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Hendricks, Sara Jay.
Telecommunications and its future role in the public transportation arena
h [electronic resource] /
Sara J. Hendricks, Philip L. Winters, Cecilia Dyhouse.
Tampa, Fla. :
b University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research,
1 online resource (47 p.)
Includes bibliographical references (p. 43-46).
Sponsored by U.S. Dept. of Transportation, University Research Institute Program, and Florida Dept. of Transportation under contract no.
Description based on print version record.
Winters, Philip L.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
Dept. of Transportation.
University Research Program.
Dept. of Transportation.
i Print version:
Hendricks, Sara Jay.
t Telecommunications and its future role in the public transportation arena.
d Tampa, Fla. : University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research, 2002
Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
y USF ONLINE ACCESS
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND ITS FUTURE ROLE IN THE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ARENA
TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND ITS FUTURE ROLE IN THE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION ARENA Sara J. Hendricks Principal Investigator Philip L Winters Principal Inve sti gator Cecilia Dyhouse Graduate Student Assistant Center for Urban Transporta tion Research February 2002
CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH U niversity of South F l orida 4202 E. Fowler A venue CUT I 00 Tampa, FL 33620 5375 (813) 974-3120 SunCom 5743120, Fax (813) 974-5168 Edward Mierzejewski, CUTR Director Joel Vo/inski NCTR Director Dennis Hinebaugh. Transit Program Director The contents of this report reflect the views of the author who is respons ible for the facts and the accuracy of the information presented herein. This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation, University Research Institute Program in the interest of information exchange. T h e U.S Government ass u mes no liability for the contents or use thereof
TECUNICAL REPORT STANDARD TrTLB PAGE 2. GvommOf\t Aec.ession No. J RMdplonr h"'. NCTR 416-01 .L. and Transl! .AoCou loPrlvoto Propoft)' S. Rt ll Ot Telecommunications and Its Future Role in the Public February 2002 Transportation Arena 6. PerletMi:'liJ OroanitaricnCOd!& 1. ki'J'l Ct(:l ) & PQI"fetminl! No. Sara J. Hend r icks 9. PeotfOI'MiiiQ 81\(JAdd:'t$8 1 0. Wert Ur.il Ko. National Center for Trans i t Research Center for Urban Transportat i on Research University of South Of Gtwt. No. F l orida DTRS98-G-0032 12. Sj)O'IS()(i.'Y,I Agency Ntme 8nCI Moress n TWo oi Report oYid Poroed CoYoroCI Office of Research and Spec ia l P r ograms U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington D.C 20690 Departrn_:nt of 1 4 Fl 1$. NolO$ Supported by a grant f rom the Florida Department of Transportat i on and the U S. Department of Transportation ICi.AbSIJOCI The object ive o f th i s report is to investigate current conditions in the applicat i on of telecommunications to TOM programs that support public transportation statewide T h e report provides the resu l ts of a survey of transit agencies nati onwide to ascertain whether transit agenc i es are currently using or p l an to use te l ecommuting and telecommun i cat i ons in t h e i r p r ogram of services in the f u tu r e The research also iden t ifies trends in the tel ecommunications indus t ry that may have a bearing on travel behav i or and subsequent publ i c transit planning The report provides recommendat i ons on how transit and othe r t r ansportation age n cies can respo n d to chang i ng co n ditions 1 7 IIOyV /orOs 18 lliWbVIi< $".t11$Milr< Public transit. public Available to the public through the National Technical transportation telecommuting, Information Service (NTIS). 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, tel ecommun ic ations VA 2218 1 ph (703) 487-4650 19 Socur C lor.s/1. of lhlst s.o..t et.esl Of ehi 11 p ,., I 21. 01 .. I 22. P'*
Table of Contents lntrod u c t.ion ... ..... ......... ... .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. ..... .. .......... . .. .. . ........... .. ........ .... .. .. ... .......... ... I Rates of Teleco m mut ing .. ............ .. .. . .. .. .. ....... ... .. ...... .. .......... ........... ..... .. . ...... .. ... 4 The Impact Of Telecommut ing On T r avel Behavior ............ .. .................................... ...... .. 7 The I mpact ofTeehnol o g ical l llllovations on Bus i ness Prac tice and Travel ........ . .. ........ 10 History o f Governmen t Involvement and I n itiati ves .. .. .... ... .................... .. .... .. ........ ..... .. I 4 Federal Role ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. ........... .. .. . ..... ...... ... .. .. ..... .. . ..... .. .. .. ..... .. ...................... 1 4 S t a t e Role ................. ..... .. .. ....... ..... .. .. .. ...... ... .. ......... ...... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ........ ....... 14 Local Role ................... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. ...... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .......... ........ .. .. ... ..... ...... 17 G o vernmen t Telec o mmuting Programs . .. .... . .. .. .. ..... .. .. .......... .. .... .... ....... .. ....... .. .. .. 18 Fe d eral and Stat e Ini t iatives .. ................................................ .... .... ............................... I 8 Tel e comm u t i n g Programs for the Genera l Pub li c ........ .. .... .. .................. .. .. .... ............... 20 Internationa l I nitiatives .... .. ..... ......... .. .. .. .... ... .. .. .... ..... ...... .. .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. .. ........ ... 21 Ot her Applications o f TelecommunicatiollS for Other T r ansporta t ion Pui'pOses .... ..... 21 P ublic TrallSit Agency Use ofloformation and CoTillltunica t ions Tec h nologies .. ......... 22 Survey Developmen t and R esults .... .. .. ....... ...... ........ .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. ...... ....... .. ........ ... 25 S u rvey Con cl u sions .... .. . . ...... .. .. ................. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .............. .. . .... .. .. 29 Where Do We Go From Here? .. .................... .......... ...... ........................ .. ........ .. ...... .... 29 Telecommunications Planning ..... .... .. .. .. .. .... .. .... ......... ............ .. ......... ..... .. .. .. ....... 32 Study Conclusions .......... ..... .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. ... .................. ..... .. ...... .. .. . ....... 34 Cons i der Revising the Department ofTrallSportat ion Mission Stateme nt.. ......... .. ....... 35 Con sider a Tel ecom m unica t ions Element Within the Transportation P l an .................. 3 5 Additional Con sideratio ns .... .. .. ..... ................... .... ..... . .. ..... .. .. ..... . .. ..................... 37 Considerat ions Developed from S urv ey R e sul t s .................... .. .. .... .... .. ...... .. ............... 42 References .. ........... ..... ..... ...... .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .... .... .. ... ... .. .. .......... .... . ....... .. . . . .. ........ 44 Appendix .. .. ... .. .. .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... ............... ... . .. .. .. .. .. ....... .... .... .................. 48
Introduction Under the direction of Governor Jeb Bush, the operations of the Florida Dept. of Transportation underwent review in 2000, for the purpose of increasing efficiency of government. According to the news article, State workers: Transportation is next up for reorganization, "Division directors, bureau chiefs and other managers will be looking at everything they do and asking, 'Do we need to continue to perform this func tio n? If so, are we currently doing it in the best way? .. "'[!]. In Florida and elsewhere, political leaders periodically ask for such review. This study suggests that in the case of telecommunications and telecommuting, government shou ld also ask are there new conditions that warrant government and pub lic transportation providers to develop a new role? In the case of telecommuting and other applications of information and communications technologies, should FOO T and other local mobility managers take a more proactive approach toward such developments as they affect travel? Given what appears to be a growing potential for telecom m u ting to alter physical travel patterns, this report proposes that transportation planning has an interest in telecommunications that goes beyond the development of telecommuting programs for government workers and the encourage m ent of telecommuting through commuter assistance programs. Using Florida as an examp le, local, regional and state le vel transporta1 io n planners should be looking for opportunities to influence the development and application of the technologies toward achieving transportation goals for the public good. Graham and Marvin observe, ... telecommunications are not neutral technologies They are not equally amenable to al.l users which can be envisaged; an inheren t bias is already 'locked in' to them thro ugh the network design process"(2). Th is observat ion suggests two things. First, the opportunities to use telecommunications for various purposes, including telecommuting, are not available t o everyone. A prime function of government is to ensure universal access to utilities. Secondly the above observation reminds us that the goals for the u lt i m ate usage of a product or service is what directs technology advancements. Telecommunications technology development for the purposes of motor veh icle trip reduction and mob ility enhancement has not been the goal that directs and ddves the development of the techno logy If it were, then perhaps there might now be new telecommunications products, services and capabilities that resoundingly alter travel behavior, reduce trips and improve mobility for everyone. I
In addition to chronic traffic congestion problems for whic h telecommuting is looked to as a potent ial solution, recent events have renewed interest in its application for other reasons. The September lith terrorist attack has catapulted the U.S. into a new war. One month after the event the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US DOT put out a call for research on technologies and inn ovations to safeguard our transportation system. While the Request for Proposal did not specifically identify any particular technologies, it is possible that the use of information and communications technologies for t e lework and te lecommerce could be incorporated as part of our defense strategy as a means of enabling the population to work and conduct business from horne. Given the growing traffic congestion problem for those who drive private vehic les and the lack of transportation for those who depend upon limited public transit serv ices, telecommunications technologies may address the individual needs of both groups while addressing public concerns about air po llut ion, environmental degradation, r egional economic development and job access for the unemployed The relationship of telecommunications advances and transit has, in fact, been considered by the transit industry. In October 1996, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) created a strategic planning task force .to explore both the positive opportunities and the dangers ahead. It developed four scenarios one of which was the "Community Oriented Growth" scenario whlch included tele commuting in its vision: "Telecommuting in many different forms grew steadily and reduced the demand for transportation. Rather than promoting a massive work-at-home movement with further low density sprawl, information techno logy had a wide variety of im pacts including more off-peak commuting, more partia lwork-at-home, more use of satellite business centers and more office-to-office t e leconferencing Information technology was a key driver in [the continuing deconstruction of large corporations (downsizing, de-layering decentralizing, outsourcing)) the rise of dispersed "virtual corporations," and the proliferation oflocal small businesses. "These technologica l developments, combined with changes in land use, produced a steady decline in automobile vehicle miles traveled after 2015, reinforcing and fostering new t ransit-oriented development patterns. A revolution occurred in transit service capabilities and customer satisfaction as routes expanded, quality improved and transit providers custom i zed their services to different customer groups and trip purposes A revolution also occurred in system efficiency as transit became more entrepreneurial, paid its own way, and m oved into profitable lines ofbusiness ."[4) Such a scenario by APTA suggests that a change in t hlnking is underway regarding the ro le of public transit. Through the use of developing scenarios the APTA task force then crafted a vision statement that describes the preferred future of Task F orce members. Included in thls v i sion was the statement regarding tele communications: 2
"Universal access to the information s u perhighway has reduced the demand for transportation, allowing us to work, learn, shop, bank, and obtain medical servi ces without leaving our homes This study examines whether transit agencies share a similar view or vision. Few information sources were foWld in the literature review that l ink public transit agencies with telecommunications-related programs. One such source TCRP Reporr 21, identified telecommuting centers as a means to increase travel op ti ons thr ough the use of technical advancements and c i ted a demonstration project of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACM TA) to estab l ish the Blue Line Tele village at a rail station. The Televillage would use excess capacity on LACMTA 's fiber optic cables to provide electronic i nteractive capabilities for employment, distance-learning, access to government services parent teacher meet i ngs and other functions. The case study cited two potential advan t ages to the trans it au th ority for hosting a televillage: increased ridersh.ip from the new attractions in the televillage and new revenue from l and and equipment-sharing agreements . Perhaps more important to this investiga ti on than the televillage case study, was the intent of TCRP Report 21, to provide information for those agencies seeking to make the transition from traditional transit operating agency to mobility manager by starting with a definition: "A mobility manager is a transportation organization serving the general public that responds to and influences the demands of th e market by undertaking actions and supportive strategies directly or in co ll abo r ation with others to provide a full range of options to the single-occupant automob ile"(6). This paper provides information about rates of telecommuting, teleco mmuting imp acts on travel behavior and technological innovations that may lead to a new role for state department s of transportation and lo cal transporta tion planning departments and wider applications and opportunities for transit agencies. Informa tion is also provided regarding business trends regarding telecommWJica t ion s and telecommuting as well as recen t govenunent initiatives. A premise of this study is that pub li c transportation agencies will find opportunities to better serve the mobility needs of the public by considering the possibilities of telecommunications 3
Rates of Telecommuting Data from three sources indicate that both working at home and telecomm uti ng have been inc reasing during the las t twenty years. Year 1980 1990 2000 Table 1 Number of Workers Who Worked At Home Source: U.S. Census Nationwide %Increase Florida From Previous Decade 2.2 million -58,778 3.4 million 55% 132, 084 4.1 mtllion 21% 222,473 %Increase From Previous Decade .. 125% 68% U.S. Census data indicate that the number of workers who worked at home increased by approximately SO percent, from 2.0 to 3.0 p ercent of the total workforce between 1980 and 2000. The U S Census figures are based on the response to th e Census survey question "How did you usually get to work last week? One response option is "Worked At Home. Usually is defined to mean the most number of days during the week; th erefore if a person worked at home two out of five days per week, this would not be counted as a "worked at home" trip As a result of the definition, Ce nsu s data probably provides a more conservative estimate Table 2 Number of Workers in Florida Who Traveled To Work By Public Transit Source: U.S Census Year Journey To Work By Public % Increase from Previous Transit Decade 1980 106,546 -1990 I I 6,352 9% 2000 147,132 26% I n the State of Florida, the number of persons working at home surpassed public transportation in both the rate of growth and in absolute n umbers 1 Jnfonnation newly released by the U.S. Census Bureau in January 2002 reported that dara collected during a four-monlh period from April to July 1997 indicate tha19.3 million people or 7 percent of t he U.S. working -a ge population (age 16 and o l der), worked at le ast one full day al home during a typ ical week. The comp lete repo rt can be found at http ://www.census.goviprodl2002pub s/p70-78.pdf 4
According to a survey by the market researeh fum FIND/SVP, the number of telecommuters in the U.S. rose from 11.1 million in 1997 to 1 5.7 millio n as of mi dyear 1998. A third source, the International Telewo rk Association and Council, provides data for the mos t recent years show in g a 47 percent increase in the number of teleworkers i n just a one-year period Year 199 9 2000 Table3 Number ofTeleworkers Source: Telework America N ational Tclcwork Survey International Telework Associatio n and Council (ITA C) N umber of Tel ewo rk ers %Increase 19. 6 million --28.8 milli on 47% T he ITAC Survey tound that 19.6 million teleworkers typically work 9 days per month at h ome w ith an average of 3 hours pe r week during normal business ho urs. The wide difference in the U S Censu s figure (4.1 million worked at home) and the lTAC figure (28 .8 mill i on t e leworker s) is partly a result of the difference in definition s. The IT A C Survey provides an op t i mis t ic estimate because te l eworkers in the ITAC survey are de fined ove rall as employees o r independent con tractors who work at l east one day per mon th at home during normal bus iness ho u rs Telework i s defined as any form of substitution of information technologies for work-related travel. Telec omm uting which is th a t portion of telew orking th at applies to the daily commute to and from work, is a subset o f telework (7 ]. What all surveys do indic ate is that the rate of telecommut in g ha s be en increasing. T h e ITAC Survey co nd uct ed in 2000 also provid ed some inform a t ion abou t the profile of th e average teleworker. This perso n more like l y lives in the Northea s t and Western regi on s of the U.S., is college edu ca t ed, i s 35-44 years of age, marri ed and earns more than $40,000 annually 5
Telecommuting Definitions Work at Home U.S. Cens u s response option t o the q u estio n : "How did yo u usually ge t t o work l ast week?" Us u ally is defi ned t o mean the most number of days during th e we ek Te l ework Any form of substitution of intorma t ion technologies (telecommunications and computers) for work-related travel. Includes subs t itution for al l work-related trips not just the com mute to and fro m work [Jack Nilles ]. Telecommuting That portion of teleworking that applies to t h e dai ly commute to and fro m wor k A subset oftel ework [Jack Nilles]. An ongoing, regular arrangement of work done in paid status, at a location other than the usual place of work, such as home, satellite work center or t elework center E l ectronic communica t ion takes t he place of physical travel [IT AC] The Cente r for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) re c ently prepared the Hillsborough County TDM Plan, in w h ich two modeling approaches were used to develop long range forecasts of tel e commu t ing The frrst approach used a linear regression model that assumes a constant growth rate. Using data from two marke t research firms, FIND/SVP and CyberDialogue and assuming tha t te l ecommuting began in 1970, the model indica t ed that there would be I 6 5 million tel e commut ers nationwide by the year 2025.2 CUTR a l so used th e Bass model which economists and market researchers often use to describe the rate adoption of new products or technologies The results of this model indicated that the number of telecommuters would reach a peak na t ionally at 33 million by the year 2015, then drop off to 22 million tel ecommuters nationally by the year 2025 The above review of available surveys conduc t ed, a s well as forecasts consis t ently presents indications that the number of persons working at home and telecommuting is steadily risi ng. 2 Teleworking operators of home businesses o r self-employed telework.ers are not included in this telecommuting forecast. 6
The Impact Of Telecommuting On Travel Behavior Due to reliable indications that telecommuting is increasing, transportation planners, researchers and policy makers want to understand the nature and magnitude of the impact on travel behavior. Several sources attempt to address this question In the past decade, efforts have been underway to develop transportation models that incorporate the i mpacts of telecommuting on travel demand. For example, the Travel Model Improvement Program (TMIP), a multi-year effort sponsored by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics and the U S. Dep artment ofTraosportation, seeks to improve the utility and reliability of transportation models for transportation planning purposes. The Activity-Based Modeling System for travel demand forecasting i s a tool under development that attempts to incorporate the impacts of transportation demand management measures upon t ravel behavior. In 1996, a conference, "Activity-Based Travel Forecasting,' was convened in New Orleans for the purpose of developing recommendations for promoting the use of activity-based model systems (as opposed to traditional trip-based four-step mo dels such as the Urban Transportation Planni ng System highway network developme nt planning and analysis technique commonly in use by MPOs}. Activity-based mode l systems, of which there are many, are derived from the demand for activities and offer greater utility in analy z ing the effec.ts of trans portatio n policies, including transportation demand management measures such as telecommuting (8]. Modeling too ls that can analyze the impac ts of t elecom m uti ng do exist but ar e not readily available to MPOs due to lack of funding to finance the transition from use of one methodo log y to another. F un ding is needed to satisfY different data requirements of activity based modeling as well as to provid e training in the use of the model systems. Partnerships between researchers and practitioners were identified as a means to encourage the usc of the new models. Since the conference, several activity mode l developments have been hap pening thr oughou t the world. The use of the models has moved beyond the realm of academics but is currently not part of mainstream standard practice. Perhaps one of the c loses t examples of a simplified activity based model being tri ed in practice by an MPO is Portland Metro in Oregon. The model they are using can account for trip chaining TDM and transportation contro l measures ( 9). During the weekday peak hours of 6-9 a.m and 3 7 p.m., work-related trip making accounts for 48.5 percent of the trips being made and 33.7 percent of the miles driven . This underscores the importance of focusing upon wor k-rel at ed trip making to improve air quality, enhance mobility and reduce congestio n Telecommuting is a potential work trip substitute. Among the most reliable sources of research regarding the travel impacts of telecommuting has been that which was developed by Patricia Mokhtarian of th e 7
University of California at Davis. Her research indicates that as more people begin to tclccommute other telecommuters may discontinue it. As a result, the rate of in crease in telecommuting may be lower than originally anticipated by earlier estimates o f telecommuting growth in the U.S. even though, over time . it is antici pated that constraints to telecommuting will affect less workers as the workplace changes. These constraints include the employee's perception of job suitability, their potential lack of awareness of telecommuting as an option and manage r unwillingness to allow telecommuting (II]. Assuming tha t at some point in the future, 30 percent of the workforce will be able to telecommute, Mokhtarian estimates that the number of persons who actually telecommute at any given time would be 1 1.4 percent of the workforce and that 2.7 percent of the workforce would be telecommuting on any given day (12]. Thi s 2.7 percent figure may be lesser or greater, depending upon the urban area These estimates also do not include the impact of telecommunications on trips other than the journey to work. Even the more conservative estimates, such as those generated by Mokhtarian, show an impact upon travel that can have a significant effect on local traffic conditions, even at just 2 7 percent of the workforce telecommuting on a given day. Mokhtarian computed a range of from 0.48 miles per worker per weekday eliminated in the present to 0.56 miles per worker per weekday eliminated in the future as more telecommuting occurs. The VMT reduction due to t elecommutin g is estimated at 14 percent of a telecommuter's total weekday travel. The reduction in VMT due to telecommuting constitutes almost 2 percent of all workers' total weekday drive-alone VMT. Mokhtarian pred icts that in the future, the net absolute reduction in VMT will be 0.25 miles per worker per weekday (as compared to 0.48-0.56 miles per worker per weekday) or at most about 44 percent of what would be assumed if stimulation effects (induced travel demand) were not taken into account  While the desire from the transportation planning perspective is to reduce trips, telecommunications may also increase tr ips as Mokhtarian recog nizes. J. S. Niles writes that induced travel demand from telecommunications technologies can result from: Increas ed awareness of activities of int e rest Stimulation of economic growth, which stim ulates travel An expanding network of personal and business re la t ionsh ips Geographical decentralization Increased customization and rapid response capability Reducing the disutility of travel by making travel time more productive Improving the efficiency of the transportation sys tem [14 ] Transp ortatio n-related research regard ing tele commuting focuses on the impact upon the work trip and the impact upon travel by private motor vehicle rather than other modes. 8
The impa ct of t elecommer ce on nonwork-related trips is less known. In the rea l m of business travel web confe r encing can enable meet ings to take place among many persons, while interactively sh aring text, chart s maps, audio and video. It is c urren t ly not known how this will affect long distance travel. Little information exists about t he travel i mpac ts of dista n ce l earni ng but concei va bl y these developme n ts may affect travel in some way Te l ecommunicatio n s advances and the inc reased applicat ion of the te chnologies is u ni ve rsally conside red to be a posi t ive trend in economic development. No discuss i on, t o date h as been found t hat proposes to reduce telecommunications in so m e way to slow down its po ten t i al to increase trip making. Regard l ess o f whether telecommunications decreases or increases trip mak ing, w ha t seems cl ear is that there is rtow and will co n ti n ue to be some type of impact on travel behavior. The above section of this report presents a review of attempts to model the travel impacts of telecomm u ting attempts to measure r ed uctio n in veh icle miles traveled, and attempts to iden t ify how t e l ecommuti n g and telecommunications may actual ly induce travel demand rather than red uce it. The informati on that was found t ends to l e n d support to the o b s e rvations of Graham and Marvin, t h at the i m p acts of t elecommun icati ons will most likely be significant though incremental, complex, and different from one r egion t o another [ 15]. Based on these predictions, transport ation planne r s at the local, reg ion al and state le vels might consider actively monitoring the pulse of economic developments re la ting to to position plann ing act i vi t ies proactive ly rather than reac ti vely. 9
The Impact of Technological Inno v ations on Business Practice and Travel Transportat ion planners' interest in te lework t ypic ally conce rns i tself v.
interactive and diagnostic quality video conferencing to the practice of medicine Doctors and nurses can provide teleconsultations w i ih patients and engage ihe expertise of specialists from l ong distances. Telemedicine includes ihe support of imaging applications and medical test analysis by computer and e l ectron i c transmitta l of results Benefits to patients inc lu de the comfort of remaining at home, reduced transportation costs, the a v ailability of distance learning resources and the expediency and potentially life-saving benefit of real time health care 24 h ours a day. It i s current ly unclear what ihe imp act of telecom municat ions tech nologies has upon relocation of home and work sites However, such relocatio n s may have some impact on trip making and trip length. Miller and Se l f describe how telecommunications can change ihe decision making process regarding locating businesses and residences. "Just as access to the intercontinental rail lin es displaced proximity to wagon trails, and the interstate highway system displaced proximity to local highways i n importance to commercial development, access to ihe Informa tion Superhighway i s becoming th e new driver of l ocation. New commerce centers outfitted in advance with fiber optic networks for example, are in extremely high demand ... Migration to ihe new centers i s reshaping urban areas. [18 ]. However, Pamela Blais, who has researched telecommunities for ihe Urban Land Institute wri tes, "Right now telecommunities are the exception raiher ihan ihe rule; however, t h e introduction and upgrading of high-capacity IT [information and t elecommunications] infrastructure js proceed i ng at a pace that wi.ll soon make i t universally availab l e ... soon, high-speed connections will be treated just as bas i c telephone service is treated today-as a standard utility." (19]. I t is too early to tell what ihe impacts of wired communitie s w ill be regarding business and residential relocations. But once they are lo cated, h ow w ill travel behavior differ from nonwired communities? Might wired communities require the measure of new trip ge n erat i o n rates? Wou ld impact fees borne b y developers decrease or in crease? With more people working aod conducting personal business from h ome how will other types of trips increase such as Federal Express and oiher delivery services? Forbes magazine described the changing relationships emerging among companies that do business with each oiher via ihe Web. 1be goal to do business more efficiently to maximize profits and cut costs through utilization of the Worldwide Web is referred to as 828, or business-to-business electronic commerce. Web marketplaces organ i zed by industry are called vertical marketplaces. Cross-industry marketplaces are referred to as horizon t al marketplaces. Examples are web marketplaces ihat aggregate vendor cata l ogs for supp lies or web marke t places ihat outso u rce busin ess functions that are peripheral to a company, l ike u tility bill paying. The editors developed a typology, presented below, of part i cipants by function with real life examples of businesses that fit the function. This reconfiguration of business relationships may have i mpacts on trip making. II
A Typology of Business -to-B usine ss Commerce (20] Buyer Exchange: A marketplace dominated by large buyers in an industry or a group of buyers aggregating purchases. Suppliers typically bid to fill contracts at the lowest price in what is often called a reverse auction. Examples: Covisint, Metique, FreeMarkets. Supplier Exchange: Industry producers band together to create a marketplace to sell their goods online. Examples: GE Polymer land, ChipCenter, MetaiSite. Neutral Exchange: Independent marketplace dominated neither by buyers or sellers. Often set up by independent startups. Examples: PaperExchange.com, Go fish. com, Altra. MRO-Catalog Hub: Marketplace that aggregates supp li es used in maintenanc e, repair and operations such as paint, desks oil, paper clips. Examples: Grainger, EqualFooting com, FacilityPro.com. BPO (Business Process Outsourcer): Hubs and/or Applications Service Providers (ASP) that manage noncore functions for companies or exchanges such as human resources, payroll, customer relationship man agement and facili ties management. Examples: Employease, Cadence Network, GoCo-op. Technology Enablers: The arms merchants of B2B T hese companies provide the software, applications and expertise necessary to create business-to-business marketplaces. Examp l es: Ariba, Oracle, Commerce One, VerticalNet. Financial Enablers: L ike their techie cousins, these B2B evangelists finance and provide other resources for Web-enhanced commerce. Examp le s: Internet Capital Group, Acccl Partners, Morgan Stanley. According to one estimate, about half the trucks on roads in the United S ta tes are empty . Considering that attention is turning toward the impact of truck freight on VMT ("Greater utili7..ation of the h ighway network by truck-borne freight transportation also adds to VMT growth." [22)), there appears to be some potential for telecommerce to reduce the growth of truck-generated VMT For example the Nation al Transportation Exchange uses the Internet to collect and post daily informatio n from truck fleet managers on origins, desti nations and excess capac ity, then arranges the sale of that capacity on-line. "Wireless Internet access will soon allow drivers to connect to the website on the move This same mo de l could be applied at the city scale to reduce truck travel in the city and region."  12
What current research has not yet measured is the impacts of post 1 998 technological developments. If Miller and Self are correctly describing business advantages, then significant increases in telework and telecommerce may arise in the short term, at rates that previous research has no t anticipated. The above review of the literature appears to indicate that information and tele communications technologies are demonstrating their potential to accomplish business objectives, provide exemplary customer service, influence work s ite (and residential) locat io n, revamp buyer and seller exchanges and achieve greater efficiencies in freight transport. These evolving cond iti ons could all s i gnal future potential shifts in travel patterns, including t rip making and vehicle miles traveled Overall YMT has appeared to level off in the past few years and telecommuting may have something to do w ith it. Research from the University of California, Davis just issued in December 2001, involving a nationwide time series analysis of the i mpacts of telecommu t ing on vehic l e miles traveled indicates that te lecommuti ng appears to have a modest b ut statistically significant effect on reducing travel. The report r ecommends that ... "better data is of paramount importance to a more precise determination of the true impact of telecommuting on VMT ... Teleconunuting appears to be an important enough trend to justify the cost and effort required to collect reliable data with respect to i ts adoption and freq uency, on an annual basis."  13
History of Government Involvement and Initiatives The above discussion identifi ed a trend of increas ing rates of telecommuting and consequent impacts on travel behavior as well as the most recent technological innovations that have spurred changes in the way business is conducted. Information and communications techno logies of which telecommuting is a particular result, have become incorporated into the conduct of business and will continue to change business prac tices. Federal, state and local governments have tended to operate in a traditionally reactive role rather than an enterprising role regarding the advance of telecommunications in the economy. There are government initiatives that specifically address telecommuting in recognition of the potential t o harness telecommuting as a means to encourage economic development, reduce VMT and improve air quality. In addition, telecommunications and information technologies have resulted in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) designed to optimize roadway operating efficiency. Below is a summary of history and of recent main efforts. The discussion also includes observations about Florida's state transportation plan and its relationship to and considerat ion of telecommunications. Federal R ole In the United States, the Communications Act of 1934 maintained communications monopolies, which were regulated by the Federal Communications Com1nission and the state Public Utili t ies Commissions. They determined, through licensing, what services could be provided where and what rates could be charged. One of the advantages of this system was the provision of universal coverage, especially to rural areas where the cost of providing service would have been very expensive to the consumer. In 1984, long-distance telephone service was opened to compet ition and the Telecommunications Act of 1996 provided that long distance operators, local telephone providers and cable companies can compete in each other's markets The purpose is to promote better quality and lower prices through competition. State Role Federal legislation usually requires states to implement the law. At the state level, this has caused state governments to redefine the ro les of agencies. Several states have developed telecommunications plans. 14
Table 4 State Roles in Planning for Telecommunications  State Lead agency Planning effort Alaska Telecommunications Information system p la n t o meet sta t e Information Council government needs and ptovide access to the public Vermont Dept of Public Plan for meeting tuture requirements for Services telecommunications services for use by government Iowa Iowa Created a state owned utility service, the Iowa Telecommunications Communications Network, a state administered and Technology fiber-optics network for distance learning Commission t e l emcdicine, and stat e and federal agency service needs Washington Governor's Conducted stud ies to address how to attract Telecommunication teleco mmunica tions companies to the state for Policy Coordination better jobs and advanced networks. Topics Task Force include: Achieving regulatory consistency in converging ind ustries Eq ualizing tax burdens among telecommunications providers Balancing local interests wit h state infrastructure needs Bringing infrastructure to rural areas Leveraging the state's role as a large purchaser, user and provider of telecommunications services Enco uraging lo cal telephone competition Georg i a Dept. of Administrative Plan t o consolidate state government Services telecommunications services and systems. Created a fund to provide universal service as a statewide shared use distance learning and tel emedic in e network North Dept. of Admi oistration North Carolina Integrated Information Carolina N e twork Purpose of Network is: Univer sal service access throughout state Geograph i cally equalized r ates Shared resources t o eliminate d upli cation and encourage interoperabil ity 15
Public/private partnership: private se c tor supplies the cap ita l and the sta t e provides the usage base. North Carolina I nfor mat ion Highway (NCIH) Provides distance learning telemedicine, economic development services Agency for Public Telecommunications Provides media, teleconferencing and Jive programs for state government Missouri Dept. of Economic The Ci t y of Ne v ada, M 0 partnered with t h e Developme n t state to develop a Telecommunity Center Other s t ate agencies that tak e the lead in planning and i m plemen ting te lecomm u n icatio ns plans, in add ition to the ones listed in the table above, are state public u t ility commissions and public/private partnerships A study by the American Planning Association (APA)  found that gene r a l purposes of state go v ernment involvement in te l ecommunications have included: I. Developing telecommunications infrastructure for the common good 2 Provid i ng universal service access t o all ci ti zen s 3. Promoting economic development p rimari l y touris m a nd global market develop men t 4 L inking state agencies The APA study also found that to serve the above purposes, typical roles of government have tended to be that of: I. Large purchaser/consumer of s erv ices to run government 2. Service provider to create and administer state networks 3. Fac i l itator for making the business environment favorable to te l ecommunications developmen t for example, by changing state tax structure and funding t he development of networks 4. Reg ul ator as an i ssue r of licenses and franchi ses Passing legisla t ion fo r providing universa l servi ces Georgia is an example where a state has assumed a l eadership ro l e in directing the development of tel e communica tions. The Departmen ts of Tran sport ati o n in the stat e s of Maryland and Virginia both promo te telecommuting and some, like Oregon, p r ovide tax br e aks. 1 6
LoClll Role At the local level, telecommunications planning tends to exist in two areas. The first is in the area o f land use for perm itt i n g telecommunic a tions towers. The secon d area. and perhap s more i nteresting to this study, is the developme n t of comm unity ne t works. While state government has often been the guiding source in the develop ment of new technologies, lo cal c ommuni t ies ha ve taken the lea d in partnering with private ind ustry to provide physical access and e q uipment to make it universally accessible, suc h as in the area of network building A community netw o r k i s developed when computers in a local geog rap hic area are i n t e rconn e cted via telephone lines to a central computer, that a llows community r esiden t s t o exchange inform a tio n and services, encourage political involvement and encourage economic development Examples that have received widespread pub l ic attentio n are the B lacksburg E le ctronic Village in B lacks b urg VA and the Seattle Community Network . Other networks r epresent specific issues or services such as: Libra ri es Health in fo rmati on Education and learni ng Econo m ic development Information and referral Government inf orma t io n These networks appear to operate more as information resources rather than as a means to actively engage in business. It has been found that while there are oft e n fu nding grants and communi t y interest to start a network, it i s d ifficul t to maintain the f u nding and c ommi tmen t to keep it going. While schools and public lib r aries have taken the lead on prov id i ng aceess to networks that provide inform a t ion a government age ncy, such as a public transit au thori ty, might conceivably take the lead on devel opin g networks that are highly in tera ctive i n nature to a llo w persons to do business: shopping, consu lta t ions with hea lth care professionals and to be hired and c o nd uct work for pay-all acco m p lished by telecommuting In this way rather than a pe rson traveling by public transit (or private car) to w ork schoo l and personal business, these activities would be bwught to the i r homes I n this way a public t ra nsit agen cy wou l d act as a mobility manager by providing access to work school and personal busines s opportunities through other means than a bus ride. To develop an d support such a network for example, a telecommerce transportation management association" could be i n itiated by the loca l governme n t w i th all the necessary part ners, such as the city, the counly the local community college or universily the sch ool district or library system, the local phone compa ny delivery service s, lo c a l grocery stores med i cal services, pharmacies and employers. 1 7
Government T elecommut ing Programs Government involvement at the sta t e and loca l lev els, as described above, usually has been for purposes o ther than transportation -r elated app lic ations. However there have been research efforts at the national leve l and government telecommuting programs at federal, state and loca l leve ls, a i med at government employees. For example, the National Environmenta l Policy Institute (NEPI) joined with the International Telework Association and Council (ITAC) to researc h the potential for an air emission trading program based upon reduced auto emissions from teleworking. The idea r esul ted in the passage of The National Telecommuting and Air Quality Act in October 1999 which authorizes the design of pilot programs in five cit ies to explore the feasibility of the concept, including Hous to n, Denver, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Washington D.C Results of the pilot project are not yet available As part of the NEPIIJT AC project, a group of pu b lic and private sector experts i n related fields studied telework cost effectiveness, the t elework relation to energy conservation and to the concept of "Smart Growth ," as well as enabling techno logie s. The report ca lled for change: .. change in the definition o f the word 'transportation,' including how infrastructure is administered coordinated, and funded .. No longer can 'transportation be viewed simply as moving people and things from one place to another. T he defmition needs to be expanded to include moving intellectual property, data and information electronically In the 'Information Age,' nearly two -th irds of all U S economic activity is information based." . An observation made in the NEPIIITAC r epo rt is that most telecommut i ng program efforts are initiated by state departments of energy rather than transportation. The report recommended that state departm ent s of transportation become more involved in telework initiatives. Federal and State Initiatives Fed eral and state governments have been active primarily in the development of telecommuting programs for government employees. At the federal level, President Clinton called for an increase in tbe number of federa l government employees telecommuting from 4,000 to 60 000 by the end of fiscal year 1998. Th is effort has fallen short of the goal ; the actual number of federal employee is approximately 20,000. The intent behind this program was to encourage th c more than 800,000 federal employees nationwide to telecommute. In the Washington, D.C. area, where there is a large concentration of federal workers, t his program would have a potentially strong impact on trip reduction to address the traffic congestion problem of the greater Washington D.C metropolitan area. 18
The state of Florida has made some inroads in applyin g telecommuting through the use of a State Emp lo yee Telecommuting Program [28 ) In 1990, the program was establi shed and is administered by the Flofida Department of Management Services. I n t erest ingly the program is not motivated by the des ire to enhance mobility or reduce trip making but rather as part of the overall policy to recruit, develop and maintai n an effective and responsible workforce. Other states with state employee telecommuting programs in c lude the states of Arizona, Connecticut, Minnesota ( t o reduce the costs associated with state office space) and Oregon. 19
Telecommuting Programs for t he General Public Tel ecommuting programs have also been institu ted by states for other purposes, such as for trip reduction (Arizona lllinois, New Jersey North Carolina, Was h ington), tax incentives (Colorado, Washington, Oregon Arizona, California), emissio ns reduction (Texas), and as a work i nitia tive with Aid to Families with Dependent Childre n (AFDC)(Missouri) Oregon has also initiate d a review of the s t ate bu ilding code for the purpose of establishing viable s t andards for providing a d vanced telecommunications and cable service technology to new l y constructed hom es. The goal of this initiative is to improve o pportunities to tel ecommute. In the state of Maryland, MOOT developed the "Telework Partnership with E mployers (TPE)" program, for the purpose of reducing traffic congestion and imp roving air quality. Thro ugh TPE technical ass i stance to s t art telecommuting programs is being prov ide d t o Mary land employers by the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments and the Baltimore Metropolitan Counci l. This program was begun in Octobe r 1998 th r ough a $600,000 grant from the state ln addition, the state of Maryland has also imp le mented a telework pr o gram for every state agency. MOOT s goal is to eliminate eight million vehic le trips annually through teleworking. Table 5 Government-Sponsored Telecommuting Programs Location Purpose Federal USA federal government Trip reduction Northwestern European nations Trip reduction e conomi c development States (USA) Fl orida Recruit, develop and maintain competitive state go vernment work force Arizona, Illinois New Jersey, North Trip reduction Carolina Maryland Washi n gton Texas E mi ssions reduc t ion Missouri AFDC w ork initiative Minnesota I State office space reduction Oregon Review sta t e building code standards to promote telework C itie s Toronto Canada Reduce truck travel, trip reduction economic developmen t 20
International Initiatives Other nations have also explored telecommunications applications to transportation. For example, in Canada, the C ity of Toronto commissioned a study as part of the development of an economic plan. The study contains recommendations for studying the use of information and communications technologies not only to develop policies and initiatives to encourage telecommuting, but also to reduce busi ness related trav el such as using video conferencing and on-line service delivery. This would also include supplier and customer-related travel. Strategies to be developed are web sites, on-line supply chain management, on-line services and on-line shopping. The plan calls for "dematerializing" physical products that are largely information, such as network delivered c all answer services and downloadable MP3 technology for CDs and tapes. Another strategy was to use information and communications techno logy to reduce truck travel . European nations that are studying and promoting telework for economic development and for traffic congestion reduction include The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Fr ance Denmark, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg Finland, Portugal and Ireland (30]. Other Applications of Telecommunications for Other Transportation Purposes T e lecommunic ations has the potential to affect travel behavior, not only through telecommuting programs but also through intelligent t ransportation systems (ITS), with applications for advanced traffic control devices, roadside message signs, traveler information web sites and kiosks automated tollbooths, and sophisticated traffic monitoring systems. Rather than telecommuting programs, ITS has been a major area of government involvement for telecommu nications p l anning at bot h the local and slate leve l in Florida. However ITS i s primarily for optimizing highway traffic flow. For examp l e, the Florida Department of T ransportation in coordination with the Florida Department of Management Services, sought proposals in Spring 2000 for a lease of limited-access right-of-way in exchange for the design, construction/installation and maintenance of a fiber optic network infrastructure Called the Florida Fiber Network (FFN) it would be deployed over approximately 2,000 miles of limited-access highway. The FFN is envisioned as an optical transport network, to provide the network infrastructure necessary to support intelligent transportation system initiatives and other communication programs. 21
Public Transit Agency Use of Information and Communications Technologies Applications of telecommunications on transportation go beyond the use of ITS for roadway traffic flow improvements. There are a few instances of public transit agencies and local government transportation departments beginning to purchase and apply these telecommunications technologies T wo such examples are described below. According to one observer, ... buses are getting h igh-tech makeovers that speed them past other t raffic under the guidance of computer-aided dispatching systems ... Perhaps most impressive, information from these systems i s becoming accessible to riders through simple interfaces on the Web and ev en on cell phones, which could allow s ome buses to offe r the efficiency of trains combined with the convenience of t axis [31) This is known as wireless applications protocol (W AP), which can link mobile phones to the Internet. As a result, a person will not necessarily need to be sitting in front of a PC to search for information, but rather can pull up data from anywhere Montgomery County Maryland is in the forefront of developing an ent i re l y i ntegrated traffic and bus management system. The County equipped 250 buses with globa l positioning system receivers and communications gear. Field supervisors operating these systems can receive firsthand reports on traffic flow and accidents throughout the County from bus operators and ensure that buses stay o n schedule by directing bus drivers to go ahead of buses f ull of passengers skip stops or take a different route. System operators also have the capability to extend the green phase of traffic signal cycles to ease congestion at intersection approaches and allow a bus to go through. The Regional Tmnsportation Commission of Southern Nevada (Las Vegas area) has purchased ten optically guided buses that require smaller right-of-way, making buses capable of traveling along road shoulders across narrow bridges and along tunnel median strips. The buses can also dock within two inches of the curb so that all the doors line up with the platform, eliminating the use of slow wheelchair ramps. These features add up to faster, more convenient and much less expensive bus service. The location of buses equipped with global positioning system receivers can be tracked and relayed to displays at bus stops so that passengers know exactly when the next bus will arrive . Innovations in communications and information teclmologies seem to occur d aily. There is much specu la tion regarding how these innovations will change how people do business. Don Smith, head of optica l networl
electronic switches and routers) that will result in a faster system 1\aving almost limitless bandwidth. It is predicted by industry analysts that such a network will redefine the technologies that transmit data, voice, music, video and Web sites. Optics will also change personal computers making them more reliable, inexpensive, more compact and with the power of a supercomputer (34). Beyond a fiber optic network that runs through cables other research is focused upon wireless optics, which uses light and lasers to send data. Terabeam in Seattle plans to create wireless networks in one hundred cities by 2004 (35) What these observations amount to is: ./ The interface of telecommunications and computer technologies are now being applied to transportation for the purpose s of optimizing highway operations (ITS) the benefits of which should positively affect all highway users, including the performance of public transportation system buses that travel on highways and busways. These technology developments reinforce and preserve the status quo of reliance upon highway use and upon physical travel. ./ The application of telecommunications and computer technologies are beginning to be used by local governments to improve bus system performance. While the above examples of Montgomery County, MD and the Las Vegas seem to hold great potential it is hard to say whether these improvements will be enough to shift private motorists to using bus service, considering that ITS is also being applied to improve highway conditions. As a senior manager of the Montgomery County Transportation Department in Maryland said, "Whe n you get to the point of total gridlock, that's when people start riding public transportation .. We don't start making changes unless we've choked ourselves." (36 ). That is, unless there are some great advantages to not traveling at all, as described in the previous section on impacts to business pract ice and travel. Telework as a mobility management strategy requires policy making advocacy at the state and loca l lev els. Tbe l\'EPIIITAC report (37) recommended ways in which telework programs can be supported. These included : Initiation of legis lat ion to prevent covenants and local zoning regu lat ions from unreasonab ly prohibiting an employee from te lewo rking from a home office. The continued moratorium on Internet taxes to encourage the wider use of computers, the primary tool of teleworkers. Resistance to the imposition of cable "Right of Way" fees taxes or levies by local governments-essentially a backdoor Internet tax, which discourages 23
telecommunicatio n com p anies m aking bandwidth avail ab l e to rural and disadvantaged (includi n g urban) areas. Accelerated tax allowances on telewor k enabling inv e stm e n ts--hard ware, software, and office furniture. As the above section on the application o f information and commun i cations technologies for other t ransportation pwposes su ggests, the use of such techno l ogies will tend to go first toward improving, thereby reinforcing, existing h abits of physical travel. It will take adv ocacy at the policy making level to guide the u se of these tec hn ologies towar d maximi:ting the advantages of telework 24
Survey Development and Results In addition to the a bove literature review a survey of transit agency general managers was conducted to ascertain the attitudes, opinions and plans regarding the current and po tentia l future use of telecommu nications-related service s as part of mob ility management strategies offered by public transit agencies. As part of the effort to design the survey, CUTR research associates of the Transportation Demand Management Program assembled to brainstorm and develop a list of potential service strategies to be used for and by trans it agencies. This exercise incorporated the assumption that the overriding purpose of public transportation providers, operating as mobility managers, is to provide access for customers to employment, education, shopping and personal business opportunities. This assumption is comprehensive enough to inc lude traditional bus transit service and also telecommunications-related serv ices within the scope of potential services offered by trans it agencies. The b ra instorm ing exercise employed a creative thinking exercise, the results of wh i ch were used to augment the final li st of se rvice strategies provided as part of a q uestion in the survey. The respondent was asked to individ ually rate 22 service strategies as to whether these wou ld satisfy the future needs of ex isting and potential customers over the next ten years. Seven of these strategies were telecommunications-related options. The Public Transit Service Development Survey was sent by email and administered via the NCTR web site http://www.n ctr.usf. edu/survevtelecom.htm during December 200 I. The survey was accompanied by an introductory cover l etter from t he director o f the National Center for Transit Research. A copy of the survey is included in the Appendix. The targeted group for completing the survey was execu tive directors and general managers of public transit agencies, or key pers on nel of public transit agencies. who have leadership and decision making author ity regarding the development of servic es This group constituted 290 contacts through a database of members of the American Public Transportation Association (APTA). From the 290 public transit agencies contacted, 44 responses were received, or a 15 percent re sponse rate. Because of the relatively low response rate, it is not possible to make generalizations about attitudes toward service development across the entire population of p ublic transit agency managers. H ow ever it is observed that there was a consistency in the responses of the 44 comp l eted surveys regarding the current directio n of public trans it service development. The tra nsit agencies that responded to the survey represented almost all areas of the United States, with the majority of responden ts located in the Northeast, the Midwest, Florida and Californi a There was a l arger representation of responden ts representing transit agencies of either smaller towns or l arger cities, rather than medium-size ci ti es. 25
Table 6 Public Transit Service Development Survey Respondents Transit Agency City State Eastern Contra Costa Antioch CA Trans it Authority Golden Gate Transit San Rafael CA Monterey-Salinas Transit Monterey CA Riverside Transit Agency Riverside CA Southern C alifornia Los Angeles CA Regional Rail Authority Torrance Transit System Torran ce CA Cormecticut Department of Newington CT Transport ation Greater Hartford Transit Hartford CT Distric t Broward County Mass Pompa11o Beach FL Tra11sit Divis ion Central F lorida Regional Orla11do FL Tra11sportation Authority SardSota County Area Sarasota FL Transi t VOTRAN South Daytona FL Ci t y and County of Ho n o l ulu HI Honolulu Iowa City Transit Iowa Cit y lA Knoxville Area Transit Knoxville KY TA of Northern K entucky Fort Wright KY Umass Transit Service Amherst MA Arm Arbor Transportation Ann Arbor MI Aut hority Capital Area Trans p ortation Lansing Ml Aut hority Saginaw Transit Authority Saginaw Ml Regional Services SMART Dettoit Ml VPSI, Inc. Troy MJ Duluth Transit Authority Duluth MN Minnesota Valley Transit Burnsville MN Plymouth Metrolink Plymouth MN City Utilities Transit Springfield MO Missoula Urba11 Missoula MT Transportation Dis t rict Regiona l Transportation Las Vegas NV Comm i ssion of Southern Nevada 26
Niagara Frontier Buffalo NY Transportation A u thority Rochester Genessee Rocheste r NY Regional Transportation Tompkins Conso lid a ted Ithaca NY Area Transit Stark Area Regional Transit Canton OH Authority Toledo A r ea Regiona l Toledo OH Transit A uthority T u lsa Transit T u lsa OK Lehigh and Northampton Allentown PA Transportation Red Rose Trans it Authority L ancas ter PA VIA Metropolita n Transit San Antonio TX City of Fairfax, DPW Fairfax VA Potomac and Rappahannock Woodbridge VA Transportation C-TRAN Vancouver WA Ozaukee County Trans i t Port Washington WI Waukesha Metro T ransit Wau kes ha WI The survey asked the respondents to provide the m i ssion statements of their t ransit agencies. The purpose of revie,vi n g t he mi s sion statements is to determ i ne the degree of specifici t y regarding the ro le of the transi t agency Do the mission statements emphasize bus operation or are the statement s more resu l ts -ori ent e d, a llo wing greater leeway for more diversified service provisio n? A review of the mission statements indicates that most contained phrases that emp hasized the physical transport of persons, bu t in addition, contained clauses t ha t incl ude d the following ideas : Deve l oping innovative means to meet customers' needs Providing safe reliable, and efficient mobility choices Being respo ns ive to c h a n g ing needs and by focusing on customer service Providing a structure un der which a wide variety of transportat io n service s can be del iv ered Appealing t o an ever-increasing number of peop l e Using advanced technologies T h e survey provided a lis t of service strategies, including traditio n a l services, s u c h as fixed ro u t e bus service and diversified service options, such as bikes-on -bu s service an d vanpooling. The li s t a l so incl uded n ontraditio n a l services, such as providing assistance to teleco mmuters and operating telecommuting centers. The respondents were asked to rate ea c h servic e strategy from 5 (most desired by customers) to I (leas t desire d by customers), according t o w h ich s tra tegies would satisfy both existing and pote n tial c u stomers ove r the next ten years. 27
The respondents resoundingly selected fixed route bus service as most desired by customers. Regarding providing assistance to help commuters telecommute, 22 respondents rated this as least desired by customers although six respondents rated this strategy a "3" and four respondents rated this strategy a "4." Similarly regarding the service strategy of providing guidance to employers who offer telecommuting and operating t elecommuting centers, at least h a l f the respondents rated these strategies as lea st desired by customers, however, there were always some respondents who rated these stretegies as either "3" or "4." The survey al so asked the r esponde n ts to select the five h ighest priority service strategies. Again, the highest priority selected was fixed route bus service. However telecomm u nications r e lated strategies were rated by a few transit agencies as 4 and highest priorities. For example two trans i t agencies ra ted "Prov ide mobile units equipped with computers and modems ("cybermobiles") to augment access of telecommunica t ions technologies to residents of disadvantaged comm u nities" as a 4'" and a 5th highest priori ty Two more transit age n cies rated "Provide any other telecommunications-related services" as a 4'" and a 5th highest priority. One of these transit agencies described the service as Provide ports for laptop co m puters at selected bus stops and transfer facilities." One transit agency rated "Provide guidance to employers offering telecommuting programs' as a 5'" high est priority. The survey also asked respondents to indicate whether their transit agencies were currently providing telecommunications-related services Four transit agencies indicated th a t they are current ly prov id ing assistance to help commuters tele c ommute, six transit agencies indicated that they are currently providing guidance t o employers offering telecommuting progrems, two trans i t agencies ind ica ted that they are currently providing telecommuting centers nine transit agencies indicated that they currently support the development of wired communities and six transit agencies indicated that they currently provide other telecommunications-related services. T he survey asked respondents to list obstacles to implementing telecommunications related services There was a consistency in the responses to this question, most of th e m variations on the themes li ste d below. Customer base not interested in tel ecommunications-related services Other agencies at local and state level, libraries and the private sec to r are already or shodd be currently filling thi s need Not the focus or mission of our transit agency No funding staff resources or expertise to pursue telecommunications-re lated services 28
Employment characteristics of customer base not conducive to te l ecommu ting Telecomm unications services not ne eded in rural c ommunity Commuter trips not l on g enough to warrant i nterest in telecommuting Lastly, there was a section at the end o f the survey t o provide comments The main ideas include those below. I t would be a chall enge to convince the general public that transit agencies have a ro l e to play in telecomm u ting The current transit focus o n telecommunications is on ITS operational solutions and on providing customers with real-time information. I t is difficult enough to meet the basic transit needs of customers without dealing telecommunications. It is difficult to answer the survey questions without first surveying the people who us e the service Thi s cou ld be addressed using a TDP on-board survey Survey Conclusions While respondents never rated telecommunications-related services among the most highly desired services by customers, several transit agencies did give them a rating of something higher than "least desired." This is an indication that some survey respondents believe that there might be some degree of interest on the part of customers to be offer ed telecommunications -rel at ed services. Surprising l y some transit agencies rated telecommunications-related services within their five h ig hes t service priorities. The survey al. so indicates that a few transit agencies already provide telecommuting assistance to commuters guidance to employers who provide telecommuting programs and operate telecommuting centers. Survey results indicated that most transit agency directors do not s e e providing t elecommuni cat ions -related services as within the scope of their mission They believe this is a l ready or should be within the purview of other agencies or the private se cto r While transit agency mission statements appear to incorporate the recognition that addressing the needs of customers sometimes involves innovations in semces, transit agency directors cite the lack of funds, staff resourc es expertise, community support and customer interest for not getti ng involv e d in th e provision of telecommunications-re la ted services. 29
Where Do We Go From Here? Customer Interest It appears that public transit agency general managers do not believe their ridership is in terest ed in telework opportunities. The lowest-income bus patrons may be employed i n po s itions th at require their physical presence on the job site. However it is suggested by this report that su ch persons would seem to have the most to gain from o pportunities to advance towaxd information-based employment. Automobile commuters who already hold entry-leve l data-processing jobs may be spending an inor dinate portion of their income on car ownership, just to get to and from their suburban jobs, where transit service may not yet be available. This suggests that more foc. used attention should be upon identifying t he segment of the population (and not necessarily just the population of transit patrons) that would desire telework opportunities but who don't have such opportunities now. Other survey comments inc luded that persons in rura l areas would not have a need for or i nt erest in telecommu nications -related services. Results from a recent study conducted by the Nat ional Telecommunicat i ons and Information Administration indic a te that actually the opposite is true [ 38). Public Transit Agency Attitudes The survey responses appear to indicate that there is some interest and current involvement on the paxt of a few transit agencies to explore telecommunications-related services. A next step after this study might be to revisit these particular transit agencies to develop case studies highlighting their efforts. However, the general tone o f the majority of survey responses was that telecommunications-related services should no t receive attention by transit agencies. One transi t agency respondent commented that, "The essence of good marketing i s finding a profitable fit be!\Yeen the company's ability to produce or serve and the customer s needs. In the case of telecommuti ng there is no such fit and in our area there is little consciousness of unmet telecommu ting needs (no needs) outside the capabilities of the phone and cable companies." Another tra nsi t agency respondent was even angered by the survey because "It appears that this 'survey' is really about a marketing study for a teiecommuting equipment or service provider ... [the survey] does not apply to this agency's services." It is understood that the most common positive experiences resulting from marketing efforts are the r elativel y minor changes that have been made to existing services that r esu lted in significant increases in ridership o r customer satisfaction. However, the survey responses would seem to indicate that some transit agencies view their services as 30
unchanging and that staff expertise and resources will also not change. This view is possibly exacerbated by the severe budget constraints suffered by a large portion of public transit agencies across the nation ("We have enough difficu lty providing transit service.") I t could be a state public transportation agency role to provide leadership, funding and policy direction to encourage more consideration of alternative service strategies, in keeping with the concept of public transit agencies filling the role of mobility managers even if those strategies are not now considered traditionally within the realm of public transit. The notion that public t ransit agencies could venture into telecommunications-related services does not have to mean that they would o r should be in di rect competition with telecommuting equipment or service providers, but rather that there may be oppo rtunities for m u tually beneficial partnerships be tw een public transit agencies and service providers. Community Support Some public transit agencies raise d an inter esting point in that the genera l public might not support the idea that public transit agencies venture into nontraditional services This could be in i tially addressed by emphasizing in public dialogue and in community visioning processes and other forums: The widespread employee interest and desire for telework opportunities The wors ening p roblems of traffic congestion and Jack of mobility for many The role of public transit agencies as m ob ility managers These messages would help begin to change the way the public views mobility and the potential roles that public transit agencies can play in providing it. Lastly, state and loca l transportation agencies, in partnership with economic development agencies, should seek to provide guidance and encouragement f or employers to reap the business advantages of converting more of their jobs into those that can be accomplished by telework. 31
Telecommunications Planning There are several initiatives underway statewide and across the nation, which seek to promote sustainable community development This is a time of heightened public awareness in which the average person is becoming familiar with the issue of urban sprawl. Traffic congestion reg u lar ly is reported upon in the media. The American Planning Assoc ia tion (APA) has i nitiated a program call ed "Growing Smart," the pUJ:pose of which is to encourage and give technical support to state government to update their planning and growth management legislation, if they have it. One of their aids is a legislative guidebook that contains "Model Statutes for Planning and the Management of Change [ 39] It is interesting to note that the APA study recommends the use of "functiona l p l ans, which inc lude the usual plans for land use, transportation economic deve lopment, and hou sing but also adds telecommunications. Here, telecommuni cations is treated as a separate functional plan. APA concludes that it is important that state and local governments inc lude telecommunications p la nni ng as part of the overall planning proc ess and recommends that local governments should hav e a te lecommunications plan for the following goals (40): E stablishing guidelines, standards and time lines for review of telecommunications facilities Minimizing unnecessary regulation Maintaining community character Main taining local control Encouraging competition in the marketplace Providing access to pub lic rights-of-way while the locality gets a fair compensation for its use Investing in the most advanced technology Protecting public health, safety and welfare According to APA, a plan at the state leve l should include: Defming the state's r ole in encouraging competition in the teleconununications industry, universal access statewide, and affordable rates for telecommunications services. E ncouraging investment in the most advanced telecommunications technologies while protecting the public h ealth, safety and general welfare. Acknowledging th e econom ic deve lop ment and transportation po t ential of telecommunications for the state 32
Coordinating telecomm unica tions initiatives with other related programs Providing guidance to loca l governments i n the preparation of telecommunications compo ne nts to local comprehensive plans. Assessing and estab l ishing short term a nd long term te l ecomm uni ca tio ns service and infrastructure needs for industry, state goverruueu t and for the general public. Establis hing clear gu i del i nes for regulation, s t andards, performance and conduct of p riva te firms operating in the state. Establishing basic levels of service that meet industry, government and public needs Documenting current leve l s of service statewide. While APA recommends t hat state and local governments de ve lop a telecommunicati ons functional p l an" th at, among many other th i n gs, acknowledges the transport atio n potential of t el e c ommunications, this s tu dy recomme nds that the use of telecommunications for transportation purposes could be better focused upon trip reduction and eliminating th e need to trave l i f i t were developed as an e le ment w ithin the transportation plan it self. While transportation systems management and ITS e leme nts within transportation plans focus upon ensuring a faster car trip and a faster bus ride, a telecommunications element woul d focus upon the go al of ensuring that peopl e physically travel only when necessary or desirab l e. 33
Study Conclusion s This study provi d es a review of the l i terature regard ing rates o f telecommuting, impacts upon travel, recent developments in the field of teleco mmun icat ions as they relate to transportation, and existing roles of government r e garding the u se of telecom m unications for transportation purposes Data from three sources indic ate that telecomm u t ing has bee n increasing during the last twenty years. There is some evidence t hat telecommuting an d teleco m merce have t he effect of both increas ing and decreasing trip making. What seems clear is that telecommuting and t elecomm erce h ave gr ea t po tential to impact both p ersonal and c omme r ci a l travel behavior in complex ways tha t may be different fr o m one region to another. Considering that there is interest that public transi t agencies diversify th eir s e rvices to evolve into mobi l i ty managers rather than remaining b us system operators only, this study took a partic u lar loo k at existing attitude s of tran sit agency top managers regarding their agencies' potential r ole as a provider of telecommunication s-related services. Through the conduct of a Public Transit D evelop me n t Survey of 290 transit agency general managers nat ion wid e the general results fro m t he 44 respons es indi ca t e that j ust a few transit agencies are currently now invol ved in or are cons idering telecommunications-related services as a mobility management strategy. Beca use schools and p u b lic libraries are perceived as h aving taken the lead on providing computer and Internet access to the p ublic, trans i t ag ency heads do not see it as their role to venture into this area, accord ing to survey resu lts O ther agencies cited lack of funding and authority to take a le ad role and that such mob ility management servi ces involvi n g t e le communicatio n s could only ever be considered supplemen t ary to the core mis sion of p roviding bus serv ice. It is observed that in the private se ctor, businesses may start out providing a particular p roduct or se r vice, then as the company matures, they begin to di ve r sify into other areas of busi ness for the purposes o f maintaining growth and maximizing profits. Ultimat e ly, the key p rod ucts and services may be different fro m those the company provide d initially. Taking to h eart the Community-Orie n ted Grov.1b Scenario envisioned by AP T A's M21 Task Force, the end result included transit syste ms that are "entrepre neu rial" and ... moving into profitable lines of business." If trans it age ncie s viewed themselves first as mobility managers then an opportuniiy to diversify services such as telecommun ica t ions initiatives (and other strategies), could be viewed as a potentia l means to better accomplish the agency's miss ion. It seems impl aus ible that other mobility managemen t strateg ie s cou ld ever replac e b us service. B us transit will pro bably always be a critical service b u t in the future, it may be conc eivab l e that other functions will take an i mport ant place within a menu of servic e s that bette r meet the mob il ity needs of customers. In order f or thi s change t o take place, most trans i t agencies w ill need some assistance. A starting point may be the inst itution of a change in the mission of the department of transportation at the state lev el. 34
Consider Revising the Department of Transportation Mission Statement Consider again the NEPIIIT AC call for a change in the definition of transportation: .. includi ng how infrastructure is administered coordinated, and funded ... No longer can 'transportation' be viewed simply as mov ing people and things from one place to another Tbe definition needs to be expanded to include 'moving intellectual property, data and information electronically ... If we use the State of Florida as an example, the Florida Department of Transportation mission statement cl1rrently reads: "The Department will provide a sate in terconnec ted statewide transportation system for Florida's citizens and visitors that ensures the mob ility of people and goods while enhancing economic prosperity and sustaining quality of our A simple c h ange to in c l ude telecommunications could be incorpo ra ted thus : T he Department will provide a safe, interconnected statewide tra nsportation system for Florida's citizens and visitors that ensures the mob ility of people, goods and information, while enhancing eco nom ic prosperity and sustaining quality of our env ironment." This minor revision could h ave the potentia l to se t transporta t ion planning and serv i ce provision on a whole new course, and influence public transit agencies t o consider alternative service strategies. Consider a Telecommunications Element Within tbe Transportation Plan The Growing Smart Legislative Guidance of the American Planning Association r ecommends the developmen t of"func tiona l plans" divided by topic in the list below Land use Transportation Housing Econom i c development Telecommunications This would seem to reinforce th e notion that t elecommunications is and should be wholly separate from transportation. This may have a potentially limiting effect on the use of telecommunications for transportation purpose s. Those states that have already developed tel ecommunications plans h ave typ i cally put it u nder a department of a dministrat ive services or a department of energy. These departmental purviews tend to 35
direct the use of telecommunication s for the purposes of developing sta te networks to help run government or to reduce energy consumption, rather than to improve public access and mobility. A telecommunications planning element developed by a department of transportation, and incorporated as a separate mode of transportation, might focus, recharge and organize efforts in the areas of: -1' Influencing and directing technology development for strengthening telecommuting and telecommerce, in addition to the traditional goals of using the t e chno logy for enhancing physica l travel thro ugh highway and bus transit system optimization. -' Ensuring universal access to opportunities for te lecom merce and telecommut ing. -1' Defining the role of telecommuting and telccornmerc e as they address transportation-related issues For example, an argument cou l d be made that telecomme rce and telecommuting can play a role in the issues listed in the 2020 Florida T ransportation Plan, includ ing: Global economic competitiveness Growth management Environmental sustainability Role and responsibilities of the public and private sectors Mobility Transportation system co ndi t ion Transportation funding -1' Forging new partnerships with private sector technology providers other government departments and utility commissions. -1' Provi ding the authority, motivation and funding to public transit agencies to serve as providers. -1' Funding transportation in both the manner in which revenues for transportation are raised and the manne r in which transporta tion funds are a lloca t ed. Miller and Self observe from the b us iness standpoint, that ... building ingress and egress to the information superhighway is l ess capital intensive and has a lower recurring cost to use and maintain than any other preceding mechanis m of commercial transportation. Because of these economies, more developers and businesses are using foresight, rather than afterthought with regard to telecommunications infrastructures." ( 41) If the priva te sector is beg i nning to consider these factors, then the public sector transportation planners should also be monitoring how telecommunications is altering or taking the place of travel in the future and direct investments accordingly. However, for examp l e the Florida Transportation Plan notes tha t "Reduced reliance on the automobile will also decrease transporta tion r evenues derived from motor fuel taxes." During the 36
fiscal year 2001, Florida state and loc al motor fuel tax receip t s totaled more than $2.4 billion [ 42) Might traditiona l funding s tru ctures b e holding us back? If d ep artments of transportation took on the movement of information as part of their mission, then how might transportation be funded differen tl y? Currently, travel is measured in vehicle tr ips; the impact of telecommunicatio ns is invisible. How should the impact of t elecommunications be counted to better allocate resources for infrastructure? Table 7 Proposed Modal Elements of a T ransportation Plan Roadway Bus Transit Rai l Pedestrian Btcycle Transportation Demand Management Transportation Systems Management Telecommunications Additional Considerations I n addition to the recommendations above to consider adding "moving information" to the department of transportation mission statement and to consider adding a telecommunications element to the transportation plan, the list below c ontain s 24 add i tional government actions to consider r egarding telework and telecommerce, l.isted according to that level of government that might be in the best posi t ion to cauy them out. These considerations, as the ones above, are offered in the spirit of e ncourag ing renewed thinking about what the mission of public transportation departmen t s and public transit agencies sho uld be. Before acting upon these considerations, each agency will have to evaluate th e poss i bilit i es again st its own unique strengths and weaknesses, the composition of the current and future customer base, cost/benefit analyses, and other factors. However, the purpose of this report has bee n to help encourage pu b lic transportation toward fresh thinking about its future d irection. As the transit industry strives continually for funding and public support there may be new business opportunities in ligh t of a changing world. Applying a business approach found in The Drucker Founda tion Self Assessment Tool for Nonprofit Organizations [43), public transportation agencies wou ld have much to gain from setting aside old assumptions and loo king anew a t their missions their customers, what their customers consider value, and what the results of their programs have been in order to recharge and focus the resources of their agencies. The considerations below provide ideas for moving in one direction that ma y have great future potentiaL 37
State Government I. Provide technical assistance grants to employers to start telecommuting programs 2 Attract teleco mmunications companies to the stat e for better jobs and advanced n etworks for use by the community. MPOs 3. Seek funding to e n courage partnerships between r es earc her s and practitioners to develop, use and sat is fy data requirements of activity base d models These have the capability to measure the impact ofTDM s trategies such as telecommut ing State, Regional and Local Governments 4. Study how the deve lopment of a wireless Interne t bulletin board" of truck departure and arriva l times and loca tions can reduce regional truck travel and optimize regional freight movement throug h consolidation of trips. State and Loc a l Government 5 Harness the use of information and communications techno l ogies throug h coordinated efforts by various governmen t departments, such as the: Department of Energy Department of Trans portation Department of Commerce/Economic Developmen t Department of Administrative Services Public libraries/public schoo ls and community colleges Th ere is a trend in which goals and areas of influence are converging among gover n ment departments which comple me nts int erdiscip li nary approaches t o problems. Consequently the goal s of a local government long range transportation p lan should be co nsi s tent with and supported by the goals of other departments. 6. Explore the advantag es feasibility, i mpacts and fun ding opporrumtte s for the development of a network for distance learning telemedicine, and governmen t service needs 38
State and Local Governments, Transit Agencies 7a. Explore opportunities to influence the development and application of informatio n and communication technologies toward achieving transportat io n goals. 7b. Incorpo ra te questions about the desire for te l ecommunications-related services into transit development plans. Regional Government 8. Establish the MPO as a host site fo r the test ing of activity-based mode ling and for training in the use of the model systems. Such models can account for trip chaining, trans portatio n control measures and TDM including telecommuting. Regional and Local Government 9. Develop policies and initiatives to encourage telecommuting as well as tel ecommerce to influence supplier and customer-re la ted travel. Strategies to be explored are web sites, onl ine supply chain management, on-line service delivery, video conferencing, on-line shopping, and the "dematerializing" of physical products that arc large ly information. I 0. Search for opportun i t i es to share fibers and trenches with private entities for a regional or areawide fiber network I !. Seek proposa l s for the lease of limited -access right-of way in exchange for the design, construction/installation and maintenance of a fiber opt ic network infrastructure to support intelligent transportation system initiatives and other communication programs. 1 2 Partner with private industry to create an urban area wireless optic network. 13. Seek collaborative partnerships with the federal Departmen t of Commerce, National Telecomm u nications and In formation Administration (NTIA) and coordinate with schools and libraries to pursue this new direction. Local Governme11t 14. Explore the development of a "Telecomrnerce TMA," wit h partners such as the MPO, the county, local community colleges and universities, the school district, the library system, the local teleph o ne company, delivery services, lo cal grocery stores, medical services pharmacies and employers. 39
15. Coordinate with the land u se planning element of the local government comprehensive plan to: Prevent cove nan ts and loca l zoning regulations from unreasonably prohibiting an employee from teleworking from a home office Prevent or l i mit cable right of way" fees taxes or levies that discourage telecommun ication companies from making bandwidth available. 16. Estab li s h p l anning guidelines by the l and development department for the application of fiber optic networks i n commerce centers. 17. Review the local b uil di n g code for the purpose of establishing viable standards for providing advanced telecommun i cations and cable service technology to newly constructed homes to encourage te l ecommuting 18. Ensure that all local efforts for the development of ITS infrastructure are linked and integrated to allow for real-time i nformation (e .g. voice, video, and data) exchange between agencies responsible for providing mobility and safety, and transportation system users. I9. Est ablish a countywide employee telecommut ing program for the purpose of recruiting, deve loping and mainta i ning an effective and re sponsible workforce and as a means of leading by examp le 20a. I nc orporate telecommunications as a mode in the transportation element of the long range transportation plan, which would incorporate the fo ll owing goals : Es tablish guide line s standards and timelines for review of telecommunications facilities Minimize unnecessary regu la tion Maintain community character Mainta in local control Encourage compe t ition in the marketp l ace Provide access to public rights -o f way while locality gets a fair compensation for its use Invest in the most advanced technology Protect p ubli c healt h, safety and welfare 20b. P ilot tes t the concept
Transit Agencies or Local Government Transportation Departments 21. Consider these actions: A. Purchase at reduced government rates: Telephone service Computer h ardware, software Computer servicing and maintenance B. Establish a computer equipment recycling program, similar to a program that has been run in Phoenix, Arizona. C Distribute for free or selling at cost to targeted groups: Telephone service New and/o r used co m puter hardware, software Co m puter servicing and maintenance Computer training in-home set-up and ongoing assistance D Establish programs for local emp lo yers to institute telework arrangements E Establish programs to prepare and provide ongoing assistance for employees to be successful teleworkers. F. Serve as a "broke r ," linking co m pani es who want teleworkers wit h people who want to telework. G. Develop an interactive public mobility network, available to subscr i bers, not only for accessing email and the I nterne t but also to enab l e persons to conduct business electronically. Transit Agency 22. Revise the mission and goal statements of the local transit agency to put emphasis on providing services that achieve a desired end result for people, rather than running a transit system. For example, such wording might include: "Enable customers to access economic, education and personal opportuni t ies safely, efficient l y, and comfortably." 23. Serve as community access cen t ers to provide computers and Internet access. Transit agencies today already have an infrastructure tha t i ncludes transit transfer centers and commuter centers. 2 4 Pilot test a "cybennobile" (a bus retrofitted w ith telephones computers and modems) that would enable customers to accomplish personal business by acce s sing work educational and other opportunities through telework and telecommerce. 41
Considerations Developed from Survey Results Lastly, based upon th e results of the Public Transit Service Development Survey four more recommendations for consideration are offered: The state should further investigate and identify that segment of the population that would desire telework opportu nities but w h o do not have such opportunities now The state government should prov ide leadership, funding and policy direction to encourage public transit agencies to consider alte rn ative service strategies, such as telecommunications-related servi ces, and to search for mutually beneficial partnerships with the private sector, such as telecomrnun ications service providers. Use public forums such as visioning processes to in fonn the public about the evolving role of public transit agencies to serve as mobility managers. State and local transportation agencies, in partnership economic development agencies, should provide guidance and encouragement for emp loyers to reap the business advantages of converting more jobs to those that can be accomplished by telework 42
References I Bill Cotterell, Tallahassee Democrat July 3, 2000. 2. Steven Graham and Simon MatVin. Telecommunications and the City: Electronic Spaces, Urban Places Routledge New York, New York. 1 997. 3 For informa t ion about the lack of access to comp uter s and the Internet by low income persons, see http://www.digi t aldivide.gov/ "Mob ility for the 2 1 Cen tury ; A Blueprint for the Future, prepared for the American Public T ransit Association by the American Public Transit Association's Mobil ity for the 21" Century Task Force and Robert L. Olson, Institute for Alternative Futures. October 1996. 5. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority's "Blue Line T elevillage." American Telecommuting Association Bulletin, American Telecommuting Association, Washington, D.C. 1994 6 Transportation Research Board National Researc h Counc i L TCRP R eport 21, Strategies to Assist Local Transportation Agencies in Becoming Mobility Managers. Transit Cooperative Researc h Program. Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration. Washington, D.C. 1997 7. D efinitions developed by Jack Nilles. 8 Ram Pendyala, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, phone communication, September 20, 2000. 9. Mar k Bradley Research and Consulting et al., A System of Activity-Based Models for Portland, Oregon. Prepared for the Travel Model Improvement Program USDO T May 1998. I 0. Francis Cleland, "Carpoo ling Statistics: It's all a Matter of Perspective." TDM Review. Association for Commuter Transportation. Vol. VII, No 4 Falll999. pp. 2 0-21. I I. Mokhtarian, P.L. (1998) A Synthetic A pproach to Estimating the Impacts of T elecommuting on Travel, Urban Studies, VoL 35 No.2, pp. 2 15-241. 12. Mokh t arian, P.L., and Salomon I., (1997) Modeling the des ire to telecommute: the importance of attitudinal factors in behavioral models, Transportation Research A, 31(1), pp. 35 -50 13. Mokhtarian, P.L (1997) The transportation impacts of t e lecommuting: recent empiri cal findings, in: P.R. Stopher and M L ee-Gosselin (eds.) U n derstanding 43
Travel Behaviour in an era of change, pp. 91-106. Oxfotd: Pergamo n (Elsevier Sci.ence Ltd.). 14. Niles J .S (1994) Beyond telecommu ting: a new paradigm for the effect of telecommunications on travel. Report number DOE/ER-0626, prepared for the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Resea rch and Office of Scientific Computing, Washington, D.C., September. 15. Steven Graham and Simo n Marvin. Teleco mmunications and the City; Elect:t:onic Spaces, Urban Places. Routledge New York, New York. 1997. 16. Jim Mi ll er and Rebecca Self T elework Enters the Mainstream : New Techno log ies, Social and Business Dynamics Transforming the Workplace," Center for Digital Culture 2000 p. I 0 Found at http://www digitalcultureeenter.org/special reports/telework.htrnl 17. Ibid., p. 7. 18. Ibid p. 22. 19. Pamela Blais, Metropole Consultants. 20. "The B2B U niv erse Exp la in ed," Forbes, New York, New York July 17, 2000, pp.l53-155 21. The Economist "Th e Rise of lnfomed i ary," Business and the Internet Surve y, June 26, 1999. 22 FO OT S hort Range Component for 20 00-2006 p. 99. 23. T he Green Economy Plan Appendix A: Economic Competitiveness, U rban Fo rm and Environmental Sustainability, prepared by Metropole Consultan ts in association with Richard Gilbert, prepared for The Environm ental Task Force of the City of Toronto, October 20, 1999, p 38. 24. Choo, Sangho et al. (2001) Impacts of T elecommuting on Vehicle-Miles Traveled: A Nationwide Time Series Analysis Inst itut e of Transportation Studies, U niv ersity of California at Davis and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, prepared for the Californi a Energy Commission, pp.63 -64. 25. Barba ra Becker and Susan Bradbury Creating Effec t ive State and Lo cal Telecommunications Plans, Regu la tion s and Networks: Models and Recommendations," Plarming Advisory Service Report N u m be r 480/481, Vol. 2, American Planning Assoc iation, pp. 107-131. 44
26. Ibid pp. I 07-131 27. National Environmental Policy Institut e Te/e work and the Environment. W a shi n gton, D.C. De c ember 1 999. p 9 28. Chap. 1 10.171, Florida Statutes 29. M e tropole Consultants in associatio n with Richard Gilbert "Economic Competitiveness, Urban Form and Environmental Sus t ainability," Ap pe ndix A. n d 30. Information compiled by Nat ional Environmental Poli c y I nsti t ute. Telework and the Environment. Washington, D.C Decemb er 1999, pp. 33-34. 31. Fr e edman, David H "Magic Bus Business 2.0 Inc. The Transport P olicy Di s cussion Group, sponsored by The Public Purpose. A u gus t 20 0 I. found at http://www.publicpurposc.co m 32. E i senberg, Anne. "An O p t i cally Guided Bus." The New York Times. July 26, 2001. 33 P i zzo, Stephen P. "The Race fo r Fiberspa c e." Forbes ASAP August21, 2000. p. 67 34. Crosby, Kip "Introd u cing the Compu t e r of 2010." Forbes ASAJ'. August 21, 2000. p 87. 35. Poole, Gary Andrew. "Not Just Smoke and Mirrors; The Time Fo r Wir e less Opt ics May Ha v e Finally Arrived Forbes ASAP. August 21, 2000. p. lOO. 36. Freedman, David H. "Magic Bus." B u si n ess 2 0 Inc. The Transportation Policy Discussion Group Sponsored b y The Public Purpose. August 200!. Found at http://www.pub licpurpos e .com 37. Nat iona l Enviro nm e n ta l Policy Institute. Telework and the Environment. Was h ington, D .C. December 1999. p. 23. 38. Nat io n a l Telecommunications and Information Adm inis tration. Advanced Telecommunications in Rural America. Prepared jointly with the U .S. Dep t of co m merce and the Rural U t iliites Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agric u lture. Washington, D C. April 2000. 39. American Plann i ng Association. Growing Smart Legislative Guidebook ; Mode l Statutes for Planning and the Managemen t of Change Phases 1 and II Interim Ed i tion, September 1998 Fo un d at http : //www.planning.org 45
40. Becker, Barbara and Susan Bradbury, "C reating Effective State and Loca l Telecommunicatio n s Plans, Regulations, and Networks: Models and Recommendations," Planning Advisory Service, Report Number480/481 Vol. 2, American Planning Association. 41. Miller, Jim and Rebecca Self, "Telework Enters the Mainstream: New T echnologies, Social and Business Dynamics Transforming the Workplace," Center for Digital Culture, 2000 p.23. Found a t http://w ww.digitalculturecenter.o rgfspe cial reportsfte l ework.html 42. Flor ida Departmen t of Revenue, Office of Research & Analysis Validated Tax Receipt Data for Fiscal Year 2001. Report date: Sept. 1 4 2001. 43. Drucker Peter F. "The Five Most Important Questions You Will Ev er Ask About Y o ur Nonprofit Organization," The Drucker Foundation. Jossey-Bass, Inc. San Francisco CA. 1993 46
Appendix Survey Public Transit Service Development National Center for Transit Rese arc h 47
Survey Public Transit Serv i ce Development Nationa l Center for Trans i t Research IID earTra nsit Agency Director: Univers ity o f South Florida, T ampa i s conducting this of Transportation and the Florida Department of 1 survey may result i n the deve lopment of potential n ew r o les and prov ide, to meet the evo lving needs of their custome r marl
nuuo=> "' J l City i l =jf. I ZipCode II J l D Check here If you would like us to send you a copy of the final report. 2. What i s your transit agency 's officia l mission slatement? Ia. P l ease rate a ll of the following serv i ce strateg ies from 1 (Least desired by custom by customers) to determine which of these services will satisfy the needs of over the next ten years .. 2 3 4 Fs Ia. Provide more fix ed r ou t e bus service 0 0 0 0 0 I route po i nt : 0 0 0 0 0 lc. Opera te va npoo l programs 0 0 0 0 0 ld. Offer subsidies to vanpoolers 0 0 0 0 0 -ncy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Provide subscription bus service 0 0 0 0 0 transit friendly development 0 0 0 0 0 w i th 0 0 0 0 0 Provide bikes on bus service 0 0 0 0 0 foi and 0 0 0 0 0 lnlemet 11'1\'foi I V l 8 0 0 0 0 0 i aboard b us es 0 0 0 0 0 1n. a car ,g,, ,,. IIOr ers) to 5 (Most exis ti ng and potentia l
trans it hel p Oves ONo Oves ONo Oves 2r ONo Oves ONo Oves and the Oves v i a a 2u ONo Oves services ONo 2v Any additiona l commen t s/observatio n s you d like to make: t h i s s u rvey on th e Web, please cl i ck the "Submit" bu tton bel ow or email it to prefer you may FAX th is survey to the attention of Sara Hen dricks at CUTR, (8 13) 974 5168 or ma i l it Sara J. Hendricks, Center for Urban Transportation Research U n iversity of South F lorida, 4202 E
Fowler Avenue, C UT100 T a m pa FL 33620-5375. Thank you f o r your time and ass i sta n ce : : j Reset. I