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Photographic Lantern Slide Collection

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Material Information

Title:
Photographic Lantern Slide Collection
Physical Description:
4.50 : (16.00 boxes) ;
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Lantern slides   ( lcsh )
Genre:
ead   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Scope and Content:
Lantern slides have their origins in optical projection devices dating to the seventeenth century, yet their widespread use did not begin until after the advent of the wet collodion photographic process by Frederick Scott Archer in the late 1840s.  As the nineteenth century progressed, lantern slides with photographic images quickly became popular forms of public and private education and entertainment. The Photographic Lantern Slide Collection is a source of visual imagery that spans the world in historical, architectural, cultural and agricultural subjects.  It represents one of the most popular categories of lantern slides, travel destinations.  It is international in scope, with scenes varying by locale, as indicated in the container listing. Many of the slides in this collection represent the sacred spaces of the Jewish, Buddhist, Christian and Muslim religions. Popular tourist destinations and historic sites are also prevalent, as are scenes of working people, housing structures, rural agriculture and transportation methods. Documentation pertaining to this collection is limited to information affixed to the slides. Studios, manufacturers and retailers are identified on printed or handwritten labels, and some slides bear dates ranging from 1902 to 1929.  The hand colorists known as “the Misses Griffith” are identified on a number of slides, yet in most instances, the photographer who took the picture and the date of the negative’s creation are not indicated. Nonetheless, the collection documents the products of a number of photographers, manufacturers, retailers of optical supplies and hand colorists.  The collection is especially notable for its number of hand-colored lantern slides. The bulk of photographic lantern slides sold in the United States in the early twentieth century were black and white, products of the wet collodion or a gelatine photographic process.  Hand coloring required additional skilled labor, space and tools, and delayed the mass production of the slides.  Its relationship to painting on china and glass meant that women often performed the skilled labor.  Transparent oil paints, aniline dyes or watercolors were most frequently used in the process, the slides sometimes baked in an oven to set the paint layers prior to subsequent pigment applications.  While the earliest hand-colored slides required the painter’s experimentation with different pigments and dyes, by the early twentieth century, paint manufacturers produced sets of colors specifically designed for slide lantern use.url=#_ftn11/url Once the photographic image was ready for assembly, the binders often applied a gummed opaque paper border (called a mask) to the glass negative and then topped it with a clear glass cover.  They then placed the two pieces of glass into a binding clamp and bound them together with gummed paper tape.url=#_ftn22/url  Slides could then be individually sold or grouped into thematic sets, placed in grooved boxes, and distributed. Originally housed in the wooden boxes associated with glass negatives, the majority of the slides bearing the labels of individual manufacturers and studios, the Photographic Lantern Slide Collection is representative of such commercial sales. In the early twentieth century, various American companies sold thematic slide lecture sets.  The Keystone View Company (1892-1963), founded by the amateur photographer B.L. Singley in Meadville, Pennsylvania, was one of the largest commercial suppliers.url=#_ftn33/url The McAllister family was another leader in the magic lantern business, establishing operations in Philadelphia by 1846 and in New York by 1866.  Trading under the name McAllister-Keller Co., Inc. from 1917, the company continued to offer lantern slides and other supplies until 1942.url=#_ftn44/url  The photographer John Duer Scott and the colorist Edward Van Altena joined forces to create a New York-based business in 1904.  Riley Optical was a British company specializing in slide and lantern manufacturing, which opened a New York branch by 1895.  Williams, Brown and Earle primarily sold laboratory supplies and optical equipment, but also produced lantern slide sets. The manufacturers, retailers, photographers, studios or colorists identified in this collection are: Beseler Lantern Slide Company, 131 East 23suprd/sup Street, New York Brown and Dawson, Stamford, Connecticut Detroit Publishing Company, Detroit, Michigan C. H. Graves Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Misses Griffith (colorists), New York, New York A. D. Handy, Boston, Massachusetts Joseph Hawkes, 108 Fulton Street, New York, New York Milton R. Holmes (photographer), Pennsylvania W. C. Ives, New York, New York Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pennsylvania Chas. W. Kimble, Trenton, New Jersey T. H. McAllister-Keller Co., Inc., New York, New York Moore, Bond & Company, Chicago, Illinois William Herman Rau, 1324 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Riley Optical, New York, New York John Duer Scott (photographer), New York, New York Scott and Van Altena, 59 Pearl Street, New York, New York Underwood and Underwood, Washington, D. C. Edward Van Altena, 71-79 West 45supth/sup Street, New York, New York Williams, Brown & Earle, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania In most instances, the maker’s identification labels do not distinguish professions of the named entities, although the Misses Griffith are clearly indicated as hand colorists operating out of New York City.  The street addresses listed above reflect identification printed on the commercial paper labels.  In some instances, additional research revealed city or state of operation. Slide lantern manufacturers also sold instruction manuals and mass-produced kits intended for amateur photographers, teachers, organizations, and educational institutions. Such kits included light sensitive lantern glass, clear cover glass, gummed paper masks, binding tape, and grooved wooden boxes for safe storage.  Museums, schools and universities frequently created their own lantern slides for educational use.  Photographic clubs emerged in American cities, offering lantern slide lectures and organizing slide exchanges.  The slides in this collection that lack manufacturer, retailer or studio labels may be the products of such non-commercial endeavors. Lantern slides created a new way to view both commercial and amateur photography.  While the earliest photographic methods required an intimate viewership, the projection capabilities of the magic lantern allowed for a sizable audience.  In the United States, the greatest impact of lantern slides was as a didactic tool and a form of entertainment.url=#_ftn55/url  Photographic lantern slides reached the peak of their popularity during the first third of the twentieth century, and dramatically impacted the development of animation technologies as well as visual-based education methods in fields such as anthropology, art history, and geography.  As new photographic films emerged in the 1930s and 1940s, magic lantern shows became a rarity and ultimately obsolete. url=#_ftnref11/url John A. Tennant, ed.  iThe Photo-Miniature: A Magazine of Photographic Information/i 7:83 (Nov. 1907), 501-539. url=#_ftnref22/url Hasluck, 129-132. url=#_ftnref33/url Shepard, “The Magic Lantern Slide,” 105.  The company was purchased by the Mast Development Company in 1963. url=#_ftnref44/url David Robinson, et al., editors.  iEncyclopaedia of the Magic Lantern  /i(London: The Magic Lantern Society, 2001),181-2. url=#_ftnref55/url Shepard, “The Magic Lantern Slide,” 91.
Preferred Citation:
Photographic Lantern Slide Collection, Special Collections Department, Tampa Library, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
Fragile materials served by appointment.  Gloves required.  The contents of this collection may be subject to copyright.  Visit the United States Copyright Office's website at [url=http://www.copyright.gov/%C2%A0]http://www.copyright.gov/[/url] for more information.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - L07
usfldc handle - u29.218-l07-ead
System ID:
SFS0032033:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text
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eadid encodinganalog 856$u mainagencycode US-FTS countrycode US identifier ArchonInternalCollectionID:256 L07
filedesc
titlestmt
titleproper 245 Guide to the Photographic Lantern Slide Collection
type filing Photographic Lantern Slide Collection
author 245$c Finding Aid Authors: Susan Klinkenberg; Keli Rylance.
publicationstmt
p © Copyright 2013 USF Tampa Library Special & Digital Collections. All rights reserved.
address
addressline 4202 East Fowler Ave.
LIB122
Tampa, FL, 33620-5400
URL: http://www.lib.usf.edu/
Email: rbernard@usf.edu
Phone: 813-974-1622
Fax: 813-396-9006
profiledesc
creation 500 This finding aid was encoding in EAD by Archon 3.21 from an SQL database source on date encoded normal 2013-02-04 February 4th, 2013.
langusage 546 The collection description/finding aid is written in language 041 langcode eng English
frontmatter
titlepage
Guide to the Photographic Lantern Slide Collection
19021929 260$c 1902/1929
publisher 260$b USF Tampa Library Special & Digital Collections
archdesc level collection inventory
did
head Overview of the Collection
unittitle label Collection Title Photographic Lantern Slide Collection unitdate Dates 245$f inclusive 1902-1929
unitid 035 Identification repositorycode L07
physdesc Physical Description extent 300 Linear Feet 4.50
Alternate Extent Statement 300$a 16.00 boxes
langmaterial Language of Materials
English
repository 852$b Repository
corpname USF Tampa Library Special & Digital Collections
4202 East Fowler Ave.
LIB122
Tampa, FL, 33620-5400
URL: http://www.lib.usf.edu/
Email: rbernard@usf.edu
Phone: 813-974-1622
Fax: 813-396-9006
note Note
Other Information:
ready
Additional information may be found at usfldc:U29-00218-L07
!--COLLECTION LEVEL METADATA: --
bioghist altrender Administrative History 545 Administrative History:
The history of the lantern slide has its origins in seventeenth-century optical viewing devices which came to be known as magic lanterns.  The earliest slides for magic lanterns consisted of hand-painted images on glass, projected by itinerant showmen to amuse their audiences.extref linktype simple show embed actuate onrequest href #_ftn1 [1]  In 1849, about ten years after the invention of photography, lantern slides began to be produced photographically.  Rapid improvements in photographic reproduction methods and more effective projection illuminants sparked the increased popularization of magic lantern slides.
In the United States, magic lantern shows were especially popular in formal education settings.  From the 1850s, following the lead of the Philadelphia-based Langenheim Brothers, a growing number of slide manufacturers retained stock collections of negatives from which lantern slides could be produced, assembled into thematic boxed sets, and sold to consumers, including universities, companies, clubs and other social organizations.#_ftn2 [2]
The vast majority of these commercial lantern slides were black-and-white positive images, created with the wet collodion or a dry gelatine process.  Slide lantern photographers made either contact or reduction prints.  They made contact prints by placing a negative over a piece of light-sensitive lantern glass and then developing the image by exposure under controlled light.  For a reduction print, the photographer affixed the negative to a window with a clear view, and photographed the illuminated negative directly onto the light-senstive lantern glass with a camera.#_ftn3 [3]  After the completion of the photographic process, slide makers often affixed a paper border to the lantern glass, covered it with a clear piece of protective glass, and then bound the glass sandwich together with tape.  The paper borders often bore printed identification of the commercial studio.  Less frequently, manufacturers employed professional colorists to apply pigment washes to the lantern glass image prior to labeling and binding.
In the 1930s and 1940s, less expensive film-based transparencies replaced glass lantern slides.  Commercial glass lantern slide firms and photographic studios disappeared or adapted to the new medium of 35 mm slides.
#_ftnref1 [1] John Barnes.  emph render italic Catalogue of the Collection Part 2: Optical Projection, The History of the Magic Lantern from the 17super th to the 20th Century (St. Ives, Cornwall: Barnes Museum of Cinematography, 1970), 27-29.
#_ftnref2 [2] Elizabeth Shepard.  The Magic Lantern Slide in Entertainment and Education, 1860-1920.  History of Photography 11: 2 (April-June 1987), 91.
#_ftnref3 [3] Paul N. Hasluck.  Optical Lanterns and Accessories: How to Make and Manage Them, Including Instructions on Making Slides (London: Cassell & Company, Ltd., 1901), 133-139.
!-- CONTROLLED ACCESS SUBJECT TERMS
controlaccess
Access Terms
This Collection is indexed under the following controlled access subject terms.
Topical Term:
subject 650 source lcsh Lantern slides
END
ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION
descgrp
Administrative Information
acqinfo 541
Acquisition Information:
Donation
accessrestrict 506
Conditions Governing Access:
Fragile materials served by appointment.  Gloves required.  The contents of this collection may be subject to copyright.  Visit the United States Copyright Office's website at http:www.copyright.gov%C2%A0 http://www.copyright.gov/ for more information.
prefercite 524
Preferred Citation:
Photographic Lantern Slide Collection, Special Collections Department, Tampa Library, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
arrangement 351
Arrangement of Materials:
The slides have been issued inventory numbers; for item level description see printed document with the collection.
scopecontent
Scope and Contents
Lantern slides have their origins in optical projection devices dating to the seventeenth century, yet their widespread use did not begin until after the advent of the wet collodion photographic process by Frederick Scott Archer in the late 1840s.  As the nineteenth century progressed, lantern slides with photographic images quickly became popular forms of public and private education and entertainment.
The Photographic Lantern Slide Collection is a source of visual imagery that spans the world in historical, architectural, cultural and agricultural subjects.  It represents one of the most popular categories of lantern slides, travel destinations.  It is international in scope, with scenes varying by locale, as indicated in the container listing. Many of the slides in this collection represent the sacred spaces of the Jewish, Buddhist, Christian and Muslim religions. Popular tourist destinations and historic sites are also prevalent, as are scenes of working people, housing structures, rural agriculture and transportation methods.
Documentation pertaining to this collection is limited to information affixed to the slides. Studios, manufacturers and retailers are identified on printed or handwritten labels, and some slides bear dates ranging from 1902 to 1929.  The hand colorists known as the Misses Griffith are identified on a number of slides, yet in most instances, the photographer who took the picture and the date of the negatives creation are not indicated. Nonetheless, the collection documents the products of a number of photographers, manufacturers, retailers of optical supplies and hand colorists.  The collection is especially notable for its number of hand-colored lantern slides.
The bulk of photographic lantern slides sold in the United States in the early twentieth century were black and white, products of the wet collodion or a gelatine photographic process.  Hand coloring required additional skilled labor, space and tools, and delayed the mass production of the slides.  Its relationship to painting on china and glass meant that women often performed the skilled labor.  Transparent oil paints, aniline dyes or watercolors were most frequently used in the process, the slides sometimes baked in an oven to set the paint layers prior to subsequent pigment applications.  While the earliest hand-colored slides required the painters experimentation with different pigments and dyes, by the early twentieth century, paint manufacturers produced sets of colors specifically designed for slide lantern use.[1]
Once the photographic image was ready for assembly, the binders often applied a gummed opaque paper border (called a mask) to the glass negative and then topped it with a clear glass cover.  They then placed the two pieces of glass into a binding clamp and bound them together with gummed paper tape.[2]  Slides could then be individually sold or grouped into thematic sets, placed in grooved boxes, and distributed. Originally housed in the wooden boxes associated with glass negatives, the majority of the slides bearing the labels of individual manufacturers and studios, the Photographic Lantern Slide Collection is representative of such commercial sales.
In the early twentieth century, various American companies sold thematic slide lecture sets.  The Keystone View Company (1892-1963), founded by the amateur photographer B.L. Singley in Meadville, Pennsylvania, was one of the largest commercial suppliers.[3] The McAllister family was another leader in the magic lantern business, establishing operations in Philadelphia by 1846 and in New York by 1866.  Trading under the name McAllister-Keller Co., Inc. from 1917, the company continued to offer lantern slides and other supplies until 1942.#_ftn4 [4]  The photographer John Duer Scott and the colorist Edward Van Altena joined forces to create a New York-based business in 1904.  Riley Optical was a British company specializing in slide and lantern manufacturing, which opened a New York branch by 1895.  Williams, Brown and Earle primarily sold laboratory supplies and optical equipment, but also produced lantern slide sets.
The manufacturers, retailers, photographers, studios or colorists identified in this collection are:
Beseler Lantern Slide Company, 131 East 23rd Street, New York
Brown and Dawson, Stamford, Connecticut
Detroit Publishing Company, Detroit, Michigan
C. H. Graves Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Misses Griffith (colorists), New York, New York
A. D. Handy, Boston, Massachusetts
Joseph Hawkes, 108 Fulton Street, New York, New York
Milton R. Holmes (photographer), Pennsylvania
W. C. Ives, New York, New York
Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pennsylvania
Chas. W. Kimble, Trenton, New Jersey
T. H. McAllister-Keller Co., Inc., New York, New York
Moore, Bond & Company, Chicago, Illinois
William Herman Rau, 1324 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Riley Optical, New York, New York
John Duer Scott (photographer), New York, New York
Scott and Van Altena, 59 Pearl Street, New York, New York
Underwood and Underwood, Washington, D. C.
Edward Van Altena, 71-79 West 45th Street, New York, New York
Williams, Brown & Earle, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
In most instances, the makers identification labels do not distinguish professions of the named entities, although the Misses Griffith are clearly indicated as hand colorists operating out of New York City.  The street addresses listed above reflect identification printed on the commercial paper labels.  In some instances, additional research revealed city or state of operation.
Slide lantern manufacturers also sold instruction manuals and mass-produced kits intended for amateur photographers, teachers, organizations, and educational institutions. Such kits included light sensitive lantern glass, clear cover glass, gummed paper masks, binding tape, and grooved wooden boxes for safe storage.  Museums, schools and universities frequently created their own lantern slides for educational use.  Photographic clubs emerged in American cities, offering lantern slide lectures and organizing slide exchanges.  The slides in this collection that lack manufacturer, retailer or studio labels may be the products of such non-commercial endeavors.
Lantern slides created a new way to view both commercial and amateur photography.  While the earliest photographic methods required an intimate viewership, the projection capabilities of the magic lantern allowed for a sizable audience.  In the United States, the greatest impact of lantern slides was as a didactic tool and a form of entertainment.#_ftn5 [5]  Photographic lantern slides reached the peak of their popularity during the first third of the twentieth century, and dramatically impacted the development of animation technologies as well as visual-based education methods in fields such as anthropology, art history, and geography.  As new photographic films emerged in the 1930s and 1940s, magic lantern shows became a rarity and ultimately obsolete.
[1] John A. Tennant, ed.  The Photo-Miniature: A Magazine of Photographic Information 7:83 (Nov. 1907), 501-539.
[2] Hasluck, 129-132.
[3] Shepard, The Magic Lantern Slide, 105.  The company was purchased by the Mast Development Company in 1963.
#_ftnref4 [4] David Robinson, et al., editors.  Encyclopaedia of the Magic Lantern  (London: The Magic Lantern Society, 2001),181-2.
#_ftnref5 [5] Shepard, The Magic Lantern Slide, 91.
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The slides have been issued inventory numbers; for item level description see printed document with the collection.
506
Fragile materials served by appointment.  Gloves required.  The contents of this collection may be subject to copyright.  Visit the United States Copyright Office's website at [url=http://www.copyright.gov/%C2%A0]http://www.copyright.gov/[/url] for more information.
2 520
Lantern slides have their origins in optical projection devices dating to the seventeenth century, yet their widespread use did not begin until after the advent of the wet collodion photographic process by Frederick Scott Archer in the late 1840s.  As the nineteenth century progressed, lantern slides with photographic images quickly became popular forms of public and private education and entertainment. The Photographic Lantern Slide Collection is a source of visual imagery that spans the world in historical, architectural, cultural and agricultural subjects.  It represents one of the most popular categories of lantern slides, travel destinations.  It is international in scope, with scenes varying by locale, as indicated in the container listing. Many of the slides in this collection represent the sacred spaces of the Jewish, Buddhist, Christian and Muslim religions. Popular tourist destinations and historic sites are also prevalent, as are scenes of working people, housing structures, rural agriculture and transportation methods. Documentation pertaining to this collection is limited to information affixed to the slides. Studios, manufacturers and retailers are identified on printed or handwritten labels, and some slides bear dates ranging from 1902 to 1929.  The hand colorists known as the Misses Griffith are identified on a number of slides, yet in most instances, the photographer who took the picture and the date of the negatives creation are not indicated. Nonetheless, the collection documents the products of a number of photographers, manufacturers, retailers of optical supplies and hand colorists.  The collection is especially notable for its number of hand-colored lantern slides. The bulk of photographic lantern slides sold in the United States in the early twentieth century were black and white, products of the wet collodion or a gelatine photographic process.  Hand coloring required additional skilled labor, space and tools, and delayed the mass production of the slides.  Its relationship to painting on china and glass meant that women often performed the skilled labor.  Transparent oil paints, aniline dyes or watercolors were most frequently used in the process, the slides sometimes baked in an oven to set the paint layers prior to subsequent pigment applications.  While the earliest hand-colored slides required the painters experimentation with different pigments and dyes, by the early twentieth century, paint manufacturers produced sets of colors specifically designed for slide lantern use.[url=#_ftn1][1][/url] Once the photographic image was ready for assembly, the binders often applied a gummed opaque paper border (called a mask) to the glass negative and then topped it with a clear glass cover.  They then placed the two pieces of glass into a binding clamp and bound them together with gummed paper tape.[url=#_ftn2][2][/url]  Slides could then be individually sold or grouped into thematic sets, placed in grooved boxes, and distributed. Originally housed in the wooden boxes associated with glass negatives, the majority of the slides bearing the labels of individual manufacturers and studios, the Photographic Lantern Slide Collection is representative of such commercial sales. In the early twentieth century, various American companies sold thematic slide lecture sets.  The Keystone View Company (1892-1963), founded by the amateur photographer B.L. Singley in Meadville, Pennsylvania, was one of the largest commercial suppliers.[url=#_ftn3][3][/url] The McAllister family was another leader in the magic lantern business, establishing operations in Philadelphia by 1846 and in New York by 1866.  Trading under the name McAllister-Keller Co., Inc. from 1917, the company continued to offer lantern slides and other supplies until 1942.[url=#_ftn4][4][/url]  The photographer John Duer Scott and the colorist Edward Van Altena joined forces to create a New York-based business in 1904.  Riley Optical was a British company specializing in slide and lantern manufacturing, which opened a New York branch by 1895.  Williams, Brown and Earle primarily sold laboratory supplies and optical equipment, but also produced lantern slide sets. The manufacturers, retailers, photographers, studios or colorists identified in this collection are: Beseler Lantern Slide Company, 131 East 23[sup]rd[/sup] Street, New York Brown and Dawson, Stamford, Connecticut Detroit Publishing Company, Detroit, Michigan C. H. Graves Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Misses Griffith (colorists), New York, New York A. D. Handy, Boston, Massachusetts Joseph Hawkes, 108 Fulton Street, New York, New York Milton R. Holmes (photographer), Pennsylvania W. C. Ives, New York, New York Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pennsylvania Chas. W. Kimble, Trenton, New Jersey T. H. McAllister-Keller Co., Inc., New York, New York Moore, Bond & Company, Chicago, Illinois William Herman Rau, 1324 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Riley Optical, New York, New York John Duer Scott (photographer), New York, New York Scott and Van Altena, 59 Pearl Street, New York, New York Underwood and Underwood, Washington, D. C. Edward Van Altena, 71-79 West 45[sup]th[/sup] Street, New York, New York Williams, Brown & Earle, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania In most instances, the makers identification labels do not distinguish professions of the named entities, although the Misses Griffith are clearly indicated as hand colorists operating out of New York City.  The street addresses listed above reflect identification printed on the commercial paper labels.  In some instances, additional research revealed city or state of operation. Slide lantern manufacturers also sold instruction manuals and mass-produced kits intended for amateur photographers, teachers, organizations, and educational institutions. Such kits included light sensitive lantern glass, clear cover glass, gummed paper masks, binding tape, and grooved wooden boxes for safe storage.  Museums, schools and universities frequently created their own lantern slides for educational use.  Photographic clubs emerged in American cities, offering lantern slide lectures and organizing slide exchanges.  The slides in this collection that lack manufacturer, retailer or studio labels may be the products of such non-commercial endeavors. Lantern slides created a new way to view both commercial and amateur photography.  While the earliest photographic methods required an intimate viewership, the projection capabilities of the magic lantern allowed for a sizable audience.  In the United States, the greatest impact of lantern slides was as a didactic tool and a form of entertainment.[url=#_ftn5][5][/url]  Photographic lantern slides reached the peak of their popularity during the first third of the twentieth century, and dramatically impacted the development of animation technologies as well as visual-based education methods in fields such as anthropology, art history, and geography.  As new photographic films emerged in the 1930s and 1940s, magic lantern shows became a rarity and ultimately obsolete. [url=#_ftnref1][1][/url] John A. Tennant, ed.  [i]The Photo-Miniature: A Magazine of Photographic Information[/i] 7:83 (Nov. 1907), 501-539. [url=#_ftnref2][2][/url] Hasluck, 129-132. [url=#_ftnref3][3][/url] Shepard, The Magic Lantern Slide, 105.  The company was purchased by the Mast Development Company in 1963. [url=#_ftnref4][4][/url] David Robinson, et al., editors.  [i]Encyclopaedia of the Magic Lantern  [/i](London: The Magic Lantern Society, 2001),181-2. [url=#_ftnref5][5][/url] Shepard, The Magic Lantern Slide, 91.
524
Photographic Lantern Slide Collection, Special Collections Department, Tampa Library, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
541
c Donation
d 1995
650
Lantern slides
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?u29.218-l07-ead