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Economic and policy considerations of advanced public transportation systems (APTS): background and review of evaluation approaches
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University of South Florida. National Urban Transit Institute. Center for Urban Transportation Research
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Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
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Tampa, Fla
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Transportation--Florida--Planning   ( lcsh )
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...... National ""IQL Urban .JdQL T ranslt I .,,-.,,nstltute at tile CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH University of South Florida Florida State University Florida A&M University Florida Internation a l University ECONOMIC AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS OF ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (APTS) Background and Review of Evaluation Approaches Eric T Hill Principal Investigator University of South Florida December 1993 University of South Florida 4202 East Fowler Avenue, ENB 118 Tampa, Florida 33620-5350 (813) 974-3120, fax (813) 974-5168

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TECQNJCALRUO'RT STANDAJU) Tn'LE PAGE FbpM No. 2. GoYttn'JIOI'II Aocusic:n No. 3 Ctr.llOQ No, NUTI93USF5 1 4. T .. liiNS Sublille $. AllpO
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Table o f Contents L ist of F igu r es 0 .. Lis t of Tables ......... ...... ...... ........................ Foreword ............. . ... .. ................ . ........... A c kn o wl e dgements .... .................................. . . Abstr act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Execut i ve Summa ry . .... ........ ...... ......... . ....... I I ntroduction ..... .................. ........................ II Advanced Public Tr a n s port a tion Systems ( APTS ) .......... .......... F ed e ral A PTS Program .................................... l nt ell.ig ent Vehi cle Highway Society of America s T echnical Co mmi tt ee .. Ill. T ec h nolo gy Group i ngs ........... ...... . ...... ... .... Sma rt Traveler . ............. .... . ... . .... .... . . . iv / iv v v i 1 2 7 9 9 1 2 1 5 1 5 Smart Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 Sm art lntennodal Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 IV Operatio nal Tes t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 V Overvie w of Eva lu a ti o n P rocess . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 V I M easu r es o f Eff e ctiven e ss ( MOEs ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 V II. M ethodologi es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Tech n i cal Evaluat i o n ............... . . . . . . . . . 23 Empirical Evaluation ................ ..... ........ . 25 Model-Based Evaluat i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 S ubjective Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 V III Emer gi ng Approach in Evaluation of APTS . . . . . . . . . . . 33 I X Lessons L e arn ed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 Iii

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Tab l e of Contents Appendix A: Scope and Status of APT S Operational Test Projects . . . . . . 37 References 58 Figures Fig u re 1 APTS p r ogram within US DOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Fig u re 2 APTS Techn i cal Comm i ttee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Tables Table 1. Quanmative MOEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 iv

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Foreword The development of the National Urban Transit Institute (NUTI), a consortium of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU), Florida Interna tional University (FlU), Florida State University (FSU), and University of South Florida (USF) headquartered at USF's Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR), has created research opportunities for the Institute's grantees. One such research opportunity is in the area of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS), now referred to as Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), and how these technologies influence the operat io n of fixed-route and demand responsive transit systems. One of the activities in the NUTI research program is a review of the Economic and Policy Considerations of IVHS (ITS) Transit Applications. CUTR prepared this document report to increase the knowledge and understanding of IVHS (ITS) and the application of these techno log ies to This document will also provide a review of the various that are being employed to evaluate Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS), and assess how tradit ional evaluation approaches can be applied to APTS inves tments Based on lessons learned in this document, CUTR will develop specific guidelines for the evaluation of APTS projects with other transit investme nts These guidelines will be presented in a companion report. The information assembled in this study will give transit properties assistance in evaluating the cost effectiveness of various APTS applications and weigh the benefits of these investments against other service and facility inve stments. v

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Acknowledgments This project is made possible through a grant from the U. S Department of Transportation, University Research Ins t i tute Program The i r support is gratefully acknowledged. CUTR Project Team: Eric Hill, Project Manager/Research Associate Michael C Pietrzyk, ITS Program Manager Steven E. Polzin, Deputy Diractor for Policy Analysis William L. Ball Research Associate Amy Polk, Research Associate Thomas Andriola, Student Research Assistant vi

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Abstract Advanced Public Transit Systems (APTS) are advanced navigation and communication technologies that are used in all aspects of public transportation. These include the application of advanced electronic technologies to the deployment and operation of high occupancy shared ride vehicles conventional buses, rail vehicles, and the entire range of para-transit vehicles. Three basic APTS subsystems are available for deployment in support of transit travelers and operat ions. These include Smart Traveler technology, Smart Vehicle technology, and Smart lntermodal Systems. This report provides documentation of APTS technologies and reviews the approaches used in evaluation. The IVHS (ITS) literature concerning evaluation of operational tests, shows that evaluation plans generally consist of two componenls: measures of effectiveness (MOEs) and an evaluation methodology. Various lessons have been learned from this research effort. These les sons hig hlight the need for modifications in the approaches that are represented in this research Modifications that will improve the accuracy, reliability, and usefulness of these approaches are encouraged. Perhaps the most significant lesson learned from this research effort is the need for further development in the area of subjective evaluation or Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA).

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Executive Summary The tenn IVHS (ITS) is used to describe projects which apply advanced technologies and communication systems to improve the efficiency and capacity of transportation systems. The growth and interest in IVHS (ITS) applications as an element of a transportation system have been significant in the past several years. While only a few IVHS (ITS) applications have been deployed, several are in operational tests. Several techno logies are included in IVHS (ITS) such as electronics, computer hardware and software, and commun icat ions. The Strategic Plan for IVHS in America identified six functional areas in which these technolog i es are applied. These functional areas are presented below. Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) employ innovative technologies and integrate new and existing traffic management and control systems in order to be respons ive to dynamic traffic ccnditions while servicing all modes of transportation. Advanced Traveler Information Systems (A TIS) acquire, analyze. communicate, and present infonnation to assist surface transportation travelers in moving f rom a starting location (or ig in ) to their desired destination. Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) combine sensors, computers, and control systems in veh i cles and in the infr astructure to warn and assist drivers or to intervene in the driving task. Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) systems apply various IVHS (ITS) technologies to improve the safety and efficiency of commercial vehicle and fleet operations. Advanced Public Transit Systems (APT$) are advanced navigation and communication technologies that are used in all aspects of public transportation. The potential for IVHS (ITS) technologies in transit is uncertain and decisions on whether to support the development of various systems require data and careful analysis. The objective of this study is to in vesti gate the economic benefits and costs of APTS applications and to measure the benefits of these investm ents against other service and facility investments. This first memorandum inc ludes a definition of APTS technologies and a review of the Federal APTS Program and the APT$ Technical Committee of IVHS (ITS) America. This is followed by a discussion of the existing APTS applications and the i ntegration of these systems into three technology groups: Smart Traveler, Smart Vehicle, and Smart ln termoda l Systems. The 2

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approaches used to evaluate these tests are reviewed and assessed. This document concludes with a d i scussion of the lessons l earned about APTS technologies. Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) are advanced navigation and communication technologies that are used in all aspects of pub lic transportation These include the application of advanced electronic techno l ogies to the deployment and operation of high occupancy vehicles, shared-ride vehicles conventional buses rail vehicles, and the entire range of paratransi t vehicles. These systems enable tra n sit agencies to make timely and needed transit information available to passengers an element that is important to improving the convenience, re li ability and safety of public transportation. The Federal Administration (FTA) established the APTS Program as part of the Federal Department of Transportat i on s (USDOT) in IVHS (ITS). Whi le most IVHS (ITS) systems are designed for highways and the automobi l e driver, the APTS program addresses th i s imbalance by deve l oping technologies that will improve the public option; this is consistent wi th the goals ofthe lntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) Besides the usoors effort to integrate IVHS (ITS) techno l ogies into current transportation systems the Intelligent Vehicle Highway Society of America (IVHS America), an advisory committee to the USDOT on IVHS (ITS) establ i shed the APTS Technica l Committee. Coordination, communication and information sharing of APTS technologies is provided through this technical committee to IVHS America It is a focal point for discussing program guide li nes and candidate technologies for operational tests. Additionally the APTS Technical Committee advises the FTA in areas affecting the APTS program. Three basic APT S subsystems are available for deployment i n support of t r ansit travelers and operations. Smart Traveler is the use of traveler information systems to provide real-time, multi-modal travel information to users to help en-route or mode choice. Smart Vehicle in this study refers to the use o f Automatic Vehicle Locat i on (AVL) to figure out transit vehicle positions in the development of trans i t fleet management. Smart lntermodal Systems, also known as the Mobility Manager. strive for coordinat i on and integration of transportation services offered by multiple providers Operational tests serve as the transition between research and development and full scale deployment of IVHS (ITS) technolog i es The tests permit an evaluation of how well newly developed technolog i es perform under rea l operating conditions. Moreover. they assess the benefits and public support for the p r oduct or system. These tests provide the participat ing 3

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organizations with a realistic perspective of the potentials benefrts of IVHS (ITS) w ithout incurring the risks of fu ll deployment. They also provide an opportunity to experiment w ith various institutional arrangements. to evaluate consumer market reception to various products and services, and to evaluate benefrts and costs. An APTS operational test provides more than a demonstration of the technology. Typically, each test employs the scientific method to gather valid data to use in the national effort to further APTS. The products of the operational test are the data and information gained from the test. It is important however to understand that the objective of the evaluation is not to determine the "success" or failure of the operational test but to help support: further development of IVHS (ITS) systems, public policy affecting these systems, marketing strategies by vendors, and the decision to make long-term investments in these systems. A review of IVHS (ITS} literature concerning evaluation of current operational tests shows that evaluation plans generally consis t offive ma jor components: project background and description of APTS application, project goals and objectives, determination of measures of effectiveness (MOEs}, selection of evaluation methodology, and an operational test. A brief description of each component is presented below. Project Goals and Objectives The primary goal of any operational tes t should be to evaluate the performance of the technology and "s potential impacts on the trans portat i on system. Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) -MOEs are associated w ith specific objectives in the operational test (i.e., in crease in ridership, decrease in operating costs, or impro vements in system productivity). Th is component might inc lude collecting data on selected MOEs. If an empirical evaluation approach is used in the test, the information collected will serve as baseline data. Evaluation methodology The evaluation methodology component represents the approach or approaches that are used to assess the performance of the techno logy and its potential impacts on the transportation system. Some operational tests do not include an evaluation methodology. Data collection and processing -Analysis of data collected during the performance of the operational test provides an evaluation of the technology and its impacts on the transportat ion system. In addition, an early analysis of data collected du ring the test may identify the need for mid-course corrections to the test. 4

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Operational test results -An operational test should culminate in a summary report Th i s report shOul d include an evaluation of the project in terms of i ts attainment of project goals and objectives In addition, this report should provide insight on issues effecting the feasibility of the application being tested influence of site-specific attributes and external factors on the resuHs of the test and lessons learned. Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are selected to provide quantitative measures of the benefrts derived from APTS technologies. Quantitative MOEs are expressed in terms of counts, measurements, dollars, or other physical units In addition, quantitative MOEs show how an APTS system influences a transit system's work force requirements, use of capital equipment, and ridership. When quantitative MOEs cannot be found and when supplemental meas u res are needed qualitative MOEs are employed to evaluate projects Qualitative MOEs are expressed in terms of people's attitudes, perceptions, or observations. Qua l itative MOEs may include other benefits or impacts associated with the use of APTS These relate to political and institutional coordination human factors, and IVHS (ITS) system architecture and standards Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are selected to provide quantitative measures and comparisons of the benefrts derived from APTS technolog i es. Quantitative MOEs are expressed in terms of counts, measurements, dollars, or other physical units. In addition, Quantitative MOEs reflect the influence that APTS may have on a transit system through a reduction in work force requirements, a more efficient use of capital equipment or an increase in ridersh i p Some of the methodologies that a r e being employed to evaluate the benefrts of APTS include technical, empirical, model-based evaluations and cost benefit analysis A technical approach is used to assess the functionality of the system be ing tested Emp i rical evaluation uses data collected on selected MOEs during the operationa l test. Models are used to simulate the potentia l benefits and impacts of APTS. Benefit-cost analysis (BCA) assesses the benefits of the system and are compared with the cost. Besides the approaches that are p r esented in this research guidelines for perform i ng evaluations on operational test are be ing developed by The Volpe Nationa l Transportat i on Systems Center (VNTSC) These guidelines provide a common framework and methodology for evaluating indiv i dual operational tests Studies have also been completed on the benefrts and costs of IVHS (ITS) technologies and strategies These studies are analyzed in a document entitled Analysis of IVH$ Benefits/Costs Studies (Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, 19g3). Various lessons have been teamed from this research effort. These lessons highlight the need for modifications in the approaches that are represented in this resea r ch. Modifications that will 5

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improve the accuracy, reliability and usefulness of these approaches are encouraged. For example, a standard automated data collection and reporting technique should be developed. The primary benefit of improved evaluation is that would produce data that are consistent and reliable, especially for tests involving empirical data. It would also allow comparisons between transit systems for similar operational tests. Perhaps the most significant lesson learned f rom this research effort is the need for further development in the area of subjective evaluation or CBA. The review of APTS applications in the U.S revealed very few efforts to evaluate these projects through CBA. For some projects, a CBA is not included. In most tests, this analysis is planned as the final step in the project evaluation after a field test has been completed and potent ia l benefits have been reported. Guidelines on p erform in g evaluation of APTS are already being developed by the VNTSC. Notwithstanding these guidelines, specific guidelines are needed on evaluation of APTS projects using CBA. In the companion report, guidelines will be established and recommended for evaluating APTS investments. This includes providing methodologies for determining if an APTS investmen t is feasible and monitoring APTS projects currently being tested. To the extent possible evaluation approaches will be recommended for different types of APTS investmen ts This effort will also assess the cost effectiveness of APTS investmen t s as compared to traditional public transportation investments. 6

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I. Introduction The tenn IVHS (ITS) is used to describe projects which apply advanced technologies and communicat i on systems to improve the efficiency and capacity of transportation systems. The growth and in terest in IVHS (ITS) applications as an element of a transportation system have been significant in the past several years. While only a few IVHS (ITS) applications have been deployed, several are in operational tests. Several technologies are included in IVHS (ITS), such as electronics, computer hardware and software, and communications. The Strategic Plan for IVHS in America identified six functional areas in wh ich these technologies are applied.' These are: Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) Advanced Traveler lnfonnation Systems (A TIS) Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Advanced Traffic Management Systems (A TMS) employ innovative technologies and integrate new and existing traffic management and control systems in order to be responsive to dynamic traffic conditions while servicing all modes of transportation ATMS techno l ogies include: Traffic contro l centers in major metropolitan areas to gather and report traffic infonn ation, and to control traffic movement to enhance mobility and reduce congestion through ramp, signal, and lane management, vehicle route diversion, etc. Cha ngeable message signs which provide current inf ormation on traffic conditions to highway users, and suggest alternate routes Priority co ntrol systems to provide safe travel for emergency vehicles when needed Advanced Traveler Information Systems (A TIS) acquire, analyze, communicate, and present in fonnation to assist surface transportation travelers in moving from a starting location (origin) to their desired destination. Technologies include: On-board d isp lays of maps and r oadway signs (in-vehicle signing) On-board navigation and route guidance systems Trip planning services 'IVHS Amefica. Strategic Plan for Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems in the Unffed States, (May 1992). 7

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Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS) combine sensors, computers, and control systems in vehicles and in the infrastructure to warn and assist drivers or to intervene in the driving task. AVCS technologies include: Adaptive cruise control (which slows a cruise-controlled vehicle if it gets too close to a preceding vehicle) Automatic collision avoidance system (automatic braking upon obstacle detection) Vehicle platooning (automatically controlling several closely-spaced vehicles in a special highway lane, to increa se lance capacity} Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) systems apply various IVHS (ITS) technologies to improve the safety and efficiency of commercial vehicle and fleet operations Example of these technologies include: Weigh in motion (WIM} Electronic placarding/bill of lading Automatic vehicle identification (A VI} Advanced Rural Transportation Systems (ARTS) addresses applications of IVHS (ITS} technologies to rural needs. IVHS (ITS) applications in rural areas are differen t than in urban areas, even when services are similar. Rural condijions inc lude low population densijy, fewer roads. low amount of congestion, sparse or unconventional street addresses. etc. Safety i s a significant issue in ARTS; over half of all accidents occur on rural roads. ARTS technologies include: Route guidance Automatic emergency signaling Roadway edge detection The potential for IVHS (ITS) technologies in transit is uncertain and decisions on whether to support t he development of various systems require data and careful analysis. The objective of this study is to investigate the economic benefits and costs of APTS application s and to measure the benefits of these investments against other service and fac i lity Investments. This rep ort i ncludes a definition of APTS technologies and a review of the Federal APTS Program and the APTS Technical Committee of IVHS (ITS) America. This is fo llowed by a discussion of the exist ing APTS applications and the integration of these systems into three technology groups: Smart Traveler. Smart Vehicle. and Smart lntermodal Systems. The approaches used to evaluate these tests are reviewed and assessed. This report concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned about APTS technologies. 8

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II. Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) are advanced navigati o n and c o mmun i ca tion technologies that are used in all aspects of publ i c transportation. These include the application of advanced electronic technologies to the deployment and operation of high occupancy veh i cles. shared-ride vehicles conventional buses, rail vehicles, and the entire range of para t ransit vehicles These systems enable transit agencies to m ake t i mely and needed transit i nformation available to passengers an e l ement that is imp ortant to improving the convenience reliability, and safety of public transportation. For examp l e smart cards can improve passenger interface w i th a trans i t system which can i mprove the efficiency and attractiveness of public transportat ion.' Smart cards a r e being tested in various locations of the country. What is most imp o rtant APTS will he l p trans i t agencies manage a sa f e and efficien t fleet and plan services t o satisfy a broad range of consumer nee d s. Whe n incorporated with a regiona l transportation sys t em, APTS will also ena b l e a system to manage its r oadways with s p e c ia l acc o mmodat i ons for high occupancy vehicles Federal A P TS P rogram The Federal Trans i t Administration (FT A) estab l ished the APTS P r o gram as part of the Federal Department of Transportation s (USOOT} initiative in I VHS (ITS). Whi le most IVHS (ITS) sys t ems are designed for h i ghways and the automobile dri ver the APTS program addresses th i s imba l ance by deve lopi ng technologies that will improve the public trans i t opti on; th i s is consisten t w i th the goa l s of the ln t ennodal Surface Transportation Effic i ency Act of 1g9 1 (ISTEA) The A P TS Program is structured to unde rt ake research and deve l opment of advanced nav i gation, i nfonnation, and communication systems Through APTS, FTA supports (by funding operational test projects) and coordinates the deve l opment of t hese technolog i es for bo t h transit and ride sharing. Fig u re 1 illustrate s the co o rdinat ion of t he APTS program w it h i n USOOT 'lA smart card i s an i ntegrated circuit car d that contains both memory and a microproces-sor I t is capabJe of receiving. storing, and p rocessing infonnation. I n the context of APTS. it i s u s e d as a debi t card for mass t rans.it. 9

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Figure 1 APTS program within USDOT ,........,..,..,.,.,....,....,. US DOT .;>o;:-:-' ; .. .. .. f .-' ,. : .. .; .' -; ; 10

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The goal of the APTS Program is to: Enhance the ability of public transportation systems to satisfy customer needs and contribute to community goals by providing information on innovative applications of IVH$ technologies from a coordinated operational test and evaluation program. 3 This goal statement is further supported by four objectives Objective #1: Enhance the quality of on-street service to customers This objective puts emphasis on making public transit user-friendly by im proving the qua lity, time line ss and ava i lab ility of passenger informat ion, increasing the convenience of fare payments improving safety and security, and service reliability reducing travel time, and increasing opportunities for customer responses. Objective #2: Improve system productivity and job satisfaction. The emphasis of this objective is on making public transit more efficient through improvements in schedule adherence and inc iden t response, service planning and scheduling, and response to vehicle and facility failures. This objective also focuses on improvements to information management systems and practices, reducing wori
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Intelligent Vehicle Highway Society of America's APTS Technical Committee Besides the USDOTs effort to integrate IVHS (ITS) technologies into current transportation systems, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway Society of America (IVHS America}. an advisory committee to the USDOT on IVHS (IT S), established the APTS Technical Committee. Coordination, communication, and information sharing of APTS technologies is provided through this technical committee t o IVHS America. It is a focal point for discussing program gu idelines and candidate technologie s for operational tests. Additionally, th e APTS Technical Comm ittee advises the FT A in areas affecting the APTS progra m The Committee also gives guidance on new tech no logies relating to APTS and distribu t es in format ion on efforts to increase the use of high-occupancy travel modes. Membership o n this committee inc ludes i nd ividua ls fro m th e tran sit community, the entire IVHS (ITS) community, representatives from the public sector, priv ate industry, and academia. The objectives of the APTS Technica l Committee are pres ented b elow ( 1) Articu late policy ini tiatives. As an a dvis ory committee to the USDOT, the APTS Technical Committee seeks t o influence the direction of the IVHS (ITS) P rogram planning priorities, and worl< to accomplish the ob ject ives of ISTEA (i.e., improve air quality, conserve energy, improve h i ghway systems, and upgrade p ub lic transport ation). (2) Establish a set-aside for major research and demonstration initiati ves The FT A Section 26-Pianning and Research Program provides resources for t h e study, design, and demonstration of APTS technolog ies. The APTS Technical Committee advocates that discretionary funds within Sect ion 3 resources be set-aside for spec ifi c demonstration init iat ives, when particular init iatives require more fun d ing than is available un de r Section 26. (3) Create a new mechanism for public/private partnerships. The APTS Technical Committee supports the id ea of a llo wing public transit agencies to solicit projects (oper at ional tests) whic h i n clu d e a public/private agreement. (4) Improve planning. The APTS Te chnical Committee seeks to make APTS an i ntegral part of hi ghway an d transit capital projects. (5) Maxim;ze use of flexible funding provisions. The APTS Techni cal Committee seeks to i nfluence tra nsportation dec isionmakers to understand that APTS p r ojects are cost-effective ways to reduce congestion and increase air quality. This will make 12

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these projects candidates fo r flexible funding th rough the Surface Transportation Program (STP) and the Congestion Mitigation Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) (6) Education and Training. It is the policy of the APTS Technical Committee to educate Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and state DOTs concerning the ways that APTS projects can improve metropolitan tra nsportation systems and assist in meeting clean air objectives (7) Outreach & broadened APTS participation. The APTS Technical Committee, supported by the FTA Staff, solicits and encourages participation from the vendor community, transit agencies and in dustry consultants. The educational and promotional efforts provided in these objectives promotes widescale implementation of APTS projects that will achieve the goals and objectives of IVHS America and the lntermodal Surface Transportation Effic iency Act of 199 1 ( ISTEA). To achieve its objec t ives the APTS Technical Committee is organ i zed around five task forces Each task fo rce has a specific mandate to i dentify deve lop, and test APTS funct ions its top i c area as shown below. Smart Traveler Task Force reviews issues that relate to transportation information. service payment, and mobility management systems. Smart Vehicle Task Force focuses on technologies that are on interface with, or affect public transportation vehicles Smart lntermodal System Task Force is considering the steps needed to get to an integrat ed, i ntermodal system that takes advantage of IVHS (ITS) techno logies Technical Standards Task Force is developing technical standards on the techno logies and systems that are used in APTS. Policy Task Force i s involved in defining a vision and direction for the APTS Committee Figure 2 illustrates the coordination of the APTS Technical Committee within IVHS America. 13

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Figure 2 APTS Technical Committee APTS i[Tetchnical Committee 14 >' . ',,

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Ill. Technology Groupings Three basic APTS subsystems are available for deployment in support of transit travelers and operations. These include Smart Traveler technology Smart Vehicle technology, and Smart lntermodal Systems. These APTS subsystems represent the transfer of technology inn ovat ion to public transportation. Smart Traveler Smart Traveler is the use of traveler information systems to provide real-time. multi-modal travel informat ion to users to help en-route or mode choice. FTA and FHWA are joint ly supporting and testing a variety of traveler informatio n systems to improve the efficiency and cost-eff ectivene ss of auto/truck travel and public t ransportat ion (known as Smart Commuter). The array of Smart Traveler technologies and applications currently available include the following: Smart cards Interactive video displays Telecommunications Integrated fare payment Touch-tone telephones Home or wor1< place multimodal Voice synthesis information Television, radio, cable TV Roadside or transit center monitors Audiotext/videotext Wayside and on-board bus displays Dynamic multi-modal database Dynamic ridesharing Personal Communications Smart kiosks Devices Smart Vehicle Smart Vehicle in this study refers to the use of Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) to figure out veh icle positions in the development of transit fleet management. Transit fleet management will improve the overall system efficiency and product ivity. Vehicle locations are determined and transmitted to a central dispatch or control center where information can be used to make real-time adjustments to route planning and scheduling. In addition, FTA i s supporting joint use of traffic signal preemption, automatic p assenger counting, security devices and vehicle condition monitoring in these projects to a ch i eve greater benefits. 15

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Available technologies and applications include the follow i ng: Veh i cle component sensors Automated paratransit dispatching Automatic passenger counters On-board automatic guidance Automatic vehicle location equipment Data/voice/cellular radio Fleet monitoring and contro l Computer aided dispatch Rea l -time data collection and analysis Smart card read ers Cent ra li zed dispa t ching Schedule Aud iot extlvideotext di s p lays planning Geograph i c infonnation systems Pass enger infonnat ion Route Devia t ion Transit Equipment perfonnance monitoring Smart l ntennondal Systems Smart lntennoda l Systems, also known as the Mobi lity Manager strive for coordination and integrati o n of transportation serv i ces offered by multiple providers. These providers represent a variety of modes and f unding sources In tegration is accomplished through electronic technologies (e l ectroni c fare media card readers, computer assisted schedu lin g and di spatching) tha t simplify financ i al and other kinds of transactions Smart lntennoda l Systems also encourages travel behavior techniques (travel demand management carpool flex-time) as a way to improv e overall mobi li ty. Smart lntenn o dal Systems inc l ude the following technologies and applications : Automatic ve hic le ident ifica t io n HOV parking incent ives Im age processing E l ectronically guided buses Vehic l e guidance systems Transportation management centers Dynam i c multimodal dispatching On-board or on-site alann activation software Computer assisted dispatch and contr o l Integrate d adaptive signa l t iming systems and traffic management systems Real-time infonnatio n s igns Traffic signal timing priorities Integrated fare payment/t oll Automatic toll collection and HOV co ll ection/parking fees verification Mobi lit y Manager HOV lane access control CCTV monitoring of parking lots and HOV toll lanes transit tenninals HOV byp ass lances at metered ramps 16

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IV. Operational Tests Operational tests serve as the transition between research and development and full scale deployment of IVHS (ITS) tech n olog ies The tests an evaluation of how well newly developed technologies perform under real operating conditions. In addition. they assess the benefits and public support for the product or system. Developing a sound evaluation methodology of the benefits of IVHS (ITS) is the core of the fede ral IVHS (ITS) program. Before the passage of IS TEA, most of the reports on IVHS (ITS) effectiveness were not based on empirical field data (i.e., operat ional tests), but model simulations, more basic estimations, and speculation. Several APTS and IVHS (ITS) operational tes ts were without any evaluation measurements or criteria. As a result, ISTEA requires that operational tests utilizing Federal funds shall "have a written evaluation of the intelligent vehicle highway systems technologies invest igated and of the results of the investigation . A clear mandate is provided to USDOT and other agencies in vo lved in operational tests to take the leadership role in developing an evaluation criteria. Thus the evaluation is an integral part of each operational test Operational field tes ts serve as the only forum for evaluation of APTS and IVHS (ITS) technologies. There are a variety of local initiatives and APTS operation al tests being evaluated across the oountry. The evaluations cover all three focus areas of the APTS Program: Smart Traveler, Smart Vehicle, Smart lntermo d al Systems. The scope a n d status of these projects are provided in Appendix A. These tests provide the participating organizations wi th a realistic perspective of the potentials benefrts of IVHS (ITS) without inc urring the risks of full deployment. (I t is assumed that the agencies involved in testing these technologies will evaluate the econo mic feasibility of the project such as a break-even analysis to j ustify capital investment in an APTS). They also p r ov i de an opportunity to experiment w ith various ins t i tu t ional arrangements, to evaluate consumer market reception to various products and services and to evaluate benefrts and costs. of 1991." VI: R esearch. Part B. Section 6055 (3) 17

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V. Overview of Evaluation Process An APTS operational test provides more than a demonstration of the technology Typically, each test employs the scientific method to gather valid data to use in the national effort to further APTS. The products of the operational test are the data and information gained from the test. It is important, however, to understand that the objective of the evaluation is not to determine the "success" or '1ailure" of the operational test but to help support: further development of JVHS (ITS) systems, public po licy affecting these systems, marketing strategies by vendors, and the decision to make long -term investments in these systems. Figure 3 is a flow diagram representing the evaluation process for an APTS operational test. A review of IVHS ( ITS) literature concerning evaluation of current operational tests shows that evaluation plans generally consist of five major components: project background and description of APTS application project goals and objectives determination of measu res of effectiveness (MOEs}, selection of evaluation methodo l ogy, and an operational t est. A brief description of each component is pres ented below. Project Background and Description of APTS Applications An APTS operational test w ill consist of one or more of the applications already i ntroduced in the t e chno l ogy group i ngs section. For examp l e a test of Smart Traveler techno logy might include the use of a smart card to facilitate automatic fare collection for passengers us i ng multiple transit systems Another example could consist of an examina tion of ways i n which mobile com mun ications, such as cellular phones migh t make r i deshar ing (carpooling and vanpooling), more attractive. 18

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Project Goals and Objectives The primary goal of any operational test should be to eva luate the performance of the technology and its potentia l impacts on the transportation system. In addition each APT S operational test is intended to meet the goals of the APTS Program, which are : 1) Enhance the quality of on-street service to customers. 2) Improve system productivity and job satisfaction 3) Enhance the contribution of APTS to overall Community goals. 4) Expand the knowledge base of professionals concerned with APTS innovations. Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) MOEs are associated with spec i fic objectives in the operational test (i.e., increase in ridership, decrease in operating costs, or improvements in system productivity). Th i s component m ight include co ll ecting data on se l ected MOEs. If an emp i rica l evaluation approach is used in the test, the information collected will serve as baseline data. This topic is d i scussed in more detai l in a subsequent section. Evaluation methodology The evaluation methodology component re p resents the approa c h or approaches that are used to assess the performance of the technology and its potent ial impacts o n the transportation system. Some operational tests do not include an evaluation methodo l ogy A section on this topic is provided later i n this report. It includes a description of the evaluation approaches p r esented in the d i agram. Operational test The operational test is actual field evaluation or model-based simulat i on of the techno l ogy Data collection and processing Analysis of data collected during the performance of the operat i onal test prov i des an evaluat i on of the technology and its impacts on the transportation system. In addition an early analys i s of data collected duri n g the test may identify the need for mid-course correct ions to the test. For example, early results might suggest some bias in the baseline data 19

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Ope r ational test results An operat i onal test shou l d culminate in a summary report. This report should includ e an evaluation of t he project in terms of i t s attainmen t of project goa l s and objectives In addition, th i s report should provide insight on issues effecting the feas i bility o f the application being tested, influence of site-specific attributes and external factors on the resu l ts of the test, and lessons lea me d. 2 0

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VI. Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are selected to provide quantitative measures ofthe benefits derived from APTS technologies. Quantitative MOEs are e xpressed in terms of counts, measurements, dollars, or other physical units In addition. quan t itative MOEs show how an APTS system influences a transit system's work force requirements, use of cap i tal equipment, and ridership. A sample of the quantitative MOEs that are used to assess the performa nce of APTS is summarized i n Tab le 1 Benefits Travel Benefits Economic Benefits Environmental Benefits lnfonnation Benefits Travel Time Safely Table 1 Quantitative MOEs MOEs Comfort and Convenience Security Cost Productivity Product Innovation O!Hime DeUvety I>Jr Pollution Fuel usage Trip Efficiency Traffic Enforcement Examp le Reduced vehicle trips Accident prevention Customer interface Emergency response Integrated fare payment Decreased cost and increased rev enue Real-time rideshare trip matching Automated dispatching Reduced emissiOns Reduce congestion, vehlete trips, and travel times I mproved p re--trip planning Traffic s ignal preferential treatment Improvements to satisfy ADA and C lean Air Act When quantitative MOEs cannot b e found and when supp l emental measures are needed qualitative MOEs are employed to evaluate projects Qualitative MOEs a re expressed in terms of people s attitudes, perceptions or observations. An example of these i nclude p hys ical attractiveness of the systems components (i.e., au t omated ki osks designe d in Art De'co) and acceptance of the so lut ion by t he population i s inten ded to serve Qualitative 'Lawrence A. Kle in, Rantowich. Jacoby, and Mingrone, .. I VHS Architecture and Evaluation Process." IVHS Joumal. (Vol. 1, Number 1, 1993) p. 18. 21

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MOEs are also included because APTS provide benefits to a variety of groups in a variety of ways which are only partly captured in reven u es (or cost changes). Qualitative MOEs may include other benefits or impacts associated with the use of APTS. These relate to polrt ical and institutional coordination, human factors, and IVHS (ITS) system architecture and standards. Potential qualitative impacts are presented below The use of an integrated farecard which supports a seamless transit system is desirable of riders moving from one jurisdiction into another. The imp roved quality of transit service that is possib le from the increased capabilities of APTS can lead to increased ridership and passenger revenue. There are also are secondary benefits, such as enhancing the image of the agency through its use of advanced technology. For example Advanced Vehicle Monitoring and Communication (AVM/C) not only provides a method to mon itor bus operation but also to perform a '1own watch" service to communities served by the transit system. Clearly, more surveillance of criminal activities is beneficial to passengers and communities where service is provided. If APTS enables a transit system to operate more efficiently, passengers are less likely to complain about service, thus. provid ing improvements in the work environment. With the use of AVL, the exact location of an emergency may be found for th e dispatching of assistance. It is diffi cuh if not i mpossible to assign cost sav ings to the reduction In emergency response times p rovided by AVL7 Edward K Eric C. Bruun, and J. Battle Blackmon, "AdVanced Vehicle Monitoring and Communication Systems for Bus Transit: Benefits and Economic Feasibility." (September 1991} p. V. 1Coley1Forrest. Inc . "Radio/AVL Cost/Benefit Study," (Denver, Colorado: Regional Transportation District, June 1989) p. 25. 22

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VII. Methodo logies The following section describes current methodologies used for APTS and IVHS (ITS) evaluation The pros and cons of each approach, as researched in the literature on APTS, are also presented. The methods that are discussed in this section repres ent those that have been used to evaluate advanced travele r informa tio n systems and advanced vehicle control systems Creative applications of these approaches are also being used to evaluate APTS projects. Several APTS operational tests are already underway and at various stages of completion. Research on these projects, and conversations with the project managers, have shown that several projects did no t include an evaluation element using MOEs, but were used as test sites for the technology. These operational tests were conducted to monitor the functionality of the system. Some of the test are included Appendix A wilh the results, if any, from the test. Research on other I VHS (ITS) applications, such as Advanced Traveler Informat ion Systems (ATIS), Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI), and Advance Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), revea led operational tests that inclu ded evaluation plans. These include Inform, HELP/Crescent, Pathfinder TravTek, Smart Corridor, Advantage 1-75, ADVANCE, DIRECT, Guidestar, and FAST-TRAC. The methodologies that are being employed in the evaluation of these tests, which have been applied to APTS, are presented below. A description of each method is als o provided with a review of the strengths and weaknesses each evaluation methodology. Technical Evaluation Empirical Evaluation Model-Based Evaluation Subjective Evaluation Tech n ica l Evaluation This methodology assesses system performance and attempts to answer the questions: Was the system built properly?; Is it functioning to specifications? This is a critical element in an evaluation procedure because it not on ly provides information on the system's functionality, but also highlights user responses to the sy stem (e.g. survey of passengers using the system). An example of this methodology in an operational test is provided by the HELP/Crescent project. The primary purpose of this test is to determ ine if AVI can be used in a highway environment to collect data and to check the credentials of passing trucks at weigh stations. 23

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Strengths In addition to providing an assessment of the system s functionality, technical evaluations describe how passengers are interacting with and responding to the system Technical evaluation is typically employed as a contro l or monitoring feature to help the system operator maintain the desired level of service. It may also help to reso l ve some negative user responses such as poor reliability and breakdowns If an operat i ona l test starts before the system is operating up to specifications then the empirical evaluations may be biased on the downside Technical evaluation provides assurances that the system is performing well, and if information collected on certa i n elements in the evaluation is valid. Weaknesses Technical evaluation can be labor intensive, and may cause significant expenses to be incurred by the evaluation team Therefore, a technical eva l uation that is automated, using current computer techno l ogy. can reduce costs that are associated with this effort and increase the reliability of this approach. Using passenger surveys and on-s i te observations to assess the functionality of APTS provides a limited sample of the system s performance and passenger responses to the system This may result i n an evaluation that is biased and not representative of the system's performance at hi gher leve l s of market penetration In many cases, the vendor is performing the evaluation of its technology or product thus, not assuring an unbiased assessment. s Underwood and S. Gehring, "Evaluating lnteHigent Vehicle-Highway Systems: A Perspective on Methodological Oevek>pment." Benefits. Evaluation and Costs Committee Wotkshop-Proceedings, (San D iego: December 13. 1992), p. C -25. 24

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Empirical Evaluation Empirical evaluation uses data collected on selected MOEs during the operational test. The IVHS (ITS) literature reveals six areas of empirical evaluation that are being used to assess APTS projects. These areas are: (1) user operation and interface design (2) user perception and preferences (3) user behavior and individual impacts (4) direct traffic impacts (5) higher order impacts (6) institutional factors User Operation and Interface Oesign This approach is generally called human factors research. The method addresses questions which relate to the "user-friendliness" of the system and ways to make improvements in the design of the system. Typical MOEs in this approach include travel time and speed variance, response time and usability. An example of the use of this method is provided by the Travel Technology (TravTek) operational test. Travtek provides traffic congestion information and route guidance information to drivers of vehicles that are equipped with TravTek in-vehicle systems 1 0 The operational test is designed to collect data on how the in-veh icle navigation display affects driving performance (i.e., safety and navigation behavior) and how easy the system is to use and to leam. User Perception and Preferences The evaluation of user perception and preferences provides an assessment of the potential market for the system, whether the public will accept it, and support it with public resources (tax dollars). The standard method of assessing transit riders interesl in using potential APTS products involves stated preference surveys. The responses are analyzed which provide an indication of responden ts attitude toward the product and ultimate use of the system. User Behavior and Individual Impacts The user behavior and individual impacts method is designed to measure the improvements in a transi t system's performance and operation that result from APTS. The basic design of this method is generally a comparison of data collected on selected MOEs, such as service delivery "IVHS America, "Stra tegic Plan fe< IVHS in the Stales," (May 1992), p. E-17. 25

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worker productivity user acceptance, equipment performance and reliabil ity, safety and security, and cost and revenue effectiveness. Baseline data are collected before the test and are then compared with data collected during the test. Two main types of comparison are used: before versus after and experimental versus control. An example of this approach is presented in Pathfinder, an operat i ona l test of an in-vehicle urban freeway navigation and informa tion system. It was conducted with the development of a Smart Corridor in the Los Angeles area. The primary feature of this test is t h at vehicles from the experimental group (equipped with navigation and information systems) are matched with vehic l es from the control group. Vehicle travel times are then com p ared between se l ected origins and destinat io ns. Direct Traffic Impac ts The direct traffic impact approach assesses t he ability of APTS to contribute any improvements in traffic measures. MOEs used in this approach include number of single occupant vehicles duri ng peak hours traffic smoothing on highways, accidents transi t ridership, and commuters in ridesharing programs. An example of this approach is represented by the Seattle Smart Travele r project. This project examines ways in which mobile communications such as cellular phones can make ridesharing (carpooling and vanpoo li ng) more attractive to "dr ive-alone commuters. Higher Orde r Impacts Higher order impacts are those Impacts that result f rom APTS but are large l y uninten de d and uncontrolle d by the system." The MOEs (impacts) used i n this approach are air qualit y n oi se, and fuel consumpt ion. These are well-known impact s of any t ransportation plan and are given cons i deration in most evaluations of operational tests Institutional Factors This a p proach spec ifically looks at the in st i tutional envir o nment. This inc ludes assess ing the imp act that APTS w ill have o n the transit agency personnel community goals, system architecture, p r o d uct and tort liabi lit y issues, and jurisdictiona l relati ons hips Underwood and Gehring p. C-30 26

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Strengths Empirical evaluation helps to establish databases that are needed for calibration and validation of traffic models that are also used to evaluate other IVHS (ITS) operational test, as well as the potential risk associated with investing in the system. This approach is also useful in collecting data as a yardstick to measure additional improvements to the system if more are anticipated. Data collected f rom empirical evaluation of an operational test provides infonnation on how the system performed and whether there were any benefits When applied proper1y, this approach provides the greatest assurance that any improvements in service operation are due to an operational test. Weaknesses The empirical evaluation approach involves tedious collection of specified data, which can be costly. In cases where empirical data is collected for a before versus after evaluation t he resu l ts may fail to show how the system affected any significant change in MOEs. Similarly the data collected in experimental versus control evaluation may not provide an ind ica tion of the amount of change attributable to the system. The accuracy of test results and thus the decision to make permanent investments in the system being tested is based on the validity of the baseline data and the data collection process. This may require additional efforts to ensure that quality i nfonna t io n is being collected. Since this method req uires data that will be collected during the t ime span of the p r oject it is possible tha t substitute data w ill be needed to account for changes in the external and internal environment. This aspect in the empirical evaluation may cause a misrepresentation of the results of an operational test. To have a significant level of confidence in the results of an operational test, the external conditions affecting the test must be similar to the external conditions tha t ex isted before the test. This is difficult, if possible, to assure 27

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Model-Based Evaluation Mode l-base d evalualions simulate the pote ntial benefits and imp acts of APTS. Models a re used primarily in prospective evaluations to assess the future benefits of an APTS, considering trends in trip demand and market penetration of the system Using the model-based approach to evaluate an APTS application provides data that represents t he limits of impr ovement under a particular set of assumptions. For example, in Cincinnati, estimates based upon operational tes ts of 30 buses showed that an AVM/C system, i f Implemented system wide, could reduce pl atform hours by 8.2 p ercent, contributing to a 2 percent reduction in the agency budget." Strengths As presented in the narrative above, models provide flexibility i n evaluating various APTS strategies without the added cost and risk associated with full deployment of a system. Weaknesses Using models to evaluate the e ffects of an AP TS system requires trave l demand (i.e., origin-destination) data that implies a massive data collection effort. Simulation of APTS applications needs to inc l ude mechanisms for representing various types of systems a nd their capabilities. For exam ple, a geographic update mechanism where a vehicle p rovided information to passengers on the next scheduled stop when passed a specific point in the simulated network would represent an AVL system. Owners of the technology (i e., software) may be reluctant to release their property to a model -based eva lua t ion effort. For example, if the model uses parameters that do not represent the real world accurately enough then the results will not reflect the true p otentia l of the system Public transp ortation is no t a closed loop control system. Decisions by users of the system can neither be simulated, nor can the decisions by non-users of t h e system be expected to remain i n static equ ilibri um. 12Mor1ok et al .. p 16. 28

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Models cannot account for changes in travel demands result ing from other impacts on public transportation (i.e., land-use policies). Subjective Evaluation At some point in an operational test the information from the techn ical, empirical, and model based evaluations should be analyzed by transit operators. A subjective evaluation of the project should be made concerning the benefits of the APTS application compared to the cost of the system. CBA is commonly used to aid decisionmakers in assessing the feas ibility of proposed projects. CBA involves the quantification of the time stream of costs and benefits as determined th rou gh t echnica l empirical, and model-based approaches." The major steps in performing a cost-benefit analysis are provided be low, along with a brief description of each." (1) Defin ing the p r oblem -Although this may seem relatively simple it is perhaps the most im porta nt step in performing the analysis. The decis ionmaker and the analyst must have a clear understanding of the task at hand. (2) Designing the analysis The cost -be nefit analysis should be designed early in the process, prior to data collection and cost and benefit estimation. The formal design should include the determination of the measure(s) to be used (e g., net p resent value, rat i o), preliminary identification of assessment costs and benefits, establishing the scope of the quantitative and qualitative components of the analysis, selection of a sensitivity analysis, and the determination of data to be collected. (3) Collecting the data Once the problem is clearly defined and the analysis has been effectively designed, the process for collecting the data must be init iated. (4) Performing the analysisOnce t he data are collected, the analysis can be performed. The quantitative analysis compares the time stream of benefits and costs for each project scenario to the baseline scenario, or "do nothin g alternative In addition, a "Underwood and Gehring. p. C-38. "Peter G. Sassone and William A Schaffer, Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Handbook (San D iego: Academic Press. Inc .. 1978), pp 155-173. 29

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qualitative or social impact analysis should be conducted to include benefots and costs that are not be quantifiable within the scope of the analysis (5) Presenting the results In order for a cost-benefit analysis to be useful to decisionmakers, the results must be presented in a clear and simple manner Consideration should be given as to how to present the results in order to enhance understanding of the analysis. An example of this traditional approach is pr ovided by the Radio/AVL Cost Benefit Study for the Regional Transit District (RTD) in Denver, Colorado. The study compared the cost and benefits of updating RTD's current radio system with the alternative of replacing it with a radio/AVL system. Quantitative MOEs for this study included benefits that directly influence RTD's operating statement through a reduction in manpower requ irement s, a more efficient use of capital equipment, or an increase in ridership. Qualitative MOEs included: a reduction in passenger comp la ints as a result of buses running more efficiently; allowing the radio dispatcher to respond to priority calls and to direct assistance to those areas of most urgent need (i.e., responding t o s ile nt alarm and vehicle breakdowns); relieving congestion on roads and imp r oving air qua lity; and "neighborhood watch" program. This study demonstrated that the benefits of the radio/AVL system outweighed the incremental cost of replacing the current system. A type of cos t-benefit analysis was developed by Mor1ok, Bruun, and Blackmon that inv olves the use of data obtained by transit systems for Section 15 reports. An example of this approach is given in a report entitled "Advanced Vehicle Monitoring and Communication Systems for Bus Transit: Benefits and Economic Feasibility."" The focus of the Morlok research was to advance the state-of-the-art in the evaluation of Advanced Vehicle Monitoring and Communication systems (AVMIC). AVM/C refers to an AVL system that also in cludes advanced communication capabilities. Tw o maj or conclusions resulted from the Morlok study: 'Morlok et al., p 38. 30

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(1) AVM/C systems have great potential for improvi ng the productiv ity of bus transit by either decreasing operating costs, Inc reas in g revenues, or some combination of both depending upon the objectives of the transit system (2) AVM/C systems have the potential to recoup their entire cost from operating and capital cost savings. These conclusions were based on secondary data sources, such as studies conducted in Cincinnati and Toronto. In Cincinnati, an operational test of AVM/C was conducted 30 buses. ResuHs of the study suggest that, if implemented system-wide, AVM/C could reduce p eak hour buses by 2 percent. In addition, the weekday bus miles declined by 7.2 percent, while platform hours were reduced by 8 2 percent. This was translated to a 2 percent reduction in the agency budget. Another study that was conducted in Toronto concluded that routes equipped A VM/C required 4 3 percent to 9 2 percent fewer buses than other routes. Several other examples were also cited in th e Morlok study. Based on t hese conclusions, a breakeven analysis was developed to assist in determining the productiv i ty improvements necessary to breakeven on an AVMJC investment. Strengths The information assembled in a cost-benefit analysis can provide decisionmakers w ith a summary net present value of a project. In cases where benefits are difficult to quantify, or if alternative projects are considered a uniform level of benefits can be assigned and then projects can be evaluated based on cost. In reference to the transit cost model approach, data available from Section 15 reports enable estimates of the potential benefits of APTS to be conducted at a lower cost than other approaches Weaknesses Inherent to this approach is the difficulty in quantifying certain benefits and costs such as the value of a life and the need to conduct a qualitat i ve or social impact analysis Cost-benefrt analysis provides dec is i onmakers with one dimension of the investment, or investments being considered. Th i s approach certain qualitative benefits in its ana l ysis. 31

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The benefits in a cost-benefit analysis are represented in dollar values rather than such as, time savings in seconds or fuel consumption in gallons. Results from this ana lysis are only as good as the data employed. It is especially true for the CBA approach that is advocated by Mortok et al. If t he Section 15 data used in this approach are not accurate than the informat ion provided on the cost effectiveness of APTS will not be credible. 32

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VIII. Emerging Approach In Evaluation of APTS The Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VNTSC) is developing a set of APTS Evaluation Guidelines that provide a common framewor1< and methodology for evaluating individual operational tests. This project is being sponsored by the APTS program of the FTA. The guidelines are not intended to be all inclusive, since each operational site is unique; each site requires a tailor-made evaluation plan or process based on the model Evaluation Guidelines. The evaluation process consists of four major phases: (1) Evaluation Frame of Reference The evaluation reference establishes the operational test background and description. I t includes local objectives, issues site characteristics, and potential external influences. (2) Evaluation Planning The evaluation planning phase of the process transforms the evaluation frame of reference into a deta iled, structured plan for co n du cting the evaluation. This plan contains the MOEs, data collection sources and requirements, and evaluation methodo logy MOEs have been organized into the following categories: financial impac ts, functiona l characteristics, user acceptance transit system efficiency and effectiveness, and other impacts. (3) Evaluation Implementation The evaluation implementat ion phase is the period during which the evaluation plan is executed. (4) Evaluation Spin-Offs Final evaluation reports are anticipated so that other interested parties may share in the findings. In addition to this effort, and beyond the operational tests of APTS that have been presented, several studies have been conducted on the benefits and costs of IVHS (ITS) technologies and strategies. These studies are analyzed in a document entitled Analysis of IVHS Benefits/Costs Studies (Volpe National Transpo rtation Systems Center, 1993). 1 61nforrnation in this section was obtained f fom a draft copy of "Evaluation guidelines lor the Advanced Public Transportation Systems Operational Tests." A final draft i s being completed by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. 33

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IX. Lessons Learned This research has provided an opportunity to i dentify the approaches used to evaluate operational tests of APTS, and other activities involving this technology. The evaluation provides information to trans i t decisi o nmakers so that investment strateg i es can be formulated. Lessons that were teamed because of this resea r ch effort are presented below. The investment of resources (i.e., t ime, labor, fiscal etc.) in th i s technol ogy varies substantially from project to project. This variance in investment depends on several factors These may include : technol o gy, performance features of the equipment complexity and size of transit system, and vendors. Specifications on each of these factors and how they will be affected by the system being tested should be included in the evaluation of an operational test. The methodo l ogi e s that have been reviewed in this research include technica l empirical model-based, and subject i ve. Each provides transit decisionmakers with an evaluation of APTS. The literature suggests that an improvement to the evaluation process may resuH when a combination of approaches is used (i.e empiri cal evaluat ion with subjective evaluation) A standard automated data collection and reporting technique should be developed. The primary benefit of this effort is that it would produce data that is consistent and rel i able, especially for operational tests involving empi rical data. It a l so allows comparisons between t ransit sys tems for similar operational tests To increase the body of knowledge on APTS, agencies tha t are involved in operational tests should be requ i red to make timely documentation of their results. A system should also be develope d to d i sseminate this information. More research should be conducted on ways to i d entify public and private benefits equitably. F o r examp le, the driver of a single occupant vehicle may realize the benefits of a Passenger Information Display System, then decide to use transit. By eliminating this driver fr o m the local road network it also red u ces conges ti o n by a sing l e vehic le. This translates into a private benefit to drivers that continue t o drive o n the local road network w i th l ess congestion The IVHS (ITS) products that are being d eveloped need to be accepted and understood by the publ ic. Potential users of the sys tem cannot be expected to realize the full benefits of the sys tem until they are well a d apted. Research on integrating this time sequence into the evaluation e ffort shou l d be pursued 34

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Existing m odel s lack the ab i lity to represent APTS functions, such as passenger responses to an inf o rmation display. An effort should be made to update existing models to reflect not only the functionality of APTS but the impact on the users of the system As additional APTS products are developed and potential users become familiar with the benefits of these systems, and assuming they reach full market penetration {i.e., breakeven point) it becomes di fficu l t to evaluate the impact of these systems on the pub li c. For exam p le drivers could beco me more attracted t o transit after learning of the b enefits of an integrated fare payment system. As ridersh i p i ncreases, congestion on the loca l road network decreases which may influence those dri vers that swi tched to transit to drive again. Various scenarios should be used to assess the impacts of APTS on institutional factors such as mode shifts and travel demand. Efforts should be made to identify features that either support or suppress a successful implementation of an operational test. For example FTA gives preference to operational test which include cost sharing between a local agency, priva t e vendor, and independent evaluator. Guidelines for performing evaluations on operational test are being developed by The Volpe Nat ional Transportat i on. These gu i delines prov i de a common framework and methodology for eva luat ing indiv i dua l operational tests I n addit i on studies have been comp l eted on the benefits and costs of IVHS (ITS) technologies and strategies These studies are analyzed in a document entit l ed Analysis of IVHS Benefits/Costs Studies (Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, 1993) The methodologies presented in this report are based on the scient i fic approach (i.e data analysis, surveys, models and field observations) Most APTS ope rati ona l tests include an evaluation using one or a combination of the approaches documented in this research. Except subjective evaluation or CBA, these methodologies are useful in evaluating APTS capabilit i es, their i mpacts on trans i t opera t ions and the potential fo r these systems to influence trave l behavior. They are not, however, appropriate for deciding if an investment in APTS is cost effective. Perhaps the most significant l esson l earned from th i s research effo rt is the need for further deve l opment in the area of subjective evalua t ion or CBA The review of APTS app li cations in the U.S. revealed very few efforts to evaluate these projects throu g h CBA. For s o me projects. a CBA is not included In most tests, this ana l ysis is planned as the final step in t he p r oject evaluation after a field test has been co m pleted and potential benefits have been reported 35

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Several operational tests that are p r esented in Appendix A are in field evaluation and have not reached the CBA phase. Guidelines on performing evaluation of APTS are already being developed by the VNTSC. Notwithstanding these guidelines specific guidelines are needed on evaluation of APTS projects using CBA. In a subsequent r eport to this research, guidelines will be established and recommended for evaluat i ng APTS i nvestments. This includes prov iding methodologies fo r determining if an APTS investment i s feasible and monitoring AP T S projects currently being tested This effort will a l so assess the cost effectiveness of APTS i nvestments as compared to tradit i onal public transportation investments 36

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Appendix A Scope and Status of APTS Operational Test Projects The following section idenlifies and summarizes past, current and planned APTS operational tests in the U.S. Listed for each operational test is the project name and/or sponsoring agency, project site the type of APTS application. the project description, the purpose for implementing the project, the method and measures of evaluation used, and the results (status) of the project versus its stated objectives. 37

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Project Name: Dade County Passenger lnfonnation System Sponsoring Agency/Site: Metro Dade County Transit Agency I Miami-Dade County APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contact: Pre-trip Passenger Information Systems Voice-actuated system accessed by phone (rotary or touch-tone) that digitizes the voice to recogn ize the request. The request is then matched, and route information is provided back to the user. This system frees up operators to handle more complex trip planning requests. The system has been operating approximately two years and provides information for bus and rail service. This system is being tested to improve the agency's ability to respond to passengers requesting information. Measurements are taken to determine the number of additional request serviced as a result of implementing the system Market research activities are also underway to get public perceptions to the new service. Automated system reduced the amount of time per ca ll being spent which allowed for greater capacity of service F u ture plans are to add user-friend l y terminals and key transfer po i nts and rail stations. AVL system is scheduled to be operational in two years 800 MHz radio and GPS and will be t i ed into the exist i ng information system to provide real-time data Louis Revas (305) 375-3203 38

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Project Nam e : '7eletrip", The L ong I sland Railroad Project Sponsoring Agency/Site: Long Is land Railroad (LIRR) I New York City APTS Applicati on: Project Description: P roject Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contact: Pre-trip Passenger lnfonnation Computerized system, designed by Next Generation, Inc. to handle i ncom ing calls and provide schedu l e and fare information by means of a co mputer-generated vo ice. System analyzes calls and supplies requeste d informat i on Sys t em also has abilit y t o p la y a p r e-recorded message on train schedules or emergency operational de l ays This system has been impl emented t o i ncrease the number of informa tion see k ers that are able t o be serviced and to decrease the require d workforce ne ce ssary to handle those calls Much of the evalua t io n work was do ne initially before the p urchase of the system System was installed in 1989. Since that time the overall system capacity has been in crea s ed twice from 16 lines t o 72, and again to 100 lines. A 33 percent increase, from 2 million in 1991 to 3 million in 1992, in the number of calls handled has als o been realized by t he system 55 percent of all calls com in g into the system are hand l ed by '7el etrip." LIRR officials estimated in 1990 that every call results i n $2.34 of revenue Brian Dolan Public Relations-(718) 990-7301 39

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Project Name: Houston Smart Commuter Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, FHWA, Texas Department of Highways and Public Transportation, and the Texas Transportation Institute, Metro Transit Authority of Harris County I Houston Metro APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: Real-time Passenger Info rmation and In-terminal Information The project assesses the market potential for ride-sharing activities by supplying traffic information t o the public. Cost-effective alternatives for collecting and disseminating t raffic information are iden t ified and evaluate. Project admin istrativ e requirements and projected costs are also i dentifie d Data integration with existing "Digiplan" project, which provides in-terminal informat io n using GIS databases and touch-screen technology, is p l anned. This p roject seeks to develop and evaluate a real-time traffic and t rans it information system for the Harris County area. Four categories of evaluation criteria are used to judge the progress of the demonstration: desired system characteristics, compatibility with other METRO and state highway and p ub lic transportation projects, costs, potential for private sector involvement. Concept development stage has been completed Interagency agreements between team members are currently bein g negotiated. Denis Symes (202} 366-0232 Darryl Puckett(713} 739-6093 40

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Project Name : Detroit Transportation Center Transit Information Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, FHWA, Detroit Department of Transportation I Detroit APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method : Results (Status): Contacts: Real-time Passenger Information Use of buried inductive loops to collect traffic information for 32 miles of freeway. Traffic condition informat ion is provided to highway management centers for dissemination to public transit agencies. Information is graphically disp layed on monitors by color coding freeway segments by speed. To demonstrate the ability to provide this information inexpensive l y and assess its value to transit organizations. To be determined Volpe report on evaluation criteria due to be released soon It is believed tha t criteria from that report will be used to measure the effectiveness of the project Initial orders for hardware made in June 1992 Delivery and installat i on expected in fall of 1993. Sean Ricketson (202) 366-6678 Janet D'lgnazio (517) 373-2834 41

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Project Name: California Smart Traveler Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, CAL T RANS I Suburban California APT S Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: Pre-trip Passenger Information Information system will permit residen t ial and business users to access timely travel informat i on using remote access computers over telephone lines. Users will be able to identify and reserve travel options through the us e of the system. Both public and pri vate sectors will test an advanced traveler informat ion system as part of the project through the use of voice mail and kiosk interfaces. Th i s project wi ll support efforts to design operationally test, and evaluate the California Advanced Public Transportation Systems (CAPTS) program. IVHS (ITS) technologies will be applied to transit, paratransit, and ridesharing operations. Proposals for an evaluation plan are being reviewed. Chosen contractor will reference Volpe evaluation plan {whe n com p let ed) and develop specific plan for the project. Three information systems have been hooked into the pre-trip information system: CAL TRANS, ride-share cont r actor and Metropolitan Transit Authority databases. Ron Boeneau (202) 366-0195 Robert Ratcliff (916) 323-2644 42

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Project N .. me: Seattle Smart Traveler Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, Bellevue Transportation management Associa t ion, University of Washington City of Be lle vue Washington DO T I Seattle Bellevue, WA APTS Application: Real-time Rideshare Matching Project Description: Phase I i s an i nnovat ive technolog y approach combini ng cellular communications voice mai l and computerize d real-t ime i nformation processing t o make ridesharing more attractive. Phase II will operatio n ally test prototype computer-based int eractive commute r informat i on cen t ers in downtown Bellevue. Dynamic ride-sharing services avai la ble via phone and pagers. Project Purpose: Eva luation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: This project strives to expand the a rea's rideshare matchin g system and to supply information to r ideshare vehicles wh i ch prov i des an advantage o ver sing l e occupancy vehicles. It is hoped that a new k ind of informa t ion infra structure can be forged thro ugh the application of these new techno l ogies. The focus of the evaluation is on the increase part icipa tio n i n ride sharin g activities. Tremendous effort is being made to provide and promote ride sharin g serv i ces. Activ i ties will be monitored i n two areas. First f rom the machine side how many connections (ride shares) will be made throu gh the use of the system (the system will keep track). Second, an assessment will be made as to t he human res ponse to the system and t h e ove ra ll im pac t on travel behavior. The pieces are i n place to begin a 6-month operationa l t est for providing dynami c ride-sharing services Serv i ces should be offered in 1993 Ron Boeneau(202) 366-0195 Mark H aselk om (206) 543-2577 43

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Project Name: California Smart Public Transportation Sponsoring Agency/Site: Metropolitan Transportati o n Commission I Oakland, CA Metropolitan Transportation Commission I Los Angeles, CA APTS Appllcatlon: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contact: Integrated Fare Media Two similar projects under the California Advanced Public Transportation Systems (CAPT$) um brella using magnetic-strip cards for combining the fares of bus and rail services. Study areas are in the cities of Oakland and Los Angeles and include transn agencies from both areas. Volunteers use magnetic-strip cards to pay fares. New vending equipment is to be installed in major downtown stations and suburban areas. These projects test the equipment and electronics associated with smart card technology. The goal is to examine the ability of smart card technology to reduce overall traveler commute times by removing the need for separate tare media. Evaluation plan will be develop in coordination with the Volpe evaluation plan (when completed) Specific measures for integrated fare media will be incorporated. None specified Joe l Markowitz{510) 464-7760 44

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Project Name : Norfolk Mo bility Manager Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA ndewater Transportation District Commission I Norfolk, VA APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contact Mobil ity Ma nager The provision of subsidies to low -inc ome transit riders to encourage private operations to provide better t ransportation services. The Tidewater Transportation District Commission will distribute 'mobility vouchers' to employees who pay face value for the vouchers or qualify for the benefit. Voucher d istribution will also be coordinated with social service agencies, especially the medical area. This project is designed to evaluate how transit and paratransit subsidies can improve trans portat i on services to low-i ncome riders by focusing on the employer difficulties in getting low-income wage earners to overcome transportation barriers to employment. To be determined Project to date has been a success by evidence of increasing sales. Helen Tann (202) 366-0207 45

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Project Name: Rogue County Mobility Manager Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, Rogue Valley Council of Governments, Call-a-Ride, Upper Rogue Community Centers, Rogue Valley Transportation District I Medford OR APT$ Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: Mobility Manager, Provider Information System, Electronic Fare Media, Dispatch Services. Use of magnetic-strip cards to integrate transportation users, providers, and funding sources. Advanced electronic technology is used to record financial transact io ns. Radio and cellular data tra nsmission are used This project is designed to provide transportation services t o the elderly and disabled who are unable to use fixed-route transit and to demonstrate the mobility manager concept for f requent transit riders in urban and rural environments It is hoped that future stages lead t o widespread public partic ipat ion. To be determined based on the Volpe Plan. A project steering committee consisting of operators and consumers has been organized to assist in the development and management of the project. Easy Street has been contracted to develop and ins ta ll all hardware and software systems Three month development schedule due to begin in November, and operati ons should begin by February 1994 Ron Boeneau (202) 366-0195 Gary Shaff (503) 664-667 4 46

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Project Name: Bus Card Plus Program Sponsoring Agency/Site: City of Phoenix, Phoenix Transit I Phoenix, AZ APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contact: Smart Cards Use of credit card to pay bus fares. The card reader is placed directly on top of the farebox and accepts magnetically-encoded information from a standard credit card pass. System has been operational since April 1991, incorporates the entire bus fleet (370 buses), and has five fare categories: monthly passes, dai l y passes disabled, senior citizens, and youth Local businesses are signed up in the program to supply cards to employees for use Fares are collected from the businesses and subtrac t ed from employee paychecks. This project worl
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Project Name: Washington Metropo lit an Area Transit Authority Sponsoring Agency/Site: Washington D.C. APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: Smart Cards Use of a credit card to pay bus and rail fares. 1) To test advance fare technology; 2) To experiment with a sturdier fare card than is currently being used by the system; 3) To eliminate the need for bus passengers to have change to pay fares No evaluation methodology given None specified. Ram on Abromovich (202) 962-5274 lrv Chambers (202) 366-0238 48

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Project Name: Travlink I Twin Cities Smart Traveler Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, Minnesota OepartmentofTransportation Met ropoman Commission, Regional Transit Board, University of Minnesota I Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN APTS Application: Smart Cards, Real-time Traveler lnfonnati on Automatic Vehicle Location. Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Me t hod: Results (Status): Contacts: Two separate projects utilizing IVHS (ITS) technologies for the enhancement of public transportation systems. "Travlink" plans are being designed to use AVL for bus tracking and to provide real time travel infonnation to transit users and ridesharers at home work and transit terminals. "Smart Traveler" utilizes smart card technologies for advanced fare payment and electronic billing to improve t ransit and paratransit service. Possible link-ups between t he two projects will be investigated The "Travlink" project will examine t he usefulness and effectiveness of providing t rave l i nfo rmation to transit users. "Smart Traveler" will examine the best fare payment application, evaluate the smart card potential for electronic billing, study the p otential of monitoring contractor perf onnance thro ugh smart card systems, and detennine the smart card potential on standard transit routes. Consultant, Cambridge Systematics hired to do evaluation of the operational test. Evaluation criteria will be developed with special attention being given to the evaluation plan developed by the VNTSC. Applied Systems I nstitute, Inc has been contracted to conduct t he study to assess smart-card benefits for in dividual transit operators. Plans are being developed toward the implementation of a pilot project on 12 buses scheduled to begin in March 1994. Sean Ricketson (2 02) 366-6678 Howard Blin (612) 292-8789 49

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Project Name: Dallas Smart Bus Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, Dallas Area Rapid Transit I Dallas, TX APTS Application; Automatic Vehicle Location Project Description: Use of an Integrated Radio System (IRS) and GPS technology to track a fleet of 1500 buses, transit supervisor vehicles mobility impaired vehicles. "Report by exception" strategy being used. Service area is very large (goo square miles) and position accuracy of buses is desired Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: This project wishes to develop an AVL system to integrate po li ce vehicles, to serve as a management tool and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the GPS/IRS technology combination to control bus schedules. No specific evaluation criteria being used on the benefits to the users and community, however, a 43 percent increase in efficiency fo r handi-ride services (mobility impaired) was realized. Transit agency is administering their own performance analysis of the equipment. Operational system started in May 1992. The IRS/GPS e quipment is currently installed and opera ting in 1160 buses. Central software for route adherence not yet complete so project i s only 70 percent complete Denis Symes (202) 366-0232 Paul Ledwitz-(214 ) 749-2837 50

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Project Name: Ann Arbor Smart Bus Sponsoring Agency/Site: FT A, Ann Arbor Transportation Authority (AA TA), City of Ann Arbor, University of Michigan I Ann Arbor Ml APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: Automatic Vehicle Location, Smart Cards, Automatic Vehicle Location, Bus Service Management System, In-vehicle Information System, Traffic Signal Preemption. Several different applications of IVHS (ITS) technologies utilized for improving the bus operation in Ann Arbor. Three components are stressed for improvement: operations control, on-board systems and customer information systems. Use of GPS for vehicle location. On-board systems monitor performance and collect data for bus ident ification, route speed, inc ident reporting and engine status. Customer information systems and services include in-bus displays and ''Talking Bus" features to signal stops and smart cards to provide dual farecard/parlling pass for encouraging car drivers to ride transit. This project will conduct an operationa l test of the "Smart Bus" concept and integrate several IVHS (ITS} techno lo gies for the purpose of enhancing transit services and improving overall mobility. The project will help the AATA meet a broader set of goals defining their intent to provide the highes t level of transit service to the community. No evaluation methodology given. AATA has issued a RFP for system procurement defining functional specification Proposals are due in October 1993 and a contractor choice is expected in November 1993. Initial p lans will focus on develop ing the smart card fare and parking system, then equipping a portion of the bus fleet with the previously mentioned systems. Sean Ricketson (202) 366-6678 Michael Bolton-(313) 973-6500 51

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Project Name: Toronto Trans it AVL System Sponsoring Agency/Site: Toro nto Transit Commission I Toronto, Ontario, Canada APTS Application: Automatic Vehicle Location, Advanced Vehicle Monitoring and Communications System Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (S tatus): Contact: Use of odomete r/si gnpost base d system voice/data radio, microprocessor, keyboard, and disp lay within transit buses for current location designation and deviation control. A large ope ra tio n i nvo l ving 2300 buses and streetcars along with several transit (subway) vehicles. Vehicle location s are polled once every six seconds and trans mitt ed via radio channel t o control center. Automatic passenge r counters are also use but are coordinated w ith th e AVL for r ea l -time d ata. The project i s de signed to facilitate planning a nd scheduling for imp r oving the operating efficiency o f bus service i n T oronto and to p r ov ide veh icl e l ocation information to inte rested parties. Eval u ations will focus on two study area s one downtown, on suburban, to test the validity and accuracy of t he AVL system. None specified Joe O 'Conn ell (416) 393-4373 52

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Project Name: Chicago Smart Bus Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, Chicago Transit Authority, City Department of Public Works. City Department of Streets and I Chicago APTS Application: Automatic Vehicle location. Bus Service Management System (BSMS), Real-time Passenge r Information Systems, Tr affic Signal Preemption, In-vehicle Information Systems Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: Development of a BSMS that will utilize various tVHS (ITS) technologies for dispatching and managing b us and operations. The system will support operations and provide schedule adherence inform ation to dispatchers. Unique featu res of the system include: 1) headway adherence by means of text displays which show t he bus driver the headway for t he preceding and succeeding buses: and 2) computer-aided service restoration (CASR) which i d ent ifies the most c ri t i cal system and suggests alternative courses of action. Extensive on board data collection will also be done in support of the operational evaluation to be completed. This project will document the process of implementing a BSMS and provide for more efficient and effective bus operations. The project will a l so analyze the human-factors element of BSMS by assessing the effects of intr oducing video terminals and information systems into the transit dispatching environment. The evaluation criteria used to measure cost-effectiveness will be the plan being developed by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VNTSC). Vendor proposals have been reviewed for hardware and software designs. Contract negotiations are in progress. Vendor choice expected by end of 1993. Operational demo nstration on 85 buses will be in place by end of 1994. Sean Ricketson (202) 366-6678 Jim Blanchard(312) 245-9170 53

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Project Name: Baltimore Smart Bus Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, Maryland Mass Transij Administrat i on I Baltimore, MD APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: Automatic Vehicle Location. City buses and supervisory vehicles are equipped wijh LORAN-C receivers and 800 Mhz radios for location tracking. Bus l ocation is detennined and transmitted to dispatching centers where corrective actions can be taken for off-schedule buses. Next project development p hase will utilize GPS technology for bus locations make bus information avai l able t o current and would-be passengers by providing infonnation displays in the home and workplace. Computer-aided dispatch for the bus f leet will also be tested This project will crea te the ability to provide bus status infonnation to bus dispatchers and the general public. The benefit of such inf onnation will be imp rove d bus operating schedu les, la bor productivity, and greater utilization of the fleet. To be detennined Phase II demonstration is operational to detennine its potential with 50 b uses, 4 superv i sory vehicles, and 2 color consoles. Driver feedback on schedule adherence is available to control routes. Phase Ill is out for bid in September 1993 and will utilize GPS in place of LORAN-e for vehic le locations Entire bus fleet will be equipped for AVL. Realized benefits inc l ude better utilization of bus fleet, better on-time performance, less on-air time for drivers and a better overall understanding of ope rations Denis Symes (202) 366-0232 Ray Carroll (410) 333-3430 54

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Project Name: Denver Smart Bus Sponsoring Agency/Site: Denver, CO APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method: Results (Status): Contacts: Automatic Vehicle Location Real-time Information System Use of GPS-based system for tracking vehicle location. Real-time traffic information will be provided to central dispatch center for controlling trans it operations and travelers for decision making. Dispatch operators will monitor locations on map displays and control bus schedules. Schedule information will be provided to travelers at transit stations, park-and-ride l ots. and the new Denver airport. This project will provide real-time traffic information for travelers to increase transit efficiency, ridership, and passenger safety. System will be evaluated by FT A through Sandia National Laboratories and the Denver Regional Transportation District. Included in the evaluation will be a technical eva luat ion and a human factors/interface evaluation. The system is installed in 833 buses and 28 supervisory vehicles. A complete operational system is expected by December 1993. A light-rail transit demonstration (eleven veh ic les) is expected to be added by October 1994. Denis Symes (202) 366-0232 Lou Ha (303) 299-6265 55

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Project Name: Passenger Waiting nme Monitoring System (PWTMS) Sponsoring Agency/Site: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (Rapid Transit Operations) I Boston, MA APTS Application: Project Description: Project Purpose: Evaluation Method : Results (Status): Operations Software Partially automated system that allows operators to compare schedule times versus actual train times. System Is tied into the non-vital logic where it counts trains and compares time versus the operating schedule. In formation is used t o alert dispatchers and invoke exception operations procedures Informat ion is also provided to emergency response personnel and to passengers at stations for next train arrival. PWTMS is designed to monitor train delays adjust flows when necessary, and announce next train arrivals to awaiting passengers. Major measure used to track system performance i s passenger time (headways). However, operations them selves are altered only for exceptions. PWTMS has been ins talle d for th ree years It was paid for out of the operating b udgets of the rapid transit operation. Realized benefits include reduced labor and faster response by dispatchers to situations potentially causing system delays. Also a benefit in stronger relation with public due by providing train arrival information. Conceptual designs are being developed for a fully automated decision assistance system for d i spatchers for rapid transit operations. 56

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Project Name: Transit Networ1< Route Decision Aid Sponsoring Agency/Site: FTA, University of Michigan Department of Industrial Operations and Engineering I Ann Arbor, Ml APTS Application: Passenger Information Systems Project Description: The development of specialized techniques and algorithms for decision aid to assist telephone operator in rapidly identifying useful itineraries for passengers in mass transit systems. Upon development of s uch techn iq ues an operational t est could be performed for validation. Project Purpose: Evaluation Method : Results (Status): Contacts: This project will develop specifications for designing, implementing, and evaluating compu t erized information systems Not applicable Wor1< has begun on the investigation and analysis of a lgorithms and specialized techniques to address prob lem Sean Ricketson ( 202) 366-6678 Chip While-(313) 763-1332 57

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REFERENCES Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Committee m i nutes from the August 16, 1992 meeting Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Committee, minutes from the January 13 1993 meeting. Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Comm i ttee. m i nutes from the April 13, 1993 meeting. Alverez, Daniel, private communication, Metro Dade County Transit Agency, Miami, FL. Bolton Michael private communication Ann Arbor Transportation Authority, Ann Arbor, MI. Blanchard, James, private communication, Chicago Trans i t Authority, Chicago, IL. Blin, Howard, private communication Minnesota Department of T r ansportat i on Campbell, Donald T and Julian C Stanley, "Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Design for Research," (Chicago : Rand McNally & Company, 1963). Carroll, Ray private communication, Maryland Mass Transit Administration, Ba l t i more, MD. Center for Urban Transportation Research, "Strategic Plan for Advanced Public Transportation Systems for Metro-Dade Transit Agency prepared for the Metro-Dade Transit Agency in Metro Dade County, ( T ampa, Florida, August 1993). Coley /Forrest, Inc., "Radio/AVL CosVBenefit Study," (Denver, Colorado : Regional Transportat i on District, June 1989). Dolan, Brian private communication, Long Island Railroad, Long Island, NY. Fisher, Ronald J ., "Smart Travelers of the 1990s," JTE Journal, (January 1991 ), p. 17. Florida Department of Transportation, "Cand i date Project for I VHS Corridor Program Southeast Florida Intelligent Corridor System (ICS)," (March 1992). Ha Lou, private communication, Regional Transportation D i strict, Denver CO. 58

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IVHS America, "Strategic Plan for IVHS in the United States," (IVHSAMER-92, May 1992) IVHS America, "Surface Transportation: Mobility, Technology, and Society," proceedings from the annual meeting in Washington, D.C., (April 14-17, 19g3). IVHS America 'WiiiiVHS Transform Transportation System Effectiveness?," proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Benefits Evaluation, and Costs Committee, (San Diego, California: December 1, 1992) Klein, Lawrence A. et al., "IVHS Architecture Development and Evaluation Process", IVHS Journal, (Volume 1, No. 1, 1g93). Led witz Paul private communication, Dallas Area Rapid Transit Dallas, TX. Mitre Corporation, Center for Advanced Aviation System Development, "Guidel ines for IVH S Operational Test Evaluation Plans: Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Advanced Traffic Ma nagem ent Systems," (DTFH-91-C-00027, November 1992, working pa per). Morlok, Edward K., Eric C. Bruun, and Kimberly J. Battle Blackmon "Advanced Vehicle Monitoring and Communication Systems for Bus Transit: Benefits and Economic Feasibility Executive Summary (September 1991) Ognibene, Peter, "Community Transit Getting 'Smart'," Community Transpottation Reporter, (July 1992) p. 12 Phillips, David L., private communication, Chicago Transit Authority, Chicago IL. Ratcliff Robert, private communication, Ca lif ornia Department of Transportation Rutgers University, "Advanced Vehicle Monitoring and Communication Systems: Focus on Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) a new technology seminar (New Brunswick, NJ: October 25 1993). Sarbella Joseph, private communication, Phoenix Transit, Phoenix. AZ. Turnbull, Katy private communication, Texas Transp ortat i on Institu t e Texas A&M University College Station, TX. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration. "Advanced Public Transportation Systems: The State of the Art Update '92 ," (DOT-VNTSC-FTA-92, April1992) 59

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U S Department ofTransportation Federal Trans i t Administration, "Bellevue Smart Traveler and Cellular Telecommunications," (DOT-T-93-36 May 1993). U.S. Department ofTransportation, Federal Transit Administration, "Evaluation Guidelines for the Advanced Public Transportation Systems Operational Tests," prepared by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, (Cambridge MA, draft version). U S. Department of Transportation, Federal Administration, "German Smart Bus Systems: Potential Application in Portland, Oregon," (Volume 1, Technica l Report DOT-T-93-25, January 1993). U S Department of Transportation, Federal Transi t Administration "Evaluation Plan for AVL Implementations," prepared by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Cambridge, MA: February 1993), draft version U .S Department of Transportation, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, "Ana lysis of IVHS Benefit/Costs Studies," (PM-42-93-ER2 September 1993), draft version. U S Department of Transportation, "Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems Projects," (February 1993). U S Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Adm i nistration & Federal Transit Administration, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) Projects in the United States, (May 1992) The Urban Transportation Mon i tor, "Canadian Transit System Phasin g in AVI System," (September 28 1992), p 6. The Urban Transportation Monitor, "Denver Starts "Comm ute r Check" D i scount Fare P l an," (December 7, 1 g9o), p. 3. The Urban Transportation Monitor, "Los Angeles To Test Elec tron ic Locator System for Buses," {Jul y 5, 1991 ), p. 3 The Urban Transportation Monitor, "Rea l -time Traffic and Transit Information Ava il able by Telephone," (October 30 19g2}, p. 1. The Urban Transportation Mon itor, "Smart Commuting -The Oregon Way (July 1g93), p. 2. Wal ters Jonathan, "Los Ange l es : Technology and Traffic," Gov e rning (Oc tobe r 1992), p 43. 60


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