is entirely up to me. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 4.94 2.1 1 7

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120 Appendix B: Extra Tables Table B 3 Descriptive Statistics f or Survey Questions Measuring Behavioral B eliefs Survey Question N x sd Range Behav ioral Beliefs 6. By supporting the CCB transition, I am providing students with access to a baccalaureate degree. ( L ikely 1..7 U nlikely ) 95 6.11 1.0 4 7 28. Supporting the CCB transitio n, will require that I update my credentials. ( L ikely 1..7 U nlikely ) 95 3.25 2.4 1 7 33. If I support the CCB transition, then I will be expected to help implement it. ( L ikely 1..7 U nlikely ) 95 4.77 2.1 1 7 Outcome Evaluation 29 Providing students with access to a baccalaureate degree is ( U ndesirable / D esirable ) 95 6.21 1.2 1 7 31. Updating my credentials to meet the CCB requirements is ( U ndesirable / D esirable ) 95 4.46 2.0 1 7 12. For me, participating in the CCB transition is ( U ndesirable / D esirable ) 95 5.49 1.5 1 7

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121 Appendix B: Extra Tables Table B 4 Descrip tive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring Normative B eliefs Survey Question N x s d Range Normative Beliefs 20. Administrators think that I should not 1..7 should support the CCB transition. 95 5.53 1.3 2 7 22. Students think that I should n ot 1..7 should support the CCB transition. 95 4.64 1.3 1 7 34. Business and industry leaders think that I should not 1..7 should support the CCB transition. 95 5.06 1.4 1 7 30. Other faculty in my college do not 1..7 do support the CCB transition. 95 5 .05 1.4 1 7 Motivation to Comply 7. Doing what administrators think I should do is important to me. ( N ot at all 1..7 V ery much ) 95 4.43 1.7 1 7 18. Doing what students think I should do is important to me. ( N ot at all 1..7 V ery much ) 95 4.55 1.5 1 7 25. Doing what business and industry leaders think I should do is important to me. ( N ot at all 1..7 V ery much ) 95 4.45 1.8 1 7 21. Doing what other faculty think I should do is important to me. ( D isagree 1..7 A gree ) 95 3.81 1.7 1 7

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122 Appendix B: E xtra Tables Table B 5 Descriptive Statistics f or Survey Questions M easuring Control B eliefs Survey Question N x s d Range Control Beliefs 15. If the college does not provide faculty support, it is difficult for me to support the CCB transition. ( U nl ikely 1..7 L ikely ) 95 4.81 1.8 1 7 19. If a program needs assessment is not conducted, then it is difficult for me to support the CCB transition. ( U nlikely 1..7 L ikely ) 95 4.65 1.7 1 7 24. I feel that the college will not provide quality baccalaureate pr ograms, so it makes it difficult for me to support the CCB transition. ( U nlikely 1..7 L ikely ) 95 2.51 1.8 1 7 Perceived Power 17. When the college provides faculty support, I am less likely 1..7 more likely to support the CCB transition. ( L ess likely 1..7 M ore likely ) 95 5.88 1.4 1 7 9. When the college does not conduct a program needs assessment, I am less likely 1..7 more likely to support the CCB transition. ( L ess likely 1..7 M ore likely ) 95 2.84 1.5 1 7 32. Feeling that the college will not pro vide quality baccalaureate programs, I am less likely 1..7 more likely to support the CCB transition. ( L ess likely 1..7 M ore likely ) 95 2.99 1.6 1 7

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123 Appendix B: Extra Tables Table B 6 Descriptive Statistics for Survey Questions Measuring D emographic I nformation Demographic Information: Direct Question N x s d Range A. I feel providing baccalaureate degrees at community colleges may core values (e.g., open door access, learner centeredness, affordability, convenience, o r responsiveness). ( A gree 1..7 D isagree ) 95 3.2 2.3 1 7 B. I plan to get a terminal degree in my field. ( A gree 1..7 D isagree ) 95 3.6 2.1 1 7 C. I plan to teach baccalaureate level courses at my college ( A gree 1..7 D isagree ) 95 3.9 2.2 1 7

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About the Aut hor Lori Kielty earned a B.A. Degree in Business Administration from St. Leo University, M.A. and Ed.S. Degrees in Curriculum and Instruction Instructional Technology from the University of South Florida, and an Ed.D. i n Educational Leadership from the University of South Florida. She has been a faculty member in the Business Technology and Workforce division at the College of Central Florida since 1997, as well as Program Manager of the Computer Information Technology A.S. Degree program. She is the r ecipient of the following awards at the College of Central Florida: Attie G. Branan Endowed Chair for 2003 2006 and 2008 2011 for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Environment and the STARS award in 2001 for recognition of excellence, dedication, a nd innovation in the faculty roles of teaching, service to students, professional development, college service, and public service.


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Factors that influence faculty intentions to support the community college baccalaureate
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ABSTRACT: An increasing number of community colleges in the United States are becoming baccalaureate-granting institutions. Proponents of the community college baccalaureate (CCB) argue that the CCB provides students with access to higher education, while others argue the CCB will compromise the community college's core values. The purpose of this study is to explore faculty members' intention to support the CCB transition. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior provides the theoretical framework for the study. The theory assumes that changes in behavior are intentional and, therefore, can be planned. This theory posits that attitudes, subjective (social) norms, and perceived behavioral control predict intentions to support a behavior and, ultimately, to behave in a certain way. Full-time faculty members from two community colleges in Florida were invited to participate in the Web-based survey; 95 of the 317 faculty members invited to participate in the study chose to complete the survey, representing a 30% response rate. Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated among the direct measures and their underlying beliefs indicate significant relationships among (a) attitude and behavioral beliefs (r = .46, p = .01) and (b) subjective norms and normative beliefs (r = .48, p = .01). Correlation analysis among the direct measures and behavioral intention indicate significant relationships among (a) attitude and behavioral beliefs (r = .82, p = .01), (b) subjective norms and normative beliefs (r = .22, p = .05), and (c) perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention (r = .34, p = .01). The multiple linear regression analysis indicated the linear combination of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control account for 69% of the variability in faculty members' intention to support the CCB transition, with greatest the contribution from perceived behavioral control, (b = .87), followed by attitude (b = .22), and subjective norms contributing the least (b = .05). The findings from this study can be used to reflect upon CCB transitions that have already occurred or are in process. In addition, the findings can inform future efforts by community colleges to develop more effective and efficient processes for making the transition to CCB institutions. Lastly, the findings provide insight of the CCB transition from a faculty members' perspective, as well as to contribute to existing literature on the theory of planned behavior.
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Advisor: Donald Dellow, Ed.D.
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Community college baccalaureate
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Theory of Planned Behavior
Faculty perceptions
Florida community colleges
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