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Hiv education for youth in transition to adulthood

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Material Information

Title:
Hiv education for youth in transition to adulthood
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Gamache, Peter Eugene
Publisher:
University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Education
Health
Hiv
Transition
Young Adult
Youth
Dissertations, Academic -- Health Education Curriculum Development Educational evaluation -- Doctoral -- USF   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
ABSTRACT: This dissertation investigated the role of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) stigma in program implementation. A case study design comprising qualitative methods provided in-depth, context-sensitive comparisons of adult educator (n = 8) and youth (n = 67) perspectives among programs that provide HIV services and those that provide risk reduction services. Nearly half of the youth participants were male, 42% were female, and 6% identified as transgender. Two thirds of participants were Black or African American, one quarter of participants were Hispanic or Latino, and the average participant age was 19. Although program personnel from all youth service programs in this study are acutely aware of how HIV stigma detracts from HIV education, programs that provide HIV services address stigma differently from programs that provide at-risk services. HIV education differs by language, inclusion, and stigma experiences. Based on the research literature and the findings from this study, structural changes are needed to accurately address HIV stigma and improve educational effectiveness across youth programs.
Thesis:
Disseration (Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2011.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System Details:
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Peter Eugene Gamache.
General Note:
Title from PDF of title page.
General Note:
Document formatted into pages; contains 191 pages.
General Note:
Includes vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - E14-SFE0004859
usfldc handle - e14.4859
System ID:
SFS0028124:00001


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14 B,'/$<,-*13$).*9/$*19$39E9/)-(9$,.$)$5,-? J *9 /<$/95)*+,-31+=I$<7$.,/<9/$ =)/*-9/$*93*9&$=,3+*+E9$.,/$!"#:$f,*$V-,T+-?$+.$"$<)7$1)E9$699-$9W=,39&$*,$*19$ &+39)39$=/+,/$*,$<7$/95)*+,-31+=$9-&+-?I$+-$)&&+*+,-$*,$'-&9/?,+-?$*93*+-?I$T)+*+-?I$ )-&$/9 J *93*+-?$'-*+5$)-$9W*9-&9&$gT+-&,T$=9/+,&g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c2:$M99I$=9/3,-)5$ (,<<'-+()*+,-I$4=/+5$OYI$QRRPd:$"$?)+-9&$1'<+5+*7$T19-$"$3*,==9&$*,$/9.59(*$,-$<7$ (,<=5)+-*3$)6,'*$=,*9-*+)557$1)E+-?$*19$&+39)39$*,$)$./+9-&$T1,$+3$!"#$=,3+*+E9:$i+*1$ *19$195=$,.$<7$3'==,/*$-9*T,/VI$"$(,-3+&9/$<7$!"#$-9 ?)*+E9$3*)*'3$)-$9&'()*+,-)5$ ,==,/*'-+*7$)-&$V-,T$*1)*$"$T,'5&$1)E9$/9)(19&$*19$3)<9$(,-(5'3+,-$1)&$"$69(,<9$ !"#$=,3+*+E9: $

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29 67$M7,-I$ A+569/I$)-&$@b4-?95,$cO]]_d$.,'-&$*1)*$&+..+('5*$5+.9$(+/('<3*)-(93$c=,E9/*7I$ E+,59-(9I$)6)-&,-<9-*d$)<,-?$!"#$=,3+*+E9$7,'*1$)?93$OQ$*,$QO$)/9$)33,(+)*9&$T+*1$ )E,+&)-(9$)-&$&9-+)5I$/95)*+,-31+=$&+3(,<.,/*I$)-&$(,=+-?$&9.+(+9-(+93:$K9(9+=*$,.$)-$ !"#$=,3+*+ E9$&+)?-,3+3$).*9/$=/+,/I$/9=9)*9&$*/)'<)$T)3$-,*$399-$)3$)-$+3,5)*9&I$5+.9 J )5*9/+-?$9E9-*$6'*$=)/*$,.$)$3=9(*/'<$,.$,-?,+-?$5+.9$(1)559-?93: $ N/,T-I$F)(+-*7/9I$)-&$2/'G+55,$cQRR^d$3*'&+9&$!"#$3*+?<)$/9&'(*+,-$ +-*9/E9-*+,-3$)-&$(,-(5'&9&$T+*1$*19$,.*9J (+*9 &$(/+*+(+3<$*1)*$*19$9E+&9-(9$ &9<,-3*/)*+-?$=,3+*+E9$/93'5*3$+3$5+<+*9&$+-$&'/)*+,-$)-&$3(,=9$c9:?:I$;)/(93I $ 21,<)3I$o $C '//+9I$QRRQ n$;,9*L$9*$)5:I$QRR] d:$ 4(V-,T59&?+-?$*19$&+..+('5*7$,.$!"#$ 3*+?<)$/939)/(1$T+*1+-$1+?1 J 3*+?<)$)/9)3I$*19$)'*1,/3$3'??93*$*1)* $3*'&+93$9W)<+-9$ *19$/95)*+E9I$5,-? J *9/<$(,-*/+6'*+,-3$,.$<'5*+=59$+-*9/E9-*+,-$(,<=,-9-*3:$ K9&'(*+,-3$+-$3*+?<)*+L+-?$691)E+,/$+-(5'&9$&9(/9)39&$.9)/I$&9(/9)39&$-9?)*+E9$ )**+*'&93$)-&$+<=/,E9&$T+55+-?-933$*,$*/9)*$=9,=59$5+E+-?$T+*1$!"#I$)-&$&9(/9)39&$ &+3 */933$)-&$)-W+9*7$)6,'*$!"#: $ /08*(,:$!9/9V$)-&$;5'-*$cO]PPd$<)+-*)+-$*1)*$!"#$)-&$4"@A$3*+?<)$/9)&+57$ )**)(193$*,$<)/?+-)5+L9&$?/,'=3:$A9W')5I$/)(+)5I$)-&$9*1-+($<+-,/+*+93$)/9$./)<9&$)3$ 1+?1 J /+3V$?/,'=3I$T1+59$*1,39$T1,$9-?)?9$+-$"#$&/'?$'39$)-&$39W')5$) (*3$)/9$ +-.5'9-(9&$67$3,(+)5$.,/(93$3'(1$)3$=,E9/*7I$5)(V$,.$9&'()*+,-I$)-&$5)(V$,.$3,(+)5$ 3'==,/*:$"-$(,<=)/+3,-I$8/7,/I$K99&9/I$)-&$M)-&)'$cO]]]d$&93(/+69$1,T$-9?)*+E9$ )33,(+)*+,-3$T+*1$!"#$c&9)*1I$+55-933I$&/'?$'39d$()-$(,-*)<+-)*9$+&9)3$)6,'*$!"#$ =,3+* +E9$=9,=59$/9?)/&5933$,.$*19+/$(1)/)(*9/+3*+(3$,/$1,T$*197$)(>'+/9&$*19$&+39)39:$ 21939$)'*1,/3$=/,=,39$)$*T, J 3*)?9$<,&95$T19/9$*1939$-9?)*+E9$)33,(+)*+,-3$59)&+-?$ *,$+-+*+)5I$=/9G'&+(+)5$/9)(*+,-3$()-$3'63+&9$+.$3*+?<)*+L+-?$+-&+E+&')53$*)V9$*19$*+<9$

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30 *,$*1 +-V$)6,'*$*19+/$)(*+,-3I$9E)5')*9$*19$(+/('<3*)-(93$,.$*19$+-&+E+&')5$*197$)/9$ 3*+?<)*+L+-?I$)-&$(,-3+&9/$3,(+)5$3*)-&)/&3$T19/9$=/9G'&+(9$+3$-,*$)((9=*9&: $ 8)/V9/$)-&$4??59*,-$cQRRQd$&+3('33$*19$&+..9/9-*+)5$/95)*+,-31+=$69*T99-$!"#$ 3*)*'3$3*+?<)$)-&$=/9 J 9 W+3*+-?$3,(+)5$3*)*'3$&+..9/9-(93:$B,/$9W)<=59I$T,<9-$)-&$ <9-$)/9$65)<9&$&+..9/9-*57$.,/$3=/9)&+-?$!"#$T19-$*19/9$+3$=/9E)59-*$.9<)59$39W$ T,/V$,/$)33'<=*+,-3$)6,'*$<)59$=/,<+3('+*7:$!"#$<)7$)53,$69$399-$)3$)$i1+*9$,/$ <+-,/+*7$&+39)39$&9=9-&+-?$,-$5,()5$('5 *'/)5$695+9.3:$C )=+*)-+,$)-&$!9/9V$cO]]]d$ .,'-&$*1)*$+-&+E+&')53$3*/,-?57$)33,(+)*9$3*+?<)*+L+-?$4"@A$)**+*'&93$T+*1$+-G9(*+,-$ &/'?$'39/3$c*19$<,3*$3*+?<)*+L9&$?/,'=d$)<,-?$N5)(V$)-&$i1+*9$4<9/+()-3:$219$ )'*1,/3$&+3(,E9/9&$)$?/9)*9/$)33,(+)*+,-$69*T99-$4"@ A$3*+?<)$)-&$)-*+$?)7$ )**+*'&93$)<,-?$i1+*93$*1)-$N5)(V3:$2197$*19,/+L9$*1)*$*1+3$&+..9/9-(9$+3$&'9$*,$ &+..9/9-*$./)<+-?$,.$*19$&+39)39$T+*1+-$*1939$(,<<'-+*+93: $ B("($,.J%)('-.0$).H8%*80+.975)0$"( $ X-9$(,-(9=*')5$<,&95$*1)*$1)3$39E9/)5$'39.'5$(1)/)(*9/+3*+( 3$)-&$3*)-&3$,'*$ )<,-?$*19$*19,/9*+()5$5+*9/)*'/9$+3$*19$ :;
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37 *,$.,/<$)$6)3+3$.,/$)$-)*+,-)5$()39$3*'&7$c8)** ,-I$QRRQd:$Z')5+*)*+E9$<9*1,&3$T9 /9$ )==/,=/+)*9$*,$)3(9/*)+-$9W=9/+9-*+)5I$3'6G9(*+E9$=9/3=9(*+E93$, .$!"#$3*+?<)$)3$)-$ +-&+E+&')5$)-&$3,(+)5 J /95)*+,-)5$(,-3*/'(*$*1)*$(,-.9/3$-9?)*+E9$695+9.3$*,T)/&$)-&$ T+*1+-$*19$+-.9(*9&$ c;,..<)-I$O]\^n$2)5597$o $N9**9-(,'/*I$QRRPd :$21939$<9*1,&3$ +-(5'&9 & $39<+ J 3*/'(*'/9&$+-*9/E+9T3$)-&$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T 3$*1)*$.,55,T$*19$ 9 3*)65+319&$*/)&+*+,-$, .$>')5+*)*+E9$ +->'+/7$cN9/-)/&I$QRRRn$M+-(,5-$o $;'6)I$O]P[d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c8)**,-I $QRRQd: $ 2+9&$*,$)$5)(V$,.$9W=9(*)*+,-3$+3$T+*11,5&+-?$,.$G'&?<9-*$,.$*19$=)/*+(+=)-*3h$ /93=,-393:$B,/$9W)<=59I$V-,T+-?$*1)*$7,'*1$9W=/9339&$+-(,//9(*$E+9T3$)6,'*$!"#$ )-&$=9,=59$5+E+-?$T+*1$!"#$/)+39&$)-$9*1+()5$+33'9$.,/$<9$)3$)$/939)/(19/I$3+-(9$"$T)3$ )T) /9$,.$<7$/,59$+-$(,-&'(*+-?$)$3*'&7$)-&$-,*$)-$9&'()*+,-)5$=/,?/)<$ +-*9/E9-*+,-:$i1+59$&+/9(*$.99&6)(V$*,$*19$=)/*+(+=)-*3$T)3$-,*$=)/*$,.$*1+3$3*'&7I$*19$ )??/9?)*9$.+-&+-?3$./,<$*1+3$&+339/*)*+,-$T+55$69$31)/9&$T+*1$=/,?/)<$=9/3,--95$*,$ )&&/933$+-)(('/)(+ 93I$<+3'-&9/3*)-&+-?3I$)-&$<7*13: $ $

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cQRRQd $&93(/+693$)3$)$5)&&9/$,.$ =)/*+(+=)*+,-: $0,'* 1$ =9/3=9(*+E9 3 $,.$1,T$ *197$ 1)E9$*19$/93,'/(93I$&9(+3+,J <)V+-?I$ )-&$<9)-3$*,$)&&/933$!"#$3*+?<)$T+*1+-$)$=/,?/)'93*+,-3$T9 /9$(9-*/)5$*,$'-&9/3*)-&+-?$*19$3*/'(* '/9$ ,.$=/,?/)<$+<=59<9-*)*+,-$)-&$*19$)(('/)(7$,.$!"# J 3*)*'3$3*+?<)$9..,/*3$/9.59(*9&$ 67$&')5$c=/,E+&9/ J (5+9-*d$=9/3=9(*+E93:$ "-E93*+?)*+-?$*19$/95)*+,-31+=$69*T99-$ ,'*(,<93$,.$!"#$3*+?<)$)-&$*19$3*/'(*'/9$)-&$/93=,-39 $,.$*19$*)/?9*$=/,?/)<3$ /9>'+/9& $)-$+J &9=*1$9W=5,/)*+,-$,.$3=9(+.+($=/,?/)<$='/=,393I$=/+,/+*+L)*+,-$,.$/+3V$ ?/,'=3I$)-&$=/,?/)<$<9*1,&3: $ H8%*80+.3%$,(D, i)31+-?*,-I$@:C :$=/,E+&9&$)$/+(1$('5*'/)5$39**+-?$*,$9W)<+-9$ *19$/,59$,.$ !'<)-$"<<'-,&9.+(+9-(7$#+/'3$c!"#d$3*+?<)$+-$=/,?/)<$+<=59<9-*)*+, :$219$ -)*+,-h3$()=+*)5$1)3$)$E9/7$1+?1$+-.9(*+,-$/)*9$c^k$,.$)55$/93+&9-*3dI$)$<)G,/+*7 J <+-,/+*7$=,='5)*+,-I$)-&$<)-7$/+3V$(1)/)(*9/+3*+(3$3'//,'-&+-?$7,'*1$+-$*/)-3+*+,-$

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41 *,$)&'5*1,,&$cN933I$@,9I$;/99-I$o $29//7I$QRR]n$D:A:$C 9-3'3$N'/9)'I$QROR)n$B9)/3I$ QRO Rn$#)/?)3$o $B9)/3I$QRR]d:$219$3'/E+E)5$/)*9$.,/$)$=9/3,-$5+E+-?$T+*1$!"#a4"@A$+-$ *1+3$)/9)$+3$E9/7$&+..9/9-*$&9=9-&+-?$,-$19/$,/$1+3$/)(9$)-&$9*1-+(+*7:$f+-9*7$=9/(9-*$ ,.$i1+*93$)-&$!+3=)-+(3$3'/E+E9$!"#a4"@A$)*$OR$79)/3$=,3* J &+)?-,3+3I$(,<=)/9&$*,$ _[k$,.$ N5)(V3$)*$.+E9$79)/3$)-&$\_k$,.$N5)(V3$)*$OR$79)/3$c;,E9/-<9-*$,.$*19$ @+3*/+(*$,.$C ,5'<6+)I$QRR]d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c,E9/$O_k$E3:$-9)/57$O^kd$)-&$.)<+5+93$c,E9/$OYk$E3:$ '-&9/$ORkd$)/9$5+E+-?$695,T$ *19$.9&9/)5$=,E9/*7$59E95$T+*1+-$*19$@+3*/+(*$cD:A:$ C 9-3'3$N'/9)'I$QROR6d: $ 29-$7,'*1$39/E+(9$=/,?/)<3$/9=/939-*$=/,?/)<3$*1)*$)/9$=/,E+&+-?$!"#$)-&$ /+3V$/9&'(*+,-$39/E+(93$.,/$7,'*1 :$ B+E9$!"#$)-&$4"@A$=/,?/)<3$=/,E+&9$39/E+(93$3'(1$ )3$!"#$*93*+-?I$=/+<)/7$ <9&+()5$()/9I$)-&$()39$<)-)?9<9-*$*,$!"#$=,3+*+E9$7,'*1:$ B+E9$/+3V$/9&'(*+,-$=/,?/)<3$=/,E+&9$)* J /+3V$39/E+(93$*,$7,'*1$3'(1$)3$3'==,/*+E9$ 1,'3+-?$c9:?:I$.,/$/'J )T)73dI$5+.9$3V+553$.,/$7,'*1$T1,$)/9$)53,$=)/9-*3$c9:?:I$*99-$ <,*19/3dI$+-&+E+&')5$)-&$.)<+57 $(,'-395+-?I$)-&$,'*/9)(1:$ 21939$=/,?/)<3$=/,E+&9$ -'<9/,'3$,==,/*'-+*+93$.,/$*19$19)5*1$.+95&$*,$+-.,/<$*19$9&'()*+,-$.+95&$)-&$E+(9$

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42 E9/3):$i1+59$*19/9$+3$)$(,-*+-''<$,.$3(1,5)/57$=9/3=9(*+E93$/9?)/&+-?$>')5+*)*+E9$ +->'+/7$*1)*$/)-?93$./,<$.)E,/+-?$+-*9-3+ E9I$5,-?+*'&+-)5$()39$3*'&+93$T+*1$)$3<)55$ -'<69/$,.$=)/*+(+=)-*3$c9:?:I$N,'/?,+3$o $A(1,-69/?I$QRR_n$`)-93+(VI$O]]]d$*,$)$ 31,/* J *9/'9-*$*9/<3$+-(5'&9$ 5'&6' $ cOYdI$ 0'$%,0 $c[dI$ +3%,3&$% $c[dI$)-&$ '(3+$,-*# $cYd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b$!"#$3*)*'3$+3$-,*$9W=5+(+*57$+&9-*+.+9& : $4$5+3* $,.$ =)/*+(+=)*+-?$ =/,?/)< $*7=93 $ T1,39$)&<+-+3*/)*,/3$=/,E+&9& $59**9/3$,.$3'==,/*$)==9)/$+-$ 4==9-&+W$4:$@)*)$/9=,/*+-?$ &+& $-,*$)**/+6'*9$)-7$=)/*+('5)/$+-*9/E+9T$/93=,-393$*,$ 9+*19/$)-$+-&+E+&')5$,/$ )$3=9(+.+($ =/,?/)<: $

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43 "-(5'3+,-$(/+*9/+)$.,/$*1939$+-*9/E+9T $=)/*+(+=)-*3$ T9/9 $ *19$.,55,T+-?H$ =)/*+(+=)-*3$T9/9$ )?9 & $OP$)-&$)6,E9I$ 1)&$ *19$)6+5+*7$*,$3=9)V$%-?5+31$*,$=/,E+&9$ +-.,/<9&$(,-39-*$)-&$/93=,-&$*,$>'93*+,-3I$)-&$ 1)&$ &+/9(*$ 9W=9/+9-(9$T,/V+-?$T+*1$ 7,'*1$ .,/$)$<+-+<'<$,.$3+W$<,-*13$ )3$)$39/E+(9$=/,E+&9/$,.$ 9+*19/$ ) $!"#$*/9)*<9-*$ =/,?/)<$,/$)* J /+3V$7,'*1$=/,?/)<$c9:?:I$G'E9-+59$G'3*+(9I$3'63*)-(9$)6'39I$ */)-3+*+,-)5$5+E+-? a1,<95933$39/E+(93d:$8 )/*+(+=)-*$*+*593$+-(5'&9 & $,'*/9)(1$T,/V9/I$ 3,(+)5$T,/V9/I$()39$<)-)?9/I$ =/,?/)<$<)-)?9/I$(,'-395,/I$)-&$!"#$=/9E9-* +,-I$ *93*+-?I$,/$*/9)*<9-*$3=9(+)5+3*:$ 455$=)/*+(+=)-*3$ )53,$1)& $*19$)6+5+*7$*,$39('/9$,-9$ 1,'/$9+*19/$&'/+-?$*19+/$T,/V&)7$cT+*1$3'=9/E+3,/$)==/,E)5d$,/$&'/+-?$-,J 3(19&'59&$T,/V$1,'/3$)*$*19+/$&+3(/9* +,-I$)-&$*197$ ,-57$=)/*+(+=)*9 & $+-$,-9$ +-*9/E+9T: $ A+-( 9$9)(1$=)/*+(+=)-*$T) 3$)$p'-+>'9$+-.,/<)-*$T+*1$)$'-+>'9$=9/3=9(*+E9q$ c8)**,-I$QRRQI$=: $^Y_dI$=)/*+(+=)-*$1,<,?9-9+*7$T) 3$-,*$)$/9>'+/9&$(,<=,-9-*$,.$ *19$+-*9/E+9T$&93+?-:$A+-(9$*19 $(,-3*/'(*$'-&9/$+-E93*+?)*+,-$T) 3$!"#$3*+?<)$)<,-?$ 7,'*1$ +-$*/)-3+*+,$*,$ )&'5*1,,&I$*19$/,59$,.$*19$=)/*+(+=)-*3$c+:9:I$&+/9(*$39/E+(9$ =/,E+&9/3$*,$7,'*1$)?93$O^$*,$QYd$T) 3$*19$=/+<)/7$+-(5'3+,-$(/+*9 /+):$"-*9/E+9T$ =)/*+(+=)-*3$T9/9$-,*$ =)+ &$.,/$*19+/$*+<9I$6'*$*197$ /9(9+E9 & $*19$,..9/$*,$ 69$39-* $ )??/9?)*9$.+-&+-?3 $)*$*19$9-&$,. $*19$3*'&7 : $ -.&('"%/)012 %&'"()*&(+ "! 21+3$3*'&7$ )53,$ +-(5'&9 & $?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T 3$T+*1$ 7,'*1$=)/*+(+=)-*3$./,<$ =/,?/)<3$*1)*$=/,E+&9$ !"#$ 39/E+(93 $)-&$*1,39$*1)*$ =/,E+&9$ /+3V$/9&'(*+,-$39/E+(93 $ .,/$ 7,'*1$c9:?:I$G'E9-+59$G'3*+(9I$3'63*)-(9$)6'39I$ ,/$*1,39$+-$ */ )-3+*+,-)5$5+E+-?a1,<95933$39/E+(93d:$ 8/,?/)<$=9/3,--95$/9(/'+*9&$7,'*1$.,/$)$ <+-+<'<$,.$ 9+?1* $ \R J <+-'*9$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T 3$&+E+&9&$+-*,$.,'/$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T 3$

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44 T+*1$ (5+9-*3$ 39/E9&$67$ =/,?/)<3$*1)*$=/,E+&9$!"#$39/E+(93$.,/$!"# J =,3+*+E9$7,'*1$ )-&$.,'/$?/,'= $+-* 9/E+9T 3$T+*1$7,'*1$39/E9&$67$)* J /+3V$=/,?/)<3 $T1,39$(5+9-*3b$!"#$ 3*)*'3$+3$-,*$9W=5+(+*57$+&9-*+.+9& :$@)*)$/9=,/*+-?$ &+& $-,*$)**/+6'*9$)-7$=)/*+('5)/$ +-*9/E+9T$/93=,-393$*,$9+*19/$)-$+-&+E+&')5$,/$=/,?/)<: "-(5'3+,-$(/+*9/+)$.,/$*19$3*'&7$ T9 /9 $)3$.,55,T3H$ =)/*+(+=)-*3$T9/9$69*T99-$ O^$)-&$QY$79)/3$,5&I$1)&$ *19$)6+5+*7$*,$/9)&$)-&$3=9)V$%-?5+31$*,$ =)/*+(+=)*9$+-$)$ (,-39-*$=/,(933$c9+*19/$+-.,/<9&$(,-39-*$.,/$)&'5*3$,/$)-$)339-*$=/,(933$.,/$ <+-,/3dI$ )-&$ T9/9$)659$*,$ =)/*+(+=)*9 $+-$*19$?/,'=$+-*9/E+9T :$%)(1$=)/ *+(+=)-*$ )**9-& 9& $,-9$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T :$i+*1$)-$'==9/$6,'-&$,.$OR$=)/*+(+=)-*3$=9/$?/,'=I$ *19/9$T9/9$ PR $ =,*9-*+)5$=)/*+(+=)-*3$ *,$=/,E+&9$&)*):$21+3$<)W+<'<$=9/ J ?/,'=$3+L9$ /9.59(*9& $*19$(,-3+&9/)*+,-$*1)*$p3<)55$?/,'=3$.)(+5+*)*9$+J &9=*1$9W=5,/)*+,-$,.$ +33 '93I$3+-(9$=)/*+(+=)-*3$9)(1$1)E9$<,/9$*+<9$*,$31)/9$*19+/$9W=9/+9-(93$)-&$ =9/3=9(*+E93q$c!'?193$o $@'F,-*I$O]]^I$=:$___d: O $219$-'<69/$,.$>'93*+,-3I$)<,'-*$ ,.$* +<9I$)-&$<,&9/)*,/$3V+55$>')5+.+9& $*19$)6+5+*7$.,/$3<)559/$E9/3'3$5)/?9/$?/,'=3$*,$ .,('3$,-$*19$/ 939)/(1$>'93*+,-3$cF,/95)-&I$M9E+-9I$o $i+-?9/*I$O]]\ n$8,3)E)($o $ C )/97I$O]]_ d:$i+*1$'=$*,$OR$=/+<)/7$/939)/(1$>'93*+,-3I$,-9$1,'/$*,$(,559(*$&)*)I$ )-&$)$3V+559&$<,&9/)*,/$ T1,$(,-&'(*9& $*1+3$3*'&7I$ )$?/,'=$3+L9$,.$OR$=)/*+(+=)-*3$ )55,T 9& $.,/$39E9/)5$=,*9-*+) 5$=)/*+(+=)-*3$*,$ 69$)639-* $)-&$3*+55$<)+-*)+9& $*19$ +-*9?/+*7$c/,6'3*-933d$,.$*19$?/,'=$ +-*9/E+9T$ &93+?-$c8)**,-I$QRRQd: $A+-(9$\_$*,*)5$ 7,'*1$=)/*+(+=)*9&$,'*$,.$)$/)-?9$,.$L9/,$*,$PRI$*19$/93'5*+-?$31,T$/)*9$T)3$PYk: $ 1 ; + & ) ( 9 $ / $ ) ( ( 9 = ) 6 5 9 I $ = + < ) 5 I $ / $ + & 9 ) 5 $ / ) ? 9 3 $ T + 1 + $ 1 9 $ = / 9 3 3 + ) 5 $ ) & $ / 9 3 9 ) / ( 1 $ 5 + 9 / ) / 9 $ + ( 5 & 9 $ Y J P $ c 5 5 T ) 7 I $ Q R R [ d I $ [ J P $ c S / 9 ? 9 / $ o $ C ) 3 9 7 I $ Q R R ] d I $ \ J O R $ c F / ? ) $ o $ A ( ) 9 5 5 I $ O ] ] P d I $ ) & $ P J O Q $ c A 9 T ) / I $ A 1 ) < & ) 3 ) + I $ o $ K , V I $ Q R R d $ = ) / + ( + = ) 3 $ = 9 / $ ? / = :

PAGE 56

45 8)/*+(+=)-*$1,<,?9-9+*7$67$)?9$/)-?9$ T) 3$)-,*19/$V97$(,<=,-9-*$,.$*19$ ?/,'=$ +-*9/E+9T$ &93+?-$c8)**,-I$QRRQd:$A+-(9$*19 $(,-3*/'(*$'-&9/$+-E93*+?)*+,-$T) 3$ !"#$3*+?<)$)<,-?$7,'*1 $ <,E+-?$*,$)&'5*1,,&I$*19$)?9$,.$=)/*+(+=)-*3$ T)3 $*19$ =/+<)/7$+-(5'3+,-$(/+*9/+)$ )=)/*$./,<$(5+9-*$3*)*'3$)-&$ /)-?9 & $. /,<$O^$*,$QY $79)/3 :$ 21+3$)?9$/)-?9$+3$(,-3+3*9-*$T+*1$*19$C 9-*9/3$.,/$@+39)39$C ,-*/,5$)-&$8/9E9-*+,-$ ='65+()*+,-3$)-&$.)(*$3199*3$.,/$!"#a4"@A$)<,-?$7,'*1$c9:?:I$ C @C I$QRRPI$QRR]6I$ QRR] (d I$+3$T+&957$9(1,9&$+-$/939)/(1$='65+()*+,-3$)-&$,-5+-9$/9=,/*3$./,<$,* 19/$ .9&9/)5$)?9-(+93$c9:?:I$f"@4I$QRR]dI$3*)*9$&9=)/*<9-*3$,.$19)5*1I$-)*+,-)5$!"#$ )&E,()(7$,/?)-+L)*+,-3I$5,()5$(,<<'-+*7$6)39&$,/?)-+L)*+,-3I$6,)/&3$,.$19)5*1I$)-&$ <9&+()5$3,(+9*+93I$)-&$+3$*19/9.,/9$)$3*)-&)/&$/9(,?-+L9&$)?9$/)-?9$)<,-?$ =/,.933+,-)53$+$!"#$ /939)/(1 : $21+/*99-$+3$)53,$*19$)?9$+-$<)-7$3*)*93$T19-$)$<+-,/$ ()-$69$*93*9&$.,/$!"#$T+*1,'*$=)/9-*)5$(,-39-*$c!)/*,?I$O]]]n$ `)(V3,-$ o $ !).9<9+3*9/ I$QRROdI$+3$*19$<+-+<''9 3*+,-3$.,('3$,-$=/,?/)<$3*/'(*'/9$)-&$ /9(9=*+,-$67$*)/?9*9&$(5+9-*$?/,'=I$*19$(9-*/)5$&+E+3+,-$+-$?/,'=3$.,('393$,-$*1)*$ =/,?/)<$(5+9-*$&9.+-+*+,-: $

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46 B("875,+($,.C8%"()78(T $ 8)/*+(+=)*+-?$7,'*1 J 39/E+-?$1'<)-$39/E+(93$ =/,?/)<3$ )?/99&$*,$195=$ 39('/9$,=9J 9-&9& $+-*9/E+9T3$T+*1$V97$+-.,/<)-*$=/,?/)<$ =9/3,--95$+-$*19$.,55,T+-?$<)--9/: $ !"#$$%&'"()*&(+, $ 4&<+-+3*/)*,/3$c&+/9(*,/3$,/$<)-)?9/3d$,.$=/,?/)<3$*1)*$ =/,E+&9$ !"#$ 39/E+(93$ /9.9/ /9& $ )$<+-+<'<$,.$.,'/ $=/,?/)<$=9/3,--95$)((,/&+-?$*,$ *19$).,/9<9-*+,-9&$=)/*+(+=)*$(/+*9/+)$T1,$ T9 /9$+-*9/93*9&$+-$E,5'-*99/+-?$,-9$ 1,'/$,.$*19+/$*+<9$*,$&+3('33$!"#$3*+?<)$)<,-?$7,'*1:$ 4&<+-+3*/)*,/3 $,.$=/,?/)<3$ 39/E+-?$7,'*1$)* J /+3V$.,/$!"#$c9:?:I$G'E9-+59$G'3*+(9I$3'63*)-(9$)6'39I$*/)-3+*+,-)5 $ 5+E+-?a1,<95933$,'*/9)(1d$ 3+<+5)/57$)?/ 99&$*,$/9.9/$ )$<+-+<'<$,.$.,'/$=/,?/)<$ =9/3,--95$T1,$T9 /9$+-*9/93*9&$+-$E,5'-*99/+-?$*,$&+3('33$!"#$3*+?<)$)<,-?$)* J /+3V$ 7,'*1:$2,$(,-.9/$*/)-3=)/9-(7$/9?)/&+-?$*19$-)*'/9$)-&$3(,=9$,.$+->'+/7I$399V$ .99&6)(VI$)-&$=/,('/9$)==/,E)5I$ "$31)/9&$ *19$ &/).*$+-*9/E +9T$=/,*,(,5$T+*1$*1939$ )&<+-+3*/)*,/3$)-&$(/9)*9&$)-$,-5+-9$=/939-*)*+,-$cT96+-)/d$*1)*$9W=5)+-9&$*19$ ,E9/)55$3*'&7$&93+?-$+-$*19$=/,(933$,.$3,5+(+*+-?$59**9/3$,.$3'==,/*: $ "$39-*$+-&+E+&')5$9<)+53$)-& $ <)&9$=1,-9$(,-*)(* $T+*1$=,*9-*+)5$+-*9/E+9T993$ /9?)/&+ -?$*19$='/=,39I$*+<9I$)-&$=/9.9//9&$5,()*+,-$,.$*19$+-*9/E+9T3:$ "$<)&9$)$ =/9 J +-*9/E+9T$=/,<=*$*,$6/+-?$ )/(1+E)5$19)5*1$=/,<,*+,-$<)*9/+)53$c =)<=159*3I$ 6,,V59*3I$,-9 J 3199*3I$)-&$,*19/$*)V9 J )T)7$ +*9<3d $*1)*$*197$'39$)3$9&'()*+,-)5$*,,53$ +-$*19+/ $=/,?/)<3:$"$ (,559(*9&$,-9$3)<=59$ )*$*19$3)<9$*+<9$)3$*19$+ -*9/E+9T$)-&$&+&$ -,*$=)7 $*,$,6*)+-$*1939$<)*9/+)53: $ 8/,?/)<$3*)..$ 39('/9 & $<99*+-?$/,,<$3=)(9$.,/$*19+/$+-&+E+&')5$+-*9/E+9T3:$ "$ &+&$-,*$?+E9$= )/* +(+=)-*3$*19$ +-*9/E+9T$>'93*+,-3$*,$/9E+9T$+-$)&E)-(9I$3+-(9$*19$ +-* 9-*+,-$,.$*19$+-*9/E+9T$<9*1,&$T) 3$*,$?)+-$,=9J 9-&9&I$3=,-*)-9,'3$/93=,-393$

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54 45+5,0,5%$-.,%.5$,(8$0'.E0'5)5,:T $ 21+3$39(*+,-$&+3('339 3$*19$*1/9)*3$*,$ +-*9/-)5$E)5+&+*7$*1)*$ $<+-+<+L9&$*,$*19$9W*9-*$=,33+659$.,/$*19$+-*9/E+9T3$)-&$?/,'= $ +-*9/E+9T 3:$21/9)*3$*,$+-*9/-)5$E)5+&+*7$)/+39$T19-$+-)(('/)*9$+-3*/'<9-*)*+,-$)-&$ =/,(9&'/93$+-.5'9-(9$*19$+-*9?/+*7$,.$*19$3*'&7$&93+?-$cB9/-I$QRROn$A *75+)-,'I$QRRPd:$ 219$=/+<)/7$ +33'93$T+*1$/9?)/&$*,$ +-*9/-)5$E)5+&+*7$.,/$9)(1$>')5+*)*+E9$/939)/(1$ <9*1,&$+-$*1+3$3*'&7$+-(5'&9 & $*19$.,55,T+-?H $ O: "-3*/'<9-*)*+,-n $ Q: C ,-*9-*$)-&$(,-3*/'(*$E)5+&+*7n $ ^: A'6G9(*$(5)/+*7$.,/$=)/*+(+=)-*3 n$)-& $ Y: A,(+)5$&93+/)6+5+*7$/93=, -39$6+)3: $ A*/)*9?+93$.,/$+-(/9)3+-?$*19$.+-&+-?b3$T)//)-*3$)-&$<+-+<+L+-?$+*3$*1/9)*3$ +-(5'&9 & $=+5,* J *93*+-?$9)(1$<9*1,&I$.,55,T+-?$.,/<)5$=/,*,(,53I$(,559(*+-?$)-&$ )-)57L+-?$&)*)$T+*1+-$)$*+<9$./)<9$6/+9.$9-,'?1$*,$)33'/9$)(('/)(7$,.$*19$ +-.,/<)*+,-I$)-&$ '3+-?$) $ (,&+-?$./)<9T,/ V$)-&$)-)57*+($=/,(9&'/93$*1)*$T9 /9$ */)-3=)/9-*$*,$,'*3+&9$,639/E9/3$c+-(5'&+-?$*19$&+339/*)*+,-$(,<<+**99I$DAB$ +-3*+*'*+,-)5$/9E+9T$6,)/&I$)-&$=/,?/)<$)&<+-+3*/)*,/3d:$B,/<)5$=/,*,(,53$)/9$ <9(1)-+3<3$*,$?)+-$*/'3*$ ./,<$=/,?/)<$)&<++3*/)*,/3$ )-&$.)(+5+*)*9$/9(/'+*<9-*$ cM,'9I$O]][d: $ 3',")14('"#"&0' "! 219$ +-&+E+&')5$ +-*9/E+9T$)-&$?/,'=$ +-*9/E+9T$ =/,*,(,53$ =/,E+&9&$+-$4==9-&+(93$4$)-&$N$&9*)+5$*19$+-3*/'(*+,-3$.,/$+<=59<9-*+-?$*19$ /93=9(*+E9$+-3*/'<9-*3:$B9)*'/93$T+*1+-$9)(1$+-(5'&9 & $/9< +-&9/3$.,/$*19$/939)/(19/$ *,$E9/+.7$)55$+-.,/<9&$(,-39*$&,('<9-*3$.,/$*19$+-*9/E+9T3$T9 /9$3+?-9&$)-&$.+59&I$ E9/+.7$)55$)339-*$&,('<9-*3$.,/$*19$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T3$T9 /9$3+?-9&$)-&$.+59&I$

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56 67$)E,+&)-(9I$)-$9W=5,/)*+,-$,.$*19$*,=+($+-$)-$+-*9-*+,-)557$3*/'(*'/9&$?/,'=$ +-*9/E+9T$39**+-?$T) 3$)==/,=/+)*9$cA +'93*+,-3:$i1+59$=/,69$>'93*+, -3$)/9$<+-+<)557$)55,T)659$T+*1+-$)$ 3*/'(*'/9&$.,/<)*$c8)**,-I$QRRQdI$*197$()-$,E9/*57$)&)=*$*19$+-3*/'<9-*3$697,-&$ *19+/$,/+?+-)5$3*/'(*'/9:$ "$<+-+<+L9&$* 1+3$*1/9)* $*,$*19$+-*9?/+*7$,.$*19$&)*)$ 67$=+5,* J *93*+-?$3*)-&)/&$=/,69$ >'93*+,-3:$43V+-?$.,/$)&&+*+, -)5$&9*)+53$&+& $-,*$(1)-?9$*19$ =)/)<9*9/3$,.$*19$>'93*+,-3$6'*$/9>'93* 9& $)&&+*+,-)5$3=9(+.+(+*7$./,<$=)/*+(+=)-*3: $ -0'"('"%#'5%60',")16"%*#.&5&"7 :$C ,-*9-*$E)5+&+*7$cT1)*$+3$+-*9-&9&$*,$69$ <9)3'/9&d$)-&$(,-3*/'(*$E)5+&+*7$ c *19$p<9)3'/9<9-*$,.$)-$)**/+6'*9$, /$>')5+*7$ T1+(1$+3$-,*$,=9/)*+,-)557$&9.+-9& n q $ C /,-6)(1$o $F9915I$O][[I$=:$QPOd$3=9)V$*,$*19$ (/9&+6+5+*7$,/$3,'-&-933$,.$+-3*/'<9-*)*+,-$c!3+91$o $A1)--,-I$QRR[n$M+-(,5-$o $ ;'6)I$O]P[n$A+/9(+I$O]]Pd:$C '//9-*$(,-3*/'(*3$,.$!"#$3*+?<)$./,<$*19$/939)/(1$)-&$ 9E)5 ')*+,-$5+*9/)*'/9$&+3('339&$+-$C 1)=*9/ $Q$T9/9 $'39&$*,$(/9)*9$*19$=/,*,(,53$)-&$ >'93*+,-3$=/,E+&9&$+-$4==9-&+(9 3$4$)-&$N:$8/+<)/7$)<,-?$*1939$T9 /9$*19$ :;
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58 /)==,/* I$ *19$ ?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T $=)/*+(+=)-*3$&+3('33+-?$!"#$3*+?<)$<)7$ 1)E9$ =/,E+&9 & $ 3'=9/.+(+)5$/93=,-393$*197$695+9E9 & $ T9/9 $3,(+)557$&93+/)659 $c!,55)-&9/I$QRRYd :$21+3$ 3*'&7$<+-+<+L9 & $*1+3$*1/9)*$67$9<=5,7+ -?$/939)/(1$=/,(9&'/93$*1)*$9-3'/9 & $ =)/*+(+=)-*$ (,-.+&9-*+)5+*7 $*1/,'?1$9)(1$=1)39$,.$&)*)$(,559(*+,-:$"-$)&&+* +,-I$"$ <)+-*)+-9&$ -9'*/)5$)-&$-,J G'&?<9-*)5 $/9)(*+,-3 : $ 45+5,.,%. ( D,(8$0'. E 0'5)5,: $ %W*9/-)5$E)5+&+*7$+3$*19$9W*9-*$*,$T1+(1$ /939)/(19/3$()-$)==5 7$*19$/93'5*3$,.$*1+3 $3*'&7$*,$,*19/$=,='5)*+,-3$,/$(,-*9W*3$ c4==59*,-I$O]][n$M7-(1I$i1+*597I$o $i+55+3I$QRRRn$F+593$o $!'69/<)-I$O]]Yn$K')-9I$ QRR[n$2,6+-$o $N9?597I$QRRYd:$"-$>')5+*)*+E9$/939)/(1I$ /939)/(19/3$'39$*19$*9/<3$ */)-3.9/)6+5+*7$,/$p.+**+-?-933q$ c ; '6)$ o $M+-(,5-I$ O]PO n$)53,$399$ 2)31)VV,/+$o $29&&5+9I$ O]]Pd: $ X-?T'96'L+9$)-&$29&&5+9$cQRR^d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cB/99<)-I$QRR\d:$!,T9E9/I$ 8)**,-$cQRRQd$&93(/+693$*19$)6+5+*7$*,$3()59$*19$()39$3*'&7$&93+?-$*,$+-(5'&9$ )&&+*+,-)5$=/,?/)<3:$219$/9=5+()*+,-$)-&$3'3*)+-)6+5+*7$,.$*1+3$3*'&7$T +*1$3'((933+E9$ ()39$3*'&+93$-)*+,-T+&9$+3$)-$+-*9-*+,-)5$,'*(,<9:$21'3I$*1+3$&+339/*)*+,-$=/,E+&93$ )-$9339-*+)5$6'+5&+-?$65,(V$.,/$9W=)-3+E9$+->'+/7I$)-&$ *19$ (,-(5'3+,-3$ "$&/)T$./,<$

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59 *1+3$/939)/(1$T+55$69$5+<+*9&$*,$ *19$ =)/*+(+=)-*3$)-&$(,-*9W*$)3$3=9(+.+() 557$&93(/+69&$ +-$C 1)=*9/$Y : $ B('5015'5,:T $" -*9/-)5$/95+)6+5+*7$+3$(,-(9/-9&$T+*1$ 39>'9-*+)5$=/,(9&'/93b$ (,-3+3*9-*57$*93*+-?$*19$3)<9$(,-3*/'(*3$,/$=19-,<9-)$,.$+-*9/93*$+-$*19$3)<9$T)7I$ T1+59$ 9W*9/-)5$/95+)6+5+*7$+3$(,-(9/-9&$T+*1$*19$/9=5+()*+,-$,.$.+-&+?3$+-$3'639>'9-*$ 3*'&+93$cM9C ,<=*9$)-&$;,9*LI$O]PQd: $ #)5+&$)-&$/95+)659$&)*)$<'3*$*19/9.,/9$6,*1$69$ =/939-*$*,$9-3'/9$*19$3*'&7$1)3$+-*9?/+*7I$)(('/)(7I$)-&$(,-3+3*9-(7 :$ 219$ <9*1,&,5,?+3*$S/+==9-&,/..$cQRRYI$=:$QOYd$=/,E+&93$)-$+55'3*/)*+,-$,.$*19$ /95)*+,31+=$69*T99-$/95+)6+5+*7$)-&$E)5+&+*7 $T19/9$)$ =9/.9(*$*)/?9*$+3$)*$*19$ +-*9/39(*+,-$69*T99-$*19$*T, I$)-&$ +-(/9)3+-?$ 9//,/3 $/9&'(93$6,*1: $ 8/,(9&'/)5$)-&$+-3*/'<9-*)*+,-$E)/+)*+,-3$ ()-$ /93'5*$./,<$+-(,-3+3*9-*$ +<=59<9-*)*+,-$,.$*19$=/,*,(,53:$219$+-(,-3+3*9(+93$+-$*19$'39$,.$*19$+-3*/'<9-*3$ &93(/+69&$=/9E+,'357$c+:9:I$&+..9/9-*+)5$(,<=59*+,-$,.$*19$+-3*/'<9-*3$T+*1+-$)$\R J <+-'*9$*+<9./)<9I$T+*11,5&+-?$,/$5+<+*+-?$+-.,/<)*+,-I$)-&$E)/+)*+,-$+-$*19$'39$,.$ =/,69$>'93*+,-3d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60 +-E93*+?)*,/:$;'+&)-(9$.,/$(,-&'(*+-?$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T 3$+3$'-(59)/$,-$1,T$*,$,6E+)*9$ /95)*+,-31+=$&7-)<+(3$*1)*$<)7$)..9(* $*19$9W=/933+,-$,.$E+9T3:$!,T9E9/I$*19/9$+3$)$ (,-39-3'3$,-$.,3*9/+-?$+-*9/ J ?/,'=$&7-)<+(3$*,$=/,&'(9$/+(1$>')5+*)*+E9$&)*)I$)-&$ *1939$&7-)<+(3$<)7$ 1)E9$699$9-1)-(9&$67$=/9 J 9W+3*+-?$/95)*+,-31+=3:$"-$)&&+*+,-I$ 3+-(9$=/,?/)<$9E)5')*,/3$3'(1$)3$8)**,-$cQRRQd $)/9$3'((933.'557$'3+-?$?/,'= $ +-*9/E+9T 3$.,/$(5+9-*3$T1,$1)E9$=/9 J 9W+3*+-?$/95)*+,-31+=3$*1/,'?1$=/,?/)<3I$ *1+3$ 3*'&7$ 3+<+5)/57$/9(/'+* 9& $7,'*1$=)/*+(+=)-*3$*1/,'?1$=/,?/)<3: $ @+..9/+-?$=)/*+(+=)-*$3,(+)5$)-&$(,<<'-+()*+,-$3V+553$ )53,$ ()-$9/,&9$*19$ /95+)6+5 +*7$,.$?/,'=$+-*9/)(*+,-:$i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c<9<69/$ (19(V+-?d$&'/+-?$9E9/7$?/,'=$ +-*9/E+9T$ 3933+,$*,$9-3'/9$(5)/+*7$)-&$E)5+&)*9 & $ +-*9/ J ?/,'=$(,-(5'3+,-3$cC ,19-$o $C /)6*/99I$QRRPd: $ H5'%,.=,7): $ 4$=+5,*$3*'&7$ *93*9& $*19$3*/'(*'/9$)-&$=/,(933$,.$*19$()39$3*'&7$&93+?-:$"$ (,-&'(* 9& $*T,$=+5,*$+-*9/E+9T3$)-&$*T,$=+5,*$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T 3$ *,$ .)(+5+*)* 9 $<9<69/ J (1 9(V+-?$,.$*19$>'93*+,-$3*/'(*'/9$c=1/)3+-?I$39>'9-(+-?I$)-&$<+33+-?$*,=+(3dI$

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61 *+<+-?$c)6+5+*7$*,$(,<=59*9$)55$>'93*+,-3dI$)-&$)6+5+*7$*,$)&&/933$*19$*,=+($,.$!"#$ 3*+?<)$*1/,'?1$)$3*/'(*'/9&$.,/<)*:$B,/$*1+3$=+5,*I$"$?)+9& $(,-39-*$.,/$*19$ +-*9/E+9T3$)-&$ 9+* 19/$(,-39-*$,/$ )339-*$.,/$*19$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T 3 $)3$&93(/+69&$.,/$ *19$&+339/*)*+,-$&)*)$(,559(*+,I$=/,E+&9 & $)-$,E9/)55$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T $&9<,?/)=1+(3$ .,/<$T+*1,'*$-)<93$*,$(,559(*$<+-+<)5$&9<,?/)=1+(3$c)?9I$?9-&9/I$/)(9a9*1-+(+*7dI$ )-&$*19-$.)(+5+*)*9 & I$/9(,/ & 9& I$)-&$ *,,V$9W*9-3+E9$-,*93$&'/+-?$*19$=+5,* : $ 2)659$^$=/939-*3$*19$=+5,*$3*'&7$?/,'=$+-*9/E+9T$=)/*+(+=)-*3h$?9-&9/I$ /)(9a9*1-+(+*7I$)-&$)?9:$i1+59$7,'*1$)?93$O^$*,$QY$)-&$%-?5+31$5)-?')?9$T9/9$*19$ ,-57$3=9(+.+9&$&9<,?/)=1+($(1)/)(*9/+3*+(3$'39&$.,/$=)/* +(+=)-*$/9(/'+*<9-*I$*19$ <)G,/+*7$,.$=)/*+(+=)-*3$T9/9$<)59I$N5)(V$,/$4./+()-$4<9/+()-I$)-&$69*T99-$)?93$O]$ *,$QO: $ $ $ 2)659$^ $ $ [-%*,!]&*32!;#,'&6-'.!I'1*7&$20-+5 $ $ ]'#('& ^ _$+'BZ,0#-+-,) ^ H7' k $ F)59 $ \^ $ N5)(V$,/$4./+()-$4<9/+()$ P] $ O^$*,$O[ $ ^Q $ B9<)59 $ ^_ $ +3=)-+($,/$M)*+-, $ OO $ O\$*,$OP $ QO $ $ $ $ $ O]$*,$QO $ Y_ $ $ $ "<<9&+)*957$.,55,T+-?$*19$,-9 J 1,'/$+-*9/E+9T3$)-&$?/,'= $+-*9/E+9T 3I$"$)3V 9& $ =)/*+(+=)-*3$*19$.,55,T+-?$>'93*+,-3H $ O: @,$7,'$*1+-V$*1)*$,*19/3$T1,$)/9$3+<+5)/$*,$7,'/395.$T+55$/93=,-&$*,$*19$ >'93*+,-3$"$)3V9 &z $

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176 . .

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178 .

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Gamache, Peter Eugene.
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Hiv education for youth in transition to adulthood
h [electronic resource] /
by Peter Eugene Gamache.
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[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
2011.
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Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 191 pages.
Includes vita.
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Disseration
(Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2011.
504
Includes bibliographical references.
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Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
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ABSTRACT: This dissertation investigated the role of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) stigma in program implementation. A case study design comprising qualitative methods provided in-depth, context-sensitive comparisons of adult educator (n = 8) and youth (n = 67) perspectives among programs that provide HIV services and those that provide risk reduction services. Nearly half of the youth participants were male, 42% were female, and 6% identified as transgender. Two thirds of participants were Black or African American, one quarter of participants were Hispanic or Latino, and the average participant age was 19. Although program personnel from all youth service programs in this study are acutely aware of how HIV stigma detracts from HIV education, programs that provide HIV services address stigma differently from programs that provide at-risk services. HIV education differs by language, inclusion, and stigma experiences. Based on the research literature and the findings from this study, structural changes are needed to accurately address HIV stigma and improve educational effectiveness across youth programs.
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Mode of access: World Wide Web.
System requirements: World Wide Web browser and PDF reader.
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Advisor:
Dorn, Sherman .
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Education
Health
Hiv
Transition
Young Adult
Youth
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Dissertations, Academic
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x Health Education Curriculum Development Educational evaluation
Doctoral.
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t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
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u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?e14.4859