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Deerfield Beach transit option study: technical memorandum #2: recommendation for park and ride service


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Deerfield Beach transit option study: technical memorandum #2: recommendation for park and ride service
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Deerfield Beach (Fla.). Office of City Manager
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
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Tampa, Fla
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Local transit--Florida--Broward County--Deerfield--Planning   ( lcsh )
Fringe parking--Florida--Broward County--Deerfield Beach   ( lcsh )
Traffic congestion-- Florida--Broward County--Deerfield Beach   ( lcsh )
Local transit--Florida--Broward County--Deerfield Beach-- Evaluation   ( lcsh )
letter   ( marcgt )

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University of South Florida
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usfldc doi - C01-00089
usfldc handle - c1.89
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CUTR CITY DEERFIELD BEACH FLORIDA .--------------------------DEERFIELD BEACH TRANSIT OPTION STUDY Techni cal Memorandum #2 Recommendation for Demonstration of Park and Ride Serivce April1995


DEERFIELD BEACH TRANSIT OPTIONS STUDY T eclmical Memorandum #2 Recommendation for Demonstration of Park and Ride Service Prepared for: City of Deerfield Beach By: Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida April 1995


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Center for Urban Transponation Research (CUTR) has been approached by the City of Deerfield Beach to help develop transponation methods for alleviating traffic congestion and parking problems at the beach. The following CUTR staff helped in the research and preparation of this technical memorandum. CUTR Director: Project Manager (s): Staff Support: Gary L. Brosch Eric Hill, Research Associate Joel Volinslci, Senior Research Associate Vlclcy Perk. Resear<:h Associate Tony Rodriguez, Graduate Research Assistant Suzi Dieringer, Graduate Research Assistant Shelly Happle, Graduate Research Assistant Martin Cata!a, Graduate Research Assistant


TABLE OF CONTENTS Lis t of Figures .... ...... ........ ...... ...................... List of Tables I ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 : E valuation o f Transit De monstr at i on Project ..... ................... 2 II : Financing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 0 111: Additional Consider ati ons ..... ............... .... ...... . . 12 IV: Project Goals and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 V : Additional Strategies ........ ....... ...... ............... . 14 APPENDI X A Guide for the Design o f High Occupancy Vehicle and Public Transfer Facilities


LIST OF FIGURES Figure I. Proposed Park and Ride Service for The C ity o f Deerfield Beach . ... 4 Figure 2. Annual Average Daily Traffic Volumes Hillsboro Blvd and 12th Avenue .. 5 LIST OF TA BLES Tabl e I. Distribution of Mode Choice for Workers in Broward County ...... .... 6 Table 2. Deerfield Beach Potential Transi t Market Size (Hillsboro Blvd. and 12th Avenue) . .............. .. .. .... .... 6 Table 3 Deerfield Beach Potential Trans i t Market Size (Survey data) . . . . . 7 Tabl e 4 Survey of Trolley Cost ..... . . ." . . ........ ...... .... . : 8 Table 5. Cost per Revenue Hour for Park and Ride Service ............ . . . 8 Table 6. Service Options Cost .. ... .... ....... .... . .... ..... . ..... 9


INTRODUCTION The permanent residential population of the City of Deerfield Beach in 1993 was 47 639.' During the peak season, the population of the City increases on average by approximately 20 percent. As a result of the increased population of tourist and visitors to the City, local roads which provide access to and mobility at the City's beach develop capacity problems. Traffic congestion results on Hillsboro Blvd the principal access to the beach, and on SR A I A which provides north south movement on the barrier island. Additionally, thi s problem is exacerbated on Hillsboro Blvd. and SR A I A when the bridge across the Intracoastal Waterway is open. This Technical Memorandum presents a recommendation for the demonstration of a park and ride transit service between the beach and mainland locations in the City of Deerfie l d Beach It begins with an overview of information from the beach survey and other information from Technical Memorandum #J: Background Information, which provides the basis for the demonstration project. The survey was cond u cted on Thursday and Saturday. The analysis of th e survey shows that 36 percent of respondents on both days are willing to use park and ride service to the beach ftom the mainland 'Florida Stat i stical Abstract /994 Population. Table I .JI. Page 14. I


I. EVALUATION OF TRANSIT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT This section presents the proposed transit demonstration route between a park and ride facility on the mainland and the beach that mitigates congestion and helps meet travel demands to the beach. The beach swveys in the first Technical Memorandum of the study are reviewed and provide a basis for examining the feasibility of a park and ride service. lnformation from the swvey suggest that traffic and parking are a problem on Saturday but not on Thursday. The swvey also showed that the vast majority of permanent and seasonal residents are not willing to use a transit service to the beach from locations in the further western locations of the City of Deerfield Beach. Comments from responde nts on both days of the swvey as well as observations by swveyors, indicate that most traffic congestion problems are not along the beach itself. The major traffic problems are along Hillsboro Blvd and SR AlA, especially when the drawbridge is open. Review of the SUlVeys also shows thai 36 percent of Thursday's and Saturday's respondents ace willing to use a transit service from a parking facility near US I. The clear majority of these respondents are also willing to pay a fare of S.7S for a one-way trip. F. ewer respondents (17%) were willing to use transit fro m far western lo cations in the City of Deerfield Beach, if it were provided every 30 minutes Only six percent are willing to use such service if it operated every 60 minUteS. Most respondents perceive traffic congestion as a problem on the weekends. These responden ts also perceive traffic congestion as a problem on the segment of Hillsboro Blvd. that crosses the Intracoastal WaterWay, especially when the bridge is open, and where this roadway intersects with SR A I A at the beach. However, it is interesting to note that the most recent Traffic Circula t ion Eleme nt of the City Comprehensive Plan shows that the segment of Hillsboro Blvd. which crosses the Intracoastal Waterway and segment of SR AlA that intersect with Hillsboro Blvd .. ace functionin g at an acceptable Level of Service (LOS). Additionally, the 1994 1999 Transportation Improvement Plan (TIP) for Broward County does not show any planned improv ements for the this roadway segment. 2


Transit Option The above information provides a basis for establishing a limited park and ride trans i t service from the mainland to the beach in the City of Deerfield Beach. This type of transit service is the mos t promising s olution to the problems of traffic congeftion and parking at the beach in the short-term. However the recommendation in this repOrt is that the City consider this as a demonstration project that would help determine the feasibility of a potentially larger permanent project Initially the service should be provided during the winter season. It could also be provided on weekends during the off-season as an eKperiment. The City could operate the service free or at a very low cost to passengers to minimize the barriers against its use. The potential benefits of this type of transit service include: reduced traffic congestion along Hillsboro Blvd. and the bridge crossing the I ntracoastal Waterway; reduced demand on the limited number of public parking spaces at the beach; and attracting and delivering more people to the beach wilhout creating more traffic congestion or requiring additional parking A park and ride demonstration would require the provision of parking oppommities in the vicinity of the Cove and/or Palm Shopping Centers along Hillsboro Blvd: The park and ride lots could be provided in eKisting lots by agreement with the owners or they could be constructed by the City of Beach People traveling to the beach would park their veblcles in the lot and transfer to a transit ;,ehic\e. Appendix A provides a guide for the of High Occupancy Vehicle and Public Transfer Facilities Figure I depicts the proposed route for the service. Transit vehicles would travel to the beach along Hillsboro Blvd., cross the bridge over the Intracoastal Waterway, tum left onto SR AlA. and travel along SR AlA to Ocean Way (near the pier), make a right tum onto Ocean Way and travel south to Hillsboro Blvd., tum right onto Hillsboro Blvd., and continue west to the park and ride location. The proposed service is not designed to travel far south on Ocean Way, in order to avoid possible traffic congestion along SR AlA. The congestion that occurs on SR AlA would prevent the service from providing adequate frequency. A similar route is used for fixed route service that is operated by BCT in the City of Deerfield Beach. Route SO provides service between south Deerfield Beach and the beach using Dixie Highway and Hillsboro Blvd. Headways on this route vary from 30 minutes on weekdays, to 45 minutes on Saturday and 60 minutes on Sunday. Route 92 provides limited service to the beach along Hillsboro Blvd from western locations in the City of Deerfield Beach 3


' : ..,., ...... ..... ;ts-: 0 ; ..... : ....... Figure 1 Proposed Park and Ride Service for City of Deerfield Beach Palm Beach Broward County ' .. ' --i ... ...... .. E H i llsboro Blvd 0 .25 0.5 Miles SE 10th Sl NE2nd St Legend ---Proposed route


Potential Ridership Park and ride lots at the Cove and/or Palm Aire Shopping Centers are reconunended because most traffic destined to Deerfield's beach passes through the intersections near these locatio ns The Cove Shopping Center is near the intersection of Hillsboro Blvd. and 15th Avenue and the Palm A ire Shopping Center is near the intersection of Hillslloro Blvd. and Federal Highway (see Figure 2). Use of a part of the existing parking lots at these shopping centers would be ideal. The Broward County 1993 Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) volumes are used to predict potential ridership for the service. This information showed that the segment of Hillsboro Blvd east of 12th Avenue had a bidirectional AADT of 20,900 in 1993 (See Figure 2) When calculated for one-way traffic this equals an AADT of \0,450. Figure 2 Annual Average Daily Traffic Volumes at Hillboro Blvd. and E. 12th Ave. Palm Beach County Broward County : . . ; . . Ell Study Area lil AADTV ::0 900 5


One approach to proj ect ing ridership for new transit services is to use Census Journey-to -Work data. This method is incomplete for this study since it focuses on work trips rather than recreation trips, but it provides one indicator of potential ridership. For this study, 1990 Census Journey-to Work data is also used to estimate average vehicle occupancy (AVO) for vehicles in Broward Counry. By relating this data with AADT on Hillsboro Blvd, it is possible to estimate the number of transit trips that might be affected by the service. Table I provides the distribut i on of mode choice for workers in Broward Counry. Mode Drive Alone Car!Vanpoo l Transit Table I Distribution of Mode Choke for Worken in Broward Couaty Broward Couuty 80% 11% lo/o Work 11 Home, walk, bicycle, or other 8% AVO' ourc:e: \f. Joumey-u>-wonc. uaa A VO.O/odrivmWopas.seogm %drivers 12 The product of the AADT at Hillsboro Blvd and 12th Avenue and the estimated AVO for traffic in Broward Counry represents the potential market. or transit trips. The results are sho"11 in Table 2. Locarioo . .. .. Hillsboro Blvd. and 12th A venue Table 2 Deerfield Beacb Pottlltial Tnnsit Market Siu (Hillsboro Blvd. and 12tb Avenue) AADT Bidrecriooal Average On&Way AVO .. VoiiDIIe Volume 20,900 10,450 12 Penon Trips 1 2.540 Using these data, it is possible to develop one scenario of ridership levels. Nationally transit carries approximately 2 percent of person trips and approximately 5 percent of work trips (7 62% in urbanized areas). Florida numbers are lower employment and lower levels of transit service. 6 due to lower densities, less concentrated For conceptual planning purposes it i s


recommended !bat lhe lower 2 percent mode share be utilized Assuming a potential market size of 12,540 person trips, this translates to approximately 500 transit trips. 2 Ridership for transit service to the beach from the mainland can also be estimated by relating the number of city operated parking spaces at the beach mlh th,e percent of respondents in !he survey that said they were willing to use the service. Additionally, data from the beach survey are used to estimate average vehicle occupancy (A YO) for vehicles traveling to the beach. The City reports that there are 500 parking spaces on the barrier island. Data from lhe survey show that between 36 percent of respondents on both days are more willing to use park and ride service to the beach from the mainland. The survey also revealed that lhe average size of panies at the beach was two. Thus, it can be assumed !hat vehicles traveling to the beach have an A YO of two. Table 3 presents ridership using these data. The analysis show a ridership estimate of 360 one-way person trips or 720 transit trips. City Puking Spaces. 500 Assumes a party Tablt3 D .. rfleld Beacb Potrolial Tnosit Market Size (Survey Data) Pen:ent of Mllket Size AVO*'' Persoo Trips willins 1<> tronsit 36% 180 2 360 SIZI: Ot CWO !'SOliS pe ehicle. rv pe Assumes that persons using transit to the beach will rttum by transit Transit Trips 720 Initially, !be demonstration project is proposed only for service during the peak season, and perhaps on the weekends during the off-peak season. The service should operate with I 0 to 1 5 minute headways between the hours of I O:OOam and 5:00pm. The service will need two vehicles to maintain headways. Cost Considerations In the first Technical Memorandum of this study, several beach cities in Florida were surveyed about traffic congestion and parking problems. A few of these cities indicated that as a result of traffic congestion, a trolley or transit service was developed to mitigate this problem. Subsequent interviews with the trolley or transit operators provided information on cost to operat e the service. This is useful in developing operating cost for the transit service that is being recommended in the City of Deerfield Beach. 1 For this a.nal)'1is. it is assumed that persons using trOifJit to 1M beach will aho rtltll'n by transit. Thus. e.stimale is the product of: 12.540 2% I mode share tar"ell 2$1J 2/rnurul rrin) =


Table 4 presents hourly operating cost for trolley or transit service in Florida Cities. T h is includes annual cost and hourly costs. Table 4 Trolley Operating Cost in Oth

Serviee Option 365 days 52 weekends 21 weekends tneludes weekends from December to A ril p Mar keting Considerations Table 6 Service Options Cost Cost $ 8 5,410 2 (v e l\icles) $170,820 $36 .504 2 (vehicles) = $73,008 $18 252 2 (vehicles)= $29,484 To be successful, the proposed demonstration project will need to be vigorously mar k eted to insure public awareness and suppon. Increased awareness of the service will encourage the scheduling of trips to the beach so that residents and non-residents can take advantage of the service. Similarly, providing information to employees at the beach on the benefits of using the service rather that driving will help to reduce traffic congestion on Hillsboro Blvd. and the bridge. Other opponunities for marketing park and ride service to the beach include: special promotions, such as periodic prize drawings and contests, discounts from retail locations to patrons that use transit to make their trip; transit subsidies from employers to employees who use trans i t for work trips; and marketing transit service to tourist and visitors via hotels (handouts placed in hotel rooms) in the area. Effective signage along Hillsboro Blvd., SR AlA, and in the Cove and Palm Aire Shopping Centers to further increase public awareness of the service, will help attract ridership. Handouts about the service can be given to motoriSts stalled in traffic approaching the bridge across the Intracoastal Waterway and maps can be placed under the windshield blades of cars parked at the beach and shopping centers. Additionally, TV, radio, newspaper, and other media could be selectively used conveying the message "take transit to the beach." If the City distributes any mailings to residents on a regular basis, news about the transit service should be included. Finally, the City needs to involve the community and local businesses in the planning and implementation of the service. Some may be willing to contribute to the cost of the service if they believe it will make the beach more attractive and draw more people to the beach or shopping center. 9


II. FINANCING OPTIONS Since the park and ride service is being proposed first as a demonstration project, there are possible financing sources from the federal and state level : The Florida Department of Transportation (FDO'f) Service Development Program was enacted by the Florida Legislature to provide initial funding for special projects such as a park and ride demonstration The program is selectively applied to detennine whether a new or innovative technique or measure can be used to improve or expand public transit. These include the use of new technologies, services, routes or vehicle frequencies, the purchase of special transportation services, and other such techniques for increasing service to the riding public as are applicable to specific localities and transit user groups. Funds may be used for capital and operating costs. Funds under this program are subject to specified times of duration, but no more than three years. The trolley service that operates in the C i ty of Fort Myers Beach began as a demonstration project using funds from this program. The City of Deerfield will need to confer with the District IV staff of FOOT and submit its for a service development program grant to FOOT and the Broward County MPO. State funds for capital costs related to renovating parking lots for the proposed service are available from the Federal Aid to Urban Systems (FAUS) program. These funds are derived from the Federal Highway Administration but administered by the FOOT These funds should also be considered for financing pennanent park and ride lots. if the demoostration is successful. The City may consider funds from the Congestion Mitigation and Ai r Qualttv Improvement Program (CMAQ) which is part of the Intermodal Surface Transportallon Efficiency Act ( I STEA) of 1991. This program allows a state to obligate funds. apportioned under this program, for congestion mitigation and transportation air improvement projects and programs in ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) nonattainment areas. Projects are eligible for CMAQ program funds only if they meet certain criten3 in the JSTEA. AJl important aspect of the criteria is that the project must pro\'lde measurements of bow the service will reduce air pollution. The application process f or CMAQ funds will be the same as the process for service development program gr311t The City may consider designating the geographic area along Hillsboro Blvd and R AlA that will be served'by the proposed park and ride service as a special assessmco t 10


district. Funds derived from this assessment may provide adequate funds for capital and operating expenses. Typically an assessment district is used to assess an equitable portion of a service's cost from propeny owners who benefit from the improvements. Propeny owners are then assessed their fair share of the annual debt service. A special assessment district was established in Tampa to support a shuttle service in the Westshore business area. In 1983, the Dade County Board of Commissioners approved an enabling o r dinance that established a special benefit assessment district to support the initial phase of the downtown Miami Metromover system. Funds to support the p r oposed service are also possible from the farebox, if a fare is charged for passenger trips. Additionally, contributions from the City of Deerfield Beach business community should be sought to encourage a public-private participation on the this project, thus, making the success of this project dependent on both the City and the business community. I I


In. ADDITIONAL CONSrDERA TIONS Aspects that need to be considered before implementing the proposed park and ride service are presented below. Before implementation of the service, planning efforts by the City of Deerfield Beach are needed for coordination with other local transit service, i.e., Broward County Transit, Palm Beach County Transit, and Tri-County Commuter Rail This will facilitate easy transfers for passengers from other local transit systems 10 the proposed park and ride service. Surveys at the beach revealed that many respondents were not willing to use transit beeause of condiments and beach accessories that they bring to the beach Thus, the City will need to consider a policy for cany-on items, i.e., bikes, rol!erskateslblades, surfboards, coolers, and wet swimsuits. The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that transit vehicles be designed to accommodate people with disabilities The City will need 10 make sure that the vehicles that are used for the service will meet ADA requirements, i. e ., wheelchair lifts and facilities for sight and bearing impaired Depending on the type of fllWlcing strategy that is used to support the proposed service, the City should consider a fare structure. A simple structure might include regular fare for adults and discoun ted fares for cbildml, seniors, and disabled persons Surveys revealed that some respondents are willing to use the service and pay a f are of S.75. Additionally, traDSfer policies with other local transit operators will need 10 be establised The City may need to negotiate an informal agreement with the Cove and Palm Aire Shopping Centers for parking spaces prior to the start of the proposed demonstration project (See Appendix A). Additionally, the City needs to consider allocation of human resources and project management for the proposed service. For example the City will need a project manager advisory committee drivers, vehicle procument, production and placement of si1188e. bus stop amenities. and production and distribution of printed materials. 12


IV. PROJECT GOALS AND EV ALUATION The proposed park and ride demonstration project will improve th e transit service to the beach for permanent and non -perman ent residents in the City of Deerfield Beach. The goals of the demonstr ation project should include: I) attract sufficient ridership to justify the establi shment of a permanent park and r ide service that relieves parking and traffic problems ; 2) reduce traffic congestion along Hillsboro Blvd ., especially traffic destined t o the beach; 3) improve safety by diverting pedestrians from the should ers of SR AlA; and 4) stimulate business in the City of Deerfield Beach . The evaluation criteria and measures which will help evaluate the project's success in achieving these goals are p r esented below. Ridenbip Attract ridership in excess of three passengers per vehicle revenue mile. This measure is higi\e r than the 1994 passenger per vehicle revenue mile average for fixed ro utes (Rtes. 50 & 92/94) operated by BCT in the Ci ty of Deerfield Impact on tnffie Vehicle counts made during the demonstration period can be compared with prior year counts to help evaluate the demonstration impact on person and v ehicle flows on Hillsboro Blvd. and SR A I A PedHtrian accident reports Pedestrian accident reports on SR AlA during demonstration period can be compared with prior years, provided reports are availabl e The onomic impads The econ omic impacts on businesses can be estima ted by int erviewing business people and conducting on-board survey of passengers 13


V. ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES Information from the survey and discussions with various officials in Broward County and the City of Deerfield Beach reveal other possible alternative s to mitigate traffic and parking problems at the beach. Additionally, traditional methods for reducing traffic congestion were researched These techniques and their application to traffic parking management in the City of Deerfield Beach are presented below. Determine if the H illsboro Blvd. bridge which crosses the Intracoastal Waterway would allow more surface traffic to pass over the bridge if it were timed to open on the hour and half hour. If data from the analysis reveal that retiming bridge openings will improve traffic flow acro ss the bridge, the City should petition the Coast Guard to implement the new times as part of its traffic management strategy. The City should make the beach more accessible to bicyclists by improving l>ikeways and providing secure facilities to park bicycles. This form of transponation requires far less highway and parlcing space and is particularly app r opriate for a recreation destination. It could help reduce auto trips that are made by parents dropping their children off, and could also attract teena gers with access to cars to use their bicycles instead In addition to the proposed park and ride service, the City should explore cooperative agreements with BCT and any private providers of bus service to the beach to allow people parking at the park and ride site free passage to and from the beach BCT could record the number of passengers boarding and charge the City according ly. This would provide park and riders with as many as seven transit vehicles an hour going in both directions, which is a more convenient lev el of service. Better signage is needed at the beach to alert people to the fact that there is more parking toward the south end of the beach. This would discourage cars that walt for spaces to open at the northern eod. Additionally the City sho uld consider placing an electronic flip dot sign on Hillsboro Blvd. alerting people when beach parking is full. This would provide fw1her encouragement to use the park and ride service. The City should consider raising the price of parking on the beach to S t.2S per hour to encourage more people to use the park and ride service and to help pay for the service. 1.1


Signage should be placed near the bridge over the Int racoastal Waterway to advise people that the bridge opens on the hour, at 20 after and 40 after the hour. This will encourage people to plan their trips in such a way as to avoid bridge openings. The City of Deerfield Beach can receive assistance from Gold Coast Commuter Services in establishing a local task force and in promoting the park and ride service in the community. This is part of Gold Coast's responsibility under its contract with the FOOT. IS


APPENDIX A Guide for tbe Design of Higb O.:cupaocy Vehicle and Publi.: Transfer Fa.:ilities Digitization Note: Appendix A was originally photocopies of another work with 2 pages per copied page, and of poor quality To increase readabi l ity the pages have been separated 1 6


Published -. American ...... . ::;=:;.;; and Transportallon 44-4 North Caplloi ., ,. . . --_,. --... ---. . -. . . __ ;.._-,. . . -. . . . . ._. --------. .. ..... -... .. ... -- 0 .. . . -'1'' "' J a . I' , .. .:.A.. .. #J .... ,_ .... . . .. . -. . .


. .. & . PARTII : .... DESIGN OF TRANSfER FACILITIES A. GENERAl. . 1 . This SC:CtiOn or the: dc:sJgn guide COntainS an OVC:J"'itw the lmpor1 ant features needed to desian runcllonal transfer bdlity. Arter the need lor a bcility has been cscoblishc:d and the site selected, the nczt step is to dctenninc the physical design and l:ayout or the facility. This should be do n e under the direction or the appropri:uc: design end trdJic engineers in coop trotlon with other loc:sl :sgcnclcs lncludina the u:snsit operating authority. Design lc:oturc:s should be In compliance with applicable dtsi!n sund111dt, specilicalions and opcralln& policies, or local requiremcnu :and zoni n s regulations that moy apply. Consideudon is given 10 a number o( design componenrs including geometric design or 3CCe$S poiniJ and iOICtnlf CirCUlatiOn, parking SIJI C C lAy our, pavements, shelters, bicycle (acilitlcs, lralfic control devices. lighi"& and When dealing with a specific: sire, II will often not be possible to optimize each (c:alurc :and compromises "' ill be required. The dc&rcc: 10 which the desirable: ollribulcs or any component is sacrificed ro obtain I he benclils of 1 compc1ing componenl un only be wirh on she specific bosis. However, these culdelinc:s will presen t to the c ucn r possible, 1he opdmum requirements o( eech laclor. Primuy concerns durIn& the design staacs should Include : src ond cfficicn 1 uallic now for all modes; tronsil, c;upools vanpools. pedestrians and bikes. both o n and lo the site; :111 adequate number ol usable puking h cil irico lor the user which arc comlortable and auuctivc: and (.lc ilitics th.11 Jccom usc by elderly 01nd The pr i mory is on parkand rldc facilities "'hlch utilize I" i "" outomobllcs os the collector/dbtrlbutor mode and tun sit busu as tile line. haul mode However, mony or the basic: principles herein will be usdut i n detignlnJ parkndpool lois which .Ire typically smnllu and leu s o phlsdcaled than park-and ride lots. However, some or carp ool llctiYity will occur almost park andridc lots And should be In the faelllly desiJn. liS il rrcseniS I he possibility lh:tt inlcrnnl circ ubr i on "''" be somcwhnc more complieatc:d. Another activlly to be consicJcrcd i s rile kiss ond ride: acdvily This mDy also odd to the internal clrcul;lli on probl c m I( not properly inlo the l:1cilily desi@n. sources of lire ovaibblc: in the r h r A(lpcndix "0" D COORDINATION OF TRAFFIC NEAR TRANSFER F ,tCIUTIF.S I. Gtntrol This section is intended to ai v c the user s o me direction in 1hc impact of a proposed transfer (acilily on the: surro undin& sltcct Jnd high wAr .s


. network. Users arc referred 10 the Highway Copacity Manual (Highway Research t}oard Special Report 87) and lo AASJ ITO's Policy On Design Of Urban llighways and !orlcrial Slrecu, currenc editions, ns rc:Cerc.nce cuidcs (or the solution of capacity problems. 2. Dus Slops On Mq}or Al1tritlll The d(cl:l of bus slops on urban strccl cnpacity is shown in the High1vay Capacity Manual. The choice of the loc:arion of the bus stop (ncar side or lnr side of Intersection) ahnuld 111kc into account how well the 11op serves patrons and how rhe slopped bus wUI ellecllralfic operations. In lo being safer lor pedestrians, far side slops have lin advantage over neu side slops In that: (I) other buses or vehicles may turn right or ldt without interference from a bus stopped 10 load or unload passengers; (2) heavy right turn movements olf the ancrial arc not hindered; (3) the curb lane m:.ybc used store vehicle$ durin& the red phase of signal cycles: (4) sigh I distance conditions arc helped cspcciolly 11 unsianaliud lncersections. Many rransll opcrarors favor the ncar side slop as buses mny load and unload during che red porllori of signal cycles and buses retain the option to turn ate he intersection ralhcr than travel to che next intersection beyond the lor side scop to turn. At least one block should be provided for a bus to make l:ane changes prior to ilturninalcfl after il hns loaded or unloaded passengers. Mid-block bus stops should be avoided when the bus muse turn lcCc ac lhe ncxl intcrsc:ccion. Mid-block slops have the some odvnncagc:s over nc:or side slops IS lor side slops except where parking is allowed. Midbloclc stops may also require cross walks 11nd special pedestrian signalization. 3. Priority Sltnaltzot/on Traffic control devices on arterial slreeiS generally favor con linuous automobile lrnfrie and work to che or uonsit vehicles thnl muse stop Cor passengers regardless or signul indic:ulon. This added delay 10 transit vehicles tends to discourage patron:sge and furcher nggrn vatcs oucomobilc crame problems. The usc of prioricy signolizulion for trunsit vehicles at inlerscc:lions c:nn decrease traveltime. I( lransills attowccJ co hold the signallndlcacion too long, the delay co ocher uaCfic could result in )rnpplng trnnsil vehicles in stognont traffic: nows. Thus, a balance muSI be struck between decreased lransil delay ancJ lncrenscd automobile Ira vel times when priority systems ore used Addicionnl informacion can be round in the National Coopcrncivc Highw:ay Research Program (NCIIRP) Report Number 143 (pp 71) and Number 155 (pp 121-1)1 'Avilahlc from the Tuns('>Ortatlon flucarch Ooud, 2101 Conuillotion Avenue, NIV, Wah lntiOn, DC 20418


r li *''\ . -. __ .. c 4. D11s l'ulloult I .. ,... I 0 1--'"' u ....... _,I ... J 1 .. I I ,. .--a .. C::::::: t .. ..... '''''' ......... ,.,.,, hi tAlC Aat 1101 lOf ............. "' r .. 1 ""''' 11 I I II' I .,. ...... ........ I tt t . ,,,. .I Pullouls have I he otlvonrogc of seporoaln&. buses from other while they load anti unload passengers; however, the adcJicional richtOfwiy requirements for lurnouts limil cbclr usc in mnny urb:tn situations. To llc: fully c:ffccaivc, I he lurnoul shoultl incorporate n ch:cclcration l11ne or tnrcr. nc.Jequolc stnnding orca for oil ontlcipntcd buses anti 11 merging lane or tnper. Further discussion Is con111incd in tlu: AASHTO mununl, "A rnlicy On Design of Urban llighwoys and Arh:riul Streets", current ctli lion, for specific vuluc:s nntl Figun: II, lu oncJ lb of rhis guide. S. Entronct ond Ezlt Copnclty of l'arkDIIdRidt Loll Movements into ond from lois hove been odt.lrcssctJ in 1hc Copocily Mununl. An example problem deols IVith !he or cntroncc eapoc:ily volumes for a porkina f11cility and a he elf eel 1hat 1his will huve on !he volume nmJ Citp:lcily of the ortcrinl n'ld intersections ncar the lot c:nlroncc. Exil dererntinulion couhJ be found by ap plying the methods of the liixhwoy Cupacity Monual tJeoling with 1urning movemeniS. II Is assumed lh:ll vehicles arc able lo nrrive ul lhc c11i1 in surticicnt numbers to usc lhc cnlcul:.lcd cupac:ity. 7


One of the design problems oflcn encounterct.l con cerns 1hc limil:lli ons or existingstrcc:ts or intcrch:mgcs in the vicinity o( the transfer (ncility. Jt.lcally, the bus route rrom the (tCCW;JY tO the lot, circulation ptlllcrns within rhc lor and rourc back 10 the freeway will be locOIICll to rr.:uimlzc delay. AI some outlying lots where operating costs assume critical im parlance, exclusive slip ramp connections both to ont.l from the or succr moy be justified hosed on reduced rronsit cosu. 6. Trttfflr: Control DtJifctl Trame control devices should comply with rhe Nati o n01l o n Uni form Trame Control Ocvlccs (MUTCO), current edi tion 1. Traffic SltntliJ* Trame: s l anals may be required atlhe ult o( n lorae pnrkontlritlc: lilcility onto II mjor street to provide safe and efficient usc or the Sitnal ization shQuld be considered only oftcr o thorough study of tro{(ic: in the area ond should be wtrranted or justified in the manner prescribed in I he MUTCD. Exislin& Irenic slgnnls may require atJjusunc:nts of timing or phasing to accommodate parkandride traffic. 8. Slrnlnt "Ludin" guide s i gning to the pork-and ride site could also be consitJ. ered 11 pori of the site selection process, particularly if the signing will be pl11ced on 11 nearby hceway or other major facilily. LocAtions for "lead auide slgnin& should relate 10 previous analyses used to define zones of inOucnce which ore upcctcd 10 &encrate users of the p;ukandrldc IAcili tics. ihe "lcadln" si&ns should be placed 10 lntcrccpl potential users on their IIOrmal po1ht and auide them directly 10 lhe facility, AI an uarnplc, it a facility has been duianed and located to onroc1 drivers destined ltom a subanbon rcsldenlial nrca to a centrnl business dislrlcl, the primary "lcncJ. In" dgnfna should be located on the majCJr utcrinls becwc:cn tltc resldc:ntlnl orc11 and 1he porkand-rlde facility. Patk and ridc "lead-in" sl&ns must be designed In acconlance whh the MUTeD as well as stacc end local crlrcrla and policies (or lnformodonol. signs. The messages should be brief yet concise, with an Indication of the service provided 111 shown in Figures 11 a and b. Signs should ulilite sranderd guidance mc1hods 10 direct tro(fic 10 rhc facili1y. Where rr:s{{ic must be directed from a major highw11y, to D rocllily not visible from the highway, use should be made of trailblaz:cr :sssemblies incorporoling the parkllitd rldc lcaend or symbolnnd directional 11rrows as shown In Figure 11 2c. Signs pertaining to rnovlnatrarric should be rc:nc:ctor izcd, and some sicns such iS the entrance ldentitication sign, may be lighlcd. lnformolion signs should be placed In wcllli&hted areas Signing in join t usc: porkand cidc Drcu, Juth lhoppinc cc:ntcn. should nol interfere w ith the owne r' s use s. 8


Parle' & Ride NEXT RIGHT (a) XIT 133 Parle & Ride (b) 00 Parle & I Ride I (c) PARK-AHO-RIDE SIGit UAHPlES fiGURE 11 9


C. f/IYSICAL DESIGN I. E.rlcrnol C/rculotlon ond A ucss n. AcctSs Points - A consideration in the location or a (acilily is the :IVailahility o( tu:c:ess to uncJ egress from the lot for both uonsit the :.utonmbilc:. Ac:cc:ss to the: parkund:rit.le (ucility shouhl not incrusc con gcstinn on the ntlcrinl or lreewny which it serves. Fo, this nntJ other rensnns, direct cc.:ss by ptivalc nulomohilcs to ll or rnmp will not typically be considered. However. direct nccess ror buses is often desirable: (sec Figure 11). Further, direct to :m arterial route is not ----.. _.,. ____ ,. -t--,.. \ ------------------------------------.... _______________ ----------------....... ----, ... -.:::-:=::::: :: ::::: ,.. . ,,,. s ---------.... -------------------------- .. .. ---------------------ur-.. ,._ ---------------.... .. t--f ... \ ..._ ,1 \__ .. __ ,,. ___ .. -i-1-'Ut.J.O-UO( "flit 1((0(1 IUS IIAJII, .IOJA((uf (A((\oA.f .,.,, Al\0 110 10


t.lesic3ble ir il a major confli c t point to ahe route Often the m ost cUicicnt access 11 park-and citlc loa will be on o collector or local slrtct inacrscclin& lhc oncrl:ll. lr lhc inlcncction or the with the collector mc:c:t is ulrcally hjs likely a hat cxcclh:nl occcss can be rrovlt.lecJ. '. When h is ncccSSU)' to DCCUS 011 on ;trteriul rou t e the access locotion nluSI be cnrdully conshJerc:t.l. II shouhl lu u v uid 11ucuc, ftnm nearby inletscctions or intcrchanccs. Field ohscrv:ance or unHie punc:rns nncl queuing u11lu: site ucc: rrint tn C\lal>Ji,h 1ng ncccss po1111. 11 facilily on the righl for trnUic inhounJ on a :Uicrial willullow most users 10 make n righl turn inlo lhc loa, thus clinai. nlltin& the hounl o( crossina 11n uppnsin& tnCiic strtunl; nil it is Iii.: ely thai muximiting tbc o c ccssibilily for the inbound trips will be m o re dfec tivc i n ouractinc users lh:m woulc:l improving the Oo\V fur c:ritin& lt:tHic in 1t.e . evcnmg. Fi&urc ilhutrotc:s a oc:cc:ss conrigun t ion on a IIVOwJy orlerial Slrecl. Noac: that it is desirohlc to proville sc:p:trale oncw:ay en uanee and exit drives ill order 10 crossing connicu The: distan ce: hom the: exiling drive to ony signolitccJ intersection should he m :uimiw.J to :tvoid the lik.:lihooc:l thai II would be bluckec:l by queues al the inter section. The ciilicol operiJiina pcriot.l lor th i s un crpwc:tJ 10 fn the e venings when curs ouempltu lenvc the lou :1nd turn I d a on1o the arlerlal. rM hour nnw should be cvoluntc&J uml nhservctJ to cJc:termine ilthis is likely 10 be a se.rious prublcn,. Dcmnml trnUie slcnullzntion or the afll:rlul AI I he cail mny be Wllttllnlcll. I lo ... e ct a new sicnnl on an artcrlnl should be conshlercd only if il con he shn w n &h:ll i t will noa hlnl.lcr orler.iultrnrric 11nd wllllitln1o signal rrogreuion Entrances nnt.l crits shollld be loc:ttet.l, with rcgnrt.l to n&Jjncc:u1 inlet sections, so thai siBnftl control of the crh could be rcnson .. hly in\1;1tktl "' a l:ller t ime If nccessuy. Storace for vchitles enler i ns (rnm &he succt 11nt1 :.l.lcquatc queue storage for uiting vc:hldes should be plunned Figure 11b shows a modified design which m:ty be: lcosiblc if the si1e has. or can obtnin, occcss to a cross Slrc:et. In this criling is directed to the crnss slrcc:t enters the 11rtcrial :tt on c1isting signa li:ccl nccess point. 11lis design shnuld not be c:nnsidcrcll i f would be clireetcl.l over rc:sil.lcntiul streets or ullc:ys not sui&cl.llo f orcc:tstcu reok period volumes . Doth Clllmples n nna.l b nr Figure 11-4 nl:ty require spcciOII (or lrrtnsl l vehicles cominll from the ccnlrnl business clislrict or activity ccnur tu enacr the Jut. Provision of left turn uorugc Innes should t>c consldercl.l. When the porknnt.lrit.le lot is locotctJ on the left sit.le o( 11 Jwowny arlcria l (or inbound traHic: (us shown in Flaurc fl

__) J._l_ ... cz waY ... -. J L -TO CU..-c:::::=====::::::J : ISO" j PAR LOT 'l UO" . (.) __j l cl WAY uwuu ) L -ro c a o .-'._ .... t 1 POll LOT IW I ( 011 ACCUS OIIIV( I I ___ (b) tiUO" P BR LOT '-j. ( ._/ }[-J__ -70 lb()--G t ) .,.. __ ---, -. Z WAY U)' (IIIAL.) H'T tllfloo SfOII&'t .. ,.,....,., o ........ .. l O T IIC([SS CO/Irl tURIII IDII . f I GUA (


Nolc thai In Fi&urc II ole, by plating the uit downstream (rom the en trance, the conniciS vehicl.: nows 10 nnd (rom the rtcrial arc n1inimired. When this Is cJC)ne, core must be l:tkcn ro assure lh11 oiJcqunte left turn stor:tsc is provided on thcoitcrial fnr entering nd that the sc:p:uution between the: drives ;, sufficient to Dnurc: that qucuciJ left turn vehicles will nol Illude the nit d1ivc. thus hindering husc, ancJ olhtr vehicles to turn ldr, lois locntctJ ulnna onc:woy Attcrinls require: consid crations. fdcnfly, lhc:y WC)ultl be loco red hctwtcn the two comprising o oncwny co,plct nnd ucccu would be avail11hle (rom both sttccu as shown in Figure llcJ. When acceu cannot be provided to both one-way srrcets from rhe p:uk onLIrlde lor. it may be: neccuoryto provide intprovcd signina ro 1uidc: users either or the: rucility. If cxprus service will be: flrovided,thc close pro1imlcy of 11 ftcewuy "'ill ollow 1oud llctcn lor the tl.lnsit buses as well ns minltni1e their travd &inle on abe moving llfleti;ah. Plnnnin&. "cslgn nnd development criteria access by /c:ellu systems, such os parntrnnsil, wnys, bilcew"yt nnc luwut priority. Thcu rrioritics would be suhject tu 3\Jjuslmcnl in. consid.:rudon u{ lire rwmlk:ts 10 be uc:commotlah:&J by c;u:h moJe. llowevct .-it iJ ncccssury cluat U\."

lane shoull{ nor exceed 300 velticles per hour. lr is desinble (or porkonJ ride lou with cnpacities grel!tcr thnn I ,000 parking stalls ro hnvc entrance nnt.l exil points to two or more odjncent streets in order to nllow CC\t unoon J;I!Sictl rrnflil: c.lispcrsnl. J:ntr;mccs shuulc.l hi! luc:lled such a vehicle the site Crom Jirl!ction could miss one find :1 second one withour circuirnus rouring. The number of enrrnnces nlong ony on.: slicer should be nncJ should be: spaced arlenst350 (eel l:ntrnnccs shnulrl he lncnlct.l on the downstrcnm side or nn intersection. Gcncrnlly, righl lurns in oncJ OUI or lhe lots preferred 10 left turns .. Thcrdorc, lhe externnl circulation pallern around a facility should be. clnckwise. Whcr .. lor size is lnrgcJ thlln 5110 slnlls, two lane exits with traffic shouh.l be conslt.lcret.l tor nits onto hc:IVy volume two-way streets. b Wt'nvi11g Weaving s1:1ndards and rccommcnd:nions set forth in the Highwny Ca Munuul or the AASIITO design &uide on hi&hwily :tnt! inrersection design should be followed ond modified as conditions dieratc ond locnf ullow. c O r ivewny Entrance a11d Exit All entronees :tnd exits should conform 10 local crircrin os well ns AASifTO desi&n guides. 2. I uttrntJI ClrcuiiJtion Major circul:ttion routes In the lot shoui.J be locotc:d nt the: periphery or the parking orca to tnlnimlze vehiclepedcstrian connic:rs. Circulation with in the Jut must be to neeommotbte oil or the modes uslnarhc laejlity Cnrc sl\ouhl be token to sec thnt 11n Internal inrersection is nor pl:tc:cd tuo close to 1 street intersection. Whenever possible, buses should nut be mixed with caus. Clreulution routes should be designed to provide Cor cosy movement of buses with efficient terminal operations and convenient tr:lns f..:rs. A oncwoy roodw;;y with two lanes 10 pcrmh passing of stopped buses is tlcsiruhle, with enough curb lensth nnd/or sow-tooth type loading orcas to handle the number of buses th:u will be using the facility, simulto ncously, under peak conditions. . In llesi&nina porkondrltle lots, the pnssenger wniting aren should be located cirher {a) In 1 ccntrol location with parldns for rhe various user """k) the orca. or (b) lucatcc.l one end of the f J "''Y h for the v.aoous user modu catcnuina rJt.liolly from lhe ""'"'"t: l.arac: lou may aho rc'l""c more rhan one pckur area. F.ur cJSy nsrc:n :.nJ cgreu for the ttlnst husn, vehicles ond vehicles shoulc.l also be: paramounr in sckc tion or the


lut Wr Ca..,ptcl Cat ,.,.,,.. 'lllllt.tltl IOJ riWI( II S inlcrnnllayoul. Figure II.S is n sketch o( :1 possible lot In& scpDrnte purkin& for cuch of the cliffcrens mot.lcs. Ficurc 11 illustrntcs n similnr concept; however, In this cnse, the has no fron1agc on lhc 0111jor slrccf, The loi Is locutecJ bchintJ other /toni usc uses In shared type lots, such as shnppin& centers, churches, etc the orca should be loc:ucd awny from muin huildin&(s) so as not to int.:rkrc with existin; business octivity. fns1c11d, It shuuld lend lo business. Facililies lor kiss:andridc ;and luis shou/cl occommocJ:uc '" : o tJis&inc&ly different (unc:rlons. The first Cync&ion is passcn&cr llrrivulAnd drop off i'lod rhc olhcr Is pesscnger rlckup. 'nlis lypc o( nreo shnuhl be for onc way lrarcic wilh a curb zone ncer lhc pninc where the wansil \ chicle is boarded Ancle pnrkina wirh chrou&h slnlls would be illeal for with this mode Fiaurc 11s D skclch ar possible und shorHcrmpark In& loynuc. l' circulullun cnn be either onc:-wuy or Jcpcn"i ng on she and Ia you I o( &he lol (prdcrubly wirh ti,hl angle f90 degree J p11tl:i111t sralls 10 lhe hlghcsl density foro sivcn oren). The o/1 day parking arco should he the from lhc line haul 1r unsi 1 l oudin g oud unlo:ading are11. IS


L .. !) ( Wlllt ) .. M '"''"" ... UJtU"' CCII'HUt'l IIC'MIUU NJDIUUII lv\1\ IIWU Alt O lOT I( ic is iiOiicipated lhlll bicycle usage will be subslontial, specinl r:uhs wich signs and mnrkings muy be dcsirubh:. Bicycle: tuckers nnd rneks should be pruvh.Jed 10 cnc:ournge usnge. Dike pnrl:ing should be locnled rcllllivcly close 10 chc cransitluading if pussiblc. Circuhuirtn in nn jqegulnr or odd shnred lor have co be cnmprumisc:d in order 10 its utilizntinn. This cnmprurnisc mny rccluirc clirnin:lling snntc: "r chC: .. lcundridc ;rreas in (avur or some or I he lllhcr nru\lcs ur urrivul ,,, lhc luf) The: a;cncrul design ror 1hc: individual. user modes of cnch lor should be Ull lhc prioricy sequence us spc:cifkd in the: ''Access Points" section. namely, pec.leslrians, bicycles, fcc\lc:r buses, tais, park:tllllrirh: (l:l)' :trC::t (j( UO)'), anti free: park:IIHlrirJc :Hell. lfl


IISS AHD AID '--.J t'(; t -4'----..--KISSAHOAIO AltO SIIORTTUJI PARKIHG FIGURE 11 The system 0(/roflic clrcul:llion produced bylhc of illg nislo.:s nnd stnlls shouh.l be 10 n1inimlzc trdfic llistunccs, connic:ting movements, number of turns movements within the orcu should be by strntcllic loc:ntio n or cntrnnccs exits und oislcs Aisles should be nligncu to convenient movement toword the bus zone. Aisle lcn"lh be limited lly olhcuing oisles, or by c:hnnging the uisle Circ:ulution shouhJ he c:ounlerc:loekwisc. Aislos shoull.l he oncwuy wilh un.:lc pnrkinA nncllwu way witlt 90 decree potklng. The most importnnt consicJerntion o( tra((ic now into 01nd out of ony pnrkridc: lot Is bus. The lntcrnulluyoul o( the lnt, inc:huJina cnuunce nncJ uit dtivcwnys, rcYnlvc tunuml the wrnfnJ rudius ul thcr bus. 1\ ny In you I which Is prc:ptuctf only uutumuhih:s will nul lil:dy occommod:atc bus movctnentc. Some ntftfitionol eunsiderations on internal clrc:ul011ion ore: (I) Drivers should not be: confronted wilh multiple deciJ ions :11 llc same time 17


(2) The distance from facility nccess points should be adequate to provide for maneuvering and to minimize conflicts (3} Adequate should be provided at access pqints. (4) Signing should be simple. (S) Flexibility to odjust tn changes in transit volume :tnd opcrntions should be provided. (6) Where larger tr:msit passenger demands arc present and park:lnd ridc/kissnndrlde operntinns nrc involved, the terminal nrcn shnult.l be lnCIItcd nlfsltcct but with 111 nnd frnm the arteri:1l a. Rtstrvoir Arens A rcservior areo should be considered adjacent to every entrance and exil, fllr the momentary stonace or vehicles. 1l1e momcntury storage of vehicles entering or leavln& the parking lot should not Interfere with the norm01l parkins and unporkina accivities. This arcD's pavement structure should be the umc as the rest oC rhe Jot. The rescrvior area rnay be provided in the form of a circutntion ro:u.l and/or 11n area extendinaln any direction. Where a eirculutlon road is used, a 22' x 12' spoce should be provided per vehicle. Where 1n area other thon o c:irculalion rond Is used, 1 22' x 10' spncc should be provided per vchidc:. b. Kiss a11d Ridt Facilities The kissandride facility should be so within a parkandritle 101 so chot transil or commurcr passengers can cssily ond safely access lhc or bus loadina zone with minimum connicts whh other vehicles. This can be accomplished wilh the following strategies loc:;ucd so I hot 1 heir usc docs nol inlerferc with bus movements, parkandride opcrarions, or pus through the parkondrldc control znnes. Circulation In the kiss-and ride fc:ility should be oneway and 011nl( the terminal or bus loading zone. Parking shnuld be analcd al 45 degrees to allow for pull lhrough and fucc lhe lcrminal or bus loading zone. (Sec Figure 11) c. Sig11i11g Wilhin the facility, A number or lypcs of signing may be required: Ouidc signing to direct vehicles lo parkin& arens, passenger drop-orr and pickup points, hondicapped parking 1ucns, nnd waiting orens. In some coscs, they will be required to dircc1 bicycles or o1hcr special vehicles lo nppropriale orcas. Regulatory and warnlns signs to control traffic Oow on vnrious ways within larger sites, purlicularly Dl points with a potential lor vc:h ic ular/pcdest riun/bicycle conOicts. restriction signs lo desi&mllc arc:os where parking or stoppin& is prohibited Ill


: .,, ut : tulfiC IUIIU I th t.H. t._tf hU thUU ,.,, ................ ... ........... ,.._,, . ..... ... ,. .... .. .. .... .. .... .. ,.., .............. I IM\II!fr ,,,,, .. IUAil( &ISS A .. ,., IAUIIC fiCUal 11 lnformntion si&nS dcscribint rourcs, cosrs, sched u les nnd other p er ainent dura. Guide si&ns mny ulso be dcsirublc,ln lnr.:c lors,co tlirccc u:lflic out of 1he futility 10 m;,jur 5lrCCIS J. /'ttlt$lrlnnlrfDvmttnlt A dirccl ::.nd snfc for pctlcsui::.ns moy be provided lrom all ;u.lj:.ccnt streets lnlo the st:slion orca. Pcdesuian (ucilicics shoult.l be well mnrkcl.l and si,ncd 10 minimitc pcduuion movcmcnl. rcdcstrion c:lrtulnrlon In pork in& lots Is 1o be provided by aisles. A ddi . rionol provision for pedcslrian circufurion by means of wallcwoys my be or could be required fn cercain sicucuions, as described bdow. The slralghc-llnc disloncc bc&wccn a pcdeslrl:rn's orisin anti o lo:uJing zone normully decreases as chc pcdcscrl:.n wollcs alon1 on aisle or a circu /iuion road cow.,rd chc slncion. tlowcver, in ccnuin sicuocions, 11s shown in 19


ol ,.o """' dhUrct to ""' lto4 Jont dtCrtlltl II ptdlllriOA .. tlo IO .. r4 It, ol pt4tttrlan lrttl lr .. Oft1 tlall It !UlhA tAtrtt.CI, ..,, u lot ---'"""' Stolls ,__ __ Whttt wtr,AtHI. ............. ,. "'"' tf trltl of a to4tllrlu. ---' I I I I l J I ---f lttth Of ,.rlloA tf ptl" "httt dllllft(l .......................... '""''"" ... ,, ,, .. ,4 II. Ill '''' lotlh tcttla tO htl, .. ,.,, ., prtl41ot ....... u ...... ) ''""' ... Fiaure 11, lhe aisle lnyout mny be su'h lhal lhe slrnightline distonce inc reuses Cor" cc:rruln porrlon of the pnth uowc:letJ by the pedcsrrinn. In uny such situotion, a pcdestrion should be provided wherever neccs. ro limil such n pori ion ol the path traveled by I he pedestrilln to SO feet. A pcdestriun from any ":ll to the lu:.ding tone shuuld be ;ts direct :u possible. A coefficient ol directness b.: dctcrminct.l by: C (r. f 0 Length of P.11h OC ICte:nt 0 IICCIOCSl S h I' O' trnJt I me utnncc: ... .. :. ., '" I hnwc:vtr. il shouhl no1


Pedcscrion WDiltways may be locations 10 minimize pedestrian usc of a circulation road or an isle, or may be proviclccJ to minimize chc number of poinrs a r which. pcdcstrians cross a circulation rond. Where pedcslrions orlainatc I rom an otulyln& parr of Jorae parkin& lor and usc aisles or cJrcuhuion roods lo npprooch rhc loodin& zone. they will have to lrovcl olona an irregular path lor a considerable discince. 'In such cuscs, consldcrucion should be 11ivcn to rhc provision o( a walkway which extends coward the lnnding zone in more neurly o suul&hl line. In odlliti o n, some w11lkways nt3y be covered. PccJcslrillnS musl hnvc over vchidcs ol selected cross ings or Internal roadwuys. r c deslr iun crosslncs should IIIIVC aood vi.sibllity bosh lor pellesuions drivers. Curbs ol 1111 marked crossinl& between the (lnrk ini', rucility and lo;uling tone should he rnmpcd f'c dcstrilln crossinas 01 any scrcc:t wider than five lanes or 48 feel sho u ld a rduge area between oppaJinalunc:s or in rhc center ol rhc succ:t walkways cross other drivtwuys or p;)rkinc tuts, chcy should blend to a level. Curbs .sticdcslrln Scnlct Slenthrds On Sldmalk Octupanc1 FJo" Ralt (fl'trcnon) trf'll") JS + 0-7 2S-JS 1,10 IS..2S 10-IS 10-IS IS-2R S-10 20-2S O-S 2S + \ In Qucuct Occupinc1 (t. J 1/f'trl0ft) JJ+ 10-IJ 7 -10 )-7 2 )


a. Walking Distanct The muimum distance a pedeslrinn should h3ve 10 walk from his 10 a Jondinazone should be in the ronae or 1000 feet. Longtr t.lis1nnces moy require consideration of zones. b. SidcH'a/ks Sidewulks intended (or usc by the general public should have a minimum width of five feet for tWOway pedcsUion volumes (IWOdircction totnJ counl) not exceeding SO pecJcsltlans per mlnulc. They should be compotible with local code or existin& sidewalks In the orca. When pcdcstril\n volumes exceed I his 11mount, an additional loot of sidewalk should be provided for every additionul 10 pedesuluns per fl\lnutc. This corresponds to level of service "C". The minimum width of sidcw11lk adjacent to a bus or tnxi loading zone shouh.l be 12 feet nr lhe adjacent sidewalk willth plus seven feel, whichever is arcater Sidewalks provldins access to service and facilities may hnve a minimum wid&h of three feet. c. Drrrrius Pcdcstrion b:miers should be provided where il is desirable to either discourage or prevent pedestrians from crossing of /oc111ions where unusu<1/ hazord or unreasonable interference with vehicular traffic would otherwise result l'edestrian barriers may consiS! o( railing, fencing, walls or land sea ping .. These barriers should be used with sight distance In mind. Min imum horizontal cleoroncc between o barrier ontl vehicle $hould be two feel. d. Dtidsu and nmntb rcctestrinn bridges may be used where (c:nsible 10 scpnrnte high eonOict orcas, provided thnt cJJifetences In verficnl scpnrotion do not, in themselves, become pedestrian bnrriers The provision or pedestrian tunnels should be avohJ-:cJ ir ;any other acc:cplable alternate design is feasible Where tunnels arc provided, they should have 1 generous cross section and should be welt lighted. Tunnels should be: placed so that continuous visibility is provided into the tunnel when viewed from the approaches. Maximum c:onslderalion shouhJ be &iven to the safcay and protection of patrons an

Standard Comp:tct Tblr 2.2 1)plul rarklna IJimcnslonl Width 8.5'-9.5' 1.5'-8.5' Lcn&lh 18'-20'. 15'-17' Aisle Width 2-4'-26' 20'-ll' stnlls ore recommended in Table 2.2. A reasonable number of shorHcrm (klssonllrlde) apuces, generally wic.Jcr, will also be provided when rc'1uircd. 1Urnovcr in these sp:aces will b.e very high, bul they ore pnrtic:ulntly needed Cor prnking vehicles wailing to pick up passcnacrs dis emburklng from line huultransh vehicles. For many years, the trend In Aft1erlean Dutomobile designs wos toward Jon;cr nncJ wider vchic:Jes. Jfowevct, clue tO the CUrtCnl cncr&fCORSCtvation ani! cost consillentions, this uend hos b.:en reversed 11nllncw ctus are now llcing mmlc shorter, narrower, li&hler in wei11hc, nnd more economical co opw11c. The larger Amcrlctan cun which were built prior to the 1977 models range in site up 10 19.J teet (S.)m) in Jen&th unu 6.66 feel (2.0) m) in width. The vast numbers of &hcsc larger cars now in use will decrease. Dut, for the present,lhc 'reolesl porcfon of the parking lot eislc:s and stulls muse be dimensioned and murkcd 10 occept the lar&cst auto mobiles that will usc the Jots It is opp:ltent lh :lt the average site or CtlfS In usc is changing rapidly. The pcrcentuge of small cars and subcompact) sold each year has risen. In consldeuclon this trend, purklns lol !Qyoul should allow lor future revisions to 11ull sizes, aisle widths and module dimensions. Addi tionnlly, il is rusonable, atlhls time, to designate areas within aloe for "small curs only" and to lay ouc these spaces 111 a smaller sculc. These spuees should be ploced logccher In o prime location 10 encourage their usc. bccnuse If they nrc not convenient, moll cnr drlvcu will pnrk In the mcue convenient stnndord sized cur sp11C:cs. (See Appendix "0" /or n murc clc cail.:d unulysis o( the clfeccs of automobile size on lot dedgn.) Substond:ud sudJ and aisle widths a blse ec:onosny. Although they permit the mark ina I)( more sclllls per aiven arcu, vehicles tend to upon adjacent stulls so thai one or more spaces ore (or usc. The end result Is no gain in PC:tuol space usage and a parking condition plagued by confusion There if normally a need for Jcissandridc funclions in rcmolc lois, but space provisions should be mode In both remocc and periphcrul lois. Adequate room be ovnilublc to pcrmic the segregation of parlcand ride and kissand ride funcrions. Separule h1nes, ncar fhc: point where the transit is bo3rded, should be provhJcd solely !or dis charging picking up pnlrons. In oddicion to f:uiliwing this procedure ovoids unncccssnry congestion Dl the lot c:ntrnnce due: to kiss and ridc queues 2J


Sr:.lls for the onrJ elderly Jhouh.l be localcd in prox mily co che tranJil vehicle loucJina and unlondin& aru. widths should 1e nt I! feet wide Wilh a S root odjnccnt lonrJing aisle with sirJewalk ;,mps. 11. Stnlb n11rl Alslts Aisle widrlt iJ n (uncrlnn of rhe parJrlna anale anouble stripina,: o( sluiJs muy be consillercd if su((icicnl space is available wilhin the lol :ss a means of providing room for 11llcJing JpaccJ whin tlcmunLI rnr chc ll)t increases. Atccutr 10 ptoviolc adcqu.uc iMciJcCiion i&ht LIIIIMICCS Oo&n nl 1ht l&:''""C lyOul l.onll1t11pinc 1hnuhl r.c coMoJCh:J wil11 1t.c I. yo"' CloiCIIII lor 1 Jol( Thtoc wol l nnln>YIIyltc some ldt O "cr in which a Uo1ll c.onnor be (}e uscoJ Cor placement o C li&hl stnnllurth nntl/or il cornpntihlc with the overall lot dcsiKn.


/, l ;\ v I X J t l (/ .,. A J r I J c 0 0 H Sl)) ''' '''JJ ,,,oull rarkln; Olmcnalons (In tccl) ror t .n. Stallt al Var la11s An&lct On (teet) D l'r"rt' u 60. 1S' tO' S1111 wid11\, par1lltl 10 olslt A 1'2.7 10:4 9 ) 9 0 Slelllcncch or line 0 ll.O 20. 0 18 .S Stall depth or w:all c u.s 19.0 19. $ IU Allc wlllth bctwccl\ sllll linea 0 12. 0 16:0 23.0 2A.O SIIJ dl'plh, I! U.l 17. S u a II.S Module, "'IIIlO l ntcluck F n J 61 J 6). 0 Module, lntcrlocklna 0 42. 6 li.O 61. 0 6l.O Module, Interlock to curb l3cc H 42. 8 .SO. l sa.a 60.S J u 2 3 2 S l S orr sci J 6 ) 2.7 o s 0 0 K 11. 0 8.3 .s.o 0 0 Cu>U .Ditlt, oncW))' L 14.0 14. 0 Crou ohlc, lwoway 24. 0 lol.O nn STAll lATOUI (lC"rutS ll&nd4,4, 9 a J e t racuar 11-10 U 1hc1c i1 n d..:s i rc 10 provi

( ' X ? t A -1 I L X / T It I .. F o---+--II L I X Stall nol a cccaslt In c c rlaln l'arkll\1: l.ayoul Dimensions (In !eel) fnr 1. Sla ll s f l Yorlout AnJ:Ic s On A E i r Dimension C!ri:l) Dlacrult 60. 75 90' Sull widl h paullello a isle A tl.l 9.1 S J a o S lllllcnath or line D 21. 6 19.0 17. ) 16. 0 S1all deft1h ol wall c I.S. 2 16.S 16.9 16. 0 Allie w drh bclwccn stall lines D 12. 0 13. S -19. S 22.0 Stall dcplh Interlock E 13. 1 U l IU \6. 0 Module, wall 10 interlock F 40. S 4S. 2 n 1 H O Module, lnlcrlocklnJ (j 38. 6 0 9 SZ. I S4.0 Module ; ln1crlock ro curb fa ce II JIU 42. 9 SO. l 31. S Dumper overhand (rypital) 1 2.0 2 1 2 S 2 S OrfJCIJ s 2 4 o s o o Scrba ck K 9.S 7.2 H 0 0 Crou aisle, oncway L u o u o 11. 0 I 2 0 Crou aisle 1wo-w;ay n o 22. 0 21. 0 22. 0 STAll l.UOUI (l (tl(lllS c.-,att, fiCUI llll aisle. This p rovides the mosl dficic:nl d es ign in ltsms of \anll ore a usc. In addi l ion, I he grc!IICSI dliclcncy can genernlly llc ob111inctl by p l01cing aisles rows o f parking p3rollello I he long d i mension of rhc site:. Grearestlantl usc dficicncy c:1n usu01\\y be uchir:vcd by p\ncing n 1uw o( com 26


I L t T I( .l I 1 CUJI8 Q ___ ,_ __ ,.. 1--I rrkln' l.yout Oln1tndon1 (In (or 7 S n. SlaliJ 11 Verlou1 AnJiu On AllEle O l menllon Cfecl) Olarm 60' 15' 90' Saoll wid1h, parallel to eble A 10. 6 1 7 7 .11 1 5 Stolllcll&lh olllne D 20. 1 JJ. ) 16. 7 U D S1oll o( wall c JU u.a 16.3 u.o Ab\J wldll\ tlc\wttt\ \lnllll11u 0 10. 0 J) ) 19. 2 20. 0 Stull dtl'lll, Interlock G 12. 1 IU IS. '1 llO Module, wall to lnlcrlock p l7. 4 0 7 su $0. 0 Moo11fc, inlcrloctina G l$. 6 42.5 .S0. 6 .so. o Module, lnlerlock 10 curl> face 3S. 4 41.4 411.7 47. S Dumper overhana (typkal) 2.0 2.3 2 S 2 S Ollscl J .S. J 2.2 0 5 0 0 1c,ba\:k K 8 9 6.7 4 0 0 0 Cron tillc, onc w;ay L 12. 0 12. 0 12. 0 ll. O Cron twuwoay 20. 0 20.0 20 0 20. 0 \ U,OUI (l(II(MIS fllltftltlt, I I '' ncuc 1111 pletely oround I he perlmcccr or I he she. However, unless the parkoncJ ricJc: sire is very smull, I his pruccicc Is not recommended, because of clu: odvcue cllccl on opctutionlll tU i cicncy 27


Errorls shnuld nlso be directed toward cunblishinJ raised (6") paved wulltwuys /111 p\:'clcsui;ms and pnuons who 11re co boafllftltn11m H"thllcr ot Accustlolt Spacu I l l 4 s 6 7 & 9 2% 20 plus I for liJ() ovcl 1000 lli1nd icnppc:d facilities, similnr 10 those shown in F igure: IIIJ shoulll be proviLie&J 111 a location nearest the bus lo1 din g zone. The r acilitic s should be i n ucc or d with chc f oll o w ing : Prdcrnhl y n o tttcc:ss ro a&Js should he crossed by pa. 1rn11s cnrnurc ro the hus lond ittll t unc. The handicnppcd p11tron must neve r llc ( !Heed to trnvcl behind pa rked c:trs ( i n lhcir cin:ul :ttion p:11h). li1 f:tciliwre the movcmcnl of physically llulll}i(',1(1(>tll pMIMIJ, r amps mus1 he pro"i\lctl ( Fi&urc 11). c Orl'l" Sl:tll width shouhl he Sleet wide, 5 feet for


r-.... ,, ...... .. ' -. ,. ..... ,.,., . . . .. . . . ; ...... ,,,...,. STAll lAJOUt HADICAffCO fAt(JHG tl. Sig11i11g ami Mnrki11g 1tttu t Appropdotlt si1nin1 or povcment m:ul:inBS shouhJ lnditiiiC the remicttl.l usc of the spncc (or hflntl icnpJtc:d persons. Curtis to otnd front the bus luuding nreo 'houltl be depressed (or wheel c:hnlrs ns dic:cuccLI hy local sf ;mcJ.u ell. 6. Pntmttll n. Drnlllntt Adcqun t e slope shoulrJ be provic.letlll> surrac:c lots in order 10 minimilc llu: otlow M s,,.,,,,_ PoncJinJ of waucr in lvl is uncJcslroMc huth fur vc:hh:lc nnd pedc:scrlnn nnv..:mcnt. This i1 purllculnrly I rue In cnl\1 climates where rreczina mny crcuiC: Icy spots. Surfncc: tlrnlnngc ahoulcl he

vehicle wheel or snow removal vehicles) ond possess other qualities: m:1intennnce rree, vnmblproor (uoll down grates), non-corrosive (gray or ductile iron) c:utings, suHicicnl open (Cree now to handle runofC, to prevent freezing in \\:nter, nod ue fitted with are with the specified area piping. In pedestrian Hnll bicycle traUic :1rcas, only with stunt, nurrow upenings, plnccll perpem.licular to now direction, should be used lo minimize the hnznrd nod nllow silfc over the grnte. b. Pavtmtnl T}opcs and Loadings Puvcment design should conform to the current local ond srnte design lor each or the dilfcrent usages and loadings that :1 porcion o( a lot or roadway Is expected to handle. A parkandrlde lot mny require. ns many as three different types of load cnrrying pnvement designs. The first and hcuviest load carrying pnvement would be needed ror the bus drivcw,,ys,loops and loading orca. That portion or the po\cment which will be used by buses for lo:tding or layover should be a rigid type, ns Oexible p:1Ycmcnts may tlow due to heavy static loadings and high IC:n\ perntures. A second design for light load carrying would be needed for the internal circulation roadways and aisles and ror the kissondride roadways. The third and lightest carrying type pavement would be l_lec:ded (or lhe car areas and bicycle p:uhs nnr.J parking . c. Pawn,nt Widths Pavement widrhs in the dil(erent sccrions o( o p:.rkandridc lol should be designed consistent wilh good engineering design practices to the vehicles dcsignnled to usc ahnt particular section. Drive. ways and loops thai will be used by buses sh.ould hnve a bnsic width or 12 Ccel per lane lor rongent sections. An increase to IS reel per l:tne or more may be necessary for sharply eurvins roadways. Specific geometric desian inform:uion for l:tyoua or roadways for buses muy be found in the AASHTO publlcarion, "A Polley On Design o( Urban Highways and Arterial StrceiJ.' current edition. A 40 foot trensll vehicle may be used as the dcslsn vehicle where a local bus size is not specified. The basic width of rocJaways for cars should be I I reel per lnnc. lane widths woulcJ increase only two feel per lone or less for turns or up to 90 degrees. The minimum simple 011ter turning rceommendc:r.J is 2S to JO reel Cor passenger ears. Recommended minimum pnvcmcnt widths for bicycle rive feet for n one-wny p:llh nnd eight Cc:et for two-wny pllths. Local government agency stnndards und codes should be used whenever they exceed the cl.:sign guide minimum. If desired, the widths nuy he incrcns-:t.l 10 nccom modale maintenance vehicles. The minimum recommended curve r:111ius is 20 lcct for :1 Speed O( J0 mph, which will provi1IC a saf.:ly (:leiOI for the JO


cyclists who exceed the design speed. conditions moy be conducive to higher speeds, rudius of curvuture should be increosed occouJinaly ot trnUic control devices instnllcd to wurn the cyclist ond/or regulate his spee1l. -7. fnvtmtnl Mnr/cl11gl Cuntrol or lr:trric movement can he grcutly Improved hy proper pavement murkings. Typically .. such os centcrlines, lone lines, chunnelizlng linea, nntl lune 11rrows will he necessnry 10 guide or aepnrntc patron nnd transit truHic. rnrking stnll m:ukings should be in nccord:Jnce with the design concepts Cor pnrking stnlls presented in :J previous section. Stnll markings need not be reOcctorizcd, but must be m:.inluincd in goud condition lu assure or dcrly And eCfieienl use of the parking areu. 8. Dicyclt a11d Motorcyclt Slorngt n. DtsigJinttcl Artns Whh lhe growing usc or bicycles nnd motorcycles, It is impOriAnt 10 provide odeq\inte storogi: Cucilitles ot those porkondride or Cringe area parking lots where Iorge concentrations of bicycle traCfic arc expected. In some central busin.::ss districts, bike rucks hove also been pluccd in public onll private automobile purking focililies. In designing bicycle stornge (:Jcililles. consideration should be given to the following: storage lot ldenlificution und occessjbility, orientntion or storoge spnces, type o( stornge racks, lot boumbry screening nnd protcc lion. and provision of locking devices to minimize c;:Jsuul :Jnd I thdt. Design principles for oCfstrccl automobile p:Jrking lots gcnemlly apply to orlstrect bicycle storage lots. The lot layout normally consius or uolls 2ft, X 6ft. (0.6 X 1.8 m) Ol 00 degrees tO II isleS Of D minimum width O( 5 (eel (I.S m). For motorcycles, the stu II should be incrc:ued to 3' x 6'. b. Rncb, Locktrs Vorlous lypcs ofp1uklng racks have been developed to support the bicy des in 11 vcrticol position. The racks should be securely fastened to the lot surface; they should occommodote various wheel sizes: ond they should be o( surricicnt strength to resist theft and vnndulism. Some lots hove sinsle or doublewhecl wells lnstend of vc:rticnl racks in the lui surfucc. These nrc more oesthelicnlly plcoslna, but cost, Immobility, and di(ficulty or removinB water, crush, ond leaves constitute serious disodvontoaes. Oencrolly, the most successful melhod of 1hefc prevention consisu of weovin& :a coschardcned steel link ch:Jin Yt. lo K inches (1.9 lo 9.$ mm) minimum dinnu:ter or vinyl covered spring steel col>l.: u( similur dimensions through the frame both wheels und then il lo the by meuns o( a durable Occuust: a chuin nr cable or this silc and acJcqunlc ll


lc:nglh may weigh us much as J21bs (.S.-4 leg), some nulhocitic:s provide 1he anchored chuins liS pari of the slora'c lncilily and the cyclist only has !O proviCJe his own lock. Thi s design is usnble by both bicycles motor cycles. Motorcycle storAge should be on 1 Portland cement co:u.:rcte slob. to prevent st;ands trom slnklnc into the asph .oh pavement. S'!'aller, compnct bike stnr11gc lou ;arc preferred over large lou becuusc cyclists lend 10 cluster uounll the most dcsiroble locntions and tend 10 use aisles and fenc:ina insreruJ of moving rnu Joudct.l rucks ro more uiflllnl cmrty rltdf. IC bicycle packing focilhles nrc nat rralc c tctl by a curb, then the &no of nutu bttrtiers should be considered This will rrcvc:nt tlnmuge by bncl:ing or pming >tehiclcs. Dlcyclc lockers \Viii discour;agc potential vandnls by keep ing the bicycle out of si&li&. Unlike bicycle racks, lockers will prevent removal of bicycle components. Moreover, bicycle commurcrs wirh upc:n sivc bikes would be more apt 10 usc 1he parking (acilhy Jr lockers were provided. lbe enc:ouroacmcnt of lhe blc:yc:lc commuter is impor111n1. For coch bicycle used to commute to I he lronsfcr (acilily lhc:rc is I he possible l r ceinc up of one odCs ;,m } kiu on

2. 3. Roo(-metnl or plutic. 4. SideJ-Open, Ct:lnsp:rrcnt glass or S. Denchcs-SO% prclc:rencc:. The: following od\.lition:tl rcntures ;ire' recommcntJc\.1 for consiJer;uion in seh:c&lng shelter designs: I. Selecl open lncntions with ,ood visibility. to minimize the Ch3nCe or ftfdllcu ntufcsh:rs or vnndnls. 2. I( c:ncloscd, the opc:n side should be awny from nearby vehicle splashing, un.J lwo cnlrunccwii)'S provided to minimize the chance or bein& lrnpped inside. 3. Doors arc nol recommcnd.:d because ol mointc:nonce or vandnlism potentinl, unless pro&c:elion front wenther dicuues otherwise. 4. Allow (ot 1 smoll air spnce below side poncl1 and obove the crount.l to pertnh air elrcul;ation and prevent the collection or debris .S. Other Ct;turcs lhnl moy be provided are li1hting, hul, td\:pfaonc, truvcl in(urmurion (fdtedutcs), and fraJh 6 I( the: agency components to assemble: and rep:llr shelters with their own forces, use ol field assembly, ond rcpl:tcc: menl when dumu.:ed. The primnry purpose o( the sheller Is to provide rdu&e from adverse weather while still presenting un Dllroclivc buildin& I hot use or the fucility without creating unnecessary mainlenonce or snfety problems c. Sf,clttr Slu Shelter orcos should provide eight square_ (cet or covered structure p.:r cstimatcll occupnnl. '011: occup:uu load d.:tcrn1in:uiun is os Collows: Number o( Auto Dtlvcrs 1 00 X Number or Auto Pussengcrs O .lS X Number of reople Who Wnlk To focility O.IS .r Number o( KissAnciRide P:urons 0.20 X Number or Olcyclc und Motorbike Putrons O.JO X Totul Number oC Pnuons 2.00 X X Number o( pnrJ1inc spaces . Assume 75 pcreenrorrivc In the morning pe11k hour-. 7S (2.0X) .. l.SX. Assume the 11veragc time is 10 minutes or V. hours; therefore, chc: occupancy ol any one time Is V. (l.SX) .2SX. Usin& 8 square feel per occupnnl, the required shelter becomes 8(.2SX) 2.0X or 1sq11nre fwl stnll. TI1creforc, a proposed pnrk nnd ride structure size would be fisurcd ns Collows: .SOO pilrklng nlls X 2 sc1unre (cet per stnll J,(J(I(J SIJURtc fccr. '111is, of course, is only o guideline nnll imlividuol shu will need communiry input onll rcseuu:h to dtlerrnine lhc:ir uc1unl occupant load distribution luccor. ll


Covered walkways should have I minimum clear height or a.o and a minimum side overhang or 2'". The minimum width between support columns should be 6'". d Shrlttr Components There is no subslitulc for rhe careful selection of rn.llcrials In scale, texture and color which arc appropriale considering rhc site. The following lire JCOCUJ JUidcJincs: Rulrltntiol Arta Exposed woocJ structure. WO<'id deck, uposcd on underside. Roo( Cover: Cedar or shingles on pitchcc.J roof or buill up roor wilh aravcl on nat roor. Wide ovcrhana wllh buiftln auuers and wood (;ucia. Commercial Arta Exposed steel (rome sttuclure. Metal deck, exposed on underside. Duihup roor whh &ravel or colored coating. Wide overhanas with builtln guuers and metitl fascia. Orick screening and display walls o( various heights Exposed oggrcgale concrete noor. Covered walkways 10 kiss-and-ride and adj::.cenl community. Roof compacible with structure design. t. Shcltu Fltxibility Modular construction techniques should be considered for sheller design and construction componenu. Shelter design should consider cxp:tnsion of the muclure lot luJure transit necc:Js. Interior C::.cilitics should be Oexiblc for remodeling as future trnnsit de sign dcmoniJs. f. Finish and Mattriols During the selection of sheller rinish it is important a ctellning pro;ram be considered 11nd possibly developed as the mntcrials ;uc being selected. The cleaning and maintcnO\ncc program is t.lircctly rehatciJ to the selection of finish m11teriuls and tu1s a considerilblc effect on the tot11l cost Mnintcnancc problems are usuully simplified through the usc of ns few d ifferent morcrinls as posslhlc 1.'..111 l1v "' .. clllhould h .\C J .... \ ,trf>Jt.'IC from the 10 I.HoiIJtt I lOOt! sho,.IJ dense, low absorp1ion and soil rc)istant surface chat provides goou truer ion for pedes )4


1ri01ns. Non-slip moterinls ot plat Corm etJces ontJ on stuir nosings shouad be usetlto Improve Flaor droillf sltould be inst:llled odj:tccnt 10 outside wolls in below structures. Jr. JYo/Js Walls should be or a polished, enameled or &lazed sur(oce to reduce cleanin& ond molntenonce coSIS. Exterior wolls In below erode structures should have a cavity between the structural woll 11nd finish waall lo avoid moisture domaae to the finish. holes should be provided ott he boll om o( the covity. Wolfs should be stnrtcd on a Ooor bose IO (;acilltotc noor clcuning /. Ceiliugs Ceilincs must be desined to be resistant to domoae or soilinc ond should be cosily cleonccJ. Where suspended ceilings are used or the tile: or pon type construction, the minimum noor to ceiling height should be 9' '" to discuur. age d01mage by vund:als. j. Doors Where doors arc required, they should be (aced with d:amagc resistant materials tu reduce mui11tcnance costs. k. Mirctllantous Mttals H:mdrails and metal trim should he or stainless steel, onodized olumi num, or orher luw m01inrenonce I. Windows H used, windows should be of nn unbrcnkable pl:ntic. In lieu or windows, open sh.lcs or of unnspurcnl pluscic should be usctl. D. LIGIITING Adequate lighling is C(om a sarecy scam.lpolnc and serves as a deterrent to vandalism in both the p11king orca and the shellers. Mounting hei&hl Dnd 1poting of Jumlnaires ahoultl be sutfic:icntlo provide the desired lighling, inlllnsity over the cnlitc (;ac:iliry. All lihling should be: rcshtllnl . A c:urrenr dcsitablc prucricc Is 10 usc mounlina heighu (.50 ft.) or hlghmnsl equipment (usuully 80 Ct. or hiahcr) with the proper number oC luntinulres or surnclcntllghl OUipuiiO atlcquotely Illuminate I he oren. This rype of li&hllng requires fewer poles antlronsequenlly presents fewer her artls 1o the potldng motorisl. 1'he normollihtina level should r11ngi: from one to cwo Coorcandles (fc) averoge molncalned wich a uniformity rorio (ovcrDge illumln:uion divided by minimum Illumination) or nor more than (our co one. The lighring poles shuull.l be Installed In prorectcd arens nr 3S


otherwise prorecrcd 10 prevcnl vehicles (com hilling I hem. Poles should be so loc:ued th:ll vehicle movcmenls nnd parking are not obstructed lltcii locorions should be coordinutcd with the slall und aisle lr rnised islands nrc used lo sepnrolc adjacent pnrking rows, &he poles shodd be placed on rhe islands. fn locating the lighting poles, (ulure possible ch:tngcs in the pnrking C:tcility should be considered. Cnre should be taken in the lighting design to prevcnl undcsimblc lighl spillover lnlo adjacent residen tial llrCIIS. An energy cost snvings may be possible and still provide security lighting by turning oct to Y.l or parking oren lighls during low use periods. The conrrol could be sci so thnl a different group or lamps nrc left on every nia:ht during low usc. This allows an even group lamp burn. Lia:htlng levels rorp:nking and clrcul:ulon orens shall be adcqunrc Cor sire safely und illumination, yet nol infringe upon rhc ndjocent community. The recommended illuminution levels from the AASHTO "An lnformntionol Guide: For Roadwuy Lighting" ore shown in Tuble 2 .S ond 2.6. Tobie l.S Anucc Malnlalncd llorlzonrl lllumlnollnn tor Slrcclt, \Valkwars 1nd Olkcwrt Arn Cluslncatlon Commercial lnlcrmcdlalc Jload .. )' and t'oul Fool Walkwuy Cluslncallon Candlt Lur Cuntllt lur Vehicular Rnndways Major and l!rprcssway 2 0 22 ... u Cullcclor 1.2 ll 0 9 10 Lncul 0.9 tO 0.6 6 Aile )'I 0.6 6 0.4 4 Pc:dcslriun Wnlkwnys Sidewalks 1.0 It 0.6 6 \V:ay 2.0 22 1.0 II Bikeways+ 2.0 22 1 0 II Rcsldc n llul Fool Cundlt lur 1.0 II 0 6 6 0.4 4 0.2 2 0 4 4 0 $ s o.s s Avcrace illununallon on the trawled war or on the pawmenl 1rca curb lines or curhctl when the lllurninallnn aourcc is at lit ktwcat nu111ut anti when the lumlntirc Is at il\ dinlct contlltllln. nnth mainline 1nd ,.mps. Includes uprcasway ,.oJth parllal conuol nl acccu. Caprcn Wll)'l whh full Ctllllrl'l of ICCUI IIC the ICCIInn on rretwiJI. t This anumestllal the facility uccuplu 1 rortlun Jlf 1 whiculu roatl..,ay. Scpaulc lacil ltlc:t .ru ... td UIC Ulumlnatio11 lc....:h lor )(I


. Table U Rctommtndcll I.J,hllnc Lcrcls UniCorn!IIJ foot undies l.ur Race .. l'!ntrenec end Exit Oorcs 0.6 6 3:1104:1 Interior Roadways 0,6 6 J:l 104:1 l'arl:ing Arcos 1.0 II l:lto-1:1 Ac:rlvicy Areas MaJor 1.0 II 3:1 10 -4:1 Minor o.s j 6:1 for Trenshlonal Ll,hclna, sec frccwy and lnlctdllnJC Dcstan Scclioft, AASIITO "An lnfurmcionel Ouldc l'vr Roadway u,hlina", current cdhlun. The above uniformity rallos Itt lhc mulmurniiiiU>O blc. Lower numrrlulnlloa produce llcncr unifurmhr 1rc desirable. For areas not covered in Jhe nbove tublcs. the (ollowing l.:vc:ls arc rccom mended: AtGrodc t-'oclllllcs Lo:ulina rtotforml, Open l.o:rclin& rJ:ufornu, Unckr Canopy Tlckctina AreasTurnstiles f'aUOC'S Fare Collection Dnoth Concessions 11nd Vcndina Mnchinc Arens Scolu nd ewalatou Washrooms Kist arnl llidc Arens MuiiiLncl Entrances and Elllts Trame: Lanes l'arkln& Arcos Stuirs and l!scAI:itors LANDSCAPING Minimum Mlnlalncd llhuulnallon Lncls (t'oot Candlcl) s IS 20 20 100 30 20 JO s so 10 I 20 Lnnc.lscnpins nr trons(cr (nc:ililics is desirable: (or IIC:Sihcric: (IS well ns ec:ologlc:nl rcusons ond should cnnslst of plnntlnJ:S thut will be comp}ltiblc wilh che opcrullon of rhc The lypcs of planllnas anti !heir pbce mcalls shouhl nol Interfere wich (n) fttl:cJUDte IIJ:htlna for lhc area thus resulting in a potcnlinl sofcty hnznnJ 10 I he: p:.uons. (b) the proper pluc:c mcnt of the trarric C:Onlrui lfcvic:cS, Of (c) the ubility Of pc:Jcstcions,JncJutl 37


ing 1he hunllicnpped, 10 use ihc fncilily. Cnre should be laken 10 use plnnls compnlible wirh the climnllc conditions of the area along with lhe abilily 10 rolcr:ue shnJc, wind, polturion, poor w;tu ult, elhlctsl/utrttl und margi11nl soils. Abo, 1hey should be clean, tcesonably dccorativ:, Ions lasling, susceptible to few diseases, require little mninlenancc, and be rudily 11 a reasonable cost. Trees provillc shade and visual inlet nr, reduce ,;ftJrc, btltncc the city tnvitonnJenltand ore Jess rosily to mnin coin when compnrcd to shrubs and around cover. Landscapins should be designed in such n mnnner that hldina places lor v:1ndnls will be minimized, l.nndscaping cnn provide an ellettivc means for eslnblishing pedc:srrian paths antJ Willking p11111crns within the site. In porking zones, suHicientlr:t must be provided for all plnu so rhe (tont or rent overhang of cats docs not injure or kill them. Extreme cnrc should be cicrcised in plocina shrubbery or other plants nerir the nnd uhs so that siJht distanres arc not reslricted. 1l1is requires thor pl:mls willllmilcd ftOwlh pllllttru be w smnll plant of today will not develop into a major sight rcslticclon in future yeurs. Earth f,ums such ns berms, mounds ond sw11cs arc a good de sian tool io provide lt>r lowcoslscreenlna, delineation, visual interesl:.nd drainage:. Murc: spccilic lnrormotlon concc:rnins plnntincs Is avaibble in "Tran&it A Mnnual". This document conrnins in(f shcmhl rcOI!ct the uccnr o( mainrcnuncc F. SrECIA L DEVICES In nreus where security is o serious problem, con)i!Jcrntion m:ay'be jivtn ru closed circuit television monirorin& of l:uget foes or sheller (acililics. In some it mny be necessary to provide posilive control of entering nnd exiling lrnrfic:. This is oltcn accomplished by the usc of some form of nutomatic or scminutornotlc &Die system. In some lnscances, entry or cail cores con be coni rolled by deposit in money u a parking charge. flowcver, since most ('larl:ondridc rncilities do not chnr&e (or parkin&. more accep table mctht)d is lo provide aotc actuatin& 1okens to riders, lhus lhem 10 rl'lisc: ttu:: exit gate hom the facility. When gates arc usctJ, ctJrc shoultJ be lnken 10 locall: lhem ;,1 painu whete queues ol tilrs Wlliting "' pnss will nor cnusc: G. MULTILEVEl. PARKING STRUCTURES Mullilevel pnrlcinB Slfutlures un be useful in highly urbnnized nrc:u Ill n .h:rminnl (nciliry in 1he central husinus dislti'l fringe or mnjor trans(,, Lociliy. If hi.:h vehicle Innes into 1hc COO urea ore )8


(lfl:lCIIl Ul Jllillllll;U1 Ul\o nmo ......... bUIO terminal encl of tlu: IIOV line for inforn\ntion on design elenu:nrs or nlultH.:IIc:l Oibliogrnphy, Appcndic "0". 1/, AIMNTENANCE I. . A clean nuractivc sicc is esscttcicd to 1hc rctcnlion or upansion of o successful pnrkondricle opc:ru&iun. 1l1e type of site (new or c:Jisting), method of performing mnlntennnce, nn&J site: locOIJion will &Ieier mine Jbt ulenl ()f ftl)uirecJ. The daily commulcr using the: IOJcilityls lmrrcuccJ by the arpcarnncc of chc she. As with rc:s&ourants, the use opinion spreads ropicJJy 10 other potential ustrs of &he f:cilily. 111c:rdnrc:. a sounl.l mnin&enuncc: ;nJcquntely funded nniJ SIOJrfcd, shouhJ be planned wcllnheud uf the: !late a p;rk-nndtidc facility is placed info opcr;,lion . 2. MoltJttnanct Rtsponslbilily Dctcrmininc the cost ond the tigcnr:y responsible for mainrcnancc of a p;uk -.ondtit.Jc f11tilily shouhJ be: curly in the plunnhl ""'es. J. M alntlntJIICI A The cosu nssoclntcll whh mnlntcnnnce ncllvhics nrc nol well tlocumcnlcl h<:CRUSC nf lhc fhnilct.J CIJICricnCC Ul JlfUI:riiiiiS JnvnfviiiJt IIICIJC: mulnh:t111m:c II&:JiviJics Jhut 111c: I. Pctiollic Inspection. 2. l1nvcmcnl R.:pnir: J. Control Devices (sitns nnt.l p3vernenl 4. l.ihlln&. s : Mowing. 6. Swccpingffrnsh Pickup. 7. Lundscuping. 8. Shellers. 9. Snow and let Control. 10. Initial inspection of lhc site shouiLI be performed during rhc ftrsl few weeks following implem.enlolion uf, in orllcr 10 ;uscss lhe Crcqucncy of mninlennnce uCiivitics thnt will tcquire rou1inc: muinrcn:tncc dlorts on a reriolllc bosh. A pctithlic inspcctiun rmj(rnm shfuhl he s..:hcd. ulell as 11 routine molntc:nnnce activity. The following Items &hvuld be indutJell on I he lnilial inspection checklisr: 1. Mowlna. 2. SwccpingfT'rash rickup.


3. lnspecaion Frequency 4 Time-Lithaing Qnd Sc:t1niay The pavc:n1cn1 should 11n1 require: utly suhsl anli:al IVOrk ( o r ya.:ms fulluwing c:nnsarucalun, ussumin&llllll ahc pavement w a s dcsla;ncdfor tr:ansil ... chicle: lomb nnd dr:.inat is ullcqu:uc Trulric conlml cJcviccs will probably nol have 11 CO)I mDinlc uancc, as repl;u:cmcnl will nurmnlly be &ovc:rncd hy the periodic: impcction 1hc site. ruvcmcnl murkinas shouhl ool rct1uirc grcutcr thnn nnnunl rcphlccmcnl fl>r ccnacrlincs in abc normnlltuflic circuloaion pnllc:rns wiahln I he lui. l'arl:in" st:all mnrl:in,s may h;avc life 1h:11 will only require dcpcndina oct chc cnvironmenl :tml c I i nns. Unless I here nrc sccuri1y problems ill he silc that requ i re Q g:llc or gu:u d, a h ere will norn1:1ll)' be no c:osa ossoci:alc&J wilh 1his 11t1ivi1y. Simil : uly, snow tctnov;al cnus shoulcJ bt c:Siimoaell, hASc< on''" sutlncc cstim;,tcs t1nd 111.: (r.:c(ucncy of sn(lw cxpcrietlcct.l i n a he loci\ I G..:oa;raph 0 1c :ar..:a. 4 0


l'ART Ill Of".SfGN Of lUGll OCCUI'MlCY'VElllCLE (IIOVI FACIUTIES IIOV facilities, whether they nrc exclusive roudwoys or reserved Iones, on: incorpornted ln11> existing where whllh bi.l JolcTl may be Jimih:LI . these eomlitions it is often ncccnory to con$lruct the IIOV (ucility to u low.:r stnndnrd thnn would otherwise be: used for new construction. While: cxpeticncc: . shown thnt some: reduction of design slnndnrds Is possihlc wilhout serious adverse cHccts on solely ond pcrformonce, it hns not been utensive cnouJh to firmly establish new standards lpeciricully for these types o( (ocifitics. The Vtllues presented in this Section of the uuide should therefore 001 be re gonletJ os absolute, but rnther us the best guidance possible on experience to dutc tn applyin I he: cri1cri11 tl:tc em: prcsclltcd, considenuion slould be aivcn to the possibh: fut11re usc of IIOV facililics It is usunlly d.:siruble to provide flexibility by designing for 1111 vehicle types that may use o facility in the future. This cnn usually be cJonc (or very Jiule il any nddicionul cos c. Venienl cluroncc for untlcrpnsses ahoulcJ be the snmc as for 11ny other fOf\cJwny of the Sftme funclionul clnss. This, for the mOlt pRtt, mcftns n minimum c:tcntllncc of 1-4 feet wilh 16 .S feel dcsirnblc, Where there Is the possibility (or future conversion to cleelrlc: buses run hom overhctl wires. gren1er clenronccs should be provided n& appropriot&:. A. FREEIVAYS Thete ore basically three types of IIOV (i!cilities nppiicnhlc to freeways: completely scpnrntc (ucilicic:a (sc:pnrnccll from generuluse tunes by a bilrricr or on incJepcnLicnt righlofwny), concurrcnl now Jones, nnd luncs There no estublishct.l wurrunu lor their inslall;llion but ;an c:uion of their npplicnbility cnn be (rom o surumory of the adv:n tugcs nnd of cnch cypc. A completely spearuh: facilhy is the easiest to enforce untl provides the most for HOVs. Wl1cre c

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Deerfield Beach (Fla.). Office of City Manager.
0 245
Deerfield Beach transit option study: technical memorandum #2: recommendation for park and ride service
Tampa, Fla
b Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
c 1995 April
Local transit--Florida--Broward County--Deerfield--Planning
Fringe parking--Florida--Broward County--Deerfield Beach
Traffic congestion-- Florida--Broward County--Deerfield Beach
Local transit--Florida--Broward County--Deerfield Beach-- Evaluation
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research.
1 773
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
4 856