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Integrating community design and transportation

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Integrating community design and transportation
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Johnson, Julie M
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research. Florida Center for Community Design and Research
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Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
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Transportation--United States--Planning   ( lcsh )
Community development, Urban--United States--Case studies   ( lcsh )
Urban transportation--United States--Planning   ( lcsh )
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letter   ( marcgt )

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usfldc doi - C01-00086
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INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION Florida Center for Community Design +Research University of South Florida CUTR 1993 Center for Urban Transportation Research November 1993

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ii INTEGRATI::.IG COMMUNITY DESIG}J AND TRANSPORTATIO);

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iii Preface Recent legislation and fiscal trends in Florida and nationwide have created a unique combination of restraints and opportunities, providing an imperus for examining the way Florida conducts transportation planning. In response to these challenges, the Florida Legislature and the Governor's Office directed the for Urban Transpor t a tion Research (CUTR) to undertake the State Transportation Policy Initiative(STPn. The purpose of this multi phase study is to reevaluate the way transportation infrastructure and services are planned and developed at the state and local l evels in Florida and to formulate options for implementing requirements of the 1991 lntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. Efforts undertaken as part of Phase I of STPI include: a comprehensive review of l ocal and regional p l anning in Florida in the context of Stat e groY.1h management requirements and federal legislat i on an evaluation of the impact of community design on transponation needs a review o f the-literature on the transponation costs of urban sprawl an eva l uation of comprehensive transportation planning for state purposes an examination of the relationship between air quality and transportation planning, as practiced i n Florida an evaluation of trends and forecasts of F lorida! s population and transponation characteristics a study oftransit l transponation demand management, level of service? and concurrency issues and of congestion management and urban mobility planning preparation o f a state land use map by Florida s Regional Planning Councils This report i s one o f a series of publicat i ons resulting from Phase I of th e State Transportation Pol i cy lnitiatiR State Transportation Policy Initiative Project Manager: Edward A Mierzejewski. P .E. Center for Urban T ransponation Research CENTER F OR C 0 M v N I T Y DESIG:-; RESEARCil }

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iv The assistAnce of the following is gratefully acknowledged for their guidance and expertise on this project: STPl Steering Committee Chester "Ed" Colby lvletro-Datk Transi t Agency Donald Crane. Jr. Floridians frw Berrer Transponatil>n The Honorable Mario DiazBalan Florida Stott The Honorable Jame$ Hargren, Jr. FIOI'ida StOle Wallace Hawkes Ill Greiner Inc. Tne Honorable Ed Healey Florida HoUJt of Reprutnlatlvts Arthur Kennedy FIOI'ido TranspOI'tolion Com.mWion David Kerr Chairman, Florida Transponotion Commi.uion Gerilard Meisel s Provost Uniwrsity of Sou1h f/of'idJJ The Honorabie V ernon Peeples Florida Houst of R,ep,.eunrativts Linda Loomis Shelley Secretary, Florida of Community Affairs Ben Waas Secretary. F/Of'ida Department o/TrtmspOr'tarion Virginia Bass Wetherell Secretary FIOI'ida Dtpanmenl of Environmt,.ttll Rrgulau on Jack Wilson r;,e Wilson Compan.v STPI Technical Advisory Committee John Johnston Florida House ofRtpl'tnruatiws. C()l1tlnitttt on Tran;sponailon Jane Mathis Flol'idD Trans(XH'tDtion Commission Patrick McCue Florid4 Departm#nt of Transportation Richard McElveen Flor i do Dtpor1meru of Envi,.onmuuaf Regulation David Mohler Florida State TrottJpOI'totion Commiuu James Murley /(}()() Frltnds of FIOI'idet Ben Stanen Florida Departme111 of Community A flail's Wes Watson FI()Tlda Trafi.Sit Atsociation Randy Whitfield MPO Advisory Comminee Special thanks to the staff of loco! governments, meD'opoliwt planning organizations. regional planning councils, and 1he many other agencies and individuals who participa&ed in this research. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT TYPES AND CASE STUDIES. 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 6. Pre-20th Century Urban Centers Ybor City, Florida Back Bay, Boston, Massachusetts Pre-World War II Suburbs . Winter Park, Florida Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania New Towns Coral Gables, Florida Las Colinas, Texas Planned Unit Developments Sun City Center, Florida Twin Rivers, East Windsor, New Jersey Mixed Use A c tivity Centers . Mizner Park, Boca Ra ton, Florida Crocker Center. Boca Raton, Flori d a Lenox, Atlanta, Georgia. Neo Traditional Town Planning. Seaside. Florida Kemlands, Gaithersbur2, Marvland. . FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN v 1 17 19 21 3! 41 43 53 63 65 7 5 85 87 97 107 109 119 129 !39 141 I l RESEARCH

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) 7. 8. Urban Service Areas/Urban Growth Areas O(ange County. Florida. Portland, Oregon. 0 0 Sprawl. 0 Dale Mabry Highway, Hillsborough County, Florida Tampa Palms, Hillsborough County, Florida Lutz, Florida CONCLUSION GRAPHIC REFERENCES 0 0 0 161 0 163 0 173 0 183 0 185 0 195 0 205 0 215 0 229 INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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This document surnnurizes a ninernontll project in which the Aorida Center for Community Design + Research explored the rel ationships be tween community form, functlon and character, and systems oCtrans portation. Eighteen case studies are developed, representing eight different development types. Each case is stuclled according to a range of criteria, including: physical and social context: physical, popula tion, and developmental dimension; function: physical and operational form: and d evelopment. The cases presented for each development t ype usually include one example from the state of and another from outside the state While they do not represent every possible development pattern or config u ration found within the United States. they do cover the ma jority of conditions within which most Americans dwell, and the major methods whereby development bas occurred. The criteria used to ana lyze the cases deliberately downplay one critical element: the interrelation between the cases and their immediate environment. Every attempt was made to examine how the different case examples inter act with their surroundings. but no systematic method was applied toward th i s end. This effort will constitute the major pan of Phase II of this research which will begin in November 1993 I n Phase l of this project, hOwever a great deal of information was gathered and a wide range of analysis was develop ed While it would be methodologically unsound tO draw definitive conclusions from these data. a broad range of patterns and similarities did emerge: these will form the basis for conclusions that are presented herein. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY l INTRODUCTION DESIGN RESEARCH

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2 INTEGRATING INTRODUCTION TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNITY FORM Historically. the fonn of a community, its spatial and functional or ganiution, and its daily operalion have been directly integrated with the community's dominant forms of transportation. At. transporta tion changed, so too did community fonn, organiution, and function. As the community grew and cbanged, so too. did the transportation system. Thus, transportation can be viewed as a major --if not the primarydeterminant of a community's status, its size and scale, its sense of place. Transportation alone, however, does not a city create: it is one factor among a myriad of personal and social, physical, environmen tal, economic and cultural factors that helps mold and meld the entities that we ca11 our communities To the extent that a community --any community-allows itself to be dominated by any particular form of transportation. that community will, of necessity have to exclude a wide range of formal, functional and organizational oprions. The an cient city of Jerusalem, dominated by transportation systems based almost entirely on foot traffic of both the human and an imal l
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INTRODUCTION mous change.s brought about fi rst. in the intellectual sphere. by the Scientific Revolution, and later. in the productive realm, by the In dustrial Revolution. From a country dominated by farms and fields. Great Bri tain changed during the course of the 19th century to one dominated by massive urban complexes Where in 18 00, it took eigb teen people working on farms t o provide the food for twenty people to consume, by 1900 it took only two people to provide the food for twenty The sixteen displaced agricultural workers usually moved to the cities transported by the railroad. The 19th century city was thickly populated. noisy, smelly. often un healthy. Because the major cities of Europe and America usually were built-up considerably by the dawn of the railroad era. passenger rail way stations developed at what used to be the city lirrtit.s, and around them sprang up great complexes of hotels shops. offices. housing and industry. (Freight rail lines, in contrast often pushed to the cen ter ponions of cities, or at least tO the waterfrontS in order to effectively link overland and water-based routes. Usually however, these areas were removed from the centers of population. and tbe rail cormec tions were made th r ough land given over to industry or shipping.) By the 1860s. people were loolting to put tailways underground in order to better provide mobility within the f a bric of the older cities By the tum of th e century. almost every major metropolis in both America and Europe had an underground rail system to complement its above-ground systems. Typically. there were t wo forms of above-ground systems : local and long-distance Local rail systems were smal ler and ligh ter than the traditional long -distance trains, and after the 1880s many used elec tricity. Th i s was both quieter and cleaner than coal. and enabled trains to easily go undergrou nd as well. The development of a network of ligbt. clean local transit lines helped reve r se the massive urban population implosion of the early 19th cen tury. Those people with enough money could afford to work in the city proper and by us ing 3 commuter rail line, live in the country side j ust outside the city Private developers, sensing a demand. bought up vast rights-Of -way through agricultural land. and constructed rail sysrems that extended from the center cities outward. At intervals J.l o n g these rights-of-way, stations were built. and around the stations. plo ts of land were sold off for houses. shops. and other uses. As such. thes e street-car suburbs" were an extension of the earlier .. omni-bus suburbs" that sprang up at the edges of cities using horse-
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4 INTEGRATING INTRODUCTION Technological breakthroughs at the end of the 19th century helped change the condi!ions that were begiMing to produce the street-car suburbs. The safely eleva!or. perfected by Otis in the 1850s,the steel suuc!ural building frame, first inlro d uced in the 1860s. and !he de mands for cenler cily property, led to the developmtnl a! the end of !he century of !he skyscraper. Firs! in Chicago, then in New York, and by 1930. in nearly every city in this country, skyscrapers began 10 domina!e the skylines of our urban c ores. Ev en as this archi!eclural!ype lacilila!ed denser development of ur ban real es!ale, a second invention was poinling in exac!ly the opposile direction. The internal combustion engine. perfected in Germany in the 1880s. was imme dia!ely hi!Cbed to a rolling frame and the "horseless carriag e .. was born. By 1900. aulomo biles. were not uncommon in many cilies. and by !he time or Worltl War!, !bere was no doubt thai the car was 10 become a dominant form of 20th-century mobility. The jux!apos ilion of the skyscraper and the au1omobile was an irony lost on many people. F rank Lloyd Wright most aptly summarized the situation when he noted that future development in America was a race between !he eleva1or and the car, and anyone who bets o n the elevator is crazy: The dominanltension. thus, throughout the 20th century lor much of America, has been for increased densilies of people, good and s er vices. and for greater dispersion of tbese e-ntities. The dimensional and opera1ional cbarac!eristics of the automobile are diff erent than those of any uansponation 1ype preceding it. Pedestrians can go in a lmost any direction but are limited as to speed distance and pay load. The !rain can carry enormous amounts of people and goo
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INTRODUCTION MOBILITY AND DEVELOPMENT llle means of mobility which corresponds to the genesis of each de velopment type offers insights about the size, density, and mix of uses w ithin each developmen t and its l ocation relative to other develop ments For instance, the primary form of mobility in a pre-20th century urban center was foot travel. llle distance covered by a pedestrian in 20 minutes, walking at a rate ol3 miles per hour. is only 1.0 miles llle use of the automobile, a primary form of mobility in a sprawl cond i tion, allows travellers to cover 10 or more miles in !be same time lbe t ypes of uses can be farther apart, and uses can be devel oped at much lower densities lbus . a community developed with walk ing as the primary form of mobility will have a radius of ap prox imately one mile. This produces a development of roughly three square miles. a conununity based around the automobile. might have a radius of ten miles and an area of over 300 miles lbe dimensional characteristics of the car versus a pedestrian produce a community that is far more vast and less dense. with a greater o.rea and percentage of land give over to transportation infrastructur e On the other hand the accepted densities lor standard social. cultural and economic act i v ities have not changed as dramatically as the trans portation options. The number of people needed to support a comme rcial center is st ill relatjvely high: a great deal of space will have to be given over to the movement and storage of automobiles. lbus. the dimensional characteristics of today's dolltinant transpor tat io n systems have changed much more dramatically than the socia l and cultural conditions within which these systems operate. In short, it takes much fewer p eople in automobiles to create a traffic jam in a given area than it takes pedestrians to create a crowd in the same area. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 5 DESIGN RESEARCH

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6 INTEGRATING INTRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT TYPES To more fully explore lhe relationship between community design and transponation, eigbr distinct community development types were iden tified. These formed lhe basis for the research that was conducted, and while they do not cover every instance that can be found in the United Stales (or even in Florida), they do delimit lhe conditions within which the majority of people live. In approximate order of origin, the eight development types are as follows: I. pre-20th century urban centers: 2 pre-World War II suburbs; 3. new rowns; 4. planned unit developments; 5. mixed use activity centers; 6. neo-ttadi tional town planning; 7. urban service areas/urban growth areas; and 8. sprawl. These eight types are listed as they originated historically with the exception of sprawl, whi ch was noted shonty after World War 11. I t is important to recognize that each of these development types con tinues to function in our contemporary society. And. while each of these types can be isolated for study, and specific developments can fall almost entirely into one category or anolher. no development uuly exists in isolation. Thus, every community will. to some extent, dis play the characteristics of more lhan one of these types. The older and larger the community, the more likely that it will contain aspects including full-fledged examples of all eight types of develop-nl. And. as noted above. the interaction of the different development types bas not been studied in any detail. COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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INTRODUCTION ... . . DEFINITIONS OF DEVELOPMENT TYPES Within the eight different development types. some are clearly de fined within the literature and professional culture, whereas others are more ambiguous. For the purposes of this study however, spe cific definitions and descriptions were generated for each type. 1. Pre-20th Century Urban Centers This development type is nearly self-explanatory. For this study, it was necessary to have a basis with which to compare 20th cenrury auto-dominated developm ent forms; in addition vast areas of the United States were built out prio r to 1900 and do not conform to the charac teristics of post1900 developments A pre-20th century urban center is simply an area of mixed-use de v elopment that achieved a significant level of build-out prior to the arrival of the automobile as a determining factor Typically such cente r s are what we might refer to as the traditional "downtown" or center city neighborhood Such urban centers typically are mixed in use. and for this st u dy, examples were used in which residential uses predominated. As the development of Florida is. to a very large degree. coterminous with the emergence of the private automobile. the case selecled for the in-State example is less fully articulated than that used for the out-of State example. 2. PreWorld War 11 Suburbs Just as the pre-car urban center was a dominant urban form that car ries th r ough to the p r esent, so too was there a dominant suburban form of development prior to the advent of the private automobile America i s a country with an historical love/hate re l ationship witb the city; the history of the country town and the suburb extend well back into the 18th century. F o r the purposes of this study. a Pre-World War II Suburb denotes any form of essentially self conta ioed development that was directly proximate to a major metropolitan center and was functionally and e conomically dep endent upon that center The classic examples o f th is form are the l ate 19th century and early 20th century '"streetcar suburbS" that are so prevalent around cities such as Boston. New York. Philadelphia Chicago. Cleveland and elsewhere. While the Florida example chos e n for this typologyWinter Park-was initially as much a reson as a true suburb it currently functions as a suburb of Or lando. and was thought of by its founders as both a suburb and a reson commun ity. Because the aut omobile was a community development factor as early 3S the first World Wu. but was not an overriding factor until the 1940s. developments that occurred as late as the 1930s are considered w i thin t h i s development type. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 7 DESIGN T RESEARCH

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8 INTEGRATING INTRODUCTION 3. NewTowns The history of utopian idealism the dream of the "perfect" citY extends formally well back into the 15th century, and was especially prevalent in the 19th century, primarily as a response to the deleteri ous aspects of the industrial metropolis. The modern I deal of the new town stems from the work of Ebenezer Howard' at the tum of the century, and continues up to th e present' Defined for this project, a "new town" Is simply a development that contains all of the essential elements of everyday life housing, shopping, recreation, work. etc. and that is planned as an integral and complete entity In order to contain these essentials. a new town will achieve a certain minimum population and physical size, but no quantified standard has been ap plied for the purposes of this study. The two examples selected as cases in this study Coral Gables Florida. and Las Colinas, Texas .. are projects of considerable magnitude. As with the decision to use Winter Park as an example of a Pre-World War II Suburb Coral Gables can be view e d as both a new town and as a suburb. Today, it Cunc tions as both an entity in its own right, and ancillary economic unit of Miami. Its founder. George Merrick, referred to it as both a new town and as "Miami's Master Suburb." 4. Planned Unit Deve lopments A popular development device from the post War period. the Planned Unit Development (PUD) was regarded both as a means of avo i ding the incipient sprawl that was already appearing at the end of the 1940s and as a means of the master developer more control over the development of a particular parcel of land. A PUD is defined by the Center for Urban Policy Research as: An area of a minimum comiguous size. as specified b;. ordinance. to be planned, developed. operated. and main tained as a single entity and como.ining one or mort resi dential clusters or planned unit residential develop mtntS. quasi-public. comme.rcial. or industrial areas in such ranges or ratios or nonresidential uses 10 rt..siden tial usts as specified in the ordinance.' In short a P U D is a development device allowed by a j urisd i ction s regulations for creating a mix of uses on a parcel of land with maxi mized nexibility. A PUD is also a means of circumventing specific zoning r e gulations which may negatively impact a particular site: PUDs were inilially advocated as a way to preserve open space while still optimizing development potential through the clustering of buildings. if not uses. 5. Mind Use Activity Centers Like a PUD. o Mixed Use Development (MXD) or a Mixed Use Ac tivity Cemer i s 3 post-War mecllanism for attempting to imitate the COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATIO N

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INTRODUCTION ttaditional development patterns found in older c i ties, w i thin the quick ened delivery system of today's development. MXDs became popular in the 1960s and 1970s as a response to the one-dimensional devel opment patterns tliat were appearing all over suburban America. "'Pods'" of tesidential units were placed adjacent to. but uncoMected to, shop ping centers which we r e adjac e nt to, but unconnected to office paries and other employment centers. A Mixed Use Development was project structured in such as way as to include a range of uses within a single development framework. As described by the Urban Land Institute mixed use projects are char acterized by: three or more significant uses (such as retaU. office resident ial hoteVmolel, enrerrainmenr/ culruraVrecrearional) rhat in well-planned projects are mutually supporting; significant phys ica l and functional integration of project components (and rhus a relatively intensive use of/and) including uninte"upted pedestrian connections I emphasis ours J; and development in conformance with a coherent plan (which frequently stipulates the rype and scale of uses permirred deMities, and related items).' lt is imp ortant to note that wh il e a mixed-use project seldom. in and of itself, comprises an entire community, it is orten developed as the cenual element of larger communities. Thus, even more so than with earlier deve l opment types. the relationship of a mixed-use develop ment to its imme-diate surrounding takes on importance 6. Neo -Traditional Town Planning A form of development which. like PUDs and MXDs. can be viewed as a response to obvious deficiencies in our cu rren t built environment, Nco Traditional Town Planning is both a philosophy about development and a form of development Neo-Traditional Town Plan ning is also. both implicitly and explicitly. a critique of current de v elopment practices. especially those found in PlaMed Unit Developments . -'>unified part of the development lexicon for only a bit more than a decade. Neo -T raditional Town Planning is closely associated with three designers : the husband-and-wife team of Andres Duany and Eliza beth Plater-Zyberk of Coral Gables Florida. and Peter Calthorpe' of Berkeley, California. Calthorpe prefers to call his projects ""Pedesuian Pockets"" or ""Transit-Oriented Dev el opments"' and often links their viability to mass uansiL Most of his practice has occurred on the Wes t Coast of the United States. In September 1 993. Calthorpe published Tile Next American Merropolis' in which he attempts to FL.ORIOA CENTER F 0 R COMMUNITY 9 DESIGN RESEARCH

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10 INTEGRATING INTRODUCTION explain lhe tenets of neo-uadiUon&l planning, and show how they can be applied to all facets of contemporary development. D uany and Plater -Zyberk (DPZ) have done most of their w ork in tile Eost and South, and refer e nce their ideas and desiglt$ 10 tile forms and practice s they have derived from 19th cenrury pre automobile American development Fundamen tal to their approach to !he "neoLCaditional town" is lhe Master Plan: Irs dwgn srraugy ofte n follows tltt parum cypicDl of Amtrictvt towns: a teonurrically dejiMd center ra.di tlltS an imuconMCltd strttt network 'which adapss ro conditions . I it} concenrratts commercial ace tivity, including shopping and working in town centers It distributes civic spaces and buildings throughout the neighborhoods to contribute to their character and fo cu.t. Neighborhoods are planned on a quarter-milt radius which results in a five minute wall: from the neighbor hood edgt to ils center Like C:ilthorpe. Ouany and Plater Zyberk rely on "ruidelines'' to convey the "rules" of !heir design projectS. and are welllcnown for their use of graphic. rather llun written, toning and urban design reguluioru Despi te its newness and a lack of buill examples NeoTraditional Town Plaruiing receives signi{icant attention from developers, planners and designers, and will undoubt edly influence future development prac tices to some degr ee. 7 Urban Service Areas/Urban Growth Areas In conLrast to all prev i ou s entries, Urban Service Areas and Urban Growth Areas ase not types of development: rath er IIley are plan ning tools and regullioos !hot directly affect the colldili011s under which and within which developmem can occur. While !he definitions of an Urban Service Area and UrbiiD Growth Boundary are not identical typically tbe two concepts are used in coordination with one another As defined by Easley, an Urban Service Area (USA) is ";m area in which urban services will be provided and outside of which such servi ces will not be extended."' In some In s tances. !he Urban S e rvice Atea coincides with !he leg&! bOundarie s of a jur i sdiction : that is, the entire co mmunity is within the USA Urban Growth Ateas ( UGAJ) are def"med as . in which urban growth shall be ti!Couragtd and of which growth can occur onl y if ir is not ur ban in nature Urban growth areas are based on the populaJion foucast ond sho/1 include areas and dtnsi ries sulficienr 10 perm II rhe urban growrh that is projtcttd ro occur for a specifltd period. COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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INTRODUCTION Urb3.R Growth Boundacies (UGBs) define the limits of lbc Growth Area. An Urban Growth Boundary is simply, "the lioe on a map tbat is u sedto mark the separation of urbJniuble land f rom r:LI land and within wbicb urban growth should be con u ined rot a period or lime specified by a growth managemenl pro1r1L01."" AD Urban Growth Boundary. thus, to some degree, can be seen u a varia tion or Howatd's concept of providing greenbeiLS, or unbuill areas oround the llmiLS or a communiry. 8. Sprowl Much of wha r consrirutes posr War developmenr in rhe Unlred S!Ares fo.lls, 10 some degree, within the category of Sprawl Unlik e some or the earlier developmentlypes, Sprawl is nor chronologically !he young esL In fact. some elemenLS which currenrly meer the definition of sprawl can be round as rar back as lbe 19th cenrury The Cenrer for Urban Policy Research provides a tern delloltion or sprawl : "uncontrolled growth, usually of a IOWdensiry narure, in pre ' iously rural areos and some disunce from existing development and infrastrUcrure."" Sus:w Bradford references the srare of Maryl:wd's 2020 Report which defines sprawl as an inertective use or !he land, difficull 10 se rvice with infrastrucrure and transporratlon. r equir ing extensive use or and consuming large land ueu."n Others, however, are far less drawn ro such simple (yet a mbiguous) delinitions, and a ralhe r large lir erarure exisLS arguing both for and agalnsr the exisrence and value or suburban or urban sprawl. For the purposes or idenrifying specific p hysical maniresrarions of !his de veiopmenr rorm, s prawl was ch aract erized using the definition promulgated by F l orida's Departmenr of Communiry Affairs : /Sprawl) refers 10 scauertd. untimely poorly planned urban development 1h01 occurs in urban fringe a11d rv ral areas and frequently invades lands important for tnvironmtmal and 1U2Iural resource proltction. Urbtvt sprawl typically mtll1if
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12 INTEGRATING INTRODUCTION CASE STUDIES As a means of studying the inter relation of uansportation and com munity design, two case studies were developed for each of the eight development types. In each type, one case study was located within Florida (typically, as close to Tampa as possible) and a second was located outside the state, within the continental United States. The following cases were analyzed: Pre-20th Century Urban Centers Ybor City, Tampa Florida Back Bay, Boston, Massachusetts Pre World War II Suburbs Winter Park, Florida Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania New Towns Coral Gables, Florida Las Colinas, Texas Planned Unll Developments Sun City Center. Florida Twin Rivers, East Windsor, New Jersey Mixed Use Activity Centers Crocker Center, Boca Raton, Florida Mizner Parlt, Boca Raton. Florida Lenox, Atlanta, Georgia Neo TraciJtional Town Planning Seaside. Florida Kentlands. Gaithersburg, Maryland Urban Service Area/Urban Growth Areas Orange Coumy, Florida Portland. Oregon Sprawl Dale Mabry Highway, Tampa, Florida Tamp a Palms. T:impa, Florida Lutz, Florida For lhis project. every case study in Florida was visited during 1993 With the exception of Las Colinas, all of the other projects used as cases have been visited by one or more members of the research team at some point in the past three years. The Kentlands. Lenox and Back Bay were all visiled within the last year. COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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INTRODUCTION STRUCTURE OF THE CASE STUDIES For this document e3.ch case study has been condensed into 3 ten page presenta!ion. The physic.U and d imensi onal characteristics of each case >re briefly described, and followed with a longer descrip tion of the particular relationship between the community form. organization and function. and the trampona tion systems. Tbe fol lowing criteria are referenced in these discussions: 1. Context: social. histo ric, economic. and politic.al conditions 2. Development: players; motivation; time -frame; regulations 3. Function: ty p e of uses; integration of uses 4. Form: boundar ies ; ci rcul ation; community; open-space s. Dimension: physical area; poputa1ion: popul3tioo density; floor areas. The description of each case study, using these criteria. serves as the basis for :1 transportation :malysis, wbich examines how various modes of transportation function wilhin the community. Follow i ng the case study descrip tions a concluding section discusses l.he simHatilies llld differences found among :.11 of the C3.Ses. and sum marizes the overall findings of the project. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 13 DESIGN RESEARCH

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14 REFERENCES INTRODUCTION Howard's seminal text was originally published in 1898 as To morrow: A Peaceful Pat h to Real Reform to modest acclaim and sales. Re-issued in 1902 as Garden Cllle;o of Tomorrow (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965), the book achieved enormous popularity and spurred at least two significant experimental communities, LetcbwO

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INTRODUCTION Schwanke, Dean Mixed Use Development Han dbook. [Wash ington, DC: The Urban Land Institute, 1987], page 3. Calthorpe's work first began to receive national attention with the publication of a slim volume, The Pedestrian Pocket Book (NY: Princeton Architectural Press. 1989). that included essays by Caithorpe, Daniel Solomon and Douglas Kelbaugh, and six town plans devel oped by teams of students and professionals during a week-long charene held at the University of Washington in Masch 1988. Calthorpe's most prominent buill project is the master-planned community of La guna West. j ust outside of Sacramento. Currently struggling because of the depressed economy, the project represents Calthorpe's attem pt to integrate his ideals with the general methods and practices of the development market. The jury is still out as t o his success. Calthorpe, Peter. The Next American 1\tetropolis. (NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 1993) The book. sub-titled ''Ecology, Community, and the American Dream .. presents a new theory of urban and suburban design II includes an int r oductory essay on the "next American metropolis," a series of Guidelines. and a set of Projects all drawn from Calthorpe's own pract ice and most of which are un-realized. Haphazardly edited, the book nonetheless contains a great many ins i ghts, both into the weak nesses of current development practices and into the neo-traditional" canon. Lennenz, William. "Tow n Making Fundamentals,'' in Duany, Andres and Elizabeth Plater-Zyherl<. Towns and Town-Making Prin ciples. (NY : Rizwli, 1991]. page 21. Easley, V. Gail. Staying Within the Lines [Pianrting Advisory Service Report Number 440). (Chicago. JL: American Planning As sociation. 1 992), page 3 op cit, page 3. Easley, op cit. page 3 Moskowitz & Lindbloom. op cit, page 262 Bradford. Susan. "Halting Sprawl." in Builder, July 1991. page 78 Pelham. Thomas G. & L. Benjamin Statret "What is Urban S praw l?"' in Florida Department of Community Affairs Technical Memo. No 4 1989 page 2. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 15 DESIGN RESEARCH

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16 INTRODUCTION INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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17 CASE STUDIES FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY D ESIGN RESEARC H

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1 8 PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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' --. -;:; .. "-.... -.. r .t.. OITT 01' BOSTON. PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS F LORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY OESIG N 19 RESEARCH

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20 PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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=:: = 21 FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN R E S EARCH

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22 CONTEXT "In a bustling cigar-making town in the 1940s. 1 0-year-o/d Jack Schiver hopped a streetcar with his older s ister; Dolores. The dtsrination was the Ritt. Tlltater . .. The town was Tampa's Ybor Cil)' The Tampa Tribune, December 20, /992 Less than a century after the [im cigar was hand made, the Urban ReneWal Program leveled entire blocks and turned them into emp/)' lots Consequently, few ... residents remained. most scauered among the various residential devel opments around Tampa. Eduardo Valiente, I 993 below: 7th Avenue, 1993 right : children playing on telephone poles to be erected on "A venue de Ia 16 a Ia 22". circa 1895 PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS LOCATION Ybor City is located two miles northeast of Tampa's Central Busi ness District, and borders the Pon of Tampa one of tbe nation's largest natural harbors. HISTORIC CONDITIONS Ybor City was founded In 1885 by Vincente Martine1 Ybor and his associates, Ignacio Hay a and Eduardo Manrara. These Spanish cigar manufacturers moved tbeir factories, at tbe invitatiOil of a leading group of Tampa businessJUn, to the rural environs of Tampa Bay. Hoping to avoid the labor turmoil of mo
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YBOR CITY cigar industry. Empty structures deteriorated. and the area was tar geted for Urban Renewal in 1959. The Barrio Latino Conunission was created to review redevelopment initiatives within Ybor City. While several businesses along 7th Avenue continued. other commercial buildings and cigar factories in the area were deteriorating. In tile early 1970s. blocks of Ybor City were cleared by Urban Renewal. CONTEMPORARY CONDITIONS In 1974, attempts towards preserving the special character of Ybor City were rewarded with the blocks surrounding 7th Avenue desig nated on the National Regisrer Historic District. A much lar ger section of Ybor City was included in the 1990 designation of a National His toric Landmark District, wbich recognizes the imponance of Ybor's beginnings. These designations offered incentives for preserving the unique cbaracter with revitalization. In 1 975. a branch campus of the Hillsborough County Community College system opened in Ybor City. and other public facilities have been developed. Further economic and physical redevelopment has been initiated through the creation of the Ybor City Development Corporation and other pro grams In 1988. the City of Tampa designated much of Ybor City a Community Redevelopment Area and used this designation to create a Tax increment Finance District and target the as an Enterprise Zone. Funding raised through the Tax Increm ent designation was used to create the Ybor City Development Corporation. This not for-profit corporation is guided by a Board of Directors comprised of Ybor business owners. Today, Ybor City retains several successful ethnic restaurants, and has become an attractive address for design professionals. artists. and musicians. Frequent Jazz Festivals and Farmers Market eventS bring visitors. as do the varied art galleries theaters. and restaurants. Sev era! of the 7th Avenue buildings. and one of the cigar factories. have been renovated and convened to new uses Revitalization efforts are not complete. however. Much of YborCity s housing stock. and several cigar factories. remain sub-standard and neglected. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMML'NlTY 23 CONTEXT "We don't want another Walt Disney World here.... Culture should drive the business. not the other way around. To have our cui :ural integrity we need 10 maintain proper uses for buildings." Tht Tampa Tribune, December 20, 1992 top: 7th AvellUe, 1993 bottom: histon' c cigar worker housing on Columbus AvellUe, 1993 DESIGN + RESEARCH

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DEVELOPMENT Ybor Ciry lacud sotM oftlu mort o ppressive features of o ther com pany towns. such as company stores that charged in{la1ed prices aNI d< ducted the co st of purchases from e mployees paychecks Nevenht less. it fit tlu panern of communities buill and lar gely owned by companies whose primary pu.rpost was to hold and conrrollabor Roben Ing a lls. 1988 top and bottom: cigar box labels from the Tl1omas Vance and L.. G l e nn Wesr{all coUectio_n riglrt : Sanchez and Haya Cigar Factof';l. circa 1890 PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS PLAYERS Gavino Gutierrez, a civil engineer and businessman from Spain, came t o Tampa Bay for guava and mango grove s He convinced Vinceme Martinez Ybor. a cigar manufactllrer, to relocate after Ybor's Key West factory was destroyed by fire The Tampa Board ofTnde ralsed $4 000 to subsicllu Ybor in purchasing a $9,000 tract of land adjacem to Tampa's city limits. Sevesal more cigar manufacturers came to the n ewly created Ybor City. includ ing l goacio Ha y a from New York MOTIVATION ProOt motivated the founding of Ybor City by creating a manufac turing center with sbip and rail transport and by isolating workers TIME FRAME Key dates in the development of Ybor City include : 1885: Vincente Martinez Ybor purchas e s tract 1895: Ybor City incarponted into tile new City of Tampa 1959: Ybor City taraeted as Urban Renewal Area 197 4 : National Register Hi storic District created 1988: Community Redevelopment Area and Redevelopment Corpo ration created 19 90: National H l$1orlc Lan dmark District created REGULATIONS Com pany o wn ers developed tile lan d, spec ifying lot sizes and build ing heights. Today. the City or T ampa and special hiscoric and land maskd islrict regulations dete nnine deve lopment Tampa s au ri o Latino Commission an appointed boasd. also review proposals. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATIO:<

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YBOR CITY TYPES OF USES Recognized at !he turn of the century as the "Ci gar C apital or the World," Ybor .City developed with all the uses needed in a comm unity and had 30 cigar lactories by the mid 1920's. there were !59 factories employ ing 13.000 workers Factory owners provided employment and housing whil e other entrepreneurs started businesses The various eth nic groups organized "social clubs which provided a cen ter lor entertainment, recrelion, education, and health care. A W .P A report in 1941 cites lbe presence of "stores. theatres, movie houses. schools, churches. and newsp apers. as well s ch1bs, hospl tals. and clinics" (W. P.A p. 9). Today, a mix of use s r e mains, allbough lbe loss of lbe cigar industry sign irlcantly r educed Ybor' s employment and residential neighbor hoods. Yhor City is r ecogni zed as an am dis ttict wilbi n Tampa, with numerous galleries, theatres. and clubs. Restaurants and other commerclnl uses abound. Seve ral p roposed redevelopment projects include a multi-family housing component. INTEGR ATION OF USES Yhor City developed as a pedestnan corrununity Fae1ory owners lo cated bousing close to their factories In the commercial districtS or Yhor City, the first noor typiully was occupied by the shop or res taurant, while the upper noors were living quarters. Uses today are less integrated; a housing project and a large office develop ment along w eStern Ybor City are designed for aut omo bile access. The h isto r ic dlsuict retains a mix of uses within buildings. but the residences s ur rounding empty cigar factorie s appear isolated from other uses FLORIDA C ENTER F 0 R COMMUNITY 25 FUNCTION '7ht factories loom over tht 1hack.s of the 45,000 workmen Children scream and play along the narr ow srrurs or in rile sandy picket-fenced yards Women. old Dt JO. rock plac idly on rheir small porches whil e their men ar gue over lheir caft con leche in hole-inthe -wall cafes Sitek youths with thei r hair combed in imitation of our current Gre a r Lbver of the Scrun. loaf about tht stre eu. Song Qlld laughttr from grilled windows, click of dominotl in club rooms. and rhe cry .. LJ Primera Bola from bolita shop are au.dible sigtU of D fi"Ople b u ied in rela:ta1ion. Odors of cuba" bread rcxu ting cofftt, ond tant bright/eafrobacco mellowing,."" dungeotU of the cigar factories. /'< vade the atmospher e F ederal Writer's Project. f o r ... Florida Work Project Adminim liOn. 19-11 left: abandoned cigar j'acror" 111 ing. 199J DESIGN R E S E A R t'

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26 FORM "Gutierrez borrowed liberally from a va riery of sourc es in designing Ybor City: grid-panerned struts. a surveyor's dream. derived from his American training: brick factories with courtyards. from Havana; gen. erous use of wrought iron in th e railings and balconies, reflecting his Spanish heritage: simple workers' shotgun collages which had long been u sed in the South and were perhaps of African origin." Gary Mormino and George Pouetro. 1987 below : ntap of SlTtttcar route s in 1926 right: circulation diagram PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS BOUNDARIES In 1886, the boundaries of Ybor City were based on property owned and develope(!. Miclligan Avenue (now Columbus Drive) ,was the north edge of development. with open land to the east. and tbe Pon of Tampa and McKay Bay to the south. The City of Tampa bounded the west edge of Ybor I n 1993, highways latgely define Ybor City: Nebrask.\ Avenue (US Hwy 41} and the Nuccio Patlcway along the west edge: the Crosstown Expressway and Adatno Drive (State Road 60) to the south; and 39th Street (State Road 569} along the east. Wbile Co lumbus Drive remains the northern boundaty, Int er state 4 aeates a visual and physical edge to Ybor City. CIRCU LATION In 1887 the street system was laid out as a grid. with 50 rights-of. way Alleys, 10' wide, ran east-west through blocks. Streets were flanked by sidewalks. and trolley lines ran down tile center of sev eral sueets with uaffic. Today, the grid is broken by Interstate 4 which runs east west. and by Nick Nuccio a housing project and office development along the western side of Ybor City Other streets have been desig nated as major corridors across Ybor. Two pairs of north-south streets are one-way streets with interchanges at Interstate 4 To the south tile Crosstown Expressway has an interchange at one of the one-way pairs Palm Avenue (10th Avenue), running e ast-west, has been mad a landscaped boulevatd. Seventh Avenue, tbe traditional commer cial strip and heatt of Ybor, also contains a landscaped median. Co lumbus Drive remains a major atterial along the north edge of Ybor. as does Adamo Drive (State Road 60) along the south. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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YBOR CITY COMMUN ITY The community filled a grid or 200' x 350' bloclcs, with factories as centerpieces in a field of worker' s housing Commerci al routes were, and still are, 22nd Street and 7lb A venue The soutbem and eastern parts of Ybor are c.barocteriud by illdiiSuy, bet ween the Port of Tunpa and the train tracks running along 6th Avenue Both acti v e and aban doned industrial sites fill the d istrtcs. OPEN SPACE Civic space was cenltll to Gutienez' oriJinaJ plan, wbicb contained small squares and courtyards These areas remain and small recre ational facilities are located co tbe local schOOl &fOWids as well Today a block b etween 8th and 9th Avenues has been de v elo ped as Centen nial Park, consisting of a landscapecl piau wltb a coverecl pavilion and central fountain This pule Is tbe site or specit.l events includ ing jan fes tivals and fasau::s marlceu A masterplan was dev eloped in 199 1 for planting street trees along Ybor's streets and squares Today, several blocks and lots are vacant, after being c l eared in the 1970s. Other forms o f open space were createcl by Ybor' s early resiclents Many homes w e re set on double lot s, half or which was used for a vegetable garden and to ralse domestic animals s uch as chickens and goats fLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 27 FORM The original lxuis for developnwu was .. oriented toward the establish ment of factory sites, surrounded b y residential and co""""rcial areas The Whit< and COIICTtlt block houses were lacattd for COIIVtnitnce. The two-srory brick commercial buildings, with stores downstairs and aponmtnts up11airs. duplicated the structures of Havana and K e y West." M. C. Leonard 1978 b tlow and l eft: l egt n d a n d map s how ing l oca tions of cigar fac tories, sc h ools. and grfen spaces A e,... ....... f 14oy:l (..:..I(!S$1 e.z. := kdPf"l 1 .ir. f J+. GifJ-1t! "ff.C::T FTC-' ;; ... ........ .J. ....... ... ....,....,. DESIGN RESEARCH

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28 DIMENSIONS "On July I. 1894, the {cigar/ indusrry was employing 2.915 persons." Karl H. Grismer, 1950 ..... when Ybor City a company cown .. sneezed. Tampa caught pneumonia." Gary Mormino and George Po'!,Zetta. 1987 below: 7th Avenue near Avenida de Republica de Cuba right: map showing distances from the intersection of 7riJ Avenue and 22ntl Stuer PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS AREA The size of Ybor City grew from 70 acres in 1885 to a two square mile area. approximately 1,280 acres, by 1920 Ybor City did not expand after 1920. POPULATION Popu lation estimates for Ybor City are not readily available. but th e growtll and ttemendous loss of a residential population is shown. Ybor City was incorporated into Tampa in 1895. In 1882. Tampa's popu lation was approximately 1.000, but bad grown to 5.532 by 1890. In 1 900, Tampa recorded a population oT15,839; or which approxima
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YBOR CITY Transportation types and their periods of use include: side-wbteltr Tampa relied almost exclus iv ely on wa ter transpon before the arrival of the railroad in 1883. The S.S. Hutchinson and the S.S. Wind were the initial ships in Henry B Plant's line, with service between Tampa and Key West ste-:anuhips: Plant updated his sidewheeler with tbe S.S.Mascotte which extended its route to Hava11.1, malcing the trip between Key West and Havana in 20 hours. A city official complained in 1900 that Cubans used the steamboats so frequently that they seemed to "come and go like blackb irds" (Mormino and Pozzeua. p. 76). rail: On February 13, 1884, regular rail service "between Tampa and points north was established" by Henry Bradley Plant, and ran through Ybor City. This rail provided passenge r as well as freight transport. Trains still use the rail through Ybor City for freight. and for Amtrak pass enger service to Union Station j ust west of Ybor. street car: The Tampa Street Railway Company operated a steam locomotive line to Ybor City, inaugu rated April 8. 1886 Making the trip f r om T ampa to Ybor City in eight minutes. its initial sched ule was once in a while" and then every hour. ll was owned and operated by Vincente Ybor's company. "Each engine had a name. in honor of a pioneer lady. One was the "Fannie"' for Mrs Ignacio Haya .. The other th.ree were the Jennie, the Mirta. and the Eloise, named for the th.ree daughters of Don Vincente Ybor" (WP A, p 4 ). This street rail way system continued until taken over by another company which was succeeded by the Tampa Electric Company. ---FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 29 l'RANSJPOIRTA TION ANALYSK "{In 188? / Ybor Ciry was a remote wild land whert occasi onally the crack of a bullwhip broke the silence as the Cracktrs from the back country spurred their slow-moving oxcans. deep in sand. towards Tampa." Tony Piu_o, J 968 top: "the favorite .. st tamer, circa 1890 bottom : narrow-gauge rail line linking Ybor City and downrown Tampa. circa 1900 left: 7th Avenue streetcar. circa 1900 DESIGN RESEARCH

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30 TJRANSPOJR! A TION ANALYSKS top: 7th Aven..,, 1925 center: 7th Ave nue, 1993 bollom: Crosstown Expressway at southern edge of Ybor City PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS electric trolley: Trolley lines were built to Ybor City West Tampa and Ballast Point late in 1892. By 1900, there were "over 21 miles of track (which} carried passengers to every comer of the urban land scape, and on the eve of World Wu I, Tampa boasted an urban grid of 47 miles of trolley line, which inc l uded sixty-seven coach cars" (Mormino and Pozzetta. p. 51). pedestriao: Ybor City was designed primarily as a pedestrian envi ronment. with work, house and recreation available within a short distance of one another. Sidewalks lined each street, and remain to day. The pedestrian environment of Ybor City is being improved through street tree planting: Seventh A venue remains a popular pe destrian area and has several arcades shading the wall<$. bicycle: Bicycles were used in Ybor City in the tum of the century. as evident in historic photographs. Sidewalks and wide streets mak e bicycle travel easy; bilce racks are placed along Seventh Avenue and entrances to Hillsborough Community College s Ybor campus. automobile: Since their anival in Ybor City, automobiles have OC cupied increasing areas of land Cor travel and parking. Ybor Cit y s streets remain primarily brick, with a 50' right-of-way. Seventh Av enue, retains its hisloric commercial character. lined with two t o four-story masonry structures The street bas planted medians and parallel parking on both sides. Sections of blocks to the north ue parking lots as are blocks to the south. Parking lots also surround the Ybor Square cigar factory cum shopping center, and the Hillsborough Community College campus. Oth e r streets have at least one side ll
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. o/rvi<-f<'-""'"or.nrrr;rc-T 31 ....... .:.. l i :__.::==--. FLOK!DA CENTER FOR COMMl'NTTY DESIGN

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32 CONTEXT "The conceprion and beginning of rhe Back Bay disrricr symbolizes Bos r on's wealrh and oprimism in rht /are 1850's and rht pride and am bilion of her civic IeaderJ In planning Commonwe12llh A venue in 1856 111 12 gre121 bollleV121d and in co nstructing i n the early sixlits blocks of impre ssive brownstone mansions aki n in style to those be ing built i n Paris in tht same years., Bos1on expre ssed her will to tUsumt a place among the great c i ties of the world. Bainbridg e Bunting 1901 belo w : dam with r12il lints across 1ht Back Bay, 1844 right: west side of Commonwealth Ave nu e ar Danmowh Street, 1872 PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS LOCATION The Back Bay was created by filling the Charles River Basin. which expanded the western boundaries of Boston's peninsula. It extends from the Public Guden and tbe bau of Beacon Hill t o the Fens of the Muddy River wblch feed into the Charle s Rive r The Cbules River lies al o ng lbe north side of Back Bay will> C amb ridge across lbe river. The disttlet is surroUDded on other sides by residential. institutional, and commercial disttlcu of ce.ntr.ll Boston. HISTORIC CONDITIONS The Back Bay is one of Boston's most significant developments, not only by vinue or Its cre ation as a land fill. but as an envisioned and enduring grand urban district. By the early 1800s, the growth of in dustry, marine trade and the immi grant lavor force was consuming Boston's land mass. Th e cily's hills had been cut down by the 1830s to expand tbe north and east shores. Res idential developmen t was e xtending t o ward s the shore o r the Back Bay from Beacon Hill. and the surrounding sho res or Broolcline an d Roxbury were developing as well lndusttlal developmem occured along th e Back Bay. as dams spanned the Charles River Basin for water power and transponatlon. In 1 814. the Mill Corpora tion was authorized to build what became known as the "Great Dam". SO feet wide and a mile and a half loog, extending from Beacon Street to Brook line. Another dam from Roxbury. was used by mills The dams were completed in 18 21, and became im ponant toll roads Ten y ears later, railroad companies cr eated additional dams. tNTEGRATII'
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BACK BAY Yet the dams. while providin g valued transportation routes. resulted in noxious conditions due to tbe resulcted now or water and garbage being dumped into the bay By tbe mid 1800s. wealtby residences lined Beaoon Stteet and tbe sbore Back Bay was a public boWtic garden. In 1849, tbe BO$tOn Board of Health bad declared tbe Back Bay a nuisance and of hann to tbe increulng population living near it A legislative commission wu c reated in 1852. ud a plan adopted in 1856 for filling the 450 acre Bac k Bay The filling or the Back Bay wa.s a monumental Uibute 1 0 tbe steam shovel and rail w ith trains hauling gravel from nine miles away, for over 30 years. While plans bad been proposed e:ulier for filling Back Bay the plan by tbe Commissioners exhibits a straigbt!orwud grid with a central boulevard. Commonwealth Avenue, extending from the Public Garden at Charles Sueet. and continui ng west. Tbe plan is attributed to architect Arthur Gilman, wbo bad studied French ucbi tecture and planning, and was apparenUy inspired by Haussmano's grand avenues i n Paris As sections of the Bay were filled, the s treet network was constructed and homes built. The Back Bay thrived as a fashionable neighbor hood and civic district, with restricted areas for commercial uses. The streets were defin e d by four and nve story townhouses. designed to be some of llle most elegant in llle city The problem or tbe still noxious Fens was solved by landscape architect Frederic k Law Olmsted. who designed a flood control system as pan of a linear park extending from the Public Garden and Common wealtb Avenue. This "Emer ald NecJc.lace" park sysrem became a model for the nation Institutions and chu r ches w e r e drawn to the Back Bay concentrating around what would become Copley Square. where th e Back Bay grid intersected the skewed grid of the South End The Massachusetts Institu t e of Technology originallay was developed in 1863 near Copley Square: Trinity Cburch was consecrated in 1877: Harvard Medical School moved to tbe Square in 1883 : and In 1895. McKim. Mead and White's Boston Public Library opened on lbe west side of Copley Square. CONTEMPORARY CONDITIONS Many of tbe wealthy families were forced to sell their Bac k Bay homes during the Great Depression and out-migration prior to the 1970s led to changes in use Many homes bave been conve rted into schools. dormitories. apartments. commercial uses. and offices. and define a scale and cbaracter wblch continue to malte the district one of the most attractive in the city for m i dence. shopping and work Newbury Street is one of tbe metropoliWl area's most fashionable sbopping tteets. and several corponlioll$ b.ave tbeir headquarters in Bact Bay. Copley Squue rem1iDs a civic center of Boston depite the loss or the educational instirutions which once rrounded it The Square receoUy was redeveloped from a bud-su rfac e. tetTaced plua to a formal green, with rows of benches and shade. trees along a lawn and a smaller paved area front1n1 Trinity Cburcb FLORIDA CEI'ITER F 0 R COMMt.JNITY 33 CONTEXT "1M Bock Bay district ... consrituru an t4rly and significant chapter in of ciry plallning i n United SUJUS. With tM Public and A V ettut. it reprtsenu one of tht country s jirsr conctrted elf om to create a homogenow urban t n vi ronment on a grand scalt. Laltr itt iu history. with tht creation of Fenway Park, tht district forged the first link oj lht first mttropolittln park system in the nation. Bainbridge Bunting, 1967 "Because of its clearly defintd and almost unbrtachablt boundari es the Back Bay district has been re markably resistant to
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34 DEVELOPMENT "The critical decade in the development of the Back Bay district was the 1860's . At this time also the Back Bay established itS supremacy over the New South End as Boston's fashionable new residential quaner. And the volume o[ building, in terms of new edifices erected. is un equalled in subsequent Back Bay hi story." Bainbridge Bunting, 1967 below: pedestrians under tree canopy along Commonwealth A v enue promenade PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS PLAYERS The Back Bay was filled afler a series of dams were constructed by lhe Boston & Roxbury Mill Corporation, lhe Boston & Providence Railroad Company, and lbe Boston & Worcester Railroad Company. The Mill Corporation was r eorganized to include a subsidiary. lhe Boston Water Power Company. A tripartite agreement between lhe Commonwealth, City, and Mill Corporation led to tbe Bay's filling. Property ownership was split among lbe Commonwealth, the Mill Cor poration, and Boston Water Power Company The contractor providing lbe earth received some land as payment by the Commonwealth. With sueets in place, adjacent property OWDUS, real estate agents and builders purchased lbe land and began building._ MOTIVATION Profit played a key role in the filling of Back Bay The Mill Corpo ration expected a more luaalive profit from the crealed land than from the mills. Adjacent property owners, real estate agents, and builders foresaw the polential for valuable properties. The Commonweallh viewed the development of land as a worthwhile investment and lhe City was eager to expand its bo undaries. The Back Bay's unsanita ry conditions also motivated the Commonwealth to take action. TIME FRAME The development of Back Bay spans much of lhe 19lb century: 1814: Boston and Roxbury Mill Corporation builds Mill Dam as power source and toll road 1 844+: 1852: 1856: 1857 : 1858: 1860: 1879: 1883: 1888: 1893 : plans submitted for design of filled Back Bay legislature creates Commission to study Back Bay Commission roadway plan adopted tripartite agreement allows for filling contract issued and filling begins Public Garden Commonweallh holds pu b lie auctions for sale of land; home-building begins Olmsted develops park plan for Fens Copley Square created by City fill reaches Fens Esplanade added along Charles River REGULATIONS The Commonweallh regulated several aspects of lhe Back Bay d< velopment lhrougb property restrictions including land uses buil d i ng heights, setbacks, and building materials. The Mill Corporation and Boston Water Power Company issued similar restrictions. The Cit y issued Building Laws in 1871 for safety and fire concerns. T oday. Back Bay is regulated by lhe City's Zoning Code and historic pre s
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BACK BAY T YPES OF USES The Back Bay w as envisioned as a residential and cultural dlsuict. While tbae uses continue today retail. omce and bote! uses also pl a y an impotWII rote, lnduslrial uses wbicb cJuscered atOIIDd lbe rail yards, have been replaced by !he Massachuse tts T urnpi k e and covered with a mixedu se development and lhe cil}''s convention center Residences w e re orisinally designed as townhouses, but many bave been con ver ted to retail uses. wilb multi-family residences or offices. As more unusual conversion of a historic suucture, a. church was converted to condomin ium residences Corporat e offices have located t o the Back Bay, in !be few office towers wbicb have been built Public and civic institutions arrived in Back Bay as It was filled: several rem ain and others have located in the Back Bay As pan or the Em erald Neclclace. the Public Garden. Commonw ealth A venue, and lbe Feru offer passive and active recreation for Back Bay and meuopoli tan area. I NTEGRATION OF USES By virtue or i ts si1e and sueet pattern the uses within Back Bay are within easy walldng distance of eacb other and are well int egrau:d. Uses tend to be comistent along the east west streets, wbicb defiDe the long axis of the blocks. While some sueets have remained pri muily residential. those wi tb commercial uses tend to have a mix of use s within buildin gs. and the uses are s u atified. Retail uses are lo cated on the lower level and sueet level, with offices or residences on upper noors Church es and other cultural and educatio n al insti tulions are sited thtoughout the Back Bay alongside residences althougb sol)le histo ri c ally located ar ound atuactiv e parks and squares FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 35 FUNCTION .. From ils beginning t/tt diJtrict was conceived as an important civ1c rm provemtnl, not mtrtl)' anothtr money-making rtal matt schtmt A significll11t indication O/lht pu b lie ambilionjor the d.istriCJ is lht f.Jt.: /hat MllJStuhiLfellS wtU ablt 1 0 Jt VOl t mort t/zan 4J ptTCtlll of ilS tr:". land holdings in tht Back 8a1 : streets and parks in order so r the desire d monumentalir:o Bainbridge Bum ing,/967 ltft: diagram of rht Ba ck Ba1 > history DESIGN RESEA R I ..

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36 FORM top: parting in alley in Baclc Bay bot/Qm: rapi d transit legend right: circulation diagram -----.Colooflolr&.l .. ra.. ''.,,. ...... L-IW& i:r-. ,.,....11' ...t ..... PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS BOUNDARIES The Bact Bay is lxlw>ded oo tlltee sides by open space: !be Public Garden on !be !be Charles River along the north, and the Feos oo !be west. Wblle 19th century laud fill extended as Car south as Tremont today. BoylstoD Street. several bloclcs to lbe north, is coromonly regarded u the southern boundary or !be Back Bay. CIRCULATION The Back Bay street system is comprised of two grids: an extension of !be South End grid, aDd !be grid establisbed by the 1856 plan Tbe South End grid's primary streets paral!el the original Boston & Provi dence Railroad, iD a norlbeaSI-soulbwest direction. Narrower cross streets create bloclcs of varied size. In contrast. tiJe 1856 plaD grid contains a clear bierarcby of streets aDd a regular block pattern. Tbe long axis of blocks NOS with cross streets spaced every 550' to 600'. Bloclcs are divided by alleys Commonw ealth Avenue is tiJe central east-west extending from !be Public Garden to Kenmore Square just beyond the Fens will> a wide tree-lined park way down the center. Three moving laDes and a park.ing lane Oank !be parkway. All streets are lined with sidewalks, aJ>d !be Common wealth parkway contains a sidewalk. Massachusetts Avenue passes through !be west side of Back Bay aDd crosses lbe river to Cambridge. Storrow Drive. Route I, is a limited access bighway along !be Cbarles River. Tbe Mwacbusetts Turnpike. Interstate 90. replaced lbe original Boston & Worcester Rail line altbougb it is underground through mucll of the Back Bay. A network of subway rail lines pass tbrougb the Bact Bay: one moves along Boylston Street, with a brancb exten d ing south on Huntington A venae. Another !iDe occupies !be original Boston & Providence Rail corridor, and sbares rigbt-of-way with an Amtrak line. \. --INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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BACK BAY COMMUNITY Back Bay's uses correspond to the street grids and their intersections. Uses are generally consi stent along east-west streets: residential uses prevail along Commonwealth Avenue and streets to the nortb : while a of retail, office, and residential uses occur on Newbury and Boylston Streets. Although scauered throughout Back Bay, churches and other institutions are concentrated around public spaces, includ ing the Public Garden, the Fens, and Copley Square. Historic civic and recent mixed use centers occur at the collision or the Back Bay and South End grids. C opley Square, situated where l.be grids col lide was Back Bay's cultural center. More recent developments at the juncture or the grids include the 26 acre Prudential Center. with office and residential cowers on an elevate d base or commercial uses; and Copley Place, a mixed-use development sited over the Turnpike and along the Amtrak and subway l ine. OPEN SPACE The Back Bay is bounded and orgartized by open space systems. Commonwealth Avenue serves as the spine of the Back Bay grid. and the Public Garden and the Fens bound it. Along the Charles River, the Esplanade parkway provides a continuous promenade a marina and boat house, and the Hatch Shell amphitheater. An important pe destrian thoroughfare in southern Back Bay is the plaza of l.be Christian Science Church. The plaza is nearly one-quarter rnile long, and con tains a reOecting pool. bosques of trees, and a fountain. The Southwest Corridor Park, a recent addition in the same area.. is a greenway over and along the Amttal: and subway line. Copely Square, a key open sp ace for Back Bay, has been revitalized by a recent re -design . -. -FI.ORIDA CENTER F 0 R COMMUNITY 37 FORM below: diagram of setback require mens.s left: Bad Bay's open space and cenurs '"ve'M"(..f- !"' Tt'...,.. .... .,. .. .._2 / I' If-, --""-.< __ ...,. DESIGN RESEARCH

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38 DIMENSIONS "The Back Bay as originally con ceived amounted to an island of elegance lim i ted by water on the north, ill-smelling marshes on the west and railroad lines on the souJh .. Walter Muir Whiuhi/1, 1968 The filling of this greaJ tidal ba sin is the most drastic s ingle alteration in the h i story of Boston's changing topography. It adds about 450 acres to the original 783-acre peninsula. Furthermore this fill fuses Boston to the mainland by in creasing the width of the old Neck from a mere 1000 fe
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BACK BAY The Back Bay was designed at a pedestrian scale, with the ro.\ds sezving horse and catriage uanspOn. By the time the Back Bay was being filled. hone-drawn streetcars wete o pera ting in Bost on. and nation's ftnt subway waS' o perating by 1901 under BaylsiOD and Tremont Stteets. With two rail lines in the southern section of the Back Bay prior to irs filling, rail wu an impOrWlt form of transpOrtation for this dis trict, and remains a v i tal one today pedestrian/bicyclist: The design of the street and open sp ace s ys tem a ccommod ates pedestrian movement throughout the Back Bay and t O the surro unding business districts and universitie s. Sidewallcs line each stree t. with on-street parking, street lights. and trees pro viding a buffer from moving vehicles Wide si dewalk s are provided along the eas t west s treets. reaching up to 30' in width along the com mercial Boy l ston Street. Commonwealth Avenue i n addition to its sidewallcs along the townhouses. con tains a wide path i n the cen ter of the parkway Benches are provided con tin uously, and civic an creltes l and marks at imporunt intersections The Southwest Corri dor Park and Fens fea ture pedestrian and bicycle paths which e xtend uninterrupted for several blocks. Bic yclists both share the roadw a y with traffic and use sidewal k s With several colleges and universi ties in the area, bicycles ue a common form of transpOrtation for students rail: The rail lines which historically crossed the Back Bay have provided commuter service into the city since the 1880s One of these r>il corr idor s i s us e d today by Amtrak and the Metr opolitan Boston Transit Authority ( MBTA). A station for the Amtrak line is located n ear Copley Sq uare Two of the MBTA's four line s pass through the Back Bay kn o wn as the green and orange lines While botb lines FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMM UNITY 3 9 TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS By 1960 ... swarhs of demo/ilion slarh through IM as pre cursors of the never endi n g extensio11 of apresmays. turnpikes, and throughways Nor can one overloo k !he grea1 c hunk s of cil)' blocl:.r in aU pans oflhe ciry 10 S<1V< as parking lors. Tht aulomobllt ap. pears 10 be lhe unil of mea s ure now. no11he pedes1rian. Bainbridge Bunling. 1967 ..... Jhe most imp orranr chanf t ir 1 rravel dur i n g 1he las I ctnlur:.... }I s 1he transformtllion of travel fro m a social uperienu. in which people ga Jlured in srarion.s tJNl on (J(JJ. st n ger cars 10 a p r ivoJt tn whic h we are isolaud in car s.Roben Campboll and Ptltr Vanderwa rker. 1992 left: sidewalk displays a lo n o Streer DESIGN RESEARCH

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40 'JI'RANSJPOJRTA TION ANALYSKS "All traveling becomes dull in ex act proponion to its rapidiry John Ruskin. quoted by Robert Campbell and Peter Vandenvarker, 1992 btlow: typical service alley in the Back Bay grid right: horsedrawn streetcars in 1 891 on Boylston Strtet PRE-20TH CENTURY URBAN CENTERS are underground as lhey pass through lhe Back Bay, a branch of the Green Lioe surfaces and travels within the median of the roadway at lhe southwest border of lhe Back Bay. Tbese l.ines are heavily used by commuters from lhe suburbs as well as !hose uaveling across the city. bus: Bus routes of the MBTA 1111verse !he Back Bay along the east west sueelS as well as lhe arterials along ilS periphery. Local stops occur at nearly every b l ock on some routes and transfer stations gen erally coincide wilh a subway station. automobile: Tbe automobile has impacted lhe Back Bay not only on !he sueelS, but by !he development of tbe MassachusetlS Turnpike in the 1960s Tbe Turnpike provides access to lhe heart of lhe Back Bay, with ramps located under !be Prudential Center. Storrow Drive, also heavily used by commuters, c reates a spaghelli of ramps at the Fens where it meets the Charles River. This interchange severed an important park system connection between the Charles River Esp l a nade and lhe Fen way On the streetS within lhe Back Bay, uavel speed is limJted by !he numerous intersections of the g.rid, and the sheer volume of automob i les. To alleviate congestion, lhe sueets of the Back Bay grid have been designated for one-way traveL All o f these sueets play a valuable role for parking, with parallel parking l anes along bolh curbs INTEGRATING C OMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTAT :

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PRE-WORLD WAR II SUBURBS 41 FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN R ESEAKCH

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42 PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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F L 0 R i D A C ENTER l r ,.4:::, d (_ -13 "T -.-r-r.: 0 '=:. I FOR COMM L ':.;J T Y DESI G N RESE ARt::-:

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44 CONTEXT "The sociery is composed. for the most part, of families from New York and New England, who have been drawn here l>y the beaury and healthfulness of the place, and the air of refinement, ifllelligence and culture which have characterised it almost from the start. Seminole Hotel brochure, circa /897. below: l>oaters, circa 1897 right: the grand Seminole Hotel circa 1897 PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS LOCATION Winrer Park Is locared in central Florida, four miles nonh of downrown Orlando. Today, Wiorer Park is complerely surrounded by communities in lhe meuopolirao area; il bas no undeveloped edges. HISTORIC CONDITIONS Winrer Park was developed in !be 1880s by a group of invesrors who envisioned a resort and residential community for wealthy families from New York, New England, and tbe Midwes r. The pleasant eli male, abundance of lakes, and scenic pine foresrs were drawing winrer tourisrs to Ibis area of Florida. Steamships ro tbe Easr Coasr and along the St. lobos River to Sanford, and an ever expanding network of rail lines, provide
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WINTE R PARK CONTEMPORAR Y CONDITIONS Today. Winter Parle and surrounding communities comprise the Orlando meuopoli!Jil area. The grand resort hOtels have been replaced by homes. and oran ge groves are practically non -existent. Wbile it still contains all the uses of a community including a subslalltial employment bue. Winter Park also serves as a residential haven for wealthy commuters working in Orlando. Winter Park, with Rollins Colle ge co n tin u e 10 draw visitors today. although more for special e v e nts even ts and its upscale character than natural auraclions The ann ual Bach Festival and Winter Park Art Festival bring visitors from Flori d a and beyond The Park Avenue shopping district bas become as distinctive in central Aorida as its namesake i n Martbattan. The integrity of the community design bas been ret.ained in large part although some streets have been widened subswlllally and serve as comme r cial suips dedicated to the automobile. These arterials oon nect 10 l-4 and 10 Orlando and other surrounding commuDities. Many streets in Winter P ark have not been widened. however. and limit auto speed and volume Park Avenue. the main street or the historic com .. munity. retains only two l anes for mo'o'ing ua!fic with onsuee t parting and a speed limit of 20 mph. Also. the historic chancier of well lands caped s treets and shady sidewalks has been maintained. While Amtrak uses the rail and the station in the center of town. rail ser vice is little used. The tracks al s o serve freight trains. several of which pass through daily. The narr o w gau ge r ail line co Orlando was aban doned in the late 1960s. FLORIDA CENTER FOR ... .. \"'''" ... ... . .... -... COMMUNITY 45 CONT EXT w;nrer Part is ttl cetural Fl ofld u.n. what Hamprons art ro Nco Yorkers: old. qwintiJIId e l tganr. New York Times /984 below: Rollins College Campul. /949 kft: Central Park and visitors. i',,;. u ..... . . ... .... \ ............ .... .. DESIGN RESA

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46 DEVELOPMENT "/ rhink every rich man or woman should have a winrer home in Florida for pleasure and for health Harrier Beecher Stowe, quoted by Richard N. Campen, 1987 top: cameo photos of LlJring Case and Oliver Chapman bottom: location map and coat-of arms of Rollins Co/legt, from brochure, /937 right: Wi111er Park town map drawn tor Chapman and Chase in 1884 PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS PLAYERS Loring Clwe and Oliver Chapman, both from New England, purchased the land for Winter Park in !881. They hired a surveyor to lay out the masterplan of stteets, open space, and lots which was marketed for lot sales. In 1885, Chapman sold his interest to Chase, who cre ated the Winter Park Company with group of investors from New England and Chicago MOTIVATION Chase recognized the opportunity for developing a winter reson for wealthy families from New York and New EngLand. The site of Winter Park was newly accessible by the South Florida Railroad. TIME FRAME l..andmark dates in the early development of Winter Park include: 1882: depot built as fttst building; a small hotel built on Lake Osceola 1885: Seminole Hotel built ;largest hotel south of Jacksonville; Rollins College founded 1886: city of Winter Pack incorporated with 102 registered voters REGULATIONS Chase and Chapman's plan specified street, open space, lot sizes. and some uses. Today, the city's Comprehensive Plan and Zoning late development, and call for preservation of Winter Park's historic character. Compatible residential development is encouraged: a zon ing change from residential generally is not allowed. and redevelopment is carefully reviewed. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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WINTER PARK TYPES OF USES A full spectrum of uses developed in Winter Park The original plan designated residential and r esort lots, a cential park comme rc ial stie e t. depot, and a residential and commercial distiict for African Americans. The ftrst golf course was built in 1889. As the permanent population grew. a public school was opened. ln 1895, Rollins Col l ege was founded by the Congregational Chu rch Most residents kept orang e groves; local papers boasted that over 850 acres in and around Winter Park were groves. These grove.s supported an orange pack ing industiy. Today. "Winter Park has all of the land use elements th3t i t a true cily' (Winler Park ComprehtiiS ive Plan. p FL27) INTEGRATION OF USES Uses designated in the 1882 plan rema in largely intact 1oday H ote l sites a.nd residences were tar geted for the l akefrom property. Along Park A venu e shops were to locate A sid e from Hannibal Square (design ated for Africln Amer i c:tns), all other l ots cou ld be used for residences, orange grov e s or instilut ions. As planned, residential neighborhoods are withi n blocks o f the Park A venue commereiaJ Churches and s chool s are scattered throughout the neighborhoods H::mnib al Square remains a mix of residential and commercia) uses for a predominantly African Ame r i can commun ity. Rollins College occupies one of the lakefront hotel s i tes: all othe r Jokefront hotels have been rep l aced b y residences. The Park A venue commercial district remains peQestrian-frie ndly. but rour to six lane wide uteria l s link ing surrounding communities are commercial suips. with a mix of p3.tc:e l sizes. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 47 FUNCTION top: cottage built in 1887 couage. builr in 1887 bollom: First Congrtgalional Chuch, built in 1884 left: Park Avenue with shops fac ing Central Park. 1993 DESIGN RESEARCH

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48 FORM "The prospect for the completion of the Orlando and Winttr Park Rail way seems to be good.... To Orlando it means a valuable addi tion to the Qltraclions of the town by providing a conveniently accessible district for pleasant suburban resi dence ... nothing helps to make a city attractive to the best class of people. many of whom positively refuse to live in the midst of a town and will nor locarewhere there are no ant suburbs. Then too the rapid development of the country along the line would help to open and improve the counrry a s a pleasant place for drives from the city .... Lochmede January 27, 1888 below: the "Dinty Station", circa 1890 right: circulation diagram PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS BOUNDARIES As designed in 1882. Winter Park was bounded by fo ur lakes which terminated two major boulevards. Five other lakes helped defme the 600 acre area, which was developed within a I 1/2 mile radius around the train depot. Winrer Parle annexed surroundings 10 reach Its cur rent 8 square mile area. Today's boundaries are defmed by Orlando along the south and west. MaiUand to the nortb. and developmenr in unincorporated Orange County to tbe easL CIRCULATION The rail line runs from the northwest atld southwest comers, with the depot ar the city's center. Trolley lines once ran down the major streets. linking the depot with hotels. A narrow-guage rail formerly ran along the south part of the city, winding around lakes and through Rollins College as a commuter rail to Orlando. This rail no longer exists. While close to Winter Park. l-4 does not pass tllrougb the cily The city's arterial. collector, and local streets are laid our in a grid pat tern. A major east-west boulevard originates at the train station and Central Park. The "main street" runs north-south with businesses on one side and Central Park on the other. The grid is modified around the lakes 10 max imiz e lots. Each street is flanked by a parkway and s i dewalk Shade trees planted in the parkway arch over the street. and provide a comfortable buffer between the walks and lanes. The tradition of planting trees is fun damental to Winter Park; in the city's charier, a stipulation was made !hat 500 shade trees be planted each year along cily Streers. -. "t'XI? INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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WINTER PARK COMMUNITY town was laid out with the commercial district, central park, and depot at the heart or the commwtity. Residential neighborhOOds, com posed or narrow lots on a gridded street p a ttern are varied by l akes, golf courses, aDd institutions. Industry is located along the rail line in the north se.etioo or town Petipb.eral arterials consist of strip com mercial develoment. OPEN S PA C E The cenurpiece of the city's design and cunent character is Central Part. This informally landscaped commons is biseeud by the train depot and Morse Boulevard, and fronts Park A venue with its upscale shops. This was the only designated public space iii tbe 1882 masterplan, but the streeu served an imporWtt role Sidewalks were used fot evening wa.lk:s. tnd bicyclists used the streets extensively. Residents and visitors presumably bad access to tbe lakes by owniDg property or by staying at one or the lake front hotels Great pride is take n in the grand $hade trees. noting that a tree re p l acement program is guaranteeing that oalcs will continue to shade the tbrougbfares long after the youngest child has gone to his reward" (Vincen t ) A s the community deve1oped, other open space was acquired o r de velo p e d b u t i n a scattered form. The Gol f and Cou:ntry C l ub created a park-lik e set ting just north of Centra l Park Mead Gardens r e t ai ns much o r the nat ural character of the area. Other park s f o r field games h a ve bee n d e v e loped ,, ...-;;--. . '. "" .... : FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 4 9 FORM "T11 Town Pion of WinJer Part. .. htJS for ils central id.a a btaut iful park of about 10 acres, one-quar ter of a mile long, to b plon,.d with tropical fruiu and flowers of tVtt)' name and kind. through tlte cenu r of which l e ngthwise runs rhe rail r oad Map of t he Town of Winur Park. Flor ida 1884 'Do you wonder t h a t 1 think /live on a beaut i ful S trtet? ... alrhough we are just on e l o ng bl ock from the cen 1 e r of zown, the busines s seci ion keeps so well ju s t ro the main street. that we seem to Jive far from any t hing bu t a wholJ.v residential d isrrict. -postcard circa 1925 b d ow : P ar k Avenue busine.u du tri c t. 199J lft: diagram of open spaas rn Winter Par k D E S IGN RESEARCH

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so DIMENSIONS bolo .. : map and sched vlt D/ the railroad rysrtm. I 89 7 ritlot; distances from Cil)' Hall on Park .. ........ $'1'STtM -fr Tt< '-C""-51c.n l l0Clajvtt .IU.Sc. PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS AREA The area of W in t er Park has grown from 600 acres in Chapman and Chase's 1882 mast erplan lo 5.120 acres (8 square miles) In 1993. POPULATION Population estimates since the city's incorporation in 1886 show : 1886: appJ>d is dedicated t o residentia l development: 56% is single family (I to 5 units/acre) while higber densities occupy 9%. Come r cl31 and office uses occupy 10% of th e land area. Some 10% of the c it,.' land area ls dedicated as parks, recreation areu. or conservation JwJ s Of tlle total asea of Winter Park 17% consists as lakes . . .... . : : '. ; r .. -li
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WINTER PARK Win t er varied mode s of tnnsponation were key to its success as a recreatio nal haven. Since mos t of the v isitors. and even resi dents, anived by_ train, means of transpo rtatio n within and around the community ne e ded to be provided locally This r es ulted in a range or transportation modes. several of which are still successful today: hors e and carriage: In I 880s through World War I, the use of borses for recreational riding and for pulling carnages wa5 popular boat&: In tbe 1880s, canals were dredged between the lakes to noat logs to a Lake Virginia sawmill. The canals afforded g.reater interest in recreational travel by boat; a boat tour o f the Chain of l.akes" is still operated today. railroad: The railtoad brought visitors from the North. via San fo rd and other East Coast Florida cities. The rail line was constrUc ted through what would become Winter Park in 1 880 With its depot in the heart of Win ter Park. the rail still provides access for disunt travelers via Amtrak. The line is also used for freight; cross-stre ets are blocked several times a day as trains hauling freight pw through narrow-gauge rail: Known as the "Dinky Line", a narrow gauge train operated from 1889 as a conunuter link between Winter Park and Orlando. When automobiles became widely used. commuter service was discontinued. and p roduce was transported on the line Service sto pped in 1969: the rails wer e removed and ri ghto f -way abandoned. streetcar: H orse-draw n streetcars opera ted in the 1890 s belw een the depot and l ak efront hotels The stree tcar line s were eventually abando ned as aut omobiles became more popul ar after World War I F!.ORIOA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 51 TJRANSJPOJRtA TION ANAlYSIS "Th e ten miles of fin.e clay roads. just built this season. give bicycling. driving, and riding an a.dd
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52 mANSlP'OJRT A TION ANALYSIS '"The roads in and about Winttr Park are splendid for motoring, es pecUllly the new brick drive from the city of Orlando through Winttr Park.. .. It has been said thas Or lando and Winter Park have more motoring and more cars in proportion ro population rha.n any other plac e in the country Lined on both sides by splendid old oak trees. the roads are cool and shady for miles .. .. Winter Park brochure, circa 1913 top: on street parking on Park Avenue, circa 1925 bottom: bicyclists in 1897 -"""'' .. PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS bus: Winter Park is currently served by Lynx. the Tri-County Mass Transit System. which operates buses for metropolitan Orlando. Seven regular routes and one express route serv e Winter Park. Since 1972. Winter Park has operated a bus system within tlle city to complement tlle Lynx service. Between 1974 and 1976, tlle Park Avenue m
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NATIONAL CASE S TUDY CHESTNUT HILL, PHILAD.ELPHIA, P ENNSYLVANIA -----53 CENTE R FOR COMMUNITY D ESIGN RESEARCH

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54 CONTEXT "From their homes on the heights, residents could survey the city be low or gaze out on the rolling hills ro the norlh and wesl in Montgomery County." David R. Contosta. 1992 top: HousUin's CheStnut Hill estate. Druim Moir bottom : St Martin in-the-Fields Church built by Houston PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS LOCATION Chestnut Hill is located in northwest Philadelphia, approximately ten miles from the central business district. It lies beyond the suburbs of Germantown and Mount Airy. and is linked to downtown by Germantown A ve nue and two rai l lines. Chesmut Hill rises above the Wissahickon Valley, pan of Philadelphia's Fai rmount Park. HISTORIC CONDITIONS Chestnut Hill developed as a village with ties to Philadelphia in lhe 1700s. and today retains much of its character as a distinctive com munity within the city. A s a sUip along 9ermantown Avenue, which extended from the counuyside to Philadelphia, the village catered to surrounding farms and mills and contained inns for travelers. In 1800 the population was approximattly 600. and it reached 1 000 by 1850. Chestnut Hill provided an attractive setting for Philadelphia's wealthy who sought to escape the city's summer heat, and its growing con gestion and pollution. Historian Sam Bass Warner notes that between 1830 and 1860, Philadelphia emerged as a leading industrial city and experienced strikes. race riots, and plagues in the process Literature of the time. in response to the urban strife, extolled the moral and physical virtues of nature. As one of the highest elevations in the area. Chestnut Hill offered fresh breezes and a bucolic setting over looking the Wissahickon Valley. Wealthy families built sulitlller estates in Chestnut Hill. as oth ers had earlier in neighboring Germantown. The construction of a railroad from Philadelphia to Germantown i n 1832 changed summer estates into year-round residences for several fami lies, and brought additional commerce. The following year. a stagecoach service was provided between Chestnut Hill and the Germantown depot. By 1851, a horse-drawn omnibus operattd from Chesmut Hill and Germantown into Philadelphia. In 1 854, the city of Ph ilad elphia incorporated Chestnut Hill with the entice county and an exunsion of the Germantown rail lin e opened in Chestnut Hill. This direct access to the city center brought growing numbers of Philadelphia's bus inessmen to Chestnut Hill The attractiveness of the area was not lost on an enterprising rail agent. Henry Howard Houston who began purchasing properties west of the village, overloolting the Wissahickon Valley. Hous t on convinced the board of the Pennsylvania Railroad to extend a rail line into the area he called "'Wissahickon Heights". He continued assembling proper ties and created a planned development around the new rail station. Houston's first consuuction was a grand inn on the site of a former inn. which would provide year-roun d recreation and perhaps entice guestS to move to the new community. Houston then set aside a large green for the Philadelphia Cricket Club. The third attraction to the station area was his construction of an Episcopal Church. St. Manin in-the-Fields. in 1889. By the 189Qs. Houston had commiss ioned severo.! INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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CHESTNUT HILL homes. and Wissahickon Heights w as a chrivlng s uburb of upper-middle class famiLies. To k ee p some contro l over the comm unity and its ap pe arance Houston did n o t sell. but rather rented the h o uses he had commi3.Sioned . HoustOn's property and development interests remained in the fam ily. and son -in-lw Georce Woodward oversaw the design an!! constrUctio n or multi-family units In the early 1900s. Commi tted to the Reform movement. W oodward and his wife viewed group hous ing as a model ror affordable housing. Through their efforts, 180 units were built and rented The Woodwards' civic interesu l ed them to provide land for a park, conven the inn into a academy and contribute a swimming pool to the Cricker Club. Chestnut Hill's attraction as a railrOad suburb for and upper-and middle class families changed after World War II. however Forme rl y rural are as north and east or the community developed in response to the demand for housing. and increased mobility due t o the automobile . Additionally. rising property tues and changes in lifestyle led some ChesU'Iul Hill estate owners to begin selling their property for dentia l subdivisions. The comme r cial district along Germantown Avenue began los1ng business to new .shopping center s Citizens historically parti cipa ted In civic organizations. and the changes sparked the creation of two new gro ups: the C hestnut Hill Commu nity Association and the Ches tnut Hill Development Group. Whil e Improve ment Associations formerly add r essed Germantown, Mount Airy and Chestnut Hill together. th e Community Association started in 1947 due to a sense or a sepa r a t e Identity and problems The As sociation since has become a quasi-governmental corp oration with committees on physical, soci al. and oper ational aspects of U>e com munity The Development Group wa s formed by local bu siness man Lloyd Well s in 1953 to focus o n th e deteriorating commercia l dis trict. Wells saw the need t o compete with surro unding shopping cen ters, an d encouraged m embers t o work as a unified s hoppin g district. The Development Group remodeled buildings in a compatib l e 18th cen tury appearance and provided stree t arnenlt les and off-street parki ng CURRENT CONDITIONS With the efforts or the ChesUlut Hill Commu n ity Association :111d the Chesmut Hill Developmen t Group (now named Business Association), md contin ued control by the Houston and Woodward families over many residential units. Chestnut Hill bas been preserved and enhanced The commercial district Is chriving. and a once-los t sueet trolley now operates through the district on wee kends. The Community Asso ciation has long-range planning and decisions. and a Historical Society was created. Additionally, the fores irbt of Hous ton and others in contribuunr the valley to the city as a park has created 3 buffer and amenity llone the community s western and southern boundaries FLORIDA CENTER FOR C OMMUNITY 53 CONTEXT .. Editoria ls in Germantowlf Telegraph .. .linked the frail air and natural beaury available i n GtrmantOWlllllld Cht.s11tut HiU wirh incrused health lllld mt>raliry: ;! clean,fruh-airtd, swur, cheerfu l lllld wel/-sicualtd lu>llSt. rhe writer e:nolled. 'eurcises a mt>ral as well as a physical over its in mare s. and makes the memt>ers of rhe f amil y peaceful and collSidtrare of rheftelings and happiMss of oth ers .... ., -David R. Conrosra. 1992 rop: Cresheim Valley in 1989 with Chesrnus HillWestline bottom : PasrorillS Park, devel o p ed by Woodward DESIGN RESEARCH

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56 DEVELOPMENT Alth ou gh Houston sold many of the larger s in gle dwellings. he decided to rent the bulk of his houses. thereby retaining corurol over land use allli occupants.... Houston was nor inreressed in making a great deal of money from his rental properries, bur rems were high enough 10 ensure that all the renams would be of ac least upper-middle-clas s standing." David R. Conrosta 1992 top : Wissahickon Inn, circa 1885 bottom: Linden Coun group hous ing PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS PLAYERS The board of the Chestnut Hill Railroad were key 10 the suburban development of the village. Their extension of the rail from Germantown provided commuters with direct access to Philadelphia Philadelphia lawyer Samuel Austin, among others. dev e loped an area of North Chesmut Hill near the rail station putting in roads and sell ing lots Henry Howard Houston undertonk a much more comprehensive however wbere his Pennsylvania Railroad extmsion came into the west side of Cbesmut Hill. He created a civic center, and hired respected architects to design homes for the surrounding area. His son-in-law, George Woodward. conti nued the business by creat ing new neighborhood streets, group houses and a central park. Like Houston, Woodward hired Philadelphia architects 10 design his En glish-modeled quadruple houses. Following World War II, community leaders form e d organizations to improve the appearance of tile com munity, deter subdivision of estates, and revitalize the commercial district. MOTIVATION Recognizing the attractiveness of the asea lor suburban development, profit was the developers' primary motivation. Houston developed cultural and recreational amenities to attract wealthy citizens. who soughlto escape the industrializing city. TIME FRAME The development of Chesmut Hill as a railroad suburb includes: 1 832 : rail service from Germantown to Philadelphia begins. with stagecoach service linking depot with Chesmut Hill omnibus service from Chestnut Hill to Philadelphia starts Chestnut Hill incorporated into Philadelphia: Cbesmut Hill Railroad begins service: area develops sporadically horse-drawn stre e t cars link Chestnut Hill to city Pennsylvania Railtoad begins service to Wissabickon Heights (St. Martin s), Houston plans and deve lops area 1851: 1854: 1859 : 1884: 1910+ : Woodward plans and develops area east of St. Martin's REGULATIONS While the city of Philadelphia did not incorporate zoning regulations until the 1930s, the development of Cheslllut Hill undertaken by Houston and Woodward was suictly conuolled While other area developers usually laid out sueets and sold lots Houston and Woodward laid out the sueelS, provided civic and recre ational facilities, had houses designed to their specifications and built the bouses. Houston and Woodward retained control of tbe houses and property by only rent ing them: the family-run company continues to rent units. Today. development is subject to the city s zoning regulations. and also 10 review by the Chesmut Hill Community Associat i on. the Historical Society, and other civic groups. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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CHESTNUT HILL TYPES OF USES Chestnut Hill, since its origins as a village, has maintained a com plete mix of community uses. Commerce and iMs defined its early development. serving local farms and mills, as well as travellers. The railroad extensions in the ntid and late 1800s brought waves of re-si dential development Other uses were developed concurrently. Houston's development of Wissahickon Heights. later named St. Martin's began with the consuuction of an inn !he Philadelphia Cricket Club. and St Martin's church. Schools were built over time; the rust being Chestnut Hill Academy, which occupies Houston's former ilUl. While most homes were constructed Cor the wealthy. row houses and apartments above shops were built for the working and business classes. Models of group housing were developed in Chestnut Hill as part of developer George Woodward's Progressive Reform effortS. Woodward also created a community park. and others donated land for Fairmount Park along Wissabick:on Creek. INTEGRATION OF USES While neighborhoods are well defined by housing type, Chesmut Hill's uses are well integrated around rail stations. A mix of commt.rcial, institutional, and residential uses occur near several of the stations. Higher density housing is loca ted near the rail stations. allowing pe desuian access for many commuters. While the commercial uses ue located along Germantown A venue. several cross streets extending across the community give direct access from residential neighbor hoods Central Ch estnut Hill contains the greatest mix of uses, with a park surrounded by multi-family dwellings. and the commercial street and rail station within three blocks of the park. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 57 FUNCTION "Many of the houses built. .. started our as second residences. Their owners maintained townhouses in the ciry and rerremed co ChescnuJ Hill in the summer 10 escape the heat. and sometimes in rhe winter co enjoy sledding, skating and oth e r coldwearher spons 'in the counrry. Such dweUings were transitions be tween the older rradition of building a country house and the emerging custom of living in a suburban resi dence to which one commuted i1t all seasons. David R. Conr o sta, 1992 bottom: Seminole Avenue housing. built before 1900 left: f)'pical tree-lined resdenria i street DESIGN RESEARCH

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58 FORM b e low: hi s toric deve l opment of Chestnut Hill right: circulation diagram I2Z ICNt MIUlb"f.. .-. G. .--PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS BOUNDARIES Chestnut Hill is bounded largely by parkland; only its eastern edge is contiguous with adjacent development. Stenton A v enue. which serves as the Philadelphia s boundary with Springfield Township and Mont gomery County, delineates this edg e The nonh boundary is defined by Philadelphia's limits and the Morris Arboretum. The Arboretum lies along the Wissahickon Cr eek and links with Fairmount Park. The extensive Fairmount Park. with the Wissahickon Valley, defines the west side of Chestnut Hill. The southern boundary is marked by an extension of the park which follow s Cresheim Creek. The commun i ties of Mount Airy and Germantown lie south of the creek CIRCULATION Chestnut Hill has grown from its historic roads and rail lines The two original highways renuin the two primary routos through the com mun i ty. Germantown A venue passes through the middle of community, on an alignment parallel to the community s eastern boundary. Near the center of Chesmut Hill Bethleh e m Pike branches off from Germantown Avenue to the north. One major road crosses Fairmount Park, in the northern part of tbe community A smaller road crosses the park funher south. with a curving alignment A grid of local streets extends through much of Chestnut Hill althougll the western and north em edges are distinguislled by curving roads and a larger block paue m The two rail lines extend into Chesmut Hill from the south. on oppo s ite sides of Germantown Avenue The east. and initial, line has thre e stops The lasr stop and end of the line is located at Bethlehem Pike. The west line a lso has three stops, and curves east to terminate at the fori< of Germantown Avenue and Bethlehem Pike. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATIOI'

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I..:HESTNUT HILL COMMUNITY Roadways and railways guide much o f the community's form. Com mercial uses line' the historic highways of Germantown A venue and Bethlehem Pike. Higher density residences surtound stations of the east rail line, and lower density residences and civic uses are located at stations along the west rail line Houston's planned development around St. Martin's station remains a civic center for the commwtity, with Chestnut Hill Academy, the Philadelphia Cricket Club. and St. Martin's Church Large houses surround St. Martin's and estate s line the ridge of the Wissahickon Valley/Fairmount Par'k. East of St. Martin's station is Woodward's planned development. This neighborhood, centered a r ound the rectangular Pastorius Park. consists primarily of quadruple houses modeled after English group houses A mixed use development is located in southeast Chestnut Hill at tht Wyndmoor station. where an estate was redeveloped OPEN SPACE The open space system of Chestnut Hill preserves the creeks and valleys which define much of the community's edge The Fainnount Park system follows the Wissahickon Creek along lhe west side of the com munity, links with Cresbeim Creek along the south. and meets Morris Arboretum to the north. Fingers of Fairmount Park extend east into Ule community, with one extension contiguo u s to a school in the north em p a rt. Likewise. the park extends up Valley Green Road towards Chestnut Hill Academy The only park within the community is P astorius Park, created by George Woodward as part of his planned d evelopment in 191 0 It is located in the southern part of the com munity. cent ered between the west rail line and Germantown A venue. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 59 F ORM "The srreets closer to the railroad and neaur to the cemer of Chesrnut Hill were more densely populated ... Mosr of the workers and beuer-paid domestic servants lived (on) ... rhe East Side: David R. Contosta. 1992 "{Woodwards '] project on Btntter Street ... is an early example of the Chesrnut Hill tradition of individUJll IMd group houses designed by lead ing architects inserested in contributing to the character oj the suburb and satisfy ing rhe needs oj the tenant ... Roberr A M Srern and John Monwgue Massengale. 1981 lefr: land use diagram DESIGN RESEARCH

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60 DIMENSIONS right: map showing distances from Pasrorius Park PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS AREA Chestnut Hill occupies 2 .200 acres. or 3.4 square miles POPULATION Since the 1930s the population of Chestnut Hill has remained rela lively constant, as shown by the follow ing estimates: 1930: 8.500 1960: 9.000 1970 : 10,617 1980 : 10,186 1990: 10.052 Historian David Contosta notes that the decline in population since 1970 is marked by cbanging demographics. lbe number, and rela tive percentage, of blacks has risen: 1990 figures indicate thatl2% of the population is black, although this is far less than tbe percent age of blacks in the entire city (40%). Contosta also notes that the community has fewer social elite than it did in the first balf or the century. The number of Cbestnul Hill residents listed in the Social Register by 220 from the late 1920s to the late 1980s. However, Chest nul Hill was the most freque ntly listed address of those from the Delaware Valley in the Social RgistESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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CHESTNUT HILL Chestnut Hlll ow .. its otigins 10 the highway and r a ils, Uld this in frastructure continues to define its developmen t today Ear ly development served travelers on horse. and tbc ra.il brought vacationers and new residents ftom lbe city. The prolireration of cars after Wotld Wat ll, however, strained the roadways or Chestnut Hill Development in s unoundiDg areas brought trattic lbrouan the com munity, and drivers used formerly quiet res identia l streets to reach n ew shopping cen t ers. Rail use for commuting continues. however, and a renewed trolley servic e suggests increased potential ridership. railroad: The ope ning or the railtoad in Germantown In 1833 brought the adjacent Ches t nut Hill within easy access: a stagecoach service linked tile community witil tile station. Chesmut Hill opened a spur to the Germantown line in 1 854 which precipitated development of North C hestnut Hill. Ttain schedules were designed to accommo date the commuting businessman, and fares were affordable only to tilose earning a good income The opening or the Pennsylvania Rail road line to the w .. t side or Cbesmut Hill in 1885 coincided with Homy Hocuton s planned development. He built an inn near the slatioo to attract vacationezs and expanded reeteational attractions by de veloping the site of !be Philadelphia Cricket Club. The area's subsequent residential development was founded on the rail conunute Today, the rail continues to pl ay an important rol e ln the commu nity. The east and west lines are part of tile So uth Eas t Pennsylvania Transpottation Authority (SE PTA ) system ; each bas three sto p s and termlnates in Chestnut Hill. SEPTA uses these stops a.s transfer points for th ei r mass tran si t sys tem of trains, buses and troll eys. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 61 T.RANSPORTATION ANALYSIS "Chesrnur Hill (was a project/ in which lite Unes and real estatt development component s were created by the same organlzarion. The transit creaud convenient ac cess ro dis r ant acre s and thus increased values: buye r s were t21 tracred by the easy access t o dOWIIJOWII and the qUJJ/iry 0/lht lltW subur/Jan developtMnts, and in turn. they became the customers tor tht transit component. Harvey Rabinowirz and Edward Beimborn, eta/, 1991 l e ft: elecrric rrollty car. circa J 890 DESIGN RESEARCH

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62 'fRANSJPOJRTA TION ANALYSiS below: sleigh riders on rhe Wissahickon Gorge Road. circa 1890 PRE-WORLD WAR I I SUBURBS trolleys: In 1851 an omnibus provided service to Philadelphia from Chestnut Hill and Gelllllllltown which was replaced in I 8 5 9 by horse drawn streetcars. Between 1894 and 1896, electric trolleys replaced horse-drawn street cars. The electric trolleys didn't last. due to the growing use of aut omobiles after World War 11. Recently, however, the electric trolley service bas been renewed for weekend operations. A replica of a historic trolley operates along the commercial Germantown Avenue. from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m and is well-advertised b y the Chestnut Hill Business Association. bus: SEPT A operates buses throughou t the metropolitan area and has transfer points in Chestnut Hill A bus garage is located along Germantown Avenue in a former trolley depot. automobile: After World War II, Chestnut Hill experienced tremen dous traffic impacts as surrounding areas developed for commuters Running north-south, Germantown Avenue and B e thlehem Pike are the main automobile routes through the community. while Stenion Av enue passes alo n g its eastern boundary Several east west streets are heavily used as well. including Bells Mill Road, wbicb crosses Fairmount Park in the northern pan of Cbesmut Hill. Cresheim Val ley Drive, along the southern edge of the community, also is heavily used by through traffic Other busy roads within the communi t y in c l ude St. Martins Lane and Chestnut Hill Avenue. Committees addressing the issues of traffic and parking are a permanent part of the Chestnut Hill Community Association. Several major highways are located near Chestnut Hill Interchanges for the Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-276) bordering th e city and for J 476 into downtown are located approximately three miles nonhwest of the community Interchanges for I-76 and Route I lie approxi mately four miles south, where the Wissabickon Creek meets the Schuyllc.ill River The Fon Washington Expressway (Route 309) is approximately one and one-half miles east of Stenton A venue, and does not yet extend within the city limits of Philadelphia pedestrians: A high percentage of homes are within walking dis tance of the commuter rail stations and the commercial dlsiiiet. Given the size of the community, 3.4 square miles, and the majority of housing condensed into the central area, amenities and community facilities are readily accessible on foot for most residents Additionally Cbesmut Hill takes pride in the appearanc e of its community Since the 1950s. there has b e en an organized effon to plant street trees and enhance th e pedestrian environment. A committee for that purpose is pan of the Cbesmut Hill Community Association. The Chestnut Hill Busi ness Association bas bee n committed to improving lbe pedestr ian environment of Germantown A venue since the 1950s horses: Bridle paths wind lbrough Fairmount Parle for recreational use. I NTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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63 NEW TOWNS FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNJTY Re5EARC;;

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64 INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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FLORIDA CORAL FLORIDA CENTER FOR ..,,. -COMMUNITY 65 DESIGN RESEARCH

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66 C ONTEXT "The entrances themselves also hold our the promise of beaUJy and repose within. They are not mere glorified corner posts such as the first bright vision of rhe ordinary real esrare deve/oper ... Here ar Coral Gables . much effort is really expended in makinr them hark back ro old Spain in Spirit and in Set ring. Arrisr and Coral Gables Designer Denman Fink. circa 1925 below: frontispiece from rhe Vene tian Casino circa 1925 rig/rJ: Merrick sf/eer o[buses exit ing the Granada entrance, circa 1930 all new ment set a new bvilde.rs .......... .... .... NEW TOWNS LOCA T ION Coral Gables lies adjacent to the City of Miami, approximately four miles southwest of Miami's Central Business District. Several arte rials and the Metro Rail line through Coral Gables connect with the CBD. One anerial connects with Miami International Airpo r t which lies two miles north of Coral Gables H I STORIC C ONDI TIONS Inspired by the principles of the City Beautiful movement and the character of Mediterranean cities, George Merrick developed his child hood home as a new community during the land boom of the early 1920s The city's name references his home on the former family groves. Coral Gables was unique to much of Miami's development at that time, since it was planned as a complete tOwn; designed in response to the climate and local ecology; and generously organized by boulevards, canals, and Mediterranean sty l e plazas, gateways and monuments. Merrick was a master at marketing this new community. Coral Gables was advertised as the "Miami Riviera" w ith 40 miles of wat e rf r ont, derived largely by th e canals he dug Merrick brought people from the Nonh on specially chattered trains to Miami, upon which a neet of Coral Gables buses transponed them to the city. Passing through one of four grand gateways, the Mediterranean style architecture and civic art created a stunning scene for the prospective buyers. Propeny sold rapidly i n "Miami's Mas t er Suburb" Be t ween 1923 and 1924, more than 600 homes were built. along with 65 miles of INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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CORAL GABLES roadway, 80 miles of sidewalks, streelligbts, and 50. 000 tropical plants. The Venetian Pool, created from a rock pit, opened as public swim ming pool in 1924, witb fanciful buildings and features. The Miami-Biltmore Hotel and Country Club opened, with two eighteen bole golf courses, dances with music by famous orchestras, and fox hunts. Neighborhoods were complemented with residential villages of distinctive architectural Styles, including a Chinese Village French Nonnandy Village, and Dutch South African Village. By 1925 Coral Gables incorporated as a city, with all the functions of a community and a range of housing from artists' studios to vii las. The following year, a hurricane destroyed areas around Coral Gables and stopped the land boom Merrick was pushed out of man agement by the Cora l Gables Commission in 1928. and all public investment ceased. Portions of the original plan were divided off from the city in following years. Development did not pick up again until after World War II. CONTEMPORARY CONDITIONS Much of Coral Gables' character today relies on Merrick's grand boulevuds. r esidentia l sect.ions. and public amenities. The street uees have matured. creating shaded corridors throughout the community Public amenities such as the Venetian Pool, golf courses, and public plazas and gates are well used by residents and visitors alike. Com mercial and industrial uses remain where Merrick had designated them. The University of Miami been developed, although not in the Medi terranean style envisioned by Merrick After World War II. development in Coral Gables departed from the Mediterranean style. The lo ss of historic buildings. and increasing c onstruction of modem architecture led to citizens organizing for pres ervation of Coral Gables' heritage. In 1973. the City adopted a Historic Preservation Ordinance. which was revised and incorporated in the City Code in 1984 To encourage Mediterranean design i n new con struction a Code was adopted in 1992 which provides development bonuses and spec-ial allowances for such design Within h ist oric areas. recent development incorporates Mediterranean f eatures. and tends to be of a mixed use. Recent residential develop ment along Bisc>yne Bay, however. seems dispar>te from Coral Gables in location and character Property which was once the Hrst public beach in Dade County now has single-family residences on cui-de sacs. The development is accessible only by passing through a gate with a guardhouse. and an interior subdivis i on marked by another guard house and gate . A lt.hough grand. the dimensions and direct route oi som e boui evards have become a deuiment. Such arterials have become a cut-e.hrOu8h route for residents of suburbs west of Coral Gables. Traffi c volumes and speeds eHective l y separate sections or Cor a l Gables FLOR!OA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 67 CONTEXT "The silky green of rhe great golf linkJ centres (Coral Gables). with all that means of air and wide view, health and interest and recreation TM tennis courts are everywhere, and everywhere available And the Venetian pool, that wonder of shim mering blues and greens. stretches its cool expanse under the coconut palms for the slim bodies of swim mers to curve to. or glide under 10 blue grottoes. or lie basking la
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68 DEVELOPMENT "Until 1921 Coral Gables was s c arcely m ore tluv! a citru.s fruit and avocado grove....Stnsing 1M impor tant part Miami was ro tau in tJt. m odern deve/opmtnl of !lot stllle, Mr Mtrrick hisfl'llit groves into afirstC lass rea/estate develop ment assembling the country' s foremost experts in various linu to assist him in building a magnifi cent residentia l suburb. The Joy of Uing, 1910 "Strict codes were developed .. No duplication of front elevations .. no building may be built ... until It has t h e approval of the Ciry Board of Su pervisi ng Architects. Every parcel of land ... is toned for u.se and mini mum size Jeff r ey Jorge CoJt.n. 1977 below: the Biltmore Hotdl and its Palm Pro menade, 1991 NEW TOWNS PLAYERS George Merrick, tbe son of a minister, bad buill subdivisions in tbe Miami area and decided to build a community on tbe cicrus grove wbere he was rais ed. Merrick hired a ttam Inc luding archi tect Pbineas E. Paist. landscape architect Frank M Buuon, artist Derunan Fink This team developed the plan for Coral de sign e d the civic features and and controlled design of all buildiDgs. Merriclc 10ld the lim or some traas to tbe American Building Corporation an d Myen Y. Cooper Company in 1925 to build villages or differing ar chitectural styles which be specified Today. the City Planning and Zoning Board reviews development. and encourates Merrick s Mediterranean theme. MOTIVATION George Merrick w as inspired by bis literary trainin g and interest in creating a "City Beautifu l" when he returned from tbe nortb to his inherited 160 acre family groves. The Miami area was growing; r ec ognizing the opportunity for success, Merriclc purcbued land around the groves ror his ideal city_ TIME FRAME 1921: 1925 : 1926 : 1 9 29 -34: 1934: 1948: 1973: 1984: 1986: 1992: Merrick begins development Coral Gables special built hurricane damages Coral funds depleted Depression bankrupts Merrick and city w es t ern subdivision separated from city Biscayne Boy section separated from city city adopts Historic Preservation ordinance Preservation ordi!Wlce adopt ed in City Code Mediterranean Atcbitect ural Ordinance adopted MediterraneaD Architectural Ordinance revised REGULATIONS Merrick's design team laid out the roadways. loiS, and uses of Coral Gables. Menick specified uses or subdivision. and a name was tiven to express its character. To control the appearance or build ings designed by others. Phineas Pa ist established a Board of Architects Review Panel, whose approval was required bef ore construc tion of any buildin g. This sys tem is used today. with aD appolnted Board. The 1984 Historic Preservation Ordinance requin:s a review process for chantes to any desipattd buildings The 1992 Mediterranean Architectural Ordinance allows density and puking bonuses. as well as other provisions. for new building aDd renovations -INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TR ANSPORTATIOI'I

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CORAL GABLES TYPES OF USES Despite its reference as "Miami's Master Suburb" i n promotional lit erature, Coral Gables was designed to function as a complete community. By 1926, Coral Gables contained a range of uses, in cluding community including industry cu l tural and recreational facilities schools, and varied housing types. The original plan in cluded a comprehensive utility system, with rapid transit as a component All of lhese uses continue today Propeny was identi fied for lhe University of Miami campus, schools, a large auditorium, churches, and the first library. INTEGRATION OF USES Merrick's design team separated many uses into districts, including commercial industrial crafts (for artists to live and work in), and residential. The commercial district contains a mix of mult i -family residential, office and olher uses. The industrial section is surrounded by multi-family residential, commercial, and educational uses Aside from lhese districts, lhe Dixie Highway and Tamiami T rail are com mercial corridors wilh res i dential immediately behind them Most of Coral Gables consists of single-family residentia l neighborhoods wh ich may contain a recreational feature. church o r school. tionally, Merrick s theme-villages of higher density residences are mixed in wilh the single-family neighborhoods flORID A CENTER .... .. .... .. - .. ... ,.,_ FOR COMMUNITY 69 FUNCTION "The Business Sect i on. w hile i t i s rhe only part of the properry in which business buildings may be erected, is not restricted exclusively 10 commercial structures. A consid eral>le part of it is devoted t o residential area.s, and already a large number of fine Spanish houses were built here this year ... -George Merrick. J 923 hdow: on-srretr parking on Miracle Mile left: looking east o n Coral Way. typical residential neighborhood srreer DESIGN RESEARCH

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70 FORM below: circulation diagram right: French City Village townhouses. built circa 1925 66-r:.W...,..
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CORAL GABLES COMMUNITY ) ... . As laid out by Merrick's design team, discrete districts of use and residential density are organized along boulevards. The Miracle Mile. a half-mile section of Coral Way, serves as tbe community's main commercial corridor. The Tarniarni Trail is the only other commer cial slrip, marking the north boundary of Coral Gables. The commercial section lies no!lb and south of the Miracle Mile, with higher density residential uses are mixed in. Coral Gables City Hall terminates the Miracle Mile and its commercial uses at Le Juene Road; the remain der of Coral Way is lined with institutional, recreational, and residential uses. lndusuial uses are clustered around an eascem section of South Dixie Highway, and the remainder of the highway is lined by a mix of commercial, high-density residential, and educational uses. Single family residential densities comprise most of Coral Gables; with ca nals and golf courses winding through the residential blocks. The monumental Miami-Biltmore Hotel and Country Club serves as a ter minus to a winding boulevard and is framed by a golf course. Institutional and educational facilities are scattered along nujor drives or boulevards, usually withi n the neighborhoods OPEN SPACE The open space system is integral to Coral Gables' boulevards and canals. Large plazas and fountain s occur where the boulevards in tersect. Country Club Prado, with its wide parkway,links the immense El Prado Entrance with a green square and the Bllunore Golf Course. The Venetian Pool, a 200' x 300' pool with fanciful architectnre and features. is sited adjacent to the De Soto Plaz.a The canals from Biscayne Bay move through the campus of the Universi t y of Miami and two adjacen t golf courses Another golf course lies north of Coral Way, as a green east-west corridor bisected by Granada Boulevard Tabiti Beach, a section of land along Biscayne Bay originally built for Biltmore Hotel guests and later opened to the public. was sold for private development in the 1970s Large parcels of park and con servation land remain along Biscayne Bay and include Fairchild Botanic Gardens. So a business zone was laid out, centering about a business hotel. The remarkable printing plant of Col. Parker the maker of building blocks the carp e nter shop, the plumbers and cement workers, have their own dislrict, which is equally as auractive as an.v olher. tht parkways as carefully kept, the shrubs and vines on the charming buildings just as well cared for. There is the shopping district. next to the business district .... where the people of Coral Gables do their shoppin g conveniently . because there is no necessity for hunting abour from street 1 0 street f or scauered stores Marjory Stoneman Douglas. circa 1932 FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 71 FORM btU.w: diagram highlighting non residential land uses i;#'a:ml :::-.:=.. '+N...! )FijijBI DESIGN RESEARC H

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72 DIMENSIONS below: distances from City Hall right: DeSoto fountain at broad intersection o[Grenada and Sevilla NEW TOWNS AREA Coral Gables has grown uemendously since George Merrick sold the first lot of his 1 ,600acres in 1921. By its 1925 incorporation, C ora l Gables contained approximately 10,000 acres. By 1930, it included approximate ly 24 squar e miles, and encompassed 32 square miles by 1960. POPULATION The population of Coral Gables boomed after World War 11, but the rate of growth declined a fler 1960: 1940: 8,294 1950: 19.837 1960: 34.793 1970: 42.466 1980: 43,241 1990: 40,091 The 1990 Census showed t.bat t.be city's population actually dropped, althougb its percentage of Hispanic residents increased, from 30% in 1980 to 42%. DENSITY The residential densities witllln Coral Gables are zoned as ranging from 6 dulacre or less to 60 du/acre (if Mediterranean style). Com mercial uses are zoned to allow an FAR of 3.0, with t.be provision of Mediterran ean style. l NTEGR ATI NG COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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CORAL GABLES George Merrick desisned Coral Gables for the automobile, with grand boulevards and curving roads for touring. These wide streets have provided for inCTeued volumes of rnffic through the city over l ime. Mass transit'21so played an imponant role in Merrick's plans. by linlciog Coral Gables with downtown Miami. While the streetcar played an imponan1 role In this commute for approximately a decade, buses be came and remain the basis of Coral Gables' mass transit. To draw potential buyers from the north, access to Coral Gables was advertised by train and steamship to Miami, and a special bus bring ing them to Coral Gables. By 1934, Miami's Jotematlonal Airpon was also advertised: a flight from New York was reported to take only eight hours. Connections between Miami and Havana by boat and air were also noted. florida's stace highway system also pro vided access. "over which motorists may make the fastest time" (City of Coral Gables brochure, p. 20). automobiles: Automobiles were a primary consideration in the design of Coral Gables. as noted in an early promotional brochure : "the roads are built for heavy traffic. Cor a constant stream of automobiles, ond so shrewdly tbat in all of Coral Gables there are no dangerous corners no death traps. Nor does one waste time driving about them. Their planning takes account or the fac1 that driving In a city curves are more often the shortest distance between two points (Douglas, p. 16). By 1934, there were 130 miles of paved streets. These roaOways have met tlleit intended function, and exceeded it. The Tamlami Trail (U.S. 41), Dixie Highway (U.S. I), Coral Way, Bird Road. Sunset Drive, and LeJeune Road north of Sunset are iden tified as Constrained Facilities in the Coral Gables Concurrency Manual. These arterials provide direct routes along and across the city, whi ch Is now surrounded by other communities Objectives and policies within the 1989 Comprehensive Plan iden tify the detrimental effects or this traff ic. One objective b thai the circulation system "protect community and neighborhOOd Integrity" ( p 2 .32). Subsequent policies include or "the character or neighborhOOds by preventing the intrUsion or through vehicles on local & collector streets" (ibid). Other objectives and policies iden tify alternative forms of transporutioo, including the promoiiOn Of pedestrian and bicycle traffic in developmenl proposals eltctrle trolleys: Trolleys provided Coral Gables wit.b commuter and local transit for only a decade. The Coral Gables Company operated several trolleys on local and inte rcity lines. including a luxuriously furnished high-speed line bel ween downtown Coral Gables and down lawn Miami With much fanfare. service to Miami beaan in 1925. with a 20-40 minUie headway The route was changed somewhal. with a 1 5-20 minute headway and some express routes between the downtowns This commuter service was discominued ln l93S FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 73 TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS "A few main boulevards sweep srraighrty, as main emeries of rraf fie from Miami from Coconut Grove and from ruig)lborinf c011.11ty roads. But the rest are laid out a s rhe la1uJ required. CW'Vinf easily, wirh wide parlcways, and opening inro grelll open plazas ... Tile whole system of roads and boulevards and pliWl! is equally a to rhe eye of an arrirt or the wheel of a motorist. As a constquenct. to drive abour Coral Gables is consrantl,v to be discovering new charms of r04d ways, new vistas of great distance. new tunnels of gree n which open out to light flooded plaz.as. MW curving perspectives of rrus and charming roofs and great lifts of slcy. MarjorySro.uman Douglas. 193 2 blow: trolley on IAJeuM R o ad circa 1930 DESIGN RESEARC H

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74 TRANSPORTATION ANALYS[S top: pedestrians at mid-block cross ing en Miracle Milt Irajfic at intersection oj Douglas Strut and Miracle Mile bottom: Metrorail Station ar the University cf Miami NEW TOWNS part of the line was destroyed by a hurricane Local trolleys includ ed a line along residential Ponce de Leon. This line was well-used, mostly by college and high school students, although it was discontinued in 1931. A Loop Line which ran along the downtown's Miracle Mile, through a residential area. and up Ponce de Leon, was discontinued that same year, to be replaced by a bus. buses: Buses were used by Merrick from the beginning of Coral Gables; he bad fleets bring prospective buyers from Miami's train terminal and pon. A city bus system was created in the 1930s, with its termi nal located a block north of the Miracle Mile near City Hall. Today. Coral Gables and its bus terminal is served by Metro, 111e metropoli tan Miami transit system. wi111 several routes through the community water traD$port: Much of Coral Gables' celebrated 40 miles of wa terfront was the system of canals created in the early 1920s. Merrick brought gondolas from Italy to transpon Biltmore Hotel guests to and from Tahiti Beach on the Bay. These gondolas were used until the devastating 1926 hurricane Currently the canals are used by boat ers; several homeowners along the canals have docks with boats A private Yacht Club, and other residences on Biscayne Bay take ad vantage of the wate r for recreational transportation. rail: The A or ida East Coast rail line ran along the South Dixie High way, providing service between Miami and Key WesL Today Ibis rail right-of way is used by Metrorail, the Metro-Dade Transit, as an elevated rail system. Metrorail operates on a single route between Dade! and and Hialeah. through downcown Miami. Two scops are pro vided in Coral Gables: one at the University of Miami, and one between Ponce de Leon Boulevard and Douglas Road. Bolb scops are located in the landscaped median of the highway, with a drop-off lane, park ing and bicycle padcing. The drop-off l ane also serves as a bus loading area for local and cross-city routes. pedestrian: From the outsec, Coral Gables was designed with facili ties for pedestrians as well as automobiles. During its initial dev elopment, over 80 miles of sidewalks were built along with 65 miles of roadways. The Miracle Mile contains wide sidewalks with canopies and trees providing shade. Signaled, mid-block crossings are provided a l ong this commercial strip. Sidewalks exist along the boulevards and residential streets, historically to provide access to recreational areas Only the new residential development along Biscayne Bay lacks side w alks INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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75 " . NATIONAL CASE STUDY LAS COLINAS TEXAS FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN RESEARCH

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76 .CONTEXT "There is no hint of the tawdry, the profane, no residue of grit or squa lor or sweating lti4Sses. It is Disney Worldforthe affluent. lnjact, when executives from Disney World vis ited the (Las ColiMs/ development a jew years ago, one of them com memed that it was a shame ol' Walt couldn 'r have lived ro see the real th i ng." Gary Carnvrighr, TeJUJS Monthly, quoted in Edge City below: view of mixed-use Urban Center NEW TOWNS LOCATION Las Colinas lies within the city of Irving, Texas, located between Dallas and Fort Worth. With its western boundary touching the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, the nation's largest and second busiest, Las Colinas is siruated within the major growth sector of metropoli tan Dallas. Two freeways pass through Las Colinas, and another marks its northern boundary. HISTORIC CONDITIONS Las Colinas is the largest planned city in Texas, created by a rancher with visions of the "fust city of the 21st century". The 12,000 acre development originated from a 1.5QO. acre ranch purchased in 1928 by Texas pioneer Jobo Carpenter, who named his land "EI Rancbito de Las Colinas" (meaning "UtUe Ranch of the Hills"). John Carpen ter and his son Ben expanded the famjly landholdings and fortunes with investments in real estate and banking. Eyeing potential growth, the Carpenters and other Dallas business men lobbied for development of the Dallas/Fort Worth Airport. John Carpenter donated land for State Highway 114, which bisected his property as it lin.Jced Dallas with the airport. While the Carpenters built some housing and a commercial center on the ranch in the 1960s, they chose to prepare a masterplan for the entire ranch before devel oping further. Viewing Las Colinas as an opportunity to create an ordered commu nity and corporate center, Ben Carpenter assembled a design team to develop a masterplan in 1971. Carpenter bad studied cities in his travels. and wanted Las Colinas to avoid some of the problerru he had Ob served. His team defmed districts, generally single-use in nature, with highways or boulevards lin.Jcing them. Each district was defined by a set of regulatory covenants. and provisions were made for an archi tectural review committee to insure the quality of development. Carpenter financed this extensive masterplanned community by re structuring a family owned company into a publicly traded corporation called Southland Financial He formed a wholly owned subsidiary, the Las Colinas Corporation. to develop the project. He began build ing a central lake and canal system both as an amenity and a stormwater system for a mixed-use district called the Las Colinas Urban Center and funded it through the creation of a state Municipal Utili ty Dis trict. The first buildings were completed iD the Urban Center in 1977. and development continued until the recession of the mids. More than S750 million in debt (Howard. p. 47), Southland Financial was forced to sell its assets to a new limited partnership. although the Car penter family compris e d 60% ownership (Ewing. p. B). INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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LAS COLINAS CONTEMPORARY CONDITION S Las Colinas has been identified by joumalist Joel Garreau as typify. ing "Edge Cities. bigb-rised, semiautonomous, job-laden, road clogged communities of enormous size, springing up on the edges of old urban fabrics where nothing existed 10 years ago but residential suburbs or cow pastures" (Landscape Architecture, p. 51). Given its location near the airport and freeway access to Dallas and Fort Worth, this Edge City bas become a national competitor for corporate headquar ters. and contains some 27 .000 residents Yet, residences are segregated from the other uses, and are compartrnentali2.ed by housing type and price. Except for recently built apartments in the Urban Center, resi dential villages are separated by walls, and front onto golf courses Campus like office parks contain headquarters !or such corporations as GTE, Exxon, Kimberly-Clark, Mitsubisbi, and Hitachi. Commer cial uses are clustered in the Urban Center and at interchanges, and educationa' facilities are scattered across the project. The Urban Center i s viewed as the heart of Las Colinas Historic references and modem elements collide at this center: Spanish Colo nial bell-tower stands a longside reflective glass towers: Ven e tian water taxis pass unde r an automated monorail: and a sculpture of mustangs stampeding through a pool lies in the sleek, granite-paved Williams S q uare These contradictory images are used as icons for Las Colinas Marketed by its management company, Faison-Stone Las Colinas, as one of America's premier real estate developments, Las Colinas continues to draw corporations and residents Build-out is anticipated for 2020 with a population of 50.000 residents and 22.5.000 jobs Ben Carpenter still guides Las Colinas as an investor and a resident. / FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 77 CONTEX T "Williams Square is far and away the mcst inviling landscape in Las ColiiUl.!. Yet it is full of ironies. For i n Las Colinas just west of Dallas. the freedom and individua.lism the mustangs are meanr to represenr appears as exsinct as tht horses themselves ... Joel Garreau. lAndscape Archi lecture, 1988 below: tltvased monorail runs through the Urban Center left: mustang sculpture i n Williams Square. the development' s icon DESIGN RESEARCH

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78 DEVELOPMENT below: advtrriJtmtnt from uu ColilltiS Now, 1985 IOU HAVEN'T DCNE LAS COLINAS? NEW TOWNS PLAYERS Las Colinas was conceived of and largely developed by the Carpen ter family. using their ranchland and assembled properties Ben Carpenter hired design firms including Welton Becl
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LAS COLINAS TYPES OF USES Las Colinas is a corporate headquanets for 900 companies. is home to .a movie production studio, and a full of office, residential. commercial, industrial, educational, and recre. atlonal uses. Commercia l uses include 110 hops, 4S and six hotels with a total of 1.321 rooms Las Colinu educational uses incl ud e day-care facilities, public schools. a preparatory scliool. and a conununity college. Over 11.300 dwelling units have been built. with 4 ,000 si ngle -famil y. and 7,300 multi -f amil y units Recreational use s and open space include three country clubs. four golf courses. tennis and racquetball courts health-clu b facilit ies. an equestrian center, patks. and greenbelts. INTEGRATION OF USES Except within the Urban Center, uses are separated In large dislticts. Office and business p arks create campus-li ke senings roc corpora tions Of the six residential villages built, oil but two are walled. o.nd each cootains a nauow price range. Faison.Stone. Las Colinas llteuture note "the majority of single family communities bave been oriented around significmt amenit ies includin& four championship ... quality golf courses and the creation of secured private environments." For residents of such communities, access to other uses requires an automobile. By 1989. approximately 400 apartments had been built along the Mandalay Canal in the Urban Center, where a mix of com mercial. office. hotel and entertainment uses already existed. This is U>e only area with such an integration of uses. and is becoming the 24 hour city" which Carpenter envision ed. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 79 FUNCTION "The Las Colina: llfesrylt i s un eqllllled. Residtnrial villages are enclosed/Jy secur/ry ftne
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80 FORM top : diagram b/ residential area street pattern bollom: diagram of Urban Center circulation right: circulation diagram NEW TOWNS BOU N D A R IES Las Colinas is bounded largely by highways. lis northern boundary is llle LB J Freeway,lnterstate 635. 1be soulllem boundary inc l udes other property, with the Airport Freeway nearby. The wesll!m boundary is defined by Belt Line Road and the Dallas/Foct Wortll International Airport. Only the east bOundary is created by a natural feature. llle Trinity River, wbicll se parates Las Colinas from incorporated Dallas East of tbe Trinity River is tbe Stemmoos Freeway whi ch is part of Interstate 35 CIRCULATION A system or highways defines lbe districts of Las Colin as, and links the development with tbe Airport and Dallas. Two highways inter sect in Las Colinas, creating four qua drants wbicllare further articulated by a hierarchy of winding boulevards, collector roads, and residen tial with cui-de-sacs. Numerous exits occur along llle highways, creating ribbons of ramps and diverging lanes. Boulevards and col lector roads pass under the highways, OOilllediDg the sinsle-use districts Residential areas are chlllcterized by seriu or long curving streets ornamented with cul.cleSICS. In addition to the roadway system. a !Dllltiloop elevated rlil guide way is planned and partially operating around the !alee or the Urban Center. This guideway, called an Area Personal Transit System ( AP'I), is plann e d to link willl tbe future rail system of the Dallas Area Rapid Transit. A fleet or water taxis provides transportation across the lake and along its intercoMected Mandalay Canal. as does a system of pe destrian corridors COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORT .. T!ON

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LAS COLIN AS COMMUNITY Las Colinas is segregated into homogenous-by-income residential "vil lages'', pastoral cmporate campuses, and a multi-use district surrounding of r-etention lakes and can&la. HiSb""'ays oc majol' 1'U&ds link the uses, and major intersections occasionally are marked by com mercial hotel, or recreational facilities. The six residential villages are spread across the community, with single family units fronting onto golf courses. There are three office centers within Las Colinas, including the Las Colinas Urban Center, and all are located along the John W. Carpenter Freeway. The Las Colinas Urban Center is intended to function as a "24-hour city". As a 960 acre area of of fices, apartments, and shops around a 125 acre man-made lake and canal, it features pedestrian corridors and plazas, water taxis, and an elevated monorail to link the buildings. OPEN SPACE Open space in Las Colinas inclu des water bodies. recreational facili ties, parks. and greenbelts The Trinity River and related open space and equestrian center along the project's eastern boundary creates a significant greenbell; other creeks. canals, and manmade lakes are scattered throug hout. Witbin the Urban Center, the Lake Carolyn and the Mandalay Channell ink major office development witb otber uses. The heart of the Urban Center is Williams Square. an award-winning plaza the size of two football fields, empty except for a sculpture of nine mustangs charging through water. Four golf courses s urround residential areas. While not apparent on the masterplan, Las Colinas also contains miles of jogging paths. ,, @ FLORIDA CENTER F 0 R COMMUNITY 81 FORM ''The fences are pars of whar Car penter calls his "rings of deterrence" which also include in dividual emergency alarm sysrems. Las Colinas' private securil)' force and local police." Joel Garreau. Landscape Archi tecture, 1988 below: residences overlooking course left: land use diagram DESIGN RESEARCH

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82 DIMENSIONS .. Las Colinas is a landscape in which sponUJneiry has been utterly tiJmed. Every master-planned one of its twelve thousand acres seems to gleam, in an eerie sort of way. Its not just the office towers, although they are featured in the opening credits of Dallas. The golf courses gleam ... The robot monorails gleam ... This is not so much a com-munity as the simulation of a community When a raucous grackle srans chanering in a tree. you look up in honest wonder to see whether it is really a bird, or whether they've wired the rrees w ith speakers and are running a rape. Joel Oarreau Edge City, 1991 right: distances from Williams Square in the Urban Censer NEW TOWNS AREA Las Colinas encompasses 12.000 acres. of which approximately one third lias be e n developed POPULATION The most recent publication by the Las Colinas management com pany cites a population of 27,000 residents and 67,000 jobs. At build-out, Los Colinas is projected to contain 50,000 residents and 225,000 jobs (Ewing, p. b-25) While Las Colinas draws mucb of its workforce from within the Irving city limits, as of 1990, only 30% to 40% of Las Colinas residents worked in Las Colinas (American De mographics. p. 47). FLOOR AREA Las Colinas contains some 16 million square feet of office space, 6.8 million square feet of industrial/distribution space, 1.9 millioo square feet of commercial and hotel uses. When complete Las Colinas will contain more than 20 million square feet of commercial space (Ewi ng, p. B-27) According to the managemem compaoy, "at full capacity, Las Colinas will include 15 miUion square feet of Class A office space." There are over 11,300 residential uoits, in both single-and multi-family villages, with another 350 multi-family units under construction (as of June I 993) According to tbe management company, residential occupancy in multi-family rental units is 94%. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TR Af'ISPORTATION

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LAS COLINAS As conceived, Las Colinas is a corporate center linked to other na tional cities by the Dallasffort Worth International Airport, and to Dallas and Fort Worth by freeways. Single use parcels within the community are connected by highways or major boulevards. not prox imity Only within the mixed-use Urban Center a
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84 1'RANSlPOR1'ATION ANAlYS[S "And yet for all iu kitschy, stage-set qualities, the Canal Walk achieves some things that architects and planners in real cities dream about Parking garages, among the harsh est and most intrusive structures on the urban landscape, have been screened by period facades and the addition of street le v el shops and resrauranrs ... And the spaces be tween office buildings . have been transformed into landscaped public areas with large rrees and plant ers thar are just the right height for sit ring and sunning." David Dillon, Planning, 1989 right: elevated rail guideway in rhe Urban Cenrer. aiong lake NEW TOWNS public tran.sportaUon : Las Colinas is a regional bub for the DART bus system with express and crosstown routes to downtown Dallas and other regional centers. The North Irving Transit Center, under construction in lhe Urban Center, will provide park and ride facili ties, access to the Las Colin as guideway and to the future DART light rail system Light rail is part or DART's long-range plans, and Las Colinas deliberately incorporated a light rail alignment into its masterplan. Wbile this has not been constructed yet, DART has or dered 40 light rail vehicles for 1995 and 1996. elevated rail guideway: Under development since 1978, the Urban Center boasts an elevated rail guideway known as an Area Personal Transit (APT) system A five mile line is planned: currently a 1.5 mile segment links buildings around Lake Carolyn. The system is used primarily by office workers at lunch and by visitors. water transit: A neet or five water taxis and a 19 passenger water bus uansports people across Lake Carolyn and along the Mandalay Canal within the Urban Center. Like the APT, water transit is used by workers and visitors bridle paths: The Las Colinas Equestrian Center is located along the T rinity River, with facilities for up to 104 horses. The river park contains miles or bridle paths for residents recreational use pedestrian: Marketing materials cite miles or jogging trails for rec reational use, but pedestrian movement for other purposes is rare Only the Mandalay Canal area within the Urban Center is designed as a pedestrian precinct for shopping and dining With approximately 400 units of housing in this area, there is potential for pedestrian access between home and other uses. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS 85 FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN RESEARCH

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86 PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS INTEGRATINO COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTAT!OI<

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. . FLORIDA CASE STU SUN CITY CENTE . . ... 87 .. FlORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN RES.RCH

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88 CONTEXT ... Sun City Center has become a world unto itself The commercial establishments all front the state road running through the center of town, but, because most of them are more expensive than those in the neighboring towns, the people from the surrounding area patronize only the supermarket, the laundromat, and one or two others. The local farmers and the migrant workers they employ ... have liule relationship to golf courses o r to diMer dances with organ music." Frances Fitzgerald. 1981 top : g olfers crossing Pebble Beach Boulevard bolkJm: unique signage in Sun City Center right: landscaped Kings Point en trance from S.R. 674 with guard house PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS LOCATION Sun City Center is located in soulhem Hillsborough County, in wesl central Florida. Tampa is 25 miles north; Sarasota is 35 miles soulh; and St. Petersburg is 35 miles west. The neares1 Gulf Coast beach is 11 miles wes1 of Ibis unincorporated community. The surround iog area is primarily agricu l tural (cattle. vegetable crops, and fru its); fishing and pbospbale miningare also important sources of income CONDITIONS Florida's mild climate and natural amenities have long attracted visilors. Sun Ci ty Center was developed in response to !he desires of "a pool of citizens able to enjoy an affluent old age (McCally p. 31). Signs on lnteutale 75 advenised it as "Florida's Retirement Community of !he Year ... Tbe Town Too Busy To Relire. The Del E. Webb Corporation stalled Sun City Center in 1960, as "an age resUicted retitement community-a Finnish concept wilh popu lation limited to 5000. all living closely around !heir own aU-purpose recreation-shopp ing -service center (Lange. p. A-23). There was t o be "community ownership and volunteer management of its rec reational facilities. communily buildings. and public appearance" (ibid). Sun City Center opened wilh a range of homes. an inn a small shopping center, pos1 office. 1own hall with recreation facilities. and a fishing pier on the created Swan Lake. Sun City Center has grown througb a series of owners/ developers/ management companies since Del Webb's development on the north side of State Road 674. In the early 1970s, two Florida developers Gerald Gould and Jim Walters., created the W-G Corporation and p ur -INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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SUN CITY CENTER chased sunounding property. Some or the propeny was sold to the Kings Point Housing Corporation of Delray Beach, who buill Kings Point south ofS.R 674. A masterplan for tbe entire area was approved during the County's zoning process in 1973. Unlik e Sun City Center, Kings Point was set up as condominium ersbip; a management company owned and managed the grounds and community facilities. Sun City Center residents were members of its Community Association, a corporation which owned and negotiated management of services. This difference served as an important social distinction between residents, and remains one today. Ownership changed after the depressed economy of the mid-70s, and First National Bank of Chicago assumed ownership. Management of Kings Point and Sun City Center was consolidated. and scheduled community facilities were built In 1981. the Sunmark Corporation purchased the property. but did not build needed comm unity facili ti es until the Community Association forced an agreement in 1984. Sun City Center. since 1987. has been owned and managed by Sun City Center Corporation, part of Flo rida Design Communities Sun City's attractions continue to draw new residents. many of whom had wintered in Florida prior to retiring. The primary stated atuac tions of Sun City Center are recreational amenities. golf in particular. Seven golf courses on site are open every day. Over 200 active clubs and organizations are available to residents. Volunteerism is lhe basis or a 350 member security patrol. an emergency squad. and craft shops. Residents are also very politically active. particularly wben issues affect Sun City Center. Surrounding urban centers offer a variety of cultural facilities, which are visited by groups of res idents. J -< -FL.ORIOA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 89 CONTEXT "The craft studios are perhaps nor quite as popular as Sun CitiM$ ad vertise our there are usually a jew people in every one of rhem. The organized activities--the bingo games. the /Jus trips, the dancesare well subscribed. and a lot of people swim, play shuffleboard. and work ous in she exercise r.ooms. The golf courses have players on every hole from morning ulllil dusk. and at the Caloosa Clu/1 at midd(JI' there art some1imes zhree dozen women playing bridge and gin." Frances Fitzgerald. 1981 left: fiShing at a retention pond ifl Kings Poinr: golf cart used for ac. cess below:lypical re sidenlia l screer scenL in Sun City Center DESIGN RESEARCH

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90 DEVELOPMENT "Webb preferred Avenues, Places, and Drives rhar curved and carried rhe names of famous golf courses (Pebble Beach, Tam O'Shanrer Cherry Hills, Augusra ere.) an echoing reminder th.a.r this was a retirement communiry wilh activity and recreation.'' Phil C Lange, 1993 below: diagram and legend of de velopment PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS PLAYERS Several developers have been involved in Sun City Center since its first developer, Del Webb Corporation. Florida developers Gerald Gould and Jim Walter created w.o Development Corporation. and purchased Sun City Center and surrounding land. Part was sold to tile Kings Point Housing Corporation. First National Banlc of Chi cago (FNBC) later controlled tbe propenies, and sold t o r.be Sun mark Corporation (Victor Palmiesi and Company with other investors) AI Hoffman, a developer of residential communities, is tile current owner and created r.be Sun City Center Corporation to manage r.be property. MOTIVATION Like or.ber areas of tbe Sun Bell, Florida was becoming a popular des tination for retired people seeking a warmer climate. Banking on its successes in California and Arizona, Del Webb Corporation viewed a retirement community in Florida as a profitable enterprise. TIME FRAME 1962: Del Webb Corporation opens Sun City Center 1972: W .Q Development buys propeny and surroundings 1972: Kings Point Housing Corporation buys land and bu i lds Kings Point 1973: all property zoned "Community Unit" per masterplan 1975: FNBC assumes ownership and builds facilities 1981: Palmieri (Sunmask Corporation) buys propeny 1987 : Hoffman (Sun City Center Corporation ) buys property 1990: Board of County Commissioners approves changes to plan with added development in southwest 1992: ACLF approved to be built REGULATIONS In 1973, Sun City Center and Kings Point were pan of a much larger masterplanDed community, which was zoned a "Community Unit" De velopment. The zoning specified all areas at uses and number of dwelling units shown ill r.be masterplan Proposed changes to the plan must receive approval by the Board of County Commissioners and the State Department of CollliiUinity Affairs The community also has covenants regarding eligible age property inheritance. length of visitors' stay and appearance. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY OESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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SUN CITY CENTER TYPES OF USES Sun City Center functions as a complete community, although lbere are significantly fewer employment opportunities since the majority of residents are retired. A shopping center serves both !b e Sun City Center residents and surrounding farmers and migrant farrnwolters Oiher commercial uses include a large number of medical and invest ment services As required by Del Webb before the community opened Sun City Center has its own Post Office, inn, and recreation center. The areas dedicated to each use are cited as: 90% residential; 3% commercial. office and institutional: and 7% recreational (Harringron. 1985 p 47). INTEGRATION OF USES Land uses are segregated into distinct pods in Sun City Center Only recreational and residential uses intertwine. where golf courses serve as extended backyards to houses. Commercial and office uses are oriented to State Road 674 as are !be Sun City Inn. the hospital and life care facilities. Only the houses of worship mix with residential uses. and they are located near 674. Residential deve lopments are separated from conunercial and institutional uses but are focussed on lakes and golf course fairways. Each residential development main tains a fa i rly consistent density; developments are separated from single-family ones by street pattern and name. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUN I T Y 91 FUNCTION "Sun Citians discuss a grear deal .. .. There art ntighborhood Watch Commiutes in every section of town but, more important, che residents all notice what goes on in the streets around them. lf some thing looks amiss at a ntighbor s house. a Sun Cilian will always go and investigate particularly if a neighbor is a single person with a health problem. .. Francts Firzgerald. 1981 top: church wirh grass park ing lot ntar commercial area bottom: commercial str i p on service road along S.R 674 left: rtsidenr posing ar residenr i al cluster in Kings P oint DESIGN RESEARC.:H

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92 FORM Sun City Cemtr has never had a cemerery .. .funeral have changed a good deal .. now ninety percens are cremated and have me morial services.... Sun Citlans don '/,.,worry aboul il in /he way /hey Wbrry abou/ prolonged sick ness or incapacity. They are Sloics, and /hey have, in a sense. lamed ( dearh}." F rances FilzgtraJd. 1981 lOp: fbi{ can parkin g a/ lht Winn Dixie supermarl:tl boi/Om: Sun City recreal/on cen ler righl. land use and circuiJJiion dla g ram PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS BOU NDARIES Sun City Center is surrounded by agricultural land, with the only sub stantial development being tilt community of Wimauma approximately one-half mile east on Highway 674, and the community of Ruskin along Tampa Bay approximately one mile west. A new development, "th e Villages at Cypress Creek" (formerly part of the Sun City Cen ter property), and Interstate 75 bound the west edge of Suo City Centtr. US Highway 301 bounds the Sun City Center's eastern edge CIRCULAT ION The only straight roadw ay in Sun City Center is State Road 674, which as a four-lane divided road, bisects the community A secondary access road parallels 674 along the commercial area. All collector roads wind through the nelgbborboOds as large loops from 674 and serve as gateways Into lbe residential areas. Tbe collectors are landscaped boulevards Neighborhood streets coDnect with collecto rs. as wind ing loops or as cui-de-sacs branching orr in varied lengtbs. Tbe-south side of the community is chanc:rized by cul-de-sa.cs and small circles: lbe nortb side conta ins some com>ecting streets, altbou&h the long side of the block created Is over 3.000' in several illstiDces S i dewalks are provided alongs i de lbe roldway. usually integral with the curb. and only three feet wide A 25 mile long network of gotr cart paths creates an Important circu lation system for the communi ty, winding through the golf courses and along State Road 674 Golf cart crossing signs mark intersections wiUl the roadway system; including the light-controlled intersections or 674 -&f""' .,., .... _,__ ... ----INTEGRATING COMMUJ:IITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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SUN CITY CENTER COMMUNITY The Klngs Point residential area wu built by a different developer than Sun City Cenur's norlh si de but its Conn does not vary gready Housing in Sun City Cen ter is predomlnlnlly ranch sty le detached homes Clusurs or mulll-famlly res ide nces are scattered across tbe community and compris e mucb or the proposed developmezu ; Resi dentia l entrances from State Road 674 are limlted; Klngs Point is distinguished by an enormous Frencb Country Theze are no siguilicantlandmuts within tbe neigbbo
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94 DIMENSIONS "Turn right with the billboards omo route 674. and there is a greenand white subu r ban looking reson town. Off the main road, white asphalt bolllevards with avenues of palm trees gi v e ont o streets that curve pleasingly around golf courses and small lakes. White ranch-srylt houses sit back from the streets on small. impeccably manicured l awns Frances Fitzgerald. 1981 below: undeveloped southwest edge of the community right: distances from the civi c cen ter at S .R. 674 PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS AREA Accotding to its 1973 nwaerplan, Sun City Cent e r comprised 11, 500 aaes. Portions have been separated from this masterplan. and its cunene size is approximately 5000 acres (Sunbeams p 4). POPULATION As of 1990, Sun City Center contained 6,500 househo l ds and approxi rnalely 11.500 residents. The cwrent population is estimated at 1 2 500. Residency rules require that at least one household occupant be 5 5 yeats of age; residents under tbe age of 18 ate not permitted. DENSITY The ovesall residential density of the development is 3.4 dulaae, bu t densities range up to 8 dulacre i n the Kings Point area An apart ment complex curr e ntly under construction will be up to 18 du/acre. FLOOR AREA In 1985, the shopping center contained 150.000 square feet, with an additional 20, 000 squate feet of retail space. Neat the shopping cen ter. Lbere ate five restaurants, more than 50.000 square feet of o flice space, seven churches an 112-bed hOs p i tal, and abundant health care facilities INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATI

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SUN CITY CENTER TRANSPORTATION Sun Cily Center was designed for automobile tn.nsportation within and ouiside the community All facilities provide ample pulr:i.Qg lr elS, and tho community has easy access to 75. Since the community was to provide for all the needs of its residents, and since most residents ue retired, commuter ttaffic to $UttOUDdiog metropOUWI areas is uncommon. Within the community, a primary vehicle for ttansportatlon within the community is the golf cut. Cart paths ue provided along State Road 674 and puking Is provided at commer cial and rec. reational facilities for these small vehicles automobile: Most households in Sun City Center have at least one automobile Access to commercial or civic facilities w i thin the com mun_ lty requires a vehicle, so residents often use tbelr cau To uavel beyond the community, State Road 674 connects Sun City Center with Interstate 75. a mile away lntentate 7 5 and US 41 ( west of 7 5) linlc w i th Tampa and Sarasota two common destinatioM for residents. buses: Both publi c and private bus setv ice is used by r esidents. Tbe Hillsborough Area Rapid Transit ( HARTiine ) prov ides local service and e x prtss service to Tampa. Special events, club activities, or field tt ips warrant tbe use of the Sun City Center Communi ty A ssoc iation's ttun bus Kings Point also bas buses for similar uses S ucb buses have been u sed for bringing substantial resident to County bearing s. A private company. ''Tampa Tours", operates as a shuttle to the Sarasota or Tampa airport from a resident' s born e . .... ..... FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 95 TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS top: carpon in Kings Point cenler: rtsitknt s go/f cart. ready 10 go holl<>m: Sun Ciry Ctnur m inibus IJl recreal ion left: rypiazJ rtsithntial s/rtet. sidt waJJc. tll'.d sigll.l DESIGN RESEARCH

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96 1'JRANSPOJRTA Tl!ON ANALYSIS top: typical resident garage with golf carr manicuud lawn bowling field bottom: Middle lAke. with boars right: resident car with vanity plate in shopping center parking lot PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS golf earls: Golf cans are as common as automobiles within Sun City Center, with over 3,500 carts privately owned. 1be cart paths offer shadier and more convenient routes to use to go to the grocery store or any other destination wilhin the village. Street crossings are iden tified for the carts. even across State Road 674, and designated parking is provided at all on-site facilities. Many garages and car ports con tain a space for a cart. bicycles: Botb bicycles and lricycles are used in Sun City Center. primarily for recreation. Separate paths are not provided, but the streets have ample width for vehicles and b icycle s The relatively light au tomobile traffic and nat ternin the potential for their use Unless riding to nearby recrealiODal facilities, the community's roadway network creates a long. circuitous route to other facilities pedestrians: Sidewalt.s are provided alongside Sun City Center's roadways, although on residential streets they are merely a 3' wide extension or the curb. The boulevards provide a parkway between traffic lanes and the walks, and walks are generally wider. Along Kings Point Boulevard, bencbes were periodically placed near trees along the walk, an importartt consideration for the residents. Streets generally are not shaded, and the renected heat and glare or the pav ing can create extreme conditions in the summer. The golf cart paths also appear to be used by pedestriarts; signs at the paths alert pedestrians to potential carts. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATIO:-.'

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TWIN RIVERS EAST WINDSOR, NEW JERSEY. 9 7 I ....: ...... I ..... t l I '-v & CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN RESEARCH

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98 CONTEXT "The plan. emphasizing basic prin ciples set down in the American Garden City era and currently used in the Bricish New Town movement. was sueped in physical determinism (a faith that physical layout will at feet the social interactions of men) and served as a reacrion 10 the forces of urbanism uruan sprawl) .. Robert W. Burchell with James W. Hughes 1972 below: indusrrial and research area PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS LOCATION Contained within the township of East Windsor, Twin Rivers is what is considered lhe "Greater Princeton Area". ll was approximately 10 miles east of Princeton and IS miles norlheast of Trenton. The New Jersey Turnpike lies less than a mile west or Twin Rivers, and pro vides direct access to both Philadelphia and New York. Both cities are within SO miles of Twin Rivers. The development is bisected by Route 33, which continues east to the Garden State Parkway and tile Atlantic. CONTEXT Modeled after such new towns as Columbia and Reston, Twin Rivers was designed as a fully-functioning community comprised of neigh borhoods. W .R. Grace. a successful single family homebuilder in New Jersey, purchased a 719 acre property neas the N ew Jersey Turnpike in East Windsor Township with the vision or creating an affordable community ror professionals worl:lng in New York City and Phila delphia. To provide the mix or community uses on tile site, Twin Rivers became the state's first Planned Urut Development (PUD), and remains the largest in the state. In 1964, Grace hired the designers of Reston to prepare a plan for tile community. The designers and developer applied Garden City prin ciples in the design of Twin Rivers Neighborhoods were define a using a superblock form where open space and an internal pedes trian network connected neighborhoods with each other and with a commercial town center A range of housing types was provided. i n eluding rental apanments. The mix of recreational. shopping. ond employment uses in tbe community was intended to increase the community's selfsufficiency and reduce commutes These principles. apparent at Columbia and R e ston. were also evident in the contem porary British new towns. One source notes !bat a British new town served as the primary model for Twin Rivers. hence the Anglicized street names. including Avon Drive, Canterbury Court, and Coving ton Drive When proposed to the East Windsor Planning Board in 1965 were no ordinances allowing such a development. Twin Rivers was primarily an agricultural township comprised with a population of ap proximately 2.000 The Twin Rivers plan led the Planning Board t o hire a Rutgers University planning professor, who revised th< Township's zoning ordinance and created a Planned Unit Deve l op ment (PUD) ordinance. This PUD ordinance was passed by the Board in 1967. and served as tbe first such ordinance in the state. By applying tile PUD ordinance to the T win Rivers propo.sal. the t o wn ship secured a deftned program of uses. site plan, and phasiog schedu k The revtew p rocess involved expert testimony and extensi\'t! dOI:u mentation and eventually was approved unanimously by the INTEGRATING COMMUNITY 0 E S I G N AND TRANSPORTATION

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TWIN RIVERS Board in 1968 Given the costs and delays or the plllll(ling and r e view process, Grace was required to bring in another deve l oper to begin construction. Outside corporations were brought in to finance the project, and Grace withdrew completely Twin Rivers was marketed primarily to New York City profession als Most or the housing units were priced to allow monthly mortgage payments equivalent to that of a rental fee for an apartment in New York City An express bus service was prov i ded between the devel opment and New York City, and continues to operate Bus serv i ce is also provided to a commuter rail station some 12 miles away. To day, approximately 60% of the community's income earners commute to New York City. Twin Rivers was largely completed by 1971, and since the n bas ex perienced problems and apparently overcome them. A survey conducted by the New Jersey County and Municipal Government Study Com miss i on in 1974 featured resident concerns While the overall plan was not at issue, residents were dissatisfied wilh the poor quality of building consuuction and the condition of recreational facilities and the landscaping of common areas As a private community, the Town ship r equired that a Trust be established for the maintenance of its common a r eas. Thi s Trust as a nonprofit corpoiation. is supported by maintenance assessment fees In 1990 Twin Rivers received the first Community of the Year award, given by the New Jersey Chap ter of the Community Associates Institute This award is based on suCh criteria as the conununi t y's stab ili ty, management. maintenance. and recreational features. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 99 CONTEXT "Bus service co New York C i.-. .. ; ( provided for commuters and tt:u.s ... ( comnwni.ry was conceived as 1 , ,l., in.g communi:_..... w i ril households theorecical( v req u w r : one veh i cle :\sa resui! r preconceived lifesryle. 'Twm .:;: ,; was constructed with miles of interior and s idewalks ... Joe R. Vu.::o. 1989 left: townhouses i n i St f!ur.JJ: : the development DESIGN RESEAK

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100 DEVELOPMENT "These uni ts are. . diversified in sryle, squ.are footage /JIId number of bedrooms running the g/Jiflutfrom a studio apanmernto a four bedroom rownhoust or detached homes." Joe R Vuzzo, 1989 below: primary school built by dt \'tlopers and rented to the municipality PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS PLAYERS While developed over a relatively short period of time Twin Rivers was created through a series of parlllerships. Single-family homebuilder W .R. Grace purchased the land, and bired the designers of Reston to develop a concept plan. Grace coordinated the project's planning and brought in a parmer to help fiiWice construction. He eventually left the partnership and the project was developed by two companies: A.S. Development and Kendall Associates. The East Windsor Town s hip Planning Board played a key role in affecting the design of Twin and hired a planning professor from Rutgers Univ e rsity to create the township's PUD ordinance MOTIVATION Grace viewed the location and size of the Twin Rivers property as ideal for a commurtity serving to New York and Philadel phia. The East Windsor Planning Board. aware of the enormous impact such a development would have on the rural township, sought pro fessional assistance to assure that the project would be self-supporting and would become an asset to the community. TIME FRAME The planning and review process for Twin Rivers took approximately as long as the construction period: 1964: Grace purchases property and hires design consullants 1965: Grace repeatedly uies to present proposal to East Windsor Planning Board; Board reviews and hires consuliam t o re vise local zoning ordinance and develop PUD ordinance PUD ordinance passed as rust in New Jersey 1967: 1968: 1972 : 1980s: developer's proposal passed unanimously by Planning Board: construction begins development 70% complete: little construction continues 82 unit townhouse section constructed REGULATIONS Twin Rivers was developed in accordance witl> East Windsor s P U D ordinance. which was wriuen according to state guidelines and ser ved as the first such ordinance in New Je.rsey. This ordinance set requirements for the ratios of land uses, residential densities, and project phasing Larld use ratios included a requirement of 1 2 acres of open space for every 300 dwelling units Initial approval was required fo r the dwelling unit number, bulk and location, as well as fo r open space and public facility provisions. The devel oper and Town ship entered into agreement regar ding the establishment of a uust ior the maintenance of all residential common areas and of a homeowners association which would serve as beneficiarles of lhe trust. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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TWIN RIVERS TYPES OF USES Twin Rivecs contains a mix of residential types. as well as commer cial uses, research and liglll industry, recreational areas. and public facilities. Residential types include apartments over shops, apartment buildings, townhouses. and single family homes. Commercial uses occur primarily in the project's shopping center, and three gas sta tions are sited along Route 33. Recreational areas include play fields, teMis courts, swimming pools. and civic buildings. The PUD con tains two public schools. a public libr ary, fire house. and rescue squad. INTEGRATION OF USES With the exception of the apartments over commercial uses in tbe town center, the varied uses of Twin Rivers are separated into dis cre t e cJusters. Housing units are clustered by type around cut-de-sacs or small loop roads. These clusters are linked with each other and with other uses on the site by a network of pedestrian paths. The open space system. with the p ath network, serves to link the uses, and i s central to a ll residential clusters. While lhe pedestrian network. and the small size of development help to integrate the uses, Route 33 effectively divides the community in half. The commer cial and industrial uses are contained on one side of Route 33, and thus are pedestrian accessible to only half the residential units. CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 101 FUNCTION btWw: 'Town Cenrer" aparrme1J:s over retail left: singie jamilv homes oj the 2::, : and 4th quadrants DESIGN

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102 FORM below: boundary diagram right: circulation diagram I I I ) :: (i'J"!<' ... -'! :; . . . ; . PLAN ;.; ED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS BOUNDARIES Boundaries of Twin Rivers are defined largely by propeny limits and naiiJral fearures. A large lake comprises much of the southern boundary of the property. and river with marshy banlcs bounds lhe norlh side of lhe propeny. The eutem and western boundaries are less well deflDtd: lhe project's industrial uses lie along the west. and low density residential development is sited within the project's eastern edge. CIRCULATION Twin Rivers circulation system i s desiJrood according to lhe superblock concept. which separates pedestrian and vehicular movement Blocks are defined by through roads. and cui-de-sacs serve clusters of homes wilhin each block. The New Jersey Sute Highway Route 33 biseciS Twin Rivers, as it runs east-west Access from Route 33 into Twin Rivers occurs at the two points where Twin Rivers Road and Probasco Road cross the highway. Twin Rivers Road is aligned as three sides of a loop within the propeny. and Probasco Road serves as lhe fourth side. All cul-
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TWIN RIVERS COMMUNITY T w i n was design e d a s four nei ghborhoods. call e d Qua ds, each wiell a mix o f uses and h o u sing t ypes Route 33 es s entiall y div ides tbe community i nt o two $eparate entities, w ith C O QU))el'Cil.l uses CIU$ tered along the b i g bway Residential neigbborboods are separated by lhe commercial uses along the easr-we$1 Roure 33 and i line of open space and p ublic facilities which generally nus norlb-soulh lhrougb the COmmunlly. 1lK neighborhoods c;oorain Of bouslng types: each cul-de -sac or loop road is fron ted by identical hous i ng types. Apartmen t buildings oro loclled alongsid e the commerdal uses, and townhous e clusters occupy the remaining res ide n tial oreas wilbin lhe loop ro ad S ingl e family units and so m e townh ouse units occur ou t side the l oop r o ad I ndustrial uses occupy lhe southwes t ern por tion or the property. out si d e th e l oop r o ad OPEN SPACE The open space system functloDS as a focus for the community. and as the unifyin g element between neighborhoods and housing clusters. With pedestrian pathways this system link$ the residences w i th the comme rcial uses along Ule highway and the wate r bodies at the nonb and south ends of the community Schools are loca t ed In both the n or th and south sid e s or Twin Rivers along the loo p r oad, and recrt atlonal faciliti es are site d centrally be t ween n e igh bo r hoods fLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 103 F ORM b
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104 DIMENSIONS below: legend and diagram of dis tances from the shopping complex on NJ State Highway, Route 33 mo. .,.,._ :::::=.=;r= !1'"'f1P-.fW"CCH PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS AREA Twin Rivers consists of an irregularly shaped parcel of 719 acres. The PUD was approved to contain 249 acres of housiDg, 216 acres of light industry and research uses. 164 acres of public facilities and recre ation, SS acres of stores and services, 30 acres of roads and parking, and S acres of private institutional uses. POPULATION The estimated population of Twin Rivers is 10.000, which accounts for approximately 45% of the population of East Windsor. The cur rent administrator of the Twin Rivers Tl')lSt describes the majority of the households as families with children living at home. The major i t y of residents have middle to upper middle incomes, and a variety of ethnic backgrounds is represented. DENSITY As determined in the approved PUD.the overall density ofTwiD Rivers is 4.5 dwelling units per acre. A range of net densities was allowed on the site, including a low of 4 dwelling units per acre to moderate and high densities of 15 and 18 dwelling units per acre. The average detached home is on a quarter acre lot and townhouse lots range from 18'x80' to 24'x80' A total of 2,773 residential units are built on the site. comprising 137 detached homes, 1707 townhouses. 319 condo minium units. and 610 apartments INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATI

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TWIN RIVERS Twin Rivers was conceived and designed as a community where residents could walk to all the uses on-site and could commute by mass ttansit to jobs in New York City or Pbiladelpbia. The network of pedesltian paths was separated from lbe roadways for safety, and linked all lbe compo nents of tbe community. Unfortunately, New Jersey Highway Route 33 bisects tlle community. and effectively precludes pedesttian access from one side to the other. A 1974 survey of Twin Rivers residents by the New Jersey County and Municipal Government Study Commission found that residents take most trips by private car, except for recreational trips, in which 40% of the respondents Ita vel on foot or bicycle. The project's emphasis on mass uansit fot commuters was 41% of the respondents use mass transit for work trips. automobile: The automobile is the most-used form of ltansportation by Twin Rivers residents. even to the shopping center located wilbin the com munity The New Jersey Twnpike, less Ulan one mile west of Twin Rivers provides easy access to New York City and Philadelphia. In the 1974 survey. 56% of the respondents use a private car for !tips to work. and most other trips were taken with the car. bus: The ex p ress bus service to New York City, provided since the opening of Twin Rivers, continues to be suc cessful. Approximate)y 60% of the incom e-earning residents commute to New York City. and th i s bus runs at f ift een minute intervals during peak commuting hours Bus service also is available to East Windsor, to a ttain station. and to the reg ional shopping center 20 miles away . 105 TRANSJPORTA Tl!ON ANAlYSES below: diagram of primary rraruponalion co"idors left: garden apartments in the 2nd quadrant FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN R ESEARCH

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106 TRA.NSJP'OJRTATION ANAlYSI S .. lnreresringly, in Twin Riv ers, where rhe bJM srops in rhe shopping cenrer the initial assumpt i on was tllat residenzs would walk to the shopping cenrer from rheir homes r o carch
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MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS 107 FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN -RESEARCH

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108 MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND

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109 ( I K ltNEfZ. ( -.J'P ;..\Z... -..J, I I r-t: 1 I I i i : j ' I : : J ii. 'V'tJ...L.t\e::nro P I FLORIDA CENTER FOR DESI G N RESEAJ\

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110 CONTEXT "The goal of MiUitr Park i s to cre ate a distinctive environment lhat complements other commtrcial fa cilities in the regional marketplace and provides a cultural centtr that will further attract people to the dowmown area." Boca Raton Communi/)' Redevel opment Agency "The architecture rejlecu a ... senJe of place, building ... on Boca Raton's well-known design traditions and adapting the fanciful, highly anicu lated style of 1920s architect Addison Mitner to the 1 990s. ULI Project Reference File, 1992 below: diagram of Boca Raton s d owntown redevelopment 4istrict MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS LOCATION Mizner Park is located in downtown Boca Raton. Florida, along Fed eral Highway, (Route 1). Sited between Palmeuo Park Road and Glades Road, Mizner Park lies within Boca Raton's downtown redevelop ment area.. and was developed o n the 30-acre site of the former Boca Raton Mall. CONDITIONS Like neighboring Palm Beach, Boca Raton bas been a popular water front resort community since the Aorida land boom of the 1920s. Addison Mizner designed and built the Cioister Inn in Boca Raton. a community which he envisioned as an affluent center of South Florida. After tbe 1928 bust forced the architect to sell his hotel, Clarence Geist bought and greatly enlarged it as the exclusive Boca Raton Ho tel & Club. Additional golf clubs and distinctive condominium developments continue to attract an affluent POPulation to Boca Raton The development of lnterstate 95 along the western edge of Boca Ra to n in the 1970s . however, dramatically changed the character ofits down town. A 1.3 million square foot mall ironically called the Town Center. and several new office developments opened along the Interstate in the late 1970s. The downtown's Boca Raton mall and other shops experienced increased vacancies. The City Council initiated a study of the deteriorating downtown. that resulted in the designation of a 344 acre community redevelopment uea. The newly created Community Redevelopment Agency sought to create a dow mown in which people could Jive, work. and play. The CRA completed a downtown plan in 1982, and got the area approved as a Downtown Development of Regional Impact (DRI} in 1986 The downtown's designation as a DRI facilitated large developments without delays by state reviews. In 1987. the CRA recommended to the Cit )' Council that the largely vacant downtown Boca Mall be redeve loped as an "Art Park", a complex of predominantly cultural facilities. to revit:lliz.t the area. With concerns raised by citizens about the enormous fiscal implica tions of purchasing the mall and developing it as an An Park the CRA talked with developers about a potential partnership Tom Croc ker. whose family has operated a development company in South Florida since I 965 became interested in redeveloping the site. In 1988, Crocker purchased the mall and proposed redeveloping it through a joint ven ture with the City. The City Council and mayor endorsed plan s i o r pu rchasing the propeny from Crockes and then leasing the land with b uildings to Crocker & Company. These plans were cont i ngent u pon a cit y -w ide reierendum o! the proposal. which would allow use ( I utility tax funds to back the bonds. The referendum passed. and Crocke r and his design te3m refined their work. I>:TEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATIO:<

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MIZNER PARK The design of Mizner Park underwent extensive public review. par ticularly since the provision or cullural f acilitlu needed to be balanced with other uses 10 make the projecr financially An overriding goal was 10 create a pedestrlan-frieDdly mixed use environmelll which would be a focus of aedvh,y for the downtown and stimul at e other development Its initial scheme or single-use buildings facing the high way aDd elusrered ltOilnd a central piau (much like the Croctu Center developmenr ne .ar I-9S) evolved into a more traditional Main Stteer scheme. Bur rather !ban front onro Federal Hi&bway, buildings were sired along a new Main Streer, !be "Piau Real," wilh a park-like me dian aDd on-stteet puking. The buildings w ere designed with reference to i ts namesake's Spanish-inspiied ucbitecrural style, including pink srucco arcades and upper-srory rernces The ground Ooor would be reuil. aDd offices or aparti'Dtnts would occur on the Roon above. Park ing was provided in srrucrures behind the buildings. along Federal Highway, and surface parldng for residences was provided along Mizner Boulevard. While two-thirds or the site Is dedicared ro public space. including the central park-like Plaza Real and an outdoor amphitheater, many residenrs and community leaders felt the realized project losr its ini ti al cul rural focus Two sites for cultural facilities were dedicared, but the communjty' s museums opted to remain in their current l oc a tions. Some leader s, including former Mayor Danclu. attribute !heir reluctance to the lack of surface parking lnunediate to those sites. Wben Mizner Par k opened in 1 991 the north site contained the o utd o or am phithe ater and parking. and the sou th si re was vacant. The south site si n ce has been dedicated for the InremaUona l Museum of Cartoon An. scheduled t o open In 199 3. Co nceru. an restlval. and other perfor mances occur at tbe amphitheater. however, public perce ptions remain thar too much of tile sire has been dedicated to retail functions. Despite the sense of Mizner Park as predominantly a reraH develop men t i t has accomplished the city's vision or c reating a place where people can live, work, and play ornce space is largely leased. apart ments are fully leased, aDd the shops and restawanu draw local re$idents and tourists alike. The Piau Real. witll irs fountains and gazebos nas become a gathering place for the community Phase 2 develop ment. including townllouses, depanment srore. and mother p:lrking struct ure. is currently underwa y. In add i tion t o Irs financial success which makes ir tllelargesr tnpaye. r in tile Boca's Special Assessment Districr, Mizner Par k is recocniud nationally s model of success Cui down t own redevelopment FLORIDA CENTER F 0 R COMMUNITY 111 CONTEXT "'Tltar' s Boca Rmon.. .. rile epirome of Florida living. Eleg011u. com[orr. affluence and
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ll2 DEVELOPMENT "Mizner Park is represenlarive of the redevelopment trend sweeping the narion 's coastal cities. However, while many cities aspire to similar broad-scale have achieved success as rapidly as Boca Raton The project offers a model example of public/private urban re de vel opment and the possibilities ojra:c increment financing ... Crocker & Company "This pro jeer has led to the construction of a completely renovaud Mizner Boulevard, formerly Golfview Drive, wllich was inad eq:I.Qte. It's pushed Arvida to begin development of a major residential project on MiZ!Ier Boulevard. Pal metto Park Road in the downtown is now viable replete with lovely res taurants and shops. Store-fronts along Federal Highway have never looked as good." Boca Rawn Magazine, 1992 below: shoppers along Plaza Real MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS PLAYERS Key entities in Mizner Park's development include the City of Boc.1 Raton, its Community Redevelopment Agency, Crocker&: Company. and Teachers Insurance & Annuity. Charles Siemon. a nationally recognized lawyer specializing in land planning, consulted (O the CRA. CRA chair Jam i e Snyder discussed ideas for redeveloping the dete riorating Boca Mall with local developer Tom Crocker. Crocke r purchased the property and later sold it to the Cit y.leasing back poelions where buildings stood. The construction of Mizner Park was financed by Crocker & Company with Teachers Insurance and An nuity. Cooper Carty&: Associates, the architects of the nearby suburban Crocker Center, designed Mizner Park MOTIVATION Increasing vacancies and a deteriorating tax base downtown concerned city leaders They viewed redevelopment of the downtown's ailing mall into a cultural park as a attractor fo r both people and new development. A joint venture with a private developer was required to make the redevelopment viable, however. For Crocker, the rede velopment of the mall as Mizner Park represented a financially profitable venture over the long term, and an opportunity to undertake a project of regional significance. TIME FRAME The process leading to the development of Mizner Park included: 1980: City conducts study for downtown designation as commu -nity redevelopment area; receives designation and creates Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA) 1986: CRA submits plan of redevelopment a rea for approva l as Downtown Development of Regional Impact (DRI) 1987 : C RA proposes r e development of Boca Mal l as Art Park 1988: DRI of downtown approved: Crocker purchases Boca Mall and negotiates with CRA; City Council and Mayor endorse plans to purchase property and submit for voter referendum 1989: refe rendum passes: design and review of Mizner Park beg ins 1990: fast-track construction of phase I begins: cinema opens 1991: Mizner Pork holds grand opening 1993: Phase construction begins REGULATIONS Mizner Park lies within the City's Downtown Development of Rl.! giooal lmp:tct. which assures the sufficiency ol infr::tsuucture for a designated amount of development. as approved by the State Depart ment or Community Affairs. The City could affect some decis ion s through C i ty an d DRI revi e ws. but gained additional control of the project s l and use and design by purchasing the property t'rom Crocker Public hearings were held throug:hout the design process. :md com ments were mcorpor:ned into the design. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND

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MIZNER PARK TYPES OF USES Mi:r.ner Park cor m ill$ a mix of retail, otrice, public. cult ural. and r e si dential uses Retail space includes specialty shops. restaurants. and an eight-screen cinema. Public space includes tile Plaza Real. a centtal areen containing planters. benches a series of fountalns tw o guebos, and flanked by one-way streets and arcades Small court yards betwee n buildings. an open green, site for tile lotornationat Muse um or C artoon An, and an open air amphitlleat er also serve public and cultural functions Existing residences are apa.rtme.nt3, however townllOuse. s are included in phase 2 of the development Pasking is also accommodated onsueet. in atg.rade lots and in structures. INTEGRATION OF USES M itner Park 's uses are weltintegrateci within buildin&S u well as by virtue or the project's scal e and layout. Retail, offic e and apart ment uses are containe d within tw o rows of b uild incs whic h face the Ptua Real All ret:til uses occur at tbe sueet-level and are accessed alon g an arcade wi\h the cin ema. offices. or opanments above All oflice functions occur within the buildings on the west side of the Pitta. while apartments are contained in buildings on the eas t side. Ent ry l obbies for oparunents are located olong the arcade. while small cou rtya r d s provide ele v ator and stair access to tbe of!iees and park ing &arages A ce ntral coun between the east side buildincs pro vides access 1 0 surface parking behind the buildings and con tain s o utdo or sealing for adjacent restaur ants. The Piau Real, with Its f o untains and guebos. links the civi c spaces l ocated at the north and south ends o f th e project. Pedestria n walkways provide direct access t o all uses on site. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY ... 113 FUNCTION Mizner Park is far m ort that the 'shopping center' irs naysayers like to call it. It is our city's an.swtr 10 successful pro}tcrs lite Quincy Market in .Boston or The South Strut Sea Pore in ManhartlJil It's a plaet rhat people converge upon to shop, eaJ. rdu or bt tnurraintd. /t' l an (Utiuule. It's a ntighborhood Jr' s alive Jt.s a village within a ern. The M itnu Parks au tltc COflftT Slant o{ urbaniuuion : a plaa wl:ert people willlivt, work and pia. ... Boca Raton Magaz.int 199'! The amphitheater .. has e n joyed much success as citi:.tn.s and visitors find this a delighr[ul place 1 0 tn)o music and entertainment The J'rtt concerrs which e njoy crowds in t\ cess of 5,00 are givt n by, amone others. our own Boca Pops and rJtt Florida Philharmon ic Boca R
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114 FO R M below: circulation diagram right: entry to parking garage from Federal Highway MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS BOUN DARIES As the site of a former mall, Mizner Park is bounded on all sides by streets. including the heavily traveled Federal Highway along its wescem edge Whi le Federal Highway functions as an effective boundary. it is reinforced by the adjacent alignment of the Old Dixie Highway and the Florida East Coast Railroad. Mizner Boulevard. a recently im proved four-lane divided roadway. collDttiS with Federal Highway at the nortbem end of the site, and continues along the eastern edge Mizner Boulevard separates Mizner Pa r k from a single family resi dential neighborhood Northeast Second Sueet marks the southern boun d ary of Mizner Park, as a local commercial and residential street A Post Office and office buildings with surface parking face Second Street CIR CULATION Mizner Park's roadways help break the site down into blocks and g ive the project its central spine. the Plaza Real. The linear park of the Plaza Real is defined by a pair of one-way streets with on-street park.ing. P l aza Real is terminated at both ends by east-west streets which p ro vide access from Federal Highway and Mizner Boulevard An additional entry road f rom Federal Highway contains a median and aligns wuh the central fountain in the Plaza Real. Each of the enuy roads prO vides direct access to the peripheral parlcing facilities. Additional sun ace parking wraps around the amphitheater at Ute n ortllem end of the sue No facilities for mass uansit are p r ovided on-site, although a bus sor is located along Federal Highway at the northern end of the site P: desuian circulation follows Ute roadways. with the primary circul>t" occurring along the storefront arcades which line the Plaza Rea l INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTA'!.

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MIZNER PARK COMMUNITY Minet Parle's uses focus on the Plaz a Re.al. Cultural f a cilities, in cludinfthe amphithea rer and museum site, anchor the Piau at either eDd. Sbops and restaurants line the arcades wbicb front on t o the while apartm ents and o ffices are located on the upper floor This venicaJ separation suppons a civic character at the street level where recreational, shoppin g. and cultural activities occur Although Its slu and design serve pedestrian movement once one has arrived. ther e is liule connectio n to s urrounding residenti al or commercial develop ment P ha se 2 cons truction will cbange some of the orien tation to Mi zner Bou l evard, where townhouses are planned to front the stree t OPEN SPACE Mizner Puk's open space system contributes greatly to i t s ima ge and accounts for two-thirds of tbe site. As the heart of the development, lhe Plaza Real links the two peripheral open spaces and serves as the amenity on t o which the buildings face Rows of palms line both the edge of the Plaza s green aDd arcade The Plaza fcaturu a ccn ual fountain where the cross.axes of the Plua and the primary entry from Federal Highway intersect Two gazebos Oanlc the fountain. witb seating :u-ea.s and ornamental plan tings in stone planters. Wa ter channels with seating walls e xtend towards the e nd s or the Piau. The nortbem end of the Plaza terminates on an openair amphit h e a t er. The open space at southern end of the Plaza is u sed for puking, but w ill a central green. The site west of the green which fronts Federal Hig hway will contain the international Museum of Car toon Art The entry road at this end conta ins a tower in a circ ular is land. denoting the edge of .the green. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUIIIT'! FORM top : l4nd use diagram bottom: lONI use legend 115 left: amphitheat er and lawn at nonhern end of MiUI
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116 DIMENSIONS top: section through !Uvel opment bottom: plan showing distances from centra l fountain ritht: gatebo in Plata Real MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS AREA Miz.ner Park is contained on a 28.7 acre site, which lies willlin llle norlll end of llle city's 344 acre community redevelopment area. POPULATION Currently, there are 136 rental apartment units in Mizner Park vary ing in siu from one to threebedroom. All units are leased Phase 2 of the project, which Is cunently under eonstructlon. will add 136 apartment and townhouse units to the site. DENSITY The current gross density for residential units 4 7 du/acre; comple tion of phase 2 construction will bring the gross density to 9.4 dui acre Net density, given llle current 1 36 units on approximately 6 a cr es, reaches 22. 7 dulacre. The current building development is con tained on and leaseo as 12 acres of the total 28.7 acres. which equates to an F.A.R of 0.76 FLOOR AREA The total floor area for pbase I, which was in 1991. is 398.000 square feeL This includes 125,000 square feet of retall space. 106.000 square feet of oC/ice space. ano 136 aparu:nents. An eiJbt screen movie thea ter is inc! udell. Sub5equent development will bring a 45,000 square foot facility for the International Museum of lntematlonal Art, an 80.000 square f oot department store. two 100,000 square fooa office t ower s and 136 apartmen t and townhouse unitS. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DES ICoN ANO TRANSPORTATIOS

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MIZNER PARK While. Mjmer Park was designed to ceaeate an image of .. Main Street." a=u to the pro ject is pred omirwuly by ptivate aut omo bile ra t her lban on root. Some 1.400 p arking sp a ces are provided in garages, at grade. and on-$lteel. The Urban Land Institute's Pro}tct R t/trtiiCt Filt on MiZller P ark notes lbat parking requirements were key to lbe si zin& or the project and its mix of uses A strategy of shared parking was devised. to max imiz.e tbe use of the spaces provided. automobile : Accommodations for the automobil e are integral to lbe design of M izner Park. The Plaza Real allow s dtlver s visual access to stores a n d res taurants. while on-street and val e t parking services help to s l o w tr affic and accommodate parkin g needs M ost parking i s l ocated at lbe periphery of lbe project. with structure parking IO c ated along Federal Highway This structur e is in corporated Into the design or upper level offi ces, where covered outdoor passages pro vide access t o both offices and the parle provided. Ar pr tstnr. rlrt parking is woefully delinqu ent. Boca Ralon Magtlline. /992 b elow : sign/or nlltr p4rking l ejl: -aiel f14'*ing along rwaurar.1> 01 cenzer of Pla:.a Rtal DESIGN RESEARCH

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118 l'RANS!POJR'f A TION ANALYSI S "The central green has become a popular gathering spot [or Boca Raronian.s ... and travelers alike. Jr's a place where people can slroll a[ rtr dinner in one of seven restauraniS, children play and friends meet. The cutdoor dining plala, on Sireel parking and aparl men1 balconies overlooking the cemral green contribute to the pleasam hum of aclivil)'." Crocker & Company below: isolllled bus stop at north end of MiZ!Itr Park, alongFedtral Hig hway right: shaded seating in central green of Pla!a Real MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS bicycle: Propeny management noted that several Mizner Park resi dents own bicycles, and use them to ride to the beacbes which are approximately one and one-half miles east of Mizner Park. While it is not apparem how many visitors use bicycles to access the site a few bicycles were locked to signs during site visits Nobicycle racks or storage areas were evident. pedestrian: Pedesuiaa access 16 Mizner Park suffers from the scale of the surrounding roadways, the low density of surrounding devel opment, and the project's design, which currently rums its back on Federal Highway and Mizner Boulevard by locating parking suuc tures and lots there. Within the project, a pleasant pedestrian environment is created through its organ.i:r.ation. scale, and amenities. By stacking offices and aparunents above the shOps. wallcing distances are reduced. Shade is provided: there are ample opportUnities for seat ing, outdoor dining, and people-watching along the arcades and within the park: aad special features such as the fountains and plantings en hance !he quality of the space. In addition. vehicular areas are paved wilb the same pavers used on sidewalks, as a means of expanding !he pedestrian realm. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND T R ANSPORTATIOS

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FLORIDA CASE STUDY CROCKER CENTER, BOCA RATO FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN 119 :L'-. RES E

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120 CONTEXT "Crocker & Company has built the area's most sought after business address surrounded by the charm of world class specialry shops un paralleled dining and an exceptional hotel. Crocker & Company brochure. 199] top: view south across the parking lots bouom: bicycli.st on Military Trail right: view of surrounding development at Town Center Road MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS LOCATION Crocker Center is located along lnterstate-95 in Boca Raton. near the Town Center Mall and other suburban office and residential devel opments clustered around the Glades Road interchange. Florida s Turnpike lies three miles west of Crocker Center. and also has an in terchange at Glades Road. CONDITIONS The completion of Interstate 95 along the western edge of Boca Raton and other coastal South Florida conununities brought a wave of sub urban development in the 1970s. The massive 1.3 million square foot Town Center Mall was consuucted west of Boca's Glades Road in terchange, and other development followed. With Palmetto Park Road to the south. Glades Road serves as a primary entry to Boca Raton. Florida Atlantic University is located along Glades Road east of the Interstate. while numerous golf course communities front Glades Road west of the Interstate. The 28 acre site which was developed by Crocker & Company was highly visible from the Interstate, and had access from 1 95 as well a s Florida s Turnpike. The busy north-south Military Trail and Town Center Road both provide direct access to the site. Town Cente r Road extends from the Mall's main enuy road and contin ue s directly i n to the Crocker site. While surroundirig sites consisted primarily of single-use developmeniS. Tom Crocker. president of Crocker & Company. saw an opportuni t y to create a project with a mix of uses. The family-owned develop II'TEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATIOS

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CROCKER CENTER ment company had opented In South F l orida since 1965. and wos shirti ng its focus to office development. Croc ker acquired the site from the A.rvida Corporation in 1984. and hired the Atlanta architec ture firm of Cooper Carr y & Associates t o design a mix of commercia l. office. and hotel uses. CrOCker sought to have each component of the project function inde pendent of the other parts. yet complement the other uses. A central courryard was created by and served as the focus or single-use build ings. B y separating uses into distinct buildings with independent pacKing facilities. Crocker was able to develop each component as the market warranted. The commercial StNCturts comprised tbe first phase or consttuction. and raced onto Military Trail much II Ice a strip comme rcial center. with a swath of s urface packing in front. The com mercial uses were marketed to the surro unding arnuent residents, fea turing upscale clothing and jewelry sto res art galler ies. and fine restaurant s An ornce tower and its parking garag e followed The hotel was built after the other uses were estab li shed, since it was viewed as the project's riskiest component. A seoond office tower opened in 1988, was the last structure ror the site Croc ker Center was well-received by the region's market and by the Industry The Center was leased out quickly and continues to ope.rate with nearly all space Ie:ued McDonald's and Citicorp bave their regional headquarters at Crocker Center. McDonald's created one of its most upscale restaurants in Croc ker Cen ter. yet il also included its requis i te dri,e t hrough window Awards of Ex cellence from the Buildi ng O wners and Mana gers Associati on and the National Asso ciation of lndusu ial and Office Parks have b een given t o crocke r Center's offic.e towers. fLORIDA CENTER FOR 121 CONTEXT "Cr oc k er Cenru's collection of high fashion. art gal/tries. personal strvii:es 011d divinely appealing rtstaurants makes ir the [rnesr shopping address in Boca Raron ... Crocker & Compan_v brochuu 1993 below: seating for cafes surrQw:;i CenlraJ COUTt:'' OTd left : v i e w imo rile cuurryard :r:11: offices

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122 DEVELOPMENT below: office ttllver entry right: courryard enzry from rerail edge MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS PLAYERS Crocker Center was developed by Crocker & Company, under the di rection of its president, Tom Crocker. The site is located in Palm Beach County, just west of the city limits of Boca Raton. The At lanta office of Cooper Cary & Associates served as the architects of the project. MOTIVATION Crocker viewed the development of Crocker Center as an opportu nity to create a unique, profitable project in the surrounding context of affluent residential communities, a regional shopping center and office parks. TIME FRAME The development of Crocker Center occurred relatively quickly 1984: Crocker acquires site as ground lease from Arvida Corporation 1986: retail buildings and one office tower with parking garage completed 1987: hotel completed and opened 1988 : second office tower and garage completed REGULATIONS Palm Beach County's regulations and reviews applied to this project. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATI01'

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CROCKER CENTER TYPES OF USES The promotional literature of Crocker Center points out that it is "the area's only true mixed-use development as defmed by the Urban Land Institute." The project contains commercial, office and hotel uses. In accordance with the definition provided by the Urban Land Insti tute, these uses are conDected by pedestrian space. A significant portion of the sire is devoted to parking, both in structure and as surface lots. INTEGRATION OF USES Uses within the Crocker Center are connected by a central courtyard and arcade. These pedestrian amenities are completely disconnected from uses surrounding the site. Each building contains a single use, with the exception of the Marriott Hotel. wbicb also contains rwo res taurants and a health club for guests. Lilcewise, each building or function has separate parking facilities. The office towers have parking garages connected by a covered walkway Hotel and retail use sur face parking at the periphery of the sire. Uses fronting onto the central courtyard support pedestrian activity: restaurants face the courtyard with outdoor dining areas. and entries to the office tow ers and hotel are provided. Drop off ar eas for th e two office buildings are sited at comers of the courtyard, such that visitors can walk into the courtyard 10 enter the building. Upper story terraces on the office towers and hotel overlook the courtyard A walkway links the courtyard with a kiosk centered along the retail arcade The retail uses face onto the parking lots with shop and res taurant entries along the .arcade. FI:.ORIDA CEI'ITER FOR COMMUI'IITY 123 FUNCTION he/ow: obict building entr: ,.,.,, parking garage left: vie\ from lnttrsrare 95 DESIGI' RESEARCH

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124 FORM top: view from Military Trail bottom: palm lined walk to retail right: diagram of parking and building areas :; r MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS BOUNDARIES Crocker Center is relative isolated from development. and its only entries are on Military Trail. Military Trail is a divided four lane arlerial, devoid of curbs. bicycle lanes, or sidewalks. While office and commercial uses lie across from Crocker Center on M ilitary Trail, no pedestrian connections are provided. A residential development is located along the soutllem and western edges or me site: however a large retention pond and wrought iron fence separale tllem from Crocker Center. The rigbl-of-way for me Tri-Railllne borders the site's eas1em edge. witll Interstate 95 immediately east of the rail line This edge of the site, like !he entire periD)eler is lined with a fence and shrub planting. CIRCULATION While visible from 1-95, Crocker Cen1er is not directly accessible from the Glades Road inlerchange. Military Trail, a four-lane arlerial which provides access to Crocker Center, passes under Glades Road. and is reached by other local roads. Three vehicular entries are provided along Mililary Trail, and parking areas sUrTOund tile cluster of build i ngs, similar to the design of a mall. Town Center Road enters the site at tile southwes1em comer, and rings the office and hotel par k tng areas and drop-off courts. Office parking occurs in garages. whtl < hotel and retail parking is accommodated i n surface lots. The McDonalds restaurant contains a drive-through service at the northern end of the retail strip. Pedestrian circulation occurs within the cen tral courtyard and along the relail arcade which faces Military Tra tl. The arcade is bisected by a wallcway wbicb connects to the centrJI courtyard Other courtyard entries are provided by paths from t h < office drop-off areas, and from the office and hotel entries. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTA

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CROCKER CENTER COMMUNITY The three uses at Crocker Cente r are organized to maximize their in dividual identity. as well as to define a central counyard. The buildings are ananged symmetrically along an axis perpendicular to Military Trail. with a kiosk and the central courtyard along this axis. and the hotel terminating it as the tallest building on the she. two office towers create the east and west sides of the courtyard. Stepped edges of two r etail buildings contain counyard on the north, allowing a central walkway to the kiosk and view to Military Trail. The two retail build ings face M ilitary Trail as a strip commercial development. A large parking area fronts the road, and signs adorn the parapets of the build ings. OPEN SPACE Parking areas comprise most of Crock e r Center's open space, sur rounding the buildings. Shrub and tree plantings ring the site, its parking areas. and its roadways. Unusable landscaped areas include a reten lion area along the sou thwestern comer, and a lawn surrounded by hedges at the northe r n tip of the site The pedestrianoriented coutt yard and arcade are defined by a symmetrical building arrangement. A kiosk sited between the retai l buildings marks the walkway into the ceoual court A fountain lies in the center of the courtyard. and is on axis with the kiosk and hotel. as well as the eastern and western office entties The courtyard contains dense palm, shrub and orna menta) plantings. as well as seating areas with vine-covered lattices. Restaurants overlook the courtyard. and outdoor dining areas occur under strUcture or canopy The space between the hote l and office towers contains landscaped walkways from the office drop-off zones -;;:;..; .. -.... --. .. / l_,; FLORIDA CENTER FOR l-;1,"" .,,; / . ., I / COMMUNITY 125 FORM top: jounsain in cemer of courryard bottom: kiosk along mail edge left: land use diagram DESIGN RESEARCH

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126 DIMENSIONS right: dis ranees from central foun tain MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS AREA Crocker Cen1er occupies a 28 acre site POPULATION There are no p e rmanent residents on-site, although the Marriou Hotel contains 256 roo.m. FLOOR AREA The entire developmental Croclcer Center is 436,000 square feet, with 220.000 square feet of office. a 130,000 square foot hotel and 86,000 square feet of retail. The office space is divided into two s i x-story bui l dings, with 20,000 square foot Ooor p l ates. The twelve story ho tel contains a health club, swimming pool, and two restaurantS. The retail uses are contained in two 400' long buildings which face M i li tary Trail, with an arcade lini.ng the storefrontS The central counyard. which includes outdoor dini.ng areas, seating areas, a fountain and plantings is 20,000 square feet. I INTEGRAT I N G COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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CROCKER CENTER While lhe mix or uses and their arrangement to create a central counyard is unique 10 lhe area, Crocker Center functions much like its sum>une four-lane arterial along Crocker Center. connects to major arterials leading into lloca Raton mass transit: At present. mass translt service is provided to Crocker Cent e r or its immediate area The Tri-Rail commuter rail runs par allel to 1-95. and along Crocker Center. although the nearest stop lies approxinutely tbree miles to IJ>e northeas t. All article in a July 1993 issue of a Boca Raton newspaper. however. notes that TriRail is ne gotiating to locate a station a t Glades Road. With G lades Road only one-quarter mile to lhe north. Crocker Center ideally would be served by such a Slation. . FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 127 TRANSPORTATION ANAlYSKS "Like most Floridians. Boca Raton residents get around in cars spe\l' ing pollution and noise while filling roads and parking lots bur Boca Raton residents involved in Vision 2002 want a fresh. innovati\:t ap proach .... Candi CalkiiiS. "Looki11 Down the Road Visionaries See More Trains. Buses. ShuttltJ. B i cycles Boca Monday/Boca Thursday. July 5, J99J b
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128 TRANSPOJRTATION ANALYSIS hlow: iruersection of Town Cen ter Road and Military Trail: lacking sidewa/k.r and crosswa/k.r right: vehicle erury to development and landscaped parking lot MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS bicycle: No on-site facilities are provided for bicycles. and a bike lane is not provided on Military Trail. During a site visit, a single bicyclist was ob6erved usiDg tbe shoulder of the heavily-travelled Mili tary Trail where cars travel at speeds of 45 miles per hour or greater pedestrian: There are no sidewalks along Military Trail, or at any of tbe entries to Crocker Center. No walks are provided in the park ing areas, and tbe sparse planting offers lillie to reduce tile g l are and reflected beat of asphalt and vehicles. Upon reaching tile cluster of buildings, however. one encounters an unobsttucted and comfortable pedestrian environment A covered arcade along the retail buildings creates a shaded walkway and space for outdoor displays. The kiosk at tbe intersection of tbe retail and counyard walkways offers a shaded place to wait for a ride The counyard, witll covered seating and dining areas, is also cooled by plantings and a central fountain. Given tb e entries to its surroundiDg buildings, lush plantings, and distinctive paving and furnishings. Ibis courtyard serves as tile focus and image-giving amenity of the developmenL INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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LENOX NATIONAL CASE STUDY LENOX, ATLANTA, GEORGIA 1"'1-1"""" -. . . ---=---. -----. ---. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN 129 .... RESEAK

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130 CONTEXT "Mostly. the Buckhead area is quitt trtecanopied residential streets with an almost suburban characrer. It is preciJely this uniq.u ch4ract e r which makes the Buclchead area one of the most residential ar eas in the Atlanta region." Buckhead Arta Growth Manage ment Program: 1985 2000. 1985 right: office towers along Peachtree Road MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS L OCATION Lenox is untered at the intersection of Peachtree and Lenox roads in Atlanta. approximately 8 miles north of downtown It is located in Buclchead, the most affluent district in the city and state CONDITIONS Lenox developed into a regional mixed-use activity center from a sub urban shopping center built in the late 1950s. Its success is due largely to its location in an affluent suburb The Buclchead disuict became popular for sUJIUiler estates of Atlanta's wealthy families in the 1870s. By the tum of the centuty, Bucl<.bead was a small community. In the 1920s, a trolley linked Bucl<.bead w\th Allanta's downtown, as did Peachtree Road for automobiles. With improved a ccess, Buckhead grew as a suburb of Atlanta. The population reached 10.000 in the 1930s. with mostly middle and up per income residents. By the 1940s, there were approximately 25,000 residents. In 1952, the area was annexed by Atlanta. By 1980. the population was approximately 29,400 and the median income was ove r twice that of Atlanta as a whole. In the mid-1950s, Ed Noble and Jo bn Smith teamed up to develop a shopping center the likes of which the Southeast had never seen (Hayes, p. 44). Noble purchased a 74 acre estate on the comer of Peachtree and Lenox Roads in the wealthy Buckhead district Wlli!e commercial development existed along sections of Peachtree. the pr o posal of a shopping center met strong opposition from Buckhead residents. Eventually No ble received the needed zoning change and INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESICN AND

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LENOX attracted Atlanta's and the nation's finest retai lers as anchors. The Lenox Square Shopping Center opened in 1959 with 50 stores. To day it is a "three-level. enclosed super-regional shopping complex anchored by three major depanment stores", and contains 200 spe cialty stores. The shopping cente r served as the impetus fo r significant office de v elopment Between 1961 and 1965, some 650.000 square feet of office space was developed in Buckhead By the 1970s. over 1 mil lion square feet had been built, and in 1985 Buckhead contained 7 .3 million square feet of office space In 1960, a City report describes Buckhead as an example of unplanned growth, with traffic congestion and parking the primary problems Lenox Road, once a picturesque neighborhood street. became a busy street to Lenox Square A highway proposal was made in 1959 to r e li eve the congestion by link ing Peachtree with then I -85. Vehe ment neighborhood opposition delayed construction of Georgia Highway 400 until 1986. when the City Council voted to support il. This link from 1-285 will have an interchange near Lenox Square at Peachtree Road. Rapid transit was also considered to reduce traffic congestion. g iven the presence of the Southern Railroad line and reg iona l transit plans The 1975 Lenox Transit Station Area Development Study by the AI lanta Bureau of Plaruaing identified Lenox as a "high intensity mixed use station and prepared con ce ptual plans for nodal developmem with a mix of office, commercia l and residential uses. Recommen dations were made for b euer pedestrian access. higher residential densities south of Ute station, preservation of existing single-family residential neighborhoods. and a feeder system to link the various uses Johnsontown. an old and relatively poorer neighborhood located east of the mall between Lenox and Roxboro Roads was targeted for re development. This neighborhood created a Community Development Corporation to assemble the land and in turn sell it to the Metropoli tan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) This area has become the focus of mixed-use high density projects directly linked with the MARTA station Since the 1970s. new mixed-use developments have created urban level densities at Lenox. and shifted Ute f ocus of development towards Ute station: Many merchants worried Utat the transit stop would bring crime but srudies in 1986 indicated that crime statis tics remained stable wltile retail sales increased. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 131 CONTEXT "Looking ous the window ' r those gleaming new towers. ;r. see that the buildings line 1r.e . : : : around Lenox Square or :;:ar.t: : . and three tieep on adjacer.: :. ... courr around a :o.:, ., center. f
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132 DEVELOPMENT below: Resurgens PlaUl develop Jhent built over station. with air righrs purchase . . MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS PLAYERS Ed Noble and John Smil.b developed Lenox Square Shopping Center, lhe origin of Lenox. Olher developers followed, building office tow ers along Peachtree Rood. MARTA's Lenox Station made the Jobnsontown Community Development Corporation and MARTA key players in high-density mixed-use projects MARTA leases land and air rights for development. MOTIVATION Noble recogni ze d lhe market potential of Ibis location in an atnuent suburban area wil.bout significaJII commercial uses. The mall's suc cess ill.!pired office development. The MARTA sWion and subsequent zoning as a high density mixed-use station area enabled f urth er development. TIME FRAME Critical dates in lhe development of Lenox include: 1956: Noble and Smith purChased land, lobbied for zoning change to build shopp ing center 1 959: shopping center opens wil.b Mayor and 600,000 people 1 975 : Lenox station area plan designates for nodal developmeot witb high density mixed us e s 1 982: MARTA enters cooperative development agreement ior mixed use project wilh part using air rights, linked t o sta tion 1985: Lenox station opens 1 987: mall expanded, wil.b office tower and hotel REGULATIONS The 1975 LeiWX Station Area Development Study id entified Len o x ll a "high intensity mixed use area". wil.b additional office. commer cial, and higher-density residential development. single -family residential neighborhoods were to be preserved. This plan bas been realized in large part. and the City's 1993 Comprehen sive Plan land use plan identifies much of this area as high densitv commercial" with an F.A.R of 3 + The area ne:1r the f utu r e intt' chang e wilh GA 400 is denoted "mixed use" and lhe south ,,, lhe MARTA station on Lenox Road and east of the commercial along Roxboro >re indicated as "medium density residential" Severa l pllns. including the 1975 study, call for improving the pedesuian e nvir o n ment. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATI07'

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LENOX TYPES OF USES Lenox contains a mix of retail, office. hotel, residential, enteruin menl. and transit uses. The retail and entenainmem uses are contained l arge ly in !he two luxury malls. Civic and community events, such as meetings and Independence Day Ce l ebrations are held at !he malls as well Ne w residential development bas occurred as and townhouses ; most residential development surrounding Lenox Square is single-family. INTEGRATION OF USES Except for developments related to the MARTA station. Lenox has large single function parcels separated by anerial roadways. Each parcel is surrounded by parking, which further separates uses for pedestrians The Lenox Square Shopping Center occupies 61 acres including an office tower and hotel added after !he MARTA stalion opened. While an enclosed corridor l inks !he mall and transit sta t ion. !he quarter-mile wall< requires passing through !he hotel lobby ond alongside a parking garage. Phipps Plaza. !he other mall. is one half mile from the station. Whi.le office developments along Peachtree are designed inde p e ndent of one another, development s related 10 !he station show greater integration of u ses and often take advantage of MARTA air rights. Atlanta Plaza, is connected to !he MARTA sta tion by the Nonh Concourse and contains 1.5 million square feet of commercial space, 600.000 square foo l office tower, and 800 park i ng spaces for MARTA: Plans include an additional o(fice tower, hotel. and 200 unit condominium tower Lenox Park, a 165 acre master planned community is to include an automated people-mover 10 link i t with the station. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 133 FUNCTION Lenox contains everything : : .: : good downtown requires i : tremendous mix. and i() healthy .. -J. Michael Maloney. Trend. 1986 commtrcwi uses and rt: .:. rial rowers off Lenox Road dt1 a]ier MART A DESIGN RESEAR, ..

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134 FORM below: passage ro MARTA srarion f r om shopping cenrer. via rhe Marrioll Hore/ right: circulation diagram MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS BOUNDARIES Lenox is bounded by affluent single-family residential neighborhoods which surround !be commercial, omce, and higher-density residen tial development along !.he center's main roads and transit stop. These roads include Peachtree. Roxboro and Lenox. The MARTA station and rail line create a sout.bem boundary. The GA 400 highway e. tension creates a new, discrete western edge. CIRCULATION Peachtree Road is !.he primuy historic transportation spioe from down town Atlanta t.brough Lenox Lenox Road, an arterial which crosses Peachtree, links wit.b 1-85 to !.he sout.b. The intersection of these two roads was !.he center of Lenox before !.he MARTA station was developed. Since the stations development. Roxboro Road became an anerial, linking Lenox wit.b areas to !.he norlb and 1 -85 to the south. Lenox an d Roxboro Roads define a "$uperbloclc" with Peachtree and East Paces Ferry Road; a network of smaller stteets create parcels. MARTA's Lenox Station serves as a multi-modal center for transit, with pedestrian concourses linking it to surrounding development Lenox Station is a three leveled station with trains on the bouom leve l. buses on the middle leve l, and passengers entering at the top le vel from the street. Pedestrian c ircula t i on at Lenox is poorly coMected, with the excep tion of concourses radially COM.ecting new development with the MARTA station. Within the shopping center and offices, pedestrian circu lat ion is prov ide d internally. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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LENOX COMMUNITY Lenox exists as a node along a commercial strip (Peachcree Road}, which has been reinforced by !he development ot !he MARTA sta Uon at Irs southern edge. A greater mix and density of uses has d e veloped according to !he MARTA Station Area Plan. The uses of Lenox are organiz e d in two patterns based on !he lime !hey were developed. Prior to the MARTA Station Planning St:udy, developments occurred as isolated, single-use pods surrounded by surface parking and strung along Peachcree Road. After !he MARTA Station Area Plan was adopted, parcels were de veloped wllh a mix of uses, with Increasing densllles around the station Parcels around !he north side or the call line contain office. hotel. and residential uses. The area soulh of !he rail line, outside the mixed use a ctivity center boundaries defined In Ws study, con talns medium density residential development OPEN SPACE There Is no public open space in Lenox with the exception of meets; a private golf club is !he only significant open space Immediate to the area. Olher space which cou l d be considered open includes the conco urses and parking areas of the shopping centers The Lenox Square Shopping Center C()Dtains a lhree--level atrium, and Irs park ing lotlsthe serling for Buckhead's Independence Day celebration . I F L ORID A CENTER : FOR @ . . COMMUNITY 135 FORM and lejl: land u u d;au.:m and legtNI. i .;;;;;_ a I:= ::;::: I DESIGN \ _. -'..;;il'- W' ' l(=--,, -RESEARCH

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136 DIMENSIONS rig hi: dis1ances jrom MARTA 's Lenox s1arion MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS AREA The Lenox area consisLS oC approximately 400 acre$, as defined in Chis study. POPULATION The population wilhin Lenox Is difficultlO deJennine; illies wilhin a censu; tract e;timated at7,736acco rding to !he 1993 Ciry o{Atlanla Comprtlte11Sivt Dtvtlopmtnl PllJit The Buclcbead a popu lation or 34 696. bastd on census ncu identifi
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LENOX Lenox origi nated in lhe 1950s as a coiiUiletCial center wgeling sub urban familiu and their automobiles This history affected it$ development >nd transponation characteristics until !be mid 1970s when a rail and bus transit stop was planned for the area. Sinc:e the adoption of !be station area plan. and the opening or !be MARTA station in 1985. the character of the area has shifted. More people are accessing the area by transit. however, pedestrian and bicycle tmenilies r e main pain(uJiy inadequate. automobile: Lenox was originally oriented to Peachtree Road, the pr imary commercial strip extending from downtown Atlanta All olber roads were small neighborhood streets. The development or !be Lenox Square Shopping Center changed the character or several streeto, as drivers sou&bt >lternative approaches No interstate highways served this area when it boomed; and traffic coogestioo was and continues to be a major problem According to a 1985 U.S. ofTraos portation Study. Le nox is second to Atlanta's central business district in terms of tra ffi c ge nerat ed. All m ajor roads in the Lenox area and their intersections, are identi !ied >s conaes ted in the 1993 Atlanta Comprehensi ve Plan. Lenox Road is being widened; GA 400 is under construction fr o m 1 -285 to Roxboro Road is being widened from the rail to Peachtree. GA 400 origin ally planned in 1959 to relieve congestion is scheduled to open In 1993. --.. ---- FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 137 TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS . "When you've gor rhe rra!fic {lou rhe probability oj doinf well tn creases drDmillically .... /{you cllll! matt it as Lt.nox. I don., lliink you can m.ah it an.vwhtrt ... Steve Harrman. Georgia Trend 1986 Iejt: MARTA srarion viewtd ''""' hotel on &m Pacts Ptrry R oati DESIGN RESEARCH

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138 TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS below: offices on f>tachtrtt set back from street by surface parking . . MIXED USE ACTIVITY CENTERS ran: The Metropolitan AUanta Rapid Transit Authority operates lhe intermodal Lenox Station at the intersection of Eut Paces Ferry Road and Lenox Road, wbicb opened in 1985. 1bu station, according to 1993 statistics carries an estimated 10,395 passengers per day and i s lhe third-most U$ed station on the MARTA system. Another MARTA station is Wider COli$UUction in the area, in con junction witb tbe GA 400 extensioo. Tbu station, Buckbead, will be located at Peachtree Road and GA 400, and u to be completed by the end of 1996 Wltb tbe development of tile Buckbead ution. a peop le mover is being considered to operate between the Buckbead and Lenox S!ltions. bus: Leoox is sunounded by uter\als which are se:vlced by bus routes. Peach tree Road, Lenox Road, Paces Ferry Road and Roxboro Road are all bus rout es. Lenox Station i s a transf e r point for ten bus routes. bicycl e : No facilities for bicycles have been pro v ided In Lenox. al though the 1975 Suuion Arta Study called for a circulation system witb improved access by bus and bike to the station from adjacent neighborhoods ( p 43). empbasU for improvements to lh< area has been placed on a pedestrian environmenL pedestrian: Given the large scale and isolated site design of pr< existing projects in Lenox, pedestrian acc ess was a lcey concern in the 1975 unox Station Area Dtvtlopmenr Study The study for "a safe, convenient and comforuble pedestrian system" (p. 4-1 This recommendation was reiterated in a 1985 study or the area conducted by lbe City's Bureau of P lanning, and in its 1988 up date The 1985 study's urban design growth management policy"" to "foster an urban environment conducive to pede.strian circulauon (p. 118) The study ouUined a pedestrian space plan with specu. i mprovements to sidewal ks and pedestrian IIWis pedestrian J aaivUies. traffic separatloo, and nejgbborbood sidewalks An underp> < was reco!DlDtnded at the inters ection of Peachtree and Lenox u cilitate pedestrian access: such an Wlderpass was necommendcd : contain shops and other amenities to make it attractive Sidewallcs have been provided with roadway improvements. and . courses linking development willl tbe MARTA station offer w: comfortable access Some linkages, such as the concourse front '"' Lenox Square Shopping Center and tbe intersection near Lenox ti011, are long and uninu:nesting. Increased street level actlvhie> "' "' activities within tile concourses are needed. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATIU

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NEO-TRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING 13 9 FLORIDA C E NTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN RESEARCH

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140 INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND

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FLORIDA CASE STUDY SEASIDE ' .. ' ___ Ft.ORIDA cENTER FOR COMMUNITY 1 41 I 'I ? @--0! I : I ___m__ paaac.: 1 : 0 0 I ']\ I DESIGN RESEARC)!

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142 CONTEXT "Seas ide. locaud in whorlh e locllls call the "Redneck Riviera" on the shores of the Fwrida ptu!handle, is a deliberate imilalion of a Victo r i an rown by lilt ua. Robert Campbell. Tile B ofloll Globe, 1987 Seaside is a village of vacation homes by a Florida beach where the sand is as white as !Ills paper and packs underneath like bleached flour, and the warer oj the Gulf is blue or green or turquoise depend ing on the sky. The houses of Seaside are lined up close to the na"ow JITeets. likL thrttdlck.trs in Dorchester. but are p retry and are painted pastel shades of pink and lime and yellow and lavender It appears to be a toy communlry, a place of adult doll houses with red brick streets and paths of th/Jl white sand. It is unrealiry as 1 know it, and I woul d live in such a place if such things were possible Peter Anderson. 1989 below : rypical street view right: Honeymoon couages and beach NEO TRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING LOCATION Seaside is located in unincorporated Wallon County io Flortd a's panhandle, alongside the village of Seagrove Beach and west of the reson-llned beache s of Panama City Oo a barrier island. Seaside is 110 miles from Tallahassee. Mobile, Alabama. lies some 12S miles away. Nearby ttanspoctation routes are Intersut e 10. and US High way 98, but oaly Couoty Roads provide access to Seaside. This section of the Gulf Coast, whb numerous State Parla and the Gulf islands National Seashore u a ttaditional vacation destination for residentS of sucb cities as B irmin gham and Atlanta. CONDITIONS Seaside was developed by Robert Davis, a former Coconut Grove townhouse developer, who inherited tbe beachfroot land from his grandfather. In 1980, Inst ead of dividing tbe land with piecemea l development, Davis hited architects Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater Zyberk of Coral Gables to create a "town plan" Intrigued witb the ttaditional neighborhood tbeortes Duany and Plate r-Zybe rk endorsed. Davis sought to recreate the character of a pre-1940 So uthern rown Davis spent a year travelling throughout the Southeast and Europe to identify i mportant desicn qvaiities. Drawing from the scale and character of sucb communities as Sa"an nah. Georgia and Sullivan's Island outside Cbarleston. Sou tb Cuolina. and from tbe vernacular architecture of nonb Florida Duany and Piarer Zyberk developed a plan and design codes for The plan is a modified grid intersected by three diagonal streetS tbat now out of a focused civic and commercial space," accompanied by a code INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTAT!O!'

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SEASIDE details ollowable setbocks. uses. building materiols. and some :>.rchi tecturaJ fearures including porches. gable roof slopes, window typology md fencing Narrow brick streeu define blocks. and a networ k or S>ndy paths winds between baclcyatds Nativ e are required: grass is allowed only in the centra l parlc/amphilhearre Seaside is divided by County Road 30A. which parallels lbe beach, and is the only road to Seaside The plan carries the street grid across 30A to the beach. as pedestrian paths willl beach pa vilions crowning lhe dunel and suirways down to tbe water. Unlike the resort devel opment t o the east, Seas ide's beachfront l argely is undeveloped at present. Art open-air ma.r1ce1 whh rcstaunnLS i s sited beachside. across the street from the central park and iu commercial buildings. Some housing is built, wd an IM and hous i ng ts planned for the furure. Seaside is still under consiJ'Uction. whh more th:m 180 homes oilier commercial and civic buildings built It has been an enormous financi a l success for its developer. and helped establish Duany and Plater-Zyb erk as leaders In the are of town plaMing. As built out to this point. the residenUal den.sitles 31\d formal organiza t io n i n Seaside resemble those or the t owns 3fter which h was mode Jed. In practice. however. the resuiiS of thi s urban experiment in creating a fully-functioning town do not bear out Only about a dozen families reside in Seaside year-round: Its housin g costs are more than SIO per squar e foo t higher than housing In neighbo r ing comm unities. Without a year round population, range or housing prices. and emp l oyment base. Seaside resort. Its current celebrity :md function have more in com mon wilh attractions such as Disney World. or Mackinac Is l and than w ith comm unities in which people conduct their daily lives. . .. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 143 CONTEXT Seaside has become the moH .,:t:ebraud new American town o : : :(' decade .. the subjecc of s/ide/ec:,,
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144 DEVELOPMENT Like rht Back Bay, Stasidt hiev-. o{varitry wilhin i rs tighl consrraiJw. lnd.ttd. if rhtrt's QIIY complllinr ir's rhaJ sotM of lht houses cry roo hard {or originality al!d tl!d up cwe. Robtrl Campbtll, The Barron Gwbc, 1987 "For Seaside, Florida, { Duany f ... and Ptartr-Zybtrk dt vistd a 'urban standards' marrix rhar has sinct been adapttd {or orMr projurs. Under stvtn htadings .. fllltnt: LQIId Use: LQ/Id Allocmion: Lors: Bu ildings: Srrters: Alltys: Parking: al!d Dtfinirionsshorr srareme111s describe whar can and can 1 be dont in various bwtd ing type caregories. The srandards require char ar least fivt ptrctnr o{ a projtct 's /QIId area be dtdicattd t o civic tors, with one reserved for a day care center. Parking lou muse bt 111 rhe side or rear and al ltys are required. Rut h &kdish KntU:k. 1989 bcww : typical residential /ayour wirh few garages NEO TRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING PLAYERS Seaside was created by Miaml developer Robert Davis, wbo inher ited the Gulf Coast property from bis grandfath er. He hired architects Andres Duany and Eliubetb Plater-Zyberk, then parmers at Arquitectonica, to develop a town plan. Duany and Plater-Zyberl< started their own firm and tested their urban design tbeories, with ur ban theorist and ascbitect Leon Krier a.s a special coa.sultant. MOTIVATION Davis' motivllion was to recreate a traditiooal Southern town with a mix of uses, pedesuian friendly streets, vernacular aschitecture. and civic spaces designed to encourage interaction Duany and Plater Zyberk viewed the design of Seaside as a means of teSting their theories TIME FRAME Robert Davis hired Duany and Plater-Zybedc, whO developed the master plan and zoning code between 1978 and 1983 Construction began in the early 1980s, with salu underway in 1982 on the property's eas t side By the end of 1984. there was one street with a doun housu. a be3r:b pavilion gw:bo. and small parX. By 1988. a commerdal building along the centtal green wu being built, and by mid-1989, coosttUc tion was underway on the west past of Seaside T o date. over I 80 dwelling units have construc ted; build-out was scheduled for the year 2000, but has been revised to 2020. In the early 80s, Seaside became an international phenomenon. Ar ticles in design journals described its intent and envisioned character. Numerous design awasds were given for the town plan and individual buildings des igned by notable architects. By the late 80s. Seaside had been covered In numerous developer travel. and news magazines. including Time. and bad inspired Traditiotlal Neighborhood Deve l opments and ordinances across the country and In Gre a t Britain REGULATIONS Walton County in the late 70s, bad few regulations to affect the de sign of Seaside Rather, the plan and urban code developed Duany and Plater-Zyberk regulates the community's appearance and f unc tions. Streets, lots. open space and location of building types were determined. as wellu a rmge of street sections The urban code was developed as a one page matrix. with specificatioa.s aCC(l(ding to building type for: yard, porch or balcony out-building. parking and height. Building materials ase specified. and colors must be reviewed. All residential lots must have a white picket fence ; pass is nOt allowed. All building plans are reviewed by the Seaside Admlnistrarion for approval. While being built, changes in state law required that Sea side be reviewed per the state Development of Regional lmpacr proc e ss The state approved the masterplan as did the county INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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SEASIDE TYPES OF USES The private and c i vic U$0$, and !heir percent or coverage on tbe site. include CULl Project Reference File ) : single h mlly residential workshop (of commercial and residential) retail and hotel beach recreation areafpark pluiU and parks streets meellng spaces INTEGRATION OF USES Seaside intesrares all of its uses by virtue of it.s si.zt and circ u lation networ k ; all part$ or the community are within walking distance or each other The public areas. recreational areu. and instirutional and commer ci al buildings terminate major boulevards o r create the town center While the workshop buildings are mixed use. the aajority of th e si te i s composed of single-famil y residential d i stricts Res i den tia l d i stricts are genewly mono functional : those resi dences alongside the commercial center front residential streets w i th their backs to the commerc ial uses, as do residences along the reaeltional .. Park''. FLORID A CENTER COMMUNITY 145 FUNCTION "There are no more than a do:en families living in Seaside f u ll time The majority of the 180 /tome s built t.htrt are ill fact stcond homes or vacation v iliD.S rented OuJ r o tourhtt willing IQ pay upward of S / ,000 ptr w eek. .. Richard J. Coletti, 1992 "Seaside ... has been a victim of iu own success. The communiry lncks any industry shares perhaps roo many e lements with Disnq World' s Main Sirttr U.S.A. and is to affordable housing what M trctdts Btr.:. is to economical transp onalio n ... Richard J Coletti J 992 below: c i rcuiDtion diagram l
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146 FORM seaside's srreet s, afrtr running srraightfor blocJcs,focus on a visu al gattbo i n the centtr of a uoffte circle. a balh house 11nd community pool aJ the end of a boulevard. a distinctively designed pavilion at the end 0/11 street le ading to the beach .... The emphasis is on making the street sufficiently orderly that the build i ngs.ftnces. and trees along it can form the public room Philip Langdon 1988 btlow: proposed expansion nonh across the inrercoastal wattrway right: land use diagram NEO TRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING BOUNDARIES In its current configuration. Seaside is bounded by its property limits and natural features The couUint marks its soutbem boundMy, and an inlet from tbe cout bounds lbe northern edge of tbe property. The residential grid of Seagrove Beach serves as Seaside's eastern edge, into which it conn e cts. Along tbe west. tbere is vacant woodland, but. County Road 30A curves northward, effectively creating a west em booodary. Tbtee oew oeigbborboods are planned roc tbe surrounds: one on tbe vacant land to lbe west, and two noctb or th e inlet. CIRCULATION The primary. and only. road through Seaside is County Road 30A which parallels lbe Gull Coast. Seaside's sueet system is laid out as a net work wrapping around tbe central green adjacent to Coun ty Road 30A A boulevard radiates away from the green in one direction: radiating in tbe opposite direction Is a horseshoe tbat turns baclc on itself and returns to the green. The oetworlc comprises a hierarchy or intercon nected streets. each with a different dimension eacb aualning a different relalionsbip with adjacent buildings. Avenues are the widest street section, and include a planted median. Large Streets and Small Streets are similar except for building setbacb: both are witbout medians. but bave Street trees planted along botb edges Of the rights-of-way. AUeys are tbe smallest &eetion tbat permits auto traffi c: the y are typically round between tbe backs or buildings tbat front on parallel streets. Footpatbs are devoted entire l y to pedestrian mobility :...= oog).."t:J o..-=:!':!3 ... W m a M'JdPUIIC.,l..:vqpn' \ INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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SEASIDE COMMUNITY Co mmunity uses are organized around the framework of the street sys tem, with eiSIIt building and use types designated accordingly All public buildi ngs and facilitie s a.re o r will be located at tbe ends of street$, the ends of open space axes. or within the central green. Com mercia! uses face County Road 30A, capturing througbtttWc u well as visito<3. Commercial pavilions lies on the soutb side of County Ro a d 30 A with views or the beach Type I buildings COII!ain mix or retail and residential Ues. front on t o !b e central green. and sup port a conti nuous arcade Wh ile not yet built this building t ype will continue across County Road 30 A t o nank the commercial pavilions Also planned are Type 11 bulldll\gs,located within the horseshoe road as office, retail or apartmen t uses. Type III buildings, with retail, will front a linear plaza on axis with the central green and t erminated by a church on its north end. Type V buildings are located on the beachside: somecurtentiy built are residential couages. The remaining four types are residential u ses varying in size and set back r e quir e ments according to lheir loc size and relationship to sueets or gateways. OPEN S PACE As i de from tile vast beachfront. Seaside s open space system is a central o rganizi ng element. A large green in th e center or the community serves as a hub, with spokes of green medians udiating out into th e comers of the site. The green terraces down, providing an amphitheaue se tting for community concens and other performances. The com mer cia! plaza. across County Road 30A from the central gree n. c-ontinues the dimension .of th e green towards the beach and takes o n a more urban character From th i s plaza. the landform rapidly drops approximately 20' t o tile beach This slope is covered with na tive plants. and is broken onl y by the s eries of stepped boardwalks l eading to the beach. These boardw a lks serve as continuations o f the l :mdside stieets. :md >re punctuated by beach pavilions at the top of the slope Other recreational facilities monuments terminate s u eet The commu nity pool t enninates the boulevard. and become s po.n oi the "Park". Loc>ted in the northeast corner of the property, th e Park contains tennis couns and is planned to accommodate a be:llth club an d other facilities in the future Another axis from the central sree n leads to "Ruskin Place". a formal sreen intended to serve o..s na e for markets and as a (orecourt leading to the church site. The lhi;d >xis c!epaning from tile central green is lined by the horseshoe road. which surrou uds a lawn and the f utur e town hall. A wedge of 1reen space stems off from the horseshoe. an d another wedge of land f urmer west is targeted for a sebool hou se FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 1 4 7 FORM lop: mi:ud ust commercia l f:: i : d ing adjactnt to villagt gree11 cenur: beach pavilion and C:. J "-' Me:r.ico bo11om: open space d,' afram .. ,. D ESIG N

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148 DIMENSIONS below: sections of Stasidt srretr rypts right : distances from tht village gren. NEO TRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING AREA The area of Seaside is 80 acres, although parcels to the north and west have been identified for future phases of complementary develop m ent. According to the Traditional Neighbor!lood Design model developed by Duany and Plater Zyberk, a TND must be a minimum of 40 acres and a maximum of 200 acres to accomplish the desired integration of activities_ POPULATION While a sign olong County Road 30A announces the unincorporated town limit with a population or 604, the vast majority of residents occupy their homes only periodicolly. In October 1992, Urban Land noted that "only a dozen families live t here year-round" (Clayton, p. 6) DENSITIES Including approimuel y 200 hotel rooms, the gross density for Selsidt is colculated at 9 du/acre, and the net density at IS du/acre (UU Project Reference File) Lotsius vary from 1680 square feet to 9100 square feet. A total or 750 dwelling units ue planned; as oi 1993. 161 private residences have been built. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTAl:.

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SEASIDE Seaside was designed to promote walking within its boundar ies by virtue of its site. Corm, organizat io n. and design of the circulation syste!ll. As a relatively isolated development. however. acce s s to and from Seaside requires automobiles. No public uansit exists in this rural area, and so the development contains as many, if not more, cars as a traditional Southern town. automobile: The need for private automobile transportation to reach Seas id e has generated a uemendous burden on the development for parking. While the plan provided for on-sueet parking along many of its sueets. and small drives Cor one vehicle on most single-family lots, the number of tourists and day-visitors has led to parking re strictions. On-street parking within the residential streets is reserved for guests only: visitor parking is provided only at the cenual green. with two rows or head-in parking. Narrow street dimensions, short blocks, and the presence of parked cars appears to keep the car speed and volume low throughout the neighborhood stree t s pedestrian/bicycle: Within Seaside, the primary means of mobility a re walking or bicyc l ing. BicycJislS are expected to share the roadway with autos, and racks are located at commercial and recreational facilities Paved sidewalks line the major streets, and sandy nanow footpaths known a s Krierwalks (for their advocate), are provided across b locks between the fenced backyards The only access to the beach is via a footpath and stepped boardwalk down the dune. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 149 TJRANSJPOJRTATION ANAlYSIS "Seaside !Jas a 'car prob lem. Prominent signs state t hat only cars belonging to owners and guests are allowed on rhe srreeu of Seas id e What other community could oper aze with similar reszriccions ? .. Frank Cla y r on. 1992 left : rypical srrut scene in Seaside wi1h golf carzs used jor service DESIGN RESEARCH

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150 TRANSJPORTA TION ANALYSIS "In walking around StaJid.t, I ClliM 10 the conclusion that hopts of r<-urablishing a from-perch soci ery had largely failed. Few occupied lhe porches during hot afternoons, and after sunser rhe shimmering light from 7V stiJ and rhe hum of air-condilioners ttstlfled 10 the irresistible of clima t e controlled, electronically equipped inte r iors, even in a town wlure most of the perches art screened 10 provide proucrionfrom in.secu Philip lAngdon, 1988 below: typical sandy pedestrian pat h wilids through Seaside NEO TRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING Beacb pavilions wbicb crown eacb boatdwall<. Othet feature$ create an Interesting comfortable walklng environment. Gazebos and beocbes are located lhrougbout tbe development, as con venient resting spots. Houses face onto tbe street, witb porches designed to be close enough to the sidewalk to encourage informal conversa tion. golf carts: Given tbelr dimension and maneuvetablllty, golf carts have become an service vebicle for Seaside Tbe maid service to cottages and bousu uses golf cans to bring clean llnens cleaning equipment, and to transport trash. The mainteo.ance crews also use cans periodically fe< trips wilbin lbe developmen t INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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FLORIDA cENTER fOit COMMUNITY DESIGN 151 (6c:ccc==..J I ...... .... ... j RESEAr:: ... ::-:

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152 CONTEXT ''You've seen it on national news. You 'ye read aboul it in Smithsonian, the Atlantic and the Washington Post. Old-fashioned uri>an planning is back in style. Cul-de-sacs are our. Grids of streets are in. Parking lors art out. Sidewalks are in. Suburban .sprawl is out. Small-town charm is in. il's a welcome trend i>ack to the past called NeoTraditionalism." Kent/ands promotional brochure What really makes Kenrlands dif ferent was that it grew out of a proctss that emphasized the ere arion of an integrated. sociable place. rather than a collection of disparate building objects .. . By IJorrowing the best ideas [rom the past and applying them to the present. they ( DPZ/ are trying to create nothing less than an all-en compassing guide for a new :-tmerican urbanism: 'The new town. lite old ways. .. Edward Gurus. Archircture, /991 NEOTRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING LOCATION Kentland.s is located in suburbanizing metropoliun Washington, D.C .. in southwestern Gaithersburg. Maryland Gaithersburg, 15 miles north west of Washington D.C., is situated along Inter state 270, and the area is serviced by a METRO rail station CONDITIONS KenUands was designed as a new community which adhered to the Neo Traditional principles espoused by Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, yet incorporated a modem suburban element, a shop ping center. In 1988, developer Joseph Alfandre purchased a 352 acre farm in suburbanizing Gaithersburg but was disappointed in plans prepared by nationally recognized planning firms After bearing ar chitect Andres Duany speak at the Smithsonian. Alfandre was convinced that a better plan could be prepared by the firm of Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (DPZ) Duany and Plater-Zyberk planned Kentland.s in the manner used on all their projects: a seven-day long, intensive charrette. DPZ found that an intense design effort with participation of local desision mak ers leads to an understanding of and consensus for a project much more quickly and effectively than traditional planning processes. On June I. 1988, Duany and Plater-Zyberk initiated lhe Kentlands de sign charrette in the property's historic barn With developer Joseph Alfandre. their design team engaged local officials, architects, engi neers, planners. citizens, and the press, in developing a plan for the property. The first day entailed tours of the area to identify the ar chitecture and street patterns of pre-World War II neighborhood s Duany gave a public lecture that evening on the problems of contem porary development and the enduring. attractive qualities of traditional neighborhoods. The following six days and nights. the team worked in their makeshift office. Members of the community were invite d to visit. review the work. and discuss issues. At the end of the week a design for Kentland.s was realized in d raw ings, a code for buildings. and a draft of town bylaws. The work was presented on-site in a successful. well choreographed event. A c l tered dinner preceded a presentation by Joseph Alfandre to Gaithersburg officials Andres Duany then presented slides explaining the v i s ion for Kentlands as a pedestrian-oriented. and mixe d usc community. DPZ's Neo Traditional neighborhood principles arc based on th< premise that design influences people's behavior By drawing irum qualities of historic. pedesfrianstaJed neighborhoods. lhe d estgne:.( hope to foster a sense of community in their developments Th; Kentlands plan exhibits many of the principles. including: a gnd , narrow streets. on-street parking, alleys. shaded sidewalks. l mt:t 1'! housing types. houses close to the sidewa lk. front porches. tr:l dlllon:u INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATIO;<

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KENTLANDS 1rcnitcc tu ra l detail in and matS reached dunng the chmetet, but the final design sites mu c h or the puking near the community. A MidAtlanti c otnce of DPZ was esublis bed >t Kentl ands. and con sltiJttion or the community bepn in 1990 Sever>! homes and an ch!mcntMY school wer e completed. but the nation"s economy and Jvait >bility of capiut co used d i fficulties roc Atrandre & Comp:IJ\y lo 1991. Kenua nd s was take n over by Chevy Chase f e deral Savin g s B:llli:, and Alf:1ndre was reta i n e d 3 $ a cons u l tmt t o oversee lhe project lbe O re > t Seneca Development Company. a Bank subs i di>ry continue s tO develop the site :md its infr:tStructure according to the ori s i nal masterplan. As of July 1 993 3 16 o f the pl:mned 1700 homes were occu pi ed Some of the p r o posed u ses remli n to be buill. in c lud ing :t. doy care and church. The original far m bu i ldings u e bei n J a d > pt e d tu commu ni t y 3Dd c.:ul\unl uses. The r e cession t o 3 downsc:Ji n g l.)f lhc proposed shopping ccn1cr .:although it i.s c.un-e.ntly unde r con sttuction. or the i nacndcd ancbof or Nords-trom's tbe center w ill contai n :t K mJ.rt. supcrmJ.rket Lowe s home supply stoet Oririnillly eelt!br:n c d in design a.nd popu lilr jo urn a l s m its planrting $t3ges. K em13nds continues t o be prai s e d Time name d a s one or its "Bc.s t o f 1 991 Des i gn f eatur es whe n co n :u ruct ion wJs just underwa)'. In March 199 3. Wo.$hln; t onbn h i ghli ghted Kentl3.nd s .3.s o n e or the mcvopolit3Jl "Grut Neigh bor hoods". c h:uacteri1ing It w i th tl1c subti tle "beucr l i v ing by desig n ". COMMU NITY CONTEXT K nrlands had rh makinfS of a successful communiry from tht rcarr.. with its sratt(v man,sion and fanr. b uild(ngs dating {rom tht 1850l. tltree picturesq u e lakts, grtatSUJ.ntfS ojtrus and other m ature \ 'tget a t ioll. and abundan c e o{wi /dUf t ... Edward Gums. Arehilletuft, 199! n1e TND is nor11re IUiti tllrSts a f PUD bw i s dte tttV ttlltraJ i o': c tl Jay Parker. Urban LAnd. 19'!1 artu wt dtr cOtiSimc:wr. lejz : Jrrea vlew o,tlwm e s .\ : school a1 ' I -'\.. ---.. ... : --: '1=----' ==--=-.. .. -"=---=. Of.SIC:>:

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154 DEVELOPMENT "While Kenrlands is nor a realrown, its extent and irs planned inunsiry have enabled irs developers to pur sue townlike qualities in ilS realitation. AI the same time, tht cost of the land and other financial obligations havt precluded a long term growth strattgy.... All along, Kenrlands has not been competing with small-urwn America; it has been competing with other emerg ing planned communities in the area. .. William A. Winburn IV, Urban LDnd. 1992 "To make sure that individual build ings worke d together to form a uftijitd plan no mat:er how many builders became involved. the archi recrs developed rwo codes io guide development: the first ro regulate architectural features ... and rhe second 10 guide urban design, in cluding heights. widths, and setbacks." Edward Gums. Aruany's critique of contemporasy development inspired him to create a ttaditiooal neighborhood development, which could capture a unique niche in the metropolitan D.C. market TIME FRAME This project's brief history is marlced by the following: 1988 : Alfandre purchaSes Kent fann; DPZ hired to desigil Kentland$; firm holds charreue involving officials, citizens. and press 1990: hom e construction started by s e veral companies: Rachel Casson Elementary School built and opened 1 991: Chevy Chase Federal Savings Bank assumes project; reta ins Alfandte as development consultant 1993: 518 homes sold as or July: shopping center under construc tion to open in November REGULATIONS While officials and regulators were involved in the charreue. fu rther negotiations were required for approvals. Gaithersburg Planning staff reviewed the plan. and coordinated with other city departments. Com promises were reached on several issues. The fire department agreed to the proposed narrow sueets if houses were installed with sprin lclers. The designers opposed standasd meull guard rails where roads pass along lakes and were allowed to use tbeir preferred wooden rails. The city code prevented tree spacing closer than 12', but planners al lowed a 6' spacing. Garage aparunents were allowed. despite the city code's preclusion or tbem. and alleys were allowed Buildings ue sited and designed per DPZ's building code Kentlands' Homeowners Association. lcnown as the Citiuns Assembly, bas a unique bl e nd of executive. legislative and quasi-judicial fun ctions modeled after a mu nicipal government. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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KENTLANDS TYPES OF USES Kentlands was planned as a self-contained community. mixing 1.600 units of varying housing 1ypes. 900.000 square feel or commercial space, 1.2 million square fe.et of retail space. institutional and civic facilities. 3.nd recreational space. To date, the only structures comp l
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156 FORM "It is apparenJ /hal Ken1iatiiU is no/ going 10 become some kind of sub urban Disneyland.. . If anything, Ken/lands has /he opposite probltm: it's no/ lively enough. The streets are le"s crooked and cranky than the pottnl charre/le drawings hinted they would be, Houses in the Old Farm noighborhood are more homogenous than lhty were sup posed 10 be. some public amenities have been eliminated, and the muchdesired social mix i s not evident. -Edward Gunts. Architecture, /991 below: residential lots and loop road along lake right: circulatio n diagram NEOTRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNIN G BOUNDARIES Kenllands is bounded primarily by divided arterial roadways. allhougb tbe National Geograpbic Society bird sanctuary boWlds iiS eastern edge, 'The road boWldaries are: Great Seneca Highway along !be nonb, Quinc e Orchard Road along !be west, and Darnestown Road along lhe soulh, An unrelated development lhe comtr of Quince Orchard Road and Darnestown Road, CIRCULA TJON A series of irregular grids define Kentlands' circulation patt e rn. aJIhough the northern portioo of !be site is isolated by a wide boulevard This boulevard creates a triangular shaped area occupied by lbe shopping center. multi-family uniiS, and undeveloped land. One olber boule vard is included in lhe community, This boulevard starts at Darnestown Road, moves through a circular open space. and continues norlb to the historic mansion, where it splits as a horseshoe around the mansion and recreation facilities. West of tbe boulevard, streets create a grid of long blocks. Two cross streets tie back into !he horseshoe, East of lhe boulevard. a mix of block patterns is created in response to the site's Jakes. Two roads start at the horseshoe and move south: one links with a district furlber east. and one ties back to the boule vard A loop road. sited between lalces. also Jinks to lhe eastern distric t The southern corner contains a grid extending (rom the boulevard. The eastern district extends from tbe wide bOulevard at a landscaped circle which also marks the shopping center entry. Residential streets are narrow from 20' to 28' wide Several contain a Jane for on-stree t parking. B l ocks are divided by alleys as well a s pedestrian paths. Sidewalks line the streets. run across long b locks. and meander tbe lakes and open space to connect all parts of lhe community. 'JNTF,GRATJNC COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATI O;>:

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KENTLANDS COMMUNITY Kentlands is desi&ned with five thematic neighbOrhoods. each with a street grid and a civic or commercial center: the Old Farm. wh1cb c-enters around tbe historic farm buildings and recreatioo faa cilitiC$: the Main Street, with offices and aparlments over shops: the M_idtown, with a mix ture of housing types and a central &J'ten; the Htll, which slopes down to the lakes: and the Garehouse, which is located near Darnes town Road and focu ses on a circular open space t o be surrounded by civic buildings and the elementary sc h ool. None Of the development faces its bOrdering roads, excep!the shopping cen ter Originally designed to terminate the Maio Street, shopping center buliding s are dispersed and are oriented to the adjacentlligbway. OPEN S PA C E KenUaDds' open space defines community boundaries and activity centers The natunlislic seuings created b y four Ja.ku and wood lands mark the eastern boundary. Fingers or woodlands extend west and north between neighborhoods. The laku were created as a pas toral En&lish style landscape in the 1920s. bur are well integrated with the adjacent sanctuary. The largest la ke will have a boathouse/ bandsheiL The west bOunda r y or the site is buffered from an adja cent development by a swath or exi stin g wood l and. More formal open space OCCUr$ as a parkway and as termini to roads and pathways. A circular open space near D arnestown Road is a foreground for the school, a church. other civic structures and t ownhouses The school's playfield s are located along the edge of the p roperty The bOulevard terminates on a formal green crowned b y t.he hisloric mansion. Tennis courts. other recreatio nal facilities are located behind the mansion Smaller gree n s ace sited within neighborho ods. FlORIDA CENTER F 0 R COMMUNITY 157 FORM "Eat:h disrricr in a TND is a smalltr version of the whole town. with tar plan calls for oM district anchored by a a cllurch. a child cart facility. aNl a cornu stou: a sec orui district anchortd b y a cultural center to be housed ir. the proptrry's existi ng e111/y 20th-century mansion barn an.d firehouse. a town etnttr with intensive shopping facilities: and an econ o mi ca ll y independent commerc ial center." William A Winburn IV. Urban Land. 1992 below: la.tes aM woodlands pre served as OfMn SfJ
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158 DIMENSIONS The first residential phases reflect several key neotraditional design principles. Houses are close to the street: lots and setbacks are gener ally small: houses feature porches or stoops oriented toward (and vis ible from) the street: and street widths are narrower than those typical of the area. Lloyd Bookout Urban Land 1992 right: tiisrancts {rom historic farm mansion NEOTRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING AREA The Kentlands development occupies 352 acres. of which 64 acres is reserved as open space and wetlands. POPULATION According to the KenUaods Information Center in July 1993, 316 uniiS were occupied, and the population was estimated at 550. The total number of residential units will reach I, 700 at build-out, with an esti mated population of 5,000. Kentlands is located in Gaithersburg, a growing suburban Washington D C. community of 39,542 according to the 1990 Census. Incorporated in 1858, Gaithersburg contains a historic district. and is considered rlle social and cultural center of Montgomery County. DENSITY DPZ's on-site architect Mike Watson stares that densities range from 4.5 to dwelling units per acre in mixed use areas. Residential units include detached houses, townhouses, condominiums. and apan ments Single family bouse lots vary in size from 1,000 squate feet to one-quarter acre (10.890 square feet). The standatd Jot width is 22' for a row house, and other units ate built on multiples of Ibi s lot. Small detached houses ate b uilt on 44' wide Jots, large houses arc built on 66' wide lots and 88' wide lots accommodate "estate houses FLOOR AREAS The masterplan for Kenrlands includes 900 000 sqUate feet of oifie< space and 1.2 million squate feet of commercial space. The shop ping center under construction will have 300,000 squate feel of sp>
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KENTLANDS Consistent with Neo Traditional principles, Kenllands was designed to encourage pedestrian Ita vel. to slow automobile !tactic. The streets were designed in section, with corridors defined by tbe build ing faces, not the edge of rlgbtOf-way. Homes ue designed to be close to tho s tr eet and close to eacb other. Porcbes ue provided along the front face to encourage informal conv ersat ions between reidents and passers by. Recreational, civ ic, and commercial destinations ue provided within neigbbo
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160 TJRANSPOJR!A TION ANALYSIS beJo.,: on-street parking along nar row one-wa. v street right: t vpica/ neighborhood srreeucape NEOTRADITIONAL TOWN PLANNING to reach the school, however, s i nce the boulevard passes though the circular open space which fronts the school. automobile: The nearby Interstate 270 provides a direct linlc with the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area, and most residents are com mute rs at this time. Without tbe commetciaJ development, residents al so must use their vehicles for shopping trips. Within the commu nity, however, the design of the roadway system and parkillg areas lessens the impact of automobiles in the co!DIDUnity. Streets are much nwower than contemporary d e velopments, on-street par Icing reduce s the area required for p&rkillg lots, and all eys &re provided to take ga rages off the street Traffic speeds tend-to be lower, given the frequent intersect ions created by the grid pattern, tbe nwow lane.s, and th e p&rked cars alongside tbe travel lanes. subway: The Shady Grove Metrorail station is located witbin four miles of the site. Kentlands is slated to be connected to the station in the future. It may also be linked to n e arby MARC commuter-rtil stations by Montgomery County "Ride-On" mini-buses. The ra i l commute t o dow ntown Washington D.C. takes approximately a 30 minutes INTeGRAT I N G COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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. . ,.. II, , . 0, URBAN URBAN . /II' .. ... \ I . .. SERVICE GROWTH 161 . I . '41 . AREAS AREAS F 0 R l 0 A C E N T E R F 0 R C 0 M U N I T 0 E S l G N E S A R :

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162 INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS AND TRANSPORTATION

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URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS FLORIDA CASE STUDY ORANGE COUNTY .... ,. DRAFT I 8.30. 93 163 F L 0 R I D A C E N T E R F 0 R C 0 M M U N I T Y 0 E S I G N + R E S E A R C II

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164 CONTEXT "II is tht orang t blossom 'bourne' from which no traveler wishes 10 return ... with thousands of lofry and spreading oak uees of age and com forting shade, and majestic pints, fantastically feswoned with Spanish moss. kissing the blue sky of Heaven: and a multitude of palms. ferns, tropical plants and flowers." brochure on Central Florida, c. 1920 from Mort Than a Memory top: Central Florida Research Park bollom: downtown Orlando right: entry to Disney World LOCATION URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS Orange County is located in central Aorida. with Orlando as its County Seat. CooL1iniDg Disney World and olher lheme paries, Orange County is an international tourist destination, and il serves as a transporta tion and tecbnological center for lhe state. CONDITIONS Wilh a mild climate and attractive natural setting, Orange County has witnessed several booms of growth It was settled in lhe 1840s. when the Armed Occupation Act entitled homesteaders to 160 acre tracts Its first boom came in lhe 1880s with lhe railroad line, which passed through Winter Parle and Orlando on a route across the state The railroad brought toorism and trade, as weallhy families from lhe North came to escape winter. The second boom came with Aorida s 1920s land speculation, as disjolDied subdivisions surrounded existing com munities. In the 1950s, Orange County more than doubled its population. as a result of lhe federal space program in Brevard County. Manin Marietta L ocated in Orange County, bringing 4,000 aerospace related jobs. The company's workforce increased to over 11.000 by lhe mid 1960s The University of Central Aorida was approved in 1965 for 1200 acres in east Orange County. The University attracted several high techno l ogy firm s to a nearby research park. Today, according 10 i t s 1992 Comprehensive Plan, Orange County is "one of lhe fastest growing high technology centers in the nation" (p. 6). INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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ORANGE COUNTY In lbe Jut 20 years, new tourism i ndustry also brought ttemendous growth Walt Disney World opened in remote southwestern Oran g e County in 1971. and became a nation .. and international tourist des tination Other theme parks. hotels. and shopping centers subsequently developed ilong lbe l-4 corridor, and recent developmenl3 include motion picture and television operations. Given growll!-related service and infruttucrure demands across the scate. growth management plans were required of all j urisdictiOns in 1980. Orange Collnty prepared a Growth Mnagement Poticy wbieb idenlilied an Urban Service Area u !he prinury cool to policies to preserve their cbuatter. The Urban Service Area w>s origi nally delineatec! co phase capital ouclay for public services and facilities in a cost effective manner; development patterns were a peripheral issue. The 1985 Compreheosive Plan c:tlled for Activhy Centers with a mix of urban c!evet opment for an efficient c!ellvery of services The 1990 Plan focusec! on an efficient c!evelopmem pauem, recommending "a p hysic:Ui y and func'tional l y in tegra ted land deve l opment pauem" (p. 12/). P oli cies and mechanisms t o e n couroge this goa l inc lucie pro v isio ns for A c tiv ity Cen ters, Urban Villages, and Tradit ional N e i gh b o rh ood Deve l opments, anc! of redevelopment and infi U proj e c ts. Despite these initiatives large projects continue t o be dev el op ed on the periphery or the Urban Service Are>. The bounc!aries are expande d co accommodate the recommended 15 year supply or land Proposec! Developments or Regional Impact (DRis) whicb are contiguou s to the bounc!ary and meet ocher criteria are also annexec! within the boun d ary. One sucb project is the 5000 acre Avalon Park, advertisec! as a Traditional Neighborhood DevelopmenL Chris Testerman. a chief planner for the County's Comprehensive Planning Department, pre dicts that in 50 years, all or Orance Cou nty will be within the Urban Service Area. :'LORIDA CENTER FOR CCMMVNITY 165 CONTEXT AltiJJrWIIJt Mali...JIJJJ been a delight for ruidcus and touritrs alil:t buJ it IIJJJ tllso =ed StmDran Boulevard near /-4 10 gain the derisivt appel/4Jion of 'th e world 's longw parting loL -Jerrell H. SMfntr. 1984 "II is not the Cowtty s irutntto prt all agricult1.4 ral lands ir: perp
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166 D-EVELOPMENT "The Orange Counry area is consid ered the number one visitor de.stinarion in the world. primarily to the two billion dollar Walt Disnq World resort, with annual auendance exceeding 25 million visitors a year." Orange County Plan Future Land Ust Element, 1992 top : Win.demere Reserve a new development in urban s ervice area bottom: University of Central Florid a entrance PLAYERS URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS The Board of County Commissioners approves die Comprehensive Plan and its delineation of the Urban Service Area, which is also re viewed and approved by the State Department of Community Affairs. Planning departments within die County and its cities implement die requirements of the Urboul Service Area and identify potential ase:u of inclusion. MOTIVATION Motivations for Orange County's growdl include its climate acces sibility, and later, the location or-facilities such as the nearby John F. Kennedy Space Center The University of Central Florida was sited in eastern Orange County to establish a relationsllip witb die Space Center; bigb techDology companies located near the University with a similar motivation. Walt Disney World created a masket that drew development of other tourist attractions. TIME FRAME lmponant dates in the recent growth of Orange County and its Urban Service Area include: 1956: Martin Marietta opens as Martin Company 1965 : Walt Disney World announces plans for theme park Florida Technological University approved 1968: U.S Naval Training Center opens Florida Technological University opens (name later changed to University of Central Florida ) 1971: Walt Disney World opens 1980: Comprehensive Plan issued. witb Urban Service Area 19 85 : Activity Cent e rs dermed in updated Plan 1990: Urban Service Area expanded for updated Plan FUNDING Much of the funding for development was private, but rela ted to the development of public institutions such as die Space Center. The in vesunent of Walt Disney World brought substantial private development which reQuired substantial public investment of services and inira sttucture. REGULATIONS The Urban Service Area is designated in the Land Use Element of the County's Comprehensive Plan This Plan identifies the Area boun d aries and sets goals, policies, and objectives which define whe r e and how growth may occur. Public infrastructure investments. and de termination of land uses and zonin2 are deterntined by the Plan. The Pian i s changed by amendmentS and 5 year updates INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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ORANGE COUNTY TYPES OF USES The Councy's Comprehen sive Plan identifies a full range of uses, in eluding agriculture. residential, commerci31, offic e indusuial. Institu tional. uansponation and utilities, and recreation Residential development comprises llle largest peccenu.ge of devel oped land in llle county at 40.4%. Unde veloped land. lllat which is vacant or comprised of upland vegeutlon, makes up 27.7
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168 FORM Aucomobiles and accessories haw: made Orlando the greatest auto mart in the Statt. ln keeping with ils position. the center of the Stau highway systtm, six trWilc highways converging ro and rhrough Orange A venue direcrly pass rhe doors of rhe Florida Srare Auromobile Asso ciaJion. -1921 Orlando Board of Trade booklet. from More Than a Memory, 1975 tcp: new development outside of urban service area bottom: historic community of GotJia. wish tree-cOvered roads right: circulalion diagram BOUNDARIES U R B A N S E R Y I C E R S URBAN GROWTH The Urban Service Are.> boundary is defined by develop! u,. and urban density land uses ::as well as sufficient land to !c:::ommodate development needs of the next 15 years. The is expanded t o meet this criterion as well as to absorb adjoiaiDg opments of RegionallmpaCL CIRCULATION The Urban Service Area is divide!! by a network of intt:stat! : ighways and expressways which.iote'rsect at downtown Oril.Ddc in surroun ding outlying areas. A fmer grid of arterial, ccilec:c,. md local streets exist in older col'lltDUIIitiell. Winding, dead-ene loCi! "'"ts are found in newer subdivisions within the Urban Arl!:!.. The form of all roadways i s modilitd by the pre.senct of Jakes. Orlando I nternat iona l Airport plays an imponant role i < !he :::::> of circulation and community. Located in the south.centti p!r: U rban Service Area, highways exte nd north, west. and <'-l! ;,_= : :o connect with major activity centers :tnd destinations bey .. -.nd. '71 ... t /''R'Pr"T INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTA: :

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ORANGE COUNTY COMMUNITY The form or land uses is varied by the time or development and rela tionship with an incorporated community Lorge areas o r the unincorporlted County are composed or single fllllily re sidential de velopment. with littl e change in density or use. The pollcies of the Urban Service Area encourage the development of mixed-use h i gher den sity cen t ers called Activity Centers. Urban Villages, and Tradi tional N eighbor hood DevelopmenL Redevelopment and in(ll l are also encouraged to c reate more diverse community pattern s. Nodal developme nt is apparent in downtown Orlando. where a con centra t ion of commerci al and office development is surrounded by residential neighborhoods Other centers of development are defined in the County's Comprehensive plan as: Walt Disney Woridlln t ema tional Drive, University of Centra l Florida/Reseucb Puk/Manin Muleua. Maitland Center, and Orlando International Airport These centers are cboracterized by pockets of buildings surrounded by ex pansive parldng lots Outside these centers, strip commercial development characterites sev eral arterials, including In t erna t ional Drive. Colonial Drive, .nd Orange Blossom TraiL OPEN SPACE Public open space includes city county and state puk s and recre a ti ona l facilities Several parks are located around the lakes sca ttered across the Coun ty. Gol f cou rses and agricullural land nlso contrib ute to open sp ace Und e v eloped lond is found primarily ot the bounduies of the Urban Se rvic e Ar e a FLORIDA CENTER F 0 R --.--. .,.. COMMI::-IITY FORM top: Chich Strut Station in do" town Orlan historic cottages in Gorius bottom: pla:a in downtown Orlando left: 11II1P slwwing signifiCQJU dt:'tl opment within tltt t .rban arta i>ESIG!<

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170 DIMENSIONS top: widerud ConroyWindemere Road bottom: downtown szreet right: distances from downtown Orlando wirhin urban service area AREA URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS O=ge County coot:l.ins about 1,003 squase miles, or 642,360 >cres: less than 3S\1& i s developed. about10\1& is water (Land Use E:!ement, p. 15). The Urban Service Area boundary identified in 19SO con taine d 165,335 acres. By 1987, the boundasy expanded 10 172.819 acres, of which 110.963 were developed (Land Use Element, p. 35). POPULATION Orange County's population increased most dramatically betwetn 1950 and 1960, when it increased by 129%. The population increlSed by 31% between 1960 and 1970 and 36% between 1970 and 19SO. and by 28% between 1980 and 1987. The e stimated population of Or ange County in 1987 was 603.339 (Land Use Element, p. m. The County estimates the 2010 population to be 97!,100, with of the population living in the unincorporated County (p. 75). DENSITY Densities within the Urban Service Area vasy greatly. The hensive Plan encourages nodal development. w ith higher densiCts that could suppon pedestrian and transit travel. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTA7ION

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ORANGE COUNTY The Urban Service Area of Orange County relies on its roadway net worl< for ttanspo
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172 TRANSJPORJATION ANALYSIS In the early '80s the safety bicycle found many buyers i n Orlando and a club was formed in 1892 and iiS members used the race track and w ood paths until the a r riva l of brick p a v ement The n cam e the tandem and laler zhe motorcycle and auto. E.H Gore, History of Orlando. f r o m More Than a Memory, 1975 top : Ly n x bus stop at Univ ersity of C enrral F lor i da bouom: Church St rut Station i n downtown Orlando r i ght: d o wntown bus station URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS bus: Orange County is served by Lynx, the TriCounty Mass Trons i t System which opemtes bus.!s for Orange Osceola and Sernillole COWl ties. In the University of Central Florida area, a bus I iDe called "Laser" provides local service for the research technology parkS, lbe Univer sity and the Naval Training Center. This line is said to be used extensively by students. bicycle: Bicycles were used extensively in communities of Orange County at the tum of the century. Paved roadways winding through and between communities created an setting wbicb inspired bicycle clubs. Today, bicycle facilities are provided on recently widened roads. Bicycle use is common with students in the University area The 1992 Comprehensive Plan identifies desired mixed use development pat terns wbicb would facilitate pedestrian and bicycle use pedestrian: Orang e County's 1992 Comprehensive Plan r e cogn i zes lbe lack of a pedestrian environment outside the historic downtowns and neigbborboo
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173 I" '"'" ---I Il l 'NATIONAL C A S E STUDY PO"RTLAND, OREGON .. . ;' ,,.1 --.--' FLORIDA :oMMl"l'l[":Y ........

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174 CONTEXT "Citizens of the region want com forulble and secure neighl>orhoods. ready access to employment and recreational opportunities. and a continuation and improvement in the qualiry of life METRO, Region 2040: Shaping the Choices for Growth, October 1992 below: civic plaza in downtown Penland right: Rose Garden v i ew across downtown towards Columbia River, location of affluent suburban homes LOCATION URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS The urban growlh area o/ Porlland encompasses mucb o/ !he Willamette Valley of northwestern Otegon. some 60 miles from the Pacific Ocean. The growth boundary iDcludes portions of three counties and 26 cit ies in !he metropolitan Porlland region. CONDITIONS Unlike urban service areas which focus on efficient provision of public services, urban growth areas ar e id entified to delineate the boundary of development based on projected growth demands While use of urban growth areas was relatively new in the United States, Oregon's 1973 J..and Conservation and Development Act mandated that urban gr owth boundaries be designated for all incorporated cities. Oregon's forest and farm land was being consumed by what then-governor Tom McCall described as the "ravenous ramp age of suburbia (LAngdon. p. 139 ). Metropolitan PorUand. with urban development extending lhrough some 26 incorporated cities in three counties. formed an elected regional government called the Metropolitan Services District (METRO) An urban growth boundary was delineated in 1 980 by METRO, and it bas been expanded only slighUy since. The d e linea tion of !he growlh boundary included sufficient land for projected growth needs through the year 2000, with an additional 15. 8% of land added as a "market factor". This factor allows flexibility in !he si ti ng of development. and is intended to ease land values. Despite !he preservation of forest and farm lands outside Ule urban growth area, much of the recent development wilhin the boundary re mains at a low density. Langdon notes !ha t "the character of what's "INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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PORTLAND been buill seems hard to distinguish from California spr>wl an in dictment in a state known Cor bumper sti c kers imploring 'Don't Californicate Oregon'" (Landscape Archi r eczurt. June 1992, p. 46). Recognizing this problem, METRO initiated "Region 2040" in 1990, a process to identify the desired pattern of growlb for metropolitan Portland. The process involved sign ificant public participation in cluding a regional growth con!erence in 1992 nationally reca&n l u:d experts; resident mailings and surveys; and public meetings Result$ will guide an amendment to lbe urban growth boundary in 1 994. A random 1urvey showed \bat while residents liked the quaJily of life and access to amenities "three out or live felt the quality of life would be worse in 20 years" (METRO, p.J). A lis ti ng of desired develop ment forms wa s used 10 evaluate three alternative regional growth concepts. These concepts featured: one allowing current policies, one focusing growth within tbe existi ng boundary, and one suppon ing centers of growth along the edge of the boundary. Public review of lbe concepts is scheduled lbrou&b 1993. although Portland City Council bas supponed focusing on growth in the existing bou ndary Additionally, a national demonstration proj e ct is exp loring an her native to a proposed bypau freeway around Ponlan d by reorganizing land use panems for greater densities along a proposed rail line within the urban g r owth boundary This project, "Malting lbe l.ond Use, Transpomtion, Air Quality CoMection" (I.UTRAQ). is a designated a l ternative for lb e freeway' s Environmenta l I mpact Statement. The projec t is coo r dinated by lbe 1000 Friends ol Oregon, wllb funding from seven! foundati ons, METRO. ond the U.S. Environmental Pro tection Agency. Callborpe Associates recognized foe "pedestrian pocket" planning is a key COD3ultant FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 17 5 CONTEXT "LiJre a wtll run themt park. Portland is a clt-011 and rarionol ciry. Ju downtown is srirc.htd togerhu a muuponation thatefficiwly circulatu ptoplt rhrough a trid e range of urban ep i UJIUS Gideon Bo3ktr and una uncek. A r chitt
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176 DEVELOPMENT ''Tom Walsh the general manager oj Tri-Mer. estimates tha t it would cost $100.000 per household ro build alltlte injrascructure that has IJeen proposed to continue the Portland area's current somewhat disconnected jorr11 of development." Plti/ip Langdon. Atlantic .11onthly. November 1992 PLAYERS URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS Public sector regulate the allowable development within the Urban Growth Area. and include: Metropolitan Services Disuict (METRO. an elected regional government). and governments of 24 cities and three counties within the Urban Growth Area. Private de velopers ultimately create the built environment, at densities frequently lower than allowed. MOTIVATION Oregon's 1973 Land Conservation and De.velopment Acuequired in corporated cities to designate urban growth boundaries. Recognizing the extent and pattern of development in the mettopolitan Penland area, a regional government association or governments forme d to underulce a comprehensive and coordinated approach t o delineating growth boundarie-s. TIME FRAME Key dates for Portland's urban growth area include: 1973: Oregon Land Conservation and Development Act requires cities to designate urban growth boundaries 1977: Columbia Region Association of Governments Corms and pro poses a metropolitan Portland growth boundary which is approved by the state 1979: Metropolitan Services District (METRO) cr eated as counuy s first elected regional government 1980: METRO defines urban growth boundary 1989: urban growth area assessed to have sufficient land to 2010 1992: Region 2040 process identifies plans Cor growth 1994: urban growth boundary amended per Region 2040 plan FUNDING Public funds are used to determine and administer the urban growth area. REGULATIONS METRO. Portland's elected adntinisters the u rban growth boundary Each jurisdiction conducts its own planning. in conformance growth area requirements. such as a provision tbat half its new housing be allowed as multi-family. The growth boundary limits where urbandensity development can occur. maximum allow able densities are desi8J1ated Cor areas within and outside the bOundary. Exception lands. those unsuitable Cor farming or forestry are identi fied outside the boundary for higher densities. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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PORTLAND TYPES OF USES All u ses o f a community are evident in Ule mctrop<> litan Portland re gion. Thes& uses are identified in 2040 documents as building bloclc! of a co mmunity: restdenual. mdustnOll, commerctal, and publi c and open space. The proposals group u ses by levels of intensity, which are by the density of eacll use, pruximity or uses to each other. and primary means o r ttansponation. I NTEGRATION OF USES Integration o r uses wil!lin Portland's growth area varies greatly Older neighborhoods and the centtal bus mess d1stnct contain a m i x or u ses within the same block or even the same building. Post World w ar 11 and mor e recent developments are cha racterized by larg e at eas of single uses and densities. For future gr
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178 FORM "Urb411 growth aretu art one of the techniques used 10 implement ef!ec rive growth management. One of th ei r chief strengths as a growth m.aJUJge.ment tool is rhe rtquirtmtnt for regional cooperation. because it is ultimately the fragmented nature of land-use decision making in art gion that conrribures most to sprawL V Gail Easley, S1111illg l1Uidetlre Lines: Urhlzn Growth Boursdarics. 1992 below: Porland strettscape right: circulation diagram BOUNDARIES URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS The boundaries or Portland's urban growth area were determined by identifying existing areas. and identifying the lane! needed to accommodat e projected growth through the year 2000. The north boundary is the Columbia River. wbicb also serves as the st.au: line. The otber boundaries to follow the major highways, ancl are shaped by the loation or surrounding communities, developed ueas. alld potential development ueas. Fum and forestlands were to be preserved by designation or tile boundaries CIRCULATION The major transportation corridors are roughly radial in nature, with PorUand's business dlsuict in the cenu:r. One interstate ring, 1-405 wraps uouncl cenual Portland. An incomplete interstau: highway ring wraps uouncl the east and sou them meuopolitan area or Portland A ligbt rail uansil line runs east and west from tbe dOwntown Port land. The Banfield Line runs 15 miles to the east and links with the community o( Gresbuo. A 12 mile line is now under consuuction to connect with Beaverton to the west. This line is planned to exu:nd further west to development at the outer edge of the urban growth area. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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PORTLAND COMMUNITY Uses within lhe urban growth are3 are org3.Diz.ed u hisaorie mixed use conununities and. neighborhoods. whb more mono-functional development Occurring between them and along major highways Existing employment centers include: downtown Portland; Wilsonville to lh e south : Tigud. Tualatin and Bea verton to lbe west; deve l opment along Highway 217 south of Beave n o n : lll e airport ar ea; and deve lopment along I -2 0S in the s oulbeas t OPEN S PA C E Signific:ull ope n space in the urban growth area includes lbe Willameue River :111d Its Ooodplain which bisect the urban growlh aru north to south. The West Hills along the wes t ern bo r der of Portland have pro vided setting for large City parb and goudens. This is put or "Forty-Mile Loop" of continuous Datutal and scenic areu planned by the Olmsted Brothers Recent acquisition or an abandoned rail line mak es th e loop 140 miles. according to a city Jand. scape arcbi teet A wacer(ront puk along me river muks lhe uscem edge of downtown Portland wher e a highway once ran. Pioneer Co urthous e Square. a one-block: plu.l in tbe center of downrown. was crealed in 1980 3S 3 recent cente r of civic FLORIDA CENTER FOR 179 FORM "OW!rlooking flat W i llomtll< Rivtr on the easurn tdgt ()/ downro,.,n, th e 1.2 -milt-lon: Tom McColl Wo lfrjrom Park--mt>4e poJJible t/1< 1970s removal ofafreew.vOCCOm modaits everything from muJiC j'eszivals 10 toot races. n.o1 10 men r ion d owntown lunch crowds." Philip lAngdon November 1992 "In Porrland. Oregon. (o) plon ... tu creare a cirywidt lirtictd S)ISClm of parks i s ... being cortStructed ... t o ere are rhe country"s jirsr citywide lir.Ud wildlife-refuge J)'sttm. Tony HU1. Jonua,., 1991 h
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180 DIMENSIONS "Curren< conrr o/s have generated denser dtvelopmntthan found else where. But its not compact enough to produce walkabk suburban com munit ies or to avoid reliance on autos. -Philip Langdon, November 1992 "The region' s u r ban growth bound aries, established J 2 years ago. have discouraged leapfrog develop ment and preserved agricultural land -Philip Langdon, November J 992 right : d i stances from downrown Portland within the urban growth bounda0 AREA URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS The urban growth area 362 square miles or 223,000 acres, and in cludes 24 cities, 60 special disuicts. and parts of three counties. Only 2 515 acres have been added to the urban growth area since 1979 The area includes a market factor or 15.8%, representing a surplus of that percentage of land if growth oceurs according to proj e ctions for the year 2000. POPULATION While estimates of Portland's meuopolitan area range as 1.4 million. with 453,000 within the cily limits (Langdon, p. 134), METRO iden tifies a 1990 population of 1.061,000 within the urban growth area. METRO projects an 22% increase by 2010, with an added 240,000 people; and a 47% increase from 1990 is expected by 2040 with an added 500,000 people within the urban growth area (METRO p.2}. DENSITY Densities of development within the urban areas and the urbanizabl e areas of the growth boundary are not reaching the i r allowable limits. For example, areas with target residential densities of six to I 0 uni s per acre are averaging only fiv e units per a c r e About 50% o f the metropolitan area's first-class office space is in ihe cenual city down from 90% in 1970 (Langdon p. J 39/. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTAT IO!"

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PORTLAND The city of Portland was founded In 1852. in a time when pedestrian and horse-drawn carriages were the only forms of transportation The downtown area retains a pede strian scale. As automobiles beclll\e a more CODli'DQ.n form o f uan.$pottaUon, tllc meuopoUta.n area ex.pandc.d with lower dens ity development. Interstate highways were built to link with the downtown and rin& it. In areas which developed after World War II 92% of all vehicle trips have one person in tlle ve hicle More recent infrastructure inves tments and plans for grow area focus on increased reliance of rail transit. Today ... nearly 40 percent of downtown employees travel to work on light rail or buses one of the highest rates of public transit use in the United States" (Langdon. p. JJ8). automobile: Several major highways thread through the growth area or metropOlitan Portland. and p r ovide the major source of infrastruc ture for comm uters Growth has shown to rely on auto transpOrtation: Langdon states that "total miles driven in the Portland Area jumped SS% during the 1980s" (Langdon. p 139). This empba.sis on automobile transportation as the a.ssumed primary form metropOlitan mobility has chan ged in recent yeats. however In the late 1970s, a limit was placed on the number of parking spaces in lhe downtown core To avoid traffic congestion, air pOllution, and a reduced quality of life, Oregon adopted a Transportation Plannina Rule in 1991. This rule "requ ires Oregon's four largest melropalllan ar eas to reduce vehi cle miles traveled by 10 percent over th e next 20 years and 20 percent within 30 years" by creatin g a land-use and density F L ORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 181 'JI'RANSPORTA TION ANAJLYS! S "The (MAX) system's grtalesr im pact has betn ftlt 1 '11 downcow11. PonltJnd where the system's right of way takes up half Of three principal streets in rhe core retail area. The early decision t o route MAX through the middle of key development ar eas. than along their frittge.s. encouraged dt\'tlopment to occur sinwlrant ouslv w ith constructiott ci the system. -Gordon Wright.
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182 TRANSJPOR'fATION ANALYSI S top: Porrland .ttreetscape prior to trolley bottom: Portlarul with trolley URBAN SERVICE AREAS URBAN GROWTH AREAS pauerns which support alternative forms of transportation (Marya. Planning, March 199], p. JJJ. Highway development has also met challenges. An interstate high way along downtown Portland's riverfront was removed in the 1970s and replaced by a park More recently, a proposed extension of the interstate highway outside the urban growth area has been opposed by groups such as 1000 Friends of Oregon. The state IIWldated that the proposed highway extension's Environmental Impact Statemen t include an alternative of a new rail transit line within the growth area. This alternative includes focusing bigher intensities of development around transit stations. Under the leadership of 1000 Friends of Or egon, the alternative is described in a current study called "Making the Land Use, Transportation, and Air Quality Connection" (LU1'RAQ). The study will demonstrate and quantify an interaction between land use, transportation, and ai r quality. rail transit: In the I 980s tremendous investment was made in rail tran sit within the urban growth area. In 1986. a 15 mile long light rail corridor from downtown east to Gresham opened. The "Metro politan Area Express" (MAX) alignment connected dev e loped areas, and paralleled the B:lllfield Freeway in pan. Each of the 29 station areas were designed to balance preservation of existing neighborhoods with opportunities for station-related development. This system is cited as the impetus for over Sl billion of development at downtown and other stations, including a mixed-use project by the Rouse Com pany. Construction is underway fo r a I2 mile line between downtown Portland and Beaverton. Future plans for growth rel y heavily on the use of high-capacity rail and public transit. bus: In the early I970s, the privately owned bus sys t ems went bank rupt. A new transit authority Tri-Met, was created i n the late 1970s. and an alUactive 22 block long bus mall w:1.1 built downEown. This renewal of bus service coincided with the limit on downtown parking spaces. pede5trlan: The downtown area has served a pedestrian scale since its init i al development. Its 200' x 200' blocks allow access and choice to pedestrians Much of the suburban development does not address pedesuian mobilit y however. The Region 2040 plan calls for improved pedestrian an d bicyc l e mobility in future d evelopment pauems within the urban growth area. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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183 SPRAWL CENTE R O E S I GI'I

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1 84 SPRAWL INTEGRATING COMMUNITY D E SIGN AND T RANSPORTATION

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" ' \ FLORIDA CASE STUDY IDALE MABRY HIGHWAY, ILLSBOROUG OUNTY ..r . ;. ';""': ;--:, . ,.i' . .. ... . . 1 8 5 ::.=-ooo::. ; I '' 0 0 >.. I F L l ) R I 0 A C E N T R F
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186 CONTEXT .. When John F. Kennedy was inau gurared in 1961, rhere was lirrle in northwest Hillsborough County excepr orange g r oves, pastures and Carrollwood The Tampa Tribune, July 25. 1993 below: inttrrupred sidewalks along Dale Mabry near Kennedy Boule vard right: c/urtered view of Dale Mabry sourh of Kennedy Boulevard SPRAWL LOCATION Dale Mabry Highway passes through the city of Tampa and Hillsbor ough County. extending north from MacDill Air Force Base at the tip of Tampa's peninsula to Land 0' Lakes in southern Pasco County. It is situated three miles west of Tampa's Central Business District, and marks the eastern boundary of the Westshore District. Tampa's "edge city" near the Tampa International Airport. CONDITIONS Originally built as a militasy transportation route connecting MacDill Air Force Base with Drew Air Field d!lring World Was II Dale Mabry Highway has become a major asteria! lined with strip commercial de velopment and used by suburban commuters. MacDill Air Force Base filli ng the southern end of the Tampa peninsula, was built between 1939 and 194 I. Drew Air Field was constructed eight miles north of MacDill, and following the Was, was developed as Tampa Interna tional The highway connecting the two air fields was dedicated in 1943 in memory of World Wu I Asmy Captain Dale Mabry, a Aorida native who was the brother of a Hillsborough County Commissio ner and son of a former Florida Supreme Court chief j ustice Mabry was killed in 1922, at the age of 30, when the dirigible he was test flying crashed. When fim constructed at a cou of $1 million. Dale Mabry Highway was a two-lane road extending from the Base gate 10 Hillsborough A venue, at the north end of Drew Field. Development following the Was led 10 its extension north from Hillsborough Avenue 10 Land O'Lakes. This exten sion was completed in the early 1950s, when INTEGRATIN G COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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SPRAWL Charlie Johns was governor. Local histori:lll Hampton Dunn notes that Governor Johns originally opposed the extension because he felt i t wou ld take development away from the Sul phur Springs area of Tampa. where Johns' local business associates had investments Governot Johns' concerns proved well-founded. While considered a part of Tampa since its dedication, Dale Mabry Highway wasn't within the city limits of Tampa until 1953. when annexation engulfed the nine mile long section of the highway from MacDill Ait Force Base to just north of Hillsborough Avenue Tampa adopted its zoning code in 1956 and much of the land facing Dale Mabry was zoned com mercial, wilh cesidential zoning immediately behind. This zoning designation. wilh the subsequent boom of development, led to the stri p commercial development that still prevails along its frontage. In addit i on to comme rcial uses. the extended Dale Mabry was be coming Tampa' s major north-south artetial. New cesidentia l development was occurring in the lake strewn northwest section of the County, and commutecs used Dale Mabry as theit ptimary route to downtown Tampa. The first major residenti al development, Carrollwood was characte rized by County Histocian Tony Pizzo as "Tampa's first land rush .. noting that the m igration of new residents to this area "revamped the face of Tampa" (quoted in article by Tom Brennan and Lourdes Rodriguez. "Going North." The Tampa Tri bune, July 25 1993, p. J). By 1 960, segments of the highway were classified by the State Road Oepartmcntos "ctitical" (Hillsborough Couruy Planning Commission, Hillsborough County Framework of th< Plan Report, March 1962. p I 17). With a port i on designated as a U S. Highway and the ma j ority as a state highway, Pale Mabry has been widened over the decades to accommodate its burgeoning use. Sections ra.uge from two to six l anes with left tum lanes and medians, and overpasses have been con suucted at intersections with two arterials to reduce traffic congestion. Although development continues. Dale Mabry Highway's northern most four miles in Hillsborough County remain relatively undeveloped Much of the land is environmentally sensitive due to an abundance of lakes :llld wetlands. The desire to protect these env i tOnmemallands and deterring further strip commercial development led to a Corri dor Plan for this section In 1989. the Hillsborough County City-County Planning Commission. with the County s Planning and Zoning De developed a plan locating commercial nodes rather than "I'S Development g ui delin es accompanied the lan d use plan aressmg access roads, preservation of sc.enic features. and pe desuian circ u lation. The Board of Countv r&.t111SSioners adopted the Dale Mabry Scenic Corrido r Plan in I' :embet 1989 mecha nism for sensith e the ... lrom tne Chapter t)( A,;;eric:ln P LW::' ASSOCtauon. 187 CONTEXT "If prizes were g iven for the ugliest urban road in America, Florida's Dale Mabry Highway would a blue-ribbon contender. Six lanes wide and straight as a Semin ole ar row far much of its 21 -mile length Dale Mabry funnels comm uters II> and from the suburbs of north Hillsborough C ounry, on Florid a s Gulf Coast, into the city of Tampa Along its route are perched car dealers. strip malls and franch is e resra urams mile upon mile of unrelieved archiltCiural tedium :o usz the sensibilities of drivers i n stop-and-go traffic." Tht Wall Street Journal. Octob e r 25, 1990 below : pedesrr ia" along D al e MabT)' without s hade or bttfjer traffic ------------------------------------------FLOR.tOA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN RESEARCh

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188 DEVELOPMENT '"The days of a developer buying 1.200 acres. waltzing and gett i ng permits and purring up 2 000 houses are gone. says Ron Rotella. execu rive director of Tampa s Wesrshore business district, Florida s largest commercial and office development. 'Growth has gotten to be a four-let ter word he says. There sa sense our there that if we don 'r get con trol of growth, the quality of life will be ruined for everybody." The Wall Strut Journal, October 25. 1990 b
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SPRAWL TYPES OF USES All community uses occur along the Dale Mabry corridor, although the vast majority are commercial. Single-story commercial develop ments, car repair shops and dealerships, and shopping malls ue most common. Within Tampa, apartment buildings housing primarily mili tary persoMel are located near MacDill Air Force Base, and a few single family homes exist along South Dale Mabry. In Hillsborough County. multi-family housing is scallered along the highway Both jurisdictions contain office developments and institutions. A com munhy college is loc>ted within Tampa, and a hospiul Is located in Hillsborou&h County. Regional par1cs and the Tampa Stadium are also sited along Dale Mabry Highway I NTEGRATION OF USES Along Dale Mabry land uses are nor well integrated nor have they been planned for integration Dale Mabry functions both u a long distance commuter route for suburban residents and as a primarily comme r cial eortldor with the uses serving a variety of loc. al. disuict, and r egiona l scale needs. Commercial parcels have discrete and uncoMected parking areas at the street edge; pedestrian access is rel egated t O an sidewalk along the meet. Southern sections of the conidor are comp rised primarily of small parcels, and frequenUy a continuous curb cut allows parking dire cUy from U>e street. North of KeMedy Boulevard. parc els ue generally lar ger and deeper. witll sing l e entry points for vehicles Parcels facing Dale Mabry gen erally are disassociated with properties behind them. except at an intersection wltll anotller commercial arterial. such a.s K eMedy Bou levard FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 189 FUNCTION "The Tampa-Hilbbor oug h Counn ana during World War II rtceivtd rapid transformo.t ions through lht addition of targt-scale Ftdtra l mili rary installations and warassocrartd acrivitiu. 11 e merged afttr rht war as a diversified induStrial comple.t. Between the years 1945 and 1960. new developm enu in industry. com merce and governmeru rook place a: a rapid pace to meet the dtmands of new population growth and ro dt crease the deficit iJt improvemtnlJ which had backloggtd s inct tht late 1920s." Hillsborough Count y Commission. /962 Along Dale Mab0 .: drive in any direclion wlll:ake ,w;: to and lhrough new subdi\'iSiOII fl] ter nelv subdivision: each \dth irs own mulli-mWion dollar shoppi,l:: cemer. Greater Tampa Chamber a/ Cam merce. circa 1960s ltft: Dale Mabn H ithwm llt.:r Hillsboro ugh ,o\renuc ulfn : p l ttill)ra oj DESIGN RESEARCH

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190 FORM below: circulation diagram right: rypical Dale Mal>ry traffic at 2 p m .. south of Hillsl>orough N 1 <:.,.,,,,#' SPRAWL BOUNDARIES The nonh and south boundaries of Dale Mabry Highway mark its ends: MacDill Air Force Base lies a! the southern end or Dale Mabry, and Dale Mabry links with U.S. Highway 41 at its northern end in the community of Land 0' LaJces. The roadway section varies from a two-lane to a six-lane with l e ft tum lane and median Adjacent prop erties vuy in depth from fifty feet south of Kennedy Boulevard to several hundred feet in the northern parts of the corridor. CIRCULATION Dale Mabry Highway is aligned essentially north-south ; the northern section curves to the northeast to link with U.S. Highway 41. Dale Mabry is a primary. and the geographically central. arterial within the Tampa peninsula, and intel$ects with several major east west routes The Crosstown Expressway originates at the inlel$eaion of Dale Mabry and Gandy Boulevard; Gandy Boulevard, as U.S. 92. spans Tampa Bay to St. Petersburg. Dale Mabry crosses KeMed y Boulevud and Interstate 275, which also provide access to St. Petersburg as well as Tampa s central business district and larger metropolitan uea. Neu Van Dyke Road in the north Dale Mabry will be the terntinus of Veteran's Expressway, cunently under construction. Vehicular access to properties along Dale Mabry varies. South Dale Mabry contains sections with continuous curb cuts to coaunercial park ing areas. Since many parcels are small. several entri es occur within a single bloclc of frontage. North of Kennedy Boulevud. property entries are defined and the larger parcels require fewer entries. Side walks ue discontinuous south of Kennedy. and ue non-existent further nonh, where the highway Jaclcs curbs. No bicycle lanes are prov i ded. I NTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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SPRAWL COMMUNITY The overall character of Dale Mabry Highway is of disparate uses, primarily conmlercial, which are attached to one another only by vinue of the highway. Some uses respond to their immediate surroundings: a cluster of apartment buildings front Dale Mabry near the Air Force Base to house many of the military personnel, and a d istrict of auto mobile dealers occurs along Dale Mabry south of Hillsborough A venue. There is little connection to the primarily residential uses outside tbe immediate corridor. however. Development along D a le Mabry serves as a timeline of strip com mercia! d esign; parcels become increasingly larger and their building s newer and set farthe r back from the highway as one moves nonh. The development a ls o displays a chronology of jurisdictional regula new e r development ex.hibits fewer acc.ess points. gre.ater buffer planti n g a long the r oad, more trees in the park i ng are as, and more consolidated signs. OPEN SPACE The open space along Dale M abry consists mainly of regional facili t i e s and undeveloped land, in the middle and northern s ections of th e corridor. The southern section of the roa dway contains only the Tampa Jai-Aiai and a re t ention area at the terminus of the Crosstown Ex pressway The sec tion seven to nine miles north of MacDill Air Force Base contains substantial unbuilt or open space, including: Tampa Intern ationa l Airport's landing strips and Hillsborough Community Co llege on th e west side, and Tampa Stadium and AI Lopez Park east of the highway. The college i s se t w ell bac k from t h e highway, and a naturalistic area with mature trees faces Dale Mabry. Tampa dium rests in a virtual fi eld since the parking area is grass. The dense vegetat ion along A I Lopez Park creates a lush mile long borde r to the road's eastern edge. Anomer eight miles north, j ust south of Van Dyke Road, i s Lake Park. It flank s the highway on th e west for al most a mile. and contai ns four small lakes. From Van Dyke Road north, much of the r oadway is lined wi1h undevel o ped wetlan d and upland systems. "It's hard ro imagine while whizzing IJy rhe subdivi si ons and srrip ma/b lining a six-lane North Dale Mabry Highway thar so many once be /ieved civilization ended ar Hillsborough Avenue. Bur rhe groves are gone, the pastures paved. And people conrinru to flock north to es cape rurmoil Tampa Tribune. July 25, I99J FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 191 FORM below: diagram of significant open space along Dale Mabry Highwa y DESIGN + RESEARCH

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192 DIMENSIONS below: distances from the intersec tion of Dale Mabry and Kennedy Boulevard right: view south from the Hillsborough A venue overpass '"'" '* -----+--.... SPRAWL AREA Dale Mabry Highway is 21.6 miles long, and ranges in width from an undivided two lanes to six lanes divided by a left turn lane and median. POPULATION Many residential districts are located along Dale Mabry. They in clude the early developments of Palma Ceia and Beach Pari< south of KeMedy Boulevard ; !he post-World War II lal
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SPRAWL Dale Mabry Highway was designed for automobile movement. and its adjacent d evelo p m e nt was designed in response to the traffic. The corridor consists primarily of strip commercial development with as phalt stretching from the road edge to the building in southern sections and larger parking areas l ine the highway along northern section s. AU other mobility forms are subservient. automobile: The automobile. as the primary age01 of movement along Dale Mabry Hi ghway, serves both local travel and inter-co unt y com mutes with regulated speeds of 35 to 55 miles per hour. Continued develo pm ent along the corridor has led to increased numbers o! travel lanes over the years. Despite the additional lanes, the land uses and U>eir corresponding access points aiong Dal e Mabr y Highway con gest the roadway The small comme r c i al deve lopm ents a l ong South Dale Mabry f r eque ntl y h ave continuous cur b cuts with pa r king d i r ecUy off the road. Much of D a le Mabry north of Hill sboro u gh Avenue i s developed with lar ger commercia l parce l s and the entries to s uch properties become congested with drivers allempting t o make left turns despit e tl>e fast -m oving traffic b us : The local public transit system, HAR11ine. services the Dale Mabry corridor The Britton Plaza shopping center on South Dale Mabry s e rves as a local tran sfe r station. and Ta mpa Bay Mall one block east of Tampa Stadium i s a district transfer station. pedestrian: Pedestria n movement is not accommodated along the majority of the Dale Mabry corridor South of Kennedy Boulevard, there are sidewalks and benches at bus stop s Pede s trians and b icy clist s do travers e this section although the sidewalk is inunediate to ... i I !. j \W ,., FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNlTY 193 1l'IM.NJP>JJ IF& 'll' A 'll'll ((N ANAJLlfJI below: road sections along Dale Mabry kft: rypical edge of nonlt Dale Mabry' near Busch Boulevard r jl I I V'/')7:', /? '"""""' ) l'll?t7l1 fl' t.fJ":,.j$!-t DI;SIGN. RESEARCH

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194 A 'Il'JI@N AWA1LlfR {In 1962,/ "The two most heavily travelled streets in Tampa are crosstown routes ... Dale Mabry Highway the primary north south a rterial. carries more zrajfic (37.510 v ehicles in 1960} between inlerstate 4 and Columbus Drive than any other single stretch of I h ug way .... Hillsborough County Planning Commission. March 1962 top: rypical signs along Dale Mabry bottom: t)'pical bus stop along Dale Mabry, near Kennedy Boulevard right: new development faces a wide slreei section without sidewalks north of Erlich Road SPRAWL travel lanes and is frequently disrupted by extensive curb cuts. North of Kenn edy Boulevard, sidewalks continue for a couple miles, how ever, given the road widlh of six lanes and a left tum lane, the timing of the traffic lights isn't long enough for a pedestrian to cross the street. The remainder of the highway lacks sidewalks or curbs, and is unsafe for pedestrians. bicycle: With no bicycle lane s on Dale Mabry Highway, a bicyclist must compete with motorists for space on the roadway or ride in the shoulder where the highway is a rural section. Few bicyclists are seen riding along this heavily trafficked and high speed highway north of Kennedy Boulevard. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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1 9 5 FLORIDA CASE STUDY AMPA PALMS <:>. !::JOOCJCCJD A ,A, 0 I F L O RIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNIT Y DESIGN + RESEARCH

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196 CONTEXT "Live in a location a srep above the rest. Tampa Palms was conceived on tile belief that the City of Tampa's d)'namic growth is taking a new direcrion Away from the traffic and congestion of yes t e rday s major commercial and residential a r eas. Toward a new area that is being developed in a more organiz ed, pre-planned way. i O be not just a new but beuer ter for working, playing and livi ng." Tampa Palms brochure 1993 below: golfer and view of Country Clu b right: cypical scr e ecscape in Tampa P alms ... . .. . ,.::. :t;' ... SPRAWL LOCATION Tampa Palms is located in north Hillsborough County, in west-cen ual Aorida. It is sited between 1-275 and 1-75, appr o ximately 3 miles south of their convergen c e, and approximately 12 miles north of down town Tampa. Tampa Palms was annexed into the City of Tampa in 1985. In late \992, a civic group of residents from Tampa Palms and suttounding developments organized and named this area "New Tampa CONDITIO NS The 1970s brought subs t antial growth to Tampa and Hillsborough County. Deltona Co r po rati on's s ubmission of its Tampa Pa lms ''De velopment of Regional Im pact Applica tion for Dev elopment Approval" to Hillsborough County recognized this tre nd This document characte-rized the sice as being "in the. metropolitan Tampa path o f progress (p. 1-1) I n 1979 the site was surrounded by wetlands, vacant l and. and a wa ter ueatment plant. Son>e residential uses encroache d towards its southwestern comer, near the Univer s ity of South F lorida 1 -75 did not e xist and the City of Tampa's northernmost boundary wa s one mile south of the property. Only County Road 58 1 and a power li n e easement crossed the land which contained past ure and rang eland as well as forested uplands and wetlands Development impacts on the s i t es s ensi tive natural c o ndJlions w e r e scru tinized by local, regional and stat e agencies The mean aMual flood and 25 year flood plain covere d much of the site,lhe site drain ed towards a river and creek, and app r oximately 36% of the site was INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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TAMPA PALMS w etlands or water. The DRl Application was app roved by Hillsborough Coumy in 1980. Significant development did no! occur umil Ken neth M. Good purc hased the prop e r ty in January !985. That same year, !he City of Tampa provided water and sewer for !he project, and extended its boundaries five miles north as it annexed Tampa Palms. Despite a slowed market i n the tate 80s and reversion of the property to it$ loaning entities. the southeastern quadran t and portions of the southwestern quadran t of Tampa Palms have been built. With the constraints of extensive wetlands and !he TECO P ow er Eas ement Tampa Patms is charact e rize d b y winding roads and cut-de-sacs. The weUands create a gene rous greenbelt for the community and offer a uni q ue amenity. The TECO Easement. however. c r ea tes a strange j u xtaposit i on of homes and undeveloped woodlands d ivided by swath o r powerHne s tru c t ures Tampa Palms has been marke ted as a community of distinctive quality and elegance Residences are organized as "villages'' of similar lot size and pri c e which from $97,000 to S2 million. Each village, o f ten bearing a Bri t ish name, is defined by waJis along the street. Four v illa ges hav e gates; the Rese rv e b as a staffed guardhouse as well as gates .Private recreational facilities and open space around each viJiage are important selling p oints, and include the conservation areas, Jakes, and "velvet green golf cours e fairways". Only the winding landscaped r oadways are public in nature. Local roadway s often appear to be private, given the g ates and guardhouses. Parks have signs announc ing they are for Tampa Palms residents only, and identification is r equi red The private Tampa Palms Golf and Country Club's 55,000 square foot clubhouse complex overlooks the course and commands a dramatic approach from Tampa Palms Boulevard Fourteen years have passed since Deltona described this area as being in Tam p as "path of progress"; recently this area has been named "New Tampa". Today Tampa Palm s exist$ in !he context of other devel opme nt along County Road 581 and 1-75, including Tampa Tec h nology Park (a 1 756 acre commercial mixed-use DR! north of Tampa Pa lms), four residential developments, two office parks, and other deve lopment related to !he University and i ts medical complex. In late 1992 a group of residents and businesses of these developments o rgan ize d the "New Tampa Community Council" to identify needed services to various county and city agencies. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 197 CONTEXT "New Tampa gives us recognition. attaches identity and enhances the (C .R./581 corridor. Now it's our job ro advertise rhe positive arcirude of New Tampa, such as localion . qua/icy of life, a low cri m e rate and accessibility to major rhorough fares.' Paul Smith. Pebble Creek Realry 1nc., in The Tampa Tribune, JUlie 20. 1993 below: power lines running through the development DI!SIGN RESEARCH

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198 DEVELOPMENT ''A suptrb 11lllSrer plan ensured from rht vtry beginnin g rhar Tampa Palm.r would be rhe finesr commu niry, and rhe mosr enjoyable place ro come home ro. in all of Florida. A place where arrenrion ro planning and toning preserve rht communiry's eleganc e." Tampa Palms brochure. J 99J b
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TAMPA PALMS TYPES OF USES The proposed masterplan for Tampa Palms contains a spectrum of u ses, i ncluding r esidential, commercial, office. institutional, recre ational. and industrial. In the built portion of the project, single-family and multi-family residences are occupied; a shopping center is oper a ting: and a lhree-story office. center is leased. Four parks, an elemen t ary schoo l, and a fire station are operating One church broke ground in May 1993, a nd another has completed its design. INTEGRATION OF USES Thro ughout T:unpa Palms, uses are generally divided into pockets sepa riled by conse rvation are as. open space or walls. Office and commerc i al are conso l idate d in parcels along Bruce B. D owns. Res i dential \'illages are defined by average Jot size and house p r ice Roadway s sene to link the uses. and trails or sidewa l ks provide pe desuian and bicycle corutections. . .. ,, ,.,, , FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 199 FUNCTION "Tampa Palms wanrs every one of its residenrs to enjoy life to the fullest with out ever leaving home .. . You've waited all your life for this. Don't wait a moment more. Tampa Palms brochure 1993 "To be able to work play shop. dine, send lhe children to school and more, all wirhin ;he b oundaries of y our own comtmtnity .... This is whar you ve wo rked 10ward and wailed for. and it's all here for you at Tampa Palms Today." Tampa Palms bro c hure, 199 3 top: Tampa Palms Elemen/Qr y School bottom: informmion center. quasi cracker style left: children's play area at !lmberley Park -. . DESIGN. + RESEARCH

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200 FORM Each \ illage offers a distincti v e Uje.tryle. from innovativel y designed COJtdominiums. villas and wwniJomes zo singlefantily resi dences and cuSJOJ, n designed e sta te homes." Tampa Palms brochure, 1993 below: diagram of play area right: circ ulation diagram SPRAWL BOUNDARIES Tampa Palms is bOWlded primarily by nanu:al systems; the Hillsborough River and it wetlands create a southern boW!daty and the Cypress Creek and its wetlands contain its western development. The Lower Hillsborough Flood Detention Area, owned by the Southwest Florida Management District, is along its eastern boundary. Only to the north does Tampa Palms interface with development. the Tampa Technol ogy Park DRL CIRCULATION Roadways define all forms of circulation for Tampa Palms with Janes for autos. bicycles, and pedestrians. The roadway system is a hierar chical one with a dendriti c pattern of cul-de ... sacs leading to loca J roads which lead into collectors or the primary boulevard All roads w i n d through the property in a picturesque manner associated with subur ban developmem The primary roadway is Tampa Palms Boulevard which when complete, will be a loop uni ting all fo ur quadrants of the site. This boulevard is marked at Bru ce B. Downs Boulevard with l u sh plantings. entr y walls, and a symbolic gua r dhouse in its median Amberly Drive a secondary loop road. branches off the boulevard and winds between villages to the shopping center an d corporate park further south at Bruce B. Downs Each village con
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TAMPA PALMS sales office and informat ion cente r is sited promin e ntly b e hind a wa ter feature at Bruce B. Downs and Tampa Palms Boulevard. Some community uses, such as church sites. are also located near the project entries. An elementary school faces Tampa Palms Boulevard as one of the few uses looking onto the street The County Club is glimpsed from the Boulevard, and its enuy is unique to the community as a straight, formally planted boulevard. Generally, residential uses are sited away from Bruce B. Downs. and are tucked behind walls amongst the wetlands. lakes, golf co urse, and ret ention ponds. Villages are physically separated, and differ in ap pearance given tbe designated contractor and price range. Each village is contained by a wall along the roadway, with an entry announcing its name. Higher price d villages have larger walls and a single entry. The s i ze ranges frorn a planned cluster of264 mult i -fa mily units to a fully built singl e family village of 26 units. OPEN SPACE Some 65% of the Tampa Palms Masterplan is designated as open sp ace and recreational land Except fo r the landscaped roadways all open space is private. The open space creates a greenbelt for the much of the project and for villages Conservation land is lOCated on the south e rn and western edges of the property, abulling the Hillsborough River and Cypress Creek. Conservation and preservation areas occupy nearly half of the southeastern quadrant. Other conservation areas, reten .. tion areas, and golf courses create barriers bet ween villages or serve as centers ringed by lots. The existing golf course and planne.d one wind between v illage s and alongside conservation areas. Parks are scattered within the residential areas. along collect or roads . "'" ,, ... FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 201 FORM lqp: grand oaks rerained in rhe shopping area center: formal enlry 10 Counlry Club bot/om: land use legend left: land use map Jsc;lvsJwvil ... ':t:: ... ::::::;;:J DESIGN + RESEARCH

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202 DIMENSIONS top: e n// } tO "The Reserve"wirh walls and manned guard house bottom: figure -grou nd of residen tial pod right: dis ran ees from Country Club SPRAWL AREA According to its 1993 Masterplan, Tampa Palms contains 5 408.5 acres. Use areas and their percentage of the total property are : residential (13.316 units) 1.385.96 acres 26% community facilitie s (not parks) 86.94 acres 2% recreational facilities 786 9 7 acres 15% open space 2,710.74 acres 50% employment centers 248.89 acres 4% circulation sys tems 189.0 acres 3% POPULATION The estimated population is 6,000 with a p<>tential for 12.000 (Weinhold. /993) in the existing villages. The 1 980 approved DRI estimate d the total project population of 22,740 (Guljstream. 1988). The appr oved DR! had designated 3,110 single-family units and 10,388 multi fam ily units. The 1993 Masterplan i dentifies nearly I ,000 more single-family units and over 1,000 f ewer multi-family units DENSITY The 1992 Masterplan identifies a rang e of 0 -2 8 +dwelling units f acre for single-family, and 035+ dwelling units/acre for multi-fam ily uses. Existing single-family villages vary in average density from 1.7 to 10.4 dwelling units per acre. FLOOR AREA The approved 1980 plan included 2.5 million square feet of conuner cial, of!ice and hotel use. r --:-:-'::ol 1 . : . .. :. . : .... ' . .. .... . . r;; ... ,.._,.,.,v INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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TAMPA PALMS As desi&ned and built, Tampa Palms relies upon vehicular transpor tation for access 10 and from meUOpOiiWI Tampa and for uavel beyond eacb residtnlial vill age. The interstate bigbway system played a key role in its location and development Tbe localion map for Tampa Palms In its 1979 DRI Applicatio n i d entifies 1-275 and the pre>posed 1-75 as major linkS IC> the me tr opo l itan area. The applicatie>n ne>tes that amon g other public facili t ies. "th e trans port ation network (In ters t ate 75 and many ne twe>rk im prove me n t s ) ... enbances Tampa Palms as a narural area fo r fu t ur e e xpans ion" (Deltona. 1979. p /J-2) Trans p ortation consldtratlons f o r th e DR! addr e s se d a p r im ary impact area w i lh i n a five mi l e rad iu s of the devel o pment s center. A secondary i mpact area was req u ested b y th e T ampa Ba y Regiona l P l anning Council. however, '"due to the importance of the intec stale syst e m and the uip end oppo rtunltits in the City of T ampa" (Del t ona. 1979. p.J / I). automobile: Roadways are design=d for ease of automobile trav el. They are wide and ntwly paved, with lush vejletation lining the walls of the ,illa&es along lhe Boulevard and collector r0<1ds. The hierar chical roadv.ay panern limits options in routes, and precludes throu!h-trafric in most of the villages. since villages usually contain one enlry r oad and several cui-de-sacs Such a pattern requires use of the primary road s for trips betwe e n villages. Tbe n eig hborhood parks contain parking spaces, and the shopping centers a tong Bruce B. Downs offe.r ample parking in front o f the buildings bus: A s In 1 979 when the D R! was submitted b u s ser vice does not extend to t his area The n e arest bus sto p f o r Tampa Palms is ap p roxima t ely tWO m iles south o f T ampa P al m s Bo ul evard FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 2 0 3 TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS top : eg rerlooki n g for lunch amidst rra/fic bottom : typical day s t reetscap e left : bus st o p in median near sltop ping centtr DESIGN + RESEARCH

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204 mANSlP'ORTA 'nON ANALYSI S below: valet parking ar the Coun rry Club right: collecror road, showing set backs and position of s idewalks SPRAWL bike: Bike patbs are provided along the Boulevard and collector roads; these roads are framed by walls of the residential v illages and lu s h landscaping P"destr ia n: Pedestrian facilities within Tampa Palms are referenced in the project brochure for recreational purposes. Natu r e trail s are provided for hiking Jogging paths are provided along the collector roads and the Boulevard Streets with i n the village s hav e sidewalks set back from the street. Given the disconnected n a ture of the vii lages, pedestrians must us e the roadway sys tem to access adj oining villag es. . .. ' ... , .. ... , "' .. " l "" INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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FLORIDA CASE STUDY LUTZ AREA .. ' . . ,, ,, II' '" ,. lllql I'' '""' d . lll. ... .. I 205 .. ,. ' ,, FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESION + RESEARCH

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206 CONTEXT 'Mr. C. E Tl!omas lras Ihe president of tlie company and the main drive .,heel of the organization. He had in mind a vas/ selllemem of thrifty, satisfied contented people living in comfortable homes among the hun dreds of beautiful lakes. eaclt owning his own citrus grove. Lutz Civic Reviek, July 1954 Tile country was most beauliful, and nature was v ery close t o us. The rail straight pine forest was a thing of great beawy." Lutz Civic Review, October 1954 below: typical small lake near Crenshaw Lake Road, Lutz SPRAWL LOCATION Lutz, a historically rural community which has become an attractive location for residential subdivisions, is located amidst lakes and for ests in northern Hillsborough County. It lies north and west of the city limits of Tampa, and borders the Pasco County line Lutz is bi secred by U.S. Highway 41, which runs from Copper H arbor, Michigan to Key West, Florida, and is one of the original cross country high ways. built in the 1920s. Dale Mabry Highway cuts through the we. sr ern edge of Lutz, and Interstate 275 passes through its eas tern section. CONDITIONS Tile community of Lutz has its origins in Florida's expanding rail net work at the turn of the century, although a previous community had been established prior t o the rail. Pioneers had settled in the area in the mid-J800s and eventually the loca l e was populated with Joggers harvesting the a bu ndant yellow pine stands. and those who built a turpentine still in the la t e 180Qs Th e s e ttlement and irs ad j acent lake were named Stemper, after a priest who started a mission there. Th e Tampa Northern Rail Road was built in 1907. connecting Tam pa and Brooksville and pass i ng through Stemper. A Chicago-ba sed company, calling itself the North Tampa Land Company purchased a 32,000 acre tract which included a junction of the Tampa Northern railroad and a local rail line to lumber mills in Odessa. This junction, named after the local rail's engineer, W.P. Lutz became the town center While orig in ally called North Tampa, the community's name changed to Lutz when the Stemper post office was moved approximately two miles north to the Lutz railroad junction The North Tampa Land Company mar k eted f arm and Jakefr on r land with residential t own plo t s to people in the Midwest. and buyers be gan settling there in 19 11. Settlers cleare d th e land, p l anted c i rrus groves, and raised vegetables and livestoc k while wai ti ng for the ci t r us trees to mature C. E. Thomas presiden t of the land company, supported the new community with institutions and indijStry. H e buill a school, donated land for a church and a ceme t ery, and in I 9 1 4 started a nursery to support the financially strapped settlers. Several fami lies, after investing in the land and ci tr us trees, h a d little money or r esources. With some families selling their property, Thomas decided to lease land from settlers and c r eate a nursery Thomas employed the residents, and the nursery grew to be the second largest in Aori da. Lutz grew, as did other Florida communities du ring the boom of the 1920s The north-south road which passed through Lutz and Stemper (late r designated U.S. Highway 41) was paved in 1921. The l ocal rail to Odessa disc ontinued service in 1914 and irs alignment became as Lutz Lake Fern Road. W i th the discontinued service the depot area became Bu llard Park and the civic center of the community. The rail lil'e continued to provide passenger and freight service. as Lutz shipped citrus and watermelons to the north. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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LUTZ After Wor ld War II, residential expansion from Tampa reached norlll ward towards Lutz. Dale Mabry Highway along the west side of Lutz, was extended into Pasco County in the midl950s, and opened the area for residential development. Interstate 275 an d Interstate 75 w e re built through Lutz' eastern side. Subdivisions replaced farm land around and within the c o mmunity. ln !986 and 1987, a citizen task force worked with the Hillsborough City-County Planning Com mission tO recommend the long-range land uses. ln 1987 residents of Lu t z and the neighboring Keystone area banded together to pro po se incorporating as the city of Tampa Lakes to protect the special qualities o f th ei r area. The group withdrew i ts proposal in 1988. af t e r the county's l egislative d elegat i on rejected a simi lar proposal by citiz.ens of tile Brandon area. Scattered residential de, elopment, and the subs equent traffic impacts, plague Lut t t oday Coi'!Ullute rs f rom Pasco Coun t y just nortll of Lu tz clog the community's main street U.S. 41. In response to the traffic congest ion. the Florida Department of Transportation plans to widen this two-lane highwa)' tO s i x lanes with a median In the process, severa l of the old businesses will be lost, and the historic br ick school is threa te ned. Veterans Expres s wa)'. c urrently under cons tructi on, also w ill make the area more aae.ssible. While much of the long range l and use p lan for Lutz preserves environmentally sensitive areas and indicates low density residential development, areas along U.S. 41 and Dale Mabry H ig hway allow more intense development. Pro posals for new housing proj ects, and a regiona l mall along Dale Mab ry where Expresswa y lennio:ues. await approval. FLORIO A CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 207 CONTEXT "My dad ... saw an ad in a paper in Sr. Petersburg, Pa. of the North Tampa lAnd Compan y He wrote ro them and in 1911 he came to Florida to look ar the 20 acres 011 rhe north side of Stemper Lake He bought itar thar time if you b o ught 20 acres from the compan y they gave yo:< a lot in Lutz. or one in the cemete1y." Lutz Olden Days. 1976 "Carrollwood was the ideal place for my family /0 years ago. Now irs Lutz.... I'm not knocking Carrollwood, I liked it when J /i'ed there and still do. but it became too crowded for us. J like the privacy of Lutz." resident Melanie Hya c inth in The Tampa Tribune July 25, /993 left: Casa del /Ago sign advertis ing new development on Lutz IAke Fern Road DESIGN + RESEARCH

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208 DEVELOPMENT Lut: was beginn ing to expandm o re peoplemore traffic The tin)' post office had 10 have m ore room. And dur i ng World War II Lutz be came a l ocal ion on the m ap Lutz Olden Days. 1976 t()p: the Lutz business district b"tt"m: realry signs [or new devel opment o n Sunset Lane SPRAWL PLAYERS Early settlers in the Lutz area included Father Stemper and the resi dents of the mission he establ ish ed. Loggers and turpentine mil l operators brought industry to the area, and supported a station for the Tampa Northern Rail Line W.P Lutz engineered a rail line to Odessa for hauling lumber The North Tampa Land Company, with its presi dent, C.E Thomas. founded the planned community of Lutz, and broug h t add i tional settle r s to the area MOTIVATION The orig ina l mot i vation for settlement was the harves ting of pine for lum ber and turpentine. A s c e ntral Florida developed w ith the rail r oad and the citrus i ndustry, the North Tampa Land Company saw p otential profit in creating a community of ci trus growers. The june tion of cwo rail Jines offered access and trade routes. Prospeclive seuJers were drawn by the promise of raising a successful ciuus grove in a bountiful frontier. TIME FRAME The developmen t of L utz includes: 1880 s : Father Stemper s ettles colony; turpentine still b uil t 1893: post office opened in Stemper community 1907: T ampa No rthern Rail Line between Tampa and Brooksville 1909 : 1910..: 1911: 1920 s : 1950s+: 1980s : completed W.P. Lutz. opens rai l line t o Odessa North Tampa Land Company sites town at rail junction first settlers move to Lutz citrus groves mature; crops shipped by community grows post-war residential development encroaches residential development in and around Lutz precipitates effon to incorporate, citizens participate in long range growth plans for lintited development REGULATIONS Development in Lutz is subject to Hillsborough County s Compre hensive Plan and Land Development Code. The Florida Depanme m of Transportation maintains the two main arterials through the are3 U.S. 4 1 and Dale Mabr y Highway and determines a cce ss along the s e roadways. INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TR ANSPORTATIO:O:

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LUTZ TYP ES OF USES Since hs inception. bas contained all the components or a community Built around a rail junct i on, the early commu nhy eenter contained hotel. shops. school. church. cemetery. band shell. and homes. The area su('foundin g the town center was sold for citrus groves and plant nurseries South of Lutz proper work was available in logging and the turpentine Still. With the community' s growth came more retail uses, including small offices. and expanded public and civic INTEGRATION OF USES The town cente r of Lutz was piaMed to be well integrated. with all uses within walkin g distance of the train depot The SU('fOUnding land was cultivated {or citrus groves or nursery plants. and several farm ers maintained their residences on their farms Trips 10 the town center were made for school. church. trade rail travel. and mail This cen ter continues to suppon a mix of residential. commercial. public. and civic uses. although the public functions occupy a larger area Development followed World Wat II has been less Integrated, separa ted by s ize and type. Commercial uses lined the side of U S. 41 that did not have the line beside it. Low density residen tial subdivisions replaced citrus groves. The majority or residents no long e r work on >gricul tura l lan d or in Lutz. but conunute to ; : .. \ . . . ' '. .. . . FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 209 FUNCTION Poised on 's wtsltrn f Oitwa y is a prt>pt>Std /94 -acre refit>nal malL To the subdivis ions com prising an addirit>nal 2.500 resid ences have bttn eit.htr plaMtd or apprt>vtd. Rtsidenrs fear such a massive development will sl:auu rhe community ... The Tampa Tribune, Jul)' 26.1993 "Residents and planners a?rte rflar it 's Luit history as a comm:tnlry tha t sers ir apanfrt>m rhe subdi:isions tt> tilt St>uth that sprout ed ir. vacant pastures and orange gro:ts For more than a century. ptcpl t ha\ t lived htrt ro avoid tht ci:::. Now they warch it inch closer The Ttunpa Tribunt Ju/,,. /993 btlow: business dlsrric: 11: Lu::.. near fire statio n left: ct>mmercial district r r. L'.S. c . ........ \ i .., ___ _ --DESIGN RESEARCH

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210 FORM "Tn 1hose days [ca 1913/lht roads followed 1he leas1 resislance. we started in the direction we wanted t o go and if we c ame 10 a lake bog o r swamp we just went around it." Lutz Olden Days, J 9S5 tDp: new residential development on LuiZ-Lakt Fern Road bottom: rypical lrtt-lined road right: map of main lransporlalion rou1es and land uses lhrough Luu area SPRAWL BOUNDARIES The boundaries of Lutz, are detesmined by the County Cor planning purposes. The eastern boundaries are Trout Creek, and the Tampa City Limits. along the Tampa Palms developmenL The southern bound ary is nor as readily apparent, since suburban development is contiguous to both sides of the boundary. The streets defutiog lhe southern bo u nd ary, from east 10 west. are Skipper Road, Bearss A venue and Ehrlich Road. Dale Mabry Highway defines much of the western boundary with an extension two miles west in the area north of Lutz Lake -Fern Road. The county line marks the northern edge o f Lutz. CIRCULATION The roadway pattern in Lutz. is characterized by the fine grid of i ts histori c center, and the bending strands which bypass lalces and lace loosely together with some reaching the north-south arterials of U S 41 and Dale Mabry Highway. Subdivisions typically have been d e veloped a long long. curving entry roads adorned with cui de sacs and sca ttered throughout Lutz. Cui-de-sacs also stem off Livingston Av enue. which runs north-south east of U.S. 4 1 Other than County Line Road and Bearss A venue at the extreme ends of Lutz only three east west roads link U S. 41 and Dale Mabry Highway; all follow circuitou s routes. Similarly, only one road links U.S. 41 and L ivingston Av enue. Interstate 275 and Interstate 75 pass through lhe eastern sec tion of Lu t z with only one interchange, that of 1-275 at Bearss. The rail line follows the alignment of U S. 41. but crosses from the east side to tbe west side of the highway near Lake Stemper approximately two miles south of the town center. Sidewalks are discontinuous. w ith one extend ing f rom the school along U S. 41 and others contained within subdivisions. I \ j !___ !.::!!..-:'! ,:...._....! I N TEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN A N D TRANSPORTATION

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LUTZ COMMUNITY The form o f Lutz is defined by its periods of development ond the presence or the railroad The historic town ce nter, with a fine mix of uses occu r s in a bloclc p>ttern that extend s in a quarter mile radius from th e fonner rail junction. Commercial uses fro nt U .S. 41, and the former roil depot is now a park along the highw ay, surrounded by the library, comm unity cente r fire station and some co mmerc ial uses. Immediote to the conunercial and civic uses ar e sing l e family homes. sited on s mall lots within the blocks o r f acing Lut z Laic e. The e l e mentary school is located along U S. 41. at the sou thern edge of lhe historic community. while the town cemetery marks the northern end While the community of Stemper exiSted approximately two miles south of the Lutz center. none of its uses remain The vast majority or the Lutz are.t was rural : cultivated or left in Its natural State Development following World Wu II brought signincant changes to tile communi ty's fonn, cre atin g a much more subutban chmcte.r Com mercial uses line U S. 41, although the side of the highway with the rail line r emains less developed, primarily with residential uses. Lutz' shopping cen t e r is located along U:S. 41 nearly a mil e sou th of the historic ce nter Some office developments hav e also located along u.s. 41' but like the retail develoments. lhasa have shallow lots orr the highway. agricultural and lalcef r ont land has b een sporad i ca lly de veloped as residential subdivisions. While moSt ore small two lar ger developments in the southern pan of Lutz ue desi&ned much like those outSide the community, with limited entries, winding coads, and golf courses. Recem subdivisions regardless or size. are contained by walls or fences lhe in sharp contrQSt tO the older resi dences with wooded rront yuds. OPEN S PACE Lutz' rural character is derived largely from the abundance of lalces, wetlands. foreSts, and agricultural lands. Much of the open space, includin& thelalcefronts and agriculrural l and is privately owned. La1ces are scattered throughout the conununity and are visible from the loC>I r oads which bend around them. In the southern pan or Lutz. priv>t e open spoce Incl udes the adjacent golf courses of the Avila and North Lakes subdivisions. P ublic parks are concentrated oro und the his toric center. Bullord Puk,located where the r>il junction was. serves os a publi c g reen a long U.S. 41 with c ivic buildings defining lls edges Th e schoo l grounds occupy a cleared area aiOni U S 41. Further so uth on Sunse t Lane is Nye P3Ik. w i th an act ivities bu ild ing. pic ni c shelter. and pla y fields. Other ball fields are l oc at ed or the town center. on Lutz L>JceFern Road. The cometery bounds the tOIVn s nonhero FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 211 FORM "Looking back some 50 ytars. IS<< a quiet community peopled by com mon[olk. all striving for a btlltr aflli more prosperous way of lift for lhtm and their posttriry .... Tht Tampa Northtrn Railroad waJ tht only means of t ran .sportation fro m ont pl ace 10 anothu. Tht 1taclcs aJtd tht road btd wert also lht avtn .ue to walk on. TMrt was a warer tQ/tk at the County Une where tilt engine took. on water. This was also tht picnic area where tathered for da nces and music. NtarJ.v tvtry one had a horse and wagort. The horse pulled a plow during wuk and tht wagon took the family ro ch urch on Sunday." Lutt Olden Days. 1976 top: Sunset Manor entry bollom: Sunset Manor, a subdivi si
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212 DIMENSIONS "II is an easy marrer 10 climb into one's auromobile and now speed off ro Sulphur Springs or Tampa for supplies. Bur ir was nor always so. In rhe early days rhtre were no paved roads and almost no auromo biles. A journey 10 rown was a rorruous rrip by horse and wagon over sand roads winding between ponds. Lutz Olden Days, 1976 right: map showing relative dis tances from tlte Lut::. business dislrict SPRAWL AREA The land purchased by the North Tampa Land Company to create the planned community of Lutz was 32,000 acres, or 50 square miles. As define.d by Area boundaries of the County's Comprehensive Plan, Lutz occupies an area of approximately 41 square miles. POPULATION While the early development of Lutz maintained a village size. est i mates extrapolated from a recent newspaper article, "Going North The Tampa Tribune, July 25, 1993. p 5) indicate a population ap proximately 7.500 in 1970. By 1990 these extrapolated estimates more !han tripled, to a population of approximately 25.000. DENSITY Densities are predominantly low in Lutz. ranging from two to four units per acre. However there are pockets of higher density residen tial development, including the single family houses on small lots in the town center, and two mobile home parks along U.S. 41. The land use plan allows densities of up to 20 units per acre in areas desig nated "community commercial" along U .S. 41 and Dale Mabry Highway. H owever, such developments need to provide their own septic treatment system, since Lutz is outside the County s service area. and the land cannot suppon septic tanks at such densities. Given the many l akes and wetlands. sections of Lutz are designated "envi ronmentally sens i tive" and protected from development. IWtr-1---l; INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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LUTZ When Lutz. wa$ rusl created. the railroad served as the most reliable source or transponation or goods nd peop l e Roods were s ondy and difficult to trlverse on foot or by ox-cUt. mule, or horse While a s tag e coach p assed through the area prior to tbc rail,the railroad made distant :tnd l ocal ltavel feasible The junction or tbe two ra.il lines defined the bean of the community and Lut2' agricultural r e lied on llle raiL Aucomobiles were a rare sight in LulZ. uolil the r oad th a t becam e U.S. 41 was paved in 1921. The surge of develop m ent following World War II brou ght with it the autc>-domin>ted travel e vident in the community today. railroad: The Tampa Nonhem Rail tracks were laid !rom T ampa to Brooksville and ope ned by 1 90 7 In 1909.the Tampa and Oulf Coas t Ra.l. locally called the Pea v ine (presumably due t O its winding align mentuound lalc:es) conn ected w;th the Tamp a Nor thern line and eode d at Od essa. The junction of these two lines mar k ed the cente r or the Luu. community. and tbe Station became the fOCUJ o r and pas senger travel. While the Peavine ended service I n 1914. the rai l set by the Tampa Northern continued to be used for transporti ng pro duee While a station no longer exists. the rail cont inues to be used auto m o bile : Cars were not common in Luu. until after 1921, when the major north-south route which became U.S. 41 wa s pav e d This hi&hway brought tourists and prospective res idents In the 1920s and 1 930s. L utz had three service stations in th e 1930s which catered primarily these touris ts. Still, a t that time, most Lutz residen t s bought tra c tors before they bought cars After World War II, however. cars brought new families to the Lut2 community W i th commuters pur chasi n & h omes in the are a but working in T ampa's business disuict, .. FLORIDA CENTER F 0 R C 0 M M UN I T Y 213 TRANSPORTATION AN AlLYS I S "Tht old pavilion I at Dtu IAkt I W
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214 'lrl!U,NSJPOJRTA TION ANALYSIS r i ght: a new residemial sion located off Sunset Lane SPRAWL automobil e s became a necessity. U S 41 and Dale Mabry Highway becme major commuter routes. Today, U.S. 41 is congested at peak c ommuting hours with residents 11(\t only of Lu!Z. but of communi ties in Pasco and Hernando counties to the north. bus: Published recollections of Lutz. residents indicate that the city of Tampa provided public bus service to the Lutz community during World Was II when gasoline was rationed. Today the metropolitan HAR1line bus system provides express and local service to Lutz. An express s t op is located in the town cent e r and a park 'n' ride facility with express service to downtown Tampa is provided a mile south on U S 41, neu residential developments. pedestrian: The original Lutz settlement was built within a quarter mile of the depot allowing easy pedestrian access to the depot. shops. schoo l and civic facilities from the residences The railroad tracks were used as a pedestrian path for local journeys before ro3ds were p3ved. Today, the only continuous sidewalk i n the community ex. tends north and south from the elementary school on U S. 41. and c ont inues east to Nye Park Sidewalks have been built along subdi vision roads. but they terminate where the subdivision entry road meets a through road Local roads are used by pedestrians and bicyc li sts alike. but tbe heavy traffic and bigb travel speeds of vehicles along U.S. 41 and Dale Mabry Highway create unsafe conditions INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND T R ANSPORTATJON

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CONCLUSION This section draws from all of the case studies and elaborates upon a series of general points that were developed while researching and writing the studies. The section is broken into a series of gen eral sub-sections. Within each sub-section, specific points reference the case studies. Due to limitations of time, budget and personnel, this section is neither complete nor comprehensive: it represents. an initial effort towards quali fying the relationship between community design and development and forms of transportation I COMMUNITY 1. C:.tHing a development a "community" doesn't necessarily make it one. The difference between pr eWar and post War of a "Jown" is clearly vis i ble i n even a cursory examina t ion of the plans of Coral G ables and Las Colinas. Coral Gables c ontains grand boulevards and quasi "gated" communities. but it aJso co mains a very effective net work of streets that prov ide myriad transportation optiOns: it has several central and clearly accessible business and shopping districts. and it has an extremely effective sense of character and contai nment. Las Colinas. on the other hand, works on the separate and re-connect" theory of city planning. Different uses are clearly and distinctly separated into isola ted "pods'": these pods are the n linked back together with a hierarchical road system. Acknowledging that Coral Gables is a complete town, in fuiJ frui tion, and Las Colinas is still a long way from its eventual build-o u t, one st i ll must admit the in trinsic superiority of Cora l Gables with r e spect to a l most every touchstone of a good community. Roads are linked; pedestrians, bicyclists and cars interact in parallel within a single system. Open space is not in nearly the same abundance as it is in Las Colinas. but the space that exists is masterfully and frugally utilized. Coral Gables has parks plazas, boulevards and medians; Las Colinas has a surplus of under-used, under-designed empty space The architecture of Coral Gables in line with George Merrick's edict that no two buildings should be identical. disp lays an overwhelming sense of variety, originality aru1 integration. No two buildings are exac tly similar. but most clearly look like they belong in Coral Gables The buildings in Las Colinas. on the other hand, are generally bland. or over stylized. and with the exception of several highly publicized works of public art and some over-sized public spaces. there is noth i ng particularly memorable about the architectural development of the community. 2. Every community needs a defined operational "center" that is very well linked with the other pans of the commu nity. The case.s seem {0 point at one of the over-riding problems of poslWu development pauerns. Design p r ofessionals in this country are quire capable of providing places that effectively and pfeasantJy mix FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 215 DESIGN RESEARCH

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216 INTEGRATING CONCLUSION all the necessary uses of everyday life. Park A venue in Winler Park and Germantown A venue in Chestnut Hill are "traditional" examples of the mixed-use shopping street ; Mizner Park is a very skillful inti tation of these "organic" developments. Both Park A venue and Germantown A venue. however. are integral parts of their total communities. People can and do live within steps or both of these streets; both serve as transponation linkages social settings, sources of com munity identity. Mizner Park still reads as a private development, an automobile destination. something artificial. The success of the project indica te s, in part, that people are willing to. maybe to, use and enjoy such mixed use projects. Our inability, however. to pro vide the same rrtix of uses at the same line grain on a broad scale. dooms such projects tO be exceptions ralber than the rule. 3. Enlightened developers, financial stability, patience, and tal ented designers are key Ingredients for a truly integrated and functional community plan. Relatively unusual circumstances sunound the development of sev eral of the communities used as case studies. The plan and the theory behind Seaside have received enormous coverage. in both a positive and negative light. Often orrtitted in lhe analysis. however, are the circumstances that enabled Seaside to develop the way it did. Robert Davis, the developer, owned the 80-acre parcel of land free-and-clear. With a background as a townhouse developer in Dade County, Davis is also the recipient of a Rome Prize Fellowship, an extremely eru dite student of architecrure and cities. and a passionate advocate of community spirit. His financial position aUowed him to take time developing the property and his acumen and trust in his designers led him to g i ve Duany and Plater-Zyberk full reign to explore town planning ideas of mutual interest. At a certain level, therefore, Sea side must be viewed as much as an experiment one that is full-sized and remarkably profitableas a development project. George Merrick was sirrtilarly in a powerful position in the creation of Coral Gables. Blessed with design insigh t unflagging energy. and boundless enthu siasm for the project. he oversaw the creation of his vision in very s pecific and detailed terms. Merrick clearly envisioned an integrated and comp rehens ive community from the outset of the dev el opment: working within the framework of such a clear-cut gaol in rrtind. each step of the design and development process built on previous steps towards an integrated totality. Chapman and Chase with thei r vision for Winter Park were a l so simi tarly enlig htened. dedicated and relatively free from financiol exigencies In all three projects. !be developers had a vision. enlisted talented to assisl in brineinelheir ideas to realitv. and were w i lling tO w;it for the communities to develop to maturity. In all three projects as much focus was on thepublic amenities and ambi ence of the project as on the individual private entjcies. In all three COMMUNIT Y DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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CONCLUSION while tbe proj ects developed I ndepende n t l y of su rr o und i ng p r ojectS. they were carefully inte grat e d into both their physi cal cont ext: i n s hort, >II three projects wer e :uethe of the closedwall gated communit y. The v a lue of "patient money" in the dev e l op m e nt o f truly sucteSS C u i community cannot be understated. I n an e nvironment in which the devel oper musr spend as much tint e w o r r y ing llbout t3sh flow an d debt p ayments as about the c ompreh e n si v e co mmunal character of th e pr opos e d prOduct. very few p eople or orga n iz ati ons have the pat ience oc the where w i tha l t o s e e successrul large $C3I e co mmuni JJ.C.i through to com p letio n. Duany Plater-Zyberk's use o f g uideline s u a sunogate foe a l ong-t eem ma.stec..Qesigner may help mitigate l.bi s problem With a comprehensive and Cinnly encoded set of gui d e lines, ton g term develop me nt can be allowed 10 occur at a more naiUial" pace. and still lead towards the initially envisi oned outcome II Developments & De ve l o pment P ract ices 4 Wit h loca l exceptions, both g ross and net de vc,lopment densi ties hav e g o tten steadiJy lower ove r th e p a s t 1 0 0 y ears ; r.he l ower limi ts often Call below the necessary densi ti es for an e ffective sonse of community. As the twentitth-century has progressed. d eve l o pment pauems have moved t o wards greater and greater disp ers i on at lo w e r and lower gross densi tie s, and generally, but not alway s a t l o w e r and lower net den sities The two case studies w i th the h i g hest gross a n d net densities are th e two ol de s t examples : Yb o r City, in Tampa. a nd Back Ba y i n Boston. Ybo r Cit y w a s hea vily hi t by the econontic do wn t urn of the Depression, and was further d ecim ated by illfou n d e d renewal and slum-cle arance proje cts; a t its height during the nrst decades of this cen tur y, it had a po pula tion density of appro x i mately 20 persons per cross acre Back Bay, still a thriving and vital neighborhood. over 100 years after its creation, curr ently has a population densiry of well ove r 20 people per g ross acre. Most cont em p orary projectS. h owever have gross d e nshles of we ll under five pe ople p er a c re. and o nl y u r e l y luge sc ale. proj ect s built that have net noor-area tati os over 2.0 or resident ial dens i ties of ove r 1 5 dwelling units per net a c r e The dime n sio n a l c haracteris tics of the automobile and our societal o n the car t'or ne:uly all of o ur mobili t y need s account Cor t h is Mass systems are not Ct'fccli v e in extremely d i sp e r sed environments :md on l y slightly more dfective i n typical subur ban de n s hies. M3ss u:ansit works best when den s i t i e s are relati v e l>"!'ig h and jobs and popula t i on a re nod ally dispersed. Automob il es. h o w ever. operate best 01 r el>tivel y lo w ::md Jtss efcclivc as Uensities increase. Unl ortu n:nel,. fhe <1{ whic h c3ls become inefrectlve arc not 0 0 as hieh as the densities 3t whocb mass becomes econontica l. C ENTE R FOR COMMUNITY 2 1 7 DESIGN R E S E;, R C H

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218 i:-.ITEGRATING CONCLUSION Thus, only rarely, do contemporary developments approach signifi densities. Among the postWar cose studies. only Lenox, which utilizes both the light -rail and the busses of the MARTA system. be gins to approach non-suburban levels of development density. 5. Mixed use projects are key as(>"ts of today's development patterns; however, internal organiz.ation is often better worked out than external connectivity. Certain projects reve3l America's particularly scbizophrenic attitude towards both the automobile and development density. Crocker Center and Mizner Park are both mixed use projects in Boca Raton. Both were developed by the same devel opment team and designed by the same architects. within several yea.IS of eacb other. The two projects reveal distinctly differen t attitudes towards the cre ation of an environmen t and one comes away f rom them with totally differ ent impressions, but at their core, the two projects are very s imilar. Crocker Center is a mixed-use activity "pod" sitting in a sea of park i ng, completely divorced from its imme diate surrounding. The implic : t position is clear : drive bere and then wall< around. l f you CIIUIOt o r do not drive you really have very little opponunity to partake of the Crocker Center. Mizner Park takes a similar stance in a different form. Instead of a pod. Mizner Puk is a fussy re-creation of the development community's understanding of the 19th cenrury American Main Street Within its 1.000 foot long confines, the stage set is remarkably well done and the project bas proven to be :1n enonnous fmanc i al success From the outside, bowever. Mizn e r Puk is equally aloof as the Crocker Ce01ec. with a tenuous connection, at best, to its surroundings. The vast mo jority of people found at Mizner Park arrive and depart in automobiles. While not scientifically studied, one could probably assert that peop l e Park better than Crocker Center Mizner Park creates a much more urban "sense of place" and it more clearly appeals to America's small town auvism. Both projects, however, see them sel ves as temporary antidotes to auto-domi nation. They provide places lO shop. recre:ue. work. :md. in tbe case of Mizner Park. even live: oil in one tight package_ Their connection t o the outside world, however, is tenuous. O l d Hyde Park Village, in Tam pa, is ;w interesting contrast, md prob ab l y a better overall design than any of th e MXDs surveyed for this project. Unlike the case study projects. Old Hyde Park Village cou l d not be developed from a c lean site Some buildings on the prop eny bad to be maintained. some of the r ightsof-way bad to be leit open. some parcels couldn't be purchased. Thus. rather than plop ping a project within a context_ the developers of OHPV had to kni t and sew the project i n place As sucb. they bad to be very auemivt COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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CONCLUSION t o e x isli n & seale and character they bad t o exis ting sutet sys t e ms and m obili t y patterns. With Ibis mu c h the d e velopers p r odu c ed a MXD !hat has gr eally and d r amati call y enhanced tbe economic, architec t u ra l and s ocial character of !he surrounding commu ni t y This was not achi e ved without considerable stru gg l e, i n ov ercomi n & boll> I n itial comm un ity oppositi o n (opposition bo rne from w iUlessl n g ot her re l ative l y insensi ti ve mixed use projects) an d eatl y financia l diffi c u lt ies 6 Neo Tra ditio nal Town Pl a nnin g has much t o o ffe r but in a nd of lts eiC b a s yet t o co n v in ci ngly address the fu ll complement of tod a y's devel o p ment issues an d markets. NeoTradi t ional Town P l anning despite its consi de rable med ia cov erage and lhe enormous level s of tbe oreticru debat e it has spa wned bas not yet developed to tbe de gree that it is widely regarded as a opera t ional alterna tive to current models of de ve l op ment. N c o-tra dition a l t ow n planning !!= foc us a di s proportionat e a mount o f developmen t e nerg y and funding on tbe p u bli c r e alm: s treet s are l a id o ut w l lh pedestrians in min d buildings are designed t o creat e a coh esi v e and fairly tigh t envi r o nment monuments and civic structures are loclle d t o c r eate e nhance d s ensibility an d focus. N either o f lh e t w o c ase e xample s studied, h o w e v e r con ta ins e noug h siz e or dive r s ity to fun ction a s a truly he t e rogenous comm u nity i n it s own right N e arly eve ryone at the K e ntl ands has t w o a ut omobiles a nd w hi l e !he intern a l network o f street s does enhance m o bility o p tio ns. as i n a conventio nal PU D onc e o u tside tbe K e ntlands o n e is q u ickly r o uted o nto a fairly t ypicalltierarchica l s tr ee t o rganization Admi tt ed l y. the Ken tlands has suffere d fro m the nati oo w ide reces sion at !he eod o f !he 1980s. bu t t oda y, i t is a l most en tir e ly a be droo m community, albeit a v ery nicely d esi gned o n e (In lhe summer of 1993. wor k on the commercial center for tbe K.ent l ands w as r es u me d The compl e t io n of !hi s e lemen t will add much n eeded di v ers lty t o !he p r oject, an d shou l d res ul t in an elevate d l e vel o f .. I nt e rna l c ap tur e'' fo r a ll f o rms o f mobility.) Sea side. which c o n tain s a more diverse mixture of u s e s. if o nly be c aus e It has some s h o p s a small hotel and a f e w small offi ce s is too preciou s :111d s p ecific t o b e convincingly u sed for grea t e r genera li z a tion A t 8 0 acres i t i s a bit smaller than lhe s t andard ne otradltional n e i g hb o rh ood. Integ rated i nto a mor e comp r ehens ive urban fabric !han is c urr e ntly fo u nd in South W alton Coun ty. Seo si de mi g ht v e r y w e ll r ealize so m e of the more ambitious aspiratio n s of ilS crutors. W ere Tam p a Polms built alon g th e lin es of S e as i d e. wilh a fine J r:un e d mix or u ses. n umer o u s redundant streets. :1. proximau: diversity or hous mg types. it u n dou btedl y would be a c o mmun ity th>t would f uncti on C E NTER FOR COMMt/NITY 219 DESI G N RESEARC H

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220 INTEGRATING CONCLUSION more along tile lines of a traditional 19tll-century small town Wbetller Tampa Palms, designed in such a manner, would be a s financially viable as it is today is a debatable issue that is, at this point, unan swered. A key issue with respect to the broad-based viability of neo-tradi lional planning will involve re-visiting tbe way new communities are financed. The Kenllands foundered at tile end of the 1980s because of financial problems: Seaside on the other hand, has been blessed with "patient money and has been extremely successfuL Until changes are instituted in the way community development projects are fmanced t o remove the impetus for shortt erm returns, developers will likely shy away from complex. highly integrated, amenity-intensive and novel projects 7. Urban Service Areas can be used as either a design tool or a ftscal tool; the stance selected will produce dramatically di f fer ent ruults. The over-riding distinction between Portland. OR and Orange County. FL lies in their conception of the underlying utility of the Urban Se r vice Area concept. Portland clearly sees the USA/UGA definit ion as a way to control and focus growth and development. Orange County sees it as a mechanism to coordinate infrastructure expenditure with growth Portland clearly wants to be a tightly contained city with a greenbelt surround and external suburban communities. Orange County equally clearly intends to achieve maximum low-density build-out within its municipal boundaries The differences between the two approaches seem to boil down to long-term vision, a sense of municipal restraint. and an enhanced quality of life. Portland is one of America s best places to live: Orange County is simply a fast-growing place. Both jurisdictions are utilizing a similar concept for different ends; the issue, thus, in assessing the validity of the Urban Service Area/Urban Growth Boundary concept must include municipal teleology: what does the community want to be when it achieves build-out? Unfortunately, in the United States today only rarely does one find communities with both an effect i ve rnechartism and the enlightened leadership necessary for successfully addressing this issue at a broad-based community-wide level. III Mobility 8. External and Internal modes of transportation have different requirements ; these must be carefully considered in the design of lJlX. form of community. The cases illustrate : bu t don t always resolve. t he necessity to distin guish between external and internal modes or transportation. between djs!dbulion systems and cjrcylarjon systems. As defined by the U r ban Land Institute a successful mixed-use development is one that COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATIOr-:

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CONCLUSION enables all of its internal circulation to take place on foot. Cutainly, both Crocker Center and Mizner Park work quite well in this respect : both provide reasonably attractive pedesttian environments. with ar cades to provide protection from wind, sun and rain, lush landscaping, attractive storefronts and a full complement of street fumirure. Whereas Crocker surrounds itself with a sea of parking -both surface and struc turedand people walk from their cars to the MXD Mizner Park successfully integrates the au
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222 INTEGRATING CONCLUSION Even Seaside. a project designed deliberately to minimize the demands of the car, is an auto-only destination point. At full swing, the char acter of Seaside, like that of Back Bay. is clearly colored by the presence of cars. Even though they are carefully and skillfully integrated into their surrounding, they dominate the environment, whether they are stand ing still or moving. The options. with respect to the automobile seem relatively clear-cut, at present. The characteristics of the car can determine the organiza tion and density of development such as is found at Las Colinas and Tampa Palms resulting i n b road. mono-functional dispersal, with hi erarchical street systems used to link the separate partS. Or, development can take place in deliberate refutation of the dimensional demands of the car, such as is found at Seaside or Back Bay, in which case the presence of the car is more obvious at rest than when in motion. Bui ld ings and destinations are closer together, facilitating non-automotive forms of mobility, but cars are nearly ubiquitous. On-street parking absorbs enonnous amounts of vehicles. but contrasts with the "clean" look sought in many su burban developments. Many small, integrated parking lots contrast with the ubiquitous parking "fields" so common to comemporary sprawl. The "aesthetic" of parking in a neo-tradi tional project clearly differ from those of more conventional forms of development. The former attempts to integrate cars inro the fabric of the community, the latter generally attempts to corral and hide the automobiles. However, only when the growth of neo-traditional de velopments enables families to live comfortably with only one automobile, will the inherent superiority of the neo-Uaditional approach become evident; the cars. both at rest and in motion, will become less dominant within the community. 10. Mass transit, in particular rail-based transit, is Dl!1 a domi nant influence today, although specific exceptions point to its enormous potential All of the older examples studied -Ybor City. Back Bay, Wimer Park. Chestnut Hill, Coral Gables-were originally serviced by rail. on both a regional and local scale. Today, only Back Bay bas a truly opera tional rail transit system. Of the newe r communities examined. L enox in Atlanta and Portland in Oregon have effective local and regional rail uans it systems. Las Colinas has a nascent internal "people mover .. system. None of the other developments have any form of rail-based transit. and only Orange County (in addition to Lenox and Po rtland) has any form of moderately effective bus transit system. Thus. the older examples. generated to some degree around the characteristics of rail transit. tend to be more inclusive rather than exclusive As the example of Back Say shows. a system generated around the characteristics of foot md rail uavel C3.1l be modified to function effectively for automob i les. As the cases of Dale Mabry. Tampa Palms and LutZ clearly demonstrate. a system designed primarily around the cbanc terist ic s of car uavel c:mnot reaJiy be effectively adapted to any other fonn of mobility. COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TR ANSPORTATIOI'I

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CONCLUSION 11. Pedestri21n systems, in contemporary dev e lopments, are seen as recreational and not functional elements of a commun ity Many of the communities studied have included within their masttrplans elaborately designed and detailed elements described as "pedestrian systems;" Close scrutiny revea ls, howeve-r. tha t while tbese systems tend to be quite well built, nicely landscaped and lit, and geijerally pleasing tO the eye, they are seen as recreatjonal amenities, not as functional aspects or the community. Tampa Palms and Las Colinas both promote their pedestrian networks as "joggi ng paths" and na mre walks." And, while these systems are, indeed, pleasant to see and walk upon. they generally do not really enhance accessjbjlitx very much People i n Tampa Palms and Las Coli n as go jogging a l ong the trails for e x e rcise and then get in thei r c:Jis to pick up a quart of milk al lhe supermarket. 12. Since World War II, there has been a gradual disintegralion of different forms of mobility within rigbts-of-way. Whereas the traditional development t ended to include room for cars. bicycles an d p edestrians within the same righ t of-way, newer com munities typic a lly separate these uses both physically and functionally, often to the degree that they no longer even bear any relation to each other. The major vehicular routes are primarily that: rou tes ror cars. They h ave no sidewalks and do not include enough ro adw ay for com foruble biking. Separate facilities are p r ov id ed for wallc.ing or jogg ing; these sometimes include space ror bicycles as well. P oss i bly this trend can be trace d tO the work or Stein and Wright at Radb urn NJ; iLs current populari ty seems in line with the aforemen tioned conception of walk i ng and biking as recreation, leisure time rather than functi onal activities. 13. Non-traditional automotive options have really not been ex plored in great detail, and deserve to be mora tully integrated into a community t s transportation system. In Sun City Center, the most efficien t and effective mobility system is probably neither the automobile street system nor the pedestrian system, but the extensive length or paths designed ror use by the over 3.500 privately owned golf-cam within the project. Special parking i s prov i ded for carts at all of the public facilities throughout the com munity. and pedestrians. bicyclists 31\d drivers pay special attention to the needs and rights of cart drivers Golf cans Jie an accepted secondary iorm of mobility in other golf course communities and c:tmpus developments throughou1 the country. b ut have yet to crea t e a niche for th emseives within the generally :J.C cepted hier3.tchy of transportation systems. Because or the dimensionai distinc t i ons between and golf-c::ms. especially in tenns o( spatial nel!dS :lnd range. substituting :1 golfC3J't fo r every other FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY 223 DESIGN RESEARCH

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224 INTEGRATING CONCLUSION automobile, especially for internally captured trips, could greatly en hance the efficiency of the overall transportation system. This also applies to other small-scale fonns of motorized transportation such as scooters. mo-peds and motor bikes. IV Land Use 14. The liner the mix or U$e$, the more effieltntly a variety of trans portalion modes $tel1l$ to operate. Tampa Palms, in it$ current configuration. presents an extremely coarse mixture of uses. Not only are residential. retail and office distinc t from each other different types of residential are isolated from one another. In the words of a person who was a witness to its design p roc ess, Tam pa Palms is "structured for economic mobility As one earns more money. one moves from one gated community within the development to another gated community. The goal of all aspirants appears to be to earn enough money to buy a house in the "Reserv e ," the only gated community that actually has a person in the gatehouse. and where the typical house is well over half a-million dollars in price In such a configuration, the whole idea of Tampa Palms as a "community" is farcical: rather it is a stn(egically developed scheme for positioning a diversity of relatively conventional mono-functional development projects in close proximity to each other without offending anyone: paint by number land-development. On the other hand, in s ome of the olde r examples -Back Bay, Win ter Park, Coral Gables-the mix of uses occurs at a much smaller scale and finer grain; residential blocks abut commercial streets: of fices are mixed in with stores. shops and hotels; different classes and types of residential can be found adjacent to each other Not only does this organization promote pedestrianism as a mobility option, it makes it easier to accomplish a variety of task with fewer automo bile trips. V Streets 15. Stree t s e ctions bave gotte n dramatically wider over the past century, resulting in a gradual loss of "containme.nL'' While the importance of public rights-of-way bas not diminished con siderably over the past century, the design and use of streets has changed r ather dramatically. In the earliest examples -Ybor City and Back Bay-streets were designed fo r an amal gam of horse drawn carts and cmiages, omnibuses b i cycles and pedestrians With the exception of the monumental and honorific boulevards --which usually doubled as parks most of the sueets were relatively narrow. This is espe cially uue with respect to the w i dth-to-height" ratio: the relationship between the width of a street and the height of the buildings on ei ther side or it A typical street in Back Bay has a widtht o-height COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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CONCLUSION rttio of about 2:1: i n Ybor C i ty along 7th Avenue, lho relations hip was 1 : 1 at some points . Over the course or the cen;ury, this relationsh ip has grown more and more attenuated The relationship on a residential s treet in Co ral Cables is generally around 3:1 or 4:1; on Mincle Mil e it b eco mes 5:1 at p oin ts: along Dale Mabry Highway, it becomes a mlnd boggling 20: 1 or m o re at certain points. Just as the width of streetS has been increasing. lind tho widlh-to-heig ht ratio has been growing so too the planar relationship between bu i ldinJl ha.s become mor e attenuated. Again, the o1der examples ponray the most c losely lcnit and cohesive "street wall" or buildings Ybo r Ci ty and Back Bay were developed, for the m ost pan. a s continuous party wall buildings with separate entr ie s and fcode features dis li n gu1s hing between properties. W inter Park was an inte resting and d i vers e blend of partywall structures. narr o w-lot stand-a lone bu il d i ng s. which created a "vinual" sueet w a ll, and la.rge IOI Sllnd-alone houses ond hotels for tile well-to-do. A similar pauem can be found i n C hestnut Hill. where there is stili a strong blend of single-uni t and multi-uni t b uildings integrated throughout !he commun i t y, and where sideya rd setback tend to be very small The Image of the street created i n these ear l y developments tilere fore, is o ne of on "outdoor room," a space that is general! y containe d by the bui ld ings at its edges. Planting and exterior design e lements such as low-walls and fences were used to enhance this sense of con tainment. The post-War development tYPes. with two notable exceptions, have done away with the Idea of the stree t u architectonic space No matter bow fast one drives alon g Dale Mabry. tllere i s no sens e or continu i t y oc boundedness. and in Tampa Palms. the only sense of containment I s created by the ubiquirou s walls that front ev ery resident i al comp lex in the community, and preven t111X interaction between tile public rightof-w a y and private propeny. As such. T ampa Palms is th e total antithesis ofprojeciS such as Ybor, Back Bay Winter Park, Ches mu t Hill and Coral Cables. The tw o notable exceptions among recent developments Seaside a.nd Mltner Place. Seaside. as noted. i s d elibera tely romantic and atavistic: Davis ond Duany and Plater-Z y berk set out t o re-create the 19th ce ntur y town Mizner Place. however. was designe d t o make a profit fo r ita finmciers: itS choi ce of the trad i ti onal Amer ican small town "Main Street" i s calculated. It responds. indirectly. to an in heren t Amer ican sensibility for this pan of our history. but more directly it respond.s to \he human de,sire to be cont2ined within cle:nly delin cated bound ed. detined outdoor spac e s With open skies above. people be gi n to look horizontally for clues: tile iurther the wa lls are apan the less comfortable people will feel w i th i n spoce For II tile gran FLORIDA C E NTER FOR COMMUNITY 225 DESIGN R E SEAR C H

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226 INTEGRATING CONCLUSION diosity, ironic as it may seem. lhe developers or Las Colinas would have done much better if !heir outdoor plaz.as were much much smaller 16. The organization or street systems has tended towards Jess a ad le.ss connectivity, increased rormal randomness and greater reliance on a fune:Uonal hierarchy as opposed to a network of streets. The organization of streets has changed considerab l y from lhe earli est examples. again with some notable exceptions. The earliest case studies reveal lhe 19tb century penchant for lhe relentless, democra t ic, orthogonal gridiroa approach to planning Back Bay is a repetit ive 300 x 600 foot block. oriented nea:Jy east/west. with only Common wealth Avenue accorded any special status w ithin the system. Ybor City was even more monotonous in its uniformity: a 200 x 350 foot. non:hierarchical grid wilh its long axis oriented directly east/west. Winter Park, on the other hand, possibly because of the r ecreat i onal nature of it s beginnings, uses a gr i diron, but in a sli g h tly looser and more h ierarchical manner Boulevards and avenues, accorded spe cial size and status, intermingle with regular sueets and terminate on axis at lakes. Cbestnut Hill developed in the hilly fringe a:eas of Philadelphia, breaks and bends the gridiron to conform with topography and physical features. A network exists, but it is very diverse:. Coral Gables in its original areas is more pauerned than Cbesmu t Hill, but. like Winter Park. uses a variety of road types and functions t o creale a hierarchy of streets Connectivity, however, is very bigh, and the system funqjons as a network rather than a hierarchy. With the post-Wa: developments, the street system as functional hi erarchy takes precedent over the street system as multi-use integrated network. One sees a dramatic shift firSt away from orthogonal a: rangements, and then away from interconnections The number of sueet intersections in Taropa Palms is vastly smaller than the number of intersections in Ybor City, Winter Pa:k or Coral Gables. Streets wind more, have few e r connections. and tend to aggregate traffic dif ferenUy: instead of a network. the systems today work as a linked chain. where any problem with any single linlc can bring down the effectiveness of the entire syStem. Again, the notable exceptions to this form o f street syStem a:e Soa side and th e Kentlands, both falling within the "nee-trad i tional" approach to town planning. In both examples, while connections t o e xternal road$ may be limited and somewhat hierarchical in nature !here is only one way in and one way out of Seasidei nternal roads function as a highly complex and integrated fabric. with diff e ren t types of roads intersecting io a variety of configurations ln contt:ut to the earliest examples of Ybor and B ack Bay. Seaside promotes nu:ner ous types of roadways. but in contrast to a hierarchical system such as round in Tampa Palms, Seaside and the KenUands provide for myriad routing options 3Dd alrematives. COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TR ANSPORTAT!ON

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CONCLUSION Needless to say. increased numbers of intersections imply increased numbers or roadways. and diminished block sizes. While it strains the imagination to call one of the globular "pods" of private development ai Tampa Palms a "block. the trend after the Wat: has been towuds vastly luger blocks of development with fewer and fewer public rights-o f-way. Where neo-traditional plaMers advocate an av erage block circumference of about a quarter of a mile (ie; 200' x 400' ), creating a "loop" within Sun City Center might entail a dr i ve half a mile or more and it is impossible to actually circle some of the r esidential developments found in Tat:npa Palms. 17 H e avily travelled arterial routes tend to promote separation more than integr
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228 I NTEGRATING CONCLUSION SUMMARY The cases described above represent a w ide variet)l of development types :llld patterns found in North America today In each case, tbere is a clear relationship between the transportation systems found in the case community, and tbe form, organization and character of the community. This document analyzes these relationships and draws some initial conclusions Further work is warranted particularly with respect to teleology : which comes first, the community or the trans portation system ? and, which is the prime development motiva t o r? In addition, issues such as fmancing methods. development time frnrnes, the integration of mul t i-modal movement systems. and optimal com munity s i ze and mix need to be explo red. The success of future designed communities will stem. in no small par t from beginning w i th a clearly articulated goal; the inability t o foc u s on ends generally creates an over-emphasis on means. In this light. the next step in this panicular line of research is to incorporate the information and analysis derived from the cases into the design or a variety of proto t ypical communit i es. The resulting efforts should clearly highlight the more critical aspects of furure "sustainable" com munity des i gn and development, and give further ins i ght, not only in to what is possible, but wha t is desirable. COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES INTRODUCTION page I 229 Diagram derived from Alex Krie ger wish William Lennenz. eds . Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk : Towns and Town-Making Principles, New York, NY: R i u.oli, 1991. p age 5 Diagram i llustr ating dimensional cristria: Florida Cemer jor Community Design + Research. February 1993. page 6 D i agram illustrating developmental chronology : Florida Center for Community Design + Research Februart 1993. page 17 D iagram derived from Alex Krieger with William Lennem. eds .. Andres Duany and Elizabeth Pltuer-Zyberk: Towns and Town-i\1aking Principles, New York, NY: Riz.z.oli, 199). page 1 9 cover: The Boynto n map of Bos1on. 1884 : Walter Muir Whitehill from Boston, A Topographlc History Cam br id ge MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard Universiry 1968 p 121. YBOR CITY page 21 rop: Cigar worker hous i ng and streercar in Ybor Ciry, ca. 1898: from a phocograph in Ihe coileccion of I he Tampa Hillsborough Counry Public Library Syscem. b ouo m: Viciniry map derived/rom "Map 2": Gary R. Mormino and George E Pozzetta. The Immigrant Worl d of Ybor City by Urbana JL: Universicy of illinois Press, 1987, p 48, page 22 top le fl: Quoce from D ave Svvnanski. "Ybor City. Encrepeneurs are belling chey can bring che hiscoric dimic: back t o life", The Tampa Tribune Sunday, Dectmber 20. 1992 Business and Finance Sec cion, p 1. center lefc: Qu oce from Eduardo R Va/ienrt "Ybor Cic_v Redevel op menl Plan", a Thesis Preparacion Documem for che USF/FAMU Cooperacive Mascer of Archicecture Program Tampa, FL: Universiry of Soulh Florida. Sum mer 1993, p 23 i>ouom left: 7th Avenue in Ybor Ciry: photog raph b\' the Florida Cencer for Communit\' Design + Researd: June !993 bouom rigJu: Kids pla.ving on soon robe-erected telephone poles on '"Ave de Ia 16 a Ia ca. 1895: der irc:. : from a plwcograpll in che Universil) of Souch Florida Libra ry Special Col/eccions page 23 top Quote jrom Dm:e Sy::manski ... Ybor City Emrepeneur s are berring rhey can bring rile llistor:i c di. < t r i er back to lije ... The Tampa Tribune. S unday December 1 0. 1 992. Business and Finance Secr io11. p 10 lOp: 7riJ Avenue in 1993: photo iJv che Flo rida Cencer fo r Communin + Resear ch June 1993. bouom; Histor i c worker ilousinf{ on C o lumbus Ale : by rhe Florida Center for Community D( si!!n + Research. June 199.?, FLORIDA CENTER F <) R COMMUNITY DESJGN RESEARCH

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230 GR APHIC REFER E N CES p age 2 4 t o p left : Quore from Robtrr Ingalls. U rban Vigilantes in the New South: Tampa, 18821936, Knoxville. TN: U niversity of Tennessee, 1988 p J J rop and bortom: Cigar box covers : from the Thomas Vance and L. Gltnn Westfall Collection. right: The Sanchet & Haya cigar f a c rory building ca. 1890: ph o r o graph in the Tampa/Hill s b o r o ugh CoWtty Pub li c Library Sysrem col/ecrion. pge 25 rop righr : Quore from rht Federal Writer's P roject. "Ybor City Tampa's Latin Colony", a Typescript i n the FloridtJ W o rk Proje cr A dmi n isrration P ap ers ho used in the Florida Histo r i c al S ociety Library Tallahasstt. FL. Dated March Jl. /94/ p 2. ltft: A band oned cigar fac tory buildi ng o n Columbus Avenut in 1993: p hoto by rhe F lo ri da Ce nt er for C o mmu n i /)' D e sign + Resear ch. June 1 993 page 26 top left : Quote from G ary R M o rmin o and George Pomtta. Tht Immigrant World of Ybor City. Urb ana. /[..: Uni versity of Illinois Prtss. 19 87. p 66. bottom left: Map of electric street-car rou tes i n 1926: dtrived from "Proc t o r's Authentic Map": in tht USF Special Coluctions. right : Map of Ybor City showing primary transparrmion rourts th r ough the district : dtrivtd from the AM map o f Tampa. Florida. pa,ge 27 top r ight: Quote fro m M .C. U onard. "Hi storic Overvie w of G r eater Ybor City: A Gentra l H is t ory", A Refer enct Guide Consrrucred fro t h e Ybor Collection located ar Hill s borough Community Col/tge Yl>or Campus T ampa. FL. Hillsborough C o mmuni/)' College. March 1978 p. J l>ottom and left: Map and ltgend s howing the location o f cigar fac t o ri e s schools and green spaces with i n Yl>or Ciry; derived from the AM map of Tampa. Florida. page 28 t o p ltft: Quo te f rom Karl H Grismer, Tampa. A History of th Cily of Tampa and the Tampa Bay Rtgio n of FloridtJ. St Ptttrsburg. Ft..: The St Ptttrsbur g Printing Compa n y, Inc .. 1950. p. 2115. center left: Q u ote from Gary R M o r mino and George E. Pouerra. World of Y bor City. Uri>ana. If..: U n iversity of /ll inois Pres s, 1987 p 44. botto m ltft: 7th Avenue near th t A v e nida de Ia Republica. pho t o l>y the Fl o rida Center for Co mmun i/)' Design + Rese arch. June 1993. rig ht : Map showing relative distances from the intersecti o n of 7 th Avtnue and 22nd Street w i th i n th e Ybor Cir: a r e o : derived from the AAA map o f Tampa. Florida page 29 top rig hr. Quo t t f r o m Ant hon. v P. Pi::zo. Tampa To"'" 1824 1886. Cracbr Villag< "'ith a Lalin A<<
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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 231 page 3 0 top: Looking east on 7th Ave nut: der ived from a photograph ca. /925 in the University of South Florida Spe cia/ Uurary. c e nter : 7th Avenue in 1993: photo &y the Florida Center for Community D.sign +Research June /993. 11ottom: The Crosstown Expresswa y: photo /:Jy the Florida Center fo r Co mmuni I)' Design+ Resear c h. June 1993. BOSTON page 31 top : Commonweal th Avenue: dtrivedfro mfig. 96 Wal ter M uir W hitehill, Boston. A Topolofica/ Hisuuy Cam bridge, MA : The Belknap P ress of H arvard U niversity 1968. p 165 bouom: Vic;11i r y map: tkri vedjr om the AAA mop oj Bosr ott, M assachusetts page 32 top lef t : Quote from Bainl1r idge Bunting, Houses of Boston's Back Bay. Cambri dge, MA: The B e lknap Press. / 967, p 2. bo tt o m l e ft: Dam with rail lines --the p r o c ess of filling in the Ba ck Bay: derived from a photograph f r o m Wal t er Muir Whitehill Boston. A Topol o g ical History, Cambr i dge, MA : The Belk na p Press o f Harvar d U niv ersi ty. 1968. p 101. ri ght: The west s ide of Commonwealth Avenue and its junction with Dart m o lll h Street in 1872 : deriv e d from State Strttt Trust C ompany, Boston: Ont Hundred Yean A City. Boston. MA : W a lton Advertiti n g & Printi n g Comp
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232 GRAPHIC REFERENCES right: Diagram illustrating the setback requiremenJS within the disrrict: derived from Bainbridge Bunting. Houses of Boston's Back Bay, Cambridge, MA : The Belknap Press 1967. p 253. page 38 top left: Quote from Walter Muir Whitehill, Boston, A Topowgical History Cambridg e MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University. 1968, p. 178. center left: Quote from Bainbridge Bunting Houses of B osto n 's Back Bay Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press 1967, p JJ. right: Map showing the relative distances from Copley Square within the Back Bay district: derived from the AAA map of Boston. page 39 top right : Quote from Bainbridge Bunting. Houses of Boston's Back Bay Cambridge. MA : The Belknap Press. 1967. p 40. center right: Quote from Robert Campbell and Peter Vanderwarker. Cityscapes of Boston. An American Ciry Through Time, New York, NY: Houghton Miffl i n Company 1992. p 198 left: Sidewalk displays along Newbury Street: photograph by the Florida Ce111er for Community Design + Re search April 1993 page40 l eft: Quote allributed to John Ruskin. quoted by Robert Campbell and Peter Vanderwarker CityscaptS of Bos ton. An American City Through Time, New York NY: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992 p. 199. bouom left: rypical service alley in the Back Bay grid : photo by the Florida Center for Communiry Design + Research. April J 993 righ:: Horse-drawn Streercars in 1891 on Boylston Street: derived from a photograph in Bainbridge Bunting, Houses of Boston s Back Bay, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 1967 p. 40 page 41 title page: Pre-World War 11 Suburbs: Aerial view of Forest Hills Gardens : derived from Norman T. Newton, Design on th
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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 233 Orlando FL: Orange Press. 1950. left: Central Park fountain: drawn from a photo by the Florida Center for Community De>ign + Research, May 199 3. page 46 top left: Harriett Beecher Stowe. quoted by Richard N. Campen, Wint map collection page 47 l eft : Park Avenue; from a photo t>y rhe Florida Center for Community Design + Research. May 1993. rop rig ht: John R. Ergood's couage, t>uilr 1887: from Richard N. Campen, Winter Park Portrait: the Story of Winter Park and Rollins College, Beachwood OH: West Summit Press, 1987. p.76. center right: W C. Comstock's collage, buili/888: Richard N Campen. Winlt"r Park PortraiJ : the Story ofW;nrer Park and Rollins College, Beachwood, OH: Wesr Summit Press, 1987, p. 37. be 11om rig he: The Firsr Congregarional Church, bui/r 1884; Richard N Campen, Winter Park Portrait: rhe Story of Winter Park and Rollins College, Beachwood, OH: Wesr Summit Press, 1987 p 25. page 48 t op left : Quote from Lochmede, January 27, 1888, p. 3: from the Winter Park Library Archives boll om lefr: The Dinky Srarion: derived fr o m Richard N Campen, Winter Park Porrrail: rhe Story of Winter Park and Rollins College, Beachwood, O H : West Summit Press, 1987 p. 22. right: Map showing the major transportation routes: derived from "Winter Park Existing Transportation S .vs ttm", by the City of Winter Park. FL. 1990. page 49 top right: Quote from the Winter Park Town Map drawn in 1884 for Chapman and Chase: from the Roiiins C ol lege Arc hives map collection. center right: Quote taken from a po11card, ca. 1925: from the Winter Park Library Arch ives bottom right: Park Avenue; drawn from a photograph by the Florida Center jor Community Design + Researcil. May 199:1. left: Map showing open space w ithin rhe city limits : derived from "Wimer Park Existing Transportation System .. map published by rhe Ciry of Winru Park. FL 1990. page 50 left: Train schedule and rowe map from the Hotel Seminole brochure. Rollins College Archives. Winter Park. FL: The Plane System 1897. r ight: Map showing the relative distances from Central Park ro other areas within the ciry limirs: derived trom Wimer Park Existing Transportation System", City of Winter Park, FL 1990. page 5 1 ie,fr: Amtrak Station: drawn from a photograpil by tile Flor ida Center jor Community Design .;. Research. Ma. 1993. rap righr: The Dinky locomotive: from Richard N. Campen. Winter Park Ponrmt: th.t Story of Wimer ParK and Rollins College. Beachwood. OH: West Summit Press. 1987 p. 22. bouom right: Winter Park train ca 1900: derived jrom Ricltard N. Campen. Winter Park Portrait: Story of Wint
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234 GRAPHIC REFERENCES page 52 top left: Quote from Winter Parle brochure ca. J9JJ, RollifiJ College Archives. center left: On-srrut parking on Parle Avenue. ca. 1925: from Winter Park Ubrary Archives. /Jouom left: Bicyclers in 1897: from the Hotel Seminot. brochure, Winter Park, FL: The Plant System. 1897. in the Rollins College Archives. CHESTNUT HILL page 53 top: The Gravers Lane Station of the Reading (Chestnut Hill-East) lint in Chestnut Hill, PenfiJylvaniD : derived from David R Contosra. Suburb in the City. Chestnut Hill, PhiladelphiD, 1850-1990. Columbus, OH: Ohio State Universiry Press, 1992, p 51 bottom: Vicinity map: derived from the AM map of Philadelphia. page 54 top left: Quote from David R Contosta, Suburb in the City. Chestnut HiU, Philadelphia, 1850-1990, C o lum bus, OH: Ohio Stare University Press. 1992 p. 3 center left: Druim Moir. the Houston family mansion locared in West ChestnUI Hill on the Wissahickon Gor?e: from photo, David R Contosta. Suburb in the City. Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, 1850-1990 Columbus. OH: Ohio State University Press 1992, p. 97. bottom left: St Martin-in-the-Fields Church ; derived from photo, David R. Contosta. Suburb in the City. Chest nut Phil4delphia, 1850-1990, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press 1992 p 294. page 55 top Tight: Quote [rom David R. Contosta. Suburb in the City. Chestnut HiU, Philadelphia, 1850-1990 Colum bus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 1992, p 43. center right: The Cresheim Valley rail bridge built in 1989 for the Chestnut Hill-Westline: derived from David R Contosta. Suburb in the City. Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, 1850-1990, Columbus, OH: Ohio State Uni\'er sity Press 1992, p. 291. bottom right: Symphonic concert in Pastorius Parle in J 990 : derived from David R. Conrosta. Suburb in the City. Chestnut HiU, PhiladelphUJ, 1850-1990, Columbus. OH: Ohio State University Press, 1992. p. 294. page 56 top left: Quote [rom David R. Contosra. Suburb in the City. Chestnut HiU, Phil4delphia, 1850-1921l, Colum bus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1992, p. 94 center left: The Wissahickon Inn; derived from photo in David R. Conrosta. Suburb in the City. Chestnut HiU, Philadelphia, 1850-1990, Columbus, OH: Ohio State Uni versity Prtss. 1992. p. 84 ?ottom left: Undtn Court. one of George Woodward'sfour -ple:r.es: derived from David R. Contosta. Suburb in the City. Chestnut Phil4delphUJ, 1850 Columbus. Oh : Ohio State Universicy Press. 1992. p. 1)5. page 57 top right: Quote from David R Contosta. Suburb in the City. Chestnut Hill, PhiladtlphUJ, 1850-1990. Coium bus, OH: Ohio State University Press. !992. p. 55. b o ttom right: 8205 Seminole Avenue. a house built for H.H Houston in 1885: deri ved from David R. Conrosta Suburb in the City. Chmnut HiU, Philadelphia, 1850-1990 Columbus. OH: Ohio State Universil\ P ress. p. 95. l eft: Typical residential street in North ChestnUl Hill: derived from David R. Contosta. Suburb in the City. Chest nut Hill, Phil4delphia, 1850-1990, Columbus, OH: Ohio Sl4lt Universicy Press 1992. p IN INTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 235 page 58 left: Diagram denoting !>locks of development within Chestnut Hill; derived from AAA map of Phi/adelphi,; l>v the Florida Center for Community Design + Research. right: Map showing the primary transportation corridors in Chestnut Hill: derived from the AAA map of Phila delphia. page 59 rop right: Quote from David R: Contosta. Suburb in the City. Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, /RS0-1990 Colum bus, OH: Ohio State Univmity Press 1992, pp. 132-133 bottom right : Quote from Robert A. M Stern with Jim Montague Massengale, eds .. The Anglo-American Sub urb, London: Architectural Design 1981, p. 22. left: Map showing primary land uses within Chestnut Hill: derived from the AAA map of Philadelphia page 60 right : Map showing relative d i stances from Pas10rius Park with in the Chestnut Hill suburb: der ived from the AAA map of Philadelphia. page 61 t op righr : Quote from Harvey Rab i nowirz and Edward Beimuorn with Charles Mrotek Shuming Yan and Peter Gugliotta The New Suburb, Final Report prepared for the Urban Mass Transit Administration by the Center for Urban Transportation Studies and S chool of Architecture and Urban Planning University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Washington D.C.: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. July 1991, p. 6 left: early electrified trolley car in Chtstnut Hill on Germanrown Avenue, ca. 1890: from David R Contosta, Suburb in the City. Chestnut Philad
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Z36 GRAPHIC REFERENCES page 67 top r ight : Quote from Marjorie StoMman Douglas, Coral Gables, A,..rica's Finest Suburb, Millmi, Florida Co ral Gables. FL: Parker Printing Co .. ca. 1932, pp 30.32. center right : Pede31rians shopping on Mi r acle Mile ; photograph by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, May 1993. bottom right: Alley OM block north of Miracle Mile ; photograph by the Florida Ce111er for Community Design + Research. May 1993 page 68 top left: Quote from The City of Coral Gables. The Joy of Living, Coral Gables FL: City of Coral Gables 19 3 0 center right: Quote from Jeffrey Jorge Cohen The Rede.elopment of the Central BusineSf District of the Ciry of C o ral Gables, Florida, with the Design of a Multi-Use Community and Commercilll Facility, Master's The sis, U ni v ersity of Florida. Spring 1977 p 7. bottom left: The Biltmore Hotel and its Palm Promenade: photograph by the Florida Center for Communiry Design+ Research, May 1993 p age 69 top r ight: Quare by George Merrick. Coral Gables, America's Most BeauJiful and Finest D e'tloped Suburb at Miami Coral Gables. FL: The Parker Art Printing Association, ca. J923 from the Coral Gab l es Hillorica l Society collection p 46. bottom right: On-street parking along Miracle Mile: photograph by the Florida Center for Communiry Design + Research May 1993. left: Typical r esidential Mighborhood, looking east on Coral Way : drawn from a photograph by !he Florida Center for Communiry Design+ Ruearch, May 1993 page 70 l eft: Map showing primary transportation routu: derived from the AAA map of Dade County. rig/It : The French City Village townhouses built ca. 1925: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Res e arch. May 1993. page 71 right: Map highlighting non resid e ntial land uses: derived fro m the AAA map of Dade Counry page 72 left: Map showing distances from Ciry Hall: derived from the AAA map of Dade County. right: The DeSoto fountain at the intersection of Grenada and Sevilla Struts: photograph by the Florida Center f o r Communiry Design +Research. May 1993 poge 73 to p right: Quote from Marjorie StoMman Douglas. Coral Gabks, America's Finest Suburb, Millmi, Florida. Coral GaiJies. FL: Parker Printing Association ca 1932 p. 14 bottom right: Trolle v on LejtuM. ca. 1930: drawn from a photograph in the collection of the C oral G a bles Hisrorical Society. page i 4 rop left : Mid block pedestrian crossing on Miracle Mile: photograph bv the Florida Center for Communiry De sign +Research. May 1993 center left: Traffic at the intersection of Strtet and Miracle Mile: phot o graph bv the Florida Center for Community Design + Research. May 1993 INTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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GRAPHIC REFERE NC E S 237 bouom lt{t: Tht Mttrorail Stmion across from the Univtrsiry of Miami : pltntograph by the Flor ida Ctnttr for Communlry Duign +Research. May 1993. L A S COLINAS page top: Atrial view of the Las Colinas develo pment: deriv ed from a photog raph in the promotional packJlgt sent b) FaisonStone Las Colinas. rece i ved June 1993 bottom : Vici niry Map: derived from the AAA map of the Dallas/Fo rt Worth metropoliu:m area page 76 tOp left : Quote by Gary Cartwr ight, from Texas Monthly quottd by Joel Garreau in Edge City. Lif on th< ,v,., Fronti lbel Ga"eau, "Edge Cities" Landscape Architecture, December /988. p 5 J bottom right: Typica l si ngle f amily homes alongside a golf course: derived from David Dillon. "Las Colinas R ev isited", Plan n i ng, Dec ember !989. p iO lt.ft: Diagram of primary land uses in La.s Colilllls : dtrivea' from the .olan of the dtl'tiopment ,from tilt promo tiona I packnft /r
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238 GRAPHIC REFERENCES page_ 82 left: Quote by Joel Garreau, from Edge Cil)l Life on the New Fronli
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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 239 page 91 top right: Quote from Frances Fitzgerald. Citi es on a HiU, New York. NY: Simon and Schuster 1981, p. 240. centtr right: Church with grass parking lot in Sun City Cent er: drawn from photo by Florida Center for Commu. nity Design +Research. Apri/1993. bo/lom righr: Commercial Slrip on the servia road parallel 10 State Road 674: drawn from photo by Florida Cenrtr for Communriy Design + Research. April/993. left: Rtsidtnl posing in Kings Point: drawn from photo by Florida Cellltr for Community Design + Research. April1993. page 92 top left: Quote from Frances Fittgerald. Citits 011 a HiJJ, New York. NY: Simon and Schusttr, 1981. p 244 cenur left: Golf can parking at the WinnDixie supermarket: photo by Florida Center for Community Design + Re.rearch. April 1993. IJou om left: Sun City Center Recreation Complex: photo by the Florida Center tor Communi ty Design + Re search Apri/1993. rlghr: Map showi n g land uses and circ ularion: derived from ""Just The Fac ts map. Sun City Cenrer Develop ment Corporation. page 93 top right: Quote from Frances Fit:terald. Citi
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240 TWIN RIVERS page 97 GRAPHIC REFERENCES top: Aerial of Twin Rivers Development at fifty percent comple t ion: drawn from the frontispiece. Robert W. Burchell with Jelopment. New Communities AmerictJn Sryk, New Brunswick NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University. 1972. page 99 left: Quote from Joe R. Vutto. from "Twin Rivers. A Plllllned Unit Development", 1989, p. 2. right: Townhouses in the first quadrllllt: drawn from Robert w Burchell with James W. Hughes. Plann ed Unit D .. eJopmenL New Communities Americt1n Style. New Brunswick. NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research. Rutgers Univ ersity, 1972. page 100 top right: Quoit from Joe R. Vuuo. from "Twin Rivers, A Planned Unit Development", 1989, p. 2. bottom right: Primary school, K-6. built by the developers lllld rented to the municipality; drawn from Robert W. Burchell with James W. Hughes. Planned Unil D .. elopment. New Communi/Us American Style, New NJ: Cetuer for Urban Policy Rusgers University, 1972. page 101 left: Single family homes of the second 1111d fourth quadrants: drawn from Robert W. Burchell with James W. Hughes, Planned Unit Dev
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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 241 r i ght: Diagram s/10wing primary rrariSponaJion corridors : derived from Roberr W Burchtllwith James W. Hughes. Planned Unit Devdopmenl. New Communities American Style. New B r unswick. NJ: Center jor Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University. 1972, p 9/. page 106 left : Quote from Alan Mallach Planned Unit D .. .Jopmenrs in New Jers ey. A Social and Politit:td Ass e ssmelll Technical Report New Jersey County and Municipal Government Study Commission. 1974. p JJ. right : Discontinued condominiums for the elderly in Twin Rivers: drawn from Roben W. Burchell with James W. Hughes ? Planned Unit Development. New Communitie s American Style. New Brunswick. Nl: Center for Urban Policy Research. Rutgers Universi ty, 1972. page 107 Cover Mixed Use Activ ity Center s : Denver Technology Cenrer : derived from Robert Cervero. Suburban Gridwck New Brunswick. NJ: Cenrer for Urban Poli cy Research, Rutgers the Stare University of New Jersey 1986. p 60 phoro 3.9 MIZNER PARK page 109 top: Aerial of Mizner Pa rk; drawn from photograph from the "Community Redevelopment Are a information package from the Boca Raton C o mmunity Redevelopment Agency, Boca Raton Fl.: City of Boca Raton. bottom: Vicin i ty Map; derived from the AAA map of Eastern Palm Beach County Flori do.. page 110 top left : Quote from the community Redevelopment Area" information package from the Boca Raion C ommu nity Redevelopment Agency. Boca Raton Fl.: City of Boca Raion. c enter left : Quote from "Mil/ItT Park Boca Raton. Florida" UU Project Reference File. vol 22. no. 8. A pr il! June 1992 bottom left: Diagram of the Boca Raton downtown redevelopment district; from rhe "Community Redevelopment Area" information pa c kage from the Boca Raton Community Redevelopment Agency Boca Raton. Fl. : of Boca Raton page 111 top right: Quote from Mizner Park Rt14il Shops, promotional booklet produced by Crocker & C ompany re ceived May 1993. b o tt o m right: Shaded arcade fronting the shops; drawn from a photo by the Florida Center for Community De sign +Research. May /993. page 112 top left : Quote from Crocker & Company in Entry jor Arthur D. l..iule Awards for Excellence in Eco nomic Dt vel o pment 1992 p. 4. center left: Quote from John Shuff. "Mizner Park. The Flap. The Facts The Future". BoCil Raton Magazine Marchi April 1992 p. 130. bottom left : shoppers along the Plav the Florida Cenrtr for Commun i(V Design + Research. May 1993 pagell3 t op r lghr: Quou from John Shuff. "Mi:.ner Park.. The Flap. Th( Facrs. Tile Future" Boca Ra1on Maga:.mrt. March/ April 1992. p JJO. center right: Quote fr o m John Shuff Park The Flap. The Facts Tile Future Boca Raton FLORIDA C ENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGI'

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242 GRAPHIC REFERENCES Marchi Apri/1992, p. 83. bonom right: Founiains provid e d with wide bases for seating: photo by the Florida Center for Community De sign +Research, May 1993. left: Residential face viewed from Mizner Boulevard; phoJO by the FloridJJ Center for Community D esign+ Re search, May 1993. page 114 left: Circulation diagram: from "Mizne r Park Boca Raton. FloridJJ UU Project Refertnce File, vol. 22, .o. 8 April -J une 1992. right: Parking garage entry; drawn from photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, May 199 3 page 115 left : Amphitheatre situated on the northern end of the development: drawn fr o m a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design +Research May 1993. right: Land Uses Diagram: derived from "MiVter Park. Boca Raton. Florida" UU Project Referencr Filt, vol. 22, no. 8, April-June 1992 page 116 1op left: East West cross section of the development : Florida Center for Community Design + Research, Septem b er 1993 bonom left : Diagram showing radial distances from the Plaza Real gazebo: derived from "MiVttr Park. Boca Raton, Florida UU Project Refertnce File, vol 22. no. 8 April-June 1992. right: Gazebo in the Plaza Real: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design +Research, May 1993. page 117 top right: Quote from John Shu/f. "Mizner Park. The Flap, The Facts, The Future" Boca Ra1on Magazine, March/ April 1992, p J 26 bonom right: Signage: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Research, May 1993. Valet parking outside cafe: drawn from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design +Research, .\fay 1993. page 118 top left: Quote from Crocker & Company in Entry for Anhur D. Little Awards for Excellence in Economic De velopment 1992. p. 3. boltom left: Isolated bus stop at the north end of the developme/IJ: phoJO by the' Florida Center for Community Design + Research. May 1993. right : Pedestrians seated in the Plaza Real: drawn from photo by the Florida Center for Community Design .;. Researcl:. May 1993. CROCKER CENTER pagell9 top: View jrom Militarv Trail: drawn from "CROCKER CENTER. Boca Raton. Florilfa" promotional brochure from Crocker & Company received Mav 1993 i>o11om: Vicinir_v Map: deri ed from the AAA map of Eastern Palm Beach Councv. page 120 top left: Quote from Crocktr & Company brochure, received May 199) I NTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 243 C
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244 GRAPHIC REFERENCES poge 1.28 left: The intersection of Town Center Road and Military Trail: photo by the Florida Center for CommUIIity De sign+ Research. May 1993. right: Well-landscaped vehicle entry to the development: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research. May 1993. LENOX poge !29 top: Lenox Square Mall parking lot: drawn from photo by the Florida center for Community Design + Research. November /990. bo11om: Vicinity map; derived from the AAA map of Atlanta. poge 130 left: Quote f r om the City of Atlanta Planning Department. Buckhead Area Growth ProgNm : 1985 2000. /985. p. /2. right: Offices towers on Peachtree Road: drawn from photo by the Florida Center [or Community Design + Research. November /990. page 131 right: Quote from Kathryn Hayes. "How Leno.t Square Stays on Top", Georgitt Trend, D ecember 1986. ? 42. poge 132 left: The "Resurgens development which is built over the MARTA st ation with an air rights purchase: drawn [rom a photO by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research. November 1990. page 1 33 right: J Michael Maloney. quoted by Kathryn Hayes. in "How Lenox Square Stays on Top". Georgill Trmd. December 1986. p. 48. left: Commercial and residential towers located near Lenox Road, developed after the MARTA station was opened: drawn from a photo by the Florida Center [or Community Design + Research. November 1990. page 134 !eft: The passage to the MARTA Station through the Marriott Hotel in !he Lenox Building; drawn from" photo by rhe Florida Center for Community Design+ Research. November 1990. right: Circularion diagram: derived from the A.'IA map of Atlanta. page 135 le}i: Land Uses diagram: derived from the AAA map of Atlanta. 136 r igJu: Map /oca1ing major dt-velopm.ems in the area: derhedfrom the AAA map of Atlanta. page 137 Ste .. -e Hanman quoted b ,\' Kathryn Hayes. in ''Hon: LenoA Square Sta:'<'S on Top'', Georgia Trend. Decem# i1er 1986. p . ..-e,c: Tile MARTA Station viewed from East Paces Ferry Road: drawn from a pitoto o .... the Florida Ct r::er fer Communi')' +Research. November 1990. ;)J\!1! 13$ Offices em Peacmree set back jrom tl!e SITte: by SlllJGCe drawn from a pitoto by the C t!t!ltf !()r C mnmunin + Research. November 1990 :NTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATJO;-i

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 243 page 139 covu : Atrial of S easide: derive d from Paul M. Sachnouom right: Circulation diagram: dtrivtd from David Mohney and Ktlltr Easterling, eds .. StaSidt Ntw York. NY: Princeton Archittcrura/ Press. 199/, p. 100 left: Aenal view oftht central public green space looking west: drawn from a phoro b tilt Flori Center /C' Communiry Dtsi'n + Rtstarcit. Novtmbtr 199/. pge 146 :op left: Quot e from Philip Langdon. "A Gooa P lace ro Lilt Arlan ri c .\fonthly. March 1988. p. -/J. borrom le ft: Diagram showing proposed plans jor future e.tpansion of the development: derived from Dll'o'id M o lin : and Ktlltr Easterling. eds .. Seaside. New York. NY: Princeton Archirtctura l Press. 1991. p. 106 right : Land Usts diagram: derived from David Moime ' and Ktlltr Easterling, eds .. Stasidt, New York. N)': Princeton :Vch ittctural Press. 199!. p. 106-!0 i 1.1:; H},'CC(HI,l'l.! :Jwi diJI':! : c :t:r 'Ueer.: !Ji!OIO iJ\' :he ,,, c :r. . mutaf\' Dcsirn + Kl!uarcit StDltmrJt!' l99 : . 1ottom r;rhc: Dicnram cile tii.smiJuttm! ::r Jotrt tDtiCt \\' tdun U!t ti t:eiopmtm: aerwl!c 1 rr.m DPZ pian of Setzsuie. rtcttvtti Septemou i99..:. FLORID.

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES page 148 left: Diagram iltustrali11g the variety of lfrttt sectiOIIS within the derived from David Mohney and Keller Easterling. eds Seaide, New York. NY: PrinceiQn Architectural Press, 1991, p. 96 and p 104. rig hi: Diagram showing the radial durances from the cen1ral amphitheatre area to other areas of the development: derived from David MohMy and Keller Easterling. Staide, eds New York. NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 1991, diagrams on pp. 100-JOJ. page 149 right: Quou from a letter to the editor by Frank Clayton, Seaside Revisited", Urban U.nd, October 1992, p 6. left: Typical residential strtttscene with golf cans used as service vehicles; from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Research. November 1991. page 150 top left: Quote f rom Philip Langdon, "A Good Place to Live" Atlantic Monthly March 1988, p. 42: bottom left: View along a typical sandy pedestrian paths: photo b y the Flori do Cenur tor Community Design + Research, September 1991. KENTLANDS page 151 top: A row of single family homes in the Kenllands; derived from Kentlands ", an ifl/ormational package from the Kenllands 1n/ol711Qlion Cen1er, Gaithersburg. MD. received November 1992. b ollom: Vicinity map; derived from the AM map of Maryland page 152 top left: Quote from the Ken11ands promotional paclcage, received November 1992. botiQm left: Quote from Edward Gunts, "Plan Meets Reality". Architecture December 1991. p 116 page 153 top right: Quoit from Edward GUIIlS, "Plan Meets Reality" ArchiUcture, December 1991. p. 76. center right: Jay Parlcer, quoted by Uoyd Bookout in "Ntotraditional Town Planning: Toward a Blending of Design Approaclus", Urban !Jznd August 1992. p. 16. botwm righl : Typical street scene with house under construction: from photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Research. November 1992. left: View of homes and the school; derived from Edward Gunts, "Plan Meets Reality", by Edward Gunrs. Archi teclure December 1991, p 77. page 154 top left: Quou from William A. Winburn IV. "The Development Realities of Traditional Town Development Urban lAnd, August 1992. p 20. cen1er left: Quor.: from Edward GUIIU, "Plan Meets Reality", Architecture. December 199/, p. I 16. bottom left: Garages along an alley in Ktnllands. with apartments above ; derived from Edward Gunrs. "Plan Metts RLality". by Edward GIUilS. Arc/r.itectru. Dece mbtr 199/ p 77. page 155 righr: Developer Joseph Alfandre quoted by Gract M Anderson, in A New Old-Fashioned Village in Mary land", Archiuctrual Rocard, Sepltmbtr 1988, p. 57. left: The historic farm house, which is illlended to be adapted to COIMIUility uses; from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Research. November 1992. INTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 247 page 156 t op left: Quote from Edward Gunts, "Plan Meers Real icy", Arc/Uieclure December 1991, p. 116-117. bottom left: Diagram showing lot placement and sizing of single family residences in the l.Akt District; derived from "Kentlands", an informational package from the Kentlands 1nfomuuion Cinter, Gaithersburg, MD, re ceived November 1992. right: Circulation systems diagraf!J;. dtrived from "Kentlands. Map of rltt Town Plan", by Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plaler-Zyberk, Architects, Gaithersburg, MD: Great Seneca Development Corporation. page 157 top right: Quote from William A. Winburn 1V, "The Development Realities of Traditional Town Development", Urban Land, August 1992, p. 21. bottom right: Lakes and woodlands preserved as open space within the development; drawn from a photo by lhe Florida Center for Community Design+ Research, November 1992. left: Land uses diagram; derived from "Kenrlands. Map of the Town Plan", by Andres Duany and El izaberh PlaJer-Zyberk. Architects, Gaithersburg, MD: Grear Seneca Development Corporarion. page 158 left: Quore from Uoyd Bookout, "Neotraditional Town Planning: The Test of the Marketplace", Urban Land June 1992. p. JS. right : Diagram showing distances from rhe mixed-use-rown-cenrer-to-be: derived from "Kentlands. Map of rhe Town Plan", by Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plarer-Zyberk, Architects, Gaithersburg, MD: Great Seneca Development Corporation page 159 right: Planner Andres Duany, quoted by Diane Grana/, "Grear Neighborhoods", Tlu Wnian, March 1993, p. 69. left: Pedestrian parh bisecting a long rtsidelllia/ block: drawn from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, November 1992. page 160 left: On-street parking along a narrow one-way street: drawn from a photo by the Florida Center tor Communiry Design +Research, Novtmbtr 1992. right: Typical streetscape in tire Ktntlands: drawm from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, November 1992. page 161 Urban Service Areas/ Urban Growrlt Boundaries covu: Lot 7, for sale in "Windemtre Reserve", a new development in wesr central Orange Counry: from a phoro by the Florida Center for C ommunity Design + Research. July 1993. ORANGE COUNTY page 163 top: The county line near Disney World. benveen Orange County and Osceola Counry: from a phoro fly the Florida Center for Community Design+ Research. Jul}' 1993. bouom: Vicinity map: derived from the AAA map of Florida. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN + RESEARCH

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248 GRAPHIC REFERENCES page 164 top left: Quote from a brochure on CenJral Florida, ca. /920,from the Orange County Bicentennial Committee, More Than A MemJJry, Orlando, FL: Robinsons, Inc .. 1975, p. 185. center left: Entry to Central Florida Research Park; photo by the Florida CenJer for CofMIJlllity Design + Re search, July 1993. bottom left: Central Boulevard in downtown Orla.ndo: photo bY the Florida Center for Community Design + Research. July 1993. right: Entry highway to Disney World: from a photo by the Fwrida Center for Community Design + Research. July 1993. page 165 top right: Quote from Jerrell H. Shofner, ORLANDO. The City Tulsa. OK: ContinenJal Heritage Press. 1984, p. 167. upper center right: Quote from Orange County, 1990-2010 Comprehensi .. Poliq Plan. Future Land Use Eltment, Orlando, FL: Board of County Commissioners. Amended August 11. 1992. p 63. lower center right : Traffic on Kirkman Road: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research. July /993. bottom right: Lot 7.for sale in "Windemere Reserve" a new development in west central Orange County: from a photo by the Florida Center tor Communiry Design+ Research, July 1993. page 166 top left: Quote from Orange County, Fk>ritla. 199()..21JJO Comprehensive PolicJ Pion. Future Land Use Ek ment. Orlando, FL: Board of County Commissioners, Amended August/1, 1992, p. 42. center left: "Windemere Reserve" enJrance; photo bY the Florida Cen1er for Community Design + Research. July 1993. bottom left: UniversitY of Central Florida enJrance; photo by the Florida Center for Communiry Design + Re search, July 1993. page 167 top right: Strip commercial center near Disney World: photo bY the Florida CenJer for .Cowurumiry Design + Research, July 1993. l>ollom right: Street sign in the UCF Technology Center; photo by the Florida CenJer for Communiry Design + Research, July 1993. left: New residenJial development outside the boundaries of the Urban Service Area: from a photo bY the Florida Center for Communiry Design+ Research. July 1993. page 168 top left: Quote from 192/ Orlondo Board of Trade from the Orange Counry Bicentennial Committee. More Than A Memory, Orlando, FL: Robinsons, Inc . 1975, p. 53. center left: Nffl dtvelopmen1 outside the Url>an Service Area: photo by the Florida Center for Communiry De sign + Research, July 1993. bottom left: Rural road in the hisUJricfarming community of Gotha; photo bY the Florida Center for Communiry Design +Research, July 1993. right: Map of Orange County's Urban Service Area illustrllling primllry transportation co"idors: derived from the AAA map of Florida a.nd Orange C.,,.IIIJ, FloritlJJ. 199()..2010 C..mprehetuin Poliq P/lm .. Futrue Land Use Elemtnt. Orla.ndo. FL: Board of County Commissioners. Amended August//, 1992. page 169 top right: The Church Street Station enJtnainment comp/u in downtown Orlondo; photo by the Florida Center for Communil)l Design+ Research, July 1993. INTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 249 center right: Cottages in historic town of Gotha; photo by the Floridll Center for Commun ity Design +Research. July 1993. bottom right: City Hall Plaza in downtown Orlando; ph oro by the Floridll Center tor Community Design + Rt search, July 1993. left: Map showing significant devewpme111 wilhin the urban service area: derived frqm the AAA map of Florida and Courrly, Fl4rid4. 1990-2010 Compr#lunsi>e Poliq P/4to. Future LDJJd Use Element, Orlando, FL: Board of Courrly August 11. 1992. page 170 top left: Newly widened Conroy. Windemere Road; from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, July 1993. bottom left: Downtown street in Orlando; photo by the Florida Center for Comunity Design + Research. July 1993. right: Map showing relative distances from downtown Orlando, within the Urban Service Area: derived from rhe AAA map of Florida and Orange County, Fwrid4. 1990-2010 Comprehensi>e Policy Plan. Future LDJJd Use Eltmenl, Orlando, FL: Board of County Commissioners, Amended August 11, 1992. page 171 top right: Quote from 1917 Orlando Board of Trade booklet, from the Orange County Bicentennial Commiuee. More ThDn A Memory, Orlando, FL: Robinsons. Inc., 1975, p. 3. bottom right: University of Central Florida: view across surface parking lors; photo by the Florida Cen1er for Community Design +Research. July 1993. left: S/Tip commercial area on International Drive; from a photo by the Florida Ce111er for Community Design + Research. July 1993. page 172 top left: E. H. Gore. HiJtory of Orland<>, quoted by the Orange County Bicentennial Committee, More ThDn A Memory, Orlando, FL: Robinsons, Inc .. 1975, p. 41. center left: A "Laser" bus stop. on the University of South Florida campus; phtot by the Florida Center tor CotnmiUiity Design +Research, July 1993 right: Downtown Orlando "Lynx" Bus Station: from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research. July 1993. PORTLAND page 113 rop: A residefl1i41 MErRO stalion in Ponland with Mount Hood in the distance: derived from "Portland as an 'Urban 17teme Park " by Gideon Bosker and Lena Lencek Architecture, November 1987. pp. 55. bottom: Vicinity Map: derivtd from the AAA map of Washington and Oregon. page 174 top left: Quote from METRO Region 2041J: Shapillg 1M Choicu for Growth newsletter funded by tht Merropolitan Servict the Oregon Depar11nen1 otTranspantuion. and Tri-Mer. Ponland. OR: Ocrobtr 1992, p. 8. bottom left: Civic plata in downtown Ponland: dtrivtdfrom photograph from "Portland as an U rban Theme Park'" by Gideon Bosker and Lena Lencek. in Archiltcture, November 1987. pp 55. right: View from the Rose Garden loctued in the hills to the southwes t of downtown Ponland: derived from photograph from Philip Langdon. "How Ponland Dots II". Ad411lit: Monthly. November 1992. p. 141. FLORIDA CENTER .FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN + RESEARCH

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250 GRAPHIC REFERENCES page 175 top right: QUQte from Gideon Bosler and una uncek, Arclliutlan, November 1987, p. 51. cefller righr: Elhan Selrur, land-rue supervisor tor METRO. quoted by Philip Lallgdon in "Down By The River", l.Arulsc"'' Archillctue, June 1992, p. 46. bottom right: One of marry public parks in the Portland metropolilan area: derived from Jim Murphy, "A Track Record", Prognsn Mchillclue, February 1988. p. 67. page 176 left: Qugre from Philip Lallgdon. "How Portland Does 1t", AtlGfllic Monthly November 1992 p. 139. page 177 top right : Charles Hales, former governmenrala/fairs director of the Home Builders Associmion in Metropoli tan Portland, quoted by Philip Lallgdon "How Porzland Does It", AtlGIIIic Monthly, November 1992, p. 141. bottom right : A METRO line in downtown Portland: derived from Philip Langdon, H How Portland Does, It", AtlGfllic Monthly, November 1992, p. 139. left: METRO trolley in downtown Portland: derived from a photograph, from Jim Murphy "A Track Record", Progressive Architecture, February 1988 p. 67. page 178 top left: Quott from V. Gail Easley, SIIIJIIIg Insillelht Unos: Urban Growth BoiJIIdluUs, Chicago, IL: Ameri can Planning Association. 1992 p. 2. bottom left: Portland streetscape: derived from photograph from Gideon Bosler and una uncek. "Portland as an 'Urban Theme Parle"', Archllec:tll7e, November 1987, p. 55. right: Map of the Urban Growth Boun-ary area showing main tranportat/on routes: derived from the AAA map of Oregon and Washington. and from METRO, Reglo11 204() : Sh"Ping the Chowes for Growth, newslerter funded by the Metropolitan Service District, the Oregon Department of Transportation, and Tri-Mer, Portland. OR: October 1992 p. 8 page 179 top right: Qugtefrom Philip Lallgdon. "How Portland Doesll", AtlGfllic Mo1tthly, November 1992, p 46. cefllerrighr: Quottfrom Tony Hiss, "A Third Round of Ciry scaping",l.Arulscape Archillcture, /anutJry 1991, p. 42 bottom right : Lalld uses map legend right: Map of the Urban Growth Boundary area showing some land uses: derived from the AAA map of Oregon and Washington. and from METRO, R.,U.11 204(): Sh"PIIIg the Chowa for Growth, newsleuer funded by the Metropolitan Service the Oregon Departmelll ot Transportation. and Tri-Mer, Portland. OR: October 1992, p. 8. page 180 rop l e ft: Quote from Philip Lallgdon. "How Portland Does 1t", AtlGfllic Molllhly, November 1992, p. 47. bottom left: Quote from Philip Lallgdon, Portland Does 1t", AtlGIIlic Monthly. November 1992, p. 46. right: Map of the Urban Growth Boundary ana showing relative disrancu wilhin the Urban Growth Bound arits: lhrived from the AAA map of Oregon and Washington. and from METRO, Region 2()40: Sh"Ping the Choius for Growth, newsletter funlhd by the Metropolitan Service District, the Ortgon DtpartmeTil of Trans portation. and TriMtt, Portland, OR: October 1992. p. 8. page 181 top right: Quote from Gordon Wright, "Rail Transil Spurs Devtlopmtnt". Buildi11g Desig1t tmd CoiiSirucdon. October 1989, p. 88 INTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 251 bottom right: Urban trolley station: derived from a photograph, from Jim Murphy. "A Track Record", Progrtssiu Archlkctun, February 1988, p. 69. left: Resideruialtrolley station; derived from a photograph, from Jim Murphy, "A Track Record", Prognssive Architecture, February 1988, p. 69. page 182 lop left: Portland streetscape prior tO"f/le trolley's installation: derived from a photograph, from Jim Murphy, "A Track Record", Progressie Archiuclure, February 1988, p. 69. bottom left: Portland streetscape after installation of the trolley; derived from a photograph, from Jim Murphy, "A Track Record", Progressive Archileclure February 1988, p. 69. page 183 View from a car onto a commercial strip: derived from Manin Wachs and Margaret Crawford. The Car and The City, Ann Arbor, Ml: The Ifniversity of Michigan Press, 1991, p. 228. DALE MABRY HIGHWAY page 185 top: Dale Mabry Highway near Waurs, looking south, from a photo by the Florida Center tor Community De sign +Research, June /99J. bottom: Vicinity Map: derived from AAA map of Tampa. page 186 top left: Quo te from Tom Brennan a.nd Lourdes Rodriguez. "Going North" TM Tampa Tribune, Sunday July 25, 1993, p /. bottom left: 1111errupred sidewa/Jcs along Dale Mabry Highway near Kennedy Boulevard: photo bY the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, June 1993. right: Cwtrered view of Dale Mabry Highway south of Kennedy Blvd; drawn from a photo by the Florida Ceruer for Community Design+ Research, June 1993. page 187 top right: Quote from Rodney Ferguson a.nd Eugene Carlson, "The Boomdocks : Outlying Towns Promise Homes, Del iver Problems", The Wall Strut JourMl, October 25, 1990, p. A6. bottom right: A pedestrian walking along Dale Mabry withoUJ shade or b!if!er from traffic: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, June 1993. page 188 top left: Quote from Rodney Ferguson and Eugene Carlson. "The Boomdocks: Outlying Towns P romise Homes. Deliver Problems", The Wall Street JourMl, October 25, 1990. p. A6. bottom: Pedestrian and car attempting to cross Dale Mabry near Cypress Street, between Hillsborough Avenue and Kennedy Boulevard; photo bY the Florida Ceruer for Community Design+ Research, June 1993. page 189 top right: Quote from the Hillsborough County Planning Commission. Hillsborough County. Framework of the Pum Report Tampa. FL: Hillsbor o ugh County Planning Commission, March 1962, p. 5. bottom right: Quote from Pa.ul Wilder, Vilalizing a Cily-Tampa Tampa. FL: Ta.mpa Chamber of Commerce. ca. I 960, p. 10. bottom uft: View along Dale Mabry Highway near Hillsborough Avenue with a plethora of signage: drawn from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Research, June 1993. flORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN RESEARCH

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252 GRAPHIC REFERENCES page 190 left: Map showing the major cross streets: derived from the AAA map of Tampa. right: Typical 2 pm traffic between HiUsborough Ave and KeMedy Blvd: drawn from a photo bY the Florida Center for Communi I)! Design + Research, June 1993. page 191 bouom left: Quote from Tom BrenNJ/1 and Lourdes Rodrigue:. "Going North", The TribuJU, Srwlay July 25, 1993, p. 1. right: Map showing open space along Dale Mabry Highway: derived from the AAA map of Tampa. page 192 left: Map showing relative dinances from the intersection of Dale Mabry Highway and Kennedy Boulevard; derived from the AAA map of Tampa. right: View southfrom.the Hillsborough Avenue overpass; drawn from a photo by the Florida Center for Communi/)' Design+ Research, June 1993. page 193 left: Typical edge of north Dale Mabry. near Busch Boulevard: drawn from a photo bY the Florida Center for Communi/)' Design + Research. June 1993. right : Road sections along Dal Mabry Highway: Florida Center for Communil)l Design+ Research. 1993. page 194 top left: Quote from from the HiUsborough Counl)l Planning Commission. Hillsborough Collllly. of the Plan Report, Tampa, FL: Hillsborough County PIOMing Commission. March 1962, p. 117. center left: Typical signage along Da.l Mabry Highway: drawn from a photo bY the Florida Center for Communil)l Design + Resea.rch. June 1993. bouom left: Unprotected bus stop near Kennedy Blvd and Dale Mabry Highway: photo bY the Florida Cenrer for Commanil)l Design + Research, June 1993. right: New development north of Ehrlich Road faces a wide street section withoUl sidewalks: drawn from a photo bY the Fwrida Center for Commanil)l Design +Research. June 1993 TAMPA PALMS page 195 Aerial view of the gua.rdhouse and information building located at the main enrry of the Tampa Palms subdivision; drawing derived from the "Tampa Palms" promotional brochure, published bY the Tampa Palms Sales Office received February 1993. Vicinil)l Map: derived from AAA map of Tampa. page 196 top left: Quote from the "Tampa Palms" promotional brochure. published bY the Tampa Palms Sales Office. rtceived bY the Fwrida Ce111er tor Commaniry Design+ Research, February 1993. botulm left: Golfer on the course near the Clubhou.it: ilrtiwnfrom "Tampa Palms" promotional brochure, published by the Tampa Palms Sales Off.ce, received bY the Florida Ce111er tor Co111RW11il)l Design + Research. February 1993. right : Typical strut in Tampa Palms: photo by the Florida Center for Communiry Design + Research. March 1993. INTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 253 page 197 rop right : Quorefrom Wenquiang l.i, "What's ntw about NEW TAMPA", Tampa Tribune. June 20, 1993. p 2 bottom right: Powtr lines which run through rhe development : photo by rhe Florida Center for Community Design+ Research, July 1993. page 198 top left: Quote from the 'Tampa PaTms" promotional brochure, published by the Tampa /'alms Sales Office, received by rhe Florida Center for Community Design+ Research, February 1993. bo11om left: The guarded and gated entry to one of the apartment complexes locat e d in the southeastern portion of Tampa Palms: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Research right: Entry signage: from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Research, March 1993. page 199 left: View into Amberley Park, from the street : from a photo by the Florida Cemer for Community Design'+ Research, March 1993 top and center right: Quotes are[r om the "Tampa Palms" promotional brochure, published by the Tampa Palms Salts Office, received by the Florida Center tor Community Design+ Research, February 1993. lower center right: The Tampa Palms Elementary School: from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Research March 1993. bo11om right: The Tampa Palms Sales Office ; from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Re search, March 1993. page 200 top left: Quote from the "Tampa Palms" promotional brochure, published by the Tampa Palms Sales Office, received by the Florida Center [or Communiry Design+ Research, February 1993. bottom left: Diagram of Ambtrly Park; derived from Tampa Palms promotional materUzls, published by the Tampa Palms Sales Office, reetived March 1993. right: Map showing primary transportation routes; derived from AAA map of Tampa. page 201 left: Map showing land uses: derived from AAA map of Tampa and rhe "Tampa Palms. Map H." by Heidt & Associates, June 15, 1993. top right: Grand oaks which were retained in the shopping center area: photo by the Florida Center for Commu nity Design+ Research. July 1993 bottom right: Formal entry to the Counry Clubhouse: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, July 1993. page 202 top left: Entry to "The Reserve", the highest-priced sub-neighborhood within Tampa Palms. which is gared. walled and staffed with a guard in the guardhouse: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Re search, July 1993. bo11om left: Figure-ground diagram o[ the resid ential area northwest o[ Bruce B Downs Blvd: drawn by the Florida Center [or Community Design + Research. right: Map showing rdative distances within ihe development: derived from AAA map of Tampa. page 203 left: Egre! looking for lunch at the intersection of Bruce B. Downs and Tampa Palms Blv d : f r o m a pilorc 0'' rile Florida Center for Community Design + Research. March 1993. top right: Typical residential sreet in Tampa Palms: photo by the Florida Center for Communiry Design + Research, July 1993. ft..ORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN RESEARCH

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254 GRAPHIC REFERENCES bottom righr:.Bus srop bench in Tampa Palnu; photo by rhe Florida Center for Community Design +Research, July /993 page 204 left: Vater parking from the Country Club pone cochere: photo by the Florida Center for CaiMUU!ity Design + Research. July /993. right: CoUector road, showing sttback di stances and the position of sidewalks; from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design+ Ruean:h, March /993. LUTZ page 205 top: "Loch Devon DevelopTTII!nt" : new residential developTTII!nt just west of Lutz proper; from a photo by rhe Florida Center for Community +Research, June 1993. bottom: Vicinity Map; derived from the AAA map o f Tampa. page 206 rop left: Quare from M.B Nevel, from 1Aiz Civic Rniew, July /954 reprinted In Lutz Olden Days, Lutz Party Line Newspaper, 1976, p. 6. center left: Quote from Alvah Hahs Kern from "Early Days in Lurz ",from rhe Lutz Ciic Reiew, October 1954, January, February and March 1955, reprillled in 1Aiz Olden Days, Lutz Party Line Newspaper, 1976, p JJ. bottom: Typical small /a/ce near Crenshaw Lakt Road. Lutz. Florida: photo by the Florida Center far Commu nity Design+ Research, July 1993. page 207 rop right: Quote from Elsie Stanaland, whose recollections are printed in Lutz Olden Days, Lull Party Line Newspaper, 1976, p. 64. cemer right: Quore from Tom Brennan and Lourdes Rodriguez. "Going North", Tlu Ttunpa 'J'l;ibune, Sunday July 25, /993, p 5. left: "Casa del Logo" sign advenisu new development in the Lutz area, on the Lutz-Lakt Fern Road: from photo by the Florida Cenltr for Community Design +Research,. July 1993. page 208 rop left: Quote from Lennie Wynn Heck. whose oral rec61/ecrions of the pasr are printed in Lutz Olden Days Lutz Pony Line Newspaper, /976. center left: The Lutz business disrricr; photo by rhe Florida Center for Community Design + Research, July 1993. bottom left: Realty signs for new development along Sunset Road; photo by the Florida Center tor Community Design + Research, July 1993. p a ge 209 rop right: Quote from Tom Brt11111J11 and Lourde s Rodriguez. "Growth closes in on rural haven The Tampa Tribune, Monday Ju]y 26, 1993, p. 2. center right: Quote from Tom BreMQ/1 and Lourdes Rodriguez, "Growth closes in on rural haven", The Tampa Tribune, Monday July 26, /993, p. 2 bottom right: The Lutz business near the fire Stillion: photo by the Florida Center tor Community De sign + RtstiJTch. July 1993. left: Commercial district on U.S. 41; photo by the Florida Center for CoiMUU!ity Design + RtseiJTch, July 199J. INTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION

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GRAPHIC REFERENCES 2SS page 210 top left: Quote from Mrs W. T Fletcher from "Early Days of Lutz" copied verbatim from Latz Civic Rniew. ca. /955, in Latz Olders Days, Lulz Parry Lirse Newspaper, /976 p. JO.J I etnter left: New residelllial developmel!l on Latz-Lake Fern Road: photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, July 1993. bottom left: Typical tree-lined the aua: from a photo by the Florida Center for Ct!mmunity Design + Research, July /993. right: Map shawing main rransponation routes and land uses in the La11. area: derived from the AAA map of Tampa and the "Future of Hillsborough. Lulz Planning Area Land Use Map" by the Hillsborough City-County Planning Commission, Tampa, FL: Hillsborough County, revised: December 19, 1991. page 211 top right: Quote from Sydrsey Goheen, w hose recolleCtions of s he past are printed in Latt Olde n Days, Lutz Parry Lirse Newspaper, !976. p. 71. center right : Enrry to Sunset Manor from Lutz-Lake Fern Road: photo by the Florida Celller for Community Design+ Research. July 1993 bortom right: Sunset Manor subdivi sion; photo by the Florida Center fo r Community Design + Research, July /993 page 212 top left: Quose from. a history of the early days of Lulz by Emess B Simmons for Tlu Tampa Record, published Deetmber 2 7 /947, and published in the Lutt Ciic Ro.iew, August 17 1954, and reprinted in Lutt Olden Days. Lutz Parry Lirse Newspaper 1976. p. 5 right: Map showing r e lative distances within the Lutz area from the Lulz busirsess district; derived from the AAA map of Tampa and the Future of Hillsborough. Lutz Planning Area Land Use Map" by the Hil/siJorough City County Planning Commission, Tampa, FL: Hillsborough County, revised: December 19, 1991. page 213 top right: Quote from Mrs. W.T. Fletcher, from "Early Days in Lutz". published in Latz CMc Review in 1955, and reprinted in Latz Olden Days, Lulz Parry Line Newspaper, 1976, p. 10. left: The intersection of Dale Mabry Highway and Lutz-Lake Fern Road: from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, July 1993. page 214 right: A new subdivisaion locat e d off Sunset Larse in the Lutz area; from a photo by the Florida Center for Community Design + Research, July 1993. FLORIDA CENTER FOR COMMUNITY DESIGN + RESEARCH

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256 "Integrating Community Desi g n and Transportation" Aulhors: Research an d Technica1 AS-sistance: Graphics : Administration : James A Moore. Ph.D. Julie M Johnson, ASLA, A1CP Susan Bradley Amy Hobnes Doug z.,., ... M i chael Faulhaber Jay Co1eX (813) 97-1-5168 Gory L Brosch. D lroctor INTEGRATING COMMUNITY DESIGN AND TRANSPORTATION


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