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McKamy, Kay Ellen.
Poe as magazinist
h [electronic resource] /
by Kay Ellen McKamy.
[Tampa, Fla] :
b University of South Florida,
Title from PDF of title page.
Document formatted into pages; contains 283 pages.
(Ph.D.)--University of South Florida, 2011.
Includes bibliographical references.
Text (Electronic dissertation) in PDF format.
ABSTRACT: Edgar Allan Poe has long been recognized as one of American literature's most intriguing authors, usually for reasons other than his writing. Most literary studies examine one or two of his tales and perhaps one or two comments he made about the short tale. This dissertation will instead look at the work Poe did while involved in the world of early-American magazines for the last seventeen years of his life. It will explore how the magazine world affected his writing and his theories, especially his theories on the genre of the short story, a genre that Poe essentially described and formed in the magazines, but a genre he did not name. Poe worked with many magazines in his career: one magazine, Graham's under George Graham, owner and editor, will be examined to see how Poe worked within this medium to shape short fiction.
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Baum Hewitt, Rosalie Murphy Regina .
Baum Hewitt, Rosalie Murphy Regina .
Early American Magazines
George R. Graham
x American Literature
t USF Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
Poe as Magazinist by Kay E. McKamy A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement s for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of English College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida Co Major Professor: Rosalie Murphy Baum, Ph.D. Co Major Professor: Regina Hewitt, Ph.D. Lawrence Broer, Ph.D. Elaine Smith, Ph.D. Date of Approval : March 31, 2011 Keywords: short stories, American literature, George R. Graham, early American magazines, Magazine Copyright 2011 Kay E. McKamy
Acknowledgments The idea for this dissertation came from a discussion of early American magazines in a graduate c ourse with Dr. Rosalie Murphy Baum at the University of South Florida. The dissertation would not have been possible without the professionalism, knowledge, advice and encouragement of Dr. Baum. Her combination of prodding and praise is exactly what non traditional students like me need : w ithout her insistence, I would have quit long ago. It would also not have been possible without the extraordinary assistance and cooperation of Dr. Regina Hewitt, Dr. Larry Broer, Dr. Dan Belgrad, and especially Dr. Elaine Smith, whose hours of editing and critiquing were invaluable. I also want to acknowledge the assistance of Lee Davidson at USF ; the library staff of Pasco Hernando Community College, especially Christine Lyons and Melanie Cooksey, Assistant Director of the PHCC Library In addition, I would like to ackn owledge the patience of my students and colleagues at P HCC while I simultaneously taught and worked on th e dissertation. A special thank you goes to my Editor sister Connie for the help and guidance she has given me in this project and in my life. My final and most heartfelt acknowledgment is to my four daughters Kelley, Suzanne, Colleen, and Lauren for without their u nderstanding and encouragement, I would never have taken the time away from them and my three grandchildren to further my education.
i Tabl e of Contents Abstract ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ iii Preface ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... iv Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 1 Chapter One: The Short Story: a New Genre ................................ .................. 18 History of the Short Story ................................ ................................ ............. 1 9 ......................... 2 5 Conditions in the 1830s and 1840s That Encouraged the Short Fiction That Became the Shor Chapter Two: Survey of the Criticism ................................ ............................. 40 Works on the Magazine ................................ ................................ ................ 41 Studies on the Short Story ................................ ................................ ............ 4 7 Critical Works on Poe as Author and Critic ................................ ..................... 5 6 and Short Fiction ................................ ................................ ....... 79 Making Decisions on Content and Contributions ................................ ............. 8 7 Promoting an American Literature ................................ ................................ 8 9 Advertising His Writers ................................ ................................ ................. 9 1 Paying Contributors ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 3 Securing Full Time Engravers, Quali ty Illustrations, and Copy for Illustrations ... 9 5 Declining Years of ................................ ................................ ......... 98 Chapter Four: Poe and the Magazines ................................ .......................... 101 Poe as Magazinist ................................ ................................ ...................... 10 7 Early Reading and Writing Leading ................... 110 ................................ ................................ ........ 11 4 Beginnings as a Critic ................................ ................................ ........ 12 2 ................................ ................................ .... 12 9 Poe with ................................ ................................ ...... 13 7 Poe in New York and with The Weekly Mirror ................................ ............... 1 50 Poe with the Broadway Journal ................................ ................................ ... 15 5 Penn Magazine and The Stylus ................................ ............. 16 1
ii Chapter Five: A Compariso n of April 1841 and April 1842 ................................ ................................ ........ 168 ................................ ...... 16 9 April 1841 ................................ ................................ .... 17 3 Genres of Short Fiction 1841 ................................ ............................ 17 9 ................................ ......................... 17 9 e Murders in the ................................ .... 184 April 1842 ................................ ................................ .... 19 3 Genres of Short Fiction 1842 ................................ ............................ 20 5 ................................ ....... 205 ................................ ................................ 2 09 Afterword ................................ ................................ .............................. 2 17 Notes ................................ ................................ .............................. 218 Works C ited ................................ ................................ .............................. 24 8 About the Author ................................ ................................ ................ End Page
iii Abstract most intriguing authors, usually for reasons other than his writing. Most literary studies examine one or two of his tales and perhaps one or two comments he made about the short tale. This dissertation will instead look at the work Poe did while involved in the world of early American magazines for the last seventeen years of his life. It will explore how the magazine w orld affected his writing and his theories, especially his theories on the genre of the short story, a genre that Poe essentially described and formed in the magazines, but a genre he did not name. Poe worked with many magazines in his career : one magazine under George Graham, owner and editor, will be examined to see how Poe worked within this medium to shape short fiction.
iv Preface I initially experienced the psychological probing, mystery, and horror of junior high school, where most people first read Poe. 1 I did not care for his stories. I did not think they were scary and I was not comfortable or interested in reading about someone being buried alive. When I became a literature major in college, Poe wa s not an author represented in my American literature anthologies. I dismissed him. Then, as a college professor, I began to teach short stories, and students consider incl uding in a literature course as an enticement to those students who hated to read but loved horror stories. After a little research I found a reason to include Poe in a short fiction class: his definition of the short story. Eureka! 2 Poe was more serious a bout his writing than I had thought. He reminded me of another writer whom students love to read Stephen King, also a writer I had never read or assigned in my college literature classes. Poe published his theories of writing in magazines; Stephen King wro te his memoir and advice in On Writing a book published in 2000. Although Poe was poor almost to the point of starvation and King very wealthy they have much in common: both had fathers who left 3 and never came back when the authors were young; both
v wrot e shocking horror stories; both chose writing as their careers 4 and wrote prolifically; both had trouble with alcohol; both fought for the blending of commercial and literary qualities in literature; and both were denounced by critic Harold Bloom. 5 Both embraced a new medium: Poe, magazines; King, the Internet. 6 As I began to look beyond the mysterious, horrific details of many of cover ed his description of short fiction, first written in 1842 in a now obscure magazine, I was a little surprised. First, I thought that short stories had been around as long as the novel or the poem and I thought that someone more acknowledged in the literary world should have been credited with the glory of establishing the criteria for the genre that came red to the microfilm room in the college library to find the issues of the original magazine, in which Poe had defined some of the qualities he associated with good short fiction. I chose two issues, a year apart, to examine. Each of th ese issues listed Poe as an editor and contributor. I wanted to see for myself what kind of magazine and what kind of environment Poe needed in order to begin to formulate criteria for a new genre. I wondered if it was just the nature and form of the mag azine that led to the creation of Poesque short fiction. An article by Joseph Urgo 7 declares that
vi the short story was created specifically for the business of magazines. That meant literature and art were directly tied to business and commercialization. D id supposed to be decrying commercial fiction and exalting literary fiction? Was there a compromise between the two types? Edgar Allan Poe seemed to be in the middle of th e two worlds: he wrote short fiction for the last seventeen years of his life in a commercial market, striving to create literary art. A close look at what Poe accomplished while a magazinist could help teachers, students, readers elevate the status of Poe as an (Regan 1).
1 Introduction Edgar Allan Poe, who died in 1849, is still in the news. On the anniversary newspapers about the late and Burying Ground in Baltimore. An an onymous visitor dressed in a black cape, white scarf, and wide brimmed hat has for sixty years left a half filled bottle of known only to Poe House and Museum curator Jeff Jero me, who watched for the visitor to give a secret sign before entering the cemetery each year. What made the news in 2010 and 2011 is that the visitor, called the Poe Toaster, has failed to show up for the last two years. Perhaps, Jerome reflects, the visit or chose to end the ritual in 2009, the 200 th his survivors chose to end the ritual in 2009. Still dozens of Poe enthusiasts, Gra We are still curious about how Poe died. Speculation about the cause of 8 (or any of the contemporary CSI investigators) were involved, all of the clues could be deciphered to determine how and why he died. Dr. Roger A. Francis, as recently
2 death. He symptoms. On October 3, 1849, an unusually cold day, 9 Poe, wearing cheap 10 a tavern and polling place, and was taken to the nearest hospital, Washington College Hospital. He xt day he was still delirious 11 12 13 (Silverman 435). diagnoses of the caus 1. drug or alcohol intoxication followed by withdrawal symptoms; 2. trauma to the brain; 3. intracranial infections including viral encephalitis (including rabies), meningitis (including turberculous infection ), and rare conditions including brain abscess; 4. brain tumors; 5. seizure disorders (epilepsy); 6. stroke or transient ischemic attack; 7. metabolic conditions such as diabetes with coma; and/or 8. other disease (heart disease, syphilis, etc.). (Fra ncis 168)
3 No death certificate or hospital records exist; evidence comes only from the eye witnesses and medical personnel who were with Poe in the last few days had been seriously ill a few days before, but he was sober when he left the young girl; he had complimented her poetry; therefore, she might not be a reliable witness. Poe himself had written to his Au nt Maria Clemm in the days Letters I: 451, 454). Elmira Shelton, to whom Poe was supposedly affianced, stated that Poe had a fever on the night he l eft her in Richmond, September 26 (Silverman 432 33). Dr. Joseph Snodgrass, 14 who saw Poe and helped him get to the hospital on October 3, swore that Poe had been incorporated into his lectures to the Temperance 15 Society. Dr. John J. Moran, who attended to Poe at the hospital, swore that there was no smell of alcohol on the night the famous Edgar Allan Poe died, frequently altering details; he published his account in Defense of Poe in 1885. A Baltimore paper stat ed the cause of death as congestion of the brain, a typical phrase used when the real
4 eft shoulder. Since she had been with the Poe family during hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar ex 16 After a Dupin like a nalysis of all the symptoms and various reports of effects of alcohol intoxication followed by withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens, and possibly a neurological complication such as central pontine medication, he would have gone into a coma and died. At least two biog raphers Jeffrey Meyers, Kevin Hayes are sure that alcoholism killed Poe. If Poe was indeed drunk the night of October 3, what brought on the drinking that led to his death is also shrouded in mystery. One rumor is that Poe napped by a political gang, kept in a room, forced
5 to drink alcohol and take opium, disguised by wearing different clothes, and ighly illegal practice that would not have made the papers. One rumor has Poe hounded and forced to wro interest in how Poe died continues. As Jeffrey Meyers states, readers have a a destroyed in 1875. William F. Gill, an early Poe biographer, took the bones home in a box, kept them under his bed, and brought them out to let people touch cognac. The story of Poe is quite as sensa tional as his stories. John Reilly
6 so much with the historical person as with the popular image that has evolved, the image of a strange, haunted, and suffering spirit, the weird victim of both his hijacked by storytellers not in search of art or the truth. Rufus Griswold, 17 ga ve Poe a legacy that has been hard to forget. Griswold wrote October 9, 1849 issue and signed it streets, in madness or melancholy, with lips moving in indistinct curses, or with eyes upturned in passionate prayers for the happiness of those who at that moment were objects of his idolatry, bu t never for himself, for he felt, or paint Poe as a madman stated how statements were intended to soften the blow of what was to follow. Griswold offered letters, later proved to be altered or forged, to ife and work. Griswold stated Poe was expelled from the University of Virginia; serious Poe biograph ers state Poe left the University in December 1826 because he could not pay his debts. Griswold claimed Poe seduced the second wife of John Allan, the man who raised him; Poe was barely acquainted with her. Poe deserted the army; Dwight Thomas and David Johnson
7 record that Poe, who signed up as Edward Perry, was discharged from the army Thomas White, George Graham, and Billy Burton considered Poe a consistently unreliable assistant editor with efended Poe before and after the writer for his young wife and, after she died, his several romantic entanglements with women. 18 Poe admitted to having used an idea of Henry Wadsworth 19 om philosophical and fearless critic upon imaginative works who has written in friends and Dr. Th omas Dunn English 20 who said they had never seen a sign of drug use. Poe died during days of debauchery; alcoholism may have been a scarcely any virtue in either his life or his w few months after these first lies appeared, Griswold stated that he had tried to present Poe in the best light; in fact he had been so cons iderate that he had not
8 in law, Maria Clemm (A. Quinn 680), presumably the most outrageous lie of all. Griswold believed (Meyers 262). picture of Poe perhaps out of jealousy: both men were attracted to the same containing works by unworthy writers: Poe Letters I: 202). Poe knew he could write a better American literary history than Griswold, the ers 127). Prescient in wording, an unsigned letter 21 in the Philadelphia Saturday Museum in 1843 injured and insulted . he will sink into oblivion, without leaving a landmark to tell that he once existed; or, if he is spoken of hereafter, he will be quoted as the It is obvious that Griswold wrote the obituary and the accompanying make money from them. If Poe had been alive, he might have appreciated his lifetime had been spread among thirty or forty dif ferent magazines. As
9 less than a year after Poe died. In addition, Poe might even have admired Poe himself had been known to sensationalize, lie, about th e details 22 of his life and Poe wrote both sensational tales and controversial reviews to attract readers to the magazines for which he wrote. Poe loved a good controversy. Friends and associates wrote defenses of character, stating there was no pro of that G were accurate. In the first six months after Poe died, Nathaniel Willis, Henry Hirst, George Lippard, George Graham, Lambert Wilmer, and John Neal wrote (Meyers 259 60). Willis, whom Poe had wanted to write his biography, 23 wrote goo dness in Edgar Poe. . Mr. Poe wrote with fastidious difficulty, and in a style too much above the popular level 24 d loved him, despite his infirmities . but the sublime afflatus which lifted him above his fellows, (qtd. in A. Quinn 653). Hirst continued with the statement that he ne ver heard
10 Quinn 654). Lambert Wilmer 25 malicious miscreant who composed the aforesaid biography . that Edgar A. (qtd. in A. Quinn 654). In addition, the editor of George Graham came to e in his own magazine in March 1850, describing Poe as a caring man, an honest man, a gifted man, an industrious man, a courteous man, an Jackson xxxiv), John Neal, 26 just and generous temper, thwarted, baffled, and self harnessed by his own hat Griswold was wright and compiler by the cart load, to whom the dying poet bequeathed his papers, and his character, to be hashed over, and served up, little by little, with a sauce piquant resembling the turbid water, in which very poor Helen Whitman wrote Poe and His Critics in 1860 defending Poe. Her biography Poe with the brush of spiritual insight drawn in true perspective through her
11 craftsmanship, his intellect, his imagination, and his steadfast love for his wife. John Ingram published an edition of Edgar Allan Poe: His Life, Letters, and Opinions published in two volumes in 1880, was written to offer an accurate biography of Poe and to erase the memory of the earlier biography written by the hostile biographer Griswold (iii). Ingram had a little trouble with his research. Ingram found too many people willin g to talk about Poe as if they had known perchance unintentionally; falsify dates; invent anecdotes; fabricate conversations, and indeed, refrain from nothing, in order to prov e their Edgar 1900, thirty five editions of his works appeared (Meyers 266). For far too many decades, howev views of Griswold Baptist minister, respected anthologist and official editor (Meyers 260). Poe had made many enemies because of his brutally honest and more bitter enemies than any other American author has ever done, because he told more whol
12 ( Griswold, included admir did not win a larger following among his contemporaries is traceable to various causes, not the least among which was his own personal conduct, in particular, his weakness for drink and his harshness as critic, which, however illogically, 58, 166). meanness and inadequacies, a more positive Poe legacy began to build in France. Poe 27 background, 28 felt a singular excitement. . I saw, to my amazement and delight, not simply certain subjects which I had dreamed of, but sentences which I had thought out, 68). Poe was e was Baudelaire derisively states in English, as if the French language itself should not be taint life and five of the twelve volumes he wrote in his lifetime to celebrate Poe in
13 France (P. Quinn 65). He knew that Poe had many enemies in America, especially those Poe had critiqued tireless war on false reason, stupid pastiches, solecisms, barbarisms and all the poete maudit an aliena ted modern artist, destroyed by the crass industrialism of mid The next generation brought anoth er French admirer of P oe, St pha n e Mallarm 1875. Like Baudelaire, Mallarm regarded Poe as literar With love and admiration, Mallarm poems ; Baudelaire Valery, also fou poetic theory (William Bandy). Traces of Poe can also be seen in Jules Verne; (William Bandy). French readers have hrough a psychoanalytic 75). Gaston Bachelard in the 1940s offered another way of valuing Poe by looking under th e
14 surface. To understand Poe, he claimed double reading, through which alone, in his opinion, we can become aware of Poe and his concept of unity of effect while the Americans attacked him for his difference s from other authors of the mid nineteenth century. American critic T. make a thoroughly good job of any on d in 1852 and anything else written on Poe, including the notorious memoir by Griswold, which spread its poison mainly through the English speaking world but had little effect throughout the world. T here were no Poe worshippers in Germany like Baudelaire in France ; but according to Jeffrey Meyers, Poe infl uenced three significant authors writing in German : Friedrich Nietzsche tortured and tormented soul, who tried to escape bitter reality and sought translations may hav e been published earlie r than in France appeared in 1848, even though it was a badly mangled translation (William
15 Readers in Spain and Latin biography The English were also affected by Poe. Raphaelite Brotherhood and Aesthetes, such as Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Walter Pater, who called Poe one of their Immortals. Robert Louis Stevenson and Rudyard Kipling gave credit to Poe for themes and techniques. Although Kipling borrowed more heavily from Poe, using poems within tales and imitating t ories of revenge (Meyers 291). Joseph Conrad imitated 95). Joyce shared with Poe the rational outlook on life and the fascinati on with physical death. Doyle gave unfortunately the false biography achieved something other than increased sales of a man who deserved a better legacy, especially in the American literary world. Dawn Sova in Poe A to Z
16 became the unofficial biographica l record that extended well into the 20 th century yet American writer whose personal of note in America to shock the popular audience; the rumor of hi s dissolution did nearly as much to make him known as his fifteen years in the magazine Yet there may be a few contemporary writers, reviewers, biographers, and rk in magazines former house in Fordham, New York, she lamented the death of Poe as the loss 29 of pure elight us when we are children, subtle and artistic enough to be our marvel when cognition nor paid a st eady income in his lifetime for his work. And he died too soon. Cather related that in the weeks before he died at the young age of forty, tales were merely experiments, thrown
17 : i t makes one wonder what kind of tales Poe would have written had he had more time
18 Chapter One A New Genre: The Short Story Charles E. May argues ( The Short Story 108). However, the often connection with the short story tends to depend mista kenly only upon his Twice Told Tales published in Magazine In this review Poe does set forth his main requirements for short fiction, defining although he did not know this during his lifetime a new genre, a story with a single effect that can be read in one sitting. That the short story as Poe writes of particular blend of stories a fulfilled the qualities he had begun in the 1830s to conceptualize as aesthetically effective.
19 History of the Short Story According to the Oxford English Dictionary first used in the May 1877 Independent readable, in the highest sense of the adjective, and some of his short sto ries next use of the phrase was by Anthony Trollope in his Autobiography published published i Literature James, also an admirer of Hawthor ne, titled one of his collections Daisy Miller: A Study; and Other Stories tuation, the psychological of the phrase. It would seem very likely that the phrase would have been us ed used quite often at least casually during the nineteenth century in that short fiction was becoming very popular and there would be nothing unusual in putting
20 What is definitely cl ear about the history of the short story, however, is (1) that short narratives had existed for centuries before the 1800s, (2) that Poe (Hough xiii), 30 and (3) that Brander Matthews, writing in 1885, 31 deliberately because I wished to emphasise [sic] the distinction between th e Short story and Philosophy of the Short story 24 25). (1). A form of the short story has been told or written since before the alphabet was invented, according to Ann Charters (1742). These stories have been called epics, fairy tales, fables, parables, tales, anecdotes, sketches, fabliaux moral tracts, abort ive romances, novelles, contes or narrative prose. Briefly, two of the best known precursors of short stories were the Greek fables, sometimes beast fables such parables. Sometimes forms such as the French fabliaux an d heroic episodic stories were written in verse. Matthews describes the eleventh and twelfth century fabliau as it; frequently it was in rime; generally satiric in intent, it was full of frank gayety
21 Edgar 4). The stories did not change until around the fourteenth century with tales like Giovanni Boccac The Decameron, where nature, not God, determined the events of the tale ( Edgar are the roles Edgar 5). These tales are similar to Canterbury Tales, written in fifteenth ce ntury England Exemplary Tales, offering a realistic setting and psychologically motivated characters (May, Edgar 5). The brothers Grimm also wrote their body of German fairy tales in the early 1800s (Charters 1744). The psychological and life like details of story telling led to the development of the novel by the seventeenth century, almost eliminating the need for the short tale. Benjamin Boyce states that by the eighteenth century, conception of short fiction as a genre except perhaps as a Tatler Spectator 32 Edgar 5). More forms evolved by the eighteenth century in Europe, especially in the adventure stories, and sentimental sketches with predictable moral outcomes in which the hero or 1744). In France, several authors emphasized morality and psychology in satires the falsification of reality in man
22 continued the forms of romances of chivalry and picaresque romances begun in Som e of the most immediate precursors of the short story came from Germany in the eighteenth century. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe published his prose tales in collections, and Ludwig Tieck wrote what he called novelles, acters who are already developed and are The Short Story 5). A main and the morbid among nineteenth century readers, who considered it derivative of German lite Poe 21). Another more immediate influence came from the British periodicals toward the end of the eighteenth century, which included various literary styles. American writers would have been familiar with the contents an abundance of essays and satires in such British publications as The Tatler The Spectator (Matthews, Introduction 6), and Magazine. As May states, the British literary field was moving more toward novels and not toward s as the sort of narrative based essay, in which The Short Story 4). British
23 writer Daniel DeFoe also figures in the progression toward the short story. His example of both the old moral tale and the new narrative of verisimilitude, [and] The Short Story 4). The narrative mode of this story offers an eyewitness telling of an actual event The Castle of Otranto contains the Edgar 7). Readers had experienced many f orms of the tale by the beginning of the traditional story or illustrative of an abstract idea. Short fiction prior to the nineteenth century was not determined by the use of specific detail and real time events to provide a verisimilar version of the everyday world, as was the longer The Short Story 21). Real time events for example, aberrant behavior as reported in the newspapers bega n to be reflected in stories appearing in periodicals. The English romantics in the nineteenth century presented a more subjective way to look at the short tale. Samuel Taylor Coleridge believed the Wordsworth believed the reader needed imagination to awake n Edgar 8). German romantics, such
24 as Friedrich Sc hlegel in 1801, insisted that the topic, trivial or momentous, did not matter, but the story had to be told in an appealing manner. For the first time in the history of short fiction, the narrator or the story teller is emphasized (May, Edgar 8). Tieck pro posed that the story should have a strange quality made to seem commonplace and also advocated that the tale needed a twist or a turning point (May, Edgar 9). Washington Irving is credited by Fred Lewis Pattee with writing the first American short stor adding rich atmosphere, specific locales, some originality, and some believability of character and setting (Pattee 20 23). Y are comparable to those of Poe or Hawthorne just two decades later. Irving and language; the weaving of the characters, lightly, yet expressively delineated; the familiar and writing in 1907, however, does not believe that Irving can be considered the o implacable unity and the swift compactness which we now demand and which 7). Instead, according to May, Irving simply took an old German legend, set it in The Short Story 24, 25).
25 Hawthorne, Poe, and Melville who combine the conventions of medieval allegorical romance, eighteenth century realism, and the nineteenth century Gothic in a complex way that results in a new narrative form that later becomes The Short Story 25). Defining the Short Sto identifiable standards and not according to such impressionistic and meaningless his age in January 1842 and repeats over would wish, in a word, to limit literary criticism to comment upon Art Essays 1032). This was a startling suggestion in a period in which literary criticism tended to empha size the moral and social responsibilities of literature. Poe the man and thus Poe the critic is often misunderstood, according to Robert Hough, because an understanding of Poe and his criticism requires a knowledge of the world in which Poe lived: a reje ction, for example, of the
26 theories while making a livin g as an editor and writer from about 1835 to 1849 (ix). Poe had very distinct ideas about literature: poetry, short fiction, novels, and criticism. Above all, he believed that any writer should create an original piece. Writers should also continually exp and their repertory and, much like the early 1830s through 1849, with theories addressing artistic truth, brevity that assures a totality of experience, unity of effect or of impression, genuine emotional responses, prose style, and plots with a rich underlying suggestiveness that resists didacticism (including allegory). These theories appeared erratically and gradually, often much earlier than the review with which they are usually Twice Told Tales In New Short Story Theories, May gather Zinzendorff, and Other Poems published in the Southern Literary Messenger Poe declares the aesthetic uni ty or totality of interest emphasis upon the whole, made possible by brevity (65). Six months later in the Watkins Tottle and Other Sketches ted or
27 perseverance (May, The New Short Story Theories 64). In 1841, in a review of Edward Bulwer N ight and Morning: a Novel published in Poe argues that plot does not mean that which no part can be displaced without ruin to the whole (200). Poe uses the example of a building, in which the moving of a single brick wo effect (200). In that same review, Poe emphasizes that characters must be original, Concerned about Bulwer awkward expression, and wordiness; advocates concise sentences with force when sparingly and skillfully faculties of comparison, without even a remote interest for our reason, or for our in some under that richness (to borrow from colloquy a forcible term), which we are too fond of Essays 24).
28 Twice Told Tales which also appears in Poe discusses qualities of great short fiction that he has mentioned or defined in earlier reviews, finding most of these qualities in imagination, originality a trait which, in the literature of fiction, is positive ly hour to one or two derivable from totality without a certain duration or repetition of p urpose be no word written, of which the tendency, d irect or indirect, is not to be the one pre 99). Poe often compares the achievement of writing a poem and writing a short n the creator of the and in a very great
29 land of a far vaster extent than thought and ex Despite the rich possibilities of the tale, however, Poe writes in his brief April The Ta les of a Traveler Twice Told Tales (254). Twice Told Tales review to The Short Story 108). Matthews may be the first one to insist that the Short story should be a genre of its own, that (in 1901) there are very few authors wh o were excellent Short story writers within its history, that Poe was the first theorist who of the essential nature of the Short Philosophy of the Short story 79 80). M The Short Story 109), including the differences between the novel and short fict
30 Matthews contended that the American Short story developed into an art form partially because American magazines did not f ollow the practice of British magazines in publishing primarily serial novels. Matthews wrote his 1885 essay and 1901 and 1907 full length studies because he believed the Short story had been neglected while the novel was praised. Yet, he argued, the Short story is Philosophy of the Short story 15, 16). Insisting that the S hort story is nothing like a novel, a piece, a chapter, or a shortened novel, Matthews also argues that the Short story is not a sketch, for the Short Philosophy of the Short story 37). Matthews also describe s love as the one topic relevant to all novels, whereas the Short Philosophy of the Short story 23). theories about the short story (May, The New Short Story Theories xvi); but established des xiii) led to the neglect of the genre for many decades. 33 Poe and Matthews had established the basis for the American Short story by the 1880s while in England
31 conscious fiction form with a technique emphasizing c onciseness and unity of English reviewers first began to look at American short fiction at all, it was to ndholz 156), nothing else. Then British reviewers began to assess American short fiction considering how those traits contributed to th e whole story. Anne Windholz contends that that is when British reviewers first began to look at American short stories as examples of concise, unified by reviewers, though thought (from Poe) and talent (fro m American story writers), according to American short stories, but also in a new understanding of the ways in which short fiction might be distinguished as an independent genre
32 Conditions in the 1830s and 1840s That Encouraged the Short Fiction That Became the Short Story There is no question that a number of developments in the first half of the nineteenth century contributed to the popularity of fiction: a growing interest in reading among the middle class, technological advances, and an increasing demand for magazines. C omplicating these developments were economic problems, copyright issues, and a tendency for the publishers and editors of magazines to be businessmen rather than writers. Although many with mistaken views of early America -have the impression that there was a hostility toward fiction well into the nineteenth century, Nina Baym points out, in Novels, Readers, and Reviewers that many novels were being written, published, and read in the United States in the early part of the nineteenth century. She even id entifies the kind of struggle between while readers apparently continued to buy and read novels that simply told (24). Significantly, novels encouraged the appearance of periodicals since sometimes long excerpts were published in magazines, occasionally long reviews.
33 Technological advances in t he early nineteenth century affected the produc tion of both books and magazines. Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Richmond were the main publishing and book selling centers before the 1830s, giving book sellers a wide area to cover, with markets in the West and South poorer than those in the North ( Hartmann 5). Railroads and steamboats put as well as the improved quality and appearance of books enticed more readers into purchasing what were still 67). Better printing methods reduced production costs for magazines: the steam press, for example, could be operated by children who could be paid less, and otyping and stereotyping took impressions of set type, allowing for The availability of public education, better lighting in homes, and increased availability of eyeglasses inc reased both the number of readers and the opportunities for reading. greatest development of a native American literature, and American magazines
34 (Wood 25). Frank Luther Mott, who chronicles the history of American magazines, estimates that by 1825 only a hundred periodicals existed, disregarding newspapers, but by 1850, there were about six hundred (I: 341 42). David Paul Nord a rgues that the nature of the reading public magazines, with three subjects dominating -suspicion of shaping of the genre that came to be called the short story later in the century. Short fiction had to be concise t o fit on the pages of magazines. An editor of a (qtd. in Urgo). Joseph Urgo states that sho form, cohesiveness, and economy of scale parallels in remarkable fashion the he magazines, Poe wanted one effect in his stories, realizing that when short efficient tales are published, there is more space for advertisement and less production expense:
35 both a marketing tactic and a philosophy (Urgo). Of equal importance was that the only stories to a ppear in the magazines had to be stories that would be read, that would appeal to the taste of the readership. Poe contributed to the debate between writing for the elite or for the masses, and between literary and commercial fiction that still is raging t oday. 34 He struggled with the difference as he wrote literary short stories in the commercial magazine market. In many of his letters and essays Poe compared slave to the popular magazines, whose different audiences he attempted to please in h paying attention to what the public wanted, asked that the entries for an 1832 (Hayes, Poe 21). Poe wrote the historical ro mance adding his flair, a gothic setting, and his story came in second because readers considered gothic too German, not American. Although Poe cared about raising the quality of literature of his day, he also cared about making a living and as a result, read the sensational literature of the day. The sensational is what the public wants, he advised Thomas White, editor of the Southern Literary Messenger when White Letters I: 57). Poe knew the market and wrote sensational tales, but his writing was never popular because
36 230). Affecting the rise of magazines were a number of economic conditions, for little. At a time when the average worker only made a dollar per day, the $.75 to $1.25 for a novel was too much of their weekly budget (Zboray 74). With the bank crash of 1837, publishers would not publish books; and if published, a book an d only book was put on hold by t he publishers because of the crash. The economic situation was aggravated by the lack of an international copyright law: European books could be published and distributed with less cost because the publishers did not have to pay royalties to the authors. O f the 124 best sellers in 1837 America, for example, only 55 were written by Americans (Sutherland). Since there was no international copyright law, many publishers of magazines avoided paying American authors by pirating the work of British authors. This left no place for American writers to be published or paid for th eir writing. If they did get p ublished and paid a number of their works might be
37 pirated to be published in British magazines (St. Clair). According to Urgo, many of the short stories appea ring in the early magazines were reprinted in England, not only because there was no international copyright law, but also because there was a demand for stories that reflected the character of Americans to the British. As most editors and readers called f or American themes and settings, there were many such stories available without cost. An advocate for an y have Penn, later The Stylus (A. Quinn 369). and was not shy about expressing his views in print ( Reynolds 230). Most owners and editors of the magazines were businessmen, not literary men; and there were many difficulties in the relationship between writers and editors or mailing charges, a dvertising costs, and illustrations or engravings sometimes as high as $1,000 per plate (I: 494 519). When the owner was not the editor, payment to the editor was another cost, which was usually tied to the success of the magazine. Some editors, like Billy Burton of the tried to get contributions into his magazine as cheaply as possible, perhaps by a contest that brought in quite a bit of material to print but only one payment to the winner. 35 Some editors promised but never paid contri butors. An editor and
38 writer were lucky if employed by a generous owner: working for a generous financial worries. Both Frank Luther Mott and Nina Baym label Graham as one of the fir by the quality of his magazine and the evaluations of all who were associated with it. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Literary studies often neglect the publishing context in which authors think and write. This dissertation will focus on the magazine business and environment that existed when Edgar Allan Poe was working within the magazine world, with chapter three on George Graham, one of the greatest publishers of magazines, editor. Poe wrote for over forty magazines and was involved with editing fi ve of them. In the last chapter chapter five, two issues of published in 1841 and 1842, will illustrate the nature of the magazine during fiction affected his contributions to the magazine. was by far
39 the most successful of the magazines for which Poe worked and within its pages Reflecting his interests, talents, and the circumstances of his world, Poe chose to wri embraced nearly every form of prose fiction and invented original modes of discourse, new narrative approaches, and different ways of telling tales no one Poe 25). B shape what is now known as the short story: short story writer Willa Cather
40 Chapter Two Survey of the Criticism There are probably more books and articles written on Edgar Allan Poe than on any other U.S. American author. Poe is recognized as both a brilliant e first serious literary critic in the United States. defined the characteristics and qualities still found in many short stories today. They do not realize that the theory Poe gradually defined over a fifteen year period emerged partially as a result of the rise of the magazine, with the subsequent demand for short fiction rather than lengthy novels. Since my purpose in this dissertation is to argue that a greater knowledge of Poe within the context of his time would increase our understanding and appreciation of his mind and work, the survey of criticism will begin by considering a few works that discuss the role of the magazine in American literature, then introduce important studies of the short story, and, finally, consider some of the most significant criticism on Poe as author and critic.
41 Works on Early American Magazines History of American Magazines a collection of valuable information and a standard reference work in its field. It is a spirited and vigorous account of human nature and popular movements as 937). In addition to distinguishing between magazines, periodicals, journals, or papers, Mott lauds the magazine as the recorder o f the history, social culture, and geography of a young country. He examines the effect that magazines had on authors and literature. One book publisher, in testifying before Congress in authors pay unless they are first published and acquire recognition through columns of magazines. Were it not for the one saving opportunity of the great American magazines . American authorship would be at a still low er ebb than at He co nfirms what other sources have said about the problems caused by the lack of an international copyright law and emphasizes the fact that many American pieces were reprinted in British magazines without proper credit. Mott adds that although some American m agazines, like and Graham were original and of high quality, most magazines imitated English form and content.
42 lacking or poor (with a few exceptions) in the nineteenth century: the 406); urge for a national literature; fear of offending anyone the author might be connected with; and laziness. Mott observes that the content of many of these magazines was of poor quality unless the editor was fearless and that short stories were regard this appraisal of the short story on the proliferation of sentimental stories and volume study of magazine histor y details the assorted contents of early magazines: drama, art, agriculture, health, oratory, fiction, poetry, and phrenology. an interpretation of how Americans were thinking and literature was being produced and distributed during these early decades. In The Origins of American Critical Thought (1810 1835), Charvat studied the leading American magazines to investigate how Americ an thought was affected by the English romantic movement, German early conceptions of the short stor Literary Publishing in America (1959) Charvat discusses how publishing centers and
43 methods affected literature and authors. After Charvat died in 1966, Bruccoli The Profession of Authorship in America, 1800 1870 records of literary periodical still shed considerable light on the contours of nineteenth century middle Magazines in the United States (2 nd ed. 1956) describes the beginning of the English magazine with Daniel Defoe in 1704, of the American magazine in the early 1740s, and offers a history of the medium into the 1940s. Wood discusses the first American magazines as natio nal journalistic figures as emerging in the 1840s, he identifies many directions of the slavery; em lar into the 1940s -were the first magazines, -begun in the pre Civil War period as journals for the farm and garden -l social and economic
44 The Saturday Evening Post Digest and The New Yorker closing with a chapter on the role of magazines during World War I and World War II and a chapter on the ri communication among 78). In American Literary Magazines: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (1986), Edward E. Chielens lists, describes, and evaluates early American magazines in much the same manner as Mott. He closely examines ninety two magazines published before 1900 and lists others in an attempt to call attention to the importance of the early magazines. In his introduction, Chielens discusses early magazine editors like Daniel Webster, Ralph Waldo Emerson, William Dean Howells, Brett Hart, and, of course, Poe, who edited four magazines (x). which ones promoted a national literature and demanded regional loyalty, and which few were financially successful. William Gilmore Simms, for example, ability of Southerners. The introduction closes with a dis cussion of changes in literary magazines from 1850 to 1900.
45 Two other histories of early The American Magazine: A Compact History The Magazine in America: 1741 1990 (1991), offer more than just a history of the early magazines: the magazines are shown as reflecting the culture. Because Tebbel covers American magazines from the beginning in 1741 to 1990, there is scant information on any one periodical. The book he co author s with Zuckerman includes information on author bylines, title choices and changes, technological advancements, financial maneuvering, photography and hundred and fifty year hist into personalities of editors and publishers. Republican Literature: Magazine Reading and Readers in Late Eighteenth Century New York Reading in America (1989), focuses on study is of the 1790 audience, his results predict the beginning of a trend of reading as a form of participation in the new social order of postrevolutionary New York Magazine
46 cor the material was aimed at women: in addition to romances and sentimental 29). Carnival on the Page: Popular Print Media in Antebellum America America, the quarter a different, vernacular print culture cheap, sensational, ephemeral, miscellaneous, illustrated, and serialized that transgressed the boundaries of exploring the new genres of publication -the penny dailies, the mammoth weeklies, the giftbooks, -and carnivalesque marketplace festival in pre 13).
47 Studies of the Short Story The earliest and most important discussion of the short story occurs in book form in 1901, the first full length work entirely devoted to the short story. Although Matthews seems to announce the new genre Short story with a capital S and a hyphen Writing because the Short story has been neglected, Matthews insists that a Short ntial unity Philosophy of the Short story 15), the same description that Poe Twice Told Tales Matthews, like Poe, also states that the Short ( Philosophy of the Short story 23) and adds that the Short story has Philosophy of the Short story 37). nineteenth century writing environment in his Views and Reviews in American Literature History and Fiction First Series literary criticism, and biographical sketches published since the 1830s (edited and corrected by C. Hugh Holman in 1962). Included is Sim literature that was not just an imitation of British publications and also promoted national content.
48 Development of the Amer ican Short Story: An Historical Survey (1923) discusses the mid nineteenth century as the era when American form. Pattee asserts that the magazine helped to shape the genre of spurred on the next generation o f writers; and that many magazinists were Pattee does not give Poe all of the credit for the beginning of the short tale through his tales and critical reviews, suggesting that Hawthorne should be out that by 1850 the short story 1847 short history, The Prose Writers of America but sets the date for the recognition of the qualities that make up the genre as the late 1880 s, citing Poe as their source: emphasis on the first word. It connoted simply that for general magazine purposes ficti on must be severely shortened. That the tale, or the short story, was a distinct genre, necessarily short as lyric is necessarily short, following laws distinct from those ruling the novel and its abbreviated form the novelette, had been realized
49 in its fullness by no one, save perhaps Poe. (291) eight rules for a Short action, form, substance, and if possible, fa writer can profitably study the history of literary forms to note that, whenever they became rigid in practice and dogmatic in definition, they declined from vitality an century revolt of many authors against commercial magazine writing and the sentimental quality, craved, a revolt that encouraged the shor t story. The American Short Story: Front Line in the National Defense of Literature (1964) notes that from its beginnings the short story has very recently most c ritics have refused to consider it as important as the more stories have so long been identified with commercial magazines and policies of editors driven to make a profit. Peden th en discusses the current state of writers of short stories and of the magazines that print their stories, also identifying university programs that promote the writing of good short stories. In The American Short Story: A Study of the Influence of Local ity in Its Development
50 lik by looking around him, thus meeting the needs of the audience and the to Short Story: The Emergence of a New 1850s followed by the decay of the magazine tale until with Henry Ja mes in the 1 870 s and 1880s mo was his way of expressing his dilemma: should he write what he wanted to write or what the public wanted to read, thus what the editors wanted to put in the magazines to make a profit. definition for the shor
51 intention of making something bea story writers: on the one hand, as cceed, the author must overcome the restraints of limited length and communicate not a segment, a tattered The Nineteenth Century American Short Story (1985) asserts that the short was the form of the nineteenth century. Lee declares the genre uniquely American with international appeal. When exploring the question with a d with aspiring writers who knew that the magazines were paying them. He adds that the best writing comes from those on the margins of society, and perhaps the influx of women writing sential Americanness to the nineteenth distinctive characteristics of many authors; for example, myth and dreams in Irving, subtle concealment in Poe, the ambiguous narrator in Hawthorne, and the telling Eugene Current The American Short Story before 1850 (1985) emphasizes short story would have emerged at all in the United States: lacking this outlet, it Garcia devotes
52 chapters to Irving, Hawthorne and Simms, he credits Poe with the most influence on the genre, recognizing that in his eighteen years of writing, Poe developed that, after more than a century, are still Garcia also comments on the important role of magazines in the careers of the the short story was his emphasis upon a unifying single effect and states that was Current Garcia declares that Poe demonstrated a mastery of new techniques in the management of point of view and the dramatization of disturbed mental Any study of the short story must include the work of Charles May, a consulting editor for the magazine Short Story author of countles s articles and several books on the short story, and editor of several collections comprising over one hundred essays on the genre, the first in 1976, the most recent being New Short Story Theories consider
53 Edgar Allan Poe: A Study of the Short Fiction  will be discussed in the third section of this survey.) From his lifetime study of the short s tory emerged a 1995 study also by May, The Short Story: The Reality of Artifice (rpt. 2002), a history of the short story and its precursors that describes a n umber of influences on and changes in the form with chapters on nineteenth century beginnings, nineteenth century realism, early twentieth century formalism, and contemporary renaissance. In each chapter, May discusses the writers and the short stories tha t influenced the urvey that begins with the impact on the short story after Poe, and ends with sections on a revival of critica l interest (1970s) and on cognitive psychology, computers and the short story. n to the genre, a struc comments on the form in the 1830s are largely responsible for the birth of the The Culture and Commerce of the American Short Story (1993) comp patterns and systems of value that evolved in the nineteenth century to discuss
54 and judge the short story have remained dominant, with slight variation, throughout the twentieth century but that this continuity is not recognized in for helping to shape the short story, not only through his writings and his editorship of several magazines, but through his dream of creating his own magazine, which if he had had the funds, might have changed the direction of th publicity intermagazine 1890s, especially after the enactment of the international copyright law, short stories were taught at universities an d published prolifically in magazines, with the success or failure of a short story often depending upon the collection in which it appeared (51). (qtd. in Urgo 339). Urgo argues that both capitalism and natio nalism are to blame (or thank) for the creation and proliferation of short stories in America: the short story since 1830 -
55 fro m the English desire to und He calls Poe that good stories would attract readers, but if they were short they would story writing today as universities offer creative writing degrees and those who earn the degrees then teach creative writing courses, creatin World Literature Today Alan Cheuse distinguishes between the tale and the short story, de create a work of short fiction that, like a lyric poem, has no immediate tie to the culture in own literary magazine. Draw ing upon his many publications on the short story, Charles May is has begun posting comments on the ge nre from at least one hundred authors at
56 http://may on the short story.blogspot.com/ His goal in Angers is to organize all between the categories and draw conclusions about the generic characteristics of Critical Wo rks on Poe as Author and Critic stated that Poe had no friends, that he was often drunk and irresponsibl e, and that he was a poor critic. After contemporaries i ncluding Nathaniel Park Willis, Joseph Snodgrass, George Graham, Sarah Whitman, Mrs. Osgood and John Ingram (A. Quinn 646 93) wrote letters, articles and partial biographies in defense of Poe Perhap s the best known of the early Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Works husiasm and warm efforts to According to translators Lois and Francis Hyslop, Bau
57 and conscious met storyteller, Edgar Poe is unique in his field as were Maturin, Balzac, and for his genius from his own country. In the last few pages of the book, as closely woven as the mesh of chain mail . whose slightest intention serves to lead the reader gently toward in the magazines Reviews of Edgar Allan Poe in the Southern Literary Messenger and agazine with an Examination of his Relationships with the and his Ph. D dissertation Edgar Allan Poe with a Study of Poe as Editor and Reviewer: with a List of Works esis notes that Poe wrote most of the
58 reviews for the Southern Literary Messenger but may not have written the ones for because they are too short to be called critiques and Poe himself warned his friends against reading the reviews since most of signed reviews -content, thinking, style, and word choice with unsigned revie ws; for instance, in one of the reviews in Hull identified Poe as the Southern Literary Messenger and and added eleven; four others have been subtracted and twenty two included technique to examine reviews in the B roadway Journal, and the Mirror. other editors with whom Poe worked Charles Peterson, Beverly Tucker, Nathaniel Willis, Charles Briggs, Vernon Sparhawk, Lucian Minor, and William Burton a nd included anecdotes about and descriptions of Poe as editor. Toward served us himself or any va Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography (1941) is a
59 education, military se magazines, including the year at that s atisfying year creatively and socially ; and exte repeated the themes of his fiction, but the high ambition and persistence Poe showed in pursuing th e profession of authorship throughout the course of that that Poe critics fall into six categories : critics who simply enjoy reading P work although they might ha ve an intellect like Poe ; critics who examine a few individual pieces but do not consider the author or his other works ; and refuse to see any worth in any one of them ; critics who use psychoanalysis clinical studies of a supposed psychopathic
60 ; 174) ; and critics who think they must like Poe becaus e other critics, like the French, adore Poe. Stovall takes a centrist position. He believes that over half of literary importance and merits detailed study without ref erence to its possible clearly stated in his essays and reviews, most of which appeared in the magazines for which Poe worked. In an early book on Poe as critic, Context of His Literary Milieu (19 63), Sidney P. Moss begins his I ntroduction with f purpose: to prepare the ground for writers of genuine talent and in consequence, for a respectable supporters like George Graham or Edward Gould and opponents like Charles B riggs or Lewis Gaylord Clark. He even uses military terms in the titles of his t his ideological battle noted by Moss Poe included the importance of originality in American writers, who did not imitate the British; the source of creative work as being conscious effort, not sudden inspiration; the avoidance of all didacticism;
61 In Edgar Allan Poe as Lite rary Critic (1964), Edd Winfield Parks notes that before Poe began at the Southern Literary Messenger he had published only one -reviews at the Southern Literary Messenger al important critic to develop and to refine his critical theories through the media of table for magazine single effect that runs through many of his critical remarks as well as an insistence on imagination and originality, an avoidance of the didactic, an em supportive examples. Poe made a good critic, Parks contends, because he had artists. Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays (1967) opens with
62 mis triple threat as poet, tale writer, and critic to other has been even more widespread and far ven with all colle Poe: Journalist and Critic (1969) argues that Poe Jacobs also considers a number of areas that may have affected Poe as a critic. sorrow for the passing of the beautiful was the mos public taste
63 and to refuse to tolerate mediocrity or self strength of his convictions. Jacobs does not distinguish between the labels [ f ] orced to become a journalis studying the approaches and techniques of successful magazines while a t the Southern Literary Messenger suffering through trials at and enjoying freedom at Jacobs offers a picture of Poe the critic at work, Poe and the British Magazine Tradition (1969), c onsiders that Poe first read as a teen and l ater as an editor (16). Poe noticed the magazine scholarly reviews like the London Quarterly Review. I the curious and esoteric learning which was a feature of the more respectable older miscellanies like the relaxed, personal, and intimate ethos which permitted the inclusion o f more a similar style in his own writing, hoping to effect the same response (41). Poe especial ly took note of the character of editor, Christopher North,
64 offending his audience, but always selling magazines. Perhaps w ith a similar motive, in becoming a Poe was not being argumentative or difficult: he was creating a persona and style that would sell magazines. In Poe at Work: Seven Textual Studies (1978), Benjamin Fisher, like Parks tales and acknowledges the ongoing work of researchers, like Arthur Quinn, to s of c hose seven articles that point out the difficulty of ascertaining what Poe intended with his many emendations. Six of the selection s Tales of the Folio Club instance, story exist (83), from the 1841 hand written manuscript to the final version in Tales one mark of punctuation had significance: thus, the inclusion of quotation marks around the newspaper article announcing the murders (86) mimics how the public learns of such events.
65 The Poe Log: A Documentary Life of Edgar Allan Poe 1809 1849 (1987) is the definitive source for accurate biographers have differed on the details of his life, and researchers have needed as complete and reliable a source as possible. The Poe Log offers letters, newspaper clippings, and legal documents to verify the day by day details of political maneuverings of various people involved in magazine publishing and writing. At life; at the back, a twenty that The Poe Log has changed Poe research in the last twenty years and hopes Beneath the American Renaissance: Th e Subversive Imagination in the Age of Emerson and Melville the American public as sensation hungry is visible in much of his literary employed his knowledge of science to appeal to popular audiences, enjoying
66 Edgar Allan Poe: A Study of the Short Fiction (1991), their self conscious manipulation of narrative devices and their darkly exi stential nature and theory of the short story. His first section identifies theorists from whom Poe borrowed: Friedrich Schlegel, Ludwig Tieck, Augustus William Schlegel and Sam critical remarks on the short story: rules, restrictions, comparisons within the genre, and similari ties to or differences from other genres. Thus, as May argues, to show the different characteristics of the new genre. The chapters that follow cover areas in which Poe probed the nature of the short story: the relationship between truth and fiction, body and spirit, and obses sion and unity of effect; the nature of detective fiction; and portrayal of alternate realms of reality. A second section of Michael Williams, and Ronald
67 Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never Ending Remembrance (1991) the most definitive biography on Poe since ending biography displays more insight than other biographies into why Poe may have written certain stories or made certain decisions, creating a study part biographical, part critical, part psychoanalytic. The sixteen pages of illustrations chi ldhood, education, military experience, marital hopes, marriage, and employment at the Southern Literary Messenger Silverman writes a chapter on The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym Fe bruary 1837 to May 1839, when researchers are like the blank period that other researchers skip over, but Silverman does not. in law, being one of the only biographers to mention her last years. In Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy (1992), Jeffrey Meyers explains that his biogra
68 and mind, of his nature as a poet and a man, that endears him more to us, while it enables us more thoroughly Meyers offers a number of first hand accounts of those who knew Poe to create the picture of Poe as a man fully entrenched in the literary world, yet troubled in oubled life with anecdotes like a their garden, the picture of Poe writing at his desk with the cat wrapped around invaluable source of information on the influence that Poe exerted over many later au thors, from Baudelaire, Mallarm, and Valery to Dostoyevsky, to Kipling and Co nrad, to Joyce, to Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Nabokov, and Wolfe. A Companion to Poe Studies (1996) has twenty six chapte rs divided chapter considers the value of each of the full le ngth studies odern criticism.
69 The final section describes how Poe is represented in popular culture, art, music, many of his tales are now operas. Scott Peeples, in Edgar Allan Poe Revisited (1998), titles the chapters of 1809 and Re(a)d All Over: The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym ion and perpetrator of humb ug, the aesthetic theorist, the scientist, the tortured romantic artist, the desperate lover, and an array of buffoons, detectives, and obsessed and self ned narrative modes and stretched generic boundaries, creating texts that leave readers wondering whether they have just notes the way in which occasionally reflect the events of his life. For promise of Eldorado, where earthly chaos is replaced by unity and order, and where estrangement is transformed into self
70 Edgar Allan Poe and the Masses: The Political Economy of Literature in Antebellum America (1999) examines the relationship between the world of business and the world of literature; thus, Whalen writes about Poe, of social and Silverman or Quinn, offer an explanation such as childhood trauma or his emotional life for why Poe seems disconnected from his time. Whalen believes that Poe is so difference between information, which is destined to re enter the process of production, and literature, which is desi gned to teach or delight an individual collective readers (mob), and the third readers, those who are responsible for publishing or not publishing (9 10). He is remembered today, W halen contends, Poe and the Printed Word
71 part, by allo meeting a book publisher at his mother in erience with novel writing to his owning a small library to his ambition to create a literary America. In the last chapter n, using the examples of ature with a supposed reading of the signature, writer. Edgar Allan Poe A to Z: The Essential Reference to His Life and Work (2001) is an easy to use works, identification of characters in his works, and brief biographies of people in such as one of the home of it was the building where dead bodies were kept. The appendices include a list
72 reviews) and a valuable bibliography. A Historical Guide to Edgar Allan Poe (2001) is a collection of five cha relationship to publishing, his sensationalism and gender constructions, and the tension between who Poe was and his public persona. In his introduction Kennedy declares that the collection describ es Poe as an author concerned with essay of current works on Poe, followed by an illustrated chronology of Poe entit l ed The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe (20 02), was written to c entury, Poe was known mostly as a poet, Hayes, like Kennedy, wants this
73 -Tomc and nal nineteenth Hayes describes the essay Poe a chronology that Hutchi Poe: Journalist and Critic, Edgar Allan Poe: His Life and Legacy Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never Ending Remembrance Like Jacobs and Meyers, Hutchisson emphasizes the hard working Poe, trying to eke out a living by writing (xi). Like Silverman, Hutchisson considers the influence show two sides of Poe -t one and to emphasize Poe as a conscious artist. Among the examples Hutchisson
74 so he fourth floor of gloomy, Gothic houses f . [ his own] low s s in no sense the bizarre, isolate writer, the curious literary figure. On the contrary, in him American literature is anchored, in him Hutchisson 256). Poe: A Life C ut Short (2008), a biography with eight pages of photographs and illustrations at the center, begins with the mystery of are considered some of the facts of his death. Ackroy d is concerned with the
75 health issues that might have caused his death, also noting that Poe had sad natu in law, living in a Philadelphia rooming house in 1838, living on bread and yd Pym, The Mark eting of Edgar Allan Poe (2008) discusses promotion. Like Michael Allen, Hartmann, on his style and goals. Har to guide for circulating of Col
76 was able to refer with pride to the dete ctive tales . conscious craftsman and promoter. Edgar Allan Poe (2009), reads like a novel, but with many thought provoki ng, insightful comments on Poe, his times, (95) alon who refused to fund his magazine in late 1840 when Poe turned again to r example, over his first view of the city of New York: as a tourist he wandered the streets, amazed and yet fearful of the s craft, even in the face of New Yorker, explains that Poe did not create but a
77 His one novel, Pym, was intended to appeal to the ta ste of readers for travel banter, half and stylistic ascenda ncy of magazine literature, despite the morbid financial clever manipulator and smarter than anyone acknowledged. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Benjamin Fisher observes that that he has always been (1). He also observes that a biography of Poe is written almost every year, even though little new information has been discovered since e documentary material of The Poe Log
78 led many of the biographers and critics included in this survey to attempt new bout early American magazines (despite a number of impressive studies) and the widely v arying views of the nature of the short story held by authors, critics, and hist othe very lPoe Edgar Allan Poe (2009) make it clear that there is no si Cambridge 123).
79 Chapter Three George Rex Graham may not be mentioned in anthologies of short fiction, yet he played an important role in the development of both magazine and short fiction in the 1840s. Sometimes the name he lent to is incidentally included, but George is identified as important to the theory of short fiction, especially through his Twice Told Tales for (1108). Poe is 36 in these reviews and in his other writings that appeared in when he was employed from 1841 to 1842 as a literary with Graham as editor was the perfect place. Poe joi ned and Poe 102). As a result, it may be said that Graham himself had a leading role in the development of what became the short story because he published a successful and influential magazine, gave Poe a
80 salary he could live on, allowed Poe the time and space to publish his tales and George Graham, who owned from 1840 t o 1848 and thus on the short story as it began to evolve in the pages of his and other magazines of the 1840s. According to Frank Luther Mott, me one of the three or four most important magazines in the United States, but, in the five years from 1841 to 1845 [under its editor, George R. Graham], displayed a brilliance which has seldom been matched in American 285). It is well documented that from 1840 to 1842, subscribers to Magazine increased from five thousand to twenty five th ousand in the first year, then to fifty thousand by the second year when the country had a total population of only seventeen million (Pratte). Even though his upbringing was not in publishing, Graham succeeded in a volatile magazine market because of his shrewd business sense in running a magazine would enjoy a liberal education and perhaps go into law or the lite rary arts fifteen and went to live with his Uncle George Rex, 37 after whom he was named.
81 George Graham now had to make his own way and after a short stint as a storekeeper (Pratte) b egan his apprenticeship as a cabinet maker. His reading, books written by Henry Bolingbroke, Joseph Addison, Edmund Burke and other classic authors, but he enjoyed reading aloud o (Pratte). He kept up his reading habits while he worked as an apprentice cabinet maker and studied law 38 for three years, rising at dawn and sleeping very little curiosity and ambition through a self improvement program that focused on J Peterson, a lifelong friend, author, and editor, Graham wrote a few articles and may have tried his han d at journalism for a while. 39 When Graham received his law degree, he did not practice law full time though he did have a small office (Robbins 281) Instead, he turned toward writing for the Philadelphia magazines. According to nervous style, mingling eloquence and satire by turns, and never, as hackneyed wrote two columns for his magazine but was not known for short tales, essays or reviews. Graham began his magazine career in January 1840 when, at twenty six, he was hired as an editor to the Evening Post and Philadelphia Saturday News owned by Samuel Coate At
82 40 In the same year, after getting his law degree and marrying, he was offered the reprint monthly, The Casket times referred to as Casket 41 a magazine that originated in 1826. 42 Graham put out only one issue before buying 43 a magazine of 3,500 subscribers, published by William Evans Burton, who had employed Edgar Allan Poe a s its editor (Robbins 281 82). In the three years that Burton had owned the with the personality of its actor was domin ated by articles on sports and the theatre and included only a few articles of art or liter ature (Mott I: 673). In December 1840, Graham put out a double issue containing both magazines, distributing it to the subscribers of each magazine, totaling 5,000 c opies. Fred Lewis Pattee describes the combination of Casket and the avowedly masculine By January 1841, Graham changed the name to the familiar name for the periodical that went by different names throughout its seventeen year history, 1841 to 1858. From 1841 to 1842 and July 1843 to June 1844, it was known as ted), Embracing Every Department of Literature Embellished with Engravings, Fashions, and Music, Arranged for the Piano forte, Harp, and Guitar. Mott notes that the information after the parentheses varies. From January to June 1844, it
83 was zine of Literature and Art From July 1848 to June 1856, it was known as From July 1856 to December 1858, it was Romance, Art, and Fashion (Mott I: 544) However, is how most people refer to the magazine that had begun as a combination of the Casket and success in running a magazine. Graha injuries, conciliating in his deportment, he is one to be alike popular with the many and loved by the few. His faults, where he has them, are those of a noble aware of public demands, Graham was able to shape his magazin e to attract more subscribers. His high ethical standards, and perhaps his willingness to do what had to be done to succeed, also created loyalty among his contributors. He He was personable and social, often hosting dinners w ith the movers and shakers of the literary world. In addition to his affability, his ambition 44 pushed him toward success in his business ventures. literature but knew well how to run a business to make money. In his own
84 he boasted sprung at on ce into boundless popularity and circulation. Money, as every subscriber knows, was freely expended upon it, and an energy untiring and sleepless was devoted to h is Graham often spoke of himself as a businessman, not a writer or among other jobs (Robbins 286 87). (83). Graha m wanted to produce a popular literary magazine to appeal to a (Robbins 283). In order to succeed as a publisher, he had to hire good editors had not been included in the transfer when Graham bought Magazine Poe had been dismissed from in May 18 40, months before Graham purchased the magazine in October 1840. Burton had become aware of Penn Magazine and Burton thought the news might hurt his sale (Hayes, Poe 87). Graham applauded Poe and helped Poe adver tise for the Penn in June 1840 -"The gentleman who issues the prospectus, and proposes to be publisher and editor, is so well known in the
85 299) and went on to compliment Poe on the nam e of the magazine and on the fact that Poe had that most important quality of a publisher: he would pay the printer (Thomas and Jackson 299). The fact that Poe planned to begin his own magazine did not deter Graham from offering Poe a job as his editor. Po e resisted accepting the job for months, during which time he solicited subscriptions, contributions, and backers for his own magazine. Then Poe became ill at the same time the country suffered a financial crisis, and he had to delay the first issue. Graha sufferers by these pecuniary convulsions, . and to commence one just now Poe 101). Graham had been Burton department of Poe 102). Graham offered Poe an $800 a year salary, $300 more than Burton had paid him. For Poe, who was continually in financial distress, this was a salary he could not refuse. Graham also hinted that he would be willing to join Poe in the new Penn magazine if Poe could solicit enough subscribers. It could be inferred that Graham was just being kind, but Graham might have been trying to eliminate the competition. Like George R. Graham, Edgar Allan Poe figured into the success of in those first years of the 1840s. Poe worked well with Graham, so much so that he considered the success of the magazine his own success. As Poe wrote to Frederick W. Thomas 45
86 we shall pr ( Letters I: 180). Poe also has been credited with raising the quality of the contents of in the years he worked with Graham. Rayburn S. s to and the Philadelphia monthly became one of the most widely circulated certai Arthur Hobson Quinn believes it was Poe who influenced Graham to make the changes to the magazine that assured its success: securing known authors and paying them well (316). G his magazine survived the competitive magazine market in the mid nineteenth century. 46 The five steps he took are as follows: o ne, he made decisions about content based on what readers, w ho were mostly women, wanted. Two, he promoted American literature. Three, he advertised his regular known writers on his cover. Four, he was one of the first to pay writers for their contributions and to copyright the works appearing in his magazine. Fiv e, he took steps to guarantee quality illustrations and fashion plates.
87 Making Decisions on Content and Contributors In December 1840 George Graham aimed to create a literary magazine for the popular magazine market (Wood). His plan was to embrace the typical fare (Robbins 283). In this he imitated the form of other magazines, especially the one often compared to 47 zmer). Nina Baym concurs that toward women, though with a broader scope than (16). She ranks list on its substantial contents by such well known authors as James Fenimore Cooper, James Kirke Paulding, 48 Nat haniel Hawthorne, and Poe and acknowledges that (75).
88 In the prospectus printed on the title page of the first issue of Magazine George Graham sets forth his concept of what he wanted within the removed from a sickly sentimentality, and from an effectation [si c] of morality, but while a true delineation of human nature in every variety of passion is aimed at, nothing shall be found in its pages to cause a blush upon the cheek of the In addition to appealing to women readers th rough illustrations, fashion plates, and sentimental love stories, Graham published contributions from various women writers (Wood 41). Printed in the December 1842 issue, the ng the choicest productions of the finest female writers of the time. Every number contains gems which may be appealed to with pride by the sex as vindicating contributors includ e such authors as Mrs. Emma C. Embury, Mrs. Frances Sargent Osgood, 49 Mrs. Seba Smith, Miss Eliza Leslie, Mrs. Mary Clavers, Mrs. Lydia Sigourney, 50 and Mrs. Ann Stephens. In the beginning issues, Graham avoided political or controversial topics. He also insisted on original works; contributions would not be accepted if they
89 critical articles and reviews; poems by the popular poets of the day; and essays by Bayard Taylor 51 and Nathaniel Parker Willis 52 (Wood 51). Promoting an American Literature Before mid nineteenth century magazines, even precursor The Casket would print stories and poems that were lifted freely from English publications because the copyright law did not extend to international publications (Mott I: 504). Other America n editors, unlike Graham, freely copied and reprinted not only British articles but also American articles in spite of a na tional copyright law in place. The 1787 state and federal copyright law declared that the author had the rights to his own works for fourteen years, possibly twenty eight, before the public could print them free of charge; however, the price control portion of the law was never enforced. It was only to cover works published by Americans in America and excluded anything published outside the United States (St. Clair 382). Other publications, such as the Casket which was referred to as a reprint monthly, or the Corsair material, both filled their pages with stolen copy, ignoring this rule. From 1845 on, elsewhere and would not allow any other publication to steal its contents, a policy that enraged other magazines because two of their sources were now eliminated (Mott I: 502 03). Stealing articles fro m rival magazines without paying
90 the authors was stopped when and magazines enforced the copyright law in 1845 (Tebbel 70; Mott I: 503). Many early American magazines tended to publish American authors, not British, and therefore made the claim and advertised that their magazines were presenting American literature. 53 However, was one of the first magazines to stop filling its pages with stolen British pieces. According to J. ork of recognized century authors to his magazine during his tenure as owner, except for Ralph Waldo Whitman, and Herman Melville, all of whom were loyal to other publications (Robbins 284). Graham sought out popular American authors to contribute original works (Robbins 283 84). It took him a year to get a good coterie of recognized American authors, but with his li to obtain a number of the author s his readers would recognize. Some famous authors whose work appeared in the pages of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, William Cullen Bryant, James Fenimore Coo per, William Gilmore Simms, Ann Stephens, Emma Embury, and Frances Sargent work from all sections of the country and thus show the nation the scope and variety of its rapidly d
91 Advertising His Writers Graham advertised his faithful writers. Most periodicals did not print (Wood 50). This tactic was meant to raise subscription rates, b ut it yielded another benefit. Graham fostered loyalty among his regular American contributors by promoting them and their works on his front cover. In Volume XXI, 1842, for example, the follow ing American Cooper, Richard Henry Dana, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Charles Fenno Hoffman, 54 Theodore S. Fay, 55 J. H. Mancur, Mrs. Emma C. Embury, Mrs. Seba Mrs E. F. Ellett, 56 Mrs. Ann S. Stephens, Mrs. Frances Nathaniel Parker Willis (discussed in the next chapter) brought his style to list of American writers. By the latter part of the decade, Graham added William Gilmore Simms and claimed to have Longfellow, Bryant, Paulding th at made his magazine successful, and he was one of the first to secure writers who contributed only to his magazine. However, he was also ethical and would not advertise an author as a regular contributor if he were not, even though other magazines like Go did (Pratte). Some magazine owners and editors
92 had adversarial relationships with their writers. Most editors felt they could correct, add, or line out passages in the works accepted for publication (Mott I: 503). Graham, however, gave his writers freedom when it came to their contributions. Other ma gazine publishers liked the authority of controlling all that went into their publications, and Poe well knew this from his association with two previous owners. However, Graham gave Poe just what was needed to write both stories and reviews. Robert Jacobs describes how Poe felt in his first few months of employment with George Graham: Relative freedom from restraint by his employer, sufficient space to make the extended analyses he preferred, a large and rapidly increasing audience, and letters of encour agement from certain of his friends gave Poe the reinforcement he needed to pronounce boldly the elements of his critical theory and his ideas of the function of the critic. (273) Graham had hired Poe for his literary skill and connections. He gave Poe considerable freedom to do his own work and Poe solicited many contributors, filling each issue with at least one new tale, sometimes part of a new series, and several book reviews.
93 Paying Contributors Because Graham had struggled as an aspiring writer, near poverty, he swore he writ With magazines using stolen and free British material, the space that was left for American writers was sparse, and editors often could pay very little for contributions. Prior to 1842, writers were warned they would not be paid what they were worth; instead they were typically paid just $1or $2 a page 57 (Mott I: 504 05). Some magazines, such as had, in the preceding decade, indicated to new writers that they should be satisfied simply with getting their names in print. Graham increased the pay to between $4 and $12 a page depending on the popularity of the writer (Bromfield 69), and Graham was acutely aware of the writing for at $10 a poem, but as he gained popularity, his rate increased to $30 a poem (Mott I: 506). Edgar Allan Poe received only $4 a page for his contributions while he was editor at Hawthorne was offered only $5 a page from Graham with $20 per contribution as the limit (Moore 47). Some authors were offered more. For instance, James Fenimore Cooper was
94 offered $1,000 for a hundred page biography series, even though Graham grumbled that Cooper never brought him any new subscribers (Mott I: 507). Washington Irvi Knickerbocker in 1839 (Moore 47), but the Knickerbocker was not run by George Graham, who paid his contributors what he promised to pay them, 58 whi le other magazines did not. The pages of five thousand word article was from twenty to sixty dollars, which considered in proportion to the cost of living at the time was liberal (Mott I: 506). Nathaniel Parker Willis, one of the first American writers to make a living by writing for magazines, likened Graham to the sun in a dismal land without suff icient pay for its writers (Mott I: 506). Although there was not a uniform rate, Willis got $11 a page from W riting for contributions in 1843 alone (M ott I: 507, 508). By 1852, Graham boasted that for the last ten years has paid over eighty thousand dollars to (Mott I: 509). Graham has been credited with influencing other magazines in the 1840s and later to pay their contributors well (Bromfield 69).
95 Securing Full Time Engraver, Quality Illustrations, and Copy for Illustrations increased its popularity. joined the ranks of the popular prosperous magazine first to scrap the id ea of using old plates for illustrations; instead he made new copper and steel engravings for each issue (Mott I: 84). In addition, he was one of the first to hire engravers to des ign exclusively for his magazine. The one most associated with was William Sartain (Mott I: 321). Known for his mezzotint 59 engraver for the illustrations (Mott I: 547). The typical issue of in the early 1840s and later in the mid 1850s contained one colored fashion plate and one other p late, perhaps of a pull out Graham had the publishing sense to know that quality embellishments attracted more subscribers, and he paid handsomely
96 for th e original Sartain engravings. After Sartain left to begin his own magazine, 60 Graham tied other artists, such as F. O. C. Darley, 61 H. S. Sadd, A. L. Dick (Patterson 138), and Thomas B. Welch, to his magazine by signing them for six months at a time and by paying handsomely. sometimes two hundred for the engraving of a single plate and five hundr I: 521). Many engravers were overworked during this period of magazine competition, and editors had trouble hiring engravers who were free from obligations to other magazines, yet Graham felt justified in this expense Magazine was charged up to seven thousand for printing as many as twelve embellishments in one issue (Mott I: 521) even though, unlike had the reputation of paying late or not at all. As the magazines noted the popularity of il lustrations, owners such as Graham paid writers t o explicate the illustrations. The writers were sometimes the editors themselves, amateur writers wanting a start in their careers, women writers, or just authors needing money (Patterson 140). These writers like Joseph H. Ingraham, 62 to write to a painting . and the chances are ten to one for a failure on his part matc h the illustration (plate). Because Poe believed every writing should have a
97 Poe 109). For example, June 1841 frontispiece, 63 which was a Sartain steel engraving (Thomas and Jackson 327). Sometimes soliciting the writing close to publishing deadlines, publishers both preceded the textual illustration and other magazines made no such connection and let the read ers look in the middle of the issue to find the writing that connected to the illustration(s) inserted at the beginning of the issue 64 (Patterson 138). Later both Graham and Peterson noted tales (Patterson expense to procure able writers and elegant embellishments, the result was that he produced a periodical of unexampled merit and beauty; and at once, thousands George Graham ran from May 1839 to July 1848 (Mott I: 544), during which time the magazine flourished and Graham became rich. He lived well in those years of success. By 1843 he had moved t o a large
98 285 86). Declining Years of With his profits, George Graham spread out his investments, buying another magazine, the North American then selling it and its sister newspaper, the United States Ga z ette for $50,000. He later confessed that his next mov e was what lost him everything. He invested all he had in stocks for copper mines, Graham worked until he was able to purchase the magazine again in April 1850 and wa s able to keep it until December 1853 (Mott I: 544). The magazine was never as good in later years as it was in the first years, and it had succeed. In addition, Graham wrote a negat ive review of that lost him northern subscribers (Pratte). He worked for a while as a harbor master, tried the stock market, lost everything again, lived with his nephew for a while, then remained in hospitals until h e died in 1893, almost rested upon his beliefs that an editor should be and contr ibutors fairly. Charles Peterson glowingly stated in 1850 that Graham
99 singlehandedly turned magazines from second hand British pieces and poetry Magazine for a dozen years created an ex ample for magazines of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. addition to allowing Poe the freedom to write and work on his theories of short fiction, Graham defended Poe after even today pu blished in March 1850, wit four year gentleman, the quiet, unobtrus ive, thoughtful scholar, the devoted husband, frugal in his personal expenses, punctual and unwearied in his industry, and the soul of honor i with a document from Poe accounting for every dollar that Graham gave Poe or that Poe paid back. The
100 document sent to Graham several years after Poe had quit working for him Poe had a softer side that Graham happiness of his wife and mother in about money was only for their welfare. Yet Graham observed that Poe suf fered used, misunderstood, and put aside by men of far less worked toward owning his own magazine. The only flaws that Graham could see his honor. He believed Griswold had none of those qualities. Graham and Poe might have continued their working relationship had it made popular and resented the fact that in the year that he earned $800
101 Chapter Four Poe and the Magazines Review in 1704, with Daniel Defoe as editor. The first magazine published in what became the United States was The American Magazine, or a Monthly View of the Political State of the British Colonies appearing on February 13, 1741, with publisher e instead became editor himself of the second American magazine, The General Magazine, and Historical Chronicle, for All the British Plantations in America published three days a 65 The two American magazines hoped to be as profitable as their British counterparts, which they imitated in ally with, according to William Beer in A Checklist of American Magazines 1741 1800 (1923), about ninety eight short lived magazines (fourteen months being the e the end of the eighteenth century (Wood 14, 20). In fact, Noah Webster announced in 1788
102 (qtd. in Mott I: 13). According to Frank Luther Mott, these early magazines had many of writers; (2) lack of adequate means of distribution; (3) losses in the collection Nonetheless, the contributors to these magazines and the subscribers included the most prominent Americans of the period, from George Washington to Charles Brockden Brown. 66 According to Mott, magazines originally began as I: 7) of eclectic material, three quarters of which was stolen from other American and British publications (I: Yet by the early decades of the nineteenth century, American magazines, seldom profitable, had such easy vehicles of knowledge, more happily calculated than any other, to preser ve the liberty, stimulate the industry, and meliorate the morals of an demand the light artillery of the intellect; we need the curt, the condensed, the readily diffused in place of the verbose, the detailed, the voluminous, the ews 67 newspapers 68 ( Essays 1414 15).
103 Despite his admiration for many of the magazines of the day e.g., The Port Folio The Saturday Evening Post forty years (Wood 39); The North American Review lived The Knickerbocker in New York and Magazine in Philadelphia Edgar Allan Poe ne ver intended to work as an editor for George Graham or to write for any magazine. Edgar Allan Poe wanted to be a poet. He declar Letters I: 19). His first book, Tamerlane and Other Poems 69 was published in 1827 and did not sell well. Poe understood that no American poet or writer could make a living in th e early decades of the 1800s: country, unsaleable; but, even were it otherwise, the present state of the CopyRight Laws will not warrant any publisher, in purchasing ( Letters I: 216). Publishers could steal entire British novels and reprint them in America without paying the authors; therefore, A merican novels or collections of poetry would not be as profitable as the stolen British novels. Benjamin Fisher of poems 70 between 1827 and 1831 yet secured no profit, he foresaw that he could not gain
104 Poe hated the idea of mixing business with literature: he wan ted to write, but he also needed money (Hayes, Poe 54). 71 Poe tried several avenues for an income. Asking his foster father for money would be useless because John Allen had remarried in 1831. Poe left Richmond and went to Baltimore to live with his aunt, his brother, his grandmother and his cousin. Baltimore was then the third largest city in the country and was becoming a thriving center of political and cultural activity. In two new periodicals were annou few months. Poe wanted to help support his family and tried but failed to find work in a school 72 and at a newspaper office. 73 Poe was writing still and may have been submitting work t The poet Poe turned his energies toward writing in an environment where he would be read and where he could make some money. He realized that without wealth or family support, he woul d never be one of the gentlemen writers of leisure from the generation before him leisure and could afford to subsidize their own works. Poe could not afford to
105 fell magazine market. who were the rea ders of the quarterlies, but he knew the quarterlies had few readers and little profit. According to Terence Whalen, when Poe had worked readers: the ideal reader, who is like t he author one with taste and intellect; the feared reader Capital reader the in other words, the audience e lite enough to be capable of remembering and cherishing wh at was 11). Then, after a dozen or more years in the magazine world, the hard work of the magazine business may have made him think of doing more than just writing for magazines. Poe drea med of creating and running his own circulation and the mass audience kept alive his impractical idea of an elite magazine which could rescue him and the other writers of the country from this servitude
106 341). Like others who wanted to write, Poe found an outlet for his writing in the American periodicals b most magazines failed within these twenty five years, four or five thousand came into existence (Silverman 99). American magazines still had to compete with European magazines costing $5 yearly, with domestic $3 journals that stole British material, and with American magazines reprinting British journals that sold five for $10 per year. According to the New York Mirror American prospect uses blossom through a few numbers, and then perish because of bills Essays 1414), an observation that applied not just to the age b 1849, Poe wrote mainly for magazines. According to the Edgar Allan Poe Society, published in magazines, newspapers, or annuals. It was in this world of magazines that Poe nurtured his theories of the art of short fiction.
107 Poe as Magazinist Moving into this precarious field, Poe became a magazinist, the word that Oxford English Dictionary records the word was first used in two British p ublications, in 1821 and the London Magazine in 1823; Poe would have been familiar with both magazines, having read their issues since his youth. Edgar Alla n Poe, not just a writer but a magazinist, edited five magazines, co ntributed to thirty different magazines, and designed and promoted his own magazine in a seventeen year career (Tebbel 68). Peter ofession would be the cradle style and began to define the form of a new genre that would not be called the Poe, however, was not the only magaz inist in the 1840s. Nathaniel Parker Willis was c onsidered the first successful magazinist who could make a living by to have been the highest paid writer for magazines, earn ing $100 an article and best story teller in America (after Nathaniel Hawthorne and William Gilmore
108 Simms ) les because of his looks and his associations with famous people, not because of his writing that was a bit too elegant in style. Mott acknowledges the popularity of ran over so mewhat disgustingly, they were devoured with relish by most 96). he calle or 560). Early in his writing career in 1829, boasting of the publication of a inspiration . the mos t reckless rhymes in the world not one of them takes me and he had found a market that paid him well. Andr ew L. Knighton points out that one of the magazines Willis later edited paid tribute to this fact: T he Dollar M agazine was started in January 1841 as an offshoot of the mammoth Brother Jonathan the monthly Dollar which, like its parent magazine, had four foot long pages with eleven columns, reprinting the latest novels pirated from England (I: 358). The Dollar lasted only two years, yet it equated literature to business (Knighton 568), a fact th at both Willis and Poe reacted to differently. Willis embraced and celebrated the
109 connection (Knighton 568); Poe acknowledged it and struggled with its e fought to change by establishing his own magazine while contributing to the existing magazines. Essays 1123) and may have been the firs for his compositions have invariably the Essays 1125). Poe recognized Willis as a writer, like himself, who pursued a career in among the envious host of dunces whom he has Essays 1130). Although Willis was typically 08) and made $5,000 in contrast to 74 independent professional writing in the country . when a rising tide of periodicals and literary reviews first made it possible for writers to survive by the Other magazinists o f the 1840s were John Neal, Park Benjamin, 75 Charles Fenno Hoffman, Charles F. Briggs, T. S. Arthur, William Gilmore Simms, Samuel Francis Smith, Mrs. Lydia H. Sigourney, Mrs. E. F. Ellet, Mrs. Ann S. Stephens, Mrs. Emma C. Embury, Miss Hannah F. Gould, Mrs Frances Sargent Osgood, and 76 for his furious production of contributions. Briggs was an editor: Poe
110 Essays 1133). T. S. Arthur wrote prolifically, enough to fill a hundred volumes. Simms wrote mostly for the Southern periodicals, but was often reprinted in Northern magazines as well. Mott notes that Mrs. Sigourney contributed to over three hundred periodicals in twenty fiv e years, and by the end of her life, she Some magazine readers might have been confused about which magazine they were reading since the table of contents of several magazines contained the same list of contributors (Mott I: 500). Nevertheless, the quality of the enough have had to choose between an over intellectual article from Poe and a ing and writing style was 77 He had read the magazine 78 in 17). popular for its appeal to a mass audience even th
111 personality of its writers: the main writer, John Wilson, took on the persona of probably liked the variety of content in the magazine and would later realize that a lack of variety killed magazines. 79 A typical issue included horror tales, burlesque, social fables, scholarly articles, and both highbrow and mu sic hall come dy (Allen 36 37). Poe may have noticed how different the content of was from that of other (Allen 38). He may have sensed why he, like the majority of readers, preferred over the stuffy quarterlies According to Michael Allen, sales of the British magazines showed that was well read because of its appeal to both the el ite and the mass audiences, while strictly literary magazines like the London Magazine did not survive more than a few months (2). Poe later attributed the q characteristics of and incorporated them into his later tales and 23 ) In the 1830s Poe began to submit his tales and poetry to magazines and to contests, prizes being one of the only ways magazines paid their authors.
112 (Hayes, Poe Poe 18) because ntest entry, Saturday Courier in 1831 but the tale had not won the advertised contest (Thomas and Jackson 125). The genre of hi storical romance, the most respected form of fiction among Poe European setting, gothic details, and a striking, elegant first and fatality have been stalking abroad Poe 21; Levine and American setting, was not a typical historical romance for the period, and was too German with its Gothicism (Hayes, Poe 21). But Stuart and Susan Levine indeed, A. H. Quinn, Thompson, and others see it as a satire on the gothic and a c Baltimore Saturday Visiter (Silverman 90). His poem did not win, yet the judges John Pendleton Kennedy, Dr. James Miller, and John H. B. Latrobe rather liked all of his stories. They h
113 tales to be read last. When they began to read the collection, they could not us, that we had no difficulty in awarding the first prize to the author. Our only d. in Thomas and Jackson 132). Out of over a wild, vigorous and poetical imagination, a rich style, a fertile invention, and $5 Visiter also Folio at $1 per printed copy, but Poe refused the offer because of a disagreement with the winner of the poetry contest, who turned out to be an editor of the Visiter 80 Instead, Poe gave the collection to John Pendleton Kennedy, head of a Boston literary club; Kennedy annual book of stories that year (Quinn 204 05). Kennedy became a lifelong Poe also experimented with drama, and Kennedy bragged that he was the one who turned Poe away from drama ; he advised Poe to quit working on a play entitled Politian and move need for an income, Kennedy suggested Poe write to the editor of The Southern Literary Messenger fledged
114 magazinist. Thus, before Poe even began wo rking for magazines, his preparation for that career included studying magazines, entering magazine contests, and writing poetry and drama. In addition, Poe had written and published tales in several periodicals by mid Saturd ay Courier (Fisher Work 29), the contest winning tale in the Saturday Visiter and one in the nationally known monthly magazine 81 where he had a story accepted in 1834 (Silverman 93). Southern Literary Messenger a weekly periodical Letters I: 95); it became a monthly by Nove mber 1834 and continued publication until June 1864. Southern Literary Messenger often called the Messenger was from March 1835 as a contributor of tales, and then as an editor from December 1835 until he left in January 1837. At the urging of Kennedy, Poe corresponded with Thomas Willis White, 82 proprietor of the Southern Literary Messenger and contributed to the Messenger for months before he was officially recognized as editor i n December 1835 (Mott I: 635). In June 1835, Whi te had asked Poe to move to Richmond to work with him on the Southern Literary Messenger at $60 a month. Poe took the
115 opportunity, for he needed an income and had found no magazine work in Baltimore (A. Quinn 217). It was welcome work for him and an opport unity both to learn the magazine business and to become acquainted with other literary men. Although Poe had no editing or magazine experience, he had knowledge of matters [ed Both Poe and White understood Poe was not starting with the magazine as the editor but as a junior staff member (Silverman 106). With no issues in October and November 1835, White officially introduced Poe is now under the conduct of the proprietor assisted by a gentleman of sometime editor Lucian Minor, 83 declared the magazine would be successful uniquely original vein of lists Poe as an assistant editor although Poe often thought of himself as the er 1835 Kenneth Silverman states that Poe performed the duties of an editor for the
116 Messenger : and checked proof, decided typographical matters, solicited manuscripts, kept track of the doings of other magazines, and wrote his own reviews, fillers, fiction, poetry, and editorial c publication, editing copy and checking proof, and keeping tabs on the By February of 1836, White w No matter his title at the Messenger Poe experienced his first editor owner relationship and laborious, often uninteresting editorial work; interacted with other magazinists and writers; and re viewed much of the writing of the period. Poe did not have time to write new tales, but did experience a larger audience reaction to his revised tales, to his brand of reviews, and to a couple of new series that he began in the Messenger The year Poe spen t with White informed his own writing and principles for literature as affected by the magazine world. Poe first contributed to the Southern Literary Messenger in March 1835 subs Poe 58), the distraught lover Poe suggested to White that to be successful, t he Messenger ludicrous heightened into the grotesque: the fearful coloured into the horrible: the witty exaggerated into the burlesque: the singular wrought out into the
117 Letters I: 57 58). Michael Allen states th at White often after Letters I: 58) perhaps remembering the success of the British magazines. For Poe, it was the beginning of the style of many of his most Poe 59). Poe had succeeded in two of his own requirements for the tales grotesqueness and originality. For the Messenger the tale was quite a change from the first few issues, which had included educational addresses, travel pieces and a few poems (Mott I: 632). In their initial correspondence, Poe made a number of recommendations to White for the Messenger One concerned the look of the magazine lighter faced type in the headings of your various Letters I: 64) -and White changed the type in December 1835. White, in return, offered Poe criticism on his erratic punctuation, which John Ostrom records that Poe gradually improved ( Letters I: 64). Another Poe recommendation concerned replaci ng the simple style of sophisticated style. Before Poe worked for the Messenger, White had been
118 would echo this complaint against Poe, when Tales of the Folio Club was understood and relished only by a very few Messenger of 1835. Poe Letters I: 58) and the typical contents of the magazine could not compare to th e complexities of his (Dameron 233, 234). J. Lasley Dameron argues that both Poe and critics made simplicity one of the major criteria in ranking other writers (234). Poe used the word 95 times in his body of reviews; 250 times between 1830 and 184 0 (Dameron 234). For example, in complimenting John Essays 651). In critiquing an author such as Bulwer Lytton, Poe condemns Essays Essays 156). Dameron note s that Poe changed his mind about simplicity; h e used the word to
119 early contributions of the Messenger he meant the typical, the commonplace, the simple tales printed before he joined the staff. When he used the word as a an understandable style with a clear, unified direction. Poe himself came to glorify that kind of simplicity when late in life he praised himself 84 Essays 1050). White and Poe worked admirably together while Poe was sober. Within a few months of employment, however, Poe appeared at work drunk, told off his employer, and disappeared. 85 White announced that Poe was gone, fired. Then within a month Poe asked for his jo b back and, with a p romise to remain sober, was reinstated throughout his employment. White and Poe shared a love of th e South and a dislike of the power that writers in New York and New England held when it came to dictating literary strongly influenced by the British gentlemanly style of Stee le, Sheridan, and ). s and a stance in many of his reviews against simplistic writing Yet Michael Allen believes that by the time Poe left the Messenger,
120 recognized that such elitism was inapplicable to the situation of the American journalist forced into a practical dependence on the mass audience. Certainly his adjusted his erudite simplicity during this first magazine employment. Poe displayed his Southern atti tude in criticizing the elitism of the New Poe A to Z 91). He felt their egos made them think they were equal to British writers on the other side of the great pond the Atlantic Ocean Poe A to Z 91). Poe thought writers like James Fenimore Cooper, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Washington Irving were favored in the publishing world simply because they were New opposed their native Puritanism, their jingoistic chauvinism, their (to him) 60). Poe naturally took every opportunity to criticize them. Poe was able to experiment with form and ideas in the columns of the Messenger. which he would continue later in his career. Borrowed from the English contemporary literary figur
121 actual signatures, one expression of a rage in the period for collecting eight American signatures and made up the brief letters. Under the pseud onym of Joseph Miller, Poe analyzed the handwriting to reveal the personality of the writer. Since Joe Journalist 99n), the audience should have recognized the fabrication of the articles. Rob ert Jacobs ( Journalist 99). In September of 1835, White advised Poe that the Cooper entry filed against the magazine (Thomas and Jackson 172). In a letter to a friend, d. in Thomas and Jackson 174). Poe also initiated a series of 175 tidbits of information that could be used Journalist 92). Robert Jacobs information from encyclopedias and earlier works when reviewers did not have the knowledge needed to support statements about books they were forced to review. Professional or hack reviewers were expected to read every book that crossed their point out to the gullible public that the information and ideas so readily available in the journals and handbooks did not represent true scholarship on the part of
122 the authors but only ass Journalist 92). Poe perhaps as a response to the charge that American magazines did not meet the sophisticated, pedantic standards of the Bri erudition, then, was not merely self advertising but was related to the attempt of American journalism to educate a public that still manifested a colonial sensitivity cobs, Journalist 93). James Hutchisson states that Poe began to write not for a highly educated that could be digested, for example, on a train trip or while waiting for th intermittent but increasing effort to simplify style and manner, and choose his subjects with in his writing style and form, and stimulated his thinking about the shape of short fiction. Beginnings as a Critic Because White retained the control of the content of the Messenger major contribution, besides his tales, was his criticism. Kenneth Silverman notes
123 columned pages each issue to reviews, from critical and derisive developing a reputation for harshness. Very few critics commented on grammatical correctness, but Poe fearlessly ripped into sloppy writ was a minute detector of slips of the pen, and probably, was unequalled as a Richmond Courier and Daily Compiler comment that the Sou thern Literary Messenger In a September 1836 letter, Poe let it be known that he was the only editor of the Messenger He defended his methods, cataloging his ninety four reviews, eighty four of which Letters I: 101). critic instead of a journalistic book Jacobs, Journalist 181). Jacobs expresses his amazement that given his demanding working conditions, Poe produced an excellent review of a book titled Peter Snook . and Other Strange Tales by J. F. Dalton. In this October 1836 review, Poe zeroed in on Essays Essays 189). He compared the story to a yet where the idea is fully conveyed in the absence of all rigid outlines and all
124 miniature painting in the not undue warmth of the coloring and in the slight Essays 200). Comparing the story to a pai Twice Told Tales of a design or a composition rather than a n arrative characterized by action and drama. The pleasure to be derived from it was similar to the response to a Journalist 184). Poe also attacked his pet peeves in the reviews literary politics, and ideologica l demands that shaped the production of literature against the magazines promoting works that were l auded only because they were of American subjects or by American authors. He did not believe in coddling Southern Literary Messenger necessity of encouraging native writers of merit we blindly fancy we can accomplish this re printed in T he New York Mirror in 1836, where he states in all capital letters:
125 I: 405). Gould lists the reasons why puff ing, not honest criticism, characterized the age: (1) the gift of complimentary copies of works to critics surely an abuse only when the presentation was made by the author by way of friendship rather than by the publisher by way of business, (2) indulgence for personal friends, (3) leniency toward colleagues on among readers of criticism, (5) desire to encourage American literature, and (6) indolence. (qtd. in Mott I: 406) Both the editors and readers of magazines were aware of and resigned to the practice. The Mirror in 1833 stated that the published criticism could only be pervaded all magazines puff puff; morning, noon and night, summer and winter octavos, quartos, folios, blue covers, yellow covers, white, green and brown. Nothing but puff . . It is a lamentable fact that any man may get admits that there was some serious criticism in this era, such as essays from Poe, James Russell Lowell, William Gilmore Simms, Edwin Percy Whipple, 86 and Margaret Fuller, but there were many more puffs that were politically or financially motivated (Mott I : 407 08). Poe purposely aimed to set himself apart from the majority of reviewers by critiquing honestly. Poe generated interest, both positive 87 and negative, 88 in himself and in the Southern Literary Messenger
126 reviews and editoria Messenger led White to give Poe free reign with his reviews. Kevin Hayes concurs with most critics in stating that Poe 44). Poe might have been using this style of reviewing in imitation of the successful British that some Southerners, amateurs in spirit, found difficult to u ( Journalism 17 the difference between the common and the extraordinary, but, even more likely, to sell magazines. Arthur tructive, analytic, and constructive literary criticism, in an era when descriptive criticism Norman Leslie had been puffed four times by October 1835 in the New York Mirror (Thomas an d Jackson 175), a practi ce that Poe disliked. Thus, in the December 1835 Messenger Poe took four grounds of poor grammar. Because Fay was a popular author, this brought Poe considerable notoriety and new enemie s (A. Quinn 243 44). When Poe could separate himself from this type of destructive criticism, Quinn believes Poe excelled at analytic and constructive criticism. The Washington National Intelligencer in January 1836 gave the following testimonial about the quality of the reviews that Poe wrote for the Southern Literary Messenger
127 Thomas and Jackson 186). Both White and Poe were struggling with the demanding work involved in putting out monthly issues of the Messenger In an August 1836 letter White asks a reviewer of the Messenger Messenger and to speak also of the untiring industry and the immense expense it must cost the Publisher to collect together such a quantity of good matter duties of his magazine, a schedule that gave Poe a thirty hour work week that did not include the time he h ad to spend reading books to be reviewed, writing the reviews, and writing creatively, usually late into the night. Between August and December 1836, Poe was having trouble keeping up with his responsibilities, especially when White left the office for a w eek in October (Jacobs, Journalist began to drink again to relieve the pressure of too much work. White A tensio n between owner and editor began to build: Poe felt he worked extremely hard for a paltry sum and White felt he was losing control of his own magazine in addition to having personal problems with finances, his health, and
128 In January 1837, White made it official that The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym but eventually just wanted Poe to leave the city and b oast ed that the magazine would be better without the criticism and judgment of his deposed editor (Silverman 129). Poe stated in an August 1840 letter that he had left the Southern Literary Messenger for a number of reasons, some of which recur in his later editorial positions as well: The drudgery was excessive, the salary was contemptible. In fact, I soon found that whatever reputation I might personally gain, this reputation would be all. I stood no chance of bettering my pecuniary condition, while my best energies were wasted in the service of an illiterate and vulgar, although well meaning man, who had neither the capacity to appreciate my labors, nor the will to reward them. ( Letters I: 141 ) Yet in this first magazine employment, Poe had begun a trend that would persist for the remainder of his writing career. During his association with the Messenger he strove to please the audience and his editor and to increase subscriptions, all while maintaining high standards. Even though his writing of tales had been on hold, he assessed what his colleagues were writing and absorbed the work of magazines while he polished his critical insight. Perhaps
129 the most important concept that Poe absorbed was magazine writing (Hutchisson 47). Although little is known 89 eighteen months after he left the Messenger by the summer of 1839, he was in Philadelphia 90 and about to become editor of another magazine. Poe was hired by William E. (Billy) Burton as editor of in June or July 1839 and remained as editor until June 1840. was begun by British born William E. Burton acting. Originally just T he Magazine and for a few months in the 1840s known as Magazine and Monthly American Review its last issue was December 1840, when it was combined with The Casket also run by the new owner of George R. Graham (Mot t I: 673). was perhaps the only magazine that had The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym, of Nantucket 91 a negative review in September 1838, yet Poe wrote to the owner William Evans Burton, asking for employment in May 1839. 92 hiring as editor was in July 1839 (674), while Kevin Hayes and Arthur Quinn set
130 magazine for June 1839, Burton states that he has made ar rangements with Edgar A. Poe, Esq., late Editor of the Southern Literary Messenger to devote his abilities and experience to a portion of the editorial duties of the Magazine ac menu of poems, fiction, and essays, [ . with] special attention to sporting life, offering articles on sailing, cricket, or hunting to appeal to men about (Silverman 143 ). Burton should have been looking for ways to cut costs, as he lamented spending an excessive amount of money on high priced illustrations and expensive paper (Silverman 143). Nevertheless, Burton reluctantly hired Poe at ten dollars per week stating the following conditions: Two hours a day, except occasionally, will, I believe, be sufficient for all required, except in the production of any article of your own. At all events you could easily find time for any other light avocation supposing that y ou did not exercise your talents in behalf of any publication interfering with the prospects of the G. M. (Woodberry I: 203) Working for this magazine and this editor, Poe honed his editing skills (Hutchisson 82) and perhaps because Burton was absent frequently, felt a little of the hard work and frustration that he would feel when he could run his own
131 magazine. Dwight Thomas and David K. Jackson in The Poe Log reveal why Poe did not trust his employees, a situation that may have pushed Poe to put more of his energies into his own creative writing. Burton and Poe felt antagonistic toward each other from the beginning. of primarily in the theatre, but also in his own magazine. Robert Jacobs states that superior lit erary journal, would be contemptuous of the Journalist 215). In addition, their personalities clashed: Mott 75). Putting his goals aside in order to earn money, Poe had already shown his ability to conform to the audience with an earlier submission to an Journalist did I suggest any to which you had not some immediate and decided objection. Of course
132 ( Letters I: 131 32). Burton represented to Poe the example of an editor who liked control, but not quality. Poe began to write his reviews in the satirical style he had perfected at the Southern Literary Messenger feelings ation that he o nly spoke the truth in his reviews masked genius was left unrewarded (145). Poe made negative remarks about some of William Cullen Hyperion which he called a farrago Poe objected to the work, saying he thought Longfellow was getting lazy in his art, knowing that whatever he wrote would be published, regardless of its worth. According to duty of the critic to educate the public taste and to refuse to tolerate mediocrity or self serving. There fore he claimed that works like Hyperion Journalist views would indiscriminately praise a work when n attitud e
133 that irritated Poe. Poe believed that true originality did not come from impulse but from hard work. While working for Burton, Poe put his efforts into his tales and tempered submissions, contributed verse, prepared manuscripts, proofread copy, supervised production at the p Poe 79). Since Burton would not Poe 79). Poe was extremely productive during the year he was associated with requent absences, Poe filled in with extra copy . on a hodgepodge of topics: an article on the use of parallel bars and other gymnastic equipment; another on the ruins of Stonehenge, printed on the front page but taken nearly verbatim from one of h Encyclopedia ; some eighty nine book reviews and cursory notices surveying not only novels and poems but also works on ornithology, housekeeping, advice to youth, flower painting, Paraguay. (Silverman 144) Increasing his income by submitting fiction and poetry to Burton, Poe published five pages of reviews and articles in Poe received only his salary of ten dollars a
134 and five dollars for each of his seven reprinted poem During his time working for Burton, Poe produced quite a body of work. For extra money, Poe wrote for a family newspaper, Messenger 93 contributing articles on beet sugar, bloodhounds, and swimming the Thames, 94 as wel l as a series on cryptography. In one of his first to send in cryptograms. Intrigued by coded messages, Poe solved them all until too many requests were received (Hayes, Poe 84 85). Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque a collection of twenty five tales, was published in December 1839 by Lea and Blanchard, bringing Poe no money, but free copies and a rather large amount of recognition. Hayes indicates that the pro cess of publishing this collection 95 Poe 85). Poe was harshly critiqued for his tales were original an (qtd. in Thomas and Jackson 278). Silverman praises the collection, stating that, Twice Told Tales technically adroit collection of sh ort fiction ever published by an American New York Mirror review lauded Poe and The Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque ch brightness of
135 fancy, an excellent taste, a ready eye for the picturesque, much quickness of d. in Thomas and Jackson 284). The publication of his collection an d his writings in and enhanced his reputation as a literary man, and Poe reveled in the praise. Poe remained with Burton for a year. By 1840 the inevitable break occurred. Poe was tired of working for an editor he did not respect and could not acce In a letter Poe wrote in September 1840, Poe warned fellow writer Philip P. Cooke 96 to be taxed wit h the tw addle of other people. . Therefore for the present I remain upon my oars Letters I: 118 97 and over a contest that Burton had advertised in November 1 enough manuscripts to judge in order to pay the prize money 98 (Thomas and Jackson 277, 292). Butler had also promised to return the manuscripts but failed to do so (Thomas and Jackson 321). Accusations flew from both men: Burton charged that Poe was going to leave anyway to begin his own magazine while Poe accused Burton of advertising the sale of the magazine without informing him. Poe brought up his resent Pym ; Burton reminded Poe about an unpaid loan, deducting it from his pay. Burton spread
136 Letters I: 155). exploitation of contributors, Poe was disillusioned once again and began thinking in terms of his own publicat ion. He assured Burton he had not advertised his own magazine before Burton let him go, but he had been thinking about it. Poe wanted an artistic, literary magazine over which he would have complete control : t often treated it as little more than clubbish amateurism. His high strung earnestness, his contempt for cant, shallowness, and willful stupidity probably amused his fellow journalists, laboring in the vineyards of cheap v Bu rton was spending more and more time building his own theatre, using profits from and when Poe found out Burton was spending so much time and money on the theatre and had put the magazine up for sale in May 1840, Poe hastened to put in writing the prospectus for a new magazine called the Penn Magazine. This angered Burton who quickly wrote a letter of dismissal P enn Magazine would lessen the market value of the dismissed at the end of May 1840. By June 1840, it was well known that was up for sale, that Edgar Allan Poe was no longer
137 employed by Burton, and that Poe was planning a new magazine to be published in January 1841 (Thomas and Jackson 296 99). His magazine work at had given Poe an opportunity to experiment with his own short fiction, to experience the hard work of filling the columns of an entire magazine, and to dream of his ideal magazine, one that would improve the literary tastes of its readers. Poe with George Rex Graham purchased s in November 1840 for $3,500, a dollar for each subscriber. Graham already owned a small magazine called The Casket in existence since 1826 although Graham had just purchased it in May 1839 (Mott I: 545). Graham began publishing his new magazine in January 1841 as the combined retaining much the same look as his Casket Unknown to Poe, Burton may have requested that nn 310n). 99 Graham offered Poe the job as editor with limited duties, which would give Poe more time to write new tales. Poe accepted the job in February 1841. For the first time, Poe began working for a man he liked and who admired Poe in return: Graham sh owed that he might be willing to put money into the new venture.
138 probably was not the kind that Poe wanted to publish. d him in the content of his magazine so that it would excel in the inflated market of magazines in that decade. Avoiding controversial subjects, early issues included the following: three or four short stories, a light essay on manners, a biogra phical sketch, a literary article, a considerable amount of poetry narrative, lyrical and didactic an out review departments, and a chat with the editor; besides the colored fashion plate, and one or two art plates by well known engravers. (Mott I: 547) than Poe had ever made in his life. Poe took the job (Hayes, Poe 102). Graham announced Poe as editor fi rst in the Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post a pen second to none in the country, and we have the confident assurance, that with such editorial strength as the Magazine now possesses, the literary Thomas and Jackson 319). S ince Poe had been hired in February 1841, and the March issue had already gone to the printers, the first issue Poe edited in April 1841 printed the follo literary world to require a word of commendation. As a critic he is surpassed by
139 no man in the country; and as in this Magazine his critical abilities shall have free scope, the rod w ill be very generously, and at the same time, justly Graham chose the articles to be published, aware that he and Poe had different opinions about the quality of the contributions. Graham was wary of ce and associations with other magazinists. According to Arthur Hobson Quinn, it was Poe who urged Graham to advertise the names of well known authors associated with and, more importantly, to pay the authors well (316). For example, in May 1841, Poe wrote to Longfellow to ask for a contribution for a future issue. Longfellow replied that he was too busy at the moment, bu t that he knew that it would take a talented literary man to attract other talented literary men. A establishing the policy of paying good prices to those authors who had interesting stories, essays, or poems to contribute. Graham depended on him even more for his ability to discove
140 Meyers 122). The advantage of this arrangement was that Poe had time to write. His contributions were diverse, but he was able to contribute a new Weekly Messenger vised poem, October reprinted poem, The list exemplifies the variety of Po contributions in the year of his association with Graham. chapter.) For every contribution of his that Graham published, Poe earned more money, about $ 4 a page for each. Poe boasted that Graham was the most liberal of all the American publishers in paying contributors. While s ome editors changed copy at will and the usual pay was $1 a page, Graham paid anywhere from $4 to $12 a page for prose, $10 and $50 for each poem (Tebbel 70). With typical ly 1000 words a page the Graham
141 Among the four hundred weeklies, monthlies, bi monthlies, and quarterlies with which Graham competed had the reputation of paying contributors well and on time. In fact, Graham established h is own formu la for determining s brought in more subscribers and which authors were stolen more often than others (Tebbel 70 71). It is interesting to Po Penn now on hold, was never an issue between him and his publisher while Poe was employed by Graham. When he hired Poe, flexible enough to acknowledge that his own magazine was written for a larger higher price. He led Poe to believe that if Poe could get a promise of a certain number of subscribers, Graham would be willing to join hi m. Both men were involved in the magazine industry and could see its possibilities and risks. had time to write, and though he did not have the control he was seeking in starting his own magazine, Graham did give him the freedom to write scathing reviews Both his previous emplo yers, White and Burton, had tried to curtail good literary controversy.
142 reviews increased subscribers (Allen 169). The reputation that Poe was simply autho rs who did not write as well as Poe himself, and a few of his reviews were he fostered the reputation of two or like most periodicals of the time, included several reviews in each issue, providing the novel reading public with information, not necessarily evaluative commentary. Before Poe, most reviews were written by staff members, probably Graham himself, and they were included in the magazine as a service to readers. In fact, Nina Baym observes in Novels, Readers, and Reviewers not an art but a service, performed because readers wanted to know about current books produced large chunks of the novel, a service for readers who would then not have to procure the novel itself. When typical reviews began to enter into evaluative commentary, most often it was more a bout content than style. The more serious 25). aimed at improving the quality of both literature and criticism. Common ly, most nineteenth century periodicals included an article of instruction in fashion or
143 articulated aesthetic principles to his readers, so that they could form meaningful judgments of their critical and instructive reviews appeared in Night and Morning Ballads and Other Poems Barnaby Rudge Twice Told Tales which Poe described two main requirements of short tales: to be read in one sitting an d to create a single effect upon the reader. Poe himself realized the importance of criticism in its own right, and in the beginning of his second six months of association with he published January 1842. The periodicals, Poe recognized, were beginning to treat criticism as a science. Rejecting the British style of criticism, American critics first began to praise native works because they were about this country or written by Americans, so m uch so, according to Poe, that they liked a stupid book the better because (sure ( Essays 1027 28). To combat this type of review, Poe believed the country needed to see, and was b eginning to see, more independent editors who were not tied to book sellers or publishers.
144 the field of literature, but also in politics and business (Mott I: 478). Evert A. Duyckin ck wrote in T he American Review in the February 1845 issue that that even the popular though Poe wrote some criticism that promote a work now and then or have a friend promote his own (Mott I: 116). p ointing it out in his reviews. Essays 1006). Further, he assurance has the system of puffery arrived, that publishers, of late, have made no scruple of keeping on hand an assortment of commendatory notices, prepar ed by their men of all work, and of sending these notices around to the multitudinous papers within their influence, done up within the fly leaves of the Essays 1007). attracted an achieved by popular works as being the result of the chicanery of the small writer who knows how to exploit the influence of the reviewers, and of the
145 puffery whereby members of a clique ad discusses the origins of book promotion as a matter of too many in the forties [1840s] show how that from 150 to 250 copies of a promising new work were 172). These copies went to reviewers who were paid little, were overworked, and we re often hack writers or not even writers themselves. Poe and Ann Stephens may have been the exceptions; Rufus Griswold, the hack writer (Bruccoli 173 74). Poe continued instructing, this time in how to review books. Reviews originally summarized conten ts or commented on one pet peeve of the reviewer. Disliking the idea that reviews were only an opinion of the reviewer, Poe complained profusely when the editor of the journal Arcturus stated that criticism Essays 1030). Poe emphatically rejected this definition of criticism, especially the idea that grammatical errors do not matter or t hat each critique would differ depending on the opinion of the reviewer. He countered not, we think, an e ssay, nor a sermon, nor an oration, nor a chapter in history, nor a
146 philosophical speculation, nor a prose ( Essays 1031). It is simply a critique. Stronger still, Poe emphasized the job of the critic, agreeing with B magnanimity to eschew envy, genius to appreciate, learning to compare, an eye for beauty, an ear for music, and a heart f a talent for analysis Essays 10 32). Concerned more with the aesthetic quality of the work, Poe insisted on evaluating the entire work, not just the content, regardless of popular opinion. Continually in his reviews, Poe sought to educate his readers in the art of writing. Poe biograph of but instead offered them real training in aesthetic judgment. His most thoughtful notices set a level of popular book reviewing that has remained George B greatest journalist Motivated by the idea that he needed to promote the best American writers, perhaps even to create an American canon, Poe set out to eliminate the puffing of undeserving wr iters. In a series Messenger and continued in in 1842, Po e published the signatures of well known authors with his woodcut of common place. There is nothing indicative of genius 100 Word
147 Poe 92). In his later series, Poe dropped fiction and concentrated on biography and the writing style and accomplishments of each author, often filling three pages or more. This critical history of American literature (Hayes, Word 102 ). Criticized for setting himself up as arbiter of literature, Poe nevertheless offered his own value judgments of his fellow writers. the summit Admittedly, Poe wrote a number of his best pieces while at It might be off ice, a rather chaotic place since Graham conducted business for both and the Saturday Evening Post there. It might be because, for once, income from Graham and other sources during these thirteen and one half tes Poe earned more a month than he had in his life before or after (Silverman 174). John Ostrom agrees that s the following estimates prove: Poe earned $1325 for the eighteen months he wa s employed at the Messenger (Longfellow had earned $3000 for the same period of time); after the Messenger Poe did freelance work, earning only $143.50 for two and a half years; for the year Poe was employed by Burton, Poe only brought in $821.00. After Poe left he never earned close to $1000.00 a year; in 1843, for example, his income was $252; in 1845, $699.00; in 1847,
148 $287.75; in 1848, $166.50; in 1849, $274.75. It is no wonder that Poe was continually asking for loans or advances on salary time with the subscription list went from 5,000 when Graham had bought the magazine lady e ditors, Mrs. Ann S. Stephens and Mrs. E. C. Embury, while George R. from 5,000 to a projected 50,000, three to seventy two pages (A. Quinn 330). It could now boast of new, well kno wn contributors, probably due to associations with Poe: Longfellow (for the first time), James Russell Lowell, and Frances Osgood. And yet, as was the nature of his Graham did not last long, only thirteen months. He r esigned in April 1842, citing gust with the namby pamby character of the Magazine a character which it was impossible to eradicate I allude to the contemptible pictures, fashion plates, music and love tales. The salary, moreover, did not pay me for th e labor Letters I: 197). Later Poe would add to his charges against Graham the fact that Graham had not even announced his resignation, letting readers assume subsequent poorly written reviews 101 were
149 102 may also have precipitated his departure. In July 1842 Graham formally made the announcement that Rufus Gris wold, not Poe, was the editor. Graham may have regretted that decision because a few years later, he in vited Poe to return. The readers did not seem to like Griswold either. Jessie Dow of the Index 103 stated in Jackson 370). Nevertheless, Poe and Graham remained co rdi al toward each other. At had paid Poe $52 and Poe promised to repay. Poe would make more money with the story as an entry in the contest run by the Philadelphia Dollar Newspaper offering $100 first prize. Graham containing a gold beetle, treasure, and a cryptogram was printed in June 1843 (Hayes, Poe 121). gave him the best example of how an editor should work with his writers. After six years in Philadelphia, 104 one year working one tales already published, Poe departed in 1844 for a bigger market in New York City. 105
150 Poe in New York and with The Weekly Mirror From April until October 1844, before Poe found work with a New York magazine, he wrote tales and enjoyed New York City. 106 He T he Sun, and the paper chose to sensationalize the story by landing on (Hutchisson 153), and people stood in line to buy the paper, paying as much as a half dollar an issue Readers believed the story; yet when Poe proudly revealed By May 1844, Poe began writing for the Pennsylvania newspaper T he Colum bia Spy, contributing his observations of New York City in a col umn titled Hayes observ es that Poe made insightful and prescient at every moment met my view, without a sigh for their inevitable doom inevitable and swift. In twenty years, or thirty at the fart hest, we shall see here Poe 51). The Weekly Mirror from October 1844 until early 1845. The New York Mirror, begun in 1823 by George
151 Pope Morris, had a reputation for its good overall look, its literary selections, and its social comment ary (Mott I: 321, 324). By 1843, it had a precarious existence, but after a three month break in publication, it was revived as T he New Mirror editorial help. It became a daily newspaper 107 in 1844 called T he Evening Mirror alo ng with a weekly magazine edition called T he Weekly Mirror managed by owner editors George Pope Morris and Nathaniel Parker Willis (Mott I: 329). Willis, 108 whom Po e had long called a magazinist and and had no qu alms about the puffing who knew and liked Poe, accepted his tales gladly al though unable to pay Poe as much as he requested. Publishing a daily newspaper prove d to be demanding work for the magazinist Willis ; 109 Weekly Mirror (Hayes, Poe 135), paying him $15 a week (Thomas and Jackson 473). Willis marveled that, given Poe humoredly ready he [Poe] was for any suggestion, how punctually and industriously reliable, in the following out of the wish once expressed, how cheerful and present minded in his wo rk when he might
152 the Mirror from late 1844 to early 1845 (Hayes, Poe 135), Poe had considerable writing articles on issues he had with magazine writing including pieces on th e copyright law and continuing his verbal war with Longfellow. years (Susan Archer Weiss) to one day (F. W. Thomas); and in 1843 Poe read a version of the poem in Saratoga and offered Gr aham a version (Kopley and made changes in the several versions published in 1845. He announced to his ( by both Graham and Willis, Poe sold the poem for $9 to t he American Review In in advance by the Mirror in Januar y 1845, as scheduled by the American Review in February 1845, and by the Broadway Journal in February 1845 with an acknowledgment that the source was the American Review at first under the pseudonym Quarles 110 although the introduction identified Poe as the author
153 talking to a black cat), April 1845 (Thomas and Jackson 504, 505, 52 1, 523, 527). T he Democratic Review commentary on recent reading and speculations about literary goings on in the sson 163). The first two installments, 116 items, were to imitate synaesthesia and speed (qtd. in Silverman 223). Fifte en more installments were later published in in and, as late as 1849, in the Southern Literary Messenger magazines, was well known, and during late 1844 and earl y 1845, he published Mirror in December 1844 as a satiric account of magazine reviewing in which Bob cuts up the work to be reviewed, shakes the pieces in a castor, and then scatters the fragments randomly (Hayes, Poe 136 37). In the February 1845 issue of the Broadway Journal Secrets of the Magazine Prison for publishers to pay them; in the March 1845 issue of the same journal, he
15 4 (qtd. in Thomas and Jackson 504 ). In May 1845 Poe lived journal, the Aristidean, in the Mirror ( Thomas and Jackson 401). Poe also published several articles in the Weekly Mirror urging an international copyright law. 111 One reader wrote the Mirror in enthusiastic support of Poe: I am glad to see that Edgar Poe is in your clearings. He is a man of the finest ideal intellect in the land carries a nasty tomahawk as a critic bitter as gall to the literary flies who have been buzzing ly Mirror, and let him fire away at the humbugs of our literature. (Thomas and Jackson 474) During this period Poe cont inued his verbal Waif appeared in issues of the Evening Mirror on January 13, 14, nius who neglected to Jackson xxxii). Poe admitted to Willis that he was writing the 1845 attack becau friends will come out and fight his bat However,
155 Poe A to Z 83); and all l etters to the Mirror except one from Outis (Greek for one man), whom many critics now assume to be Poe. Longfellow himself never retaliated with any comments about Poe; and hat Longfellow magnanimously helped nature and heightened sense of injustice (174). Poe with The Broadway Journal Early in 1845, Poe left the Mirror 112 to work with Charles Frederick Briggs, editor, and John Bisco, publisher, of The Broadway Journal to which he had been contributing for several months. Briggs 113 announced in December 1844 114 help. The Broadway Journal magazine contained literary reviews, art criticism, music and theater commentary, political articles, and poetry (Mott I: 757). Poe had a letter of introduction to Brigg s and Bisco from James Russell Lowell, who was aiding them with contributions and contributors. Poe started by the Mirror ilverman 244). By February 1845, he signed on as assistant editor of the Broadway
156 Journal ( Lett ers I: 287n). By its tenth issue, Poe was ecstatic to see his name as the third owner editor on the masthead (Silverman 244). He had borrowed $50 for his share (Sova, Poe A to Z 34). Briggs, however, did not consider Poe an equal, having hired him for his fame and his expertise at reviewing. Briggs Tale H Poe A to Z 34). Poe worked hard because of the feeling of ownership sometimes and revised and reprinted many of his earlier pieces. Broadway Journal 176). Contributing reviews, short articles, and commentaries to each issue, Poe n 246) and in a competitive market like over Broadway Journal is Magazine qtd. in Silverman 246) in response to the complaint that
157 magazines were lowering literary taste. Of the six hundred magazines published nationwide by 1850, New York alone had fifty four monthlies. Given his experience, Poe wrote of the possibilities of mag an international copyright law, a situation that prevented magazinists from making a decent living. Poe was still concerned with technical skill a nd originality, this time appl ying the criteria to drama. He thought it only logical to write theatre reviews since he was the son of actors (Silverman 250). He urged Poe could have been highly respected in the literary field after his lifetime of experience; instead he may have lost respect by his actions in the last few years of his life. tuberculosis worsen ed At the sa me time new women friends, 115 who thought they could help the grief stricken, starving, sensitive artist, and whom he thought he could mentor (Hutchisson 180 82). Creating even more controversy, hence more sales, Poe continued his attacks on Longfellow. After another defense of plagiarism from Outis appeared in the Mirror Poe followed with five articles in the Broadway Journal approximately like the attacks but acknowledged the increase in sales. Finally Poe went too far in
158 td. in Silverman 254) while also praising lent. At the same time Poe was revising his earlier tales to fill the pages of the Broadway Journal. Hayes believes that Poe used his own tales because he did ( Poe 141). But Poe was also planning to collect his tales in one volume to show Poe 141) and thought he could display his tales in the issues of the Broadway Journal how much of his energy went into altering these already excellent tales and cobbling together this mediocre hodgepodge of a magazine when he was near the peak of his creative powers, when he could have been writing new short Poe 141). Letters I: 286), stress at work and at home may have made him miss dead lines. Some issues of the Broadway Journal went to press with empty spaces in them, and some reviews were filled with lengthy excerpts of the books being reviewe d Broadway Journal bothered Briggs was the
159 writing grudging and mechanical, a hunt for grammatical and prosodic errors verman 272). Briggs had wanted to fire Poe for some time, but instead, through maneuverings of Poe and Bisco, pulled out of the magazine as did Bisco by October (Silverman 274). Excited at first, Poe placed his name on the masthead October 25, 1845, as so le proprietor and editor, but he was broke, had an ill wife and had never been manager of a business. By the first of December, Poe sold half interest to Thomas L ane, but neither ma n w as able to pull the magazine out of debt. By the end of December Poe sold the magazine to Lane, who ended the Broadway Journal the next month (A. Quinn 492 94). objects being unfulfilled so far as regards myself personally, for which the Broadway Journal was established, I now, as its editor, bid farewell as cordially was more than likely the main reason for the end of the magazine, yet is amazed ine must lose money at first, if it is lectures, 116 and associating with other literary people, 117 but he was not a good businessman. Poe, in a January 1846 letter (postscript) t o Mrs. Hale, reflected that the Broadway Journal which was a matter of no great moment. I have never regarded it as more than a temporary adjunct to
160 other designs. I am now busy making arrangements for the establishment of a Maga Letters II: 312). Still in need of an income, Poe continued to write. He was, for example, The Philosophy of 118 From May through October 1846, Poe contributed a series to en t Random Respecting their Autorial [sic] Merits, with Occasional Words of thousand wor 97). Hutchisson laments that the series only created more con troversy more animosity toward Poe discontinued insisted on considering them elaborate criticisms when I had no other design than critical ( Letters II: 332). After his wife Virginia died in January 1847
161 and after he recovered from a six month illness, Poe focused on his dream since 1839 of publishing his own magazine. Penn Magazine and The Stylus During all the years that Poe wrote fiction, poetry, essays, review s, and of my own and w Letters I: 119). In June 1840, he printed an advertisement for his new endeavor in the Philadelphia Saturday Courier expecting to get enough financial backing to publish the first issue the f the Penn 119 Magazine, a monthly literary journal, to be edited and published in the city of Philadelphia, by Edgar A. 120 ( A. Quinn 306). e would easily equal Edinburgh Magazine own, in which to display his critical abilities, he would have been as autocratic, ere this, in America, as Professor Wilson 121 has been in England; and his cr iticisms, we are sure, would have been far more profound and philosophical 73). Nathaniel Parker Willis
162 acknowledged that if only someone would give Poe the money to write, the world would be a better place (Bruccoli) Although Poe worked to obtain subscriptions and contributors, illness prevented him from publishing his inaugural issue of Penn in January 1841; a bank panic and national financial crisis interfered with his plans to publish in March 1841 (Hayes, Poe 97, 101). During this period George Graham expressed and wrote many letters 122 this City, and myself, design to establish a Monthly Magazine, upon certain conditions one of which is the Letters I: 161, 163, 168). In June 1841 Poe also approached his friend John Pendleton Kennedy about h is plans and asked him to contribute to the maga zine. Writing in June, Poe noted in respect to magazine literature. You will admit that the tendency of the age lies in this way so far ed that Letters I: 16 4). In the same letter, Poe laid out hi s plan for his magazine, commenting that Graham will be assisting. Penn sionally wood cuts (by Adams) when
163 Letters I: 164). Contributions will be only Letters I: 164 65) ( Letters I: 164). Poe hope d Mr. Irving, Mr. Cooper, Mr. Paulding, Mr. Longfellow, Mr. Bryant, Mr. Halleck, Mr. Letters I: 164). Poe asked Kennedy for his contributions for a one year term as he would ask the other contributors. He concluded the lett er with the guarantee that Graham would be supplying materials, Poe the editorial know how and list of subscribers, and the two would split the profits. Poe wanted to attract readers who had known him as editor of the Southern Literary Messenger but cons w The criticism in his magazine would have the same independent spirit, no puffing, as in the Messenger bu t would perhaps be less harsh. A. Quinn 307) while Poe 88). He also would give h is magazine an elite look, not simply of fine paper and embellishments, but
164 volume of about five hundred pages at a cost of five dollars a By July 1841, a discouraged Poe, still without adequate funding, seemed dete Letters I: 172). Just two months later, he seemed to have s backing when he wrote to Joseph Snodgrass, asking if there were any publisher in Baltimore who might want to back his project ( Letters I: 183). After Poe resigned from he watched over his ill young wife and endeavored to make money 123 at the same time, soliciting contributors for his own not yet published magazine. He had almost found partners several times, 124 and by early 1843 he signed an agreement with Thomas C. Clarke to publish his magazine, now titled The Stylus. 125 Poe and Clarke signed with O. C. Darley for illustrations at $7 apiece (A. Quinn 370). Poe was thinking, not in terms of a of Critical and Biographical Sketches of American Writers creating his own American literary history. Despite his efforts to obtain subscribe rs in Washington, 126 even to obtain a government appointment for an income, and despite his attempt to buy the
165 subscription list from the heirs of the late editor of the Southern Literary Messenger Poe was unable to obtain adequate funding. Poe and Clarke h oped to Saturday Museum ran some advance publicity for the The Stylus in February 1843, including a full biography and portrait of Poe (Hayes, Poe 119). Nathaniel Hawthorne, who had been c onvinced to contribute a piece at a discounted $5 a page for the first issue scheduled for July 1843, had an unproductive summer and withdrew. Finally, Clarke himself dissolved the partnership and withdrew his financial backing. As Poe informed Lowell, the plans were again put on hold The Stylus, founded Monthly Journal, of sufficient ( Letters Letters I: 265). Each member would contribute an article a m onth; there would be no cost for contributions. The group would form a constitution and elect an editor. Contributions would be guaranteed to be of the Letters I: 265). Poe was committed to his Letters I: 265). In November 1844, Poe wrote a letter introducing himself and asking for help with starting up Th e Stylus to Charles Anthon, whom he considered one of
166 distinguished classical scholars. Poe sent one of his tales and offered his experience as proof the new magazine would be of the highest Letters articles appeared in many magazines, a collection did no t exist of the totality of a to his criticisms and poetry, he had written sixty six tales 127 that would fill five Letters I: 271). In January 1849, Poe once again found financial support for his magazine. A Poe admirer and an editor from Oquawka, Illinois, Edward H. N. Patterson Poe 160). Patterson tried to persuade Poe to lower the price of his magazine to $3, cheap Magazine can ever again prosper in America. We must aim high address the intellect the higher classes of the country (with reference, also, to a certain amount of foreign circulat ion) and put Letters II: 440). Patterson and Poe agreed to work together and Poe planned a journey to Illinois, lecturing and securing more subscribers on the trip. The two never met. By early October Poe was dead. For mos t of his adult life, Poe was a magazinist who vowed to create hi s this is the one great purpose of my
167 Letters II: 330). In the year he died, Poe had written to his friend Frederick Thomas that he did not fact, it is about the only one fit for a man. For my own part, there is no seducing me from the path. I shall be a litterateur at l Letters II: 427). He was, too. Writing for magazines was never his plan. Nevertheless, the mag azines enabled Poe to develop as a writer and theorist of short fiction.
168 Chapter Five A Comparison of of April 1841 and of April 1842 Frank Luther Mott calls the period between 1825 and 1850 the beginning Democratic Review declared in 18 were stilted and heavy, and the lighter writing was too frequently inclined to be With the advent of the magazines also came the rise of magazinists (Mott I: 524), both those catering to popular taste for the sentimental and didactic and Garcia 60). Poe was clearly among the latter group as his plans for The Stylus attest.
169 imental and Didactic Mott lists under the category of general monthly their co mpetition a merry chase, forcing some of the merely masculine why at one time Graham chose to name his magazine es begun in 1840 with the merging founded in 1830, and Sarah Josepha 128 founded in 1828 had as their purpose to promo te (Mott I: 351). Although many of the major authors of the period wrote for the time pretty gene rally anyway, was fulsome in the (Mott I: 587). Mott states that in imitating at one time, started by Charles J. Peterson and Mrs. Ann S. Stephens (forme r editors) in 1842, and the started in 1844, were both so magazines
170 mentioned , and the were similar in content and readership, an 1840 dealing with love, American a dventure, the Orient, and so on, along with poetry, (Mott I: 346). Readers of the hundreds of magazines available in the 1840s looked sentimental tale of the Godey as 1832, an author like Oliver Wendell Holmes had protested to plead for the pointed, shortened, compact form of story Kirkla among us, have nothing to do with this life, and no references to that which is were sometimes ca reviewed as were the more popular novels or thin volumes of poetry. Mott notes that Edgar Allan Poe may have been the one reviewer who did evaluate the short tale. Despite the fact that the sentimental and didactic tales were appreciated and anticipated by the readers of the popular magazines, for all but Poe and a
171 By 1841 exceptions to the vapid sentimental tale which Kirkland observed were seen, however, in one of the most popular and respected magazines of the day, a magazine that Frank Luther Mott describes as brilliant, in fact more brilliant than m ost magazines in that era and in the history year career in the magazine field helped to shape his writing and thinking about short fiction ; and beginning as literary editor in 1841, he had clear goals f or what a magazine ( Letters I: 154). In addition, now in his early thirties, working for George R. Graham and enabled Poe for the first time to experiment with his fiction because he had the luxury of more time and freedom from financial worry. issue with the sentimental as such, unless i t was formulaic, excessive, effusive, or frivolous. Perhaps, like Jane Tompkins, he realized that a sentimental text century lit erature of sensibility Letters I: 58). As Hayes
172 wr Poe 55). The expression most often everal of his letters and reviews. Often attributing namby pambyism to the blue stockings, in his April 1841 review of Twice Told Tales in pambyism as arising from imitation, frivolity, effusion, a lack of polish, ineptitude of detail, blazing melodramaticisms; a nauseating surfeit of low miniature copying of righteousness; his emphasis upon the subtle and suggestive even led him to criticize the allegorical. This chapter will examine two issues of one year apart, to observe the kinds of content usually included in the magazines of the day: first, in the issue published two months after Poe joined the staff and second, in the issue published twelve months later, after Poe had been on the staff for fourteen months. Two works of short fiction will be examined in each issue, a sentimental tale by Emma Catherine Embury, a successful writer and acquaintance of Poe and a story by Poe as, less than a decade before his death, he continues his attempt to define a new genre, characterized by brevity, tight structure, unity or totality of effect, and verisimilitude, but, above all, by imagination, originality, complexit y, suggestiveness, and precise thought with an air of simplicity.
173 April 1841 -Casket and -was published in two volumes a year, six issues a volume, from January to June, and July to December. April 1841 was the fourth issue of Volume XVIII, the fifth issue published by George Graham and perhaps the first issue on which Poe, who had been hired in February, served as literary editor. The April issue of Volume XVIII, number 4, is fifty nine pages long (pages 146 to 205), with small print, two columns per page, one thousand words per page. Unfortunately the cover and first illustration are gone from the only available microfilm copy and also from the online Harvard University owned volume accessible through Google, a situation that often occurred since contemporaneous readers would remove the front cover to get to the illustration that could be framed. The April 1841 issue, following the format of previous issues, alternated prose and poetry, closing with sheet music, a few reviews, and an illustration. According to the January to June 1841 index, the April issue opened ifty nine pages include chapters of two serials and seven tales: two love stories covering nine pages, one tale and four chapters of a serial; four didactic stories covering eleven pages, three tales and Part III of a four part serial; a thirteen page dete ctive tale by Poe in the middle of the issue; one nostalgic tale of six pages;
174 and one travel tale of four pages. Other genres include ten poems all inserted between tales, appearing on nine different pages, covering four and one half pages; a one page sp five page and two page reviews by Poe and four brief (two or fewer paragraphs) reviews, probably by reviewers or editors of the former Casket (Hull 10); and a full page fashion illustration by Sartain. Of the ten prose pieces chapters of two serials, seven tales, and a sports essay there are seven male authors, two female authors, and one author not identified, with the nostalgic and the didactic tales being by the female authors Of the nine works of fiction, the two love tales, a didactic tale, and a nostalgic tale all end with marriage. Of the three didactic tales and one didactic serial, two end with death, one with a warning about the retribution that falls upon the avariciou s. Six of the works of fiction have third person narrators; three have first person, one person narrator is also a character in the story. Of the ten poems placed between the prose pieces, six are about love or a yearning for love or home, four on nature: two on the beauty of winter, one on spring rain, and one in which the speaker sees himself as a leaf, feather, flower, or tree. Five poems are rhyming couplets, from fourteen to for ty lines long. Four four lines long, with no rhyme scheme. There are six male poets and four female, with four love poems
175 by males, two by females, two poems about nature by males, two by females. The poems appear to be placed in the magazine randomly as filler between the prose pieces, chosen then by length rather than subject or theme. It is predictable that an 1841 magazine would open with the chapters of a thoughts as he gazed. What was honor, or rank, or wealth to him, since they missing illustration that began the issue might be the reason this serial began the issue; Graham was extraordinarily proud of his illustrations, especially ones that connected to tales. magazine was known as a fine illustrated general magazine, and sometimes Graham advertised as a magazine of literature and art the first poem in the issue is John Kearsley Mit 129 glorifying the Northwestern wind, mountains, heath, and streams in rhyming couplets and apparently bearing no relationship to the illustration or the serial. What is not predictable is the appearance in the center of the issue of 130 the longest story in the issue, almost double that of other tales, and considered by many the (discussed in de tail later in the chapter) opens with a discussion of the art of phrenology. There are neither fair damsels or wretched souls nor an intrusive
176 narrator in the first paragraphs to begin a sentimental tale. Although the murder that occurred before the story opens was sensational and gruesome, the first person narrator, a confidante to the most excellent detective, C. August Dupin, However, before issue, five tales on the subjects and in the style popular during the 1840s have nostalgic anecdote about an industrious man seeking to earn enough money to deserve his girl. The intrusive narrator closes the tale own part, I love to think over the past, for many a pleasing idea is connected observation of a woman, babe in arms, climbing a mountain, badgered by her hard often who spend years of pain in weeping over the inadvertence of the hour in discussion of the differences between men and women and about whether
177 chivalry exists in the nineteenth century before relating the story of a woman of children, works and cheats his way to riches, is dismissed from his bank position, eath, and dies of a fever. S. Dana find those she loves (158), or poems focused upon painful memories, such as of a winter scene, other tales and poems many of which Poe might have described as commonplace or imitative t he content continues with genres typical of early nineteenth century magazines: stories of travel, love, and morality, followed by a
178 sports essay and illustration. The travel tale 131 typical of all magazines of the period, according to Mott (I: 422) 132 : a story of the sea, complete with a harsh purser, lovelorn sailor, mutiny, fog, storm at sea, Dana that follows, describes the young, innocent, and sheltered Margaret, who falls in love with an unknown hunter who saves her in the woods, turns out to be an earl, and last story gambling, offered his da husband, and loses his daughter through childbirth. A sports article on how to shoot partridge and sheet music for a sentimental song two typical genres close the section. As is usual in the magazines of the day, the last section of the issue includes reviews. The first is a five page review of Edward Bulwer Night and Morning lacks unity of plot and originality. His emphasis consistently in his criticism is on The second is a one page review of a collection of sketches of living authors by R. M. Walsh, that both puffs the writer and critiques the grammar and word
179 choice. The final four reviews, attributed by Hull to Casket reviewers, are short and usually positive. The final page, the only illustration intact in the microfilm copy of the magazine, is an engraving of four ladies in high fashion by engraver, John Sartain. None of the ladies are looking at the reader, but the lady in the center shows the entire front of her dress; the other ladies on both sides of her are looking away and displaying only a portion of their dresses. The Index indicates that from January to June 1841, twelve hand colored steel engravings were in the six issues, a predictable Graham pattern, with one of the engravings probably at the beginning of each issue. The issues all end with a fashion engraving o f a varying number of ladies: January, three; February, four; March, three; April, four; May, seven; June, three. Genres of Short Fiction 1841 New Genre in century (156). However, that change had begun fiction; and it is not surprising that when Poe became a literary editor at
180 in 1841, began to illustrate the differences emerging in short fiction. Its April issue includes Emma Catherin As Geo rge Eveleth 133 wrote, in a December 1845 letter to Evert Duyckinck Embury 134 was a successful sentimental author whose intention, in her she became a popular, successful writer, welcomed as a contributor by magazines, serving on magazine boards, and even becoming one of literary editors (Mott I: 544) as she published several novels, books of instruction, a collection of poetry, and many tales. 135 The fact that she was well known and moved in the same literary circles as Poe led to their friendship and 136 begun in 1836 for the Southern Liter ary Messenger their favorite authors, and continued in December 1841 and January 1842 for
181 conversation between cousins, Frank and Grace, in which Grace makes subtle make sacrifices women suffer n too make sacrifices, with the difference being the theory of separate spheres men operate in the public world, women in the private that was being defined early in the nineteenth century. The two also disagree about the role of chivalry in the nineteenth chivalric spi devotion, purity of intention, integrity of principle, delicacy of sentiment, a high all qualities of the chivalric can be exercised in many areas of life in the nineteenth century; and Frank agrees to let Grace tell him the story of a woman in their own time who has both displayed chivalric qualities and actively made selflessness (160). Grace then tells the story of Fanny Milbank, a beautiful, delicate, gentle body, ministered to the comfort of every body, and took her share of enjoyment
182 with William Grey as a young woman and the two plan several times to marry, each time she, as the eldest child, sacrifices her happiness for the needs of her care for his family well into old age (159), her sickly mother who dies, her growing brothers, and her invalid sister, Mary. She ministers to each as needed; she labors as a se medical care improves human hand could bring back health to the one, or restore the blighted blossoms like so many -with marriage, a happy mental tales are complex and carefully structured. Poe may have written under her Autograph in e may have found her detailed descriptions of domestic life and the ideal Fanny the rarest
183 about the age of chivalry and mentions Edmund Burke; the complex, in the nineteenth century as well as selflessness and active sacrifice on the part of a woman. Most often the conclusion of a commonplace sentimental tale. Grace responds to feeling, the glow of hope, t he buoyancy of health, all things that give a charm woman who in her youth would have run in delight to her loved one now marries at forty five not out of youthful love because sh e has long ago lost a kind of selfhood that would enable her to act for herself but because once again she is at the end ficult, selfless life. Further, the and Grace reveals to Frank that he is one of the grandchildren whom Fanny has
184 raised; Fanny is his step mother, and the names of the story have been r originality. The For years, Poe had been conceptualizing and writing a different kind of what he and was moving toward in the April 1841 issue w as first detective 137 tale with the very first detective, C. Auguste 138 Dupin. 139 story stands out among s w There is no actual street in Paris named Rue 140 to set the location of the actual murder and to in terest the reader in finding the murderer from the first word of the story (Meyers 123). With the opening section on the powers of analysis, the art of phrenology,
185 given credit for defining the story of ratiocination. He himself expresses some ( Letters II: 328). But earlier P ingenious than they are on account of their method and air of method. . Where is the ingenuity of unraveling a web which you yourself (the author) have woven for the express purpose of unraveling? ( Lette rs I: 328). The significance of the tales to Poe the theorist is clear, however; as Silverman points out, the created the circumstances of the murder in advance, he wrote the sto ry backwards, a perfect example of the strategy he discussed as assuring unity of adapt every f the the newspaper (A. Quinn 311). The narrator and Dupin are reading a newspaper when the articl his full awareness of the interest readers had in the sensational even as he
186 creates a new genre. American citizens had no police forces yet to protect them, no detectives to solve crimes, b sensationalists like George Lippard 141 popularity because their fiction openly projected the common fourth floor apartment. With the sensational, Poe also appeals to the taste among narrat (Silverman 172); thus, they consider an urban, grotesque murder. But at the same time the two first met in an obscure library, while searching for the same rare book; became friend s and then roommates for the summer; and live in much as Poe does in his own life. In fact, even the gothic and bizarre mirrors feminine value s endorsed in the sickliest (173).
187 142 and Mistress panaye, 143 has already occurred; the story is not a chronological one beginning with a tranquil scene broken by the dastardly actions of a newly arrived evil protagonist. It is sensational only because of the circumstances of the murder, not because of a graphic description of the act of murder itself. In addition, no one is described crying over the murders; no one is crying for mercy for the murdered victims. 144 True, the inn ocent victims are found in gruesome positions, one pushed up a chimney with a cut throat, the other sprawled in the outside courtyard, with bones broken from being hurled from the second story window. But these images are not the focus. Instead, Dupin and the narrator calmly read the account in a newspaper and then view the scene later. Because the detective calmly and logically follows his instincts and inferences to uncover the murderer, the reader also -calmly and logically uses his intelligence not his emotions in following the line of thinking of August Dupin throughout the story. Poe does, however, include police interviews of twelve witnesses as an enticement to readers who like to read about sensational crimes or who may have an interest in police t actics. power of analysis and its importance and rarity in the development of an individual, with the introduction of the superanalytic Dupin, the actual story of the murder and its investig ation not beginning until the second page, fourth
188 A comparison of the game of chess to the game of dr aughts 145 would appeal to readers with gambling tendencies, interested in looking for clues on how to win, but also enables Poe to make the distinction between the pure knowledge and skill needed to be successful at chess and the power of observation and inf erences needed to be successful at draughts. The reader has no alternative but to accept the fact that the true skill of analysis is not typical and to be This detective has two qualities that Poe prized: the ability to solve puzzles and the imagination of a poet. Like Poe, who had studied math at West Point and enigmas, of conundrums, hieroglyphics Poe 105). unconscious connections, is the key to solving the crime. Dupin uses the fact that the police cannot find a motive as a clue and goes over the scene step by step, looking for the unusua l, such as the fact that no witness can positively identify meantime, erroneously look only at facts and cannot conceptualize the unusual or see the whole picture. As Charles Ma y indicates, policemen and readers must
189 Edgar etective story: that to try to Edgar 89). However, this looking for the unusual is not just a tactic of detective fiction; it is also critical to original, the novel, and the suggestive. That the police cannot solve the crime and that the murderer turns out to be an animal, an Ourang Outang, 146 not a usual suspect, confirm that readers of fine fiction, detective or not, cannot expect the usual or ord inary (May, Edgar 89). In Poe the actual or real must always be limitless in possibilities. May defines what some might find the apparent contradictions of method, it result Edgar 87). Ironically, however, what would appear to be an outrageous element, the ourang outang wielding a razor, would not be a barber brandishing a razor . a popular caricature deployed by the defenders of the American slave system to frighten Americans away from abortion and inter According to E. F. Bleil er, detective fiction had been written before Poe,
190 E arly detective fiction used many motifs that have often been erroneously attributed to Poe and his first tale of ratiocination, motifs such as the red herring, 147 the sealed room, the impossible crime, the fictionalization of historical crimes, bizarre subject matter, and the contrast between official and private investigators. However there were new elements of the detective tale that Poe as detective, the armchair detective, reader participation in a puzzle, ratiocina tion or precise analytical reasoning, and a calculus of probabilities as a Other significant differences in the nature of the detective genre as it es for participating in the investigation and his limited method. Dupin is not a professional and is not being altruistic; he investigates for amusement and to repay a favor that he says he owed the accused. He does not use evidence from experts or newspap ers; his emphasize unusual details the unknown language of the voice heard at the murder scene, the placement of the body upside down in the chimney, the brutality of the murder wit h no logical motive, the agility needed to escape a locked fourth floor apartment in his search for a suspect, in this case an unusual suspect, an ourang outang (A. Quinn 312). Further, the nature of the st crimes are committed
191 Edgar could also indicate duplicate or double (Church). In fact, Hutchisson notes that Dupin and the narrator and the two women live on the fourth floor of old Gothic type houses with windows that look like eyes in an otherwise Both couples also live alone and neither has many visitors. tightened the text considerably and created a tale that would still have startled the readers of but offered them more guidance in adjusting to a new powers of analysis and the art of phrenology. Once believed to be a science, now dismissed as quackery relation to the shape of the skull. Poe was very interested in the science of phrenology, as wer e many readers of the 1840s, although they would not have expected a discussion of the science at the opening of a tale. All across the country, phrenologists measured skulls to determine personality, searching especially for skulls that would corroborate their theories. They found that in upper part of the forehead, in the region of Reasoning! How broad in the region of the temples, where Ideality, Constructiveness and Sublimit
192 in Hayes, Poe vocabulary through phrenology and became one of the qualities he most perfection from the Poe 93). respond coolly to a horrible crime that has been sensationalized in the press and popular premise crime and its popular misinterpreters and combining it with capitalize on popular sensational themes but at the same time to gain firm control over Poe did not mean for the tale to be a discussion of the science of the skull, but did use the discussion as a springboard to the important skill of analysis that belonged to his main c haracter, C. Auguste Dupin. When Poe pamphlet 148 put out by Graham entitled The Prose Romances and in Tales, published in 1845, he cut out the entire first paragraph on the art o f phrenology and some redundancies, eliminating about 359 words (Asarch 84). He wanted to
193 Furthermore, by removing the opening paragraph, a passive didactic beginning is transforme please lasting fiction through complex structure with a single effect and suggestiveness Essays 1025). April 1842 Edgar Allan Poe had been employed by George Graham for just over a year by the spring of 1842. Their association had proved to be a successful one for When he had been hired by Graham as literary editor in February 1841, Poe had looked forward to freedom from the drudgery of magazine layout and time to write tales and reviews at his leisure; his only other task was to solicit contributors for the magazine. The MSS for press and attending to the general arrangement of the matter an associate editor, Charles Peterson ( Letters I: 181). A thank you letter to Lydia Sigourney 149 ributors: 150 Willis, Fay, 151 Herbert, 152 Letters was now printing 40,000 copies, up from the 4,500 of its first issue, and more than the 30,000 of its rival ( Letters I: 192). Jeffrey Meyers
194 declares that it was Poe who made innovative tales, rigorous reviews, origi nal ideas, good taste and literary contacts soon made the most important and astonishingly successful magazine shows how much the content of the magazine had changed in the year Poe had worked with Graham. Although a complete and detailed comparison can be made between the literary genres of the April 1841 and 1842 issues, the missing (destroyed) illustrations of t he microfilm copy and the online 1841 issue owned by Harvard University and accessed through Google make it impossible to compare the illustrations of the issues of 1841 and 1842. The April 1842 issue, however, has an intact cover page, with full title, bossed Volume XX) begins on page 193 and runs through page 255, a sixty two page issue. According to the index for the six months from January to June of 1842, there were nineteen engravings in the six issues, an average of three per issue. The microfilm version of the April 1842 issue has only the final fashion
195 engraving. However, the online version, a Harva rd University owned volume accessed through Google includes six illustrations, three at the beginning of the issue, three at the end: the first is a black and white scene of a man with a dog meeting a woman in the woods (after hawking); the second is a sm all square ladies in high fashion; the third is a rectangle of embroidered lace over green background with two birds in the center. At the end of the issue, the first illust ration has three figures elegantly attired with one man in the center and a lady on either side of him; the second is a small light sketch of a beautiful lady; the third men and cows, bu in the distance and a sunlit sky; and the f ourth illustration is of a grouping of men and women in high style Graham was very proud of the embellishments, and John Sartain bragged that his engravi Nevertheless, the number and nature of these fashion plates and engravings were part of the reason that Poe left resigning was disgust with the namby pamby character of the Maga zine a character which it was impossible to eradicate I allude to the contemptible pictures, fashion Letters I: 197). content in April 1842 does not mirror that of the April 1841 issue. Graham may have insisted on the increased number of embellishments for the April 1842 issue, but the changes in literary content may be attribut ed to
196 both Poe and Graham, who had a comfortable working relationship. There is y magazine: a variety in genres and length of the prose pieces, a variety in the types and placement of poetry, and six reviews, two in the first half of the magazine despite the usual practice of placing all r eviews at the end of an issue. There is also l ess and more original, innovative contributions. The 1842 issue establishes a new literary order: a tale, a review, two tales, a poem, one section of a serial, a poem, a t ale, a five page poem, a poem, a review, a satire, two poems, a tale, a poem, a tale, a poem, a tale, three poems, one section of a serial, a poem, sheet music, four book reviews. The sixty two pages (plus six embellishments) include sections of two serial s, a satire of four pages, and seven tales: the two sentimental and didactic tales covering five pages; one love tale and the continuation of a love serial covering seven pages; one two page gothic tale by Poe; and two travel tales and the first section of a travel serial covering twelve pages. Other genres include twelve poems that cover nine pages and appear on twelve different pages; two pages of sheet music; six book reviews two appearing early in the issue one five page review, one four page review, and two brief reviews, all by Poe, as well as one three page review by Jeremy Sho rt. Of the ten prose pieces seven tales, sections of two serials, and a satire there are five male authors, four female authors, and one author named
197 gothic tales by males. The serial on love is by a female. The two travel tales are by males; the beginning of a travel serial is by a female. The satire is by a for one also by a male author. Six of the works of fiction have third person narrators; four have first person, one being adventure story by Peterson are the only tales in which the first person narrator is the main character in the story; the other two first person narrators are observers in the travel tales. Compared to the April 1841 issue, the April 1842 issue also has more variety in poetic forms. Poetry takes up parts of twelve pages. Of the twelve poems, ten are written by men, one by a woman, and one is unsigned. Six have a sentimental flavor: one is an elegy; two have no rhyme scheme; and three use an abab rhyme scheme. One nature poem uses an abab rhyme scheme. The four sonnets are on love: one on love of h ome, one on love of country, and two on love of art. The most sophisticated poem is five page s A Necromaunt couplets. Although the 1842 issue opens with the usual sentimenta l fiction, the unpredictable element s of the issue are the second entry a review by Poe, and the third entry, a gothic tale by Poe, thus offering the reader two Poe pieces in a row one in an unexpected position since reviews normally appear at the end of
198 issues, the other of an unexpected genre and making the issue radically poetry of James Russe ll Lowell. 153 ve we, he emphasizes two qualities he treasures in literature freshness and genius and adds a third i we mean IDEALITY. The imagination o f that border a short, two page gothic story (discussed in detail later in the chapter) told in the first person from the perspective of a male character who may not be in his right mind as he view s a painting in an old castle in which he has taken refuge. The predictable part of the magazine is the inclusion of sentimental and didactic tales, usually about love, one opening the issue, another appearing as the fourth entry. What is not predictable, however, is that the two didactic tales do not end with death, the love stories and sections of serials do not end with mar riage for the main characters.
199 ting at the bedside of her feverish husband, Edward Walpole, who has been a gambling man, keeping as would occur in a more commonplace tale. He repents, and husband and wife live a long happy life together. The second sentimental tale, the fourth prose told from the pers pective of a painter who happens to see a young wife lovingly send her husband off to the salt mines before overhearing her conversation with the elderly Ursula, whose betrothed, Albert Wessenberg, had died in the mines decades before. The tale ends with t he recovery of the long perfectly preserved body. The aged Ursula kisses her betrothed, dies seven days later, and is buried with her loved one. final for his duel to take place the week before his wedding. In a dream that night, he meets an old man named Common Sense, who persuades him of the portrait of a sentimental man who enjoys domestic life but is incapable of Step hens, 154 a prolific magazinist, is the last sentimental tale of the issue a story
200 of intrigue, conflicts of power and love, and the lovers, Lord Dudley and Jane Seymour, separated because of family The issue closes by issue ends typically, with a sentimental story, sheet music, and reviews. Predictably the magazine includes a travel tale, but unpredictably this issue has three travel tales. The first, the seri 155 reads like a journal entry written in the first person, with descriptions of the beauty of the countryside around West Point the mountains, the streams, the flowers, and the rainbow after a rain followed by an account of is to be concluded in a later issue of Scene at narrator (using the second person pronoun) specific details. The piece concludes with the men taking shelter in the cabin from the The final travel tale, by the in which Cavendish and his men rescu e a young woman, her deceased father, and slaves from pirates. by Epes Sargeant, 156 a tongue in cheek account of newspaper coverage in a
201 small town, with satiric jabs at many of the isms and reform groups of the nineteenth century. The first person narrator laments how the town has changed from a quiet place with beautiful belles and people content to live as their resulted from a verbal war 221) innovative independent. Eventually rumors, reports, charges spread throughout the town -of drunkenness, highway robbery, the death of the beautiful Amanda, a duel only to have the town discov are rumored to be studying animal magnetism. Poetry in the 1842 issue of is irregularly spaced and varied. The first poem, appearing ten pages into 157 on earth occur late in the magazine. W. W. Story has two son nets offering testaments to S
202 Short sentimental poems are scattered throughout the issue, many focusing upon death, with the five page poem about Agathe being unexpected. line nostalgic poem ending with the grave that end with the reflection that the grave does not separate lovers for they will is an eight stanza poem of rhyming couplets offering posthumous praise for a girl who h as few left to grieve for her. In many stanzas of rhyming couplets, A Necromaunt in Th father, realizing that his long lost daughter is now dead beside her betrothed, Three other sen timental poems vary greatly in subject and theme. G. G. line sentimental poem with no rhyme scheme about how a man may still feel like a school boy even though he stanza poem ex plains that spring, the mountains, three stanzas with an abab rhyme scheme, describes lovers rushing home to see sweethearts and wives. In addition to the review on Lowell, that is unexpectedly the second selection in the 1842 issue, a review of Keats appears a lmost half way through
203 the issue and four additional reviews appear at the end of the issue, the section whe re all reviews usually appear. gnes Eve: A Chit person narrator and a person named Oliver as they are having a drink together. The narrator regales (219). When the narrator finishes, he notices that Oliver is asleep. The four book reviews at the end of the issue were all written by Poe. In the first, on Henry Wadswort Ballads and Other Poems, Poe compliments Longfellow on lines that are perspicuous, precise and terse, but devote itself to supernal beauty and novel combinatio deduce the novelty, the originality, the invention, the imagination, or lastly, the creation of BEAUTY, (for the terms as here employed are synonimous [sic]) as poems are simp le minded and faulty in rhyme. In the second review, on Ideals and Other Poems (available online, perhaps juvenile), Poe praises the beauty of the volume but describes the poetry as imitative of Longfellow and commonplace. The penultimate review by Poe, in between the two brief reviews, is well known for its contribution to short story theory: it is a review of Nathaniel Twice Told Tales In the first line, Poe defines the genre of the tale
204 treat this review with the depth and t horoughness he would like and thus can offer only few paragraphs. 158 He praises Washington Irving, then Hawthorne, 159 as practitioners of tale writing at its best, as art, saying that in the magazines of and thrust blue blazing melodramaticisms; a nauseating surfeit of low miniature copying of low Poe mentions that the twice told tales are now thrice told and notes that some could Th e final review in the issue is brief, one paragraph of praise shorter than th for all the editions printed in America) for the use of Schools, Academies, Colleges, and Private Le arners; with copious Notes, Critical and explanatory; Illustrated with Numerous Parallel Passages and Apposite Quotations of the Greek, Latin, French, English, Spanish, and Italian Languages; and a complete
205 Parsing Index; Elucidated by References to the mo st Popular Greek Grammars Joseph Snodgrass, editor for the Saturday Visiter over earlier issues, noting especially Poe, is gratified by the change he has been permitted to make . . He is fond of reviewing, and, and Jackson 363). Genres of Short Fiction 1842 Readers of the 1842 issue of would have found the subjects of bachelor, a subject usual in magazines like ; Poe, of a painting in an issue of Graha continues to demonstrate the careful structuring and complexity as well as originality that Poe has admired in her wor k. Poe does not create a new genre as with continues to emphasize the precise and concise structuring that create s a
206 Essays 15) suggestiveness for which Poe is still famous : readers move away from his narratives feeling that there is more there than they have experienced. His tales are not mere stories; a current of something I know not what that comes up, faint at first, and dimly seen, but increasing gradually in strength and brightness, till it opens into a full (qtd. in Mabbott 5). The bachelor was a familiar figure in nineteenth century American l better known, more complex figures like Miles Coverdale in Nathaniel The Bli thedale Romance floor bachelors, The bachelor in front of the fireplace, the center of nineteenth apparently "incapable of releasing the natural upwelling feeling 160 that orients ini 22). more complex, however. The rich, young Simon Decourcy Waldie is not simply a bachelor; he is also a quietly sentimental, inactive man. Nothing significant happens in the f irst two pages of the story because nothing significant happens in his life: he has no career, no wife. In a period in which the theory of separate
207 spheres is being embraced, he lives in the private sphere, ably maintained by his mother and servants, and t akes no role in the public sphere, has no place in politics or business Mr. Waldie is very well educated, having graduated from When Mr. Waldie turns forty five, however, his mother dies (his father business); and in his deep grief and loneliness, he becomes aware for the first time of the domestic contentment he has always h the different degree of his grief at the loss of his father, he began to think that there was something in the nature of women particularly calculated to make man marital material and contemplates how to proceed. Perhaps influenced by nineteenth century interest in science and theories of the perfectibility of humans, he decides to adopt three twelve year the way she should go; he would educate a wife directions inherent to their natures One of them becom es a fringe and button maker before marrying a painter ; one becom es a successful milliner and marri es a successful draper and tailor. With only Celina left, Mr. Waldie realizes his
208 attempt to create a domestic haven has failed: Celina will not do; and he does reveal his one shortcoming. Embury concludes her tale with irony. There is the marriage that usually fifth bi rthday, Celina marries the perfect reveal the shortcoming he has hidden for so many years: he wears a wig. readers, hence her representation in both the 1841 and 1842 issues of Sentimental or domestic fiction was easy to read and to identify with. Jane Tompkins attempts to explain to present day readers, the didactic, the serious and the sentimental were not opposed but overlapping designations. Thus, the terms l issue any of the requireme nts Poe asked of fine fiction? composition there should be no word written, of which the tendency, direct or indirect, is no t to the one pre
209 not put off may with its psychological depth and irony does have these characteristics. They would series: Her subjects are fresh, if not always vi vidly original, and she manages them with more skill than is usually exhibited by our magazinists. She has also much imagination and sensibility, while her style is pure, earnest and devoid of verbiage and exaggeration. I make a point of reading all tal es to which I see the name of Mrs. Embury appended. ( Essays 1185 86). In the same month that Poe resigned from (Asseleneau 414) employing his principles for a new genre. He again uses the first incidents with one anoth (Asseleneau 423). Within the perimeters of his critical viewpoint, Poe also
210 signates, death of a beautiful woman ( Essays 19). light and shadow, his readers would associate with gothicism. Gothic romances by authors like Ann Radcliffe, whom Poe mentions at the beginning of the story, were popular with those readers who did not consider the gothic too German; and the architectural setting, the dark and deserted chateau, an d the unrest and torment of the haunted protagonist contribute to the sensational that Poe acknowledged using in an 1835 letter to Thomas White when he defended apparent frenzy is always accompa 161 who has lost considerable blood in a recent exchange with banditti or marauders. He and his valet have taken refuge in a recently vacated chateau, residing in a small
211 room in the turret in order to be less intrusive. The narrator describes himself as has taken to relieve pain, lower his fever, and induce sleep. In something of a reading, while als candelabrum, and Poe begins a frame tale. 162 in a niche formerly shaded. After closing his eyes for a moment and gathering his thoughts, the narrator glances again to make sure that he has not seen a real person: the painting has put a spell on him with life like liness from startled to confounded to subdued to appalled as he looks closer to see the ating the painting, the narrator obscures the painting by moving the candelabrum and turns to the volume he had been Poe 111). quotes the
212 wh ich he spread upon the canvas were drawn from the cheeks of her who sat indeed Life 163 In the closing line of the paintin The frame, as Hayes points out, is never closed (111). The reader, who has been introduced to an intelligent, a sensitive and thoughtful narrator, does not know what hap epigraph of the story 164 applies to the pai nter? the narrator? would probably be pleased by the varying views critics have expressed about 165 Kevin Hayes discusses the story in terms of the narrator as a tourist, a word that in the mid nineteenth century was taking on negative connotations. He theorizes that when the narr Poe 111). male artist and the male narrator try to
213 dominate the woman, the artist by keeping her image in the painting, the 92). Scott Peeples appears sympathetic to Charles May insists the tale is not a didactic lesson against the excessive pride of who is the only possible manifestation of Supernal Beauty for Po e, that is, the art Edgar 52). 166 Life for one moment, the painter stood entranced before the work which he had wrought; but in the next, while he yet gazed, he grew tremulous and very pallid and aghast, and cryin Edgar 91). publication in the Broadway Journal in April 1846. Seymour Gross argues that e and 167 at the beginning in which the narrator discusses tobacco and opium. When the narrator
214 begins to contemplate the portrait of the girl on the wall, his imaginings cannot be dru g induced, cannot be hallucinatory, if Poe is to portray his theme awful truth of the the painting, of the story (Gross 18). Second, Poe eliminated the final question of the painter, closing with the Life [and] turned suddenly to regard his beloved: She was dead moral deadliness of artistic monomania into a portrait of a man who cannot distinguish between the fun Conclusion a nd theorist during his writing career: his critical views tended to be systematic;
215 he frequently repeated his aesthetic principles. When he left in 1842, he had a clear idea of what an ideal magazine should be and continued to hope as he had for s o many years that he could establish his own, first the Penn later The Stylus His own words best describe what he intended his magazine to be and clarify why the April 1842 issue of as literary editor. For Poe, a magazine must be for the benefit of others . forced to model my thoughts at the will of men Letters truth, not so Letters I: 164). Second, Poe argued tha t a magazine must be original. Writing in 1841 to more than at any other especial quality. I have one or two articles of my own in statu pupillari that would make you stare, at least, on account of the utter oddity Letters I: 152). The 1843 prospectus of The Stylus declares, more vigorous, more pungent, more original Essays 1034). In a discussion of magazine writing, Poe explains what he means by originality:
216 There is no greater mistake than the supposition that a true originality is a mere matter of impulse or inspiration. To originate, is carefully, patiently, and current of suggestion [must run] continuously beneath the Twice Told Tales Third, Poe wanted the best writers of the day to fill his magazine but Letters I: 165). Last, Letters I: 143). In his 1840 prospectus for Penn Magazine support the general interests of the republic of letters, without reference to particular regions; rega rding the world at large as the true audience of the Essays 1025). fail to produce some lasting effects upon the growing literature of the country, while I establish for my lLetters I: 141).
217 Afterword In his reviews, when Poe directed writers to be original, imaginative, suggestive, and brief -to be sure that every word and detail had a purpose in Twice Told Ta les -he was not only defining a new genre later to elevate American literature and, on a more practical level, to fill a magazine. This dissertation was begun to show the influence of magazines on t he creation of the short story. (little) for everything he wrote. He was influenced by what readers craved. He was influenced by others who wrote for magazines. He influenced an d reviewed many who wrote for magazines. Because he reviewed books, he was familiar with much that was published in his lifetime, a knowledge that he would not have had if he had not been writing for the magazines. Clearly his world was the world of magazi nes. If Poe had not been involved in the magazine world, he might never have created the tales he did or theorized about imaginative literature of clear artistic value. Yes, Poe is responsible for the creation of the short story; but the medium of the maga zine is also responsible. ( Jane Tompkins).
218 Notes 1 2 Eureka: A Prose Poem, word explanation of God and the universe: the general Letters I: 362). 3 ho disappeared when Poe was two. It is assumed David Poe died from the effects of alcoholism in December 1811 in Norfolk (Meyer 5 6). When Stephen King was five or six, his father left to buy a pack of cigarettes and never returned. 4 Poe attempted to obta in a teaching position; King was a teacher until his first novel, Carrie, was published. After each successfully published, he turned to writing as a career. 5 When Stephen King received the National Book Award in 2003, Bloom penny dreadfuls, but perhaps even that is too kind. He shares nothing with Edgar
219 t hink of any other author who writes so abominably, and yet is destined to go on being canonical writes so abominably, and yet is so clearly destined to babominably, and yet is so clearly destined destined to be destined destined t o collection of critical essays on Poe. 6 Stephen King convinced his publisher, Simon and Shuster, to publish Riding the Bullet in electronic form in March 2000. In July, he be came the first major novelist to self publish on the Internet with electronic installments of The Plant (Kirkpatrick). 7 Studies in Short Fiction 8 Detec in April 1841 (discussed in Chapter Five). 9 Kenneth Silverman reports that the day before Poe died had been windy with soaking r 10 Silv acquaintance recognized Poe was in trouble and sent for Joseph Snodgrass.
220 11 Silverman relates that the next day, Poe, still delirious, stated to his end could do would be to blow out his brains 12 There is much speculation about Reynolds. Jeremiah N. Reynolds may have worked with Poe on Pym. An ex naval officer who lived in New York from 1836 to 1858, Reynolds wrote a story about a 21). 13 When in Baltimore, a younger Poe had visited the Herring family often, and Herring introduced Poe to many people in the literary field (Sova, Poe A to Z 107). Herring came to the tavern October 3 and told Snodgrass to send Poe to the hospital because he thought Poe might be drunk and become belligerent. Medical records suggest Poe was not drunk; biographers today are not sure about what caused 14 Poe was a friend of Joseph Snodgrass, a doctor, an editor, and a writer. 15 Poe himself had joined the Sons of Temperance on September 15, 1849, in Boston (Thomas and Jackson 836). 16 Edgar and Virginia Poe had a pet tortoiseshell cat named Catarina or Catterina, whom they called Cat. 17
221 papers or magazines in his lifetime and edited The Poets and Poetry of America (1842) and The Prose Writers of America (1845). Poe wrote a favorable review Female Poets of America (1849), and Killis Campbell records that thought of Griswold as a literary hack, following after established literary men and designating himself the arbiter of good literature in making selections for his nearly drowned after an epileptic fit, his tuberculosis returned, his fifteen year old daughter almost died in a train wreck, his face was burned in a gas explosion, and his third wife left him (Hutchisson 255). 18 After Virginia died, Poe appears to have courted (or flirted with) Marie Louise Shew, Annie Richmond, Sarah Helen Whitman, and Elmira Royster Shelton. 19 Haunted llow wrote Griswold to tell him he was mistaken about the order of events and the charge of theft.
222 20 Dr. Thomas Dunn English and Poe both had an interest in phrenology. English contributed to in 1839 when Poe was editor, and they corresponded frequently. However, later in their association, though the two never reconciled, English defended Poe in Reminiscences of Poe, asserting bit when I knew him (before 1846) I should both as a physician and a man of observation, have discovered it during his frequent visits to my rooms, my visits at his house, and our meetings elsewhere I saw no signs of it and believe the charge to be slander Quinn 350). 21 This letter has been assumed to be by Poe or at least influenced by Poe. 22 Poe supplied false background information in February 1843 for his Philadelphia Museum biog Quinn 373). 23
223 24 Henry Be ck Hirst was a Philadelphia poet and friend of Poe. Later, Hirst became addicted to absinthe and lived in a mental ward in a Philadelphia Almshouse (Thomas and Jackson xxix). 25 Lambert Wilmer was a journalist, a poet, and a friend of Henry Poe. He and Edg ar A. Poe associated with each other often until about 1843 when Wilmer (Thomas and Jackson xlix). 26 John Neal was a lawyer, a novelist, and an editor. 27 Both Baudelaire and Poe had rather large heads with prominent foreheads. 28 Both had strained relationships with a father figure; both were alcoholics; both moved frequently and suffered periods of extreme poverty. Both were harsh critics. 29 30 n the early part ( The Short Story 108). 31 in book form in 1901. (James) Brander Matthews, noted professor of drama at Columbia, wrote fiction, plays, and especially criticism on dramatic literature.
224 32 Richard Steele published The Tatler from 1709 to 1711; Joseph Addison and Richard Steele published The Spectator from 1711 to 1712. Both magazines offered a soci al history of the times, focusing upon manners, morality, and literature. 33 May suggests, however, that the approach of Poe and Matthews might to order formula in the first decade of the twentieth century ( The Short Story 109). 34 Literary friction was created when Stephen King received the 2003 National Book Award, and much of the literary community objected to a popular writer receiving the award. Harold Bloom describes King as an author who is 35 Edgar Allan Poe believed that Burton had never planned to pay the 36 Henry James called his collection of short fiction Daisy Miller and Other Stories in 1883 37 38 Graham studied law with Judge Thomas Armstrong. 39 J. Albert Robbins indicates that two local histories list both Graham and Pet erson as reporters for The Daily Focus but no existing issues validate this.
225 40 It is not known where Graham obtained the money for this initial purchase or for the purchase of the two magazines. J. Albert Robbins speculates that Graham may have been aided financially by his uncle, his wife, or his friend Peterson. 41 42 The publishers of the Saturday Evening Post named the magazine Casket: Flowers of Literature, Wit and Sentiment in 1826, with Samuel C. Atkinson the publisher for the first twelve years. 43 He paid Burton $3,500, one dollar for ea ch subscriber (Genzmer). 44 45 met Poe in 1840 and they became frequent correspondents. Thomas lived in Cincinnati, practiced law, wrot e for newspapers, and was active in politics, campaigning, for example, on behalf of William Henry Harrison. 46 Frank Luther Mott and The Illinois Monthly Magazine (1831) called the re were fewer than 100 periodicals not newspapers in 1825, but at least 600 by 1850 (342). 47 was published from 1830 to 1898 by Louis A.
226 would allow no content 1837, Sarah J. Hale became editor and emphasized female education. At one time was edited only by women, but men like Poe were also contributors. Godey, like Graham, believed in paying contr ibutors. 48 Paulding was a New York author, a collaborator with Irving, a Secretary xxxvi). 49 (Thomas and Jackson xxxv). Mrs. Osgood and Poe later wrote poems to each other, but there is no evidence of an affa ir. 50 Lydia Huntley Sigourney wrote verse that Poe considered sweetly sentimental and imitative; but, as a gentleman, he refrained from speaking ill of her work (Thomas and Jackson xlii). 51 Bayard Taylor was an author, a poet, and an editor of both Grah and Union Magazine 52 53 The Southern Literary Messenger
227 54 Charles Fenno Hoffman, poet and sometime editor, was a friend of Griswold. 55 Theodore Sedgwick Fay wrote Norman Leslie a novel that Poe criticized severely. 56 Elizabeth Fries Ellet was a poet, the wife of a doctor, and a member of a circle of women who greatly admired Poe. It is thought that when he spurned her, she became his enemy (Thomas and Jackson xxiii). 57 The North American Review paid $1 a page from 1825 to 1850; The Democratic Review paid $2 a page and made late payments; The American Whig Review paid $2 a page ; the Southern Literary Messenger offered Griswold $1.50 a page for small type, $2 for large type (Mott I: 505). 58 The Kni ckerbocker rates ranged from nothing to $2000 per year for Irving or $50 a poem for Longfellow (Mott 510 11). Sometimes authors great unpaid. There was no money in the Knickerb ocker certainly none for its 59 Mezzotint is a process of burnishing or roughening a surface in order to hold ink to create light and dark images. 60 William Sartain published from 1849 to 1852. It was previously titled the Union Magazine of Literature and Art and edited by Caroline Kirkland from 1847 to 1849 (Mott I: 769).
228 61 62 Joseph H. Ingraham wrote historical romances, such as Lafitte, the Pirate of the Gulf and The Prince of the House of David 63 The frontispiece was an illustration usually placed opposite the title page. 64 the magazine during binding, with the illustrative text placed in the middle of the magazine. 65 and because he offered his editor Webbe only a twenty five percent cut of the profits for the first 2000 sold, Webbe went to the rival printer Bradford for 66 Some other early contributors Coxe, Benjamin Franklin, the Connecticut Wits, Francis Hopkinson, Philip 67 Few in number, these publications concentrated on reviews only. Most North American Review the American Quarterly Review the American Quarterly Observer the New York Review, and the Boston Quarterly Review (Mott I: 367). 68 Frank Luther Mott attributes this statement to Briggs (I: 367), since he
229 was editor of the Broadway Journal in 1845, but John Thompson has included Essays and Reviews within an Marginalia, December 1846. Poe was also an editor of the Broadway Journal in 1845. 69 Tamerlane and Other Poems was first published in 1827. Underneath the Poe 44). The forty page collection had one long poem and several short ones. 70 Poe published Tamerlane and Other Poems in 1827; Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and Other Poems in 1829; and Poems in 1831. 71 Poe was supporting his young wife, suffering from tuberculosis, and his mother in law. 72 Arthur Hobson Qui nn mentions Poe filled out an application for a teaching position (186); Peter Ackroyd says that Poe tried for a job as an usher in a school (55). Thomas and Jackson note that Poe applied at the Richmond Academy for a position as an English teacher (165). Poe did not get a job in any school. 73 Poe had written for a job with William Gwynn, editor of the Federal Gazette and Daily Advertiser in Baltimore, in May 1831. 74 In 1844 Poe was essentially a free lance contributor to magazines, while Willis was editor of the Mirror
230 75 Park Benjamin was the editor of the New World a New York weekly, from 1839 to 1844. 76 The Knickerbocker ed more spoiled paper to line trunks and singe fowls than any other writer in the United 77 began in 1817 with a circulation of 3,700 and by 1830 over 8,000. It was imitated by the London Magazine (1820 1829), the New Monthly Magazine (1821), and (1830 1869) (Allen 22). 78 one, the export business sold a variety of goods and exported tobacco. It prospered nationally and internatio nally until 1817 when the economy took a downturn (Silverman 10). 79 Michael Allen notes that the London New Monthly ceased publication from a lack of variety, thus a lack of appeal to a larger audience. 80 John Hill Hewitt won first place for his poem subm itted under a pseudonym even though he was editor of the Visiter Poe believed that the editor should have been disqualified. According to Hewitt, the two met a few days after the prizes were announced. Poe was so angry, he implied that Hewitt was no gentl eman, and they would have come to blows had others not separated the two (Thomas and Jackson 134).
231 81 Mott, author of a history of American magazines, claimed that and were two of the most popular in America in the 1840s. 82 Tho mas White was formerly a Richmond printer, who initially thought of Poe as a son. Mott describes White as optimistic but nave and not necessarily a writer himself. 83 Lucian Minor was a lawyer and friend to Thomas White. He contributed to the Southern Lit erary Messenger but refused to become full time editor even though White offered him the position. 84 under the pseudonym Walter G. Bowen. 85 Poe may have been drunk and then suffered rem orse for his actions in that month. However, Thomas and Jackson and Silverman hint that Poe may have gone home to marry Virginia. Thomas and Jackson suggest that Maria wrote Poe that she was going to send Virginia to another relative and he might not see her again. Poe drank, thinking he was losing Virginia. 86 87 At the request of r glorified in the magazine: his swimming of the Thames, his jumping twenty feet and six inches.
232 88 Poe was accused of copying British critics, publicity seeking, and overkill (Silverman 122). 89 What is known is that Poe ended up in New York City, perhaps lured by an offer to be a critic for a journal, and while there hobnobbed with other literary men. He wrote little, but his novel, The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket was accepted f or publication. During this time Poe also lent his name to the publication of a book on conchology. John Ostrom believes Poe also wrote 90 Poe had left New York in July 1838 when he could not find emp loyment. 91 The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket. Comprising the Details of a Mutiny and Atrocious Butchery on Board the American Brig Grampus, on Her Way to the South Seas, in the Month of June, 1827. With an Account of the Recapture of the Vessel by the Survivers [sic]; Their Shipwreck, and Subsequent Horrible Sufferings from Famine; Their Deliverance by Means of the British Schooner Jane Guy; the Brief Cruise of this Latter Vessel in the Antarctic Ocean; Her Capture and the Massacre of her Crew Among a Group of Islands in the Eighty Fourth Parallel of Southern Latitude; Together with the Incredible Adventures and Discoveries Still Farther South, to Which That Distressing Calamity Gave Rise and was published by Harpe r and Brothers in New York in 1838. Meyers believes Poe freely borrowed geographical details for Pym (96).
233 92 Poe especially felt the economic downturn of the 1830s, trying to provide for himself, his wife Virginia, and his Aunt Muddy. He desperately needed a job. 93 was an independent magazine that promoted morality and religion. 94 distance of seven miles a nd a half [six miles], in a hot June sun, and against a 95 1750 copies, but only 750 copies were printed (Hayes, Poe 84). 96 from Virginia, wrote poetry and corresponded with Poe for a time (Thomas and Jackson xxi). 97 him $100. Poe, in a l etter dated June 1840, writes out a detailed account of what was owed and comes up with a total of $60 ( Letters I: 129 32). 98 This contest offered $1000 in prize money: $250 for a series of five short tales on the history of the country; $100 for the best humorous tale; $100 for the best essay on science or belles letters; $200 for the best tale of pathos or interest; $100 for the most graphic memoir of any living American; $100 for the best serious poem of not less than 200 lines; and $50 for the most int eresting foreign travel sketch (Thomas and Jackson 277 78).
234 99 There is some disagreement as to whether Burton actually said this. The antagonism between Butler and Poe is one reason it might never have been said, and Poe biographer Arthur Quinn thinks tha t Graham may have romanticized the statement later in life. 100 Word 102). 101 as 102 Virginia broke a blood vessel while singing, thus showing the first sign of what was then called consumption, a disease with which Poe was all too familiar since his mother and stepmother had died of tuberculosis. Graham himself had often n oted how solicitous Poe was of his young wife and would assume Poe would rather attend to her than to his magazine. 103 The Index was a semi weekly Washington publication started by Dow in 1841 as a weekly, then tri weekly, then daily; but the stress of mag azine work made Dow ill, and he resigned in 1842 after only a year (Hayes, Poe 117). 104 After Poe left he wrote tales and sought subscribers for Penn Magazine and later for The Stylus. He also gave lectures in several cities within a one hundred m ile radius in order to remain close to Virginia, who was dying of politics, the function of criti
235 anthology Poets and Poetry as tasteless (Silverman 218). Hutchisson claims that Poe spent the years after alternating be tween small successes and bouts of depression caused by his inability to secure backers for his own magazine, failure to obtain a government position, large debts, and worry about 105 Poe and his wife took the train to New Jersey, then b oarded a steamer for New York City. When they arrived, Poe walked in the rain to find a room for the two of them. 106 Poe was overwhelmed with New York City, first with the abundance of onged with Poe 124 25). 107 108 Willis had known his share of hardships: he was estranged from his 45, he suffered the deaths of his youngest sister and his mother as well as his wife and child in childbirth (Silver man 224). 109 110 Quarles may be a reference To Francis Quarles (1593 1644), the English poet who wrote Emblems a
236 65). 111 1844, calling for author s to receive more money than publishers for their own Evening Mirror and in February 1845 in the Weekly Mirror (Thomas and Jackson 473, 492). 112 After Poe had left the Weekly M ir ror in early 1845, The Evening Mirror Poe A to Z 1845 article in the Mirror He also described Poe as short, with such a large forehead that he had a Evening Mirror ; it called Poe a drunk, for ger, and liar. Poe sued English for libel and asked for Mirror then edited by Margaret
237 113 Charles Frederick Briggs, seaman, author, and editor, was known for According to Thomas and Jackson (online), he was often called Harry Franco after a character in his first novel. Briggs was initially impressed by Poe, later disillusioned. 114 Bisco had been a New Jersey schoolteacher and former publisher of the Knickerbocker (Mott I: 757) 115 Poe would often go to literary parties of the b luestockings, and he corresponded with a number of the women, for example, Frances Osgood, Elizabeth Ellett, Anne Lynch, Sarah Lewis, Anna Mowatt, Jane Ermina Locke, Annie Richmond, and Marie Louise Shew. He promoted Caroline Kirkland, Maria McIntosh, Eliz abeth Oakes Smith, Amelia Welby, and Sarah Josepha Hale (Hutchisson 179, 181). 116 Poe was scheduled to read a poem at the Boston Lyceum on October (A. Quinn 486). 117 During these years, Poe made a number of acquaintances in female literary circles, such as Mrs. Frances Sargent Osgood, Anne Lynch, and Elizabeth Ellet.
238 118 tongue in 5). 119 120 Poe rarely wrote out the middle name of Allan because of his 121 Scottish author John Wilson used the pseudonym Christopher North to write hundreds of articles in the twenty five years he contributed to Edinburgh Magazine In 1820 he became Professor of Moral Philosophy at Edinburgh University (Stableford). Early in his career, Poe is said to have imitated of high spirited and sometimes savage c 122 and Fitz Greene Halleck, to name a few. 123 Poe regularly tried to get a government appointment but never succeeded. W ithin the next twenty months Poe made a total of only $400, once offering some of his writings for half price to Graham. 124 One of his best prospects was Georgia poet Thomas Holley Chivers, ought and year old daughter died.
239 125 A stylus is also a pen. Unlike other magazine titles, The Stylus would not indicate a specific area of the country. 126 Apparently, without the disci pline of his aunt and wife, Poe became drunk and embarrassed himself in Washington. 127 Only fifty seven tales had been written by October 1844 ( Letters I: 272n). 128 After her husband died, Sarah Josepha Hale began to write to earn money for herself and her five children, eventually becoming a successful editor in Philadelphia. Hale published a number of works by Poe and may have felt friendly toward him because Poe had met her son at West Point. Hale later campaigned President Lincoln to declare Thanksgiving an official holiday. 129 John Kearsley Mitchell was a doctor of the Poe family and a personal friend. 130 One might assume that Poe wrote this tale just to fill more pages since is more likely that he had already composed this tale during the unemployed interval between his and editorial positions. 131 A number of popular travel novels were reviewed in the magazines American West was a common subject.
240 132 According to the Northern Illinois University Library project on dime novels, Charles Peterson often used the pen names of Harry Cavendish, or Harry Danforth, two of the characters in some of his travel tales. Peterson, also an editor for and the Casket, began his own magazine, National Magazine, in 1842, probably at the urging of Graham, to compete with lasted until 1898. 133 George Eveleth (from Maine) never met Poe, but the two corresponded. Thomas Olive Mabbott calls Eveleth the first Poe specialist, someone who admired Poe Poe were in Rufus Griswold's possession until after his death when they were sold. Mabbott published them in 1922. 134 Born in New York to a wealthy family and living most of her life in Brooklyn, Emma C atherine Embury, in her twenties, began writing poems, and submitting her work to the periodicals, with the pen name Ianthe, asking for no in the home would always take precedenc e over work outside the home. 135 During her lifetime, Embury published several works of fiction and instruction: Guido: A Tale (1828); Constance Latimer: or, The Blind Girl (1838); Pictures of Early Life, or Sketches of Youth (1830); American Wild Flowers in Their Native Haunts (1845); (1845); Glimpses of Home Life: or, Causes and Consequences (1848); and The Waldorf Family: or, (1848) (Kunitz).
241 136 Poe first created his Autography series to reveal personality throu gh an autographs with brief descriptions underneath, ranking them according to his (Silverman 168 69). Poe had a tendency, however, to praise writers he liked, criticize writers he held a grudge against. 137 A. Quinn states that Poe did not originate the detective tale; Voltaire preceded him in having the philosopher Zadig observe natural facts to infer events Zadig only a near Oxford English Dictionary lists the wor 138 ovel Pym Augustus was a drinker and a sailor, like William Henry, and both the character in the story and William Henry died on August 1 (Silverman 173, 135). 139 A. Quinn suggests the name may have two sources: (1) from Marie Du of a series of stories about a French Minister of Police that Poe had read when he worked for Burton in 1838; (2) from the name 11) W.T. Bandy writes that Griswold had
242 in his possession a September 1840 letter to Poe, signed by S. Maupin, that 140 (123). 141 George Lippard, an admirer of Poe, was a journalist. In 1843 and 1844, 142 twice and almost contains the name Allan (Silverman 173). 143 Silverman points out that a mother home. 144 Joseph Church exploits the fact that the murderer of the women goes 145 146 Stephen Meyers suggests that Poe must have been inspired to use the ourang
243 147 In fact, Poe never let the reader believe that LeBon was guilty and thus carefully did not l 148 At a time when Poe needed money, Graham and his brother William hey did not sell well and the other volumes were never produced. 149 reviewed her works as not original but of fine t aste. 150 Park Benjamin was a poet and an editor for New World 1839 1844. 151 Theodore Sedgwick Fay, an editor of the New York Mirror wrote Norman Leslie enemies. 152 Henry William Herbert used the penname Frank Forester. He wrote most of the sports essays in 153 Lowell and Poe had an odd association. In the early 1840s, Poe T hey accepted contributions from each other for their respective magazines (Lowell managed the Pioneer until he lost his eyesight) and corresponded for a few years. When Poe criticized Longfellow and when he showed up drunk to meet Lowell, Lowell did not ha ve anything else to do with Poe. In 1848, Lowell
244 fifths of him genius and two and Jackson xxxii). 154 Ann S. Stephens won the $200 in a May 1838 name Catharine Rogers. Stephens was also an editor of the and for years, frequently contributing to where she later became an editor. In 1858 Stephens published the reworked and exp anded novel Mary Derwent, (Henning). 155 Eliza Leslie began writing by compiling a cookbook of dessert recipes, of you 156 Epes Sargeant, poet and playwright, worked with several New York journals until he returned to Boston to edit the Evening Transcript (Thomas and Jackson xl). 157 Will iam Wallace, a poet and lawyer, is said to have looked like Poe. They were friends, and he would defend Poe against critics. Wallace was 158 Twice Told Tales Poe offers the world the description of the short tale that is
245 now taught in many fiction classes. The tale should be read in one sitting, between one half hour and two hour s, uninterrupted. The effect must be conceived, with deliberate care, a certain unique or single effect to be wrought out, he then invents such incidents he then combines such events as may best establis hed design (298 under 159 itself. Force abounds. High imagination gleams from every page. Mr. Hawthorne tales are too melancholy and do not have enough variety. He also charges Hawthorne with plagiarism, thinking Hawthorne has stolen a character from him: (later proved not true). 160 Vincent Bertolini names the ailment that most bachelors suffer from
246 ve male sexuality and decreased 161 health 162 Silverman points out that the girl in the portrait, young an d beautiful, is 163 164 This motto refers to the vow of silence of the Carthusian order of monks, founded by St. Bruno of Cologne (c.1030 1101). 165 the April issue; he believes that Poe originally wan for the April issue, but the tale was not ready. Dowell believes Poe wanted the full Hawthorne review of Twice Told Tales ed in the review. 166 Some may consider how the artist, like the writer, can destroy his day by day life by his own devotion to art; Poe has a painful knowledge of such choices given the effect that his choice to be a writer and live a life of poverty had on areas of his life.
247 167 Actually 659 words were eliminated in total; all references to opium were omitted in the revised version (Dowell 482).
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275 About the Author Degree in Rhetoric and Composition at Western Illinois University, Macom b, where she taught composition. For the last twenty years she has taught composition, creative writing, American literature, and short fiction at Pasco Hernando Community College in Brooksville, Florida. In 1995, she earned the NISOD Excellence in Teachin g Award. Every spring and fall she hosts the campus wide Celebration of Poetry.