Managing our way through congestion : a week-long transportation demand management (TDM) training program developed and conducted by CUTR

# Managing our way through congestion : a week-long transportation demand management (TDM) training program developed and ...

## Material Information

Title:
Managing our way through congestion : a week-long transportation demand management (TDM) training program developed and conducted by CUTR
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida. Public Transit Office
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research
Publisher:
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Commuting--Florida--Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Local transit--Florida--Planning--Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Traffic congestion--Florida--Prevention--Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Genre:
letter   ( marcgt )

## Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - C01-00094
usfldc handle - c1.94
System ID:
SFS0032210:00001

Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
controlfield tag 008 s flunnn| ||||ineng
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a C01-00094
040
FHM
049
FHmm
2 110
Florida. Public Transit Office.
0 245
Managing our way through congestion : a week-long transportation demand management (TDM) training program developed and conducted by CUTR
260
Tampa, Fla
b Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
c 1996
650
Commuting--Florida--Handbooks, manuals, etc
Local transit--Florida--Planning--Handbooks, manuals, etc
Traffic congestion--Florida--Prevention--Handbooks, manuals, etc
710
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research
1 773
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
4 856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?c1.94

PAGE 1

Overview of TOM MODULE GOALS 1. Define TDM. 2. Understand the reasons why TDM is important in meeting community needs 3. Relate the importance of TDM to federa l initiatives 4. Summarize the re lationship between congestion manage ment systems and TDM . ASSUMPTIONS 1 Participants deal with TOM issues on a regular basis. 2. TOM has received new emphasis because of ISTEA, CAAA, and the public's understanding that we can no longer build our way out of congestion. MODULE INFORMATION TDM is defined as TOM can be classified Into three categories: 1. 2. 3. Five Reasons Why TOM Has Grown In Importance: 1. Growth in vehicle miles traveled 2. Energy usage of the SOV 3.. Transportation project funding shortfalls 4 Urban density trends 5. Air pollution caused by vehicle emissions Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 1

PAGE 2

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-2 Growth In Vehicle Miles Traveled ... .......... ,..._ __ -.. ----.. --------.. ....... Energy Usage of the SOV ENERGY INTENSITY OF U.S. TRANSPORT MODES Btu PER PASSENGER Km 40 60 Transportation Project Funding Shortfalls Average State Transportation Funding Needs (1.11: B illions of Dollars) t u n fvnded 0 Fvn4ed o l i Highways -State--l.ocal-

PAGE 3

Urban Density Trends U.S. URBAN DEN 2,501), I I 2 0001 1 .500. 1 .oon 500 1973 1984 2000 Urban Density (person s /squar e mile) Air Pollution Caused By Vehicle Emissions POLLUTION EMITTED FROM TYPICAL COMMUTES THOUSANDS OF GRAMS PER 100 PASSENGERS 1 0 . .. .. II C obo Monolli-llts I 0 N l l:t'OIItll) Ollfdtt ; 8.6 0 2 0.0 Allin COIII/fllllm,g II) AAIC I'f(,:l ""' Modo Transportation provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are: 1. 2 3 4 5. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-3

PAGE 4

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-4 TRENDS IN VEHICLE EMISSIONS (Actual Hydrocarbon Emissions) l ...... ...... o ... v.no.-o ..... I 80 40 20 "' The 10 Commandments of ISTEA 1. Thou shalt implement intennodalism 2. Thou shalt be flexible 3. Thou shalt be more efficient 4. Thou shalt support the National Highway System 5. Thou shalt enhance the environment 6. Thou shalt promote safety 7. Thou shalt innovate 8. Thou shalt promote creative investme n t 9. Thou shalt take ser i ously plans and the planning process 1 0. Thou shalt create new partnerships Energy Policy Act of 1992 1. Employer may pay up to $60/month for rideshare expenses 2. Reduce American oil vulnerability -Alternative fuels and electric veh i cles -Telecommuting study authorized PAGE 5 A C o ng es tion Management Syst em as;----Seven key CMS elements; 1 2 3. 4 5 6 7 What g e ographic areas must CMS cover? 1. M ust cover entire state. 2. Areas where traffic congestion is or will be occuring 3 All corridors and facilities that are or will be congested 4 Ent ire metro planning area in non-attainment TMAs 5. Sufficient size to show effects of policy on system performance CM S m e a s urement systems must; 1. 2 3 Managing our Way Through Congestion 1-5 PAGE 6 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-6 Good performance measures should be: 1 C l early understood 2. Sensit i ve to modes 3 Sensitive to time 4. Not too difficult or costly to collect 5. Forecasted into futu r e 6 Sensitive to the impact of congestion m i tigation strateg i es Possible perfomance measures: 1. 2. 3. A performance monitoring plan: 1. Documents measu r es, collection, and analytica l procedures 2. Identifies agency responsibilities 3 Identifies count measurement frequency 4. Fosters coordination and complementary use of resources Congestion management strategy plans: 1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6 PAGE 7 Classes of congestion management strategle s: 1 2 3 Evaluating Effective nes s Primary Measures 1. Change i n vehicle occupancy for targeted corridors 2. Change in mode split and average vehicle ridersh ip (A VR) at worl< sites 3. Change in d istribution in volumes (work schedules) Techniques 1 Worl< place surveys 2. Vehicle occupancy counts on specific facilities 3 Volume counts documenting peak spreading Factors Im pacting Effectiveness 1 Employer size 2. T r ansit service leve ls 3. Income levels 4 M anagement style of ETC Managing our Way Through Congestion 1-7 PAGE 8 Manag ing Our Way Through Congestion 1-8 TOM Effectiveness C O M PARI SON OF TO P IND I V IDUAL TOM PROGRAMS Employer (Locotlon) (Ha rtford !UrttorO tl .. llll loU r ... {St. ,.WI, usw ... ta.tt.we, CH2M HI. ta.Uu .... lfte e.IJ (Coftcn C..U Cty, ATaltpt. .. Dwt. ..,.,. c:AJ C MCO (L.MAII ...... ..... ,_ rotHM U.t.) u.s,_ o.,...._ .A 1'\o....,.ll 1...-), , I'-S UMMAR Y O F T O M PROGR AM RESULTS Suboroo (Senlng) AT S UBAREA LEVE L Downtown (Suburbln Actlvtty B lahop Ranch ( Suburban B u a lneu Park) Mln neepolll F,... Parking (CBD) l-314 ln!Mim HOV Lane ( R odl o l Cortldor) Hacienda Bualnea a Pertt (Suburbln Buolno o o Pork) Downtown Hertford (CBD) K 1n M % Reduction In VehiCle Trip i -co.tts c-... .. ., ... ,..,._ o-...... ,..._ .... .. ... C.llfM-<'"" ...... ., ,...,,_u.s. ""-"-ef '-,......... ...... , PAGE 9 Possibl e answers: .....-' What is TOM? TOM is defined as a set of specific strategies t hat foster increased efficiency of the transportation systems and resources by influencing employee travel behavior by mode, time frequency, trip length, cost or route. The goals of TOM are to reduce traffic congestion, imrpove air qua lity, reduce dependenc e o n fossil fuels, enhance employee mobility reduce commuter expenditures and expand access to labor TOM Is a process aimed at relieveing congestion TOM actions can be classified Into three categories: 1 Actions that reduce the number or length of trips 2 Actions that shift trips to more efficient modes; 3 Actions that shift trips to off-peak hours or uncongested routes. Key CMS elements: 1. Area of application 2. Transportation System Defin ition 3. Performance Measures 4 Performance Monitoring Plan 5 Identification and Evaluation of Strategies 6 Implementation and Management 7. M onitoring of Strategy Effectiveness Possible Performance Measures: 1 Measure the extent of congestion 2. Evaluate strategy effectiveness 3. Established cooperatively Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-9 PAGE 10 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-10 Classes of congestion management plans: 1. Demand Management Transportation Demand Management HOV Strategies Transit operational improvements Non -motorized and non -traditional modes Congestion pricing Growth management 2. Operational Management Traffic operational improvements Access management Incide nt management IVHS 3 Capital intensive improvements Lane additions Transit capital improvements PAGE 11 N otes Man Thr aging Our Way ough Congestion 1 .. 11 PAGE 12 TSM AND TOM: TOOLS FOR ALLEVIATING CONGESTION MODULE GOALS o To provide a description of the relationsh i p between TSM and TOM. o To understand the street hierarchy system o To provide a basic understanding of transportation capacity improvements. ASSUMPTIONS o Participants need an overview of common TSMs strategies. o Participants will not be involved in new road construction. o Congestion mitigation requires a multi-strategy approach Dealing With Congestion Congestion Problem I I Expand Capacity Manage Demand -Modify Roadways 1Provid e Transit Build Roadways 1-Improve Alternatives '-Provid e Incentives Managing Our Way Tllrougll Congestion 2-1 PAGE 13 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-2 The Road Hierarchy The functional highway system in urban areas consists of four types of roads: 1 Principal arterials 2 Minor arterials 3. Collectors 4. Local Streets PROPOfmON Of SERVIC Afl" 1-$, fWIUOnltllp of functlonaly C .... lfJtd aydtiM In Mf ice tnlf11c mo01111y ll'ld tcCeM. Principal arterials include: o Intersta tes (1-95, 1-275) o Expressways (Crosstown Expressway, Florida Turnpike) o Other principal arterials (Dale Mabry, Biscayne Boulevard) Minor arterials : o Examples (Westshore Boulevard, Commercia l Boulevard) Collectors o Examples (Cypress and Swann) Local Streets TSM STRATEGIES Freeway Incident Detection and Management Systems A freeway incident detection and management system consists of one or some combination of: 0 rov i ng tow or serv i ce vehicles, motorist aid call boxes, citizen band radios and cellular phones, incident teams, detect i on loops in mainline lanes to mon itor volume, ramp metering devices, motorist il'lformation systems, traffic diversion, and alternate route identification.

PAGE 14

The surveillance system itself nonnally consists of highwai and ramp l?op changea_ble messaP.e, circuit teleVISIOn surveillance on particular troulile a communica tions system and some type of central computer control. Pertinent driver infonnation is provided through the changeable message sign system and radio traffic reports to alert drivers to congested conditions and allow diversion to alternate routes if necessary. Through the use of freeway incident detection and management system, incident duration can be reduced by an average of 10 minutes. Current costs per mile for an average system are about $1 million to design and construct and at least 10 percent of the construction costs or$100,000 per year for maintenance. Low cost techniques that are growing in use In Incident management schemes are Citizen Band rad io and cellular telephones. Both use direct communica tion from the motorist on the road. The cellular technology is just being tapped For example it is possible to advertise a phone number that motorists can use to call in traffic infonnation As freeways become more congested, incident detection and management systems will become even more important. The process from conceptual plann ing to completed system in an urban area can take 1 0 years. A solid planning effort is needed initially to obtain the Input and cooperation of all the public agencies at the federal, state and local levels In most cases, the state highway agency or state department of transportation (DOT) will have the responsibility and funds to implement these actions. Integrated Freeway and Arterial Network Surveillance and Control Additional improve ments are possible by combining arterial control and surveillance with adjoining freeway contro l and surveillance activ i ties. An Inte grated freeway and arterial network surveillance system consists of the major elements already discussed in the previous section, but applied to the arterial system as well. This activity of sophisticated I ntegrated solutions Is in its infancy. The technology is available. The barrier to further efforts is largely institutional. Quite simply, the major constraint is human and interagency communication s. A more systematic approach to urban traffic management and catalytic efforts can ultimately resuH in many more savings in Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-3

PAGE 15

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-4 motorist delay Appl ied marketing techniques early i n the planning and project deve lo pment process can also establish backing of the pub l ic and e l ected officials for these traffic management strateg i es. Motorist Information Systems Such systems consist of one or more of the following: changeable message signs, highway adv i sory radio and/or in -veh icle naviga tion and in formation systems. The beneficial features of changeable message signs: o Early warn i ng r educed the speeds of vehicles approaching a queue, resulting i n fewer secondary accidents and associ ated delay. Decelerations were less severe into congested spots. o Signing increased diversion at off-ramps that were greater than Y. mile upstream from incidents. o Signing for lane blockages induced lane changing away from that lane. Highway advisory rad io invo lves the broadcast of pertinent driving and trave l related information to motorists. This tech nique is used at the approaches to airport parking facilities, near construction sites on freeways, and i n mobile units by incident management teams. The transmitters have a range of approximately 2 miles in each direction. Motorist i nformation systems are rela tively inexpensive when com pared to other system elements and offers a unique opportunity for providing better and more timely informat i on to motorists. A substantial amount of time is needed to plan and implement a motorist informa tion system Its implementation requires the de sign and construction of the system, usi ng the steps req uired for a typical highway construction project. However, the nature ofthi s system is such that experts in the areas of electronics and informa tion systems must be involved in addition to highway and traffic engineers. Ramp Metering Using a modified traffic signal placed at the end of a ramp, ramp metering allows traffic to enter the highway traffic either at pre timed i ntervals or at times determined by traffic vol ume on the ramp or on the highway. Although additional del ays are incurred by the ramp traffic, main l ine capacities are protected and the overall operational efficiency, usually measured in terms of travel time or speed, is i mproved. High occupancy veh i cle bypass lanes on the

PAGE 16

metered ramps have been u sed to provide incenti ves for carpools, van pools and buses. .., .... ;o,.; .. . . A survey made for the Federal Highway Administration of seven ramp metering systems in the United States and Canada revealed that average highway speeds increased by 29 percent after in sta ll ing ramp metering. An additional benefit from ramp metering is a decrease in the a cciden t rate Reductions from 20 to 58 percent h ave been achieved thro ugh improved merging operations. Traffic responsive metering often produces results that are generally 5 to 1 0 percent greater than those of pre-timed metering. A substantial amount of time is needed to plan and implement a ramp metering system Its i mplementat ion requires the design and construction o f the system using the s t eps requ ired for a typical highway construction project. Individual ramps selected for this tec hnique must be in locations w here arterials feeding the ramps will not be come severely con gested as a consequence of such action. M otorists may choose to by-pass those ramps where me t ering has been ins talled to avoid delays. If a large number of people do so, th is di version could result in the creation of congestion on arte ria ls that might not other wise have a problem. Providing Additional Lanes Without Widening the Freeway In some cases, low cost geometric modifications can be made to increase highway capacity on a tem porary basis. These modifica tions include: o using one or more shoulders as travel lanes and o reducing lane width s to provide addi tional lanes within the existing pavement. Significant increases in c apa city are possible. Such reductions h ave been achieved with either no i ncrease in accident rates o r even some reductions Although such treatments should be con sidered temporary in t he 27 c i ties wi t h popul a tions over 1 million almost 32 percent of t he urb a n freeway mileage could experience reduced congestion through such lo w-cost measures. Costs will no rmally vary depending on the Individual circumstances and the condition of the existing freeway but in general costs per mile will be $1.3 million f or construction and engineering and$12,000 per year for maintenance These actions r equire careful preplanning and design, in order to avoid any potent ial sa f ety prob lems. The state would p la n and design these improvements as a typical highway project, and enter Man aging Our Way Through Congestlor 2-5

PAGE 17

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-6 into a construction contract or lane striping contract in the usual manner. Since the use of breakdown lanes is not consistent with federal design criteria, if the highway facility is on the federal-aid system then federal approval will also be requi red. When this action is being considered, it typically generates opposi tion from traffic enforcement agencies and the public Their con cerns are safety related and the response to these concerns should consider: o Advanced infonna tion and education required to describe the program. o Additional warning signs that alert drivers to the conditions. o The construction of i ntennittent break-down lanes that can be used temporarily to store disabled vehicles. o Strict enforcement of the modified traffic conditions. Super Street Arterials Super street arterials are wide, muHi-la ned arterials with l im ited access provided from in terse cting streets. To the degree possible, major intersecting streets are grade separated, i n order to minimize the need for traffic signals. This approach is beneficial for those suburban highway systems that are based upon arterial n etworks that will not accommodate freeway facilities. Converting a typical suburban arterial with sig nalized intersections to a super street could increase capacity by as much as 50 to 70 percent, wh i le at the same time significantly redu c ing delays when at-grade in tersections are replaced with grade separations. The cost per mile could be approximated by using data for typical freeway w iden ing or reconstruction projects, or by using the amount of $5 million per mile. The des ig n, construction and operation of a super street arterial will be undertaken by the agency having the admin istrative jurisd ic tion for the arteria l in question. This would be one or a combination of a state, county or city organization. The design and construction of such a facility will be expensive and time consuming, as it is treated in the same way that any large highway construction p roject will be. There are several importan t constraints including land acquisition, opposition from abutting land owners, access to existing and future land parcels, and environ mental problems. PAGE 18 Traffic Signal Improvements Traffic signal improvements generally provide greatest payoffs for reducing congestion on surface streets There are a number of relatively basic i mprovements that can and should be made to Improve traffic flow on arterials. They include: o Equipment updateAn inventory should be made to deter mine if new, more modem equ i pment can replace them. o Timing Plan ImprovementsUpdate the traffic signal timing to correspond to current traffic flows. Appropriate re-timing of signa l s has been very successful in Improving traffic flows o Interconnected SignalsInterconnected pre-timed signals, traffic actuated signals, interconnected actively managed timing plans, and master controls o Traffic Signal RemovalMany intersections can be better controlled by two-way stop control. For those situations where peak traffic flows necessitate continued signalized control, but off-peak traffic does not, conversion of control from full to flashing operation can provide significant reduc tions in delay and congestion during the offpeak times o Traffic Signal Maintenance-Preventive maintenance Response maintenance -Design modification Although the methods available to upgrade traffic signals are rela tively straightforward this action is often overlooked by public officials as an effective way to improve traffic flow In fact there are cases where public officials may react to pub lic pressure for installing new traffic s ign als faster than they will to improving exi st ing signals Computerized Signal Systems Computerized traffic signal systems usually involve three elements. These include: o coordi nating groups of signals by using either interconnec t l on or highly accurate time-based coordinators 0 systematically optimizing the signal timing parameters of pre -tim ed s ign als or the interva l settings of traffic actuated signals, and Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-7 PAGE 19 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-8 o advanced traffic control functions by using master computer controls. Interconnecting prev i ously uncoordinated signals pre-timed sig nals, and providing newly optimized timing plans and a central master control system has resulted in a 25% reduction in travel time. Several factors have impeded more widespread and skillful applica tio n of efficient traffic signal system managemen t techn iq ues: o Traffic signal system management often is limited to the most rudimentary insta llatio n and maintenance functions, with little or no effort or skill focused on optimizing system operation. o Tota l staff and budget is usually insufficient to keep up with routine installation and traffic control device maintenance, with no time left over for aggressive operational manage ment i mprovement functions. o Budget constraints at the local level still inhibit continuing strong management of the traffic control system once devel oped. Major traffic control system improvements, such as computer based signal systems, would be Im plemented most cost-effectively by a multi-jurisdictional team. However, most urban areas either have not tried or have not been able to work out a coordinated area wide approach to the problem. Some states are not oriented to urban a rea traffic operations as they might be, and stress high-capital road-building as problem solutions at the expense of adequate funding for traffic control system i mprovements. Traffic Channelization Channelization involves the use of raised medians or "islands" at i ntersections to guide and protect traffic The costs associated with planning and implementing this tech nique are modest, and vary depending upon comp l exity and the number installed. The benefits are substantial, because of the separation of traffi c and the enhancement of the safety of opera tion A modest planning effort is required to i dentify arterial locations for i nstallations. Then a routine design and construction process is implemented, using appropriate des i gn standards. PAGE 20 Improvements l lntetsection traffic control devices can be used to improve the flow of veh ic les and the safe passage of peqestrlans. These devices include stop signs yield signs turning channelization and improved design The costs associated with planning and implementing this tech nique are modest. and vary depending upon complexity and the number Installed. The benefits are substantial, because of the separation of traffic and the enhancement of the safety of opera tion Turn Lanes The free flow of vehicles on arterial highways depends upon mini mizing the number of conflicts with the main flow of traffic Turning vehicles can be a major source of such conflict. Traffic tum lanes can be provided if adequate roadway pavement space Is available, by lane markings and other appropriate safety dev ice s I f space and funding are available traffic isl ands can be built in the m i ddle of the roadway Some cities still use a reserved middle lane for left turns on major arterials. Separate right tum lanes can be installed to make the through movement work more efficiently The costs of installing turning lanes will involve pavement mark ings, traffic signal modifications for right and left turn movements and possibly the cost to widen the pavement when It Is possible to do so. The benefits of such actions have been shown to be significant as they greatly minimize the obstruct i ons at intersections caused by turning veh icl es Several basic actions are required : o Identify cri t ical intersections o Obtain traffic count data o Plan the strategy for implementing turn lanes o Undertake the engineering o Obtain the funding required o Build the improvement Tum Prohibitions Conflicts between turning vehicles and pedestrians and between turn ing vehicles and other vehicles approach ing form the opposite directi on can cause congestion delay and safety prob l ems at int er sections and driveway access points Managing Our Way Through Cong"tlon 2-9 PAGE 21 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-10 Turning movements should be proh i bited only during those hours when study data indicate that a congestion or accident problem exists and when a suitable alternative route is availab l e Data compiled i n San Francisco indicated that accidents at four intersections with turn r estrictions were reduced by 38% to 52% The prohibition of turning movements at driveways between inter sections is frequently accomplished by a med i an divider. An alternative to tum restrictions i s the designation of a separate lane for storage of veh i cles waiting to make left turns. T his traffic control technique can take the fonn of "continuous two-way left turn lanes" which can be used by motorists proceeding i n e i ther direc tion. A modest planning effort is r equired to identify arter i al locations for i nstallations A routine design and construction process is then i mplemented, us i ng appropriate des ign standards. T urn prohibition stud ies should consider: o The amount of congestion and de lay caused by turning movements. o The number of collis i ons involv i ng veh i c l es making the turning movement. o The availability of suitable alternative trave l paths if turns are restricted. o The possible impact of traffic diversion on congestion and accidents at intersections that would be required to accom modate the traffic diverted by the turning restriction. o Possible adverse environmental impacts caused by re routed traffic. o The feasibility of alternative solutions such as provis i on of separate storage lanes for the turning movements a nd, at signalized intersect i ons, the use of special turn-movement phasing. One Way Streets Although most streets and highways and designed for use by two way traffic, h i gh volumes of traffic and vehicle confl i cts often lead to consideration of one-way traffic regulations. One way streets provide increased capacity as they: 0 Reduce intersection delays caused by vehicle turn i ng move ment conflicts and pedestr i an veh i cle conflicts PAGE 22 o Redistribute traffic to relieve congest i on on adjacent streets. They a lso res ult in more cost-effect iv e operation as they : o Provide add ition al capacity to satisfym.ffio tequirements for a substantial pe ri od of time witho u t large capital expendi tures o Facilitate the loading and unloading of commercial vehicles with minimal impact on traffic flows o Save sidewalks, trees and other valuable frontage assets that could otherwise be lost because of the widening of existing two-way streets. As a general rule, two-way streets should be made one-way only when : o It can be shown that a specific traffic problem will be a llevi ated and the overall efficiency of the transportatio n system w ill be improved o One-way operation is more desirable and cost-effective than alternative solutions. o Parallel streets of suitable capacity, preferably not more than a block apart, are available or can be constructed. o Such streets provide adequate traffic service to the area traversed and carry traffic through and beyond the con gested area. Reveralble Traffic Lanes With the reversib l e l ane system one or more lanes are des ign ated for movemen t one-way during part of. the day and in the opposite directio n d uri ng another part of the day The purpose of the reversible lane system is to provide an extra lan e or lanes for use by the dominant direction of flow Two i n creasingly used methods are to reverse the flow of an entire street during peak-hour periods or to make a two-way street operate one way during that period. A reversible-lane system i s one of the most efficient methods of increa sing rush-period capacity of exi sting streets With m in imal capital costs It takes advantage of unused capacity In the direct i on of lighter traffic flo w by making one or more of those l anes ava il able to the heav ier traffic flow. Manag ing Our Way Through Congestion 2 .. 11 PAGE 23 Managing Our Way Th r ough Congestion 2-12 There are several factors to be considered in determining whether reversible la n es are justified : o Evidence of congestion. o T ime of congestion o Ratio of directional traffic volumes o Capacity at access points. o Lack of alternative imp r ovements. The method of designating lanes to be reversed and the d i rection of l ow mus t be selected. Three genera l methods are used: o specia l traffic signals suspended over each l ane, o permanent signs advertising motorist of the changes i n traffic regulat i ons and the hours they are in effect, and o physical barriers, such as traffic cones signs on portable pedestals and movab l e divisiona l medians Improved Traffic Control Devices Traffic control devised include traffic signs and mark i ngs. Traffic signs include regulatory signs, warning signs and gu i de or i n forma tional signs. Traffic mark i ngs include all traffic l ines symbols, wo r ds, object markers, de l ineators cones or other devices. except signs, that are applied upon or attached to the pavement or mounted at the side of the road to gu i de traffic or warn of an ob struction. Miscellaneous traffic contro l dev i ces are used to guide traffic i n and around work areas to a l ert traffic to hazards that are ahead, and to provide a means of identify ing specific locat i ons on streets a n d highways. They include : barricades vertical panels drums barricade warning l i ghts rumble strips and m i lepost markers. T h e costs associated with planning and implementing this tech nique are modest and vary depending upon complexity and the number installed. A modest planning effort is r equired to identify arterial locations for insta ll ations. Then a routine design and construction process is implemented, using appropriate desi gn standards Goods Movement Management One action to cons i der i s the possibi l ity of better ma n aging the time and location of truck deliveries and pick-ups to minim i ze unneces - PAGE 24 sary congest ion. An FHWA Handbook prepared to provide guid ance o n deal ing with issues of urban goods mov e ment recom mended the follow i ng actions: o I m p roveme n ts o f shipping/receiving p oin t s On stree t l oad ing and u nload in g can be facili t at i!CI add iti ona l curb space for loading zo nes and enforc ing time rest ri ctions o Reducing operational and physical constraints o Changes in business operating practices o Changes in public policy. land-use planning, zoning and industria l location policies and building regulation requiring off-street loading and unloading faciiHies may be used to separate fre i ght-oriented from other activities The los Angeles Olympic experience showed that the removal of a significant portion of trucks through goods movement management du ri ng peak period traffic can effectively reduce overa ll conges tion. Du ri ng the peak hours in los Angeles during the 1984 Olymp i cs peak per i od truck traffic was down about 6 percent overall more than 15 percent below normal on some freeways Additionally the combination of free-flow and fewer trucks produced a 42 percent reduction in truck-related freeway accidents, 58 percent decrease region wide Any of th e above mentioned strategies will no doubt require some type of regulatory or legislative authority to make them effective In addition, institutional strategies normally require a comprehensive set of both i ncentives and penalties to gain an acceptable l evel of complia n ce In order to effective l y develop a policy on urban goods mov eme n t i t wou l d be helpful to carry out t h e fo ll ow i ng actio n s : o Es tabli s h a forum among bus in ess labo r truck ing a n d the government sectors to facilitate the alterat i on of t ru ck deliv ery schedu les. o Make changes to local and state government regulations (i. e local noise abatement ordinances, parking restrictions, and restrictions on alcoholic bev erage deliveries) o Identify and make modifications to operations (i e work hours for both receivers and shippers) Managing Our Way Through Congation 2-13 PAGE 25 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-14 Arterial Access Management Access management elements often include one or more of the following: o the physical restriction of left turns o restricting curb cuts and direct access driveways, o separating obvious conflict areas, o eliminating parking o locating intersections at no less than minimum intervals, o construction of frontage roads to collect local business traffic and funnel it to nearby intersections. Without an access management program along arterial highways, the normal chain of events involves a cyclical program that requires constant capital investment for roadway improvements and/or relocation. The number of conflict points among vehicles rises as a result of an increasing number of driveways, causing the capacity at a specific level of service to diminish. The cost of allowing unplanned development to occur along arteri als can be enormous, because the inevitable solution calls for more capital expenditure as the traffic conditions reach intolerable pro portions. Controlling or managing access along arterial highways is perhaps one of the most difficult tasks facing local officials and transporta tion engineers. This difficulty comes from a time-honored tradition and in some cases, a legal right for l and owners abutting a road to have access to their land. In addition, the process for land devel opment decisions is often very different from that for transportat i on system planning. Traffic Management During Reconstruction Efforts at traffic management can be categorized into two areas: construction enhancement activities and traffic mitigation tech niques. Construction enhancement activities involve efforts to speed the completion of the reconstruction project in order to minimize the time period of disruption Traffic mitigation involves attempts at reducing or effectively managing the congestion result ing from reconstruction. This includes activities such as ridesharing promotions, special parking arrangements, alternative transit ser vices, alternate route traffic flow I mprovements, intersection im provements, and retiming traffic signals The principal benefit of traffic management during reconstruction is the minimizing of traffic disruption Successful implementation of traffic management strategies requires effective and thorough PAGE 26 planning and public education. Criteria that can be used to assess th e potential e ffectiveness of individual strateg i es i nclude : o Does the stra tegy provide added opportunity f o r highw a y users to use alternative modes or. ;. o Can the strategy by im p lem e nted in t ime? . o Will the strategy be cost effective I n terms of dollars spend per le vel of d isrup tion reductio n? o Will the strategy contribute to permanent tr a nsportation Improvements after the reconstruction project is finished? o Can th e strategy be termi nate d if foun d to be ineffe ctive? Man1.9ing Our Way Th roug h Congestion 2-15 PAGE 27 TOM IMPACTS ON BUSINESS Module Goals o To identify the benefits of TOM to employers. o To provid e information abou t the relative imp ortance of transportation to corporate relocation decisions. o To demonstrate how to estimate the cost of turnover and relate it to investment in TOM strategies Assumptions o Einployers are more receptive t o TOM strategies whe n the benefits are described in ter ms of int e rest to a busi ness. o Workshop part icip ants have liHie exp erience in estimat i ng the potential imp act of the program on issues of Importance to businesses. Benefits of TOM to Employers : Busines ses use transportation demand management strategies to: M anaging Our Way Through Congestion 3-1 PAGE 28 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-2 Cost of TOM To Business The cost of carrying out TOM programs has become a topic of considerable interest in recent years with federal, state or local mandates for corporate participation in trip reduction strategies. Trip reduction opponents claim that such mandates spend large sums of money on TOM programs with very little benefit. Re search has found examples of employer TOM programs that show its cost-effectiveness for employers of all types, sizes, and locations but there is no definitive estimate of the cost-effective ness of TOM. Furthermore, the data suggest a weak correla tion between employer expenditures and reductions in em ployee commute trips. Why can't we accurately predict the cost-effectiveness of TOM programs? First, employers often lack the cost infonnation. There are sev eral reasons why employers may lack the data. Such data may not have a clear connection to the business's perfonnance. The public reasons for TOM air quality, energy consumption or traffic congestion -are not usually enough to motivate employers carry out TOM strategies. Employers with TOM cost data often expected to receive business perfonnance benefrts. There are only three basic ways to show benefits to businesses. o Increase revenues by raising prices. o Increase revenues by boosting output. o Decrease expenses to improve their profits. Research conducted by FHWA have identified examples of em ployers who have reduced the number of vehicle trips by as much as 40 percent and saved themselves as much as$2.4 million. This study, The Cost Effectiveness of Travel Demand Manage ment Programs, identified 22 case studies from various employ ers throughout the country (See Section Ill Table 3.4.1 in Imple menting Effective Travel Demand Management Measures) The report summarizes the results of private companies, a hospi tal, a university, and local governments. The smallest employer

PAGE 29

had 130 employees and the largest reported 18 000 employees. The proje ct's goals were to: . 0 I o Determine the total cost of operating an employe r.t>ased tri p reduction program. o Distinguish between direct and indirect costs and savings. o Determine the net cost per trip redu ced. Empirical data contained in that table sho w several types of suc cessful TO M programs. What observations can you make about the employer TOM programs contained I n the reference book? 1. 2 3. Another p roj ect investigated the financial i mp act of a regulation on bu sinesses. A study by Ernst and Young for the Sou th Coast Air Quality M anagement District ( SCAQMD ) attempted to quantify the employer's costs but not benefrts. They prepared the study, Regulation XV Cost Survey, to estimate the annual compliance costs incurred by employers and the change in employee commute trips associated with those costs The account i ng firm did not try to estimate the benefits associated with reduction in employee trips. Bene fi t s such as decreased demand for parking, improv ed employee morale and productivity may offset some o r all of the costs and show the cost-effect i vene ss of the program. Ernst a nd Young sent the survey to each of the 5,763 regulated private and public sector sites in the SCAQMD's four county area. Th e r esponse rate to the survey was 1 9 percent. The surve y requested data about the emp loyer type, location and the number of employees at the site from 6 a.m to 10 a .m. The firm asked Manag i n g O ur Way Throu g h Congestion 3-3

PAGE 30

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-4 employers to split their costs into four areas: o training of the Employee Transportation Coordinator, o plan preparation and approval, o plan implementation and maintenance,and o other costs. When the survey data was extrapolated to the regulated popula tion, the following results were estimated: Regulation X:V annual costs: Annual Reduction of vehicles: Daily trips eliminated each year: Employees per reduced vehicle: Average annual expenditure: $162 million 53,910 vehicles 13.75 million trips 29$105 per employee By distributing the total costs among the regulated portion of the workforce, the cost per daily one-way trip reduced would be $5.66. Using the median costs would result in a cost of$4.75. Can we trust these estimates? Usually, the costs are self-re ported by employers and they may not fully account for their costs and benefrts. The SCAQMD directed Ernst & Young to re-survey some em ployers to determine why there was a wide variance in annual per employee costs among employers. They interviewed a sample of 20 employers who responded to Ernst & Young's first survey to clarify their responses. The sample included 1 0 com panies of the 50 employers reporting the highest costs and 5 each from the middle and lower levels. Ems! & Young found that 90 percent of the companies who reported the highest costs had overstated their costs. Over the entire sample, the total revised costs were about 50 percent Jess than the original estimates. The costs associated for providing the program to employees other than those regulated (i.e., employees who arrive outside the regulated morning peak period of 6 AM to 1 0 AM) was one common data problem. Employers did not subtract these costs from the reported total to estimate the cost of comply i ng with the

PAGE 31

, .. ,: ; ::"' regulation In addition employers made errors in completing the form i tself This small sample may not represent the sur veyed population. However the full survey may provide a conservative estimate of the compl i ance costs A more recent study (results are yet to be published) was com missioned under the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) of the National Academy of Sciences. The purpose of the TCRP's Cost-Effectiveness of TOM study is to gather addi tional intonnation on a national level. The study investigated the process by which employers develop and carry out TOM pro grams The collection and use of data about the employer's costs and benefits was of particular interest to the TCRP panel of transportation professionals. The study i nvolved in terview ing about 50 employers to get informat i on on the development, evolution, and perfonnance of their TOM programs The research team found it difficult to obtain acceptable before conditions to calculate the change in vehicle trips and cost effectiveness. According to the research team, most employer i nterviews did not provide sufficient infor mation to calculate cost effectiveness or to derive conclusions on performance for use in the employer guidance material. Most of these employers did not estimate the costs of the pro gram This finding may suggest that employers may have detennined the data collection costs or program cost did not warrant baseline measurements. Businesses may not choose the most mix of TOM strategies for non-financial reasons The literature finds that charg i ng fo r park in g can result in significant shifts in commuting behavior tor little o r no cost. However, employer concerns a bout emp l oyee mora l e or l abor-management relations may prevent the i r adopt i on How come the ranges are so wide? Quantify ing the costs is based upon self-reporting, the lack of accepted accounting practices, and the cooperation of employers. The TCRP study chose employe r s that team members thought were examples of effective TOM programs They are not nor were sought to be a representative sample of employers This project highlights the difficulty of extract ing data that emp l oyers never set out to collect in the first place. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3 5

PAGE 32

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-6 Even if the data is collected by the employer conditions over which the individual TOM program manager has no control may determine the cost effectiveness of employer TOM programs These include: o Location Some employer TOM programs historically have h igher measures of efficiency lev els than others as a nature of their market (e g., emp l oyers located in downtowns and served by high occupancy vehicle lanes are ripe for carpool and vanpool formation). Therefore vehicle trip reduction could be expected to be sign i ficantly higher for a downtown employer than an employer located in the suburbs o Worksite characteristics These characteristics include parking supply and demand, traffic congestion at its entrances and the type of transit service can determine the effectiveness of the program. o Support of Management and Commuters The TOM program's ability to change commute behavior also may depend the support of management and the help of commuters. A part-time employee tr a nsportation coordi nator must balance the the commuting demands of employ ees, the requests for assistance from the regional TOM program and the demands from managers to take care of his or her other job r esponsibilities An employer vanpool program depends on the driver. The driver must contend with the operation and condition of the vehicle and the needs of up to 14 riders as well as financial reporting sys tems. o Program Maturity Furthermore, the time interval between the introduction of the program and overall effectiveness of the program de pends upon many factors. Th is in terval is not likely to be the same from employer to employe r or even for a business of the same type.

PAGE 33

0 Accounting Practices Short term i mprovements i n e fficiency also may be affected by factors such as accounting pract ices and other business decisions. For example, a survey of employ e r costs of carrying out Regulation YN in southern California found employers allocate costs of offering the program to their entire workforce even though only a portion of the workforce were subject to the regulation. It may have been a sound business decision but it certainly Inflates the costs. The Importance of Transportation in Site Selection The functioning of the tra n sportatio n system h a s a direct bearing on a n area s economic deve l opment potentiaL The real estate adage of "location locati on l ocatio n is giving way to access access, access". Locat i on a l one is not sufficient. What is imp or tant is the access to the faci l ity by custom ers, clients, suppliers, and employees. For example, advances I n t eleco mmunicat i ons have and will continue to make H less important where a business is located but how one can access the services and products of that business The reasons for relocating a business seem to focus on re ducing costs as much as Increas in g marke t opportunHies COMPAN Y REASONS FOR GROUP MOVE Consolidation o f operation s 59 3 % Division or subsidiary reorganization and relocation 5 7. 6 % Company wanted a lower-cost operating environment 27.1% Corporate relocation 23 .7% Company wanted to attract qualified employees 23 .7% Closer proximity to markets 20.3% Opening of a new sales territory 15.3% Othe r 15.3% Improve company image 10.2% Souro&: Run:z:helmet Internationa l Accord ing to a survey of 150 person ne l executives by Runzheimer I nternatio na l, the frve most imp ortant criteria during t he sHe selection phases of the corporate reloca t ion p r ocess are M anagin g Our Way Through Congestion 3-7

PAGE 34

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-8 high quality workers, low operating costs, quality of life, geo graphical locale, and proximity to markets. MOST IMPORTANT SITE SELECTION CRITERIA Available high quality workers Low operating costs Quality of lffe Geographical locale Proximity to markets Source: Runzheimer lntemational 67% 59% 46% 39% 38% As the following examples illustrate, transit and TOM strategies contribute to most of these criteria. o Carpooling and vanpooling link long distance commuters with potential employers. Transit services from the downtown can link transit depe ndent populations in the city with jobs in the suburbs. Thus, these modes expand the pool of candidates from which to attract high quality wo rkers. o Transit and TOM can reduce operating costs by decreasing demand to build additional parking which can range from $2,000 per space for a sur face lot to$20,000 per space for an underground garage. o Telecommuting programs reduce office space re quirements. o High occupancy vehicle Janes can reduce commut ing time for commuters and increase opportunities for residential choices. List other examples how TOM strategies may address business concerns.

PAGE 35

Lis t the top quality of life factors that tlifedled sit e selectio decisions QUALITY OF LIFE FACTORS THAT AFFECTED SITE SELECTION DECISIONS 85% 79% 6 7 % 5 1 % 38% 29% 28% 10% 9% LOCAL INCENTIVES OF FE RED TO TRANSFERRING COMPANIES THAT INFLUENCED THEIR RELOCATION DECI S ION Tax a bat ements 3 4 % Free lan d 30% L o w Interest l oan s 22% Employee re location assis tance 13% Financial Assistance 11% Labor t rain i ng 11% Tax credits 4 % Waiver of permits 3% What TOM s t rategies or services could be Inducements to relocate to your area? Manag i n g O u r Way Through Co n gestion 3-9

PAGE 36

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-10 The Consequences of Employee Turnover and Absenteeism Much of the literature suggests TOM strategies have positive impacts on employee productivity, turnover, morale, and absen teeism. Conspicuously absent from the literature, however, are attempts to identify and quantify the linkage between TOM strate gies and these business concerns The purpose of th i s section is to i dentify the positive and negative consequences of employee turnover and absentee i sm on the individual, work group, and organization. Wrth an understand i ng of the consequences TOM agencies will be better equipped to identity linkages between bus i ness problems and TOM strategies The need for good employees is one constant shared by all types of organizations An organization's success in improving perfor mance depends increasingly on the skills and motivation of its work force. Businesses invest vast amounts of resources in the development of the work force through education, train i ng, and creating opportunities for continuing growth. The loss of employ ees or "turnover" can increases these costs directly and indirectly. Employee turnover is the rate of employee movement into and out of the organization over a given period. There are two types of movements: addit i ons and separations. There also are two types of separations: voluntary (employee-initiated) and other (firing, death, retirement). Voluntary separations can be further classified as avoidable or unavoidable separations. Unavoidable separations are those which the company has no control such as the job transfer of a spouse. Avoidable separations are those which the company could have prevented in some manner. Raising the pay of an employee who has another job offer or providing a transportation allowance for emp l oyees who work in a high cost area are ex amples of prevention techniques to address avoidable separa tions. Regardless of the reason, the loss of an employee can have positive and negative consequences on the i ndividual, work group, and organization. Potential moderat i ng circumstances can affect the nature and extent of the consequence including the cost of turnover.

PAGE 37

For example, some jobs especially those Yiilh a high degree of customer-contact or those at the have a sign i ficant productivity and cost impacts throug hout the organiza tion Other jobs such as those i n the fast food service industry with predictable levels of turnover or limited customer contact can be replaced w ith less impact Positive and Negative Consequences of Turnover for the Indi vidual When changing a j o b the i ndividual may lose sen i ority and ben efrts such as free pa rking or fle x ible work hours On the positive side, the individual may be nefrt econom i cally, advance his or her career or benefrt by reducing their commute trip They may change jobs to move c l oser to their current residence or seek other employment when a company relocates from one part of town to anothe r. The Rule of 45 says that most people won't travel more than 45 minutes to work or shop. Can we trust this rule? Accord ing to the 1991 American Housing Survey, abou t 90 percent of the popula tion take l ess than 4 5 minute s to trav e l to work The key moderating variabl e fo r these outcomes is the difference between the jobs. Positive and Negative Consequences of Turnover for the Worl< Group Possib le positive consequences arising from employee turnover on the work group could i nclude Increased effectiveness new skills and abilities and decre ased conflict Disruption of the work flow to cover for departing employee and ineffic iencies re l ated to the new hire can nega tivel y Impact the work group Issues such as the difficu lty of rep l ac i n g the employee and c h aracterisitics of the repl acement are modera t ing v ariables Positive and Negative Consequences of Turnover for the Organi zation The consequences o f tu rnove r are ultimately borne by the or gani zatio n. Increased effectiveness o f the i ndividua l and work group translate into increased productivity and profits. At the same time Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-11

PAGE 38

M a nagin g O u r Way Thr o u gh Co ngestio n 3-12 .. t t .,._ o.., & .!! -= ll 0 ,., z a ... :: i:> ; -0 v .. .:! i I i 1 UH1 I !1m .. ........ ..,;. ii #o ; l ; !h !H i I 1 1 1 J --1 f :: ti, ..c. I HH L 1 HHH11lr t: 't l d fiJ.Hjit i .lji ,i H1h !i} ... ............. ..: .... -.... :: ) tj 1Jrh lH -.. ir . -,J.t J UHH -1:. ,;;

PAGE 39

.. a "' E u '8-s"' _-! ..!! l! 5 -: .:: z I ... .. B t li - i i .. .. b a ... b - !:!-1l 3 .5 -.. ] f J. H [ ijp L .. _....OA
PAGE 40

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-14 -il i::: ll 0 ... > .:s ..; ,.; ..; .,,: .... ..: c .2 ii "' 0 .. c = e .. .,_ o.., ! "' -. c .. .. ... .. - .. .. z .. > . '" .. ... "' i::: 0 ... .s 'l h.h LH ..;,.;,.;.: ! tHI -J ir l t ll .... i 3 i " J i n H c .2 l! 0 i .. i l 1 l l i r . t

PAGE 41

the soc i al costs of turnover disrupt the cohesive ness. If current labor market conditions make it a buyers market they demand for jobs exceeds the supply then the duration a nd severity of the imp act may not be severe The same can be said for organizations with a strong program of advancement and a broad Internal manpower pool. Why should companies worry about finding replacement workers? Problems associated with new employees can Include: It isn't unusual to find 80 percent of the errors were made by ne w employees. Many employers think they miscalculated wh en they find turnover costs of$per employee. They may not know the cost of employee turnover because it rare l y shows up as a budget line item. The direct costs associated with employee turnover are only a portion of the total costs Employers find the high costs of turn over are in the Indirect costs. How come the cost ofturnover is so high? While pay and benefrts costs attract the most attention, the cost of turn over does not appear as a line item expense. One of the keys to positioning TOM strateg ies as potentia l solutions to business prob l ems is to understand the components of turnover and provide a basis for employers t o evaluate the potential impact of those strategies. The following lists parts of the high cost of turnover The accom panying tables show that small impacts on reducing turnover can pay big dividends to employers. The challenge to the TOM pro gram Is to tailor its services to meet the specific needs of the employer and its workforce. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-15 PAGE 42 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-1 6 COST OF TURNOVER 1. Incoming employee inefficiency 2. I nefficiency of those closely associated with i ncoming employee 3 Departing employee inefficiency 4 Inefficiency of those closely associated with departing employee 5 I nefficiency of position being filled while vacant 6. Out-of-poc1 PAGE 43 After estimating costs emp l oyers can compare these costs to i nvestment in strateg ies to red uce .,l..!sipg the above table employers can estim a te the reduction in t urnover per$100,000 to recover the investment in one year. For e?Cample, i f the average cost per turnover was $30,000, a transit subsidy program that pa id$60 per month to 140 employees would show a breakeven point if it reduced turnover by seven employees who have an average salary of $30,000 per year Of course, there is no assurance that the TOM program such as a vanpool program or a transit subsidy will reduce turnover or ab senteeism Until more research is conducted on these linkages, the question remains whether TOM agencies can actually have a substantial impact on these organizational variables through changes in either employer policies or the incentives. Any program of turnove r and abse ntee ism contro l must beg i n with accurate data on employee separations and absences Onl y with such information is management able to: o Determine whether the rate of turnover or absenteeism is cause for concern, particularly by comparing data with national or industry averages. o Identify major causes of employee separations or abse nces, with special emphasis on avoidable separations and absences. o Carry out measures for reducing the rate of turnover and absenteeism Exit in t erviews with employees o r in terna l surveys are methods used by companies to ide ntifying the major caus es of emp l oyee separations. Commuting re l ated issues that employers may probe for or employees may offer will vary by site. Issues such as the price, availability or location of parking may be major concerns for a downtown employers. The unacceptable travel time or the quality and/or Jack of transit service may be an issue for employ ers who move to a new location. These concerns may contribute to an em ployee's decision to leave Manilging Our Way Through Congestion 3-17 PAGE 44 Manag ing Our Way Through Congestion J .. 18 SUMMARY OF EMPLOYERS' COST AND BENEFITS The following checklist summarizes the ke y areas When eva lu ating the costs aod be nefits of TOM slrategies on e mp loyers Effec tiveness Change in output or deliverables Quantity Quality Change in employment costs Salary and expenses Support staff Office space and overheads Core team response Heal1h aod energy Changes in produciMty Time Time lost to Hlness Tra ining costs Change in motivation Hours worl PAGE 45 Eample: Benefits to EI!IQio.ym from Telec!xrxnl,!ljqg 1. More hours worked per day. Less time Is consumed by commuting and socializing at the water cooler. 2. More work done per hour Less distractions from co-workers. 3. Ability to work at peak hours. Morning persons and night owls can accommodate their Internal clocks. 4. EKpanded coverage. Flel PAGE 46 Managing Our Way Through Congestion ANSWERS J .. 20 TOM IMPACTS ON BUSINESS The Benefits of TOM The benefits of TOM and transit to employers include: o Decreases turnover and improves recruitment; o Reduces employee stress and related productivity losses; o Reduces the amount and cost of employer provided parl PAGE 47 o Decreases overhead ( e.g. shaced office space and telecommuters can reduce spa ce requi rements or allow company to expand ); o Removes traffic from the road (e.g each bus can remove as many as 35 automobiles from the road; o Reduces pe a k hour traffic -the major cause of urban road and h ighway congestion on company property. o Improves a i r quality (e.g one bus can reduce up to 600 lbs. of pollut ion) o Decreases the demand for fossil fuels particularly petroleum based ones which are l argely imported and negatively affect the balance o f payments and i nterest rates o Contributes to positive community growth patterns and related l and-values through coordination of transit facilitie s as part of development strategies for commun i ty design and land use planning. QUALITY OF LIFE F A CTORS THAT AFFECTED SITE SELECnON DECISIONS COID.!Duting tilm eo.t-or-llvins Quality of the public school$ystem Climate Availability of c:ulrural activities Outdoor recreation CoiMUlllity activities R eligious dlvtnitY S pectator spons 85% 7 9 % 67% 51" 38l!O 29% 28% 10% 9% Problems associated with new employees can include: o lost or dissatisfied customers: o mistakes made and the t ime and expenses to correct them; o fraud; o shortages; and, o h i gher overhead costs Many employers think they misca l culated whe n they find turnover cos t s of 30 .0 00 per employees Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-21 PAGE 48 ESTABLISHING THE BASELINE MODULE GOALS 1. To understand the interrelationship betWeen the traditional planning process and the Deming Quality Improvement Cycle. 2. To understand how to facilitate buy In to the TOM plan through sound public involvement and such activities as charettes and the nominal group technique. 3. To understand the data requirements to develop a TOM plan. 4. To be able to collect your own data set. 5. To be able to analyze a data set. ASSUMPTIONS 1. Customer service is paramount. 2. A interre l ated and structured p r ocess has a better chance to succeed. 3. Background materials can provide important i nsight into the problems and perceptions. 4. Getting buy-in to the plan and process makes implementa tion easier. 5 Let the data do it. 6. A good plan requires good data. 7. What you can't find in other sources you can collect. THE PDCA CYCLE Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-1 PAGE 49 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-2 1. Issue Fonnulation -Project Initiation Activities -Define key issues 2. Data Collection and Analysis -Existing conditions scan -Issue analysis 3 Goal Setting -Develop goals and objectives 4. Strategic Plan -Plan Deve l opment -Implementation Stratagies ISSUE FORMULATION Project Initiation Activities 1. Oefine purpose 2. Background scan 3. Advisory committee Define Key Issues 1. Establish buy-in -Define stakeholders -Solicit public inpu t 2. Review of relevant legislation -Fulfill requ irements 3. Refine purpose 4. Basic understanding of key issues ESTABLISH BUY-IN YE OLDE PUBLIC HEARING Established Official Record Unresolved Public Concerns Public Reactions To Decisions -can be adversarial -affected persons first opportunity PAGE 50 Procedural Formalities limit ing comments -intim idated by others and microphone Highly Charged Meetin g -become emo tion a l or mili1ant -rallying opposition -suspicions sway crowd arguing match . DEALI N G W ITH D IFFI CULT SUBJECTS "An effective p u blic participa t ion program must be instituted early i n the project planning process to obtain meaningful input from inter ested parties Project developers must prove to the public that their concerns and ideas will be given serious consideration." -Edison Electric Institute FOLLOWING PROCEDURE Procedures rather than a ctua l decisions, appear to be the origin of most people's perception of political legitimacy." Donald Hagman, Public Planning, 2nd Edition 1980 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION "Public involvement processes shall be proactive and provide complete information timely public notice, full public access to key decisions, and opportunities for early and continuing involvement Federal Reg ister October, 1993, Statewide and Me tropolitan Planning Reg ulatio ns. FURTHER FEDERAL GUIDANCE Timely Information -agencies -i ndividuals -groups Adequate Notice -public review and comment on TIP Review of Effectiveness -ensure full and open acoess -revise as necessary Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4 .. 3 PAGE 51 Managing Our Way Through Congeatlon 4-4 Public Comment On Public Input -review of methods and procedures PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT Consensus i s Un real ist i c -strive for general consent -better than doing nothing Establish a Fair and Open Process -need to be heard -concerns are considered -fair ha ndo:accept hardship -manages political pressure Start Early -begin with public input -allows early resolution of issues Build Trust -know decision makers and leaders -help participants understand opposition -strive for mutual solutions PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT Establish Need -use data -establish the why and what -use before and after studies Use Visuals -use slides charts, graphics -minimize exp l anat i on -before and after v i suals Involve Stakeholders -debate and resolve public concerns -solicit stakeholder involvement -early refusals, no credibility late Know Your Audience -anticipate negativism -understand the opposition -ask for explanations -prepare for questions Te ll the Truth -cons i stent and c lear responses -avoid j argon and acronyms PAGE 52 -use everyday language -don't know Is better than vague -common understanding =commo n ground Pra ctice Tolerance -keep cool und e r fire -personal acceptance of other side -people need to be valued and accepted -avoid posturing -don't pretend to have all answers -ask for their solutions Be Responsive -be willing to modify -review alllnput People Can Differentiate -don't ass ume ignorance -self-serving leads to failure -people don 't expect to win it all Avoid Hasty Concessions -always step back to consider -don't appear to agree to changes -consequences can be awkward Achieve Clear Reso l ution -personal follow-up with affected summarize recommendations -outline future opportunities -clearly resolve major issues Keep Thorough Records -document opportunities -establish process -put it all in writing PUBLIC lNVOLVEMENTTECHNIQUES Vis io ning Brainstorming Citizen Advisory Committees Transportation Fairs Focus Groups Collaborative Task Force Media Outreach Citizen Surveys Telephone Techniques Video Techniques Public Meetings/Hearings Charrettes Our Way Through Congestion 4 .. 5 PAGE 53 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-6 Charrette 1. A one-time public event (publ i c forum) aimed at solving tra n sportation related p r oblems or issues. 2. Faci l itates public involvement by provid i ng private citizens with an opportunity to openly and freely discuss transporta tion issues and prob l ems A successful charrette 1. Amp l e time and space 2. Background materials 3. Materials -Large maps -Large newsprint pads and markers -Site photographs Outline basic goals, rules, and t i me constraints 4. Adequate staffing -Competent leader -Individuals w h o have previous experience with the problem or issue -Individuals who are fam i liar with the derivation and use of the data 5. Good organization -An agreement on the process and timing -Finding an experienced leader Setting up space for an i nformal discuss ion Nominal Group Technique 1 Designed to discourage d i scussion un til all issues are l isted 2. Four step process -Silent idea generation -Round-robin reporting of ideas Discussion for clarification -Ranking of problem/soution importance 3 Guided group discuss ion 4 All topics mentioned many discussed 5. Input from all 6 Drawback: Not a ll topics get exhaustive treatment How to use the Nominal Group Technique 1. Give all participants 3" X 5" index cards. 2. Ask them to respond to a question or prob lem statement. PAGE 54 3 Have each person share one of their responses. Go around the table as many times as necessary until all responses are r e corded Write all responses dow n on the poster boards 4 No discussion is a ll owed unti l all response's h ave been shared. 5 After all points are listed, discussion by group to clarify or elaborate. 6. Using new 3" x 5" cards, each participant ranks the top five to ten issues l isted on the master sheet. 7. Cards are collected and the results of the voting are tabulated. 8. Group discussion is then permitted on each one of the issues 9 Aga i n each participant ranks the issues which then become the of the group. KNOWING WHAT YOU NEED 1 Data Needs --Current transportation conditions -Commuter travel patterns --Site/service area characteristics --Identification of congested areas 2. Collection Methods --Periodic employee transportation survey -Driveway counts/survey Traffic Counts/surveys DATA C H OICES 0 Demand Vol ume 0 Average Travel Speed 0 Average Travel Time 0 Volume/Capacity Ratio (v/c) 0 Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) 0 Person Miles Traveled 0 Average Vehicle Occupancy (AVO) 0 Average Queue Lengths 0 Maximum Queue Lengths 0 Vehicle Hours of Delay 0 Level-of service (LOS) 0 Peak-Hour Factor (PH F) 0 Roadway Congestion Index ( RCI ) 0 Average Da i ly Traffic (ADT) Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-7 PAGE 55 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-8 0 0 0 Average Weekday Traffic (AWT) Average A n nual Daily Traffic (AAD T) Average Annual Weekday Traffic (AAWT) The TOM planner must detennine : o what data is to be collected o locat i ons for data collect i on o the period for data collection (e.g ., hourly daily, weekly, monthly, etc.) such that effectiveness meas u res can be recorded and monitored. Appropriate selection of these data characteristics will minimize effort and produce mean -ingful measurable results. Demand Volume: The number of vehicles or persons that desire to traverse a particu lar section of roadway or facility during a specified period of time. Can only be measured where available capacity does not constrain the demand. Average Travel Speed: Tota l distance divided by total time needed to traverse a given roadway segment or travel corridor, averaged for more than one veh i cle-trip. Average Travel Time: Total time, i nclud i ng stopping, needed to traverse a g i ven roadway segment or travel corridor averaged for mo r e than one vehicle-trip. Volume/Capacity (v/c) Ratio: A measure of facility usage or congestion, where demand vol ume or flow is d i v i ded by the des i gned facility capacity Capacity should be in tenns of person-carrying capacity A rat i o of 1.0 signifies that measured volume equals capacity Likewise, the greater a ratio is below 1.0, the more the faci l ity is under-util i zed. Vehicle-Miles Traveled (VMT): A n estimated measure of travel activity from network or roadway segment studies. Level-of-Service (LOS): A l etter des i gnation (A through F) that describes a range of operat ing conditions on a particular transportation faci l ity. LOS "A" describes a free-flowing condition where individual vehicles are not influenced by the presence of othe r vehicles i n the traffic stream. LOS F" describes breakdown operations which occur when traffic flow arriving at a point i s greater than the facility s capacity to discharge flow and queues develop. PAGE 56 Level -ofservice is a performance parameter and its measure of effectiveness varies depending on the type of facility and/or the type of flow. For examp l e for uninterrupted flow facilities (i. e. freeways and multil ane highways) l evel-of serv i ce i s measured in terms of vehicle density vehicle or person flow and average trave l speed For i nterrupted flow facilities s iQn a l iZed intersec tions, arterials transit and pedestrian facilities ) level-of-service is measured in terms of average stopped delay average ttavel speed load factor (persons per vehicle seat i ng capacity) and space (square f eet per sidewalk pedestrian) Peak-hour factor (PHF): A factor that indicates the relationship between hourly volume and the maximum rate of flow withi n the peak-hour. For 15-minute periods of flow, the PHF is defined as the hourly volume divided by 4 times the maximum 15-minute rate of flow The maximum value is 1 0 the minimum value is 0.25, and the typical range of values is between 0.70-0.98 (with lower values signifying a greate r degree of variation in traffic flow during the peak-hour) Roadway Congestion Index (RCI): A relative measure of urban mobility levels developed by the Texas Transportation Institute, intended to be areawide representa tions not site.,specific l ocations of spot congestion The RCI com bines the daily vehicle-miles of travel per lane-mile (DVMT) for freeways and principal arterials in a ratio comparing the ex isting DVMT to calculated DVMT values identified with congested condi tions. An RCI value of 1 0 or greater indicates that congested conditions exist areawide Assumed capacity for freeway sections Is taken as 13, 000 veh icles per lane per day, and 5 000 veh i ctes pe r lane per day for principal arterial roadways. Average Daily Traffic (ADn: Average 24 hou r traffic volume at a given locat ion for a pe ri od of at l east two days but less than one year Average Weekday Traffic (AWT): Average 24 hour traffic volume, occuring on weekdays only, for at least two days but less than one year. Depending on the type of lan d use activity being monitored, AWT may be more critical than ADT (e g office building during weekdays vs. shopping center on weekends). Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADn: Average 24-hour traffic volume at a given loca ti on over a full 365-day year or the total number of vehicles passing a given l oca ti on i n a year divided by 365 M a naging Our Way Through Congestion 4 .. 9 PAGE 57 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-10 Average Annual Weekday Traffic (AAWT): Average 24-hour traffic volume occuring on weekdays only over a full year, or the total number of vehicles passing a given location in a year for wekdays only divided by 260. Average Vehicle Occupancy (AVO) -Defined as: Number of Employees arriving in vehicles at worksite AVO is typically measured for an area (i.e., Centra l Business Dis trict) or reg i on of many work sites whereas average passenger occupancy (APO) is measured for a single work site. The need to examine both or one should be stipu l ated. For purposes of this examp l e discussion, AVO will be used. Single-occupancy vehicle (SOV) users often do not regard the full costs of operation when making their travel decisions. They tend to consider the out-of-pocket costs only (parking, toll s, fuel, oil), and disregard the costs of vehicle ownership, depreciation, mainte nance, insurance, taxes, and fees. Further, many times parking at the employment site is free or heavily subsidized, and would greatly offset the perceived cost advantage of driving if it had to be paid by the employee. The closer the AVO is to 1.0, the higher the percentage of single-occupant vehicles in the mode split (or the greater the potential for congestion and mob i lity problems). The goal of TOM is to determine the desirable AVO. AVO measures are generally represented in four categories: 1.0-1.05 common for many new, low-density suburban growth areas 1.10 a l ittle less auto dependency and maybe some use of carpooling, with little or no transit use. Determined to be the national average for commute trips. 1.15 common in established suburban corridors and activ ity centers, with some transit use. 1.30+ common fo r a radial corridor i nto a CBD, in volving varying degrees of transit use During the peak-hour the average vehicle occupancy for a carpool is 2.5, 12 for a vanpool. and 50 for a bus. These AVO's can vary substantially depending on the "incentives" (i.e., trave l time sav ings cost savings. availability of alternative modes, etc.) provided PAGE 58 to the user. The following examples, using the aforementioned vehicle occupancies describe the leve l s of mode shift that would be needed for achieving desired average vehicle occupancies for a work s ite. . . ) ... Example A: For a work site with 100 emp l oyees if exi sting AVO = 1.05 and desired AVO= 1.3, then i nstead of 95 (100/1 05) veh i cles entering the work site during the peak-hour. 19 fewer vehicles or 76 (1 00/1 3) vehicles would enter during the peak hour The necessary carpool program to achieve the desired AVO would require 60 SOV's (60 employees) and 16 carpools (40 employees. 16 2.5), or a mode shift of 40% ((100-60)/100) to carpool. Exampl e B : For a work site with 500 employees if the existing AVO= 1 .05 and the desired AVO= 1.3, then instead of 476 (500/ 1.05) vehicles entering the work site during the peak-hour 92 fewer veh i cles or 384 (500/1.3 ) vehicles would enter during the peak hour The necessary vanpoo l program to achieve the desired AVO would require 373 SOVs (373 employees) and about 11 vanpoois (132 employees, 11 12), or a mode shift of 25.4% ((500 373)1500) vanpool. Example C: For a work site with 2,000 employees, if the existing AVO = 1 .05 and the desired AVO = 1.3, then Instead of 1,905 (2,000/1.05) vehicles entering the work site during the peak-hour, 367 fewer veh i cles or 1,538 (2,000/1.3) vehicles would enter during the peak-hour. The necessary bus transit program to achieve the desired AVO woul d requ i re about 1 528 SOVs ( 1 528 emp l oyees ) and about 10 buses ( 500 employees 10 50 ), or a mode shift of 23. 6 % ( 2 0001, 528 )/2, 000 ) to buses VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED Background One of the outputs of transportation network analys i s is an estimate of the total vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) on the network during the period of interest. The estimate of VMT assumes that a vehicle counted on a network link travels the entire length of the link. This i s considered to be a reasonable assumption because while some veh i c les traveli n g only a portion of the l i nk will be counted others w ill not s i nce t hey do not all cross the specific cou nting location. A 24-hour VMT estimate requ i res that the cou nts be taken a n d averaged ove r at least two 24-hour periods Further peak-hour or Manag ing Our Way Through Congestion 4-11 PAGE 59 Managing Our Way Thro u gh Congestion 4-12 daily VMT cannot be expanded to annual VMT without knowledge of seasona l variations that exist. Control counts are used to mon i tor and quantify daily and seasona l (or monthly) volume variation patterns. Such control counts may be taken at permanent count stations or at control-count stations. Permanent-count stations are counted 24 hours each day, 365 days per year Cont r ol counts are used to supplement the informa ti on obtained from permanent-count stations. Control counts are typically one-week counts taken dur ing each month of the year for a continuous seven-day or five-day period using portable mechanical counters. Count l ocatio n s for permanent and control counts should be repre sentative of the various roadway classes (i .e., principal arterial, minor arterial, major collector, minor collector, etc.) in the transpor tation network for estimates of network-level VMT. On the other hand, specific roadway VMT estimates should have counts taken at a location where traffic flows do not vary (e.g., mid-block, away from short segments of major "point loadings") Generally, a cover age count shou l d be taken on each two-m i le segment of the roadway or network. Annual VMT can be estimated using the average annual daily traffic (AADT) estimates computed for each coverage count. For example, for each coverage count: AVMT = AADT L 365 where AVMT = annual veh i cle-miles traveled, AADT = 24-hour count on a particular day dai l y variation factor monthly variation factor (see sample tab l es below), and L=length of the segment, in miles Volume/Capacity Ratio The volume/capacity (v/c) ra ti o is a measure of faci l ity usage o r congestion, where demand vol ume or flow is divided by the de signed facility capacity. Capacity is typically noted in terms of passenge r-car equivalents per hour per lane for roadway facilities people per hour per lane for transit facilities, and people per m i nute per foot for pedestr i an facilit i es Volume i s a point measure or the rate at which vehicles (or people) pass a particular point. The volume/capacity ratios a r e used to determine the facility level of-service or capacity efficiency. A ra ti o of 1.0 signifies that mea sured volume equals capacity, and that there i s a need for improve ment (i.e sp r eading the demand volume). Likewise the greater a ratio is below 1.0, the more the facility is under-utilized The goal in TOM planning is to establish a standa r d fo r level -ofservice, or tolerable v/c ratio. The evaluation process then becomes under standing what type and intensity of TOM measure is needed to adjust the v/c to the desired level-of-service. PAGE 60 STEP 1 Calculate VIC Ratio Example A :A single-lane HOV, buses only, able to a ccommodate level-of-servioe C Estimated design person-carrying capacity during the peak-hour woul d be: .... :,. ... :.i-: . t: l 60 buses/hour x 45 passengers/bus = 2, 700 passengers/hour If peak-hour headways are actually 2 min utes (due to lack of ad equate "r eturn route, number of buses available, etc.), and buses are only two-thirds filled the volume would be : 30 buses/hour x (2/3 x 45 passengers/bus) = 900 passengers/hour, and the v/c ratio would be 0.33 Example B:A 4-lane roadway with a design speed of 50 mph, able to accommodate the maximum LOS o volume. Estimated capac ity during the peak-hour would be: 1,500 vehicleslhournane x 41anes = 6 000 vehicles/hour If the peak-hour volumes are measured at 5 700 vehicles/hour, the v/c ralio would be 0 95. Step 2 Determin e V/C Adjustme n t Requirements Example A :The HOV facility is very under utilized and a significant adjustment (or i ncrease in volume) is required. Since the facility is designed to accommoda t e LOS "C", and the desired v/c ratio is 0 85 an additional1 400 passengers/hour need to be attracted to the facility. Example B :The roadway facility is operating at 95% of its design capacity Since the desired v/c ratio is 0 85, approximately 600 vehicles/hour need to be encouraged to select a high-occupancy mode of travel or encouraged to travel at another time of the day. Step 3 Determine Most Effective T O M Measure Example A:The most effective TOM measure to select to remedy this under -util ized facility is one that would be most expected to Increase HOV usage by 1 ,400 passengers/hour (or if AVO = 1.2, then 1,166 SOV's). The r efore. the selection of the most appropri ate TOM measure can best be determined by the level of non-HOV traffic on the facility. For example, if the traffic volume is at least 32,000 vehicles/hour, then employer support of trans i t could apply (1, 166/0.36 = 32,388). lfthe traffic volume is at leas t 15,000 ve hi cles/hour, then vanpooling could apply ( 1 1 66/.075 = 15,546). The maximum level of employer support and employee participa tion i s assumed for all cases. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4 .. 13 PAGE 61 Managing Our Way Through Co n gestion 4-14 Example B:The most effective TOM measure to select to remedy this over utilized facility is one that would be most expected to reduce vehicle-trips by approximately 10.5% (600/5700). Assuming a CBD/Corridor environment and max i mum leve l of employer support and employee participation, alternative work schedules and transit service improvements can be expected to reduce vehicle trips up to 9% (the most of any other TOM measure excluding SOV surcharges). ADDITIONAL NEEDS 1. Transit Service -Availabil ity -Routes 2 Peak-Per i od Volumes 3. Parking -Location -Types -Costs 4. Employment Distribution -Identify Activity Centers -Target Areas 5. Major Employers -Activities -# of employees 6. Growth Trends 7. Non-Motorized Access 8. Res ide ntial Locations 9. Access Points PAGE 62 . MEASURING PERFORMANCE Module Goals 0 To explore the need for evaluation and examine the results of severa l TD M perfo r mance evaluations. o To demonstrate how to use the FHWAIFTA too ls. o To provide additional resources to facilitate partici pants' further understanding. Assumption s o Evaluation is good o Transportation professionals can improve TOM perfor mance We can learn from the successes and failures of others as well as ourselves. o We recognize the importance of performing reasonable and defensible eval u ations of TOM impacts to establish TOM's credibility. o We share a common interest in, and commitment to, developing a broad-based coalition of public and pri vate interests to advocate TDM implemen tation. Goal Setti n g Goals and objectives may be established throughout the planning process but the p rimary goal setting effort should be focused after data collection and analysis for the following reasons 1.. ____________________________ ___ 2 .. ____________________________ __ __ -------------------------------' Managing Ou r Way Through Congestion., ... 5-1 PAGE 63 Managing Our Way Through Congestion BENCHMARKING EXAMPLE 5-2 The Use of Benchmarks in Goal Setting Benchma r king information and data refer to processes and results that represent superior practices and performance. Benchmarks encourage TOM programs to set targets that stretch. 1. To encourage creativity and represent a clear challenge to "beat the best," rather than only gradually refining the existing approach 2. To place the emphasis of program benchmarks on achieving superior program offerings and l ow costs of operation 3. To help improve communication with other organizations interested in TOM by providing a common language for assessing performance. 4. To serve as a working tool for planning tra i ning, and other uses 70 .. -eo ., 50 <0 e 30 u i-.-IndUStry Average 20 .. _._TOM. Inc II 10 i _._Beat TOM Program ; 0 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Yur Sources of comparisons and benchmark in g data might in c l ude: (1) inf ormation obtained from other TOM programs through the PAGE 64 direct sharing of information ; ( 2) prior expeiience of the TOM program ; and (3) published reports such as annua l reports of TOM programs. Selecting the right benchmarks is critical, end benchmarks should be reviewed periodically for appropriateness. Using th e above graph, t he f ollowing characteristics of clear and e ffective benchmark data are presented (Data are for 11/ustretlve purposes only): o the trend line report data for a key performance require ment for TOM programs o both axes a nd u nits of measurement are cle a rly labeled o results are presented over severa l years to I ndicate trends affecting the organization and its industry o meaningful com par isons are clearly shown What comments on the grap hed results w ould be appropriate? I dentifying Goa l s Successful TOM programs e xhibit several core values and concepts These values and concepts are the foundation for integrating performance requirements o f the cus t omer w i th that o f the TOM program The core va l ues and concepts are: 1. Leadersh i p 2 Customer driven quality 3 Management by fact 4 Design quality 5 Continuous improve ment 6. Employee participation and development 7. Longr a nge outlook 8. P artners h ip deve l opment 9 Public res pons i bility Managing Ou r Wa y Through Congest ion s .. J PAGE 65 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-4 LEADERSHIP Th is goal category examines how the TOM Board and other stakeholders become perSonally involved in visible activities such as: planning communications rev iew of TOM program performance recognizing employees for quality achievement CUSTOMER-DRIVEN Q UA LITY The ultimate success of the TOM program will depend on how it focuses on and satisfies its "customer" needs The goals set for this category should consider methods how to track customer satisfaction, monitor current trends, assess levels of satisfaction and measure reten tion. TOM programs must have a constant sensitivity to changing commuter and employer requirements. This includes increasing awareness of developments in technology and rapid and flex ible response to customer and market requirements. Who are the "Customers"? 2. ______________________ ____________ __ 4 .. __ ____________________________ ______ __ 5 .. ________________________________ __ __ 6 .. ______ __ __________________________ __ 7 .. ________________________________ PAGE 66 MANAGEMENT BY FACT Managemen t by fact requires a framework of data analysis and measurement. Facts and data needed for quality improvement and quality assessment, include: o customer profiles, o product and service performance, o operations, o the market, o competitive comparisons, o suppliers, o employee-related, and o cost and financial. Analysis re fers to the process of extra cting larger meaning from data to support evaluation and decis ion making a t various levels of the TOM program. Such analysis may entail using data to reveal information-such as trends projections, and cause and effect-that might not otherwise be evident. Performance measures or indicators should be derived from program strategies and encompass ail key activities and out puts A system of measures or indicators tied to customer satisfaction and program performance provides a clear and objective basis for aligning activities with TOM goals and ob j ec tives DESIGN QUALITY AND PROBLEM PREVENTlON i n general costs of preventing problems a t t he design stage are m u ch lower than costs of correcting problems tha t occur la ter. This req uires paying attention to TOM program suppliers includ ing: o carpool and vanpool drivers, o regional commuter assistance programs (CAP) and TMAs/TMOs, o transit agencies, o taxicab companies for guaranteed ride home programs, Managing Our Way Through Congestion s .. s PAGE 67 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-6 and o th ird-party vanpool providers for the provision of vans and maintenance support CONnNUOUSIMPROVEMENT Achieving the highest levels of quality and competitiveness requires a well-defined and well-executed approach to continu ous improvement. Opportunities for improvement have four major sources : 1 .. __________________________________ __ 2. __________________________________ 3 .. __________________________________ __ 4 .. ________________________________________ Improvements may be of several types: o enhancing value to customers through ne w and im proved products and services; o reducing errors; o improving responsiveness ; o improving productivity and effectiveness in the use of all resources; and o improving the TOM program's leadership position i n fulfilling its public respons ib i l ities EMPLOYEE PARnCIPATION AND DEVELOPMENT A TOM program's success in improving performance depends on the skills and motivation of its work force. o Employee success depends on having meaningful op portunities to learn and practice new skills o TOM programs need to i n vest in de ve lopment of the PAGE 68 work force throu g h ed ucation tra!Jling and creating opportunities for continu ing growth LONG -RANG E OUTLOOK Achieving quality and deeper market penetration requi r es a strong future orientation and willingness to mak e long t erm commitments to all stakeholders-customers, e mployees suppliers, th e public, and the community. Planning needs to determine or anticipate many types of changes Inclu d ing: o cus t omers expectations of products and services o techno logical developments o changing customer segments o evolving regulatory requirements and o community/societal expe ctations. Other major parts of the long-term commitment are: o developing of employees, o im p ro ving relationships with suppliers, o f u l filling responsibilities to the taxp ayer, and o serving as a community role model. PARTNERSHIP DEVELOPMENT TOM programs should seek to build partnerships to better accomplish the i r overall goals. These partnerships blend a TOM program s skills or leadership capabil i ties with comple mentary strengths and capab il ities of partners thereby enhanc ing overall capability, including speed and flexibility These partn erships might involve: o Employee Transportation Coordinators (ETC), o l oca l public transit providers, or o business associations. Managing Our Way Throug h Congution 5 7 PAGE 69 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-8 PUBLIC RESPONSIBILITY A TOM program's objectives should stress responsibility and accountability to the public. This responsibility refers to basic expectations of the TOM program to: o p rotect public health, o enhance mobility for all, and o conduct realistic, defensible evaluations of the public re sources. Inclusion of public responsibility as a core va lue means meeting all local state, and federal laws and regulatory requirements. It also means treating these and related requirements as areas for continuous improvement beyond mere compliance. APPLY IT! What ideas presented in this session do you plan to put into ac tion? 1. __________________________ ___ 2. ______________________________ __ 3 ____________________________ 4. ____________________________ __ PAGE 70 TOM EVALUATION Why E v a luate? There are many reasons for develop ing a system t o monitor progress as follows : 1 .. __________________________________ __ 2 .. __________________________________ __ 3 .. ________________________________ 4 .. __________________________________ __ 5 .. __________________________________ __ 6 .. ______________________________________ __ 8. __________________________________ __ 1Q. __________________________________ ___ 11.. __________________________________ __ 12 .. __________________________________ ___ What Does E v a luatio n Do? A success f u l evaluation w ill use procedures th at determ ine one or more of the following: 1 The extent to w h ich t he program has achieved its stated objectives (e g ., increases in average vehicle ridership). Managing Our Way Through Congeslion 5-9 PAGE 71 Managing Our Way Through Congestion s .. to 2. The extent to which the accomplishment of the objec lives can be attributed to the program (direct and indirect effects). 3. Degree of consistency of program implementation to plan (relationship of planned activities to actual activit ies). 4. The relationship of different tasks to the effectiveness of the program (productivity). Measures of Performance 1. Measuring the extent to which the program has achi eved its stated objectives (e.g., increases in AVR) will include methods to determine: o How many people were placed into a carpool per year or per 100 employees? o How many new vanpools were formed? o How many people were placed as riders into new and existing vanpools per year? o How many customers were served? o How many requests for assistance were filled? o How many transit passes were sold? What was the sales value? o What was the change in Average Vehicle Occu pancy over the year? 2. Measuring the extent to which the accomplishment of the objectives can be attributed to the program (direct and indirect effects). o What is the estimated change in Vehicle Miles Traveled? PAGE 72 o What i s the estimated cha kg{in V eh icl e Trips? o How has demand for parking been affected? o What reduction in pollutants is estimated? o How much money did our commuters save as a result of the program? o What were the above outcomes for commuters who were influe nced to try an alternate mode as a result of marketing efforts but not d i rectly attribut able to any specific program or service of the agency? (e.g. commuters w ho fonn a vanpool on own ). Some research indicates the indirect effects o f a program may equal or exceed the direct effects. 3 Evaluating the degree of consistency of program imple mentation to plan (relationship of plann e d to actual activities) may detennine whether for example, the number of matchlists produced wer e sufficient to form new carpoo ls o Wh ich implem enta tion tactics were th e most effec ti ve? o Where a ll p l anned act ivities carried out on tim e and w ithin b ud get? o Where the n um be r of carpool forma tion meetin gs adequate? o Was customer response time within p erf onnance goal (e g., requests received by 10:00 a.m. will be filled the same day for 95% of the employees)? o What level of staffing did it take to form and main tain a carpool? Manag i ng Our Way Through Congestion s .. 11 PAGE 73 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-12 4 The relationship of different tasks to the effectiveness of the program {productivity) The CAP and taxpayers w i ll want to see that the investment in the program is being used efficiently and effectively. Benefit/cost ratios or productivity matrices can be produced to provide this measure. ON DEATH AND TOM EVALUATION' THE FIVE STAGES OF COPING WITH A POOR TOM EVALUATION 1. Denial and Isolation "No, not us, the data cannot be truel" 2. Anger, Rage, Envy and Resentment "Your survey is faulty." "Why us? DOT spills more money than what we getl" 3. Bargaining "Okay, so your evaluation of our TOM program found that we didn't change the behavior of thousands of commuters overnight. What about all the other things we do like provide traffic advisories, Identify sites for bus shelters and encourage the provision of sidewalks? How about giving us credit for these activities?" 4. Depression "Our TOM program hiJ1 so much potential. 5. Acceptance "I'm happy. We can only improve. " Our apologies to Elisabeth Kubler -Ross, author of Qn peath and Dying PAGE 74 , :: ..1 ' Methods of Evaluation There are several different methods for collecting the data for evaluation purposes. Some of the most commonly used meth ods involve: o Employee surveys o Program participation documentation (e.g., registrations for preferential parking ; applications for subsidies) o Vehicle or average vehicle occupancy counts o Time sheets/Activity logs The evaluation method and data collection requirements de pend on the measures of effectiveness be ing used Use of Surveys In Transportation Research Surveys are often used in transportation research to detennlne how a group of people (commuters, residents in a certain part of town, etc.) travel now and how they might change their travel behavior if certain changes are implemented (new roads, transit routes, transit costs, etc.) There are four major types of survey research These are characterized in the table on the next page Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-13 PAGE 75 U1 I ...... Description Appll<>ble Usple discuss topics of i nte rtSt to client; Led by profcn.ionaJ modmtor Issue eeneration_ : In-depth discussion on compl ex survey results Vinually None not projettable at all Very fu.t Gets at issues beneach the surface; Low cost Fa< T urnaround Vr:r; dependenl ()R having a good modera.tOf: No p rojectabil i c y s s.ooo $10.0<10 (l &!OUps) TYPES OF SURVEYS WRITTEN/MAIL SURVEYS Pre-designed survey mailed out to responden ts General of popu lat ion ; Mediumloag surveys; Simpler survey formats Moderate Only if adeq\INc rates (40% or tnore) are obaincd Slow Lar&e sample sizes can be: obtained; Longn surveys po$$ible Low Response Dies/ Unrcprescnwive$21llples can occur; Slow turnaround $10.000. SIS.OOO (500 750 respondencs) taEPHONE Pre.deslgncd survey conducted by professional telephone int'f'iewtn Gtn eral surveying of Short-medium ltngth surveys; Moderately complitited '""''Y' ModerscdHigh Good Fast!Moderace Reasonably fairly g:ood Cutnwound Higher costs; Surveys nted 10 be kept fairl y shon and$imple $20.000$)0,000 (SOO 750 respondent s ) PERSONAL IN'TERVIEWS Survey a dmin i s t ered by individual professional i nterviewer Interv iews wi.th Jcey individuals; Long-Very Jong s.urve)'s ; complica ted survey fonnats Very High Very Good if tnough interviews are eomple!cd Moder1>1e/Slow Allows more nexibilicy in interview fonnllc; indeplh probing Very hith <:OSl$per eompttted s urvey; Slow cumaround sso.ooo$75.000 (500 750 responden1s); $I 5.000$20.000 (100 respondcnls) -I;: ::r., .. 0 .. c.., "' ::r= n"' oo =c ..... '":e = .. 0""<

PAGE 76

SURVEY SAMPUNG, ANALYSIS ANI:> UNCERTA I NTY LEVELS 0 Survey results always have an element of uncertainty, based on the fact that we haven't polled everyone to find out what they want. Clearly, because of expense and time constraints, it is not possible to survey everyone. Therefore, one key decision that must be made: How many people should be surveyed? There are two key factors that will determine the answer to this question: 1 The budget that is allocated to surveying the population and 2 The amou n t of uncertainty that you are willing 'to accep t f rom the surveys The budget will generally give you an a bsolute maximum to the number of people you can survey However that maxi mum, you may very well find that you don't need the amount of precision that will come out of doing all of th e surveys that the budget allows. Suppose, for Instance, that you want to know approximate ly how many people w ill use a new tollway. You have a budget of $20 000 to survey the populat ion. Now suppose you are quoted a rate of$5,000 overhead and $10 per interview com pleted Should you go ahead and 1 500 interviews as the budget allows? You probably want an answer that is reliab l e within a range of 5 percentage po i nts. In other words i f you get a result of 32 5% from the survey, you want to be ab l e to say confidently that between 30% and 35% of the population will use the new tollway. This means that your amount of uncertainty is plus or m in u s 2.5 points around the 32 .5% result. A mathematical formula is used to determine the uncertainty from survey re sults. For a proportion, as we are discussing here, that formula is : amount of uncertainty around the result: 1 .96 "((P (1-PVN)A0. 5 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5 -15 PAGE 77 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-16 where P is the proportion (in this case 32.5%) N is the sample size of the survey 1.96 is the standard muHiplier used to achieve a 95% confidence level. A "Confidence level" means that you are 95% sure that the "true"' results will indeed fall within the uncertainty range. If you want to be 99% sure, that number changes to 2.576; if you want to be 90% sure, itfalls to 1.645. The "amount of uncertainty" is generally referred to as the Confidence Interval, and is associated with the confidence level. When you hear the term "a 95% confidence interva l" used by statisticians, this is what they mean. When you see national polls on TV, this is the formu l a used to determ i ne what the "p lus or mi nus" amount of the result is, as in "25% of Americans actually believe results from national polls, with an error rat e of +or-3.5%". Solving for N, we get: N = (P( 1 P))/(amount of uncertainty/1.96)'2 N = (.325(1 325)) I (0. 025/1.96)'2 = 1348, which is the sample size needed to achieve this result. So, in fact, yes you should do just about all the surveys if you want an answer as precise as 2 5 percentage points around the result A lot of times you can't afford to do 1 ,500 surveys. You may only have a budget for 350 surveys. So, lefs turn the problem around Suppose you contract to have 350 surveys conducted, and you get 32.5% (or 65 people} saying that they would use the new tollway. What is the error rate associated with this result? The formula says that the error rate is 1 96.((.325.(1. 325))/350)' .5, or 4 9% so that you can say with 95% confi dence that between 27.6% and 37.4% of the population will use the tollway. Because of the way the formulas are set up, in order to double your precision (that is, to reduce the error rate by hall), you PAGE 78 need to get four times as many interviews completed. Now let 's suppose that you aren t Interested in a propof:tion, but rather in a mean result, such as Average Vehicle Occupancy. Lefs say you surveyed 350 people and got an Average Ve hicle Occupancy of 1 12. Suppose the sample has a standard deviation of 0.35 (the standard deviation refers to how much the answers vary around the mean result. About 60% of the survey responses w ill fall within 1 standard dev i ation of the mean). How do you determ ine the error rate in this case? The formula is actua lly very much the same as the proportion formula. amount of uncertainlY 1 .9ss JC N).s where S the standard deviation, replaces P(1-P) from the proportion formula In this case, the result would be 1.96*0 35/( 350) 5 = 0.037. So we could say that the average AVO is between 1 063 and 1 157 at a 95% confidence level An Interesting property of survey sampling Is that the amount of precision has only to do with the size of the sample, not with the size of the population it is drawn from. I f you sample 300 people, your results are just as accurate if the population is 10 million as they are if the population is 100,000. There is no need to survey 1%, or 5%, or 10 % of the population You only need to get a random sample of sufficient size to reduce the error to an acceptable level. (Note that this property becomes inval id if you survey a large proportion of the total population, say 50% to 70% In those rare cases, your level of precision will actually be greater {and your error rate lower ) than the sample size wou ld indica te ) One of the most important ways in which surveys are used is to tre nd data from one survey t o the next to see if there has bee n a change in behavior Typically there will be a requ ir ement that a statistically significant change be measured through a survey statistically significan r means that the change in the survey results must not be due to the uncertainty arising from the sampling, but ins tead accurately reflect a change i n the behavior of the popu l ation Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-17 PAGE 79 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-18 Trending and change detection requirements place ser i ous constraints on the sample sizes you can use. If you expect a program to have an impact of a 5% increase, in, say bus ridership, you need to conduct enough surveys so that If in fact a 5% change has occurred in the population, you can detect. I f you only interview 100 people, the error from sampling will be so large that a 5% change in the behavior of the popu l ation may well be completely masked by uncerta i nty from the small sample size. Suppose you want to know If the changes i n the survey results (Using AVO again say from an AVO of 1.06 to an AVO of 1.1 0) a r e significant (i.e. not due to error arising from the size of the sample). These formulas a r e very involved A safe rule of thumb i s to add the uncertainty levels from the two samples together, and if the change is l arger than this sum, it i s signifi cant. This will overstate the size of change needed for a statisti cally significant result which should be fine you will err on the side of caution. If you are determ i ned to know the exact numbers the formula to determine this is : Assume the second survey had a sample size of 500 AVO of 1.10, standard deviation of 0 .35 Change needed from 1 survey to the next = 1 96 std dev 1/(sample size 1 )A0. 5 +1.96 std dev 21 (sample size 2)'0.5 = 1.96 .35/(350)A.5+1.96 35/(500)A.5 : 0.068 This represents how much change you need to see from one survey to the next to report an increase in AVO. In th i s case the change was only.10-1.06= 0.04 so the change in the survey results may be d u e to the uncertainty aris i ng from the sampling, and may not have anything to do with a change in the behavior of the population. For instance we may have by random chance, interv i ewed a few more carpoo l ers i n our second sample that we did in our first sample, even though the propor tion of carpoolers in the whole population did not change. This PAGE 80 situation becomes especially prob l emat c sizes get down into t he 75-100 range Another way to use this formula is to dec ide how much sample you will need to detect a given change in behav ior. Suppose we are again work ing with the above prob lem, but now. we want to know, if we expect an increase in AVO from 1.06 to 1.10, how many people should we sample? We will assume that we are doing this analysis before the program starts, and, to simplify the problem, we want to survey the same number of people before and after program imple mentation The formula is: Amoun t of change = 1.96 *std dev 1/(sample size 1 ) 5 + 1.96*std dev 2/(sample size 2). 5 = 1.96*2*std dev/(s amp le size) 5 (since sample size 1 and 2 are assumed to be equal, as are std dev 1 and 2) Solving for the sample size yields: sample size = (1.96*2*std dev/change needed) so assuming a standard deviation of 0 35 (you may have to look through some prior r esearch results to get an idea of what a reasonable guess for what the standard deviat ion will be) Sample size = ( 1 .9610. 04"2"0 .35)"2 1,176 respondents per survey Remember, to double the precision we have to quadruple the sample size, as thi s example and the last example fairty well demon strate For proportions, the formula is a l ot more involved Change needed = where 1.96 ((sample size 1 +sample size 2}1 (sample size 1 sample size 2))'.5 (X (1-X))'.5 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-19 PAGE 81 Manllging Our Wily Through Congestion 5-20 X = (Sample s ize 1 proportion 1 + sample size 2 proportion 2)/(sample size 1 + sample size 2) and the sample size needed to find a given change can be detenmined by: Sample size= (1. 96'2 ((2" estimated proportion)+ change needed)) I (change needed'2) So to uncove r a change from 32 5% to 37.5% we would need 1 ,075 respondents per survey. There is a subtle difference between a "statistically significant change and a minimum change of, say, 5% within the popula lion. a "statistically significant change means that there is at least some difference, even If you aren't sure what that diffe r ence is Essentially, it means that there was an increase of more than 0 points. To show a minimum change of 5%, you need to perform a slightly different calculation. Take the base number you are trying to find a change tmm. and use the above fonmula for "amount of change needed' but use 1.282 instead of 1.96 in the fonmul a (the reasons for using 1.282 instead of 1 .96 have to do with the probability distributions. Don't ask.) Find the number needed for a significant change, add 5 points to it, and then solve the "amount of change needed" for (Original proportion + sig. change + .05) us ing the same fonmula with 1.282 and also us i ng the number of respondents in the second survey and your result needed to show a minimum 5% change is given by (Original proportion +s ig change 1 +.05 + sig change 2). It's easier than it sounds. You can use the same log i c to detenmine If you had a change of "at l east x as you would for proportions. You will have to assume that the standard deviation doesn't change i n the sec ond survey. PROBLEMS/CASE STUDIES 1. You are planning to run a campaign to increas e awareness of paratransit services among the genera l population. Since PAGE 82 you are going to survey the general population, you also want to determine if the overall peroeptlon of the quality of all mass transit servioes has improved. You want to use a survey to determine whethe r or not the campaign had the desired effect You are expecting aware ness to increase from 10% to 30% What sample size do you need to: a ) At a minimum, establish that there has been a statistically significant i ncrease in awareness? b) Establish that awareness increased by at least 12 points (that is, both before and figures are ineasured at a precision of+ or 4 percentage points)? c). Suppose that mass transit was rated at a 6.5 on overall quality with a standard deviation of 1.9. Assuming you use the sample size determined in question 1 b you get a similar standard deviation on this survey, what minimum average score is required to show a significant Increase in the overall rating of transit services? 2. You are asked to set up surveys to determine why the non bus -ri ding portion of the population doesn't like to ride buses. While you have some ideas as to why this is, you aren't sure that you know what most of the major causes are, and you don 't know how people feel each of the major causes is really important .. Turnaround needs to be fairly rapid What type of survey approach wou l d you recommend? Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-21 PAGE 83 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-22 3. You are planning a program to increase awareness of c-.arpooling, carpooling list availability, and preferential parking for carpoolers in the downtown area. You expect awareness to increase from about 10% to 20%. You want to find out if, over a 2 year period upcoming awareness has a) Increased significantly b) increased by at leas t 4 percentage points You need to submit a budget for the survey port i on of the project. Rapid turnaround time is negotiable based on how much it will cost. Prepare a budget estimate for a rapid and slower turnaround time by determining sample size and survey methods required PAGE 84 Goal Setting: Reasons why goal setting should occur after data collection and and analysis: 1 Specific goals and objeclives can be formulated to address problems that have been verified i n fact 2 Waiting until alter data has been analyzed w ill reduce the potential that goals and objectives will have to be substantially revised. 3. If goals and objectives are developed too early, they can bias the planning process by focusing data collection on proving that earty assumptions about the program were correct. Custome r Driven Quality: Who are the customers"? 1 2 3 4. Commuters Employers Employees S uppliers 5. 6. 7. Financial contributors Public Community Continuous Improvement: Opportunifies tor improv ement have lour major sources : 1 Employee ideas 2. Research 3. Customer input 4. Comparative information on processes and performance Why Evaluate? There are many reasons lor developing a system to monitor progress, as follows : o Designing the TOM evaluation requires the commuter assistance pro gram (CAP) to examine the clarity of objectives, the ease with which they can be measured and the possi bility of their being achieved o Redirecting efforts when is detemi n ed elemen ts of the program have or do not have desired results o Providing staff with data to reinforce the i r efforts or to recommend new directions In which to move o Providing management with a tool in directing the organization's TOM program Into productive c hannels o Showing evidence to other agencies and the public of the diligence and sinoerlty of the agency o Supplying powerful factua l information for public r elations campaigns. o H e lping other TOM programs anticipate problems In Implementing Managing Our Way Through Congestion ANSWERS 5-23 PAGE 85 FHWA TOM MODEL M od ule Goals o Describes the essential cha racterist ics and inten ded uses of the TOM Model, provides guidance on the understanding and u se of the model. o Identifies the key inputs and outputs o Offers a demonstration of it s use o Discuss the limit ations and pote ntial pitfalls of this Model. Assumptions o Part i cipants are f ami li ar with TOM strategies o Part i cipants have a basic understanding of the 4 Step transportation planning process o This module will not substitute for actua l experience. Introduction The T O M model is an analytic too l that supports the design and quantitative evalu a tio n of transportation demand management (TOM ) progr a ms The mod el was deve l oped for the Federal High way Adm i nistration by COMSIS Corporation and R.H. Pr att Con suhant Inc The fo llo wing i nformation was e xt racted from the Users Manu al. The purpose o f the TOM Mode l is to prov ide infonnation on the probable Impact o f various TOM strategi es The model allo w s the user to re view a w ide range of possible TOM st rat egies, alo ne or in combina tion. The ide al com bination of strateg i es depends on : o who is implementing them o cost i mpl i catio ns o regulatory environment o s t arting po i nt Managing O ur Way Throug h Conge stion 1-1 PAGE 86 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-2 The process of identifying this mix of strategies involves educating participants on the options, performing t radeoffs among options, and reach ing consensus on the best balance options. The model allows for the review of program options in a compre hensive, objective manner to estimate the transportation impacts of those options. The information can be used to build support for the program by various constituency groups. What is the TOM Model? The TOM Model appears to the user as a system of computer spreadsheets, where the user enters different assumptions about the types of TOM strategies he or she wants to evaluate. These strategies are then related to a system of trave l demand forecast ing procedures which estimate their impact on existing travel condi tions. For what situations was the TOM Model developed? The TOM Model was designed for application primarily at an are wide or regional level. At this level, a TOM program may affect a variety of employers and commuters. It may involve policy actions by employers and/or government. However, the model also may be used to evaluate the TOM program efforts of an individual work site, travel corridor, or single employer. What types of strategies can be considered? The TOM Model can evaluate the impacts of any of the follow i ng strategies; indiv idually or grouped into programs: Employer-Based Strategies o Transit, Carpool, or Vanpool Support and Informational Programs (includes on-site services, employe e transportation coordinators, pass sales, guaranteed ride home, etc.). o Alternative Work Schedules (include flexible and staggered work hours, compressed work weeks, and telecommuting). o Incentives and Disincentives (includes parking management, parking pricing, and subsidies). PAGE 87 Area-wide Strateg ies o Regulatory requirements (includes voluntary full mandatory, and new manda tory ) o Transit service im provements (includes in-vehicle time and out o f vehicle time) o High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lan es (includes minimum occupanc y 2+ or 3+ and time savings) o Ma rke t -based pri cing measures (parking fees tolls, taxes and subsidies) What does the TO M M ode l tell you? The model in forms the u ser through a number of useful measu res and indices ho w effective the part i cu l ar TOM progr am is likely to be I t estimates changes in travel tha t would be expected in rela t ion to exis t ing cond i tions. Based on the input. the model can provide estimates of changes to: 0 M ode s plit 0 Person trips 0 Vehicle trips (VT) 0 Vehi cle miles of travel (VMT) 0 Aver age vehicle occupancy Where do the estimates of impact come from? Th e model estimates the im pact of TOM on travel conditions through a combi nation of empirical and analytical relationships. At the core of the model i s a disagg r egate log i t mode cho ice model, which predicts the change in travelers' likelihood to use particular mod es of travel based on changes in th e conditions of their use, as affected by the particular TOM strategy or strategies Some TDM strategies are not well accounted for b y analytic mode choice models ; the effects of these strateg ies are inferred from empi r ical r e la t ionships w hich are accessed from "look-up tables". Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-3 PAGE 88 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-4 For whom was the TOM Model designed? The TOM model was designed for use both by transportation pro fess io na ls and non-professionals. Transportation planners familiar with planning models and terminology should find the model rela tively easy to use. It has been designed to link directly with the trad itional 4-Step planning models and provide the planner with greater capability to perform travel demand/traffic impact analysis in a subarea or corridor travel system. The TOM model communi cates with the 4-Step models through trip tables, which are passed back and forth as necessary. At the same time persons with an interest in TOM, but who are not traditional planning model specialists can use this model without great difficulty. The minimum requirement is that the user be fam il iar with TOM concepts and terminology. DATA INPUTS The TOM Model has been designed to apply to a range of different settings and needs. These include: o A geographic subarea corridor or activity center; o A metropolitan area (with limitations); and o An individual employer site. Eac h of these applications typically involves different types of analyses, and hense, carries different types of input data require ments Subarea Application: The TOM Model was originally designed to evaluate TOM programs at a geographic subarea level in order to allow for collective solu tions of transportation and traffic problems in a specific impact area. A subarea" is defined as a geographic area-usually defining a corridor or activity center -within whic h there is a tangible traffic or mobility problem. For this type of application, the expectation is that the user will explore programs involving multiple employers of different types and sizes, under different legal/regulatory condi- PAGE 89 lions, and with possible inclusion of system wide measures such as transit improvements or HOV lanes For thi s appl i cat i on the TOM M odel requi res inp ut data in th e form of trip t ables", such as are used in the trad itio nal planning p r ocess of a Metropol itan Planning Organization ( MPO ). A t rip tab l e is a matrix w hich reflects t he moveme nt o f trave lers between specific in div idual geog r aphic orig i ns and destinations in th e study a r ea defined as "traffic a nalysis zones Separate matrice s genera lly exist whi ch represent: Person Tr i p movements ; Private Vehicle Tr i p movements ; and Transit Person Trip movements for three d i fferent trip types : Home-Based Work ( H BW) trips ; Home-Based O the r (HBO) trips; and Non -Ho m e Based ( NH B) trips. In larger metropolitan areas wh e r e traffic con gestion imposes peak period demand on the transportation s y stem, t rip tables are often developed to reflect peek hour, as well as 24 hour travel patterns Because TOM strategies a r e generally applied to commute travel the TOM Model uses only the trip t ab l es for Home-Based Work tri ps. Since these (HBW) tr ips a r e most prevalent in the peak hour, it i s desirable to have peak hour HBW trip tables for the TOM Model ; 24-hour HBW trip tables ma y be used but the user must be consc i ous of their limitations for certa in types of analys is, such as peak hour traffi c analyses or use o f work ho urs shifting strategies. When performing a subarea analysi s the TO M Model i s linked in a paralle l fashion w ith the trad i ti onal4-step planning process. The user applies the trad i t ional4-step model prel im inary ana l yses of trip generation f rom l a nd use patterns eva l uate the effectiveness of capita l ( ro adwa y ) improvements and subsequent traffic analysis throug h the ass ignment o f t hese trips to spec ifi c faci l ities ( offering a measure of congest i on throug h t he r esulting volume -to-capacity r at i o ). The TOM M odel i s used i n th i s joi n t relat io ns hi p to perform a more focused analys i s of trave l demand and modal sp li t s i nce the choices o f travelers among alternatives are influenced by the Manag ing Our Way Through Congestion 1-5 PAGE 90 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-6 various TOM strategies. The two models communicate back and forth in this tandem arrangement through trip tables. Specifically, primary scenarios are generated in the traditional planning model, and then trip tables defining home-to-work travel for the study area are passed to the TOM Model. Within the TOM Model, a variety of TOM program scenarios are identified, tested, and their effect quantified. Preferred TOM packages are then passed back to the 4-step process through modified trip tables where they are re incorporated with the other trip tables and reassigned to the highway network for evaluation of traffic impacts. Many planning organizations are now employing microcomputer planning systems to perform traditional 4-step planning process. Software packages which re in wide use include MINUTP, TRANPLAN, and EMME/2. These systems give the planner much more flexibility and ease in performing planning analyses as well as graphical interfac ing and feedback, and certainly enhance overall capability for traffic analysis when using the TOM Model. The TOM Model has been designed to directly interface with each of these software programs by accepting trip tables directly from those systems. A feature on the entry screen of the TOM Model allows for the user to designate the source planning software system. If the user is not a planning professional or membe r of a planning organization, and it is desired to perform subarea analysis, it will be necessary to request trip table input data from the loc al Metropoli tan Planning Organization. Exact specifications for formatt ing and entry of trip table data are provided in the Users Manual. Regional Application: While the TOM Model was primarily developed as a subarea sketch planning tool, requirements imposed on planning organizations by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the lntermoda l Surface Transportation Efficiency Act are causing these organizations to examine TOM measures at a reg ional level as well. While the TOM model was not specifically designed for this type of application, it may be used with certain caveats. It should be noted that the time requi red by the program to assess a TOM program scenario is directly related to the square of the size of the trip table which has been entered. Therefore, the model offers optimal speed and performance when the size of the trip PAGE 91 table is at a minimum; thi s is because of the large number of calcu lations the model performs for every orig i n-destination pari. Physically. the current model is l imi ted to a trip table of 1 100 zones 1 100 x 1,100 square ma t rix) Th i s f a lls short of the siz:e of the z:onal system of most l arge metropolitan plann i ng areas. Even if it did not, however, the model is intended to run at a much smaller matrix s ize tha n t h i s w ith the op t imum size be ing 200 to 1000 orig in-d est i natio n pa irs . At this size. the calculation t ime for a TOM package ranges f rom 2 to 5 minutes depend i ng a l so on the capa b i l ity of the i nd i vidual computer Therefore to run the mode l for an area of substant i al scale meth ods should be used to compress the trip table to an acceptable size This may be done through : o Use of analysis distr i cts", wh i ch combine several smaller zones into one larger zone; or o Applying the model to segments of the metropolitan area one at a time, and then pooling the results for a regional summary; this method may also be comb ined w ith the use of districts (as above) or "subarea isolation methods, where the detail on origins outside the destination area is reduced to "external s t a tion s" Again, as in the subarea application case, trip table inputs must be home-based work trips, and should reflec t peak-hour conditions where possible Individual Site Application: It may be des i red to apply the TOM Mode l to inve s tig ate TOM impacts at an indiv i dual emp l oyment s ite. In this i nsta nc e th e user relates the starting modal split cond i tions for the employment population to the model. These condi t ions are described in t erms of: o Tot a l one -way person tr i ps to s ite ( dur i ng r e l evant analysis pe ri od typ i ca ll y between 6 a m to 10 a m. on weekdays ); o Total pr i vate vehicle trips ; Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-7 PAGE 92 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-8 0 Total person trips by transit (if any); and o Tota l person trips by vanpool (if any) Note that the TOM Model does not account for use of non motorized modes (walk or bicycle), taxi, or motorcycle/moped, either In the initial data inputs or in estimating effects of TOM strategies. These input data are generally obtained through employee sur veys. The user has two options in relating this information to the Model : (1) Create Trip Tables : If the survey data contains information on l ocation (orig i n-destinat ion) as well as mode choice, the user can choose to develop trip tab les. There is a special uti l ity feature in the model that allows the user to enter the data in trip table format. (2) Single Modal Split: The model can also be directed off a single "point" estimate of person trips and modal split. A special utility feature allows construction of a unit" trip table, which is convenient if the input data source is of lim i ted deta il or if the user wishes rapid turnaround for preliminary or sensitivity analyses on a l arge number of measures DATA OUTPUTS The TDM Model furnishes outputs to the user of two basic types : (1) Those d i rectly related to evaluation of the TDM scenario being tested in the model. (2) Revised trip table information to return to the transportat i on p l ann i ng/traffic simulation process for overall ana l ysis of traffic i mpacts Direct user-readable outputs of the first ( 1) type i nclude: o Tabular output indicating the following measures of effectiveness for each scenario relative to the starting conditions: Modal split (percentage of tri ps by travel mode) PAGE 93 Number of p rivate veh i cle trip s Number of person trip s Average vehicl e occupancy Vehicle miles of trave l o Graphic output (colored bar charts) showi ng the area as a whole and for ind ividual destination zones: Comparison of modal split before and after strategy Comparison of vehicle trips before and after strategy Comparison of single occupant veh ic l e trips before and after strategy Compariso n of vehic l e mi l es of trave l before and after strategy Percent change i n veh icl e trips and singl e occupan t vehicle trips Percent cha ng e i n vehicle trips and VMT Data of the second (2) type are formatted i nto tr ip table files of the stated format ( MINUTP TRANPLAN, EMME/2 or ASCII), which can be related directly back to the respective 4 -s tep model for re incorporation and assignment. What the TO M Model tells the user is how many v e hicle or person trips are being reduced by the particular strategy, and the corre sponding reduction in vehicle mi l es of trave l. This provides an immed iat e indication of effectiveness of the TO M action(s) on modal cho ice/travel behavior by i ndicating the degree of reduction i n veh ic ular trave l. However, it does not ind i cate the imp act on actual traffic conditio ns in th e transportat ion system. For this anal ysis it is n ecessary to refer the mod ifie d trip tables back to the tr aditional4-step pla nning p r ocess for assignment as described under Subar ea Application above Properly config ured, an analysis process which links the two models can be worked back and forth to identify the more relevant and effective packages of TO M and other system mitigation measures. OVERVIEW OF PROGRAM This section p rovides an overview of how an a na lys is i s performed with the TOM Model using a step-by-step walk thr ough the basic procedu r es The figure on the next page provides a schem atic v iew of these essent ial steps. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-9 PAGE 94 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-10 TO M MODEL : SC H EMATIC OF APPLICATION PROCESS STEP 1: SUPPLY IN PUT D ATA Trip Tat>les Survey D a t a Em ploymen t I STE P 2: Cl.AFUFY OEFINTION O F MARKETS I M O D IFY STARnNG CONOmONS STEP 3: T r ans:Wanpool Use Alter Trip T ab!e:s Add Otvelopment Projects I STEP 4 : SPECIFY TOM PROGRAM PUBLICIAREAYI1DE PRIVATE/EMPLOYER-STRATEGIES BAS STRATEGIES SPEClF Y REGULATORY STEP 5 : REQUIREMENT STEP 6: RUN CALCULATION ROUnNE I I TABLE OF STEP 7: PERFORMANCE COLOR GRAPHICS TRIP TABLES MEASURES PAGE 95 The program proceeds as fo ll ows: STEP 1 : DATA E N T R Y The first thing the user must do is enter data into the modal to define the starting cond itions As described in the previous section, these data must be consistent with the particular type of application desired, namely : o Trip Table data for subarea and regional types of analys es ; or o Survey Data converted to a trip table or an estimate of modal split for employer or indiv i dual site analyses STEP 2 : DEFI N E TRAVEL MARKETS Generally, the travel market which is to be the subject of the TO M analysis in the model will be defined d i rectly by the input data entered in Step 1. In the case of an individual employer/site ana lys is, the travel market is uniquely defined by the employer/site data on trips and modal split from site surveys. In the case of subarea or regional applications, however, where the starting conditions are being taken from trip t ables, there are frequently t i mes when i t is necessary to define the target market as a subset w i thi n the starting tr i p tables Generally, TOM programs are directed at commuters whose destinations lie i n a particu lar i mpact area whereas commuters to other locations may not be affected by these measures Hence, if the starting trip tables entered into the model constitute all origins and destinations it would be necessary to constrain the destinations of interest to a specific set or range The TOM Model has an option which allows the user to fairly easily define the set of origins and destinations to which the program of TOM s trategies will be applied. When a st rategy is tested with the TOM Model that strategy is applied to all origin-destination pairs that have been specified If it is desired to look at a specia l or un i que stral-Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-11 PAGE 96 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-12 egy for a particular destination, or origin-destination pair, it is necessary to communicate the appropriate geographic information to the ModeL The Mode l is then capable of providing impact information for individual origin-destination groupings. STEP 3: MODIFICATION OF DATA/STARTING CONDI TIONS The TOM Model gives the user flexibility to relate special conditions that may not be properly reflected in the starting data inputs. These include the following: Input Transit or Vanpool Starting Share There are occasions where an area has a transit service, but a formal transit trip table has not been developed. Because the TOM Model is a "pivot point" type of procedure, it must have some starting base of transit use (mode split greater than 0 percent) in order to compute the effects of transit rela ted TOM measures. If the trans it modal split is know, the TOM Model will produce a "synthetic" transit trip to reflect this proportion. The same is true for vanpooling use. Alter Trip Tables If the user knows about specific deficiencies in the base set of trips tables, which would place in doubt the number of person trips or the number of trips by any mode, it is possible to access and adjust any or all elements in the trip tables This is a convenient way to enter or make specific origin-to-destination changes in transit or vanpooltrip leve ls, for example, where recent study information may update or improve upon the pre-existing table information. Add Development Projects A common situation that occurs in TOM planning is that new development projects are proposed, such that employment and trip-making in a particular zone or group of zones are changed from base conditions. The program allows the user to specify and estimate the effect of these changes. For the zone(s) in question, the user tells the program directly how many new person trips would be added (or reduced). The PAGE 97 program then converts th ese n e w trips into moda l e lements i n the trip tables u s in g propo rti oning me th ods STEP 4 : SPECIFY TOM PROGRAM The heart of the TDM Evaluation Model is the desig nation and testing of particular TDM strategies. The Model allows testing of any individual strategy, or as many of the user desires in combi nat i on This is done through entry screens resembling "spreadsheets" whi ch define the strategy and offer the user blanks in whic h to enter the particular assump tion He l p screens are provided for each situat i on through which the user can request add i t i ona l inf o rm ation as to the mean i ng o f t he s tr ategy and typical val ues whi ch may be entered Each t i me the TDM Mode l is ru n," as m any as f ou r d i ffer ent trials. constitut ing unique TDM programs can be tested under title of a given scenario. Typ i cally the user will e xe r cise this option to test different levels of one part icula r strat egy whil e holding all others constant and vie w the incremen ta l Impact that results in the overall T DM program Provision is made to write in a d esc riptive ti tle for the particular run, or scenario as well as each of the four individual trials These titles subsequently appear both in the mode l screens and on p ri nted output. TDM s t rategies are separated by the M odel in t o two g r oups : Public or Areawide Strategies and Private o r Employer Baaed Strategies. Areawide strateg i es a r e those w hi ch are assumed to be i mplemented by a local government or trans portation agency such that they become available for all travelers who choose to use the m Employer-based strate gies, on the other hand, are actions which are a ssumed to be impl emen ted by emp l oyers, and hence are affecte d by the type of employer and the deg ree to which those e mployers agree to partic i pate (in relation to t h e l ega l requ irement described be l ow) in the impl ement ation of those strategies. Managing Our Way T hrough Congest i o n 1-13 PAGE 98 Managing Our Way Through Congeslion 1-14 Area-Wide Strategies Tran sit Service lmprovemeniS Transit Fai r Subsid i es HOVlanes Park ing Charges and/o r Subsidies Miscellaneous Taxes or Fees M i scellaneous Travel Time Penalties/Savings Employer-based Strategies: Trans i t Support Measures Carpool Support Measures Vanpool Support Measures Preferential Parking or other Transit/HOV Time Savings Parking Charges and/or Subsidies Flexib l e and Staggered Wor1< Hours Compressed Work Weeks Telecommuting The user may test assumptions involving any combination of these strategies Each test is titled. saved and documented i n a manner which facilitates access, review and modifications of sequential tests STEP 5: SPECIFY REGULA TORY REQUIREMENT The effectiveness of employer based strategies is directly affected by not only the TOM strategy, but the degree of participation of employers in imp lementing those strategies. Experience shows that under purely voluntary conditions, employer participation occurs at very low levels, i.e., only a small percentage of employers can be expected to participate. Under mandatory conditions, where a law or regulation forces participation, participation rates can be expected to be higher. For this reason, the TO M Model allows the user to test different levels of partic i pation reflecting environments ranging from voluntary to mandatory, with discretion to test special cases in between. The Mode l makes it possible to reflect different levels of legal requirement/participation for each indiv idual TOM strategy. Those users applying the model in the context of an individual employer will probably find this feature less important than area wide planning situations where aggregate participation is an impor tant factor in assessing the effectiveness of TOM on systemwide travel/traffic conditions. The indiv idual employer can basically ignore this feature and assume full participation. An important subcomponent of estima ti ng the impact of both em ployer-based TOM strategies and the employer participation rate is accounting for the composition of the employment base, as cap- PAGE 99 tured in the employment distribution. Research i nd i cates that the effectiveness of TOM strateg ies, as well as the tendency of employers to implement those strategies is linked to the type and size of employer The model. therefore, attempts to account for this in the linkage of strategy effects to type and size of employer. Employers are differentiated in the mod el by three characte ristics : size, type and status. o In terms of siz e four categories of employers are represented : Small : Medium : Large : Very Large: 1 to 49 employees 50 to 99 employees 100 to 499 emp loy ees 500 or more employees o In terms of type, employers are categorized as: Office, which corresponds to white-collar, professional and service type employment (SIC codes of 6000 and up); or "Non-Office", which corresponds to industrial, manufacturing, and wholesale /retail trade activities (SIC codes under 6000) o In te rms of status, employers are categorized as existing or new. Status of employer relates to whether or not they wou l d be affec te d by a future TO M regu l atory requirement. Often, TOM regu l ations are appl ied only to employers who enter the impact area after a certain date, particularly as it affects enactment of an ordinance. Employers in residence before the regulation may be exempt, or expected to participate on a move voluntary basis A distribution matrix is provided within the model which divides the travel base into 16 cells, corresponding to the above employer type size and status designations. The default distribution shown is the model is taken from the national census data. Managing Ou r Way Through Congestion 1-15 PAGE 100 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-16 Users of th e mode l at a subarea or regional level are enco u raged to supply their own in formation on the loca l employment distribution if possible. These data are supplied i n Step 1 at the I nput Data stage. For those users who will be applying the model at the level of the indiv i dual site/employer, their task i s reduced to deter mining which of these 16 categories best describes their situation, and then sett i ng that cell to 100% in the distribu tion. STEP 6: RUN CALCULATION ROUTINE Once the TOM strategy assumptions have been made, the user initiates a calculation routine by pressing a single key (F2). The user is asked to supp ly a output report file name for (plus the names of the trip tables, if they a r e des i red), and then the calculation proceeds rapidly. On a 386-level computer with a math co-processor calculation time for a TOM trial applied to a trip table of about 1,000 origin-desti nation pairs is about two (2) minutes. STEP 7 : REVIEW CALCULATION RESULTS When the model has completed its calculations, the user may then gain access to the results in three different for mats: o Tabu l ar Summaries wh ich indicate the impact of each TOM program trial on baseline modal split, person trips, veh i cle trips and VMT. These may be viewed on screen or sent to a printer for hard copy. o Color Grapbic Displays that illustrate key results like changes in modal split, trips o r VMT across trials or across destination zones. This media is effective for education and consensus building. o Trip Tables in mach ine-readable form are also produced for transfe r back to the 4-step planning model for assignment and analysis of network traffic impacts. PAGE 101 Transit Service Improvements M ODU L E GOALS o To define the types of transit serv i ce i mprovements that can help alleviate congestion. o To understand how in-vehicle travel time and out of-vehicle t ravel time impact commuter trave l decisions o To examine the role tr a n si t plays as a TOM strateg y ASSUMP T I O N S o Particip a nts do not intend to run a transit property o Participants understand the difference between fixed-guide way vehic l es and buses. o We like transit, transit is our friend D E SCR IPTI O N O F STRATE G Y Downtown the regional urba n core, w here high trip de n sities cre ated both the need fo r co m mut i ng altematlves and the opportunity for transit to move large numbers of people efficiently is no longer the major destination for wor1< trips. Transit systems everywhere are facing the same challenge, how to provide a reasonable qual i ty of service to the less densely-developed areas scattered aro und the metropo litan area with i n incr easing l y restrictive budgetary limit s Three types of actions to consider are : o New Serv i ces o Service Improvements o Connective Serv i ces New S e rv ices o Brand new route o Exte nsion of an existing route. o Tailored bus service -designed to meet the need of a specific population -example s includ e buspools and subsc ri ption bus services M anaging Our W ay Through Congestion 2-1 PAGE 102 Managing Our Way Through Congestion Transit service must compare favorably with the private automobile in total door-to door travel time to attract riders. 2-2 Service Improvements o Reduce wait time -increase service frequency -modify routes to reduce headways -institute a timed transfer system. o Reduce riding time -run buses in limited-stop or express operation -construct freeway or arterial bus lanes -implement traffic signal preemption for buses -restructure routes to provide more direct service. o Transit tenninals -construct or enlarge park-and-ride lots -develop transit transfer centers -construct bus stops and sidewalks within suburban activity centers. o User cost -implement a fare prepayment plan -fare passes -coordinate fare pol icies across service providers -subs i dize fares Connective Services o Shuttle Service-Activ ity centers are re l atively isolated from other economic activities which are considered important by employees Providing, easy access to retail. r estaurants, and other support activities, using short-distance, high frequency shuttle service can faci l itate trans i t use. o Peak Per i od Shuttles to nearby transit stations can link an empl oyment site to an existing route which may prove particu l arly beneficia l for reverse commuters NATURE OF EFFECTIVENESS TimeSavings Travel ti me has long been recognized as one of the most i mportant var i ab l es affect i ng trave l ers' decisions. Commuters prefer travel modes that have the shortest travel time. Thus transit's success i n attracting riders is roughly proportional to its ability to save the commuter some time. compared t o alternative modes. Travelers conside r not only the time spen t on-board the ve h icle, but also how far they have to wal k (or drive) to reach it at either end of the trip, how long they have to wait, and whether they have to transfer to complete the trip PAGE 103 Transit service must compare favorably w ith the private automobile in total door-to -door travel t i me Transit trav e l time is composed of two eleme nts : o ride time o access/wait t im e Travelers view access/wait time as roughly 2.5 times mo/8 burden some than ride time. Coat Savings The cost of using transit is perceived in two contexts: o ho w the transit fare compares with the cost of driving and parking o ease of fare paymen t Met h ods of Payment Sales by Tender Type for February 1995 Visa/M ast 19.5% C ash 22 .5%. Other 4.2% Tra,noll Chec k ATM Card 16 6% 1 4 % Source: M onthly Report Cry$tal City Commut er SIOC'e. Match 1995 Few commuters 818 a wa/8 of th e true hidd en cost to themselves or to society of driving one' s own auto Par1
PAGE 104

Managing Our Way Through Congestion It is important to provide buses with a total time savings of at least seven minutes compared to driving alone. 2-4 Transit service that offers a choice of three or four departure times during the peak period is certainly more flexible than a pooling arrangement that offers only one departure time. Some commut ers. however. consider themselves to be "SOV captive". For these people it is doubtful that improved transit service would ever con vince them to switch travel modes. Transit Dependency Lower-income workers and those with disabilities may not have a clear choice. Such travelers are considered to be transit captive and are generally l imi ted to jobs that are accessible by transit. This includes people who are choice-captive commuters who allow their primary vehicle to be used by other household members. WHAT IS EFFECTIVE? New Services Some transit services, such as buspools which use over-the-road buses and serve only one workplace, often enjoy a h igh -quality, exclusive image among commuters. Fare prepayment schemes that are typical of buspools further enhance the attractiveness of such services. Service Improvements o Wait nme: Timed transfer system can almost eliminate transfer wait time and the uncertainty associated with trans ferring. Obviously, frequency is important as well. o Ride Time: Some routes do not provide a sufficiently direct path from home to work. Consider restructuring bus routes to provide a shorter path between suburban r es identia l and employment locations. For routes which are already direct, the provision of signal preemption, a separate freeway bus 0 lane or a toll bypass facility can give buses a time advan tage. It is important to provide buses with a tota l time sav ings of at least seven minutes compared to driving alone. Transit Terminals: It is often preferable to concentrate bus service in a corridor so that a park-and-ride served by many buses can minimize overall wait time. "Peripheral" park-and ride lots are established on the edge of downtown (or other built-up areas). By providing free or low-cost parking and shuttle bus service, such lots are effective in reducing downtown traffic.

PAGE 105

0 User Cost: Fare subsidies encourage transit use by making it more competitive with the private SOV. Fare prepayment programs can greatly simplify what to many commuters seems an unnecessarily complicated transact i on Is It Worth It? Cost of providing the service is rarely completely paid by the rider. Num erous studies and service demonstration programs have concluded that this cost is justified only when the benefits are large. Benefits can be realized only when transit is implemented in the right setting, one in which the trip densities are large enough, and the service is competitive enough, to att ract sufficient ridership. APPLICATION SETTING In the spectrum of TOM actions transit service is a 'high end strategy whi ch req u i res a relatively high density of tr i p ends for it to be successful. The reason why such hig h volumes are needed to justify trans i t service i s that compared to other TOM measures, transit is a rather expensive strategy In short, transit service can be effective and efficient in removing SOV trips from the roadways only where there is enough demand to justify the costs of providing service. Once it Is determined that there is sufficient demand to make it feasible to consider transit service, the next issue is whether transit can be competitive enough in a particular setting to attract enough trips to provide a reasonable revenue/cost ratio (or cost per SOV trip removed, or other similar measure). If the setting does not result in transit being competitive, transit may need to be 'helped' along by impl ementa tion of one or more supporting strategies MAKING IMPROVEMENTS WORK IN SPECIFIC SETTINGS Reverse Commuting Many public transit systems provide reverse commute service. Reverse commute service can be provided through Improvements to existing lines or new services. New reverse commute services can be operated by: 0 0 0 existing public transit agency contracted to a private operator organized by the employer (or group of employers) as a buspool or subscription bus service targeted to selected employment and/or residential areas Managing Our Way Through Congestion Reverse commut ing is the work related trip inne r city residents travel to suburban job sites. 2-5

PAGE 106

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-6 Suburban Route Restructuring When suburban job s i tes are accessible via transit, maki ng the trip often requires subu r ban res i dents to travel into the central city, transfer routes and use another line to get back out to the subu r ban work site. It may be necessary to update the route structure to more closely match current suburb-to-suburb travel patterns and mi n imize the number of transfers. If r estricting routes i s not feasible, it may be possible to implement a timed transfer system. The schedules of the various routes are coordinated so that many (or all) of the buses arrive at a centra l location at the same t i me, and lay ove r unti l all transfers are suc cessfully completed Shuttle Connections Using short (1-5 mile) shuttle routes with small buses to connect isolated office bui ldings with retail and other serv i ces can enable such empl oyees to use transit for their travel to and from work. I n many suburban areas served by rapid commuter ra il lines nearby employment is often located too far from the rail station to access by walk i ng. New routes or restructuring existing ones can link stations with suburban jobs, thus allowing both "inbound and outbound workers to use the ra i l system for commuting to the suburbs. Buspools/Express Bus Service Situations often lend themse l ves to express bus service or buspool programs because the long travel distance or the need to cross a choke point," such as a bridge, magnifies the inconvenience asso ciated with driv i ng MAKING TRANSIT COMPETITIVE WITH THE SOV Supporting Strategies Because the time and cost differences between transit and private automob il e are sometimes subtle and often difficult to perceive, transit strongly benefits from a variety of suppo rti ve actions that magnify its advantages The success of any new or improved tra n sit service is often directly related to the quality of these sup portive actions.

PAGE 107

0 HOV Facili ties : Specia l lanes or roadways on freeways or arterials, or a transit ma ll" in the down to w n area that re -Managing Our Way duces transit veh icl e running time Through Congestion 0 Park in g P ricing: Parking taxe s or surch a rges are especia l ly effective i n creating a cost different i a l between driv i ng and transi t and encouraging a driver to seek alternatives to driving 0 Parking Li mitations: Zon ing or simi l ar restrictions t hat limit the number of parking spaces have th e primary effect of in creas ing the i nconvenience associated with driving (i.e., finding a space or being faced with high parking costs) 0 Fare Su bsidies : Subs i diz i ng transit fares ca n he lp get new serv i ces established and subsidies can be targeted at certain groups to h elp overcome an initial reluctance to use transit 0 Convenient P a yment: Far e p asse s and other pre-p a yment methods remove a major inconv enience to using transit encourage reg ular ridership, and can be selectively ( and discreetly) subsidized. 0 Information Services: Using transit requires information on routes schedul es, and fares that non-transit users often find difficult to obtain and understand; providing such details co nveniently through a workplace kiosk removes yet anothe r impe d i ment to using transit, particularly If the kiosk is staffed with knowledgeab l e people 0 Site Design: Many suburban employment centers have not been designe d to accommodate tra nsit vehicles easily, resul ting in a l ong wa l k a nd an isolate d wa i t at a bus stop on the main road Relativ e ly mi n or changes in site design guidelines can greatly improv e the convenience and reduce the time associated w ith using tra nsit . 0 Park -an d-Ride Lots : These are a wa y o f effecti v ely extending transit's service area by providing a convenien t transfer p oint. Parkand-ride lots allow transit routes to be concen t rated, thus offering more frequent service than trying to co v e r a low-density area with the same number of routes. 0 Guaranteed Ride Home: For areas wi th limited hours of service (e.g. buses departing 4 -6 pm onl y ) a guarantee of a free or subsidi zed ride home (us ually via tax i) can assure emp l oyees who occasionally mus t w ork la t e or wh o feel they might need to l eave during midd a y (e.g., t o a tten d end t o 2-7 family emergencies ) that t h ey w ill not be stranded at work

PAGE 108

Managing Our Way Through Congeation 2-8 0 Mid-day Shuttles: A commonly given reaso n for not using transit is that a personal vehicle is needed for running er rands during the day. Providing a shuttle bus to connect an isolate d office park with nearby merchants and services allows employees to use transit to get to work without fee l ing "stuc k in the m idd le of the day. TRAVEL AND TRAFFIC IMPACT POTENTIAL Changes In Express Bus Service Each 1 percent increase in express service frequency or rou t e coverage (measured in bus trips or bus miles) has led to a 0.9 percent increase in ridership. When express service is imple mented i n an area already served by transit, some of the express riders are diverted from existing local routes. The local bus diver sion ranged from 10 percent to 71 percent. On average, a reduction of 0.89 percent in regional work trip VMT was calculated, equivalent to a reduction of 0.31 percent in total regional VMT The cost per VMT reduced ranged from $0.36 to$0.54 (1991 dollars) and the cost per one-way work trip reduced ranged from $2.15 to$3.24 (199 1 dollars). Express Reverse Commute Service The vast majority of the users of express reverse commute ser vices come from existing local routes; only about 18 percent were in private vehicles (9 percent drivers, 9 percent passengers). The major benefit of express reverse commute service is in providing enhanced mobility to lower-income workers. Changes in Local Transit Frequency or Coverage "Before and after" studies from around the country indicate that the elasticity of bus ridership with respect to frequency (buses per hour) .is approximately 0.5. A greater response can be expected in areas having a large number of potential choice r iders, where the original frequency is three buses per hour or less. Research in the no rtheast United States suggests tha t the frequency elasticity of commuter rail riders is slightly higher: 0.6 to 0.7 As with express service i mprovements, some of the riders of im proved loca l service comes from other local routes. A region wide 25 percent decrease in wait time (equivalent to a 33 percent in crease in buses per hour) would result in a 0.3 percent to 2.0 percent reduction in regio na l work trip SOV VMT.

PAGE 109

Similar analyses of changes i n area wide t ransit service coverage indicate tha t the overall elastic ity of ridersh i p w i th bus miles of serv i ce i s 0.8 In th e l arge cities a 0 0 4 percent increase i n bus miles res ulted in a 0 1 3 percent reduc t ion in V M T and in the sma ller c i t ies a 0 07 percent in crease in bus miles resulted i n a 0 03 percent reduct i on i n VMT. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES A commonly used guideline in im pleme nting transit service in an environment of uncertain demand (which is us u ally the case) is to proceed incrementally. Various demon stration projects around the country ha v e shown that services which s tart and respond quickly to changes in demand are more suc cessful than large sca le start up efforts There are n umerous a ctions wh ich e i ther d ir ectly support transit use by helping to provide a tim e cost or conv e nie nce advant age and other actions w hich indi rectly he lp by removing rea l or per ce iv ed i mped i ment s to using transit It is vital to im plement at least some o f these s t rategies a l ong w i th any new or expanded transit serv ice. Access/wait time savings can be achieved only by extending the coverage of service to reduce walk times or by reducing the inter val s b etwee n trans it vehicles in order to de crease wait times Some potentially less expensive ways of achieving access/wait time savings are : o Restructuring routes to p r ovi d e more direct origin to-destina lion service ( elim i na tes need to transfer and time spent wa iting for second v ehicle ). o I ns t ituti ng a t imed tran sfe r system ( min i mizes time spent wai ting for the second vehic l e w hen transferring is un avo id able) o Extending park and -rid e serv ice (in lo w density areas it may be better to have commuters drive to a park and ride lot from wh ic h buses operate every 1 0 minutes, rather than provide walk access on a route that operates every 30 minu tes). o Making modest bus route extens io ns at the workp lace end (I e., move the bus stop clos e r to the buil d i ng) Manag in g Our Way Through Congestion 2-9

PAGE 110

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-10 NOTES

PAGE 111

TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS M O DULE GOALS 1 To in trod uce transit-friendly land use designs 2 To understand the relationship between l and use and transpor tation 3. To provide the knowledge to review site plans for transit, bicycle and pedestrian access. ASSUMPTIONS 1. Participants have a basic knowledge of planning 2. A picture is worth a thousand words 3. Future development must be trans i t -friendly. PERCENTAGE OF TRIP S AND TRAVEL DISTAN CES 1 To shopping, religiou s and education 2. To services and person al busi ness 3. To socia l and recreatio na l 4. Work and related activities 24% 5 miles 15% 7 7 miles 20% 10 7 miles 33% 10 6 m i les WHERE DO DOWNTOWN WORKERS GO DURING LUNCH? 1 2 3 4 IMPORTANT RIDESHARE INCENTIVES F O R EMP LOYEES 1 Lunchtime shuttles 2 Emplo y ee cafeteria 3 On site chi ldcare 4 Other on-site services Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-1

PAGE 112

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-2 TEN REASONS WHY NEW COMMUNITIES ARE BETTER: 1. Recreational facilities 2 Organization of land uses 3. Attractiveness of community 4 Street design 5. Shopping facilities 6 Open space/lack of crowding 7. Preservation of natural features 8. Schools 9 Social programs 10. Variety of housing types 27% 25% 16% 16% 15% 15% 14% 12% 5% 3% WHY OUR COMMUNITIES ARE NOT PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY: 1. A quarter mile walk takes the average person five minutes. 2. Conventional zoning isolates uses and d i scourages easy flow. 3. Many streets are not designed to accomodate foot traffic. 4 Most blocks are too long or do not have sidewalks. 5 The average household averages 14 auto trips per day. 6. Residential streets are subjected to higher speed des i gn standards. -Broad turn i ng radii -Gradual curves -Lane widths 12 feet or greater THE EDICTS OF ANDRES DUANY

PAGE 113

NE.I6HSORHooo Source: Andre Duany and Elizabetb Pltler-Zyberk, "Tr:aditionol Neigbborhood Design, Mlo.mi Florida ... December 1991. 1. Reduce infrastructure costs through clustering. 2. Preserve natural space. 3. Facilitate pedestrian and recreational activity. 4. Improve connectivity 5. Provide multiple paths Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-3

PAGE 114

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-4 NEOTRADITIONAL TOWN DESIGN LINKED VERSUS SINGLE PURPOSE TRIPS CSO: SINGLE PUAPOSE TRIPS NTD: LINKED TR IP$"" COI.t.I!CTOJI. I I ., I I I .O.I I ... 0111GINI'OU'hMAfiOM J. SWOP""C. S.ll'V'ICU .... / I 1 ....... I -1 - I Source: W3Ucr Kui:.Osh, Town Design-Will the Tr:lmc Work?; AJCP Workshop o n Neotr:t.dilionol Town Pluning. 19'91. 1. No street hierarchy. 2. Street corners as commercial enclaves. 3. Linked trips. Comparison of travel speeds and travel times Trip Conventional Neotraditional Purpose Suburban Design Design Home-Shop 21 mph, 3.1 minutes 13 mph, 2. 7 minutes Home-Office 23 mph, 4.6 minutes 10 mph, 4.8 minutes Home-School 21 mph, 3. 7 minutes 13 mph, 2.8 minutes THE VILLAGE CLUSTER DESIGN FEATURES PAGE 115 ...... . . .... ...... . . . . . .. 0: . . . . . . . ( (<'lliJ.\ . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . : .. .: 0 0 ::.:: . --... ... .. ..... 0 . . . . . . . . . . 1. Transit routes on collectors not arterials. 2 Each neighborhood has variety of housing types. 3 Community centers provide services for all. 4. Pedes tri an movement is easiest. 5 Village center has services that r equ i re h i ghest volume o f peop l e Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-5 PAGE 116 Managing Our Way Through Congestio n J .. 6 CAL THORPE DESIGNS: C:tlthorpt Auocl:ues, "Tr:. nsilOrienred Development Design Cuidelinu," Prepo.red tor lht So.cramenco County Plortninc 4rtd CC)mmunlty Development Oep::artmenl. November l990. PAGE 117 . . : : . . . . . . . ... . . . . ...:.. . . ... S0u1u: Auoca.to, TnpJji.Qrj(p!d O:tw\QpQK!!I Pule o Gslfk!jns Prepared !Qir$aCfiiiiiCDIO Pl11111i11J 111\1 !9?0 Artail---'<
PAGE 118

Ma naging Our Way T h rough Congestion 3-8 TRANSIT CORR I DOR DISTRICTS GEN ERAL LOCATION OF TRANSIT CORRIDOR DISTRICTS Arteri al Street .... =1::3== CONTROL OF THROUGH AUTO TRAFFIC Souru : fklmhorn d 2 1., A 1'r:.nsil Dastd t o L:aad U u Duicn: fl:apc r p f t $U i t t d t b l 7ht Ann11:1l Mcclll'l f T'r! U U(Kit tllllon ltesuuh 8 fHifd ll-1,, J9!12. Sourct: HllM't)' R:ll'-luwitt O.nd U"':u-4 lk:imboom Tbt Hew S !f'>urtt {Wubin.cton, D C : Offi c t of Tccl u tico.l Anhto.nu UrtiO.ft MOJt Tro.uportalhtn A dminittro.tiOJ'I, J u l y 1991) 1. Specia l trave l corridors designed to provide transit t i me sav i ngs 2 Non-HOV vehicles proh i bited from sect i ons of r oadway. 3 Arterials remain as is for autos only. 4. Tra n sit stop reoriented to specia l corridors. 5 Tra n sit way is surrounded by higher density housing 6. Commercial uses l inked to transit stops. PAGE 119 TRANSIT S ENSITIVE SUBURBAN LAND US E DE S I G N TRANSIT-RELAT E D DEVELOPMENT AUT OMOBILE-RELATED DEVELOPM ENT S.ru.: ltlbr u H ar"'ltf. ollieowiu. Guj4rlle u ftr ]):apt!! S t11!U u SuliiOoo IAI Y w pul p (W.blrt .. O.C.: Omu I 'T'ttlrlaJc o l Assbta.noe.. Urtl M.au Tri.JIJ,.flltl .. A t llnlllll tro.lltn hiJ lttl). 1 Restricted throug h trave l. 2 Pedestrian protection. 3 Parking on-street a nd b e hind buildings 4. Buildings oriented to stre et. 5 Human sca l e. 6 Auto as secon d cl a s s citizen. 7 Park and w a lk v drive park and drive TRANSIT DESIGN GUIDELINES Land Use Type Residen t ial Commercial Office Industria l M inimu m Size 2 400 dwelling units 375, 000 squar e feet 150,000 square feet 1 4 00,000 squa re f ee t Managing Our W ay Through Congestion 3-9 PAGE 120 M anaging Our W ay Through Cong estion J .. lQ TRANSIT A CCESS S TANDARDS TURNOU T BAY lH _____ __;u L A +-+ 52. 5 M I N ----------------30 R M I N 7-J. A rn 1 1 11 NOT TO$CNJII CULDESA C 52.5' RADIUS 35' ENTRANCE CURVE RADIUS --,. 35' ENTRANCE CURVE RADIUS _..;1 30' RADIUS NOTTOSCAL! THE BELMONT CASE: NEOTRADITIONAL V LAND USE LAWS . =MI.Miol -<: ......... ,'''"! ______ .... ... I : : \ ;:.,.,: : ......... o .,.. : : : -. . . : ;.-------------------, . . . . . I : "":" .... ,' I

PAGE 121

The neotradit i onal design 1. Var i able paths to choose from. 2 M i xing of uses 3 Reduced number of higher speed roadways 4 P r ov i sio n o f many types of uses The r equired des ign variances : Feature VDOT Standard Variance requested Design speed Landscaping Streets 35-45 mph 20 35 mph Not allowed in ROW Within ROW 12 feet 10 feet ROW Width On-street parking 40 -90 feet + sidewa lks 34-70 incl. sidewalk Yes-Removed as Needed Yes-Permanent . ? I t" 0 The refined Belmont design 1 Lots of cui-de-sacs 2. Segrega t ion of uses 3 Services only on arterial 4 More h i gh speed streets 5 Cleared right-of-way 6 Loss of character . c ...... "'" ... 9 I q ....._.:. ..... _'0 Managing Our Way Through 3-11

PAGE 122

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-12 SITE PLANNING ALTERNATIVES 1 tQQR PEDES'I'RlAN Aa::2SS niROUGH LOT IS U!l
PAGE 123

Bicycle and Pedestrian Commuting Module Goals: o To understand the benefits of bicycl ing and walking. o To learn about the potential of walking and bicycling as alternative modes within a multi-modal transportation system. o To learn how bicycling and walking can be part of a TOM program. o To learn strategies for making bicycling and walking more effective i n your community. Assumption: o Mode choice of travelers may depend more upon the strength of public policy and government support for developing alternative modes than upon climate, geography, income, technology or degree of urbanization. CURRENT USAGE o 60% all tr i ps < 5 miles long Walking Trips : 7.2% of Total Bicycling Trips: 0. 7% ofTotal o U.S cities committed to bicycle planning % Bicycle Commuters 25.0 Davis, California 10.0 Gainesville, Florida 9.3 Boulder, Colorado 8.0 Eugene, Oregon o Davis, California bicycle commuter p r ofile Bicycle as Primacy Mode Students 53% UC Davis Employees 27% City Employees 6% School District 9% Private Sector Employees 7% Manag ing Our Way Through Congestion 4-1

PAGE 124

Managing Our Way Through Conges tion 4-2 OBSTAC LES TO WALKI N G/ BICYCLING o In adequate fac i l i t ies o low density separated land uses o Site and building design limit ations o Subsidization of auto travel o Perceptions o O thers FEDERAL PLANNING REQUIR EMENTS o ISTEA o f 1991 State bicycle/pedestri a n coord in ator Both states and MPOs Include pedestrian/bicycle facilities in long r a nge transportation p l ans and programs Bikelpedestrain facilities as part of i ntermodal transportation system STATE LEVEL PLANNING 0 0 0 0 0 State l evel programs vary in emphasis California and New Jersey B i cycle facility i ntegration into highway design 1970s -' 80s North Carolin a Educa tion, promotion staff support Oregon Dedicated funding Florida State highway system requ i rement s [Ch 335.065( 1 )(a) F.S.) Local comprehensive pl a nning requirements [Ch. 163 3177(6)0) F.S.) ELMS amendments Florida bicycle 2000

PAGE 125

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF BICYCLIN G AND WALKING TO : o Sociely? o Emp loy ers? o Indi vidual commu ters ? PLANNIN G STRATEGIES o Land use configura tion Mix Location Densily o S i t e and bu ilding design o Land us e planning tool s Zoning Subdivision regul ations Site plan review Site design standards o Land use/trans portation planning integration 0 Roadway patterns Interna l circ ulation Access to adjacent land uses ln termodal connectivity Transportation planning tools Managing Our Way Through Congution 4-3

PAGE 126

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-4 0 0 Comprehensive planning for bicycle and pedestrian modes (the 4 E's) Engineering Education Encouragement Enforcement Transportation faci l ities provision and design Sidewalks and pedestrian amenities Trai l s/paths Bicycle lanes lntermodal links and conflicts Operations and design techniques Traffic calming Traffic cells FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES o ISTEA Surface transportat i on program (STP) Nati ona l highway system (NHS) Congestion mitigation and air quality (CMAQ) Federal land highway Others o State and local level EDUCATION Set-aside programs DOT budget alloca ti ons Sales tax receipts Developer dedications o Chi l dren o Adults Home-to-school study, University of Florida Florida traffic and bicycle safety education program Bicycle rodeos Effective cycling Publ i c informat i on campaigns Driver education and licensing

PAGE 127

E NCOURA GE M E N T o Promotional literature o Events o Employer sponsored programs ENF O R C EMENT o F l orida uniform traffic control law ( Chapter 316 F S.) o 80% education/20 % enforcement o Police bicyc l e patrols TE CHNICAL A SS ISTAN C E o State and local bicycle/pedestrian coordinators o State DOT Public Transit Office o State DOT regional or district offices o Transportation M anagemen t Organizations (T M Os) o T O M Clearinghouse, Center for Urban Transportation Research, USF o F l orida Ins titute for M arketing Alternative Transportation, FSU o Florida Traffic and Bicycle Safety Education Program, UF o Others SO U RC E S: P ucher, John Urban Travel Behavior as the Outcome of Public Po l icy : The Example of Moda l Split in Western Europe and North America," Journa l of the American Planning Association. Autumn 1988 FHWA, National Bicycling and Walk ing Study, Case Study No. 18. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-5

PAGE 128

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-6 NOTES

PAGE 129

CARPOOUVANPOOLPROGRAMS Goals o To describe carpool and vanpool programs and their applications. o To discuss the nature of effectiveness of carpool and vanpoo l programs i n cluding travel impacts and cost effectiveness. o To identify the implementation issues regarding carpool and vanpool programs. Assumption s o Part i cipants ca n identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with carpooling and vanpool in g o Wori
PAGE 130

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-2 The characterist ics of these carpool matching systems can be grouped into three categories. Minimum Data To Match o home street address or alternate start point (day care, park and ride lot etc.) o work street address, o stops (vanpool rider meet ing areas), o work schedules, o availability of flexible work hours, o date of entry/last update o passenger preferences (smoking, emergency only, etc.), To I nstill Confidence in the Matchlist to Facilitate Use o name of employer o name of subdiv i sion, apartment complex, or other landmark o phone number(s) o nearest intersection o map showing location of persons on his or her match l ist o preferred travel routes To Improve the Marketing of the Program o current mode o how they heard of the program NATURE OF EFFECTIVENESS The effectiveness of carpool programs is based on the work-site and the related advantages and disadvantages associated with the location. Advantaoes Disadvantaaes

PAGE 131

APPUCA TION SETII NG Carpool in g seems to work best as a TOM s trategy under the follow ing condi ti ons : Travel M a rkets The best ma rket fo r carpoo l in g are commuters tra v eli ng to and f r om w ork during the peak travel periods This is true given the fact that the largest pool of potential ridesha rers is derived under these conditions. Who carpools? The follo w ing table was adapted from The Demo graphics of Carpooling a paper prepa r ed by Dr Erik Ferguson based on an analysi s of the data obta in ed from 1990 Nati onal Persona l Tra nsportation Study. Before you turn the page try this short quiz lrRUE or F A LSE I 1 Femal es a r e more like l y to carpool. 2 As MSA population density increases so does percentage of peo ple who carpool. 3 Participation i n carpool ing declines w i th age. 4 About one-half of carpoole rs commute 5 m iles or less 5. People w ithout kids are more likely t o carpool. Managing Our Way Throug h Congestion 5-3

PAGE 132

Managing O u r Way Throu g h Co n gestion 5-4 How Different Groups Commute to W ork Based on 28, 623 perso n work trips from thb t 990 N a t io n a l P ersonal Transportation Study. Shown Is how each group divided its method o f commuting and, i n parenthaus, the pen;:enta98 of perso n w o rk triDs to eac h g r o u p Drive C ar Tranlt Non Alone Pool motorized Trip Purpose Home-t>ased Work ( 23%) 79% 16% 4% 1 % Home-t>ued Sh09ping (12%) 46% 5 2 % 1% 2% Homebased SoclatrRecreation ( 17%) 30% 64% 1% 4% Home-based Ot h er (26%) 38% 57% 2% 3% Not Homeb ased (21%) 39% 59% 1 % 2% Di s t ance 1 t o 5 m ile-s (43%) 76% 18% 3% 3% 6 to tO m i les (23%) 82% 14% 4% 0% 11 to 15 m i les (13%) 83% 14% 3% 0% 1 6 to 20 mil .. (8%) 8 1 % 1 4% 4% 0% 21 to 30 m iles (7%) 79% 1 6% 5% 0% 31 and over mik!ls (&% ) 72% 21% 6% 0% Geographic Location Ce n tral City (35%) 74% 17% 7% 2% Urb an-OuWde Centra l City (30%) 82% 14% 3% 1% Not Urb a n (35%) 81% 18% 1% 1% Urban A rea Siz e 50.000 to 199 .999 (14%) 83% 14% 1% 1% 200 ,000 to 499,999 (9%) 82% 16% 1% 1% 500,000 to 999,999 { 18Vo) 8 1 % 16% 2% 1 % 1 000,000+ Whhout Rail (25%) 80% 16% 3% 1% 1,000,000+ With Ratl (34%) 70% 15% 12% 2% MSA Pop ulation Den sity 1,000 to 2 .000 persons/sq ml (26%) 82% 1 4% 2% 1% 2,000 to 3.000 persons/sq m l ( 1 9%) 8 1 % 16% 2% 1% 3,0 0 0 to 4 ,000 per> o nslsq m i (15 % ) 60% 16% 4% 1% 4 ,000 to 5 ,000 p&rSoi\Sisq ml ( 11%) 7 9% 17% 3 % 2% 5 ,000 to 7 500 pe<>O<\Sisq m i (13%) 7 5 % ,8% 5% 1% 7 500 to 1 0 .000 p&l$0 n s/sq ml (6% ) 73% 17% 8% 2% 1 0 ,000 to 50,000 persooslsq mi (9%} 5 1 % 14 % 29% S% Over 50.000 personslsq,.,; (1%) 22% 10% 54% 1 3% Non-MSA Populat i o n Den sity (Perso ns/Squ are M ile) 0 00 to 0.10 per>onslsq mi (28%) 79% 20% 0% 1% 0.10 to 0 .25 pe!'$Onsl sq mi (25%) 81% 18% 0% 1 % 0 25 to 0 50 per>o n s/s q ml (22%) 63% 18% 0% 1% 0 .50to0. 75pef$o ntJs.qmi ( 13%) 8 5% 14% t% t% 0 .75 t o 1.00 per$0n.s/sq m i ( 9%) 83% 14% 2% 1% 1+ persons pet .square mile (2%} 76% 16% 5% 2 %

PAGE 133

Managing Our Way Through Con gestion Driv car-TraMit Non-Al(ltte Pool m0. 4 % 1% YoungeSI 0<1001 (29%) 81% 14% 4 % 1% 3 1>0<1001 (24%) 78% 17% 3% 1% 4 pertona (23%) 79% 17% 2% 1% 5+ persons (16%) 73% 21'14 5% 1% Number of Vthicktt in HousehOkt o vehic les (2%) 11% 26% 49% 13% 1 vehlde ( 1 8%) 67% 23% 7% 2% 2 vehicles (47%) 82% 15% 2% 1% 3 vehicles (22%) 84% 1 4 % 2% 0% 4 vehic:lts (11%) 85% 13% 1% 1 % 5-5

PAGE 134

5-6 Traffic Conditions Carpooling may be promoted most aggressively by areawide agen cies and employers in areas with the most severe traffic congestion and air quality problems. The existence of congestion, however, is not a perceived inducement to carpooling among commuters. Carpools do not inherently provide an advantage over driving alone in congested areas. Quite the contrary when carpooling involves added travel time to pick-up riders, the carpool is placed at a dis tinct disadvantage to driving alone. Supporting strateg i es to give a time advantage back to carpools or prov i de incentives to carpooling can offset the disadvantages of carpooling in congested areas. Carpool programs are most effec tive when supported with strategies that equalize" the commuting equation to make carpooling more attractive and /or driving alone less so.

PAGE 135

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Facmties Preferential Parking BEN E F I T Travel time savings Walking time savings Alfo
PAGE 136

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-8 more effective than areawide efforts alone Employer programs have been documented with reducing trips to percent over prevailing conditions but these results are large ly due to the financial incentives and parking management strategies observed as part of the most effective employer program. When evaluated alone. carpool promotion might only be expected to reduce trips a few percentage points. COST EFFECTIVENESS Area Wide Programs The measures of cost effectiveness are most often stated as cost per carpooler placed or cost per VMT reduced. The cost per per son placed into a carpool averaged $47 in the mid-1970's as com pared to$144 among Virginia programs in 1985 and $123 per person placed by CTS in 1990. The average cost per carpool person trip was$0.10 in mid-1970's and the cost per VMT reduced was $0.024 comparable to the Virginia state-wide statistics in 1985 ($0.02). The process of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of area-wide programs requires the collection of the following data. Number of customers: Number of different commuters who have used the services over the reporting period. Usually, this is not the same as the total number of customers in the database as some of them may have been registered with the commuter assistance program (CAP) for longer t han the reporting period. A standard definition (e.g., each individual who requested CAP the 12 month reporting period) has been agreed upon by the CAP and funding agency. It will be the key variable for monitoring effec tiveness once the following rates are established Placement Rate: Percentage of customers who form a pool or ride transit as a direct or indirect result of the CAP's efforts. The place ment rate is determined from a survey of the CAP's commuter customers. There are three types of placement rates to be iden ti fied: o customer direct placement rate; o customer indirect placement rate; and,

PAGE 137

o general public ind i r ect p l aceme nt rate The d i rect placement rate focuses on those cus t omers who change their travel beh av ior as a direct result of a CAP program or service. The customer indirect placement rate refers to those who change travel behavior but do no t attribute the change to a specific service. The remaining group, the general public indirect placement rate, refers to those who are affected by marketing of the program or take advantage of a service (e.g., use a new bikepath) that never make direct contact with the CAP Frequency: Average number of days per week a person placed into a pool or bus actually uses this mode to commute CAP ser vices also should strive to increase the frequency of use of these options Duration: The average lif e of the carpool for e xa mple may be shorter or longer than the fund ing period Some studies repo rt a carpool duration average of two years. Includ i ng pool duration as an i mportant variable in th e effectiveness equation also recognizes the need and funding required for maintaining existing pools and bus ridership Alternative Cost Effect ivenes s Measur e: Cost Pe r Passenge r Trip While the cost per trip reduced and other efficiency factors are useful for comparing progress from one year to the next or measur ing against other TOM programs. another true test is its cost effec t ive relative to other alternatives such as the cos t to add highway capacity or prov i ding other forms of transit serv i ce The operating expense per unlinked passenger trip i s one perfor ma nce measure is used by the transit industry to measure cost effectiveness A comparable measure can be estimated for TOM programs to provide a low cost basis for planners and funders to quickly evaluate the cost effectiveness of TOM programs. By converting the TOM program results of placing people into non single occupant vehic l e modes to "passenger trips" and allocating the costs of the programs to those units. these parties will have a basis of comparison of TOM programs to other transit alternatives. However, a cautionary note i s required. Clearly, there are significant market differences between \(ilnsjt Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-9

PAGE 138

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-10 and TOM programs and this sketch planning tool should not be the sole basis used for allocating funds. Furthermore, there are several issues to be resolved; some of the issues reduce or increase the comparable transit cost. Unlike TOM programs, transit agencies offset some of their costs through the collection of revenue. Comparing the operating costs would clearly give the misleading impression that the bus average cost per trip of $1.82 is significantly less cost effective than TO M programs. The exclusion of some forms of revenue (e.g ., passenger fares) for transit appears to provide a reasonable basis for comparison. As an alternative, planners or funding agencies might treat only the State and Federal grant shares for transit as a com parative standard. Other issues include the exclusion of capital cost depreciation for transit, and the fact that unlinked passenger trips overstate the number of person trips from origin to ultimate destination by includ ing transfers. Accounting for these issues would increase the cost basis for transit. Another issue is the duration rate for pool formation. CUTR recom mends that the "investment" in the people placed into a pool or bus be allocated over the life of that pool, regardless of the reporting period. EXAMPLE: TOM, Inc., a non profit transportat i on management organization served 2, 500 commuters in 1994 Research found that 15 percent of these commuters were placed into a non-SOV mode. These commuters used these options an average of 3 times per week. Additional research found that commuters only remained in this arrangement for 6 months. Based on this informa tion, TOM, Inc cost per passenger trip is$1. 71. Operating Expense Per Unlinked Passenger Trip by Mode 1988-1992 MODE .12l!l! .12ll2 1,9gQ 1m 1l!92. Bus $1.43 1.47 1 .56 1 .65 1 82 Heavy Rail 1.53 1 .46 1 .63 1 77 1.61 Commuter Rail 5.17 5.54 5.87 6 01 6.92 Ligh t Rail 1. 29 1.30 1.36 1.58 1 64 Demand Response 7.03 7.53 8.53 9.47 11.03 Source: National Transit Summarie$ and Trends: From the 199 2 N.alional Transit Database

PAGE 139

HOW TO EST IMATE COST PER PASSENGER TRIP 1 Enter No of commuters served : commute
PAGE 140

PAGE 141

share rides ; 2 sound market res ea rch in fo rmation on types of employees to targ e t for rideshare matching and promotion ; 3. good up to-date information on commute opt i ons and potential matches made avai lable to interested employees in a timely manner; 4 Consistent follow-up: a "personalized approach to persuade employees to try carpooling and contact a f ello w worker or e ven a stranger; 5 High-level corporate support by employers so that carpooling becomes part of the corporate culture ; 6 F i nanci a l support to assure a sound lasting program ; 7 Suppo rting programs which staff the carpool program distribute marking materials, promote specific incentives and generally promote the carpool program and other commute al ternatives : and, 8. Customer feedback system (e.g comment cards) to monitor and improve customer satisfaction Carpool matching systems and support should have the following characteristics to be optimally successful in inducing commuters to use alternatives : Acc urate Comprehensive Tim ely Personalized Persistent User-Friendly Secure Flexi b le Managing Our Way Through Cong estion 5-13

PAGE 142

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-14 VANPOOL PROGRAMS Vanpools rep r esent an important alternative to driving alone fall in g midway between transit and carpools in terms of carrying capacity and flexibility economics and convenience to the user. Van pools usually involve groups of 7 to 15 people -mainly commuters traveling together in a passenger van on a rout ine basis. Normally, one member of the group serves as the driver, and also assumes the responsibility for the organizational and maintenance details of the operation Riders typically pay a weekly or monthly fee to cover expenses to the driver who frequently rides free and may have off-hours use of the veh i cle. To form a va n poo l i t i s necessary to: o Ident i fy a gro up of at l east seven trave l ers whose tri p patterns t i me s c hedules and persona l chara cter i s ti cs are sufficiently c ompatib l e to form a stab l e, ride-sharing unit. o Support th e cost of acquiring, fueling and maintaining a vehicle o Find an acceptable arrangeme nt for sharing responsibility in terms of driving organization/scheduling, and vehicle maintenance o Assume the ri sk and expense of i nsur ing the vehicle For s impli city the three f u ndamenta l methods of vanpool o r gan i zation are described below : 1. Owner-Operated Yans: 2 Employer Sponsored Vaopools: ---------3 ThirdP arty Yanpoo l s : -----------

PAGE 143

NATU RE OF EFFECTIVENESS Society: Vanpool ing offers relief as a vehicle t rip r eduction measure. Be cause van pools carry between 7 and 15 passengers per vehicle trip, each vanpool po t entially removes a sim il ar number of single occupant vehicle trips from congested high ways Moreo ver be cause v a npools normally serve longer t rips, they can have an even greater impac t on reducing vehicle miles of tr a vel (VMT), w hich i s a primary determining f a ctor in highway capacity needs and veh i cu lar emissions The number of passengers carried by a vanpool allows it to serve an important niche in the transportation market. A van : 0 0 Concerns about van pooling center on the is of van pool competition w ith transit service, and hence possibly reducing transit' s cost r ecovery potential in certain markets Employers : For employers under requirements to reduce tr i ps in conjunctions with trip reduction, gro wth management or air quality v anpooling is a potentially effective option for meeting these re qu ir ements Vanpools a lso represen t a potentially cost-effective way for emplo yers to gain access to labor poo l s which a re either mobi l ity or economically restricted Some employers have claimed tha t vanpooling has indi r ectly helped thei r business by rais in g employee morale and reducing absentee ism and tardines s E mployers objections to van poo ls, concern : o the cost a nd administrative burden of setting up and operating a formal vanpool prog ram ; Managing Our Way Through Congestion s .. 1s

PAGE 144

Managing Our Way Through Congestion The retention rate for vanpools is high, with over 90 percent of person start ing in a vanpool staying with it. 5-16 o adherence to a vanpool travel schedule compromising professional staff commitments and performance; and o employees or proprietary information being lost to other firms if a pool mixes employees from different employers. Individual Traveler: Having a viable vanpool alternative offers the benefits of possibly reduced cost, convenience, more effective use of travel time, and freedom from driving and the use and wear on one's own vehicle. Many vanpoolers like social aspects of vanpooling, with the pool groups developing tight, long-term social bonds. Vanpools must be perceived as offering tangible benefits. The following considerations are important when evaluating the option of riding in a vanpool: Increased Travel Ilme: To vanpool, the trave ler often experiences longer travel times. This resuHs from either having to travel to a pick up location, or traveling on a circuitous route to pickup or drop off other riders. What this generally means is that vanpools, to be perceived as being advantageous to the individual trave ler, serve longer trip lengths where these time penalties become a smaller portion of the overall trip. Schedule Constraints: A vanpool imposes schedule rigidity. Pro fessionals who frequently find it necessary to work late or have unpredictable hours may find the rigid schedule of a vanpool too confining or unrealistic. Cost Factors; Sharing costs in a multi-passenger, shared-ride arrangement would presumably result in attractive costs to the vanpool traveler in compared to driving alone. However, SOV travelers frequently fail to perceive a compelling cost advantage, for two primary reasons: ( 1) SOV users often do not regard the full costs of operation when making their trave l decisions {2) Parking at employmen t sites is frequently free or heavi ly subsidized.

PAGE 145

In light of thes e fac tors, and b ased on the princi p l e that a van pool i s fin a nci a ll y self-s u sta ining tr ave lers might not in many cases conclude that the s h ared cos t of a vanpool is sufficiently less to make it more attractive t han driving alone particularly for shorter tr i ps APPLICATIO N SETTING Travel Markets: The market for vanpooling has been limited primarily to long.{jis tance commuters The reasons for this lie in the minimum travel distance/time necessary to make the cost per mile and total trip time after group assembly attractive r e l ative to a l ternatives It is generally thoug h t that a one-way trip l ength of a t least 20 m iles i s the m i n imum n ecessary to support a vanpoo l Because only about g percent o f U S workers have trips that exceed 2 0 miles th i s prequa lificati on would appear to p lace a sharp uppe r limit on the i nit ial market potentia l for vanpooling The market for vanpooling has also been assoc ia ted with l arge employers, i.e. those employing 500 or more work ers at a single site N ationally, employers of this size account for only about 25 percent of all employment situations The impli ed upper lim it for vanpoollng would be 9 percent x 25 percent, or 2 2 percent of all trips Trip D i stance (In mlleo ) EtnployOf 0 s 6. 10 11 15 1 8 21. 29 30+ Total Site I 49 20 .6'4 8.2% 3.9% 2.5'4 1 9% 1 .3% 38. 4 % 50 99 6 .3'4 2 4 % 1.2% 0 .7'4 0 .6'4 0.4 % 11. 6 % 100.499 13 .-'% 5.4% 2 4 % 1 7% 1.2% 0.9% 25.0% 500 13 4'4 5 .3% 2.6 % 1 8% 1 .3'4 U% 25 0% A n 53. 7% 21.3% 1 0 .1% 6 .5'14 5 0% 3 .4'14 100'14 T raffic Conditions: While congestion makes driving alone less attractive, it doesn't make riding in a van pool any shorter. since in most cases the vanpool must drive on the same crowded roads as single occupant vehicles Managing Our Way Through Conges tion 5-17

PAGE 146

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-18 Setting: Vanpoo l s can function viably i n most any setting. Interestingly, t h ey may be at their greatest advantage in some of the sett i ngs traditionally served by transit specifically from suburbs into con gested Central Bus i ness Distr i cts. Where vanpools h ave an ad vantage over transit i s that they can reach i nto the farther, lower dens ity subu rbs (or "exurbs"), because they require fewer passen gers to be viable and those passengers find the most efficient way to assemb l e and meet with the service Type of Traveler: Stud i es also suggest that vanpoolers tend to be drawn from certain socio-economic groups. Data indicate that a high percentage of existing vanpoole r s hold white-collar jobs and earn above-average incomes Data indicate that: Vanpool r iders had jobs i n are primari l y __ w i th an average age of __ Supporting Strategies : Travel Time Travel time penalties incurred i n picking up or d r opping off passen gers can be made up through priority measures that give t ime sav i ngs back to vanpoolers The most common of these are: o P r iority HOY Facilities: Making available special l anes for vanpools that allow them to bypass congestion and travel at a higher rate of speed. o Preferential HoY Park i ng ; By provid i ng close-in parking for vanpools (and other HOVs) at worksites and forcing SOVs to par k further away walk time savings are afforded to vanpoolers Scheduling In orde r to use a vanpool, one must eithe r be able to adapt his/her schedule to the poo l or find alternative means t o trave l on those

PAGE 147

occasions where he/she cannot connect because of a conflict. These concerns are handled in two major ways : o ElexibleNariab l e Work Hours : Vanpoo lers may be more inclined to use a van poo l if the employer permits some flexibility i n the setting of hours to be compatible with the needs of the pool. o Guaranteed Bide Home: Studies have shown that an impo rt ant reason for driving a ca r to work is a perce i ved need to have a car available in case of a family emergency, or for working l ate. Offer an alternative method of travel, in case of such situations occurring ranging from a free or discounted tax i ride to use of a company fleet vehicle Tra ve l Coat Vanpoo l s are genera ll y expected to be financially self-supporting, meaning that all costs relat ed to the ownersh ip and operation of th e vehicle must be covered by the riders Under current law emp l oy ers are permitted to subsidize both transit and vanpool use up to $per month without tax l iability accruing to the employer. These restrictions notwithstanding there are important ways in whi ch emp l oyers can reduce the cost and financial risk of van pooling to emp loyees : o LifelCYcle Capital Depreciat i on: o Parking Charges/Subs i dies: o Insurance : 0 Startu p Cost and Bisk Minimization : Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-19 PAGE 148 Managing Our Way Through Congestion s .. 2o TRAVEL AND TRAFFIC IMPACT POTENTIAL Vanpooling 's transportation impact can be shown as follows: Commute Vehicle Trip Reduction Vanpool Market Share of Commuter Trips AVO 0 3% 1.0% 5% 10% 1 .05 0 .3% 0.9% 4 .6 % 9 2% 1.10 0.3% 0 9% 4 5% 9.1% 1 .15 0.3% 0.9% 4.5% 9.0% 1 .30 0.3% 0.9% 4.4% 8 .9 % Commute VMT Reduction Vanpool Market Share of Commuter Trips AVO 0.3% 1 0% 5% 10% 1.05 0.6% 1 .7% 8.5% 16 9% 1.10 0.6% 1 .7% 8.4% 16.7% 1.15 0.6% 1 .7 % 8.3% 16.5% 1.30 0.6% 1 .6% 8.2% 16 3% COST EFFECTIVENESS The effectiveness of vanpooling as a travel option in cost terms relat ive to other courses of action is again best described in terms of its impact on th r ee groups: society at large employers, and the ind i vidual traveler. Cost to Society In an analysis using extensive highway construct i on and mainte nance data from its 1990 Maryland State Commuter Assistance Study COMSIS Corporation estimated the cost to society to supp l y the necessary incrementa l highway capacity to support an addi tional SOV trip demand at$6.75 per one-way trip. This assumes a work trip of 10 5 miles in l ength, and incorporates both capital and 0 & M costs. If the travele r made the same 10 5 mile work trip in a 12-passenge r vanpool assuming the vehicle itself did not require any additional

PAGE 149

highway space due to its size than a standard automobile the cost to society per person transported would be reduced to S6. 75/12 or $0.56, representing a savings per one-way trip of$6 19 Th i s level of savings total $12 38 per day and$3,220 per year for every person trip that would be made in a vanpool rather than in a SOV. The cost savings through vanpoo li ng i ncreases with the length of the trip Cost to the Employer The major cost typically borne by emplo yers to support employee travel i s in the prov i sion or subsidiza ti on of park in g For 72 firms who were able to repo rt data on their costs to provide parking, the average to tal financ i al commitment came to $64 per space and$73 50 per employee per year For the 38 firms who estimated the cost to provide expanded park ing, the cost averaged $3,930 per space, suggesting a very high penalty cost to providing overflow parking When administrative costs w e re not considered, the average sub s idy per van paid by the sample of employers was$ 1 283 per yea r per van If administrative costs are considered, they add $70/ year per van. Significantly, even with administrative charges, 60 percent of the firms paid$0 to $10,000 per year to support their vanpooling program Assuming 12 passengers per van, this subsidy works out to$12.35/year per employee compared to $73.50 pe r year per employee to provide parking Consideration of less tangible ben efits further enhances the attractiveness of this option. Cost to the Individual To the individual traveler choice of a particular trave l mode confers the follow i ng prim ary benefits : Managing Our Way Through Congestion Emp l oyer expense In operating a vanpool program falls into two primary categories of cent: administrative and direct operating costs. 5-21 PAGE 150 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-22 T ravelers themselves tend to consider only the short run marginal costs associated with using private vehicles; in other words, they consider only the fuel costs and whatever obvious out-of-pocket costs they exper i ence on a daily basis (tolls, parking fees), and ignore the much l arger costs of vehicle ownership, including capital cost, maintenance and insurance. The average cost per mile to operate an automobi l e assuming an annual utilization of 10 000 mi l es is$0.458, of which only 9 1 cents are operating costs (fuel, oil), while 36.7 cents account for the fixed costs of depreciation, maintenance and insurance. The average commute r considers only the marginal costs of fuel and oil to r epre sent the cost of using an automobile for the work trip, the cost per mile will be a straight 9.1 cents per mile for any trip length If only short-fun SOV variable costs are considered riding in a vanpool w i ll only begin to show cost savings at significant trip distances, typically 20 miles or more IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Desp i te the significant appeal of vanpooling as a medium-density modal option with high traffic-impact potential and traditional eco nomic self-sufficiency efforts to boost use of the mode will meet with numerous barriers. At a minimum these include the following: o Public transit operators are likely to fear competition from vanpooling in certain markets. o Some public transit oeprators will actually see cost and other advantages to higher levels of vanpool serv i ce in their service a reas, but may be constrat1ned by politica l institutiona l and funding issues in seeking to make greater use of vanpool options o While some employers view vanpools as an important emp l oyee benefit and managment strategy, many employers are resistant to vanpooling for such reasons as: Loss of flexibility Added administrative bother and expense Security and confidentiallity Many transportation planners, employers and individual travelers perceive vanpools as being l i mited to only special situation, namely long commute trips and large employers. Many of these barriers

PAGE 151

can be mit i gated a nd the uti l iza ti on of vanpoo l s greatly increased: o Cost eff e ctive alt emative to serve various tran s i t market s that are not easily served by transit. o Vanpool market penetration need not be li mited to trips of 20 miles or more i f fav orable economics and commensurate time savings are made availa b l e This can be ache ived through: Managing Our Wa y Through Congestion 5-23

PAGE 152

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-24 NOTES

PAGE 153

EMPLOYER SUPPORT MEASURES Module Goals: o Discusses how the effectiveness of TOM strategies can be enhanced by providing complementary programs and services. Assumptions: o Complementary programs do little to change the rela t ive attractiveness of different commute modes. o The function of complementary programs i s to support and encourage use of TOM strategies that can make commute alternatives enticing DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGY Complementary programs and services increase commuters' awareness of their alternatives, enhance the convenience of using an alternative, or reduce the need for a personal automobile during the work day. These programs and services fall into three catego ries : o TOM program marketing o Site a menities and design o Support i ng act ivities TOM MARKETIN G BY EMPLOYERS Mark eting of TOM can be directed to commuters at several geo graph ic levels : regional, loca l area or activity center and individual employment sites Emp l oyer market ing efforts do sometimes include general promotion of TOM, but most often ma rket the specific TO M services and i nce ntives provid ed by the employer or options available only to travelers at that site. There are three components of TOM marketing by employers that warrant attention : Managing Our Way Through 1 .. 1

PAGE 154

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-2 1. Information Pissemination -Typically relies on posters, bulletin boards, flyers distributed desk-to-desk, in house newsletters new employee orientation, and periodic promotional events such as rideshare fairs. 2. Employee Transportation Coordinators (ETC) -Offer individual trip planning assistance at employment sites. 3. Specjal Promotions In cludes periodic prize drawings contests, awards for ridesharing, commuter or bicycle clubs and other activities to attract the attention of commuters, generate excitement about the use of commute alternatives, and reward ridesharers The key to the success of the TOM marketing effort at employers is the ETC. The purpose of an ETC and how the function and responsibilities fit i nto the overall transportation scheme will vary, depending on who is asked The answers reveal much about the immense value of their contribut i on toward shaping our transportation future. Generally, the ETC is the individual responsible for promoting TOM by providing personalized trip planning assistance to employees at the employment site. The ETC's specific responsibilities are defined by the needs of the community, employer, and employee The needs of the community and employer require changing commuter behavior. These needs can not be effectively met until the ETC first succeeds in satisfying the needs of the individual employee. The role of an Employee Transportation Coordinator is multi-faceted. The ETC must be one part i ns ightful planner one part effective communicator, one part consummate customer service rep resenta tive. and another part proficient transportation analyst. The ETC will find that many of these skills will be called upon as the organization proceeds with the development and implementation of the TOM plan. The dut i es of a typical ETC could include: o Investigate the existing transportation situation, develop a data base, and determine the potential for change. o Select goals and objectives, plan appropriate strategies and the tasks for carry ing them out, develop a timetable and

PAGE 155

establish a budget. o Actively soli cit support from manageme nt other departments and key individua l s with in the organization o Advertise and market the program to employees in order to create awareness and interest in participa t ing in alternate commute modes. o Create conditions and incentives which will encourage employees to change their commuting patterns. o Personally facilitate the formation and utilization of commute options 0 Track and report changes in commut ing patterns Other h i ghly desirable qualities sought in ETCs include the desire for variety in their work and capable to adapt quickly to change. In developing a TOM plan or expanding an exist ing one, the roles the ETC plays will change with each stage of its development. As the program matures, however it isn't unusual for the ETC to assume many of these roles within the same day It isn't enough to perform one function well; the ETC must excel in many aspects of the job. Fortunately, the emp l oyer and the ETC have other sources of outside help Including local transit and ridesharing agencies and consultants. SITE AMENITIES AND DES IG N In addition to the above marketing efforts employers can support various TOM strategies in the design of the worksite and surround ing areas Rjdeshare Friendly" Work Site Design Accommodate the space and maneuvering needs of transit and vanpool vehicles; provide safe attractive rideshare loading areas; and minimize the walking distance for carpoolers vanpoolers, and transit riders. Some sites also target the special needs of bicycle and pedestrian commuters. They include bicycle parking protected from theft and from the weather sho wers and personal storage lockers, and bicycle main tenance facilities For pedestrians the provision of side walks and markings can make it easier for those who l ive nearby to walk to and from w ork. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 .. 3

PAGE 156

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-4 GUARANTEED RIDE HOME (GRH) PROGRAMS TAMPA BAY AREA GRH (TAMPA, FL) Employees who participate in ridesharing, riding the bus, etc., at least two days per week are eligible for GRH. Employees must register with their ETC to be eligible for GRH Program. Participat ing employees are eligible if an emergency arises or u nscheduled overtime I s required. The ETC needs to verify validity of emergency or overtime. HARTLine, Tampa's transit system, wi ll pay up to $20 for a taxi ride. If a participating employer is not located within a TMA service area, the employer will pay the difference in fare. The TMAs w ill pay th is difference for employers i n their ser vice area Taxi fare is limited to$70. DENVER REGIONAL COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENTS (DENVER, CO) The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) RideArrangers' GRH is sold to employers on a stand-alone basis or as part of the ECO Pass program. The ECO Pass is available only through employers and like the GRH, must be purchased for all employees at any compay location whether or not they currently ride the bus. Wrth the photo I. D. which represen ts the Eco Pass, patrons have unlimited rides on the transit system (RTD) for the life of the pass (usually one year). RTD contracted fwi th DRCOG to provide the GRH for Eco Pass holders and paid a flat rate of $2 per employee per year for the GRH. The GRH is also sold separately to employers. Companies with less than 250 employees are charged$3 per employee; those with 250 to 2,499 are charged $2 per employee, and those with 2 ,500 or more are charged$1 per employee. When sold alone, a minimum contract amount of $1 00 is charged for administration. After the first nine months, 311 companies were enrolled (22,000 employees enrolled). Cost of taxi service per enrolled employee was$0.76 per year. WARNER CENTER TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ORGA NIZA TION (WOODLAND HILLS, CA) A mix of taxi and rental ca r services are used to deliver the GRH based on travel distance. Shuttles are used when rental cars can't be used f or some reason and only to certain areas. Limits exist on

PAGE 157

number of trips distances, and side -trips. The TMO covers a ll eligible costs accord ing to a negotiated schedule wi th the provid ers. No pre-registration is necessary The ETC arranges for trans portatio n for the employee based on TMO procedures According to the i r report, the TMO spent $13 ,600 for 245trips over its second year. Providers bill the TMO. Of the employees surveyed, 59 percent said that the GRH provided by the Warner Center Trans portation Management Organization in the West San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles was important in their decision to carpool, vanpool or ride a bus The actual reasons for using the GRH differed from the TMO's expectations The T MO had assumed child-related emergencies would occur most often but employee ill ness and overtime ac counted for over half of the 1 4 0 trips taken during the evaluat ion period. Employee illness Overtime Child need Family illness Carpool driver ill Death in the family Car/van breakdown Other 30.7% 22. 1 15 7 12.9 7.9 5.7 4.3 0 7 THE TMA GROUP (BRENTWOOD, TENNESSEE) In the Brentwood, Tenness ee area the TMA Group includes the GRH as part of its services offered to employer-members and include the cost in its dues struct ure Est i mated reimbursement was$2,000 for tax i and rental cars for 63 trips over a 19 month period Providers bill TMA. RIDEFINDERS (RICHMOND, VIRGINIA) In Richmond Virginia, Ridefinders, the regional commuter travel service provides a guaranteed ride home program to customers who l ive in one of the three counties that contribute to the organiza tion. These three jurisdictions also have a reciprocal taxi agree ment. Carpoolers, transit riders, and vanpoolers must pre-register. In the ini tial stages, commuters paid tor the first mile ($1.50) and w ere reimbursed for the balance by Ridefinders The commuters were free to choose from any cab company The average cost per tr i p was about$15 and they had a usage rate of 30 percent. Managing Our Way Through Congestion t .. s

PAGE 158

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 .. 6 On-Site Services Emp l oyers can reduce the number of trips and vehicle miles of travel by prov i ding easy access to commonly used services such as day care fac i lities, postal centers cafeterias and restaurants, dry cleaners. A TMs, convenience shopping, and copy shops at the worksite or vicinity SUPPORTING SERVICES Guaranteed Ride Home Programs Guaranteed r ide home (GRH) programs, also called guaranteed return trip or emergency ride home, are commuter insurance. Many commute r surveys have shown that an important factor i n commuters reluctance to rideshare is the fear they will not be able to respond to a personal emergency such as picking up a sick child at school or be stranded without transportation if they have to work late unexpect edly. GRH programs offer free or subsidized emergency transpor tation generally by taxi cab or rental car, to commuters who do not drive to work alone. An examination of guaranteed ride home programs identified seven methods of providing a GRH serv i ce: o Back-up Vanpool. In most cases, the vans are used during the day for a vanpool service. Straggler vans follow a fixed route and the passengers are p i cked up from and dropped off at pre-determined locations. Back up vanpools pick up a ll riders at the same point but dropped off at locations of their choice. Shuttle vans from airports operate in a sim ilar fashion o Back-up Carpool. Carpool ridematches are provided to those who need to work late or whose carpool partners are unavailable. There are several projects testing the use of "real time" ridematching o r carpool on-demand o Taxi Service A person in need of a ride calls a taxi and pays for the ride. He o r she i s later reimbursed by the employer or TOM agency or is p r ovided a voucher to give to the cab driver. o Rental Car. For long distance commuters, arrangements are made to have a renta l ca r delive r ed for use as a GRH However if the person i s ill or emotionally distressed (e.g., l oved-one injured), a taxi may be used.

PAGE 159

o Compan y Fleet Car Employees a r e perm i tted use of a company ca r to get home. o Escort Service. The employee makes arrangements with the security office to have a security guard escort h i m or her to nearby transit stop. o Public Transi t As a GRH program. this form operates in a manner similar to the taxi wit h the user receiving reimbursement. Corporate CommitmentCorporate comm i tment refers to the overall level of support for the TDM program In genera l, it reflects a willingness of uppe r level corporate manage m en t to devote resources to the program provide tangib l e i ncent i ves estab lish a corporate 'culture that supports ( rather tha n pena l izes ) emp l oyees use of commute alternatives and part i cipate in l oca l and reg i ona l transportat i on-re l ated programs A strong commitment typically is demonstrated by an extensive package of Incentives offered to commuters, but also includes supporti v e w ork en v ironment policies such as : Othe r PC ram Madsetjng The institu ti on of t ri p reduct ion r egula tions on emp l oyers has sparked n u merous crea ti v e market ing and promot i on efforts designed to increase ent h usiasm and i nterest in TDM and to make TDM "fun". For example, employers have in cluded the following promotions in their TOM programs : o Free walking sho e s fo r pedestrian commuters : o Free, on-site vehicle fuel ing and detailing for the "Vanpool o f the Week'; o Drawings for commuter prizes (e g ., b i cycle helmets) Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-7

PAGE 160

Managing Our Way Through Congeslion 1-8 0 Cash bonuses based on number of days in a non-single occupant vehicle o Car washing by the CEO of the company for the "Carpool of the Quarter," (Promotion held at lunchtime to allow employees to watch); o "Carpooler of the month is allowed to move to the head of the company cafeteria l ine; o A car was given as a prize to the "Carpooler of the Year" (donated by the car manufacturer) ; o Ridesharers are given free coffee and donuts in the company cafeteria; and o The ETC distributes chocolates to ridesharers during the day. NATURE OF EFFECTIVENESS Many commuters are unaware of specific commute services and incentives that are available to them. Increasing awareness of such services could lead to an increase in commute alternative use by those commuters who are receptive to a shift to a HOV mode, but need information on ridesharing partners or transit service. This is borne out by a 1990 survey conducted in Warner Center. Nearly 20 percent of the respondents who had begun ridesharing during the previous year indicated that "help finding people with whom to carpool" or receiving "bus route and schedule information" was important in their decision to rideshare. An important psychological impediment to ridesharing is a reluc tance to try the unknown. Several of the complementary program elements, such as on-site services and guaranteed ride home (GRH) programs, support decisions to rideshare by reducing com muters' need for a personal automobile during the day GRH programs have been shown to be highly valued by r idesh aring commuters and to have been a supporting factor in their decision to rides hare. Just how important is guaranteed ride home program to making carpooling more attractive and convenient to commuters? In Rich-

PAGE 161

mend Virginia nearly 270 commuters who were randomly se lected by an indepe ndent marl
PAGE 162

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-10 primarily transit for non-work trips to these developments. For example, transit use for trips to shopping centers could be pro moted by distributing transit schedules at the center, offering dis counts from merchants to transit riders, and designing safe, conve nient transit access at the center. lnfonnation programs also can promote rldesharing for travel to special recreational events such as concerts or sporting events where localized congestion before or after the event would likely occur. TRAFFIC CONDITIONS Overall Impact of Employer Marketing: The research discussed above suggests that program marketing, although an important element of a TOM program, largely is ineffective alone. Shifts to ridesha ring as a result of infonnation programs can be expected to be only 0-3 percent. The presence of an on-site Employee Trans portation Coordinator seems to make TOM programs slightly more effective, but again, only a marginal impact is l ikely. Overall Impact of Work Sjte Design: Work site design and the presence of on-site services may contribute incrementally to em ployees' decision to rideshare, by making ridesharing a more con venient mode than before, but conclusive data are not available. Provision of special facilities for bicycling and walking seems to be more effective in increasing use of those modes, but the absolute numbers of commuters typically remain small even when percent age increases are large. Overall Impact of Guarantee d Ride Home Programs: Seattle Metro also found evidence that the GRH program it implemented in 1988 had been a factor in some employees' commute mode choice. At the end of a six-month demonstration period, participants were surveyed to determine GRH's impact on their mode choice. Twelve of the 142 participants (8.5 percent) reported a shift in mode. Metro data suggest that GRH may have more impact on keeping current ridesharers from switching to SOVs. "GRH played a role in helping to maintain the level of HOV usage for those who were already using a HOV mode most of the time," but that "the GRH incentive on its own does not appear to be as useful for motivating people to enter ridesharing as to continue it."

PAGE 163

The importance of GRH as a support ing e l ement i n trip reduction seems t o be clear although as with other comp l ementary pro grams imp act alone likely is small. It is a "very importanr incen tive for a small percentage of commuters, and perhaps strongly contributes to the mode choice decision of 2-5 percent of commut ers who shift t o ridesharin g. Overall Impact of Commitment: The inRuence of a strong corporate commitment on decisions to rideshare although sug gested by ETCs at many companies, is so overshadowed by the impacts of the comprehensive TOM incentive packages imple mented by these companies that it is impos s ible t o ass ign a nu merical impact. COST EFFECTIVENESS The follow ing tab l e shows typical costs for market i ng and adminis tration of TOM program s and for GRH programs Typical Cost of Complementary Program Program Marketlngt l Employer programs fewer than 1,000 employees over 1,000 employees Area -wide programs Guaranteed Ride HomeC2l $10,00055,000/yr$18,000 100,000+/yr $62,000 250,000+/yr Plann ing/Adminis ltation Cost$3 ,000 15 ,000 Estimated Annual Trip Cost (15 rri. trip) : -100 e ligi ble oomroote
PAGE 164

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-12 If we assume that an employer with 1,000 employees implements a moderate TOM program with marketing and a GRH program, Its cost is l ike ly to be on average $26,000 ($23,000 for part-time ETC and marketing and $3,000 for GRH). If the complementary pro gram alone increases ridesharing by no more than 3 percent, or 15 trips at this employment site (if all switch to 2-person carpools), the cost per trip removed would be$1,734 per year of $6.88 per trip per day. Marketing and GRH programs generally support the implementation of more tangible program elements, however, and the total TOM program trip reduction probably would be higher. Wrth the same level of marketing effort, the contribution of comple mentary programs to the total cost per trip reduced li kely would be smaller. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES The effectiveness of program marketing can be increased by the following: Informatio n materials should reflect the characteristics and atti tudes of the target population (e.g., travelers' i nterests in environ ment versus cost saving). Promotions should be appropriately scaled to the target population (e.g., mass med ia advertising for regional information campaigns and desk-to-desk informat ion distribution at employment sites; vanpool information targeted to long-distance commuters and bicycle information to short-distance, etc.). Marketing should be highly visible and continuous to reach new employees or residents of the target area, and travelers whose travel needs have changed. Information centers (on-site or off-site) should be in easily acces sible locations and staffed with trained commute professionals Administration of the program should consider the following issues: Promotions that include prizes and drawings for ridesharers should be clearly defined as "rewards" for ridesharing to avoid equity issues with single occupant drivers, who are not permitted to par ticipate. PAGE 165 Company (or agency) policies regard i ng TOM use and i ncentives should be clearly defined and monitored to ensure compl i ance with the policies The TOM program should establis h goals and progres s should be evaluated on a regular basis to ensure the program incentives and complementary program elements are effective (and cost-effective relative to other potential strategies and techniques) If employers (or other TO M implementors) are implementing an untested TOM strategy, they should consider implementing a demon stration or pilot program to evaluate effectiveness and estimate the costs on a small scale. The following table lists the program elements of a GRH a nd pa rameters to be considered. The table was prepared by The Risk Mana gement Center, Inc. for the Virgin i a Department of Rail and Public Transportation Virginia's proposed comprehensive GRH program is one of the transportation control measures that could be adopted if the Northern Virginia area is not found be in confor mity. According to VDRPT, their research found the primary value of GRH is retaining existing ridesharers and transit riders in high occupancy vehicle modes. VDRPT also collected data to examine the potential of the program to become self-sufficient. They found only 1 of 16 scenarios that would a llow the program to have the potential to breakeven. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-13 PAGE 166 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-14 Program Element Operating area Eli&ibillry Criterla Destinations No. oflntmnedlm Stops AUowtd Reasons l'or Use Modes of Transportation Parameter Considerations with in u rban atea within TMO service srea within select areas Residents of area Commuters to the area TMOmembe,. Pert time employees Students Transit riders Carpoolvc:nime Scheduled but unusual O\'time Unavailabilily o f carpoollvanpool dri''" (Y<1ta1ion. etc ) Catl\lanpool dri,er had to rea,e work carl)'. Cat /vanpool does 1)()1 0pt1a1e on a holida y but employee must work Businc. ss requirements Taxiany available To."i eontnt'led providtr Ahpon limO t)' pe Rental ear Public transit Comments The extent.ion of the distance increases the cost. Acc::eu to program may be an issue (member w non member} Polilka l issues are important to consider. In 1M event ohiek catp001 drivet, bad wealhtr, c te. FOf self or family Conecm ofworici.n.$ parenu. Person can ooty go to one of the plaoes permitted and must continue to fuW destinM:ioo tt O'o'ln C'Jql(nse. To liml-1 abuse potential, waiting time fOf a taxi or eonuact provider must be lim ited. Must be defmcd driver take van homt but driver would use GRH This cou l d be a two-way trip Late m:tin.g Best options seem to be a combination of various mock$. This allov.'S customiution and mc:eu tbt needs of more people Waivers and age of rental car companies are important. "noUier i mportant issue i.s lhe practioc: of rental agencies putting a ""hold" .. on t;rcdit car limitS to guarat1tce PAGE 167 Program Element Parameter Considerations Modes ofTransponalion car <>r V PAGE 168 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 .. 16 NOTES PAGE 169 PREFERENTIAL HOV TREATMENTS M odule Goal s : o Identifies the types o f High Occupancy Vehicle ( H OV) facili t ies and design considerations o Discusses various marketing and enforcement strategies for HOV facilitie s and the role they play in the e ffectiveness of HOV treatments. Asaumptlons: o An effective HOV program can be an in tegr al part of a region's commuter ass istance program o For an HOV prog ra m to be successful, it must be w e l l desi gned, m arke ted, a nd e nforced. If any of t hese elements a re missing the facility w ill fail. PREFERENTIA L HIGH OCCU PANCY VEHICLE TREATMENTS o B enefits: Encou rage a shift to more efficient multi occupancy modes of t ravel Increase the people-moving capacity of th e roadway and corridor; Reduction in traveltim e for users : Less cos tl y a lternative to incr e asing the vehicle capacity of the corridor through capital projects: I ncreases the productivity o f the transit system allow i ng it to compete mo re effectively w ith o t her modes: Reduce fue l cons umption Assist in meeting a i r quality standards. o TO M relies on HOV systems as a major strategy, w hi le HOV depends on the enhancement provided by practically all other TOM m easu res for ensuring its success Th ese measures include: Ride-matching and car pooling, Emp loyer i ncentives, Par k ing res triction an d pricing policies, Sup p ort facilities that help to collect and distribute HOV users Mark e ti ng projects to inform and educate t he pub lic. M anaging Our Way Th rough Congestion 'We can no longer build our way out of congestion ... As a rule, all highways in Florida w ill be li mited to five l anes in each direction How ever two of those five lanes must have HOV treatments." -Ben Watts, Secretary, Florida Department o f Transportation 2-1 PAGE 170 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-2 SieSpeciic l"l)lerrel llalion Cost Least a>slly fixed-facility, especialywhen dew!loped in exis1i1g frP.-<:A"""f. Planned. designed and CXli1Siruded 01 a J. to 8-year tine flame fllemer Jlalion T me Ccnslrudi:ln ,_ ta:t.IC>IC>m' Fastest lflllliOIICh for geair og some loon of fOceO.Cnlnsil guideway into Clpi!I1JIU$taJed Openirog HOV lams can be opened as eactr seclion is c::cr 1 rpleled LITiled Risk If lhe lane is not sull'icierrtly used, to OCher usefiA fundions. $UCit as rrCi:cupancy vehicle facilities 8le eligible for local, and federalfuncing from highway and flansil agencies. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS FAVORING HOV FACILITIES The 1991 lntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act One of the key requirements of this act is that congestion manage ments systems be developed by each state. This is one of four management systems required for the Nationa l Highway System, the other three being pavement, bridges and safety. The types of strate gies considered a ppropriate for a congestion management plan are those that expand the operational capacity of the existing designated Nationa l Highway System and this includes the us e of HOV facilities The concept of a congestion management plan was initiated as part of the recent legislation which increases the intennodal flexibility of USDOT program funds allow i ng the supplementation in both d ir ec tions between mass transit and highway funds Since HOV facilities satisfy the requirements of both programs it would seem that the legislation enhances the opportunities for funding HOV projects. The congestion management plan is still in its developmental stages and there are many issues still to be resolved However, the concept holds significant promise for the int egration of HOV projects into current metropolitan highway and transit programs. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments The Act recognizes the potentia l of HOV facilities for reducing pollution in urban areas and hence its usefulness as a strategy measure for meeting its requirements. But the Act also indirectly favors the development of HOV facilities through two of its requirements: PAGE 171 o It requires the private sector to participate in address ing the issu e of emp l oyee transportatio n. Emp loyers w ith more than 100 em ployees in designated non-atta inment areas will be required to increase average occupancy rates for woiX -trips by at l eas t 25% above the ave r age for all woiX-trips i n the a re a o If sanctions are eventually imposed on these non attainment a reas, the Department of Transportation may exempt only certain types of projects, among which are the construction or reconstruc tion of HOV facilities. The Environmental Protection Agency has the primary responsibility for interpreting, developing and implementing the requ irements ofthe act but the FHWA and the Department of Transportation have a consulting and concurrent role POLLUTION AND FUE.L CONSUMPTION REDUCTIONS o Connectitcut DOT 1 90 kg/mile/ day estimated reduction of Volat ile Organic Com pounds (VOCs) 0 20 kg/m i le/day estimated reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOs) &tlmated lmpaets of HOY Atte matJve a on Air QuaUty Katy freeway 1-buston, TeXIs a .. nn '*"* ,..,.,.ii:W KOYa.. 1t.3 20 ....WONII,._.,.tanes ..-..no HOi liM 15 g j 10 li 5 Hydrocarbons Nilrou$ OXide C.lbon Monoxide I'OIIutaniS source: TTl s muaat10n Analylts 1.m.tonoon, peakdil!c:tion 1991 Cltm and IIYII Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-3

PAGE 172

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-4 l&tilfilld m; or ibJ Katy Freeway, Texas 50 40 Galon of Fuel -30 '8 :; .n 20 10 3 HOV 4, No HOV 3. No HOV _, and types of lanes 1 rllltnullltiOn anatyses 6 a.m. to noon. p&akdhldion, 1991 demand lltvell MARKETING HOV FACILITIES Audience o Public. o Elected officials, including loca l regional, state and natio nal officials; o Public agency staff in agencies with a direct interest in the project; o Planning organizations; o Community groups and employers; o Media Reasons: o Heighten public awareness of the mission of the organization; o Build constituencies, create partnerships and foster support; o Increase public confidence and reduce hostility;

PAGE 173

0 Develop accurate expectat io ns ; o Facil i tate imm ed i ate use of the f a cilit ies, ensuring i ncre ased utilization ; and o Provide informa t ion that could enhance future project planning activitles Activity Tasks: Data Gathering: Provides a clear assessment of the social and political environment in which the project is taking root, as well as historical knowledge and in sight of other similar projects It would involve a selection of the following : lit erature search, surveys, focus group studies executive i nterviews and an identification of the issues a nd th e stakeholders in the pro j ect. Public and Private Communication: This phase should be designed to develop a rapport w ith business a nd pol iti cal leaders a nd eventua lly to mold support for the project. Activities should be specifically targeted towards each of the six constituency groups involved in the project, in order to ensure that the concerns of each i nterest group are identified and addressed in the HOV project planning process. General Awareness Campaign: This has been the traditional focus of most HOV programs, as with many transportation projects Success requires a clear theme and a coordinated effort Involving a variety of act ivities Evaluation: The marketing process w ill be incomplete without a n eva l uat ion of the results Evaluatio n should m easure not only the performance o f the new facility but the pub li c s perception a nd a cce ptance a s well It would a lso provide use f ul in forma t i on on th e results of the marketi ng campaign that can be helpful in planning futu re strategies. Plan Check Do Act ITS APPLICATIONS FOR HOV FACILITIES Electronic toll collection, that would allow the electron ic recording of a vehi c l es as it passes through a toll facility wit ho u t th e need to stop Information systems, prov i ding real time informat i on to current and po t ential custome rs Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-5

PAGE 174

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-6 Identification and enforcement, aiding the identification of veh icle s that violate the requirements of the HOV Ridematching, based on a more efficient system of real-time location of car-or van-pool vehicles. COST OF FACILITY, FOOT -1994 1994 Cost Per Centerline Mile -State Urban Roads : a.Lanes : , . .. . . . .. : . .-". . ..-:.: ..... ,.,:. :::;. .. ._ .. :.: New Construction (Interstate) $2,712,700 New Construction (Undivided) 2 ,5 34,400 New Construction (Divided) 2,851,200 Milling & Resurfacing (Arterial) 633,600 Milling & Resurfacing (Interstate) 638 ,300 Add 2 lanes (To Existing 8 Ln) 1,802,200 Add 2 HOV Lanes (Interstate-Inside) 1,971,200 Routine Maintenance (Annual) 71,500 Source: Estimates Office, Maintenance Office Florida Dept. of Transportation SUCCESSFUL HOV MARKETS Profile o H igh percentage of work-trave l during peak hours o Repetitive travelers gain fami l iarity with facility o Congestion provides incentive to try lane Traffic Conditions o Enough congestion to perceive a time savings for commuter Expect 5-7 m i nutes saved per ten m iles of facility Location o Radial corridors into major central cities-effective PAGE 175 population/employment density travel volumes congestion levels overall time savings and cond i tions at the destination area o Suburban/exurban (circumferential corridors or suburban arterials}-less effective very little experience diffuse trip patterns trips may be too short on arterial to realize time sav ings by changing mode o Other strategies Conditions at destination discourage driving alone Excellent transit service i n corridor taking adva n tage of savings Employer-based carlvanpoo l programs includ in g information forma tion assistan ce and incentives. Park and ride lots, formation area s DESIGN TYPES Exclusive HOV Facility, Separate Right-of-Way (Separate Road ways) o A roadway or lane developed in a separate right-of-way and designated for the exclusive use of high -occu pancy vehicles. o Examp les: Ottawa Canada 38 mi l es several bus-only facil it ies. Pittsburgh, PA, two bus-on l y facilit i es. PatWays includes light rail on one facil i ty Exclusive HOV Facility, Freeway Right-of-Way (Barrier Sepa rated} o Roadways or lanes buill within the right -ofway that are physically separated from other freeway lanes and are designated for the exclusive use of high-occupancy vehicles during at least portions of the day. 0 Examples: Houston two one-lane. reversible facilities separated by concrete barriers 69 m ile s Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-7 PAGE 176 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-8 los Angeles, two-lane facility on 1-10. Washington, D.C ., two facilities: Shir ley Highway two lane revers i ble in the median and separated by barriers, and 1-66, two l anes in peak direction during peak periods. Concurrent Flow Lane (Non-separated} o A freeway lane in the peak direction oftravel (commonly the inside lane}, not physically separated from the othe r general traffic lanes, and des ig nated for exclusive use of high-occu pancy vehicles (usually buses, vanpools, and carpools) during at least portions of the day. o Examples : Denver, concurrent-flow lane on 1-25. Honolu lu, inside lane for east-bound traffic only during peak periods. los Angeles, inside freeway shoulder during after noon peaks on the Artesia Freeway. Miami, inside lane for peak direction during peak peri od. Orange County, Cal i fornia, inside lane is HOV 24 hours. Orlando, inside lane striped on 1-4, 6.2 northbou nd and 14.5 southbound miles. San Francisco, two major projects: Three westbound, toll-approach lanes to the Bay Bridge are HOV during a.m. and p.m. peaks; US 101, inside freeway lane is concurrent flow during peak connects with a contraflow lane in p.m .. Seattle, two concurrent flow la nes; 1-5 inside lanes are concurrent all day and the outside shou lder on SR 520 i s concurren t HOV from start of morning peak to end of afternoon peak-only concurrent project on the outside shoulder. Contraflow Lane o A freeway lane (commonly the inside lane in the offpeak direction of travel), designated for exclusive use by high occupancy vehicles (usually buses only or buses and vanpools) travelling in the peak d i rection during at least portions of the day. PAGE 177 0 The lan e i s ty p i ca lly separa t ed from the off-pe a k dir ecti on tr a ve l l a nes by i nserta bl e pl as t i c posts or pylons o Takes a l ane fro m the off-peak tra v e l d i r ecti on for peak travel HOVs. o E xamp les: H onolulu. a m peak HOV lane on Ka l aniano l e High way not a freeway facility New York City the approach to the Lincoln Tunnel is contraflow in a .m. peak. San Francisco one contratlow lane on US 101 near the Golden Gate Bridge p m peak only ....... PREFRREO I ACCEPT AB-l.E I I I -w -- " .... ... ...... -....... -.,. .... ......... ...... .. DIRECT HOV CONNECT OR S Scun: e : C a l it.omla cl T tlnspotlal lon, HIQh ""YP"ncv \W:ic!e Q1QYl Gi'Winu fpr Ptamjnp P'sjgQ ltld Ogc,ejms .My. 1991 Managing Our Way Through C ongest i on 2-9 PAGE 178 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-10 I _, ... .. -.... .. AtCPTA8L E -""'. .,. -... _,_.. __ ... ('''"'. .... ..... : ........ .. ........ ..... -............ .. ..,... .. ---.... -....... 011( ... 0 .. ............... _.... ..... ......... .......... _,..,_, ___ . ....... -.. .. -< ........... ... ---..... (f, .. --"'' ... ... .... BUFFER SEPARATED HOV FACILITY Source: Cdfomia Oe91rtme1'11 qf TratiSJ)O(tation. t.iiab p:aopaocy Yfthi'!c tHOV)JluidtljMI fgr PSanoine DoJjgn IOd ORC!!JtjM)I July 19$1, I ,; r--'!.:= .......... 1'--f-""' ;r-"-r--l';:;::o f- -..... ... ..... --,.. to(o ..... ......... PREFERRED l I ACCEPTA81.E ... .... .. ......... .... .. .... -.............. -_ . , .. _,.,., -. ............. ... (OoOf -......... ; .... .. ... ,. ...... --............. ...... .............. ... ...... .... .. ---....... ft."'"'-. ... _. ... -.......... OM# ... -tc .... .... -. .. '"""'''"''' ... .. ........... _, .... ., .......... CONTIGUOUS HOV LANES Soutce: Clifomia of T ranSPOrtation, H igh OCO!.jMNiV Vtbide CHQV} Go!dei!QM to( e !a lll'ljnp Qujslo amf OMf'I!SiOOJ JUly, 199 1

PAGE 179

.......... \0-.-. ....... . ... ......... w. -' ' ,. ---.( .. ... J ("' , ,, ;] t ...... !'" '"' i .. ....... ... -..,. ... ; ..,.,.-.J. ........... W$'##',..; . PR t FERREO .. -""' .. .......... fi I ... ACCEPTA6LE .... ........ -... -.... .. ,._._ .. .. .. ___ .,.,-.... ... .. ,. ............. .. ,.,,.,_ -lol .... .... .. ......... . .,. ................ .,_ .... ....... -" ........... -.............. ___ ... BARRIER SEPARATED REVERSIBLE HOV FACIUTY Source: C a lifornia Department Cit Tran s portation HiQh nmwoey yeh!Cit CHOy) Guklefntt f(!c Plannin g Dtt!gn a.n<1 OptAtiQit!J July, 199 t ........ PAEFERREO I ACCEP TABl E -c ... "'"'"""'""' "4 _.,,.,, ......... ,. .. _, ---" ................. ....... .. ((0'">-......... -..-,olon.__,._,... .... ........... -. .... -.......................... _, ..... ''"'"'-."'"-< ........... ,... TWO WAY BARRIER SEPARATED HOV FACILITY Sourc.: california Depatttnenl o f T ra n aponation, Hiab OoeupM!c;y Vtfljclt CHQV) Gyjde!jnet toe p !a n!*l g Qeajgn aocl Opt@1jpos Jviy 199 1 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-11 PAGE 180 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-12 :: .. _. __ " HOY I AN PAVEMNT M.e.9'< 1NG 0Aii. '"""$ 1'4'IU 'I tat i$,QCA"IO"'$ ..... .... C .. w. .\.' 1-\-" .... :Y.:"'" l *T t : . .. ....... : I l H $T..__-.o.a.c:t .. A !l '.&-!' ..... ;!iJO.I\.! 2 ... If V!! D f-! S-'::1.0 !.! fO Othl l M 1 HOT TO SC..t4.E Vtbidt CHQ\(> G u ltitfion fQr f!lnn!M Qnk'n 4t1d Qotl'lljgna. July. 1991 0 ...... ""' HOV LANE PAVEMENT MARKI N G DET A I L ....... I t lf 11 'r !)(fP1 n ... -..:; l ) -rl t l +I j_ T 1 T'" '" I -L i 'f I , i 11 4 t'I I U lO hC .. U t ,..,o ... "ll'f ( I '$[[ lbt-0410 llj.I.Hllo 14!>1 fOil h\'P'1HY ., ... on ... .. s 1 0N1. Y 4Q( Olll' IOIW, II VSto t"[' S..OJt-0 M AU-Ow! to Ottan M-2 Nl)f ro K AU:

PAGE 181

.. ':'. $1(1111M; ..c> '&(1'-ltl(\ 1111 t IIIH[ tl ..,.. -i_t 'I! 7m -iii! m r i'! .......... ) ......... ....... -.c..-.--.... -----...... ---...... -c;::)----Q--... o---1.-. ..,, ro Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-13 PAGE 182 ManAging Our WAy Through Congestion 2-14 IU1 l"' IN) l(lltiiiiU IOI! "'tlll U{llttiiiG _, '"' I"Ot""' '"tJUII[f "R"''fiM '51+111U 1.:.: : .: I -_,. .. .._ t-+ ... ; .. "'--. !: 1: m . t-l I I f (' I I .. / c--\SSS"'?' <> U f 0 .............................. .. ........... ------------vru Kfi'!!I!!J" ,.,;nnm l-W r .. .__ ''I" " ... -.,. ..... ,.. ....... ,.. ' i (llll't ....... l,.. ,.., t"ttt tt"'''''""'" lrorl<. '.>'IUof't" .,._,, " ..... .......... f'tt.-.tltl ,)0 .... , .... :-. ,..,., .. .,.. ........ : ..... .. ,,.,.,.,...,., ,t' 1.-t ... tt-tott)"'"' ... --',t ..,._ ..... ('W ,.,.., ... ........ .. lt'W 0" ...... ., .. :> PAGE 183 . f I .. J JNIR1GRE55 FOR BRRRIR --------------W U 1., 1,1 1 1 lnf!OOIIII 1 1!1' I'll;' .... II. r!.(O ""' ,., --------------f-. ICJl II 9:1\( Managing Our Through Congestion 2-15 PAGE 184 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-16 ... ,, ........ -... .... -'1-1 _,.., -_ .... -. .. ......... ... ', ..... ._ .,. ,.,._ .. .. -TYPICAL HOY DROP RAMP TOOYERCROSSINQ ......... ... ---Sower. Y:f "'bicftCHQ'YlG u 'Wrwtcr""nm '"'"iil"encl"'!isa JIAy. tSit. TYPICAL HOY DROP RAMP TO UNOEliCAOSSIHG ... -... --... ----.. -----------Californil OtPII'tment of T 1'11neportac;o.... tligb ()Q:;uQilley )(tb!dt fHQ\Il Qujde!!nn fpc P\lnn!M P.li!ln end OC!tfl!jQOI July, 1901. PAGE 185 Queue Bypass Facilities o An entrance ramp int ersection or lanes at a ramplintersec t ion for priority access or bypass of m i xed traffic queues Tolls o Reduced Tolls Free or reduced fares for HOVs o HOV Toll Lanes No/less queue for HOVs o High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes (HOV Buy-In) Allow SOVs to use HOV lanes for a fee HOVs travel corridor for free Pilot program with underutilized HOV lane using e l ectronic pricing techno logies to preserve time sav i ngs. Estimated to be self-s upporting, permitting construc tion with private capita l Good introduction of variable or congestion-pricing to public Congestion pricing to keep free flow of traffic o E xamples : Orange County, Private tol llanes on Riverside Free way HOV-3 Est i mated 17% retum on in vestment shared w ith State San D i ego 1-15 HOV l a ne conversio n Opened October 1988 1,600 veh icles in peak hour, 50 % unused capacity Trying to avo id commuterrevoir Phase One LowTech subscription decal system Payment Phase Two, Fully automated Electron ic Toll Collection (ETC) Washington State Program Congestion Pricing 45mph electronic toll collection Convert exi sting under-utilized HOV to HOT Phase Two (planned) Privately bui l d publicly planned HOV Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-17 PAGE 186 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-18 Phase Three (planned) I mpose tolls on all existing freeway lanes to push carpooling, vanpooling, busing, and off-peak travel HOV IMPLEMENTATION o Add a Lane ReducesVMT Reduces emissions Fuel savings o Take a Lane Re ducesVMT May not save energy or lower emissions Higher chance of Commuter-revolt HOV PROJECT ADVANTAGES o I mplemen tation Cost Least costly fiXed transit facility especially if devel oped in existing rights-of-way. o Imp lementation Time Planned, designed and constructed in a 3to 8-year time frame. Well-known construction techniques o Staged Opening Lanes can be opened as sections are completed. Unsuccessful in Virginia Beach, section yielded no perceived benefits Must be adequate length to save time, affect total trip o Limited Risk If underutilized, lanes can be converted to mixed-flow or emergency shoulders. o Cost Effectiveness High benefit/cost ratios o M ulti -Agency Funding Eligible for local state, and federal funding from highway and transit agencies. PAGE 187 0 0 Multiple User Groups Vanpools carpools and transit use i ncreasing aver age vehicle occupancy (AVO) Operating Speed Express and nonstop, intended to operate at 50+ mph o Flexibility HOV facility may or may not be adjacent to park and ride lots or transit stations, existing street system i s used for collect i on/distribution of traffic o Time Adjustable Operation During non-peak hours HOV lane may serve as emergency lane, shoulder or extra general-use lane EFFECTIV EN ESS o Commuter Time savings to balance time lost to connect to car/ vanpool, "give-b ack travel time Reliability of trip length in time (greater perceived than actual savings) Desire of SOV to be in the fast, free lane, and try HOV o State Agency Cost effective based upon travel time alone Average annual travel time savings> 10% of the construction cost of the project. PER LANE EFFICIE N CY o Assumptions for Calculation A constant stream of benefits is assumed over the life of the project. HOV lane has a 20 year life with no salvage value. Four percent discount rate used in calculation Nine dollars per hour (1992) value of time used i n calculation. A figure of 250 working days per year is used in the calculation. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-19 PAGE 188 Managing Our Way Through Congestlon 2-20 HOV_,VGUne TlowiTmtSMvl V.U.of _.,_ (n*l.lftl TmtSNd c.. Tmts..too1D ----Ellillllra tl CJI-' CJI-11'1 tar tar --1.21 C:C.l$J 4.810 10,D!Il (35) 138 55 72 320 2!4 3.SJ) 7.19)(4JJ) 4.0 1.5 15 14D 111(, 16to:rto 511> 12,210 (3.0) 25 1D 16 10.1 1!4 tn. .... ... .. .,.,.l:leiil*"'".., l'leWdCII'hpeekrQI 3. Tte ....... ... dh-18Wh':u'R,...,_ 4. 'INCD'IIIl\d:I\CDD5. hnuf .... : ......... Scul::e: U.S. Oit:w' letT ..,..,.\ '11!tiO:o.cwl:vW*:itAqedO.Sld,';fiQ2. Wll!fil_,, o.c.. Hypothetical example of efficiency equations o Before HOV project measure, peak-hour/direction 1,750 persons/lane (in three general purpose lanes) 22 mph Travel Speed 0 Peak hour, per-lane efficiency= (1 ,750 x 22)/1 ,000=38.5 After HOV project measure, peak hour/direction 1 ,650 persons per general purpose la ne 4 100 persons per HOV lane 25 mph general purpose lane speed 45 mph HOV la ne speed Per-lane efficiency of HOV lane= (4, 100 x 45)/1 ,000 =184 .5 Per-lane efficiency of general lane= (1 ,650 x 25)/1 ,000=41.3 Per-lane efficiency offacility=(184.5 x 1) + (41.3 x 3)/4=77.0 ------------..... .. ... ""' ""' ....... ""' ..... --.. ...,.,11) .. .... 4,1110 " .. ... .. .... .... ..... .. .. ... ,,. on .. "" "" .... .. .. .. .. .. "' .. .. Tlt.lt,lilll-dDOIIIIN ,__...__........., .. .,.... O!Aitfllt\ll..._ ....... 2 TIM,......_, ...... ...... ttcay.,.........,_ WIIJHO'IIIInloi) ... !I'M.._...,, .... ... 4'TM,._.._. __ ... ,..._,jiii'_....,_.(III ... -. ..... .. .._,._It HOY "'*Y 11 .-otl .. ..... _,.lwO_.,.,._,.. ___ ___.I
PAGE 189

MEASURABLE BENEF I TS o Increase lane volume .. uu !. EJ tl li 0 l t= fWJ wu ... ..,,. .... ... ....... fklua: TTl. J HIOI\:OfCiiincyVe!WAI PfOttd & .. 8tudlelt tvt2 l o Increase volume of carpools lntN8H In A M. Volume Peak ttour/Ohetlon 2 C.rpool Volume t'rtw ty HOV ) u u s; c 1 0 .... 1414 S"U HOY FtciCy P,.-HOV 10 1112 .. t'IC'fVeollkit li'rojoKIC .. tii\INt 9i'Z Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-21

PAGE 190

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-22 MARKETING HOV Support Issues and Obstacles o Commuter Will not initially embrace HOV lane Wants additional general flow lane Resent restrictions on use of public roads o Elected officials Senses mistrust of public and business community HOV not supportive of economic development and political goals o Communities or Jurisdictions Disagree on facility which affects them differently o Agencies Disagree on benefit or desirability Transit agencies may fear losing riders to adjacent corridors or carpools Building Support for HOV Facilities o Adding a lane rather than taking one will provoke less resis tance o Advance notification to public that a lane will be exclusive HOV-Iess shocking. o Initiate lane with modest minimum occupancy requirements (HOV-2), and adjust over lime. o Deve lop programs to support lane use, including carpool formation and incentives/disincentives, parking management programs, park and ride lots, and transit improvements. o Enforcement will keep the facility performance high, and improve credibility for the maintenance of integrity and dedicated use. Occupancy Levels o Low2+ Good introduction of commuters to lane and alterna-

PAGE 191

tive commute modes Can be chan ged if congested o Too low lane gets congested no time savings perceived o High 3+ Free flow, h igh speeds perceived and real time sa ving s o Too high Ineffective use of resources too much inconvenience to form 3+ carlvanpools Houston Transltway System o Initially only available to buses and authorized vanpools o End of 1989 36.6 miles completed, now 95.5 mile system o Typical inst allation One wa y facility in the freeway median 20 feet w ide Reversible Sepa rated from traffic flow by concrete barriers Access by grade separa ted HOV ramps o Time savings real vs perceived Older system, 5-14 m i nutes real20 m in utes per ceived Newer system 2-3 m in utes rea l 1 0-20 m in utes perceived Effectivenes s o Houston North Transitway 0 20% vehicles/person trip reduction during in troductory phase Northern Virginia's Shirley H ig h way 16% corridor -w ide gain in veh ic les/person trip effi ciency Substantial time-savings offered Supporting strategies Unique employment characteristicsU S Capital Our Way Through CongMt ion 2-23

PAGE 192

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-24 0 New Jersey 1495 Lincoln Tunnel approach Low impact on vehicles/person Largest volume of all HOV lanes34,700 passengers in one peak hour Single contraflow lane 8 minute savings for transit riders in peak Stabilized bus ridership 40% increase in auto capacity by shifting buses into contraflow lane o Minneapolis, 1-394 interim HOV lane Benefitted by opening of 2 lots with free (registered) carpool par1
PAGE 193

ENFORCEMENT o Penalt ies Fines $25 >$1,000 Points, penalties. 0-3 points Citat ions issued Traffic Control Device vio l ation Trespass ing Improper Lane Change Reckless Driv ing Speeding Seattle s HERO Program phone "snitch-lines" Commuters report violators' li cense and info Reported i nfo matched to owner's registration 1st offense HOV Brochure mailed to home 2nd offense, DOT Letter mailed to home 3rd offense, Highway Patrol warning mailed Repeat v i olators are wa ited for by Patrol on 1-5 Connecticut HOV lane enforcement Violation carpoo l lane $40 fine I mproper Lane Change$56 fine Speeding $73+ fine 5,023 tickets, first year (Sept. '69-Aug. '90) o Enforcing Agency Dedicated Officers, as low as 5% violation rate 0/VA and CA} Part of Patrol, 10 -25% v io lation rates N o enforcement, up t o 75% violation rate (Orlando) Design issues o Courts Saf ety Zones shoulders, pull-over areas Officer v isi bil ity, deterrent Access for officers to monitor (both d i rections) from stationary location Mag is trates a nd Judges adjudication decis ion s and impressions of effect i veness and penalties for lane Points fines charges, a nd insurance rates Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-25 PAGE 194 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-26 HOV LANE ENFORCEMENT Selected Projects Facility Fine Violation Rate Houston$45 1% Virginia $50 2% Pittsburgh$90.50 3% Los Angeles $271 -$1,000+ 5-15% Orlando $57 75% Ft. Lee, NJ$75 30% New York $65 2% Seattle$67 10% Hartford $60 5% Fine rates as of 3195, collected data via phone Interviews by CUTR. VIolatiOn rate source: 'ITI, "A O&saiptlon of HOV facilities In North America ... 1990. PAGE 195 So u rces: California Department of Transportat io n High Occupancy Vehicle (HOY) Guidelines for Planning, Design and Operations, July 1991. Governing Magazine "Turning HOV lanes Into HOT Tracks ," January 1995. Institute of Transporta ti on Engineers "The Effectiveness of High Occupancy Veh icl e Facilities." 1988 Washington D C .. Heid i Stamm "Marketing as Part of the HOV Planning Process , Transporta tion Research C i rcular, Numbe r 384 December 1991. Jain Rajendra "Transportation and the Envi ronmentHOV Experi ence in Connecticut," ITE Journal February, 1995 Urban Mobility Corporation, "High Occupancy Toll (HOn Lanes, Innovation Briefs, Volume 5 Number 6 August, 1994 Ulberg, Cy and Jacobson Eldon, "HOV Lane Enforcement Evalua tion." Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), January, 1993 Seatt l e, WA. US Department of Transportation, High Vehicle (HQV) L ane Marketing ManuaL September, 1994. Washington, D.C .. US Department of Transportation, Implementing Effective Travel Pemand Managemeot Measures: loventory of Measures and Synthesis of Experience September, 1993 Washington D.C .. M anaging Our W ay Through Congestion 2-27 PAGE 196 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-28 Appendix Florida State Stautes STATE UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL 316.074 Obedience to and required traffic control devices. (1) The driver of any vehicle shall obey the instructions of any official traffic control device applicable thereto, placed in accor dance with the provisions of this chapter, unless otherwise directed by a police officer, subject to the exceptions granted the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle in this chapter. (2) No person shall drive any vehicle from a roadway to another roadway to avoid obeying the indicated traffic control indicated by such traffic control device. (3) No provision of this chapter for which official traffic control devices are required shall be enforced against an alleged violator If at the time and place of alleged violation an official device is not in proper position and sufficiently legible to be seen by an ordinarily observant person. Whenever a particular section does not state that official traffic control devices are required, such section shall be effective even though no devices are erected or in place. (4) Whenever official traffic control devices are placed in posi tion approximately conforming to the requirements of this chapter, such devices shall be presumed to have been so p laced by the official act or direction of lawful authority unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence. (5) Any official traffic control device placed pursuant to the prov is ions of this chapter and purporting to conform to the lawful requirements pertaining to such devices shall be presumed to comply with the requirements of this chapter unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence. 322.27 Authority of department to suspend or revoke license.(3) There is established a point system for evaluation of convictions of violations of motor vehicle laws or ordinances, and viola tions of applicable provisions of s. 403.413(5)(b) when such viola tions involve the use of motor vehicles, for the determination of the continuing qua lificat ion of any person to operate a motor vehicle. The department is authorized to suspend the license of any person PAGE 197 upon show ing of its records or other good and sufficient evidence that the license has been convicted of violation of motor vehicle l aws or ordinances or app li cab l e provis i ons of s 403 413 ( 5)(b), amounting to 12 or more po i nts as determ i ned by the po i nt system. The suspension shall be for a period of not more than 1 year (a) When a licensee accumulates 12 points within a 12-month period, the period of suspension shall be for not more than 30 days (b) When a licensee accumulates 18 points, including points upon which s u spension action is taken under paragraph (a), within an 18-month period, the suspension shall be for a period of not more than 3 months. (c) When a li censee accumulates 24 po ints, including points upon which suspension action is taken under paragraphs (a) and ( b), withi n a 36-month period the suspens ion shall be for a period of not more than 1 year (d) The point system shall have as its basic ele ment a graduated scale of points assign ing relative values to convictions of the following violations: 1. Reckless driving willful and wanton 4 points 5. Unlawful speed: a Not in excess of 15 miles per hour or lawful or posted speed 3 points b. In excess of 15 miles per hour or lawful or posted speed -4 points 7. All other moving violations ( in cluding park in g o n a h i ghway outsi de the l imits of a municipality ) -3 po i nts 318.14 1 Enforcement traffic control officers and traffic Infrac tion enforcement officers.-(2)(a) Any sheriffs department or police department of a chartered munic i pality may employ, as a traffic infraction enforcement officer, any individual who successfully com pletes at least 200 hours of instruction in traffic enforcement procedures and court presentation through the Selective Traffic Enforcement Program as approved by the Division of Cri minal Justice Standards and Tra in ing of the Department of La w Enforcement, or through a sim ilar program, but who Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-29 PAGE 198 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-30 does not necessarily otherwise meet the uniform minimum standards establ i shed by the Criminal Just ice Standards and Training Comm i ssion for law enforcement officers or auxil i ary law enforcement officers under s. 943 13. Any such traffic in f raction enforcement officer who observes the com mission of a traffic infraction or, in the case of a parking in fraction, who observes an illegally parked vehicle may issue a traffic citation for such infra ction when, based upon personal invest igatio n, he has reasonable and probable grounds to bel ieve that an offense has been committed which constitutes a noncrim i nal traffic infraction as defined in s. 318.14. (b) Such traffic enforcement officer sha ll be employed in relationship to a selective traffic enfo r cement program at a fixed l ocation or as part of an accident i nvestigation tea m at the scene of a vehicle accident or in other types of traffic infraction enforcement officer's duties be performed under the immediate supervis ion of a fully qualified law enforce ment officer. NOTES PAGE 199 ECONOMIC INCENTIVES MODULE GOALS o Provide an introduction to t he various types of economic incentives that su pport TO M programs o Provide an introduction to the Energy Pol icy Act of 1992. o Know how to implement a "Cash-Out" program o Ability to relate various tax issues and incentives to em ployers and employees. ASSUMPnONS o Economic incen t ives and disincen t ives w ill a ffect com muter behavior. o The federal government is having a positive influence o n TOM through t heir policies a nd t a x laws. TYPES OF ECO N O M I C I NC ENnVES Employer-Provide d Incentives o Transit Pass Subsidies o Vanpool Operating Subsidies o Rideshare Subsidies o Travellncentives o Financial I ncentives Without Direct Payments The above list represents broad categories of economic incentiv es. Individual employers usually t a ilor the incentives they provide based on their w i llingness to provide the subsidy and identified n eeds and wants of their employees The types of i ncentives that can be offered by emp l oyers are a l so dependent on the types and amou n t of incen t ives provided by public agencies o Trans i t Pass Subsid ies Employers that make a tota l or partia l purchase of t rans i t passes. tickets or tokens for employee use are partic i pating i n a transit pass subsidy program. The employer can purchase the transit pass e s a nd sell or give them to employees or agree t o reimburse the employee after they purchase the pass. Managing Our Way Throug h Congestion 3-1 PAGE 200 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-2 o Vanpool Operating Subsidies This type of subsidy can take many forms. Employers can provide in-kind services such as providing vehicles, underwriting insur ance and/or capital costs, and assistance in arrang ing vanpool leases. Defraying costs is another form of vanpool subsidy and can include: -free or subsidized fares for the first one to six month of usage -montty subsidies for loyal riders -free fares and use of van by drivers o Rideshare Subsidies Employers that offer a user subsidy to any employee using any commute alternative such as carpools, vanpools or transit. The subsidies can be offered on a daily, monthly or annual basis. o Travel Allowance Employers can p rovide travel allowances on a monthly basis and employees use the allowance to defray the costs of using any travel mode including driving alone. Tra ve l allowances are usually tied to parking charges where employees can apply all or part ofthe allowance to parking fees. or use the allowance to pay for their portion of a ridesharing arrangement. Employees that bicycle or walk to work see the allowance as a windfall. Another form of allowance is a differential parking allowance, where users of commute alternatives receive a higher allowance than SOV users. o Other Financial Incentives These incentives provide a real, monetary i ncentive to using commute alternatives without involving direct subsidy payments to users. These include: -use of fleet vehicles for ridesharing -free or discounted fuel for pooling vehicles -reduced maintenance and repair fees for HOVs -extra vaca tion t ime for commute alternative use rs -free or discounted equipment (i.e. bicycle he lmets ) Public Agency Provided Incentives o Transit Fare Discounts o Transit Subsidies o Vanpool Start-Up Subsidies The above list represents major types of incenti ves offered by public agencies. Actual incentives should be tailored to meet loca l needs. PAGE 201 o Transit Fare Discounts Direct subsidy offares is usually provided through discounted rates for targeted user groups. Some transit properties have even offered free fares for short periods to att ract ne w riders. However given that peak-period and express services are usually the most expensive trans it services to operate discounted fares to commut ers are not very popular. o Transit Subsidies Offering direct subsidies to commuters who use transit is anothe r econmic Incentive This ty p e o f incentive is usually associated with a match program, the public agency matches all or a portion of the employer subsidy. Transit operators can also sell passes to employers at a discount for the employer to sell to its employees. o Vanpool Start-Up Subsidies This type of incen tive is usually accompflshed by providing a one time start-up subsidy t o the new vanpool or by discounting each indi vidua l users fare for the first few months of operation. In California a van pool start-up subs id y was offered during a highway reconstruction projectto mitigate adverse impacts ofthe construc tion delays Supporti n g Stra t eg i es Subsidy scheme need to be tied to a package ofTDM programs to be completely succesful. In addition to availability of transit and vanpool programs, two key supporting strtegies have been identi fied. o Rideshare subsidies are most effective whe n combined with parking surcharges for SOV users Either independently or through travel allowances, parking charges force employ ees to make mode choice decis ions, and when commute alternatives are reinforced with specific subsidies. The parking revenues can also help pay for the subsidies. o Subsidy programs must also be supported by strong mar keting, promotion and corporate backing. If employees are unaware of of the incentives, the alternatives availab l e, and the management support, effectiveness will be diminished. If not constantly reinforced, new and existing employees will not participate. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-3 PAGE 202 Managing Our Way Through Co ngestion 3 4 Travel a n d Traffic Impact The impacts of economic incentives are usually evaluated based on their effect on mode choice. Trip Reduction Impacts of Employer Subsidies Employer Subsjdy/locentjye %Solo %Reduced Allergan 100% Transit Subsidy 1-2 days vaca t ion for RIS 82% 7.6% Union Bank 100% Transit Subsidy 50% 15.0% Vent ura Co.$200 $300 Annual Incentive 69% 11.5% V a rian 25% Transit Subsidy 57% 17.7% From an impact potential standpoint several key findings should be recognized. Based on over 20 employer-based TDM programs, financial incentives for the use of commute altematives are effective in reducing trips by 8-18 perr:ent Financial disincentives in the form of parking charges, when not supported by a TDM program, can also produce similar results However, when financial incentives are combined w ith disincentives to driving alone (parking charges) the reductions can approach 50 percent. Transit fare prepayment discounts and fare reductions, when analyzed alone, do not s eem to have a significant impact on transit usage. When combined with employer subsidies, discounts and fare reductions can contribute to more substantive results. Employer programs that offer financial incentives and those that combine subsidies with parking controls exhibit a broad range of cos ts. However, parking revenue greatly reduces the cost per trip reduced, subsidize financial incentives, or eve n realize a net cost savings Public agenc y subsidies and transit discounts are most cost effective when combined with employer participation in financial matching programs. PAGE 203 TAX CO N S IDERATIONS Part Ill. A d ministrative, Procedural, and Miscellaneous Qualified Transportatio n Fringes Un de r Section 132 (f) Notice 94-3 I. PURPOSE This notice addresses issues relating to th e provision for qualified transportation fringes in section 132 (f) of the Internal Revenue Code. As part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act), Pub. L. N o 1 02-486, Congress amended section 132 t o i ncorpo ra t e three basic c ha nges in the tax treatm ent of emplo y er-pro vided transportation benefits. First, it i nc r eased the exclusion for trans it passes from$21 t o $60 per month and provided that only the value of a transit pass in excess of the statutory limit would be includi ble in gross income. Second, Congress added an exclusion for van po ols. Up t o$60 per month may be excluded butthe $60 ex clusion applies to the aggregate of van pools and transit passes Finally, Congress eliminated the working condition fringe benefit for com muter parking and provided tha t the amount of employerprovided parking excludable from gross income i s limited t o$155 per month. II. APPLICATIO N Q 1 : What Is a qualified transportation fringe? a, In general. A "qu a lified transportation fringe" is any of the following that is provided by an em pl oyer to an em ployee and meets the requirements described in this notice: (1) transportation in a commuter highway vehicle, (2) transit passes, and (3) qualified parking Noth ing in section 132 (f) of the Code or this notice prohibits an employer from simultaneously p roviding an employee any combination of these three benefits b, Transgortation in a commuter highway vehicle, A commuter highway vehicl e is any high way vehicle that has a seating c a pacity of at least six adults (excluding the driver) and meets the two requirements for mileage use At least 80 percent of the vehicle's mileage use must be reasonably expected to be (1) for transporting employees in con nection with travel between their residenc es and the ir place of employment, and (2) on trips during which the number of employees trans ported for comm uting is, on average at least one-half of the adult seating capacity of the vehicle (excluding the driver). c, Transit passes A 1ransit pass is any pass token, farecard voucher or similar item ent itling a person to transporta tion (or transportat ion at a reduced pr ice) (1) on mass transit Managing Our Way Through Cong estion 3-5

PAGE 204

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-6 facilities (whether or not publicly owned), or (2) provided by any person in the business of transporting persons for compensation or hire in a highway vehicle with a seating capacity of at least six adults (excluding the driver). d, Qualified parlslng, "Qualified parking" is access to parking provided to an employee on or near the employer's business premises or at a location from which the employee commutes to work by car pool, commuter highway vehicle, mass transit facilities, transportation provided by any person in the business of transport ing persons for compensation or hire, or by any other means. The term does not include parking on or near property used by the employee for residential purposes. Qualified parking means parking for wh ich an employer pays (directly to a parking lot operator or by reimbursement to the employee), or that an employer provides on premises it owns or leases. For purposes ofthe definition of qualified parking, a car pool means two or more indiv iduals who commute together in a motor vehicle on a regular basis. Q-2: Is there a limit on the value of qualified transportation fringes that may be excluded from an employee's gross in come? a, Transij passes and transportation in a commuter highway vehicle, Up to $60 per month is excludable from the gross income of an employee for transit passes and transportation in a commuter highway vehicle provided by the employer. One$60 l imit applies whether these benefits are provided separately or in combination with one another. b, Parking, Up to $155 per month is excludable from the gross income of an employee for qualified parking provided by the employer. This exclusion is available whether an employer pro vides only qualified parking or qualified parking in combination with other benefits described in this notice. c. Limitation on emp loyees of a controlled group of como rations, All employees treated as employed by a single employer under section 414(b), (c), (m), or (o) of the Code are treated as employed by a single employer for purposes of section 132(f). Thus, an employee of one corporation that is part of a controlled group of corporations may, under certain circumstances, be eligible to receive qualified transportation fringes from another corporation within the controlled group. The statutory dollar limitations with respect to that employee, however, are not increased under this rule. PAGE 205 d Resutt if the value of the ot herwise guaHfied transporta tion fringe exceeds the statutory limit. Generally, an employee must include in gross incom e t he amount by wh ich the f air market value of the benefit exceeds the s um of the a mount, if a ny paid by or on behalf ofthe employee, and any a mount excluded from g r oss income under section 132 or a nother section of the Code section 1 .61-21(b)(1) of the regul at ions Thus if an employer provides an employee w ith a qualifted transportation fringe that exceeds the statutory limit, the exce ss value must be included in the employee s gross income for income and employment tax purposes. EXAMPLES Example 1 Each month Employer M provides a transit pass valued at$ 70 to Employee 0 0 does not reimburse M for any portion of the pa ss. Because the value of the monthly transit pass exceeds the sta tutory limit by $10,$10 must be inclu d ed in O s wages for income a nd emp l oyment tax purposes Example 2 Each month Employer M prov ides parking valued at $165 to Emp l oyee E Because the fair market value of the parking exceeds the statutory limit by$10 $10 must be included in E 's w ages for income and employ ment tax purposes e, Payments by employees for gyallfi ed transportation fringes If an em ployee pays the employer for a qualified transpor tation frin ge, the a mount includible i n the e mploy ee's gross income is th e a mount by wh ich the fair market value of the benefrt exceeds the a mount paid by the employee plus any amount e x cludable under section 132 or another section of the Code Example Employer f provides q ualified parking w ith a fair market value of$20 0 per month to its employees, bu t charges the employees $45 per month Because the amount paid ($45 ) by the employees plus the amoun t e xcludable ($155 ) for qualified parking eq ual the fair market value of the benefit no amount is includi ble in the employee's gross income. f. Exclus io n applies on a monthly basis. T h e value of qual ified parking, transit passes, and tran sportation in a commuter highway v ehicle must be ca l culated on a monthly basis to deter m i ne w hether the value of the benefit has exceeded the lim its on qualified transportation fringes. If the value of th e benefit does not exceed th e statutory lim i t i n a n y month, the unused portion ofthe exclusion may not be carried over to subsequent months. Similarly if t he employer provides a benefit having a monthly value greater than t he statutory limit, the valu e in excess of t he sta t utory l i mit may not be excluded by combining the monthly e x clus i ons. An em p loyer may howeve r reimburse an employee for costs i ncurred for Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-7 PAGE 206 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-8 qualified parking, transit passes, and transportation in a commuter highway vehicle in subsequent months, so long as the value ofthe benefit is calculated on a monthly basis. Example. Employer Q., at the end of a three-month period, reimburses Employee A for transit passes purchased during the preceding three months. A purchased a$60 tra nsit pass each month, and .0. reimburses A $180 in cash at the end of the third month. Because the value of the reimbursed expenses did not exceed the statutory limit in any month, the$180 reimbursement is excludable from A's gross income as a qualified transportation fringe. See Q-3b for the specific rules governing reimbursements. g, "Month" defined. A "month" is a calendar month or a substantially equivalent period applied consistently Q-3 : Are cash reimbursements permitted under new section 132(f)? a. In general. The term "qualified transporta tion fringe includes cash reimbursements by an employer to an employee for qualified parking, transit passes, ortransportation in a commuter h ighway vehicle. The term "cas h reimbursement does not include cash advances b, Recordkeeping reQuirements. Employers that make cash reimbursements must establish a bona fide re i mbursement arrangement to ensure that their employees have in fact, incurred expenses for parking, transit passes, or tra nsportation in a com muter h ighway vehicle. An employee must demonstrate to the employer that an amount equal to the reimbursement was ex pended for qualified parking, transit passes, or transportation i n a commuter highway vehicle. For example, an employee may present a used transit pass to the employer at the end ofthe month and certify that he or she purchased and used it during the month, or may present a transit pass to the employer at the beginning of the month and certify that he or she purchased it and will use it during the month. What constitutes a bona fide reimbursement arrangement may vary depending on the facts and circumstances, including the method or methods of payment utilized with in the mass transit system. c. Special rules for transit passes. The term "qualified transportation fringe does not include reimbursements for transit passes if a voucher or similar item that may be exchanged only for a transit pass is readily available for direct distribution by the employer to employees. A voucher or similar item is "rea d ily available" if an employer can obtain it on terms no less favorable

PAGE 207

than th ose to an ind ividual emp l oyee and without incurring a significant administrative cost. d Example Comp any C in City X sells vouchers to employers in the metropolitan a rea of X Several different bus rail va n poo l, and ferry operators serv ice X and a number of the operators accept the vouchers either as fare media or in exchange for fare media Employers can easily obtain vouchers for distribu tion t o their employees To cover its operating expenses, C imposes on e a ch voucher a charge that is not significant. Employer M disburses vouchers purchased from .C. to employees who use operators that accept the vouchers Because M is not making cash rei mbursements of its emp l oyees' transit expenses w ith respect to these operators, M need not maintain a bona fide reimbursement arrangement for t hese transit expenses The v ouchers disbursed to M 's emp l oyees are qual ifi ed transportat ion fringes Q-4 : Can employers rsduca their employees compensation in exchange for providing qualified transportation fringes? Section 132(f)( 4 ) of the Code prevents emp loy ers from reducing their employees' compensation in exchange for providing qualified transportation fringes This rule app lies even if state or loca l law requires employers to offer employees the choice of r ecei v i n g a qualified transportation fringe or a higher salary. Example 1 Employer X reduces Hs emp l oyees' compensa tion by $60 p er month and provides$60 per month in transit passes Each employee is required to inc l ude $60 per month in gross income, even though the employee received an o t herwise qualified transportation f r inge. Example 2 Employ e r Y. offers its employees a choice between$45 per month i ntransit pa sses and $45 per month in addit i onal compensation. Every employee of Y. is required to include$45 per month i n gross income, w hether t he employee selected cash or transit passes. Q -5: To which employers and employees do the quali fied transportation fringe rules apply? a, Emp loy ers. Section 1911 of the A ct does not exclude government emp loyers from coverage Accordingly, sec tion 13 2(f) of the Code applies to both non-government and government employers b, Employees Qua lified transportation fringes may be provided only by emp l oyers to emp loyees For th is p urpose, employees are indivi dua l s who are emp l oyees w ith i n the meaning of section 1 132-1(b)(2)(i) of the regul a t i ons This definition in Managing Our Wa y Through Congestion 3-9

PAGE 208

Managing Our Way Through Congestion J .. lQ eludes common law employees and other statutory employees, such as officers of corporations. Self-employed individuals, who are employees the meaning of section 401(c)(1) of the Code, are not employees for purposes of section 132(f). There fore, partners, 2-percent shareholders of S corporations, sole proprietors, and other independent contractors are not employees for purposes of section 132 (f). An individual who is both a 2percent shareholder of an S corporation and an officer of that S corporation is not considered an employee for purposes of section 132(f) Q-6: Are there any special rules for qualified parking for vehicles provided by law enforcement agencies to their em ployees? Section 1911 of the Act does not provide special rules for vehicles provided by law enforcement agencies. Accordingly, section 132(f) of the Code appl ies to qualified parl
PAGE 209

by a partnership to a partner that enable the partner to commute on a public transit system (not including privately-operated van pools} are excludable from the partner's gross inco me if the value of the tokens and farecards in any month does not exceed $21. section 1 132-6(d)(1) of the regulations. If the value of a pass provided in a month exceeds$21 however th e full value of the benefit is includible in gross income b, Parlsjog. The Act eliminated the worlsing condition fringe exclusion for commuter parlsing. However, if a partner performing services for a partnership or a director of a corporation would be able to deduct the cost of parlsing as a trade or business expense under sec1ion 162 of the Code, the value of free or reduced-cost parlsing is excludable as a worlsing condition fringe 1 132-5(a)(1) and 1.132-1 (b)(2) ofthe regulations. The de minimis fringe rules r emain available for parlsing provided to partners and 2-percent shareholders of S corporations that qualifies under the genera l de m i nimis rules. 1 132-6(a) and (b) Example G is a partner in partnersh ip P which maintains offices at various locations in city!:;.. G commutes to and from G s office every day and parlss free of charge in a reserved space in P s Jot. G periodically drives to P s other offices in C. for bus i ness reasons and parks in lots leased by p G must include i n income the full monthly value of G's reserved parlsing space Because G woul d be allo wed a deduction under section 162 ofthe Code for the cost of using the parlsing spaces at P's other offices, the value of that parking is excludab l e from gross income as a worlsing condition fringe Q-8: How does section 132(f)affecttransit passes and parking provided to independent contractors? Even though qualified transportation fringes cannot be prov i ded to self-employed ind i viduals (see Q-5b ), the existing de min i mis fringe ru l es for transit passes and parls ing continue to apply to i ndependent contractors to the extent they applied prior to the Act. a, Transit gasses. Tokens or farecards that enable an independent contracto r to commute on a public transit system (not including privately-operated van pools) are exc ludable from the independent contractor's gross income if the value of those tokens and farecards in any month does not exceed $21. 1 132 -6( d)(1) of the regulations If the value of a pass provided in a month exceeds$21, however the full value of the pass i s includible in gross income. b, parlsjng. An independent con trac1or may exclude the value of parlsing from income as a de minimis fringe if t he requ ir eManaging Our Way Through Congestion 3-11

PAGE 210

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-12 ments of section 1.132-6(a) and (b) are satisfied. See also section 1.132-1 (b)(2) of the reg ulations Q-9: How do the qualified transportation fringe rules apply to van pools? a Yan pools operated by or for the employer. (i). In general This category covers two types of arrangements: (1) employers purchase or lease vans to enable employees to commute together, and (2) employers contract with and pay a third party to provide the vans, maintenance, and liability insurance. Up to $60 per month ofthe value oftransportation i n the vans may be excluded from the employees' gross incomes, provided the van as a "commuter highway vehicle" as defined in Q-1b of this notice and section 132(1)(5)(8) of the Code. (ii). Valuation. The regulations under section 61 of the Code provide that the fair market value of a fringe benefit is based on all the facts and circumstances. As an alternative, transporta tion in an employer-provided commuter highway vehicle may be valued under the following special valuation rules, which existed prior to the Act: (1) automobile lease valuation section 1.61-21 (d) of the regu lations, (2) vehicle cents-per-mile section 1.61-21 (e), and (3) commuting valuation section 1.61-21(1). For general rules applicable to each ofthe special valuation rules, see section 1.61-21 (c) of the regulations. The Act does not affect the availability of these rules for valuing an employee's personal use of an employer-provided vehicle that does not qualify as a commuter highway vehicle Example. Employer ':i purchases a van for purposes of transporting its employees from home to work. The van qualifies as a "commuter highway vehicle" within the meaning of Q-1 b and section 132 (f) (5) (B) of the Code. ':i elects to value employee travel in its vans using the commuting valuation rule. In one month, Employee C commutes to and from work in 'i.'s van 20 days. Under the commuting valuation rule, the value of each one-way commute is$1.50 (for a tota l of $3 per day); therefore, the value of C's travel for the month is$60. The full value of the benefit is excludable from C's gross income because it does not exceed the statutory li mit. See Q-2d and Q-2e for the rules governing the treatment of amounts in excess of the statutory l imit and payments by employees for in-kind qualified transportation fringes. b, \fan pool operated by employees Cash reimbursements by an employer to employees for transportation in a van pool

PAGE 211

operated by employees independent of their employer are exclud able as qualified transportation fringes, provided the van qualifies as a commuter highway vehicle' as defined in sections 132 (f) (5) (8} of the Code The a mount that m a y be excluded from an emp loyee's i ncome is limited to $60 per month See Q-3b for the rules governing cash reimbursements c, Privateor pub !ictrao sit-ooerated va o poo ls. The qualified transportation fringe exclusion is available for transit passes fo r travel in van pool owned and operated either by public transit authorities or by any person in the business oftransporting persons for compensation or hire. The van must seat at last six adults (excluding the driver}. See Q-3c for the special rule for cash reimbursements for transit passes. 0: How Ia the value of parking determ ined? a In geoeral. The valuation rules of section 1 61-21 (b) of the regulations apply both for purposes of dete011ining whether the amount of qualified transportation fringes exceeds the amount (rf any ) includible in income. Generally the value of parking provided by an employer to an employee is based on the cost (including taxes or other added fees) that an individual would incur in an a011's-length transaction to obtain parking at the same site. If that cost is not ascertainable, then the value of parking is based on the cost that an Indi vidual would incur in an a011's-length transaction for a space in the same lot or a comparable lot in the same general location under the same or similar circumstances An employee's subjective perception of the value of the parking is not relevant to the determination of its fair market value Examp l e Emp loyer z operates an industrial p l ant in a rura l area in Which no commercial park i ng is avai lab le z furnishes ample parking for its employees on the business prem i ses free of charge Th e parking provided by z has a fair market value of$0 because an i nd i v i dual other than an employee ordinarily would not pay to park there. b Rate. Under the genera l valuation rules of section 1.61-21 (b) of the regu lations the monthly rate may be used to dete011ine a monthly value rather than the daily rate multiplied by the number of days in the month. I f an annual rate is available, the monthly rate may be determined by dividing the annual rate by twelve. If a space is available for less than a month, the space may be valued according to the daily rate multiplied by the number of days the employee has access to the space In no case is it necessary, however for the monthly value to exceed t he mont h ly rate. The rates described above m a y only be used if they are avai l able to the general public Managing Our Way Through Congution 3-13

PAGE 212

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-14 c. Parlsing ava i lable p rimarily to customers Employer provided pari
PAGE 213

fair market value exceeds the statutory l imit ($155) Q-2d. See also Q -2e for the result if M charges Q for the parking Q-11 : How does section 132 (f) interact with other fringe benefit rules? Under section 132(f) (7) of the Code a de minimis fringe does not include any qualified transportation fringe If, however, an employer provides local transportation, other than transit passes or transportation in a commuter highway vehicle the value of the benefit may be excludable, either totally or partially, under fringe benefrt rules other than the qualified transportation fringe rules under section 132(f). a Ocg.sjonallocaltransportatjon fare. Sectio n 1.132-6(d) (2) (i) ofthe regulations provides that local transportation fare (suc h as taxi fare) provided to an employee is excludable from income as a de mi nimis fringe if the benefit i s reasonable and is provided on an occas i onal basis because overtime work necessita te s an ext ension of the employee s norma l work schedule b, Transportation prov ided under unusual circumst a nces. Section 1 132-a(d) (2) (iii) of the regulations provides that if an employer provides transportation (such as taxi fare) to an employee for use in commuting to, from, or both to and from work because of unusual circumstance and because, based on the facts and circumstances, it is unsafe for the employee to use other available means of transportation the excess of the value of each one-way trip over$1.50 per one-way commute is excluded from gross i ncome c, Valuation of local transportation proyjded to Qualified" emplovee:a Section 1 61-21 { k) of the regulat i ons provides a special va l uation rule for l ocation transporta ti on prov i ded sol ely because of unsafe conditions to qualified employees who would ordinarily wal k or use pub l ic transporta ti on to and from work If unsafe condi tions exist and the employee is val ued at $1.50 per one -way commute Because section 2 61-21{d} i s a spec ial valuation rule under section 61, it is not affected by section 132 (f) (7} Therefore, employers may continue to provide local transpor tation to employees meeting the requ irements of section 1.6121(k). Q-12 : When and how do employers withhold and report the value of qualified transportation fringes includible in g ross income? a. Noncas h benefits. Taxab l e fringe benefits a r e ordinarily t r eated as wages for federal income ta x withhold i ng Federa l Insu r ance Contri bu tions Act and Federal Unemp l oyme n t Tax Act Managin g Our Way Through Congestion 3-15 PAGE 214 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-16 purposes and are reported on an employee's Fonn W-2, Wage and Tax Statement. Employers may use the guide li nes in Announce ment 85-113, 1985-31 I.R.S. 31, for report i ng and withholding on taxable noncash fringe benefits. Announcement 85-113 provides that employers may elect, for purposes of the FICA, the FUTA, and federal income tax withholding purposes, to treat noncash fringe benefits as paid on a pay period quarter l y, semi-annual, annual, or other basis provided tharthe benefits are treated as paid no less frequently than annually b, Cash reimbursements. Because employers may not use Announcement 85-113 for cash reimbursemen ts to employees (for example cash reimbursements for transit passes or qualified parking), cash reimbursements in excess of the statutory limits under section 132(f) of the Code a r e treated as paid for employment tax purposes when actually paid Employers must report and deposit the amounts withheld in addition to reporting and depositing the amounts withheld in addition to reporting and depositing the employer portion of the FICA taxes and the FUTA tax. See Q-3b for the rules governing cash reimbursements. Q-13: How do employers report income for qualified parking provided to car and van pools? a, Prime member. If an employee obtains a qualified parking space as a result of membership in a car or van pool the individual to whom the parking space is assigned, the prime member" must bear the tax consequences attributable to that space. If the space is not assigned to a particular i ndividual, then the employer that provides access to the space must designate one of its employees as the person who will bear the tax consequences. The employer of the prime member is responsible for reporting any taxable income to the employee. An amount of money (reasonably calculated to cover actual costs, including taxes) received by a prime member from fellow car or van pool members fortheirshare of transporting them to and from work constitutes reimbursement by them for the operation of the vehicle for their mutual convenience T his money is not includible in the gross income of the prime member for federal income tax purposes. Rev. Rul. 55-555, 1955-2 C B. 20. See also Rev. Rul 80-99, 1980-1 C.B. 10 b. No aggregation of exclusions, Member of a car or van pool are not pennitted to combine their$155 parking exclusions for the pool. For example, employees .L.. M and B belong to a car pool and use, at no charge, qualified parking worth $165 a month. M is designated as the "prime member" of the car pool and must bear the tax consequences. M may not use the exclusions attributable to B PAGE 215 and J.. Accordingly, M must include$10 per month in gross income, the amou nt by w hich the fair ma rke t value of the parking exceeds the excludable amount. Q-14 : What is the effe c tive date of section 132 (f) ? a. Effective date Section 132(f) of the Code applies to benefrts provided after December 31, 1992 The r ules in this notice can b e applied to comply with section 132(f) of the Code for benefits provided after December 31, 1992 and before Apri l 1 1994 and must be app lied to comply w ith section 1 32(f) for benefrts provided afte r March 31, 1994. b Tra nsition ru l e For qualified transporta tion fringes provided afte r December 31, 1992, and before Ap ril 1. 1994. emp l oyers may use any reasonable good faith method of compli ance with section 132(f) of the Code in lieu of the rules contained in thi s notice. Efforts to comply w ith section 132 ( f) o f the Code and to determine the fai r market v a lue of benefits that differ from the rules contained in this notice w ill be considered reasonable good faith compliance so long as they are based on a reasonable good fa ith interpretation of section 132(f) PARKING CASH-OUT : The President's Parking Subsidy Reform Program The Problem o Th e average home to wo r k trip results i n about 0.8 tons of carbon per y ear o Home to work trips are a primary contributor of urban smog and poor air quality in US cities o The rush hour means traffic congestion and the need to spend scarce resources on new road construction Free Parking at Work is an Ubiquitous Fringe Benefit o 95% of all Americans who drive to work receive free park ing from their employers o Even in the centra l business distr i cts o f the largest US cities. over half of all commuters who dri ve to work re ce i ve free parking from t heir em ploy ers o A l mos t no one is offered the c h oice of a cash a ll owance or other benefit instead o f park ing Who pays f o r "free" parking? o US bus i nesses spend $4 0$70 bi lli on per year o n 'fr ee park in g spaces o All of thi s parking is tax-exempt a loss to the Tre a sury of $12-$25 bi l lion per year o Since free park ing is an invitation to drive it raises the cost of main t aining the high w ays Managing Our Way Through Cong estion 3-17

PAGE 216

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-18 o Driving means pollution, which i ncreases industry's bur den in meet i ng clean air goals. What is the Tax Exemption for Parking at Work? o Section 1 32 of the Internal Revenue Code qua l ifies employer provided parking as a transportation fr i nge benefrt' o Makes offering free parking tax-smart o Tax-Deduct i ble business expense for emp l oyers o Tax-free income for employees (up to $155 per month) o Also untouched by state income, social security unemployment and other taxes o Makes offering other choices tax-stup i d o Parking tax break is lost I f ot her options are of fered (eve n if employees choose parki n g) o Transit passes have a tax break, but less than half the size of that for parking. The President's Cash-Out Proposal o Keeps the tax advantages of free parking, but makes it tax-smart for employers to offer cash and t r ansit pass options as well o Increases commuter cho i ces but does not add business costs or tax burdens o Ame n d I nterna l Reven u Code Section 132(f) paragraph(5)(C) which defines qualified parking: o Qualified Parking-The term qualified parking means parking provided to an employee on or nea r the business premises of the employer ... o By adding the following cash out prov i sion: o ... if the employer offers the employee the opt ion to rece ive, in lieu of the parking the fair market va l ue of the parking, as taxab l e cash or a qualified trans i t subs i dy. Cash Out Makes the Tax Code Work for the Environment o Parking provided by empl oyers to employees i s as before, tax-deductible and tax exempt o But onl y if park i ng is offered with the choice of a com muter a ll owa nce equa l to the cost of the parking. o The commuter allowance may be taken by em ployees i n the form of cash which would be tax able income to the employee o Up to$60 per month of the commuter allowance may be taken in the form of a transit pass which would be tax-exempt

PAGE 217

The Proposal : C a s h Out Emp l oyer-Provided Parking Subsidies o Make the tax code w ork for the environment: Encourage emp l oyers t o offer w orkers w ho get free parking the opti on of taki ng cash or a transit pass instead o Keep parking tax free and do not increase costs to bus i ness o Target urban areas w here parking costs more, and em ployers w ith greate r fl ex ibility t o reduce parking costs. The B enefits: More Choices M ea n Less Pollution o M ore choices for co mm u t e r s o Wit h o u t sig n i fic a n t i n cr e a s ed c ost t o emp l o y ers o Cleaner air and red u ced g ree nho use gas e m issions o Less t r affic con ges ti on o Lo wer costs for Cl e an Air Act compliance o A boost to transit, carpooling, and other commuting alternatives o A positive step for dow ntown business Unde r Current Law i t is T ax..Smart for Empl oyers to Offer onl y Free Pa rking P811
PAGE 218

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-20 California's Cash Out Law o Requires employers who offer subsidized parking to also offer the choice of a cash allowance in lieu of parking to employees o Reason o Subsidized parking creates a strong incentive for solo commuting, leading to traffic congestion and air pollution o When offered the choice of a cash allowance, many employees choose to take it and find other ways to get to work o Expected Impacts o Improved air quality and reduced fuel use o Reduced traffic congestion o Increased transit ridersh ip, carpooling and biking to work. o Passed with bipartisan support Where it is offered the Cash Out Option Works o California Chamber of Commerce, Sacramento o The cash option was offered to all 85 employees. 23% gave up their parking spaces for cash in the first year. o Sierra Research, Sacramento o The cash option was offered to all 31 employees of this small firm. 9 employees (29%) chose cash over parking. o City of West Hollywood CA o Offered cash out to city employees and quickly reduced driving to work by 16%. o Warner Center, West LA o When given the opportunity to save money by giving up a parking space, employees of a large firm reduced solo driving by nearly 1/3, although the building is not well served by transit. Carpool participation shot up from 6% to 31 o/o of employ ees. Commuter Cash is good for Downtown Business o Because downtown parking is more valuable, downtown employers can offer more commuter cash to thei r em ployees. o Vacated parking spaces make downtown more attractive to shoppers and other commerce o Downtown congestion is reduced o Reduced demand for parking means less need for new garages, more room for downtown development.

PAGE 219

The Cash Out Provision would be applicable to employer paid parking: o Provided by firms of 25 or more employees o Loca ted primarily in urban areas o Loca ted in a controlled park ing lo t o Not owned by the employer o Not offered to military personnel o But all employers may participate Managing Our Wa y Through Congestion 3-21

PAGE 220

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-22 NOTES

PAGE 221

PARKING SUPPLY AND PRICING MANAGEMENT Module Goal s o Demonstrate the relationship of parl
PAGE 222

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-2 in major cost savings for the employer or developer Some employees like parking management programs because they reward the non-solo drivers for choosing an alternative mode. Parlling management programs can also reduce traffic congestion The parking pricing and travel allowance strategies are idea l for a setting in which on street and/or off street parking supply is limited and expensive. Initially, most pricing programs are faced wit h antagonism from the employees. Preferential parking works best in areas where park in g i s cheap and abundant. Preferential parking is not appropriate where parking is convenient and near the entrances A review of studies which have documented the changes and travel behavior clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of ending or reducing parking subsidies. The solo driver mode share has been shown to decrease between 18 and 81%. PARKING MANAGEMENT MEASURES 0 Supply Measures 0 Zoning 0 Flexible Parking Requirements 0 Facility Operation 0 Parking Caps 0 Preferential Parking 0 Park-and-Ride 0 Fringe Parking 0 Demand Measures 0 Pricing 0 Employer Subs i dized Transportation 0 Transportation Allowance 0 Park i ng Ta xation o Enforcement Measures o Ticket i ng o TowingNehicle Immob i l izat ion o Adjudication o TOM Measures o TMAs, CAPs o Transportation Management Districts

PAGE 223

DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGY Local Parking Policy The public sector plays several roles in parking : o Setting "pa rk ing requirements in codes o B uilding and managing off-street parking supply o Controlling the supply and regulat i on of on-street park in g o Influencing the revenues and rates charged by private prov i ders of parking. The Federal government also influences parking po licy. The IRS exempts from taxes free or subsidized parking offered by employers to employees up to $per month. The result is more employee demand for parking, higher local parking requirements and less incentive for us e of transit and ride sharing compared to the case where subsidized parking Is taxed Considerable recent and past research suggests that supply and price of parking may be the most potent demand management strategy. Pricing Governments may take several approaches to pricing park ing. They may : o Impose or increase fees and surcharges for solo drivers or long-term parkers in public parking facilities ; o Give price preference to carpools and vanpoo l s ; o Tax the p roviders of parking w hether commercial operators of park ing or all pu b li c and private entit i es provid ing park i ng; o Impose park ing pr i cing through regional regu l ations for example air q uality regul at ions or spec i al leg isla tion ; and Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4 .. 3 PAGE 224 Managing Our Way Throug h Congestion 4-4 o Especially regarding state government, tie funding allocations for road improvements to requirements for local trip reduction plans incorporating parking pric in g among other demand management strategies. Employers, developers, and Transportation Management Associa tions also can play a role in pricing. One or more of these entities can: o Remove, reduce, or cash out employer-provided parking subsid i es (see the following table that converts the val ue of an employer subsidy for parking to a per-mile subsidy); o Reverse "early bird" or monthly di scoun ts favoring long-tenn commuter parking; o With or without government regulation, impose park ing pricing and discount parking for carpoolers where free parking prevails, or where carpoolers enjoy no price breaks; and o Develop parking r egulations and pricing for commercial and retail mixed-use areas and manage and enforce parking. Equivalent Cost per mile for Employer-Paid Parking. Assumes a 10-mile commmute Average Subsidy Rate Parking Price 25% 50% 75% 100%$25 $0.01$0.03 $0. 04$0.06 $50$0.03 $0.06$0.09 $0.12$75 $0.04$0.09 $0.13$0.18 $100$0.06 $0 12$0.18 $0.24 Supply Management Locali ties influence the supply of parking at and around develop ments through: PAGE 225 o Parking code measures; o On-street controls (meters, timed zones neighborhood preferential parking); and o Controls on the amount of parking built and operated by the public sector. Parking codes establishing the amount of parking developers must provide ("minimum required) can be set with low minimums and/or maximums ("maximum" which can be provided) to insure overly ample supplies are not provided. Or, localities can allow reductions in minimum requirements ("flexible" r equirements) in return for traffic mitigation. Developers can redu ce the minimum amount of parking required in return for supporting transit, carpooling, cycling and other alternatives to solo driving NATURE OF EFFECTIVENESS Pricing The effectiveness of parking pricing in reduc ing solo driving and increasing use of alternative modes of travel depends on several factors, including: o The level of price and the share of cost actually borne by the traveler; and o The attractiveness of travel and parking alternatives. With regard to the attractiveness of alternatives at least two factors are important to the effect of pricing: 0 0 Generally, pricing can be expected to be the most effective in shift ing commuters to alternative modes where the quality of those modes is higher. The following tables show the impact on solo driving and number of vehicles per 100 employees before and after introducing a charge for parking program. Managing Our Way Through Cong811tlon 4-5 PAGE 226 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4 .. 6 How Employer Parking Subsidies Affect Solo Driving Solo Driver Mode Shate case Study and Type Employer Driver Pays Decrease in Pays for for Partcing Solo Drivers Pa rking Mid Wilshire, los Angeles 42% 8% -81% (Before/After) Warner Center, los Angeles 90% 48% -49% (Before/After) Cenlury City, Los Angeles 92% 75% -19% (Before/After) Civic Center. Los Angeles 72% -44% (wllhlwilhoul) Downtown Ottawa, Canada 35% 28% % (B efore/Mer) Average of Case Slud ies 66% 39% Source: Richard W Wilson and Dona l d C. Shoup, "Parking Subs i d ies and Travel Choices:Assessing the Evidence .. How Employer Parking Subsidies Affect Auto Trips Autos Driven per 100 Employees Case Study and Type Emp loyer Driver Pays Deaease i n Pays for for Parking Solo Drivers Parking Mid Wilshire. Los Angeles 48 30 38% (Before/After) warner Center, Los Angeles 92 64 -30% (Befo r e/After) Century City, Los Ange les 94 eo -15% (Before/After) C ivic Center, Los Angeles 78 so -36% (withlwilhout) Downtown Ottawa Canada 39 32 18% (Before/After) Average of Case Stud ies 70 5 1 -27% Source: Rich a rd W. Wilson and Donald C Shoup, "Parking Subsidies and Trave Choices:Assessing lhe Evidence" PAGE 227 Supply Management The supply of parking is an i mportant determinant underlying com muter choice of travel mode. Generally the tighter the parking supply the more likely drivers will consider using alternative modes. The relevant "su pply" includes all available parking to commuters, both on and off-site within walking distance. Evidence for the impor tance of parking supply comes from two recent studies Localit ies with the best prospects for realizing reduct io ns in solo driving through parking supply restraints are wher e some or all of the following conditions app l y : o Developer and lender preferences or minimum parking codes result in more p a rking than i s utilized In such sett ings, minimums might be lo we red if they are the cause of overly ample supplies Or max im ums might be imp osed to preve nt developers and lenders from creating excessive supplies. o M ixed uses are available or planned wh ere parking supplies can be shared. In this setting, localiti es can negotiate for parking supplies serving several compatible uses instead of separate and more extensive supplies serving each use o Commercial and public park ing is well utilized thereby limiting opportunities for parkers to simply shift park ing locations as supplies are tightened o The costs of providing parking are high compared t o traffic mitigation alternatives. In suc h settings, developers and lenders may be more willing t o r ed uce supplies o Transit capacity is frequent and not saturated, offering a good a lt ernative for drivers affected by tightened supplies o Uncontrolled supplies (streets, vacant land neighborhoods) are at a minimum or new controls are p l anned. M a.nglng Our Way Through Congestion 4 .. 7 PAGE 228 Managing Our Way T hrough Congest ion 4-8 APPLICATION SETTING Pricing Pricing can be applied to: o Individual developments and employers; o Entire employment centers in urban or suburban settings; o Public facilities, typically in downtown areas; o Commercial parking through rate regulation or parking taxes ; and o Regions through air quality or funding allocations legislation. National surveys show private off-street parking makes up from 15 to 60 percent of all off-street parking depend i ng on the l ocality Thus, the focus on public versus private and commercia\ park i ng will vary from loca l ity to l ocality. The best candidate l ocalities for pricing strategies are those where some amount of parking pricing already is in place. These strate g ies are the most applicable where: o The public supply makes up a substantial proportion of the total parking supply; o There are few opportunities for spillover parking (into reta il or neigh borhood areas with no pricing or parking regulation); or o Transit into the priced zone has some capacity or will be imp r oved. Two other opportunities are importan t to consider. "Early bird specials" These policies might be reversed throug h regulat i on o r negotia tion with the commercial parking industry. Another opportu nity exists where emp l oyers provide parking subsidies to employ ees. ("cash out") One study of Los Ange l es commuters estimates the cash out might reduce solo driv i ng by as much as 24 percent. PAGE 229 Supply Managemen t The best cand i date local i ties for supply strateg i es may be suburban communities Surveys of suburban office parks show supp l ies between 3 5 and 4.0 spaces per 1,000 square feet of floor space, and surv eys of usage in California and Texas found office workers only required about 2.2 spaces per 1,000 square feet. o N uc l ear Regulatory Commission, 12 percent reduction in solo driving compared to before pricing (though the 4 2 percent solo share is about 40 percent below solo shares of other employers in the area ) ; o Bellevue City Hall 17 percent compared to before pri c ing; o CH2M Hill 25 percent compared to before p ri cing ; o Twent i eth C e ntury Corporation 25 percent decl i ne ; and o Pacific Northwest Bell, 4 0 percent lesser proportion of solo drivers compared to other employ ers in the area Parking pricing again ha s been effective However, several of the cases suggest certa i n cautions in designing pricing programs: o City of Madison: The City imposed a pea k p eriod sur charge of$1. 00 at four parking comb i ned with new shuttle service Five to e ight percent of commuters s w itched to t r ansit However 22 percen t shifted park in g locat i on and s i x percent parked after the peak. o City of Seattle: The City reduced parl
PAGE 230

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-10 o U.S. Federal Government: The Federal Government charged employees for parking at selected federal facilities, reversing a previous policy of free parking. Rates were changed from mostly free to one-half the rates at nearby commercial lots. The reduction in the number of autos commuting ranged from one to 10 perce nt in central city areas, and between two and four percent in suburban locations. o City of Chicago: The City raised rates form 30 to 120 percent b ring ing fees up to levels at nearby commercial space. Nu mber of aU-day-parkers arriving before 9:30a.m. dropped 72 percent. Revenues from municipal facilities increased. The important lesson from this case is the potential that pricing has to not only reduce long-term park ing and influence mode of travel, but to increase parking revenues at public facilities. The potential for pricing to shift where parking takes place, and the need for enforcement strategies to accompany pricing. Supply Management Parking supply strategies also have exhibited success in trip reduction through increased transit use and reduced solo driving Two examples illustrate the execution of parking code supply management strategies, and results associated w ith the strate gies: o Portland, OR : The parking code sets a maximum number of parking spaces allowed depending on proximity to transit, with no minimum except for residential uses. TRAVEL AND TRAFFIC IMPACT POTENTIAL This study reviewed 22 indiv idual TOM programs and both docu mented the elements of their TOM program and estimated their effectiveness in reducing vehicle travel. It becomes quite apparent when reviewing the experience of these particular programs that parking management measures are key to the performa nce of the successful examples.

PAGE 231

Effectiveness of Parking Management Measures in Employer TOM Programs Program TypeA,.a Vehicle Trip Pal1dng Restricted Rese!VOd Reduetlon Charges Partdng Pllfltlng "Travelers CBD 47 .9% Yes Yes Yes USWoat SBD 47.1 Yos Yes Yes NRC lSI 41. 6 Yes Yes Yes GEICO SBD 38 6 Yes Yes Yes SBD 31. 2 Yes Y e s No State Farm SBP 30.4 No No No Paeiftc Bell SBP 27 8 No Yeo Yes Hallfonl Staam Boiler CBD 26.5 Ye Yes No Swedish Hop;tal lSI 26. 1 y .. Yes No Bellevue City Holl lSI 25 8 Ye Y e s Yes San Diego Trust & Savltlgs CBD 22. 7 Yes Yes No Pasadena City Hall SBD 21. 0 Yes Yes No Transamerica CBD 20.0 Yes Yes Yes ARCO CBD 19. 1 Yes Yes No Varian SBP 17.7 No Yes No AT&T SBP 13. 4 No Yes Yes Ventura County CIS I 13. 0 No No N o COM SIS SBD 10. 5 Yes Yes No 3M OSI 9.7 No No No Aller9Jn SBP 7.0 No No Yes UClA lSI 5.5 Yes Yes No Chevron SBP 3.7 No No Yes 1 Key: CBD = Central Busine$S D i s t rict SBD Suburban Business Oistric:t lSI Inner Suburb, Isolated OSI = Oute r Suburo Isolated SBP = Suburban Business Prt< COST EFFECTIVENESS Pricing lmplemenation costs depend on whether a pricing action is merely a change in existing pr i cing or whole new pricing plan. It also de pends on whether or not pricing is packaged with other strategies such as expanded TOM services. The resulting economic benefits are generally substantial for imple-Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-11 PAGE 232 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-12 menting parking pricing strategies but the direct costs are not. For example, when San Francisco implemented the parking tax, gross revenues from the tax amounted to$5.5 million per year. Parkers may not divert to commercia) lots because the price hikes brought prices up to those found at those commercial facilities. Supply Management For the public sector there will be little cost implica tion, provided only new minimum or maximums are implemented. In this case, however, flexible requirements will require more administrative review of proposed traffic mitigation strategies and plans. For the private sector, cost implications are greater. Where devel opers provide less parking due to new minimums, maximums or flexible requirements, there will be cost savings in parking spaces provided. An evaluation of costs and benefits of employer traffic mitigation programs and reduced parking requ ireme nts In King County estimated savings i n construction costs for structural lots at $4,200 per space and annua l operation and maintenance at$200 per year. As an illustration of the cost effectiveness of a parking management strategy, consider a developer allowed or required to reduce the amount of on-site parking in return for implementing a demand management program: Cost-effectiveness of a Parking Management Strategy to Developers (Example) Deve40per Costs : Lbor & Fringes (part-time TOM Coordinator and secretary) Amortized Fixed costs Showcm, infonnallon centers and bike racks Total Costs Deve-loper Amortized vaJue of Paricing reduction (1,000 spaces @$900 30yrs@10%) Operations & maintenance OS 1 DO/space TotaJ Savings Total Net Savings Tolal Net Savings per day (261 wo111;days per year) Cost per trip re duced (aMume 100 trips reduced)$ 60,000 10,000 $70,000$ 95,500 100,000 $195,500$125,500 $481$4. 81

PAGE 233

IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Pricing 1. Objectives and Instruments Parking pricing serves the objective of trip reduction. Whether by way of increased rates or surcharges at public and private facilities, removal of parking subsidies implementation of regulations and developer agreements encouraging parking pricing as a demand management measure, changes in early-bird or other rate sched ules in commercial parking, parking taxes or other means, p ricing can reduce vehicle trips significantly in both suburban and urban settings. 2. Implementation Once objectives are clearly established, the next step is an assess ment of certain key variables. Depending on objectives, it will be important to estimate: o Character and size of the travel market to whom the actions will be applied, including the proportion of through traffic; o Amount of use of available park ing supplies, including overall demand as well as proportion of longversus short-term use and shoppers versus commuters; o Availability of parking nearby the priced zone, to assess spillover parking potential; o Difference between public and private parking supplies and rates, since some parkers may simply shift to commercial facilities if public rate s exceed commercial rates; o Whether pricing mechanisms are already in place or must be stated from scratch (particularly in suburban areas); o Degree of employer subsidization of employee parking; o Qua lity and capacity of transit services, carpool matching programs, bicycling facilities and other alternatives to solo Ma n agtng Our Way Through Congestion 4-13

PAGE 234

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-14 0 0 driving; Available policy instruments, including demand management ord i nances and developer agreements which might be modified to encourage pricing, or state or county funding allocation formulas and legislation (e.g., Congestion Management Plan) which might be modified to encourage pricing; and Local regulatory power over commercial parking rates, and authority to implement and enforce parking taxes. With this infonnation in hand, planners can then devise possible alternatives for consideration For example, if the objective is to reduce traffic and vehicle trips in a core downtown area or activity center, a good cand i date for consideration would include rate hikes or surcharges in public facilities, carpool discounts and public transit encouragements. Important considerations in detenn i ning the worth of such strategies inc lude: o What proportion of parking does the public sector control? o Are public sector rates below or at a par with commercial rates? o Is through traffic a large proportion of traffic in the zone? o Are employees generally subsidized fo r pa rk ing or not? o Are transit capacity and carpool matching services good or will they be improved with the pricing program? The simplest public sector pr ici ng option may be to i ncrease rates to near commercial rates without altering rate structure. A more ag gressive policy would be to increase rates more for long-tenn parkers while promoting transit and carpooling. A parking sur charge for morning entry might also be considered, though the surcharge should be applied to most facilities because commuters are likely to simply sh ift parking destinations if surcharges are in place at only a few facilities. For maximum effect priced parking pennits can be required for park i ng in the zone both on and off street.

PAGE 235

Implementation rate hikes in the pub li c sector may be the eas i est to accomplish of a ll pricing options No new a u tho rity is required No new pricing technology or enforcement proced ures are needed Of course public acceptance and decision-make r approva l may we ll stand in the way of implementation, but some likely objections can be met with careful planning. Some key issues i nclude : o Where increased revenues will go; o Whether shoppers will find more or less parking available; o Whether parkers will shift to unprotected neighborhood streets; and o Whether low income worke rs are d i sadvantaged Collateral actions w ill be important to imp l ementation f eas i bi l ity Important act i ons to cons ider include : o Increased transit and carpool services ; o Preferential parking for residents in nearby neighborhoods; o Set-aside or validated parking for shoppers; o Preferential parking by location and rate for carpools; and o Increased enforcement funded by increased revenues Finally any park ing pricing scheme must be monitored and eva lu ated Park ing managers and planners shou l d track : o Mode shares of commuters into the zone ; o Parking utilization and turnover at pri c ed facili ties and at nearby facilities and streets; o Parking violations and meter feedings Some commuters can be expected to feed meters and shuffle cars in time-restr i cte d zones; and o Parking revenues along with any increased costs associated with the program Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-15

PAGE 236

Managing Our Way Through Congestion Generally, developers prefer one-time actions or fees rather than long-term opera tional commitments aalncenUvesforany public benefi t action. 4-16 SUPPLY MANAGEMENT 1. Objectives and Instruments Parking supply measures support the objective of trip reduction. Revising minimum or maximum rates, allowing below minimum rates in proximity to transit or for demand management programs, and providing shared parking at mixed-use developments, are all impor tant considerations in a trip reduction program. 2. Implementation Imp lementi ng maximum rates or flexible parking requirements does not involve significant implementation baniers. Nor are there difficul ties in specifying designated carpool parking i n developer agree ments or codes. Localities typically have the authority to regulate parking supplies by way of parking requirements In codes. Thus, only code modification are required, supported by periodic parking demand studies. Careful assessments must be made to determine levels of parking demand and l ender and developer preferences before instituting maximums, minimums or flexible requirements. Incentives for reduced requirements must be attractive not only to employees but to developers as well. Generally, developers prefer one-time actions or fees rather than long-term operational commit ments as incentives for any public benefit action. For example, developers in Chicago routine ly take advantage of relaxations in minimum parking requirements in return for phys i cal connections between office developments and transit stations. However, as the Hartford case suggests, developers are much less inclined to oper ate park-and-ride service over some extended period of time. They probably would prefer to make one-time payments to a fringe or regional park-and-ride lot system. Tight maximum requirements near transit stations and trunk l ines should be implemented only after assessing what the market (deve l opers and lenders) provides and prefers to provide, and what is the current leve l of parking demand in the vicinity of transit facilities This approach minimizes the risks of setting maximums above usual levels of demand and/or market preference.

PAGE 237

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES IN TOM M odul e Goals: o To discuss the evolution of Advanced Technologies (AD and Mure direction. o To identify the function a l areas of AT with applications in th e TOM field. Assump tions: o AT holds the pot ent ia l f or i mp r oving the performance of tra n sit a n d TO M o Workshop participants have little experience or exposure to AT and Intelligent Tra nsport a tion Systems (ITS) (formerly known a s Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS)) applications in the TOM env i ronment. o As congestion grows, so w ill the interest in congestion pricing. L i s t s o m e ofthe Benefits of Advanced Te chnologies to TO M : Advanced technologies i s a n e w field which strives to solve transportation problems with t echnology applications Many of the product and service providers are corporations that got their problems this field has become socially and pol i t i cally acceptMana g in g Our Wa y Th rough CongesUon 'We must integrate all modes of tran. sportatio n into a seamless, i ntermodal system tor mov i ng goods and people Tile application ofiVHS technologies will be crucial to lhe creation of a truly lntermodal N a tional Transportation System -Rodney E. Slate r Federal H ighwa y Adminls t rator, U.S. D epartme n t of T ra neporta t lon. July 2 1,1994 5 1

PAGE 238

Managing Our Way Through Congestion "IVHS te<:hnologles will be cosUy and their commercial success Ia uncertain. Their deployment will require substantial investments by the public sector, private lnduatry, and consumers; deployment costa are expected to exceed $200 billion by the year 2011 : -Barry T. Hill, Associate Director Transportation Issues, General Accounting Office. 5-2 In Japan two federal government agencies conducted parallel research projects. RACS is a traffic management system for the Tokyo metropolitan area using vehicle equipped with transmitters as "probes" in the traffic network. When a vehicle equipped with a transmitter passes a roadside communica tion device the location of this vehicle is recorded and stored in a central computer By calculating how long a vehicle took to go from point A to point B, the computer can determine the severity of congestion for !hat road segment. All information is collected at lhe Tokyo ExPressway Control Center and sent through infrared beacons to vehicles equipped with a receiver. The first test of RACS was in March 1987. The system went tuny operational in 1990. In the AMTlCS system, an in-vehicle until displays static data stored on CD-ROM, such as maps, local traffic regulations. location of parking lots. gas stations and other useful information. The system's "dy namic" component uses roadside beacons to provide real-time information on traffic conditions, weather and accident warnings andparking space availability. The problem is that these two projects use entirely different media to communicate between vehicle and roadside. The Ministry of Industrial Trade and Industry (Mill) is trying to integrate the two systems through a program called VICS. At the same time in Europe the automotive and electronics industries sponsored Prometheus -an$800 million program designed to enable European companies to poo l their IVHS research efforts. (In Europe IVHS goes by the acronym "RTl" or Road Transport lnformantics".) The final goal of the program is to develop products such as "intelligent vehicles" and "electronic ftow detectors." Prometheus will fund "pre-competitive re search up to the point where private firms decide to design new products in competition with each other. Prometheus began in 1986 Integration of the res ult of the hundred of research projects sponsored by the program is scheduled for 1994. DRIVE is a European Community program of collaborative research and development program. Like Prometheus, DRIVE supports pre-competi t ive" research A major goal of the DRIVE program, however. is to deve lop standardized technology which can be used by all EC nations. The EC sponsored a few studies on driver i nforma t io n systems In 1984. The program was formally commissioned by the EC in 1988 and awarded 60 research grants-Phase I of the project-in 1989. Phase II began in 1992 and i nvolves operational tests of the concepts and technologies developed i n Phase I.

PAGE 239

able SIX FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF ITS : Advanced Traffic Management Systems (AIMS). A surileillance SY$tem detects traffic conditions in a metropolitan area and transmits the information to a traffic management center. The traffic management cente r uses the information to: o Advise people about current and expected traffic condi tions, o Inform people of the location severity and expected duration of incidents, and o Recommend the fastest routes for people to take to reach the ir destinations. Advanced Traveler lnfoanatjon Systems (AilS) In veh i cle units inform t he driver of current traffic condit io ns and prov ide re a l time guidance on route decisions. AilS systems can provide safety warnings to the driver, such as hazardous road or weather conditions as well as in-vehicle Yellow Pages-type in f ormation on local businesses. Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO.). A shipping company can use computer technology to improve operating efficiency of its vehicle fleet by tasks such as coord ina ted dispatching and automated record keeping. eva technologies can e liminate the need for trucks to stop at weighsta tions and state borde r s by passing the information in the trucks' paperwork electronically from stat i on to stat i on Advanced Yebi! PAGE 240 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-4 Third-generation AVCS would completely automate driving functions on specially equipped freeways Advanced Public Tram;p ortation Systems (6PTS) The major focus of APTS is on improving transportation ser vice information for transit customers and for transit vehicle operators. These improvements will encompass increased accuracy, improved timeliness, and increased ease of accessi bility. Transit information will become more accessible to travelers in the home, the workplace, or while in transit. It will use changeable message signs and smart cards. Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (6RTS) Wrth over three times the miles of roads than urban areas, ITS applica tions in rural areas are another key area. These areas often have limited sight distances and present other safety problems The applications of ITS in rural areas will focus on systems that alert drivers through on-board communication or by vari able warning signs as to local weather conditions, visibility problems, flash flooding, stopped chool buses and animals on the road. The Impact of IS TEA The ISTEA created an ITS program within the Department of Transportation and authorized$660 million from FY92 to FY97 to be spent on research and development of ITS technologies. The operational tests funded in the first two years of the ISTEA legislation include the following (Project names are followed by their location and FY92 federal funding allocation.): Advanced Traffic Management Systems o SMART Corridor, Los Angeles, CA. $1 million o GuideStar, Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN,$10 million o FAST-TRAC Troy Ml, $10 million Advanced Traveler Information Systems o ADVANCE Chicago, IL,$7.5 million o TravTek, Orlando FL. $8 million o DIRECT, Detroit, Ml,$750,000 Commercial Vehicle Operations

PAGE 241

PAGE 242

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-6 0 0 HELP/Crescent, Pacific coastal states plus Arizona New Mexico and Texas, $17 6 million Advantage 1-75, 1-75 highway from M i ami, FL to Detroit, Ml,$2 million Advanced Vehicle Control Systems o PATH, Richmond, CA $1.28 million THE USDOrS SERVICE PLAN FOR TOM: The lntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) authorized$660 m i llion in federal funding over the next six years for research and development for Intelligent Veh i cle Highway Systems (IVHS). President Clinton's economic plan proposed a $12 million annual increase in funding and pre dicted that IVHS will im prove traffic control systems warn drivers of dangerous situations, and make more efficient use of the exi sting highway infrastructure." (1) Others, however, are not so enthusiastic. Architectural critic Jane Holtz Kay calls ITS a way of "buying time" for a "lifestyle that is economically costly, environmentally unsound, socially inequitable, culturally disas trous and architecturally ruinous. oynamic Ride Matching and Traveler Information Services. Transporta tion Management Associations (TMAs) currently use software to analyze commuters' home and work locations to find probable matches for carpool ing. IVHS technologies take this matching process one step further by matching carpoolers on th e day of the i r journey TMAs can even use a credit sys tem, incrementing t h e carpool dr i ver's account and decrementing the rider's account. Traffic management centers can also contribute to reducing demand by informing the poten tial SOV user of current t raffic congestion and transit and rideshare alternatives. Real-Time Ridematching Serv i ces use: o Communication Technologies Phone to Voice-Mail operating systems E-Mail at home/desk/office-lobby kiosk Electronic pagers distributed by TOM agenc ies Fax-distribution lists o Other Issues PAGE 243 Secu ri ty/backgro und checks F lexi ble program Payment to driver per r i de Accessed only within membe r compan i es HOY Facility Management and Control Using ITS technolo gies. HOV lanes can be operated and enforced dynamically in response to current conditions and situations. For example auto occupancy requirements for an HOV lane could be in creased to respond to pollution alerts or reduced in response to an incident on a parallel road way Dynamic HOV lanes would require methods to sense environmental conditions and the severity of congestion, plus variable message signs and other ways to commun i cate the current HOV requirements to drivers. Advanced technologies can also be used to g ive priority to car pools van pools and buses at ramp-meters and signalized intersections The reduced trave l time will make ri desharing and public transit more attract ive to SOV drivers Congestion Pricing Similar to the dynam i c HOV requirements. toll rates can be adjusted in response to environmental and congestion related factors. Collection of fluctuating toll rates are easier if tolls are paid automatically, through a transponder mount ed on the vehicle. Transit fares can also be lowered during periods where loll rates are high, to me e t th e increased number of users changing from driving alone Implementation i ssues for congestion pric ing in c lude : o Effects of varied pricing on travel behav i or and emissions o Assessment of po li tical a n d i nstit u t i ona l ba r riers (i e publ i c vs private ownership use r pri vacy s t a n dard iza lion of technology etc. ) o Cond i t ions for most effect ive pr i cing o Who w i ll pay for the costs of IVHS technolog i es that would enable automatic congest i on pricing o Willingness of different socioeconomic groups to pay (equity) o Limited number of surveys and pilot programs to provide guidance One of the methods for collecting tolls is the use of Electronic Toll Collection t echno l ogy. This technology consists of: o A vehicle equipped with a transponde r ( o r e l ec tr on i c l icense p l ate ) Monoglng Our Woy Through Congestion The uto or automatic vehiCle identlflcotlon lA VI) ogy, partlcu&arty for eleettOnlc loll col lodion (ETC), II growing '"pldly ETC systems curTently opetltt In Texas, Ok&lhoma, New YOtt<. Louis.lane, COlorado, end IMinoll OO.Ors ,,. planned In C a llfomia.. F-.-Maryland, --,. ..., Ka-.. 5-7 PAGE 244 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-8 o ETC equipment identifies the vehicle o It has the capability for two-way communication via radio frequency waves o ETC can be used to implement time-varying tolls (i.e., congestion pricing) o ETC can be used to collect traffic data more reliably than induct ive loop sensors for surveillance and automated incident detection Examples of Congestion Pricing Section 1012(b) of the lntennoda l Surface Transportation Effi ciency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 authorizes the U.S. Secretary of Transportation to create a Congestion Pricing Pilot Program. o Peak-period tolls on congested facilities in order to charge vehicles for their contribution to congestion. o Allow singe-occupant vehicles to pay a toll to use under utilized separated HOV lanes during congested periods on parallel general purpose lanes. o Any existing free Interstate bridge or tunnel may be reconstructed and converted to a toll facility. o The States will make the decision as to whether tolls are to be collected in both directions or in only one direction. o Federal funds can be used to reimburse a state for loans of state funds for construction of eligible toll facilities. o ISTEA has authorized a maximum of$25 million for each of the fiscal years 1992-1997 for the Congestion Pricing Pilot Program, with no more than $15 million to be directed to a single project. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES HARDWARE First Generation o Bar code sticker Windshield placement of sticker Similar to grocery scanner of UPC codes Debits account o Magnetic strip Multi-mode usage Second Generation-Read Only o Amtech Toll-tag Velcroed to inside of windshield PAGE 245 Unique codes Radio-wave communication Maximum range-30 feet Programmable Used in Dallas, New York New Jersey, and Georgia o 3M Automatic Vehicle Identification System Adhered to windshield Unique codes Radio wave communication Up to 15 feet and 55 miles per hour Not programmable Used in Denver o Amtech lntermodal and Rail Tag Bolted to trucks and rail cars Unique codes Radio range-240 feet Programmable Used nationally Third Generation-Read and Write o LCD Display card Future Mounted inside windshield Updates driver at ti me of debit Balance available on Demand Radio-wave communication Programmable o Smart Cards Universal debit card for all forms of transit, tolls, and parking The first operational test under the Congestion Pricing Pilot Program in the United States is the Oakland-San Francisco Bay Toll Bridge Recognized as one of the most co ngested roadway facilities in America, this project will raise peak-period tolls to manage demand. Congestion charges will be used to encour-Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-9 PAGE 246 Managing Ou r Way Through Congestion 5-10 age driver behavior in a manner that will promote the use of alternative times, routes modes, or trip patterns to reduce congestion. Low-occupancy vehicles will pay an increased toll to travel during the peak periods on the Bay Bridge. At the same time, improvements will be made in the supporting and parallel transit services and rideshare programs. In Orange County, California, the Transportation Corridor Agen cies are incorporating automatic toll collection into the des ign of three new toll roads Enabling legislation for the$2.1 billion project dictated that the latest state-of-the-art toll collection systems be used to provide safe, efficient, and congestion-free toll collection. In add i tion, the toll system is being designed to provide as flexible operating policy as is possible. Variable or congestion pricing will be used to make patrons pay a premium to travel during rush hours, and debit or credit patron accounts to attract more usage during times of the day when the facilities are under-utilized. I n October 1993, the first segment on the first Orange County tollway (Foothill Tollway) opened ending California's decades old resistance to toll roads. When completed in 2000, the 30m i le toll road will offer a speedy alternative to the often-con gested Interstate 5 where 10-mile commutes can take an hour. An electronic toll collection system will automatically deduct tolls from the patron's account. The existing Riverside Freeway Stale Road 91, also in Orange County represents another example of congestion pricing The 8-lane freeway currently handles about 225, 000 vehicles a day and this daily traffic is expected to reach 340,000 by 2010. Wrth no re lief in sight, financing has now been secured for the first privately-owned fully-automated (non-stop) toll road in the U S. to be constructed in the freeway median. The toll road will have two e l ectronic toll lanes, and two free or discounted (depending on real-time freeway co n gestion levels) lanes for high-occu pancy vehicles. The ex is ting 8 lane freeway will continue to operate as a "fr ee" road. What's to prevent rush-hour traffic jams from spreading to the Riverside Freeway median toll road? The highway's managers will use congestion pricing to deter drivers whenever sensors and surveillance cameras along the road detect an impending traffic jam. The developer estimates that rush-hour tolls of $2 should be enough to keep congestion from being transferred to PAGE 247 the toll road But if that price is too low the roadway s electronic toll collect i on system and int eg r ated var i able message signs will be capable to go as high as$9 99 for the 10-mile t r i p Th i s project is expected to open by the end of 1995 Why is it needed? o $100 billion travel delay costs in U.S (1990) o Travel expected to increase 50% by year 2005 o Continuat ion of highway-oriented land use patterns and transportation systems How does It work? o Pricing is used to "balance" available capacity and per son-movement demand o Efficient pricing will result in capacity not being exceeded during periods of peak demand Pricing methods "n include: o Control of parking costs o Direct tolls to users of limited access or over-capacity facllities o Reduced tolls to SOV's on under-utilized HOV facilities What are some of the implementation Issues or barriers? o Limited number of surveys and pilot programs to provide guidance o Effects of varied pricing on travel behavior and emissions o Conditions for most effect ive pricing o Willingness of different socioeconom i c groups to pay {equity) o Pub l ic vs private ownersh i p { who pays for and operates the system?) o User privacy Examp l es: o ISTEA Congestion Pric ing Pilot Program o$25 million for each of six years o Enco urages convers i on of free roads to toll roads o States make some major decisions o Oakland-San Francisco Bay Bridge l ike ly the first project Mana ging Our Wa y Through Congestion 5-tt

PAGE 248

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-12 to be undertaken o Transportation Corridor Agencies (Orange County, Ca l ifornia) .... three new private toll roads o S.R. 91 (Riverside Freeway-Orange Co. California) Opening expected 1995 o 4-lane toll road in median of S-lane freeway o First private l y-owned, fully-automated (non-stop) exclu sive toll road in U.S. o Variable tolls to balance congestion between toll road and freeway o Foreign (Singapore, Hong Kong, Norway, Sweden Eng land) How can it become more acceptable? o Integration of AVI technology (electronic toll collection) ... provides convenient non -s top collection of tolls (see example of system configuration) o Use congestion toll revenues toward improving a lt erna tives to the SOV o Consider perspective of user, operating agency/company, and society CONCLUSION As many expanding urban areas continue to remain highway oriented in thei r land use patterns and transportation systems, it is becoming more difficult .nlll to justify congestion pricing as a tool for congestion management. Many believe that congestion pricing will help encourage use of alternatives to driving The effectiveness of congestion pricing will be greatly influenced by what is done with the congestion toll revenues. If the rev enues are i nvested in such alternatives to the car as public transit, ride sharing, walking and biking (instead of maintaining and expanding road and parking facilities) then congestion pricing will become more acceptable to the motoring public. WORLD BANK POLICY CONCLUSIONS: o The benefits of e l ectronic toll collection (ETC) for road pricing outweigh the costs o Technology advancements i n ETC and automatic vehicle identifi cation and location systems will continue to yield large-scale economies. o Successful road pricing systems mus t consider three

PAGE 249

points of view: o The user o The operating agency/company o Society o ETC offers: o S im plicity, anonymity and convenience to the user o F lexibility, reliability, and enforcement capability to the operating agency. o Minimal env ironmenta l and construction intrusion o Positive revenue to cost values o Compatibility w ith other systems to society. PARKING MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL Similar to price of travelling on the roadways, the price of parking can also be ad jus ted in response to dynamic conditions. Collection of the dy namic parking fees would be facilitated if payment was made via magnetic or smart cards. POLLUTION PRICING In a more future term application, toll rates and other costs of driving for individuals can be adjusted according to the amount of pollutants emitted. This TOM strategy would be dependent on sensors which detect the actual emissions from a specific vehicle. Drivers should be informed before leaving home of the higher parking and toll fees that would be in effect. REMOTE-SENSING FOR EMISSIONS One of the newest theories being investigated is the idea that it may be more cost-effective to address clean-air Issue s and mandates by targeting the "gross polluters," the few vehicles responsible for at least half of the pollu tion emitted. The billions of dollars which have been spent to date on rideshare programs may have been better allocated to initiatives which, through remote sensing, would indicate which vehicles are outside set guidelines. The technology exists to accurately mea sure the emissions of a car in motion, and in less than six -tenths of a second, the analysis is stored electronically with a video picture of the back of the offending vehicle, and the license plate, having been scanned by the video image, has been compared to depart ment of motor vehicle {DMV) records to store the owner's data as well. REMOTE SENSING INFORMATION (Fill-in the blanks) o Dirtiest % of all cars emit 50% of automobile CO o Cleanest 50% of all cars emit % of automobile CO o Infrared beam shone through exhaust plume and ana-Managing O u r Way Through Congestion 5-13

PAGE 250

Managing Our Way Through Congntlon 5-14 0 0 lyzed for pollutants Costs range from $112,000 to$100,000 Typical system is $5,000 Cost factors are range and accuracy. Max. range is 3,000 feet, less expensive systems monitor 30-50 feet o System may have real-time display visible to attendant o Offend i ng autos are typically photographed and owners are notified. o Can be continuously monitored at intersection ramp, or lot entrance. o EPA contends that remote sens in g i s l ess accurate than dynamometer "Source: Innovation Briefs : Urban Mobility Corporation. V.5, No.4, April, 1994. AUTOMOBILE POLLUTION A small percentage of cars emit most of the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarb ons (HC) .---------------...,--.., ,.,_v .. 1 / '; _vL i '!' : ... o .ol-r:: Fraction of CO Emiss i ons from Qui11tiles Fraction of HC Emissions from Quin tiles Each quintile multiplrted by the number of vehicles in that qulntile showing rts contribution to tota l fleet emissions. Late mOdel high emitting vehicles dominate the fleet CO and HC contribution. Source:"Remote Sensing of Automobile Emis s ions; by D .H. Stdemand, G.A. Bishop, Y. Zhang and P.L Guenther, University of Denver Chemistry Department. Traffic Technology lntemationa 1 '94. PAGE 251 References 1. A Vision of Change for America, Executive Office of the President of the United States, Washington, D.C., February 17 1993. 2 Kay, Jane Holtz, smart Choices, not Foolish Cars. Boston Globe, November 12 1991 BIBLIOGRAPHY Wilshire, Roy. 'IVHSA Feeling of Deja Vu',/TE Joumal, November 1990 Saxton Lyle, 'Mobility 2000 and the Roots of IVHS , IVHS Review, Spring 1993 Report to Congress on Intelligent V ehicle Highway Systems U S Depart ment ofTransportation Report No. DOT-P-37-90-1, Mar ch 1990 Robert Sweet 'The Inte lli gent-Veh icl e H i ghway Systems Program at the University of Michiga n : An Overv iew UMTRI Research Review, May June 1991. Mobility 2000 Presents Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems: ExeculiveSummary, Texas Transportation Institute. Apri11990 Strategic Plan for Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems in th e Untied States IVHS America, Washington, D.C., May 1992 Draft User Service Plan for Travel Demand Management U S Depart ment of Transportat ion, Washington, D.C September 1993 Wall ace Charles and Kilpat rick Andrew. IVHS Implicat i ons for Trans portation Demand Managemenr, Proceedings of the IVHS America Third Annual Mee ting, Washington D.C. April14-17, 1993 Turnbull, Kathe rine, 'Travel Demand Management and Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems Resource Papers for TOM Innovation and Research: Setting e Strategic Agenda for the Future, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., November 16-16, 19g3_ Advanced Public Transportation Systems: The State of th e Art Update '92, Federal Transit Administration, Document #DOT-VNT SC FTA-92-3, March 1992. .. --M anaging Our WY Through Cong .. tion s .. 1s PAGE 252 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-16 NOTES PAGE 253 . -.. --. -----. Managing Our Way Through Congestion Day4 -------. PAGE 254 TELECOMMUTING MODULE GOALS o To be able to id entify why telecommut ing i s becom in g popular o To identify the benefits of a telecommuting program o To be able to develop a telecommutin g program ASSUMPTIONS o Selling telecommuting programs to businesses requires knowledge of business concerns o Transportation i ssues are secondary Why Flexibl e Work Arrangements? o The N ew American Family Two Incomes Childcare Issu es Eldercare o Housing Rise in Costs Increased distances o Focus on External Visibil i ty and Customer Satisfaction What Motivates an Organization to Implement Flexibility? Reapon.se to Empk)yee Requests. Support CotPQrate Image Part of a WolkFemity Ini tiative Glv6 1 Recruiting Advantl..ge Support Work FDfce Diversity Efforts lncreue Produellvity Prevenl UllWal\ted T unnov.or 0 20 eo Source The Conference Board. 19'91. 100 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 .. 1 PAGE 255 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 .. 2 "Employees do not feel free to use policies for flexibility as much as they would like to." ( 152 emp l oyer tttponus) Noulral !0% Slrongly Disagree 2% Soutet: The Contet"once Board, l99J. F lexible Work Arrange m entsSom e Reasons for Resi s tan ce to Cha nge: The F orce of Custom and Tradition o There i s a tendency for peopl e to accept what has been right as normal and right. Perceived Risk o Resistance may be a means of reducing risk or uncertainty. Added Costs o Change may cost someth in g extra -money, time or other resources Threatened Posit i ons o Change may threaten secu rity in posit ion, prestige or appear as r e jection. M i sunderstand in g of Motives o The motives of promoters may be m i sunderstood or questioned. (SOURCE : Agr icult ura l Extenstion Cooperative Communicat ion Forces Yielding Change Uni v of Wisconsin ) PAGE 256 TELECOMMUTING Working at home or at an attemate location and communicating w ith the usual place of work using electronic or other means in stead of physically traveling to a more d i stant work site SOURCE : M innesota Telecommuting Telecommuting : Getting to Work without Working to Get There, and Mokhtarian Defining Telecommuting WHY TELECOMMUTING? o Job Portability 1950 -17% in Servicellnformation Industries 1980 53% 2000 75% (Projected) o Available Tech nology Fax PCs Electronic Mail Voice Mail OPT IONS FOR TELECQMMUTING o Home Offices Involves little or no cash outlay for employers and employees. o Satellite Offices A group of telecommuters from the same employer work at a satellite office i nstead of work ing at h ome. o N eighborhood Work Centers Telecommuters from different employers work at a neighborhood work center and share resources such as clerical help, communications equipment, photo copying and office supplies. BENEFITS TQ EMPLQYER o In creased Employee Productivity 8 .81% of employee's salary Managing Our Way Through Congestion t .. J . PAGE 257 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 -4 0 Decreased Faci l ity Costs Office Space 5% savings Parking Spaces o Decreased Absenteeism Reduced St r ess Emergencies do not require full day Result Decreased sick leave of .5% of avg salary o Retention of Employees Shorter Commute G r eater Fle xibil i ty Convalescence o Recruiting Employees Physically I mpaired Geographically Remote Part of Benefit Package o Natural Disasters BENEFITS TO EMPLOYEE; o Decreased Commuting Time o Decreased Travel Stress o Decreased Personal Expenses Travel Meals Ward r obe o Autonomy Over Work Space o Increased Flexibility Schedule Surround i ngs P r ocess BE;NEFITS TO COMMUNIJY o Reduced Air Pollution PAGE 258 0 Reduced Auto Congestion Save I n Lo s t Tim e Save In In frastructure Expenditures o Decreased Use of Natur al Resources o Stronger Connect ion of Workers to Families o Greater Sense of Community for Employees TE LEC OMMUT IN G T RANSPORTATION 1992 1997 IMPACTS Saving In Vehicle M iles 3.7 10 .012 9 Travelled (VMT) billions Percentage Saving In 0 23% 0 4 9%-0 63% Total Paaaenger VMT Per cen tage Saving In 0.7% 1 .6%2.0% CommutlngVMT Saving In Gallons of 178 476619 Gasoline (millions) Percentage Saving In 0.25% 0 6% 0 8% Gallons Value of Gaaollne Saved$203 $543$706 (millions) Percentage Saving in Emisa lona NOx 0.23% 0 6% 0 8 % HC 0 .31% 0.8% 1 1% co 0 .36% 1.0% 1 .3% Annual Hours Saved for 77 93 Average Telecommuter Total Annual Hours 156 444577 Saved (millions) 2002 17.6 35.1 0 .7%1 4 % 2.3%-4.5% 840-1,679 1 .1%-2 1% $958-$1 914 1 1% 2 2% 1 4%-2.7% 1 .7%-3.4 % 110 826-1 652 Source : U S Departmenl of Transportation Transponation Implica tions of Telecommuting April 1993 Manag ing Our Way Through Congestion 1 .. 5

PAGE 259

Managing Our Way Through Congeatlon 1-6 BENEFI T S OF F LEX I BLE WORK ARRANGEM E N TS Increased Prod I I . I R educed Turnover !' N : I [\ Ass i ste d Recr ui t ment I Eased :::. l Reduced Absentee i s m ) l \ Redu c ed T a rdlne ss l I I Ra i se d Morat e j 0 20 40 R eporte d by companies COSTS TO EMPLOYER o Training o Equipment Low-Tech $0-50 Office Supplies Exist ing Phone A n swering Mac h ine 60 M edium-T e ch$ 1, 500-3 ,000 Low-Te ch Equ i p ment C omputer (l ow end ) Modem Software Printer High Tech $3,000-8,500 Medium-Tech Equipment Second Phone Line Computer (high end) Fax Mach ine > 80 100 120 PAGE 260 C.OSTS TO EMPLOYEE o Equipment o Utilities o Access to Support Staff COSTS TQ COMMUNITY o Urban Spraw l o Centra l Business District SETTING UP A TELECOMMUTING PROGRA M o Planning o Implem enting o Evaluating SCHEDULE Policy 2 weeks 2 months Agreement 2 weeks 4 weeks Selling The Idea 1 month 2 months Employee Selection 1 week 2 months Training 2 weeks 3 months Eva luation Ongoing SOURCE : Telecommuting M oving The Work to the Workers, CIS, Inc Los Angeles, 1991. PLAN N ING 0 Gather Support Managing Our Wa y Through Congestion 1-7 PAGE 261 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-8 0 Telecommuting Coordinator (Champion) o Steering Committee o Written Policy TELECOMMUTING SELECTION PROCESS STEP 1: Select Classifications STEP 2: Select Positions STEP 3: Orientation STEP 4: Employe e Survey STEP 5: Supervisor's Survey TYPICAL TELECOMMUTING CLASSIFICATIONS Accountant Administrative Assistant Agent Appraiser Auditor Consultant Contract Monitor Data Entry Clerk Economist Employment Interviewer Enginee r Financial Analyst Joumalist Lawyer Manager Programmer Researcher Systems Analyst Training Designer Writer WHAT TO ASK WHEN SELECTING POSITIONS o How is information processed? o What are the physical requireme nts? o Is output well defined? o Are milestones well defined? o What are the telecommunication needs? PAGE 262 EXAMPLES OF TELECOMMUTING FU NCTIONS ITASKS 0 Aud i t ing reports 0 Conducting bus i ness by phone 0 Contract preparation/monitoring 0 Data analysis 0 Data entry 0 Data processing 0 Dat a programming 0 Project oriented work 0 Th i nking reading and writ ing 0 Word processing CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUCCESSFUL TELECOMMUTER o Volunteer for program o Se l f motivated o Successful performance evaluat ions o His t ory of dependability o Ability to function independent of direct supervision o In the position more than a year o Ability to deal with isolation o Well organized with good time management skills o Has appropriate home worksite that i ncludes privacy and lack of distraction Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 9 PAGE 263 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-10 CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUCCESSFUL IELEMANAGER o Positive attitude towards and is committed to telecommuting o Trusts employees o Well-organized o Open to new ideas o Communicates well ORIENTATION o Management o Non-management TRAINING ISSUES o Setting the schedule o Learn ing to work at home o Resolving concerns o Agreeing on deliverables and performance standards PAGE 264 This ag:reenwnt .. ttbli$htSthttermt tnd conditions Of tehcommutlng. The emp l oyee volunteers to partic ipate i n the telecommutin g Pf'OiJam and t o folow the apptielllble Quidtlil'le$aftd policies The e mploytf ccs wih lhe Duration This agrHmenl will be vaJicluntlt cancelled DY tithtt J)3rty Work Hours. Wo"' hOurs and toealtM ar$pecified as part o f this will be based on tnt tftlC*)y ee' s otftcltl duty stat i on. lbe eml)lc>yee's time ln4 attendance Will be ftCOnJed as if perloming offic i l l at tnt otrece. Leave. E.mployett mu$t ob1ain supervlsOfY before taJ\inQ in ocoroanoe w&n uaablis:h ed otf.u 'Tht agtHS to ..,.IC$1abished f)f'OC:e(fures tor requestbJ and obtlring al)pf'O'Vaf of leave Th e tmp&oyee: wm con tinue to work in pay ;\atus while working att be hom e oMee A n em ployee WOJ'kiog ownlrnt ordercel and aPI)IOYed tn adVance will be Mh and ..-s. The understancs "'at 1M' supeMsct will not a ccept the resultS o f unapprovtcl overti me work 1M employe-e agrtu that failing 10 octaln proper approva l f<>t overt im e w<>lk may res u lt in r e mov a l from tne telecommuting prog111m o r o t het aPI)roprlate actiOn In Otdw &o perform use the at the t*
PAGE 265

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-12 Work Hours and Location. The fo llowing are the working hOur$and Jocalions whiCh are agreed to "s a pan or the T e l ecommuting Agreement. OffiCial W<>tk Locat io n: Te l ecomm u t ing location : General Won: Hours: (Day) (HWfS) Monday: ----Tue.selay: ---Wednesday: Thursday: _, ___ Friday: -----Satul'day : -----Sund ..,y: ----Daily lunch period: We agree to abide by the tenns and conditiOns o t agreement. EmplOyee: __________ OaOS*d wi'es fbted' to the c:eiing}? Ate eecttieal outlets 3 pron:Jcd (!l'QI:fld$<1)? lve aislu. do orwey$, end co r ne Tree or or>suu.."'lion.s. to pe(mil v isib ftty ml)VftWr .:? Ale llle eabi'let.s end st or.oge tlosct' so and doors d'o not open into wal:O:..,ays? Oo ch.ai1s appear sturdy" 1$ the s.pa<:e etowded Wrt1l Ale \tie phOne IIM.s.. electriea l a.11d edension wi1n socu tod u nOer des k or bucboard? Is the offic-e neat and Ale floo r surfacts. c.let.an. \eve\, al'ld tre e 01 wom or fl8yed sums'? c;rpc1s woa U'Uftd to the lloor and " trayed or WOII'I Se3omS? 1.s tl'lo re"' tiro 1 n tne nome e e si'ly ec:c:enlble from the office sp01C4? t s tiler 8 working. smOke """'tl\ln heating d i stance o1 WQfl( s.pac. s a gooa time to le5t Itt? Atrenge lor an entfgy aucSt of lhe l'.ome by tile to ea:! company, and fir e SilflY ins!)ect;on by the ocal ftft. dcpat1m er.t, T ry to c!o t h 4 y,W'II\ 30 d3f'$of the signing of the &$fetMent. s.cMces ;ue prO'Io'it\cd f1ec ol

PAGE 266

KEYS TO SUCCESS o Communication communication. commun i cation o Estab l is h tim e t able for the completion of tasks o Evaluate b y output not observa ti on (trust ) o Let program evol ve o Establish cont i ngency plan -RAT I NG OF EXISTING TELECOMMUTING PROJECTS 8,-----------------------i 21 ll r--1 -,: I i very Succ.ssfu l Unsucc:usJuJ Teo #tty 10 Tl Source: ExiSting Telecommuting Proj ects Hig h ly Successfully, The Urban Transpona llon M o n itor ( M arch 5, 199 1 ) ; p. L Managin g Our Way Through Congestion 1-13

PAGE 267

Mana g in g Our W ay Throug h Congest ion 1-14 CHARACTERISTICS OF 10 TELECOMMUTING PR O JECTS ORGANIZ. I PARTICIP. %BY JOB E MPLOYEES CATEGOR Y 18%: Washing ton Manageria l State 2S 64% : Energy Office, P r ofessio n a l Olymp i a 2 % : C l erica l 90%: CAL TRANS San Diego. CA 24 M a n ageria l 10%: Cie!ICOI The T raveletS <10% : I nsura n ce Managerial N/A C ompany, <90%: Hartfo r d, CT Profession.al South Coast 60% : Ai1 Quality 30 M a n ageria l Mgmt. D i strict 40%: Cferiea l E l M onte. CA 26% : LA County. M a nagerial Los A n geles 1.000 49%: CA Professional 25% : CJericaJ 25% : C;tyof San Manageria l D iego, 24 65%: San Diego. CA Professional 1 0%: Cteri ca J HomeFed 100% B ank, 13 Prof e5 s ion,a l San D iego, CA 15%: U S .G. S.A. Manag4!ri a l w a shingto n. 28 63%: DC P r ofe s siona l 22%: C l e rical 53%: Hawa i i DOT Honolulu. HI 1 7 Ptof&s.siona l 47%: Cl e rical Pacific Se ll los A nge!les 100 100'4: Pro fessio n a l CA . "Cha racten stcs of lnd t vidua l T efeco mmuhng Pro j ects in the U.S .. T h e T ranspo rtat i o n M o nitor ( M J rch 16. 199 1 } p 9 FREQUENCY ; TELECOM D A YS PER WH O N EED WEE K EQUIP M EN T S days : 7% 4 days: 4% pc: 93% 3 d a ys: 7% modem: 57% 2dayo: 21% fax : 0% 1 day: 43% printe rs : 50% < 1 day: 11% 5dayo: 12% 4 days : 4% p c: 60% 3dayo: 21% 2dayo: 25% mod e m : 10% 1 d a y : 17% f ax : 5% < 1 day; 2 1 % p e: 100% 4 dayo: 50% modem: 100% 2 da ys : 50% a n s machine: 25% pc: 75% 1 da y : 1 00 % m o dem : 10% f ax; 10% 4 d ays: 7% pc: 50% 3days: 12% modem : 5% 2 days: 42% fax: 5% 1 day ; 39% 4days: 5% 3days: 10% pc : 58% 2 d ays : 25% mo dem: 45% 1 d a y : 30% f ax : 5% <1 day: 25% 2days: 69% 1 day: 8% pc: SO% <1 d ay: 23% 4dayo: 7% pe: SS% 3 days : 6 7 % m ode m : 48% 2 d a ys: 15% fax: t 1 % 1 day: 11% coper. 7% s days: 8 1 % pc: 94% mode m : 1 3 % 4 days: 13% fax: 94% 3 days : 6% cooi er : 88% Sday s : 5% 4 days: 5% pc; 70% 3da y s : 10% mod e m : 700A 2days: 20% 1 clay : 60% fax: SNo %TELECOM WHO TRAVEL TO WORK NIA 0% 0% S% 3% 0% 0% tO% 0 % 0%

PAGE 268

ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF 10 TELECOMMUTING PROJECTS n" R!OVIItED TO Olt0AN1%Al10N BUT TYI' Of Pl.AH AND ffn:CT 0' GA.o\TST O"l.O YE.U IMPt.fMIHT PROJI':C:T IEHEFnS ADVfC:. f POJICT {DAYS) Succ.euhll T CM tmld mea:s-ure; Ciey San DieOo. DeHIIIfl on lntteued proelloltti-Aty ; overtime $1t11 DitOO, CA ifldi'lldy .. ,. '"""OYeCS ot 1mplemenr WOtt. .-aa t6lactiotl ftctNMS: tow .....,.,, --... s-..r. ,.-.: QlOOIS r ncr.a..o """ .... Heve HOI'I'It:Fed 81t1k.. jotl .... .....,, S.n Diego, CA ct;tl'lilltoon 111d ,. Mti1faaian, _,..,oy" con'lptde plan planning llulls tt'letl'&on rt1e employ"' -.to,. twtino 01 Retention of I.U. G S A . WOf1t. job l'l\tlllotM : ,. rttlf'ltorl In oo tor ill" ........... .... prajed'""' ........ .. li'ICI"NMd I'I\ONJe & H awai i OOf. N/A P'Qduc;IM(y: ............ HI ulis.f.aion employM eaiJ1.er ,., .... rel&lltion r.le a hOin pilot; CAI,.TRAH:S ............. ..,.,.._ Top s.n c.vo. CA. Rq:fiC 01 .,., ,,. S.atitlll:tlaft 1nlllr.;e --,......., ....... Employee utistction : Tl'lt T ttvelen. PfQdii(A/yjty: ........,,, ... P t o..,.n lrnpn::NOd ol' lll'lofiO : Th orougl'l Comprty. P*lfOI'!I\tr.c.t N IA wort, job Nlllf8cUcln .... ....., p!eMin g tWtlll'ltlorl .. .. ---retlii UDOI\ Rerch$011th CO.st ltletllased pnldt.IC11vity; c:ompel'ly o u .. llly Mott ot m!*Jyen 1'""1'1:1Wd qu.ll!)' ot needt. M-gmt, Oistl'i" tultlllll wOI\:, jGb Job .. lllfiQIOn 11111t0YM MOI'Q ,CA etnpk))'M N'tMion wMbrilit:Y. atiCS .... -""'"' bpetWMH --PrOd\IC!Niry "'-" oretuty. LA Coui'IC'f. el'l'lpiO)'M I !Ctl ... wort, jab AUfiCIJOn, 11'-.cr.se rMIMt. MCS Lo1 An;.lt. CA ,...1\1101'1 lltlp.;J)HS, II'ICS mOI'Iielot '"'""' .... Mudion In VMT lnCI'UMd Plotir.c 8el.. 111"0...0 0( lrulllld end .,. Lot MoMs. CA ---... wort.. jc:ob .. .... -. "00 111" ...,... ........ -""" -......... CoMidenbfe W'UNnglono Slaita tnc::retw4 piOdUCIIYtty: l lail't>up etfott. !l'l ervy Offiee. MIWI't wotlters who lmptOVICI Qllllily Of Jol> ta1istectiGn ... Mow ih .. joba well. m e nl'ill ment Olym pi1 WA wont. job Nf>:tldlan .vpport nentiet. ....... ot tnOMcll;lll the U .$.. n-. -..onw ( M&rch 15 ...... p.t. -. -----Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-15 PAGE 269 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-16 NOTES PAGE 270 ALTERNATE WORK HOURS MODULE GOALS o To introduce partic i pants to the types of alternate work hour strateg i es o To provide guidance on selecting appropriate alternate work hour strategies to meet specific business needs. o To exami ne the transportation impacts of a lt ernate work hour p r ograms. o To provide a frame work for developing alternate work hou r programs ASSUMPTIONS o Not all altern ate work hour programs will he l p meet traffic reduction goals. o Peak-period spreading is a good thing DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGY Work hour policies established by employers govern the time period in which employees travel to and from w ork Such policies influence not only the volume of employees traveling during peak traffic periods bu t employee propensity to consider transit carpooling and other altern ative s to driving alon e to work There are three types of v a riable work hours w ith potential applica t ion as demand management tools : 0 0 0 Staggered hours are staged start work time s se t by em p lo yers For example, emp loyee start times might be set at 15 -mi nute incre ments Staggered work hours can be arranged by: o Department o Ind i vidual Preference o Mode Managing Our W ay Through Co ngestion 2-1 PAGE 271 Managing Ou r Way Through Congestion -2-2 Compressed wo r k weeks allow employees to work more hours i n fewer days than the usual eight hour per day schedule T he two most common types of compressed schedu l es a r e: o Four/Forty-employees work 40 hours in four ten hour days o Nine/Eighty-employees complete 80 hours in nine days and have the tenth day off. Flextime allows employees to set their own arrival and departure time within a band of time. The employee is r equired to arrive within a two -or three hour band and generally leave eight hours later The major types of flex-time are: o Gilding schedule-The employees set their own start time each day and the end time i s eight hours l ater o Flexltour-Employees pick their own start time whi<;h re mains their start time each day until the next option period allows them to sel ect a new one. End time is always eight hours after the start time. o MaxiflexEmployees may work any number of hours with i n any given 24 hour period and bank any hours over the eight hour day to shorten future workdays Employees and employers may find alternative work hours attrac tive not only to open up new transportation options, but also to improve the fit between work and family responsibilities. Absentee ism, tardiness and turnover may be reduced by variable work hour programs in settings where workers need and want more flexibility in their schedules Trends in Flexible Work Arrangements 120r-----------------------, 1 .. .. ................ .. r-__, ... ...... 1988 1$01 Source: Work-Family Pane l Survey, 1 991. Conference Board Survey, 1988. Percent of employers on the panel 77%.

PAGE 272

-. . BENEFITS OF FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENTS Increased Prod I .'\ R educed Turno v e Assisted Rec ruitmen t Eased Commuting Reduced Absen t eeism Reduced Tard iness R a i sed Morale " 0 20 4 0 60 80 100 120 Reported by compan i es NATUR E OF EFFECTI V E N ESS Vari ab l e worll hours s u pport deman d management i n two ways : o Compar e d to regular e mployee work hours, e.g ., 9 a m to 5 p.m ., variable w ork hours spr ead arrival and departure times and thereby spread peak period traffic. 0 Dependi n g on th e type of variabl e worll h ours imp l eme n ted emp l oyees are enco u raged to consider ridesharing a n d transit use. Worll hour strategies may not always support ridesharing and transit use I n particular, some experience and research suggests fl ext i me is some ti mes assoc i ated with l ess rid esharing n ot more More research i s needed to determine why this is the case Com pressed work week s do not seem to suffer f r om the s ame problem U nfortunately, there is no evidence o n ho w staggered w ork hours affect ri desharing APPLI CA T IO N SEmNG Fle xt ime: most applicable to offices and among administrative and information workers; l ess application t o shift work e rs and assemb l y lines or where there is need for continuous communication be twee n worlle rs. Managing Ou r Way Through Co n gestion 2-3

PAGE 273

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-4 Compressed work weeks: applicable to office and administrative functions, especially governmental agenc i es; perhaps most appli cable to l i ne and piece manufacturing processes. Staggered hours: applicable to offices and p i ece manufacturing, but not app l icable to l i ne manufacturing where workers are highly independent. Variable work hours operate where a l arge number of employees are affected, and where the associated traffic is concentrated rather than spread out. Because one or another variable work hour strategy may be applicable to various industries, variable work hours should not be considered only in urban sett i ngs More important than location may be supporting services. In par ticular, the benefits of work hour strategies i n encouraging transit and carpool use depend on the availability of transit options and rideshare matching and monitor i ng. Important impacts of variable work hours are : o nme of employee travel. One of the most important poten tial effects of variable work hours programs is reducing the volume during peak periods. o Mode of travel. Variable work hour programs could conce iv ably break up carpools or make transit use more difficult depending on carpool arrangements and transit schedules prior to and after the work hour program was instituted o Non-Work Tripmaking. Wrth a shift in work hours, usually to early arriva l and departure times more time is available for non-working tripmaking. Therefore, the overall impact of variable work hours programs on VMT could be negl i gible or even opposite to that intended. However, insufficient evi dence has been collected to state definitely that variable work hours programs will significantly reduce VMT overall. The possible results of i mplementing a variable wo rk hours pro gram are summarized here: 0 The most probable effect of a var i able work hours program is earlier ar riva ls and departures of participants, with a flattening in peak period traffic The magnitude of the peak flattening may be quite substantial. The results of a Denver experiment w ith compressed work weeks showed a 14 percent decline in the maximum percentage of total arrivals in a half hour period and a 13 percent decline i n the maxi mum half hour percentage of tota l departures.

PAGE 274

0 It should be noted that neither flextime nor staggered work hours measures r emove vehicle trips or vehicle miles trav eled from the daily travel invent01y, but generally only shift t heir timing Thi s is acceptable for some TOM situations, but no t a solution for others e g ., a i r qua l ity problems o Compresse d work wee ks may reduce veh icl e miles of t ravel depending on number of commute days and mode o f travel. Compressed work weeks appear to r educe not just work trips but total trips. Case studies sugges t VMT reduction is simpl y th e fact that commuters work fewer days per month, and nonwork trips do not offset the reductions in work trips o For flextime and staggered work hours, effects on VMT are not so clea r cut. All depends on whethe r the mode of travel is affected The evidence s ug gests flextime may enco urage trans i t use w her e service i s sufficiently frequent and avail able before peak periods when flextime participants prefer to travel Good transit serv i ce i s probably the reason for the boost in trans i t ridership under a S a n Francisco flextime e xpe rim ent. Ho weve r w here flextime is introduced w ithout good t ransit service off peak o r where the service is not adjusted to allow for commuters w anting to travel in earlier times then trans it ridership may well decline. Cost Savings from a Variable Work Hour Program (1)Costs Initial Staff Time $50,000 Present Value of Utility Cost (30 years@ 10%)$169,684 Total Present Value o f Costs $219 684 ( 2 )S avings Veh icle Operating Cost Savings(@$0 .30 per mile) $27,216 (3)Brea k E ven Point (Present Value of Savings = Present Value Costs @ 1 0% Source : = 6 .2 1 years) lmplemenliog Effecti'ie I rave l Dema o d Maoagemeot Measures, Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-5 PAGE 275 Managing Our Way Through Congestion -2-6 A Case Study of Program Impacts TRIPS TAKEN WORKDAYS DAY OFF WEEKLY BEFORE 3.62 3 .63 24.51 AFTER 3.05 4.01 22.46 %CHANGE -15.75% 10.47% -8.36% SOURCE: Ho and Stewart. "Impact of the 4/40 Compressed Wor1< Week Program on Trip Reduction, A Case Study: The Los Angeles County Department of Public Wor1 PAGE 276 TRAVEL CHARACTERISTICS OF 4 / 40 EMPLOYEES TOTAL TRAVEL D I STANCE !MILES) WORKDAYS DAY OFF WEEKLY BEFORE 44. 2 52.7 317.4 AFTER 39.2 38.0 270.9 % CHANGE -11.23% -27.85% -14 .63% SOURCE : Ho and Stewarl. Impact of the 4140 Comp PAGE 277 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-8 Developing an A lternate Wor k Hour P rogram Careful plann i ng is needed to start any variable work hours pro gram. Steps inc l ude assessing managers In various departmenls, possible conflicts with the need to interact with clients and custom ers, and needed changes in company policies. As the cost assess ment suggests, it also is important to estimate the need for the changes in security coverage and sett i ngs in building heating, cooling and lighting. Procedures and costs associated with these changes need to be assessed and compared with benefits in ve hicle trip reduct i on. Finally an evaluation system should be set up incl ud i ng a monitor i ng committee and a regular assessment survey of employees and managers. Variab l e work hours may involve some i mplementation hurd l es Somet i mes labor union agreements will restrict the hours emp l oy ees work. Any change may require forma l meet ing and negot i at. ing. Management may res i st flextime believing it reduces flexib i lity to schedule meet i ngs or inhibits responsiveness to cl i ents and custome r s. City, county and state governments also might consider mandatory variab l e work hour programs for thei r employees, especially where large government centers contribute to local traffic and congestion problems. Those obliged to shift to a later arrival time under the staggered work hour program experienced greater travel time compared to their previous situation, leading to considerab l e r esentment and dissatisfaction F L EXIBILITY OF SCHEDULE AND JOB SATIS F ACTION (%) S ame 54. 9 Level o f Job Sat i sfaction FLEX TIME 45 Source: St Uart N. A n de rson a n d A lyssa Freas, "The Effects o f Variabl e Work Hour Prog r a m s on Rldeshas ing and Organiza ti ona l EHect i veness A Case Study: T h e County of V e ntur a Pr&sented at the 70 t h Annual Meetin g Transportation Researc h B oard, January 13. 17 1991. PAGE 278 -. . I FLEXIBILITY OF SCHEDULE AND JO B SATISFACTION % 97 L evel of Job Sa tisfaction 4 1 40 Same 3 FLEXIBILITY OF SCHEDULE AND JOB SATISFACTION (%) Improved 84 Level of Job Sa tisfaction 9/80 l Source : Stuart N Anderson and A l yssa F r eas The EHeets of Vari able W or)( Hour P rograms on Ridesharing and E ft.ctiveness A Case Study : The County of V e ntura.'" Presented at Uwt 70th Annual Me-eting, Transportation Res earch Board Januaty t3 \7, t9'9 L Almos t all private sector managers reported the same or better level of employee morale during the project under their volun t a ry prog ra m In contrast city-county managers reported worse or much worse employee mora l e during their mandatory pro j ect Probably the best approach is to requir e agencies and departments to dev ise the best work hour sys tem for thei r particular functions and pub li c interact i on needs Furthermore e mployees probab ly w ill p r efer compr es sed work w eek s and flext i me to staggered w ork hours F in a lly sta te pol icies and legislat ion may need rev i sion in some cases to encou rage var i able work hours Many states have fair labor acts and standards which limit the maximum number of hours worked without comp ensat ion for overtime. Som etimes, the legis lat ion requires w ork in excess of 4 0 ho ur s per week t o be compen-Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-9 PAGE 279 Managing Our Way Through Congest ion 2-10 sated at some multiple of regu lar ho u rly rates. While this i s not a barrier to flext i me it could present i mplementat i on issues under compressed work week programs allowing more than 40 work hou rs i n certain weeks. L ess common is l egislation setting maxi mum r equirements on a da i ly r ather than weekly basis. State labo r legislation of this kind wou l d have to be changed to allow any fonn of compressed work week. As with other TOM strategies alternate work hour programs requi r e a step by-step planning process to be successful Captured below is the process used by severa l companies that have successfully implemented an alternate work hour program. Step One Select Appropriate Alternate Work Hou r o I den ti fy Objectives o Match Program to Objective (See next two pages) o F i nd best program to frt organizat i onal structure Step Two Work With Appropriate Management Decjsjoo Makers o Identify and introd u ce program o Solicit support o Develop committee to fully develop program Select representatives from each department Step Three Design o Steering committee develops program o Legal counsel reviews laws to determine if labor laws allow alternate work hour arrangements o F i ne tune selected program I n fine tun i ng the program, several questions should be asked and answered. These are: -What are official company work hours? -What are core hours and core days? What is adequate coverage for telephones? -What is adequate coverage for public interaction? -What will be the employees choice? *Type of p r ogram *Arrival/departure time (The greater the amount of flexibility the greater the employee satisfaction. However, more flexibility means more difficulty in manag ing those employees.) PAGE 280 HOW WEL.L. n4f DiFFERENT FWA PROGRAM S MEET OBJECTIVES osJEcnves FLEX TIM E COMPRESSED STAGGERED HOURS WORK WEE K Jnc:reas,e Good Improved Good .. lnereues jOb Mixed Depends On e mp loyee ""'"'' relat iONhl p between ntlafacllon. 1mproves the program q empiO)'*ts II'ICII rela!Jons,. between mandatory or I mplied ."",.. and """"""'Y. recognlrion ol lhe emPoye e --Can as a trusltd and f't:S4)t(.'ttd tes ull tn some s taffI'Hetltmenl . from non.-partielpants. l ner.ase Good A modified gl;,m,g M ixed .. Longer hOun, Good Resul ts In a customer s ervice ac:hedtM penrils an but bualneu may be l onger WOtk d8f. OI'Q8nlutlon o Maintain dosed Oil regular Unde< this -'olyi>Oofpn>gr>m. U.job durlr'IJ oarty """'*'9 and -lfternocarl. DeUeaM loel Good -.... ""' Good--'* Good --..... _.....,......., _.....,... ..... --Nit\ I'\OI.W -rush hour --90NSh"""' nfflc lnlfll c. lnlfllo. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-11 PAGE 281 Managin g Our W a y Throug h Congestion 2-12 HOW WELL THE DIF F ERENT FWA PR.OGAAM S MEET OBJECT I VES OBJECTIVE S FLEX TIME COMPRESSED WORK STAGGERE D HOURS W EEK Redu ce commute l i m e Go o d Permits employee$ Good E m ployees ca n Goocl-Spreads. out to trav el during off-peak a rrive befo re a n d leave af"''ival a n d d eparture hOurs. t-t.owever pe-ak a!l.et l)eaJt commuter time.s. etre-ctiv e when hOur$a r e oow so long i n period$. and ean reduce cool'dinaled on a la1'9er many urban that one day's commute scar.e. e g .. emp l oyment tltxtimc eo1n no looge r weekly o r cen t e r Wfde rusn hour ceak s tn cre ase the avet"ag e Good Ca n hetp faci li ta t e Mxed Can eiN-< Mix6d Can eit her num t:er of occup ants ridesharing anongemen;s. t acifrtate o r diS.nJPl faci lit a t e or pervehide ri d es h are atrangemtnb l'fdaha r e ana n gements d'"nding on the size depe n ding on t n e $i ze ancf uniform ity of the and u ni fonnity ot the c:;rcgr am prog ram. Re d uce the number of Good C a n i ndirectly Good Removt$ Mixed Can oi'lhe r ve hido to the reduce vefjde t riP' b v tri p to workSite s one day fadllta!e Ot 4iSrupt w orks(le (to OOITI91 Y t>etter taolit.ating eaCh WMk o r bi-weekty. rides.hare arrangemen t s w ith fo cal ana ngtmentt. d epen ding on t h e size regu la tio n$/Ordin ances and u niformity of t h e progra m tncrease oommute Good Can help facili1at e Mixed Hus.DandlwWe Fair Depends on lM mode ehoiee d PAGE 282 -. How will employ ees be held accountable for : Meeting program guidelines? Personal performance? What i s supervisor s control leve l ? Step Fou r Formalize program o Draft alternate work hour proposal describing ru l es and procedures o Work with account ants to set up policy for payroll, vacatio n overtime,etc o An ti cipate obst ac le s and reservati ons S tep Ejv e Identify Needs of Departments and Empl oy ees o Determine what work functions in each department do not qualify for alternate work hour programs o Identify employees who could operate n program work w i th employees to ease apprehension s/m i s conceptions with program o Survey all el i gible employees to determ i ne in terest they wan t to participate what p rog ram do they prefer Employee Preference for Flexible vs. 100 0 4 0 0 Inflexibl e Working Hours .. . / / . . . I / 78% f l ex tble s lower, family oriented track . .. .. . 7 .. . .. .. . . / 22 % inflexible hours faster track / JJ7 Source: Vanderkolk, The Work and Family Revolution, 1991. Steo S i x F in alize Program 0 0 0 Post av a i lable scheduling options Sol i cit all employee preferences Es tab lish arb i tra tion pane l -" -. -.. .. --. -. ... -Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-13 PAGE 283 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 2-14 Step Seve n Implemen t Program o Develop new employee schedules o Notify employees of ne w schedu l e o Announce sta rt date Step E i gh tMon i tor PC PAGE 284 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS MODULE GOALS o To provide insight on commuter assistance program delivery methods o To provide an understanding of TMAs and their development. o To explain the TOM program design process o To provide an understanding of the institutional arrangements involved in commuter service delivery and their relationship to commuter behavior. ASSUMPTIONS o Participants are familiar with TOM institutions. o Understanding commuter behavior facilitates program design. o TOM institutions should work together and provide value-added services SIX PHASES OF COMMUTER BEHAVIOR 1. Inform me Increase awareness 2 What's in it for me Foster i nterest 3. How do I start? Facilitate arrangement 4. Encourage me-Promote trial use 5. Reinforce me Make follow-up contacts 6 I am sold -Turn customers into goodwill ambassadors COMMUTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM OPTIONS: o Government program or agency o Within Transit agency o Contracted to private sector firm o Private, non-p rofit organization Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-1 PAGE 285 M an agin g Our Way Through Congestion 3-2 C RIT E RIA T O CONSIDER WHEN DESIGNING A CAP: o Ease of Imp l ementation o Costs o Effectiveness o Equity o Private Sector Comfort Program Advantages : Governm ent 1 2. 3 4 Trans it 1 2. 3. 4 Pri vate sector firm 1 2. 3 4 Private. non-profit 1 2 3. 4 Program Disadvantages PAGE 286 IMP O RTANT THINGS TO CON SID ER Transit o Ide n tical serv i ce area ( Destina ti on ) o CAP re l ationship w i thin organ i zation o Performance criteria o Contracting issues Private s e c t o r firm o Performance criteri a o Potential services o Contract issues Private non-pr ofit o Private/Public board o Board roles o Funding i ssues o Performance and e x p ectations o Activities TRAN SPOR TATI O N MANAGEME.NT A SSOCIATIO NS (TMAs): I R S S TATU S O F TMAs o 501 (C)(3) Charita b l e tax d e du ction o 501 (C)(4)-Civic associ a tion o 501(C)(6)Business league Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3 .. 3 PAGE 287 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-4 501(c)3Designates the TMA as a non-profit charitable organization that provides services to the general public and can accept tax deductible contributions The commute management effort must serve the general public wishing to use the services of the TMA. Thus any and all employers in the service area must be provided services upon request. Lobbying efforts are strictly l imited under this status Lobbying is defined as contacting the public or legislators in an effort to gain support for or opposition to legislation While specific limits have not been set, case law r eveals that not more than 5% o f expenditures from the tota l budget can go to lobbying efforts In direct lobbying, which does not count towa rds lobbying efforts are: o making available results of non-partisan studies, analysis, or research o providing technical advice or assistance to a governmental body or committee in response to that bodies w ritten request o appearances before l egislative bod i es when the decision of that body affects the existance of the organization, its powers and duties, its tax-exempt status, or deduction of contributions to the organization o communication with government officials that are not members of leg islative bodies 501(c)4-Designates the TMA as a non-profit civic association. This type of organization is open to membership and can collect dues. The services offered by the TMA must be shown to benefit the social welfare of the community. For member companies, the dues can be considered a business expense Lobbying is allowed, however, the organization cannot directly or indir ectly participate or intervene in politica l campaigns on behal f of or in opposition to any candidate for political office 501(c)6-Designates the TMA as a non-profit business league These organizations can promote their own business I nterests through such activities as promotion of improved standards, attempting to influence leg islation, and facilitating discussion on its own indus tries problems. While these organizations will necessarily be involved in educational activities, contrib utions to the organization are not tax deductible. Membership dues can be deducted as a business expense provided that the dues are not used on grassroots lobbying. PAGE 288 TMA Development Factors 0 A concentration of employment w ithin a well-defined geo graphical area. o A sense that existing or antic i pated traffic cong e stion is or wi ll be intolerable o A member of the priv ate sector who leads the effort o A group of i ndividuals, legislators, merchants, developers, or private citizen s that perceive d irect benefits o A regulatory env i ronment that require s o r r e wards participa tion TMA BENEFITS TO EMPLOYERS o Access to inform a tio n o Less tardiness and absenteeism o Cos t savings o Indi vidual assistance TMA BENEFITS TO DEVELOPERS o Assistance for on-site problems o Cost savings o Access to local governmen t o Advocacy o Market ing tool to attract tenants TMA Organizational tasks o Determine geographic boundaries scope of TMA. o Solicit appropriate supporters (Chamber, local governments, etc .). 0 Conduct meeting to determ ine collaborative process 0 D evelop mission statement/goals and objectives. Managing Our Way Through Congestion J .. s PAGE 289 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-6 0 Develop annual wor1< plan/implementation schedule 0 Develop and adopt a budget. o Examine various funding sources such as federal, state, and l ocal grant monies; membership fees, etc o Determine membership fees if applicable. o Develop membership agreements. o Secure financial commitments from public and private sector members. o If appropriate, take necessary steps to apply for public sector seed funding available for TMAs. o Prepare Article of Incorporation, By Laws. o IRS status1024, SS4. o Recruit and hire TMA director and administrative support o Secure office space and office equipment schedule 1 6 Acqu i re services of an accountant. 17. Open bank account/post office box. 18. Develop ide ntify, logo, stationery 19 Identify support activities to be provided by transportat ion providers and others. TMA Functional tasks o Identify target travel mar1 PAGE 290 a. b increasing average vehicle occupancy by percent; reducing the number of vehicles commuting to the area by percent. c. d e forming number of vanpools, carpools; increasing tr ansit ridership by percent ; and target number of employers, public sector and devel opers in the area that will be members of the TMA o Determine implementation schedule o Design and dis trib ute marketing materials. o Determine evaluat i on criteria WHATTMAsOO: SERVICE ACT CATM A (1993) (1990) Advocacy 96% 47% Ridesharing promotion at employer sites 90 53 Periodicals/Printed materials 8 4 NA Vanpool formation assistance 78 42 Ridematching 73 42 Trip reduction plan preparartlon 69 3g Guaranteed ride home 67 36 Develop/Process employee surveys 67 39 ETC Training 61 47 Parking management assistance 41 34 Transit pass sales 39 39 Shuttle service 31 39 Vanpool subs idy programs 24 NA Other 29 NA Me m ber information services NA 55 In put to loca l planning process NA 42 Vanpool formation/leas i ng NA 34 Manag ing Our Way Through Congestion J .. 7 PAGE 291 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-8 AVERAGETM A o Is 3-4 years old and full y operational o Has 46 members and 33 ETCs o Has 1-3 full t ime and 1-3 part-time employees o Gets 45% of their funding from member dues o Has an annual budget of$203,000 o Spends 50% of the budget on operational activities TRAN SIT STORES o Retail env i ronment o Customer service emphasis o L in ks to CAPs TMAs and transit agencies o Commute mobile Trans i t store services 1 Transit trip planning 2. Transit information 3. Sale of transit passes and vouchers 4. Ridematch application processing 5. Personalized commute consultation 6 Vanpool formation assistance 7. HOV L ane i nformation 8. Commuter in format i on 9 Tra ffic reporting WHO IS RESPO N S I B L E FOR EACH P HASE? 1. Inform me -2. What's in it for me -3. How do I start 4 Encourage me -5 Reinforce me 6 I am so ld -

PAGE 292

TION RATE REGISTRA MATCH RATE CALL RATE CONTACT RATE E NTRATE PLACEM RIDEMATCH FLOWCHART EMPLOYERS I GENERAL PUBLIC I TOTAL NUMBER OF SURVEYS I DELIVERED NOT OELIVEREO J. REGISTERED NOT REGISTERED I RECEIVED MATCHES DID NOT RECEIVE MATCHES I l CALLED OIDNO TCALL SORRY NO SORRY MATCHES MATCHES LETTER LETTER TMAICAP RAnNG I REACHED DIDN'T MATCH REACH PLACED I N NOT PLACEO I N POOL POOL FREQUENCY OF USE INFLUENCEO NOT DURATION BYTMAICAP INFLUENCED RATE BYTMACAP Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-9

PAGE 293

1MA EVAL U ATI O N PROGRAM Prepared For: Florida Department of Transpo r tatio n Publi c Transit Office Tallahassee, F lorida P r epared By: Center for Urban T ransportation Research College of Enginee ring University of South Florida Tampa, Florida February 1 5 1995

PAGE 294

TMA EVALUATION PROGRAM TABL E OF CON'ICN'IS I. lNTRODUCfiON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 A. BACKGR O UND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. CRITER I A PURPOSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C. TMA PERFORMANCE COALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 D. OVERVI E W OF C R I TERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 E KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CRITERIA . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . 3 F. I NSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 II. TMA PER FORMANCE CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A. TMA OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B CORPORATE LEADERSHIP AND INVOLVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. Board of Directo r s and Executive Director Leadership . . . . . . . . . 7 2 Board of Directors Community I nvolvement . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C. SUITABI L ITY OF COALS AND OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Scope and Management of Perf o rmance Data and Inf ormation . . . . . . 8 2. Benchm a rking .. . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. .. 8 3 Analysis and Uses of Data to Devel o p G oals and O b jectives and Pro d u cts a .nd Services .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . . . . .. .. .. 8 D. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF STRAT EGIC PLAN . . . . . . . . 10 1. Str a tegic Plan Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2 Im p lementation of Strategic Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 3. Coordination with Regional Transpor t ation Organizations . . . . . . . . 10 4. local Transportation Service Supplier Quality and Suppor t . . . . . . 11 E. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . . 11 1 Budget Preparation and MonitN(ng .. . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . 11 F DEGREE OF EXTERNAL VISIBILITY .. . . . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. .. . 1 2 1 Promotional Efforts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Education Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3 Results of Ext<>rnal Visibility Efforts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 C E F F ECTI VENESS OF PROGRAMS . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 13 1. Evalu ation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2. Pro duct and Service Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 H MEASURE O F COMMUTER AND M EMBER SATISFACTION . . . . . . . . 14 1. Cust o mer E xpectations: Current and Future. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2. Commitment t o Cus t omers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 3 Cus t o mer Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 4 Cus t omer Satisfaction Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 I. OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

PAGE 295

TMA EVALUATION PROGRAM I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND The support of transportation management associations (TMA),also commo nl y referred to as transportation management o rganizations (TMO), by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is part of the Florida strategic plan to reduce traffic congestion, improve air quality and protect the environment. State funding from FDOT may be prov i ded to the TMAs organized as private non-profit co r porations, in cooperation with local goverrunent[s] or regional commuter assistance programs, that are established according to local comprehensive plans or regional commuter assistance program goals. State start-up funds may be granted to TMAs in the following ratio: 50% first year, 40% second year, and 30% third year After the third year, "TMAs will be eligible for continued funding at the lesser of 20,000 or 25% of their total budget prov ided they are meeting the performance criteria outlined in their existing JP A [joint participation agreement]. Board member in-kind contributions may count toward local match requirements. Variations from these levels is permitted with prior consultation with the Central Office." To be eligible for state funding, a TMA must provid e the Department with a detailed Agen c y Annual Work Plan, articles of incorporation and bylaws, geographic boundaries, trip management goals, a financing plan, an institutional structure, and potential membership estimates. In addition to providing this information and as part of the condition for funding, the TMA "shall utilize the Department's TMA Self Evaluation program on an annual basis. Results of the evaluation will be reported to the District office annually." The following represents the TMA Self Evaluation Program. Please refer to the FOOT Commuter Assistance Program Description Topic No.: 725-030-00BC for more detailed i nformation about TMA funding support and requirem e nts. B. CRITERIA PURPOSES The TMA Performance Criteria are the basis for assessing TMA performance and for giving feedback to the TMA and FOOT. In addition, the Criteria have many 1 PAGE 296 important roles in strengthening TOM effectiveness in Florida: 1. Designing the TOM evaluation requires the TMA to examine the clarity of its objectives, the ease with which they can be measured, and the possibility of their being achieved. 2. Redirecting efforts when it is determined e lements of the program have or do not have desired results. 3. Showing evidence to other agencies and the public of the diligence and sincerity of the TMA. 4. Supplying powerful factual information for public relations campaigns. 5. Helping other TMAs to anticipate problems in implementing similar programs and provide yardsticks against which others may measure their success. C. 1MA PERFORMANCE GOALS The Criteria are designed to help TMAs enhance their performance through focus on dual, results-oriented goals: 1. delivery of ever-improving value to customers, resulting in greater use of alternatives to the single occupant vehicle by commuters; and 2. imp rovement of overall TMA operational performance (e.g., lower cost per person served). D. OVERVIEW OF CRITEIUA It is helpful to review, as a whole, the complete set of 7 Criteria responses An eighth category, "Other", is provided to allow the T MA to provide any additional basis for evaluation. These Criteria are: 1. Corporate Leadership and Involvement 2. Suitability of Goals and Objectives 3. Development and Deployment of Strategic Plan 4. Financial Management Systems 5. Degree of External Visibility 6. Effectiveness of Programs 7. Measure of Commuter and Member Satisfaction There are three main considerations in this review: (1) emphasis on the TMA s mission, goals, and objectives throughout the set of responses; (2) criteria that address factors particularly important to the TMA's operations should receive relatively more emphasis; and, (3) responses should be 2 PAGE 297 checked to ensure that responses to rel ated Criteria are consistent, and that there is appropriate cross-referenc i ng to minimize duplication. E. KEY CHARACfERISTICS OF 1HE CRITERIA 1. The Criteria are directed toward results. The Criteria focus principally on six key areas of TMA performance, given below. Results are a composite of: a. corporate leadership and involvement b. strategic planning c. customer satisfaction/ retention d. cost effectiveness e. financial stability f. communications Improvements in these six results areas contribute significantly to TMA performance. The results indicators also recognize the importance of contributions to improving other transportation operators or suppliers. 2. The Criteria are nonprescriptive. The Criteria's focus is on requirements that produc e results, not on dictating procedures or imposing organizational structur es. Through this approach, TMAs are encou raged to develop and demonstrat e creative, adaptive and flexible approaches to meeting basic requirements. The nonprescriptive nature of the requirements thus fosters incremental and major ("breakthrough") improvem ent. 3. The Criteria are flexible The selection of t echniq ues, systems and organizational structure usuall y depends upon many factors such as TMA size, service area, the TMA' s stage of development, and employee capabilities. The TMA, in cooperation with their FOOT District office and/ or regional commuter assistance program, selects which data items, processes, and performance measures best describe its mission and accomplishments. 4. The Criteria are comprehensive. The Criteria address all internal and external requirements of the TMA, including those related to fulfilling its public responsibilities. New or changing strategies or directions of the TMA may be readily adapted within the same set of Criteria requirements. 5. The Criteria are part of a feedback system. The Criteria are a set of 3 PAGE 298 7 bas ic, interrelated, results-oriented requirements An assessment thus provides a profile of strengths and areas for improvement relative to the 7 areas In t his way the assessment directs attention to processe s and actions that contribute to the desired results. F. INSfRUCTIO N S 1. Read the entire booklet before you begin. The main sections of the booklet provide an overall orientation to the Criteria and how to gather what your TMA is asked to provide 2 Anticipate assessment and feedback. A well-written response is one that antic i pates reviewer questions A response should gi ve clear information on how (approach) and on the implementation (deploymen t ) of the approach Anecdotal information should not be given as it is usually not possible to provide meaningful feedback. Examples are, of course, helpful but they often do not convey a picture of why the TMA is involved in such an activity or how it is carried out. If examples are used, make certain that they illustrate a more complete response than already presented. 3. Make responses concise. Responses should provide as complete a picture as possible to enable meaningful evaluation and feedback. Responses should outline key process details such as m e thods, measures, implementation, and evaluation factors However, the TMA should not use lengthy narratives or inclusion of information not directly responsive to Criteria requirements For this reason TMAs are urged to make all responses concise and fac tual. Statements should be supported with data whenever appropriate. 4 Understand the difference between measures and indicators. All Criteria calling for results require data using key measures and/ or indicators. Measw:es and indicators both involve measw:ement related t o perfonnance. When the performance can be measured directly, such as number of persons placed into carpools and carpool formation rate, the term "measure" is used. When the overall performance may not be evaluated in terms of one type of measurement, and two or more measurements are used to provide ("indicate") a more complete picture the term "indicator" is used 4 PAGE 299 For example, "creativi ty" is not easily described in terms of a sing le measurement. Awards for marketing materials and incr eased awareness provide two indicators of c reativ ity However, the effectivenes s of this creativity on travel behavior would require measuring changes to market share gain from introduction of these creative products or services to measure success. 5. Select relevant/ important information. Focus on information that is both directly responsive to the Criteria requirements and to meeting TMA goals and objectives contained in the TMA Overview (described below). Information and data included should be re levant and important to meeting t he Criteria and improving the TMA's performance. 6. Cross-reference when appropriate. Although TMAs should seek to make individual responses self-contained, there may be instances when responses t o different Criteria are mutually reinforcing. In such cases it is appropriate to reference responses to other Criteda, rather than to repeat information presented elsewhere. 7. Review each response. The TMA shall be required to respond to each of the 7 criteria. Each response should be reviewed to make certain that it addresses the Criteria requirements and is consiste n t with the TMA s m i ssion, goa ls, and objectives contained in the TMA Overview. 5 PAGE 300 ll. 1MA PERFORMANCE CRITERIA A. 1MA OVERVIEW The overview is a summary of the TMA, addressing what is most important to the TMA and the key factors that influence how the TMA operates It should help the reviewer understand why the TMA exists, who is involved, what are the TMA s products and services, and what resources are being brought to bear on the problems. The TMA Overview shou l d describe: 1 the nature of the TMA s operation: products and services 2. principal customers (e.g., commuters, employers, etc.) and their special requirements. 3 a description of the TMA's service area (activity center or corridor) 4. key customer requirements (for example, prompt response or accurate information) for products and services Briefly note significant differences in requirements among customer groups or markets, if any. 5. the TMA's relationship to other transportation providers (e.g transit agency) or organizations (e.g., MPO). 6. the TMA's staff composition, including: number, type, educational level, etc. 7 major equipment, facilities, and technologies used 8. types and numbers of suppliers of goods and services (e.g., third party vanpool operators, taxi operators for the guaranteed ride home program}. Indicate the importance of suppliers, and other TMAs, and any limitations or special relationships that may exist in dealing with such suppliers. 9 the regulatory environment within which the TMA operates, including non-profit status, contractual arrangements, concurrency requirement, etc. 10 other factors important to the TMA, such as major new directions for the TMA, major changes taking place in the industry, new alliances, etc. The TMA Overview should be limited to four pages. B. CORPORATE LEADERSHIP AND INVOLVEMENT The leadership category examines the TMA's Board of Directors or advisory committee and executive director s or program manager's personal leadership and involvemen t in creating and sustaining a customer focus, clear and visible values, and high expectations 6 PAGE 301 Reinforcement of the values and expectations requires substantial personal commitment and involvement. The leade rs must take par t in t he creation of strategies, systems, and methods for achieving exce llence. The systems and methods need to guide all activities and decisions of the TMA Through their regular personal involvement in visible activ iti es, such as planning, communications review of TMA performance, and recognizing employees for quality ach ieve ment, the Board members serve a s role models for staff 1. Board of Directors and Executive Director L eadership a. De scribe the Board of Directors/ Advisory Committee and executive director's! program manager roles and responsibilities in developing goa ls and objectives. b. Identify Board/ Advisory Committee activities for leading and/ or receiving Board/ Advisory Committee training and communicating with TMA employees. c. Describe financial and operational performance moni t oring systems including types, frequency, content, and use of reviews and who conducts them Attach the most recent progress and financial report provided by the executive director to the Board. d Describe the process of identifying and selecting new board members including identifying the skills and characteristics that are important to the TMA and comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the existing Board. e. Provide a list of TMA committees including mission, names of committee members, affiliations, and types (private/ pubiic) f. Reveal how the Board/ Advisory Committee evaluates and improves the executive director's! program manager's effectiveness. Attach a copy of the Board s most recent performance r eview form used for eva l uating the executive director/program manager as his or her duties relate to the perf ormance of the TMA. 2 Board of Directors Community Involvement a. Provide a summary or listing of the Board interactions with local and business community leaders on TMA issues. Also 7 PAGE 302 include such communications with national, state, trade associations, other TMAs, and professional organizations. It should be recogni zed that the amount of time Board members can dedicate to the TMA is limited. At the TMA's option, include a listing of Executive Director interactions with local and business community leaders on TMA issues. C SUITABILITY OF GOALS AND OBJECTIVES This Category examines the process of setting goals and objectives. Major emphasis is placed understanding why the TMA chooses its mission, goals, objectives, and activities. 1. Scope and Management of Performance Data and Information. a List and define the data and information that is used to measure the TMA's performance in achieving the TMA s goals and objectives. Briefly describe each. 2. Benchmarking This Criteria addresses data and information related to other TMAs and to best practices. The two major premises underlying this Criteria are : (1) For their key programs or services, TMAs need to "know where they stand" relative to other TMAs or commuter assistance programs and what are the 'best practices" for similar activities among other TMAs or commuter assistance programs; and, (2) comparative and benchmarking information provides impetus for significant (sometimes "breakthrough") improvement, and alerts TMAs to new practices. The Criteria addresses the key issues in management of benchmarking. It is anticipated that the existence of benchmark information for many of the TMA programs or services may not be readily available. TMAs may request the assistance of the TDM Oearinghouse in seeking benchmark information. a. Describe the criteria for selecting benchmarks. b. Describe the process used by the TMA for obtaining and using comparative information. Information might include: (1) information obtained from other organizations; (2) information obtained from a review of the literature; 8 PAGE 303 and, ( 3 ) evaluation by independent organizations. c. Describe how this benchmarking information is used to set goals and obje c tives and improve performance 3. Analysis and Uses of Data to Develop Goals and Objectives and Products and Services. Management by fact is a core concept in the Criteria. The Criteria call for a wide variety of data-nonfinancial and financial--to guide a TMA's courses of action toward beneficial results. Despite their importance, however, individual facts do not usually provide a sound basis for action or priorities. Action depends upon understanding cause and effect and between processes and results. Process actions may have many resou rce implications; results may have many cost and revenue impli cations as well. a. Describe the key steps in the processes for delivering services and how performance at each step is tracked and maintained. For example, the TMA may re-evaluate how it delivers its guaranteed ride home program The old method may hav e required the commuter to pre-register with the TMA, receive prior approval to use the program from the Employee Transpor tation Coordinator, pay taxi fare and get reimbursed, and have to wait 1 hour for the only approved taxi cab provider After evaluating the customer's experience, the TMA might arrange to have several taxi ca b providers accept vouchers for payment directly by the TMA. b. Describe how processes are improved to achieve better quality, response time, and operational performance. Describe how each of the following is used or consid ered: (1) process simplification (e.g., data e ntry and mailing sent by same person); (2) benchmarking information (e.g., how long it takes other TMAs to fill reque sts); (3) research and testing; (4) use of alternative technology (e.g voice mail access to commute information); and (5) information from customers of the processes--within and outside the TMA. 9 PAGE 304 c. Describe how the TMA receives and uses planning input from oth e rs such as the regional commuter assistance program, MPO, etc. d. Describe how new and/ or modified products and services are designed and introduced to meet both commuter needs and performance requirements. Factors that might need to be considered in design include: cost, privacy concerns, convenience, third-party capabilities; and support for Employee Transportation Coordinators. e Describe how the TMA s products and services are designed and managed so that current employer and member requirements are met and continuously improved (e.g., su. rveys of employers determined they want real-time access to a transportation advisory system for major reconstruction projects). TMA services also might include providing information to employers on transportation issues such as. parking, bus pass sales, etc. D. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF SIRATEGIC PLAN The Strategic Planning Category examines the TMA's long-range (e. g., 3 years) planning process and how the goa ls and objectives and annual work plans are integrated into the overall strategic plan. Include how this process integrates commuter, member and employer requirements and how plans are carried out. Also discuss how progress is shared with key stakeholders such as the MPO and transit agency. 1. Strategic Plan Development a. Describe the process used to examine the TMA's strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities for and threats to the TMA. b. Attach a copy of the TMA s strategic plan. 2. Implementation of Strategic Plan 10 PAGE 305 a. Describe how the budget, staff, and volunteer resources are allocated to carry out the plan b. Describe how the TM A relates current year work program to strategic plan. 3. Coordination with Regional Transportation Organizations a. Describe how it ensures alignment of TMA plans and activities with area long range transportation plans. b. Describ e how the TMA communicates its plans and reporting progress to the TMA Board, FDOT, RCAP, MPO, and other stakeholders. 4. Local Transportation Service Supplier Quality and Support a. Describe how the TMA's quality requirements are defined and communicated to the TMA's suppliers (e.g. regional commuter assistance program's ridematching services, taxi cab providers for guaranteed ride home programs) or supplie rs to its customers (e.g., third -party van pool provider). b. Describe how the TMA determines whether or not its quality requirements are met by transportation providers. Describe how performance information is fed back to suppliers. E. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SYSI'EMS This Category examines the TMA's financial manag ement systems. This information supplements the audit r equired by the joint participation agreement. The Criteria address financial performance via two major avenues: (1) emphasis on improved productivity, and lower overall operating costs; and (2) support for TMA strategy development, TMA decisions, and inno vation. For technical, fairness, and procedural reaso ns, care should be exercised when comparing the financial performance between TMAs. These reasons are: (1) short-term impr ovements in efficiency may be affected by factors such as accounting practices (2) Some TMAs historically have higher measures of efficiency levels than others as a nature of thei r market (e.g., high density, bedroom communities 30 miles from a downtown and partially served by high 11 PAGE 306 occupancy vehicle lanes are fertile areas for carpool and vanpool formation Therefore, vehicle miles of travel reduced could be expected t o be significantly higher than a TMA near the center city.) (3) The time interval between quality improvement and overall financial improvement depends upon many factors This interval is not likely to be the same from TMA to TMA. (4) The Criteria measure performance relative to rigorous, customer-oriented, TMA performance cri t eria Though improved quality and productivity are likely to improve a TMA's overall effectiveness and efficiency, its financial performance depends also on environmental factors and public policies--which the TMA Performance process cannot measure directly. The inclusion of aggregate financial indicators in evaluations would thus place at a disadvantage programs in the areas without trip reduction ordinances or parking problems. Such programs may have the most to offer from the point of view of sharing management strategies (5) Efficiency depends upon many external factors, such as local. national, and international economic conditions and business cycles. Such conditions and cycles do not have the same impact on all types of programs or on individual TMAs. 1. Budget Preparation and Monitoring a. Describe how budgets are prepared and monitored. b. Describe how plans consider cash flow requirements. c Attach a copy of the most recent income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. d. Attach a copy of the TMA's internal control procedures e Attach a copy of the audited financial statements and management letter from the auditor Describe what actions have been taken to correct deficiencies, if any identified by the auditor Attach copies of minutes reflecting the acceptance of the auditor s report and subsequent actions. f Provide information on trends of membership levels, new member recruitment, retention, and, revenue and inkind contributions from members. g. Attach a copy of the dues structu re and number of members per category F. DEGREE OF EXTERNAL VISIBILITY The external visibility category examines the TMA s advocacy, educational. 12 PAGE 307 and outreach efforts and how these relate to enhancing the customer service focus of the organization. Also examined is the potential reach of promotional efforts and their impact in conv in cing customers to consider alternative commute modes. 1. Promotional Efforts a. Describe the process used to determine how the promotions will fulfill the TMA's goals and objectives. b Include information on the direct costs and in-kind contributions of promotional efforts 2. Education Opportunities a. Identify opportunities including training and members of the Board. for professional development conferences for TMA staff and b. Describe the variety and types of educational opportunities provided to TMA members and their employees. These may include: (1) Employee transportation coordinator training programs. (2) Seminars, workshops, and courses offered by the TMA at employer worksites (3) Employer site visits (4) Transportation Days c. Explain how the TMA communicates its goals, objectives, mission statement and product offerings to the commuters in the TMA's service area. Describ e how the TMA uses these opportunities to enhance its appearance as an advocate of commute alternatives. These may include: (1) News articles written about the TMA (2) Presentations at public meetings and\ or hearings (3) The use of public service announcements and community television channels (4) Other outreach activities 3. Results of External Visibility Efforts. a. Describe how the effects of promotion, educational outreach and advocacy are measured. Include what impacts are 13 PAGE 308 measured, what process was used to determine which effects should be measured, and how the analysis of these impacts are used to refine and enhanc e promotional advocacy, educa tional and outreach efforts. b. Identify local government policies and programs that support the TMA and/ or transportation demand management strategies. These may include: trip reduction ordinances, co ngestion management plan includes an active role for the TMA, etc. G. EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAMS This Category examines the TMA's operational performance A success ful evaluation will use procedure s that determine one o r more of the following: (1) the extent to which the program has achieved its stated objecti ves (e .g., increases in Average Vehicle Occupancy);. (2) the extent to which the accomplishment of the objectives can be attributed to the program (direct and indirect effects). (3) the degree of consistency of program implementation to plan (relationship of planned activities to actual activities)., and, (4) the relationship of different tasks to the effectiveness of th e p rogram (productivity) In areas with a regional commuter assistance program, some performance measurements may be included as part of the RCAP evaluation The TMA should coordinate efforts with the RCAP 1. Evaluation Methods a. Descri be the method s for collec ting the data for eval uation purposes. Some of the most commonly used methods involve: employee surveys; program participation documentation (e.g., registrations for preferential parking, applications for subsidies ); vehicle counts; and time sheets o r activity logs. The evaluation method and data collection requirements depend on the measures of effectiveness being used. b. Attach copies of surveys (if applicable) and findings. 2. Product and Service Results a Summariz e trends and current levels for all key product and service features described in the TMA Overview (e.g., vanpools in operation, custom ers served e mployee transportation coordinators) featur es; compare current levels 14 PAGE 309 with app ropriate benchmarks. 'These measur es, taken to g ether, best rep res e n t t h e most important factors that pre dict achievement o f d es ired end results d esc ribed in the 1MA Overview. b. R e p o rt d at a whi c h are objecti v e me asures of prod u c t and servic e and may be routinely coll ected b y other organizatio ns or o n be half of the TMA (e.g., r egiona l commuter assistance programs may provid e informatio n t o the TMA r egar ding demand for ridematching in the 1MA' s service area) c Determine cost effectiveness for th e key results by allocating the expe n ditures for the period c o st s to the measures of e ffecti v e n ess (e.g cost per person serv ed, cost per ve hi cle miles of tra vel r educed, etc.). H MEA SURE O F C OI\1MUI'ERAND MEMBER SA TISF A CTIO N The Satisfaction Category examines the TMA s relationships with customers (i.e., commuters and members) and its knowledge of customer requirements A lso examined a r e the T MA 's thresholds to determine customer satisfaction, current trend s and levels of customer satisfaction and retention, and these results relati v e to o ther TMAs. 1 Cus tomer Expectations: Curre n t and F uture. a Describe how the TMA determines nearterm and longer-term r equirements and expectations of customers b Describe how the relative importance of specifi c product and service fea tures is determined for cus to mer groups c. Ide n tif y how o th er key i nformation a n d data s u c h as co mp la ints, ga i n s an d lo s se s of customers a nd produc t / ser v i ce performanc e are used to support the determi nati on. d Provide information on how the TMA addresses future requir ements and expectations of custo m ers 2. C o mmi tment to Customers 15 PAGE 310 a. Describe the TMA s commitments to customers regarding its products/services and how these commitments are evaluated and improved Examples of commitments are product and service guarantees, such as the response time for a guaranteed ride home program or how personal information confidentiality is mai ntained. b. Describe how these commitments: (1) address the principal concerns of customers; (2) are free from conditions that might weaken customers trust and confidence; and (3) are communicated to customers clearly and simply c Summarize how the TMA evaluates and improves its commitments, and the customers' and members' understanding of them, to avoid gaps between customer and member expectations and TMA performance Include : (1) how information/ feedback from customers is used; and (2} how product/ service performance improvement data are used. 3. Customer Satisfaction a. Describe how the TMA determines customer satisfaction and customer intentions to use the TMA s services again. Include a brief description of processes and measurement scales used; the frequency of determination; and how objectivity and validity are assured Indicate significant differences, if any, in processes and measurement scales for different customer groups or segments b. Describe how customer satisfaction measurements capture key information that reflects customers' likely future market behavior, such as intentions to use the TMA's services again or positive referrals c The TMA's products and services might be provided via employee transportation coordinators (EICs). Thus, "customers" should take into account these ETCs as well as the commuter. d. Identify customer dissatisfaction indicators including number and type of complaints received. 16 PAGE 311 4. Customer Satisfaction Results a. Summarize trends in the TMA's customer satisfaction and trends in key indicators of customer dissatisfaction. b. Report trends in measures and/ or indicators of cus t omer dissatisfaction Address the most relevant and important i ndicators for the T MA's products/ services L O'IHER Other factors important to the TMA. such as major new directions for the TMA or additional qualitative information, that are not reflected in the above Criteria. Please describe the approach, implementation processes, and results for these factors 17 PAGE 312 RID EMATC H FLO W C HAR T EMPt.OYERS GEN ERAl. PUBUC I I TOTAL NUMBER OF SURVEYS I DELIVERED NOT DELIVERED R EGISTAA T I D N RATE REGISTERED NOT REGISTERED I HRATE RECEIVED MA TCHES DID N O T RECEIVE MATCHES MATC 1 CAlLED DID NOT CALL S ORRY NO SORRY MATCHES MATCHES LETTER LETTER CALL RATE TMAICAP RATING RA T E REACHED DI D N'T MAT C H REACH MATCH CONTACT ENT RATE PLACED IN NOT PLACED I N POOL POOL PV.CEM FREQUENCY Of USE INFLUENCED NOT DURATION BYTMAICAP INFLUENCED RATE BYTMACAP M anaging Our Way Through Congestion 3-9 PAGE 313 MARKETING TOM Modul e Goal o To examine the importance of customer serv i ce o To identify the components of a marketing plan. o To provide guidance in developing a marketing plan for TOM Auumption o Marke ting i s an essentia l compone n t of TOM o For ma n y TOM programs the cha ll enges a r e s i m ilar to operating a small bus i ness. o Market i ng plans need to be developed for each TOM program What w orks in one area may not work in another. WHAT I S MARKETING ? "The process of planning and executing conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy ind i vidual and orga n iZational ob j ectives -America n Market i ng Assoc i ation T he Importanc e o f Cutomer S ervice Many of the federal, state and local efforts to evaluate the effective ness of TOM focus on the ty pe o f strategies used the location of t he site, and the resources a ll ocated to the program Not to be overlooked is the role that customer service has played in contrib uting to the success of the program The primary purposes of publ i c transportation and tra nsportat i on demand management (TOM) promo ti onal campa i g ns are to in. ---Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-1 PAGE 314 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-2 crease awareness foste r interest and facilitate inquiry. The near term goal is to get the commuter to come in the front door. After that, promot i on alone can't do anyth ing more ; customer service must drive the organization Quality customer service focuses on: o what commuters want and need, o helps them to select the options that are best for them and o reinforces the ir decision. The objectives of quality customer service are: 1. 2 3 In short customer service can be defined as -------Implications of Customer Service o Accord i ng to the T echn i cal Assistance Research Program Institute, a leading research organization in the service field, customers who have a good experience tell an aver age of other people o Customers who have a bali service experience tell an average of other people. o A study for Coca Cola found that customers to be at least as likely to complain about negative experiences as opposed to positive exper i ences. o An A. C. Nie l sen Co. study found only 1 i n 50 dissatisfied customers. o 95% will buy again if the complaint i s resolved quickly. PAGE 315 o The cost of obtai ning a new cust o me r I s t i mes the cost of keep i ng an existing customer Implications of Customer Loyalty 0 0 Your local supermarket expects at least4,400 to $22,000 from each consumer during the five years that market r esea rch shows that the customer lives In the same neighborhood. In banking, the average customer represents$80 a year or more in profit. o Auto industry studies have found that a brand-loyal new car dealer's customer represents average revenue of at least $140 000 over the customer's l ifet i me What Can TOM Programs Do? TOM programs can fall in the trap of having a product orien tat ion rather than a customer focus The following summarizes several of the conditions suggesting the TOM program has a cus tomer orientation rather than a product focus A Cuatomar Driven TOM Program .. Does no t see the TOM prod ucts as inherenlly desirable TOM program directors seldom enterta i n the possib il ity that po ten tial members or commuters may not share their enthus i asm about the i r products and serv i ces. They can not see why g i ven a clear de scr i ptio n of their organ i zation and what it prov i des commuters would not respond enthuastically Committed program directors may find it hard to believe that right-thinking people wouldn t want to reduce their transportati on costs and community-minded employ ers wouldn 't want to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. Dismiues lhe notion of commuter ignorance TOM program direc tors tend to attribute any lack of interest to the fact that commute rs don't fully appreciate the nature of the service Or If commuters do understand TOM program directors haven t found the right incen tive {i. e ., magic bullet ) to motivate them The co n vent i onal wisdom assumes commuters do not apprec i ate t h e tru e v alue of their Managing Our Way Through Conges tion "Three key facts about customer loyalty are that It Ia clrcum allln tlal, It Ia fragile, and It Ia fleeting." Kart Albrecht end Ron Zemke I n Sendee A merle 4-3 PAGE 316 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-4 estimated savings Surveys reveal that exis ting customers overwhelmingly agree that ridesharing can save them alot of money. Harping on the cost savings to this group would seem to be Jess effective in motivating them to action. In Virginia, over 50% of the people receiving a ma tchl ist try to form a pool by contacting someone on their list. However, ridesharing programs find between 10% to 30% of their customers ultimately form a carpool or join a vanpool as a direct result of the matchlist. Commuters who were unable to form a pool report finding the persons on the list unwilling to form a pool or had moved or changed work locations or schedules It was concluded that what commuters needed was a set of clear-cut techniques for forming a ridesharing amangement, an aggressive updating effort and a sense of hope that they might succeed The orientation of the program swung away from informa tion to action. Places Jess emphasis on promotion. Many TOM programs place too much stock in advertising and public relations These pro grams seek to increase their success by increasing the size of their customer database by adding new customers rather than improving the service to those existing and former customers. They are convinced that the TOM program should concentrate on spreading the message and packaging it well. Too often the message TOM programs usually have in mind is the story they want to tell, not what the commuter or employer needs Again, the conventional practice for TOM programs to encourage pool formation is to distribute survey forms once a year through the member companies and tell customers about the money they can save or the public benefits that will accrue They believe that people do not return a survey form because they don't appreciate the offer. While this promotion effort works for some, important segments respond to different messages For example, existing market research ind icates that cost savings are one of the primary advan tages of ridesharing cited by commuters. However, there is a distinct reluctance to ride with people they do not know. Strategies such as Meet Your Match" social events are designed to erode this barrier PAGE 317 Makes consumer research a high Ptio rity If one knows that the problem lies with th e commuter and that better promo tion is the key to success the principal rol e for research i s merely to confirm beliefs Yet, as most private sector marketers wi ll attest, research can challenge some managers' most fundamental assumptions about their customers Adheres to the belief that there isn 't one best martetjng strategy: Unlike many transportation professionals, the TOM program direc tor is often in close touch the market and is less likely to view it as monolithic or at least as having a few crudely defined market segments Subtle distinctions can be played up TOM ridematching programs use factors such as work schedule, home and work locatio ns to match potential carpool partners Th i s computerized process ignores th e in terperso nal factors which may uli t imately determine whethe r a pool is created As a consequence of the TOM program s lim i ted product li ne most TOM programs tend to develop a s ingle approach aim it at the most obvious market segments and then run w it h them. This climate of managerial focus on the existing product line prec lu des experimentation either with alternative strategies or with variations of the product to serve different market segments Yet the opportu nities for careful experimentation abound Matching by degree of interest or demographic preferences could enhance the proabi!ity of a successful match Some segments of the population might want and need more "hand holding through the formation process. Others may w ish to delegate the respons ibility of calling those on the l ist to find potentially suitable matches Does not ignore gen eric competit ion. Wh ile many nonprofrt organi zatio ns consciously compete for attent ion and funds many organi zat ions don't have clear competitors because their services or products are intangible or emphasize behavior i al changes such as rldesharing The competitors for TOM services are not immediately apparent. So it is not surprising that TOM programs igno re compe tition at either the product or generic level. At the the product level, TOM programs such as transportation management associations or organizations compete with other membersh ip organizations for employer dues and in-kin d services. TOM programs rarely p l an strategies to compete at the product level because they l ack a ccnsumer perspective They need to -M .. -0 ooo -------- . --. --Our Way Through Congestion 4-5 PAGE 318 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-6 demonstrate the value added to the employer for its services -how it helped meet the needs of its employees, how the TOM program contributes to the employer's bottom line or how collective action by employers made a difference for some transportation improve ment. Ine rtia can be a powerful force, but enthusastic program directors tend to ignore it. When they peddle changes in behavior or new ideas most non-profits de-emphasize competition from the status quo. Hi!'$ marketing staff based on mad
PAGE 319

What Should TOM Programs Do? One step to assess the agency s responsiveness to customer needs i s to prepa re a "Report Card". This assessment w ill help identify the products and features th at are important to those cus tomers and eva lu at e how the TOM program is performing i n those areas Areas given a high prio rity such as turnaround time or a ccuracy that are rated lo w represent the TOM program s cha l l enges to improve on Conversely those areas where custom e rs rated very lo w i n i mportance and performa nce could be considered in consequential to that marl
PAGE 320

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-8 customer satisfaction, and to never assume thatthe job is done. Other principles include commitment to the process by top managers and policy makers, total involvement of every team member. and methods of evaluating quality and improving progress Simply stated marketing means developing better ways to satisfy commuter needs. All commuters are potential customers of TOM programs. But who is the competition? The primary competition for TOM programs is the alternative that attracts commuters away from TOM -the single occupant vehicle. Envisioning single occupant vehicles as the competition may seem unusual, but if TOM programs fail to convince commuters to use a TOM alternative. then they cannot be claimed as customers. And if they are not customers of TOM, then they have decided that SOV travel is their best solution. They have been lost to the competition. Attracting commuters as TOM customers requ ires knowledge of their needs and products or services that target those needs. The process for getting there is can be described as P lan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle In simple terms. a TOM agency would prepare a Plan for getting customers Into alternate modes Do or carry out the plan, Check to assure that the plan is working and Act by standardizing the success ful program, then starting the cycle over again with new information. Even ifthe decision is made to standardize, the key is to never assume that the job is done. Instead, aceept that change is inevitable and constantly examine new and better ways to meet customer needs. The following describes how to incorporate the "Plan-Do-Chec k-Ac t" cycle into TOM. SAMPLE STRATEGIC PLAN PROGRAM STRATEGY

PAGE 321

0 Program Goa l s o Program Descript ion o Scope The types of solut ion s to commute problems offered or to be offered are : o Ridematching o Batch matching o Personalized matching o "Ride Wanted" Posters o Vanpooling o Third-party prov ider o Owner-operator o Transit agency o Transit o Route information o Ticket/pass sales o Guaranteed Ride Home o Taxi o Renta l Cars o Fleet cars o Alternate Work Programs o Flextime workshops o Emplo yee Transportation Coordinator training o Parking Information o Telecommuting o Segments o Differentiation from Competition o Our program n ame does/does not help us to in crease ridesharing awareness among our target markets. o Our promotional theme doesldoes not help us to increase awareness o Program Objectives: o Market Share"Increase carpoolers placed from __ or % of the potential carpool market to or __ % of the mar1
PAGE 322

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-10 o Customer growth rate "Increase the total number of customers receiving assistance by or %more than the customers who received assistance last year." o Average Vehicle Ridership "Increase the average vehicle ridership from 1.xx to 1.xy or_% by the end of 199X. As part of the program's strategic process, the TOM agency w ill need to identify the markets and services to be offered. The strategic direction will shape the services and tactics to be developed in the marketing plan. When viewed in terms of current markets and services and new markets and services the organization can take one or more strategic directions. It can seek to penetrate current markets with existing services. The organization may development new services to meet the needs of these same customers. It can develop ment new markets for current services through tactics like expansion. Finally, the organization could diversify its services to attract new markets. STRATEGIC DIRECTION GRID CURRENT SERVICES NEW SERVICES .n NEW MARKETS Market Development Diversification FOUR COMPONENTS OF MARKETING o ____________________________ ___ o ____________________________ ___ o ____________________________ ___ o ____________________________ ___

PAGE 323

PRODU C T STRATEGY AlTERNATIVE S The follo wing list the type of strateg ies that could be used for each of the above products and services o No Product/Service Change o Product/Service repositioning o Product/Service improvement Changes in attributes Changes in packaging o Eliminate the product/serv ice o Develop a new product/servce Closely r e l ated product/service Provide a product or service you previously purchased Unrelated product or service that will expand the scope of the program When evaluating .the product strategy begin by listing each of the products and services separately Describe each of the features or physical characte ristics. Identify how each of these features is used or valued by the commuter for his or her own benefit. List and Describe One of Your Current Products Product : --------------Descrip t ion :-----------------Attr ibu tes/Features:-------------______________ Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-11

PAGE 324

Managing Our W ay Through Cong estion 4-12 PRICING STRATEGY ALTERNATIVES PRICING APPROA C H H O W IT WOR .KS 1 Bundling OJ unbundling 2. Time-periOd pricing 3 Trial pricing Sd producta or sei'Yic:es together pac:kaoes or break rl'lem 1nd price oocordlogly. Ex.-: Allow employe,. 10 buy subscriplion gult'lnteed ride home as pan oflhe tnansit pass progrwrn. Adjust prtce, up or down. d u ring speMc; to s.pu:r or ehangu In Example: E arly b ird speci11l1 a t parking totl. M ake it easy a nd tower the rW< for a c ustomer toll')' the p rod uctortervlce. example: Ven for new starts. 4 Acoount.ing-.,sys.tem pricing Sltueture prlee to make it more salable within a CUJtomers' buying constralnll Example; Payrol dedudion for transit pusa S. packages 6 Pay.one--l)tioa 7. COnstant promo pridog 8. Ptice = p erformance 9. Ch.ange the standard 10 Shift costs to the Customer 11. Variable pricing tied to a creative variable 12. Different nam8$tor aofterent price H11"*'" 13. Produe'l-line priCing 14. Differential p rici n g t5. O u a \ity discount 16. Fixed, then variable 11 on1 U'lat price point!" lndude free '"valUe-added seMoes to appeal to bargain at1opp4m. wilhoul lowering El< the l>u)et 10 glace. PAGE 325 This table was adapted from an a rticle in INC. M agazin e Naming Your Price July 1992 DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY ALTERNATIVES The following options help determine how the products and services will be distributed to the market o Commute I nformation M edia Outreach Employer Outreach Area w ide agency solicits commuter inqu i ry Sel f-standing kiosks Othe r l ocations ( e g . malls libraries) o Commuter N etworking Worksite contacts (e.g Chamber of Co mmerce ) Home-end cont acts (e g., homeowner associations, civ i c associa tions ) Board member contacts o Commute Vehicles TO M program directs delivery t o : Driver/op erator Employer owner/leasee Th i rd-party lessor Employer owner/lessee de li very to d r iv er Dr iver pi ckup at lessor place of bus i n ess or vehide dealersh i p List Distribution Strategies Used by Your Organization .. Managing Our Wa y Through Congestion 4-13 PAGE 326 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 41 4 PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY ALTERNATIVES The following lists t he promotional a nd advertising strategies that can be used for each of the products and services as we ll as the organization itself. o Types Generic advertising Mod e adv ertis ing (e.g., vanpooling or transit) Chann e l (distribution) support ("Trade" promotion to distributors, e g., emp loyers) o Ob j e cti ves 1. Increase awareness 2 Increase rate o f inquiry 3. Increase product tri al 4. Reinforce regular use o Copy Strategy Segment for different user groups Differentiate from competition Correct mlsperceptions o Media Strategy Broad rea ca h largest market segments Pr ime prospects o Timing Strategy S t eady Pulse ( seasona l or period i c ) Start-up Pulse o Budget Strategy Percentage of t otal budge t Based on cos t s of specific tasks o Public Relation s Creat e image for: Program or agency Ridesharing generically Selected mode (e g carpoo ling) Communica te sponsor or agency philosophy Correct nega tive or faulty image PAGE 327 o Personal Selling O r gan i zat i on : Geographic Market Oriented Outreach method : Program's own personnel Employee Transportation Coordinators Outsourcing Personnel Selection Experienced Educational Background Tra i ning needs Compensation package Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-15 PAGE 328 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-16 SAMPLE MARKETING PLAN FORMAT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION pycpose: The purpose of this marketing plan is to provide a guide for all marketing activities during 199X. Specifically, this document will : 1. Review the TOM program's marketing situation. 2 Define the TOM program's challenges and opportunities. 3 Outline a marketing program, including goals, objectves, and strategies. SITUATION REVIEW Market for TOM services 1. Trends a. Population b. Workforce c Customer base 2. The Product line a. Ridematching (1) Batch matching (2) Personalized matching (3) "Ride Wanted" Posters b. Vanpooling (1) Thi rd-party provider (2) Owner-operator (3) Transit agency c. Transit (1) Route information (2) Ticket/pass sales d. Guaranteed Ride Home (1) Taxi (2) Rental Cars (3) Fleet cars e. Alternate Work Programs (1) Flextime workshops (2) How-to guide for employers f. Employee Transportation Coordinator training g. Parking Information (1) Location Map and Price sheet (2) Preferential parking: How-to for employ ers PAGE 329 h Telecommut ing ( 1 ) Workshop ( 2 ) Advisory Comm i ttee ( 3 } Ass i stance to employers 3 The Competition a TDM program's competition is wide ranging b Single occupant vehicles hold a share of_%. c Parking discounts and subsidies d Non-profits & business organizations for dues e Competitive advertising is found in all major media ( telev ision newspapers radio, magazines, and outdoor). 4 The Prime Prospect a Demographics b Psychograph i csiBenefits I n sel ecting a mode commuters cons i stently d i scriminate on the basis of the following characteristics ( 1) Convenience (2} Reliability (3) Cost (4) Ti me (5) Awareness of options 5. The Buying Process a A proportion of commuters change mode when: (1) Residentiallocation (2) Work location (3) Work schedule ( 4 } Out-of-pocket prices rise b The most motiva t ing a ttri b u tes i n selecting a non SOY mode are re l ated to : ( 1 } (list attributes i n rank o r der of i mport a nce among current customers ) 6 Results of Prior Programs a. Advertising Campaign b Employer Outreach c. Guaranteed Ride Home program d. etc. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES Results of the current campaign are ___ T he TDM p r ogram has ---,_ ------Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-17 PAGE 330 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-18 awareness in the absolute and relative to other alternat i ves. Strategic Implication: The TOM program s greatest strength is MARKETING PROGRAM 1. Goals/Object i ves/Rat i onale a Awareness (1) GQaJ: To increase top-of-m ind (unaided) awareness of the TOM program (2) Objective: To increase unaided aware ness of the TOM program in its marketing area by a statistically significant amount versus the level measure in __ (3) Rationale : Before commuters will use the services, they need to know what services are offered how to access those services, and what are the costs and benefrts associated with the services. b. Image ( 1 ) Goal: To create an image of the TOM program among potentia l customers that IS ___ (2) Objective: To increase ratings ofthe TOM p r ogram in its marketing area by a statis tically significant amount versus the level measure i n __ (3) Rationale : The differences between SOV and alter native modes are significant to commut ers The TOM program needs to estab l ish a strong umbrella image to support the various alternatives (carpool, van pool bus, etc.) as well as the various vendors (transit system van leasing company, etc.) PAGE 331 c Cost Efficiency ( 1) Goal: To improve the cost efficiency ofthe TOM program by: (a) increasing the number of custom e r s using the services (b) increasing the rate of customers altering their mode (c) increasing the part time use of modes (2) Objective: To be determined (3) Rat i ona le: A key objective of a publicly funded program is to increase the effectiveness of the services it delivers. To help accomplish this, the goal of the TOM program makreting should be to increase the number of customers formation rate, and part-time use of modes 2. Advertising Strategy a. Objective: The prospect should initiate or renew an account relationship with the TOM program (1) T arget Audience : (a) Demographics o Adults o Employed (b) Pyschographics o Seeking an alternative to driv i ng alone o Finds commute to be stressful b. Creative Strategy (1) Image : The prospect shou l d fee l thatthe TOM program is a leader in commuting options the community (2) Key Thought: The prospect should know that the TOM program is a provider of commuter i nformation and assistance Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-19 PAGE 332 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-20 (3) Mandatories (a) Advertising should build an emotional bond with the TOM program. (b) Visual media should include logo c. Media Strategies (1) Use as the most efficient medium for generating high reach of the target audience, which is --d. Public Relations Strategy (1) Use public relations at major employment centers as a basis to reinforce the TOM program's image and i ncrease inquiries. (2) The public relations program will consist of the following: (a) Employer outreach (b) Transportation Days/National Transportation Week (c) Crisis response package e. Additional Key Strategies (1) Establish an aggressive and enthusiastic staff through training. (2) Use targeted marketing programs to crosssell existing and former customers: (3) D i rect mail (4) Point-of-promotion materials (5) Use targeted marketing programs to build business for vanpooling and non motorized travel. PAGE 333 Key Terms in Advertising Gross I mpres sions : The sum of the estimated number of persons who listened to a station for a minimum of five minutes within a quarter hour for all spots in a given schedule For example, if one person hears a spot three times and two other persons hear the spot once each then there has been a tota l of five gross impressions made. Reach: The estimated number of different persons who are lis teni ng at least once to a given schedule. (unduplicated audience). Frequency: The number of times a person i s exposed to an advertise ment. Cost per thousand impress ions: The average cost delivering 1 ,000 gross impressions. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 4-21 PAGE 334 Managing O u r Way Through Conges tion 4-22 Example EVALUTATION OF RAD I O CAMPAIGN For adults between 25 and 54 yaam old S tation Gross lmpreui o N WEZS 1,115 ,200 WTVR 676,200 WRVA 603, 600 WRVQ 581,400 WPLZ 484 000 WRXL 396 000 WKHK 84 ,000 WQSF 36 ,000 WRJY 19, 200 TOTAL 3,975,600 Objective 1: Interim Result : Objective 2: I nterim Result: Objective 3 : I nterim Result: (3$4,300 people in marl
PAGE 335

TOM IN THE AGE OF DIVERSITY M ODULE GOAL S o To examine th e impact of TOM po licies on subsegments of the population o To prov ide gu i dance for establishing a TOM program responsive to the needs o f specific marilets ASSUMPT IONS o Participa n ts have a basic understand in g that the worilforce i s becoming i ncreas ingl y d i verse demographically o Marilet segmentat i on can i mprove the marileting and deliv ery of TOM services and products o Failure to recogniz e the implications of TOM on various segments ofthe population can damage the TOM program's cred ib i l ity What is the effect of TOM measures o n : o Women? o Organized Labor? o Minorit ies? o How can TOM programs be designed to better accommo date these groups? Understanding diversity means recognizing the differences and i n some cases the s i m il arities o f the d i fferen t groups of peop l e w ho compr i se a program's target marilet. Although the demograph i c gaps between these groups are narrowing it is i mportant to recogn i ze differences along gender cultural and racial li nes to more efficiently d e liver a message meet peoples needs, and benefit society as a whole A prog r am manager must be cautious to avo i d stereotyping and generaliz in g By ass uming that a person will act in a pa rtic u l ar manner because of gender or heritage is lud i crous Conversely wi thout some sensitivity to the obstacles Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-1

PAGE 336

Manag ing Our Way Through Congestion "Some people say that by 1995 three out of four people coming into the workplace will be women or m inorit ies That is a fact Well you are go ing to attract the best of those people into your or ganization, you'd better have a culture ; you'd bet ter have an environment inwhi chthosepeop lefeel they can prosper and flourish. If you don't, they will go elsewhere and you'll be at a competitive disadvantage." "This is not some type o f benevolent activity on our part. There is self-inter est here. We h ave to have a culture and envi ron ment in which these people can flo urish and that's what we are work ing toward ." ..Jim Preston, CEO of Avon Products 5-2 and needs of single parents in the workplace, an employer risks losing a valuable employee to a competitor who offers more attractive, and necessary benefrts GENDER DIFFERENCES IN TRAVEL BEHAVIOR Statistical research shows: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Working women depend more on the car than men who are in the same economic class and family Working women rely on the car to combine work trips with family obligations: childcare, grocery shopping, etc. Low-income women trave l farther to work than l ow-income men and highincome workers of either gender. Single mothers in the labor force depend more on the car than any other group. Edge Cities Women In the Workforce 1975-1979 eight million non-wage-earning women found jobs. 1978 was the "spike" year for women entering the American workforce. In 1978, developers started putting up large office buildings outside the male-dominated downtowns o From 1970 to 1978, the number of cars in America more than doubled. Source : Edge Cj!y: Life on the New Frontier, Joe l Garreau. Doubleday, New York, NY, 1988.

PAGE 337

List Barriers to Women's Participation in TOM programs eroblems work i ng women face in switch i ng to alternative modes: 1 } 2} 3) 4} 5 ) RECOMMENDATIONS TO M programs should: o Allow flexible work schedules o Encourage telecommuting o Prov i de ch i ldcare and eldercare services in conven i ent locat i ons o Compensate workers for the c hi ldcare and eldercare costs of using s l ower a lternative modes o Prov ide meaningful security for women using alternative modes at night o Offer mid-day transportation to grocery stores, dry-clean ers, banks, post office, etc. o Offer comprehensiv e well-advert ised guaranteed ride home programs Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-3

PAGE 338

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-4 Just as working mothers, single-parents, and primary care-givers have special needs in today's work p lace which demand consider ations and changes in the way managers approach TOM, another distinct group is the body of union workers. Union workers have specific regulations which delineate work regulations arrived at under negotiation, and agreed to by union representatives and management. These men and women generally hold the blue collar jobs with strict work-hour guidelines that would cause them to be considered prime candidates for many ridesharing arrange ments. Before the program manager may approach these com muters, however, it is imperative that he/she becomes familiar with the collective bargaining contract under which these people work. Once the contract has been reviewed, if no conflicts are present, the manager may proceed with a TOM program. If there is any doubt about the legal ity or propriety of typical TOM init iatives, the wisest course of action for the TOM manager is to approach management and union representatives simultaneously to reach consensus and make a determination about the possibilities of a TOM program. If th is requires changes to the collective bargaining agreement, the union represen tative is the best resourc e for learning the method to change this contract, as well as the vehicle for the change(s). ORGANIZED LABOR An Unfair Labor Practice (UFLP) occurs when: an employer dictates terms of employment covered by a collective bargaining agreement without negotiating with the designated union represen ta tive Examples of TOM measures which can change work rules : o Cash incentives for employees who opt for alternative modes o Alternative work hours o Management-by -results review of employee performance necessary for telecommuting How to Avoid an UFLP: 0 Include a person selected by the union in the design of the TO M prog ram

PAGE 339

0 Renegotiate the co ntr act to include TOM measures, if necessary List two advantage s of implementing TOM in a union iz ed workplace: 1. 2 As w hite collar workers left t he city and moved to the suburbs b lu e-collar and uns k ill ed manual-labor jobs were crea ted in and near the new suburban neighborhoods The peo pl e who moved to these more-expensive neighborhoods con t inue t o w ork i n th e ce ntra l business district t o afford the i r lifestyles The people w h o live in the i nner-city by choice or for financia l reasons make up the unemployed and under employed population w ho have no access to the ne w markets in t he suburbs, and may burden the financia l infrastructure of their city. If provisions we r e made to transport the men and women who c annot afford private transportation and are not offered public transit, two obstac les will be overcome by t his "reverse commute The people will ha ve jobs, and the open jobs will be filled RE V ER SE COMMUTIN G Trends in American d emographics (1970-199 0) : o Population growth in the suburbs o Job creation in the suburbs o Whi tes fled to th e suburbs ; minorities stayed in the cities o L ack of mode i nfrastructure in th e suburbs Catch22 for urba n residents: o Need a car to get to the j ob o N eed a job to afford the car Reverse Commute pro g ra m s : provide transportation for u rban residents to reach suburban job sites M anaging Our W ay Through Congestion s .. s

PAGE 340

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-6 Programs can be sponsored by: public housing tenants' association (Chicago) urban neighborhood community center urban non-profit association (Chicago, Detroit) municipal transit agency (Detroit) regional transit agency (Philadelphia) state department of transportation (Milwaukee) suburban employers suburban business park developers Program Example: Hartford, CT City of Hartford Employment Transportation Service Reverse Commute Vanpool Program. Cooperative effort between public agency and 1-3 employers Specific Program guidelines: I ncome level considerations For under employed and unemployed urban residents Only for commute routes not served by transit Must have minimum of four riders to start program To initiate vanpool, company pays half of cost after subsidy, if any Employee pays other half of costs Emp loyee 's share is comparable to transit costs Door-to-Door $1.50-1.75 each way Central Pickup$0.75-1.25 each way Free van ride to interviews, testing, training ... for new job Emp loyee does not contribute fare for two weeks, until first paycheck. After approximately 6 months, company stops subsidy, and employee assumes costs (payroll deduction is an option) Additional information: Reverse commute programs can enable people to hold a job who would otherwise be unemployed. TOM strategies based on financial penalties (i.e. park ing fees) will have a disproportionate effect on low-wage earners. Reverse commute programs are only a short-term solution.

PAGE 341

Providing reverse commute transportat ion services is. at best. a short-term solution. The long-term problem is the job-housing imbalance whic h creates the need for reverse commuting Trans portation planners must address thi s prob l em w i t h long-term solu t ions w hich encourage job creation in the urban area and affordab le housin g in the suburbs From the following tables, a trend has been established which demonstrates how the commute pattems of minority communities are becoming more similar to those of the w hi t e" commu nity A lt hough one study is gained form survey information in one city, t h e oth er is from a national survey and they both i ndicate simi lar findings over about a decade It is important to note that a l though COMMUTER PATTERNS AND TRENDS BY RACE Col'r1lrute Type Total 2924 186 Commuters .. City>City Percent lime City>Nondty Tme Nl.ll'lber Nondty>City 1990 1990 European African American American 7168 462 890 318 12.4 68.8 19. 2 min 23. 5 min 1688 36 23. 5 7 8 24. 7 min 25. 4 min 4056 56. 6 6 9 14 9 min 18. 1 min "Gender, Race a n d to Emp loy ment in Buffalo NY 1980 to 1990" by lbipo Johnston Anumonwo, State University of N ew York, College at Cortland Presented at TRB January, 1994. ------Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-7

PAGE 342

M anaging Our Way Through Congeetlon 5 8 the trend is toward sameness. the two groups have some differ ences whi ch the effective manager w ill understand and use to serve the communities better inde pe ndently and in tu m, the comb i ned l arger commu n ity society, better RACIAL DIVERSITY AND TOM COMMUTER TRENDS Blacks N on-Blacks Variable 1 983 1990 %Change 1983 1990 %Change Person Trips 2 2 2 7 22.7 3.0 3 1 3 3 Person M ile s 15 1 19 5 73. 5 26.2 29. 7 1 3 4 of travel V eh icle T ri ps 0 9 1 4 55. 6 1 7 2 0 1 7 6 Vehicle M iles 6 4 10 5 64.1 1 3 7 18 2 32 8 of Trave l Source : Assessing Travel BehaVIor by Blacks 1n th e United States : A New Perspective" by Eric Hill Center for Urban Transportation Research J uly, 1994 Data from 1 983 and 1990 Nati onwide Personal Transportation Study Database. What program s or approaches would be best suited for Asians ? African Ame ricans? Hispanics ? Whites?

PAGE 343

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AMONG LOS ANGELES COMMUTERS Wlillil<-Afriean Aalan H ispanic Ameriean % at worksites wilh > 1 00 employees 65 50 62 70 I 36 20 31 9 Average number of 65 54 47 53 months at worksite % always have a car '" available to commute 94 \ 85 90' . 79 ., % ,_,., .,k 9v ,., 3+ days 73 65 per wee Average of 2.98 2 .89 peoflle per carpool of 29 ;;j 27 24 months In a catpOOI ,, i Most common Household Co-worker partner miln member I% tty car-1 -2 days/Wk. 16. 22 20 % ol 20+ mile . commute r s would try 18 .. 11 ,, 14 van pooling . % would tty the bus 9 'P 9 .. i n Implications for Rideshare Marke ting" by Amy Ho. Commuter T ransportation Services Inc July. 1993 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5 9

PAGE 344

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 5-10 References 1. A Directory of California Trip Reduction Ordinances Second 2. Collective Barga i ning Agreement between the Board of Regents of the State University System of Florida and the Association of Federal. State and Municipal Employees 1991-1994. Bibllogragby Gerwig, Katheri ne, "Implementation I ssues and Barriers", Re sources Papers from TOM Innovation and Research : Setting a Strategic Agenda for the Future, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., November 15-16, 1993 Hughes, Mark Alan and Julie Sternberg, The New Metropolitan Reality : INhere the Rubber Meets the Road in Anti-Poverty Policy, Public Finance and Housing Center, the Urban Institute, Washing ton, D.C., December 199 2 Parker, Mike and Jane Slaughter Choosing Sides: Unions and the Team Concept, Labor Notes Detroit, MI. 1 988. Rosenbloom Sandra and Elizabeth Burns, Do Environmental Measures and Travel Reduction Programs Hurt Working Women?, Drach man Institute for Land and Regional Developmental Studies, University of Arizona, Tuscan, AZ, June 1993

PAGE 345

MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN TOM Module Goals o To review the ro les of the executive director and Board of Directors. o To examine the question of liability in regards to government, agency, and business particiaption in TO M programs. Assumptions o Bo ard staff relationships can help or hinder progress. o Accountab ili ty is a must. Board -Staff Relationships Developing a strateg ic plan that reflects the TO M program's focus on customer-oriented emphasis begins at the top with the Board of Directors or Advisory Committee. How well the organization imple ments the plan is a function of the relationsh ip of the Board and the staff Two of the more commonly heard compl a int s from TOM program managers or execu t ive d i rectors focus on challenges encountered by many non profits the l evel of activity or i nactivity of the Board of Directors The board's degree of in volvement may be the result of the lack of clarity about who is respons ib l e for what and w ho has the authority for what actions and under what circumstances. The challenge is to direct the Board's and the executive director's energy and talents, not to control it. "Our board does too much" Execu t ive directors of TO M programs complain wh en the Board of Directors strays from its policymak ing role and meddles in day-to day operations Boards of this type seem to expect to see and a pprove program designs and materials. prepare budgets and Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-1

PAGE 346

Managing Our Way Througl\ Congestion t-2 hand l e staff compla i nts in addition to its pol i cy role What executive directors may overlook is that these people may be the same group who founded the program to address a particular transportation problem or to fill a mobi l ity need. By virtue of their current and past involvement, they have proven their commitment and gained intimate knowledge of operations. Also the Board members may have a n investment to protect. Often the private sector members of the Board are l ikely to be dues paying members as we ll as c li ents of the TOM program s serv i ces and they demand value for their company's investment. The public sec tor members on the Board frequently are some of the largest significant contributors with the responsibility entrusted in them to spend taxpayers dollars prudently. Some of these individua l s may have even run the organization while the executive director was being recruited. The i ssue i s not the l evel of interference but how the Board ener gies are effectively channe l ed. There is a fine line between i nterfer ence by board members and adherence to the board s fiduciary responsibilities. Even with directors and officers liability insurance, If the Board is to err, it should be on the latter side. However, this situation cou ld be improved if the ro les and respon sibilities be tween the Board of Directors and its executive director are estab lished and well understood This role definition is best accom plished concurrent with the selection process of the executive d i rector This can help determine the type of i nd i v i dual the Board i s l ook i ng for. The hiring of a full-time execut ive director is a key tum ing poi nt for the organization. He or she becomes the organization s expert in all areas of transportation demand management, operations, ad ministration and personnel. Once the executive director is hired the board should begin to transition its focus from day to-day op erations to setting policy P r oblems occur when the relationsh i p i s not well-defined the Board continues to micro-manage the organization and the executive director fee l s compelled due to inexperience or other reasons to invite Board input on operat i onal issues. Some problems may be brought upon by the executive director who has a lo t of TOM prod uct knowledge but little non profit or small business management experience or vice versa

PAGE 347

The executive director can respond in two ways : resisting or com plying w ith the Board s interfe r ence The former approach breeds d i strust between t he executive director and the Board and invites even more in t erference by the Board The l atter approach threatens the a bi l ity of the Board to function undercuts the authority of the executive director to dea l with external customers suc h as Metropo litan P l anning O r g a nizations and "internal customers such as staff. The end resu l t is the same The executive director moves on due to dissa t isfaction on the part of the executive director or th e board Boar d of Directors' Responsibilities i n clude: o hiring the executive director o devel oping a stra t egic plan that reflects the organizat i on s mission o monitor i ng and eva l uating the performance of th e organization. the executive director .and the finances and o serving as a g oodwill ambassador for the organization. "Our board never does anything" For other executive directors the opposite seems true-the board seems ineffectual in leading the organi zation The board exp li c itly or implicitly rests all authority w i th the executi ve director; creating the opportunity for ab use a nd repercussions in the future when the executive director does go too fa r in the minds of some board members What e x ecutive directors may l ose s ight of once i n a w hile i s the fact that most members of t he Board hol d fulltime jobs that require the vast m a jority of their att en t ion energy and cre a tiv ity. Executive d ir ectors have a respons i bility to fash i on a me a ningful well-defined role for the Board members T hese roles can be ta il ored with in generally acceptab le parame t ers to the in dividua l Board members' skills and interests. It can a lso serve to ide n t ify needs f o r represen ta t ion on the Board Common pitfalls made by e x ecutive dir e c to rs t hat f oster leadership Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 .. 3

PAGE 348

Managing Our Way Through Congestion A board member must pay atten tion to financial management pro cesses, financial statements audit findings, and minutes to fully understand the issues before making decisions. t-4 voids include: o holding meetings when no Board action is required, o swamping the board members with reams of confusing information, and o not clearly enunciating the actions being requested by the Board. At the same time, the executive director must respect the roles of the Board and not seek to co-op them to expedite a decision. The risks include losing Board members who feel they have made no special contribution and alienating the same individuals that helped pull the organization together in the first place. The relationship between the policy role of the Board and the operational role of the staff can be illustrated by the follo wing ex amples. o The board is responsible for fashioning the organzation's strategic plan, but the executive director makes recommendations and implements the plan once it's adopted. o The executive director writes the grant proposal but must seek prior Board approval to submit the grant. o The board approves the budget, formulates policies for financial management and adopts i nte rnal control systems. The executive director drafts the budget, assures adherence to financial management policies and systems. o The board hires legal counse l auditor and consultants. The executive director obtains bids for lega l, auditing, and consulting services Often the differences between policy versus operational issues are neither obvious no r clear cut. The challenge between the Board and the executive director is to decide the process for handling certain situat ions. In some cases, the Board may delineate those items clearly within the complete authority of the executive director with prior approval and those items that require notification to the Board after the fac t by the executive director.

PAGE 349

The r esponsib i l ity for the hiring, tra in i ng man a ging evaluating, and d i scip l i ni ng other e mployees rests so lely w ith the e xec u t ive d i rec tor Usurp ing the executive d i rector s re spons i bil i t ies will only serve to set a precedent that breeds distrusts dimi nishes accountabil ity, and waste s a Board's best r eso urce the executive director. One useful method for clarifying the roles and responsibil ities of Board and the executive director would begin by listing general types of decis ions and collectively deciding whi ch party has the decisionmaking authority, which items require prior approval and wh ic h decisions need made by the executive director require notice after the fact In addition to treat ing the executive directors as the sole emp loyee of th e Board, the Board cou ld adopt gu idin g p rin ciples fo r Board-only decisions. Fou r Gujdjng Princip les for a Board o f Directors o The Board shall govern. not manage o The Board shall act on all items required by law or regulation o Un l ess request ed by the executive director, the Board shall restrict its policies to those that affect the whole organization o The Board shall mainta i n the financial integrity of the organization The types of performance data and financial i nforma t ion reported can contribute to the effective oversight and managemen t of the program \Nhat types of data how frequently should management information be provided? If the details don't get you, the generali ties can Acting on the information provided by the e xecut ive dire ctor is the Board's responsibility and the executive director's challenge The executive director must ba l ance the appropriate level of information w ith the frequency and distribution The Board members can be confused by a mass of performance data (e.g cost per vehicle miles of travel reduced per 1 ,000 applicants) Board members can glaze over performance realities (e.g the total number of i nd ividua l s ass i sted over the last quarter) or finan cial realt ies (e. g tot al expenses to date) w i t hout any indica tio n of Managing Our Way Through Congestion An effective way for viewing the manage ment and operation of the TOM program from Board perspeetive I s to tr .. t the executive director aa the aoie empioyH or the Board or Dlrec:tora 1-5

PAGE 350

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-6 trends (e.g last four quarters worth of demand or expenses bud geted for same period ). The degree of sophistication of the TOM program s performance and financial reporting systems can go along way to improving the organizat i on's management and holding the executive director accountable. In s um mary, TOM programs often are partnersh ip s between the public and private sectors to add ress transportation needs. At another level, the TOM organizat i on is a team of Board of Direc tors and the execut ive director. To make the partnersh ip work, each member of the team must have a defined ro l e and be ready, when called upon, to respect its role and adhere to it. PERFORMANCE RATIOS ASSOCIATED WITH SERVICES Number of customer complaints Number of requests filled Number of customers Number of employees Pr
PAGE 351

The following material was excerpted from a Transit Cooperative Research Program project Sponsored by the Federal Transit Ad ministration This report on r isk management as it relates to roM was prepared under T CRP Project J 5 Aspects of Transit and lntermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Rese a rch Board is the agency conduc t i ng the rese a rch Successful R isk Management for Ridesh are and Carpool Matching Programs The Proble m and Its Solution In reauthoriz ing federa l assistance for surface trans porta tion pro grams through the 1990s. the lntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act calls for the adaptation of new concepts and tech niques in planning funding constructing, and operating these programs These changes will affect the institutional framework laws and administrative processes--as well as engineering and operational elements of these programs. The nation's transit agen cies need to have access to a program that can provide authorita tively researched, specific, limited scope studies of l egal issues a nd problems having national significance and applicat i o n to their bus i nesses The TCRP Proje c t J-5 is designed to provide insight i nt o the operat i ng practices and legal elements of specific problems in transportation agencies The intermodal approach to surface transportation requires a partnership between transit and highways, and in some instances, waterways To make the partnership work well, attorneys for eacll mode need to be familiar with the legal framework and processes of the other modes. Research studies in areas of common concern wi ll be needed to determine what adaptations are necessary to carry on successful intermodal programs Transit attorneys have noted that they share common in terests (and re spons i bilities ) with highway and water transport agenc ies in several a reas of transp ortation la w including o Environmental standards and requirements o Cons t ruction and procuremen t contract procedures and administrat ion ; o Civil rig hts a nd l abor standards; and o Tort liability, risk management, and system safety Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 .. 7

PAGE 352

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-8 In other areas of the law, transit programs may involve legal prob lems and issues that are not shared with other modes; as, for example. compliance w i th transit-equipment and operations guide lines, FTA financing initiatives private sector programs, and labor or environmental standards relating to transit operations Emphasis would be on research of current importance and applicability to transit and intermodal operations and programs. Applications of Research The foregoing research should prove helpful to transit providers. governors, state air quality agencies, state departments of trans portation Metropo li tan Planning Organizations, regional authorities, and those organizing rideshare programs. Under the present Air Quality Program, states must submit revised State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to improve air quality. States with nonattainment areas-areas that fail to meet air quality standards-must include transportation control measures in the SIP. Rideshare and carpool matching programs, high-occupancy vehicle lanes, and transit-use i ncentives are several of the most frequently used transportation control measures. There are a multitude of state, public and private rideshare and carpoo l -matching organizations nationwide. Given their concerns for tort liability exposure, loca l governments and grantee organiza tions need an assessment of potential tort l iability for an organiza tion either offering or promoting such services Successful Risk Management for Rideshare and CarpoolMatching Programs A. INTRODUCTION 1. Background In 1979, prompted by the fuel shortages of the 1970s, the National Task Force on Ridesharing was charged with the following objec tives: to promote ridesharing among business and government leaders, to assist in remov ing institutional barriers to ridesharing, to provide a continuing dialogue between private and public sectors, and to make specific recommendations to increase the use and

PAGE 353

effectiveness of ridesharing Ten years later, ridesharing was aga i n th e s u bject of federal legis l at ion, th i s ti me under the heading of env i ronme n tal l eg i slation One element of the 1g90 amendments to the C l ean A i r Act's traffic mitigation program is the promotion of carpooling and ridesharing to reduce automobile pollution. The Clean Air Act's requirements have spawned state and regional legislation that, In turn have required emp loyers to reduce the vehicle miles traveled by com muting employees. As a result, countless programs that give com muters travel options have been created to reduce traffic conges tion. A broad spectrum o f programs currently exists. includ i ng workplace programs des i gned to encourage carpools among coworkers: ri dematch i ng programs organized by employers pub l ic organiza ti ons and private org a nizations ; and vanpool programs i n which a single entity private or public owns the veh i cles prov i des match ing services and handles administrative support Ridematching, carpooling. and vanpooling seem tailor-made for achieving traffic mitigation objectives. However, the potential legal liability of those administering such programs is still uncertain. If, through the promotion and encouragement of ridesharing, an individual is persuaded to participate in a carpool or rideshare program and is then injured by riding in an unsafe vehicle or with an unsafe driver what l ia bility exists for the organization that makes the rides hare match or facilitates the pooling arrangement? This report compares severa l public and private rideshare pro grams and identifies th e common elements i n each Liability risks f aced by publ icly administered rideshare programs which are usually self-insured, are contrasted w ith those of private operators. I nsurance risk factors are also i dentified a l ong with the d i fferent types and levels of insurance available Finally, potent i al areas of legal liability are examined, and methods for minimizing exposure to such liability are recommended. 2. Rldesha r e M ode l s Rideshare programs may be grouped into four basic models: 1. Owner-operated carpools and vanpools Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-9

PAGE 354

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-10 2 Third-party vanpools in which an organization either private or public leases commute vehicles to individuals 3. Employer-sponsored pools in which the employer either reta ins title to or leases the vehicle used by employees in a pooling arrangement 4 Ridematching programs in which employers or third -party organization facilitate carpools or vanpools by matching interested riders with willing drivers From these basic formats spring a multitude of variations a[ld combinations. For example, an employer may encourage pooling arrangements among its employees by helping to match riders with drivers. Alternatively, an employer may bring in a third-party pro vider to organize employees into pools. provide vans, and adminis ter the program. The third-party provider may be either publicly or privately funded. 3. Risk Management Concepts Liability issues inevitably turn on program elements such as the following: o The type of organization administering the program (public or private) o The scope of service provided o Ownership of vehicles (where appropriate) o Driver screening (where appropriate) o Driver training (where appropriate) Other factors relevant to a discussion of potential liability i[lclude the following: o The type of insurance held by the organizing entity o State laws regarding sovereign immunity o State laws limiting liability

PAGE 355

0 The interpl ay between state tort and w orkers' compe nsat i on laws To rt l iabil ity arises under and varies acco rding to the l aws of each state Therefore, any d i scussion of potentia l tort liability must nec essarily be broad and thematic. For example two issues central to a discussion of tort liab ility are : o a state's rules regarding sovereign immunity and o workers compensatio n Because a detailed discussion of the law of all 50 states and the Distr ict of Columbia is beyond the scope of th i s report, on ly a few examples w ill be used to ill ustrate poten tia l tort liabil ity i ssues. This report i dentifies rideshare programs that incorp orate as many of the existing f ormats as possible The p rogra ms inclu ded are both public l y and privately run and range from facilita to r type programs where the primary service prov i ded is match ing, t o p riv ate l y run van pool companies The programs discussed are representative and do not i nclude every possible variation of the basic rideshare program models B LEGAL LIABILITY There are three primary sources of possible legal liability stemming from the organization or promot i on of ridesh are programs. They are o l i ab ility of rideshare promoters or organizecs (inclu ding emp l oyers and third-party prov i ders ) for injuries susta i ned by participants, o v j cadous liability of employers engaged j n promot i ng or organi zing rides hare programs for injuries incurre d by third parties, and o workers' compensation liability of emp l oyers that promote or organize rideshare programs 1. Liability for Injury to Employees/Participants Common law negligence actions must be based on the violat i on of a duty o f care owed t o the p l aintiff As a general rule. absent some Managing Our W ay Through Congestion 1-11

PAGE 356

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-12 heightened duty of care defined by statute, such as with common carriers, private individuals owe only a duty to exercise ordinary care to avoid reasonably foreseeable injury to others. Thus, ques tions of tort liability turn on whether an employer or rideshare organizer has a legal duty to protect employees and riders against the reasonably foreseeable risks incident to the operation of a rideshare program. The scope of such a duty will necessarily de pend on the organizer's role in running the program. On a continuum of possible Involvement, the more involved an organizer becomes in administering the program, the greater the potential for liability. For example, if an employer does not own or operate a vanpool, but merely encourages (without requ i ring ) the employee to use an alternative mode of transportation, the employer should be insu lated from claims of negligence asserted by employees or riders injured in accidents invo lving the vehicle. Under this scenario, it is difficult to identify any duty owed riders or employees by the em ployer. However, the more invo lved an organizer becomes in administering a rideshare program or in encouraging use of a particular rideshare program, the closer it comes to the k ind of control that may give rise to a duty. A company might, for example, provide some match ing services for its employees whereby employees with similar commute routes and times are given one another's names and encouraged to commute together. If the employer does not main tain or repair the vans, makes no representations as to the skill or competence of the drivers, and does not require an employee to participate, it still will probably not meet the threshold level of con trol necessary to impose liability. By the same token, quasi-public rideshare organizations, such as Bay Area Commuter Services (BACS) and Gold Coast Commuter Services (GCCS), do not provide transportation; they provide information. Contacting such organizations creates no obligation on an individual's part to participate i n a pooling arrangement. It is up to the individual to contact the people included on a match l ist. Likewise, neither organization vouches fo r the participants or ex amines their driving records. Because participation a nd choice of driver is absolutely voluntary, organizations such as BACS and

PAGE 357

GCCS do not appear to have assumed a ny duty w i th regard to participants Involvement i n the maintenance of vehicles and screening of par tic i pants could create greater potential exposure to l i ability An employer that provides a match i ng service and attempts in any way to screen participants' medical or driv i ng records assumes a duty to do so with reasonable care. A driver with a suspended license who slips through the screening could give rise to liability if a rider is injured as a result of the driver's negligence, a lthough questions of causation would still present a hurdle for a plaintiff in this type of action Employers that mandate the use of certain modes of transportation among employees are even more exposed to liabil ity. Employees that actually become involved in the dayto-day operat i on of the vehicles used in a ridesharing program are s i milarly exposed. In th i s situation. it i s conc e ivabl e that motor carr ier regul ations m ight apply to a rideshare operator or driver, thus i mposing the higher duty of care owed by common carriers For example, in California, except where a passenger is carried gratuitously, a carrier of pas sengers for hire is held to the highest degree of care. Many states have addressed the application of motor car rier regu latio ns to rldesha r e arrangements by statute Some states speci fi cally exempt rideshare arrangements from laws Imposing a highe r standard of care on motor carriers some provide that, by definition, those engaged in rideshare arrangements are not common carri ers and some simply state that rideshare operators and drivers shall be held only to a r easonable and ordinary standard of care. Of course i n those states that specifically exempt rideshare ar rangemen t s from motor carrier regulation the definition of "ridesharing arrangement" is crucial. Pennsylvania for example, defines ride sharing arrangement" broadly so as t o include con ventional carpoo ls, employer-sponsored vanpools, and vanpools operated by public agencies or by nonprofit organizations for pro grams sponsored by public agencies Utah, on the other hand, exempts only carpools from the higher standard of care owed by drivers or owners of commercial vehicles. Thus Pennsylvania 's exemption includes vanpools owned and operated by employers, whereas Utah's exemption extends only to the conventional owner-operated carpool. Our Way Through Congestion 1-13

PAGE 358

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-14 Because the "curre ncy" of ridematching organizations is information about individuals, such organizations must inform themselves about, and take appropriate steps to avoid. potential liability for breaching state privacy laws For example, Minnesota law requires that any state agency that asks individuals to supply private or confidential data inform the individual of the intended use of the data and the persons authorized to receive the data. Accordingly, organizations such as Minnesota Rideshare provide ridematch applicants with a detailed disclosu re known as a "Ten nessean Warning." regarding information collected in connection with the program. State agencies that violate Minnesota's disclo sure laws can become "liable to a person ... who suffers any dam age as a result of the violation, and the person damaged .. may bring an action against the political subdivisions respons ible authority, statewide system or state agency to cover any damages sustained, plus costs and reasonabl e attorney fees." In at least one jurisdiction, any organization that collects persona l informatio n concerning an individual for the purpose of implement ing rideshare programs can incur criminal liability for improperly disclosing such information without the individual's written consent. 2. Vicarious Liability for Injuries to Third Parties The legal doctrine of vicarious l iabi li ty holds an employer l i able for the wrongful acts of its employees acting within the course and scope of their employment. Typically, an employee's travel time to and from work is not regarded as "within the scope" of his or he r employment, and employers are thus not vicariously liable for injuries to third parties caused by commuting employees. However. there are several exceptions to this "going-and-coming" rule of non liabil ity. Fo.r example, if an employee s trip invo lves some inci dental benefit to the employer, the commute is treated as within the scope of employment, and liability for the wrongfu l acts of the employee may attach to the employer. Likewise, if an emp loyee is engaged in some special errand at the request of the employer, the trip may be cons idered within the scope of employment. Generally, most vicarious liability cases tum on whether the employee had express or implied authority to use his or her own automobile in the course of business

PAGE 359

Although there are no publ ished cases h old in g ri deshare programs organized or encouraged by an emp l oyer as comi n g with i n the incidental benefit or specia l errand exception to the go i ng-and coming rule, the potential exists for employer li ability for in j uries to third parties. If participation in the program was mandated the commute could be considered part of the employee s work day. Moreover, because an employee's participation in a rideshare program, even if optional, may help an employer comply with som e statutory requirement, such as those found in the Clear Air Act, it could be argued that some incidenta l benefrt inures to the employer, bringing the commute within the scope of employment. Thus although employers may see the creation of ridesharing, ridematching and incentive programs as nothing more than en couragement it is poss ible that a court could find suffic ient involv e ment to give rise to a duty of care and thus impose liabil ity. It must be stressed that the benefit to the employer in such a case woul d appear remote at best and that i t seems a considerable stretch to define mere statutory compliance as creating a benefit to the em ployer Nevertheless until there is some case l a w or l egislation on this subject, the possibility of employer liability remains an open ques ti on. 3. Workers' Compensation Liability Where employers are involved in ridematching or the organization and administration of rides hare programs the interplay of workers compensation laws in potential ridematching liability must be con sidered. In th i s area. the most im portan t general rule o f workers' com pensation i s the exclusive remedy rule ," wh i ch shields employ ers from c i v i l liability for work-re lated injuries susta i ned by employ ees Generally stated the rul e i s that the compensa t ion remedy i s exclusive of all other remedies by an employee against the em ployer and insurance carrier for injuries falling within the coverage formula of a state's workers' compensation act. For example California Labor Code section 3602 provides that where the condi tions for compensation under the act are met, "the right to reco ver such compensatio n is ... the sole and excl usive remedy o f the employee." Under such exclusive remedy provisions properly insur ed employers will be shielded from damages for pain and suffering or punitive damages available in civil actions Thus the question becomes whethe r or not an employee's partici pation in a rideshare program is covered by workers compensa -Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-15

PAGE 360

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-16 lion. As discussed earlier in re l ation to the doctrine of vicarious l iability injuries sustained by an employee i ntrans i t to and from work are generally considered to have been sustained outside the scope of employment and therefore are not compensable unde r workers' compensation laws. However exceptions to the going and-coming rule exist in situations where an employee s journey to and from work is considered part of the employee's service to his or her employer. For example, courts have held that the rule does not apply where an employee receives compensation from his or her employer for travel time. Similarly, the spec i al errand and incidental benefit exceptions d i scussed earlier apply in a workers compensa tion setting as well. Many states have resolved the question of workers' compensation coverage by statute For examp l e, Missouri law provides that its workers' compensation laws "shall not apply to a person injured while participating in a ride-sharing arrangement between his place of residence and place of employment or terminal near such places unless the emp loyer owns, leases or contracts for the motor vehicle used in such arrangement. Furthermore. 'transportation to and from work in an emp l oyer-sponsored ride-sharing arrangement shall not constitute any part of the employee s work hours unless otherwise agreed to by the employer Severa l other states have dealt with workers compensation ques tions in a similar manner, while others have simply provided that, for the purposes of ridesharing, an employee's work day is deemed to commence upon arrival at the place of bus iness and terminate on departure. Some states, like Nebraska, do not grant the exemp tion in cases where an employer "owns, leases or contracts for the motor vehicle used in ( a ridesharing) arrangement, pays for the time spent in travel, or pays the expenses of travel. Other states, such as Pennsy l vania, explicitly extend the exemption to riders in employer owned and operated vanpools. Statutes such as Missouri's clarify the interplay of employer-spon sored rideshare arrangements and workers' compensation l i ability. However, a majority of states do not legislatively exempt rideshare arrangements from workers' compensation coverage For example, California has no statute exempting rideshar i ng arrangements from workers' compensation coverage. Because workers' compensation rules in California, as elsewhere, are normally interpreted in favor of compensating the employee as a matter of pub li c policy. it is possible that in these jurisdictions. any employer-sponsored

PAGE 361

rideshare program that takes a commute r out of t he ordinary l oca l commute that marks the dai l y trans it o f t h e mass of workers to and from their j obs m a y resu l t in l i a bility u nder a state s compensation laws Mo reover it is also possible tha t incentives paid to an employee to encourage participation in rid eshare programs might be conside red compensation, thus bringing the commute within the scope of an employee's work day. Again, some states have addressed this question through legislation that specifically provides that employ ers shall not be liable for injuries to passengers and others because the employer provides encouragement including "incen tives, for employees to participate in rideshare programs How ever most states do not provide such i mmunity, and the ultimate effect of cash incentives remains uncertain C STATUTORY LIMITATIONS ON LIABILITY Another important factor in analyzing potentialliabitity of ridesharing or match i ng programs is the nature of the entity in volved Rideshare organi zations run and administered through local or state government agencies may be protected by statutory l imitat ions on the liability of government entities likewise,some states have attempted to encourage emp l oyer participation in rideshare programs by limiting their liability for such activities: 1. Sovereign Immunity A detailed discuss i on of the l iab i lity of government e n tit i es i n all 50 states and the District of Columbia is beyond the scope of this report However there are certain common themes i n state regu l a tion that are i mportan t in analyzing a state run program s potentia l l iab i lity for r i desharing and matching services Historically, states and their political subdivisions were immune from tort liability for the acts of governme nt officials or employee s. However the trend over the past 40 years has been to abrogate, or at least qualify. government immunities. Today, most jurisdictions condition immunity on whether the act in question was "discretion ary" or "minis ter ial." Most commonly a government unit is immune from tort liability for discretionary acts while some liability--possibly limited or qualified exists for minister i al acts Thus. the decis i on whether or not to offer a particular class at a school may be discre tionary and t herefore immune from liability but the superv i sion of Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-17

PAGE 362

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1 .. 18 such a class is ministerial and subject to liability if negligently per formed. By analogy, in most states a state or local government agency would be immune f rom liability for its decision to offer or not to offer certain types of rideshare programs. However, under the laws of most states, the government agency wou ld not be immune from liability for the negligent administration of such programs. Thus, in most states, government agencies offering matching services and maintaining vehicles used in ridesharing arrangements find them selves exposed to l iabi lity for negligence. Moreover, where government employees participate i n government-run rideshare arrangements, some states expressly waive tort immunity. For example, Oregon Revised Statutes, Section 30.265, provides that: Every public body i s subject to action or for its torts and those of its officer employes [sic] and agents acting wMin the scope of their employment or duties, whether ans i ng out of a governmental or propnetary function or whi le operating a motor vehicle i n a ridesharing arrangement authorized under ORS 276.598. Oregon Revised Statute Section 276.598 provides that any government de partment may establish carpool or vanpool programs in which state-owned vehicles are used by state employees as commute vehicles provided a fee is paid to the state adequate to rei mburse it for use of the vehicle Interestingly, despite the statutory waive r of immunity it is the opinion of the Oregon Attorney General that the state would not be l iable for the negl igent operation of a vehicle furnished under the provisions of section 276.598 because {1) the state employees are essentially hiring the vehicle for carpool use, (2) participation in a carpool is neither a condition nor an inducement to state employ ment, and (3) the carpool program provides transportation where none existed before. 2. Other Statutory Limitations on Uability In an attempt to encourage employer participation in rideshare programs, some states have passed legis lation specifically limiting the liability of the employer. For example, Illinois la w provides that [a)n employer shall not be liable for i njurtes to passengers and o ther persons resulting from the operation or use of a passenger car or com muter van i n a ridesharing arrangement which is not owned leased, contracted for or driven by the employer, and for which the employer has

PAGE 363

not paid wages to an employee for services rendered i n driving the vehicle. The rule further provides that an employer shall not be liable "for injuries to passengers and other persons because he provides i nformat i on incentives or otherwise encourages h i s employees to participate in ridesharing arrangements ." At l east 14 other states have passed legis l at i on similar in form or i ntent to that in Illinois. The Illinois law does not do a great deal to alter the li abi lity that would ex ist for an emp l oyer under a conventiona l n eg li gence ana lys i s ; employers who do not own l ease contract for or operate th e veh i cles i nvolved in r i desharing arrangements would not normally be considered to owe a duty to the riders of such vehicles. How ever, the Illinois statute does insulate employers from liability for the simple act of dispens i ng r i deshare informat i on or incentives In other jurisdictions, the effect of incentives offered employees is much less certain For example if an employer provides a cash incentive for employees who part icipate in ridesharing arrange ments. the incentive could arguably give rise to employer liability by bringing the employee's commute within the scope of his or her work day. D INSURANC E The type of insurance available to individual carpoolers and organi zations involved in promoting ridesharing depends largely on the type of entity invol ved and on the type of vehicle for which cover age is sought. 1. Individual Owner/Operator Pools Where the vehicle used i n a rideshare arrangement is owned by one of th e riders, insurance i s usually l eft to the indiv i dual. Th i s type of arrangement includes both the conventional carpool where riders take turns driving their own vehic l es as well as the vanpool organized by an i ndividual who uses a persona ll y owned van for the purpose of r i desharing In the case of the typ i cal carpool d ri ver th e standard family auto mobile liab il ity policy prov id es that the po li cy does not cover li ability arising out of the ownership or operation of a vehicle "while it is be i ng used to carry persons or property for a fee ." This exclusion Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-19

PAGE 364

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-20 does not nonnally apply to a share-the-expenses carpool. Courts have held t hat the sharing of expenses does not violate policy provisions, which exclude coverage when the insured vehicle is lea sed or rented to another. Some states have even codified this position with statutes providing: "[p)rovisions in an insurance policy which deny coverage for any motor vehicle used for commercial purposes or as public or l ivery conveyance shall not apply to a vehicle used in a ridesharing arrangement. There may even be a marginal savings available to commuters who use their cars in rotating-driver carpools. Some insurers offer a discount based on the decreased use of a car (either in tenns of miles traveled or days in use). For example, a driver who fonnerly drove his own car to work every day and who joins a carpool in which he is responsible for driving only one week per month may be eligible for a reduced rate. However, not all insurers offer such discounts, and among those that do, the amount of the discount and terms on which it is given vary. Moreover, any potential sav ings to an individual driver may be illusory if he or she increases his or her l iability coverage to reflect the higher vehicle occupa ncy For the owner-operated vanpool, matters are slightly more compli cated due, in large part, to confusion regarding the nature of the vanpool i tself. The confusion centers on whether the appropriate means of insuring a vanpool is the conventional family automobile policy or the more expensive commercial automobile policy. Some state regulatory agencies say the proper form of insurance is the commercial policy, and the Insurance Services Office takes the same pos ition. Other state statutes, on the other hand, specifically sanction the use of fa mily policies for vanpools. In any event, it is possible to obtain family policy coverage for a van used in a vanpool. Many agents for multiline insurers are unsure how to classify vanpools. Likewise, underwriters are not always aware from the infonnatiori submitted in an application that the policy applicant intends to use a vehicle for a vanpool. It is at least arguable that standard langu age in a family policy would require coverage for losses incurred by a vanpool operation. Moreover, several jur isdict ions specifically exempt vanpools from commercial regulation suggesting that personal coverage is the appropriate route. Applicants should infonn prospective insurers of the in tended use of the vehicle so that the policy is issued with full knowl edge of the risks involved.

PAGE 365

There are insurers that speci a lize in policies covering vanpools. They can i ssue commerci a l po li c ies specifica ll y tailor ed to vanpooling Although the indiv i dual owner / operator m a y have to spend some add i t ional time l o cating an insurer w i th th i s spec i alty the insurer's heightened awareness o f risk factors involved in va n pooling should reduce the po licy rate Typically, insurers offer coverage for bodily injury and p rop erty damage liability minimum statutory l i mits for uninsured or under i nsured motorists and nofault coverage (where applicable) w ith limits from $100.000 to$1 million per occurrence Give n the concentra t ion of wage-earners in a vanpool a minimum of $500,000 coverage is recommended, but$1 million cover age is considered preferable by some Generally risk factors considered by insurers include the following: o The types and amounts of coverage sought o The daily mileage driven and uses besides commuting o Whether or not the vehicle is garaged o Type of maintenance program ap pl ied to the vehicle o The t erritory in which the vehicle is dri v en o The driving records of proposed drivers and bac k ups 2 Thi r dParty Provi ders Companies or individu als that le ase a van from a th ir d party can usually obtain insu ra nce coverage through the lessor VPSI, for example offers comprehensive coverage w i th no deductible as an optional part of its package to lessees. Thus, the monthly cos t to riders in a VPSI vanpool i ncludes the cost of insuring the ve h i cle. VPSI screens potentia l drivers' records, and rather than charging a h i gher rate fo r drivers who appear to be b ad ris ks. VPSI simp ly will not approve such individuals to drive. Th e portion of the total lease cost attributable exclusive ly to in su r ance costs is difficult to determine. However given the volume of insurance underwritten for Chrysler. it is l i kely that VPSI obtains coverage for its vans a t a discounted rate . Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-21

PAGE 366

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-22 I n this regard, any large company with an ex i sting fleet po l icy will likely be able to obtain insurance for l eased or owned vanpools at rates below what would normally be paid for a commercia l policy 3. Employer-Sponsored Pools The r e are many levels of employer involvement in rideshare pro grams and the type of coverage needed necessarily depends on the scope of employer involvement. For employer-facilitated pro grams in which an employer encourages the formation of carpools and vanpools by prov i ding nominal incentives and the means for employees to locate fellow poolers l iability exposure should be remote Insurers do not normally provide policies specifically cover ing th i s type of act ivity, and many employers feel that the i r compre hensive general l iability po l icies should provide adequate coverage. On the other hand for companies that own, lease, operate, and maintain vanpools for their employees, fleet insurance is essential. For especially large companies, a group of van pools may compose a small part of an overall fleet insurance program. Coverage should be l ess expensive in this case Insurance companies will consider factors such as those listed previously Insurers may also examine the following factors: o Who administers the program o The types of screen i ng and/or risk management programs they have i n place o The company's previous loss experience with such programs 4. Rldematching Programs Public or quasi-pub l ic agencies that provide ridematching services do not face significant l iab i lity exposure. None of the organizat i ons polled in connection with this report had obta i ned special insurance policies specifically for coverage of ridematching activit i es. Th i s is not to say, however, that they are uninsured. For example, MetroPool is a nonprofit corporation and maintains a directors' and officers' l iability policy. MetroPool a lso has a private

PAGE 367

comprehensive general li ab i lity po l ic y in w hich it i s named as a co i nsured ent i ty w i th the State of Con nectic ut. No spec ial rid ers apply spec i fically to ridemalch i ng serv i ces II should be noted that even insurers that i ssue fleet insurance do not issu e polic i es specifica lly covering rid ematch i ng activities In the dozens of interviews conducted in connection with this re port many in-house coordinators and program administrators acknowledged that they had consid ered the possibility of liabil ity arising from ridema tching, but none had any firsthand knowledge of suits in which a program organizer or administrator was named on a theory of negligence in connection w ith ridematching. Moreover, all of the ridematch programs examined for the purposes of th is report, wh ether promoted by emp loyers, by public or quasi-public organizat i ons or by priv ate for profrt corporat i ons are based on the voluntary partic i pation of the riders and drivers Most program admin i strators fee l that i f there is no mandatory preselection of riders or drivers then matching programs are i nsu lated from l i ab i lity This assumption seems based in part on the argument that as a mere facilitator, the ridematching organization owes no special duty to participating ind ividuals Given the lack of case law defining the duty owed by a ridematching organization it seems fair to describe the potential for liability as remote. The reality is that organizations that own vehicles and perform ridematchlng services feel that their fleet insurance adequately protects them from losses arising from operating the vehicles. Organizations (and employers) that perform on ly fidematching serv i ces do not see t hemselves fa cing significant l iab i lity exposure bel ievi ng that th e typical commercial genera l i nsurance policy provides adequate coverage This be lief should no t go unexamined Ridematchlng organizations that believe their comprehensive general liability policy provides adequate coverage should have their legal counsel carefully review the policy terms If any doubt exists regarding the scope of coverage for ridematchlng activities, c l arification should be sought from the insurer, and if necessary, additional policy riders specifically covering ma t ching services shou l d be obtained Similarly, rideshare organizations with sepa rate vanpool and ridematching programs should not assume that a fleet policy will cover claims related specifically to ridematching opera t ions Aga i n a careful rev iew of pol icy l anguage is essential. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-23

PAGE 368

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-24 E. STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE POTENTIAL TORT LIABILITY 1. Administrative A comprehensive risk management program is an effective way for ridematching and ridesharing organizers and promoters to minimize the potential for liab ility. Several of the organizations studied have developed detailed and highly sophisticated risk management systems. Program organizers should consider the following recom mendations when implementing each program. a. Ridematching Activities (i) Written Agreements. -Several rides hare organizers and promoters require participants in their ridematching programs to fill out a written application. Others make matches over the telephone based on information given by the caller. Computer databases enable ridematchers to provide nearly instantaneous matches, and phone matching is certainly quicker and easier for the caller. How ever, the written application has several advantages. On a practical level, the written application provides greater accuracy of information. More important, because many jurisdic t i ons now have privacy statutes that restrict the dissemination of certain kinds of information, a written app l ication allows the ridematching organization to obtain a written waiver from tile appli cant for d i ssemination of personal i nformation. Although this may not be a concern in all jurisdict ions in those states that do restrict the gathering and dissemination of personal i nformation, a written wa iver in compliance with such ru l es is essential. (ii) Advise Potential Poo!ers to Meet. -Most rideshare programs give interested applicants a list of potential matches along with phone numbers and some brief information regarding route and time requirements. It is then l eft to the applicant to contact whom ever he or she chooses. Many also encourage potential matches to meet one another to discuss issues such as rules, routes, and times This is an essential step that should be emphasized by promoters. Rideshare arrangements succeed or fail based largely on the willingness of poolers to work with and accommodate one another. The more minor issues can be ironed out in advance, the

PAGE 369

greater likelihood of a long sustained pooL Riders can perform their o wn ris k mana gement evaluation by assu ring themselves that proposed drivers are adequately insured and l icensed (iii) News le tte rs Ma ny ridematching organizations publish news l etters for part i cipan t s N e ws le tters often conta i n re g ul a r features s u ch a s riders wa n ted sect i ons colu mns with safety tips, and arti cles r ega r d i ng tre nds i n ri desha rin g a n d changes i n the la w a ffecting ridesh aring N ewsletters serve a v i tal function by keeping program partic i pants i nformed and i nvolved Moreover art i c les on suc h issues as safety may h elp red uce the n umber of accidents or inci dents giv i ng rise t o c l aims b. Employer-Sponsored P rog rams Many employers o ffe r something more t han ridematching but provi de something less th an employer-owned or lease d vehicles. These employers might consider the following elements for the i r programs. (i) Varjety --Emplo y ers w it h transportation demand manage ment departmen ts engaged in ridematching and ridesharing ar rangements often find them sel v es walking a fine l i ne. On one hand, they are often requir ed by s tat e or lo cal law to develop detailed plans for employee trip reduction. On the other hand the more involved they become in adm i n ister ing alternative commute pro grams, the more they find themselves exposed to liability for em ployees injured during a commute Apple Computer Company's approach prov i des one so lu tion. Apple provides its employees with a wide a rray of commute options, but does not mandate employee participat ion in a ny one program An approach such as this which provides numerous options, should ensure max i mum participation with mi nimum coercion Employers must steer c lear of any sugges t ion that emp l oyee partic ipati on in commute a lterna tive programs is in any way required Th i s h elps ma intai n th e separat ion of comm u ti n g activi ties from the scope of employ ment w hich can entang l e the employer i n w ork e rs com pe n sat i on and v i ca ri ous liabi lity i ssues (ii ) Contracting with Th i rd Party Prov j ders, A t rend among Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-25

PAGE 370

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-26 employers is to have third parties organ ize ridematching and r i deshar i ng arrangements. At the lowes t level, a company may do nothing more than contact an organization such as Bay Area Rides, to hel p set up a matching program. At another level an employer may have a thi r d-party provider such as VPSI, promote and fac i litate vanpools within the company. Finally, an employer could contract with a private provider to provide specific transporta t i on serv i ces. The advantage of these approaches is that they shift a large ad min i strative burden from employers to organizations specializing in such programs An additional advantage, at least in the context of contracts with t hird-party providers is the i nsulation it may provide from l i ability. Insofar as a general rule can be stated, employers are not liable for the torts of an independent contractor as opposed to those of an employee. Of course there are many exceptions to this rul e Most exceptions are based either on the neg l igence of the employer in selecting the contractor or on the employer's attempt to shift a nondelegable duty to the contractor. Nothing in the contracting of transit services to a competent i ndependent contractor would seem to trigger either exception, and emp l oyers should be protected from civil liability aris i ng from the acts of a contractor. As a practica l matter. any agreement with such a third party should include an indemnification clause, as well as requirements that the provider maintain ad equate insurance naming the employer as an additional insured party under the pol i cy. c. Third-Party Providers and Employer-Owned or Leased Fleets Most of the recommendat i ons d i scussed thus far in relation to r i dematching organizers and employer-sponsored programs apply equally to third-party providers and to employers with their own fleets of commute vehic l es. However, third-party providers and employer/owners must take extra steps to ensure the safety of the i r p r ograms. {i) Driver Screen i ng and Sel ection.-Perhaps the most important element in any program where an organization allows vehicles

PAGE 371

it o w ns to be driven by commuters is driver scr een i ng and se l ec tion A detailed select ion program such as the o n e used by Seattle Metr o focuses not on ly on a potentia l driver's dr i ving qualific a t i ons but on other factors that i ndic a te a high degree of responsibility This helps not only to minimi ze the risk of liabil i ty but also to ensure i nd ividual vanpools are run in a s mooth and cost-effective mann e r Factors most close ly relate d to l iability issues are as f ollows : 1. The driver's age --Drivers should b e 21 years old or older. Insurance rates may be l o wer If dri vers are at least 25 2 Empl oyment.-Potential drivers should be able to establish stable employment for some period of time 3 Valid /icense Potential drivers must have a valid unrestricted driver's l icense with no recen t revoca t ions or suspens ions 4 Insuranc e history.-Any potential driver who has had his or he r auto insurance canceled in the past 5 years for reasons related to driving behavior should be rejected. Additionally, an alternate or back-up driver sho uld be chosen subject to the same requirements. Finally a writt en ag reement between vanpool organizers and drivers is necessary. The written agreement should spell out th e res pon si bilities of drivers and organizers Pace, for e xample, re quires th a t drivers and back-up drivers s ign a six page agreement t h a t cont a i ns opera ting guideli nes grounds for termination of th e agreement age requirements choice of law prov i sions and a l isting o f Pace s responsibilities as we ll as a lim i ted hold-ha rm less clause. {ii) Safety Orjentatjons,--Drivers and back-ups should be requ i r ed t o participate in a mandatory orientatio n and safety program. Many driv ers may not be immediately comfort able dri ving a large veh icle, suc h as a van Organ izers should do thei r utmost to ensure drivers are famil ia r with the controls of the van and h ave had some practice driving and pa rking the vehi c le before they are given a regular ro u te w i th riders. Period i c safety work shops or brush-up courses are also a good idea. {iii) Preventive Ma inten a nce vans in good Managing Our Way Through Conge.stion 1-27

PAGE 372

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-28 working order is essential to the safe operation of a vanpool. There are many ways to ensure a van receives its scheduled mainte nance. Pace assigns its drivers a credit card on which to charge gas and minor maintenance expenses. Drivers are given a toll-free number to call for authorization of major repair work. Pace drivers also have access to 24-hour roadside assistance in the event of emergencies. (iv) Operations Manuals. -Organizers should provide van drivers with as structured a program as possible, including detailed written materials. Drivers should be required to acknowledge in writing that they have received and reviewed these materials. Pace supplies all drivers and back-ups with a detailed Vanpool Operations Manual. The manual provides practical informa tion for the new vanpooler, with sections titled "Getting Started," "Knowing Your Van," "Running a Successful Vanpool" and "Defensive Driv ing." In addition to the start-up materials, the manual provides materials intended to keep the vanpool operating smoothly and safely. For example, drivers are supplied with monthly report forms that require basic information such as miles driven, revenue col lected, and expenditures. Drivers are also required to make their own, regularly scheduled inspect ion of the van and to fill out an inspection checklist. Thus, in addition to scheduled maintenance, Pace requires van drivers to report any known mechanical or safety problems. 2. Legislation Nearly everyone agrees that ridesharing is worth encouraging. Clean air legislat ion has provided even more impetus for the forma tion of such programs, and recent events, such as the earthquakes in California, have again demonstrated the absolute necessity of reducing the volume of traffic on urban highways. Several states have "ridesharing acts" that were, for the most part, passed in the early 1 gaos in response to the oil shortages of the 1970s With the renewed federal mandate for the creation of rideshare programs, it is worth examining what works and what does not in the state legislation. To illustrate this, West Virginia's ridesharing chapter will be compared with that of Pennsylvania. a. Ridesharing Defined Among those states with statutes devoted specifically to

PAGE 373

ridesharing West Virginia is fairly typical. The chapter first defines a "ridesharing arrangement" as ... the transportation of persons in a motor vehicle where such transporta tion i s incidental to another purpose of the driver and i s not for profit. or i s by nonprofit oommunity organizations and nonprofit corporations for senior citizens or handicapped persons. The term shaU include but not be timtted to ridesharing arrangements known as carpools van pools and buspools Although West Virginia's definition of rid esharing arrangemenr i s fairly broad its language is of concern. For example, the require ment that the ridesharing arrangement be not for profit* rais es a troublesom e ambiguity Is a carpoo l or vanpool driver who collects more from riders in one month than he or she spends on gas, maintenance repairs, and insurance within the definition? Rather than anchoring its definition of ridesharing arrangements on the non-profit requirement, Pennsylvania s definition focuses on transportation of passengers that is "incidental to another purpose of the driver who is not engaged in transportation as a business ." Pennsylvania thus brings w ithin the scope of its laws the carpool operator who may make a small profit for his or her troubles. If such a nominal profit serves as an incentive to indiv i duals, there is n o reason to exclude such individuals from the l aw's protection. Pennsylvania goes an extra step by including within the definition of "ridesharing arrangement" the transportation of employees to and from work in a "vehicle owned or operated by their employer," as well as the transportation of individuals in vehicles "owned or operated by a public agency or nonprofit organization for that agency's clientele or for a program sponsored by that agency ." Thus the only rideshare entit ies excluded from the Pennsylvania Act are commercial for profit providers. Again, if the broader defini lion encourages participation of employers and state agencies, i t is worthy of consideration b M otor Car rie r Regul ations West Virgini a s ridesharing act addresses the i ssue of common carrier liab il ity for ridesharing arrangements Sections 17C-222 (a) and (c) prov ide that code sec ti ons pe rta ini ng to the regulation of common carriers and [l)aws i mposing a greater standard of care on common carriers or commercial vehicles than i mposed on other drivers or owners of motor vehicles do not apply to ridesharing Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-29

PAGE 374

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-30 a r rangements. The advantage of West Virginia's approach is that it clearly ex empts rideshare arrangements from the regulatory standard ap plied to commercial vehicles, as well as the higher standard of care applied to common carr i ers. Aga i n the application of the exemption is somewhat muddied by the preceding section's definition of "ridesharing arrangement," but the exemption itself can do nothing but encourage ridesharing arrangements c. Application of Workers' Compensation Law Section 17C 22-3 of the West Virgin i a Code provides that workers compensation benefits shall not apply to those injured while partici pat i ng in a ridesharing arrangement unless the employer "owns. leases or contracts for the motor vehicle used in such an arrange ment." By contrast, Section 695 3 of Pennsylvania's title 55 pro vides that the workers' compensation act "shall not apply to a passenger injured while participating in a ridesharing arrangement," but shall apply to the driver of a company owned or leased vehicle used in a ridesharing arrangement. The Pennsylvania statute seems more in keeping with the purpose of workers' compensation schemes: to provide quick recovery for workers i njured in the service of their employer. Why the passenger who opts to ride in a company-owned vehic l e should be likewise compensated is not clear West Virginia's extension of workers' compensat i on benefits to passengers in vehicles for which an employer 'contracts" is likewise questionable. I f an employer con tracts with a competent. independent third party for transportation services, unless the r e is some joint enterprise between employer and vendor or some independent act of negligence on the part of the employer the vendor shou l d bear the responsibility for injuries resulting from its own negl i gence d. Liability of Employer West Vi r ginia's and Pennsylvania's laws regarding employer liabil ity are identical. They provide first that an employer will not be liable for injuries to passengers and other persons resulting from the operation or use of a motor vehicle not owned, leased, or contracted for by the employer, in a ridesharing arrangement. They further provide that an employer will not be liable for injuries to passengers and others "because he provides i nfonnation, incen-

PAGE 375

lives or otherwise encour ages his emp loyees to part i cipa te in ri desha ring arrangement s : Statutes such as these p ro vid e emp loyers w ith the knowledge that mere e n couragem e nt of ridesharing will not expose them to liabi lity. As case law develops in thi s area courts w i ll undoubtedly have to consider when a n incentive such as cash, becomes compensation, thus bringing an employee s commute within the workday for the purposes of liability No such case law yet exists, but future statutory revisions could delineate between nominal incentives and compensation F. CONCLUSIONS R i deshare an d matchi ng programs a re va lu able tools fo r ach ievin g important traffic mitig at i on obj ect ives and clean air goals However q u est ions rem a in reg ard ing th e potentia l leg a l lia bil i ty of those e n t ities, both p ub lic a nd p riv ate, that adm ini ster such prog rams As long as this u ncerta i nty continues a nd until case la w develo ps i n each jurisdiction defin i ng the duty of care owed by rid ematc h ing organ izations, providers of such services should adop t comprehen sive risk management strategies to minim ize the i r l iab il ity exposure. At the core of successful risk management strategies shou l d be a recognition that the level of involvement of the entity in promoting and administering the services it provides correlates to the level of its liability exposure. Common elements of effec t ive risk manage ment systems typically include, depending on the nature of the prov id e r and the serv i ces it undertakes to perform some combin a t i on of adm i nistr ative ov ers ight, contractual indemnificatio n and i nsu rance, and o ther prophy l actic measur es designed to safeguard aga i nst reason a b l y for eseeable risks in h erent i n such operations. Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-31

PAGE 376

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 1-32 Rldesharing Liability Sections ofthe Florida Code 1 1 9.07 I nspection, examination, a n d duplication of recotds : exemptions (3)(1) Any Information provided to an agency of s.tate government or to an agency of a subdivision of tne state for the purpose of form ing rlcesharing arrangements. which Information teveals the iden tity of an individual who has provleled his name for r idesharing, u defined ins. 341.031 is exempt from the provisions of subseaion (1). [subsection (1) permits 'Every person who has custody of a public reoord shall permit the recotd to be inspected and examined by any person desjring to do so, at any reasonable time u nder re.asonabie conditions. and under supervision by the custod iam of t he public recotd Ot his desig nee Other parts of thi$wbsection describe fees for copying and. if necessary. services. ) 34 t .03 1 Definitions (9)(a) 'Ridesharing, wnicn means an arrangement between persons with a common desti n ation, or destinations. within the same proximity, to share the use of a motor vehicle on a recurring basts for round-trip tra nsportation to and from theit p la ce of erfll)loyment or other common destination. For purposes of ridesharing employment shaU be deemed to commenee when an employee arrives at the employ er's place of employment to report for work and sha'l be deemect to termtna:te when tM tuves the employets place of empfoyment, excluding areas not u ndef the control of the empklyer Howevef, an em ployee shall be deemed to b e with in the course ol employment when the duties assigned or directed by the employer. or a ct i ng in the furtherance of the bu$ine55 of the empSoyer. of location 768.091 E mployer l i ab il ity limits; ridesharing ( 1 } No employer sha J I be liable for i njuriH or damages sustained by passengen, or othe-t persons resulting from the operation of a motor veh icle wh i l e bei ng used in a ridesh.aring arrangement between a place o f re&idenoe and a place of employment of term ini near such pr.,CH; nor shall such employer be riable for injuries or damages sustained to operators passe n gers or other persons because s-uch e""loyer provides infocmation or incentives to, or Olhetwlse emplOyees to participate I n r idesha ri ng arrangements. However. this section does not apply to motor vehicles owned or leas6d by an employer nor to acts by an employee within the scope of his employment as defined i n subsection (2) (2} For purposes of rldesl'laring, employment s.hall be deemed to commence when an employee arrives at tne empfoyer's piace of employment to report for work and to tetminat e when the employee leavH the employer's p(ace of employment exduding areas not under the control of the em p loyer However. a n erf191oyee s hall be deemed within thoe cours.e of employment when the employee is engaged In the perlormance of duties &$Signed or directed by the employet', or acting i n the furt herance of the bus iness of t he emp5oyer. irrespedive of locat ion PAGE 377 ' EMPLOYER TRIP REDUCTION ORDINANCES M ODULE GO A LS o To provide guidance on developing trip reduct i on ordi nan ces o To in troduce the Employee Commute Options legi slat i on. o Examine th e effectiveness of thes e ordinances i n meeting trip reduction goals. ASSUM P TION S o Part icip ants may be asked to help employers understand the requirements of these ordinances o That trip reduction ordinances are a good thing (sometimes). T RIP REDU C TION O RD INAN CES Introduction TO M measures are an effective way for local jurisd i c t ions to r ed u ce t r affic congestion and improve mobility How ever, w hile local governments may have the desire to reduce traffic vo l umes o r improve road w ay levels of service, the success of such programs depends on private sector participation. Prior to the 1980's, loca l governments relied on the voluntary cooperation of the priv ate sector for the success of TO M i nitiatives In areas w here traffic congest ion was an easi l y perceived problem voluntary cooperation was achieved at a fa i rly satisfactory level. In areas where traffic problems were not as re ad ily apparent. it w as difficult to generate voluntary cooperation and the success of TOM measures was marginal. In the 1980s t he climate for TO M ch anged Loca l ities identified i ncreased demand for new roadways However economic con stra i nts often left locali ties unable to fund add i t ional in frastructure ; as a r esult t hey began to explore alternative w a ys t o manage demand. Trip reduction ordinances {TROs) are government man dates which require that traffic conges tion be reduced in certain areas through a series of TOM measures Generally, a TRO will require a certain group or ind ivid ua l usually a major employer or a Managin g Our Way Through Congestion J .. t PAGE 378 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-2 developer of a large business comp l ex, to devise and i mplement meas u res aimed at reducing the number of SOV trips generated to and from a given l ocation I n 1 984 the first two TROs appeared i n California-one in Los Angeles and the other in Pleasanton Whi l e only the Pleasanton ordinance remains, it was the initial success of these two i nitiatives that brought TROs into the transportation l i melight. Today, over 50 TROs are in effect across the country Most were developed to address traffic in municipalities; however, county-wide and regional ord i nances have also been developed While each has its own unique attributes all share many common elements which are useful in the development of new ord i nances. As discussed earlier a step-by-step planning process helps to ensure an ordinance addresses the needs of the affected area and has the necessary support from community and bus i ness leaders, thereby increasing its potential for success State Support of Trip Reduction Ordinances California and Arizona are the only states to have drafted legisla tion which allows or requ i res local governments to enact TROs. While Californ i a has adopted the most stringent State codes to address traffic congestion, it should be noted that most of the TROs in California were adopted prior to the enactment of the State l egislation. States interested in adopting TRO legis l ation generally r equ i re that met r opolitan areas over a certain size de velop T ROs. This varies from earlier leg i slation whereby l ocal governments were given the power to enact such ordinances only if they chose to do so. For exampie Californ i a s legislation requires all count ies with 50,000 or more i nhabitants to develop and implement a congestion management plan. In New Jersey, proposed legislation requires the State DOT to develop a traffic management program which applies to employers of 100 or more and counties designated as having highly congested roadway conditions. Loca l ities i n Florida have no such a mandate. Under Florida law, TROs can be enacted if the loca l ity so chooses. The City of Or lando has developed such an ordinance, using a zoning overlay district to mitigate traffic congestion in its downtown area. Because it is up to the local government to determine whether a TRO is appropriate a d i scussion of TRO feasib i lity i s unnecessary. The focus of this section therefore, will be on how a TRO should be constructed to bette r ensure its success in address i ng local trans portation needs. PAGE 379 Developing a Trip Reduction Ordinance TROs are usually developed in one of two ways : o They may be one of severa l strateg ies developed as a part of the T O M planning process o They may be developed through the po litica l process as the result of a local or State legislative mandate If the ordinance is developed through the political process, there must be assurance that the ordinance addresses the problem at hand Regardless of the reasons for drafting a TRO, basic decisions are required prior to developing an effective mandate While each step in the process outlined below may not be completed in the order given it is nonetheless important that all be considered. Step 1 : Initiation and Development of the Ordinance For a community h aving in -house employees develop an ordi nance withou t soliciting i nput from business leaders or developers, may be the easiest way to get the job done; however i t i s a lso likely to ensure it w ill not succeed. The most effective TROs are generally those which i nvolve business leaders and developers in the proces s, since they are often the ones expected to implement the ordinance The organizational framework fo r drafting the legis lation usually takes one of three forms: o With the jurisdictiona l approach the locality develops the ordinance but elicits i nput from employers and developers to en sure goals and strategies are real i stic for the area. o The second approach in volves a task force where in a government body appo i n t s a certain number of local officials, r epresenta tives of major employers and r epresentat ives of the development community to sit on the task force The task force working as a u nit then drafts the ordinance o The th ird approach utilizes major private sector employers and developers to draft the ordinance, with input from loca l jurisdic tion representatives. In some cases, these types of ordinances are drafted thr ough a TMA, by representatives of th eir private sector client base Determin i ng the optim a l organizational framework for a given area depends on the unique circumstances with i n the area and care must be taken to ensure all affected groups have an opportunity to provide input during the development phase. Without such input, it may be difficult to achieve acceptance of the ordinance both from a political and operational standpoint Managing Our Way Through Congestion J .. J PAGE 380 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-4 Step 2: Ordinance Coverage and Affected Parties Most TROs are developed to mitigate traffic congestion for a de fined geographic area. As part of the initial decision-making pro cess, it is necessary to delineate the specific geographic area to be encompassed by the ordinance. In some cases the ordinance covers the central business district (CBD), while in others, it may be a one-mile wide strip along a major urban corridor. Generally the TRO covers only those areas suffering from traffic congestion; however, it may also include areas in which significant new devel opment is expected to occur. As noted earlier, a decision must be made as to which groups will have to conform to the provisions of the ordinance. There are two primary groups most often asked to implement TOM measures: o major employers o developers The definition of major employers varies by ordinance, though in most instances a firm with 200 or more workers is considered a major employer. Developers are usually limited to individuals building an office, industr ia l or business park which will employ a certain number of people or will exceed a certain square footage. For e xa mple, the City of Pasadena TRO applies to all new developments over a certain square footage threshold and any new development em p l oying 100 or more people. The decision regarding which groups will be subject to the ordi nance is determined in part by the objective of the ordinance. If the objective is to reduce t he traffic impacts of new development, then only developers will be targeted. I f the objective is to maintain existing traffic conditions, then new development traffic will have to be offset by a reduction in vehicle trips from existing developments. If the objective is to improve traffic conditions, the ordinance must apply to both new and existing employers. Step 3: Participation Requirements Participation in TROs generally takes one of three forms: o Voluntary programs ask major employers and/or developers to participate in and/or implement TOM measures. No require ments are set forth to ensure compliance; rather, it is assumed each party in the affected area will make a good faith effort to implement specific strategies. With this approach, developers or employers are offered incentives to bring them into compliance. PAGE 381 o Mandatory programs require an employer or developer to comply with the requ i rements of the ordinance When the manda tory app r oach i s used i t i s a fai rl y common pra ctice for the j urisdic t io n requi ring compliance to provide some form of t echni ca l assis ta n ce regard i ng TOM measures. o Volun t ary / Mandatory participation programs are a comb in a tion of the firs t two approaches. Generally the TRO se ts a particu lar standard to be achieved on a vo l untary bas is by the affected parties If the standard i s not met a specified timeframe, part i cipation in the requirements of the ordinance becomes manda tory For exam ple, a locality may determine the goal of the TRO is to reduce peak period SOV trips by 25%. Each employer would then have the chance to voluntarily implement TOM measures designed to reach that goal. If the 25% reduction is not achieved, then all employers are required to develop TO M programs aimed at atta i ning the goal. Step 4 : Ordinance Goal s TROs as the name imp li es, are deve l oped to reduce traffic con gestion Goals of the ordinance are usually stated i n terms of a spec i fic target strategy Goals can be fa i rly general like the City of Concord TRO which has a stated goal of reducing use of SOVs during peak hours; or the goal can be very specific, like the City of Cypress TRO which has a goal of attaining an AVR ratio of 1 .5 persons per vehicle. Whether the goal is general or specific, the TRO attempts to reduce traffic congestion by targeting a particu la r standard which can be quantified through a fairly simple visual or written survey technique. The goals contained in TROs vary by ordinance ; however, most have as their basis one of two basic standards : o Trip/Traffic Reduction: There are two types of trip reductionbased strateg ies cont ained i n most ord i nances o participation rates wherein a specific level or percentage of non SOV tr ips is set, wh ich must be achieved by each em player For example, the Menlo Park TRO sets a requirement that at least 25% of commuters must use some form of transportation o ther than a SOV to get to work. Employer surveys are then conducted to determine if the participation rate is being achieved. 0 setting a percentage goal for actual reduction in veh i cle trips This approach requires estab lishin g a base l ine of pre program vehicle trips by w hich actua l red uctions can be measured Managing Our Way Through Congution 3-5 PAGE 382 Managing Our Way Through Conges1ion 3-6 This is usually done in one of two ways. o calculate the number of vehicle trips taken, assuming a worst-case scenario, that all commuters drove to work alone. For example, if an area targeted for a TRO has 50,000 employees within its boundaries, then it is assumed that 50,000 single-occupant ve hicle tr ips are taken to get to work. o develop a survey that enables calculation of the actual number of veh icle trips being taken. For ex ample, an employee survey reveals that 15% of employees within the area utilize car and van pools to get to work and another 5% use mass transit, there are 40,000 single occupant vehicle trips taken to get to work. The actual vehicle trip reduction rate varies according to the meth odology used to determine baseline vehicle trips. If the worst case scenario assumption is made, that all commuters traveled to work alone prior to the program, then reduct ion rates will be fairly high (25-40%). I f the actual number of commuters driving alone is determined, then the reduction rates are li kely to be fairly low (515%). o Level of Service: Goals based on level of service criteria are developed to maintain a desired traffic condition or to prevent roadway traffic flow from deteriorat i ng below a certain level As discussed earlier, le vel of service (LOS) refers to the traffic condi lion of a roadway i n terms of safety, speed, freedom to maneuver, etc. and the better the level of service the better the driving condi tions. "LOS A" indicates the road is operating under good driving conditions, while "LOS F" i ndicates major delays can be expected and traffic will not flow smoothly. Using LOS criteria in a TRO requires that a traffic monitoring program be developed to monitor progress. LOS ratings can be developed either for roadways or intersections. Generally, a roadway will suffer from poor traffic conditions be cause of the problems associated with a poorly functioning inter section or heavy traffic volumes. Thus, the TRO using LOS criteria develops standards to address the port i on of the road network causing the poor conditions. Step 5: Length of Time Needed to Achieve Compliance Although most TROs require each employer or developer to meet the program guidelines within the first year and then maintain that level for the duration of the ordinance, other TROs phase guide lines so the final standard is achieved after a period of time. In develop i ng a TRO, the need for phasing is dependent on the sever- PAGE 383 ity of the reduction goal. If the strategy is to reduce drive alone commutes by 5 %, phasing i s inappropriate If, however, a 50% reduction i n drive-a lone commutes i s the u l timate goal, phasi n g will p ro ba bl y b e th e o nly way the sta ndar d can be met. S im i larly i f improvin g level of serv ice r atings on a seve re l y conges t ed ro adwa y i s th e g o a l ( fro m LOS F to L OS D ) p h as i ng w ill b e necessary I f mainta i n i ng a l evel of serv ice on a roadway i s the goal. phas in g wou l d n ot be necessary. Ste p 6: O rdinance Requirements Each TRO requires that an employer and/or developer take certain actions in order to help traffic congestion While the man dated actions vary from ordinance to ordinance. most require one or more of the following four components : o the des i gnatio n of a transportation coordinator to assist commuters in selecting alternative transportat ion modes o info rm at i o n d i ssemination i n wh ich emp l oyers are required to m ake alternat ive tr ansportation i nformat i on available to the i r em p l oyees or a r e requ i red to distribute such i nformation o data collection in which the employer is required to information on how their employees are getting to work (usually an ordinance that requires employers to collect data will mandate that employee surveys be cond u cted on an annua l basis or that drive way counts be completed). and o TOM measures in which employers must develop specific p r ograms such as preferent ial parf PAGE 384 Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-8 the individual employer. Another requirement of most TROs is the collection of data, usually by employers, to ensure goals are being met. This is generally done through an employer survey. Each employer is asked to conduct an annual survey of their employees to collect in formation about their commuting habits, transportat ion alternative used and. in some cases, their opinions of TOM measures. In cases where surveys are not required, employers are usually asked to submit a yearly report detailing their TOM activities over the past 12 months. Ordinances may also require that each employer or developer plan and implement its own TOM program. While some ordinances require that specific measures be used, in general, most ordi nances provide a l ist of potential TOM measures and then require the employer/developer to select options from the list. Th e latter approach is preferred, since not all TOM approaches are appropri ate in every case. By providing flexibility employers are more likely to accept and work within the provisions of the ordinance. Once the plan is developed, the jurisd iction or other management group revie ws and approves the plan. Once the.plan is approved, it is up to the employer/developer to implement the measures. Step 7: Ordinance Management There are two primary ways in which TROs can be managed: o a public/private task force made up of municipal representatives and represe ntatives of major employers and developers, usually the transportatio n coordinator. While responsibility for the ordinance program lies with the jurisdict i on, the task force serves as an advisory board, establishes implementation guidelines, reviews TOM programs, monitors perfonnance and serves as a hearing appeals board The role of the task force is therefore one of a technical advisory committee wh ich assists in coordinating ordinance provisions with those responsible for attaining the ordi nance goal and loca l municipal officials. o more powerfu l jurisdictional responsibility A jurisdiction can hire a program manager to oversee the ordinance or can dedicate a portion of an existing staff member's time to manage the ordi nance. Under most circumstances, the jurisdictio n employee develops technica l support programs, reviews and approves TOM plans, monitors compliance. serves as advisor on ordinance rev i sion to municipal boards and can train ETCs. Under this form of management, jurisdictions can more easily provide assistance to employers and better ensure ordinance prov isions are being met. PAGE 385 Step 8: Ordinance Funding Most local ordinances are funded through a general fund budget appropriation However more and more local i ties are looking to fund ordinance programs through fees a nd avai la ble transportation grants In some instances loca l ordinances tha t require a TOM plan charge a submi ssion fee to cover the cost of revie w and first year program costs. and then have an annual program renewal fee For ordinances that focus on new development only, TRO funding can come from fil in g fees and/or permit fees. Filing fee s are i denti cal to submi ssion fees; when the developer submits the TOM p lan for the new developmen t he or she pays a charge to cover pro gram costs A permi t fee i s a charge associated with approval of a TOM program In th i s case, a development may not be constructed or occupied until a TO M perm i t or ce rt ifica te i s i ssued When the permit or certificate is granted usually after a TOM p l an has been approved a permit fee is assessed Depending on specific pro gram goals o f government agencies grant funding may be ob ta ined as part of a pilot program or experimen tal project Step 9: Ordinance Enforcemen t While a TRO may set specific goals for a defined area, it is d i fficult and unfair to penalize individua l affected parties fo r failing to attain area-wide goal s. I n most cases, enforcement i s limited to ensuring that ordinance requirements for indi vidua l companies are being met, and if not, penalti es are I n curre d Two types of penalties are enforced one targeted at existing emp lo yers and the other at new developments Penalties targeted at existing employers usually take the form of fines or the requi rement of more stringent TOM measures. In this case, fines are the resu lt of civil penalties and may be as much as$250 per day for each day the employer remains in viola t ion. In lieu of fine s localities may require that an employer resubmit his / her TOM plan and include implementation of a d ditional TOM mea sures o f the employers choice from a list of several strateg ies dev eloped by the enf orcement agency The employ e r may also be asked to implement specific T OM measures to ensure that compli ance sta nd a rds are met. Developm ent enf orcement i s usually tied to the permit process. F a ll ure to submit a TOM plan or t o i mplement the approved TO M p l an can lead t o th e denial o f a bui lding or occup a ncy permit or havi ng those permits re voked Managing Our Way Through Congestion J .. 9

PAGE 386

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-10 Summary TROs can be an effective way for local and regional governments to implement trip reduction measures. However, a TRO may not be appropriate in all areas First, the effectiveness of a TRO is depend ent on the attractiveness of the business climate within the community. To date, most ordinances have been limited to high growth a reas of the United States, places where many businesses want to locate. A community which is in the midst of an economic downturn and enacts a TRO may find major employers relocating to other a r eas where no such ordinance exists. In high growth areas, loca lities should have a TRO or development may shift to an adjacent commun i ty. Funding TROs can be expensive for smaller communities. Given budget constraints, enforcement and management may be beyond the financial capabi l ities of a locality. Zoning and development code provisions requiring high numbers of parking spaces run counterproductive to TROs and place developers in catch-22" situations. Such local codes should be reviewed prior to enacting a TRO, and such reviews require investment of both money and staff time. EMPLOYEE COMMUTE OPTION (ECO) PROGRAM The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that the State Implementation Plan (SIP) must be revised to include provisions that require large employers in severe and extreme non-attainment areas to implement programs to reduce work-related vehicle travel by employees. The programs are referred to as employee com mute option programs (ECO) or employee trip reduction programs (ETR). Affected Areas o Los Angeles o San Bernadino Valley o Houston-Galveston-Brazoria o New York-New Jersey-Long Island-Connecticut o Baltimore o Chicago-Gary-Lake County o San Diego o Philadelphia-Wilmington-Trenton o Milwaukee-Racine o Ventura County Applicability The reg u lation applies to all employers with 100 or more employees located w ithin these affected areas These employers must

PAGE 387

develop trip reduc tion plans that convincingly demonstrate compli ance with the trip reduction compliance requirement for the non atta inme nt area The requirement calls for a 25% i ncrease in the average passenger occupancy ( APO ) of commuter vehicles The increase is to be me asu red from a baseline Average vehicle occu pancy (AVO) established for the ent ire non-attainment area. Th us. the la w calls for a 25% reduction in the number of employee cars arriving at the work site during the morning rush hour Employer Requirements In their compliance plans, employers must describe the actions they propose to implement to achieve the reduction and con vi nc ingly demonstrate that these actions will enable them to reach the APO target. Employers must also document through annual sur veys the progress ttiey make toward the achievement of the target APO The law does not prescribe specific actions that must be taken to comply instead allow i ng employ ers to tail or programs to the needs of their employees and with transportation services that are avail able at the work site. Measures that could be i mplemented include: o Sponsor i ng rideshare matching programs o Providing company-owned or company-leased vanpool or carpool fleets o Initiating flexible work schedules o Offering financi al i ncentives to employees who use commute alte rnati ves o Charg i ng for parking or e liminating subsidies for employees who drive alone to work In November of 1994, employer compliance plans were expected to be due However, because statute language stated that compli ance plans were due two years after the rev ised SIP, only five of the required SIP revisions were submitted by the November 1992 due date. Therefore, not all employers have been required to submit their trip reduct i on pro g ram plan. To determine if a submitted employer plan will meet the convinc ingly demonstrate compliance requirement, the state should imple ment one of four options. 0 State Review AgencyEmployers w ill h ave to convince the review agency that the p lan w ill ach ieve compliance. Managing Our Way Through Congution 3-11

PAGE 388

Managing Our Way Through Congestion 3-12 0 0 The state can prescribe a minimum set of measures that all employers must implement. A provision that all employers who fail to comply will have to implement a regulation-specific multi-measure contingency plan. o The state can impose significant financial pena l t ies for failure to comply. Once plans are submitted, the employer has two years to achieve compliance. The regulations do not specify what will happen in two years if an employer achieves compliance. Thus maintaing target APO has yet to be addressed. Averaging, Banking, and Trading APO Credits Employers with more than one work site within a non-attainment area can average their APO across all affected work sites within the non-attainment area. If the non-attainment area is divided into zones, then the employer can only average those work sites within a specific zone. Employers may also bank APO credits If an employer exceeds the APO target, they may take a credit and bank it and apply it later in the year Finally. employers who exceed the APO target can trade them to an employer who has failed to meet the target. However, few affected jurisdictions have developed a process or agency to keep track of banked credits or trading of credits. Zones and Targets Where importan t differences exist in commute patterns, land use, transit availability or AVO, states may establish different zones for calculation of AVO. If zones are used, then different targets for APO will be established. However, collectively, the effect would have to equal an area wide 25% reduction.