USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center (TMC) functionality study


Material Information

Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center (TMC) functionality study final report
Physical Description:
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Metropolitan Planning Organization (Miami-Dade County, Fla.)
Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Traffic engineering -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Traffic monitoring -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )
Traffic flow -- Florida -- Miami-Dade County   ( lcsh )


Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for Miami-Dade Metropolitan Planning Organization ; prepared by Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida.
General Note:
"December 2001."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 49201181
usfldc doi - C01-00075
usfldc handle - c1.75
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nmm 22 Ka 4500
controlfield tag 008 s2001 flu|||| ||||||eng
datafield ind1 7 ind2 024
subfield code a C01-00075
2 doi
(OCoLC) 49201181
0 245
Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center (TMC) functionality study :
b final report /
c prepared for Miami-Dade Metropolitan Planning Organization ; prepared by Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida.
Tampa, Fla. :
Center for Urban Transportation Research,
"December 2001."
Traffic engineering
z Florida
Miami-Dade County.
Traffic monitoring
Miami-Dade County.
Traffic flow
Miami-Dade County.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
Metropolitan Planning Organization (Miami-Dade County, Fla.)
1 8 773
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
4 856


Miami Dade County T ransportation Management Center Functionality Study TABL E OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .................................................. .................. .................................... 8 TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMEN T CENTER DEF INITION BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES . 9 Definition ....... .. .... . .... . ...... .... ... . ......... ........ .......... ... . ... .... ..... ..... ... .......... .... .... ... .... 9 Benefits ... ..... .. ... ...... ............ .... .. . . .... .............. ............ . ........ ... ...... .. ............ .. .. ... ..... 9 Challenges ....... ..... ....... . ....... ....... . .... ..... ... ... ... .... . ...... ... .. ... ... ... .. ..... .. .................. 10 Technologies and Integration ... . . ....... ... . .. ........ ....................... .... ....... ...... .. 11 lnstilutionallnteractions ... . ... . ....... . .... ..... .... ... .... . . ... ...... ... .... ........... ... 1 1 ExiSTING CENTERS IN MIAMI-DADE COUNTY -INVENTORY AND OBSERVATIONS ........ 13 Florida Department ofTransportat ion District 6 TMC ... .......... .... ........... ... ... ... .... 13 Miami Dade County Traffic Control Center ... ......... .... ............. ................. .. ...... ... ... 18 Miam i -Dade County Office of Emergency Management... .......... .. .. .. .. ........ ....... .... ... 20 Miami Dade Transit Agency ... . . ........ .......... .... ... ... ......... ......... ... ...... .... ... .... ... .... 21 Miami-Dade County Police Department -9 11 Center . .. .... .... . . . ...... . ................. 23 Summary of Survey F i ndings ........... ... ......... ...... ... ........................... ... ... .......... ... . 24 Gene ra l C o mments From Su rv eys ...... ...... ... .. ...... .... ......... ....... .... ... . ...... ......... ..... 25 On Physical Co-Location of Multiple Agencies in one TMC .. .... ............. .. .. .. 25 On Area -wide TMC Related Needs .. ..... ...... . ..... ..... . ..... ... . ... .............. ....... 26 On Area wide TMC Related Goals/Objectives ... ......... ........ ... .................... . 27 On Areawide TMC Related Synergies . ..... .... ............... .. ... ............. ......... ... 27 On Area-wide Traffic Management-the F uture in 10 to 20 Years ... ............. 27 Othe r Regional T r ansportations Services ....... ........ ...... . . . .... . . . .... ..... .................. 28 SunGuide/SmartTravel e r ......... ... .. ........... ... .. ... . . .... . ........ .. ... ...... ..... ... ... ... 28 The Miami-Dade Expressway (MDX) .... ........... .. .. .. ........... ... ...... .... . . . . . . . 2 8 Tri-Rail .. . .... .... ... ..... ...... .... ..... .... ............. ... ......... .... . . .... ... ....... ....... ... ...... 32 TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT CENTER FUNCT I ONAUTIES AND FRAMEWORK FOR INTEGRATION .... . ................................................................................ .. .. .... . ...... 33 Traffic Management Functionali t ies . ... . ... ... .... . ... .... ...... .. .. .. ..... ....... ....... ........ ..... 33 Transit Management F unctionali t ies .... . ... ... ...... ..... . .... . ....... .......... ...... .... ............ 34 Inci dent Management. . ...... ......... ... .. .... . ... ........ ...... ........ .. .. ..... .... ... ... .... . ....... ...... 35 Other Fu nctional Consi derations .... .. .... ... ... ...... ... ... . ... .......... ................. ..... .. .. ...... 36 Integrated Workstations ..... ..... .......... . ... .... . . . . . . . . . ... ............. . ... ... . ...... 37 Automated Information Sharing ............................. ... ...... . ... .. .... ..... . ............. 37 Transit Centers -Additional Considerations ........................ .. .... .... . ... ... .... 37 TMC Integration and Joint Operations C o nsiderations .. ....... .... .... ...... . ...... .... .... . .. 39 Centerto-Center Coordination .... ... ....... ............... .. .. ... ... ..... ... ... .... ...... ..... ... 39 Share Control or Not ................ ............ ................................. ...... .................. 40 Corri dor \Mde Information Coordination .............. ..... ....... .. ........ .. .. ...... ........ .. ..... .. .... 41 2


Miami-D ada County Transporta t ion Management Center Functionality Study TABLE OF CONT ENTS (CONTD) Center -toCenter Interfaces and IT S Standards . ...... .... ....... ........ ........... ............. .. .. 4 1 TMC Software Study A FOO T State ITS Office ...................... ..... .............. 41 Traffic Management Centers Poo l ed-Fu n d Study (TMC PFS) ........ .. ...... ................. 4 1 TMC PFS Objectives ...... ....... .......... .... ... .... .... ... ..... ... .. ......... . ........ ... . . ... . 42 Project Status ... .................. ... ... .... .... ... ... . . ........ ... ..... .......... ... .......... ..... 42 FOOT Commitment .. ...... .... ... .. ........ ..... .... ... ..... ......... ...... ...... ..... .. ...... . .... .... 43 Additionallnformat ion ...... ... .. .. ...... ........... ..... ... ... ....... ........... ........... . ......... . 43 TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT CENTER CASE STUDIES ... .. ................ .. .. .... ..... .... 44 TMC Summaries .... ..... .. .. ... ....... ..... ... . .................. .. ....... ... ... .... ...... ... ...... ..... . . .... 44 Atlanta NaviGAtor ........ ........ .... .... . ... ..... . ... ... ............ ...... ... ... ..... ...... . .... . 44 Houston TransStar .......... ..... ...... ......... ... ... ........ . . ........ ... ... .... ... ....... ...... ... 46 Milwaukee MONI T O R ... .......... ...... ............ . . .... .... ..... ........... ... ... ... ...... . . 46 Toronto COMPASS ... ............. ........... ..... ....... ............. ........ ............ . .... ... . 47 Detroit, Michigan ITS Center ....... ... ...................... ........................... ....... .. ..... 4 7 Long Island INFORM .... ... ..... ...... .... ... . ... ...... . . ...... ......... ... ........ ..... .. .. .... 47 Arizona TraiiMaster, Phoenix ................ ..... ............. .. ....... .. ....................... .... 48 Boston Artery/Tunnel Integrated Project Control Sys tem .................. .... ........ 48 Successful Practices and Less ons L earned .... .... ..... .......... ..... .......... ............... ...... .48 Interagency Interaction ......... .. ... ................. . ...... ... ... .. ... . .... ... ... ..... .... ... .. ..... 4 8 Intra-agency I nteraction . ................................. ............. . ............. ...... .. ....... .. 50 Transit Int e gration ........... ... ..... ......... ............. .... .... ... ............... ....... ... . ..... ... 50 Media Coordination ...... ....... ... ... ....... ...... . ... .... ... .... ... ... . . . ...... . .... .......... .. 5 1 Lessons Learned .. ... . ......... ...... .... ...... ... ....... ...... .......... ....... . . ..... . ...... . .... 52 CONCLUS IONS .. .. .. ...... .... ..... .. ... ...... ... .. .. ....... .... ..... ... .. ... .... ... .. .. ........ ... .. ... ... .... 54 1: Develop TMC Concept of Operation Plan .... ..................... ..... ... .... .. .... ............... 54 2: On-Site Phys i ca l Presence is Important.. ........ ... ....................... .. ...................... .. 55 3: On-SHe Physical Presence of the Free wa y Management and Law Enforcement Agencies is Beneftc ia l .......... ....... ... .... ... .. ..... ..... ....... .... ... 55 4: On -Site Phys i cal Presence of the Freeway Management and Arteria l Management Age ncies should be given Adequate Consideration .. .. .. .. 55 5 : On-Site Phys i cal Presence of the Emergency Management may be Desirable but not Necessary ... .. ... ...... .. ...... .......... ........... ....... ...... ....... 55 6: Presence of T ransit D i spatch in a TMC may be Desirable but not Necessary ............ .. .. .. .. .. .. .......... .. ... ........ ... .... ... .... ........... . .... ........... 56 7: On-Site Presence of Media in a TMC is Beneficial ......... ................... .... .............. 56 8 : Consider Develop i ng a Regionallnfonnation Exchange Frameworl< .... .... ........... 56 R EFERENCES ............ .. ..... ..... ... .. .. ........ ... ... .. ..... ........ ...... .. .... .. ..................... .... 59 3


County Transportation Management Center Functionality study L I ST OF Figure 1: Ex i st ing T MCS ... ........ . .... .... . ...... ... .. ... ... ... ......... ..... ...... . . ... . .... ... .......... 1 4 F igu r e 2: Cente rto-Center Communications Framework for Traffic Management ... . . 34 F i gu r e 3: Center-to-Center Communicat i ons Framework for Transit Management ..... 35 Figure 4 : Center to Center Communicati o ns Framework for I ncident Management... . 36 Figure 5: Representative Framework for Reg i onal TMCs I nformation Exchange ...... . 58 4


Miami Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study LIST OF TABLES . Table 1: M iami-Dade TMC Inventory Survey Questions ........ ... ....................... . .......... 1 5 Table 2 : Exist ing TMCs i n Miami Dade County .......................................... .................. 16 Table 3: Key Features at Eight Metro Area TMCs .. .. ... .................................................. 45 5


County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study ACRONYMS A TISAdvanced Traveler Information Systems ATMS -Advanced Traffic Management Systems A VC Automated Vehicle Classification AVLAutomatic Vehicle Location CAD Computer Aided Dispatch CCTV-Closed Circuit Television CIC Customer lnfonnation Center COMPASS-TMC for Toronto metro area in Ontario Canada CORBA Common Obje<;t Request Broker Architecture CUTR-Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida DATE X-Data Exchange DERM Department of Environmental Regulation and Management DOT -Department of Transportation DPCC Data Processing Control Center (Miami-Dade County) EOC Emergency Operations Center (Miami-Dade County EOC) FOOTFlorida Department of Transportation FHP-Flor ida Highway Patrol FHWA-Federal Highway Administration FlU-Florida International University GCM-Gary Chicago, Milwaukee GDOTGeorgia Department of Transportation HAR-Highway Advisory Radio HCRSHighway Closure Reporting System HOVHigh Occupancy Vehicle INFORM-TMC for Long Island area in New York ISP Information Service Provider ITO -Information Technology Department ITS-Intelligent Transportation Systems MAP-Motorist Assistance Patrol MOOTMichigan Department of Transporta tion MDPD Miami-Dade Police Department MDPWD Miami-Dade Public Works Department MDX Miami-Dade Expressway MHO Massachusetts Highway Department MONITOR TMC for Milwaukee metropoman area MPOMetropolitan Planning Organization 6


MiamiDade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study ACRONY MS (CONTD) MTDA Miami Dade Transit Agency MTOMinistry of Transportation of Onta r io NaviGAtor-TMC for Atlanta metropolitan area NYSDOT New York State Departmen t of Trans p orta t ion PAD Passive Acoustic Detector RF Radi o Frequency S R State Route STS Special Trans p ortation Serv i ce (STS) TCC Traffic Control Center TMC -Tr ansportation Management Center TMC PFS TMC Pooled Fund Study TOC TrafficJTransportation Operations Center TraiiMaster TMC for Phoenix metropolitan area TranStar-TMC for Houston metropolitan Area U.S. DOTUnited States Department of Transporta t i o n VI OSVideo Imag i ng Detection System VMSVariable Message Sign WisDOT-\Msconsin Department of Transportation 7


Miami Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study is to assist the Miam i -Dade Metropolitan P l anning Organization (MPO) and i ts partner a genc i es in plann ing and implementing regional transportation management centers (TMC) In Miami-Dade County. This document spec i fically addresses: Status o f exist ing TMCs in Miami Dade County Understanding the major functionalities of a TMC i n regiona l transportation management Key considerations, including co-location opportunHies, In future TMC initiatives The do c ument has been prepared based on: Inputs received from the agencies responsible for operating freeway management systems, traffic signal control systems transit services as well as provid ing incident and emergency management services in the Miami-Dade County metropolitan area Federal guidelines on TMC i mp l ementation State-of-practice on TMC o peration s and functionalities State-of-art on TMC devel o pmen t and operations in major metropolitan areas Th i s document provi d es a brief description of TMC benefits an d challenges. This report provides an inventory of existing center s i n Miami-Dade County TMC functionalit i es and framework for i ntegration of mul tiple agencies have been discussed. Several case studies of TMCs in the United States and Canada are discussed to present the state-of practice in TMC operati ons. F i nally, this document presents a set of conclusions to faciiHate muHI-agency and multi-modal TMC implementation in the Miami-Dade metropolitan area. Thi s document will be valuable to transportati o n policymakers in Miami Dade C o unty in implementing TMC functlonalities in a cooperative and coordinated environment, and explore co-location opportunities. This document will also assist elected officials in the County in their de c is i ons t o support the transportation i nvestments that will provide greater va lue to their constHuents by enhancing public sat i sfaction to travel. 6


County Transporta tion Management Center Functionality Study TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT CENTER DEFINITION, BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES DEFINITION Transportation Management Centers (TMC) serve as the focal point for monitoring, controlling and coordinating various functions for managing a regional transportation system. At a TMC information about the region's freeways traffic signals, or transit services is collected and processed, and combined with other operational and control data to initiate control strategies to effect changes in operation. It is also a center for communicating transportation related information to the media and the traveling public The terms Traffic Operations Center (TOC) and TMC have been used interchangeably over the years. Historically, the functions of a single TOC have been usually the singular operation of agency-owned transportation facilities or properties. As a result, there are many separate operations centers In a regional system one operated by a freeway management agency, one or more by the city/county traffic signal operating agencies, another operated by the regional transit agency and one or more operated by the police, the fire, and the emergency management agencies all of which are integral to the operations of a regional transportation system. Wth the evolution of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), TMC is being increasingly used to designate a center that has pluralistic dimensions in its operations focusing with a major focus on multi-modal and multi-agency coordination The goal is a seamless integration of the multi-agency services in order to increase the efficiency, mobility and safety of the regional transportation network. TMCs are designed as part of the regional ITS architecture, which is a framework for implementing ITS in a region. BENEFITS Benefits of a TMC are numerous. It is often difficult to separate the benefits of a TMC from those of an integrated transportation management system, for which a TMC is an integral part. Benefrts of TMCs, including those of the Integrated transportation systems that TMCs operate and manage, have been reported In various U.S DOT studies Major benefits include: A TMC facilitates enhanced communication in all aspects of transportation management (e.g., planning, design, implementation, operation, maintenance) when the involved parties are co-loc;ated in the center. A TMC facilitates both daily communication, and communication for special circumstances such as special events or an unusually severe incident. Agencies working closely together in a TMC typically produce a more consistent, unified response to a situation, increasing the overall effectiveness of the transportation resources 9


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study The Toronto COMPASS system is reported to have resulted in a reduction in average duration of incidents from 86 minutes to 30 minutes that the system prevents about 200 accidents . pE!r, . allfl that average speed has increased 7 to 19 percent. Long Island's (New York) INFORM system is reported to have resu lted in increase in freeway speeds by 13 percent despite an increase of 5 percent in vehicle miles traveled for the afternoon peak. The number of locations with speeds of less than 30 mph (miles per hour} decreased by 50 percent for the morning peak INFORM's ramp metering systems is reported to have resulted in a 15 percent accident reduction and a 9 percent increase in speed. A study of ramp meters in Detroit measured a 50 percent accident reduction, an 8 percent increase in speed and a 12.5 percent increase in demand The current expansion of the freeway management system is expected to reduce delays from incidents by about 40 percent. This would lead to an annual reduction of 41.3 million gallons of fuel used, a reduction of 122,000 tons of carbon monoxide, 1,400 tons of hydrocarbon and 1 ,200 tons of nitrogen oxides. The Milwaukee MONITOR system has resulted in the increase of AM peak period average speed by 3 percent while volume has increased 22 percent. Net savings of 1,454 driver hours per peak hour have been calculated as a result of ramp metering alone. The Atlanta NaviGAtor TMC also hosts the area motorist assistance patro l program ancj the state's commercial vehicle operations enforcemen t program. The delay between the report of a crash and dispatch of emergency services has been cut In half, and accidents are cleared from the roadway 38 percent faster. Arizona DOT found that the rapid incident detection and response from TraiiMaster resulted in diversion of 21 percent of the vehicles traveling on the affected roadway, resulting in a sav ings of 1 452 vehicle hours for a major incident. A conservative estimate of average freeway incident timesavings as a result of the Houston TranStar system is 5 minutes per vehicle. Analysis has shown that a savings of 30 minutes per vehicle is possible for major freeway incidents. Total annual delay savings is estimated at 573,095 vehicle-hours, resulting in about $8.4 million in savings per year. CHALLENGES There are many challenges in implementing, operating and maintaining a modem TMC. A U.S. DOT study (Reference 5) on TMC implementation has categorized these challenges in two primary categories: Technology and integration of technologies Institutional interactions 10


Miami-Dad& County Transportation Managemen t Center Functionality Study Technologies and Integration Each TMC is high l y dependent upon tl!iGiitieil6gy to accomplish i ts mission. As the geographical area served by a TMC expands (statew ide or corridor-wide in some cases) the devices used to monitor and control transportation systems (either vehicles or stationary fie l d equipment) require that the TMC employ modern communications and computing resources. Communications data rates and switching speeds, and computer processing speeds and bandwid t hs are multiple orders of magnitude higher than wer e possible only a few years ago. In addition, the integration of a variety of field devices and control center hardware is a l so a major undertaking. The integration of new systems wit h "legacy systems, wh i ch often contain significantly different types of technology, is always a challenge. The agency owning the TMC thus faces a daunting challenge of implementing, operating and maintaining not only a complex transportation environment, but also a mass of comp lex (and not always very compatible), and rapidly evolving technology. Thus t he technologica l complexity of the systems on which the TMC depends I s a major operational management challenge. Exper i ence has shown that, with careful planning, the technolog i cal challenges are surmountable, as many regions have done so by implementing and operating TMCs successfully. Examples i nclude I NFORM (Long Island New York) MONITOR (Milwaukee, Wiscons i n), NaviGAtor (Atlanta, Georgia), TranStar (Houston Texas). It should however be noted that the level of technology integration at each of the above TMC' s varies significantly ranging from being primarily a freeway management TMC ( I NFORM) to being a multi-mode management TMC (TranStar). The level of integration also depends on the governing goals and objectives related to the TMC and the institutional interactions (discussed below) among the partnering agencies responsib l e for implementation of the TMC Institutional Interactions In order to optimize performance and operations in a regional transportation system, establishing effective insmutional interactions among mu l t i ple agencies is a major challenge perhaps even a larger one than the techno l ogical challenges discussed above. Transportation can seldom be managed uni l aterally (by a single agency, or a jurisdiction) If optimal conditions are desired. Travel patterns require interaction between transportation modes, between agencies within jurisdictions, and across jurisdictiona l boundaries. Interagency cooperation should be a part of every phase of the TMC, from planning through operation and maintenance. In order for the agencies to work together in developing a TMC, there should be governing goals and objectives mutually agreed upon by the partnerlng agencies. In most multi-agency TMCs, some coordinating forum exi sts i n order to address i ssues, assure regular and full communication, and to identify opportunities for i mprovement. There are many examples of join t roles of multiple agencies in TMC development and operation. In the Detroit TMC, joi ntly staffed by the Michigan State Patrol and the Michigan DOT, the State Patrol dispatchers p r ovide incident information to the MOOT TMC operations contractor who provides responses and verification and dispenses trave ler information. In the AZTech model deployment interagency coordination takes place at multiple levels. Committees were created at senior executive, executive, project, and technical working levels to assure communication and coordination, and to allow 1 1


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionalffy Study each agency or private sector partner to voice its concerns and participate in decision making. In the Houston TranStar TMC the are four core agencies present on srte the Texas DOT, the Crty Traffic department, the County Traffic department, and the Houston Metro (transit). The TranStar Leadership Committee and the Executive Committee facilitate in teragency cooperation and conflict resolution In Miami-Dade County the Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) ITS Committee has been instrumental in facilitating the institutional interaction for ITS implementation. The Miami-Dade MPO ITS Standing Committee was initially comprised of representatives from the Miami-Dade MPO, FOOT, Public Works Department, Tri Rail, Department of Envir onmenta l Regulation and Management (DERM), Da de C oun ty League of Crti es, Miami-Dade Transit Agency (MOTA), and FlU's Lehman Center for Transportation Research Later, the Committee expanded by including representatives from the Miami Dade Informat io n Technol ogy Department (ITO), Broward County MPO, F l orida's Turnpike Distr ict Miami-Dade Expressway Authority Miami International Airport, and the Port of Miami This TMC study is one of several in itiatives tha t the MPO has undertaken over the years to foster institutional cooperation and coordination in deploying integrated ITS in the region. 12


Miami -Dade County Transporlation Management Center Functionality Study ExiS TING CENTERS IN MtAMIDADE COUNTY INVENTORY AND OBSERVATIONS A survey of the transportation management centers (T MC) in the M i ami-Dade County was condu c ted to inventory the exi sting condit i ons Th e survey was conducted via telephone and ma i l back (via e-mail) questionna i re. Five existing TMCs were i nc l uded i n the survey. Figure 1 shows the locati ons of these TMCs Three of these TMCs are responsible for operating and maintai n ing major transportation facilities or prope rt ies, i nc l uding freeways, arterials and trans i t properties The other two are invo l ved i n providing the i ncident and emergency management services. These TMCs are: F DO T District 6 F reeway Management Center M i ami Dade County T raffic Contro l System Center Miami Dade T ran sit Agency Central Control STS and Customer I nformation Centers Miam i -Dade County Office of Emergency Management Center Miami Dade County P olice Department9-1-1 Center T h e survey quest i onnaire is pres e nted in Table 1 The purpose of the 18-question inventory survey was to generally describe existing o perat i ons and res p ons ib ilities; types of information being gathered, shared, and di s seminated ; methods of infonnation gathering sharin g and dissem i nation ; dedicated space, staff, and operating budget; and future plans The findings of these surveys will ass i st futu r e dis c ussions re l ated to defin ing the collect i ve needs o b ject i ves, and operational issu e s for th e Count y i n regards t o providing for the most efficient and cost-effect i ve rea l lime m anagement of transportat ion. Table 2 presents a summary of var i ous e l ements at the exiting centers The resp o nses received from the agencies on the survey questions are summarized be low: F LORIDA DEPA RTMEN T O F TRANSP O R T A TION-DISTRI CT 6 T MC Area of present coverage includes 1 95/US 1 corrido r and ad j acent arterial i nterchanges, from lves Dairy Road south to SW 27"' Avenue. N othing i n Monroe Coun ty, but $ 1 .5M for ITS needs is p la nned for the next year. C o ntrol Center i s staffed 2 4 h o urs/day, Monday-Friday On w e ekends F l orida Highway Patrol hand l es service patrols ('Road Rangers'). Two new hub bui l dings at G o lden G l ades and SR 836 interchanges are ca p able of acting as satellite facili t i es dur ing an emergency. 13


Miami-Dad e County Transporla t ion Management Cente r Functionality Study Figure 1: Existing TMCs Transportation ManqgernentCenter s Miami-Dade 14 : Legend i-E1i Mi>Ti.-lloi Cc

Miami-Dade County Tronsportation M ansgement Center Funclionaldy Study '': J ...... Table 1: Miami-Dade TMC Inventory Survey Questions a. Area of coverage? b. Hours of operations? c Sate llite centers/remote control? 1 Upgrade plans (and extent to which shared Information, co-location, and shared resource s are planned)? 2 De dicated physical space, primary function s/responsibil ities? 3 Staffing (n\Jm be r and titles ) ? 4 Extent of existing co-located staff? 5 Communicatiori protocols ( software platfonn standards ooe-way vs. Me-way rules lor moving Information Datex or Corba)? 6 Types of inform ation gathered (voice/video/data, continuous vs. oocaslonal, rea l time \1$. other, joint access to co-owned equipment)? 7. Methods for I nformation gathering (24-hour hotllne calls from cell phones cameras)? 8. Capeblll tles for fusion and synthesis of information (whet do you receive and analyze from others: do you receive data and what do you do with It once received)? 9 Methods for Informa tion dissemination within and outside of agency (real-time vs. other)? 10 Current extent of information sharing (with whom, when, and why)? 11. Capability for expansion (space, services, s taff)? 12. Capital (0 & M costs, source)? 13. Degree of performance monitoring from TMC (do you monitor performance are you try ing to I mprove performance)? 14 Ultimate needs/objectives vision lor the future (cent er-to-center functions-<:eunty/region)? 15. Prima ry operational i ssueslconoems ? 16 How does your center fit into the county as a Whole (region al architecture)? 17. OtherTMCs that you are aware of and believe to be vital from a countywide perspective ? 18. Any other comments or remarks? 15


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center F unctionality Study :: ; I ' Table 2. Existing Transportation Management Centers i n Miami-Dade County Agency Type of Staffing Cost Size Location Ope

Miami Dade County Transporlation Management Center Funclionalffy Study FDOT also currently has two variable message signs (VMS) and closed circuit televisions (CCTV) at 37uAvenue and 67 '" Avenue on SR 826. One VMS and CCTV is also located just north of the Turnpike toll plaza entering the Golden Glades interchange area The FOOT's center is currently connected to FHP's computer-aided dispatch (CAD) system which enables the FDOT control center operators the ability for near real-time monitoring of incidents FHP is handling. FHP can view the video images of the inc iden ts FDOT is monitoring, plus FHP i s capable of controlling the FOOT cameras if needed. The FDOT management center shares information over the phone with Miami Dade Public Works Shadow Traffic, and the fire department during an incident. New $6M TMC building (32,000 square feet) contract to be let in May 2001, and the FOOT is working on a $112M incentive to have completion on or before June 30, 2002. Four VMSs, 16 detector stations, and 27 CCTVs are now in an operational testing phase. Fifteen more freeway and arterial VMSs, trail blazers and ramp meters to be let in July 2001. Existing control center (for freeway and incident management) is 2,600 square feet. Eight FDOT operators (production, systems, operations engineers, and maintenance) have been assigned to manage this control center. Also, students from FlU and contracted employees assist. Contro l center operates on a UNIX platform, and the language code is C. Workstations are being upgraded to Windows 2000 platform. Some compliance to the NTCIP is starting to be integrated by end of summer 2001. Incident data is gathered through both video image detection and inductive loops. The data collected is processed in the local 170 controlle r and transmitted back to the in terim control center via leased BeiiSouth lines lines from hubs to control center, FOOT fiber from devices to hubs). The data gathering process is fully activated at this time. However, additional detectors will be added in July to the enhance detection capabilities (confirmed by Road Ranger vehicles and cameras) 17


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study The 25 Road Ranger vehicles are equipped RF-based Teletrac AVL, and help manage minor incidents on both FOOT and Miami-Dade Expressway (MDX) freeways (SR 826, l-95, 1-395, 1-195, SR 836, SR 112, SR 924, SR 874 and SR 878). The only formal information sharing with other agencies that exists today is during the local freewa y inci dent management meetings, where crash response procedures are reviewed. The Freeway Incident Management T eam meetings are scheduled every other month, and include members of FOOT, FHP, DERM, MDPW, Fire, MDPD, City of Miami Police SFWMD, and ICS. The SmartRoute's '\/\lings' system for the South Florida ATIS project will be establishing a real-time ba sed website and 24-hou r ho t line for traveler informat ion. Annual operating and maintenance budget is about $1M. No performance monitoring of control center "benefits is done at this time. A private consulting firm (PB Farradyne) has been r etained with a contract to evaluate post deployment ITS benefits. Ultimately fiber trunkline along all major freeways an d expressways is needed, including Monroe County. Primary operational issues are securing more staffing (Jess reliance on FlU students as center operators), and co-operational needs being required for MDX facilities. Partnership success with SmartRoutes for south Flo rida ATIS will be cr"ical toward establishing coordinated freeway and incident management in the area. Airport Author"Y needs to join in, but a r e reluctant since they currently have their own traveler in formation system. 'Every small decision today should fit into the ultimate plan of the future MIAMI-DADE, COUNTY TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER Area of coverage includes the entire Miami-Dade County, plus seven signals on County Line Road and one signal in Broward County. Control Center is staffed 17 hours/day, crews in the field 24 hours/day-both for 7 days/week. One centralized center, 5,000 square feet No plans for expanding existing facility. The planned new TMC building (two miles northwest of existing facility) has been delayed, but anticipated to begin construction w"hin three years. New building architectural design inc lud es a couple of guest offices Invited FOOT to co-locate, but FDOT wanted to co-locate w/FHP and county maintenance staff could not be accommodated into futu re FDOTJFHP future control center 18


County Transportation Managem&nt Cent&r Functionaltly Study Existing control center is tor traffic signa l monitoring and control (currently no video monitoring capabilities), school speed zones and the revers ible lane operations on NW 199'" Street at Pro Player Stadium. All c ommunica tion and control now only through leased dedicated voice grade telephone circuit; will have fiber-optic connection in the future. Twelve professionals and one clerica l person constitute the current control center staff. Twenty-five traffic signal construction and maintenance staff provides field and centra l support. Responsible for 2,020 signals (1 ,800 over leased lines from BeiiSouth copper In field and fiber at the center, and the other 200 over county owned copper lines). There are eight signals per line, each signal polled once per second. Communication system is 1975 Sperry Rand (UTCS). Available bandwidth is being fully utilized, and the county has customized some reporting capabilities. Th e outgoing message consists of five usefu l bits (hold, advance, test, skip, and flash), plus 3 addressing bits and 3 occasionally used standby system control bits The incoming message consists of six useful bits (4 phase returns, flash, and local preempt) p lus 5 bits for each of two system sensors that have been abandoned. No automated information gathering system, just some verbal (telephone, radio) and fax. Second-by-second data is archived for 24 hours, then overwritten. Records of problems" defined as a 2-second or more malfunction in signal operation are stored for 10 years. Data are also sometimes used for crash reconstruction. Numerous reports to staff are automatically generated at appropriate frequencies, which vary from three times daily to once a month Open dispatches to eight traffic signal contractors are automatically faxed twice daily Public needs to call-in for information. Th i rty different agencies can dial-up from PC with password to get r eal-time status of signals. No electronic communication system i s in p l ace between FOOT and County. FOO T calls County when they have detours. Two-year work order is in place to connect the two centers (leased telephone line or fiber) for data/video communications 19


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study Annual op e rating & maintenance budget is $6 8 million which comes from the general fund. FOOT is p lanni ng to start paying for O&M for signals on state roads "Before" and 'after" floating car studies constitute performance monitoring o f system. Not enough active loops to use data. Not able to utilize system to its full capability mostly because of major staffing shortage in maintenance. Interim solut ion for signal coordination (at 10% of ultimate TMC cost) will keep existing system operational for 10 more years A new ATMS was originally schedu l ed to be designed and operational in January of 1999 Negotiat i ons between County management and the current system management consuttant regarding the continuati o n or abandonment of the project are proving to be time consuming. Viewed as the most important traffic control center in the County Even though it was built over 25 years ago, it still has the most immediate impact on motorists. The concept of other centers is viewed with a "wait and see attitude. Their success is not critically important t o this system. M IA MI -DADE COU N TY OFF ICE O F EME RG EN CY MANAG E M EN T Area of coverage includes the entire Miami Dade County plus unincorporated areas Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is normally staffed 5 days/week 7am 5pm, and 24/7 under emergency conditions They work closely with six other municipa l ities during times of emergency: Hialeah, Miami Beach, Coral Gables North Miami North Miami Beach, and Homestead. Currently, the EOC has no arrangements with the County's transportation departments for sharing of video feeds. Representatives from the County's transportation centers will temporarily co locate in their control center during emergencies ("Team Metro") to disseminate emergency information from a centralized command center. The Fire & Rescue headquarters building at 9300 N.W. 41" Street, incl uding the emergency operations center (22,000 square feet, opened in May 2000) i s 140 000 square feet. There are 17 civ il ian staff members that report to the EOC Director (10 profess i onal management coordinators and 6 c l erical & support staff). There are an additional 20 positions in non-emergency roles. They review and maintain existing emergency preparedness plans for the County and 30 municipalities; and monitor weather conditions, terrorism act i vities, changes in Cuban government and the Turkey Point nuclear plant (automated). They are work i ng w i th Channe l 6 t o provide real t i me feed for weather 20


County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study Blast faxing (thru e-mai l ) is the most common form of information dissemination An instructional video has been prepared as part of a public safety campaign. They also provide information Gln th.e CoUnty s Warning Point (24-hour hotline thru the Police Department). Normally, there is no real-time information gathering except just during and after major storms. Turkey Point nuclear plant has s i rens and reoorded voice messages that can be activated to reach out to a 1 0-mile radius from plant. Performance monitoring consists of review of "after action reports'. Recommendations for improving emergency response procedures come from these reviews. They try to max i mize the safety and availability of sheltering. "Visualization of expressway" from interpretation of others a llows them to gauge east-west evacuation demand and patterns in times of emergency. Capital construction budget for headquarters was $23 million ($3.5M for emergency operations center) Annual operating and maintenance budget is $2.1 million. They receive about $1.25 million per year in state grants. The EOC realizes that they need to connect to other centers (e.g., National Weather Center, FOOT etc.) Staff number increase i s desirable, but County would have to handle the associated expense to do so. cnizens should be more self-sufficient and knowledgeable during emergencies. EOC needs ALL the information that is available (particularly FDOT freeway video surveillance) in order to maximize their use of existing i nfrastructure. MIAMI-DADE TRANSIT AGENCY Central Control Center, Special Transportation Services (STS) Center, Customer Information Center: MOTA covers the entire area of Miami-Dade County, and the most southern area of Broward County. There is an agreement between the two counties to overlap areas of coverage for better transportation service. 21


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study MDTA has two transportation management centers, and a customer information service center. The central contr ol center is located at 111 NW 1 Street (51 floor) and the STS center i s located on the second floor of the garage building at 2775 SW 74'" Ave. The Customer lnfonnation Center is located at the MDTA northeast garage, 360 NE 1 85'" St. The Central Control center operates three indep enden t systems: MetroRail Metro Mover, and Metro Bus. Operation is 7 days a week, 24 hours a day, and 365 days a year. The Central Contro l Center 's function is to handle secur ity, accidents and mechanical malfunctions. MetroRail and Metro Mover share the same control room and personnel, and they are cross-traine d to operate both systems. Metro Bus operations are handled In a separate but Immediately adjacent room, with a glass wall between the two centers MetroRail has an additiona l center (control tower) located at 6601 NW 4'" Ave. (41 floor) to control trains as they enter and leave the maintenance yard. Th is loc ation can also serve as backup to the Cen tral Control center. Metro Mover does not have any other control center. Metro Bus has three additional centers: Coral Way (2775 SW 74'" Ave.), Centra l Garage (3300 NW 32 .. Ave.), and Northeast Garage (360 NE 185"' St.). These additional Metro Bus centers serve to dispatch bus operators and resolve any log istical problems that relate to sick or late operators. The STS center handles special transportation services and Medicare trips. The STS program is contracted privately to lntelitran and their center functions as a call center to make trip reservations. This center also assigns trips to the transportat ion providers (private or County), resolves any scheduling conflicts or problems, user complaints, and coordinates payments to the private transportation providers. The MetroRail system gathers voice/VIdeo/data infonnation on a real -ti me basis Data and voice are carried in the County's SONET fiber ring (OC-3). Voice is also transmitted via 800MHz radio system for redun dancy For security purposes, data generated by real-time events is private and does not have direct connections with the fiber back bone The computers and peripherals are part of an Ethernet network. A new system is now being developed to provide real-time data on train position The MetroRail video system (analog) is for security. Each station has up to seven cameras which are monitored at the Central Control center. Plans for a digital replacement using a fiber optic carrier (independent of the County's SONET r in g because of lack of available bandwidth) are now being developed. The Metro Mover system is a stand-alone system that lacks flexibility in sharing da ta (Intel 486 architecture). The system gathers voice/video/data information on a real-time basis. The voice system uses T 1 lines for center -to-stat ion communication. The 800MHz radio system is used for center-to-vehicle communications. The data and video systems are similar to the MetroRail data and video system. Over the next 4 years, data sharing capabMies will be incorporated. 22


County Transportation Management Center Functiona}ity Study The Metro Bus system has three integrated systems: 1 TOS that assigns operators to routes and buses, 2. SCHEDULER that schedules the routes, and 3. CAD/AVL t hat is used fb t set:Utity, schedule adherence and vehicle mechanical monitoring. Voice/video/data informa ti o n is gathered on a real-time basis. The voice system uses the 800MHz rad io The video system is local to the vehicle, and records information in solid-state devices that can be playback in special equ ipment (used as a accident investigation tool). The data system flow between TOS and CAD/AVL is in real-time basis. TOS and CAD/AVL reside in different computers and in different networks for security purposes. The CAD/AVL collects GPS data via 800MHz radio system from all vehicles (buses are polled every 2 minutes MetroRail and Metro Mover every 30 seconds). MOTA has fu nding to develop real-time location reporting system for public use. The Customer Information Center i s th e call center for the public, where a voice response unit guides the caller through a menu-driven list of services (schedule times special events, route map by mail, complaints, and automated trip planning using the telephone keys). The telephone switch, voice response software, and trip planning software are all connected to the MOTA Ethernet backbone. There are two NT workstations connected to the MOTA Ethernet backbone that manage the statistics from the automated call distribution system. Future plans are underway to inform public of static and dynamic schedules. One pilot project will create 3 kiosks that will interface with an Intranet web page (a-Government Initiative). A second project is part of an ADA compliance re trofi t for MetroRail stations (real-time arrival time signs at stations). MIAMI-DADE COUNTY POLICE DEPARTMENT-911 CENTER Area of coverage incl udes unincorporated Miami-Dade County; the incorporated areas of Miami-Dade County can contract for service. Center is staffed 24 hours/day seven days a week. Remote centers or satellite centers in c lude ten other police stations that also receive emergency calls from the public A new computer-aided dispatch system is plan ned in the near future, but no vendor or price has been established. The new system will have map capabilities. In the meantime i n-house upgrades to some of the ex isting CAD functions are being done. The center has a self-built CAD system so the center staff is making their own changes and modifications with n o new software or hardware They do not receive nor have any current means of accessing video feeds from FOOT and they do not receive or transmit information in any way other than telephone (voice). The Miami-Dade Police Department participates on the Critical Incident Management committee with FOOT and FHP. They also plan for emergency contingency operations, and have a representative at all EOC functions. 23


MiamiDade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study The only direct contact they have with other transpo rtation agencies is with the County's Traffic Signal Control center to advise them of a malfunctioning or knocked out signal. The 911 Center is physically housed in the County's Data Processing Control Center (DPCC) building at 5680 SW 87' Avenue. The Center has approximately 10,000 square feet of space for functional positions, and 2,000 for administrative offices The annual operating bu dget is $23 million. This Center is responsible for answering all calls for the police and fire de partments, and calls from citizens not knowing whom to contact for County governmental services. The Center also provides Emergency Medical Dispatch instructions over th e telephone until medical help arrives to the caller The Center's staff consists of 95 call takers (police complaint officers), 95 police dispatchers, and approximately 40 administrative staff. Five other Public Service Answer ing Points exist in Miami-Dade County (City of Miami City of Miami Beach City of Coral Gables, City of Hialeah, and City of Pinecrest). Some of t he smaller municipalities are not open for service 24 hours a day, so the County 9 1 1 Center can receive their calls if r equested during off hours. The County's 911 Center receive informa t ion via telephone or fro m police radio only (regarding crashes and other traffic incidents) For crashes, the 911 Center dispatches an officer and medical help as needed. For traffic movement problems, th e 911 Center notifies the County's Traffic Maintenance Office. This Center currently does not get involved in traffic or disseminating traffic information and they do not anticipate being involved in such activ ities. SUMMARY OF SURVEY FINDINGS Based on the survey resu lts presented above several key findings can be identified: 1. There is very little interaction (real-time sharing of information) among all the transportation management centers. 2. Performance monitoring of transportation management center act iv ities and functions is not formally conducted and reported. 3. An overall formal plan for establishing compatible communication interfaces and protocols between transportation management centers is yet to be developed. 4. Very traffic conditions information is current ly shared with the public, although this will soon change dramatically as the S outh Florida Advanced Traveler Information System (A TIS) comes on-line. 24


M ia m iD a de County Transpo rt a t ion M anagemont Ce n tar Functionality Stud y 5 Very little real-t i m e in fo tm a tloh ga t he r ing exi sts a n d shar ing o f thi s I n fo rma t ion (mos tly v i deo )' Is not shared among a ll the tr a nspo rt ation man a g e men t ce n ter s 6 Althou g h co nstrained i n various wa ys all transpo rta tion m a n age ment cen ters wou l d l i k e t o be doi ng a n d provid i ng more GE N ERA L CO MMENTS FRO M S URVE YS Se v e ral of the survey respondents expres se d th eir opinion on key TMC developm ent is s u es. Omitting the ind i vidua l identity, th ese respondents are simp l y identified a s T ransportat ion Manager and Law Enforc e m e nt Officer, and their opinions on issues such a s th e physical co-location of agencies n e ed s, goals/objectives and synergie s ar e s umm a r ize d below On Physical Co-location of Multiple Agencies In one TMC Trans po rt a tion Man ager 1: Housing seve ra l age n ci es u n der on e roof cou l d be benefici a l. At th e same ti me it p r esents logistica l d ifficulties an d d isa dvantages; for example lack o f re a l estate for future g rowtll l ack of spa ce to house eq u i pme n t parl

Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study On Area-wide TMC Related Needs T ra n sportat i o n manager 1 : Open systems, NTC/ IP compliant, modular, and seamless communication transfer between TMCs. A f ull computer control over an entire signa l system or Advanced Traffic Management System (A TMS) and fully integ rated with EMC and 9-1-1 would be ideal for preemption. assuring there Is a limit ed access to EMC and 9-1-1 when it comes to changing signal patterns. Devices (surveillance and other) should be deployed in all state roads that are covered by Service Patrols ("Road Rangers"). Some arterials as well as state roads in different municipalities will benefit from this service (Road Rangers) as well. Any on-ramp signaling system, just like any signal under any centralized location, should be under the contro l of a center. For the ICS 1-95 Phase B Project. the ramp signaling devices would be controlled by FDOT. More dynamic message signs (DMSs) are needed not only on 1-95, but also on other state roads Law Enforcement Officer: Currently, the Free Incident Manage men t Team works closely with several agencies in order to fulfill their mission. We are mainly concerned with the freeway system in the County, namely, 1 -75, 1-95, SR-826 SR 836, SR 954, SR 87 4, and the Florida Turnpike, wHhin the geographical location of Miami-Dade County. It would be ideal to extend the system to all state roads within the County; however, it is not feasible logistically or economically. The road ranger program is almost fully operational, with the last gap (weekends) being close to impleme ntation Currently, we hav e service during the weekdays, from Monday at 6 a.m. through Saturday at 6 a .m., or something like this. It should continue to be limited to the expressway network, as this is where the need for rapid clearing of the road assistance Is prevalent. The Intelligent Corridor is almost fully operational for the area surrounding the cloverleaf The message boards are informational for people traveling on SR 826 towards 1-95, or for people traveling north or southbound 1 -95 in the vicinity of the cloverleaf. With the cameras already in place on 1-95 from the southernmost point to almost Broward County, additional boards could be insta lled. SR 826. additionally, could greatly benefit of information, but the cost is prohibitive. Automated access to expressways (by controlling the entrance ramps or ramp meters) would be great tools to expedite traffic. The Committee has been toying with this idea for a while, but the cost involved i s substantial. 1 95 is the ideal route to start with the controlled access, which could be eventually extended to SR 826 and the southern portion of 1-75. Transportation Manager 2: Ideal Locations for video surveillance are those, which are the most likely to experience irregular traffic flow situations such as the following: a. Major event generator like arenas, stadiums. race tracks b. Major intersections near bridges or railroad crossings where preemption and recovery o p erations could be made more efficient with manual remote intervention 26


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study c. Major volume intersections and roadways where the detection of occasional flow failures can be managed to help a large number of motorists Assuming the road ranger program is successful as stated by the FOOT the rangers should be on all expressways. We should also consider having them on call to assist on major arterials. Variable message signs a r e a huge waste of money in my opinion A better HAR system should instead be developed with those funds. On Area-wide TMC Rel;ded Goals/Objectives Transportation Manager 1: Goal making sure that all TMCs adhere to a common protocol so that information can be exchanged freely between systems. Main objective is to maintain highways free of traffic related incidents and in tum reduce travel time As far as response time is concerned, it is difficult to set response time standards because every road and traffic conditions vary from location to location. Law Enforcement Officer: All stalled vehicles should be removed from the roadway within 15 minutes. Transportation Manager 2: Remove non-moving vehicles from the travel l anes immediately (not in 15 or any other specific number of minutes). On Area-wide TMC Related Synergies T ransportation Manager 1 : (On cost savings) We need to study this more in depth because costs sometimes are difficult to define. TMCs should share data, but should not have administrat i ve access to each other s data. Yes, all 5 TMCs shall have access to the infonmation from SmartRoute system. Transportation Manager 2: All TMCs should have conven i ent and quick access to each other's data and to SmartRoute system data. On Area-wide Traffic Managementthg Future in 10 to 20 Years Transportation Manager 1: I see traffic management reach ing to the average people, where you can log in from your house, or your wireless laptop or at a kiosk (in the airport, bus station, etc.) and receive real time infonmation ; therefore, he will be more empowered and in control of his driving experience What will it take? Investment in quality individuals, investment in technology and infrastructure, and commitment from anybody who in one-way or another uses state roads. 27


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study Law Enforcement Officer. Not good .... Unless a new north-south expressway is built, the volume of traffic in our expressways will continue to increase and the current capacity for expans ion is almost non-existent. With the new NW 17 avenue exit and toll plaza is built on SR 836 (currently under construction), there is no capacity to expand any longer in that corridor. The turnpike (SR 821) is currently adding one additional lane in each direction, from SR 836 to the county line. And SR 826 is being widened and expanded to full capacity, with no possibility of future expansion. Gridlock will be the consequential result, unless this new North-South expressway is buill OTHER REGIONAL TRANSPORTATIONS SERVICES Besides the five TMC surveys discussed above, there are severa l other operational entities in Miami-Dade County that should be consulted in developing a potential regional TMC. A brief discussion on these operations is provided below. SunGuide!SmartTraveler As part of the F lorida DOT's ongoing ITS deployment initiatives in May 2001 South Florida's SunGuide/SmarTraveler Advanced Traveler Information Services (ATIS) was unveiled. Privately operated by SmartRoute Systems (SRS), the core ATIS services in the SmatTraveler are an interactive vo ice response (IVR) telephone service and a real-time traffic information web site. The IVR telephone system now allows South Florida travelers from Miami to West Palm Beach to get real-time traffic information by dialing into the system from a cell or land line telephone Travelers can call 305-914-3838 in Miami-Dade County, and 866-914-3838 in Pa lm Beach and Broward Counties to access this traveler information service. In the future, it is anticipated that callers in the region will be able to access the system by dialing 511 (the U.S. DOT initiative to establish a nationwide three digit call number for traveler information). The real -time traveler information website is found at Internet users can get real-time traffic Information by clicking on a specific highway segment in the three-county region Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach. The Miami-Dade Expressway lMDXJ The M iami-Dade Expressway (MDX) operates and maintains State Roads 836, 924, 112, 874 and 878 in the Miami-Dade County Since becoming operational in 1996, the MDX has achieved several important goals on the five expressways the MDX operate. The MDX ITS initiatives include: Starting a roving patrol service (Road Ranger) that aids stranded motorists, helping to prevent traffic tie-ups. Instituting SunPass electronic toll collection lanes that allow vehicles t o pass through toll plazas without stopping, thereby speeding traffic flow. 28


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study MDX's five-year work program (2002 2006) inclu des implemen t ing MDX's system-wide Intelligent Transp ortat ion System (ITS). The MDX is currently developing an ITS Master Plan for Deployment of ITS Devices on its roadways. The ITS Master Plan will ident ify where and how ITS technologies can be impl eme nted within the MDX corridors to imp rove safety efficiency and incident management for the County. The Master Plan will guide the MDX efforts to improve trans portat ion mobility on its roadways throughout the county. The MDX has also embarked on Rapid Deployment Ini tiatives to deploy ITS in the SR 836 Corridor to support future construction efforts along this roadway. Other ITS rapid deployment concepts to support incident mana gement includ e accident investigat ion sites (AIS), and roadway reference markers. The MDX is currently building a Transportation Management Center (TMC). The TMC will be housed in the MDX Headquarters at 3790 N .W. 21" Street, Miami FL 33142. With regard to TMC co-location and integration opportunities in Miami-Dade County the MDX offered several suggestions. A summary of these suggestions is prov i ded below. On effjs:lencles of potential co-location of some or all of the TMCs in Miami-Dade County: One joint information technology (IT) staff managing and maintaining the computer equipment and the LAN Many ITS maintenance and operations functions could be supported by shared ITS technicians Interaction between agency staff will increase leading to an understanding of each others responsibilities (this is an issue that will require resolution and agreement from the various parties prior to the implementation likely to be territorial/ control disagreements before agreement is reached) Communications lines between agencies (especially among staff) may be enhanced by the knowledge of who is doing what. Cross-trained staff can offset shortcomings in staff assignment and /or need for additional staffing. The various software platform systems ca n be integrated with certain software modules accessible only to certain staff, or the systems can remain separate with the enhanced capability that certain (pre-define d ) information can be exchanged. Reduced staffing levels required for off-peak period. 29


Miami-Dade County Transport8tion Management Center Functionality Study On drawbacks/circum s tances that might make it im poss ible to colocat e all of the centers (or certain centers), the MDX offered the fo llowing response: Ro l es, jurisdiction and function of the centers are some the major issues that need to be considered when housing the centers under one roof Disparity between 911 operators and DO T ATMS operator sa l a r ies Labor un io n agreements Favorable location of the TMC for functional operati o n of the various center agency functions Institutiona l infrastructure issues such as who pays for the building maintenance, utilities communications infrastructure costs etc Funding, construction, equipment, and ma i ntenance of facilities On synergies/ cost savings through integration of TMCs. the MDX expressed the foll o wing opinion : Synergies and cost savings are very much achievable through integrat i on of TMCs In addition to the shared staff described above and the cost (and life) savings due to interaction among agencies' staff, the cos t of buildi ng a building and maintaining it will be much lower On data sharing/access among TMCs : The data sharing should have a data distribution mechanism to select or filter which info rmation is presented to an agency/agency personnel. This can be accomplished through some reg io na l operati o ns coordination framewo rk. The techno l ogical framework should include sharing of information contro l and resources, with a high degree of automation using stale-of-the-art software systems, hardware and commun ica tion capabilities Some of these capabilities could in clude the following: Automated tailored data exchange capabilities of commercially available databases. Transparent access to cross agency static and real -time in formation, as agreed upon by the agencies. Multi-agency equipment control capabilkies />Uch as contro l of cl osed circu it television (CCTV), variable message signs (VMS), traffic s i gnals, etc. I n MDX's view there are several issues to consider when proposing the integration of several TMCs. I t is important that the option of integration through the S o utheast Florida Regional Architecture be revisited to derive an understanding for the data needs required for coordinat ion. Developing a regi ona l coordination council should be considered to develop and address a feasible framework for all participating agencies to 30


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center FunctionaMy Study conduct coordinated transportation management at the regional level. This could be a parallel effort to the ongoing Florida Incident Management Team Meetings. In addition to the TMC co-location and integration issues described above, the MDX offered suggestions on related ITS objectives, issues, and device deployments In the context of regional traffic management (including multi-jurisdictional facilities that provide alternate routing of traffic) are summarized below: ITS objectives In MDX's vierw the basic objectives for Florida ITS have been addressed in the Florida Statewide ITS Strategic Plan. How all or some of those objectives apply to ITS Deployment in Miami-Dade County should be coordinated through a reg ional operations coordination framework to provide synergies with Southeast Florida region. Ramp metering Ramp metering has proved to be a good measure to ensure even freeway flow. Ramp meters are most effective when used area-wide with expressways that have parallel arterials, collector distributor roadw ays to effic i ently distribute traffic. Variable message sign The deployment of VMS is needed for en-route traffic information dissemination to complement highway adv i sory radio (HAR) information. VMS can play a significant role in managing incid ents effectively. This is one area where a regional ITS system needs to be developed, as the VMS information is most useful when alternate routes are available in response to an incident impacting highway capacity. Incident response ITS can best provide support to this objective good training and emergency response plans through incident detection, response and managemen t. It will most likely be preventing 'vehicle hours of delay' from increasing. A goal of 'removing stalled vehicles in less than 15 minutes' sounds like a reasonable and achievable goal; however, achieving this target time is dependent on geometry, congestion level and available staff As for a target to decrease the 'response time by 20 percent', this will depend on response plans and emergency response teams preparedness and training. This type of target time is very location dependent, and may not be achievable, if the response times are already very good. Traffic management in Miami-Dade County in 10 to 20 years from now Traffic management in the next 10 to 20 years should help improve the system's efficiency and effectiveness for both providers and consumers of transportation services. The process to achieving this should be based on regional integration and coordination of the various agencies identified in the Florida ITS regional architecture. On the roadway side of things, regional operations coordination would enable the Miami Dade Expressway Authority, District 6 Florida Department of T ransportation (SUNGUIDE), Miami Dade Traffic Control System, and the Turnpike Operations Center and public safety agencies to coordinate their "regionar transportation functions by sharing in format ion, coordinating activities and pooling resources. Integration and coordination wHh other agencies and neighboring counties is also necessary to accomplish this goal. 31


Miami-Dad& County Transportation Management Center Func tionality Study Overall, the MDX's vision is to implemen t a corridor-wide Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) network f or impr oved transportation mobility within the County. The MDX, since its int:epiitili in 1996, has embarked on d e velopmen t of a 20-yea r Master Transportation Plan that addresses the County's immediate and longran ge transportation needs on MDX roadways. The plan includes roadway improvement programs that will help avert traffic gridlock in the County. In addition t o these roadway improvements the MDX has embarked on rapid deployment initia t ives to improve the efficiency of the roadway networ1< with ITS. Tri-Rall Tri-Rail is South Flo r ida's commuter railroad, operating seven days a week from 18 train stations along a 71-mile rail corridor Tri Rail is the only regional commuter rail system in Florida. As t he north-south spine of South Fl orida 's transportation network trains run parallel to Interstate 95 servicing Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade counties. Th e rail corridor extends northward f rom the Miami Airport Station in Miami-Dade County through Broward County to the northern terminus at the Mangonia Park Station in Palm Beach County. Connecting bus service is available from all 18 train stations. For service to downtown Miami or cities in South Miami-Dade, Metrorail is e asily accessible from Tri-Rail's Metrorail Transfer station. Tri-Rail provides convenient connecting service to the area's three internation al airports; Miami International Airport, Fl Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport, and Palm Beach International Airport. Tri-Ra il tracks the trains in rea l-time and posts the train status informa tion on the Tri-Rail web site (htt p ://www Information is updated o n this web pa ge every five to seven minutes. 32


Miami-Dade County Transportat ion Management Center Funct io nality Study TRANSPORTATlON MANAGEMENT CENTER FUNCTIONALITIES AND FRAMEWORK FOR iNTEGRATION The co ntext o f th i s report is t o s tudy those aspects of TMC functionalit i es tha t enhance the integ r ated operat i ons a n d manage m ent of trans p ortat i o n facil i t i es in the Miami-Dade Coun ty. The f ocus of this study i s not s o much o n t he indi vidual TMC detai l s but on those functionalities that facilitate center to-cent e r i nformat i on ex ch anges. Th e functiona l ilies d i scussed in t h i s sect i on focus o n three m a jor f unctional a r eas t hat have significant impacts in th e Miami Dade C ount y s transportation ope r ations Traffic Management Transit Management, and Inc i dent Management. The USDOT ITS Arch i tecture and Stan d ards program m a teria l s (s o u r c e : http://www.iter i s com/itsarch/ ; http://www.itS-$, which provide t he basis for a l m o s t a ll transportation systems Integrat ion in the nation, are used to ide n tify the funct io n a l c apabiliti e s that should be incorporated i n t he center to-center communications i n the M i am i -Da d e County TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FUNCT IO NALIT I E S Ap p lica b l e to b o t h FOOT Distr i ct 6 and M i ami-Dad e County PV\10, the TMC co mmunicati ons in traffic management sh o uld supp ort a number of capabilities including: Exchanging near r eal-time traffic data and con trol information to support a r egio na l tra ffic man a gem e nt strategy. Exchangin g infor m at io n w i th m a i nt e nance and construction operations for the efficient management o f ma i ntenance activities. Providing near rea l time traffic i n f o r mation for use by info r mation service prov i ders (organizations t hat provide traveler information direct l y to the traveling public) and the media. Simila r l y i nformation service prov i ders and the media sh a r e information tha t they recei v e from o ther sou r c e s with traffic management. Exchanging information w ith tra n sit and emergency operations t o support tra ffic signa l priority and p r eemption for transit and emergency vehicles respectively Deve lo p ing a more complete view of the status of the transp o rtati o n n etw or1< by acquiring transportat i on (e.g public transportation) and event information from other centers P r oviding near real-time traffic informa t ion for use by other operations centers, such as emergency management and transit management. 33


County Transportation Management Center Funcfionalfty Study . These other centers cou l d in clude another traffic management, transit management, and emergency management centers as well as informat ion service providers and other transportation service prov iders The extent to which information and control are shared between centers is detennined through working arrangements among agencies or jurisdictions. Figure 2 shows the center-to-center communications framework for traffic management (source: http://www.its standards.neV). Figure 2: Center-to-Center Communications Framework for Traffic Management TRANSIT MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONALITIES Applicable to Miami-Dade Transit Authority, the TMC communications in transit management should support a number of capabi lities including: Providing multimodal coordination between transit (bus) agencies and other types of public transportation (i.e. rail, airlines) at transfer points, including coordinating infonnation b etween locaVregional transit organizations includin g schedules, on-time information, and ridership Coordinating with traffic management centers to obta in near real time traffic conditions on transit routes and to request signal priority on the selected route(s) Providing transit incident in fonnation, schedules, and fare and pricing informat ion to an information service provider Providing transit information suitable for media use 34


Miam;-Dade County T ransportalion M,anagement Center Functionality Study . . ..... Coordinating with financia l in stitutions on the approval and status of electronic fare payments Coordinating with law enforcement regarding the notification of violations The extent to which information and coordination are shared between centers is determined through working arrangemen ts among agencies or ju risdictions. Figure 3 shows the center-to-center communications framework for transit management (source: Figure 3: Center-to-Center Communications Framework for Transit Management Flnam:lallnslltullon INCIDENT MANAGEMENT Applicable to FOOT District 6, Miami-Dade County PIND, Miami-Dade Transit Agency The Florida Highway Patrol, The County Police Department, and the County Emergency Operations Center, the TMC communications for inciden t management in a multi-agency regional transportation network should support a number of capabilities including: Coordinate with the traffic management center to obtain real time road and traffic conditions, coordinate closures. detours, and special access routes request resources, control surveillance equipment, and coordinate special traffic control strategies (e.g., emergency signal preemption). Ex change incident reports, incident status, and response coordination information between emergency response agencies. 35


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study Obtain real-time incident information from public safety call takers, inc luding the nature and locat ion of an inc i den t. Provide incident informati on to the traveling public via the med ia and information service providers. Coordinate information about hazardous materials betwee n HAZMAT responders and HAZMA T shippers, carriers and other HAZMAT informat ion resources. Note that the center-te>-center communications in incident management support the coordination and exchange of in cident related information between many allied agencies. The communication i nterfaces support coordina t ing inc i dent management activities among agencies, disseminating of situation awareness and res po nse plans to all agencies, and allowing resources to be requested, tracked, and managed. In this context, "incidents" include all types of transportation-related incidents such as traffic accidents, planned roadway closures, and special events. The extent to which information and coordination are shared between centers is determined through working arrangements among agencies or jurisdictions. Figure 4 shows the ce nter -to-<:enter communications framework for incident management (source : http:/lwww.its standards.neV). Figure 4 : Center-to-Center Communications Framework for Incident Management Moda OTHER FUNCTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS In addition to the desired capabilities in key functional areas described above, there are other considerations that are related to the efficiency of integrated and coordinated TMC operat i ons. Several functionamies that may be considered almost mandatory inc lude 36


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study . workstation integration and automated infonnat ion report ing/sharing. These functionalities are briefly described below. Integrated Workstations A key concept in efficient TMC operations is the term "integrated workstation". Though different systems or software may exist in the operations center, a separate workstation should not be required to monitor or manipulate each of these systems. The integrated workstation concept allows common information to be shared across multiple systems and provides a common interface to the network. The integrated workstation should also allow all system functions, manipulations, or operations to be performed at either a single workstation, or at two workstations. An operator shou l d not need multiple workstations to perfonn or complete his daily functions An integrated workstation not only benefits the users of the system, but also can promote economies-{)f-scale in the installation, operation, and maintenance of the system. In a nutshell, the workstations provide operator interfaces that allow the TMC personnel a more effective means to gather and categorize traffic/transit information, to simplify the interpretation of system information, and to provide the ability to quickly fonnulate solutions to problems as they arise. Automated Information Sharing The sha ring of information among various agencies in a regional transportation network is essential to operating an efficient and seamless transportation system. In a regional transportation network, which is usually controlled by multiple jurisdictions, the TMCs that incorporate seamless electronic informa t ion sharing capabilities among multiple agencies facilitate many activities including: Alerting other agencies of incidents and construction activities that may impact their respective facilities Facilitating coordinated multi-agency responses to these major incidents Using variable message signs (VMS) and highway advisory radio (HAR) belonging to one agency to describe unusual conditions on another agency's facilities Creating an integrated clearinghouse of real-time and multi-modal traveler information Transit Centers -Additional Copsiderations While most of the requirements described above are applicable to both traffic and transit oriented TMCs, the transit oriented centers have additional functional needs for the basic fact that transit agencies operate vehicular fleets, and do not own the roadways on which the transit buses operate Most transit agencies have some fonn of operations center or room where transit functions such as communications with transit vehicles are performed Transit vehicle types may include buses (local or express), trains, commuter rail, carpools, vanpools taxis, or paratransil Some of the more common purposes or functions of a transit operations center include providing the following: 37


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study Fleet management, including vellicle locations schedule adherence, service restoration for disabled vehicles, vehicle rerouting, vehic le control or eme rgency response Demand management, such as vehicle dispatch for r idesharin g programs or paratransit. Fare collection or revenue operations. Incident response coordination within the transit agen cy and with other agencies, such as other authorit ies, public agenc ies, or other organizations, including the t raffic police, and fire departments A central database repository as part of an integrated system in support of different departmental functions. Such functions may include fleet management, demand management, maintenance operations, reporting functions, or planning operations, such as scheduling. Traveler informa tion for t h e media or general public, including pre-trip planning (mode selection), in-vehicle or enroute information. As with the traffic operation center workstations, the concept of integrated workstation is equally applicable to transit oriented operations centers. The primary objectives are th e same: the operator interface on the workstation provides a more effective means for personnel to collect and categorize transit inf o rmat ion to simplify the interpretation of system in formati on, and to provide the ability to quickly formulate solutions to problems that arise. At many transit operation centers, each dispatcher or operator has two personal computers or workstations at his disposal. Workstation #1 This workstation normally has some mapping software depicting the service area, and icons that may indicate the locat ions of the vehicle fleet, the status of each vehicle, and where the vehicle demands are. For a commute r railroad or light rapid transit system, the map software would indicate the rail tracks, the locations of the switching blocks, and the stations. Information can also be collected from the field indicating the l o cations of the tra in s For a system, the map software might indicate the location of the vehicles, the date, time, and location of the pickup request, and the location of the drop-off point. Workstation #2 The second workstation is usually dedicated to communications control. Using this workstation the dispatcher or operator can e asily communicate with whomever he may need to at the moment. The person may be a vehicle operator or engineer, another dispatcher, a station manager, a maintenance crew a supervisor or emergency personnel such as the police department or fire department. The workstation allows the operator to quickly and seamlessly switch between different communication lines or media, such as radios, cellular phones or direct phone lines. 38


Miami Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality study In addition to the workstations located in the TMC (e.g., staff office, operations console), several remote workstations may also be included outs i de the TMC. Remote workstations may lie necessary when all operations of the transit authority are decen t rali z ed For example : In metropolitan cities where the service area m a y be large the plann ing div i sion. the maintenance division, and the revenue collection divisions may be located at locat i ons away from the operations center. In these cases, a remote workstation at each of these divisions is desirable so each r espective department can retrieve and share its information without requiring a presence in the operations center. Many agencies have multiple operating bases where buses are dispatched from more than one garage In th i s situation, each operating base has a dispatching function, but the local dispatching is limited to assigning drivers to specific vehicles and making sure that all pieces of work are covered. Once the drivers pull out onto the road, they become under the contro l of the central dispatcher who is the only one that exercises real time control. The central dispatch can be located at one of the operating terminals or it can be located at a central office. A critical need for data transfers includes letting the central dispatch function know which operators and which vehicles are assigned to which pieces of work. With some level of automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems implementation, this is done automatically, but if the system is not so equipped, the information must still be passed on to the central dispatcher. TMC INTEGRATION AND JOINT OPERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS The U.S. DOT study on the TMC Implementation Guide (Reference 5) provides some excellent observations on the TMC coord i nation and integration aspects of a regional transportation system. A study (Refe r ence 15) by the Institute of Transportation Engineers on the Management and Operations of ITS also provided some valuable thoughts on TMC resource sharing/joint operations /Integrations. The following discussion is primarily based on those documents. Center-to-Center Coordination Coordination among multiple centers typically increases the effectiveness of each center, providing a superior overall perspective of the area under control, and making clearer the impact of actions taken by any individual center However a major step in achieving this coordination is the selection of which pieces of Information will be shared, and how (the level of integration) the information will be available. Many of the Southern California ITS Showcase projects involve sharing information between TMCs. In the lnterCAD project incident related informat i on is shared between the computer aided dispatch systems of several regional enforcement and EMS agencies at federal, state and local levels. Appropriate information is shared with the r egional Caltrans TMC through a bi-directional Internet link. Two primary alternatives for sharing of information are push", where the originating center automatically transmits the information to the other center, and pull", where the receiving center inquires for information it desires receiving that information as the result 39


Miam;..Dade County Transporlation Management Center Functionality Study of actions following the inquiry. In a common client/ server environment, a combination of the two may result from the receiving subscribing" to information from the originator, who then automatically tra h s iriit s tne desired informat ion until the subscription indicates otherwise. coordination begins not when the center i s operational, but early on during initial planning design, and imp leme nta t ion Involving all agencies active in the situations addressed by the TMC ensures that the center is optimally configured, equipped, and staffed to achieve full benefit from the taxpayer investment. Information Sharing is the he focus of co ord inat ion Typica l examples of infrastructure based information sharing include messages on variable message signs and highway advisory radio Non-Infrastructure intensive traveler i nformat ion includes provision of information via broadcast media press, Internet, telephone systems, or via fax Information sharing may occu r at any time, i.e. as part of event planning, during an event, or following the event as a "post mortem" eva lu ation. In event planning, agencies should work to comprehensively detail the actions to be performed, identifying who is responsible for each action, and how infor mation will flow during the event. During the event itself, sharing informat io n on what is transpiring and how and on how each agency is responding adds to the total effectiveness. In a post event analysis, careful consideration of how the event proceeded, stepbystep, and of how improvements can b e achieved i s beneficial. This includes both planned events (such as parades) and unplanned events (such as traffic incidents) Good examples include the detailed plans prepared by Houston Metro's law enforcement staff at the TranStar control cente r detailing freeway, arterial transit, and cro wd con trol plans for major events such as the annual Rodeo. coordination is of even greater importance for traffic signal systems. IMlere neighboring centers control signals along a primary signalized corridor, coordination is critical to achieving optimal flow conditions. Interaction may take place in real time or may only be necessary if conditions are changing in the centers, such as for special events or construction related lane closures Share Control or Not A major issue requiring careful examination while planning interaction between centers is the decision of whether centers w ill share contro l of one another's assets. The primary deciding factor is t ypically legal or regu latory in nature, of whether the employees of the first jurisdiction can legally take actions, which can impact the citizens of the second jurisd iction. Issues of liability for damage to each jurisdiction's equipment must also be addressed Operational procedures may differ between the centers, requiring additional training, documentation, and conflict resolution procedures Vllorkload may change as well, depending on whether each center uses the other's assets in its stead, or only under unusual circumstances. Forma l interagency agreements are necessary before such activity of shared control begins b ecause of the many impacts of shared control. The processes for informing respons ible personnel and decisionmaking or authorization will need to be clearly stated In the agreement, and appropriately reflected. Memoranda of understanding, s ig ned by senior agency officials clarify both the strategy and the specific actions that can be expected from each agency partner during system operation and how information moves between the agencies. 40


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study CORRIDOR WIDE INFORMATION COORDINATION Often the impacts from incidents or (construction, road closure, etc.) may traverse outside of a metropolitan region impacting a whole corridor involving muHiple metro areas in multiple cities and siaies. The 1-95 Corridor Coalit ion has been operating an Information Exchange Network (lEN) among its member agencies throughout the northeast (Maine through Virginia) The lEN consists of over sixty computer workstations and four regional servers connected in a wide-area Ethernet network. The system architecture i s primarily distributed in nature with workstations located at the Coalition members' TMCs. Each workstation provides a point of entry and access to regional and corridor-wide transportation information. CENTER-TO-CENTER INTERFACES AND ITS STANDARDS The information exchange and sharing of control between cente r s will be greatly expedited by the use of ITS standards. A major step will be the availability of the final center-to-center portion of the National Transportation Communications and ITS Protocol. This p r otocol will provide a common language for the movement of information and control between centers It will exist in two forms, each recognizing a different systems paradigm The structured model of information management will be applied in the DATEX version, whereas an object-oriented model will be in the CORBA version TMC SOFTWARE STUDY., A FOOT STATE ITS OFFICE INITIATIVE The FOOT State ITS Office in cooperation with the Michigan Department of T ransportation and the Federal Highway Adm i nistration, has recently completed a Traffic Management Center Systems Software Study (Reference 16). The study provides the Florida Department of Transportation (FOOT) State Intelligent T ransportation Systems (ITS) Office with a recommended approach to implementing a common software system throughout the State of Florida as well as an opportunity to share common components of the software system with other State Departments of Transportation (DOT). This study include short-term and long-term recommendations for implementing a common TMC software system for FOOT, discusses an approach for migrating each FOOT district to the long-term recommendation and identifies software and hardware benefits of implementing a common software system TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT CENTERS POOLED-FUND STUDY ITMC PFS) The goal of the TMC PFS Is to assemble regional state, and loca l traffic management agencies and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to (1) identify human centered and operational issues that are common among Traffic Management Center (TMC) operators and managers; (2) suggest approaches to addressing identified issues; (3) initiate and monitor projects intended to address identified issues; (4) disseminate resuHs; and (5) assist in solution deployment. There are currently 19 states participating in the TMC PFS. Any public agency or authority that is responsible fo r managing travel and operating traffic on a portion of the 41


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study surface transportation system is eligib l e to join and participate in the TMC PFS. The Florida Department of Transportation is a member of the TMCPFS The FHWA provides the staff and resources to manage and support the day-to-day administration of the TMC PFS. TMC PFS Objectives The TMC PFS is intended to serve as a forum for the participants to identify and address human-centered and operational issues that are common among several traffic management centers. The TMC Study will focus on issue s that arise from traffic management centers that are part of traffic signal control systems, or freeway management systems. Within these broad topic areas, the following are offered as examples is sues that migh t be addressed within the intended soope: Operations planning and program issues. Operational strategies and plans. Operator procedures and task allocation. Operator-computer interfaces System design and implementation. Facility and system performance monitoring, evaluation, and report ing Contracting and procurement practices and Issues. Traffic management and operations related to construction and maintenance work zone System maintenance concepts a nd plans. Operator training. Personnel requirements and job descriptions Personnel retention. Interagency cooperation and communication. Project Status Four projects were selected in 2000 and are currently underway: Operator Requirements Matrix ($199,842) Changeable Message Systems Guidelines ($149,953) 42


County Transport ation Manag ement Cent e r Functi on ality Study Maintenance Concept & Plans ( $249 841 ) Configuration Management ($250 000) Two projects were selected for funding in 2001 : Integration of Freeway and Arterials Operation s (est. $350,000) TMC Concept of Operations Development (est. $300, 000) FOOT Commitment Florida DOT has contributed $ 100 ,000 to this contract and plans to contribute $50,000 every year in the next three year. This w ill be a fiVe -year program. Additionallnformptlon Additional informa tion on the FHWA pooled fund s tudy can be foun d on the website http://tm cpfs .ops. 43


Miami-Dade County Transp orlation Management Center Functionality Study TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT CENTER CASE STUDIES The U.S. DOT has conducted seve ral case studies documenting information on operations at various TMCs within the United Stales and Canada. This section provides a summary of eight TMCs that were studied in detail in various U.S. DOT case studies. While the p rimary focus of each of these centers Is freeway management, several are also responsible for traffic signal system operation and various aspects of transit system management. The eight TMCs discussed below represent a broad range of centers in their systems size, age, purpose, and implementation. These TMCs are: Atlanta NaviGAtor, Georgia Houston TranStar, Texas Milwaukee MONITOR, Wisconsin Toronto COMPASS, Ontario, Canada Detroit Michigan ITS Center Michigan L ong Island INFORM, New York Arizona TraiiMaster, Phoenix, Arizona Boston Artery/Tunnel Integrated Project Control System, Boston, Massachusetts Table 3 presents an overview of various elements at each of these TMCs. TMC SUMMARIES Atlanta NaviGAtor The Atlanta's NaviGAtor TMC began operations to serve the needs for incident management, congestion management, and motorist assistance during the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. NaviGAtor's mission has been expanded to serve as part of the Georgia DOT's statewide freeway incident management program. It uses vehicle detectors, closed-circuit television, variable message signs, and ramp meters communicating over a fiber optic and microwave network. As a result of the NaviGAtor services, the delay between the report of a crash and dispatch of emergency serv ices has been cut in half, and accidents are cleared from the roadway 38 percent faster. The NaviGAtor TMC hosts the Georgia DOT, as well as the a r ea motorist assistance patrol program and the state's commercial vehicle operations enfo rce ment program. 44


County Transpo1tation Management Center Functionality Study 3 : a t = :i! lXUVI Agen<::les GDOT MOOT, I'IYSDOT A DOT, (Mu l 1 i ple Metro IMsDOT MTO Mich. stat e Arizona MHO, inTMC Fun ctions} T r a nsit, City, Patrol Contractor S tate Pa trol MassPlke Traffic Traffic Traffic Functions Operations, T ransit Traffic Traffic Operations, Operauon s Traffic in Contro l MAP, D ispatch. T raffic OperatiOns, Operat ions, MAP, Incident OperaUons, Traveler Law O p era tions Vehi<:le Tu n nel Room Information, Enfotcemen Information MAP Traveler Teams, Conkel Bro3dcast t ,MAP, lnformaUon Broadcast I Planning, Design, Desi g n Other T r a ining, Special P l ann ing, Design, NIA(state Var ious Design Training. Oes.ign, F unction& Manage-Events, lnsped.kln, t.talntc Office Ana lysis (Major Office lnTMC mQnt, OutreaCh nanoe, Bull IM(; of 10 9 5 6 3 12 6 1 8 of Prime Shift 3+ 3+ 5 4 2 + 5 2 12 Total ... 10 12 12 9 5 1 8 8 19 SU.ii' --.-. Contractor Temporary Staff, Staff, Agency Agoncy S taff andP n Personnel Part-time S t u dents Stude nts Staff 01 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 Aceommo None None B aing None Broadcu.t Broadcast Ekoadcut i n Privati zed Booth Position Booth/office I Modla On Metro Bein g Metro il"' Rad i o Mell O MeUo Site None Privatized Bui lding E M i nistry of AVC -Aut omated Vehicle C l assification CCTV-C l osed-Circu i t T elevlslon PADPassive Acoust i c Detector GCM Gary, Chicago Mil waukee V IDSVideo Imaging System ISP -Information Selvioe Provider VMS Va ri able Message Sign MAP Motorist Assistance Patrol ,.,..,..,on 45


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study Houston TranStar i. The TranStar TMC is a multiagency transportation management center providing traffic management, traveler information, and emergency management for the greater Houston area, Including limited assets in Galveston. The goals of Houston TranStar are to manage emergency response, promote emergency management awareness and public safety, promote the benefits of Houston TranStar, increase efficiency, improve productivity, and enhance mobility, congestion management and safety. TranStar resources include va r iable message signs highway advisory radio, loop detectors closed-circuit televis i on lane control signals, ramp meters, a motorist assistance patrol, and an AVI-based congestion detection sys t em extending beyond the conventionally detecto r ized area. An extensive traffic signal system upgrade/replacement of 3,000 signals is under way As a result of the TranStar services, average freeway i ncident time saving is 5 about minutes, but ana l ysis has shown that a savings of 30 minutes is possible for major freeway incidents Total annual delay savings is estimated at 573 095 vehicle-hou r s resulting in about $8.4 million in savings per year. In T ranStar TMC, the four core agencies are the Texas DOT, the City of Houston Harris County, and Houston Metro Houston and Harris County Offices of Emergency Management are also present. Milwaukee MONITOR The MONITOR TMC manages Wisconsin DOT's freeway traffic management system in the metropolitan Milwaukee area. MON I TOR uses vehicle detectors closed circuit television, traffic responsive ramp metering with high occupancy vehicle (HOV) priority, freeway and arteria l variable message signs, and highway advisory radio. The TMC is also the focus for regional distribution of r oad closure information. Wisconsin DOT has reported travel time reductions of 9 12, and 16 percent on three separate roadway segments as a r esult of MONITOR's systems. AM peak period average speed has increased 3 percent while volume has increased 22 percent. Net savings of 1,454 driver hours per peak hour have been calculated as a result of ramp metering alone Wisconsin DOT is the key agency. A captain level full time liaison from the county Sheriffs department is present in the MONITOR TMC to provide coordination with law enforcement and emergency management. 46


Miami-Dade County Transportation Managetmilnf Center Functionality Study Toronto COMPASS The COMPASS TMC In the Toronto metro area ba lan ces traffic between express and collector lanes on Highway 401, and provides incident detection and incident management. COMPASS uses vehicle detectors, closed-circuit television, and variable message signs communicating over a fiber optic network A 1994 evaluation showed that the COMPASS system has resulted i n a reduction in average duration of incidents from 86 minutes to 30 minutes, that the system prevents about 200 accidents per year, and that average speed has increased 7 to 19 percent Two smaller COMPASS TMCs in the Toronto area monitor adjacent roadways. The COMPASS TMC focuses on freeway operations. The Ministry of Transport, Ontario is the key agency, Detroit, Michigan ITS Center The Michigan ITS Center in Detroit includes ramp meters, detectors, and closed-circuit television, and highway advisory radio, communicating via microwave and spread spectrum radio to an OG-48 fiber optic network. The focus of the TMC is to make the traveler's trip less stressful by providing better information so the traveler can avoid congestion or other driving problems. A study of ramp meters in Detroit measured a 50 percent accident reduction, an 8 percent increase in speed and a 12.5 percent inc rease in demand. The current expansion of the freeway management system is expected to reduce delays from incidents by about 40 percent The Michigan ITS Cen ter is jo intly staffed by the Michigan DOT and the Michigan State Patrol. Long Island INFORM The INFORM system on Long Island, New York includes vehicle detectors, closed-circuit television, traffic signals, ramp metering, and variable message signs communicating over a coaxial network. The TMC identiftes traffic congestion and incidents or situations like ly to cause congestion, and provide information t o motorists and inc ident management resources to minimize the duration and impact of such situations. The system monitors and manages traffic on Long Island's three major east-west limited access routes, w ith work under way to instrumen t north-south arterial connector routes as welL ResuHs of INFORM studies show that freeway speeds increased 13 percent despite an increase of 5 percent vehicle miles traveled for the afternoon peak. The number of locations with speeds of less than 30 mph decreased by 50 percent for the morning peak. A study of the INFORM ramp metering system found a 15 percent accident reduction and a g percent increase in speed, INFORM was implemented by the New York State Department of Transportation, and used primarily for freeway management The INFORM TMC also hosts the regional motorist assistance patroL 47


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Cente r Functionality Study Arizona Trai/Master, Phoenix The TraiiMaster TMC in Phoenix is the hub of the Arizona Department of Transportation's statewide freeway inciden t management program. The objectives of TraiiMaster are to support optimum utilization of the freeway system, provide a safe and efficient environment for users, and ensure efficient utilization of ADOT resources The system uses vehicle detectors, closed-circuit television, and variable message signs communicating to the control center over a fiber optic network. Traveler information is provided via multiple methods, including on-site broadcaster, Web si te, video feeds to other media, and the AZTech metropolitan model deployment initiative kiosks onboard navigation computerized tele phone, and bulletin board systems. In a study of a typical incident, Arizona DOT found that the rapid incident detection and response from TraiiMaster resulted in diversion of 21 percent of the vehicles traveling on the affected roadway resulting in a savings of 1,452 vehicle hours for this i ncident lflle TMC also hosts the Arizona DOT and the Arizona Stale Patrol.! Boston Artery/Tunnel Integrated Project Control System T he Boston Artery TMC is an integrated traffic management and tunn el systems control application for Boston's 7.5 mile Central Artery/Tunnel system. The objective of this system is to monitor security, traffic, and systems (fire, water level, air quality) status, and to respond to incidents, nonstandard needs, or failures rapidly and effectively. The traffic management components also support management of traffic through the heart of Boston and to and from Logan Airport, and thus they are also involved in supporting both daily travel and any special events that occur on Boston's roadways. The Integrated project control system applies vehicle detectors, overheight detectors closed-circuit television, lane control signals, and variable message signs communicating over a fiber optic network The system Is being implemented by the Massachusetts Highway Department, and is operated by the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority. SUCCESSFUL PRACTICES AND LESSONS LEARNED The following provides a summary of successful practices and lessons learned from the TMC case studies conducted by the U.S DOT This summary focuses on the Inter agency, intra-agency, and the media Inte raction aspects only. Interagency Interaction Interact ion with partner agencies in the incident management process Is one of the most important and complex components of TMC operations. 48


Miami-Dade County TranspoJtation Management Center Functionality Study Both Detroit and Milwaukee had law enioreement officers on-site at their TMCs, with Det roit cohabiting the control room with Michigan State Police dispatchers, and Milwaukee having a dedicated, captain-level lia i son on site from the Milwaukee County Sheriff's department. VI/hen the captain was attending other duties a Sheriffs department radio, tuned to the appropriate traffic frequency, remained in operation in Milwaukee s control room. Houston hosts officers from both Houston Metro and Harris County in its control room Atlanta has a full-time control room console position for a Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) commercial vehicle operation (CVO) and high occupancy vehicle (HOV) enforcement officer. Atlanta noted that it regularly received calls f rom area law enforcement agencies request ing that it dispatch motorist ass istance patrol vehicles to existing incident sites. Houston is invest igating the feasibility of mobile command centers for incidents and special events drawing on both military experience and more recent activity in work zone traffi c management. Because of the numerous agencies involved in transportation in their areas of coverage, Arizona (statewide), Long Island and Atlanta (also statewide) face the greatest challenges when coordinating with multiple law enforcement units. This coordination is typically conducted via telephone with either dedicated or "speed dial" lines to the dispatch functions at the relevant agencies. Houston g iv en its complex multiagency, multifunction role, recognized the value of having a facilitator for its multifaceted activities The Houston facilitator allows each agency to focus on its skills resources, and primary purpose in any situation, resulting in faste r consensus. Regarding construction -related road closures, Milwaukee has the enviable position of having pre-approval authority ove r all closures on its road network and for being the final authority on initiation of any road or lane closure The Arizona Highway Closure Reporting System (HCRS) has been so successful that adjacent states have approached the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) about expanding the system for multistate, regional application. Toronto has developed a low-work load system for capturing information about lane closures and faxing that Information regu la rly updated to relevant agencies and other interested parties. Atlanta's system-featuring both the central GDOT TMC and traffic control centers (TCC) at the city, counties, and outlying areas in which traffic management is being implemented-shares all construction closure information over the distributed network allowing partner agencies full access to the closure in for mation in the system. 49


Miami-Dachi County Transportation Manag ement Center Functionality study Houston monitors park ing availability during slmUar large events Hous t on has on-site Houston Metro officers who perform detailed specia l event planning and who participate In event execution and coordination. Houston Metro estimated that the Houston TMC manages one special e vent per week, includ ing some that involve the planned presence of livestock on the roads, and others that may last for several days. Houston's emergency operations center Is l ocated within the TMC Houston officials were enthusias tic about the effectiveness of collocating the emergency operat i ons center and TMC citing outstanding cooperation and coordination during emerge ncy operations. Toronto has prepared an area adjo ining its TMC control room for emer gency operations Atlanta's TMC is located adjacent to t he Georgia emergency operations center. The Houston area is supporte d by an a lli ance of wrecker companies working from a common dispatch center. The alliance Is present ly discussing re l ocating its dispatch function to a location within the T M C to further improve coordination Intra-agency Interaction Milwaukee and Atlanta have taken a direct approach to their TMC i ntra-agency coordination Both co-locate their planning design, inspect i on, and operations under a single TMC organizational unit. For most TMCs, maintenance is located In a separate facility in the metropolitan area and typi ca lly reports to the DOT district office. rather than to the ITS unit. Phoenix mainta ins contact with ADOT maintenance statewide through I ts radio system (in the control room) and via pagers Also in Phoenix, operations maintenance and systems supervisors maintain a joint list of desired system im provements I n M ilwaukee, both operations and management personnel can access the advanced traffic management system remot ely via a dial-up connection Transit Integration In situations where the transit fleet depends upon the roads managed by the TMC such as f or express and circulator routes, the value and exten t of integration can be significant In situat ions where the TMC's detection and surveillance network.s are limited, information from AVL and operators on buses serving as traffic probes can signiflcanUy expand the traffic network information available to the TMC. 50


. Mlam;..Dede County Transportation Management Center Functionallly Study Centralized integration typica lly features transit personnel in the TMC control room. In such cases, often other transit functions, such as bus dispatch, are also migrated to the TMC Decentralized integration is also possible, through extensive electronic sharing of voice data, video, and control capability over communications lines between the TMC and transit contro l centers. While the above observations from the TMC case studies amply depict the benefits of cooperation and coordination among the traffic and transit management agencies a Federal Transit Administration study (Review of and Preliminary Guidelines for Integrating TransH into Transportation Management Centers, FTA, 1994) concluded the following on transit integration into TMCs. It is not necessary to co-locate transit dispatch/operations with traffic operations in the TMC but it does facilitate the immed iate exchange of information, and, i nstitutionally it creates a "friendly" environment in which transit and traffic have equally importan t roles in managing the regio n' s transportation. The organizational and institutiona l issues are much more critical than the technology. TMCs' success or failure will depend on the degree to which transit operations and traffic management entities coordinate and cooperate, not solely on the technologies that they employ When a TMC is created or expanded to include transit, each participating organization must be a stakeholder. That is, each organization must contribute resources and expertise to receive benefrts from the TMC. Non -transit agencies must recognize the importance of transit to the whole transportation picture in a region. This may require education for both transit agencies and traffic organizations The roles and responsibi lit ies of transit and traffic agencies participating in a TMC do not have to drastically change for the organizations to cooperate. Transit agencies will still be focused on all the aspects of providing their services, and traffic management will still be focused on improving the traffic flow and managing in cidents The technologies employed in the collection and dissemination of transit and traffic data by the TMC will greatly imp rove the effectiveness of managing regional transportation, but they cannot substitute for transportation management. Media Coordination Positive TMC interaction with the media can greatly benefit the TMC's mission. Although TMCs are not necessarily designed for such a public relations role, they often become the focus of outreach to the public, to the media and to the professional transportation community. 51


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionalffy Study Milwaukee, Houston, and Atlanta have outreach staff on site, facilitating their relationship with the media and expanding their ability to broaden understanding of their advanced traffic management system and purpose by the travel ing public and key decision makers. Atlanta has initiated direct public outreach efforts through billboards and bus advertisements and regular l y leverages the extremely pos i tive i mage of its motorist assistance patrol program to build support for the state's ITS activities. Atlanta also features preinstalled media hookups and a dedicated media broadcast area. The PhoeniX control room hosts a local broadcaster during peak periods as does Long Island when the broadcaster is available. In both Atlanta and Milwaukee, the media were required t o pay for the acqu isit ion and installation of the equipment the media needed to access their computer and video feeds. Lessons Learned This summary of the lessons learned from the TMC case studies also focuses on the inter-agency, intra-agency, and the media interaction aspects Early and strong Metropolitan P l anning Organization (MPO) support for the TMC concept in the regi o n helped provide a good foundation for advancing a TMC system and traffic management concepts for many years. Gaining such support also he l ped define, for those responsible for examining the long-term transportation situation, the regional needs the TMC would meet. The TMCs stated that the implementing agency must predetermine (in a feasibility study or conceptual design study) the purpose of the TMC and then ensure that the Advanced Traffic Management System would support that purpose effectively A system design that did not address and support the specific, known transportation needs of the region (and did not support the involved agencies' long-term transportation strategy) could result in negative public and political reaction and many challenging years of ITS program management. A common theme TMCs expressed was the need for adequate space, including the value of having a facility that coul d be expanded as space needs increased. Most TMCs soon discovered that when their site was operati onal, an o ngoing stream of agenc i es and funct i ons found it beneficial to locate within their TMC In multiagency circumstances, one TMC noted the importance of each agency having some "home turf' in the TMC, in which it could comfortably address sensit i ve internal issues, away from other TMC residents. 52


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study There was general agreement that providing dedicated space to media within the center (typically in or adjoining the control room) supported an effective (and less disruptive) media relationship, ar'1d built positively on the TMC's outreach program. The presence of law enforcement officers in the TMC provided a boost to the security level at those centers with such arrangements. Those TMCs that hosted both traffic management and emergency management capabilities noted that the TMC needed to be properly configured and outfitted for that mission Appropriate requirements typically included adequate sizing of backup power units communications connections, and accommodations for personnel working around the clock. Especially for those TMCs where muHiple elements of the ITS program (planning, design construction/inspection, operations, maintenance) were co-located there was significant value gained by designing laboratory and testing facilities into the TMC. Such facilities supported evaluation of new equipment, testing and calibration of new and repaired units and debugging of interfaces between the equipment and computer and communications systems 53


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Cente r Functionality Study CONCLUSIONS Based on the information analysis and discussion presented in the previous chapters, this study makes the following conc lusi ons with regard to developing TMCs in the context of the Miami Dade County regional transportation management 1: DEVELOP TMC CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS PLAN Research conducted by CUTR on TMC implementation practices revealed that most regional TMCs in the nation have conducted general planning studies p r ior to implementing the T MC, but none developed a TMC Concept of Operations Plan. The concept of operations for a TMC deals with a wide array of topics relating to the operations and maintenance of the TMC and its systems I n the U.S DOT studies the development of a Concept of Operations Plan has been highly recommended The key elements of a TMC Concept of Operat i ons Plan are: The systems Operational facility needs Integration and testing Roles and responsibilities of the participating agencies Performing and procuring operations and maintenance Training and documentation Operational procurement and contracting The discussion of each topic should be adequate to c l early identify: Each of the functions to be performed within the TMC The number of staff and their areas of responsibility The systems, tools training, facilities documents, and other equipment necessary for the staff to perform their duties The processes the staff will follow in performance of their duties, including interactions between the staff and between staff and external organ i zations. Its is recommended that the Miami-Dade County/MPO ITS stakeholders develop a TMC Concept of Operations Plan prior to imp l ementing a TMC that will involve muHi-agency presence or involvement. The findings of this report are a first step to this goal. 54


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study 2: ON-SITE PHYSICAL PRESENCE IS IMPORTANT The general consensus on TMC operations indicates that the regional transportation systems were better served if multiple transportation agencies were present physically at a TMC facility The Houston Transta r TMC design allows face-to-face interaction among the operations staff from four major agencies co-l ocated in the same large room. In New York City Joint Traffic Operations Center, three agencies -the New York State DOT, the New Yorl< City DOT, and the New York Police Department-are co-located in adjacent rooms. Staff in both TMCs expressed the value of p r oximity and face-to face interaction. Staff proximity is most productive in dealing with complex tasks that require multi-agency response such as, for example, traffic and emergency response coordination to clear a freeway spill of hazardous materials There were more examples of favo rable operational r elationship as a result of co location of freeway management agency and law enforcement agencies (state DOT and Highway Patrol, or equivalent) in a TMC. Therefore the decision by the FOOT District 4 and the Florida Highway Pa trol to co-locate their operations should be considered a welcome development. However, i t is not fully understood what degree oftoperational integration is required to achieve optimum performance. The Concept of Operations Plan (recommended in 1} should investigate the full potential of co-location of the FOOT and FHP. 4: ON-SITE PHYSICAL PRESENCE OF THE FREEWAY MANAGEMENT AND ARTERIAL MANAGEMENT AGENCIES SHOULD BE GIVEN ADEQUATE CONSIDERATION . ' TMCs around the nation recognize that the full benefits of transportation management will be achieved only when the control of freeways and surface streets is performed in an integrated manner. However, until now the integ ration of freeway and surface street management are observed to be sporadic. Based on existing experience, a desired level of integration would likely include placement of closed-circuit television and variable message signs on arterials and some level of shared contro l of ramp metering and signal timing. The physical co-location should be driven by the agencies desirability to relinquish some command/control under mutua lly agreeable conditions. The Concept of Operations Plan is expected to include additional analyses on the circumstances that may provide meaningful insights of co-location in the context of the Miam i -Dade County area freeway and arterial operations. 5: ON-SITE PHYSICAL PRESENCE OF THE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT MAY BE DESiRABLE BUT NOT NECESSARY Opinions expressed at many TMCs ind icate that the proximity of emergency management agency personnel at or near a TMC facility has been beneficial. There has not been found any strong argument for co-locating the emergency management 55


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study functions at a TMC. In case of Miami-Dade County, a regional TMC and the County Emergency Operations Center can be linked through a regiona l informat ion exchange framework (discussed in 8) allowing eleCtidhlc sharing of TMC traffic info r ma t ion and videos with the County Emergency Operations Center. 6: PRESENCE OF TRANSIT DISPATCH IN A TMC MAY BE DESIRABLE BUT NOT NECESSARY . Not much informatio n was available on the traffic and transit integration on-site However, significant for cooperation and coordination exist between traffic and transit management agencies. Houston TranSt a r TMC noted that, although no formal procedures existed for interaction between traffic operations and transit, muc h traffic information was passed back and forth between the TMC based dispatchers and buses. Houston stated it would be invest igating the possibility of info rmation tra nsfer between "s computer aided dispatch system and "s advanced traffic management system. However, such information exchange can occur effectively even without the requirement for co-location transit management with traffic management. As indicated in a FTA Study it is not necessary, but beneficial, to co-locate transit dispatch/operations with traffic operations in the TMC. The possibility of co-locating transit dispatch in a TMC should be Investigated i n further detail during the deve lopmen t of the TMC Concept of Operations Plan (see 1) 7: ON-SITE PRESENCE OF MEDIA IN A TMC IS BENEFICIAL The TMC case studies have shown that TMCs should accommodate o n-site the traffic/transit informat ion reporting media to facilitate transportation informat io n dissemination and to increase general public awareness and focus towards ITS. 8: CONSIDER DEVELOPING A REGIONAL INFORMATION EXCHANGE FRAMEWORK Although the TMC integration via co-location may be desirable, is perhaps more realistic to consider that all levels of desired co-location will never be achieved in a regio nal transportation network because of many constraints such as availability of space and funding instiTutional inertia and turf protection, and varied level of tech nolog y deployment at multiple agencies. This study recommends that the Miami-Dade MPO ITS Standing Committee cons ider the feasibility of developing a regional information exchange framework, which will likely lessen the impact of a desired co-location not materializing. A representative ITS information exchange framework Including integration stages is presented in Figure 5. The lead agency in developing the regional TMC may also be the lead agency in developing the regional ITS information exchange framewor1<. 56


Miami-Dad9 County Transport at ion Man11gement Center Funct i onal ity Study There are examples of such regional transporta t ion i nform a ti o n exchange frame w ork system s at various metro are as i n the nation As state

Miami-Dade Coun t y Transportation Management Center Functionality Study ( ( c ( ( I I Level 1 Element Pan I T il t camera VM Sign Loop Overhead Patro l Veh i c l e Bus I Train Other Device s Sun Pass Tag F ield Devi ces } .. I I Signals Othef Fiel d Devices Figure 5: Representative Framewo r k for Regional TMCs Informat ion Exchange Level2 S ubsyst em CCTV Receiver VMS Control le< Dot ector Processor AVL R eader Controller SunPass Reader Controller .. I Contr oller Contro! l e r 1 .. 1 .. I Level3 System FOOT Center FHP MOTA Cente r MDX MDPWD EOC Informat ion linkage SmartTraveler .. I Other Centers 58 Level4 Region Regional Transportation Coordination Network (Dat abase Workstation )


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionalfty study . . REFERENCES 1. Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTRJ, ITS Plan Update for Miami Dade County, Miami-Dade MPO, June 1999 2 Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR), Florida's ITS Planning Guidelines-Integration of ITS into the Transportation Planning Process, State of Florida Department of Transportation June 2000 3. U.S. Department of T ransportation How Can We Work Together? Washington DC 4 U.S. Department of Transportation, Tracking the Deployment of the Integrated Metropolitan ITS Infrast ructur e in Miami, Fort Lauderdale FYOO Results, Washington DC 5. U.S. Department of Transportat i on, Transportation Management Center Concepts of Operation Implementation Guide, Washington DC, December 199 9 6. U.S. Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Management Center, A Cross-Cutting Study, Washington DC, October 1999 7. U.S. Department of T ransportation Metropolitan Transportation Management Center, A Case Study, Georgia NaviGAtor, Washington DC, October 1999 8. U.S. Department of Transpo rtat ion Metropolitan Transportation Management Center, A Case Study, Arizona Trai/Master, Washington DC October 1999 9. U.S. Department of Transportation Metropolitan Transportation Management Center; A Case Study, COMPASS, Washington DC, October 1999 10. U.S. Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Management Center, A Case Study, Houston TranStar, Washington DC, October 1999 11. U.S Department of Transporta tion, Metropolitan Transportation Management Center, A Case Study, Milwaukee MONITOR Washington DC October 1999 12. U.S. Department of Transportation, The National ITS Architecture A Framework for Integrated Transportation into the 21., Century, Version 3.0. 13. New Yor1< Universny, Rudi n Center for T ransportation Policy & Management, Large City Technical Exchange and Assistance Program Final Report, November 2000. 14. Florida Department of Transportation SunGuide, South Florida's ITS Newsletter, Summer 2001. 59


Miami-Dade County Transportation Management Center Functionality Study -15. Institute or T ransportation Engineers, Management and Operations of Intelligent Transportation Systems, Washington DC, 1999. 16. Florida Department of Transportation, State ITS Office, TMC Sotrware Study (Draft), October 12, 2001. 60