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COLLIER COUNTY TRANSPORTATION DISADVANTAGED SYSTEM EVALUATION AND ENHANCEMENT STUDY Tccbnical Memorandum No. 3: Operations Analysis
COLLIER COUNTY TRANSPORTATION DISADVANTAGED SYSTEM EVALUATION AND ENHANCEMENT STUDY Technical Memorandum No.3: Operations Analysis Prepared for tbe Naples (Collier County) Metropolitan Planning Organization by the Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering U niversity of South Florida i-CUTR February 1995
Naples (Collier County) Metropolitan Planning Organization 2800 North Horseshoe Drive Naples Florida 33942 (813) 643-8300 Project Manager: Jeffory Perry Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB 118 Tampa, Florida 33620 (813) 974-3120 Director: Project Direct or: Project Manager: Project Staff: Reviewer: Gary L. Brosch Rosemary G. Mathias R. Benjamin Gribbon Fredalyn Frasier Beverly Ward Joseph Hagge Julee Greer F. Ron Jones
Preface This is the third of three technical memoranda produced by the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUfR) for the Naples (Collier County) Metropolitan Planning Organization, as part of the Collier County Transportation Disadvantaged System Evaluation and Enhancement Study. Technical Memorandum No. I p resents an evaluation of the community transportation coordinator Technical Memorandum No. 2 presents a summary of public input. Technical Memorandum No. 3 presents an analysis of the community Transportation Coordinator's operations. A Final Report will summarize the entire project and suggest recommended actions
Acknowledgments CUTR would like to express its appreciation to the organizations and people who assisted in this task by providing their input or assistance : Florida Deparrmenr ofTransportarion Naples (Collier County) Metropolitan Planning Organizarion Callier Caunty Transporration Disadvantaged Local Coordinating Board TECH of Collier County, Inc.
Table ofCo ptepts Introduction ................. . ........ ................ ........... . ....... 1 Overview ofT as k 3 ..... ................ ............................. 2 Operations Analysis ..... .................. ................................... 3 Registrat ion Process ... . . ......... ...................................... 3 Reserva t ions Process ........ ... ... . ........ ......................... 3 Scheduling and Routing P roces s ............................ ..... . ........ 5 T rip Denials ............... . .... .... ............................. . . 7 Potential Software Improvements ..... ... ........... ................. . 1 4 Software Recommendations .... .............. ..................... . 16 Demograp hic, Origin and Des tination Anal ysis ........ .......... ........... . . 20 T ransportation Disadvantaged Popu latio n . .............................. 20 T rip Origin and Destination Analysis .... ...... ............ . . . ...... 24 Trip Locations Compared t o Population ........ . ................... .... 28 Fixed Ro u tes .... ............................. .................. . .... 33 Immokalee Bus Route ......................... : ................. . . 33 Potential for Offering F ixedRo ute Type Service in Nap les .... . . . . ... ....... 36 Funding ....... .......................... . ........................ ... 39 Re c ommenda t ions .. ..... . ........................ . ................ 41 Endnotes ................. ..................................... ...... 42 Append i x A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Table I Table2 Tab le 3 Tab le 4 Table 5 Table 6 Figure I Figure2 Figure 3 Figure 4 F i gure 5 Figure6 Li s t ofTable s Reasons for T rip De n ials ................................ ........ . 9 Purpose of Trips Denied ... . ............................ : . . .... 13 General Overview of Sel ecte d Paratransit Software Providers ...... . ...... 18 Paratransit Software and Se l ected CTCs ........... ................ 1 9 Highes t C o ncentra t ions of T arget Populations ..... ... . .... .... ..... 25 Most Common Origins and Destinations in Samp le .................. . . 31 Li s t of Figure s Concentration of Senior Cit izens .................. ...... .......... 21 Co n centration of Per s ons with Disabil i ties ..... ....................... 22 Concentration of Low I ncom e Households ............................ 23 Cornmwtity T r ansportatio n Orig ins and Destinations ........ ...... .... . 29 Concentration of Trips by Censu s T r act .............................. 30 Trip Locations Compared to Targ e t Popula tion ... .... .... .... ..... 32
Introduction In August 1990, the Collier County Local Coordinating Board (LCB) recommended the Training and Educational Center for the Handicapped (TECH), Inc. to the Naples (Collier County) Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) as the Community Transportation Coordinator (CTC) for Collier County: Following the recommendation of the MPO, the Florida Transporta tion Disadvantaged Commission (CTD) entered into a Memorandum of Agreement with TECH to provide services for the transportation disadvantaged (TD) population." TECH has served as the transportation coordinator and service provider since 1991. 'This transportation service is known as Community Transportation. Early in 1994, the MPO contra cted with the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) to conduct a Collier County Trans portation Dis advantaged System Evaluation and Enhancement Study. The primary goals of this study are to detennine how well the cwrent system meets the needs of the transportatio n disadvantaged public and to deve lop alternatives to improve and enhance the system, while ident ifying any opportunities that these enhancements might provide for the general, non-TD, public. The study was recommended following a Transit Feasibility Study conducted in 1993, during which i t was suggested that enhancing the CTC might help to meet some of the need for public transportation. This study includes fo ur tasks. Task I was an evaluation ofTECH as the CTC for Collier County, wh ich was summarized in Technical Memorandum No. l. T ask 2 was the gathering of public input regarding Community Trans portatio n, w hich was summarized in Technical Memorandum No. 2. Task 3 is an analysis of Community Transportat ion's operations and enhancement options, which is summarized in this document. A summary of the entire project will be presented in a final report as required under Task 4. TECH's name was changed in May 1994 to TECH of Collier Co unty,l nc .. The Florida Transportation Disadvantaged Commission was renamed the Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged in 1994. Collier County TD Study I February !995 Center fo r UrbatJ Transportation Research Tech Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis
Overview of Task 3 Task 3 of the Collier County Transportation Disadvantaged System Evaluation and Enhancement Study was designed as an operations and enhancement analysis Whereas Task I evaluated TECH as a ere, and Task 2 gathered public input about community Transportation, Task.3 SllllUDarized in this document, examines several specific aspects of operations, in light of information from the first two tasks. Specifically, this technical memorandum includes the following elements. I. An operations review of: the registration pwcess the reservations process the scheduling and routing process the trip denial process the potential for software improvements software recommendations 2. An analysis of: concentrations of the transportation disadvantaged population trip origins and destinations trip locations compared to population 3. A review of fixed-route service: in Immokalee potential for operating fixed-route type service in funding recommendations Collier County TD Study Te
Operations Analysis As part of the overall operations analysis, CUTR conducted an on-site visit with Community Transportation to analyze current registration, reservations, scheduling, and routing practices. The purpose of the detailed observation was to assess whether there are areas where increased efficiency can be obtained. Indeed, many improvement have since been implemented, as the analysis progressed. Regi s tration Process A recent system enhancement is the automation of the registration application process. As potential clients call in to make reservations on the system, their personal information is entered into the computer at the time of the call. A printed copy of the information is then forwarded to the potential client for review and signature. Once tbe signed application is returned t o C ommunity Transportation and veri fied as eligible tbe application becomes active in the system and the computer automatically assigns a registration number to the new c lient. The reservationist then types an identification card and letter explaining the services and policies of Community Transportation, which is mailed to the new client. The process outlined above has greatly improved the accuracy and completeness of applications received by Community Transportation The tum-around time for an individual to become active in the system is now from one half to two weeks. In cases where a signed application is faxed to the Community Transportation office, reg istratio n could be completed the same day. During that time they are not able to use the TD system, unless they are funded by Medicaid or another program sponsor Another drawback to the on-line preregistration is the e xtended amount of time reservationists are on the phone collecting the necessary client information. As a means of expediting the on-line registration process, brochures should outline the information potential clients need to have available when they call to register for the service. Reservations Process The reservationists handle all trip requests for riders regardless of the type of trip. Currently when reservationists receive calls they are responsible for identify ing the programs (i.e. funding sources) available to each client, understanding restrictions associated with each program, and applying this Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 3 February 1995 CcnJer for Urban Transportation Research
informatio n to the trip that is being 'requested Until FY 1995 the computer software was not programmed to list funding sources. The compute r does not provide any a ddi tional information regarding funding or e l igib i lity criteria, so the appropriate use of funding for each trip is natura ll y dependent upon the reservationists, and their training. An on-line enhancement, such as a verification screen to provide program and funding information, would assist in reducing the potential for human error; however, the current system has not presented much of a problem to date. Some software also is able to test information about the trip requested against funding limitations although these routines are not infallible and would require significant customizing. Strong communication with the client is important when providing paratransit services. Here . the reservation ist is key to the client-provider relationship. The reserv a tionist is the client s principal contact with the service other than the driver. Consequently the reservationists serve as the first point o f information for the c lient. According to the passenger survey Community Transportation's reservation ist s exhibit excellent customer service skills (e.g., courteous knowledgeable, and conscientious) The expansion of reservationists' duties to include inputting fmal applications, assigning identification cards, and updating tbe vehicle maintenance logs during down time is an effective use of m anpower This current m ulti-task arrangement does not appear to interfere with primary call taking duties of the reservationists. As the s c heduling process is currently pr acticed, pick-up times are only rough estimates. Reservationists attempt to make it clear that the stated pick -up time is approximate, but the fact that Community Transportation uses an extended pick-up window between 20 minutes before and 20 minutes after the stated pick-up time is not clear ly communicated to clients on a consistent basis when they make their appoi ntments A specific and realistic pick-up window should be communicated to clients at the tim e a reservation is placed. The public input collected by CUTR in the previous task reflected several of these operational concerns with on-time pick up and on-time arrival, part of which can be attributed to unclear communication with the client. As n oted in Techni cal Memorandum No. 1, good communication with the users should remain an important goal. Al though Community Transportation has had difficulty meeting the current on-time window, the pick-up window should be somewhat shorter. Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis 4 February 199 5 Center for Urban Transportatio n Research
Although not required, each reservationist keeps a daily log of calls taken. Reservationists also handle the cancellations of trips, which appear to be significant in number. In August 1994, reservationists logged 1,114 cancellations, which was approximately 7 percent of the trips scheduled.' Most of these cancellations occur on the day of the trip.> Community Transportation currently requires one-hour prior notice to cancel a trip without the client incwring a penalty. If the cancellation is within one hour of the scheduled pick-up time the trip is considered a no-show and the client is assessed the $5.00 no -show fine The number ofnoshows and cancellations causes a number of problems but is not unusual for paratransit. Staff should continue to work on str ategies to reduce the number of no-shows and cancellations, and increase the amount of notice given for cancellations Marketing and a graduated fme system might belp10 reduce the number of no-shows and cancellations. Many systems use a two-hour notice period for cancellations, after which a late cancel penalty is assessed. Scheduling and Routing Process The scheduling function is the crucial component of the TO delivery system. Enhancements to the scheduling pro cess can result in improved performance measures such as on-time performance, which includes pick-up and drop-off times, and shorter trips for users. As with most scheduling operations, Community Transportation relies heavily on the individual scheduler's knowledge of the system, the physical geography of the area, the drivers and the equipment. The task of compiling daily reservation s is daunting. The customized computer system developed by Community Transportation has provided some assistance in streamlining the scheduling process. Nonetheless, the current process has the scheduler operating nearly beyond the capacity of one individual, frequently creating very long work days.3 Reservationists schedule all eligible one-time trips whe n the reservation is placed, based solely on the req ue sted time and patrons are given an approximate pick-up time and reminded that the actual pick-up time may be minutes.' The scheduler later assigns the trip to a particular tour, and may adjust the schedul ed pick-up time by up to 15 minutes.' If the trip time and place proves to be problematic, reservationists will be instructed that similar trips carmot be accommodated in the . Although an ap-proximate pick .. up time is given, the trip is not considered sc -heduled until the scheduler assigns the trip to a vehicle. The scheduler will call the patron i[the scheduled pick-up time needs to be changed by more than IS minutes. Collier County TD Study 5 February 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis
future. Note that if the driver arrives 20 minutes after the scheduled pick-up time and the pick-up was scheduled for 15 later than it was reserved for the actual pick-up would be 35 minutes later than the agreed approximate pick-up time. This would contribute to negative perceptions regarding on time performance. Req uests for subscription trips are recorded by the reservationists and given to the scheduler to fit into the standing schedule (or deny the trip if it cannot be accommodated). The re servationists call the patron with the scheduled pick-up time. Reservations are accepted in W'ltil I :00 p.m. for the following day and W'ltil4:00 for subsequent days up to 30 days in advance.' Soon thereafter the scheduler begins to develop the trip manifests for the next day. The information entered by the reservationists is sorted by the computer, based on the scheduled pick-up time into a master manifest. This sorted information, in the form of a printout, includes the standing-order and the random trips on which the manifest is based." The scheduler then eliminates all the advance cancellations that were called in prior to and throughout that day: As the fmal step of the process, the scheduler tries to fit in the one-time trip requests that she was unsure of where to place earlier in the day. Once this is done the scheduler has a manifest reflecting the subscription, one-time, unscheduled will-calls and those unschedu led trips that will be left up to the dispatcher to attempt to work into the schedule the next day. Due to limitations in the way data can be sorted, the scheduler periodically creates worksheets listing all standing orders to help in sc heduling trips. This effort can be eliminated with new reporting capabilities. Although t he current system provides the scheduler with vital trip and appointment information, there are several areas in which software enhancements could increase the efficiency in the scheduling process and development of the trip manifest. Orie on-line enhancement that would prove helpful during the actual scheduling would be the ability to view multiple screens. The current system does not provide a toggle function to switch between viewing screens such as the trip ("line item") screen, the route assignment screen, or the c ustomer menu. Similar ly the curren t system does not allow the reservatio nist to pull down detailed address information from the client file or a .. In tile fall of 1994, tile hours during which reservations are acce pted was extended from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. except for trips the following day. Standing order trips are those trips a1so known as subscription, or line-item trips in Community Transportation s terms. Random trips are also known as one-time trips. Collier County TO Study 6 February 1995 Center for Urban -Transportation Research Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis
common address file, which would $peed the reservation process and increase the accuracy of information for drivers and reports Until recently, subscrip tion trips that were canceled before the day of the trip could not b e removed from the schedule until the master manifest had been generated for the next day Although these cancellations had the effect of freeing up room in the schedule for the unscheduled will-calls, they forced the scheduler to work around known cancellations. This process has been recently corrected.' The last step in preparing the trip manifest is to reconcile trip conflicts and riders' needs by updating the fmal route assignment after all the information is compiled into the manifest. Some changes are made by hand after the complete manifest is printed, so some changes may not be reflected in the computer if the manifest is reprinted. Some of the information regarding subscription trips cannot be edited to reflect a temporary change. For example, if someone only occasionally requires a wheelchair, the current trip record does not include a field that would allow this variable information to be noted. The permanent record may include or a Y or N to indicate whether a wheelchair is need ed, but that code cannot be changed for just one trip. 'Th erefore, the scheduler must remember that the particular client does or does not need a wheelchair. This information is kept informally as part of the schedulers personal notes and on a self-made scheduling form. Software improvements, discussed later in this section, should address the limitations described above in addition to any other features sought. Trip Denials Community Transportation does not provide every trip that is requested, because of limitations imposed by service rules, eligibility, or capacity. It is useful to track and examine the trips that are denied in order to identi1 why trips are most often denied and where demand most exceeds supply. It is also useful to compare these denials to service actually provided and to any trip priority policies. Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 7 February 1995 for Urban Transportation Research
Community Transportation When a user calls to request a trip, and a reservationist or scheduler determines that the trip cannot be provided, he or she records the request as a trip denial in the computer. Community Transportation staff attempt to record, on the computer, any available information about the denied trip, including all of the same information that is associated with a trip to be provided. To save time of both staff and users, reservationists do not request all the details of trip information if they know the trip cannot provided. Thus, the information available about each trip denial varies with one exception: the reason the trip was denied is always recorded. Trips are denied for a number of reasons; however, most denials are for trips that arc not eligible for funding or would exceed vehicle capacity. The specific reasons trips are denied are recorded as a one-letter code. There are 14 different reason codes, some occurring far more commonly than others. CUTR has grouped these reasons into three major categories: I) the trip or person is not eligible, 2) the trip request does not meet the rules of the program, or 3) one of several forms of capacity constraints prevents the trip. Community Transp ortation had a total of 850 recorded trip denials during FY 1994.' CUTR examined information associated with all of these denials. The reasons these trips were denied are listed in Table I, grouped by category, along with the code and the number of trips denied for each reason. These FY 1994 trip denials are discussed by category. Trip Requests That Do Not Meet Program Rules Trip requests that did not meet the program rules accounted for just over one-third of all trips denied. Most of these denied trips were reques ted by eligible riders after I :00 p.m. for the following day (especially for the following morning), after the scheduling process had begun. Those that call after the cut-off t i me (I :00 p.m.) for a trip the following day are informed that they cannot reserve a ride, but if they call the following morning the trip might be inserted if the schedule permits. The uncertainty of getting the desired ride cncoursges advance reservations. Medical trips, which are given the highest priority, almost always can be worked in. The proportion of trips denied because of the cut-off time is expected to decrease with the new 4:00 p.m. cut-off time. Collier County TO Study Tec h Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis 8 February 1995 Cenler for Urban Transporlation Research
Table 1 Reasons for Trip Denials FY 1994 Code Reason Number T rip Request Does Not Meet Program Rules (37% ) A Called after cutoff time for scheduling trips 266 I Person is a chronic "no-show" 28 J Person requires emergency medical attenlion 2 M Safety risk 1 N Non-medical same-day request 18 Person o r Trip Not Eligible (12%) B Person resides outside of service area 9 D Perso n does not meet elig ibility criteria 56 E Trip Tequesled out of service a1ea 40 Capacity Constra i nts (5 1%) c Person refuses to reschedule at a more efficient time 40 F Availabl e vehicl e already filled 294 G No vehicle avail ab l e a t time a n d place requested 82 H No funding available for trip 14 K Vehicle out of service 0 L No driver available 0 Source: Community Transportation Some trips are denied to passengers that are curre ntly suspended from service due to a high number of no-show s or unpaid no-show fines A lthou gh the passengers u sually are aware that they are suspended, others who call to reserve trips for them are no t a l ways aware that the person has been suspended. The se no-show denials account for only 3 pe rce nt of denied trips. A very small number of trips (3) are deni e d because the rider requires emergency medical atte n tion (i.e. an ambulance) or the trip cannot be provided safely given the staff, equipment, and level of Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 9 February 1995 Cenler for Urban Transporlalion Research
serVice provided (e.g., no wheelchair access to rider's home). Some denials are requested for non medical same-day service. Person or Trip Not Eligible Twelve percent of trip denials are cases where the passenger or the trip requested was not eligible for service. Most or these are requests from individuals who are not eligible under any program but request a trip anyway. Given that Community Transportation provided more than 137,000 trips during FY 1994, this of trip denials is surprising low (I percent), and suggests that efforts to disseminate infonnation about program eligibility requirements for the program should be continued through a variety of means. Apparently, most who call to regis ter are eligible or do not request a trip once they learn that services are not available to them (at subsi dized rates)." Other trip denials related to eligibility have to do with the service area. A few trip denials are for people who do not reside in Collier C'ounty and, therefore, are not eligible. More denials come from those who are eligible under a program, but the program will no t sponsor the out-of-county trips requested. Community Transportation does not provide out-of-county "non-sponsored" trips under the TD Trust fund. Combined, these service area denials amount to only 6 percent of trip denials. Capacity Constraints Half of all trips denied are due to insufficient capacity or funding to provide the amount of service demanded. At Community Transportation, most trip denials in this category are associated with unavailable or full vehicles, indicating that TECH manages supply by making available just enough vehicles and drivers, so that if an eligible trip can fit into the schedule, it will be provided. In contrast, some community transportation coord inators set a cap on the number of trips provided in a given period, or provide trips until funding (e.g., tl1e TD Trust-Fund grant) runs out. This practice requires careful planning to avoid artificially constrainin g service, but seems to fit a general po lic y of maximizing cost-effective service by putting as many trips into the schedule as possible. Technical Memorandum No. I discussed the relationship between this practice and onSection 18 funding requires that service be available to the general public. Membc.rs of the general publ ic that do not meet any of the program criteria for subsidized transportation may ride by paying the full fare of$ J. 73 per mile. To date, no one has requested rides at this rate. Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No. J: Operations Analysis 10 February 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
time performance, which are common irade-offs. This practice also may result in a tendency to deny inefficient trips, as routing patterns become established based on the majority of trip requests It is also possible for a set of potentially efficient trips to appear indivi dually as inefficient because routes have become established based on older trip patterns (these issues are also discussed under Scheduling and Routing Process and under Location ofT rip Denials). The breakdown of capacity based trip denials is discussed below. The largest set of trips denied are trips that were eligible, but the available vehicl e (in the area at the approximate time requested) was full (i.e., every seat was filled) Such constraints usually are the result of group trips. In these cases, no other vehicle was available to pick up those patrons that could not fit on tbe most appropriate vehicle. This scenario accounts for 35 percent of all trips denied, the greatest single reason for trip denials. For a number of denials, no vehicle was available at the time and place requested. If the vehicle tours (routes) are generally static this denial may be permanent. Some trips are denied because the patron was unable or unwilling to reschedule at a more efficient time, meaning that no vehicle was available in the area at the time the patron requested, but would be availab l e in the area at another tim e. Patrons are asked if they can reschedule for this more efficient time, and if they cannot, the request is recorded as a trip denial. Patrons are i nformed if the situation seems to be permanent and if there is a time that their request usually could be accommodated. Few trips are denied only because no funding was avai labl e for the trip; more often the rules of the program, eligibility or capacity (based on funding) limit the trip, as discussed above. The specific way in which a Jack of funding alone results in a denied trip varies. In most of these cases, the requested trip would have been a Medicaid trip, but the patron's Medicaid number was not valid.' There are two occurrences that could temporarily constrain service, but did not resulted in trip denials during the reporting period. During FY 1994, there were no trip denials due to a vehicle out of service (for repairs) that would otherwise have been available. There also were no trip denials because of a lack of a driver when a vehicle would otherwise be available for a trip. Patrons without a valid Medicaid nurnber are often eligible under the TO non-sponsored program. but in some cases do oot wish to register. Collier County TO Srudy Tech Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis II February 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
Use and Atturaty of Trip Denial lliformation It is important to recognize that many trip denials may represent multiple trips that could not be provided. The various ways in which service is constrained all discourage attempts to schedule trips that cannot be provided. For this reason, trip denial statistics should not be relied on for an accurate estimate of latent demand. The trip denial codes themselves, as used by Community Transportation, seem to have specific uses and be applied co nsistently. The office manager discusses trip denial codes with reservationists regularly. Although a significant amount of information on trip denials is recorded, it is not easily retrieved. The use of this and other info nnation is limited by the reports that the computer is programmed to generate, a limita tion of the whole system. The report available for this analysis included: passenger status, pick-up date, trip-purpose (if known), and reason for denial. The trip denial file has recently been upgraded to allow staff to obtain additional reports. Purpose of Denied Trips More than half of the denied trips recorded during this period bave a trip purpose identified as shown in Table 2. Two-thirds of all trip denials for whic h the trip purpose is known are for medical trips Th is figure is in proportion to the purposes of trips actually provided, suggesting that trip purpose is not a major factor in trip d enials. Community Transportation does, however, place a priodty on medical trips and endeavors to fit them i nto the schedule if possible. Even with a priority placed on medical trips, there still are medical trips that cannot be provided, reflecting the fact that demand (in FY 1994) exceeded supply even in th is high-priority area: Cross tabulations reveal that medical trips are denied in roughly the same proportions as all trips combined; that is, usually because the available vehicle was full, the patron called too late, no vehicle was available, o r the patron was not eligible.6 Although medicallrips have the highest priority, they are not provided to the eomp1ete exclusion of other eligible trip purposes. Rather, a greater attempt is made to provide medical !tips than low-pr iority trips such as recreation. Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis 12 Februlll)' 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
Table2 Purpose of Trips Denied Code I Reason I Number Known 56% M Medica l 314 w Work 24 D Day Car e 0 s Shopping 39 R Rec r eat ion 39 E Education 10 0 Other 46 Unknown 44% No t rip purp ose spec ified or recorded 378 Sou.ree: CommuDity Transportation Trip Priori t ies Trips are prioritized based on trip purpose, so medi cal trips have priority over shopping and recreation, for example" This prioritization is us u ally applied only to subscription trips, however" If a subscription trip is requested that cannot be fit into the schedule, the scheduler will look for a lower priority trip that can be bumped. With regard to one-time trips if the number of trips requested for a particular day begins to get close to the maximum capacity of the sys tem, the office manager will instruct the reservation ists to stop accepting the l owest priority trips" Additiona l trip purposes may be denied categorically based on the prioritization scale, as needed. The priorities are explained in the brochure distribu ted to passengers, but their are no written procedures for how these priorities are a pplied A more specific trip priorit i zation policy should be developed Refer to Guidelines for Devel o ping Trip Pr iority ProcedurtM for NonSponsored Trips Purchased with TD Commission Funds. Center for Urban Transportation Research. Florida Transportation Disadvantaged Comm.ission, Tallahassee, FL; June 1993. Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 13 February 1995 Center for Urban Tra11$portation Research
of Denied T ri p s The origin and destination is recorded for many of the denied trip requests, which makes it possib l e to analyze where trips are being denied. A new report should be developed that lists trip denial s with address informat ion.' These locations should be plotted on a map (this can be through a computerized geograph i c information sys tem or more simp l y by any reservationist or scheduler with pen and map). Because half of all trip denials are the result of capacity constraints related to the availability of vehicl es at a given time and plac e, the visual depiction of where trips are denied would provide insight for rede s igning tours and developing new tours. It may be necessary to redesign t ours if the exist ing routing is t o o strongly based on historic trip demand, even though tours have always been subject t o daily revision based on trip demand. As capacity expands with additional funding, the design of new tours and probably a redesign of existing tours will be necessary. Note that the identified lo cations of denied trip s does not necessarily equate to the actual lo cation of latent demand, only where particular trips have been denied The trip denial locations should be compared to the distribution of the TD population as described under Transportation Disad vantaged Population in this document. The locations of denied trips also may suggest organizations in those areas that could be tar geted for coordination contracts, in o rde r to help mee t demand. Potential Software Improvement s As mentioned in Technic a l Memorandum No. 2, Community Transportation is a data-rich organization Curre n tly, a five-year history of reservat ions is being kept. Additionally Community Transporta tion has begun to compile data on vehicle maintenance, mileage, revenue miles per vehicle, on time performance, trip denials b y type and run s hee ts to illustrate current tours (routes) Useful for means other than reporting purpos es this information provides the basis for the establishment of quality control and p e rformance measures for the organization. Such measures are the first step in assuring efficient use of resources (i.e., personnel equipment, and financial) These measures also provide the necessary trend information needed to monitor Community Transportation's growth and develop its long rang e plans for the system As previously noted, the Community Transportation data are not always accessib l e to the staff that could use and benefi t from it. No such report was available at the-ti.me of the study; this infonnation can also be retrieved manually. Collier County TO Stu d y Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 14 February 1 995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
Although computer technology has generally enhanced the internal operations and the service that Community Transportation provides, the entire system has relied upon outside programming assistance for database management and special report generation, and is functionally limited in terms of its scheduling and dispatching capabilities. These operational areas warrant investigation to determine whether tbe further customization of the existing system or the purchase of"off-the shelf' software would better provide the needed enhancements for the scheduling and dispatching operations, and data management in general. "Off-the shelf" software would involve some amount of custonilzation the trade-oft's include expanded technical support and compatibility with the software applications found in other organi7.ations. Strong consideration should be given to the development of a computer system that makes all of its data accessible and provides staff the individuals most knowledgeable abou t Community Trans portation operations and data the ability to manipulate the database and generate ad hoc and specialized reports to suit thei r needs Very recently, Community Transportation has added a report writer in order to address many of the concerns expressed here and whatever other MIS needs may reqwre. Potential areas for system and software improvement include the following: I. Development of in-house software and database expertise 2. Expansion of computing capability t o include such functions as: Ability to create ad-hoc r eports. Ability to edit trip information to reflect temporary changes. Ability to view multiple screens or windows for scheduling purposes Integrated database structure that better links information to data in other files.' A common address file for efficiency and consistency in reservations. Automated scheduling of trips. Software with geographic capabilities for scheduling, mapping, routing, and analysis with the ability to use real-time information on driver location and pickups. In addition to the operational benefits, an enhanced information system is recomended for and communicating the complex and detailed information available particularly for planning and analyzing transportation Some of the benefits could inclu de cost savings resulting from increased productivity in planning and analysis, increased precision in planning activities, t he ability to interactively asses s the feasibility of more service altemative s, quicker response time for assessing Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 15 February 1995 Cenler for Urban Transportation Research
the implications of service des ign and frequency, and the ability to communica te the results in a format that is readily understood by the public and decision makers The development and maintenance of software with geographic capabilities can be time-consuming and expensive, but is necessary for automated scheduling features. One of the most challenging aspects of using geographic information systems for routing and scheduling is building and maintaining accurate street information for the eowtty, and, with more advanced programs, incl uding more detailed information such as average vehicle speeds. Collier County Public Schools has a lread y built and fine-tuned this i nforma tion, which would greatly r educe po tential costs for Community Transportation if m ade ava ilable. Software Recommendations The process of i ntroducing new technology to a paratransit operation is essentially the same as what is done in any other organization A clear assessment of the organizational operations is critical to the developme n t of an automated service The organization's data ne eds data structure, the flow of information, and how it is used are key issues that mus t be examined and defined. The goal of such an exercise is to ensure that the software application(s) selected are flexible in addressing the data flow within the organization. Careful assessment of future software purchases will help Community Transportation avoid its current "hostage data" environment. There are relatively few "full service" paratransit software applications on the market. Full service in this case refers to applications that address the total operatio n of a paratransit system from aspects of scheduling to vehicle maintenanc e. However, the current software market is rapidly expanding. Many of the packages offer features that can be interfaced with other "off -the-sh elf' software. The increased number of automation options has left many providers wrestling with the issue of how to bes t apply this n ew technology particularly in an economical manner A list of written resources on paratransit software is provided in Appendix A; CUTR h as recommended several of these documents to Community Transportation staff in discussions about software needs. Information on several paratransit software packages available is presented in the tables below. Table 3 outlines basic features most often sough t by paratransit operators. The list is not intended Note that even "off.-the-.shelf'' paratransit software requires some customization in nearl y an cases. More advanced programs are more flexible. minimizing the need for alteration to the program code itself. Collier County TO Study Te
to be all-inclusive; rather, it provides a general overview of available features. Additional informat ion on v endors is listed in Appendix A Table 4 lists several CTCs and vendors that have commercial paratransit software systems. One system with software developed in-house is also provided for comparison. Should Community Transportation pursue up grading its current computer system, the CTCs listed could provide valuable insight into the day-to-day functionality of the software. Also, the Florida Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged is completing a survey of CTCs as part of a comprehensive Management Information System ( MIS) project. The information in that report may be helpful in assisting with the future coordination and/or implementation/develo pment of software for CTCs throughout the state. The following section provides an analysis of demographics and trip origins and destinations Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 17 February 1995 Center for Urban Transportal iOn Research
Tabl e3 G eneral Ove rview o f Sele c te d Paratr a nsit Software Provid ers Fun cti ons Software Ven dor Format Sc hed uling D i spatch in g R outg. Reports GIS Ot her F e atures CTS Softwa r e CTS Manag ement DOS Yes Standa r d Bill ing, Veh. Maint., Payroll CTPSTrip D O S Yes Yes Yes Standard & Yes Pop-up windows, Geocoding Planning System COMSIS Novell Aulomated Custom Yes Yes N o Standard Opt i on B r okeri n g, Medicai d features, I Dispat ch-a-Ri de Muttisystems. I nc. Uni x C ustom-<:>pt. Popup windows, Bill i n g Novell Real -Time Yes Yes Sta n dard Yes Reall i me Brokeri n g, Incident MIDAS C u s tom-<>pt. Tr ack i n g Geocodi n g o p tion WIN Yes Yes Yes Standard Y es Billing & Mgt, Graphica l Easy Trips Easy St r eet Software Some Custom O u tp ut DOS Automated Dispatch W I N Yes Yes Yes S t andard & Yes AVL, Mobile Communication, EMTrack Services, In c U nix Custom Mgt., & Billi n g Yes Stan d ard Opt i on PARRAS4 0 Software DOS Automated No Yes S t a n dard Option PASS On-line Data Products DOS Y e s Yes Yes Custom-opt Pa r a t ransit Sys tems Y es R ides Unli mi ted lnrl Inc. WIN Yes Yes Y e s S tandard Option DOS Scooter Modeling S yste m s WIN Yes No No Standa r d Yes AVL, Vehicle Unix M aintenance Standard AVL, Integrated TRAPEZE-QV UMASystems I nc. DOS Real-time Real -tim e N o & C ustom Y e s Database CTS Software for rural a n d small urba n systems i s for lease only. Key: G I S;Geograph i c Info r mation Systems; Rout g .=Rout i n g functions; Veh.=Ve h i cle; Maint.= M a intenance; Mgt.=Managemen t ; AVL=Automatic Vehi cle Location. Sou r c e : informa t ion as provided by v endors.
Table 4 Paratranslt Software and Selected CTCs CTC Paratranslt Software Greater Pinellas Transportation Management Services Clearwater, FL (813) 462-4751 Easy Trips Manatee County Area Transit Bradenton, FL (813) 747-8621 EMTrack Mid-Florida Community Services Brooksville, FL (904) 799-1510 CTS Space Coast Area Transit Cocoa FL (407) 633 1878 PASS Share-A-Van Tampa, FL (813) 272-5074 COMSIS Trip Planning System Systems Developed In-House Senior Friendship Centers Inc Sarasota FL (813) 957-1878 Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 19 Novell Plalform with dBase 4 February 1 99 S Center for Urban Transportation Research
Demographic. Origin, and Destination Analysis In order to most effectively and efficiently serve the population to which Community Transportation is conunitted, it is useful to study the locations of the transportation disadvantaged (TD) population and the common origins and destinat i ons from and to which they travel. Tran s portation Disadvan taged Population The 1990 U.S. Census of Population provides detailed information on the number of people in distinct areas that fall into certain demographic categories. Although the census does not specifically count the number of people who were tran s portation disadvantaged" or qualified for sponsoring programs infonnation is p rovided at the b lock group level on the number of people in particular age brackets, the nwnber of people having a mobility or self-care limitation (disability) and the number of households within particular income ranges. Using this information we can map the loca t ions in Collier County where the highest numbers of residents live that might be eligible for service on Community Transportation. Severa l specific population categories were examined, including: Persons Aged 65 and older; Persons Aged 16-64 with a mobility or self-care limitation; and Households with income less than $20,000.' The distribution of these special populations is s hown on the map s on the following pages Figure I depicts Collier County broken io to block groups, showing concentrations of residents aged 65 and over. The areas with the darkest shading show the block groups with the highest number of older residents. Figures 2 and 3 show similar maps for persons aged 16-64 with a mobility or self-care limitation and househo l ds with annual income less than $20,000, respectively. The scope calls for the use of t he t990 census in this task. The census ranges ore not always equivailent to T O criteria, hence the particular categories were selected to approximate the target population based on census data ranges available. 11>e use of age 6S (rather than 60) as a lhreshold eliminates double-counting persons in the disabled age 60 range House h olds w i th an. nual income under $20,000 approximates the federal poverty level plus 2S percent (common criteri a for a number of programs), and is also a standard census range. These speciaJ populations approximate the target population served by Community Transportation but shou l d ll2! be used as an estima t e of the tota l eligible population or de mand. Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No. 3 : Operations Analysis 20 February 1995 Center for Urban Tran.tpartallon Research
' Figure 1 Concentration of Senior Citizens Conccnlrations by Age 65 or Over Sol.lCQe: 1990 U S Ccruus Ill Oto SO 0 SOto 90 II 90 to 3 30 330to 4)0 450 to 1930
Figure2 Concentration of Persons with Disabiliti es Concentrations by Disability (Age SoUNe: 1990 lJ, S. CeiUU$ (!) O t o 13 II 13t o 2 4 a '24to 62 6Zto 98 98to290
.... 0 ""' ... .,. = = ., S "' .., ... Cl. ............ ' = "" <>. -"" .... <> Cl ; ... !: Q ... ... Cl' ... u 8Q .o Q. ... ;:; v 0 00\ 8
The maps show that the highest concentrations of these populations are somewhat scattered. In comparing the maps, we also can see that senior, disabled, and lowincome concentrations are unrelated in some areas, and overlap in others. For example, the Gordon Drive area near Naples Bay has a high concentration of seniors but very few low-income or disabled residents. Part of East Naples, however, has very high concentrations of all three special populations. Because we are interested in these population segments as a group, the populations can be combined in order to describe where the Community Transportation target population tends to reside. Table 5 lists the block groups in Collier County with ti)e highest combin .ed total of these special populations. These areas, each containing large numbers of the persons who Community Transportation is designed to serve, are widely scattered around the Naples area in Western Collier County. These areas are located as far north as Palm River (close to Lee County), and as far south as Belle Meade. Other concentrations are scattered among North Naples, East Naples, City of Naples, and Golden Gate. This would tend to make efficient paratransit or fixed routes difficult to design. Most areas in between these high-density areas do contain at least a moderate number of senior, disabled, or low-income residents, improving the potential for efficiency somewhat The common origins and destinations served by Community Transportation are described below, followed by a comparison of these locations to the areas in which Community Transportation's target populations are concentrat ed. Additional demographic information can be found in the Demographic and Economic Profile of Collier County Florida (September 1993). Trip Origin and Destination Analysis An analysis of the locations served by a transportation provider serves several purposes. Most importantly, it serves to create a picture for planners and policy-makers alike, of the service being delivered by the transportation provider. This picture helps in understanding travel pattems, performance measures, and other important issues, by showing how service is distributed within the service area. Compiled by the Collier County Long Range Planning Department. Colli. er County TO Study Tech Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis 24 February 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
TableS Highest Concentrations of Target Populations Block Group Seniors Disabled LowTOTAL Income 1202 1 00041 192 7 75 172 2174 North Naples-North Gulf S h o r e Bou le vard 1202 1 0102035 1619 142 383 2144 North East of Goodlette-Frank Road 1202 1 0101 3 1 455 161 421 2037 Park I Pal m R iver Area 1 20210 106 7 1406 177 440 2023 East Naples East side of Lakewood Boulevard 1202101081 1 496 118 339 1 953 Northwest Le l y (Between Dixie Drive and Rattlesnake Hammoc k 120210105011 935 247 487 1 669 East Davis Boulevard 1202101011 1024 111 254 1389 Palm Rive r of Immoka lee Road between US41 & 175) 120 210105022 10 15 30 303 1348 East Naples West of County Bam Road 120210111011 931 77 323 133 1 Henderson Creek Area (Belle Mead North of Manatee Road) 120210104032 644 175 411 1230 Golden Gate-East of 44t h St & No rth of Community Center 120210105023 750 98 205 1053 East Nap les-E as t n f r:, Bam Road Source: 1990 U.S. Census of Popu lation. Showing the 10 percent of bk>ck groups in Collier County havin g the highest combined population of Persons Aged 65 ancf Over, Person s w ith a Mobility or Self-care Umi l at i o n Aged 16-64, and Households with Annual Less Tha n $20, 000 These 1 1 block groups are al$0 t hose havin g combined special Trip location info rmation may be compared to the target population to see whether se rvice is being provided in the most appropria t e areas, or whether diS1ances between the target populations and their destinat ions i m pact prod uct ivity This information also can help to identify areas that may require routing changes, more serv ice, or modified service. Colli e r County TO Study Tech Memo No 3 : Operations Analysis 25 February 1995 Cemer for Urban Research
Each trip delivered by Community Tiansportation has an origin and a destination. If the trip takes a passenger to an appointment, then the origin is typically home and the destination would be, for example, a doctor's office For the return trip, the origins and destinations would be reversed The methods used to analyze these origins and destinations are described below, followed by findings. Data and Methods A sample of origin and destination data was analyzed.10 Ideally, a sample would be drawn containing complete infonnation for every "nth" day of service (e.g., every fourth day). No existing reports were able to supply the information required for the analysis, and it was necessary for a programmer to create a new subroutine to extract the data in a special report. Unfortunately, because of software limitations, privacy concerns, and the expense of programming time all of the data CUTR preferred could not be provided. As a compromise, every 60th trip was analyzed, resulting in a samp l e of 1,255 records representing 2,253 passenger trips in FY 1994.11 In addition to origin and destination information, other fields were selected to help identify each trip record, and to help confirm origins and destinations during the process of geocoding.12 The trip data were converted into a form usable for analysis geographically where each origin and destination could be interpreted and disp l ayed as a fixed point, or combined in information about an area. Ninety-five percent of the origins and destinations were successfully geocoded. Although a significant number of trips were analyzed, the inability to examine all data recorded for full days limited CUTR's ability to draw conclusions about daily s ervice configurations. Address Data One aspect of the way origin and destinat i o n information is stored is particularly significant. Only one field is used for address information, so that the name of the destination, block number, street orientation (e.g., North) street name, street suffix (e.g., Blvd.), city (if noted), and driver instructions, are all recorded in the same field. These fields should be separated in order to be compatible with new software, computerized geographic-based functions such as automated routing and scheduling, automatic vehicle location (if linked to trip data) and/or for geographic analyses such as that conducted in this study. This would also help in optimizing recordkeeping, program monitoring, and evaluation. At a minimum, specific protocols should be used for addresses (e.g. standard abbreviations) so that data sorts and queries can provide complete reports It is extremely Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis 26 FebruOiy 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
difficult cUJTently to find accwate infonnation on, for example, all trips to "5th Street North". More specific and more consistent address information could be efficiently included by linking trip addresses to the client file and to a common address file.' Sample vs. Query At the time Task 3 of this study was begun, the best option for reporting origin and destination data was a software function that allows the user to query the database for specific locations, and report the n umber of trips to or from that location during a given period. As this query must be done one location at a time and responds only to the exact locat i ons requested, CUTR instead extracted a sample of trips to analyze, as described above. In December 1994, Community Transportation was able to work with its programmer to design a subroutine t o search the database for the most frequently occurring origins and destinations. Because the new query searches all trip records, such queries should more accurately reflect the d i stribution of trips to the most common origins and destinat.ions." The sample of trips extracted for CUT R is b e tter able to reflect the many unique locations served by Community Transportation (although it is not exhaustive). Locations Served Due to the variety of eligibility criteria and sponsoring agencies, Community Transportation could potentially serve virtually every address in Collier County. The locations actually served are more limited. The sample (the information extracted for CUTR) includes more than fou r hundred unique origins and destinations.13 The map shown in Figure 4 depicts Collier County and shows a single point for each unique origin and destination Note that many points cannot be seen due to the heavy clustering ofthese trips in areas such as Naples, Golden Gate, and Immokalee."' This map also shows that trips are also widely scattered. Note that these origins and destinations include both homes and attractors such as medical centers. In many paratransit software programs the trip address iJ\fonnation is inserted automatically by specifying the client or name. Slight variations in spelling and punctuation in the trip addres ses also affect the exact count of trips by location. The comparison of trip locati ons to population concentrations looks more close l y at weste. m Collier Councy, revealing more of the unique trip locations. Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 27 February 1995 Center for Urban T ransportation Research
As geographic data, origins and destiriations in the same area may be grouped to identify the general areas that generate the most trips. The map shown in Figure 5 d epicts the percentage of trips (from the sample) occurring in each census tract. The most heavily shaded tracts have the highest concentrations of origins and destinations. Most Common Origins and Destinations Many of the origins and destinations in the sample account for multiple trips, and some trips include multiple passengers. The origins and destinations in the 1994 sample that accounted for the most passenger trips are shown in Table 6 each representing more than I 00 of the 2,253 passenger trips in the sample. Because the summary of the ten most common origins and destination is based on a sample of trips, it would be useful to confirm this data with counts based on the entire FY 1994 database, only recently possible. Community Transportation staff are now able to accomplish this with the assistance of an addition to the software capabilities. It should be noted that some of the most active locations may be expected to change in FY 1995, as service demand shifts, especially in sponsored programs. Trip Locations Compared to Population In order to better understand the transportation provided as it relates to the areas and populations served it is usefu l to graphical l y compare the origins and destinations served to the areas having the h ighest numbers of the targeted population. The map in Figure 6 displays origins and d esti nations as si ngle points and highlights the block groups having the highest combined target population. The map focuses on western Collier County which has the most locations served and the highest concentrations of the target population." A review of this comparison shows significant volumes of trip activity in North Naples, Golden Gate, South Naples, and East Naples where there are high numbers of elderly, disabled or lowincome persons. The sample included several locations in Immokalee all relatively cJose to block groups with moderat e concentra tions of the target population Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 28 February 1995 for Urban Transportation Research
c 0 "ii _g ... c 0 F '
00000 SS3SS ('( 0\ 0. 000 .... oc>c>OO
Table 6 Most Common Origins and Destinations i n Sample Rank Pass. Trips 1 245 900 Goodlette Road 2 203 3900 Arno l d Aven ue (TECH Nig ht Classes, Job C lub) 3 135 2000 44th Terrace SW. (Golden Gate) 4 121 2500 Horseshoe Drive (Collier Co. Development Services Ctr. ) 5 116 1100 10th Avenue N 6 112 500 Eniss Drive 7 108 2500 Santa Barbara Blvd. 8 102 2500 A irpo rt Road S. 9 101 2200 Santa Barbara Blvd. (Collier Care Club) 10 100 2200 46th Terrace SW. Show\ng the top ten origins and destinations based on number of passengers from a sample of every 60th trip raoord from FY 1994 Addresses shown are hundred blooM (addresses on the same b lock are combined) to maintain privacy. Source: Community Transoortatlon samote. The locations served do not vary as m u ch in some areas despite high numbers of potentially eligible persons, such as Belle Meade, eastern Golden Gate, and the area north oflnunokalee Road west ofl-75. In the Belle Mea de area, the close configuration of roads may allow this population to be served by (or appear to be served by) just a few locations Th e other areas shown with high target populations but few origins and destinations may be attributed to possible WJderuse of Community Transportation by reside nts in these areas or lesser need fo r service (the highlighted areas show target populations rather t han demand). In some of these areas trips may appear because there are resi den ts the re lo generate trips, but there are no services (e.g., medical offices) exist to attract trips creating a need for transportation to other areas. Simi larly, several areas can be seen to include inany trip origins and de stinat ions without very high concentrations .ofthe target population, primarily downtown Naples, parts of East N apl es, just north of the airport and along Tamiami Trail. In these areas goods and services are provided, including government centers and numerous medical facilities. The separation of people and services creates a high demand for transportation, but can impact the design of transportat ion services, including fixed routes, as d iscus sed in the following section. Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 31 February 1995 Center for Urban Transportalion Research
Trip Location s Compa red to Con centrations o f Target Popu lation 0 Trip Origin or Destination U.S. Ce n sus blockgroup of high I t concentration of target population L__
Fixed Routes Community Transpo rtation operates fixed-route bus service in Immokalee. The City ofNaples has no fixed-route public transportation system. It has been suggested, however, that introducing fixed route service in the Naples area might help to meet some of the demand for public transportation. The population that Community Transportation serves-the elderly, low-inco m e, persons with disabilities, and/or children-at-risk who do not have other means of transportation represent persons who depend most on public transportation services. This section discusses the fixed-route service provided in Immokalee and the potential for developing similar strategies elsewhere i n Collier County. Immokalee Bus Route Community Transportation has provided paratransit service in Immokalee since it began serving Collier County. The Immokalee bus route evolved from the paratransit service. In 1993 a major health clinic was moved three miles north oflmmokalee, to the edge oftown. Recognizing the transportation problem that would be created the clinic convinced the Immokalee Foundation (a charitable organization) to fund transportation for the first year. The hospital donated a vehicle. Community T ranspo rtation organized a route to circulate passengers among the medical center, pharmacy, and residences. The route has been modified from time to time. Currently, the Immokalee bus route operates on a fixed sched u le and route .16 Servic e is offered on an hourly basis, from 8:00a.m. to 5:00p.m. weekdays, using a 1988 body-on-chassis school-bus type 24-passenger vehicle. Be c ause of its age and lack of a wheelchair lift, the bus should be replaced with a newer, lift-or rampequipped vehicle that is in compliance with tbe ADA. The Immokalee bus route is open to the general public. The driver records the number of passengers boarding at each stop, but does not collect a fare.' Staff at the Marian E. F ethers Medical Center record information about passengers visiting the center whose trip is eligible for Medicaid reimbursement. Medicaid billing information is submitted to Community Transportation, which bills Medicaid for eligible trips. The rest of the expense to operate the route is subsidized The possibility of oollecting a fare has been discussed by TECH and the local coordinating board, but bas been dismissed. primarily due to concern over the-security of the driver, and the collection costs relative to potential revenue. Collier County TD Srudy Tech Memo No 3: Operations Analysis 33 February 199S Cenler for Urban Transportation Research
by Section 18 funding." Ridership on: the Immokalee bus route continues to grow with more than 30,000 passenger t ri ps prov ided in FY 1994. A D A Requi r ements for Fixed-Routes and Paratransit In its current configuration, the Immokalee bus route meets the federal definition of a fixed route for the purposes of the transportation requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). As an organization operating a fixed-route service for the general public, Community T ransportation must comply with ADA complementary paratransit requirements. ADA paratransit must be made available as a complement to the fixed route for those persons who, because of the nature of their disability are unable to use the fixed-route service: A specific certification process would have to be eslablished (eligibility and certification requirements are very specific). Fixed-route service providers are required to file an ADA Complementary Paratransit Plan with annual upda t es due on January 26th. Community Transportation has not filed a plan, a l though staff members have attended a workshop on how to prepare plans and updates. If the lllUDokalee bus route remains a fixed route, which seems to be an appropriate configuration Community Transportation woul d need to develop an ADA Complementary Paratransit Plan for submission to FDOT. F a ilure to submit a plan could result in a loss of federal funding. The plan must detail how Commun ity Transportation will provide comparable paratransit as a complement to the fixed route There are six specific requirements for ADA complementary para transit: ... I. Service Area: Complementary paratransit must be provided in the area within 3/4 of a mile of the Immokalee bus route (encompassing most of immokalee). Section 18 refers to federal funding made av a ilable through FOOT through Section 18 of the (ntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (JSTEA). Although some TO-eligible passengers may be eligible for ADA complementary paratransit service they are not automatically eligible and must be c<..Ttified through a formal registration process. These specific requirements would not have to be met for non-ADA complementary paratransit service (i.e TO paratransit) in Immokal ee or elsewhere in Collier County. Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 34 February 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
2. Response Time: Requests for ADA complementary paratransit would need to be accepted up unt il the close of business for service the next day, requiring a modification to the ex ist ing reservations process. The scheduled pick-up time would need to be within one hour of the requested pick-up time. 3. Fares: Fares for ADA complementary paratransit cannot be more than double the fixed route fare. Because no fare is charged on the Immokalee bus route, ADA Complementary paratransit would be free. 4. Trip Purpose: Requests for all types of trip purposes must be accomm odated. 5. Hours and Days of Service: Complementary paratransit service must be offered during the same days and times as the fixed-route service. 6. Capacity Constraints: The availability of service for passengers and trips that are eligible for ADA complementary paratransit cannot be constrained; all requests for eligible service must be honored. Because Community Transportation already provides TD paratransit in Immokalee in addition to the fixed-route bus service, it is possible to implement ADA paratransit service with minimal change to the overall system. However, change s would need to be made to the paratransit service in Immok a lee so that it would comply with the ADA requirements listed above. Route Deviation Another approach would be to transform th e fixed-route bus service into a "route deviation" system, in which case ADA complementary paratransit requirem e nts would not apply. Under a route deviation system the bus is allowed to depart several blocks from its assigned route to pick up passengers in response to requests for pick-ups or drop-offs that are off of the normal route. Under this system all passengers would be a ble to request this service, whether or not they have disabilities. This system also would require acquisition of a lift-equipped bus. Presumably, TD paratransit service would continue to be offered for trips that do not coincide with the service area of the bus route or are required for trips into other areas of the county. Collier Counry TO Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 35 February 1995 Cemer for Urban TransportaJion Research
Potential for Offering Fixed-Route Type Service In Naples As part of this study, CUTR also assessed the potential for implementing other fixed-route type services in Collier County as a means of meeting some of the demand for general public transportation and to augment paratransit service. This section discusses several options and limita ti ons for Community Transportation, and includes a recommended course of action. Proposed Fixed Routes Two potential fixed routes have been proposed for the Naples area by Community Transportat ion staff. The proposed routes would connect Coastland M all and Lely, ge ne rally running north/south on Tamiami Trail, and provide a transfer to a route connecti ng Coastland Mall and Golden Gate generally running in a circular fashion. Based on the trip origins and destinations examined in this study and a review of current para transit routing patterns the locations that would be served by the proposed routes generally appear to be targeting the correct areas. As a caveat, however, most c ircular routes do not perform well as passe n gers are unwilling to rid e in a circle which could result in a rather lengthy trip that co u ld have been provided more directly via a more linear route, such as t h e one on Tamiam i Trail. P rior to committing to any major service change, such as the one described here, the county should undertake a formal Trans i t Development Plan (TOP) A TOP includes five main tasks : 11 1. Es tablishing goals and objectives 2. Studying the area's base data (including transit demand and mobility n e eds). 3. Inve n torying transi t providers and evaluating existing service. 4. De velop ing capital improv ement operations, management, and funding plans. 5. Coordinating with other rela te d p l ans and progr ams (e.g., comp rehensive plans). A lthou gh this report contains some o f the elements of a TOP, it was ne ver intended to replace the need for a TOP. P lanni ng monies are available from FOOT to pay for the cost of preparing a TOP. Collier County TO Study Tech Memo No.3: O pe rali ons Analysis 36 February 19 95 Center for Urba n Transportation Research
Potential Replication of the Immokalee Bus Route As part of this study, CUTR was asked to consider whether the Immokalee bus service could be replicated elsewhere in Collier County. Although locally successful, the Immokalee bus route is facing a number of challenges with respect to ADA complementary paratransit requirements and vehicle replacement needs. Several unique aspects of the Immokalee Bus route would prevent its exact replication in the Naples area. First, the Section 18 funding, which subsidizes operatiog costs for rural public transportation service cannot be used in the Naples urbanized area. Second, the up-front capital costs to purchase, lease, or contract for new vehicles may be expensive, unless Section 9 or other federal funds were used to subsidize the purchase of capital equipment." Third a fixed-route serving Naples also would require additional ADA complementary paratransit service which, as in the Immokalee model, would require modifications to existing TD paratransit services. Although Section 18 monies would not be available, Section 9 and other state and federal funds are available after the development ofTDP F unding is further discussed below. Other Options A variety of service op t ions exist that could be considered (either for the Immokalee bus route or for a new service design in the Nap le s area). These models are variations of the basic design and operation of fixed-route and demand-responsivefparatransit services They are each described br i efly. General public dial-a-ride service Service routes/community bus service Route or point deviation service Shuttle service Feeder service General public dial-a-ride service is demand-responsive, door-to-door paratransit service, much like the type of service already offered by Community Transportation. In this context however, Section 9 funding is available to provide capital and operating assistance for urbanized areas. Collier County TD Study February 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research Tech Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis 37
the general public also would be able to use the service. Other low-density areas have found that providing dial-a-ride services can satisfy some of the general public demand for service in lieu of fixed-route service. Typically the general public passengers would be chaJ:ged more than persons who are TO-eligible; however, usually everyone's trip would be subsidized to some degree by government funding sources. Service routes/community bus service is similar to the type of service already offered in Immokalee. Community bus service is typically provided with smaller buses, and the vehicles are routed through neighborhoods to minimize the distance a passenger has to walk to board the bus. Immokalee's service is more r estricted in that it only stops at nine designated s tops Nonethe less, the route was designed with the characteristics of the community and potential passe ngers in mind. Route or point deviation services operate on a fixed-route; however, the buses are allowed to deviate from the route to allow for greater flexibility. Route deviation means that the bus has a specified route, and that after deviating from the route to pick-up a passenger, it returns to the route and conti nues along. Point deviation is somewhat different in that the bus may travel along different streets in between designated checkpoints. After picking up a passenger, the bus returns to the next scheduled checkpoint along the route. Shuttle service is a hybrid service that provides service between designated points. For example, airport shuttle services may pick-up passengers at airport terminals and shuttle them to off-site parking lots or rental car agencies. Similarly, shopper shuttles could be instituted that would provide servic e between a designated shopping center or grocery store and a residential area. Shuttles may either operate frequently over vet}' short distances or may run less frequently over longer distances. Feeder service is similar to shuttle service. Feeder service is most often used to gather passengers who are scattered around the service area and to bring them i nto one location, where they continue their trip to a common destination. For example, feeder vans could be used to gather persons who are traveling to a regional medical center in Ft. Myers. Several vehicles may be used to pick-up passengers located throughout the Naples area. Passengers could then be transferred onto one vehicle to make the long distance trip, freeing the other vehicles to continue providing local service. Collier County TD Study Te
Funding Although it may appear to be easy to shift passengers from paratransit to fixed-route service that is provided in the areas in which they wish to travel, practice elsewhere has shown that this shift is relatively difficult to accomplish. Prior to starting any fixed-route service, the county would h ave to determine whether it has the financial resources needed, and the commitment from the policy makers to give the service time to become viable. The costs associated with any type of fixed-route transportation service arc significant, particularly start-up costs. New service must be designed, vehicles have to be purchased, drivers must be hired and trained, and the service must be publicized to attract riders. Federal Funding SoUJ'ces There arc several potential funding sources for subsidizing public transportation in the Naples area; however, given the current political climate at the federal level, care should be taken when calculating the amount of federal funding likely to be available. Three potential funding sources may be considered for capital and/or operating assistance: 1) federal Section 9 funding, 2) federal Sect ion 16 funding, and 3) federal Section 18i funding. Section 9 Funds. Collier County is eligible to apply for Section 9 funding for the Naples Urbanized Area. TECH is not eligible to receive these funds directly; the funds would be available only through the MPO. A transit feasibility study completed prior to this study was a step in this direction; however, FOOT requires completion of a Transit Development Plan (TOP). The receipt of Section 9 funds would not preclude the use of Section 18 funds for rural areas of the county. Services provided using Section 9 funds must be made available to the general public. Section 16 Funds. Section 16 grants and loans are made available to state and local public bodies, as well as not-for-profits, for the planning, design, and provision of transportation services. TECH also is eligible for Section 16 funds for the purchase of vehicles and related capital equipment. In Florida Sectio n 16 funds are administered by FOOT. CoUier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 39 February 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
Section l8i Funds. Section !8i was authorized by the Intennodal Surface Transport ation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. States are required to spend at least 15 percent of their Section 18 (non-urban area) apportionment "to carry out a program for the development and support of intercity bus transportation." Section 18i is designed to support the connection between nonurbanized areas and the larger system of intercity bus service, as well as support services to meet intercity travel needs of residents in non-urbanized areas. Application for Section J8i funding might be considered for transportation between Immokalee and Naples (especially service to the Greyhound terminal on Davis Boulevard) or for out-of-county service. State Funding Sources I n !994, the Florida Legislature approved a $1.00 increase in licen se tag fees, earmarked for the TD Trust Fund, managed by the Fl orida Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged. The additional funding was distributed to CTCs for the provision of trips through the trip and equipment grants This i ncrease in funds enables Community Transporta t ion to provide additional TD "non sponsored" trips. In FY 1994, Community Transportation received approximately $160,000 from the TD Trust Fund. Community Tran sportation has the option of using these funds to provide additional TD "non-sponso r ed" trips or to replace its aging vehicle fleet. In addition, these funds might also be used t o fund addi tional T D trips under new service designs (e.g shopping shuttles) Other Funding Sources Another potential source of funding is Project ACTION. Project ACTION is funded by the National Easter Seal Society and the Federal Transit Admin i st rat io n. Project ACTION awards demonstration grants to agencies proposing innovative transportation programs for senior citizens, children, and persons with disabilities. More recent! y this funding has become more competitive and is emphasizing ADA-related transportation, technical assistance, and demonstration projects that can be replicated Community Transportation staff could submit a proposal, but funding is expected to become increasingly competitive Such funding would likely address start-up costs (and documentation) only. Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 40 February t 995 Cenler fer Urban Transportation Research
Recommendations Although it is beyond the SC
End notes I Based on 14 606 total passenger trips (September 15, 1994 Service Monitoring Report) plus I 03 noshows and I, 114 cancellations. 2. Based on Community Transportation staff comments 3. Community Transportation has noted that the scheduler works an average of 42 hours per week. 4. Based on information provided by Community Transporta t ion. S. July I 1993 tbrough June 30, 1994. This is the most recently comp l eted fiscaVoperational year for Community Transportation, and also corresponds to the period examined in the evaluation ofTECH, described in Technical Memorandum No. I. 6. Manual tabulation of denials for medical trips for the period 7/1/93-6/30/9 4 results are shown below accord in g to codes defmed in the text: A=ll4, 8 =3, C=!6, 0 = 32 E=l3, F=65, H = 6, 1 =19 J =ll, K=O, L=O, M=I N=9. The total count of322 denia l reasons for medical trips can be broken down by major category: Trip Request Does Not Meet Program Rules = !54 (48%) ; Person or Trip Not Eli gible = 48 (15%), Capacity Constrai n ts = 120 (37%). 7 Exi sting files (custo mer manifest, standing orders, one-ti me trips, b i lling/history) are li.nkcd in several key ways, but do not interact in others 8. Block Groups are explained by the Bureau of the Census as follows: A geographic b l ock group (BG) i s a cl us ter of[census ] blocks having the same first digit of their three-digit identify ing numbers within a census tract or block numbering area (BN A). For example, BG 3 within a census tract or BNA includes all (cens us] blocks numbered between 301 and 397. In most cases, the numbering involves substantially fewer than 97 blocks. Geographic BG 's never cross census tract or BNA boundaries, but may cross census the boundar ies of natural subdivisions places [ American Indian areas), urbanized areas, voting districts and congressional districts. BG's generally contain between 250 and 550 housing units, with the i deal size be i ng 400 housing units. Tabulation block groups. In the data tabu l ations a geogrdpbic block group may be split t o present data for every unique combination of co u nty subdivis ion, place, (American In dian area), urbanized area, voting district, urban/rural and congressional d istrict shown in the data product; for example, ifBG 3 is partly in a city and partly outside the city, there will be separ ate tabu l ated records for each portion ofBG 3. Collier County TO Study T ech Memo No. 3: O p erations Analysis 42 Fe b ruary 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
Source: Page A-4, Area Classifications [Explanation of CD ROM Census data). 9. These special populations were chosen because they most closely match the TD population, and avoid overlap which would tend to over-estimate the potentially eligible population. CUTR extracted the following census data for all block groups in Collier County: Block Group Name (Tract and Block Group Number) Logical Record Number Age0-5 Age6-15 Age 16-17 Age 60-64 Age 65 and Over Work Disability Age 16-64 Work Disability 65 and Over Total Work Disability Income Under $20,000 Income $20,000-$29,999 I ncome $30, 000 -$39, 999 Income $40,000$49,999 Income $50,000 $74,999 Income Over $75 000 Median Income Sex Male (P007001) Sex Female (P0070002) Area in Square Kilometers CUTR calculated the following information for each b lock group in Collier County: Total Population Age0-17 Age60+ Area in Square Miles Populations sets as a percentage of block group t otal population Sum of special popula t ions Age 0-17, Disabled 16-64, Age 60+, Income under $20k Age 65+, Disabled 16-64, Income under $20k Rank of b lock group according to total of each population set. Rank of block group according to percentage of each population set. Average rank of block gro up based on special populations. Top ten block gwups for each population (totals and percentage of total) 10. After a trip is delivered, the software used by Community Transportation is used to move all the trip information for that day to a billing file. Information necessary for billing, Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis 43 February 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
such as amount paid, is added.to the record, and the record is maintained in the billing fil e indefinitely Thus, Community Transportation maintains, in the billing file, one record for each trip delivered since the current software was put in place (about two years ago). Each record contains a significant amount of information about a specific trip. Each trip record in t h e b i lling file contains the following fields: CODE* PUMI L BILLAMT LASTNAME AOEST' BILLSTAT NAME PURET BILL S TA2 IDNO AMTPD PAN WHEELCH TIMEON MDRIVEN NOPASS* TIMEOFF* BILLNO APTIME MEDICAID FTRSTNAME PUTIME APTIME2 TRIPPURP AORIGIN PUTIME2 MDESCOR T BNTBY APTIMEJ MINIT DATE APTIME3 ESCORTYN STATUS ROUTENO* EQUPCHG VEHCODE DRVRCODE OXYGENYN DATEENT PHONE! OXYCHG ORDERNUM PHONE2 TOTCHG PUDATE' CUSTCLASS AMTDUE PUOSTART' NOSHOW PUOEND* BILLMILE Those fields marked with an asterisk (*) were r e quested by CUTR for the origin destinations analysis II. The data file received also included more than 1,800 records, including LUNCH breaks (scheduled as trips) and trips prior to 7/1/94 The I ,255 records include trips recorded as 0 passengers (which arc not count ed in th e passenger c ount figure). Of these 95 percent (1,189) of the records were successfully geocoded 12. The fields selected included: Customer classification (coded) Wheelchair (YIN) Number of passengers Appointme n t time Origin address (hundred block only) Destination address (hundred block on ly) Status (a billing and funding code) Date of the trip Starting mi l eage Ending mileage Time on Ti m e off Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No. 3 : Operations Ana.lysis 4 4 February 1 995 Center for Urban Transporlalion Research
Route nwnber Customer classification (eligibility code) Trip Purpose 13. The sample of every 60th trip record from FY 1994, resulted in 1 255 fully usab le records (of which 1,189 were successfully geocoded), representing 2,253 one-way passenger trips (each trip record repre se nts one multiple, or zero passengers). For other tabu l ation purposes, 1,285 records were usable. As each record contains an origin and a destination, 2,570 total origins and destinations were co unte d when combined, representing 408 unique locations. (These included 147 unique locations occurring 5 times or more in the sample, accounting for 79% of the sample origins and destinations There were 544 remaining locations (21% of the sample) occurring fewer than 5 times each in the sample, including m ultiple occurrences.) Note that all locations on the same block were iden t ified as the same location, due to rounding of street address information to main tain privacy. 14. This new function checked the first ten characters of both the origin and destination fields, counting exact matc hes. Differences in spelling and p un ctuation r esulted in some underestimates. The function also factored in the nwnber of p assengers transported on a single trip record which may be as high as 50 passengers. Each pick-up point on the Immokalee Route appears as a s ingle record for each day, contain i ng that nwnber of passengers from that location to the Marion Feathers C en ter (asswned destinatio n ). 15. The map (figure 6) shows all origins and dest i nations from the CUTR sample (of every 60th trip record from the Commwlity Trans portation billing file during FY 1 994) that falls within the boundaries of the map. Multi ple trips and/or passengers to the same location show are shown as a single po int. 16. n1e Immokalee Bus Route runs hourly, starting make the following stops: 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 8 9. Health Center (North 1st Street@ Immokalee Drive) McLendon Pharmacy Tara Park Guadalupe Center Immokalee Apartments Miners Comer Brown Comer I st Street & Main Street Marian Fether Medical Center 7:15 7:20 7:25 7:30 7:35 7:40 7:45 7:48 7:50 17. The Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) wrote A Manual for the Preparation ofTransit Development Plans, published in October 1993. The manual was requested by the Florida Department of Transportatio n and has been used throughout the state. Collier C o unty TO Sludy T ech Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis 45 February 1 995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
APPENDIX A Para transit Software Information: Resources and Vendors Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No. 3: Operations Analysis A-I February 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
Appendix A Paratransit Software Resources Chown Bruce, DART Manager Graphics Enhancements-Vancouver Computerized Sched uling /Bro kerage Demonstration Project. BC Transit, 1992. F ausnaugh, Beth, Gail Hyman, and Kelly Shawn "CTR's Guide to: Community Transportation Software." Community Transportation Reporter (November 1994): I 0. Glauthier, Roy, "Play Ball! Real-Time vs. Advance-Reserva t ion Scheduling," Commillee on Paratransil Communique. Transportation Research Board Commi ttee on Paratransit, Win ter 1994. KETRON, ADA Complementary Paratransil Planning and Operations : Plan Updates. Na tional Transi t Institute Workshop, 1994. Lewis, David. "The Riposte: RealTime vs. Advance-Reservation Scheduling," Commirtee on Paratransit Communique. Transportation Research Board Committee on Paratransit, Winter 1994. N ational Tran s it Institute, The Future Is Now: New Technologies for Transit (Seminar) 1994. Office of Technical Assistance, Taxi-Based Paratransit Technology/Operations Packages in Europe. U S. Department of Transportation, 1985. Queen, James E Computerized Scheduling Improves Paratransil Efficiency. Project Action/Easter Seals 1992. Rhee, Jong-Ho, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling Strategies for Demand Responsive Transportation Systems. UMI Dissertation Services, 1993. V aranasi Sree, Software in Transit Handbook. American Public Transit Association 1993. Collier County TD Stud y Tech Memo No. 3: Opera ti ons Analysis A-2 February 1995 Cenler for Urban Transportation Research
Appendix A Par a transit Software Vendors EM!' rack Automated Dispatch Services, Inc. 817 5 NW 12th Street Ste 430 Miami, FL 33126 (305) 471-0441 CTS Software CTS Management 2505 S. 17th Street Ste. 217 Wilmi n gton, NC 2840 I (800) 704-0064 (703) 243-8627 Fax CTPS-Com is Trip Planning System COMSIS Corpora tion 2000 Oxford Drive 4th Floor, #430 Bethel Park P A !51 02 (412) 854-6941 (Voice/Fax) Easy Trips Easy Street Software, Inc. 1 609 Cedar Lane Rale i gh, NC 27614 (919) 848 9991 (919) 848-3460Fax Scooter Modeling Systems, Inc. 1718 Peachtree Street Atlan t a, GA 30309 ( 404) 876 9977 Collier County TD Study Tech Memo No.3: Operations Analysis A-3 Dispatch A-Ride I MIDAS Multisystems, Inc I 050 Massachusetts Ave. Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 864-58!0 (617) 864-3521Fax PASS OnL ine Data Prod u c t s Inc 14255 N. 79th Street, Ste. 3 Scottsdale, AZ. 85260 (602) 483-3822 (602) 483-2339-Fax PARRAS4.0 Paratransit Software 21713 Brink. Meadow Lane Germantown MD 20876 (301) 540-8878 Rides Unlimited Paratransit Systems, Int'l, Inc. 4810 Auto Center Way Bremerton, WA 98312 (800) 926 2345 (206) 377-6017Fax T RAPEZE-QV UMA Sys tems, Inc. 5080 Commerce Blvd. Mississauga Ont ario Canada, L4W 4P2 (905) 238-0007 (905) 238 -0038/8408-Fax FebruOI)' 1995 Center for Urban Transportation Research
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Collier County transportation disadvantaged system evaluation and enhancement study.
n Technical memorandum no. 3,
p operations analysis
h [electronic resource] /
prepared for the Naples (Collier County) Metropolitan Planning Organization by the Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
Tampa, Fla. :
b University of South Florida, College of Engineering,
1 online resource (45, A-3 p.) :
Title from e-book t.p. (viewed Aug. 9, 2011).
Includes bibliographical references (p. A-2).
People with disabilities
Collier Metropolitan Planning Organization.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
i Print version:
t Collier County transportation disadvantaged system evaluation and enhancement study.
d Tampa, Fla. : University of South Florida, College of Engineering, 
Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
y USF ONLINE ACCESS