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Through th e Lens of a Global Educator: Examining Personal Perceptions Regarding the Construction of World Mindedness by Kenneth T. Carano A d issertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Secondary Education College of Education University of South Florida Co Major Professor: Howard Johnston, Ph.D. Co Major Professor: Brbara C. Cruz, Ed.D. Mark Amen, Ph.D. J. Lynn McBrien, Ph.D. Date of Approval: November 8, 20 10 Keywords: curricular decision making, global education, global mindedness, global perspective, personal perspectives Copyright 2010, Kenneth T. Carano
Dedication I dedicate this manuscript to the women of my life, my wife, Andrea, daughter, Sabina and my mom Andrea you have been a wonderful source of support and the best partner in which a husband could ask. Sabina your presence remin ds me everyday how blessed I have been in this life. Mom you demonstrated what it is to have a global perspective before we even knew there was such a label. Every part of this journey is with all of you in mind. You make this all worthwhile.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to personally thank the teachers who agreed to participate in this study. Your willingness to share your experiences and perceptions is truly an indi cation of excellence in teaching. I would also like to acknowledge the outstanding teaching faculty in the secondary social science education department at the University of South Florida who provided me with opportunities of being challenged intellectuall y. The guidance and support of many individuals have been vital to the completion of my doctoral studies at the University of South Florida. I would like to express my deep gratitude to the members of my dissertation committee, Howard Johnston, Brbara Cru z Mark Amen, and J. Lynn McBrien for their expertise, invaluable guidance, unconditional support, and helping shape my ideas into this manuscript. In particular, Dr. Howard Johnston who continued to provide me invaluable research advice and Dr. Brbara Cr uz who guided and enabled me to intensify my passion for global education. I would also like to extend my deep appreciation to Michael Berson for guiding me through the doctoral process and James Duplass for guiding me through the process of teaching ele mentary social studies methods. Finally, a special thank you goes out Robert Bailey from my doctoral cohort. Your friendship, support, and academic partnership have made this experience even more enjoyable.
i TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... v ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... vi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ........................ 1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 1 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 3 Statement of the Problem ................................ ................................ ......................... 4 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ............................ 5 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 7 Definition of Terms ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 9 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 10 Implications of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 11 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 13 Clarifying Globaliza tion ................................ ................................ ........................ 13 An Overview of Global Education ................................ ................................ ........ 17 Whose Global Education? ................................ ................................ .......... 17 The Pion eers ................................ ................................ ............................... 19 The New Wave ................................ ................................ .......................... 23 Global Education Beyond the United States ................................ .............. 30 Critics ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 34 A Congruent Definition ................................ ................................ ............. 38 Global Edu cation and Teacher Education ................................ .............................. 43 Global Education Empirical Research ................................ ................................ ... 48 Researching About the Topics Taught in Global Education ..................... 49 Factors Affecting Curricular Decision Making ................................ ......... 50 Teacher Education Research in Global Education ................................ ..... 54 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 64 CHAPTER 3: METHODS AND PROCEDURES ................................ ............................ 67 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 67 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 69 Institutional Review Board Review ................................ ................................ ....... 69 Research Protocol ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 70 Survey Instruments ................................ ................................ .................... 70 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 74
ii Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 80 Verifying ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 81 Ethical Considerations ................................ ................................ ............... 82 Research Field Notes ................................ ................................ ................. 83 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 84 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 84 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 85 Analysis of Research Question 1: How Highly do Teachers Participating in a Global Education Curriculum Project Score on the Hett Global mindedness Survey? ................................ ................................ ......................... 85 Interview Participant Profiles Lowest Scorers ................................ ........ 89 Interview Participant Profiles Highest Scorers ................................ ....... 98 Analysis of Research Question 2: To What do Globally Minded Teachers Attribute the Development of a Global Perspective? ................................ .... 105 Initial Development ................................ ................................ ................. 107 Pe rception of s elf. Family. Exposure to d 114 Minority s 117 Curious d .120 Perception of o Exposure to d Global e ducational courses Intensification of Global Perspective ................................ ....................... 127 Analysis of Research Question 3: Is There a Relationship Between What Self identified Global Educators Attribute the Development of Their Global Perspective to and How They Scored on the Hett Global minded ness Survey? ................................ ................................ ....................... 136 Initial Development Perception of Self ................................ ................. 137 Initial Development Perception of Others ................................ ............ 143 Intensification of Global Perspective ................................ ....................... 147
iii Analysis of Research Question 4: How Might the Background of a Teacher (e.g., Travel Experience, Languages Spoken) Influence to What the Teacher Attributes His or Her Development of Global mindedness? ........... 153 Teacher s Background and Initial Global Perspective Development ...... 153 Teacher s Background and Intensification of Global Perspective ........... 155 Analysis of Research Question 5: How Do Teachers Perceive Their Curricular Decision Making is Influenced by to What They Attribute Their Constructed Global mindedness? ................................ ......................... 155 Initial Development of Global Perspective ................................ .............. 157 Intensification of Global Perspective ................................ ....................... 165 Unanticipated Findings ................................ ................................ ........................ 173 International Travel Experience ................................ ............................... 174 Limitation of Subthemes ................................ ................................ .......... 175 Burnout ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 175 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 176 CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ........................... 178 Introducti on ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 178 Summary of the Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 178 Discussion of Results ................................ ................................ ........................... 180 Research Question 2: To What do Globally Minded Teachers Attribute the Development of a Global Perspective? ........................ 181
iv Research Question 3: Is There a Relationship Between What Self identified Global Educators Attribute the Development of Their Global Perspective to and How They Scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey? ................................ .............................. 192 Research Question 4: How Might the Background of a Teacher (e.g., Travel Experience, Languages Spoken ) Influence to What the Teacher Attributes His or Her Development of Global mindedness? ................................ ................................ ........... 197 Research Question 5: How do Teachers Perceive Their Curricular Decision Making is Influenced by that to which They Attribute Their Constructed Global mindedness? ................................ ............. 201 Un anticipated Findings ................................ ................................ ............ 207 Strengths of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 211 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 211 Implications of Research ................................ ................................ ...................... 212 Recommendations for Social Studies Teacher Education Programs ....... 212 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ................... 219 Conclusions and Implications ................................ ................................ .............. 222 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 224 APPENDICES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 235 Appendix A: IRB Lett er of Approval ................................ ................................ .. 236 Appendix B: Teacher Background Questionnaire ................................ ............... 238 Appendix C: Hett Global mindedness Survey ................................ ..................... 240 Appendix D: Initial Interview Protocol for Teachers ................................ .......... 242 Appendix E: Explanatory Letter About Teacher Background Questionnaire and Global mindedness Survey ................................ ................................ ..... 243 Appendix F: Explanatory Letter to Interviewees ................................ ................. 244 Appendix G: Consent Form for Participants ................................ ....................... 245 Appendix H: Affirmation of Intent Form for Participants ................................ ... 246 Appendix I: Member Check Form for Interviewees ................................ ............ 247 Appendix J: Disclosure Statement ................................ ................................ ....... 248 ABOUT THE AUTHOR ................................ ................................ ....................... End Page
v L IST OF TABLES Table 1: Five Dimensions of a Global Perspective ................................ ............................ 38 Table 2 : Ideal Global Citizen ................................ .......................... 44 mindedness ................................ ................... 72 Table 4: Category of Initial Interview Questions ................................ .............................. 78 Table 5: Hett Global mindedness Scale Scores ................................ ................................ 86 Table 6: Hett Global mindedness Scale Dimension Scores ................................ .............. 88 Table 7: Profile of Global Educators Selected for Qualitative Analysis ........................... 88 Table 8: Groups, Themes, and Subthem es ................................ ................................ ....... 106 Table 9: Participant Scores and Perceived Global Perspective Development ................. 137 Table 10: Participant Score & Perceived Global Perspective Development in Others ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 144 Table 11: Participant Score and Perceived Intensification of Global Perspective ........... 147 Table 12: Curricular Decision making Themes and Subthemes ................................ ..... 156 Table 13: Interpretati on of Levels of Cross cultural Awareness ................................ ..... 248
vi ABSTRACT As we embark upon the 21st century, the world is becoming increasingly interconnected. Yet, despite increasing globalization, educational systems are not reflecting this phenomenon. The overwhelming majority of countries, including the United States, still emphasize nationalistic curricula (Parker, 2008; Tye, 2009). Global education is a movement whose supporters advocate an education reflecting the push towards globalization by providing students with the components necessary to live and thrive in an incre asingly interconnected world system. Global educators have a common bond as advocates that a global perspective needs to be developed in the classroom. The degree to which this is being done is unknown. Further, how a global educator is prepared and formed is unknown. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research in global education (Gaudelli, 2003). Personal experiences have a major influence to what a teacher attributes his or her beliefs and values (Lincoln, 2005), and this is an area of study that has not been examined in global education. Using a mixed methods design that includes a background survey, a global mindedness survey and interviews would provide a better understanding of what self identifying global edu cators attribute their global mindedness. By presenting a rich account of the perspectives of high school social studies teachers who are involved with a global education initiative, social studies teacher education programs can gain insight
vii about providin g the best preparation that will lead to teacher candidates gaining the skills necessary to teach from a global perspective The case study presented here consisted of 2 surveys, multiple interviews, and examination of program documents. Analysis resulte d in 8 themes identified by the participants as being attributed to the development of a global perspective: (a) family, (b) exposure to diversity, (c) minority status, (d) curious disposition, (e) global education courses, (f) international travel, (g) ha ving a mentor, and (h) professional service. Additionally, the themes were perceived to influence curricular decision making by providing strategies, resources, and empathy towards students. s teacher education programs and future research. These implications include the types of instructional methods, themes, and global dimensions that should be addressed in teacher education programs. Future research should focus on issues underlying the nat ure of global education courses being taught in social studies teacher education programs, the teaching methods being used by graduates of those programs, and further analysis on emerging themes perceived to be critical in developing a global perspective
1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The history of American education is a story of curriculum expansion. (B. B. Tye & Tye, 1999, p. 1) Introduction For 2 years my wife and I lived in Suriname, South America, as P eace Corps volunteers. During our time in Suriname, we resided in the rain forest village of Tapoeripa, which was inhabited by descendents of runaway African slaves who still held onto many of their traditional customs and beliefs. Oftentimes, it had the l ook and feel of the old exotic Africa of my mind. Tall walls of pristine jungle flora guarded either side of information age had not yet made it to the Surinamese inter ior and phone lines were nonexistent, except for the one cell phone at the police station that worked only occasionally and was about a 5 kilometer walk away from the village. In 2000, after 2 years away, I returned to the United States with what I perceiv ed to be a heightened awareness of other cultures, a greater tolerance of others, and an interest in world events. Soon after, I began teaching high school social studies and these new perspectives had a profound influence on my curricular decision making. In 2004, I started a doctoral program in social science education and was introduced to an area of study, global education, that provided me with a title to an ideology I felt was important to develop in students.
2 I have been introduced to some invaluab le teaching methods for incorporating global education in the classroom through teacher education coursework, but ultimately when I reflect upon what brings me to this study, I find that I come back to my time in Suriname. Although I had not yet been forma lly introduced to global education, my time as a Peace Corps volunteer was a major influence on how I attempt to instill in my students the skills necessary to thrive in a globalized world. Clearly, I agree with Lincoln (2005) that personal experiences hav e a major influence on to what one attributes his or her beliefs and values. Yet, this is an area of study that has not been explored in global education. The research described herein is a case study that explores the factors to which self identifying glo bal educators attribute their global mindedness. Rationale Globa lization has been gaining momentum in t he mainstream curriculum, in part because of the popular writings of Thomas Friedman. Friedman first discussed the topic of globalization in depth in The Lexus a nd The Olive Tree (2000). He argued that the Cold War was replaced by globalization as the predominant international system. In the Lexus repr esents the drive for improvement, prosperity and modernization as it is pl ayed out in Specifically, it represents global markets, financial institutions and computer technologies. The olive t r ee represents systems that identify individuals and locate people in this world; they may be family, community, a tribe, a culture, o r a religion. The challenge for both governments and individuals is to find a healthy balance between the Lexus and the olive tree. The World is Flat : A Brief History of the Twenty first Century (2005), further popularized the concept of globalization.
3 Globalization affects everything from the money people earn to the food they eat. For example, the asparagus a United States citizen buys at the grocery store may come from Ecuador, which may use p citizens. De Blij (2005) argued that the world is functionally shrinking and has five in terconnected systems : economic, environmental, political, cultural, and technological. The scale with which these systems are transforming through many modern societies is unprecedented (Kennedy, 2007). As a result, globalization has the possibility of expanding the critical, imaginative, and ethical dimensions of education (Heilman, 20 09). S tudents need to understand these global interconnections if they are going to be take advantage of the opportunity t o attain their full potential (K. A. Tye, 2009) and develop the skills t hat will enable them to p articipate fully in society at the local, na tional, and international levels. If our educational system fails to do this, students run the risk of not being economically competitive, culturally intolerant, geographically illiterate and environmentally unaware future, but also it runs the risk of having an adverse affect on the country (Zakaria, 2008), because if a significant proportion of the population cannot compe te in an interconnected, economy will ultimately feel the str ain, through the effect of factors such as a lower standard of living, increased unemployment, and lower wage s. Purpose of the Study Unfortunately, global issues, such as human rights, the environment, and citizenship are, for the most part, not major components of the curriculum in United
4 States K 12 public schools (K. A. Tye, 1999) and global issues are still n ot well integrated into most teacher preparation programs (Zong, 2009). Although there have been several important studies that have examined global mindedness in teachers (see, for example, Gaudelli, 2003; Duckworth, Levy, & Levy, 2005; Merryfield, 2007 ; K. A. Tye, 1999), no re search has been conducted on how these teachers perceive they developed their global mindedness (Ukpokodu, 2006). Using attribution theory, this case study explore s the question, H ow do teachers perceive and explain their development of a global perspective ? The data collected seek to answer the question, H ow do teachers perceive their const ructed global mindedness impacts their curricular decision making ? Ultimately, this study aspires to add to the systematically gathered evidence guiding teacher education programs in their incorporation of global education for the purpose of informing educational policy and administrative practice. Statement of the Probl em Making good citizens and neighbors is generally recognized as the goal of social studies among most educators (Thornton, 2005). That being the case and arguing the assumption articulated previously that we now live in a globally interdependent world, it seems reasonable to presume that students would be well served by acquiring skills that will enable th em to participate fully in a globalized world. Unfortunately, at the same time we are living in a globally interconnected society, our youth are getting the majority of their global education from the media (Hahn, 1998; Cortes, 2005), which often feeds into previously held stereotypes (Cortes, 2005). Therefore, to incorporate a global mindedness in K 12 students, it would seem reasonable to assume teacher education programs need to be incorporating a global mindedness in future educators.
5 A growing amount of research i ndicates that the decisions teachers make and work that they do is based on thei r perspectives and thinking (Uk p okodu, 2006); therefore, research that examines to what teachers attribute their global mindedness is warranted in the corpus of knowledge associated with global education. T he se are the research questions of this study which if not addressed, are likely to continue impeding K 12 ve and thrive in a globalized world The research problems are as follows: 1. We do not know the factors to which global educators attribute the acquisition of their global mindedness. 2. We do not know how global mindedness affects his or her curricular decision making. Theoretical Framework One aspect of global education consists of understanding perspectives that have previously been unfamiliar or are not held by that person or culture. As a result, so that the ensuing literary work stays true to the nature of global education, the reader would be properly served to be made aware of my theoretical perspective. The theory that drives this research, s pecifically the interview questions on perspectives of developing a global mindedness, is attribution theory, which studies how people explain events taking place in their lives (Bruning, Schraw, Norby, & Ronning, 2004). According to Bernard Weiner (1986), when applying attribution theory to achievement, an individual will evaluate his or her success or failure and have an affective response to this appraisal. The individual What caused this outcome? determine future behaviors. While this analysis does not occur after all events, it is most
6 likely to occur after negative, unexpected, or important outcomes, the latter being a category in which I would categorize the outcome of gaining global mindedness Attribution responses vary along three causal dimensions. The fir st dimension is locus of causality which defines the cause of an outcome as either internal or external to the individual. The second dimension is stability. This dimension captures wheth er success is attributed to a relatively stable trait, such as ability or knowledge, it seems reasonable that past success would be repeated. In contrast, if success is at tributed to highly unstable causes, such as luck, there is little reason to believe that success will occur again. The third dimension is controllability, which contrasts causes that can be controlled, such as effort or the ability to exert influence over making, from causes one cannot control, such as chance and the action of others outside of our sphere of influence. According to Weiner (1986), there is a strong correlation between self concept and achievement; therefore, in applying this conce pt to this study, I attempt ed to determine the causes to which a global educator may attri bute his or her acquisition of global mindedness. For example, if a global educator is more likely to attribute the developm ent of global mindedness to bein g an inherent trait that remains relatively stable over time and over which the pers on has little control rather than focusing on the types of courses he or she may have taken it may be more beneficial for teacher educator programs to focus on the recruitment process. On the other hand, if global educators are more likely to attribute the development of their global mindedness to their effort as the result of external factors t hat are stable, such as taking a structured university course in
7 which they are involved in moderated online threaded discussions with members from o ther cultures or designed to challenge their cultural perceptions, teacher educator programs may gain a val uable insight into the type of curriculum to develop for teaching global education. Research Questions The research questions are as follows: 1. How highly do teachers participating in a global education curriculum project score on the Hett Global mindednes s Survey (Hett, 1993)? 2. To what do self identified globally minded teachers attribute the development of a global perspective? 3. Is there a relationship between what self identified global educators attribute the development of their global perspective to and how they scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993)? 4. How might the background of a teacher (e.g., travel experience, languages spoken) influence to what the teacher attributes his or her development of global mindedness? 5. How do teachers perc eive their curricular decision making is influenced by that to which they attribute their constructed global mindedness? Overview of Study The research questions were answered using data collected from three instruments: a teacher background questionnaire survey, and interviews. The teacher background questionnaire (Appendix B) was adapted from Barbara Tye and Kenneth
8 How might the backg round of a teacher (e.g., travel experience, languages spoken) influence to what they attribute their development of global mindedness? The survey instrument, the Hett Global Mindedness survey (Appendix C), was utilized to determine which participants to interview. In addition, after completing th e interviews, I use d the Hett Global m indedne ss S urvey to help answer R esearch Q uestion 1: How highly do teachers participating in a global education curriculum project score on the Hett Global mindedness Survey? Is there a relationship between what self identified global educators attribute the development of their global perspective to and how they scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey? The interviews followed a semistructured f ormat. Interview participants were each To what do self identified globally minded teachers attribute the development of a global perspective? and How do teachers perceive their curricular decision making is influenced by that to which they attribute their constructed global mindedness? Assumptions 1. Having a global perspective can better prepare students to live in a globally interdependent world. 2. There is a global perspective and it can be developed. 3. People can articulate how they developed a global perspective. 4. Incorporating global perspectives into teacher programs will ultimately translate into global perspectives in K 12 students.
9 Definition of Terms There are some operational definitions of concepts, which are critical to the understanding of this dissertation. They are outlined below Global e ducation Learning about other people, countries, and cultures, as well as the learning of knowledge, skills, values concepts, and ideas from a global perspective. Global e ducator For the purpose of this dissertation, it is defined as an educator who feels it is important to incorporate a global perspective in his or h er curriculum using pedagogy that engage learners in real learning, academic performance, and workforce preparation. Self i dentified g lobal e ducator For the purpose of this dissertation, it is defined as a social studies instructor who participated in the Global Schools Project and feels it is important to incorporate a global perspective in his or her curriculum using pedagogy that engages learners in real rning, academic performance, and workforce preparation. Global p erspective For the purpose of this dissertation five dimensions o f a global perspective are synthesized from the review of the literature on global education. These five dimensions are as follows: Intercultural awareness Understanding the uniqueness of the individual and culture. Globality Aware ness of world conditions, trends, interconnections, and unanticipated consequences of human actions.
10 Service l earnin g Process of learning and developing through active participation in organized service experiences that meet community needs both locally or globally. Global c itizenship s kills Skills needed to work in a globalized world. Social j ustice Analyzing the is sues of power structure arrangements and the fair distribution of advantages, assets, and benefits among all members of a society. Global m indedness Seeing oneself as being interconnected with the world community and feeling a sense of responsibility fo r members of that community. The Curricular d ecision m aking The choices made about the type of content and instructional materials incorporated in the academic courses being t aught. Resources A source of information from which teachers can draw to facilitate student learning such as artifacts, teaching materials, and gained knowledge on a subject. Strategies The plan of instruction or method s designed to achieve a parti cula r educational goal. Limitations I have attempted to minimize the limitations, but due to the approaches to research and the small sample size, there are some limitations that may affect the ability to gener alize this study to other global educators First, the participant teacher s awarenes s of the study may influence them to choose answers that may distort the findings of the study. Another limitation is due to convenience, the findings will be limited to global educators from a small segment of social studies instructors in the
11 Tampa Bay area of Florida; therefore, the study may not be generalizable to other global educators in other regions of the United States or world. Be cause of these limitations and the unique composition of the instructors application of the results to global educators elsewhere should be done with caution. Implications of the Study The researcher assumes that an implication of this research will be t hat preservice teacher p rograms can become bette r equipped in preparing preservice teachers to incorporate a global perspective in the classroom. For example, learning to what people who are global minded attribute that quality will help teacher educator p rograms focus on those qualities that can be developed through education and align programs with those qualities. It will also help teacher education programs identify the kinds of background experiences they might look for in selecting teacher candidates where helping students develop a global perspective is perceived to be an important aspect of the program. As a result, students will be more likely to develop the skills necessary to flourish in a world increasingly less defined by nationalistic ideals, a s the division of international and cultural borders becomes less significant. Overview of the Study The review of the literature focuses on providing an overview of global education with an eye towards establishing a congruent definition used by global educators in academia. It is hoped that by doing this, the reader will gain a greater understanding of what global educators are expecting of students. In addition, the review of the literature presents a rationale for identifying global mindedness in global educators with an instrument discussed in the methods and procedure section (Chapter 3). The review of the
12 literature also explores the major areas of research completed in global education to build a rationale of the benefits of doing this study. In the methods and procedure section, I present and justify a mixed method design. Following that is an ove rview of the research protocol. Initially, the participants took two surveys, a background survey and the Hett (1993) Global mindedness Survey, which was used to determine a global mindedness score for each participant. Because this is a case study, I cond ucted interviews on instructors who self identify as global educators to determine to what a global educator attributes his or her global mindedness and how this influences his or her curricular decision making. In the final two sections of this dissertati on I begin with an analysis of the five research questions by providing a rationale for emerging themes and subthemes that emerged during the study. Upon completing an explanation of the analysis, a discussion of the results as well as implications on soc ial studies teacher education programs and recommendations for future research is provided.
13 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE If teachers are to teach global skills and concepts, they themselves have to learn about and embody, a global perspectiv e. (Martin Kniep, 1997, p. 101) Introduction attribution of the development of their global mindedness and how global mindedness influences their curricular decision making. The review of the literature will clarify the common use of the concept of globalization within global education, provide an overview of global education through an examination of its evolving history, discrepant definitions, critics, and explore further the five underlying dimensions common to many of the global educators. This review will provide a basis of understanding what was perceived as important by g lobal educators in the dissertation study. Finally, research in global education will be articulate d to inform the reader of the current status of global education and to provide a further rationale of why the dissertation study is pertinent to global education scholarship. Clarifying Globalization The terms globalization and internationalization are often incorrectly used interchangeably. Therefore, examination and critical analysis of the tw o concepts will be explored. Jan Scholte (2000) distinguished the definition of globalization in the following five ways:
14 1. I n terms of internationalization global is an adjective to desc ribe cross border relations between countries and globalization describes a predominance of international exchange and interdependence. 2. I n terms of l iberalization g lobalization refers to a process of removing government impos ed restrictions on movements between countries, leading to a world economy. 3. I n terms of u niversalization g lobal mean s worldwide and globalization is the process of spreading various objects and experiences to people throughout the world. 4. I n terms of Westernization g lobalization i s a dynamic whereby the social structures of modernity, such as capitalism, are spreading throughout the world and destroying preexistent and local cultures along the way. 5. I n terms of s upraterritoriality g lobalization entai ls a reconfiguration of geography, so that social space is no longer designed in terms of territorial places, territorial distances, and ter ritorial borders globalization as internatio of the 20 th century, when discussing issues that were worldwide in nature the term internationalism rather than globalization was usually applied (Scholte, 2000). The terms g lobalization and internationalization often times get confused or substituted one for the other. Contrary to their similarities, they are not one and the same. In the next few paragraphs, I will differentiate between the two terms and their educational counterparts, gl obal education and international education. Globalization has been called both a subset
15 of internationalization (Gutek, 1993) and a completely different perspective (Scholte, 2000). International e ducation, as it relates to teacher education, has had di fferent definitions and has emphasized different points historically. Gerald Gutek (1993) outlined its historical emergence, which is listed as follows: Compa (Kubow & Fossum, 2007, p. 7). Similar to the way modern tourists share stories about their travels, curiosity in unfamiliar lands prompted exploration. People in these earlier periods shared observations about aspects of these newfound cultures and societies, which included educ ational habits. Foreign policy studies a nalyzed the policies of the various nations of the method students were expected to acquire a perspective of their own country in relat ionship to other countries. Emphasis was limited to a focus on political, military, and economic relationships. Regional/ a rea s tudies c oncentrate in an interdisciplinary way on a particular region of the world. Internatio nal/development education e merged a fter W orld W ar II. Western countries provide d assistance, including educational support nations. Peace e ducation e merge d as a result of the Cold W ar and buildup of nuclear weapons.
16 International e xchange p rograms p romote the exchange of scholars across countries. Global e ducation is o ne of the newest approaches to international education. International b usiness e ducation is e ducation for the multinational busi ness corporation Many in academia now assert internationalization to be too l imiting a term when compared to globalization because it fails to address the interconnectedness of individuals, groups, and organizations across the world (Gaudelli, 2003). Jan Scholte (2000) distinguishe d between the two concepts by identifying internati onalism as being embedded in territorial space and globalization transcending territorial space. In other words, the former concept investigates cross border exchanges over distance and the latter concept focuses on trans border exchanges without distance. A theme m any scholars discuss when referring to international educ ation is the preparation of students to be citizens, workers, and leaders in the interconnected world of the 21 st century (Kagan & Stewart, 2004). This definition lacks two concepts esse ntial to global education. The first one i s perspective consciousness. Perspective consciousness is the ability to recognize the existence of worldview s 1976). The second concept international education lacks is the influe nce the legacy of imperialism has had on the curricula (Merryfield, 2001). Essentially, global education stresses interconnectedness while international education is more focused on learning about other regions (Kelly, 2004). At best, the two concepts coul d be considered cousins, but global education/globalization goes one step beyond international education/internationalization.
17 As the overview of global education in the following pages will attest, the most common theme of these five broad definitions o f globalization used by global educators is supraterritoriality. This commonality is because globalization as supraterritoriality refers to a far reaching change in the nature of social space (Scholte, 2000). Each of the other four definitions of globaliza Supraterritoriality challenges this territorialism perspective, which is a situation where social geography is entirely geographical. Territorial boundaries, perceived in supraterritoriality terms, are usually tr anscended and are therefore no longer an impediment (Scholte, 2000). For example, talking with someone in another country and using the Internet are supraterritoriality concepts of territoriality in globalization An Overview of Global Education It is prob ably safe to say that there are nearly as many definitions of global education as there are projects. (K. A. Tye, 1999, p. 38) This sectio n is divided into six sections The first section display s conflicting worldview camps of global educators. The second part review s the beginnings of the global education movement and is followed by a third section focusing on the review of the post C old W ar influenced global educators. The fourth section is an overview of global education outside of the United States. The fifth section review s the criticism that has hindered the field. I end this section by providing a congruent definition of underlying themes within global education. Whose Global Education? Essentially, global education is a value laden concept (Tye & Tye, 1998). Steven Lamy (1990) cited four interest communities with contending worldviews that seek to influence and control global education programs in the United States. The first group is
18 referred to as the neomercantilists They have the most influen ce in the United States. This group believes that global education should prepare citizens for participation in a chaotic and competitive international system where self interest rules and where chances for cooperation are limited. They fear that presentin g contending perspectives has the danger of leading to long term cooperation and the loss of sovereignty (Lamy, 1990). The second group is called the communitarians They have a pluralistic view and examine global issues from the perspective of an interna tional society of cooperation. Communitarianism is the majority view of educators who support global education and emphasizes many of the goals that will be discussed in the remaining sections of this paper. The third group is the utopian left or wha t is known today as the neo Marxists They seek to create a more equitable international system through the creation of socialist systems in which power is decentralized and economic well being, social justice, and peace are dominant goals. The utopian lef t does not adhere to the pluralistic approach of the communitarians. The final interest group is the utopian right or ultraconservatives They believe the purpose of global education should be to promote United States interests and build overseas suppo rt for American ideals (Lamy, 1990). It appears that any current political controversies that envelop global education are between the communitarians and the stance held by the utopian right (Tye & Tye, 1998 ), which I would agree with because promoting an agenda based upon one group s interests and ideals can, arguably, carry undertones of hegemony at its most extreme and misunderstandings or stereotypes at the
19 very least. These actions are counte r to participating in a community that depends upon mutual un derstanding and cooperation with one another. While the view of what global education should be may differ, there does seem to be an underlying philosophical agreement within the field that it is both necessary and attainable: E veryone is created equal, hu man behavior is culturally determined, everyone possesses basic human rights, and global education has a moral purpose that all humans should be tolerant of divergent values (Kirkwood, 2001 a ). In addition, there seems to be an underlying sympathy towards W estern world values among global educators With so many interest groups competing for the mantle of global education, what is the predominant type of global education pedagogy in the field? T o make that determination, this review next explores the evoluti on of global education definitions. The Pioneers The November 1968 edition of Social Education edited by Lee Anderson and James Becker, arguably represents the birth of the global education field (Gaudelli, 2003; Tye 2009), because it was the first collection of writings to propose focusing on issues that cut across national borders rather than studying nations individually. It was Robert Hanvey (1976) who provided the field a baseline in defining global education. H e did this by describing five dimensions of a truly global citizen and provided a rationale for helping students achieve an awareness of these dimensions. The five dimensions are as follows: 1. Perspective c onsciousness is a wareness that world view is u nique, and often shaped by individual events that are in subconscious. Realize that each individual goes through this process.
20 2. p a wareness involves being a ware of world conditions and trends 3. Cross c ultural a wareness is the a bilit y to perceive own culture from other vantage points and b eing able to live in another culture as opposed to simply have the ability to live with it 4. Knowledge of g lobal d ynamics is a wareness that the events in a world system are interconnected and h ave unanticipated consequences. 5. Awareness of h uman c hoices is the a bility to realize the problems of choice from multiple perspectives and wide range and long range implications. Hanvey (1976) believed even people not leaving the confines of their com munity need to be globally aware, because they need to make sense of the rapid bombardment of information they receive through technology. He argued that students have traditionally not been taught about global issues that will have a profound effect on th eir lives and only become aware of these matters when the media determines it is newsworthy. His five dimensions of a global citizen may provide a good baseline in defin ing global education, but nearly 35 years l ater, it still appears to be quite idealisti c and there are still too many definitional ambiguities within global education for it to be embraced by teachers and society as a whole. Due to his work in the seminal publication Schooling for a Global Age (Becker, 1979) James Becker, who edited the book, is often referred to as the f ather of g lobal e ducation (Kirkwood Tucker & Goldstein, 2007 ; Tye, 2009). In his chapter from Schooling for a Global Age Becker (1979) articulated the concern that an increasingly interconn ected world could lead to increased conflicts unless the education system keeps
21 up with the changing world. He outlined the need to understand the repercussions of human activity on the ecosystem, how technological forces are making humans more interconnec ted, develop capacities from diversity, understand the views and be able to identify with others who do not share the same value systems, and understand the consequences of the unprecedented rate of change on an educational system that had not made any sig nificant changes since the beginning of the 20 th century (Becker, 1979). Lee Anderson (1990) presented a rationale for global education based upon three reasons. First, he believed a growth of global interdependence is leading to an erosion of Western dom inance and a decline in American power and influence. Second, those factors are globalizing the culture and economy of the United States. Finally, he stated that these societal changes must lead to educational change because the educational system is a by product of society (Anderson, 1990). Anderson (1990) stated there is an assortment of ways global educators are attempting to address this need and globalize American education. Some of these ways include improving the study of the core social studies s ubjects (i.e., world history, world geography, and economics), presenting cross cultural perspectives, and improving the study of foreign languages. Others want to improve instruction about world problems (i.e., human rights, world poverty); while others w ant to improve instruction on the historically slighted regions of the world. As Anderson stated, All these activities and more make up global education. To globalize American education is to expand opportunities to learn about the world beyond the borders of the United States, and to larger world system. Finally, it means helping American students to see things from the perspective of other people of the world (Anderson, 1990, p. 14)
22 In addit ion, when discussing how one defines global education, Anderson emphasized it is an ideology that is not content bound: Global education is not a domain of education that can be defined in terms of a particular body of content, subject matter, or disciplin e as we can do in the case of history education, science education, geography education, math education, and so on (Anderson, 2000 2001, p. 1). Willard Kniepp (1986) provided his own foundation for global education by disclosing four topics necessary in the curriculum if it is to be considered global education. These topics are the studying of human values, global systems, global issues and problems, and studying global history. Jan Tucker (1990) believed that students should gain a global education so th ey would be familiar with the global perspective in which the actions of the U.S. take place. In addition, Tucker (1986) stated that education for a global perspective includes, minimally, the following components: the ability to conceptualize and understand the complexities of interdependence; a knowledge of world cultures and international events; and an appreciation of the diversities and commonalities of human values and interests Chadwick Alger and James Harf (1986) state d that national borde rs should not between people. Although it is diverse and highly decentralized, they advocate d global education being used in the classroom. They believe d that the import ance of global education is that it goes beyond merely learning the names of places, people, and facts outside of the United States. It entails students gaining the skills to be able to deal with
23 the diversity of involvements they will have in the emerging global system and is a necessary component for people to participate as citizens. One of the prominent writings from the early global education movement was Global Education: From Thought t o Action an anthology edited by K. A. Tye (1990) and published by ASCD. Authors included in this book included such early prominent names as Lee Anderson, Ba rbara Tye and Kenneth Tye, Steven Lamy, James Be cker, Jan Tucker, and Toni Fuss Kirkwood. They came to a consensus on the following definiti on for their collaborative literary effort: Global education involves learning about those problems and issues that cut across national boundaries, and about the interconnectedness of systems ecological, cultural, economic, political, and technical. Global education involves perspective taking seeking things through the eyes and minds of others and it means the realization that while individuals and groups may view life differently, they also have common needs and wants ( K. A. Tye, 1990, p. 5) The New Wave As the focus of global education has shifted from its Cold War influences, Merry Merryfield and Angene Wilson (2005) point ed out that three related conceptions of the early global educators still influence the new wave of global educators. First is th e five dimensions outlined by Robert Hanvey (1976) A second conception still formidable i n the global education literature of today is the emphasis on understanding local and global conceptions. A final idea popularized by such scholars as Lee Anderson (1 990) James Becker (1990) and Chadwick Alger and James Harf (1986) global education literature is citizenship education for a global age. The definitions supplied by Robert Hanvey and the majority of the early pioneers of global education were predominately awareness oriented.
24 9/11 age, its researchers have become more numerous, its advocates come from a wider political and social spectrum, and its needs are m ore important than andorf, 2009, p. 61) As a result, future global educators have built upon these early dimensions by adding action orientations. Merry Merryfield (2001), who is arguably the most p rominent current glob al educator, has been one of a new wave of global educa tors helping the field redefine itself by moving beyond the long predominant global education ideology of the Cold War and taking it into the 21st century, in which it is necessary for students to develop the skills to communicate and cooperate in a multic ultural world Merryfield (2001) presented three methods of updating global education to meet the 21 st education needs to examine the origins and assumptions underlying the social studies curricula. She argued the social stud ies curricula histories and literature are still being influenced by an imperialist mentality. Global education should examine how histories repertoire and therefore l earned by the student. This imperialist influenced curriculum generation (Merryfield, 2001). Second, students should understand the worldviews and experiences of peop le who have traditionally been marginalized and underrepresented. Merryfield (2001) provided three mechanisms that have the potential to remedy the situation. The initial mechanism is known as double consciousness which is a concept developed by minority students to be able to look at themselves through the eyes of others. Double consciousness is a survival skill that Caucasian people have not needed to develop in the
25 United States. This ability to see perspectives from both the mainstream and the marginal ized is an important characteristic of global education that needs to be developed in all students. Another mechanism used by Merry Merryfield to understand the marginalized perspectives is a contrapuntal pedagogy (Merryfield 2001). She stated that this is the use of literature and histories offering counterpoints to create a new understanding of events, which leads to an understanding of the underlying imperialism in education. The third mechanism is the concept of decoloniz ing the mind (Merryfield & Subedi, 2006). This mechanism helps the traditionally oppressed people become aware that their worldviews today are still being influenced by the colonized perspective. cation is that teachers and students should have the opportunity to have cross cultural experiences. These lived experiences will place people in different positions of power than they would normally experience. These experiences also allow a person to see how the meaning of an event can differ when the person is experiencing the situation. In their book, Social S tudies and T he W orld: Teaching Global Perspectives Merryfield and Wilson (2005) provided an updated version of a global education definition whe n they identified 11 elements that characterize a globally oriented social studies curriculum, which include (a) local/global c onnections (b) p erspec tive consciousness and multiple p erspectives (c) the world as a s ystem (d) global i ssues (e) power in a global c ontext (f) nonstate a ctors (g) attention to prejudice r eduction (h) cross cultural c ompetence (i) research and thinking s kills p ar ticipation in local and global c ommunities and (j) use of electronic t echnologies
26 Graham Pike and David Selby (2000) established the following four dimensions of global education as the core elements for any venture to be classified as global education: 1. Issues dimension embraces five major problem areas (and solutions to them): inequality/equality, injustice/justi ce, conflict/peace, environmental damage/care, and alienation/participation. 2. Spatial dimension emphasizes exploration of the local global connections that exist in relation to these issues, including the nature of both interdependency and dependency. 3. Tempo ral dimension emphasizes exploration of the interconnections that exist between past, present, and future in relation to such issues and in particular scenarios of preferred futures. 4. Inner dimension values, and worldviews. Barbara Garii (2000) believe d that as the divide in the international community grows smaller, it is time for social studies curricula in the United States to develop a global v iew. She discusse d how U .S. social studies curricula could be changed to include the perspectives of other cultures by contending that the American curriculum is shortsighted and should be replaced with a global perspective. Garii argue d that teaching from a global perspective provides students with the opportunity to learn how other countries perceive topics that are being taught in the United States. She supplie d a variety of reasons for this argument. Garii beg a n by defining the role of education by citi ng
27 we are now in an international age, she argue d it is time to move beyond of education and gain a greater understanding of global issues within education. Further, it is argued, our current textbooks and curriculum materials have the danger of fostering an attitude of arrogance within the United States, which m ay lead to discriminatory behaviors. Another argument is that United States curricula should not only look at how events affect the United States, but also should explore how decisions in our country affect those overseas (Garii, 2000) U S students should recog nize that there are many people in the world who have different perspectives from our own. By incorporating this into the curriculum, Garii (2000) believe d that st udents will become more empath ic to the issues of non Americans. A fin al argument Garii (2000) ma d e is the issue of overseas schools that follow the framework of a U S social studies curriculum. Garii state d there are over 350 schools outside of the United States certified by U S accreditation agencies. This leads to many overseas schools being indoctrinated by a U S perspective, which may be further provoking an international student body already angry with U S foreign policy. The implication is a social studies curriculum instituting a global perspective would, in addit ion to benefiting students at home, help alleviate this concern of U S perspectives dominating overseas schools. In addition, Barbara Garii (2000) provide d some intriguing ways for moving U S social studies curricula towards a global perspective. S he d id this by arguing there are excessive details of little value in the social studies standards. By reducing the standards
28 to the basic events that have shaped and are relevant to the people and government of the United States, students would be afforde d the opportunity of learning the perspectives of other cultures regarding these same events. Garii allude d to three benefits of a curriculum incorporating a global perspective. The first is that it will enable students to recognize that interpretations of an event are influenced by national interests. Second, students will recognize that events occurring in the United States affect people in other countries. Finally, students will be able to understand that decision making is relative. The definitions o f global education have been an amalgamation of different (2003) th ought that a cohesive definition of global e ducation may not be achievable. While some scholars argue a more cohesive definition will provide more credibility, Gaudelli stated some believe a broad definition is an asset that makes the field more inclusive He ha d personally settled on the following definition: a curriculum that seeks to prepare students to live in a progressively interc onnected world where the study of human values, institutions, and behaviors are contextually examined through a pedagogical style that promotes critical engagement of complex, diverse information toward socially meaningful action ( Gaudelli, 2003, p. 11) W hile acknowledging that these curricula do not include everything an individual should be aware of to be a global citizen, John P. Myers (2006) suggest ed three primary themes that should be considered in school curricula for a global citizenship education. The first one is international human rights. Myers contend ed this should be the foundation for learning about globalization, instead of learning about global markets, which is traditionally taught in schools if there is a focus on globalization. Myers argue d
29 when human rights is taught in U S public schools it is usually limited to domestic civil or constitutional rights and neglects and transmission of learning skills. The second theme Myers (2006) believe d should be an underlying value of the global citizenship curricula is the reconciliation of the universal and the local. This topic recognizes a global interdependence and focuses on the complex relationships between local and global events. The final theme Myers advocate d as an underlying principle, is political action beyond the nation state. The goal of th is dimension is to explore ways that globalization is changing politics and how the individual can work towards having an impact in improving the world, especially regarding issues that his or her government and other organizations are ignoring. It would a lso explore reasons for political participation and diverse forms of actively participating. Toni Fuss Kirkwood (2001 a ) attempt ed to clarify what she claim ed (1976 ) five dimensions as an initial reference point, she d id this by analyzing and comparing global definitions developed by prominent global scholars, professional organizations, and task forces in the United States. Kirkwood argue d that the differences of gl obal education definitions tend to be minor differences in worldviews of individual scholars. Kirkwood (2001 a ) la id the foundation of her argument by establishing four underlying philosophies within the various writings of global education: E veryone is c reated equal, human behavior is culturally determined, everyone possesses basic human rights, and global education has a moral purpose that all humans should be tolerant of divergent values. In analyzing global definitions developed by scholars, Kirkwood a rgue d there are three basic categories that permeate global education definitions expounded by
30 leaders in the global education field. The first category, congruent elements, places the global education definitions into four themes. These themes are multipl e perspectives, comprehension and appreciation of cultures, knowledge of global issues, and the world as interrelated systems. The second category is author specific emphasis, which Kirkwood state d is the particular importance some scholars place on indivi dual aspects of global education not articulated by the majority of the field. The final category is classified by Kirkwood (2001a) as new elements. These are the elements in the definition of a global education not addressed by the initial Hanvey (1976 ) definition. These elements bring forth concepts such as global history, acquisition of indigenously transmitted knowledge, and competence in analytical, evaluative, and participatory skills (Kirkwood, 2001 a ). Kirkwood c a me to a conclusion of a global edu Global Education Beyond the United States Much of the focus in the literature review thus far has bee n on its impact in the United States. It would be a contradiction of the very concept if some of the literature of global education at the international level was not discussed. Therefore, I look at some of the literature on global education in other natio ns. In a comparative study of educators in three western countries, Graham Pike (2000) presented an argument for the problems of global educators being able to attain a common terminology being one of differing cultural frameworks. To defend the argument he compared and contrasted global education theories and practices in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada and discussed unconscious forces that influence
31 prov ides the overall context within which practitioners derive meaning in global Although Pike (2000) found some common concepts, such as interdependence and multiple perspectives, he found that teachers in the United States are more likel y to compared. In addition, the future economic and political role of the Unite d States in the global system provides a common motivation for involvement in global education. In Canada and Great Britain, global education is directed more toward personal growth rather than national development. There is also a perceived moral resp onsibility factor present in concern for those identified as less fortunate in the world. Pike (2000) saw a major challenge in reorienting teachers to broader realities of global responsibility, breaking, as it were, from their more parochial self and loc alized curriculum guided concerns. David Hicks (2003) cited the work of Robin Richardson and the World Studies Project as instrumental in influencing teachers in the United Kingdom to develop a global dimension in their curriculum. This was about the s ame time Lee Anderson (1990) and Robert 2003). In the early 1980s, more than half of the education administrators were promoting world studies (Holden, 2000). On the surface, this approach sounded promising for global educators but research in Great Britain indicated that teachers who incorporated global education in their classroom used more of a soft approach, incorporating the cooperative,
32 interpersonal element, but did not go i n depth on the issues of injustice in the then current systems of the global economy (Holden, 2000). Despite this research, the environment, led by conservative politicians, became hostile towards global education. The movement was accused of being a form of indoctrination and with the advent of the national curriculum in 1988, it was stifled (Hicks 2003; Holden, 2000). In the late 1990s, when the more liberal Labour party took power in the political arena in Great Britain, a shift back to an atmosphere conducive to global education took Employment proposed that all secondary students in England and Wales should begin taking citizenship education. In addition, they ident ified three major standards of citizenship education to incorporate. These standards included the following: 1. learning morally and socially responsible behavior; 2. active involvement in the community; and 3. becoming politically literate (Holden, 2000). Despite these lofty goals, the department has not identified a particular program of study for reaching these outcomes. Instead, the teachers are to use their own methods. Holden (2000) believed this new emphasis on citizenship education may provide for a renewed enthusiasm for global education to resurface in the schools, but a curriculum for global citizenship may prove to be incompatible operating side by side with a Eurocentric curriculum that still has an emphasis on standardized testing, which encoura ges didactic teaching approaches. The European Center for Global Interdependence and Solidarity, established by the Council of Europe, attempted to provide an updated framework for European
33 cooperation to raise public awareness about global interdependenc e issues (North South Centre of the Council of Europe, 2008). In 2007, the organization came out with global education guidelines. While acknowledging there are many definitions of global education, the organization saw it as a transformative learning proc ess, which should implement a vision based on a culture of partnership, dialogue, and cooperation rather than a culture of individualism and power. It called for people to learn to be responsible through the use of participatory learning strategies that fo ster collective self awareness and provided ways for people to make changes at the local levels that will influence the global. The organization also advocated that global education should be about envisioning a common future with sustainable and improved life conditions for everyone. To meet these goals, the organization outlined three main stages of transformative learning. First is an analysis of the present world conditions. Second is having a vision of what alternatives to the dominant models might loo k like. Third entails a process of change towards responsible global citizenship. As a result of the stages outlined (North South Centre of the Council of Europe, 2008), the center called for people to gain specific types of knowledge, skills, and values Awareness of the globalization process and the development of world society, knowledge of universal concepts of humanity, and the commonalities and differences of cultures and belief systems all consist of the knowledge base people should know. The skill s called for include critical thinking and analysis, being able to look at issues from multiple perspectives, recognizing stereotypes and prejudice, cross cultural awareness, teamwork, empathy, creativity, conflict resolution, research, and technology ski lls. The values and attitudes advocated by the center include self confidence, respect for others, social and
34 environmental responsibility, open mindedness, participatory community membership, and visionary attitudes. Critics A lack of a clear definition is not the only limitation to global education making an impact in social studies. Another obstacle global education must overcome is the virulence of its ideologically driven critics. Many of these critics consider global education to be nothing less than anti American (Gaudelli, 2003). Chester Finn (1988) lamented the ideological movements in social studies, such as global education, which he charged do not find it important for students to obtain content knowledge from the teacher. Instead, he stopped ju st short of calling educators who want to promote the teaching of different cultural perspectives and higher order If the leaders of this field do not themselves believe that democracy is the best of all known systems by which to organize a society and year olds studying this subject will end up thinking that (Finn, 1988, p. 36) Global education is also criticized for such things as being antipatriotic and a precursor to cultural relat ivism (Burack, 2003; Schlafly, 1986). Many global educators argued that this accusation of cultural relativity is a misguided underst anding of global education. In fact, it is quite the opposite because global education is phi losophically based on universal human rights (Landorf, 2009). citizenship is built on rights guaranteed in the Constitution, universal human rights are the foundation of global citizenship within the world com ers, 2006, p. 376). In addition, it is disparaged as being anticapitalistic (Cunningham, 1986) and a
35 promoter of one world government (Buehrer, 1990 ; Cunningham, 1986), although, in reality, few global educators advocate abandoning national sovereignty (Du nn, 2002). Jonathan Burack (2003), while acknowledging the need for education incorporating a global perspective within its curriculum, was a harsh critic of the current global education movement. He stated the global education ideology has taken hold of s ocial studies education since the end of the Cold War and has an underlying oppressor oppressed framework. In addition, he had an underlying fear that a global education ideology will undermine patriotism in the United States. Burack (2003) cited three el ements of a global education ideology. The first of these he called multicultural celebration which is a focus on the concept of cultural diversity. The second element is referred to as cultural relativism The objective of this ideology is for the studen t to be able to understand perspectives across cultures. The final element of a global education ideology, according to Burack, is transnational progressivism national (global) citizenship and seek to shift authority to an institutional network of international organizations and sub national political actors not bound within any clear democratic, Burack (2003) believed these three elements of global educ ation are full of contradictions. For example, rather than being taught to view the world multiculturally, students are taught to look at the world biculturally, as a world of oppressed versus oppressor. In addition, Burack contend that cultural relativism does not allow for any ethical standards in judging others.
36 Burack (2003) equated the global education ideology as the international equivalent of separatist versions of multiculturalism, which, in his opinion, is not a compliment. He believed these ideo logies, in their then current form, are deeply suspicious of American institutions and values, while being uncritical of the institutions and values of other societies around the world. He also believed that global education slights the role of the nation state. This appears to be a short sighted view, because most global educators do acknowledge the powerful presence of the nation state (Dunn, 2002; Hahn, 1998; K. A. Tye, 1999), but, in addition, acknowledge the powerful nongovernmental forces (i.e., terro rism) that have a role in our growing interdependent world. Finally, Burack (2003) did acknowledge a place in social studies for incorporating a global perspective and made suggestions for a global education ideology. He believed social studies should str ess the continuing centrality of the western world. Second, global educators should provide the positives and negatives of all cultures rather than only focusing on the negatives of the western world. Third, he believed global educators should focus more o n the blandness of school materials. Lastly, a stronger narrative history with a focus on moral and political action should be employed. Steven Lamy (1990) believed it is impossible to avoid controversy when teaching global issues and this controversy sho uld be welcomed by educators as part of the and students to contending theories that explain the actions of state and nonstate actors and describe the characteristics
37 Lamy (1990) mentioned the following criticism cited by opponents of Global Education. One is differing worldviews. While global educators are frequently more reform oriented, critics usually hav e the absolute belief that the U.S. system is superior to any alternative. Promoting critical thinking from contending perspectives is seen as encouraging disrespect for the United States; therefore it provides no positive value. In addition, ultraconserva tives say global education discourages patriotism and it indoctrinates students that other governmental, cultural, and economic systems are just as good as those of the United States (Lamy, 1990). Lamy (1990) believed the best way for global education to adequately reduce the controversy and be included in the curriculum discussion is to clearly define the focus and objectives of global education. He presentd four global education goals that have been able to work around the unavoidable dogmatic critics. T hese are as follows: 1. Introduce participants to substantive and verifiable information. 2. Provide students with opportunities to explore the core assumptions and values that define their worldview and compare it with worldviews held by individuals in communities across the international system. 3. Provide students with a wide range of analytical and evaluative skills. 4. Provide strategies for students to be able to participate in public policy issues and emphasize the relationship between global issues and local concerns. (1990) perspectives on the sociopolitical context of global education outlined earlier in Chapter 2, can prove insightful in leading to an understanding of the
38 opposition towards global education. Those associated with the utopian r ight do not appear interested in engaging in a compromise of worldviews ( B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998). Many of these critics consider global education to be nothing less than anti American (Gaudelli, 2003). Traditionally, global education should include the inco rporation of controversial issues in its curriculum (Lamy, 1990), but Kenneth Tye (2009) argued that attacks by conservatives has taken a toll on the field. As a result of these attacks by conservatives, some global educators have watered down their conten t while teaching and often do not have students analyze issues that involve controversial and value positions. Instead, many focus exclusively on descriptive teaching, or how world systems work and how humans interact within these systems. A Congruent Def inition Based upon the overview of global education, I provide my own definition of what I believe are the underlying components of the dominant pedagogy in academic global education in the form of five dimensions that are based upon the underlying commona Table 1 : Five Dimensions of a Global Perspective Dimension Definition Intercultural awareness Understanding the uniqueness of the individual and culture. Globality Aware of world conditions, trends, inte rconnections, and unanticipated c onsequences of human actions. Dimension Definition Service l earning Process of learning and developing through active
39 participation in organized service experiences that meet community needs both locally or globally. Global c itizenship s kills Skills needed to work in a globalized world. Social j ustice Analyzing the issues of power structure arrangements and the fair distribution of advantages, assets, and benefits among all members of a society. The inter cultural awareness dimension consists of five categories. They are perspective consciousness, cross cultural awareness, understanding marginalized point of view, fluidity of culture, and cosmopolitanism. The first two c ategories, perspective consciousness and cross cultural awareness come from the work of Robert Hanvey (1976). The former is the awareness that world view is unique, often shaped by individual events that are in subconscious and an understandin g that each individual goes through this process. The latter is the ability to perceive culture from other vantage points. Understanding marginalized point of view is about developing empathy for the disenfranchised (Merryfield, 2001). Fluidity of cu lture refers to the recognition that the dynamics of a culture are not static and instead are in a constant state of fluctuation (Imbert, 2004 ; Markowitz, 2004). It also is the about the recognition that cultural esse ntialism (culture as static) is more li kely to be recognized by the public as legitimate, which ultimately erodes into stereotypes of some and deculturation of others (Markowitz, 2004). Finally, cosmopolitanism is predicated on the principles of the existence of mutual respect and understanding (Appiah, 2006).
40 The second dimension, globality, consists of five categories identified from the literature review. They are state of the planet awareness, knowledge of global dynamics, awareness of human choices, spatia l temporal awareness and glocality. While having the same number of categories as the dimension of intercultural awareness globality is arguably more encompassing than all the others. For example, state of the planet awareness entails many subcategories. Within this one category some of the issues global educators identify as being pertinent include the awareness of different global belief systems (i.e. world religions), political systems, economic systems, and population issues, such as illegal immigra tion ( Collins, Czarra, & Smith, 2003; Hanvey, 1976; Merryfield & Wilson, 2005). Knowledge of global dynamics is the awareness that events in a world system are interconnected and have unanticipated consequences (Hanvey, 1976). Another concept identified by Robert Hanvey (1976) awareness of human choices is the ability to realize the problems of choice from multiple perspectives and their long range implications. Spatial temporal awareness involves look ing at the shrinking of space and time and how it has fostered interconnections and raised awareness around the globe (Pike & Selby, 2000) and changed the nature of social space (Scholte, 2000). The last category of this second dimension, glocality refers to local global connections and the ways in which peo ple and ideas across the globe influence local endeavors or local endeavors influence globalization (Hanvey, 1976 ; Merryfield & Wilson, 2005). Service l earning has two categor ies, which are service learning and sustainable development. Service learning ref ers to being actively involved in improving the human condition through participation at the local or global level (Kirkwood, 2001 b ).
41 Sustainable development pertains to the type of economic growth that enables the present generation to meet its needs, while limiting its use of nonrenewable sources so that future generations will be able to have their needs met (Banks et al., 2005). In a ddition, sustainable development focuses on learning about such issues as climate change and global warming, which it has been argued is an essential of becoming a good citizen (Bisland & Ahmad, 2007). Global citizen ship skills is the fourth dimension. The first category is digital technology and revolves around becoming digitally literate and gaining critical technological skills that will enable students to have an enhanced personal life and learn about the world (Merryfield & Wilson, 2005 ; Nordgren, 2002 ). Research and thinking skills include analytical thinking and problem solving skills, which are increasingly more important in an interconnected world to be able to compete economically ( Joftus 2004) and become globally competent citizens ( Kirkwood, 200 1 b; Lamy, 1990 ). These skills also entail synthesizing skills along with the ability to detect bias and unstated assumptions to acquire the decision making skills students need as citizens living in a democratic society (Merryfield & Wilson, 2005). The cat egory identified as the creative mind has to do with problem solving, constructing new ways of doing things and initiating change (Czarra, 2002 2003; Nordgren, 2002). The last category under this dimension is conflict resolution skills which involves dev eloping the skills of communication, advocacy, negotiation, compromise and collaboration (Martin Kniep, 1997). The last global education dimension, social justice has the following five category dimensions: legacy of colonialism, capitalism, human right s, social justice, and
42 power/influence of the media. Legacy of colonialism is about examining the origins and past and present history (Merryfield, 2001). The category of capitalism refers to the United States understanding of democracy becoming interwoven with capitalism. This leads to economic inequality appearing to be an expected consequence of living in a dem ocratic society (Ladson Billings, 2004). In addition, the lack of economic and political equality has led to a new type of citizenship developing among the marginalized groups in the United States, in which allegiances and self interests are defined along a variety of axes. The only common bond this new citizenship has with the status quo citizenship is that these citizens want to remake their world into a more just and equitable world (Ladson Billings, 2004). Universal human rights are a foundation to gain ing a global perspective ( J. P. Myers, 2006). While the concept of human rights first gained traction in the western world, there is no consensus as to whose or which human rights are the correct ones (Goodhart, 2003) and this lack of consensus should be e xplored in global education (Gaudelli & Fernekes, 2004). In a related category, social justice refers to the fair treatment of all social groups beyond merely the administration of law. Social justice moves beyond the nonconsensus issue of human rights and implores students to look at these social justice issues in a way that enables diverse communities to address them in a just manner for all (Landorf & Nevin, 2007). Power/influence of the media refers to the necessity of students unlearning the often exag gerated information th at has been promulgated because of media stereotypes (Cortes, 2000; Seikaly, 2001).
43 D iffering numbers of categories under each dimension should not be construed as a n indicator of one dimension being more pertinent to the knowledge base than another dimension. Some of the categories are broader than others, which leads to this imbalance. A critical understanding of each of the dimensions is deemed equally important to the development of a global perspective. Global Education and Te acher Education Teachers are vital players in curriculum construction, but they do not act in isolation from their institutional contexts. (Gaudelli, 2003, p. 42) Many contend that when related to cultural topics the curricula are often superficial and, rather than leading to cultural awareness, the students actually develop a more profound ethnocentric bias (Scott, 1999). For example, Cameron White (2002) argued that social studies focuses on socializing the student rather than critical citizenship, which leads to a greater ethnocentric curriculum. He believed if the students the traditional hidden curriculum and explore issues of status quo and hegemony by encouraging a respect for different perspectives through strategies such as reflective thinking, v alues analysis, social problem solving, and decision making. Teacher education programs in global education were first introduced in 1969 by the Center for Teaching International Relations at the University of Denver and grew in the 1980s, but due to attacks on global education the infusion of such programs has been limited (Zong, 2009). How does global education curtail this issue? In her articl suggestions of the understandings teacher education programs should develop in
44 preservice teachers to develop citizenship education of students in a globally i nterdependent society. Avery (2004) began by discussing two models of ideal citizens. The initial one is a traditional model, which was proposed by Norman Nie, Jane Junn, and Kenneth Stehlik Barry (1996). This model suggests that a democratic citizen is both active in and understanding of democratic processes. The second model describes an ideal citizen in a global context. Avery adapted these models to form four categories consisting of 12 attributes necessary of democratic citizenship in an interdepend ent world. She placed these attributes in the four separate categories: knowledge, skills, behaviors, and orientations/values. The knowledge types and corresponding attributes are presented in Table 2. Table 2 Ideal Global Citizen Category Attribute Knowledge Principles of democracy Structure and function of government Leaders and political organizations Skills Technological l iteracy Critical and s ystemic t hinking Conflict resolution Behaviors Political a ttentiveness Voting Participation in difficult political activities
45 Category Attribute Orientations/ v alues Tolerance and cooperation Concern for human rights and environmental issues Global perspective Note. G. Avery, 2004, Critical Issues in Social Studies Teacher Education, p. 42. Copyright 2004 by Information Age Publishing. After distinguishing these twelve characteristics, Avery (2004) presented some of the research, which assessed characteristics of teenagers in the four categories to articulate an argument for the type of skills needed to be developed by teacher education programs. The article concludes with six component s teacher education programs should use to arm preservice teachers with the skills necessary in developing engaged and enlightened citizens in a global society (Avery 2004). The first component is that teacher education programs provide preservice teach ers the opportunity to utilize methods that allow students to be able to understand This concept, known as perspective consciousness was first expressed by Robert Han vey have an impact on how each of us interprets the world (Hanvey, 1976). The second component is that global issues need to be incorporated into the teacher educ ation courses because most U.S. citizens are not acutely aware of international issues. Third, preservice teachers should be prompted to understand young
46 programs should int roduce preservice teachers to methods that will enable students to make correlations among concepts (Avery, 2004). The fifth component is that preservice teachers should be provided the ability to analyze school materials to understand how the nature of c itizenship is established in should help preservice teachers develop the ability to understand the confinements marginalized groups go through in developing civic identities For global education to work in the classroom, Merryfield (2002) believed teacher programs should prepare preservice teachers to deal with controversial issues and help them develop skills in cross cultural communication. She also pointed to the need f or teachers to have access to cross cultural experiences, such as study tours or faculty exchanges with teachers from another country as motivators for teachers to teach from a global perspective, and practice in global pedagogy (Merryfield, 1995). In addi tion, Merryfield (2002) discussed the similar strategies global educators employ and provided lesson examples for each. The instructional strategies which she considered to come from a global perspective include confronting stereotypes and simplification o f different cultures, investigating multiple perspectives, teaching about how the oppressor influences worldviews, and incorporating cross cultural learning. Merryfield concluded by stating global education is the pedagogy that will lead citizens into the current global age by developing open minded people who are less likely to stereotype groups and are capable of perceiving how both the oppressed and oppressor view the world. James Becker (1990) stated that enough attention has not been paid to enabling teachers to gain new insights and information in incorporating a global dimension into
47 their curriculum; therefore, he reviewed some curriculum approaches that bring a more global perspective to the classroom. These include a world studies curriculum that approaches world history with an emphasis on the study of change on a global scale and studying history from a nonethnocentric point of view. Another approach is an added emphasis on the global economy. A third curriculum approach, which can bring a glo bal perspective into the classroom, is global geography. In this curriculum, the interconnectedness of the world is emphasized. Global geography attempts to build an understanding in students of how decisions made at one location can affect people and the environment elsewhere. In addition, this curriculum provides students with perspectives, information, concepts, and skills needed to understand their relationship with the environment ( Becker, 1990). Another rationale discussed for providing a curriculum that gives equal weight to international studies in developing citizenship education was articulated by Ross E. Dunn (2002). He specified that this curriculum should not merely mean the inclusion of studying and comparing other cultures. This approach shou ld be used to explore changes in the world, investigate the meaning of these events, and patterns of human interrelations. To convey this point, Dunn said the following about the social studies curriculum: Patriotic citizenship in a democratic state demand s a social studies curriculum that gives equal weight to national history and international studies, especially world history. How else will young citizens learn to appreciate democratic institutions, to participate actively in civil society, and to challe nge their political leaders when official policies including foreign policies seem misguided? (Dunn, 2002, p. 10 ) Angene Wilson (1993) had her secondary social studies majors participate in a conversation partner program with English as a second language international students at
48 the University of Kentucky to raise their cross cultural and global awareness. In addition, digital technologies have demonstrated the potential of raising global awareness in teacher education programs (Crawford & Kirby 2008). T oni Fuss Kirkwood (2001b) outlined a three pronged approach to infuse global perspectives in teacher education. The first is teaching the Hanvey model, which entails approach i dimensions, and the last approach consists of facilitating students in the construction of critical questioning skills that transforms content to a global perspective. In her own review of the literature, Guichun Zong (2009) discovered a few emerging teacher education themes in global education. One theme is international field experiences, which have typically ranged from 2 weeks to a full semester. The infusion of global content is another important aspect of global education. Finally, teacher education programs have demonstrated a growing interest in infusing technology to build cross cultural awareness and global awareness. Global Education Empirical Research Surprising ly little is known about the effectiveness of global education in helping students to better understand the world (Gaudelli, 2003, p. 23) Traditionally, global education has not produced a solid foundation of empirical research (Gaudelli, 2003). This lim itation is in large part due to its relative youth (B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998). Despite this relative lack of research in global education t here are some studies worth noting. The remainder of the research section is broken down into th e following three categ ories: researching about the topics taught in global education
49 factors affecting curricular decision making, and teacher education research in global education Researching About the Topics Taught in Global Education In an early study about the types of global topics in which teachers exposed their students, Jan Tucker (1983) studied the attitudes of social studies instructors in Dade County, Florida about global education and found that human rights, cross cultural communication, and economic issues wer e the topics that were the most focused on and perceived to be the most pertinent for the students to know. In another study, Merry Merryfield (1998) found that teachers who were identified as exemplary global educators by their administrators were more likely to emphasize power, inequities, and social justice issues in the classroom. In contrast to preservice global educators, they were also mo re likely to focus on interconnections between global and local inequalities, and human rights. Kenneth Tye (1999) did research to see what is being done around the world to teach global education. He sent questionnaires with the Association for Supervis ion and Curriculum Development definition to people in 100 countries and received responses from 52 countries. The major finding from the study indicated that throughout the world, schooling is still seen as a major force in the building of national loyalt ies and only 14 of the nations indicated that global education played a factor in the educational system. In addition, of those 14, only the governments of Canada and South Korea gave official support to a global education curriculum. While the subject area most often used throughout the world for global education is consistently social studies, the global issues accentuated differed across countries. The
50 most mentioned global issues included ecology/environment, development/sustainability, intercultural /multicultural relations, peace, technology, human rights, democracy/civic education, international organizations, population, health, racism, gender discrimination, How are teache rs in your country trained to teach global issues ? of respondents acknowledged teacher training programs in the world directed at developing global education teachers. The most extensive teacher training program was in Canad a (K. A. Tye, 1999). D espite being the author of the study, K. A. Tye (1999) declared it to have four limitations. The first limitation was the data were gathered over several years. Second, K. A. Tye only had one respondent per country. Third, not all co untries in the world were represented in the study. Finally, many of the questions posed in the study could be considered to be about matters of curriculum In conclusion, K. A. Tye ascertained that although most respondents indicated global education is n ot an acknowledged curriculum area in their country, examination suggests there are some elements of it in most countries Factors Affecting Curricular Decision Making Teachers are in the primary position of determining classroom content and instructional strategies, a role to which Stephen Thornton (1991) referred to as the curricular instructional gatekeepers. What affects their curricular decision making? making in global education. Barbara Tye and Kenneth Tye (1887) produced a 4 year study, through the Center for Human Interdependence, investigating the challenges of
51 incorporating global education in the classroom at 11 schools. Their study explored and analyzed the issues and challenges of globalizing education (B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998). The conceptual framework used in the 4 year study (B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998) was symbolic interaction theory, an open ended theory, which focuses primarily on the individuals as they interact within the context of daily life. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. In the next few paragraphs, I summarize the major findings and hypothesis developed as a result of the study. At the beginning of the project, few te achers understood the concept of global education, but by the end of the study, 81% of the participating teachers surveyed agreed with the statement that they understood what constitutes global education (B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998). Additionally, many of the t eachers reported high levels of student interest in materials and lessons containing a global perspective. Further, 90% of participating teachers surveyed agreed with the statement that global education is important and all students should be exposed to it with cross cultural awareness being the most frequently cited topic necessary to be incorporated into the curriculum. On the other end of the spectrum, at the end of the study, the most frequent reason provided for resistance to global education was a perceived lack of time by educators (B. to a separate question, 12% of the teachers stated that at least half of the teachers in their respective schools were philosoph ically opposed to global education and, perhaps even more telling, 28% of the teachers did not respond to this question on the survey that asked how many teachers are philosophically opposed to global education.
52 Based on their research, Barbara Tye and Ke nneth Tye (1998) determined that the culture of the school was the major determining factor of whether global education would be successful in a school. In addition, data from the study led to the following hypotheses regarding additional conditions needed for the growth of glob al education in the schools: an increasing awareness of worldwide, systematic interdependence ; the promotion of the movement by agencies that are viewed by practitioners a s legitimate and which possess knowledg e and resources needed by those p ractitioners ; the existence of a few people in the schools who already believe in the movement ; a significant number of people who feel that global education holds promise to d evelop cross cultural understanding in school settings, which are bec oming more and more ethnically diverse ; and the presence of at least a few people who are disenchan ted with the present system and who see global education as having some possibility of serving as a vehicle for change (B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998) (B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998) were those teachers who were discovered to be more likely to be attracted to glob al education : teachers who have lived overseas ; those who followed world news early in life ; and t hose whose parents discussed current events with them while they were g rowing up
53 In a separate study, using participant observation, William Gaudelli (2003) investigated how three New Jersey social studies teachers incorporated gl obal education in their classrooms. The results reflected the repercussions of the lack of a clear methodology among global educators because the teachers had widely differing views in how they incorporated global education in the curriculum The study ide ntified gender, religious and personal history, and ethnicity as factors influencing the methods used and topics the instructors choose to emphasize in their curricula. For example, one teacher, an Africa American instructor, emphasized the minority status of African Americans and other minorities in the United States. Another teacher, who had formerly been in the military, incorporated a more nationalistic approach in his incorporation of global education. The third teacher taught from a more liberal persp ective. In a year influence how teachers incorporate global education in the curricula, such as the content they chose or avoided due to the possibility of it being a sensitive subjec culture. In addition, the methods they used and how they used their time were found to be study, examining how 33 U S teachers who participated in the Japan Today pr ogram taught about Japan demonstrated how the availability of teaching materials may influence the global content that is taught. Kirkwood found that the teachers used a great deal of information to teach about Japan because they had easy access to teachin g materials involving global perspectives. In addition, international experience appears to influence making (Merryfield, 1998 ; Wilson, 1986). Angene Wilson ce Corps
54 influenced how they taught about foreign countries. For example, because of their international experiences, the returned Peace Corps volunteer s were more likely to focus on issues of ethnocentrism, racism, unequal distribution of wealth, and the foreign policy of the United States. Teacher Education Research in Global Education The majority of the remaining research done in global education has been focused on te acher education. This research has predominately been focused on international field experiences, the effectiveness of global education courses, the incorporation of technology in global education courses, and prior knowledge and dispositions towards globa l mindedness of teacher education students. This section reviews major studies done in each of these areas. International f ield e xperience Susan Mapp, Peggy McFarland, and Elizabeth Newell (2007) found some evidence that a short term study abroad program for undergraduate college students had the potential of providing enhanced cross cultural awareness, an expanded worldview and global perspective, and a desire for longer study abroad or travel opportunities. They ex amined whether college students from a liberal arts school in central Pennsylvania who participate d in a 2 week short term study abroad trip in Ireland experience d similar changes in perception as students who participate d in long term study abroad experiences To do this the researche rs used a mixed methods design by giving the 25 student who were then participating in the study abroad program a pre and postmeasure, called the Cross c ultural Adaptability Inven tory [CCAI]. The CCAI was a 50 item Likert scale with the four following sub scales: emotional/resilience,
55 flexibility/openness, perceptual/acuity, and personal autonomy. In addition, to understand long term effects of the experience, a reflection paper was given to 39 former students, who had previously gone on the study abroad tr ip and the then current 25 students at the end of the time abroad. When measuring the CCAI, there was no significant change between the pre and posttest, but when using a Wicoxon sign test, signific ant change was found on the three following statements, e ach experiencing significant change in a positive direction: (M app et al., 2007) On the reflection paper (Mapp et al., 2007) four common themes were identified from the then current students. The most common, mentioned by 15 of the then current students, was the feeling that the experience w ould make them more cogni zant and tolerant of cultural differences in the future. Many students also expressed that they learned to appreciate another culture and mentioned that they had learned another perspective beyond a U .S. perspective. The fourth most common theme was that i t made two of the students want to study abroad. Among the former students the most common themes was that the trip provided an increased knowledge of Irish educational and social systems and an expanded worldview and global perspective. Overall the resu lts proved to be a mixed bag (Mapp et al., 2007) The quantitative assessment did not reveal significant changes with the student sample. However, the researchers commented that this may have been due to some of the participants already
56 having traveled out side the United States and experiencing changes. On the other hand, the qualitative results indicated that participants expressed a change in their attitudes regarding global understanding and cross cultural knowledge (Mapp et al. 2007). Clement and Ou tlaw (2002) investigated the changed perspectives of international student teaching experiences of students at Berry College in northwest Georgia. Although a few reported having negative stereotypes reinforced, most stated they had developed a heightened c ross cultural awareness and a greater desire for international experiences. Pence and Macgillivray (2008) also found a 4 week international practicum that had preservice teachers working in the classroom with teachers and students at a private internationa l primary through secondary school in Rome, Italy improved cross cultural awareness in the preservice teachers. Kambut u and Nganga (2008) studied a short term international experience of 12 preservice and in service teachers who visited Kenya. Prior to th e trip, the data indicated that both the preservice and in service teachers associated Kenya with poverty, were us studies, after the trip, despite indications of ethnocentrism, most participants demonstrated a heightened cross cultural awareness. Consistent with previous studies, Cushner and Mahon (2002) found that a study abroad student teaching experience had bot h a professional and personal impact. Student teachers reported an increased self confidence and professional competence, as well as a greater cross cultural awareness. Barbara Myers (2001) did a qualitative study of 10 returned Peace Corps volunteers who had chosen to become teachers following their experience as Peace Corps
57 volunteers to determine the perceived effects of international experiences on the curricula and instruction of the returned Peace Corps volunteer teachers. Overall findings indicated t hat international experiences of the Peace Corps did not significantly change the curriculum. On the other hand, the most significant change was in the personal characteristics of the teachers, which many felt would influence changes in their styles of tea ching. Teachers reported that they became more flexible, tolerant, understanding, adaptable to change, patient, and confident. Teachers also reported that they were more likely to instruct from a global focus and tried to avoid a Western bias in their teac hing. Kevin Kehl and Jason Morris (2008) examined Hett global mindedness survey responses of 520 participants who were primarily undergraduate students when looking at the differences between students who participated in short term study abroad programs of 8 weeks or less and students who participated in a semester long program study abroad program. The results indicated that there was not enough evidence to conclude that significant differences exist in the global mindedness of students who study abroad fo r 8 weeks or less and those who plan to study abroad in the future. On the other hand, according to the completed Hett surveys, students who studied abroad for a full semester did have a significantly greater global mindedness than those who had not travel internationally, but planned to study abroad in the future. Finally, there were also statistically significant differences between the students who studied abroad for a semester compared to those who studied abroad for 8 weeks or less because the students who were in the study abroad program for a longer period of time tended to have a higher global mindedness.
58 Duckworth, Levy, and Levy (2005) also analyzed the global mindedness of 93 pre service and in service teachers outside of the United States with t he Hett global mindedness survey. According to the survey, most participants demonstrated a high level of global mindedness. Despite the high level of global mindedness, this study appeared to contradict the previously discussed Kehl and Morris (2008) stud y, since there did not appear to be any correlation between the global mindedness survey scores and length of international travel. While doing a study on an overseas teaching experience in a Latin American country, three U.S. teacher educators explored t he visions, questions, and challenges that arose during the experience (Rios, Montecinos, & van Olphen, 2007). For international experiences to be meaningful, the investigators found that teacher education programs need to emphasize the following four aspe cts: reflective practice to reconsider assumptions and clarify expectations; flexibility and creativity in recognizing an evolving identity; understanding teaching as a political activity; and seeking and strengthening authenticity without trivializing the experiences. Effectiveness of g lobal e ducation c ourses Buckley R. Barnes and William L. (1985) study looked at the influence a graduate level education course that focused on global understanding had on the global mindedness of teachers taking the course. Pre and posttreatment standardized attitude scales were administered to 19 students ta king the course and to 30 students in a control group. The results indicated there was an increase in global mindedness and an increased awareness of world issues
59 among the students who took the global education course. Additionally, this increased global mindedness did not diminish a sense of national identity or patriotism. Angene Wilson (1997) studied how the global perspective of university students in a social studies teacher education program was impacted by a program wide infusion approach on the d evelopment of global perspectives. She found that the preservice teachers were more likely to be influenced to teach from a global perspective when they were learning world content in their social studies methods classes. Toni Kirkwood Tucker (2004) examin ed the impact of integrating global content and pedagogy into a global education course with a group of 53 elementary teachers and preservice secondary teachers by doing a United Nations General Assembly simulation. The findings indicated that students dev eloped an open mindedness for people in their out groups and an increased concern for issues of human rights and global stability. Additionally, lesson plans completed by the students in the course contained themes of global problems and global interconne ctedness. Technology in g lobal e ducation c ourses particularly interested in exploring the potential of Internet based technology, such as computer mediated communication (CMC), in building cross cultural understandin g and period of several years, Merry Merryfield (2000a) analyzed the incorporation of online threaded discussions in graduate courses in social studies and global education b y comparing the topics, their depth, and patterns of interaction of Internet discussions with face to face discussions. She found the two types of classes interacted quite differently, particularly when sensitive or controversial topics were being discusse d. In addition,
60 online class discussions tended to be more equitable in the distribution of student comments and contained an increase in the depth of the content discussed. Finally the research indicated that by utilizing online discussion, cross cultural learning improved due to the increase in the depth of content discussed and the building of communities of diverse learners from different cultural backgrounds, which led to the breaking down of differences and stereotypes (Merryfield, 2000a). In a sepa rate study about the effects of electronic technology on graduate student interns, Merryfield (2006) found the interns in the course had an enhanced arena to become reflective thinkers, a greater opportunity for student centered work, and the opportunity f or spontaneous discussions that may never have taken place in the traditional classrooms. She found that these were advantages that the majority of the graduate students used to increase their skills. Guichun Zong (2002) followed two preservice teachers t o examine the influence of taking a computer mediated international communication project that discussed world issues to see how the course influenced their understanding of global education. She collected data through classroom observations and interviews The analysis suggested that using the Internet to communicate in this manner has the potential of improving perspectives, and may be a motivator in teaching from g lobal perspectives in the classroom. The study also suggested that teachers perceive the Internet to provide an advantage by affording instant access to worldwide information and is a valuable tool for communication with other cultures, which eases the res trictions of time and space.
61 William Gaudelli (2006) studied the experiences of two beginning social studies teachers in an Internet distance learning course for global and multicultural education. He collected data from interviews and observations in the their interpretations of the Web learning experience. Gaudelli stated that the Internet course did make an impression on their motivation and understanding of teaching global and multicultural education, but due to factors s uch as a lack of technology in the school in an urban setting and demands in the teaching schedule, their ability to use technology to facilitate global learning was hindered. Global mindedness and prior knowledge of teacher education students. Nancy Gal sending 148 surveys to teacher candidates. All of the candidates in the study were doing their student internships in one of four school age groups: early childhood, elementary, middle or high school. She found that teacher candidates wanted to teach their students to be world citizens, but many indicated their teacher education programs or field experiences had not sufficiently prepared them to teach about the topic and most did not f eel there was a clear definition of world citizenship. Most of those who did indicate a preparedness to teach world citizenship were over the age of 30 and were doing their internships in science or social studies in middle and high school classes. When lo oking at prior knowledge about a specific world region, Osunde, Tiou, and Brown (1996) administered a questionnaire to 100 preservice social studies teachers at two U.S. universities to examine knowledge and perceptions about Africa. The results demonstrat ed that many preservice teachers had the same misconceptions and stereotypes about Africa as previous generations had. For example, results of the study indicated that
62 Africa was often associated with famine and malnutrition, hunting and gathering, wild an imals, jungles, natives, superstition, and tribes. On a survey of 856 preservice teachers, combined with interviews, that examined global knowledge, Holden and Hicks (2007) found that global knowledge among preservice teachers was greatest in the areas of reasons for war and famine and that they knew the least about the reasons for economic problems in developing world countries and instances of human rights abuses. Toni Kirkwood Tucker (2006) examined the global mindedness of 644 preservice teachers enrol led in a social studies methods course at five Florida public universities. Her findings indicated that factors such as age, foreign language skill, international experience, and membership in professional organizations were significantly correlated to glo bal mindedness. While not specifically a study on global education, Sarah Mathews and Paulette and interviewed preservice teachers enrolled in a secondary social studies methods course, demonstrates an area overlooked in research and on which th e present study shed s multicultural citizenship education in social studies classrooms. Their find ings suggest that even when teacher education programs are designed around goals of promoting about social studies content and classrooms can limit their thinking and practice with transformative social studies pedagogy. Teacher educators. Merry Merryfield (2000b) investigated 80 teacher educators who had been identified by their peers as doing an exemplary job of preparing their
63 students to teach for diversity and equ ity to determine what they conceptualized as having the greatest influences on their commitment to global education. The most influential factors identified by the teacher educators were overwhelmingly personal experiences. Engaging with people of differen t races, ethnicities, and cultures, experiences of discrimination, injustice, being identified as an outsider, and their perceived contradictions in dealing with multiple realities were the most influential factors. The study also found that most of the pe ople who were in a minority group acquired an understanding of discrimination and outsider status by living in a society that they felt was characterized by Caucasian privilege and racism. On the other hand, many al experiences were the result of living outside of their own country. While these personal experiences were identified as the major influences, Merryfield concluded that the experiences alone did not make them lationships across identity, power, and experience that lead to a consciousness of other perspectives and a recognition of Guichun Zong (2005) examined the impact of personal experiences on identity and pedagogy by reflecting Mao Zedong era to becoming a university professor in the Untied States. Zong explained that drawing on her own experiences aided her in teaching from a global perspective and instructing others ho w to teach from a global perspective. She argued that immigrant professors are uniquely positioned to make contributions to global education because of their cultural and linguistic backgrounds, and knowledge of their nations of origin.
64 Summary Global educ ation should be primed to flourish in an age in which our world continues to become more and more interconnected. Unfortunately, its influence has remained in neutral. If global education continues to allow itself to offer a multitude of definitions rather than a consistent foundation upon which to build, a sense of meaning will be unattainable for students and, therefore, seldom used by instructors. Unfortunately, this consensus has not been achieved F or global education to be taken seriously it is imperative to have an agreed upon foundation. Without a foundation, global education lacks a paradigm methodology. Thomas Kuhn (1996) state d a paradigm is necessary or everything seems possibly relevant and as a result, early fact gathering becomes a random activity. Therefore, I propose a minimum foundation for global education to be the five dimensions presented in Table 1. In addition, the overall empirical research is lacking in global education and those areas in which it has been done ha ve not provided consistency. This shortcoming is understandable within a field that is still lacking a clear cut mission, but this inconsistency does a disservice to the field. Without quality research to defend itself, global education will continue to be force d to rely on theoretical foundations in its pursuit of curricula r influence while lacking the clout to provid e a convincing argument for its benefits. For these reasons there are a variety of studies that should be undertaken. First, prior to providing p reservice teachers with the methods of educating students towards a goal of citizenship education in a global context, research should be conducted on how
65 teachers who are successfully teaching a global education developed this perspective. Next, there are two research areas that should expand upon this initial area of study. Research should be conducted to determine whether there are effective ways of developing global perspectives within prospective teachers in teacher education programs and, if there are determining what are the ideal methods. Finally and most importantly, research must be undertaken that gauges the following question: Are students more likely to develop a global perspective if their teacher has one? As a result of the studies deemed necessary to the integration of global perspectives into the school curricula, I conducted a baseline study to serve as a starting point of a research program that, ideally, will ultimately improve the quality of global education in teacher education progr ams. In Chapter 3, I discuss methods and procedures to provide answers to the following five questions: 1. How highly do teachers participating in a global education curriculum project score on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993)? 2. To what do self i dentified globally minded teachers attribute the development of a global perspective? 3. Is there a relationship between what self identified global educators attribute the development of their global perspective to and how they scored on the Hett Global mind edness Survey (Hett, 1993)? 4. How might the background of a teacher (e.g., travel experience, languages spoken) influence to what the teacher attributes his or her development of global mindedness?
66 5. How do teachers perceive their curricular decision making i s influenced according to that to which they attribute their constructed global mindedness?
67 CHAPTER 3: METHODS AND PROCEDUR ES Introduction mindedness stems from the contention students are n ot being adequately prepared for the future and global mindedness would be superior in preparing them in a globally interdependent world. A further contention is that incorporating global mindedness into teacher programs that influence the teaching methods of new educators will translate into global mindedness in students. As people become more interconnected, students need to gain familiarity with the world around them. Unfortunately, many people in the United States have demonstrated a remarkable lack o f awareness of people and places outside the immediate physical locale of their daily lives. In a recent study done by the National Geographic Geographic Literacy Survey ( RoperASW, 2006) of U S citizens aged 18 24, global, geographic, and cultura l skills appear be dismally lacking. For example, despite the extensive media coverage of the overthrow of the Taliban in Afghanistan after 9/11 and the ongoing U S presence in Iraq for the past 3 years, nearly 90% of young Americans were unable to locate Afghanistan on a map and 63% were unable to find Iraq. Results from the previous administration of the survey (RoperASW, 2002 ) demonstrated that U.S. citizens were less culturally aware than comparable same age peers from other
68 industrialized nations In addition, researchers have found people tend to individualize the characteristics of people in their in group and perceive their behavior as normal, while viewing out groups in terms of more stereotypical characteristics (Merryfield & Wilson, 2005). To inform policy and develop the appropriate materials for instructing from a global perspective, we must receive descriptive feedback from those who are successfully teaching with a global perspective. The primary goal of this study was to answer the five r esearch questions stated in chapters 1 and 2: 1. How highly do teachers participating in a global education curriculum project score on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993)? 2. To what do self identified globally minded teachers attribute the developme nt of a global perspective? 3. Is there a relationship between what self identified global educators attribute the development of their global perspective to and how they scored on the Hett Global mindedness survey (Hett, 1993)? 4. How might the background of a teacher (e.g., travel experience, languages spoken) influence to what the teacher attributes his or her development of global mindedness? 5. How do teachers perceive their curricular decision making is influenced by that to which they attribute their construc ted global mindedness? The strategy u sed to meet these goals was to gather data from multiple sources and in multiple formats in the form of surveys and interviews. This study used both quantita tive and qualitative methods for data collection and a nalysis. The sampling
69 methods, participants, and data collection procedures are explained in the following sections Participants Sharan Merriam (1988) stated that purposeful sampling is used when the researcher is attempting to gain insight from a specific group, such as global educators. Therefore, I employed this sampling method by inviting 13 high school social studies instructors from Hillsborough and Pasco counties in Florida who are involved in a global education program called the Global Schools Project to participate in the study. The teachers involved in the Global Schools Project exemplify the attributes of a global educator outl ined in Chapter 1, Statement of the Problem The Global Schools Project, which was initiated in 2004, is a partnership between the University of South Florida and the Hillsborough County public schools and Pasco County public schools. Participating social studies teachers examine global issues, globalization, and internationalization and apply this content to secondary school teaching and curriculum development. In addition, the teachers involved in the program participate in global education professional d evelopment opportunities, present workshops in professional venues at the local and national levels, and develop classroom materials that have a global focus and are freely available for use by other teachers in their classrooms via the Global Schools Proj ect Web site ( http://patelcenter.usf.edu/whatwedo/education/globalschools.html ). Institutional Review Board Review This study was approved by the University of South Florida Institutional Review Board (IRB) on December 4, 2009. The IRB determined that the study met the federal
70 criteria to qualify as an expedited approval study. A copy of the determination letter is included in the appendices (see Appendix A). Research Protocol Two sources provided data. The initial procedure was comprised of two separ ate surveys, a background questionnaire, and an instrument measuring global mindedness provided to the 13 participants. The surveys were followed by interviewing six of the 13 original participants twice. The rationale for the instruments and process for d etermining which six global educators were interviewed is explained in the following section. Survey Instruments There were two survey instruments used in this study. The initial instrument was a background questionnaire, which was adapted from Barbara Tye (1998) study. All of the study participants received both survey instruments. I use d these surveys as a reference tool in selecting the interview subjects. The first survey instrument, the teacher background questionnaire, was used in co njunction with the How might the background of a teacher (e.g., travel experience, languages spoken) influence to what they attribute their development of global mindedness? to in terview the top three scorers and the bottom three scorers of the second instrume nt, the Hett Global mindedness S urvey (Hett, 1993) In addition, after completing th e interviews, the researcher use d the Hett Global m indedne ss S urvey to help answer R esearch Q uestion 1: How highly do teachers participating in a global education curriculum project score on the Hett Global mindedness Survey? Is there a relationship
71 between what self identified global educators attribute the developme nt of their global perspective to and how they scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey? There are 13 questions on the t eacher b ackground q uestionnaire (see Appendix B). Questions 2 through 7 each have to do with travel experience. The rationale for these questions is largely grounded in the research of the correlation between travel experience and global education (i.e., Mapp et al., 2007; Pence & Macgillivray, 2008; B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998 ). T o provide more specificity to the time frames of previous research, the researcher broke the international travel experience into five time frame groupings to see if there is a correlation between the groupings and differences between global mindedness. In addition, a common theme throughout study ab road and international travel experiences had been the type of experiences they entail; therefore, Question 7 sought clarity on the reasons traveled to see if the type of travel experience influenced global perspectives. Questions 8 through 12 were develop ed with the results from the study done by the Center for Human Interdependence (B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998) in mind. In addition to their finding that teachers who have lived overseas were more likely to be global educators, B. B. Tye and Tye (1998) found teac hers who followed world news early in life, and those whose parents discussed current events with them while they were growing up were also more likely to be attracted to global education. Question 13 built upon a study done by Shim and Paprock (2002), who did a study on expatriates. Shim cross cultural awareness. By asking the questions based upon language proficiency, the
72 researcher hoped to expand upon the previous stud cross cultural awareness, language proficiency translates into global mindedness. For the second instrument, I chose the Hett Global mindedness Survey established by Jan Hett (1993). It was selected for two reas ons. First, the underlying values of the five dime nsions correlate to the underlying dimensions of global mindedness outlined in Chapter 2 The five dimensions are presented in Ta ble 3 Table 3 mind edness Dimension Definition Responsibility A deep personal concern for people in all parts of the world which surfaces as a sense of moral responsibility to try and improve conditions in some way. Cultural p luralism An appreciation of the diversity of cultures in the world a belief that all have something of value to offer. This is accompanied by taking pleasure in exploring and trying to understand other cultural frameworks. Efficacy that involvement in national and international issues is important. Globalcentrism Thinking in terms of what is good for the global community, not judgments based on global, not ethnocentric, sta ndards.
73 Dimension Definition Interconnectedness An awareness and appreciation of the interrelatedness of all peoples and nations which results in a sense of global belonging Note. Adapted from The Development of an Instrument to Measure Global mindedness by J. E. Hett, 1993, p. 143. Copyright 1993 by Jane E. Hett. These values correlate to the five underlying dimensions articulated in Chapter 2 because each share the commonalities of looking out for the welfare of the global community, gaining an awareness and appreciation of diverse cultures, the belief that there is a connection between the local and the global, and making students aware of global issues. Second, the Hett Global mindedness Surve y (Hett, 1993) was chosen because of its strong validity and reliability ; d eveloped through a process of retroductive triangulation and grounded in sociological theory construction research that meets the criteria for psychometric measures, the Hett Global mindedness Survey consists of a 30 item 5 point Likert type scale ranging across five choices from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree The total possible score of the instrument ranges from 30 to 150. The higher the numerical score, the higher th e estimated level of global mindedness. Hett (1993) gave the Global mindedness Survey to students at the University of California, San Diego, and 396 completed the instrument. The internal reliability for the Global ficient alpha, was .90 overall. Alpha subscales ranged from .70 to .79. A content validity index was established by a panel of four content judges. The content validity index for the overall tool was .88. The Global mindedness Survey demonstrated a strong correlation of .65, significant at the .001 level,
74 (Hett, 1993). Duckworth et al. (2005) and Kehl and Morris (2008), two studies discussed in the Global Education Empirical Research section of Chapter 2, used the Global mindedness Survey in their studies t o provide further validation of this instrument The survey is presented in Appendix C Interviews A qualitative case study is an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a specific phenomenon (Merriam, 1988), such as in this study in which one of t he primary goals is determining to what a global educator attributes his or her global mindedness. In a case study approach one of the primary means of collecting data is through in depth interviews (Creswell, 2007); therefore, t he researcher uses a semis tructured interview protocol to help address many of the research questions. A semistructured interview is the interviewee in order to interpret the meaning of the des Brinkmann, 2009, p. 3). This format is the most common and allows the researcher flexibility to change the order or wording of questions and to ask questions that have not emerging themes (Merriam, 1988). Kvale and Brinkmann (2009) describe d the following seven stages of the research interview: 1. Thematizing an interview : Clarifying the why and what of the interview. 2. Designing : Planning the procedures and techniques of the interview study. 3. Interviewing : Conducting the interview and using a format based upon the interview purpose and content.
75 4. Transcribing : Analyzing the interview data by transforming the interview from its oral form to a written form. 5. Analyzing : Deciding on the purpose of the interview investigation and the appropriate steps and methods of analysis. 6. Verifying : Determining the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the interview data. 7. Reporting n an ethical manner that holds up to the scrutiny of proper qualitative methods. To organize the interview s, the researcher use d these seven steps of t he interview research process. Over the remainder of this section, the researcher explains how this proce ss was done. When thematizing, it is necessary to do three things. Initially, one must clarify the purpose of the study in which he or she is partaking. Second, it is necessary to gain knowledge of the subject matter of the investigation prior to the forma l interviews, and finally the r esearcher should familiarize himself or her self with a variety of interview techniques (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009). Th e pur pose of the interviews was to in vestigate how teachers perceive and explain their development of a glo bal persp ective. Further, how teacher s perceive their constructed global mindedness impacts their curricu lar decision making was examined. The Review of the Literature (see Chapter 2), and my multiple presentations on the topic of global education at both state and national conferences demonstrates my expertise on global education. Within the context of a semistructured interview, Kvale and Brinkmann (2009) discussed three types of interviews that have aspects of what the researcher hoped to
76 accomplish in t hese interview studies. The conceptual interview investigates and charts I did with the concept of global stories tol d during the interview, specifically the plots and structures of their respons es. This is what I have done by analyzing the transcription for emerging themes from the discourse. The final type of interview that fit into my interview style was the discursiv e interview. This interview focuses on power relations of discourse and how knowledge is created within this discourse. An aspect of this interview type is that interviewers are seen as active participants rather than passive observers only there to ask th e q uestions. This fit into my understand ing of th e role of the interviewer. W hether it is overt or co vert, the very presence of the interviewer (for example, the way the researcher asks the assum ptions of the interviewer) influence the participant in some manner. The interviewer being perceived as a part of the in group or out group may influence what and how something is said by the interviewee (Sarangi, 2003). In addition, Elliot Mischler (198 6) state d in many interviews there is a perceived power differential in the relationship and that by allowing interviewers to be collaborators in the development of the study, analysis, and interpretation of the data, the power structure of the interview will likely be reduced. Therefo re, as the researcher, I provided opportunities for participant inclusion in the decision making process Once the researcher has articulated the why and what of the interview s, the researcher moves on to the secon d stage, which could be referred to as the how stage, or the design stage. T o move on, the details outlining the interviews were completed. First,
77 the interview dates and locations with the interview participants were established. There was a minimum of 1 month between first and second interviews of each individual. The underlying reason for this was to provide ample time to transcribe the first interview and begin the process of finding themes in the first inter view on which to build follow up questions fo r the second interview. In addition, this allowed me to begin a process of triangulation by getting feedback from colleagues and providing the participants with copies of the transcripts to check for accuracy. First interview. A semistructured interview fo rmat was used, but coming into the initial interview, per the suggestions of Kvale and Brinkmann (2009), I developed a script to provide some structure to the interview. The script focused on the theme of global global education, and how he or she teaches it to students. In addition, as recommended by Janesick ( 2004) I developed a list of specific questions, with the understanding that as the interview evolved new or additional questions may emerge. According to Merriam (1988), preparing this list of questions serves two purposes. First, it enabled me to translate the objectives of the research into specific and possibly measurable language. Second, it provides the impetus for participants to share their knowledg e of the phenomenon being studied. Questions are at the core of interviewing; therefore, to collect meaningful data, it is necessary to ask good questions (Merriam, 1988). The initial questions I developed followed the recommendations of Michael Quinn Pa tton (1980), who provided six types of questions to use to get different kinds of information from interviewees. The six types of questions are as follows: experience/behavior questions;
78 opinion/value questions; feeling questions; knowledge questions; sens ory questions; and background/demographic questions. In an interview, it is not necessary that each category of questions be asked as long as the question is pursuing the appropriate information (Patton, 1980). A listing of the preliminary interview questions is presented in Appendix D, and Table 4 identifies the category in which each of my initial question numbers, from Appendix D, corresponded. Because my focus wa developed global mindedness it is logic al that the majority of my questions we re opinion/value type questions. Table 4 : Category of Initial Interview Questions Question category Question # Experience/behavior 4 5 6 9 12 13 Opinion/value 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 Feeling 4 Knowledge Sensory Background/demographic 1 2 Note Questions 4, 5, 6, 9, and 13 meet the criteria of more than one category of question. The interviews took place at various locations, depending upon the convenience for each participant. This was done in order to assure privacy and a relaxed atmosphere
79 for the participants. Times and locations included after hours at the secondary school at which some of the participants were employed, as well as casual coffee shops and a waterfront caf in the area. Interviews were each approximately one hour. In addition, each participant was sent the interview protocol 1 week prior to the scheduled interv iew and the interview participants were compensated with a gift card to their choice of a local bookstore or coffee shop. When transcribing the interview I used Express Scribe software This is an audio player software, compatible with a PC. Using this, the researcher was able to slow down the speed of the recording. As a result, the researcher did not have to stop and start the interview frequently while transcribing and was able to transcribe on his own. By doing the transcription in th is manner, rather than outsourcing it to a transcription service, it was easier to identify emerging themes. Second interview. The interview questions for the second round of interviews were influenced from the emerging themes found in the initial intervie ws, a noted strategy of a semistructured interview (Janesick, 2004). There were a few questions not related to the emerging themes added due to conversations in the initial interviews. In addition, questions that arose from the teacher background survey (s ee Appendix B) and the underlying dimensions of the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993; see Appendix C) were also included. The questions that I constructed for each participant are presented in Appendix D. An explanation of the questionnaire and su rvey provided to participants is presented in Appendix E. The study explanation letter is presented in Appendix F. Consent was obtained using the form presented in Appendix G. Affirmation of intent to participate was obtained using the form presented in Ap pendix H, and
80 member check using the form presented in Appendix I. The interview process adhered to the guidelines explained in Ethical Considerations, later in the chapter. Prior to the second round of interviews, participants were sent the transcripts o f themes that developed in the initial interview for a member check. Each participant received the transcripts and notes at least 1 week prior to the second interview a nd the second interviews did not take place until the participants had verified the accuracy of this information. Transcription of the second interviews followed a similar format as that of the initial interviews. Analysis Data analysis is an ongoing proce ss that begins while the data are being collected and intensifies after all of the data have been gathered (Merriam, 1988). In case study analysis there are specific, structured methods recommended (Creswell, 2007) and when examining the data, I follow ed when doing a case study analysis. He suggest ed that the researcher should first describe his or her personal experiences with the phenomenon being studied. Therefore, the researcher should provide a ful l description of his own experience of the phenomenon in an attempt to set aside t expose any possible biases, so the focus of the study remains on the participants. I have done this by describing how I attribute my devel opment of global mindedness (see Appendix J ). Second, I develop ed a list of signi ficant statements, sentences, and quotes from the participant interviews that focus ed on how the participants experienced the phenomenon. Creswell (2007) refer red to this step as horizonalization Next, I develop ed
81 clusters, or meaning units, from these significant statem ents into themes. This was done through additional multiple readings and member checks. Once I e stablished the themes of the i nterview, the transc ripts were coded based on these themes. Fourth, these significa nt statements and themes were used to write a textural description of the experience, which is a description of to what the participants in the study attribute thei r global mindedness. This des cription include d participant interview examples from the transcript. I then wrote a structural description which in this study refers to a description of the context, or setting, that influenced how the participants attribute d their experience of acquir ing a global researcher to write a composite description of the phenomenon being studied by integrating the textural and structural descriptions. This passage is the essence of the experience and represents the culminating aspect of the study. Verifying Using multiple strategies, including confirmation or triangulation, can strengthen validity and reliab ility (Creswell, 2007). I validate d this study by having six interviewees which provide d for triangulation between participants to address validation issues (Janesick, 2003). Triangulation is the use of 07, p. 208). Because da ta were collected from six different sources (interviewees), if multiple data sources report ed a similar theme, then evidence for a common element in the phenomenon of to what a global mindedness is attributed may be supported through triangulatio n of the data. My field notes kept during th e interviews and the teacher
82 background questionnaire (see Appendix B) were other data sources that may have provide d triangulation. I n addition, after transcri bing the interviews I did a member check by send ing the trans cripts and notes on emerging themes to the participants and ask ed them to verify the accuracy of the information reported in the transcript as a recommended way of increasing vali dity and reliability ( Creswell, 2007; Janesick, 2004). Reliability can be add ressed in several additional ways that were utilized by this researcher. It can be enhanced through detailed researcher notes, having a quality recording device, and transcribing the recording. Reliability can also be increased through researcher reflectio n throughout the study. This can help ensure that the also note any possibl e alternative conclusions to those identified as the themes in the analysis of the transcripts (Creswell, 2007), which I have included in the structural description of the analysis. For further validation of data accuracy, a dual entry data method was empl oyed when inputting the data. Miles and Huberman (1994) state d that reliability can be enhanced by ensuring the research questions are clearly outlined and the design of the study matches these questions. In addition, the clearly explained, wh ich I have do ne in this chapter. Finally, another strategy I u sed was peer reviews, by having two fellow doctoral students do code checks on the analysis of my interviews. Ethical Considerations I was cautious and alert to any possible ethical issues and was confident that any possible ethical issues that may have arisen were minimized, if not completely
83 neutralized. Some of the ethical issues that Kvale and Brinkmann (2009) discussed that were relevant to this interview study included considering the consequences to the subject, any stress the study may have had on the statements, and deciding whether th e participant should be involved in the interpretation of his or her statements. To secure confidentiality, consider the consequences of their participation, and any stress that could arise due to participation, prior to the surveys and interviews and duri ng the interviews participants were made aware that they were able to withdraw from the study at any time. In addition, they were informed that this study was for educational understanding formally, an explanatory letter (see Appendix F) and an informed consent (see Appendix G) signed by each participant was provided before the first interview. To ensure that the transcription and interpretation were faithful to the statements made, participants were provided an opportunity to review their own individual transcripts and Research Field Notes Because the researcher is one of the main researc h instruments (Janesick, 2004), I kept a journal of personal notes to supplement the interview that included my thoughts and observations during the interviews, as well as other notes that cannot be deciphered from a digital voice recording, such as body l anguage and facial expressions. Th ese notes provided affective data not captured by the digital voice recorder.
84 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine how global educators perceive their global mindedness to be co nstructed and how this impacts their curricular decision making. This chapter examines the research findings of this case study by analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data to answer the five research questions guiding the study: 1. How highly do teache rs participating in a global education curriculum project score on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993)? 2. To what do self identified globally minded teachers attribute the development of a global perspective? 3. Is there a relationship between what s elf identified global educators attribute the development of their global perspective to and how they scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993)? 4. How might the background of a teacher (e.g., travel experience, languages spoken) influence to w hat the teacher attributes his or her development of global mindedness? 5. How do teachers perceive their curricular decision making is influenced by to that to which they attribute their constructed global mindedness?
85 The quantitative analysis involved th e use of descriptive data through the administration of two surveys. The qualitative analysis consisted of interviews of six self proclaimed global educators using interviews geared towards gaining an understanding of their perception of how they attained a global perspective and how it influences their curricular decision making T o support the emerging themes that developed from the research questions, the findings are presented in narrative form. Participants The participants from whom data were initiall y collected included 10 secondary education social studies teachers (nine women, one man) who participated in the Global Schools Project described in Chapter 2. The participants ranged in age from their early 30s to mid 40s, came from various ethnic backgr ounds, and had varied lengths of educational experience ranging from 5 years to over 15 years, teaching secondary social studies in this region of Florida. The courses taught by the participants ranged from elective courses, such as multicultural studies a nd law studies, to advanced placement courses on American history, world history, and human geography, to the core courses of American history, world history, American government, and economics. Data were sought from all 13 Global Schools Project members, but three social studies instructors (two men and one woman) did not respond to my inquiries. Analysis of Research Question 1 : How H ighly do T eachers P articipating in a G lobal E ducation C urriculum Project Score on the Hett Global m indedness Survey? Two instruments were used to collect the initial data: A teacher background questionnaire (see Appendix B) and the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993; see Appendix C). They were both administered to the participants and returned to the
86 researcher vi a e mail. The teacher background questionnaire was used to aid in the development of interview questions and as a reference to aid conclusions for Research How might the background of a teacher (e.g., travel experience, languages spoken.) infl uence to what the teacher attributes his or her development of global mindedness ? The Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) was administered to determine who were asked to participate in the interviews. The survey consisted of a 30 item 5 point Likert scale that ranged from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree The total possible score of the instrument ranged from 30 to 150. In addition, the scale consisted of five underlying dimensions (responsibility, cultural pluralism, efficacy, globa lcentrism, and interconnectedness). The procedure for scoring the Hett Global mindedness Survey was designed so that the higher the numerical score on each dimension, the higher the estimated level of each dimension; the higher the total numerical score on the survey the higher the global mindedness. The total numerical scores for the 10 participants are presented in Table 5. Table 5 : Hett Global mindedness Scale Scores Pseudonym Score AB 133/150 = 88.7% CD 132/150 = 88.0% EF 131 /150 = 87.3% GH 131/150 = 87.3% IJ 128/150 = 85.3%
87 Pseudonym Score KL 122/150 = 81.3% MN 119/150 = 79.3% OP 118/150 = 78.7% QR 111/150 = 74.0% ST 90/150 = 60.0% Six of the original 10 secondary social studies educators were interviewed. Of the six instructors, five were women and one was a man. As stated in Chapter 3, the goal was to interview the three instructors who scored highest on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) and the three instructors who scored the lowest on the Hett Global mindedness Survey. The three highest scorers agreed to be interviewed. Unfortunately, due to the instructor with the second lowest score not responding to my interview invitations, the remaining three participants included the lowest scorer, the third lowest scorer, and the fourth lowest scorer. Prior to giving a descriptive analysis of the remaining research questions and so that the reader is be provided a glimpse of the global mindedness of the six interview subjects, I next describe each of the participants based upon how they scored on the five underlying dimensions. For a statistical breakdown of each of the participants scores on the dimensions, see Table 6.
88 Ta ble 6 : Hett Global mindedness Survey Dimension Scores Pseudonym ST OP MN EF CD AB Responsibility 18/35 (51.4%) 24/35 (68.6%) 22/35 (62.9%) 28/35 (80%) 31/35 (88.6%) 29/35 (82.9%) Cultural p luralism 26/40 (65%) 37/40 (92.5%) 38/40 (95%) 39/40 (97.5%) 38/40 (95%) 38/40 (95%) Efficacy 17/25 (68%) 21/25 (84%) 22/25 (88%) 24/25 (96%) 21/25 (84%) 22/25 (88%) Globalcentrism 15/25 (60%) 14/25 (56%) 17/25 (68%) 18/25 (72%) 20/25 (80%) 21/25 (84%) Interconnectedness 14/25 (56%) 22/25 (88%) 20/25 (80%) 22/25 (88%) 22/25 (88%) 23/25 (92%) Five of the interviewees were teaching social studies in Hillsborough County, Florida, which is the ninth largest school district in the United States (Hillsborough County Public Schools, n.d.). The remaining interviewee was teaching in Pasco County, Florida. The six interviewees are presented in order from lowest score to highest score. A summary profile of the six selected global educators is presented in Table 7 Table 7 : P rofile of Global Educators Selected for Qualitative Analysis Pseudonym ST OP MN EF CD AB Age 31 31 35 31 41 32 Gender Female Female Female Female Male Female Ethnicity Philippine Anglo Anglo Haitian Hispanic Anglo Anglo
89 Pseudonym ST OP MN EF CD AB Current high school subject taught AP human geography, multicultural studies AP human geography, world history American history honors, American gvt., world cultural geography AP human geography, world cultural geography Law s tudies, l egal s ystems & c oncepts, w orld c ultural g eography AP w orld h istory, w orld h istory Interview Participant Profiles Lowest Scorers ST. ST, an American of Filipino descent, was a 31 year old woman who was in her eighth year of teaching. During her first 2 years she taught in a self contained classroom for a dropout prevention pro gram. For the past 6 years, ST ha d been a social studies instructor at a public high school that enrolls over 2 700 students in Hillsborough County, Florida. Her school demographics we re diverse and included 44% Anglo Americans, 42% Hispanic Americans, 9% African Americans, and 5% Asian Americans (Public School Review, n.d.a). Approximately 37% of the student body wa s eligible for free or reduced price lunch. During the time of the study, ST h uman g eography and m ulticultural s tudies, which according to her usually covered in U.S. history (ST, personal communication, January 27, 2010). ST was the lowest scorer on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) with a total score of 90/150, or 60%, which was nearly 29% lower than the high scorer. In the initial theoretical dimension, responsibility, she scored a 51%, which was also the lowest
90 score of the p articipants on this dimension. Based upon the way ST answered the responsibility statements of the survey, her score was indicative of a person who may have mixed feelings on her personal responsibility regarding people and conditions around the world. The survey suggested that she does not spend much time worrying about the lives of people who experience oppression or some type of misfortune, such as malnutrition or experiences of natural disasters, and that she does not spend time thinking about whether s he or other Americans have an obligation to take action if her government is doing something she disagrees with or to help the less fortunate around the globe. ST was the only interview participant to score less than 90% on the cultural pluralism dimensio n. Her score was a 65%. Her answers indicated that she does have some commonalities with people in less developed countries, she does get some the multiculturalism w ithin the United States does provide the country with some enrichment. Despite the enrichment that she stated different cultures provide, her answers did not provide a commitment as to whether she finds it stimulating to spend a period of time talking with people from other cultures and whether Americans can learn something of value from all cultures. Her answers indicated she also does not find it necessary for national policies made by the U.S. government to have to take into consideration how the policie s might affect other areas of the world. In addition, while she agreed that it is important that people should be educated to understand the impact current policies may have on future generations, she did not agree that it is important that university prog rams should promote an understanding of different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
91 68%, which was still the lowest score in this dimension among the participants. Her score indicated that she is not willing or able to take a position on whether her behavior at the around the globe. On the other hand, her survey did suggest that she believes th at an is important for her to have a career in which she can positively affect the quality of life for future generations. ST scored a 60% on globalcentrism. Her ans wers to this theoretical dimension implied some uncertainty. Again, if this dimension was a spectrum with ethnocentrism on the left and globalcentrism on the right, she appeared to fall squarely in the middle. She appeared to be undecided on whether the ne eds of the United States should be the highest priority when negotiating with other countries, whether American values are the best, or whether people should be able to pursue a standard of living that has only a slight negative impact on the environment. While she appeared amenable to allowing the survival of the fittest, she does seem empathic with people from cultures who do not understand the American way of doing things. In the final theoretical dimension, interconnectedness, ST was the only participant not to score at least an 80%, finishing with a score of 56%. She was again uncertain on many of the issues discussed on the survey. For example, she did not appear willing to make a decision as to whether she agreed or disagreed on the importance of being considered as a member of the global community or whether she considers herself a
92 global or American citizen. She also appeared undecided on whether increasing int erconnectedness would be a benefit to the United States in the future. Finally, the increasing interconnectedness of the world does not translate to her feeling a strong kinship with the global community. OP. OP, an Anglo 31 year old woman, t aught at a se condary public school in Pasco County, Florida. The school in which she t aught has over 1 800 students, approximately 33% of whom are eligible for free or reduced price lunch. The student demographics we re 66% Anglo American, 21% Hispan ic American, 11% Afr ican American, and 2% Asian American (Public School Review, n.d.c). During the semester in which I interview ed OP she was teaching AP h uman g eography and w orld h istory. OP was the third lowest scorer of the self identified global educators who took the He tt Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993), 10% behind the high scorer. She was also the only interview participant who had never traveled outside of the United States. In the initial dimension, responsibility, there were seven statements OP was required to answer. She scored a 24/35, which was at the 69 th percentile. According to the description of the responsibility dimension and the statements pertaining to this theoretical dimension in the survey (see Appendix C), this implied that OP likely has mixed emo tions on her responsibility to citizens around the globe. While she does not strongly agree that Americans have a moral obligation to share their wealth with the rest of the world, she did state that she agrees that they have a moral obligation. Her respon ses to the statements implied that her misgivings are that it should be provided for sustainable development and not be given merely as handouts, an indication that was confirmed in later interview statements. Her response to another statement also implied that while it is
93 important to speak out about issues and actions in which she feels her government is wrong, there may be exceptions to speaking out or taking action. In addition, when it comes to the world conditions in which people live, she appeared co nflicted in her reactions. Based upon the wording of the survey statements and how they were answered, she expressed the sentiment that people around the world who are oppressed receive a great deal of sympathy. In contrast, while the malnourished appeared to be a concern, it is not one that is individualized. Finally, the survey implied that she does not linger over feelings of empathy for individuals on the other side of the world who are suffering through natural disasters. Cultural pluralism was the se cond theoretical dimension. This dimension According to how she answered the survey statements, OP finds it very enjoyable to spend time with people from other cultures a nd believes that a multicultural environment is an important facet of a country. She also believes it is very important that students learn about differing cultures and ethnicities and how policies made today impact the future world. In addition, while the survey results indicated that she sees herself as a citizen of the United States, interests of which are important to look out for, she is also a global citizen who shares commonalities with people around the world; therefore, when the United States sets national policies, the consequences these policies may have on her world brethren should be taken into consideration. while she carries some uncertainty that her actions can al leviate the many problems going on around the world and have an effect on the ecosystem, she does express that it is
94 important for her to have a career in which she can positively affect the lives of future generations. Her conflicting responses on this di mension may be the result of some feelings of burnout that she discussed in her interviews (see Unanticipated Results later in this chapter). answers to this dimension showed some uncertainty. If this dimension was a spectrum with ethnocentrism on the left and globalcentrism on the right, she appeared to fall just to the left of the center. While she does not always believe that the needs of the United States should be the highest priority when dealing with other countries, there is a sense of ethnocentrism on her part because she believes that American values are usually the best values. On the other hand, she expressed some empathy for people from other cultures who do not underst and American ways. In addition, there was an expression of uncertainty over whether Americans should be permitted to pursue the standard of living they can afford if the impact on the environment is even only minimal. Finally, she was also unwilling to tak should be maintained if it is due to promoting the survival of the fittest. The final dimension was interconnectedness, in which OP scored an 88%. Providing a description of her score for this dimension, OP was someone who often contemplates the type of world we are presently creating for future generations. While she does see interconnectedness as a benefit to the world, she stopped short of completely endorsing it as a full benefit to the Uni ted States. Also, as stated in the cultural pluralism dimension description, she does agree in part that she is a global citizen in addition to a citizen of the United States who feels a strong kinship with people around the world.
95 MN. The third interviewee, MN wa s a 35 year old Haitian American. MN ha d been teaching since 2001 and wa s the social studies department chair of a Title I secondary public school with close to 1 900 students in Hillsborough County, Florida. Approximately 55% of the stu dents we re eligible for free or reduced price lunch. The studen t demographics were 46% Hispanic Ameri can, 34% African American, 18% Anglo American, and 2% Asian American (Public School Review, n.d.b). The school was unique in that it was an international m agnet school that housed eight academies, each of which incorporated an international theme. The teachers throughout the school were assigned to one of three areas: the international magnet, an academy within the international magnet, or with students who were not in a magnet or academy. MN taught students in the international magnet. D uring the 2009 2010 school year, MN included American hi story h onors, American g overnment, and w orld c ultural g eography. MN was the fourth lowest scorer on the Het t Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993), scoring 1 point higher than OP. She was also one of two interview participants who were not native to the United States, having been born and raised in Haiti until moving with her family to the United States at the age of 10. In the responsibility dimension, MN scored a 63%, her lowest score of the five dimensions on Hett Global mindedness Survey. Taking into consideration her answers to the survey statements when providing a descriptive meaning of her in this dimens ion, the implication appeared to be that she shared many similarities to OP. She also expressed mixed emotions on her responsibility to citizens around the globe. MN articulated uncertainty as to whether Americans have a moral obligation to share their wea lth with the rest of the world. Also similar to OP, her survey implied that while she finds it is important to speak out about
96 issues and actions in which she feels her government is wrong, there may be exceptions to speaking out or taking action. Pertaini ng to the world conditions in which people live, she also appear ed to carry some conflicts in her reactions. People around the world who are oppressed receive a great deal of sympathy. She also expressed a sense of personalizing how it must feel to be maln ourished. On the other hand, she did not indicate that the idea of thousands of starving Africans leaves her with much frustration or that a natural disaster taking the lives of tens of thousands of people on the other side of the world having much of an e motional impact on her. Finally, she also expressed uncertainty over whether she should feel any responsibility to taking action about conditions people live in throughout the world. mension because she received a score of 95%, answering all but two of the statements as strongly agree. According to the answers she provided, MN finds it very enjoyable to spend time with people from other cultures and believes that a multicultural enviro nment is an important facet of a country. She also believed it is very important that students gain an understanding of different cultures and ethnicities, and how the impact of policies made today impact the future world. In addition, she believed America ns can learn something of value from all countries. The answers MN provided indicated that she believes she shares many commonalities with people in less developed countries and when the United States sets national policies, the consequences these policies may have on the rest of the world should be taken into consideration. reluctance that the action she takes has the potential to make differences elsewhere
97 around the world. While effect on the ecosystem, she does express the belief that her behavior at both the global and local levels can impact people in other countries. Her answers also were indicative of a person who finds it important to have a job that can positively influence future MN scored a 68% for the theoretical dimension of globalcentrism. Similar to OP, her answers to this theoretical dimension implied some uncertainty. Again, if this dimension was a spectrum with ethnocentrism on the left and globalcentrism on the right, she appeared to fall just to the left of the center. She expressed uncertainty as to what should be the highest priority when negotiating with other countries, and whether Americans should be permitted to pursue the standard of living they can afford if the impact on the environment is even only minimal. She did express some empathy for people from other it is due to promoting the survival of the fittest. For MN, the fift h theoretical dimension, interconnectedness, produced a score of 80%. Although MN expressed uncertainty as to whether she feels a strong kinship with people around the world, based upon this score, she appeared to be someone who considers herself to be a g lobal citizen. She perceives an interconnected world as one that will probably be of some benefit to the United States over the long run and does spend some time contemplating the type of world the present generation is creating for future generations.
98 Int erview Participant Profiles Highest Scorers EF. The fourth interview participant, EF a 31 year old Hispanic American female, wa s an instructor at the same school and social studies department as MN She was in her sixth year of teaching at this high scho ol, where she had spent her entire career. Similar to MN, she was an instructor for the international magnet students and was teaching two courses, AP human geography and world cultural geography. EF was tied for the third highest total score (131/150; 87 .3%), only 2 points off the highest scorer, or 1.4%. Like MN, she was also born outside of the United States. Born in Colombia, South America, EF and her family moved to the United States when she was 3 years old. In the first dimension, responsibility, sh e scored an 80%. Based upon her scoring in this dimension, EF strongly believes that she has a responsibility to do something about the conditions in which people are living around the world. Additionally, she often has feelings of frustration and sympathy for people around the globe who are being oppressed, malnourished, or living in areas that have been stricken by natural disasters. EF also indicated that people with economic means, such as citizens of modern countries, have a moral obligation to financi ally help those in underdeveloped countries. Finally, if her government is doing something she perceives to be wrong, she feels that in many cases she would have an obligation to speak out. uralism dimension. Her score in this dimension was also the highest score on cultural pluralism for any of the interview participants. According to the survey, EF finds it very enjoyable to spend time with people from other cultures and believes that a mul ticultural environment is an important facet to a country. She also believes it is very important that
99 students gain an understanding of different cultures and ethnicities, and how the impact that policies made today impact the future world. In addition, s he strongly believes that U.S. national policies should take into consideration the consequences these policies may have on the rest of the world and that Americans can learn something of value from all she perceives there to be many commonalities between her and people in underdeveloped countries. all of the interview participants, a 96%. She strongly believes that an indiv behavior and actions can lead to changes on both a local and a global scale. EF also expressed in the survey that it is very important for her to be in a career that can positively influence the quality of life for future generations. EF scored a 72% on the globalcentrism spectrum, her lowest scoring theoretical dimension. On the globalcentrism spectrum, EF appeared to be to the right of the center on the globalcentrism side. The only aspect of the survey in which she is closer to the ethnocentrism side is when she stated a belief that the needs of the United States should often be the highest priority when negotiating with other countries. Her survey suggested va not be maintained if it is because it promotes survival of the fittest. Finally, she is sympathetic to the feelings of people from other parts of the world who do not understand the American way of doing things. EF had a score of 88% on the interconnectedness theoretical dimension. According to her answers, EF was someone who often contemplates the type of world we
100 are presently creating for future generations. While she does see interconnectedness as a benefit to the world, she stopped short of completely endorsing it as a full benefit to the United States. Also, while it is not necessarily as important to her or something she always thinks about, she views herself as a global citizen as much as a citizen of the United States. Finally, she does feel a kinship with people around the world. CD. The fifth interview participant was a 41 year old Anglo American male given the pseudonym CD, who taught in the same school as MN and EF. He had been law academy. During the time of the interviews, the courses he taught included law studies, legal systems and concepts, and world cultural g eography. In addition to his duties at the secondary level, CD was currently pursuing his doctoral degree in curriculum and instruction with a cognate in global education and had been an instructor at a university in the state of Florida for the past 5 yea rs, where he primarily taught a course entitled Multicultural Perspectives in Education each semester. CD had the second highest total score on the survey. He trailed AB by only 1 point and less than 1%. In the responsibility theoretical dimension, CD had the highest score among the interview participants. Based upon his answers on the survey, CD adamantly indicated a personal obligation to take action if the government does something he considers wrong. His answers also were indicative of a person who beli eves that Americans have a moral obligation to share their wealth with and help those in areas of the world who are less fortunate. Personally, he expressed a great responsibility to act and a great deal of frustration when he hears about people living in conditions of
101 empathizes with individuals who may be suffering due to a natural disaster halfway across the globe and that he will sometimes try to imagine himself in the shoe s of someone who is living in these conditions. 95%. According to the survey, CD finds it very stimulating to spend time with people from other cultures and believes that a multicultural environment is an extremely important facet to a country and very enriching to the United States. His answers indicated he also believes it is very important that students be helped to gain an understanding of different cultures and ethniciti es, and policies made today impact the future world. In addition, he believes Americans can learn something of value from all countries and cultures. CD also appeared to believe that he shares many commonalities with people in underdeveloped countries and when the United States sets national policies, the consequences these policies have on the rest of the world are just as important as the consequences for the United States and should be taken into consideration. CD received a score of 84% on efficacy, the third theoretical dimension. Similar to the other interview participants, he stated that it is very important for him to have a career that has a positive impact on the quality of life for future generations. While he did not appear to indicate a strong o actions can have a significant effect on the ecosystem, he did indicate a belief that his behavior can have an impact on people and issues at both the local and the global levels. CD produced a score o f 80% on the globalcentrism theoretical dimension, which suggested that he is solidly on the globalcentrism side of the spectrum. His score
102 survey results also demonst rated that when engaged in diplomacy, the United States should consider the needs and impacts negotiations may have on other countries. His score was also indicative of a person who has empathy for people from other cultures who do not understand the Ameri can way of doing things. Regarding standard of living, his responses indicated that he would be receptive to redistributing the wealth around the world to aid those in need and that the pursuit of a higher standard of living should be weighed against the i mpact it may have on the environment. The final theoretical dimension, interconnectedness, produced a score of 88%. The results of the survey for this dimension showed CD to be a person who not only feels a kinship for the world community and considers him self a global citizen just as much as a U.S. citizen, but finds that being recognized as a member of the global community is something he feels strongly about. He also appeared to spend a lot of time thinking about the kind of world we are creating for fut ure generations. In conclusion, he did not indicate a strong feeling one way or the other as to whether the United States will benefit from an increasingly interconnected world. AB. The final interview participant was a 32 year old Anglo American female i dentified with the pseudonym AB for the dissertation. Also an instructor in Hillsborough County, Florida, AB was in her eighth year of teaching and first year of being the social studies department chair at an ethnically and racially diverse public seconda ry school that had more than 2,250 students in grades 9 12. The student demographics for her school included 43% Anglo American students, 31% African Americans, 23% Hispanic Americans, and 4% Asian Americans (Public School Review, n.d.d). For the past 5 ye ars,
103 she taught AP world history. In addition to the AP course, she taught on level courses of world history this year. AB had the highest total score on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993), with a score of 133/150 (88.7%). In the initial theore tical dimension, responsibility, AB scored an 82.9%. Providing a description of her score on this dimension, AB was indicative of a person who, while not really having a strong opinion on whether Americans have a moral obligation to share their wealth with those less fortunate around the globe, indicated a high level of frustration and sense of responsibility over the conditions in which many people are forced to live around the globe. Despite these feeling of concern and responsibility, those feelings do n ot usually translate into trying to imagine how those people living in those conditions must feel. Domestically, her response to another statement implied that while it is important to speak out about issues and actions in which she feels her government is wrong, there may be exceptions to speaking out or taking action. AB scored 95% on the cultural pluralism theoretical dimension. According to her survey responses, AB finds it very enjoyable to spend time with people from other cultures and believes that a multicultural environment can be a source of enrichment for the United States. She also believes it is very important that students be assisted in acquiring an understanding of different cultures and ethnicities, and how the impact that policies made toda y impact the future world. Additionally, she indicated she believes Americans can learn something of value from all countries. The answers AB provided also indicate a perception that she shares many commonalities with people in underdeveloped countries and when the United States sets national policies, the
104 consequences these policies have on the rest of the world should also be a priority to be taken into consideration. AB scored an 88% on the efficacy theoretical dimension. According to the answers she pr ovided, she does believe it is very important to choose a career in which that her behavior can impact people and issues outside of the United States and this impac t is sometimes possible by actions taken within her own community. AB was the highest scorer among all interview participants on the globalcentrism globalcentrism s ide of the spectrum. She strongly disagrees with the idea that American values are necessarily the best. Along those lines, AB indicated that when engaged in diplomacy, the United States should consider the needs and impacts negotiations may have on other countries rather than making the United States the main priority, no matter the consequences. She also signified empathy for people from other cultures who do not responses sug gested that she would be receptive to redistributing the wealth around the world to aid those in need and that the pursuit of a higher standard of living should be weighed against the impact it may have on the environment. She also had the highest score on the interconnectedness dimension, with a score of 92%. The answers indicated that she considers herself to be a global citizen as much as a citizen of the United States and feels a sense of kinship with the global community. o strongly believes that the increasingly interconnected world we live in will be a benefit to the United States and its citizens. Finally, she
105 expressed that she often thinks about the kind of world that is evolving and being created for future generation s. Analysis of Research Question 2: To W hat do G lobally M inded T eachers A ttribute the D evelopment of a G lobal P erspective? For this research question, data came from interviews with the same six interview participants whose demographics were described in Interview Participant Profiles Lowest Scorers and Interview Participant Profiles Highest Scorers. In this study, each partic ipant was interviewed two times between the months of January 2010 and March 2010. While doing a study for determini ng sample sizes on nonprobability sample sizes, such as purposive samples Guest, Bunce, and Johnson (2006) found that thematic elements are present after as few as six interviews and saturation tends to occur within the first 12 interviews the same number of interviews conducted during this research. The analysis of the data used a descriptive analysis and included direct quotes as much as possible in order for the reader to be provided the voice of the participants. The themes and subthemes that emerged from the interviews have been categorized into the following two groupings: initial development and intensification of global perspective. For a summary of the groupings, themes, and subthemes, see Table 8
106 Table 8 : Groups, Themes, and Subthemes Grouping Theme(s) Sub t heme(s) Perception of self Initial development Family Intercultural awareness, globality Exposure to diversity Intercultural awareness, globality Minority status Social justice, intercultural awareness Curious disposition Globality, intercultural awareness Perception of others Initial development Exposure to diversity Intercultural awareness, globality Global education courses Intercultural awareness, globality Intensification of global perspective International travel Globality, intercultural awareness, social justice Global education courses Provided terminology, provided resouces, globality, intercultural awareness
107 Grouping Theme(s) Sub t heme(s) Perception of self Intensification of global perspective Mentor Support system Professional service Globality Initial Development This category was divided into two sections: perceptions of self and perceptions of others. This division was the result of each of the interview participants voicing a perception of how they developed a global perceptive and of how they perceive others co uld develop a global perceptive. Primary and secondary themes emerged in both sections. Perceptions of self. When analyzing the data, I tried to follow Kvale and throug h the interview to get a sense of the whole. I did the initial reading while transcribing the interview. Second, after this initial reading, different themes, or this step by noting some possible themes emerging while doing the transcribing and then did a second reading that was not interrupted by taking time to write up the transcriptions. Third, Kvale and Brinkmann proposed this meaning unit be restated in a simplified ma nner. After the second reading of the transcribed data, I categorized the interviews into the following seven themes: parent(s), exposure to diversity,
108 living in a multicultural environment, family, experience of oppression, and innate. In the fourth step, Kvale and Brinkmann (2009) recommended integrating the global education and many of the emergent themes have been tied to global education in the literature, integrating the themes into this concept was a seamless transition. The last step recommended by Kvale and Brinkmann was to tie the themes into a descriptive statement. Over the course of two more readings, I did this by narrowing the th emes down into four primary themes through condensing themes that, as the more I read the data, appeared to overlap. For example, the themes of parent and family were merged into a single category (family) and the themes of exposure to diversity, living in a multicultural environment, and authentic travel experience were combined into exposure to diversity. Additionally, the theme of experience of oppression was changed to minority status, which, based upon the responses, seemed a more appropriate theme tit le. Finally, the theme of innate was changed to curious disposition. As a result of these merges, there were four primary themes emerging from the interviews in this category: (a) family, (b) exposure to diversity, (c) minority status, and (d) curious dis position. Each theme also included subthemes, which are addressed during the description of each theme. Once I had identified the four themes of the interview, I recoded the transcripts based on these themes.
109 Family. During the interview sessions, one of the main questions I explored was, To what the participants attribute the development of their global perspective? six global educators interviewed, the most common theme that emerged in response to this question was family. Although the reasonin g was not always the same, despite coming from different backgrounds and having diverse experiences, five of the six participants identified their own families as being critical to the development of a global perspective. Within this theme, two subthemes e merged. The descriptions that emerged from the subthemes corresponded with the five themes of a global perspective outlined in Chapter 2 (see Table 1): globality and intercultural awareness (Note: Throughout the descriptive analyses in this chapter, the su bthemes are underlined to be more easily distinguished from the themes). For some of the participants, family was an integral part of their personal on around the globe and world geography. For example, when I asked EF if being born in Colombia affected or influenced the development of her global perspective, she downplayed the aspect of having lived in two different countries and instead focused on the influence of her with that. I think that my parents always kind of like, were interested in geography, specifically my father, so I think I got that innate interest about the world from him. We always had National Geographic (EF, personal communication, March 11, 2010) Elaborat ing on looking through National Geographic I think discovering all thes e new cultures and people piqued my interest and then seeing these beaut
110 personal c ommunication, March 11, 2010). ST, who was also exposed to National Geographic while growing up, addressed this aspect of globality being an influence on her developing a global perspective when she discussed watching public television as a child, due to h It was because very big in being global communication, March 8, 2010). The subtheme of globality which is to be aware of world condi tions, trends, interconnections, and unanticipated consequences, was not limited to parental exposure to geography. Four of the participants talked about the discussions they had with parents and family members about events going on around the world having an influence on their developing global perspective. EF mentioned that she was influenced by the stories her parents told her about their lives growing up in the South American country of Colombia. When talking about what influenced her global perspectiv e, OP spent part of our interview referring to growing up and her grandfather and father discussing world events and making her read the newspaper to keep up on current events. AB also discussed the influence of her family, through the lens of the same sub theme, when she explained the many hours her family spent watching the news to see what was going on in the world. remember. So my parents watch ed the news, so we watched it too. So it was always on, which influenced my global perspective 2010). When I asked her to elaborate on how that influenced her global perspective, she stated the following:
111 Well, day to day the news stories tend to follow on each other and so it just makes you interested to see what happened or . . You Force Base a nd so that could be why we watched the news every the world, because a new war could lead to a new assignment. So events (AB, personal communication, March 10, 2010). ST s who helped me acquire that gl obal mindedness (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010). She addressed the subtheme of globality when she mentioned discussing current events while sitting around the dinner table, as a child, with her family. She also s poke about this subtheme of globality when she talked about having conversations with her brother, who was a missionary, by saying, But also, my brother, he lived in West Africa so just those 2 years of corresponding with him you really got to see the other side in magazines (ST, personal communication, January 27, 2010). The second subtheme, intercultural awareness refers to understanding the uniqueness of individuals and cultures. A couple of the interview participants who perceived their family as being an aspect of the development of their individual global exposing them to an array of cultures a nd ideas. When asked how her family enabled her to develop a global perspective, ST addressed this subtheme by saying, As I mentioned before, my mother is from the Philippines and she exposure . a nd then having some of her family members either nearby or living with us. That was quite an exposure. And then where we lived, my parents took full opportunity advantage of it because we lived right outside of New York City, so they always made it a point to bring us into the city And then they would let us tag along on some of their trips (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010)
112 When asked where some of these trips took her and how this influenced her global perspective, ST said the fo llowing: also to Japan, to Europe. [We] did a standard European journey. And then the Caribbean, you know, and those types of trips really allowed me to see how other cultures lived (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) development as well, when she stated: Yeah, their circle of friends, you know, from all over the place. My next door neighbors w ere the Hertzbergs, who were from Germany. And then, I mean, down the road we had people from Poland, and people from the Dominican Republic, it was a very international community (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) l d view app eared to be a factor in exposing ST to the subtheme of intercultural awareness when she discussed how their background influenced the development of her global perspective: My parents were very missionary minded. Growing up, they would take in foster kid s. Not for long periods of time, but for weeks at a time. And I remember we had a kid from Brazil live with us for a couple of months, which was interesting y But then, fro m there, just people in my family would host at the house being from different nation. Just different experiences, whether the Americans lived abroad, or foreigners who were here in the States for a while. So that influenced it also (ST, personal communic ation, January 27, 2010) ST also talked about how the religious background of her parents influenced her global perspective development. While she was growing up, her parents sometimes entertained missionaries from different parts of the world at the house When I initially
113 influenced her global perspective, rather than focusing o n the religious aspect, she discussed how the missionaries impacted this intercultural awareness subtheme. For example, she stated, T hey really do understand what it means to become the culture and not to impose your own beliefs on, March 8, 2010). with supporting the development of her global perspective by exposing her to different world views. The following comment illustrates this belief: Now, moving to Florida was another experience. But the interesting thing was where we lived was a lot of military officers, So that was kind of neat because I did live in the country, at the t ime, it was Valrico at the time. It was pretty much pastures and orange groves. So it was neat to have other people who had a point of view that was similar to mine (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) When I asked for some examples of how her dad enabled her to develop a global nytime I gave my viewpoint, my dad would try to give me a counterviewpoint. It may not have b een one of his own but he would always be like, ell, how do you think communication, February 13, 2010) OP also referenced how ingrained this way of thinking was in her when she talked about taking classes while she was teaching and the courses referring to teaching from multiple perspecti ves: perspectives when I first started thinking about teaching. You y ou know? But, I think after taking some of those classes, I was like, wow, you know, I know many perspectives just because of my family (OP personal communication, March 13 2010)
114 munication, February advocate role, you know provided an example that has always stood out clearly in her mind of her dad taking this role when she talked about a story of seeing a homeless person when she was only 4 or 5 years old. You know, maybe when we talk about poverty. We see a homeless Dad, look a t that homeless person y ou know? a job? What a loser y he has all this education y ou know? And then he would bring up the point some of them are educated. So he would kind of ag ree with us at first, but to an extreme. Where , y ou know? And other times he would remember that one a lot just because we drove around with him a lot; in West Palm we have a lot of people you know, on the streets But that was the first time I was really exposed to them. Because when I was living in Hialeah, which is like Miami, I may 4 or 5, were. Yeah. You know, so he would just take it to an extreme (OP, personal communication, March 13, 2010) multiple perspec tives when referencing homeless people by saying, are just down on their luck. At the same time, he also made sure that we were aware that some of them are scammers y ou know? to feel too sorry for them, for all of them. He just wanted us to see every side of it, you know ? (OP, personal communication, March 13, 2010) Exposure to diversity. The second theme that emerged in the development of a global perspective was addressed by three of the six participants. This theme combined
115 three themes from the initial reading: exposure to diversity, living in multicultural environment, and authentic travel experience. In addition, the same two subthemes, as in the theme of family, emerged : intercultural awareness and globality OP talked about growing up in a multicultural environment during her time in Hialeah, Florida, having a great influence on the development of her global perspective: Me and my friends, and the neighborhood I grew up in, we were very multiracial and multicultural. So I kind of grew up with other, W hite s only neighborhood. I grew up around different cultures and different races (OP, personal communication, March 13, 2010) According to OP, this development began occurring as early as 4 or 5 years old, when she was exposed to growing up with different cultures: Well, I know we definitely had Cuban. We had different races, you know, B lacks, W hites, mixed. We had . I remember the daycare I just remember bits and pieces where maybe some Asian, not really a lot. Not at that time. I know now there are groups, pockets, of Chinese areas, but even when I was in daycare, I remember, even, the different socioeconomic classes. I remember there be ing people who had more than I had. You know, my parents, they worked y ou know? And I was huge. You know, even at the age of 4 or 5 when we went to go play and my mom would bring us over and you know that was huge. And a lot of people are like, osh, you were only 4 and 5 but it has an impact. (OP, personal communication, March 13, 2010) When asked why she thought that had an influenc e on the development of her global perspective, OP focused on the subtheme of intercultural awareness when she said, At the time my students now, some of them grow up in very protected, very sheltered areas where, you know, it was all the W hite middle class y qui s
116 one of the things I have the advantage of is growing up in a multicultural neighborhood (OP, personal communication, March 13, 2010) MN also pointed to this theme as being a factor in the development of her global perspective when she talked about being placed in English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) courses after moving to the United States from Haiti as a 10 year old. As an ESOL student, she was able to gain a firsthand awareness of a variety cultures through the new circle of friends she made She pointed out this awareness when answering my question of why she thought this played a role in her global perspective development: Well, being from Haiti, when I first came to the United States, I had a tough time connecting with other students. And by that I mean, I guess this may sound wrong, but a tough time connecting connecting with students from other countries. And one reason was, I guess, it was a lot easier to connect to those students was because they were in the classes that I was in because I was going through what was called ESOL education a nd in elementary school we were not mainstreamed. We stayed together in our ESOL class. So when we would have P.E., or music, or comp uter students, with American born students and those kids were not necessarily the kindest children to us. So we kind of gravitated towards one another, the kids who were from other countries an d I guess that gave me an opportunity to know the kid, you know, from Cuba, to get to know the kid from Costa Rica, because we were forced to be together and I started to learn more about all these different cultures through them (MN, personal communicati on, February 3, 2010) ST was another one of the participants stating that interaction with others had influenced the development of their global perspectives. When asked what it was about the interactions with others that could have influenced her global p erspective, ST said the following during her second interview:
117 university. I went to the University of Miami and it was pretty much, you might as well move the school to South America, to Latin neat to meet kids from so many other countries, predominantly from Latin America b ut from other countries too, just learning be fore, the foods they eat, the music, the dancing. So it was just neat to have their perspective on things. So again, I guess it was that exposure (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) ST also mentioned traveling as an influence on her global perspe ctive development. Asked what she thought it was about traveling that influenced this development, she focused on two subthemes. Her initial comment had to do with intercultural awareness when she stated, When I travel, my parents always taught me to do mo re than just the touristy things. So to go into a village, to go to, you know, see if you can go to a school, at least see a classroom taking place, a house of worship, whatever it may be. Just kind of get the local ican point of view but, still, develop a global perspective (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) Finally, ST also talked a bout the subtheme of globality being a factor in developing her global perspective when, at the age of 15, she traveled to Hawaii and Again, it did. For me that was the landscape was amaze [sic] Minority status. The third theme of this section, minority status refers to the firsthand experience of going through the feelings of being part of a group that is marginalized or oppressed in some manner, such as not receiving the same rights as other groups or being stereotyped because of an ethnic/racial background. Three of the six
118 interviewees explicitly stated that having experienced life as a minority had been a contributing factor to the development of their global perspective. The theme also produced two subthemes: social justice and intercultural awareness So cial justice which is analyzing the issues of power structure arrangements and the fair distribution of advantages, assets, and benefits among all members of a society, was the primary subtheme that emerged when CD and MN discussed how their minority stat us had influenced their development of a global perspective. CD talked about coming to the realization that his sexual orientation made him a minority and how it provided him the opportunity to see life through the lens of being marginalized, a perspective which he had previously been unable to experience as a White man. He discussed this awareness when he stated the following: As a minority, I think that that allowed a connectivity to voices that are excluded, to voices that are oppressed or not part of the mainstream curriculum. So the realization that my sexuality may be different from others also took place around puberty s s, and that does play a major role in my moving towards global education as a theory, towards critical theory (CD, personal communication, January 14, 2010) CD went on to elaborate about a minority status providing a blueprint for developing a global pers (CD, personal communicati on, January 14, 2010). He spent more time on this subject in the second interview, stating, being oppressed. That being oppressed, that firsthand knowledge, makes you keenly aware of oppr ession that exists across the planet
119 prime area as to where I draw my global perspective from (CD personal communication, March 11 2010) cluded firsthand experiences with friends and family: For me, I received the experience in heaps. So I experienced injustice through my own sexuality. I perceived injustice when I had friends of mi ne who were Jewish, who talked about discrimination and I met their grandparents, who lived through the dads, speaking of not just Jewish, but his dad was born in Palestine and, having spoke n to him for many years, I understand the Palestinian perspective on Israel. Understanding these or I learned from a textbook, it was from exposure to real people (CD, personal communica tion, January 14, 2010) MN also talked about how experiences as a minority gradually affected her development of a global perspective by allowing her to overcome stereotypes she had developed against Americans due to the perceived mistreatment she had gone through. She describes one of those experiences: Again, coming into the U nited S tates not knowing English, and from Haiti were really looked down upon by the American students. I have this ex perience; again, this is back in elementary b know what the deal was but the school bus left me and I was, here w ait i n my thick Haitian accent, and I know the bus dr iver saw me. How do you not see a kid running behind (MN, personal communication, February 3, 2010) Despite experiencing discrimination, MN described how her minority status was also a conduit to her developme nt of a global perspective:
120 So I had a lot of these experiences. But in elementary, I remember, a girl brushed me like her arm brushed my arm, and she was like, 10 year old is not going to thi nk that on his or her own I think something was going on at home. And, for the longest time, for me, I disliked American children. Because, for whatever reason, it literally, I did not have one American child as a friend until the eighth grade. And this i s how it happened in the eighth grade. This was eight grade l anguage a rts. There was this American girl, and she was very friendly and she said hello with everybody and I So, anyway, so she was very friendly and whatever would be going on, she would see me outside of class and invite me to sit with them at lunch, w ith she and, you know, she and her friends, and she included me in conversations in class. And, literally, I kid you not, it was l ike, ding, ding, ding, ding a bell, you know, a light went you know, have been completely different and included me and . which means I now had othe eighth grade I was finally I finally let go of my own prejudices towards these American children (MN, personal communication, Fe bruary 3, 2010) EF was the only one of the participants who cited being a minority as opening her eyes to an intercultural awareness when discussing how being treated as a minority influenced her development of a global perspective, as the following statem ent suggests: Yeah I think I took it like, on a different route. I mean I definitely, as a young child, experienced racism. I mean I was called a Spic. all the girls, you know, they were W h ou So that, I think, hurt me. But, at the same time, for some reason, I was able to reflect on from this race or ethn icity only think narrow mindedly. So I even ; that was something that they learned (EF, personal communication, March 11, 2010) Curious disposition. The final theme of this section was cited by EF and AB. It was originally identified as innate but I changed the wording from innate to curious
121 disposition because there was acknowledgement during the second interview on the part of both participants that this innateness may have been learned fro m their families very early in life. The two subthemes for this theme were, once again, globality and intercultural awareness interview. When initially responding to how she developed a global perspective, EF touched on the subthemes of both globality and intercultural awareness in her answer by sayi ng the following: I always grew up watching the news and I was always fascinated with geography and history and culture so I think I had a global perspective before I even realized, before I actually started studying the philosophy, or the prominent peopl e in the field. To me, I thought global education was important. And I always kind do is going to have a direct affect, not only on the people around me, but on people all over the world (EF, personal communication, January 14, 2010 ) As a follow up EF was asked if there were specific experiences that contributed to how she developed a global perspective. She said high schoo l or like early 20 s, if I met someone from a different marginalized them. To me, I felt, or I was interested to pick their ine (EF, personal communication, January 14, 2010 ) In the second interview, she amended the statement that it was innate when she gave so me of the credit for the development of her global perspective to her family and the world. I mean Bourdain on the Travel Channel sonal communication, March 11, 2010 ).
122 When AB was asked in the first interview what led to the development of her minded and tion, January 19, 2010). During the second interview, she implied her development of a global perspective may have been learned, rather than innate, when she talked about the influence her family had on her global perspective development, but she did also continue to cite her inquisitiveness when the development of her global perspective was discussed: curious. And I can even remember going to church always asking why. I always needed to know why. I Who wrote the Bible? Where did the Bible come from? How do we (AB, personal communication, March 10, 2010) Later in the interview, AB also made light of whether her curiosity was innate by Sesame Street personal communication, March 10, 2010). In addition, she addressed the subtheme of globality ent a lot of time watching travel shows and shows about other cultures with my family and was always wanting to learn more about 2010). Perceptions of others. Each of the participants als o identified themes in which they felt could develop a global perspective in others. Following the same interview analysis outlined in Perceptions of Self, there were two primary themes that emerged in this category: exposure to diversity and global educat ion courses. Exposure to diversity. The exposure to diversity theme was mentioned as being a benefit by several of the participants. The participants talked about the importance of such activities as being exposed to globally minded people, observing globa l educators,
123 engaging in multicultural interactions, and having travel experiences. The subthemes included intercultural awareness and globality In her second interview, OP talked about how difficult it would be for a person to develop a global perspecti ve if the person was not exposed to other cultures when she ach group, or group as we call them, has its own pros and cons and just exposing yourself t OP talked about th e type of experience one has with a group, rather than focusing on the group itself, when asked to elaborate on whether contact with certain groups made it easier for someone to gain a global perspective: er. Of course, the more different they are from you, I think, sometimes it makes it interaction with them, you know, a t a very top of the surface, skimming the think . benefits you somewhat, but if you were to live in their (OP, personal communication, March 13, 2010) Interacting wit h people from other nations and other backgrounds, I think that can help them develop that when responding to a question about how others can develop a global perspective and stereotypes could be broken. She al so talked about the need for people to become open minded if they were going to develop a global perspective. When asked how a person could become more open minded, she said, notions. I think, yo u know, if we could just throw people together a nd let whatever happens happen. But I think that you just have to around people who have a mindset. A global mindset (MN, personal communication, March 16, 2010)
124 Earlier in the interview, AB had commented that some people may be predisposed towards a global mindset, but it could be learned. When asked how a person who is not predisposed towards a global mindset can gain a global persp Let them March 10, 2010). EF touched on this theme when she responded to a question about whether being from Colombia had enabled her to have a more inte nse global perspective than someone who was born in the United States. In her response, she stated, The only differences that I see of me might have been just, like I said, the personal experiences that I had. But I think that somebody who was born and bre d in the U nited S tates who might have been traveled, who might have been like a military b rat, might have the same or even [had] a better perception of the world than I did (EF, personal communication, January 14, 2010) In addition to being well traveled, EF also tapped into both intercultural awareness and the second subtheme, globality when she talked about the importance of observing teachers who are open minded. As an exemplifier of this point, she said the following: Be able to empathize and be able to view the world from different perspectives, not just a Western perspective. To actually enjoy t hat helps a lot. And to actually care about on every scale that we are connected local, st ate, federal, global (EF, personal communication, March 11, 2010) Finally, ST discussed how exposure to diverse voices can change perspectives within all parties involved. First, by educating a person about events going on in the world about which they ra rely hear (i.e., subtheme of globality ), thereby opening eyes and changing perspectives. Second, it can also be educational for the person who is telling the story about an event that seems surreal to the listeners by observing their reactions (i.e., subth eme of intercultural awareness ). She demonstrated this situation
125 through the following comments of students experiencing this interaction in her classroom: I remember, in college, I had friends from Colombia whose family members would be kidnapped. And to me, I thought that was so bizarre. Like [in] you know, the time, from Colombia, he said, eah, you know, my dad had some So then h then, other kids are reacting and then his reaction to their reaction is kind of stirring up share a story, but even though (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) Global education courses. The second theme was a topic that none of the participants had stated when explaining what had in fluenced their own development of a global perspective, although some had stated it had intensified their global perspective. This theme, mentioned by three of the participants that would be beneficial in developing a global perspective in others was globa l education courses. Interestingly, when the interviewees discussed the taking of these courses, they largely focused on only two of the dimensions of a global perspective that emerged as the subthemes: intercultural awareness and globality This was a tre nd throu ghout many of the subthemes, a topic o n which I focus in the U nanticipated R esults section of this chapter. AB touched on both of these subthemes when she focused on a university global education course, taken by all of the interview participants, as a possible way of (AB, personal communication, March 10, 2010). When asked how she thought their perspective could be changed on global matters, she stressed the necessity of taking a
126 university level course on global education. Asked to elaborate reasons this would be she expanded on the subject by saying the following: I think it teaches you the importance of relating to all the students in your class. And, in this world, classes are very diverse and I religions s o that everybody in that class feels like you a day, or even 10 students, you have to be global minded b ecause a lot of our students are not from the United States ; families came from other parts of the world. And so I think you need to teach them about that as well and how that interacts with America. In essence, they need to be taught the importance of having diverse views and allowing students to feel that they can have diverse views too (AB, personal communication, March 10, 2010) MN agreed that others could develop a global perspective from such a course by I think they can get it from a course and I thin k exposure to global issues. Like, (MN, personal communication, March 16, 2010). Finally, EF focused on global education courses being a vital aspect of providing teachers a global perspecti I think global education gives new teachers a really good foundation of where to begin communication, March 11, 2010). When asked how they could get this, she focused on global education courses providing students the inte rcultural awareness dimension of a global perspective by providing the following answer: I think if you could teach a course to where you almost force that their life they can gain that e mpathy that is necessary to teach from this perspective then that might help (EF, personal communication, March 11, 2010)
127 Intensification of Global Perspective Five out of the six participants interviewed for this study expressed an opinion that their global perspective was developed while they were still a minor, but all six of the participants were in agreement in that they felt their individual global perspective was continuing to intensify. There were four primary themes perceived to aid in the inte nsification of a global perspective: (a) international travel, (b) global education courses, (c) mentor, and (d) professional service. International travel. The predominant subtheme emerging from the international travel theme was globality ST, MN, CD, an d EF each provided examples of how traveling to other locales taught them something new about conditions around the world and how this intensified their global perspective. For example, ST implied a recent trip to Australia taught her about issues she had I think it ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010). Elaborating on how this meant it enhanced her global perspective, she said Just seeing how people live and all the different cultures that 2010). She also talked about how a trip to Western Europe when she was 18 years old made her more aware of world interactions. When asked how the trip affected her global perspective, she focused on the subt heme of globality when saying, It was just neat to see how cities operate abroad. The eco friendliness, even back then, that was amazing to me. The transportation system. How easy it was to go from one country to another. This was before the Euro, EU, and all that (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) She also talked about how a teenage trip to the Bahamas was a conduit to being a social justice learning experience. While responding to a question on her background
128 questionnaire about whether a place that she had traveled had any influence over her global perspective, ST said about the Bahamas, think it was the Bahamas; a couple times I went. But, what was interesting is a couple year s later, after coming back, I realized there was poverty in the Bahamas, but we never saw that. But then makes you realize things when people go out of their way to hide things and not tel l you about them (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) CD was another participant who focused on the subtheme of globality when, as he communication, Marc h 11, 2010). Discussing his international travels, CD shared how each of the experiences had intensified his global perspective in some manner. Arguably the most culturally intense experience would have been when he spent 3 months in the Sub Saharan Africa n country of Zambia, where he worked for a nongovernmental following while discussing whether it had an effect on the development of his global perspective: Absolutel think it enhanced it and gave me additional resources b ecause I was already well in the global ed camp by the time that I went. So importa nt in me formulating that mindset but since it happened so late in my life, I was already there M entally, I was already there (CD, personal communication, March 11, 2010) Asked whether he could be more specific with his comment that it provided him with The ability to speak intelligently, firsthand knowledge, of what takes place in a third world country to my students For me to understand it, for me 2010). CD also traveled to
129 Eastern Europe the summer after the 9/11 tragedy in the United States. I asked him whether that trip had an affect on his global perspective and he provided some insight into how it influenced his global perspective and also touched on the subtheme of social justice when he made a comment that made an insinuation about the power of the media. It did. Absolutely it did. Now that was Eastern Europe. I also checked on the ir Western Europe [reports] In that same trip we went to those two places that I identified, the Czech Republic and Budapest and we also went to Munich and to Vienna, which I would say is Western Europe. And it certainly had an impact on my global awareness and, you know, especially after 9/11, D places, and the people who I met in each country, they opened that sometimes, but I do reception that I experienced in those countries was wonderful. It really made me more aware of, again, the realities of the human experience, rather than literature and media reports (CD, personal communication, March 11, 2010) British Columbia, for an educational conference. This trip also seemed to have an influence in the areas of globality and social justice When asked whether this trip had an influence on the development of his global perspective, CD said the following: Absolutely it did. Since it was 2007, it was important in me reformulating a global perspective. It gave me perspective. It gave me a better understanding of the world. In the United States, again, if we want to go back to Robert Hanvey, he has one of his dimensions is state of the planet awareness t o understand the planet and understand the media that shapes your understanding of the planet. When I was in Canada in the United States this ongoing debate about the welfare of medicine and should we have universal healthcare. Canada does and what we see on the work. So while I was there for a week, I spoke with a lot of Canadians and I deliberately addressed this issue. None of them program. So it makes me wonder, where is this broken Canadian
130 health care system y ou know? I learned m ore. That was why it was important (CD, personal communication, March 11, 2010) MN focused on the subthemes of globality and intercultural awareness when she talked about a trip she took as an adult to Italy. When asked whether this trip had an influence on developing her global perspective, she pointed out that the global perspective was already there, but it intensified her global perspective: I would say that I had global awareness before going to Italy, but e kind of opened up my The people are just, absolutely, just [warming] people, very, very know, kind of had an affect on me, say that I had a global mindset before. I just, I guess, appreciated the Italian culture a little more (MN, personal communication, March 16, 2010) CD also touched on the subtheme of intercultural awareness while discussing his perspective. The friends I made were no longer merely Africans clumped together with millions of others Instead they were individuals with rich personal histories who 2010). Finally, EF focused on the subtheme of intercultural awareness when she mentioned how traveling to Canad a helped change her perspective towards Canadians : Yeah, it completely changed my perspective of Canadians. Yeah, I thought that Canadians hated Americans. I just, for whatever reason, I heard that growing up as a kid and I just assumed that ke us. And going up there and talking to people, it was just completely different. They love Americans, as far as the people I met (EF, personal communication, March 11, 2010) Global education courses. Several of the interviewees stated that taking univer sity courses in global education had intensified their global perspective. A few
131 subthemes also emerged during the interviews. In addition to a couple of subthemes that correlated with the five themes of a global perspective ( globality and intercultural awareness ), being provided the terminology of global education and resources to learn more about global education or use in the classroom were cited as ways a global perspective is intensified. Some of the interviewees talked about how a global educati on course deepened their global perspective by exposing them to new perspectives and providing new resources to which they had never been exposed. When AB was asked how it affected her global perspective, she replied, Well, I think that signing up for a co urse and being subjected to a to choose what that professor makes you read, or study ; you have to do it, whether you want to or not. So all these people who say, and booklist s for exa mple. You may not necessarily have ever picked up Thomas Friedman until you take a global education class (AB personal communication, January 19 2010) OP pointed out that while she already knew multiple perspectives, global education courses led her to gaining a more in depth understanding of what it meant and provided her with the tools to understand other cultural frameworks better, which led to a grea ter understanding of how she could be teaching this way. In addition to AB, many of the participants talked about how the resources enhanced their global perspective. step personal communication, March 11, 2010). Asked for examples, EF talked about being exposed to a documentary and a simulation activity titled The Albatross which consisted
132 of stu dents participating in a ceremonial greeting with an imaginary culture (Albatross) that provided her resources on the dimension of intercultural awareness That was a great activity, or The Bluest Eye ; that documentary she showed us about the teacher lik e in the personal communication, March 11, 2010). CD also talked about how global education courses enhanced his global education personal communication, January 14, 2010). In addition, about these courses, he said, I think the global education curriculum, the whole theory behind global education, is it provides the reader with methods and s trategies for teaching things that are important. So, without that background, I still know about the things that are important, but I (CD, personal communication, January 14, 2010) EF talked about an online global education course demonstrating to her the depths of the What was the name of that course, g lobal t rends? In that course we watched Babel and that movie was and that was like, phenomena l . like blew my mind away and I was like, wow. That just like, it made it more cut and clear like see ? W e are connected (EF, personal communication, March 11, 2010) A final subtheme cited frequently as intensifying a global perspective was that of being provid ed terminology said it was in the graduate learned a lot more. I learned a terminology that goes on with global education ( EF, personal communication, January 14, 2010). Later in the interview, she went on to say the following:
133 When you take the global education (courses), they give you the literature and they give you the authors and their perceptions on you know, theory; you can actually take this theory and put it into practice (EF, personal communication, January 14, 2010) In his first interview, CD explained how global education courses changed his global perspective: Global e ducation courses gave everything a name for me. And it those courses, I probably would not be a global educ vocabulary (CD, personal communication, January 14, 2010) Mentor Three of the participants stated that having a mentor was a valuable part of intensifying their global persp ective. Each participant identifying the mentor as an excitement that provided her with energy. For another person, it was being given a focus to his perspective and, fo r the other participant, part of it had to do with the activities she learned from the mentor that she could use in her own classroom to teach from a global perspective. The commonality and subtheme was that for each of them, the mentor was seen as a suppo rt system OP described how her mentor made her feel reenergized whenever she would go to a meeting of the Global Schools Project: Her excitement, really, every time, you know, I start to dwindle down and I get tired and I go we meet, and it just revive s h, look [at all the], you know, if, after you know? So I think that it monthly meetings were great, you know, to revive th at y ou know, after 30 days we start to dwindle down and we get tired and worn down. So she did a great job of bringing us together to help revive that energy y ou know A nd she herself has great energy and she gets very excited about everything (OP, pers onal communication, February 13, 2010)
134 CD explained the influence of his mentor when sharing how his global only leads me in a direction. I need a focus now. And the focus, I think, would be When talking about how his mentor helped with this focus he said: I came at her with a blunt instrument and she sharpened it and pointed me in a directi on. I came to her being angry at the world. to focus that rage, how to find a positive outlet for that need to fix things and make the world a better place for everyone. And what you should do. Here are some things you should read. Maybe and I did read it and it made a lot of sense to me. And then I moved in that direction, not only intellectually, but as a career. She provided me the literature that provided me a direction. It was almost like an ha moment (CD personal communication, March 11 2010) In her initial interview, AB stated that her mentor had a great influence on her global perspec tive. When asked why her mentor had a great influence on this perspective, and ideas for the classroom. AB elaborated on this topic: I think because she always has practical lessons that you can take back and use in your own classroom. So she teaches you how to teach with global perspective. She gives you the handouts you need and the support you need. You can always reach her by e mail. ing with you, and she gives you everything you need for that lesson and so you can take it back to something in the classroom (A B personal communication, March 10 2010) Professional service. Two of the interviewees named professional service as having an influence on intensifying their global perspective. In both cases there appeared to be an underlying theme of globality AB described how her involvement in the Model
135 United Nations and the related conferences has had an influence on her global perspective. She stated, I learn something new at every conference I take students to, so I think the answer is yes. Every conferen ce has a new topic. So as the kids are asked to research that topic, of course, I have to help research the country that they a re assigned. So this year I got a learning experience for me, as well as them (AB, personal communication, March 10, 2010) She also stated that her service to the Global Schools Project ha s influenced her global perspective: The Global Schools Project has, indeed. Because that has influenced me and made me aware that I need to infuse global studies in my curriculum a nd the importance of it and how to do it. Over the years a lot of different speakers and I gained something from each of them and take that back to the classroom s o that whole program has definitely influenced me (AB, personal communication, March 10, 2010) When asked whether there are specific areas or them es that she felt like she had gained strategies from the Global Schools Project she again cited the subtheme of globality when she said, an expert in Latin America now, because our theme has tion, March 10, 2010). OP was the other global educator citing service to profession as a reason for the intensification of her global perspective. She talked about the camaraderie she developed with the other participants of the Global Schools Project a nd the ideas she developed from talking with them. She stated that this enabled her to learn about other places through hearing their stories. For example, when asked what it was about the other teachers of the Global Schools Project that influenced her gl obal perspective, she said,
136 One of them has been to countries in South America, and Asia. I y ou nited S tates of them there, you know, physically. But just because they actually experience interactions with many other diverse cultures y ou fluenced me a lot because I kind of have to live great stories, not just educational, but personal experiences while they were there (OP, personal communication, February 13, 2010) Analysis o f Research Question 3: Is There a Relationship Between What Self identified Global Educators Attribute the Development of Their Global Perspective to and How They Scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey? This research question explored the relationshi p between how the interview participants scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) and the emerging themes and subthemes to which they attributed the development of a global perspective. While seeking relationships, I looked at the following four areas: relationships based on total scores and themes; relationships based on total scores and subthemes; relationships based on individual dimensions and themes; and relationships based on individual dimensions and subthemes. The remainder of this s ection addresses each of these four areas, based upon each of the themes that emerged.
137 Initial Development Perception of Self As discussed in Analysis of Research Question 2, there were four themes emerging from the interviews when the participants disc ussed how they individually mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) and the theme(s) and subtheme(s) each person associated with his or her development of a global perspective are present ed in Table 9. Following the table, each section provides a descriptive analysis of the relationships, or lack thereof, between mindedness Survey scores and their perceived development of a global perspective. Tabl e 9 : Participant Scores and Perceived Global Perspective Development Pseudonym OP MN ST EF AB CD Theme: f amily 118 90 131 133 Intercultural a wareness * Globality * * Theme: e xposure to d iversity 118 119 90 Intercultural a wareness * Globality
138 Pseudonym OP MN ST EF AB CD Theme: m inority s tatus 119 131 132 Social j ustice * Intercultural a wareness Theme: c urious d isposition 131 133 Globality * Intercultural a wareness Note: = Subtheme chosen. Theme: family. Four of the participants (EF, ST, OP, and AB) attributed part of the development of their global perspective to their family. The participant scores ranged scores, there does development to family and their Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) total scores. There also does not appear to be a relationship between the two subthemes for family ( intercul tural awareness and globality ) and the Hett Global mindedness Survey
139 (Hett, 1993) total scores. Each one of the participants had focused part of the family attribution to globality Additionally, two of the participants (OP and ST) had also focused on inte rcultural awareness While these two participants were the bottom two the top two scorers (131 and 133) than the bottom scorer (90), indicating that there was no relatio nship. There were five dimensions to the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993). The dimensions are: responsibility, cultural pluralism, efficacy, globalcentrism, and interconnectedness. The participants were never in incremental order in any of the d imensions; therefore, based on how the four participants scored on each of the dimensions, there does not appear to be a relationship between the scores on any of the individual dimensions and the theme of family. OP and ST had the two lowest scores in th e dimensions of cultural pluralism and globalcentrism for the subtheme of intercultural awareness but the scores did not appear to be significantly lower than scores of the participants who did not cho o se this subtheme. For example, in the cultural plural ism dimension, OP scored over 90% just as the four highest scores had and in the globalcentrism dimension, ST scored 60% but was only 2 points behind the next highest scorer. In th e remaining three dimensions, OP and ST were not exclusively the two highest or two lowest scoring scorers; therefore, there did not appear t o be any relationship between OP and ST scores and this subtheme. In the globality subtheme AB, EF, OP, and ST were never the four highest or four lowest scorers for any of the five dimensions; therefore, there does not appear to be a relationship between their dimension scores and this subtheme.
140 Theme: e xposure to d iversity The three interview participants who attributed an aspect of their personal development to this theme were MN, OP, and ST, who happened to be the three lowest scorers of the interview participants on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993). Addition ally, one of the subthemes that emerged, intercultural awareness was a focus of all three participants. The other subtheme, globality was the focus of only one participant, MN. She was the highest scoring of the three by 1 point and there appears to be n o relationship between her score and choosing this subtheme. On the responsibility theme, interestingly, these same three participants were the three lowest scores. They were also the only interview participants to score under an 80% on this dimension, w ith each being under 70%. In addition, each of the participants were the bottom three scorers on the globalcentrism dimension, but the difference was not as great as that for responsibility. MN, the top scorer of the participants addressing exposure to div ersity as a theme, returned a score that was only 4% lower than the EF, who did not identify this theme as an influence on the development of her global perspective. The participants identifying this theme were never in sequential order in the remainder of the three dimensions. MN, OP, and ST the identifiers of the intercultural awareness subtheme were the three lowest scorers on the responsibility dimension. A s previously stated, a ll three of them were under 70% while the other participants all scored 80% or higher on this dimension. MN, OP, and ST also were the three lowest scorers on the globalcentrism dimension, but there does not appear to be a relationship between their dimension scores and the subtheme because the highest scorer of the identifiers of this su btheme, MN only scored 1 point higher than the lowest scorer of the three interview participants who did
141 not identify this subtheme. In the remaining three dimensions, they were never the three highest or three lowest scorers; therefore, there does not appear to be a relationship between their dimensio n scores and this subtheme. MN was the only person identifying globality as a subtheme and she was never the highest or lowest scorer for any of the five dimensions; therefore, there does not appea r to be a relationship between her dimension scores and this subtheme. Theme: m inority s tatus CD, EF, and MN were the only three participants to identify the theme of minority status as contributing to the development of their global perspective. There appeared to be no relationship between how they scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) and attributed their global perspective development to this theme. CD had the second highest total score. EF had the third highest score and MN was th e fourth highest scorer. Their scores ranged from a high of 132 to a low of 119. There also appears to be no relationship between the identified subthemes associated with minority status and the participant scores on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Het t, 1993). CD, the second highest scorer of all the participants, and MN, the seventh highest scorer of the ten original participants, identified the subtheme of social justice EF, the third highest scorer, was the only one to identify the subtheme of inte rcultural awareness The relationship between the dimension scores and the development of a global perspective appears to be weak or nonexistent, such as with the responsibility, efficacy, and interconnectedness dimensions. For each of the dimensions in w hich there appeared to be no relationship, it was due to the participants not being in sequential order among
142 the six interview participant scores. EF, CD, and MN were all among the top three scores in the cultural pluralism dimension, but AB, who did not name the minority status theme, tied CD for the third it is not possible to state there is a relationship between the cultural pluralism dimension scores and this theme. Finally, on the glob alcentrism dimension, CD, EF, and MN were in sequential order, but it ranged from the second highest score through the fourth highest score. Because there was one person scoring higher on this dimension who did not name this theme and two who scored less t han this person did not identify this theme, it cannot be stated there was a relationship between the globalcentrism dimension scores and theme. There did not appear to be a relationship between social justice the subtheme identified by CD and MN and their scores on any of t he five Hett Global mindedness S urvey (Hett, 1993) dimensions because they did not have the two highest or two lowest scor es on any of the dimensions. EF was the only person to identify the intercultural awareness subtheme. She did have the highest score on the cultural pluralism dimension, but because five of the six participants scored more than 90% on the cultural pluralism dimension there does not appear to be a relationship between her dimension score and the subtheme. Because she did not have the highest or lowest score on any of the other four dimensions there does not appear to be a relationship between any of her dimension scores and the subtheme of intercultural awareness Theme: c urious d isposition A possible relations hip developed between the scores and this theme. EF and AB both identified the theme of curious disposition as an aspect of their development of a global perspective. EF and AB were both among the top
143 three scorers of the 10 original participants taking th e Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993). Additionally, EF and AB both identified the subtheme of globality AB also identified the subtheme of intercultural awareness but because she was the only one commenting on this theme, there does not appear to be any verifiable way of determining whether there was a relationship between the subtheme of intercultural awareness and a mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993). There does not appear to be a significant relationship betw Global scores on all five dimensions were never both higher or lower than the rest of the participants who did not identify this theme as having an influence on the development of their global perspective. AB and EF the two identifiers of the globality subtheme, were never exclusively the two highest or two lowest scorers of any of t he five Hett Global mindedness S urvey (Hett, 1993) dimensions; therefore, there does not appear to be a relationship between the dimension scores and this subtheme As previously stated, because AB was the only identifier of the intercultural awareness subtheme, there does not appear to be any verifiable way of determining whether the re was a relationship between this subtheme and her scores on the five survey dimensions. Initial Development Perception of Others Two themes emerged when participants discussed their perceptions on how a global perspective could be developed in others. Ad ditionally, each theme produced two subthemes. Five of the six interview participants addressed how a global perspective could be developed in others. The only participant not addressing this subject was CD. The participant scores on the Hett Global minded ness Survey (Hett, 1993) and the
144 themes and subthemes each participant associated with the development of a global perspective in others are presented in Table 10. Table 10 : Participant Score & Perceived Global Perspective Develo pment in Others Pseudonym OP MN ST EF AB CD Theme: e xposure to d iversity 118 119 90 131 133 Intercultural a wareness * * Globality * Theme: g lobal e ducation c ourses 119 131 133 Intercultural a wareness * Globality Note: = Subtheme chosen. Theme: e xposure to d iversity Five of the six participants believed this theme could lead to the development of a global perspective in others. The only interview participant not naming this theme was CD. There appeared to be no relationship in total Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett 1993) scores and this theme because the scores
145 ranged from the highest scorer of 133 to the lowest scorer of 90, with only the second highest scorer not identifying this theme. There also appeared to be no relationship between the subthemes and the tota l Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) scores. All of the participants identifying this theme also identified the subtheme of intercultural awareness and, as previously stated, the scores ranged from the highest scorer to the lowest scorer. The other subtheme, globality was identified by EF, who had the third highest score, and ST, who had the lowest score out of the 10 original participants. Because CD was the only participant who did not address this theme, I looked for differences between his sco res on the five dimensions and the other five participants. He was never lower than all five of the participants on any of the themes and only once did he score higher than everyone else on a dimension, which was responsibility. In that case, the score was less than 6% greater than the second highest score; therefore, there did not appear to be any relationship between Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) dimension scores and the theme of exposure to diversity. The five people identifying intercultural awareness as a subtheme did not appear to have a relationship between their dimension scores and this subtheme. For four of th e dimensions, the only person (CD ) who did not identify th is subtheme was never the lowe st or highest scorer. On the responsibility dimension, CD was the highest scorer, but he was one of three people who scored in the 80% range; therefore, there d id not appear to be a relationship. For the second subtheme, globality EF and ST were never the two highest or two lowest s corers on any of the five dimensions; therefore, there d id not appear to be a relationship between their dimension scores and this subtheme.
146 Theme: global education courses. AB, EF, and MN were the participants to identify global education as a possible w ay of developing a global perspective in others. The identifiers of this theme included the top scorer, the third highest scorer, and one of the participants from the bottom three scorers. Based upon the scores, there did not appear to be a relationship be tween the scores of the three participants and this theme. Intercultural awareness was also identified by all three participants; therefore, because there was no relationship between the theme and the scores, there could be no relationship between the sco res and this subtheme. The second subtheme, globality was identified by AB. Because she was the only interview participant commenting on this theme, there did not appear to be any verifiable way of determining whether there was a relationship between this mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993). AB, EF, and MN scored higher in the efficacy dimension than the other three interview participants, but AB and MN only scored 1 point higher (4%) than two of the partic ipants who had not identified this theme (CD and OP). As a result, there did not appear to be a significant relationship between the efficacy dimension scores of AB, EF, and MN and this theme. Additionally, there did not appear to be a relationship between their scores in any of the other four dimensions and this theme because their scores were intermingled with the scores of the participants who did not identify this theme in each of those four dimensions. There did not appear to be a relationship betwee n the dimension scores of AB, EF, and MN and the intercultural awareness subtheme for the same reasons noted for these participants and the efficacy dimension. As the only person to identify the globality
147 subtheme, there was no verifiable way to determine dimension scores and the globality subtheme. Intensification of Global Perspective Four themes emerged when each of the participants explained how their individual global perspective was intensified. A summary of the interview scores on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) and the themes and subthemes associated with their perceived intensification of a global perspective is presented in Table 11. Table 11 : Participant Score and Perceived Intensification of Global Perspective Pseudonym OP MN ST EF AB CD Theme: i nternational t ravel 119 90 131 132 Globality * Intercultural a wareness * Social j ustice * Theme: g lobal e ducation c ourses 118 131 133 132
148 Pseudonym OP MN ST EF AB CD Provided t erminology * Provided r esources * Globality Intercultural a wareness Theme: m entor 118 133 132 Support s ystem * Theme: p rofessional s ervice 118 133 Globality * Note: = Subtheme chosen. Theme: international travel. Four of the participants (MN, ST, EF, and CD) identified international travel as one of the themes that intensified their global perspective. Two of the participants were among the top three scorers on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) and two of the participants were among the bottom three; therefore, there appeared to be no relationship between the scores of the four participants and this theme.
149 CD, MN, and ST all identified globality as a subtheme in this category. The scores varied widely along the spectrum because these three participants scored second, seventh, and 10th highest. Therefore, there appeared to be no relationship between the scores of the three participants who identifi ed the subtheme of globality Similarly, the second subtheme, intercultural awareness appeared to have no relationship between scores and the identification of the subtheme because CD was the second highest scorer with 132, EF was the third highest scorer with 131, and MN was the seventh highest scorer with 119. The third subtheme, social justice was identified by ST and CD. Once again, there appeared to be no relationship between scores and the subtheme. CD was the second highest scorer and ST the lowest scorer with a differential of 42 points out of a maximum difference of 120 between the two. theme of international travel intensifying their global perspectives. CD, EF, MN and participants, who did not identify this theme as having an influence on the intensification of their global perspective. The three participants (CD, MN, ST ) wh o identified the subtheme of globality also never scored higher or lower than the rest of the participants on any of the five dim ensions of the Hett Global mindedness S urvey (Hett, 1993) ; therefore, there d id not appear to be a relationship between their dimension scores and this subtheme. Additionally, there d id not appear to be a relationship between MN, CD, and EF intercultural awareness because their scores were never the three highest or three lowest scores of any of the five dimensions. Fin ally, CD and ST who identified a subtheme of social justice were also never the two
150 highest or two lowest scorers for any of the five dimensions; therefore, there d id not appear to be a relationship between CD and ST Theme: global education courses. AB, CD, EF, and OP identified global education courses as a theme contributing to the intensification of their global perspective. AB, CD, and EF were the top three scorers on the GMS survey, while OP was the third lowest scorer of the 10 original participants. Based upon the scores, the relationship between the scores of the participants and this theme appeared to be inconclusive. Four subthemes emerged within global education courses. The first subtheme, provided terminology was identified by CD and EF. While they had the second and third highest scores on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993), there was no clear cut, de finitive relationship between the survey score and the subtheme because the top scorer, who scored only 1 more point than CD and 2 points higher than EF, did not also name this subtheme. On the other hand, the three highest scorers (AB, CD, and EF) were th e only interview participants naming provided resources as a subtheme, the possible significance of which is in Chapter 5. EF was the only participant to name globality as a subtheme in this category. As the only interview participant commenting on this su btheme, once again, there did not appear to be a verifiable way of determining whether there was a relationship between the subtheme and her score on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993). Similarly, OP, the seventh highest scorer of the original participants, was the only one identifying intercultural awareness as a subtheme; therefore, it cannot be determined whether there was a relationship between the subtheme and her score.
151 AB, CD, EF, and OP were the top four scorers on the responsibility dimension. AB, CD, and EF each scored 80% or above on the dimension. OP scored 68.6%, which was 5.7% higher than the highest scoring person (MN), who did not choose this theme. The other person not choosing this theme, ST, only scored a 51.4%, approximatel y 30 37% less than the top three scorers. As a result, there may have been a relationship between the responsibility dimension and the theme of global education courses. I elaborate on this possibility in Chapter 5. There may also be a relationship between the interconnectedness dimension and this theme. AB, CD, EF, and OP were the top four scorers. AB scored 92% and the other three scored 88%. The two participants not identifying this theme scored 80% (MN) and 56% (ST). There appeared to be no relationship in the remaining three dimensions because the identifying participants were never higher or lower than the rest of the participants who did not identify this theme as having an influence on the intensification of their global perspective. The subtheme of provided terminology which was identified by EF and CD appeared to have no relat ionship between it and any of EF and CD dimensions because their scores were never exclusively the two highest or two lowest on any of the five dimensio ns. There d id appear to be a relationship with one of the dimensions and the scores on the second subtheme ( provided resources ). AB, CD, and EF who each identified this second subtheme, had the three highest scores on the responsibility dimension. They we re the only interview participants to score 80% or higher The participants who did not identify this subtheme scored 68.6%, 62.9%, and 51.4%. While they did have the three highest scores on the globalcentrism dimensions the score of the third highest sco rer (CD ) was only 1 point higher than the highest
152 nonidentifier. In the remaining three dimensions there was no relationship between the dimension scores and the subtheme of provided resources because the se three scores on each of the remain ing dimensions were not higher or lower than those of the rest of the participants Theme: mentor. AB, CD, and OP stated a mentor also intensified their global perspective. This theme included the top scorer, second highest scorer, and eighth highest sc orer; therefore, similar to the theme of global education courses, the relationship appears to be inconclusive. All three of the participants naming this theme also identified support system as the subtheme; therefore, as with the theme, the relationship w as inconclusive. Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) dimension scores and the mentor theme. gher or lower than the rest of the participants who did not identify this theme as having an influence on the intensification of their global perspective. Additionally, because their scores on each of the five dimensions were not higher or lower than the r est of the participants, there also d id not appear to be a relationship between their survey dimension scores and the support system subtheme. Theme: professional service. The professional theme also appeared to include no relationship between participa nt scores and the theme. Two participants identified this theme. One of the participants was AB, the highest scorer at 133. The other participant naming this theme was OP, the third lowest scorer at 118. The only subtheme was globality and it was also identified by both participants; therefore, similar to the theme,
153 mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) scores and the subtheme. There did not appear to be a relationship scores and the professional service theme. The scores on all five dimensions were never higher or lower than the scores of rest of the participants who did not identify this theme. Addi tionally, because the scores of AB and OP on each of the five dimensions were not higher or lower than the scores of the rest of the participants, there also d id not appear to be a relationship between their survey dimension scores and the subtheme of the professional service theme. Anal ysis of Research Question 4 : How M ight the B ackground of a T eacher (e.g., T ravel E xperience, L anguages S poken) I nfluence to W hat the T eacher A ttributes His or Her Development of Global mindedness? While looking at this research question, I analyzed the te acher background questionnaires and the interviews conducted with the participants. Only three areas emerged in which there appeared the possibility of a relationship between the background of a teacher and to what the teacher attributed his or her develop ment of global mindedness. Two of the areas were associated with the development of a global perspective and the other area was associated with the intensification of a global perspective. Out of those three, none of the areas can confidently be stated to be an influence on the developed global mindedness. CD was the only one who did not associate the development of the global perspective at an early age with his or her family, and was also t he only one to assign a
154 conservative ideology to his family. The other five interview participants identified their global perspective as being developed by the time they were adolescents, while CD stated he did not develop a global perspective until he ha d gone to college. It may be coincidence because there was only data from six participants being analyzed, but on the other hand, EF, AB, and ST did address a liberal ideology going hand in hand with a global perspective. The second relationship that appea red to possibly emerge from the teacher background questionnaire was that three people who had marked that they had lived in a non Western culture or developing country for at least 3 months each identified a minority experience as an influence of their gl obal perspective development. MN had lived in Haiti for 10 years, EF lived in Colombia for the first 3 years of her life, and CD spent 3 months in Zambia working on a research grant. While each of the three identified a minority experience as an aspect of that travel experience, they were addressed differently. Therefore, while there may be a relationship between having lived in a non Western culture or developing country for 3 or more months, it was not necessarily an influence of the developed global pers pective. For example, although CD discussed standing out as a White man while in Zambia and being treated differently as a result of the color of his skin, the experience did not influence his development of a global as already in the global education camp before did experience life as a minority while in a country outside of the United States, EF and MN did not experience minority stat us while living outside of the United States. Despite not experiencing minority status while living in Haiti and Colombia, EF and MN cited
155 their experiences as a minority after relocating to the United States for the development of a global perspective. The final relationship between teacher backgrounds and what the interview participants attributed to the development of global mindedness had to do with an intensification of a global perspect ive. Each of the four participants who had international travel experience beyond taking a 1 week Caribbean cruise cited international travel as an intensification of their global perspective. In contrast, the other two participants did not address interna tional travel as being a possible reason for an intensification of a global perspective. Interestingly, the two (ST and CD) who traveled to the most regions listed on the teacher background questionnaire were the only ones who addressed a subtheme of socia l justice when discussing how their global perspective was intensified by international travel. Analysis of Research Question 5: How D o T eachers P erceive T heir C urricular D ecision M aking is I nfluenced by to W hat T hey A ttribute T heir C onstructed G lobal mi ndedness? Results related to the final research question were divided for presentation into two sections: initial development of global perspective and intensification of global perspective. In both sections, I discuss the emerging themes, which were pred ominately strategies and resources, and the subthemes in each category to provide greater specificity to the types of strategies and resources the participants perceived as the themes to which they attributed their constructed global mindedness and its inf luence on their curricular decision making. An overview of the themes and subthemes is presented in Table 12.
156 Table 12 : Curricular Decision making Themes and Subthemes Grouping Theme(s) Sub t heme(s) I nitial d evelopment Family Resources Globality social j ustice Strategies Intercultural awareness, globality Exposure to d iversity Resources Intercultural a wareness Empathy Minority Status Strategies Intercultural a wareness g lobality s ervice learning e mpathy Resources Intercultural awareness Curious Disposition Strategies Social justice s ervice learning Intensification of a g lobal p erspective International t ravel Resources Globality Global e ducation c ourses Resources Terminology l iterature Strategies Globality i ntercultural a wareness Grouping Theme(s) Sub t heme(s) Intensification of a g lobal p erspective Mentor Strategies Intercultural a wareness g lobality
157 Resources Professional s ervice Strategies Globality Resources Globality Initial Development of Global Perspective As discussed in the Analysis of Research Question 2, four themes emerged in the initial development of a personal global perspective. Out of those four themes, three themes emerged during the discussion with the interview participants o f Research Question 5. Two of the themes, strategies and resources, were discussed at length by multiple participants as influencing their curricular decision making in multiple facets. Family Two themes emerged in curricular decision making from the five participants who had identified family as an influence in the development of their global perspective. The two themes were resources and strategies. Additionally, two subthemes emerged: globality and intercultural awareness Resources The theme of r esources was addressed by EF, ST, and AB when discussing how family had influenced their curricular decision making. In addition, the subtheme they each primarily addressed was globality EF focused on both globality and the subtheme of social justice when she discussed the stories she learned from her parents about growing up in the South American country of Colombia. She stated she used these stories in the classroom to lead a discussion about societal power structures and give the students an example of daily life in Colombia. An excerpt of this discussion is presented here: stories that my parents know. Because I was so young when I left, I
158 was 3 1/2 I ask my parents about how they grew up in the LDC [less developed country] and experiences that they went through and poverty, and then I share those stories with my students (EF personal communication, March 11 2010) ST focused primarily on globality when she talked about how her family background influenced her curricular decision making while teaching a course on AP human geography. Much of the influence came from exposure to visitors (i.e., news, and traveling with her parents. Additionally, the type of resources she discussed these experiences offering was concentrated on providing background on the geography or history of an area. An example of this resource came in her discussion of what d iscussions and photos from her brother, who was a missionary in Africa, had provided for her: You know, the classic, treating Africa like a country. Oh, so many materials that are out there. You know diverse. So, just choosing m aterials that way, but as far as, like, what material I want to share (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) During the interviews, AB talked about her parents discussing current events w ith her at an early age and it becoming ingrained to watch the news. She believed this appreciation for keeping up with current world events carried over into her adult life and had an indirect influence on her still watching the news on a daily basis to t his day. When asked if this influenced her curricular decision making, she focused on her increased knowledge of what was going on in the world (i.e., globality ) due to her daily watching story of different
159 questions about those areas, I have answers 2010). Strategies This theme was addressed by two of the participant s, OP and MN. When discussing how family had impacted her curricular decision making, OP focused on the subtheme of intercultural awareness when she talked about teaching from multiple perspectives : multiple perspectives when I first started thinking about teaching. You y ou know? But I think after taking some of those classes, I was like, wow, you know, I teach many perspectives just becau se of my family (OP, personal communication, March 13, 2010) OP also addressed the influence of her parents on her curricular decision making, during advocate while discussing the plight of the homeless, she explained how this influenced her teaching: Other times, you know, even today when we talk about global had a debate on it and I would play d s a dvocate with them. If they would side for it, I would side against it. You know, as I was talking to them, if they were siding against it, I would side for it y ou know? And even when students come in with current events, eading current events and then right when they come in the door they want to tell me about them y ou know, and so they tell me about some of these events and, just like ell, you know, I guess they were talking about they un covered somebody who wanted to put a nuclear bomb in a volcano over in Yosemite Park, or a mountain, or something and blow it up so that it would cause farming issues so that people would starve to death, to help control the population of the E arth. And I was like, busy city and set a nuke off there? You know? And I was like, you know, you know, so it kind of surprised them. They were like, was going to control the population to a busy city and not this whole drawn out process up in a
160 mountain and set off a nuclear weapon so that the farms fail y ou know? So, you know, I just kind of have them, you know, kind of do what my Dad did (OP, personal communication, March 13, 2010) While the strategies OP discussed focused on intercultural awareness the strategies discussed by MN were subtly centered on the sub theme of globality She discussed how her parents had infused the concept of being responsible and aware of events taking place around her and how this has carried over into the expectations she carried into the classroom. She put it in the following manne r when discussing what communication, March 16, 2010). Exposure to diversity. Two themes emer ged from the participants who had named exposure to diversity as an influence in the development of their global perspective. The two themes were resources and empathy. The only subtheme that emerged was intercultural awareness Resources ST and MN both addressed the subtheme of intercultural awareness When asked if she could expound upon what she meant by more material to work with, her people in other cultures provides a firsthand perspective to add on to what they read in their textbook or what the communication, March 8, 2010). According to MN, one thing that exposure to diversity aw upon so I can give the perspective through someone in February 3, 2010).
161 Empathy MN also addressed the theme of empathy during her second interview session. She talked about how her experiences with people from different cultures had made it easier to be sympathetic to the lives of her students. An example of this understanding of other students was communicated when she said the following: I feel like the more I know ab out other people, other cultures, the more well people in their struggles, whatever the deal may be, with a different set of eyes then. You know, as if then I never had any contact, or never really had any desire to learn know, I would probably see people as them, rather than human beings, too, who have lives and have a lot to offer the people around them (MN, persona l communication, March 16, 2010) Minority s tatus From the three participants identification of minority status, the themes of strategy and resources re emerged. The subthemes of intercultural awareness empathy globality and service learning were addre ssed by the participants. Strategies MN, EF, and CD each addressed the theme of strategies when discussing how minority status influenced their curricular decision making. MN and EF also addressed the subtheme of intercultural awareness In her first int erview session, MN talked about the impact of her experience with the bus driver, discussed in the Analysis of Research Question 2, on her curricular decision making in the following statement: So this bus driver leaves me. So I tell my students this story because, in my heart of hearts, I believe that she mistreated me. I believe that she knew. But some way, somehow, she left me cause we have a lot of a great ESOL population here, and they sometimes make fun of the language, or a lack thereof of these understand and then the other kids all, you know, kind of giggle. I think my English is decent right now and most of my sentences are grammatically
162 utter a word in English when I first came into the United States ate them making fun of the students. So that is one way I try to encourage them to, again, to just look beyond this physical individual. This person is a human being with great attributes. Get to know the person rather than cut eak English (MN, personal communication, February 3, 2010) MN also referred to the incident of the girl brushing up against her, discussed in the Analysis of Research Question 2, having an influence on her curricular decision So an experience like that comp els me to teach my students minded as these 10 year olds were in elementary school EF talked about how being a Hi spanic woman provided minority experiences that influenced how she taught in the classroom. When talking about how the experiences of being marginalized and called names by other kids due to her Hispanic heritage as a child I have students like this, I can kind of open their eyes right path CD also talked about strategies when he discussed how experiences of being a minority had influenced his curricular decision making, but unlike MN and EF, who talked about intercultural awareness he focused on the subthemes of empathy service learning and globality For example, CD stated that having expe rienced intolerance, he was more inclined to understand the insecurities other students go through and actively sought to raise awareness to those issues and keep it from happening in his classroom. I think, part of that comes from my own personal experience that I
163 heard those voices as a child (CD, personal commu nication, January 14, 2010) CD also discussed how these experiences have inspired him to get the students actively involved in the lives of the downtrodden by facilitating service learning projects. For example, this past school year, he had his students i nvolved in raising money for the homeless for one of the local shelters. Finally, he talked about how experiencing and making through the subtheme of globality Both my pare nts lost their job s right before they retired, denying them access to a full pension. Right now the ir town has the highest unemployment r then explained how this situation had influenced h is teaching strategies: I pose an open ended question where my students can consider the advantages and disadvantages of unbridled capitalism versus a communist state versus a socialist government. As examples, we use the United States as the c apitalist mo del, North Korea as a c ommunist model, and France as a s ocialist model a nd we look at the advantages and disadvantages to each of those systems. And, while many of my students still find themselves, at the end, signing up with the c apitalist model, I do f ind that most of them find themselves in the s ocialist camp (CD, personal communication, March 11, 2010) Resources MN was the only participant to address the theme of resources when explaining how the theme of minority status had influenced her curricul ar decision making. The subtheme of intercultural awareness emerged during the first interview. When discussing the experience of the bus driver leaving her and how it affected her curricular decision making today, she said, I tell my students this story b ecause we have a lot of a great ESOL population here, and they sometimes make fun of the language, or a lack thereof essarily understand and then the other kids all,
164 I think my English is decent right now and most of my sentences kid wh making fun of the students. So that is one way I try to encourage them to, again, to just look beyond this physical individual. T his person is a human being with great attributes. Get to know the (MN, personal communication, February 3, 2010) Curious disposition. Two participants identified curious disposition as an in fluence of their initial development of a global perspective, but only one of the participants identified it as an influence of her curricular decision making. EF talked about strategies when discussing how a curious development influenced her curricular d ecision making. The subthemes that emerged from her interviews on this theme included social justice and service learning Strategies While talking about the strategies being used in the classroom that stemmed from her curious disposition, EF shared the following activity that emphasizes social justice : One of the ones that I do with my students is I have them write a journal entry on a typical day in their lives. From the time they get up to the time they go to sleep, everything that they do. Everything that they eat, what they do in school, the school setting, are there lights, are you inside or are you outside, is there electricity, an d then I might have them watch a video or a clip video on child students will have a discussion first, after they write their journal. whatever they say. Then we watch the video on child labor in Brazil, and after they watch the video, I have them debrief. And I say, ow I want you to write a journal entry if you were that child in t hat video. Instead of waking up, and having breakfast, and getting on the bus, and going to school, and then going to practice, what if you had to, you know, break a rock for 15 hours a day, or you had to go work o go to school? And
165 go back and then we debrief again. I go differences between your life and a child who lives in a LDC, or l ess d eveloped c ountry (EF pers onal communication, January 14 2010 ) When asked how she came up with the idea for this lesson, EF said the following: ould you think about the video? But I realized that having them actually write down their day, kind of broke down every hour of the day and I think me thinking that idea, however I thought of it, made it more eat, I come home o I want every hour on the hour of what you do and then watching the video, and then putting themselves in (EF, personal communication, January 14, 2010) She credited her curious disposition when she discussed showing the film Invisible Children to her students, which is a documentary about the plight of child soldiers in Uganda. In addition to a social justice subtheme, a service learning subtheme emerged students are very touched by that documentary and, you know, we send money to buy T Intensification of Global Perspective Fro m the four themes that emerged in the intensification of a personal global perspective, the same two themes that were predominant for initial development of global perspective emerged: strategies and resources. The analysis of these themes and the subtheme s that emerged is discussed next. International travel. The four interview participants who identified international travel as intensifying their personal global perspective all focused on the subtheme of globality when discussing how it affected their curricular decision making. While a
166 similar subtheme emerged, different aspects of that subtheme were discussed by the various participants. Resources MN talked about how a trip to Italy has been a resource for her t o Not necessarily in terms of, you know, methods. But in terms of having knowledge and just coming back and showing my you know, a PowerPoint slide on all the ruins and artifacts mixed in with the modern scenery how it provided a firsthand account resource about a place for her when she said, experience that I have, I share with my students. It gives me the opportunity to tell them communication, March 11, 2010). As explained in the section on Analysis of Re search Question 2, ST talked about her international travel provided her with more ammunition. When discussing how that Well, when I was March 8, 2010). She also touched on the subtheme of globality when she talked about how traveling had influenced her curricular decision making. She talked about the interconnectedness in the world she talked to student s about, such as when she said about Asian tourism. The Japanese were everywhere as far as the touristy places went and I 2010).
167 personal communication, March 11, 2010). Asked if he could be more specific about what he meant by resources, CD focused on wo rld conditions, which was an aspect of globality The ability to speak intelligently, firsthand knowledge, of what takes place in a third world country to March 11, 2010). When talking about how trips h e had made to Canada and Eastern Europe gave him resources about the health care system and life in a post 9/11 European world, he also spoke of globality I can now speak more intelligently about reality versus what we hear in the news. The r eality of people experiencing it, rather than Global education courses. Four subthemes were discussed by the four participants who named global education courses. The subthemes were globality intercultural awareness terminology and literature Resources. AB noted the literature she was exposed to in global education courses affects her curricular decision making. She stated that she planned to continue to refer to books she read in global education courses when planning lessons on topics such as comparative religions. On the other hand, EF spoke of the subthemes of literature and terminology when explaining how global education courses had become a resource for her in the cl assroom. During our first interview, when telling how taking a global education course had aided her curricular decision making, she said, It definitely gives you, like, the stepping stones o f how to teach and what you should emphasize in your class. When taking these courses at USF, when you take the global education, they give you the literature and they give you the authors and their perceptions on global education, but it also gives you ide
168 you know, theory; you can actually take this theory and put it into practice (EF, personal communication, January 14, 2010) In the second interview, I asked EF if she could tell me what it was about some of the global education li terature that has helped her with teaching a global perspective. She said, I was, like, the five dimensions that Hanvey, he breaks it down very clearly on what makes a person a global minded educator. And that, to me, is a really good outline for someone like e ven before I his makes sense. Now it connects. It gave me terminology or words that are coined to global education and in a way I could use those terms to help create my lessons. It helped me with, like, a foundation to explain it (EF, personal communication, March 11, 2010) Strategies During the Theme: resources section, I mentioned AB stating that the literature in global education course had benefitted her in the writing of lesson plans. Focusi ng on the subtheme of globality she stated the courses had also provided strategies. Talking about this, she said the following: With the religions, it helps not to just understand the religion, but relate to it and understand how it could be true. Not ju st to go in and say hese people believe this. To really get the students to look at it and show them the similarities between Hinduism and Christianity when you can make charts and show them all the similarities. And, for instance, you can take differe nt law codes that different civilizations use with totally different religions, and they have the same laws. And the kids kind of, you know, they get that ha almost the same w here the whole time grow ing up they might not have realized that Christianity sprang from Judaism. They thought the same history and started to see the interrelatedness (AB, personal communication, March 10, 20 10) OP focused on two subthemes when discussing how global education course have impacted her teaching in the classroom. Although OP gave most of the credit to her family for teaching intercultural awareness in her classroom, she did reserve some of the
169 cr edit for specific strategies of teaching students to understand the perspectives of others through global education courses she took as an upperclassmen while getting her degree in education. She also explained how global education coursework had helped he r teach the knowledge of global dynamics aspect of globality by saying, With all those classes, you know, I would take one every semester, and I think I ended up taking a total of three of them. And it was very easy after going to those to incorporate glob al activities. It especially helped give me strategies for teaching about the interconnectedness of the global economy (OP, personal communication, February 13, 2010) Finally, CD stressed his belief in the importance of taking global education courses for a social studies teacher by saying the following: I think the global education curriculum, the whole theory behind global education, is it provides the reader with methods and strategies for teaching things that are important. So, without that background, I still know about the things that are important, but I (CD, personal communication, January 14, 2010) Mentor The participants who identified mentor focused on the same two themes, strategies and resources, as the majority of the other global perspective themes related to Research Question 5. S ubthem e emerged from only one of the participants. Strategies CD and AB both talked about gaining strategies from their mentor. CD which, as discussed in Chapter 2, fit into the two subthemes of intercultural awareness and globali ty second interview, when he was asked to expand upon the previous statement, CD replied, Well, she provided me with the literature, which provided many strategies, but she also provided strategies herself, such as using guided readings, using primary source documents. These are
170 educati that, she provided me with the literature, like the Robert Hanvey e mphasize one of these five dimensions, perspective consciousness, knowledgeable global dynamics, those issues (CD, personal communication, March 11, 2010) His explanation of how the mentor had provided him strategies continued when I asked whether the mentor provided specific strategies on how he could incorporate those five dimensions: classroo m. It was an NCSS document that was published a while back where it was a whole collection of global ed strategies that one of the great books that w in d that I refer to them to (CD, personal communication, March 11, 2010) I next asked CD to provide some examples of how he incorporated these strategies as a high school or university instructo r. He responded, Well, for college , I actually hand them a Hanvey piece, the Robert Hanvey piece. Then we review it and I explain to them what the five dimensions are, who Robert Hanvey is. And then I interview a number of people and I ha ve them watch a certain number of films. And I ask them to tear the interview and curriculum, first off, I teach a law c urriculum and geography. But there are some of the . I think teachers use the five dimensions that Hanvey recommends without realizing that they are using them. We all want students to know about knowledge of global dynamics. That your action could have an unpredictable outcome that you could not foresee and they have to make very careful choices in life. So every teacher and every parent wants their kids curriculum, you want . a lot of the videos that I use in one of my classes, I show them incidents where kids are playing pranks, the prank goes wrong, and
171 someone gets hurt or killed. And then a trial ensues. So that activity alone is entirely knowledge of global dynamics (CD, personal communication, March 11, 2010) why her mentor had such a great influence on I think because she always has practical lessons that you can take back and use in your own classroom. So she teaches you how t communication, March 10, 2010). Resources. The theme of resources also emerged in the conversations with AB. Although she was never specific in the types of global themed resources received, when talking about her mentor and the support that the relationship provides in her curriculum decision making, she said the following: She gives you the handouts you need and the support you need. You can always reach her by e anything with you, and she gives you everything you need for that lesson. And so you can take it back to your school and try it out, (AB, personal communication, March 10, 2010) Professional service. Two of the interview subjects identified professional service as an intensifier of their global perspective. T he types of professional service varied but the participants addressed globality in both themes. Strategies AB stated that the Global Schools Project provided her with strategies that she could incorporate in the classroom. OP talked about the influence the Global Schools Project had on providing her with ideas to develop lessons and activities for her classroom. During the first interview, OP provided an example of this influence that focused on the subtheme of globality while talking about a lesson she developed for the Global Schools Project for use with her AP human geography students.
172 Kind of like when you purchase a shirt, you know, kids have to see e to break down the raw materials of the product and where those raw materials are from. g eography students; my AP g eography students because, you know, we look at all perspectives in geograp hy, one of them being globalization and interconnectedness. That one kind o f came off an idea that [name of professor] w here, you know, you buy remember that one but it talked abou t a T shirt and how the cotton . where the petroleum came from and how they made it. the song for my students so what I did is we made it a project where, not just a shirt but, you wearing. You know, their iPod, you know, all those little parts had to come from somewhere. So they kind of have to break it a part. of the parts of the produc to find what those little pieces are made of; where the plastic came from, where the metal came from. So then they have to find areas where that mine of some of these items are developed y ou know? Plastic is par t of it, well, you know, petroleum is put into plastic, so they have to find how we do depend on these oil producing areas, not just for gasoline, but for other items as well (OP, personal communication, February 13, 2010) Resources AB and OP both agree d that being involved in professional service had provided them with resources for the classroom. AB discussed the Model United Nations and the Global Schools Project when sharing how professional service had provided her with classroom resources. When dis cussing the Model United Nations, AB pointed out how the involvement in this program facilitated her becoming well versed on global topics. An example of how this happened was provided in the Analysis of Research Question 2, when AB talked about how involv ement in this program had stimulated her to learn more about the country of Kazakhstan. AB also shared how the Global Schools Project had provided resources for her
173 spea kers and I gained something from each of them and take that back to the classroom. So that whole progr March 10, 2010). When asked if there were specific areas in which she felt she had gained re an expert in Latin e had a group of H aitian and Dominican teachers come last summer and stay for 6 weeks. W e versed in Latin American history at this point OP focused on the Glob al Schools Project while discussing the teaching resources she gained from professional service. She talked about her exposure to the teachers from Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which AB had also discussed, when talking about how it provided her resour ces to use with her students. Regarding that experience, OP So that was very eye opening, e specially because I constantly share those experiences with my students, especially in the wake of the earth communication, March 13, 2010 ). Additionally, OP stated the interaction she had with her colleagues through the Global Schools Project was beneficial in providing her ideas and stories to tell from their travel experiences. Unanticipated Findings The focus of this case study was on t he five research questions that were analyzed in depth in this chapter, but there were some additional unanticipated results that emerged from the interviews. I divided these outcomes into three categories: international travel
174 experience, limitation of su bthemes, and burnout. Each category is discussed separately in the following sections. International Travel Experience There were two unanticipated results in this category. First, based upon past research (see Chapter 2) in which international travel exp erience was often associated with an increased global and cross cultural awareness, and the teacher background the interviewees would have attributed international t ravel experience to the initial development of their personal global perspective. Surprisingly, not a single interview participant attributed traveling as one of the aspects of their initial development of a global perspective. Instead, the four participan ts who did address international travel experience addressed it only as an intensifier of a global perspective that had already been developed. The second unanticipated result in the international travel category was the lack of travel experience by two of the self identified global educators. The top scorer of all 10 participants who took the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) had only traveled out of the country on a 1 week Caribbean cruise in which her only experience of setting foot in another country consisted of a few hours off the cruise ship at a couple of Caribbean country ports of call. One of the other participants, OP, had never been out of the United States, yet scored higher than the participant who had been to more international regi ons than any of the other participants interviewed. Additionally, despite not having the cross cultural experiences that international travel can potentially provide,
175 OP emphasized the teaching of intercultural awareness in her curricular decision making, an implication that is addressed in Discussion of Results in Chapter 5. Limitation of Sub t hemes The predominant subthemes that emerged during both the development and intensification of a global perspective included some of the five dimensions of a global perspective that were outlined in Chapter 2, but these subthemes were limited. Many of the dimensions of a global perspective that were demonstrated in the literature did not seem as pertinent to these participants, or at least were not an important part at the development or intensification stages. The subthemes mentioned the most frequently, and almost exclusively outside of a few occasions, were intercultural awareness and globality It may be that the other dimensions become more important later, which if true arguably correlates with the pioneers and new wave of global educators discussed in C hapter 2 in which the awareness came first and the action came later. In this scenario globality and intercultural awareness correlate d with awareness and action correlate d with global citizen skills social justice and service learning Burnout A final unanticipated result was the implication from two of the participants that teaching from a global perspective has played an instrumental role in leading to burnout. OP and ST both indicated during the course of their interviews that they were moving at the conclusion of the then current school year and would not be pursuing a career in teaching in their new locations. When discussing why they would not be se eking teaching positions, both stated they were burned out with teaching and having a global perspective
176 was implicated as one of the facilitators leading to that burnout. When discussing how having a global perspective led to her teacher burnout, OP said the following: all the time situations that I want them to know about. And it does become exhausting. And then you go back and you grade that w ork y ou know, you want them to respond, and then you write notes on all their responses. So you give them feedback. And it just gets exhausting (OP, personal communication, March 13, 2010) ST also addressed having a global perspective leading to burnout but from a communication, March 8, 2010). She talked about the mounting frustrations b rought on due to time constraints and educational mandates such as high stakes testing as reasons for leaving the field and implicated having a global perspective in her sense of exhaustion when she said, I think a global educator is more likely to get bur ned out because we know what it could be and what kids could be learning. We materials, the resources to teach them. I think it [the burnout] is out of frustration (ST, personal communication, March 8, 2010) Summary This chapter focused on the findings of the case study. The data were presented through descriptive narratives. Themes and subthemes surfaced from the interviews in which the participants discussed their perceptions of how they developed a global perspective and how their developed global perspective influenced their curricular
177 decision making. The findings, their connection to the literature, and recommendations for future research are discussed in depth in Chapter 5.
178 CHAPTER 5: DISC USSION Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine the perspectives that self described global educators attributed to the development of a global perspective and how it influenced curricular decision making. There has been a lack of r esearch conducted on how teachers perceive they developed global mindedness (Ukpokodu, 2006); therefore, this study adds to the research by addressing an issue that has not been investigated thoroughly in global education. This chapter includes a summary of the s tudy, discussion of the major findings, and a discussion of how these findings relate to the literature reviewed in Chapter 2. Additionally, possible explanations and implications for the findings are outlined. The chapter concludes with recommendations fo r future research. Summary of the Study This was a mixed methods study. Purposeful sampling was employed because global educators were the focus of the research questions being analyzed. The data analysis was guided by the following research questions: 1. H ow highly do teachers participating in a global education curriculum project score on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993)?
179 2. To what do self identified globally minded teachers attribute the development of a global perspective? 3. Is there a relation ship between what self identified global educators attribute the development of their global perspective to and how they scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993)? 4. How might the background of a teacher (e.g., travel experience, languages spo ken) influence to what the teacher attributes his or her development of global mindedness? 5. How do teachers perceive their curricular decision making is influenced by that to which they attribute their constructed global mindedness? Quantitative data was collected through the administration of the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) and a teacher background questionnaire on social studies teachers who participated in the Global Schools Project, a partnership between a university in west central Flor ida and local high school districts advocating global education. These survey instruments were used for a couple of reasons. First, they were used as a reference tool in selecting the interview subjects. The goal was to interview the top three scorers and the bottom thre e scorers of the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993). Second, the questionnaire was used as a resource in the analysis of some of the research questions. A fter completing th e interviews, the Het t Global m indedne ss S urvey (Hett, 1993) was used as an aid to answer R esearch Q uestion 1 How highly do teachers participating in a global education curriculum project score on the Hett Global m indedness Survey? Is there a relat ionship between what self identified global educators attribute the development of their global perspective to
180 and how they scored on the Hett Global mindedness Survey? he t eacher background questionnaire was used in conjunction with the intervi ews to help answer How might the background of a teacher (e.g., travel experience, languages spoken) influence to what they attribute his or her development of global mindedness? The qualitative case study was used to investigate to what self described global educators attribute the development of a global perspective and how teachers perceive their curricular decision making is influenced by to what they attribute thei r constructed global mindedness. Six of the original 13 social studies teachers who had been given the surveys were purposively selected to participate in two individual interviews. Data from the interview transcriptions and research field notes provided the main sources for the qualitative analysis. The theoretical f ramework that drove this research, specifically the interview questions on perspectives of developing global mindedness, was attribution theory, which studies how people explain events taking place in their lives (Bruning et al., 2004). The remainder of th is chapter discusses the research questions, the pertinent findings, and recommendations stemming from these findings. Discussion of Results The major findings of this study were primarily focused on two of the five research questions: Research Question 2 which addressed to what each interview participant attributed the development of a global perspective, and Research Question 5, they attribute the development of their global perspective. Additionally, the data results
181 of Research Question 3 and Research Question 4 are discussed. Research Question 1 was used as an aid in helping to determine the interview participants rather than as a final instrument in seeking any maj or findings; therefore, it is not being addressed in this section. Research Question 2 : To W hat do G lobally M inded T eachers A ttribute the D evelopment of a G lobal P erspective? The answers to this research question were divided into two categories: initia l development and intensification of global perspective. Themes emerged from the data within both categories. The initial development category had two sections: perceptions of self and perceptions of others. Four themes emerged from the perceptions of self section. The themes were family, exposure to diversity, minority status, and curious disposition. Two themes emerged in the perceptions of others section: exposure to diversity and global education courses. The intensification of global perspective catego ry had four themes emerging from the data. The four themes included international travel, global education courses, mentor, and professional service. The themes emerging from the data are discussed in this section. The discussion includes an overview of the theme, an exploration of how it ties into the literature on global education, and the implications the results can have on global education teacher development programs. Family Four interview participants chose family in the development of a global perspective. When discussing family, some participants referred to the influence of their parents, whereas others talked about the impact of grandparents or siblings. Additionally, there were a couple of salient differences in their perspectives of how fam ily aided in the
182 development of a global perspective. These differences emerged as the subthemes of globality and intercultural awareness Although there has not been specific research on families influencing a global perspective, Tye and Tye (1998) did find that teachers were more likely to be attracted to global education if they followed world news early in life and had parents who discussed current events with them while they were growing up. Those studies did not focus on perceptions; the refore, this is the first study in which teachers who are attracted to global education explicitly cited family as a factor in the initial development of a global perspective d very least, preservice teachers believe their global perspective may have been developed prior to having entered a teacher education program. Additionally, in this st udy, the subthemes were limited to only two of the five global dimensions. The same two global dimensions were overwhelmingly focused on throughout the themes of this study, which suggested that globality and intercultural awareness are the global dimensio ns most likely to be learned by students prior to entering teacher education programs. If these results can be verified by future research on larger groups, there are clear implications for teacher education programs, such as in recruiting and the focus of global education courses that should be offered. I expound on these implications when discussing recommendations for social studies teacher education programs and research later in this chapter. Exposure to diversity. This theme emerged in both sections of the initial development category. When discussing exposure to diversity, three participants cited its
183 influence on the development of their own global perspective and five participants perceived it was beneficial in the development of a global perspect ive in others. The experiences in which the theme exposure to diversity was noted ranged from interacting with people from other cultures to living in multicultural environments. Additionally, while discussing the essence of how exposure to diversity influ enced a global perspective, two subthemes emerged. The subthemes of intercultural awareness and globality emerged when discussing the development of a personal global perspective and the development of a global perspective in others. Past research has sug gested that being exposed to people from different race s ethnicities, and cultures is correlated to global mindedness and an increased cross cultural awareness (see, for example, Mapp et al., 2007; Merryfield, 2000b; B. H. Myers, 2001). This research appe ared to agree with that assertion. Considering the past research, it is not surprising that this study reconfirmed previous results. W hat is more interesting and perhaps will be most beneficial for teacher education programs is that the subthemes addressed in th e theme of exposure to diversity differ based on the types of exposure by the participants. When addressing an exposure to diversity that entailed more detailed interaction with people from other cultures that was exposing them to different perspecti ves firsthand, the interview participants, without fail, talked about the subtheme of intercultural awareness For example, MN, OP, and ST talked about growing up in a multicultural environment and how this led to having friends from different cultures who opened their eyes to multiple perspectives by exposing them to different elements of outside cultures such as parties, foods popular in their friends households, the music they listened to, and the traditions practiced by their friends from various cultur es. On the
184 other hand, when discussing exposure to diversity at a more superficial level, in which they were around diverse groups but either did not interact or had limited interaction, the subtheme addressed was globality For instance, when ST traveled to Hawaii and Japan as a tourist and did not spend much time interacting with the locals, she talked about how landscapes. Additionally, EF talked about people who grew up with parents stationed in the military abroad being more likely to have an advantage in knowing about the how much of a true 2010). Minority status. Three interviewees stated that minority status was an important component to the initial development of their global perspect ive. Minority status referred to being the part of a sociological group that is not a part of the dominant group in that oppression as the result of being a part of this gro up. When discussing how minority status aided in the development of a global perspective, social justice and intercultural awareness emerged as the subthemes. she found that ex periences of discrimination, injustice, and being identified as an outsider were influential factors in a commitment to global education, seem to correlate with the interview participants who identified the minority status theme being an influencer on the
185 development of a global perspective. The previous research also appeared to correlate with the subtheme of social justice identified in this theme. The results of this study demonstrated the ironic advantage of encountering life as a minority and the suf fering of oppression and discrimination that often go along with the experience in developing a global perspective. CD expressed the reasons for the experience of oppression being such a powerful facilitator towards acquiring a global perspective when he s that firsthand knowledge makes you keenly aware of oppression that exists across the planet and the need to try to do something about it. I personal communication, March 11 2010). These outcomes could have implications for teacher education programs in both the recruitment process and the types of activities in which students should receive exposure to gain a global perspective. For example, if teacher education programs are able to provide the experience of being a minority and the feelings of discrimination or oppression that goes along with this theme, it may help students at the very least acquire the global dimensions of intercultural awareness and social justice. C urious disposition. This theme was cited by two people when they discussed the initial development of a personal global perspective. In the context of the interviews, al perspective has been a part of their personal temperament ever since they can remember. Both participants addressing this theme were of the opinion that the initial development of a global perspective may have been innate, or at the very least, was init ially developed at an age before they had developed consistent memories. According to the interview
186 participants who addressed this theme, a curious disposition was attributed to be a driving force in the motivation to focus on issues of intercultural awar eness and globality. findings suggest ed that even when teacher education programs are designed around goals of promoting multicultural citizenship studies content and classrooms can limit their thinking and practice with transformative social studies pedagogy. If that is the case, an argument could be made for the opposite occurring and a person who is predisposed towards being curious may le a d to a transformative pedagogy rather than vice versa. For example, AB and EF talked about their propensity to always be attracted to discovering about world events, locales, or other cultures. Additionally, they talked about having had the desire to go deeper in their understanding about these topics demonstrating a transformation in their thinking on topics central to the global dimensions of globality and intercultural awareness. This thought process could have implications on both the recruiting process and t he content in teacher education courses. I address this possibility further when discussing the repercussions on teacher education programs. Global education courses Global education courses emerged from the data as a theme in both categories of initial development and intensification of a global perspective. It was discussed by three interview participants when identifying how others could initially develop a global perspective, and four interview participants pointed to global education courses when dis cussing the intensification of personal global perspectives. Interview participants pointed to four areas in which global education
187 courses aided the development of a global perspective. The areas included providing terminology, providing resources, interc ultural awareness, and globality. The results that indicate global education courses are one of the emergent themes in the development and intensification of a global perspective are consistent with previous research, which indicated that global educati on courses and social studies methods courses focusing on world issues can attribute to an increased global lesson plans (Barnes & Curlette, 1985; Kirkwood Tucker, 2004; W ilson, 1997). This study provide d some confirmation of the important role global educa tion courses play in the perceived intensification of a global perspective. Th e results indicate d the importance of global education courses incorporating the type of met hods that lead to the awareness and skills in which global educators have perceived to have influenced a personal global perspective. International travel. While none of the participants cited international travel as a theme in the initial development of a global perspective, four interviewees named the theme of international travel as an intensifier of a global perspective. There was agreement by those addressing this theme that it was a benefit in the intensification of a global perspective, but differen ces emerged among participants of what types of international travel experiences were beneficial and how these travel experiences benefited the intensification of a global perspective. Subthemes included intercultural awareness globality and social justi ce The result that international travel had a perceived effect on the intensification of a global perspective mirrored studies (i.e., Kambutu & Nganga, 2008; Kehl & Morris,
188 2008; Mapp et al., 2007; Myers, 2001) that international travel experiences can lead to an expanded global perspective and an increased cross cultural awareness, which is an aspect of intercultural awareness. While some teachers acknowledged the impact of what previous studies have already confirmed, part of the significance of these results were that this is the first study that acknowledged the respondents agreed with the research results by attributing international travel to an intensification of their global mindedness. Considering the past research, it is not surprising that this study reconfirm ed previous results, but what is more interesting and perhaps the most useful information from this study was the global dimensions that participants perceived the international travel helped to intensify. Although there were three global d imensions addressed, the two global dimensions perceived by the participants to be most frequently affected by international travel were globality and intercultural awareness The locales of where the participants traveled did not seem to influence which d imension was addressed, as LDC s and more developed countries were both attributed with having an influence on the dimensions. Although the locales did not correlate to a particular global dimension, similar to exposure to diversity, the interactions the in terview participants had on their travels did have an influence on the type of global dimension addressed. When the interview participants who addressed this theme talked about international travel experiences in which they had significant contact with c itizens living in the country they were visiting, intercultural awareness was the most frequently connection when he said, The friends I made were no longer merely Africans clumped together with millions of others. Instead,
189 they were individuals with rich personal histories who challenged my previous held oed this dimension when talking about their experiences of conversing with citizens of Italy and Canada during their travels to those countries. Both talked about how conversations with people in those countries altered their previously held stereotypes of Italians and Canadians. When the interview participants talked about international travel experiences that involved less interaction with the locals, globality was the global dimension they focused on when talking about what aspect of their global perspec tive was intensified. ST provide an example of this distinction when she talked about a trip to Western Europe, which, while a rich experience, was not a travel experience in which she did any t was just neat to see how cities operate abroad. The eco friendliness, even back then, that was amazing to me. The transportation system. How easy it was to g 8, 2010). The third global dimension addressed by this theme, although only mentioned by two of the participants, has the potential of providing significant potential for teacher education programs. Social justice was addressed by ST and CD. In each case, the partic ipants talked about how the international travel became a contrast to other information they were given about the area in which they were traveling or had traveled. ST talked about going on a cruise with a class when she was younger and docking at the Baha mas where she and her classmates were taken on a guided tour. It was 2 years before rsonal
190 communication, March 8, 2010). CD addressed this theme by talking about the power of the media to influence an issue when he mentioned how, prior to going on a trip to Vancouver, British Columbia, he had heard so much about how the news media in the United States had vilified the Canadian health care system while the United States debated the pros and cons of having universal health coverage within its own borders. So while I was there for a week, I spoke with a lot of Canadians and I deliberately a re all The significance of this third global dimension seem ed to be in how international travel can be used in combination with a critique of how cultures, nations, and issues are addressed in the media. I address this further in the Implications section, later in this chapter. Mentor. Three of the interview participants credited a mentor for aiding in the intensification of a global perspective. When addressing the theme of mentor, each participant specifically referred to a university professor who has provided them with a deeper under standing of global education and had been a support system in the intensification of their global perspective. Although research has demonstrated that mentors can play an important role in y teach (see, for example, Feiman Nemser & Parker, 1992; Gilles, Wilson, & Elias, 2010; Saye, global education research; therefore, this study was the first to demonstra te that self described global educators perceive that mentors have an important role on the development of global perspectives. Specifically, each interview participant who
191 attributed this theme as a factor in the intensification of his or her global persp ective talked about the mentor as a support system. For one interviewee, the mentor was a source of helping her to feel reenergized for the teaching profession. Another interviewee mentioned how the mentor provided him with a focus when it came to teaching global perspectives and, for the other participant, part of it had to do with the activities she learned from the mentor that she could use in her own classroom to teach from a global perspective. The results of this study indicated the importance of the mentor role in the significant for educators who are already in the K 12 classroom because the comments from the participants were geared towards the mentor being a support sys tem within the Professional service. Two interview participants cited talked about the theme of professional service when discussing how their global perspective was intensified. The professional service of the par ticipants referred to attendance at social studies conferences, as well as participation in Model United Nations and the Global Schools Project. When addressing how professional service had intensified their global perspective, both interviewees touched on aspects of globality Previous research has suggested that membership in professional organizations was significantly correlated to global mindedness (Kirkwood Tucker, 2006). The results of this research went a step further by suggesting that not only is there a relationship between professional membership and a global mindedness. For example, AB talked about how attending Model U nited Nations confer ences ha d
192 intensified her global perspective by providing her with new information from different perspectives and having to help her students research new information on countries, such The results of this study, combined with previous research, demonstrated teacher education programs will benefit their students by incorporating professional service opportunities in the courses. Examples include mandatory participation and attendance at state or national social studies conf erences, mandatory membership in groups such as the graduate forum of the College and University Faculty Assembly, volunteering for the Model United Nations, or working with international populations. Research Question 3 : Is T here a R elationship B etween W h at S elf identified G lobal E ducators A ttribute the D evelopment of T heir G lobal P erspective to and H ow They Scored on the Hett Global m indedness Survey? The relationships that developed in response to this research question were based on the following four areas: relationships based on total scores and themes; relationships based on total scores and subthemes; relationships based on individual dimensions and themes; and relationships based on individual dimensions and subthemes. At least one relationship ma y arguably have developed within each of the four areas. In the first area, relationships based on total scores and themes, there was a possible relationship between total scores on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) and the theme of curious di sposition because two of the top three scorers were the only participants addressing this theme. On the other hand, an argument could be made
193 against a relationship because the second highest scorer, who was 1 point lower and 1 point higher than the highes t and third highest scorers, did not address this theme when discussing his development of a global perspective. Research by Matthews and Dilworth (2008) suggest ed preexisting ideas can limit thinking and practice with transformative social studies pedag ogy ; therefore, an argument could also be made that a curious disposition could be an influencing factor. For instance, as during the discussion on a Curious Disposition (see Discussion of Results, Research Question 2, earlier in this chapter), AB and EF t alked about their propensity to always be attracted to discovering about world events, locales, or other cultures. Additionally, they talked about having had the desire to go deeper in their understanding about these topics. Although the second highest sco rer, CB, scored only 1 point less than AB and 1 point higher than EF, it could be argued that maybe CB had a curious disposition as well, but because he described himself as conservative and they described themselves as liberal while younger, he would not have assumed a curious disposition drove him towards a global perspective. Rather, the curious disposition drove him towards a deeper analysis of his political ideology, which explained his focus on discussing the evolution from conservative to liberal, wh ich coincided with his move towards a global perspective. This discrepancy among AB, EF, and CB should be addressed in future research. I discuss some of the ways this discrepancy should be explored when discussing recommendations for future research in a later section. The second area, relationships based on total scores and subthemes, produced two possible relationships. The first possible relationship was between total scores and the subtheme of globality within the theme of curious disposition. Again, a s with the theme
194 of curious disposition, AB and EF were the ones addressing this subtheme; it is stated as a possible relationship for the same reasons as the possible relationship for that theme and subtheme. On the other hand, the same argument made rega rding curious disposition and globality could be made against there being a relationship. I explore this further in Recommendations for Future Research, later in this chapter. The second possible relationship, in the area of relationships based on total scores and subthemes, can be expressed with more confidence. AB, CD, and EF, who were the top three Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) scorers, were the only interview participants who cited the subtheme of provided resources when they discussed how global education courses intensified their global perspective. Although there d id not appear to be previous research addressing whether educators who have a higher sense of global mindedness than others gain resources from global e ducation courses, past research does indicate that global education courses have the potential to increase teacher arguably fits into this subtheme. For instance, w hen elab orating on how global education courses had affected their global perspective, both AB and EF referred to the exposure it had provided them on world issues and the multiple resources in which they were able to locate the information about these issues to p rovide students the differing perspectives of the issues. I believe the important question brought up by the findings to this area is, Does this mean if you already have a high level of global mindedness are you more likely to intellectually be in a posit ion to get or appreciate the opportunity to be provided resources? who state d global education
195 courses intensified her global perspective and she did not address the subtheme of provided resources Future res earch should take a look at this question. The third area, relationships based on individual dimensions and themes, also produced two possible relationships. There was a possible relationship between the responsibility dimension and the theme of global edu cation courses being an intensifier of responsibility dimension. AB, CD, and EF each scored 80% or above on the dimension. OP scored 68.6%, which was 5.7% higher than the highest scoring person (MN), who did not choose this theme. The other person not choosing this theme, ST, only scored a 51.4%, approximately 30 37% less than the top three scorers. A relationship may exist between the interconnect edness dimension and the global e ducation courses as an intensifier of a global perspective. AB, CD, EF, and OP were the top four scorers of this dimension. AB scored 92% and the other three scored 88%. The two participants not identifying this theme scored 80% (MN) and 56% (ST). When co mbining the definition of the responsibility dimension with the definition of the interconnectedness dimension the impli cation is that an individual strong in these global dimensions has a feeling of kinship and deep moral responsibility to improve condit ions for the rest of the world. This may mean that either people with a higher sense of empathy are more likely to be attracted to global education courses to intensify a global perspective or the global educator courses lead to a higher sense of empathy. A drawback to it being the la t ter case is that would mean everyone taking global education courses would have scored high in these dimensions T hat was not the case. Toni Kirkwood Tucker (2004) examined the impact of integrating global content and
196 pedagogy into a global education course. Her findings indicated that students developed open mindedness for people in their out groups and an increased concern for issues of human rights and global stability, but the perceptions of the participants of this study, although believing global education courses intensified their global perspective, did not make it clear whether it was the global education courses that led to this higher sense of responsibility and greater interconnectedness with others. I discuss the re percussions of this distinction in R ecommendation for F uture R esearch later in this chapter. The final area, relationships based on individual dimensions and subthemes, produced one possible relationship. AB, CD, and EF each identified the subtheme of pro vided resources within the theme of global education courses being the intensifier of a global perspective and had the three highest scores on the responsibility dimension. They were the only interview participants to score 80% or higher The participants who did not identify this subtheme scored 68.6%, 62.9%, and 51.4%. This possible relationship appeared to mirror the discussion of the top three Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) scorers who were the only interview participants to cite the subthem e of provided resources when discussing how global education courses intensified their global perspective. There did not appear to be previous research addressing whether educators who feel a high degree of responsibility towards others gain resources from global education courses, but there is research indicating global education courses may increase which as pointed out in the second relationship area, which can fit into this subtheme. I address this matter further in Recommendations for Future Research regarding the
197 relationship between a high Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993) score and the subtheme of provided resources Research Question 4: How M ight the B ac kground of a T eacher (e.g., T ravel E xperience, L anguages S poken) I nfluence to W hat the T eacher A ttributes His or Her Development of Global mindedness? background influenced to what he or she attributed the development of global mindedness. Based upon the research methods used during this study, I could not confidently identi fy any background factors as influencers, but three relationships what the teacher attributes his or her d evelopment of global mindedness. For the majority of the interview participants, global perspectives were perceived to initially have been developed at an early age. Additionally, the two interview participants who were born outside of the United States both identified minority status as a theme in their initial development of a global perspective. Finally, th ere appeared to be a relationship between the amount of international travel and the intensification of a global perspective and one of the subthemes discussed in Chapter 4. The remainder of the section is a discussion of these three emergent relationships Global perspective at an early age Five of the six interview participants perceived that they had initially developed their global perspective when they were children living with their parents. Additionally, three of the five participants specifically noted having more open minded parents. They each tied this parentage to having a more liberal ideology. Interestingly, the only participant who did not perceive his global
198 perspective having developed in childhood said the following about his family and h imself when talking about his childhood ideology: They are conservative, and they are Republican, and they are antitaxes not friendly toward a lot of minority populations that often are pushed to the outside by the Republican p arty. So I grew up solidly in a Republican p arty household. And, early on in my life, I mentally affiliated myself as a conservative Republican (CD, personal communication, March 11, 2010) It was not until he was an undergraduate in college, living in a separate state from his parents, that his ideology began to shift and, as of the study, CD described himself as having both a liberal ideology and being a global educator. As noted in the Dis cussion of Results, Research Question 2, earlier in this chapter, there is research stating such factors as parents discussing current events with a child and watching the world news at an early age means one is more likely to have a global perspective (se e B. B. Tye & Tye, 1998), but there did not appear to be any research addressing a global perspective actually having been developed at an early age. This perspective was developed at an early age, while still living with parents, demonstrated that a global perspective may have been developed by a student prior to having entered a teacher education program. If this is the case, there are clear implications for teacher educa tion programs, such as in recruiting and the focus on global education courses that should be offered. I expound on these implications in Recommendations for Social Studies Teacher Education Programs, later in this chapter. Additionally, a liberal ideology appearing to be tied to having a global perspective and being a global educator is an issue that may deserve future exploration.
199 Immigrant and minority status. Two of the interview participants were born outside of the United States, MN in Haiti and EF i n Colombia. Both moved to the United States during childhood. They were also two of only three participants who identified the theme of minority status as a perceived influencer in the initial development of their global perspective. Interestingly, the oth er person (CD) to identify minority status as a factor in the development of his initial global perspective also was the only other interview participant to have lived in a country outside of the United States. The country CD lived in was Zambia, which, li ke Haiti and Colombia, can also be identified as an CD was born in the United States and was an American citizen who lived in an LDC country for a few months while he worke d. Also, unlike MN and EF, CD did not cite the minority experience of being a member of an ethnic or cultural group from the LDC country in which he had lived as being an influencer on his minority status theme. In fact, was not mentioned as a factor when he identified the minority status theme. The experiences of discrimination felt by MN and EF due to their minority status being a perceived factor in the initial development of a global perspective appeared to correl ate with previous research. For example, Merry M. Merryfield (2000b) found that university global educator professors who immigrated to the United States identified experiences of being labeled as an outsider and being discriminated against as influential factors in their world views. In addition to solidifying previous research, the results of this study demonstrated a possible advantage of being an immigrant in gaining a global perspective. This might be because they are more likely to be in a situation i n which they
200 are marginalized and discriminated against by the majority group. As previously noted, when talking about minority status during R esearch Q uestion 2 these results d id not have to be an advantage merely for immigrant teacher educators. If teac her education programs are able to simulate or provide a similar experiences that immigrant students go through other students may also be able to gain a global perspective by experiencing lif e as a minority. These results could have implications for teac her education programs in both the recruitment process and the types of activities in which preservice teachers should receive exposure to gain a global perspective. I offer specific suggestions in the Implications of Research section, later in this chapte r. Amount of international travel. The four participants who had international travel experience beyond taking a 1 week Caribbean cruise cited international travel as an intensification of their global perspective. In contrast, the other two participant s did not address international travel as being a reason for an intensification of a global perspective. Interestingly, the two who traveled to the most regions, as noted on the teacher background questionnaire (ST and CD), were the only ones who addressed a subtheme of social justice when discussing how their global perspective was intensified by international travel. Although this study was the first research in which self described global educators perceived international travel as an intensifier of a global perspective, there is a lot of previous research backing up that international travel helps and intensifies a global perspective (Kambutu & Nganga, 2008; Kehl & Morris, 2008; Mapp et al., 2007; B. H. Myers, 2001). I believe the significance of the p articipants confirming the previous research by stating it was their perception that international travel experiences intensify a
201 provided further strength to the previous r esearch and made an even stronger argument for the incorporation of international travel experiences in a teacher education program focused on global perspectives in light of the research stating that personal experiences and perceptions have a major influ ence on what people attribute to their personal beliefs and values (Lincoln, 2005). Research Question 5 : How do T eachers P erceive T heir C urricular D ecision M aking is I nfluenced by that to which T hey A ttribute T heir C onstructed G lobal mindedness? Three themes emerged from the data in this research question. The cited themes emerged in response to the eight themes identified in Research Question 2. The emerging themes were resources, strategies, and empathy. These themes are discussed in this section. The discussion includes an overview of the themes, an exploration of the subthemes, how the themes tie into the global education literature, and the possible implications on global education teacher development programs. Resources This was the most cited th eme discussed by interview participants when identifying how curricular decision making was influenced by that to which they attributed their constructed global mindedness. Every theme attributed to the development or intensification of a global mindedness except curious disposition, was perceived to provide resources for use in the classroom. study demonstrated how the availability of teaching materials may influence the global content that is taught. She found that the teacher s used a great deal of information to teach about Japan because they had easy access to teaching materials involving global
202 perspectives. the areas in which the interview participant s had attributed to the development of a global perspective implied having had exposure and access to experiences that would provide access to teaching materials. For example, international travel experiences had been stated by multiple participants as pro viding resources to teach students about topics that fall under the globality global dimension by being able to share firsthand experiences of a system. Additionally exposure to experiences of family members provided rich stories to share with students, especially for the participants whose parents had grown up in other countries and participants who had family member who were well traveled. Another example was min ority status providing one of the participants the resources to be able to relate to English as a second language (ESL) students by sharing in their excitements and frustrations during the classroom experience and being able to explain to the other student s what the ESL students were going through while encouraging them to look beyond the physical appearance of the ESL students. Global education courses provided an example of participants being provided exposure to literature and terminology that became an aid in putting together activities in the classroom. Two participants perceived that exposure to diversity provided resources that aid in the intercultural awareness global dimension to draw upon to give students stories through the eyes of a person in ano ther culture. One of the participants addressed being exposed to a mentor when she talked about the support and handouts provided that she could take back to use in the classroom. Finally, professional service has provided some
203 of the participants exposure to speakers and other like minded global educators who have enabled them to become well versed on various international topics. The obvious implications of these results are that many of the factors identified by the self described global educators as inf luencers of a global perspective were perceived to provide the participants with resources in the classroom that promoted various dimensions of a global perspective. Interestingly, just like the majority of the themes in Research Question 2, the most frequ ently addressed global dimensions were globality and intercultural awareness. In fact, resources addressing service learning and global citizen skills were not addressed at all. Failing to have resources that address all of the dimensions may actually lead to limitations in teaching global education in the classroom. A further discussion of this possible limitation and recommendations for how these results can be applied in teacher education programs is addressed in the Implications of Research section, lat er in this chapter. Strategies Although research suggested that areas such as teacher education programs can make a difference in the attitudes of teacher candidates, little is known about how, or even whether, these expressed attitudes are influencing classroom curricula (Zong, 2009). The findings from this research suggested that these teachers did believe that what they perceived to have attributed to the development of a personal global perspective did indeed have an influence on their curricula. Not only was this belief addressed in the Resources findings discussed earlier in this chapter, but also by six of the eight themes attributed to the development or intensification of a global mindedness having been perceived to provide self identified global educators classroom strategies.
204 Exposure to diversity and international travel were the only attributes that were not associated with providing strategies. The strategies touched on four of the five global dimensions. The only one not addressed was glo bal citizen skills. Out of the four global dimensions addressed, the strategies discussed by the interview participants were overwhelmingly focused on globality and intercultural awareness. When discussing strategies used in the classroom, five of the orig inal six themes from Research Question 2 that were perceived to aid in the development of a global perspective focused on globality. For example, MN perceived that her family helped attribute to strategies in the classroom by instilling her with the skills necessary to provide her students an awareness of the world. When discussing how minority status had provided strategies to teach global education, CD talked about how r I pose an open ended question where my students can consider the advantages and disadv antages of unbridled capitalism v ersus a communist pro vided an example of how global education courses provided her with classroom 2010) CD credited his mentor with providing him the strategies to demonstrate to his students how their actions could have unanticipated outcomes. Professional services was the fifth theme from Research Question 2 in which participants focused on globality whe n discussing how strategies were influenced. When discussing professional service,
205 OP credited the Global Schools Project with providing her specific ideas to use in her Four of the six orig inal themes from Research Question 2 perceived to aid in the development of a global perspective focused on intercultural awareness. OP was blunt many perspectives j ust because of 2010). MN used her experiences of being discriminated against as examples to share with her students, so they can gain an understanding of the perspectives of minorities. EF also addressed a minority status when talking about how the experiences of being marginalized and called names by other kids as a child due to her Hispanic heritage have students like this, I can kind of open the ir eyes and say this might be something that you learned at home, but OP and CD gave some credit to global education courses when they both mentioned receiving specific stra tegies and ways of incorporating primary source documents in their curricula to teach aspects of intercultural awareness. The remaining global dimensions of service learning and social justice did not receive as much attention during the discussion of str ategies. Service learning was mentioned by two of the participants. When referring to minority status, CD discussed how these experiences had inspired him to get students actively involved in the lives of the downtrodden by facilitating service learning pr ojects, such as raising money for a local homeless shelter. EF referred to her curious disposition being an influence on getting her students actively involved in raising money in a campaign to stop the use of
206 child soldiers in Uganda. Finally, only EF men tioned an aspect of the global dimension of social justice being influenced by one of the factors that she perceived as an influencer of her global perspective. She talked about how her curious demeanor had attracted her to social injustices, such as child labor and child slavery and, as a result of this research, strategy ideas had evolved to teach these topics to students. If there were any emergent themes from the global dimensions that were addressed, it was that any of t he factors in which participants attributed to the development of a global perspective that influenced their curricular decision making were very limited in the dimensions of a global perspective. Although four out of the five dimensions were addressed, on ly two (globality and intercultural awareness) had a significant presence in the strategies. As a result, there are implications for both teacher education programs and research areas that should be focused on, which I provide in the Implications of Resear ch section, later in this chapter. Empathy The theme of empathy, which was identified by MN, emerged when she was discussing what an exposure to diversity had provided for her curricular decision making. She stated that exposure to people from other cult ures ha d made her more empathic to her students today Interactions with people from different ethnicities and cultures likely means one is exposed to a diversity of perspectives. This appeared to agree with the global education literature that an understa nding of mu ltiple perspectives aids in the develop ment of empathy and a desire to help others (Kirkwood, 2002; Merryfield, 1998).
207 Unanticipated Findings There were a few unanticipated findings in this case study that I believe deserve further explorati on in the future. They have to do with international travel experience, attempting to measure global mindedness with quantitative data, limitation of subthemes, and burnout. I discuss the possible meanings of these findings in this section. Although there is a large amount of research supporting the contention that international travel helps to develop and intensify a global perspective and improves cross cultural awareness (Kehl & Morris, 2008; Kambutu & Nganga, 2008; Mapp et al., 2007; B. H. Myers, 2001), findings based upon the interview of two of the participants demonstrated that a lack of international travel does not have to mean a lesser global perspective or a lack of cross cultural awareness. The only travel experience of the participant who scored highest on the Hett Global mindedness Survey (Hett, 1993), AB, was a 1 week Caribbean cruise. Perhaps even more interesting considering the possible implications was the results of OP, who had never been out of the United States, yet scored higher than t he participant who had been to more international regions than any of the other participants interviewed. Additionally, despite not having the cross cultural experiences that international travel experiences can potentially provide, OP emphasized the teach ing of intercultural awareness in her curricular decision making, the possible implications of which may mean that one does not have to be well traveled to become a global educator. On the other hand, this development may act as a critique of attempts to m easure a global mindedness with quantitative data. It seems odd that when there is a wealth of research suggesting that international travel benefits a global perspective and the majority
208 of the participants in this study attributed international travel a s an intensifier of a personal global perspective that a person with no international travel experience would be more globally minded than the research participant who has traveled to the most international regions. I propose three possible explanations fo r this discrepancy. One reason may be in one of the very weaknesses of quantitative data, which is its inability to take into overwhelmingly when discussing the nature of a pe rsonal experience, the geographic location of the experience had much less influence than the quality of interaction at that location, such as interaction with people from a different culture on an intimate level versus a superficial level. The second rea son has to do with the wording of the questions on the Hett Global Mindedness Survey and the nature of human interpretation. We do not know how the respondent interprets the words used in the survey or how personally important the issue is to the responden t and since, recognizing that people have different interpretations is a central tenant of global education, assigning a pre determined global mindedness score to a phrase without taking this into consideration forces the survey to draw inferences, which m ay be counter to global mindedness. For example, according to the survey, a person will gain more global mindedness points if they do not feel irritated with people question 2 9, Appendix C). On the other hand, as a returned Peace Corps volunteer who lived with descendants of runaway slaves in the Surinamese, South America rain forest, some of whom are still my friends today, if I were to think about the times that I was
209 ridicu led during my life in Suriname for actually living in the same house as my wife and not attempting to take a second wife (their culture encouraged multiple wives), I might choose to answer that question with a lower score even though I feel that, despite m y convictions on monogamy, I am able to choose not to hold the ridicule against them since I understand how their culture has influenced them to react in that manner. Of course, I would never answer that question with anything other than the highest score because I would not want to be perceived with a lower global mindedness. The latter point leads to the third possible discrepancy: knowing how to manipulate the scoring in order to achieve the score necessary to have a higher global mindedness. Looking at the Hett Global Mindedness survey, if one knows the definition to such Hett Global Mindedness underlying dimensions as responsibility and interconnectedness and realize on the questions that if they want to be perceived to be responsible and bel ieve the world is interconnected they should answer in a specific manner. For example, on question #23, I feel very concerned about the lives of people it could be just as easy to express concerns over policie s and the people who live there, but not express a high level of concern over the lives of individual people due to distractions of normal everyday life and therefore, provide a score of 1 (disagree). On the other hand, if you want to have a high score of global mindedness, or do not have a lot of distractions at home, you may put the maximum score of 5 (strongly agree). Later in the chapter, I will suggest future research surrounding this matter in the recommendations. The primary subthemes addressed by p articipants in this case study when discussing what attributed to the development of a global perspective were, except for a
210 few instances, globality and intercultural awareness This assessment may be confirmed by the previous research about topics being taught in the classroom by global educators because the topics addressed issues that fit primarily in the same two dimensions (Merryfield, 1998; Tucker, 1983; K. A. Tye, 1999). I found it interesting that when looking at the literature reviewed in Chapter 2, an argument could be made that the two primary global dimensions addressed by this pioneers of global education and the other three global dimensions (global citizen skills, social justice, a nd service learning) correlated with the new wave of global educators. In this scenario, the earlier global educators were associated with the awareness dimensions and the later global educators added the action dimensions Following this same line of thin king, it could be that the participants in this study will begin to focus on the action dimensions after they feel they have a firm handle on their content or their students have an understanding of the awareness dimensions. I address this possibility in R ecommendations for Future Research, later in this chapter. Devon Metzger (1988) pointed out the controversial nature of topics in global education as being an impediment to its incorporation in the classroom because the complexity of the issues can pose a challenge to even the most experienced teachers. Additionally, research by Tye and Tye (1998) found that although many teachers believed global education was important and students should be exposed to it, most teachers did not feel like they had enough t ime to incorporate global perspectives in the classroom. These factors were among the reasons mentioned by two of the interview participants as to why they were becoming burned out with the teaching profession.
211 While OP and ST stated they enjoyed working w ith students, their dedication to incorporating global perspectives had, in their opinion, become a hindrance because the challenges to incorporate it had made for watered down curricula in which they found themselves philosophically opposed. I address thi s issue further when discussing Recommendations for Social Studies Teacher Education Programs and Recommendations for Future Research, later in this chapter. Strengths of Study Using a mixed methods design was one of the strengths of this study. Creswell and Clark (2007) stated that using only quantitative research neglects the context of the participants and does not allow the voices of the participants to be heard. While the influences of the subjectivity and biases of the research in qualitative researc h can be drawbacks, a mixed method design offsets this weakness of using only one form of strengths. Limitations I attempted to minimize the limitations, but due to the approaches used to research, there were some limitations. The limitations can be categorized as the Hawthorne effect, generalizability, small sample size, and subjectivity. The Hawthorne effect refers to the possibility that participants were more motivate d to reflect on their experiences due to their involvement in the study than they would have been if they had not been aware of being examined. Generalizability refers to the limitation that due to convenience, the findings will be limited to global educat ors from a small segment of social studies instructors in the Tampa Bay area of southwestern Florida and, therefore,
212 may not be generalizable to other global educators. The small sample size of having only six interview participants was another limitation that may further question the generalizability of the study. Finally, the study relied heavily on the subjectivity of the participants and assumed the participants possessed the self awareness necessary to reflect on their own experiences in a thoughtful a nd honest manner. Because of these limitations and the unique make up of the instructors application of the results to global educators elsewhere should be applied with caution. Implications of Research The implications provided are based on the findin gs in the study and the generalized to the entire population due to the small sample size and sampling protocol, the conclusions from this study serve as a basis for the foll owing recommendations in social studies teacher education programs and for future research. Recommendations for Social Studies Teacher Education Programs The social studies curricula must adapt, so students are able to meet the demands and gain the persp ectives necessary to become global citizens in a world that is becoming increasingly interconnected (Heyl & McCarthy, 2003; Lamy, 2007). Because personal experiences have a major influence on to what one attributes his or her beliefs and values (Lincoln, 2 005), the factors global educators attributed to the development of a global perspective and the dimensions of a global perspective in which these factors are focused should receive a closer discussion for the incorporation in social studies teacher educat ion courses wanting to focus on global education. Utilizing a theoretical framework of attribution theory, which studies how people explain events taking place in their lives
213 (Bruning, et. al., 2004), this was the first study that asked global educators ab out the factors to which they attributed the development of a global perspective and how these factors affected their curricular decision making. Bernard Weiner (1986) stated there is a strong correlation between self concept and achievement. Applying that to this study, since participants attributed the development of their global perspective both internally for social studies teacher education programs on teacher educat or recruitment and the types of teacher educator courses that should be developed. Therefore, t he recommendations focus on the recruiting process, themes in which teacher candidates should receive exposure the global dimensi ons that should be incorporated, and how the teacher candidates can gain the skills and awareness inherent to the global dimensions through the themes to which teacher candidates are exposed. The goal of social studies, among most educators, is to make good citizens and neighbors (Thornton, 2005) in a world that is increasingly interconnected. Therefore, it would behoove teacher education programs to not only produce teacher candidates who can teach the skills and awareness to thrive in a globalized worl d, but also to recruit the types of teacher candidates who are more likely to come into the programs with the skill sets that makes it easier to mold them into global educators. Besides being a benefit to K 12 students, providing teacher candidates the ski lls and resources to teach global education may also be an aid in stemming potential burnout in teachers who recognize the necessity of providing students these skills but are forced to scramble to find the appropriate resources on their own because teachi ng global education has not been prioritized.
214 Because immigrants are more likely to come in with a global perspective, raising the enrollment rates of immigrants, especially from LDC countries, may be beneficial. Additionally, prospective candidates who ha ve traveled internationally, been exposed to diverse cultures, are self motivated to learn and discuss world events, locales, and cultures, and the different manners in which each of these are perceived may be more likely to enter a program with a global p erspective and apply to a teacher education program with a focus on global education. Teacher education programs should provide experiences that put students in contact with people from other cultures, ethnicities, and races. Second, the curricula should p rovide teacher candidates who come from the majority culture with opportunities to undergo life as a minority and the feelings of discrimination or oppression often experienced by minority groups. Programs should also provide international study abroad opp ortunities for students because this research further supported numerous studies that have already addressed the benefits of international travel in developing a global perspective. Additionally, teacher education programs should provide and develop mentor s for current and future K 12 global educators. An example of how this enhancement could be incorporated is by establishing programs similar to the Global Schools Project. Such an offering would provide teacher education programs with the opportunity of co ntinuing a mentorship relationship with teachers after the candidates have launched their own careers. If a global perspective is an ongoing process, as the results of this study indicated, then having a mentor to continue on with them would greatly benefi t their progress. Mentorships would benefit both the preservice teachers and their students with the skills and awareness to live in an increasingly interconnected
215 world. It would also provide for one outlet for another recommendation, incorporating profes sional service opportunities in the courses. Based on the global education literature discussed in Chapter 2, I identified the following five dimensions of a global perspective: intercultural awareness, or understanding the uniqueness of the individual and culture; globality, or being aware of world conditions, trends, interconnections, and unanticipated consequences of human actions; service learning, with a goal of improving the human condition; global citizenship skills, those needed to work in a glo balized world; and social justice, or analyzing the influence and issues of power structure arrangements. The interview participants overwhelmingly focused on the dimensions of intercultural awareness and globality when discussing the factors that they perceived aided in the development of a global perspective. Additionally, globality and intercultural awareness are the global dimensions most likely to be learned by students prior to entering university. Teacher edu cation programs should be aware of this asset and factor it into consideration during the design of global education courses being offered to teacher candidates. Because the global dimensions of service learning, global citizen ship skills, and social justi ce were not focused on as much by the students, teacher education programs should provide a clear theoretical and application focus to expose many teacher candidates to these aspects of global education for the first time. Because of the higher likelihood of being exposed to intercultural awareness and globality, failing to provide
216 students with this understanding of the remaining three dimensions runs the risk of preservice teachers gaining only a limited understanding of how to teach a global perspective. Globality and intercultural awareness should not be neglected. These should also receive a theoretical and applicative focus in teacher education programs In addition to providing resources and strategies for the K 12 classroom, t his focus would allow st udents who have a background in these global dimensions to fine tune their understanding while students who do not have an understanding of globality and intercultural awareness would receive exposure. Because interview participants largely identified the se two dimensions when discussing the factors they attributed to the development of a global perspective, there is a solid argument for making these dimensions the initial dimensions to which to expose the teacher candidates. Globality and intercultural aw areness may be foundational before the intensification of a global perspective can occur. The final recommendations for teacher education programs address how the teacher candidates can gain the skills and awareness inherent to the global dimensions thr ough the recommended themes to which teacher candidates should be exposed. Teacher candidates should be exposed to diverse cultures, races, and ethnicities during their time in the social studies teacher education programs. The dimensions that were perceiv ed in this study to be addressed by exposure to diversity were globality and intercultural awareness. This connection indicates that if programs want to focus on globality, then superficial exposure to diversity would suffice. For example, providing intern ational travel experience that carried limited interaction with other cultures and
217 focused more on aspects such as the cultural landscape of the country would provide a benefit. If this international travel experience was done as part of a course, having t he combination of a global education providing structure and being taken out of familiar surroundings can provide the opportunity of candidates engaging in reflective discourse. International travel can also be a powerful means for helping teacher candidat es learn about the intercultural awareness global dimension. Providing study abroad opportunities during which students have meaningful interaction with the citizens of that country could provide similar benefits if the study abroad course offered the stru cture that allowed the candidate to engage in meaningful, ongoing reflective discourse with a professor and fellow students during the study abroad experience. The discourse should include making the participants confront preexisting assumptions and stereo types, discussing the underlying reasons and meanings behind feelings of culture shock, and any new perspectives that emerge. International travel experiences could also be incorporated into a course and combined with a critique of how cultures, nations and global issues are addressed in the news media or by textbooks to provide candidates an awareness of the social justice global dimension. An example of how this travel experience could be achieved is by combining a study abroad experience in which tea cher candidates may take two 6 week summer courses in Greece. The first course may be an actual class in Greece where candidates learn about ancient Greek history, or culture. The second course could be online, in which they read U.S. news descriptions of events in Greece, and world history textbook descriptions about the culture and government of Greece. The online course could incorporate Skype or discussion forums and have the global education professor
218 and study abroad teacher candidates engage in a dis course about the power of the media to instill stereotypes of different areas through the use of generalizations and misinformation by discussing candidates travel experience and understanding of Greece versus how the country is portrayed through the media While international travel experiences can be beneficial, they are also expensive. Fortunately, there are other methods that can aid in the development of the intercultural awareness and social justice global dimensions. When addressing the intercultur al awareness dimension through exposure to diversity, the experiences would not necessarily have to entail an international travel expe rience but would need to be an in depth experience in which students communicate with people from other cultures and gain how this could be established would be to incorporate the type of program Angene Wilson (1993) established for her students at the University of Kentucky, in which she h ad her secondary social studies majors participate in a conversation partner program with ESL international students. A second example of how teacher education programs could be established would be to use cultural consultants, a concept coined by Merry Me rryfield (2003). Through this approach, digital technology is used to raise global and cultural awareness. The cultural consultants come from areas around the world and communicate with the students online through threaded discussions on a blog or message board. The consultants could play a variety of roles. For example, they could provide insight and advice on global education projects, class readings, and aid in the breaking of stereotypes.
2 19 Putting students who are accustomed to being a part of the major ity group in the role of the minority can also educate candidates on the global dimensions of intercultural awareness and social justice. Although international travel may be the easiest way to place someone in a minority situation, it can be done domestic ally. For example, both of these global dimensions could be achieved through simulations, such as Brown Eyes/Blue Eyes, which illustrate d aspects of prejudice and persecution. This type of simulation can place teacher candidates in a situation in which the y are the minority in the power structure relationship. Additionally, placing the teacher candidates during internships, in schools with high minority populations could provide the candidates the opportunity to gain an understanding of the reality of the conditions in which the minorities live This type of experience would be more effective if is combined with a lab facilitated by a professor in which the teacher candidates mingle with members of minority groups to make meaning of internship experiences s o that teacher candidates gain an understanding of the different perspectives members of minority groups may have of the public school experience. Structures, conditions, and relationships among the school members, such as administrators, teachers, student s, and families should be discussed along with the consequences of these relationships on the learning experiences. Recommendations for Future Research Findings from this study will form the nucleus for my future research agenda to provide information to wards the discussion on the importance of incorporating global education in teacher education programs and moving the agenda forward so students can develop the skills and awareness necessary to be successful in a global world. Because this was a baseline study and was the first study that focused on identifying that to which
220 global educators attributed the development of a global perspective and how it affected their curricular decision making, an initial recommendation is for this study to be replicated i n other settings among different groups of teachers (e.g. global educators not in the global schools project, elementary teachers, etc) to look for consistency of findings. Preexisting ideas, family background and types of ideology in which participants w ere raised as child ren had a prominent position in this study; therefore, another recommendation is that future research take a closer look at the influence these factors have on developing a global perspective or developing specific dimensions of a global perspective and to what degree do these backgrounds possibly limit or enhance the influence of social studies teacher education programs in the development of a global perspective. The development of an instrument that determines the level of an individu global mindedness and accommodates for the weaknesses of the Hett Global Mindedness survey addressed in the unanticipated consequences section should be pursued. If this instrument can be successfully developed, future research should determine whethe r people with a high level of global mindedness are more inclined to take advantage of the opportunity to apply the resources they are offered in global education courses because this could influence who should be recruited and whether there is a need to d evelop mindedness. Global education courses in teacher education programs should be evaluated to see on what global dimensions they focus both in theory and application. Th is evaluation should be followed up with studies seeking to discover whether teachers who had taken
221 those global education courses teach from a global perspective and us e the strategies they were taught and, if so, what global dimensions are addressed in t heir curricula. This information will aid social studies teacher education programs in determining what methods are useful in providing resources and strategies for each of the global dimensions. Additional research should be conducted on the role and in fluence of the mentor and professional service. For instance, the impact of global education programs similar to the Global Schools Project should be investigated to determine the effect of the programs on the global mindedness and curricular decision making of the program participants. Future research should also be undertaken t o investigate the influence of global educators in their teacher education programs and their impact on their future teachers. For example, researchers could do case studies on former students who are now teachers to measure the influence of global educators and what factors were the most influential. Another area of research that should be conducted is to identify the types of professional service in which global educators are i nvolved. For example, research should be conducted to determine what global educators perceive as the most beneficial professional service areas for intensifying a global perspective. Finally, there are three last areas of necessary research. Although theo retically logic would dictate that if a teacher instruct s from a global perspective then students are more likely to develop the skills and awareness necessary to live in a globalized world, this connection has not been addressed. If state departments of education and local school districts will accept global education as a classroom expectation research must be conducted to verify three factors. First, research should be conducted to determine that
222 students attain the necessary skills and awareness to b e successful in a globalized world. Additionally, because the public education al system has seen an increased focus on standards based curricula that are driven by high stakes testing, research should be carried out to determine achievement levels of stude nts with these global skill and awareness sets on state and district mandated standardized tests compared to other students. Third, field studies of how a global perspective influences actual teaching behavior and performance in the classroom should also be explored The studies should investigate whether globally minded teachers plan differently, conduct class differently, use different material s ask different questions, and assign different tasks from teachers who are not like minded Conclusions and Implications The world is becoming increasingly interconnected; therefore, higher education institutions must be able to graduate future K 12 teachers who think globally and can incorporate global dimensions in their teaching. Unfortunately, many social st udies teacher education programs may not offer global education courses and if they do, they may not teach all the necessary dimensions. Understanding to what global educators attribute the development of their global perspective, the experiences of these teachers, and how these factors influence their curricular decision making is vi tal if social studies teacher education programs are to be informed on the best methods through which this objective can be accomplished. It is also helpful in assessing the ut ility of current techniques being used in social studies methods courses to teach global education. Teacher s experiences (Kirkwood 2001b). This case study enabled me to identify the factors that
223 self described global educators attribute d to the development of their global perspectives by interviewing six social studies teachers who participate in the Global Schools Project. idly answer the questions will provide social studies teacher education programs with the knowledge to develop more effective programs and methods in preparing social studies teacher to teach from a global perspective and ultimately lead to K 12 students r eceiving an education that allow s them to have the skill set to become successful citizens in a globalized society.
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236 A ppendix A : IRB L etter of Approval Dece m ber 8, 2009 Kenneth Carano 2912 Pinecrest W ay Sarasota, FL 34239 D IVISION OF R ESEARCH I NTEGRITY AND C OMPLIANCE Institutional Review Boards, FWA No. 00001669 12901 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., MDC035 z Tampa, FL 33612 4 7 99 (813) 974 5638 z FAX (81 3 ) 9 7 4 5618 RE: Expedited Approval for Initi a l R e view IRB#: 108592 Titl e : Through the Lens of a Global Educator: E x amining Personal Perceptions Regarding the Construction of World mindedness Study Approval Period: 12/4/2009 to 12/4/2010 Dear Mr. Carano: On Dec e m b er 4, 2009, Instit u tio n al Review Board (IRB) re v i ewed and APPROVED the above protocol for the period indicated above. It was the deter m ination of the IRB that your study qualified for expedited review based on the federal expedited category number 6 and 7 Also approved were the consent for m s (interview, sur vey). Please n o te, if applica b le, only use the IRB app r oved and stamped consent forms for participants to sign. T h e enclo s ed info r m ed consent/asse n t d ocu m ents are valid d u ri n g the period indicated by the official, IRB Approval sta m p located on page 1 of the fo r m Make copies from the enclosed original. Please reference the a b ove IRB p r otocol number in all c o rrespondence reg a rding this protocol with the IRB or the D i vision of Research Integrity and Co m pliance. In addition, you can find the Institutional R eview Board (IRB) Quick
237 Reference Guide providing guidelines and resources to assist you in m eeting your respon s ibilities in the conduction of hu m an p a rticipant research on our website. Please read this guide carefully. It is your respo n sibility to conduct this study in accordance with IRB policies and procedures and as approved by the IRB. We appreciate your dedication to t h e ethical conduct of hu ma n subje c t research at the University of South Florida and your continued com m i tm ent to hu m an research protec tions. If you have any questions regarding this m atter, please call 813 974 2036. Sincerely, Krista Kutash, Ph.D., Chairperson USF Institutional Revi e w Board Cc: Anna Davis, USF IRB Professional Staff Dr. J. Howard Johnston
238 A ppendix B : T eacher Background Questionnaire 1. Sex: Male _____ Female _____ 2. I have served overseas in the a rmed f orces: Yes ____ No ____ skip to #4. 3. While serving overseas, I lived off base: Yes ____ No ____ 4. I have lived overseas (other than in the s ervice): Yes ____ No ____ 5. I have lived in a non W estern culture or developing country: Yes ____ No ____ 6. I have traveled or lived in the following areas (Please check appropriate box): < 1 mo. 1 3 mos. 3 6 mos. 6 12 mos. 1+ yr. N. Africa Sub Saharan Africa Australia and/or New Zealand Canada Central America/South America Caribbean China Eastern Europe and/or Russia Hawa ii and/or Alaska India/Pakistan Japan Korea/Philippines and/or Taiwan Mexico Middle East Oceania Southeast Asia Western Europe Other 7. For each area you traveled, please provide the reason you were traveling (i.e. vacation, business, missionary work, Peace Corps Volunteer) : N. Africa Sub Saharan Africa
239 Australia and/or New Zealand Canada Central America/South America Caribbean China Eastern Europe and/or Russia Hawaii and/or Alaska India/Pakistan Japan Korea/Philippines and / or Taiwan Mexico Middle East Oceania Southeast Asia Western Europe 8. I began following world news when I was (choose one): _____ a child _____ a working adult _____ a teenager ow it _____ in college 9. My parents discussed current events with me when I was growing up: Yes ____ No ____ 10. When I follow the news, this is my primary focus: (can choose more than one) : _____ local news _____ national news _____ international news 11. My main source of information in being informed about the world is: _____ n ewspapers _____ m agazines _____ t elevision _____ r adio _____ Internet _____ none 12. I obtain information about world news: _____ d aily _____ 1 2 times a week __ ___ 5 6 times a week _____ not at all _____ 3 4 times a week 13. I am conversational in: _____ one language _____ two languages _____ more than two languages
240 A ppendix C : H ett Global mindedness Survey Teacher Attitude Survey On the following pages you w ill find a series of statements. Please read each statement and decide whether or not you agree with it. Then circle the response that most accurately reflects your opinion. There are no correct or incorrect answers. Strongly d isagree = 1, Disagree = 2, Unsure = 3, Agree = 4, Strongly a gree = 5 SD D U A SA 1. I generally find it stimulating to spend an evening talking with people from another culture. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I feel an obligation to speak out when I see our government doing something I consider wrong. 1 2 3 4 5 3. The United States is enriched by the fact that it is comprised of many people from different cultures and countries. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Really, there is nothing I can do about the problems of the world. 1 2 3 4 5 5. The needs of the United States must continue to be our highest priority in negotiating with other countries. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I often think about the kind of world we are creating for future generations. 1 2 3 4 5 7. When I hear that thousands of people are starving in an African country, I feel very frustrated. 1 2 3 4 5 8. Americans can learn something of value from all different cultures. 1 2 3 4 5 effect on the ecosystem. 1 2 3 4 5 10. Americans should be permitted to pursue the standard of living they can afford if it only has a slight negative impact on the environment. 1 2 3 4 5 11. I think of myself, not only as a citizen of my country, but also as a citizen of the world. 1 2 3 4 5 12. When I see the conditions some people in the world live under, I feel a responsibility to do something about it. 1 2 3 4 5 culture. 1 2 3 4 5 14. My opinions about national policies are based on how those policies might affect the rest of the world as well as the United States. 1 2 3 4 5 SD D U A SA 15. It is very important to me to choose a career in which I can have a positive effect on the quality of life for future generations. 1 2 3 4 5 16. American values are probably the best. 1 2 3 4 5 17. In the long run, America will probably benefit from the fact that world is becoming more interconnected. 1 2 3 4 5 18. The fact that a flood can kill 50,000 people in Bangladesh is very depressing to me. 1 2 3 4 5
241 19. It is important that American universities and colleges provide programs designed to promote understanding among students of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. 1 2 3 4 5 20. I think my behavior can impact people in other countries. 1 2 3 4 5 maintained because it promotes survival of the fittest. 1 2 3 4 5 22. I feel a strong kinship with the worldwide human family. 1 2 3 4 5 23. I feel very concerned about the lives of people who live in politically repressive regimes. 1 2 3 4 5 24. It is important that we educate people to understand the impact that current policies might have on future generations. 1 2 3 4 5 25. It is not really important to me to consider myself as a member of the global community. 1 2 3 4 5 26. I sometimes try to imagine how a person who is always hungry must feel. 1 2 3 4 5 27. I have very little in common with people in underdeveloped nations. 1 2 3 4 5 28. I am able to affect what happens on a global level by what I do in my own community. 1 2 3 4 5 29. I sometimes feel irritated with people from other countries because they 1 2 3 4 5 30. Americans have a moral obligation to share their wealth with the less fortunate peoples of the world. 1 2 3 4 5 Scoring Key Reverse score items: 4, 5, 9, 10, 16, 21, 25, 27, 29 Scoring: Range of scores 30 150 Sum all responses Higher scores indicate a higher level of global mindedness Items Reflecting Theoretical Dimensions Responsibility: 2, 7, 12, 18, 23, 26, 30 Cultural pluralism: 1, 3, 8, 13, 14, 19, 24, 27 Efficacy: 4, 9, 15, 20, 28 Globalcentrism: 5, 10, 16, 21, 29 Interconnectedness: 6, 11, 17, 22, 25
242 A ppendix D : I nitial Interview Protocol for Teachers 1. How long have you been teaching? How long have you taught at your current school? 2. How long have you been involved with the Global Schools Project? 3. Why would you de scribe yourself as a global educator? 4. What made you interested in global education? 5. When did you start considering yourself a global educator? 6. What experiences contributed to the development of your own global mindedness? 7. What beliefs contributed to the de velopment of your own global mindedness? 8. How does someone become more globally minded? 9. Have your experiences contributed to how you develop global mindedness in your students? If so, how? 10. Have your beliefs contributed to how you develop global mindedness i n your students? If so, how? 11. How do you feel teachers can develop global mindedness in their students? 12. Can you provide examples of how you develop global perspectives in the classroom? 13. How have your past experiences influenced how you teach global educati on in the classroom? 14. What do you identify as your greatest influence(s) on your global perspective? 15. What are the challenges and roadblocks in infusing global education in your classroom? 16. Are you able to overcome these challenges and roadblocks? If so, how?
243 A ppendix E : E xplanatory Letter About Teacher Background Questionnaire and Global mindedness Survey Dear _______________________________, I am a doctoral candidate in s ocial s cience e ducation at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. I am studying to what global educators attribute their global mindedness and how they perceive these factors affect their curricula decisions. As a participating instructor in the Global Schools Project I am interested in receiving your feedback on two surveys Your participation in this aspect of the study will require you to fill out an instrument consisting of 13 questions about your background and a 30 item attitude survey. The instruments will be conducted on the University of South Florida campus at the monthly Global Schools Project meeting in October 2009. The instruments will take approximately 30 minutes to complete combined. You will be asked to answer questions about your biographical and professional background and respond to a global mindedness s urvey. Your participation is voluntary. Your name and any other information gathered in this study will remain confidential and will only be used for educational purposes. I appreciate your thoughtful consideration of my request. I look forward to your p articipation in the study. Sincerely, Kenneth T. Carano
244 A ppendix F : E xplanatory Letter to Interviewees Dear _______________________________, I am a doctoral candidate in social science education at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. I am studying to what global educators attribute their global mindedness and how they perceive these factors affect their curricular decisions. Your participation is requested because of your participation in the Global Schools Project. Participation in the study will require approximately two 1 hour in depth interviews. The interviews will, with your permission, be audio taped and transcribed. To maintain confidentiality, you will not be identified by name on the tape. I will be transcribing the tapes. T he audio files will be kept in a locked safe at my house. Each participant will be offered a copy of the audio files and a copy of the transcription. The participants and I will be the only ones with access to the audio files. The master audio file will re main in my possession and will be destroyed 3 years after the publication of the dissertation. Interviews will be arranged on the University of South Florida campus or a location of your convenience. The tentative schedule calls for one interview in Janu ary 2010 and one interview in February 2010 or March 2010. In addition, you may be asked to share relevant artifacts and documents. Your name and any other information gathered in this study will remain confidential and will only be used for educational purposes. I appreciate your thoughtful consideration of my request. I look forward to your participation in the study. Sincerely, Kenneth T. Carano (Adapted from Janesick, 2004)
245 A ppendix G : C onsent Form for Participants Consent Form I, ______________________________ agree to participate in this study with Kenneth T. Carano I realize that this information is for educational purposes. I understand I may withdraw from the study at any time. I understand the intent of the study. Signed _________________________________ Date: (Adapted from Janesick, 2004)
246 A ppendix H : A ffirmation of Intent Form for Participants This form was sent to the participants: Affirmation of Intent This is to say that I am conducting the study for education al purposes, no harm will come to you, and your information will be treated with confidentiality and anonymity. You may withdraw at any time, and you will receive a copy of the full report. You may see the data and anything I write at any time. Signed __ __________________________ Kenneth T. Carano (Adapted from Janesick, 2004)
247 A ppendix I : M ember Check Form for Interviewees January XX, 2010 Dear _________________________________ Thank you for the enjoyable and insightful interviews. Attached please find a draft copy of the verbatim transcripts of your interviews. Please review the transcripts for accuracy of responses and reporting of information. Please feel free to contact me at 941 962 2325 or via e mail at firstname.lastname@example.org should you have any questions. Thank you again for your willingness to participate in this study. Sincerely, Kenneth T. Carano (Adapted from Janesick, 2004)
248 A ppendix J: D isclosure Statement As th e study investigator, it is only fair that the reader be provided with the perceived development of my personal global mindedness. Therefore, through the use of self reflection and a rereading of journal entries kept during my time in the Peace Corps, I am disclosing key moments in my perceived development of a global mindedness. My global mindedness was greatly influenced by my experience as a Peace Corps volunteer in Suriname, South America. Unbeknownst to me at the time, through the work I was doing with the children of the village and its school, I was being drawn into the educational realm. Improving the cultural awareness of young peopl e was becoming a passion education do ctoral program in the fall of 2004 that I began to articulate a direction for cultural awareness. By exposing me to the field of global education over the course of the past 5 years, the program has enabled me to fine tune my und erstanding of global education. Because cross cultural awareness is an integral part of my global mindedness, a large section of this disclosure statement outlines my evolution of this subcategory of intercultural awareness. I draw my versi on of cross cultural awareness from the writing of Robert Hanvey (1976). From his perspective, cross cultural awareness is the ability to own culture from other vantage points. Hanvey discussed the four hierarchal levels one goes through, wi th Level 1 being the lowest level and Level 4 being the highest level. These levels are outlined in Table 13. There is much fluidity between levels 1 and 2, with neither level allowing a person to experience empathy with another culture, either consciously or subconsciously. According to Hanvey, true acceptance of goal, it is very difficult to attain and Level 3, while not having achieved the status of an mains an attainable goal for most people. Table 13 : Interpretation of Levels of Cross cultural Awareness Level Information Mode Interpretation 1 Awareness of superficial or visible cultural traits; stereotypes Tourism, textbooks, National Geographic Unbelievable (i.e., exotic) 2 A wareness of significant and subtle cultural traits that contrast markedly Cultural conflict situations Unbelievable (i.e., frustrating) 3 A wareness of significant and subtle cultural traits own Intellectual analysis Believable, cognitivity 4 A wareness of how another culture feels from the standpoint of the insider C ultural immersion, living the culture Subjective familiarity Note. Adapted from An Attainable Global Perspective by R. G. Hanvey, 1976, p. 16. Copyright 1976 by The American Forum.
249 Pre Peace Corps Awareness I was born in San Diego, California, and raised in a culturally advantaged environment and influenced by middle c lass values. It was my grandmother and mother who first attempted to instill in me that the world was not limited to my immediate surroundings and that differences in people were not the result of one ethnicity or race being superior to another one; rather the differences were people not appreciating or variety of experiences I share in the next few paragraphs, my cultural and global awareness began to develop. Some of my earliest memories are of Vietnam War naval ships docking in the San Diego Bay and my mom and grandmother periodically taking my cousin and me across the border to visit the orphanages in Tijuana, Mexico. Another exciting time was a summer of driving ac ross the country and up into Canada with my parents in their old VW van. My first memorable experience of dealing with culture shock happened a couple years later, when my mom decided to leave the more liberal California and move to an ultraconservative growing up in Indiana, but I never truly felt comfortable in the southern Indiana culture; it all owed me to grow up wondering why people did not see that, rightly or wrongly, there was often more than one way of perceiving an issue. Living in southern Indiana also exposed me to the Amish culture because my first babysitters in Indiana were Amish, a co nservative Christian group probably best known for their simple dress, refusal to use electricity, and seclusion from the rest of mainstream society. I often spent weeks on an Amish farm as my mom was finishing up her college degree. Some of the sweetest p eople I have ever met, the Amish seemed to be the exception to the rule, in the area of Indiana where I lived, of accepting others whatever their beliefs. Upon graduating high school, I went to Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. While Bloomingto n, Indiana, was not a bastion of culture, it was during this time that I developed a travel bug and craving to experience different cultures. During my last year of school, one of my roommates, Hatem, was from Egypt and thanks to him, I had the opportunity to travel through Egypt and stay with his family for a month. The Egypt trip also happened to coincide with the Islamic celebration of Ramadan. The experience had a profound effect on me; I discovered a feeling of comfort and peace sitting around talking strung life in the United States. The experience left me yearning for more of the international experience. The next few years, in between working with abused/neglected chil dren, I attempted to satisfy my travel appetite by spending my time backpacking through Central America, South America, and Southeast Asia with my wife. The Peace Corps Experience: Where My Awareness Goes My wife and I arrived in Suriname, South America in July 1998. Suriname is a small country, about the size of the state of Georgia, and is located on the northeastern
250 shoulder of South America. It is part of and adjacent to the largest remaining expanse of uninhabited, undisturbed rainforest on E arth. Approximately 450,000 people live in Suriname and yet it is a true melting pot. About a third of Surinamese are East Indians, a third are Creole and the remaining third includes Indonesians, Chinese, Europeans, Amerindians, and Maroons. Th is former Dutch colony has been independent since 1975 and although Dutch is still the official language, more than 20 languages are spoken throughout Suriname The following two entries, extracted from the journal I kept during my time in Peace Corps, seem to represen t my fluctuation between levels 1 and 2 of cross cultural awareness during my arrival and first days in Suriname. We arrived at the Suriname airport at about 1:30 a.m. Since we were with Peace Corps, we were helped through customs without waiting in line. They just collected our passports in bulk (note: referring to the 24 Peace Corps volunteers who had arrived) and waved us through. The Peace Corps Country Director, Eddie Stice, was there to greet us. We then all were directed towards an old school bus, w hich we rode in on a 30 minute trip to our training site. Although it was dark out and the only lights were those coming from the headlights of the bus and the headlights of the occasional vehicle passing on the other side of our pothole in f ested road, I can make out jungle on either side of the road. To be on a bus that could break down at any time, with jungle on either side, in a world that it seems time has forgotten has me feeling so alive! Once we get to our training site, we eat, and socialize for a while before heading for our rooms after 3:30 a.m Our rooms are dorms. No air conditioning, of course, but we do have a single fan. Each couple has their own room. The floors are concrete, the walls are plain and there is a single light bulb in the room p roviding light. Two single beds are pushed together with a mosquito net over top. Despite being tired, I am starting to feel very excited. The journal entry reflects no frustration on my part. In fact, reading it for the first time in almost 9 years, it t ook me back to that moment. I feel strongly that it was a Level become sources of frustration for me (i.e., breaking down vehicles in the jungle, no air conditioning) were instead sources of an exotic world implanted in my mind. Yet, 3 days captures the fr ustrations of the conflict of cultural lifestyles found in Level 2. No shower again this morning! That means bathing out of a bucket. Ugh! The bucket has to be filled from an outside faucet and then carried into the shower room, indoors. Now I sit on my be d with the mosquito net half tossed around the bed, the fan on, and
251 door open to allow air to circulate. I attempted to sit outside to write, but at 11:45 a.m., the sun was much too intense only to sit under it on the steps. With language class ended for t he morning, there is nothing scheduled until later this afternoon. I will have to adjust to this new slower pace. Right now, it seems to have me on Yet another couple of journals, dated August 10, 199 8, and August 26, 1998, capture the near constant emotional fluctuations I went through during this period of time as I slowly transitioned to a new acceptance and stage of cross cultural awareness. (8/10/98) This morning. I awoke feeling heavy with my thr oat the morning I was feeling rather negative about this place. Thinking that just a couple hours of luxuries, such as a flushing toilet, warm reliable shower, a La Z Boy, with cable tele vision sure would be a nice break. Finally, after lunch, I felt somewhat better and by the afternoon I am reinvigorated to be living here again! I am feeling a bit overwhelmed with language classes that may have had something to do with my early ill will. anything today. This morning, my mood is swinging out of control for no apparent reason! I want to scream! I want to ride a roller coaster to feel the rush. I want 10 minutes in a padded room to toss myself around! Everybody leave me alone, because right now I am IRRATIONAL!! I AM SO SICK OF TRAINING. In 10 minutes, I will probably be having the time of my life, or maybe I wll sink into a bottomless pit. . or maybe. . Right now, not even talking logic to me will work. Wow! Less than an hour later and I feel as if I made a 180 turn. Many of the other Peace Corps trainees have been going through the same feelings. Some o f us had a good laugh about our frustrations. The laughter was a godsend and turned my mental state around. After a couple of months of training near the capital city of Paramaribo, where approximately three site assignments, which would become home for the remaining 2 years in Suriname. My wi fe and I were assigned to the village of Tapoeripa, about 200 kilometers south of the interior rainforest and inhabited by descendants of runaway African slaves, common ly referred to as Maroons. Although only 200 kilometers away, because of the dirt (often muddy) road between Paramaribo and the village, travel time fluctuated anywhere from 4 to 8 hours.
252 By the time we had arrived in Tapoeripa, I was continuing to fluc tuate between the levels 1 and 2 of cross cultural awareness, while having fleeting moments of time in Level 3. The following journals, from our early experiences in the village, are indicative of this fluctuation. (9/25/98) Up at 5 a.m. I am so tired. Di fficult time sleeping last night. It could be excitement. It could be the bug bites that were irritating me. We had to take our bags and catch a bus into town to the street that has the vehicles that take people into the interior. Although it was still ear ly in the morning, the area was bustling with activity. We found the DAF truck that would take us to Tapoeripa. The truck we boarded looked like an old Mayflower/U Haul truck with old, dusty, torn bus seats placed in the back. There were sliding windows on on our seats were lying piled on top of one another at the front of the cabin we all sat crammed in. The person in front of me was practically sitting in my lap because the seat appeared ready to break. Not only did I have her practically in my lap, but I had to enough, the cabin was unbearingly hot from the heat protruding from the clo se proximity of all the people, some of whom were forced to stand. At 8:30, after an hour of not moving, we began our bumpy ride out of Paramaribo. The trip lasted for just over 4 hours. The ride was a combination of scenic beauty with the plush green jung le surrounding us on either side and part torture as the truck vibrated and bottomed out on hole after hole in the road. We were constantly being jolted around as we drove through the reddish mud and dusty road. When we arrived at our destination, we were at the edge of the Suriname River. It was a gorgeous portrait of river water surrounded by jungle flora. Once off the truck, we still had a 2 kilometer walk to Tapoeripa. We gathered up our bags and made our way down the dirt road. When we arrived in Tapoe ripa, we found Eddy who was supposed to show us to our house. Right away, there was some confusion. Apparently, our house had not been cleaned yet and was still locked and the basia who had our d off our bags there for awhile. After eating, Eddy took us on a walk around part of the village. He showed us the creek where some people wash things. Armania met up with us as we were walking around and we all went to what appeared to be the other side of the village to wash at the river. There, Andrea and I bathed as village women scrubbed clothes on
253 rocks with rushes and washed dishes nearby. Children watche d us bathe, like we were exotic zoo animals in a cage. After walking along the jungle path from the river to the village, hours since we arrived and it appeared we were finally on our way to see our own house. Unfortunately, for some reason, all we did place. Maybe to have our food at her place so she could pressure us int o feeding her? Maybe she wanted us to feel like she was watching over us and it was an act of showing us how much she cared since our language skills made it difficult to communicate? In the evening, we walked around the village, attempting to talk in the local tongue. Our attempts at speaking their language frequently brought laughter. It must have been humorous to them to see White people talking Ndjukan (what little we know). Foisipai. man and I hav e been told it reflects that I am the first White man to live in Tapoeripa. I am filled with pride over the name. It gives this whole experience an extra sense of the adventure we are experiencing. It makes me feel like a character in an old adventure nove l who has stumbled upon a lost Amazonian civilization. kosbanti (a green bean like vegetable), and a mystery meat. Eyes are on us. We see adults and children peeking through doors and wi ndows. We are definitely on stage. After eating we walk back, of stars here at night, highlighted by the sight of the Milky Way. Armania was not home; therefore, we are forced to wait longe r before moving into our house. We wait on her front porch, passing the time trying to teach Eddy some English words as he teaches us some Ndjukan. Finally, after 9 p.m., after hours of thinking, r house. The house has two rooms: a front visiting area, a back room to sleep, and a front porch. Each room is about 10x12. Nobody has lived in it for quite awhile. It apparently was being used for storage because there are bags of cement piled on top of e ach other in the front room. There are large holes in the back room floor. We hang up our hammocks in the back room and have little trouble falling asleep to the sounds of bats flying around inside our house. (9/27/98) It is amazing how mentally exhaust ing a day can be here. Just a walk down the street can leave my head in a daze. The
254 culture here is such that you must great everyone you pass, tell they feel like teaching Ndjukan or challeng ing your Ndjukan knowledge. Not only that, they have 20 greetings depending upon the time of day, whether you have already seen them today, their sex, age, etc. . I also always have to be on. People are frequently know the etiquette. If I say no, I appear rude, but if I keep giving in, I will be left with nothing. Just sitting in the house for a few because somebody can come by at any moment and, so far, always does! At times, we could just use a break from everyone. That all said, I love it here! These two journals represent my flow in and out of the different levels during the early stages of my time in the village. For exa mple, I found myself caught up in the limiting stereotypes of Level 1 such as when I fantasized about an exotic lost world I had entered when I was branded with the name of Foisipai Minutes or hours later, I was struggling through the feelings of inner tu rmoil associated with Level 2, when I felt overbearing annoyance of being stared at like a zoo animal, having my bags moved from quickly as I had become frustrated, I began to intellectualize reasons, both positive and negative, villagers may be asking for half our things or the motivations behind Armenia taking our bags to her house. Finally, I found myself slipping back into frustration when my attempts at intellectualizin g the situation left me with more unanswered questions than answers. Because Level 3 is about being able to intellectualize and understand subtle traits of a culture, it was probably a year into our stay in Tapoeripa when I could safely say I had consiste ntly attained Level 3. From reviewing my journal, it was during this period of time that I began to relax and felt comfortable enough to engage in the same cultural exchange with friends of mine and other villagers that they had vocalized with me, but I ha d previously been too uneasy to vocalize with them. For example, it was finally during this period of time that I was able to turn the table on them in conversations and walk by at you gone from initially finding this cultural trait of theirs as one of rudeness, to then feeling sorry for their poverty, to finally realizing these blunt commen ts were not considered rude or begging, they were instead comments of respect to the person and, in a sense, meant that you were embraced as a part of a community of friends and family. In the end, I discovered that the person who asked for half of my thin gs usually gave me back much more than he or she had ever requested. Another aspect to the Tapoeripa culture was there humor. They like to make fun of people and appeared to have no qualms about making fun of a person to his or her face, no matter how w ell they knew the person. For a time, my wife and I questioned whether it was a mean culture that we lived in and did not always take it well when we
255 were ridiculed. We would go through days of not leaving the house or ignoring certain individuals, who had made fun of us. Although it was a gradual process, again, it was during this 1 year period when my understanding of this concept and language skills finally allowed me to become quick witted enough in the culture to give as good as I could take and, much to my surprise, the more I could make fun of someone, the more that person seemed to enjoy my company. Of course, this meant more time for them to make fun of me, but I finally came to understand that this was not to be taken personally and was, in fact, a n act of intimacy. This journal, dated June 14, 1999, expressed this new Level 3 awareness: Today, we are going into foto (Paramaribo) so we can go on our vacation to Trinidad and Tobago. Some people in the village know that we are going, although we have tried to keep it quiet. As I was walking around this morning, Mofeensha yelled out at me in front put her in our backpack Immediately, she and the others started laughing and allowed me to walk away. I had passed the test and can now go without others feeling like we are trying to be above them by going off on vacation. Looking back on that moment, I remember the feeling o f excitement that I had accessed an inherent understanding of the culture. The physical/temporal reality of their faces and body postures demonstrated a noted relaxation and gleam in their eyes when I had responded with an inviting joke. Again, this realit y was interconnected with my enacted reality, which took this as meaning that rather than hiding that I could afford something they could not or treating them as less than me due to that gulf, I was opening my life to them and; therefore, because I was abl e to joke about the vacation, I had been accepted as a part of their community and was no longer a Bakra which is a condescending phrase towards a White person. While I feel safe in saying that I will never know whether I was able to sustain Level 4 o f cross cultural awareness, there were occasions that I believe I at least spent a brief period of time at that level. For the purposes of this story, I describe one of these occasions. It was my last day in Tapoeripa because I was spending the remaining c ouple weeks of Suriname in the capital city, Paramaribo. Due to medical reasons, my wife had left a month and a half earlier. I had remained behind to complete a village project. Normally, when leaving the village and returning to the city, I rode a DAF tr uck. Due to the rainy season, travel from the village in most vehicles was impossible. As a result, Peace Corps headquarters sent down an SUV to pick me up. The following journal entry, dated June 27, 2000, describes the scene and my feelings as I left Tap oeripa for the final time. Noon (approx.): After walking around visiting for the past couple thought I was doing well on clos ure. Now I feel like the insides of
256 my body could crumble! I knew I was dreading the actual day I It seemed like the whole village surrounded my house to help me carry things and see me off. Everybody was acting so sad. They things out because I think I was to overcome with sorrow. I choked up. If I tried to say anything tears began forming in my eyes and I had to cease speaking (or I would have completely broken down). I might as well have been an infant and had someone guiding me by the hand. It was so upsetting, I suddenly felt lik fast enough. Suddenly, out of the blue (literally because the skies had been clear up to that moment), a downpour of rain erupted and we had to wait as everyone was still standing there. I overheard people in the village say ( Just as suddenly that the blue skies had been overcome by a rain cloud, the sky cleared up. We put the last of my g oods in the vehicle. I said my final goodbyes and then Captain Kentie (the village chief) provided one final grand entrance for me to see, as he walked up guided by his ever his kamisa (a brightly colored madras tied and wor n around the waist) and his usual red baseball cap. The village onlookers remained standing lined up along the sides as the captain and I said our final pleasantries to each other. Then we were off. In retrospect, that day may have been the closest I woul d ever feel to my Tapoeripa family. There are two factors I point to when attempting to convince the reader Level 4 had been attained. One, the sorrow I felt by leaving my friends and the village was, I believe, the type of sadness only felt by those who a re immersed in a culture and have now moved beyond living side by side with another culture instead of living the inclusion and exclusion Billings, 2000, p. 260). The second factor that points to Level 4 was the comment s of people stating the rain was actually tears from the heavens. My interpretation of these comments seemed to solidify my construction of Level 4 of cross cultural awareness. The physical/temporal reality of the scene and discussion unfolding around me w as able to connect with my enacted reality, which had internalized and understood the meanings of their words in a manner only an insider could decode. While I cannot say that I agreed then or agree now, that it was truly the spirit world crying at my leav ing the village, the reason it was so touching to hear that said was because I instantly understood, from the viewpoint of a Ndjukan
257 person from Tapoeripa, what was meant with that statement and the intensity with which the speaker believed it to be true. While someone may argue with me on whether this meets the criteria for Level 4 by stating that anyone who had been educated about the traditional spiritual beliefs of these people would understand what was meant, I do not believe a person could experience the emotional core intensity of understanding the significance unless he or she had truly lived that culture. I compare it to someone who is a Christian versus someone who is not a Christian. While most know the story of Jesus dying on the cross, the signi ficance of the event is more likely to be felt with a profound emotional intensity by the Christian than the non Christian. Note All indented italicized writings were writings taken from a journal I kept during my Peace Corps experience from July 1998 th rough July 2000. With the exception of the parentheses and corrections of obvious misspellings, the journal writings were copied exactly as they had been written in the journal to avoid losing any of their authenticity. As a result, there may be numerous g rammatical inaccuracies. The writings in parentheses have been added in an attempt to clarify certain words and passages for the reader.
A BOUT THE AUTHOR Kenneth Carano is a returned Peace Corps volunteer who spent 2 years teaching elementary students and running an after school program in Suriname, South America. He has been teaching AP human geography, honors American history, w orld h istory, g eography, w orld r e ligions, psychology, s ociology, c ourt p rocedures, p hilosophy, and g lobal s tudies as a high school social studies instructor in Sarasota County for the pa st 8 years. He is also the social studies department chair and has introduced the Why Me Club, a student led global relief agency, to Booker High School (Sarasota). Prior to teaching high school social studies, he was a behavior specialist for middle school self secondary social studies education from Florida State University and is pursuing a doctoral degree in curriculum and instruction at the University of South Florida with a cognate in global education He has been published in Social Education The Social St udies and The Social Studies Review and has had two of his anthologies of life in Suriname published in the novel Volunteer Tales and has received a Short Story laureate for one of his works of fiction. Mr. Carano h as presented internationally and nation wide at conferences such as NCSS, FCSS, SITE PDK Global Education Summit, and the Ackerman colloquium on technology, and served as the College and University Faculty Assembly graduate forum secretary/membership coordinator. His research interests are glob al perspectives in teacher education programs and preparing students to be effective citizens in a world that is becoming increasingly interconnected.
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Through the lens of a global educator :
b examining personal perceptions regarding the construction of world-mindedness
h [electronic resource] /
by Kenneth Carano.
[Tampa, Fla] :
University of South Florida,
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Dissertation (PHD)--University of South Florida, 2010.
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ABSTRACT: As we embark upon the 21st century, the world is becoming increasingly interconnected. Yet, despite increasing globalization, educational systems are not reflecting this phenomenon. The overwhelming majority of countries, including the United States, still emphasize nationalistic curricula (Parker, 2008; Tye, 2009). Global education is a movement whose supporters advocate an education reflecting the push towards globalization by providing students with the components necessary to live and thrive in an increasingly interconnected world system. Global educators have a common bond as advocates that a global perspective needs to be developed in the classroom. The degree to which this is being done is unknown. Further, how a global educator is prepared and formed is unknown. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research in global education (Gaudelli, 2003). Personal experiences have a major influence to what a teacher attributes his or her beliefs and values (Lincoln, 2005), and this is an area of study that has not been examined in global education. Using a mixed-methods design that includes a background survey, a global-mindedness survey and interviews would provide a better understanding of what self-identifying global educators attribute their global-mindedness. By presenting a rich account of the perspectives of high school social studies teachers who are involved with a global education initiative, social studies teacher education programs can gain insight about providing the best preparation that will lead to teacher candidates gaining the skills necessary to teach from a global perspective The case study presented here consisted of 2 surveys, multiple interviews, and examination of program documents. Analysis resulted in 8 themes identified by the participants as being attributed to the development of a global perspective: (a) family, (b) exposure to diversity, (c) minority status, (d) curious disposition, (e) global education courses, (f) international travel, (g) having a mentor, and (h) professional service. Additionally, the themes were perceived to influence curricular decision making by providing strategies, resources, and empathy towards students. The participants' perspectives have implications on social studies teacher education programs and future research. These implications include the types of instructional methods, themes, and global dimensions that should be addressed in teacher education programs. Future research should focus on issues underlying the nature of global education courses being taught in social studies teacher education programs, the teaching methods being used by graduates of those programs, and further analysis on emerging themes perceived to be critical in developing a global perspective.
Advisor: Howard Johnston, Ph.D.
Curricular decision making
x Curriculum and Instruction
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.