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Realizing electric bus deployment for transit service

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Title:
Realizing electric bus deployment for transit service
Physical Description:
1 online resource (iii, 57 p.) : charts. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida -- Dept. of Transportation
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Pinellas County Metropolitan Planning Organization
Publisher:
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Bus lines -- Florida -- Pinellas County   ( lcsh )
Buses, Electric -- Florida -- Pinellas County   ( lcsh )
Buses, Electric -- Evaluation -- United States   ( lcsh )
Air quality management -- Florida -- Pinellas County   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by the Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
General Note:
Prepared for the Pinellas County Metropolitan Planning Organization in cooperation with the Florida Dept. of Transportation.
General Note:
"April 1998."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029120189
oclc - 750625552
usfldc doi - C01-00140
usfldc handle - c1.140
System ID:
SFS0032250:00001


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Realizing Electric Bus Deployment for Transit Service This project is funded through tbe Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ} program, under a joint participation agreement between tbe Florida Department of Transportation aod tbe Pinellas County Mettopolitan Planning Organization. This project is funded under the following ratio: 80% Federal, 20% State/FOOT. WPI No. 7816650 State Job No. 150073812 Contract No. AA971 Federal Job No. CM8888 (100) MPO Resolution No. 93 Prepared for the Pinellas County Metropolitan Planning Organization By the Center for Urban Trans portation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida April1998

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TABLE O F CONTENTS INTROD U CTION .. . . ........ ...... .. .. ......... u ... . ., ............ ...... ....................... ....... .... -................ ., ........................ t ALTE RNATIVE FUEL TYPES ...... . . . . ..... ..... ....... . . .. . ............ .............. ....... ...... .-.. .......... ................. ...... . ... l AIR QUALITY REVIEW -.. ----...... -.... lNTJlOOUcn ON TO AIJl POLLliTANTS oooo "'"''''''''n''''"'''''''''''''''2 AJ)V ANTAGESIDISAD V ANT A G ES O F EACH FUEL TYP E---------4 R.E:GULA TOR Y ISSUES . ........................ ... ..... .............. . ................ .... ...... ....... ......... . . ....... .. ....... ... ..... 4 F'lJa A V AJLABIUTY .......... ... .... , ......... .. ..... ................ .. . ...................................... . . ,, ........ ............... ,, ...... ....... .. 4 VElnCLE AVAJLABlLITY ...................... ........... .. .. .. ..... .... ............ .................. . . .... ... ................. ................................. 4 PE.RFOfUo.iA.NCE .... ................................................ ........ .......... ... ..... ..... .... . ... .......... ....... .. . .... ....... ........... .............. 4 RF1JELJNG F A C JLmES ....... ... ,,,,, ...... . . . ..... . .. . . ... . .... .. ... . . .................. . ....... ........ .. ... .... .... ..... . ........ .... . ...... ... 4 CoSTS ............ .. .. ....................... ........ ............... ............ ............ ................... ... ...... ... ....... ..... ... ...... ........................... .. 5 SAFETY AND MAINTE:NA.NCE ............................ . .. ... ............ ....................... .. ... ... .... .. ... ...... .... .... ....................... .. ...... S SVM.PdARY OF FUEL .... ........... ... ...... . ...... .. ...... ..................... ....... . ..................... ..... ..... .. ...... ... ......... S EMISSION RATES ...... ................................... ......... .. ........................................... ....... ...... ................................ 8 COSTS ....... ..................... ........ ................ . ...................... .............................. . . ..................... ,. .......................... ...... ......... 8 SUMMARY OF DETAlUDANAJ.YSIS .............. ......... ... ... .............................. ...... .. ..... ...... . ..... ......... .................... .... 9 ALTERNATIVE. FUELS l MPAC1' ..... .................. ... ......... ....... ........ ....... __ ... ....... ........ ........ . . ...... .. ... 9 ACQUI S ITIO N OF E LECTRI C BUS.......... -..... ........ ... ...... .... ........... ...... ........ .. . ......... ...................... 9 E L ECTRIC BUS PERFORl\otA..NC E EV ALUA nON .. ---... ... .. ._ ...... ...... .... -.. .. 11 n.t:E Bus + ..... ................... ............ _.. ............ ........ ........ .... ...... ............. -. .......... ............................. ................. ........ I 1 TilE BA1TIRY PACK ......... ............ ................ ......................... ................. .................................... ....................... II 1l
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PARTNERS IN CliATI'ANOOOA'S ELECTRIC B U S INITIATIVE ...... ... . . ..... ........ ...... ... .. . ............. .... ....... .. ....... ... .. .... 22 REsEARCH: ELECTIUC TRANSIT VEHICLE INSTITUTE . .... ....... ....... .... ... .............. ..... .... ... .. ..... ............ ........ ... ...... 2 2 ll:STING : ELECTRIC VEHICLE ll:ST FACILITY (EVTF) ...... . .. ..... .. ...... .. ..... ...... ... ....... ...... .. ..... ... ........ .. ... .. ...... ... 22 MANUFACTUR!NG: ADVANCED VEHICLE SYSTEMS (A VS) ......... ........... ... .. ..................... ... ......... . ...... ...... ............ 22 CHATI'ANOOOA'S ELECTRIC ll\JS lN!TIATIVE: IMPACT . ..... .... . ... .... .. ... .. ....... .......... .. ... ........ .. .. . ..... . ... .. ... ..... .... 23 SANTA BARBARA METRO PO LIT AN TRANSIT DISTRICT ............................. ...... ... ................. ....... 23 SANTA BARBARA ELECTRIC BUS .. ... ..... . .. . ..... .... ...... ..... .. ... ........ .. ......... .......... .... . .. ..... . ..... .... .... .... ...... .. .. ... ....... 23 SUMMARY .... .. ....... ... ...... ...................................... ... ....... ... . ......... .. ......... ... .. ....... .... ..... ..................................... 24 OPERATIONAL FACTORS .. . ......... . ..... .... .. ... ...... .. .. ..... ... .. ........... .. . .... ......... ...... .... ....... ... .. .... .. ..... .................. .... ... 25 MAINTENANcE ... .. . ........... ........ ........... ............. ... .. .... .... ... ..... ..... ........ ... .. ....... ..... .. .... ........ .. .... .................... .... 26 INFRASTRUCTURE .... .. .... ... .... ..... .... ........ ...... .. . ... ......... ... ...... ...... .... .. ... ..... ... . ....... .. ......... .. ... .. .. ......... ........... ....... 26 HOOVER CITY SCHOOL S ......... -.. ...................................................... ... ........................ ............... h ................................ l6 CITY OF PHOENIX ................ ........................ ............. ........ _. ............. .. ........... .......................... 27 ANTELOPE VALLEY SCHOOL DISTRICT .... .... ........ ........... ..... ........ .................. ................... ....... ..... Z7 BEA UMONT UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT._ .................................. .................................... .... ..... ........... .... Z1 CITY OF BERKELEY ....... _.,, .............................. . ....... .. ......................... . ....... . .. ....... ... .............. .. .. 27 CITY OF EL MONTE .. ...... ....... .... ...... .. ....... ................ .......... ........ ...... ..... ... ....................... _, ...... ........ .... 27 GOLETA UNION SCHOOL DJS TRICf ......... .. .......... .............. _. ................................... ._ ... ......... -.................... ...... 27 CITY OF HOLLYWOOD ....................... ................................... ... ......................... ........ .. ..... .. .... ........................... 27 CITY OF LAG.UNA BEACH ................................................................ . ....................... .... .. ..... .. .... .................... ...... 27 CITY OF SAVANNAH ............. .................. .. .. ....... ..... ....................... ... ............ ... ................ .. .............................. ......... 28 GEORGIA POWER COMPANY ..... ..... ........... ........ ...................... ............ ......................... ... .... ...... .............. 28 CREA TER PORT.LAND TRANSIT ........ .. .... _. .... ...................... ............................................................................... 28 NATIONAL WILDLIFE VISI TOR'S CENTER ........... ............ .... ...... ............................................ .... .......... 2 8 CITY OF FRAMINGHAM ..... .......... .. .................................. ....................... ............................. ......... ..... ......... 28 MARTHA'S VINEYARD ...... _, .. ... ........... ....... ..... ....... ........... .. .................... ... ......... ...... ..... .... . ..... ... l3 CITY OF CHARLOTTE ......... ..... .......... ........ .. ........................ ......................................... .. ........ ............ .. ..... 28 LANTA ....... .. ......... ............ . ....... ......... ..... .... .... ... ...... .............. ........... .... ....... .. ............... . ....... .... . ................ .. 28 CITY OF PITrSBURGH ....... ..... ................... ..... .......... _,,,., __ ............................................ ... ....................... ........ 28 Cl'rY OF PROVIDENCE ................... ....................... .. .. __ ......... ............ ........... ...................... ............ ..... .. 29 WESTCHESTER COUNTY .. ....... ..... .... ........... ..... ...... ..... ..... ........... ................................. .... .... .... ... Z9 PACIFIC GAS & ELECTRIC ....... ....... . .. ......... ... ...... .... ............ ........ ......... ....... ... ..... ............... .. ......... . ... 29 ii

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CITY OF PALM DESERT CALIFORNIA ............................... ........ ......................................... ................. 29 ClTY OF .P:ET ALUI\1A, CALlF'ORNlA ... -......... .......... _. ... ................. .,... ..................................................................... 29 CITY OF TORRANCE, CALIFOR.N'JA............ ........ ....................... .. ....... .. ......... ..... _._. .................... ........ ....... . 30 CITY OF DENVER . .. ........... .......... .. ....... .. ......... ... ....................... ............................... . .... .. . .. ..................... . ........ 30 l\1JAMI BEACH ELECTRO WAVE ............................... ......... ....................... . ......... .. _,,,,, ...... .......................... 30 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..... ......... . .... .. .... ......................................... ......... .. ........... 31 N EXT STEPS . . ....... .......... .................... ....... .......................................... ..... ..... ,_ ... ......... 32 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .... ....... ........... ..................... ................... ....... ... ............... -.......... .............. ..... ... 33 PROJECT CONTACT S ...... ... .... __ ...... .......... ...... ... ... .. .... ...... ....... _,, .... ........ ................ ...... .. .. 33 APPENDIX A: QUARTERLY REPORTS FROM USF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEP ... ................... . ............................ .... ............. ........ .......................... ........... ..... .... ............... .......... 34 APP E NDIX B: CUTR RESOURCE AND INFORMATION CENTER'S ELECTRIC TRANSIT BUS INFORMATION ............ .... .............................. .. ..................... ....................................... ..... ........................... 47 iii

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INTRODUCTION This evaluation report summarizes the assessment of eight different alternative fuel options available to the Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA) for conversion of its 123-vebicle transit fleet to alternative fuel vehicles. A more detailed alternative fuels implementation plan was prepared and submitted in October 1995. This evaluation examines data on Pinellas County's air quality and identifies the most pressing air quality problems that an alternative fuels implementation plan should address. This evaluation also looks at the advantages and disadvantages of each fuel type. An overall selection "checklist" and generalized procedure for detailed impact analysis for alternative fuel conversion is recommended. Since electric has become the first alternative fuel conversion for PSTA, r esults to date involving the deployment of an bus are highlighted. Case study examples of other electric bus deployments across the U.S have also been included for comparison. The appendix of this report contains the detailed quarterly performance reports (prepared by the Elec trical Engineering Department of USF), and listing of numerous reference sources for electric vehicles. ALTERliiATIVE FUEL TYPES This evaluation examines the most common types of alternative fuels available today, namely : (alternative fuels i n Texas, reformulated gasoline (RFG) and reformulated diese l (RFD)] propane the main ingredient in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ethanol, biodiesel and electricity. This analysis does not deal with futuristic stil.l experimental technologies such as hydrogen fuel cells Propane is the primary gas in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Propane is currently the most widely used alternative to gasoline for vehicle fuel in the United States. By 1993, there were over 350,000 propane powered vehicles in the U.S. Compressed natural gas, which is composed primar ily of methane, is stored in fuel tanks at very high pressure, between 3,000 and 4,800 pounds per square inch. Refueling of CNG vehicles can take longer than conventional vehicles because the fuel must be kept pressurized. Despite this limitation, CNG has become a popular choice among transit agencies in Florida as an alt e rnative fuel for their buses. Liquefied natural gas is produced when natural gas is subjected to temperatures of -260 F. The fuel turns to liquid and can be pumped directly into a fuel tank. LNG storage tanks do not need to maintain the same pressure requirements as CNG, but they do need special insulation to keep the fuel at the low temperature. Methanol is a liquid fuel which can be produced from several sources, including natural gas, alcohol wood, coal and biomass. Because methanol can be made from coal, it is a popular choi ce in areas with large coal reserves, such as the western United States. Since m e thanol-powered vehicles have difficulty starting in cold weather, the methano l is frequently mixed with gasoline at a 85 percent to 15 percent (of methanol) ratio (M85) Ethanol is a liquid fuel derived from organic substances, su c h as com. Ethanol can be mixed with gasoline (at a rate of up to 5 percent) and run on conventional engines to r educe pollutants and decrease fuel costs, if ethanol costs less than gasoline for a particular area. Dedicated vehicles with specially made engines can operate on I 00 percent ethanol. I

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Biodiesel is currently described by the E PA as a "fuel component"; an additive to fuels such as diesel. The bio component is made from renewable energy sourcesprimarily vegetable oil. Biodiesel, mixed with diesel at a 20/80 percent ratio, can be used in conventional diesel-powered engines without modification to the vehicle. Biodiesel advocates say that the 20/80 mix significantly reduces diesel emissions : particulate matter by 31 percent, CO by 21 percent and VOCs by 50 percent. However, biodiesel does not reduce NO x emissions. With electric vehicles (EVs), energy is stored in a battery, which must be recharged frequently. The distance EVs can travel between rechargings (50-75 miles) is much more limited than the distance between refuetings provided by gasolineor diesel-powered vehicles, and oth.er alternative fuels. AIR QUALITY REVIEW Pinellas County has recently been qualified as an "air quality maintenance area". However, for certain cri tical air pollutants, the margin available for incremental growth of pollution levels is modest with respect to exceeding the nati onal standards. /nlrcduction to Air Po/JuJ(1111s The Cle an Air Act directs the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set and enforce air quality standards for the protection of the public health and welfare. EPA has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for a number of air pollutants. Unlike emission standards, which regulate the quantity of pollutants at the source, the NAAQS prescribe minimum acceptable standards in terms of concentrations of pollutants in the ambient air. Ground-level ozone results when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) react with sunlight. Even low concentrations of ozone have been found to severely impair breathing and cause lung inflammation in healthy people, according to the Environmental Protection Administration. Nationwide, more than one third ofVOCs emissions come from transportation, with the remainder produced by industrial and commercial sources, such as painting and dry cleaning. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the secondary contributing pollutant to ground-level ozone formation. In addition to contributing to acid rain, NOx can irritate the l ungs and lower people's resistance to respiratory infections like the flu. The EPA has set national air quality standards for one type ofN Ox called nitrogen dioxide (N02) Particulate matter of less than 10 microns in size (PM-10) is about half the diameter of a human hair. PM-10 can be toxic because it is small enough to be breathed into human lungs. PM-10 is composed of soot, dust, smoke, sulfate and nitrate particles. Less than one-third ofPM-10 pollution is caused by transportation sources. However, of that one-third, diesel exhaust is a main contributor. Carbon monoxide (CO) blocks hemoglobin's abil ity to cany oxygen to the body's organs. As a result, CO is most threatening to people suffering from cardiovascular disease, even at relatively l ow levels. Because unburned gasoline is the primary source of carbon monoxide, the pollutant is a particular problem in areas with cold winters, when starting a cold engine requires a richer gaso line-air mixture Because of the removal of l ead from most gasoline sold in the United States, lead emissions have decreased 98% since 1970. 2

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The EPA also sets national air quality standards for sulphur dioxide because i t is a major cause of lung disease and acid rain. However o nl y a smal l amount of the total SOz emissions come from transportation, with the majority being emitted by coal-burning electricity generation plants. Table I summarizes the impact for each air pollutant. In terms of critical air pollutants primary consideration should be g iven to ozone, whi c h would dictate controlling emission s of vola t ile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen. Secondary consideration should be giv e n to particulates, which are approaching two-thirds of !he leve l s specified in the NAAQS. Table 1 National Ambient Air Qnality Standards Pollutant Contributing Factors EPASWldard Maximum Rcadint;s iB Rank of Pine llas Co un ty (1991 Severity 199:3) Groundl.evcl Ozone Mixing ofvolatile wganic 120 P1)b &S-115 ppb I t;Omp<>unds (VOCs) and oxides (!-hour) (lhour ) of nitrogen (NOJC) with sunlight N i trogen Dioxide Evotporation of $lSOiine or O.OSppm 0 0 1 4 ppm 2 diest:l Net at gas pump (anouaJ mean) (3Mu>l me.n) Unburned fuel from automobile tailpipes Matter Emissions &om diestlpowtred I SO mitrogramsf cubic J 00 micrograms/ cubic ; (PM-10) \"Chicles mcr mdcr Burning off0$$11 fuels for (24-bour) (24-how) and clectric-1{)' SO mkroaramsf (Ubic 20-30 micrograms/ cubic generation meter (annual r:ncsn) mctu (annual mean) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Emks$ions ftom automobile 351'1'"' 3ppm 4 tailpipes (1-hon () hour) Q hour) om-O .OOS M IS ppm (aruwal ,.., ) (anoual mean) t....d Emissions from autom<>til'C LS micrograms.' cubic 0 007 micrograms/ Cllbic 6 taitpipes when fuel contains lcad met er ( quarterty meter (quatterly meaD) add.iti\'e$ Batltf)' manufacturing plan\$ smdtm Source: Pinellas County oCEnvir()t'lmcntal Managemen t and Ccn1er (c>r Nct&hborflood TcchDOi ogy 3

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ADV ANT AGESIDISADV ANT AGES O F EACH FUEL T YPE This section assesses the advantages and disadvantag e s of each of the fuel options consid ered, based on the following criteria Regulatory Issues The alternative fuel vehicle requi r ements of the Clean A i r Act Amendments (CAA) of 1990 do not apply to much of PST A's fleet because heavy-duty vehicles (weight greater than 8,500 pounds) are currently exempted from these centrally fueled fleet requirements Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) defines acceptable "clean fuels" for these AFV new vehicle purchases as those that are "substantially not petroleum", i .e. propane, CNG, LNG, ethanol methanol and electricity Although EPACTcurrently exempts heavy-duty transit buses from the centrally fueled fleet requirements, it does serve as guidance for long term acceptance with the national program The U S Department of Energy Secretary does have the option of revoking the h eavyd uty fleet exemption, but s u ch as decision must be made no later than January I 2000. Fuel Availability All fuel options considered are available from some domestic U.S. source: ethanol and b i odiesel from the Midwest, methanol from coal rich areas, etc However, only propane, CNG and electricity have the refueling i n frastructure already in place in Pinellas County. There are severa l public CNG and propane refueling facilities located in Pinellas County In addition, electric buses and vehicles can undergo a slow (8hour) charge at any 1 5 -amp outlet. There is only one methanol dealer in Florida, Ashland Chemical, with a dormant methanol refueling station in Miami at Metro-Dade Transit Authority's maintenance facility. There are no known ethanol distribu t ors in Florida. Vthick Availabilil)l Only CNG-and LNG-power ed engines are available from a wide range of manufacturers, enabling PSTA to compare bids. Biodiesel and RFD, of course, will run on any conventional diesel-powered bus engine. The wide range of manufacturers also enables these alternatively-fueled engi nes to fit into a wide range of bus sizes. Only theCNGand LNG-powered engines were guaranteed by the manufacturers to fit into buses ranging in size from 28-foot to 40-foot. This size range encompasses the majority of the PSTA bus fleet. Electric buses from Advanced Vehicle Systems are available only in 22 foot and 31-foot sizes. PeljOrmiiJICt With the exception ofbiodiesel, all the fuel options examined have a lower energy conten t than diesel. The lower energy content limits the distance the alternatively-fueled buses can travel between refueling. However, buses running on CNG and LNG can install large capacity fuel storage tanks to compensate for the low energy content of these fuels, boosting their range between refuelings to 250 miles and 350 miles respectively. Electric buses have an average range of 50-75 miles between recharging. Biodiesel and RFD offer almost I 000/o of the energy content of dieseL Rtfutling Facilities There are cu11ently no ethano l refueling facilities and only one methano l refueling fac i lity in Florida Locally People's Gas currently operates two public eNG/propane refueling stations in Pinellas County along with several other priv a te refueling facilities. Clearwater Gas, in adjacent Clearwater Florida opened two p u blic CNG/propane refueling stations in March of 1995. Small electric vehicles can be recharged at any 15arnp ( 2 40-volt)' electrical outlet. However, without special equipment, a recharge ca n talce over eight hours. 4

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No special equipment is needed for a "quick-fill" refueling of liquid fuels such as LPG, 13iodiesel, ethanol and meth.anol. Special equipment is needed, how ever, for "quick-fill" refue li ng (or recharging) of transit buses with CNG, LNG and electricity. When choosing an appropriate site for a refueling facility it is imperative to compare the range of the AFVs to the routes the vehicles usually run. W i.ll the vehicles be able to run their normal routes and return to the refueling facility without running out of fuel? If not, PSTA would need to consider (a) building a refuel in g facility in a more centralized location (b) choosing an alternative fuel with a higher energy density, (c) choosin g an AFV with more fuel storage capacity, (d) constructing multiple sites. Costs Typica l costs of a 31-foot regular diesel powered bus would be about S250,000. The costs of various types of alt ernatively fue l ed engines vary from about an additional $36,000 for a CNGor LNG-powered engine to $50,000 for an ethanolor methanol-powered engine. Advanced Vehicle Systems' base price for a 31-foot electric bus is S230,000 base price, p lus add-ons for air conditioning and ADA r equirements Biodiesel can run on any regular diesel-powe r ed engine with minimum modification. F uel costs are approximately 22 cents per vehicle-mile for C N G and 27 cents per vehicle mile for LNG, compared to about 18 cents per vehicle-mile for diesel. Maintenance costs bave been reported at 24-25 cents per vehicle -mil e for CNG and LNG, compared to 36 cents for diesel buses. Total operating costs for elec tric buses are estimated at one-third the operating cost of diesel buses Safety and MainltJU111Ct Ethanol aod liquefied petroleum gas (whose main ingredie nt is propane) are both liquid fuels which can spill on the ground during r efueling. Like gasoline, they are frre hazards, so care must he taken during the refuelin g process. Because compressed natura l gas is stored at such high pressures, if a fitting becomes loose it can become a dangerous airborne projectile. CNG bus maintenance workers must focus special attention when working with these vehicles. T o help detect leaks, agencies must install methane detectors or add an odorant to the odorless gas. CNG is lighter than air, so good ventilation is needed near the roofs of refueling and maintenance facilities. CNG actually has a higher ignition temperature than gasoline making it less of a fire hazard Because liquefied natural gas must be stored at such low temperatures, LNG ve hicles require special ins u lated steel fuel tanks similar to giant thermos bott les Maintenance technicians are required to wear protective clothing when refueling. Methanol is an extremely toxic fuel far more toxic than gasoli ne. Maintenance tech ni cians must wear protective clothing and gloves to keep from getting the fuel on their skin. M e thanol is flammable and heavier than air so whe n leaked, it pools on the floor causing a fire hazard. Methanol b u ms with no visible flame. Therefore, ground-level ventilation systems are needed at refueling and maintenance facilities Summary of Fuel Comparisons Table 2 lists several key attribu tes of each alternativ e fuel in order of importance, and a check is shown to siguify a "Yes" answer to the comparison question. Table 2 also establishes the basis for selection of the fuels carried forward (CNG, L N G and e l ectric) for more detailed evaluat i on and comparison. s

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Tablel Fuel Assessmeat Matrix CNG LNG Propane Ethanol Methanol Eltctric:ity RfGIRFI) Biodicstl AIR QUALilY: Reduces VOC " " " emissions? 'Reduces l'!Ox emissions? " RcdlJCCSPM emiss-Ions? " " .; .; Reduces CO emission$? ,/ ,/ " SAFETY&-MAINlENANCE: Comparable t o ,/ ,/ .; " dtesel? FUEL AVAILABILITY: Fud &\'ailablc " ,/ ,/ ,/ ,/ nuioo3lly? Fue l avai l able loea!l)'? ,/ " PERFORJ.W:CE: Range meets daily a:vera&t for PST A ' ,/ ,/ buses (131 miles) ? VEHICLE AVAILA8!LITY: Dlve11ity of ,/ ,/ makers? Diversity of bus sius ( 36')? ,/ ,/ REFUELING: No special equipment needed for quic:kfill? ,/ " COST:Vcbicle costs <=diesel? " Fuel costs<= dksel? LONG-TERM COMPATIBILITY: Classified as C l ean " " Fue l by EPACT?

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DETAILED FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS Of the eight different fuel options initially considered (ethanol, metbanol bio-diesel, refonnulated gasoline, electJ:icity, liquefied natural gas and compressed natural gas) two fuelscompressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas showed the greatest potential for feasible implementation into current PSTA daily operations. In addition, electricity is also included in tbe detailed feasibility analysis process because of its zero emissions and lower fuel cost, irrespective of its limitations in range and vehicle siz.e. Options for selecting alternative fuel implementation plans based on range, miles between refuelings and more detailed eapital and operating costs for each short-listed fuel by route, by bus for the PSTA fleet were assessed. This assessment assumed all existing PST A route patterns and headways to keep the existing level of service at same level. The properties of the PSTA fleet indieate a total of 51 PSTA routes and 123 buses in operation. Most of these buses are working on weekdays and only a few work only on weekends. Total daily miles by individual bus varies from a low of 36. 7 miles to a high of 313.5 miles. This range indicates that buses running on specific routes can be replaced with electric powered buses and most of the remaining diesel buses can be replaced with either CNG or LNG-powered buses. In assessing tbe refueling requirements, range for a CNG vehicle was taken as 250 miles between refueling, 300 miles in the case of a LNG vehicle and 50 miles in case of an electric bus. Refueling stations for CNG and L N G were assumed at PSTA garages, and battery transfer points for electric vehicles were assumed at either passenger tJ:ansfer points or end of routes (mostly shopping malls). However, the necessary pennits to allow for battery pack replacement activities at transfer points could not be obtained (replacement would have to occur at the Clearwater garage at the end of the day). Based on the refueling requirements, details regarding when the refueling is needed, and the number of trips that a bus is going to complete before refueling were collected. Due to the short range of electric buses, this alternate was eliminated from the primary consideration for conversion. Only a few vehicles (thirteen in the case ofCNG and two in the case of LNG) would need refueling during the course of the day. After considering electr i city as a secondary alternative it was concluded that there are 28 buses from the entire PS T A fleet that can be converted to electric based on total daily miles. Based on this infonnation, the feas i bility of those electric routes and buses with consideration for maximum loading factors was checked. This check is needed for electric due to the limitation of electric bus size and eapacity (originaUy 20 passengers per bus, then reduced to 16). This capacity check eliminated additional routes from furtber consideration. PSTA expressed some concern regarding operational and planning difficulties to refuel buses by replacing them with a bus from the garage Possible replacement schedules for the routes which need replacement, either from the garage or repl acement by another bus in ciQse proximity which completed its scheduled trips for the day on other routes, were developed. Based on feasibility check by PSTA personnel, some replacement of diesel to C NG-powered buses was required. Selecting a spare bus from the garage was found not to be acceptable due to the impact on general operations An increase in the number of public access CNG/propane vehicle refueling sites across Pinellas County may change the aspects of this issue. 7

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After performing the feasibility check for electric, CNG and LNG buses, electricity was selected as a secondary fuel option along with the primary alternative fuel option. In order to illustrate the time frame (or staging) for replacement, the overall replacement schedule considering CNG or LNG as primary alternate fuel plus feasible electric buses was p
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Summary of Detailed Anal)'sis With CNG as the primary alternative fuel, approximately 80 percent of the buses can be converted to CNG. Similarly if LNG is the main alternate fuel, more than 80 percent can be converted to LNG. Based on daily mileage, CNG and LNG fuel powered buses can perfonn approximately at the same level to give the same range as diesel fueled buses between refuelings. This range between refueling may be enough to serve the present PSTA schedules and headways on all days. If C N G is selected as a primary alternative fuel, four buses (running on routes 19 and 59) may need to run with diesel to avoid refueling or replacement from the garage during the course of the day. If LNG is selected as primary alternative fuel, there will be no buses operating with die. sel. Overall, el ectricity can be used as a secondary alternative fuel to serve on some routes with less mileage> but not on all routes due to its limitations in range. Therefore, based on total daily miles, the possible solution in selecting the alternative fuel from the short-listed fuels may be either a combination of CNG Electric-Diesel or LNGElectric fuel powered buses. ALTERNATIVE FUELS IMPACT Based on the detailed feasibility perfonned by bus, by route for the PSTA fleet, the following recommendations and conclusions were made: I. The most favorable conversion to alternative fuels is a combination of eNG-Electric and diesel. (97 converted to CNG, 21 to electric, and five remaining as diesel). 2. The greatest benefit in conversion to alternative fuels will be in reduced emissions compared to an all diesel fleet. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by approximately one-half, carbon monoxide by two-thirds, and particulate matter would be virtually eliminated. 3 This conversion plan requires 36 routes to operate exclusively on CNG, eight exclusively on electricity, five on CNG and electricity, one on CNG and d i esel, and one on CNG, electricity and diesel. 4. For total PSTA fleet replacement 10 the recommended alternative fuel conversion plan, costs would include $32.1 miUion in capital and approximately $2.65 million ill annual total operating costs (fuel and maintenance). Refueling facility cost will vary depending on on-site or off-site refueling and size ofCNG fleet. ACQUISITION OF ELECTRIC BUS In the Fall of 1994 PSTA was approached by Florida Power Corporation (FPC) and the University of South Florida (USF) to determine interest in a Photovoltaic Array (PV Array) that FPC has received. Shortly thereafter, PSTA was informed that electric buses were available from a previous competitively bid contract. In October of that year a contingent from Pinellas County including PSTA, FPC and USF representatives traveled to Chattanooga, TN and visited the Advanced Vehicle Systems (AVS) production facility as well as the City of Chattanooga Electric Bus Facility and Demonstration Project. PSTA Administration decided to test electric bus technology by purchasing one small electric bus. PSTA later rece i ved approval from the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) 10 purchase one 22-foot Electric Bus utilizing surplus funds left from a previous mini-bus purchase. In January 1995 the PSTA Board of Directors approved the bus purchase and a purchase order was issued on January 30, 1995. PSTA also began to make arrangements to accept the PV Array. It was decided that the l 8 kilowatt unit would be installed adjacent to the maintenance garage at the Clearwater 9

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facility, where electricity can be generated to off-set that used by charging of the electric bus, as well as to augment the electric demand of the maintenance garage By May 1995. PSTA contracted out to design the superstructure for the PV Array. Late in the month a bid was awarded for the actual structure construction. Also in May, the electric bus arrived from A VS on a flatbed tractor-trailer. The construction ofPV Array structure and the electric bus maintenance training began in June In July PSTA contracted with the Electrical Engineering Department at USF to install the Mobile Data Acquisition System (MDAS) on board the new bus to collect and store performance indicators. The electric bus began operation, as the Pinellas Park Shuttle in August. Unfortunately, there was then a month delay when PS T A recognized that the farebox manufacturer had no stock farebox that fit into the new electric bus. The PV Array was dedicated at a ceremony attended by PSTA Board, Staff, USF and FPC officials, as well as citizens and media in November. Finally, PSTA modified a farebox stand so that bus could be placed back in service in December 1995. CONVERSION TO ELECTRIC Beginning in July 1995, PSTA has been involved in a two-year performance evaluation of the first solar recharged, battery electric-powered bus demonstration project in the United States. This demonstration project also included a fonnal plan for performance data collection and analysis The project involved the joint participation of the Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA serving the St. Petersburg and Clearwater areas), Advanced Vehicle Systems, Inc. (AVS, Chattanooga. TN), Trojan Battery Company (Santa Fe Springs, CA), Ascension Technology, Inc. (Waltham, MA), and the Florida Power Corporation. Other participating organizations include the Pinellas County Metropolitan Planning Organization, the Pinellas County Department of Air Quality, and the Florida Department of Transportation. PST A's electric bus is the state's ftrSt transportation authority-operated electric vehicle. PSTA was also the second in the nation to receive an alternating current induction motor bus. Prior to the evaluation period, a solar-electric recharge facility was constructed on the existing Clearwater PSTA garage property. Three major areas of evaluation were established for this phase of the project: (I) the bus, (2) tbe battery system and (3) the comfort conditioning system. The bus's operating range, drivers characteristics, operating temperature, acceleration, regenerative braking, vehicle speed, and maintenance logs were monitored. The battery's temperature, charging and discharging profiles, charging life cycle and water consumption were also monitored. Performance evaluation of the bus's comfort conditioning system included internal temperatures internal humid i ty, and auxiliary power unit fuel consumption (propane). The project evaluation team concluded at the outset that a fonnal data collection and analysis plan was necessary to be able to determ ine eventual life-cycle costs of electric buses in revenue-service transit applications, and provide meaningfu l implementation guides for the industry. This on-board data acquisition and monitoring system was also the firSt application of its kind in the transit industry for electric buses. All has not been successful to date in this performance evaluation and demonstration project For most of the first 18 months of this two-year pioneering demonstration, the bus bas been out of revenue-service. 10

PAGE 15

New battery packs were provided by the battery supplier in February 1997, and a new 18-month, full sca le, performance evaluation period began later in May 1997. This portion of the report describes what the significant problem areas have been, and what the contributing causes are believed to be. ELECTRIC BUS PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Based on. th e initial evalua tion of alternative fuel conversion discussed in this report, the most favorab l e PSTA fleet alternative fuels conversion plan recommended that 21 buses (17 percent of the fleet) could be feasible for conversion to electric because of the route segment lengths these buses served. This is noted in the October 1995 report Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan for Pinellas County: Transit Element completed by the Center for Urban Transportation Research at the University of South Florida. The purpose of this performance evaluation is to demonstrate that safe, reliable transportation with a vehic le that runs on solar energy, has nearly zero emissions, and contributes to Pinellas County's status of an "air quality maintenance area" can be achieved. This demonstration project is also expected to launch future purchases of other alternative -fuel vehicles by PSTA, as may be required by local, state and federal policy. The Bus The 22-foot electric bus was manufactured by Advanced Vehicle Systems Inc., and is driven by a rear axle mounted alternati ng curren t electric motor manufactured by General Electric. The bus was first put into revenue-service on July I 0, 1995. The bus is 8.25 feet high and just les s than 8 feet wide. Weighing about half what a conventional diesel-powered 22-foot bus would weigh, the bus can accommodate 22 passengers, and can reach 45 mph speeds. The bus is ADA compliant and includes a low floor and maintenanoo-free wheelchair ramp, with a door opening of 36 inches. The entrance door also bas a single, sloped step. The bus and ancillary equipment (spare batteries, charger, etc.) cost approximately $209,000. Operating costs for the bus are expected to be substantially less than the cost for diesel, about 6 cents per mile versus 18 cents per mile for diesel. The bus has many of the same comfort features of a diesel-powered vehicle, including air conditioning and beat. Propane gas is the fuel used to provide power to an auxiliary power unit for these features. This is detailed i n the Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority Fact Sheet for the Electric Shuttle Bus. The IJ
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136 feet long that resembles a 2 300 square foot carport. The PV modules are mounted at a 1 5-d egree angle for maximum exposure to the sun. Ascension Technology, Inc. provided the overall system design for the recharging station. Approximate cost of construction for th e PV array superstructu r e was $47,000. The PV syste m module s contain silicon photovoltaic cells that convert sunlight into direct cun-ent (DC) electricity. Three power conditioners then convert the DC power into altemating current which is fed into the local distribution system utility grid When in full production on a sunny day, a total of 18 kilowatts of e nergy is captured, which more than offsets the electricity needed to recharge the bus batteries and additional electrical uses in the garage. This is detailed in the Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority Fact Sheet for Photovoltaic Artay. EVALUATION DOCUMENTATION Following three days of extensive training provided by AVS for PST A's maintenance department, the bus was initially placed into reven ue -servic e in July 1995, as mentioned previously. Also, only one or two drivers were assigned to drive the bus, since driving technique makes a significant impact on the operating effieiency of the vehicle. Soon the on-again, off-again service lapses began to trouble riders, and PSTA began to lose customers. The original route selected for the electric bus shuttle was located along a regional mall corridor. Although attractive from a service and visibility perspective, this route created fairly significant deadhead miles because it began about six miles from the PSTA garage. The majority of these deadhead miles occun-ed on a major arterial, necessitating quick acceleration and deceleration in getting to and from the route. Provisions for "opportunity charging (quick charging in proximity to route) or on-site battery replacement could not be negotiated with the mall officials. Consequently, because of unreliable range, the bus was taken completely out of revenue-service in May 1996. PSTA maintenance crews have continued to work on trouble-shooting activities with the cooperation of both A VS and Trojan. All have basically concluded that most of the problems were related to the battery system. Since the new battery packs have arrived, the bus has worked well in trial runs. Over the course of the original d emonstration, much has been learned first-hand by the project participants. By sharing these findings, it is hoped that the proper level of planning, communication, and coordination can be better anticipated in advance of similar evaluation projects. EvenJ Chronolbgy The following table represents those major events during the performance evaluation period (July 1995-January 1998) that generally characterize the type and extent of problems that were encountered. 12

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Date J uly I 0, 1995 O cto ber I 1995 November 14, 1 995 December 18, 1995 J an uary 3, 1996 January 4 1 996 January S, 1 996 January 15, 1996 March 6 1996 June 10, 1996 A u gust 9, 1 996 August 20 1996 N o vem b er 25, 1996 December 6, 1 9 96 January 9, 1997 F ebru ary 1 8 1 997 February 19, 1997 Table3 E vent Chronology Discussion of Events Electric bus first put into revenue-service. E lectric bus is fllSt pulled out primaril y b ecause of electronic far ebox installati o n proble ms. (Limi t ed ranges also become a recurring problem.) See March 6, 1996 discussion AVS acknowledges observ e d pattern in poor b a ttery maintet)ance practices to PSTA (e.g., charging wa t ering, cleaning, and e quali.zmg). A VS recommends a single responsi bl e person in PSTA maintet)ance be identified Electric bus placed back into r evenue--servi ce. Very limited range observedsee January 4, 1996 discussion. A VS indicates to PSTA that Trojan is visiting all customers during January to determine why batteries ar e e x periencing a "degra din g o f range It was also conclude d at this t ime that a battery maintenance kit was never prov ided 10 PSTA. Later in January, A VS sh i p p ed the re quired kit. First proj ect status meeting held at PSTA office excl udes AVS and Tr ojan. PSTA experiencing onl y a 20-m i le range Experiencing 120 amps on re-charge (nonnal should be 1701 8 0 amps). A VS re-char ging m et e r n ot yet installed. PSTA begins "formal" performance data collecti o n and m oni toring Trojan indicat es to A VS that they are downloading battery discharge data from Birmingham and Chattanooga e lectric buse s Additio nally, Trojan was p lanning t o mak e visits to Allentown, PA and White Plains. NY during of Januar y 29 to gather si m i lar data. A VS indicateS to PSTA t h a t Trojan was handling battery rechar g i n g as t op priority". T r oj an documents their battery recharging data galhering trip (to Clearw at er) to A VS. A la<:k of equalization in battery recharging was found to be the problem. Recommended remedial action includes: adjustment of charger taps maintaining three consecu t ive hours o f constant specific gravity for every short equ a l izat io n charge on every charge c ycle, and d etailed rec ord-keeping_ PSTA indicates to AVS that they have been waiting for replacemen t cells from Tro jan f or five weeks PSTA indicates to Tr o jan the details of batte ry pack problems (e .g., dry cells, and discon t innation ofrecharging due to smoke and loud noise coming from battery compartment). AVS instructs PST A t o send the two GE inverters back to AVS. PSTA outlines 18montb period of poor b a ttery performanc e in l etter to A VS, formally requesting that both battery packs be replaced at no cost. A VS a tknowleclges PSTA Novembe r 25 letter, indicating they will be in californi a the week of December 9 to reach resolution with Trojan to ge t PST A's bus bac k into service. A VS indicateS to PSTA how they an d T r ojan will resolve probl e ms They also recommend bette r driving techniques and power down of inverter to reduce po wer availab l e to the driver. Two new b att ery packs arrive from Trojan. AVS begins 3-
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Date Discussio n of Events Fellnlacy 20, 1997 Performance leSt on bus with new l>Qneries: I st rood test, new steering sector broke (2 studs broke in new wobble plate.) Reused old wobble platc; continued pcrfonnance teSL SS mi. traveled ; No banery problemsiO note.. meter not functioning properly Concerns of PST A discussed with A VS representatives. I. Proper Qnery for 12V system Note: Auxiliary l>Qnery condition and sravity goed prior 10 inslallation of3rQneries are charged ovemigll L Febnwy 21, 1997 12V a uxiliary l>Qnery found to be n o good, case swelled, bad cell indicated. Investigation into wiring of3rd DC converter found to be incorrect as per A VS representative. Wiring corrected, and a new auxiliacy bQnery was installed Februacy 26, 1997 Phone call to A VS as to status of COMCcton for l>Qnery charger Response : Still gathering I nieces. will send as soon as possible. March 3, 1997 Phone call to A VS, checked on status of COMect0<3 and stcering wobble plate Response : Still aathering parts for both and will send Darts as soon as possib l e. Marob 5, 1997 Phone call to A VS air dump valve bad, A VS to ship as soon as possible. Marob 7, 1997 Phone call to A VS, PSTA not in receipt of air dump valve Response : On the way should be here this afternoon. March 10, 1997 PSTA receives wroog dump valve, Coiled AVS to explain the siruation. Respoase: Will ship OOI"''ecl valve. Marob 12, 1997 CclnQnery eharger t available compressor$ must be reoloud. May20, 1997 installation complete suction lines fieezing up, refrigerant leak It condenser hoses. May22, 1997 RetiiAerant hose repair complete. evacuate and recharge sy stem. May27, 1997 Elecaie bus test resumes; three hoUI1 (driver testing) May29, 1997 Continued testing. A/C l eak returns, bus down. 1 4

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Date .Discussion ofEvents May 30 1997 AIC bus back in service no leaks at thi.s time June 5 1997 A!C warm, l o w o n r efrigerant Repair A/ C leaks in engine compartment, evacuate an d recharge system. June 10, 1 997 Bus in service, 65 miles. July 1 3, 1 997 Repair front doors hinge mounting loo se, on front door closest to wheelhouse, causing fron t doors to jam UJ>On opening July 22, 1 997 lnterlocklparking brake not holding, remove left rear wheel replace b roken brake spring, wheel and adjust brakes August4, 1997 Interlo c k n ot holding. Remove all wheels an d inspect brakes. 4 wheel brake j ob needed. Cut and r eline all brakes, rebuild calipers, bleed hydra ulic sys tem. August II, 1997 Bus returns to test r oute. For further testing S e ptembe r S 1997 George M oore (USF) scheduled for M -Oos instl.llation, no call, n o show. S e ptember 9, 1997 Phone call to USF, O.orge Moore regarding M-Oos installation, leave message. Virginia Power Technologies (VP'I) arrives from Virginia t o troubi&-Shoot and repair cause of"no reverse" compl aint Problem repaired by VPT. Voltage drop a t VIM for charger interlock. Wiring from A VS to VIM and contlletor had vohagc drop causing VIM to drop our reverse. Open c;rruit problem w irin g, (wire). Check oneration-Okay! Sept ember 1 0 1 997 George Moore returns call regarding M-Oos, leaves message. September II, 1 997 Bus ba c k o n t e st route. Talked with George Moore (USF), about M-Oos installation, waiting for longer communication cable S h ould arrive week o f Septem ber 15th. lnfonned George Moore that PSTA needs a days notic e t o schedule bus for installation. September 1 2 1997 Bus placed back in regular teSt route. Bus fails after2-t/2 h ours of use. Call VPT and A VS to make them aware o f failure. A VS will send field service engineer to PSTA to check the system. A VS arrival time is expected to be Sep t ember 1 5th. Sept ember 13, 1997 Phone call with VPT. Hook up lap top computer to Diagnose problem for n o reverse. Several test performed, n o resolution of orob lem at th i s time. Seprember 15-19, A V S did not show up for repairs. 1 99 7 Sept ember 19, 1997 Talk to VPT VPT faxed additional diagnostic checks to be performed b y PST A Sept ember22, 1997 Results faxed to VPT for examination. September 2 3, 1997 VPT calls at 3:30PM, talks to PSTA regarding results o f above test New phone call time established for September 24, 1997 at 9:00AM. September 24, 1997 9:00AM p hone call VPT; t esting performed as instructed. No conclusive results. September 29 1997 A VS repairman arrives and installs invertor and VIM. Still no reverse or drive. Remove and replace General Electric motor ta chmeter. Oc t ober I, 1997 Bus fails during road test with scheduled driver. October 2, 1 99 7 Call A VS and inform them of Oclober 1, 1997 failure. A VS to s.,.d field service back to PSTA f or repairs October 6th October 2 1997 G ive George Moore M -Oos disk from rec en t charge and acceleration cycles. O ctober 6, 1997 Baneries charged over weekend. Add coolant to invertor. Note: Possible reason for shut down on Oclober I could have been coolant level. Road t est bus with driver (51 miles) Put batteries on charge. O ct ober? 1997 E l ectric bus on test route with driver. Bus fails aficr 4 5 min of service. Codes indicated I 6, 3 8 4. Call A VS and notifY of failure and cod e s A VS to schedule repair personnel. Phone call to George Moore at USF regarding status of bus and wiring of M-Oos unit USF t o schedule wiring of M-Oos because wiring, at present, appears t o be incorrect du e to data collected from M-dos. Oclober 8 1997 Talked t o VPT. Eo
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Date Discussion of Events remains. October 9 1997 Connections tightened, bus re-teSted, invertor light still remains. Call VPT and notifY of the test results. Octo ber I 0, 1997 VPT calls PSTA to infonn that representatives from VPTand AVS will be here October 13th and 14th t o locat e and repair problem in wiring_ October 1 3 1997 A VS calls to inform PSTA that a field service person from A VS will be here on Oc t ober 15th to locate and repair eleetrieal pooblems with coach October 15, 1997 VPT and A VS r epresentatives arrive and locate many electrical Problems. DC t o DC con v erters wired incorrectly, causing o v er-charging o f 12V battery. VPT loca tes bad "M" contactor and pre-charge co n tactor, in VCB ( vehicle contactor box) A VS representatives r ewire DC to DC converters and install brackets t o secure converters. A VS removes fan from Sol ectria unit as well as voltage filters on unit. All wiring secured A VS installs 12V trickle charger for weekend charging A VS removes l e ft rear wheel and adjusts I par k ing brake Road test vehicle. L ong roa d test schedu led for Oct ober 16, 1997. October 16, 1997 Meet with A VS about repairs completed, toad test. Vehicle Okay at this time (Note: Road tested with Dick Boothe, VPT). Also, new cabl e ordered from VPT f orGE system. October 22, 1997 Install new General Electric motor cable Bus remains on test route for evaluation October 22. E lectric bus continues testing program, averaging 55 miles per day. N ovember I, 1997 November I Elecaic bus continues testing program, averaging 55 mil es per day. No problems t o report, December I 1997 other than normal maintenance procedures. J anuary 5, 1998 Experiencing low power on initial key up, light goes out on acceleration, and does not affect performance. except on initial acceleration. January 6, 1998 Phone call t o VPT regarding low power light Responds with a fax indicating troubleshooting guide for General electric drive motor, also followed by a phone c all in dicating coach could remain in service until such time as co n dition worsens or time permits repair procedure. January8 -31, 1998 Electric bus remains o n test schedule. SUMMARY O F PRIMARY P ROBL EMS D u ring the initial e l ectric bus perfonnance evaluation period, and based on the e ve n t chronology presented above, the following primary p roblems wer e i dentified: 1. Different troub le-shooting instructions were p rovided to PSTA fro m d i fferent people at A VS and Trojan. 2. The initial training of PST A personnel by AVS and T rojan was e i ther not perfonned or not perfonn e d correctly (by A VS as detennin e d by Tro j an). In particu lar, battery recharging procedure s training was inadequat e. 3. The coord i nation of infonn a tion to install operates, and maintain an electric bus program by A VS was inadequate 4. A full time maintenance person was not des ignated by PSTA a t the o u tset of this evaluation project. As a result, detai led maintenance records were not kept for the entire period 5. A VS is l earning from T roj an, and Trojan is learning from A VS. The b u s did not meet the operating range that is required for PST A's needs. The maintenance (mainly fo r component replacement and techni c al upgrades) and in particular maintenance shop support cos t was significantly grea ter than antic i pated Th e manufacturer extended the warranty for rep l acement 16

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components. The bus provided environmental benefits for Pinellas county's air compared to diesel buses when it ran. The battery pack was the major source of problems. A combination of incorrect factory charger adjustment, the delay for an automated fare system installation and incorrect battery maintenance instruction from the bus manufacturer caused the fllSI (including the spare pack) battery pack to fail nine months after delivery of the bus. Replacement battery packs from the supplier have performed satisfactorily through February 1998. Battery operating and charging temperatures is now within acceptable ranges. The "Comfort Conditioning System" achieved its designed purpose with plenty of margin for Florida's hot, humid summer climate. An important fmding confirms that how a driver operates an electric bus is a significant factor in determining the bus's operating range between recharge cycles and the battery pack life. A significant finding is the maximum advertised range of75 to 85 miles using 80% of the battery pack's energy supply for the best driver is not sufficient. The Mobile Data Acquisition systems provided valuable operating and charging data to help evaluate and identify problems. The various manufacturers' response t ime to investigate and solve problems, although this is a research type project, is unacceptable The delivery and initial training of transit personnel by AVS and Trojan was inadequate The coordination of information from all suppliers to install, operate and maintain an electric bus program was inadequate. The major technical equipment problems for this technology research version appear to be solved. PST A' s active role i n this demonstration project was the key in moving this project forward and to completion. Acquired Data E>ample.s The operating data for the October 1997-January 1998 period continues to dem onstrate the significant variance in achievable range because of driver performance (see Figure !). Ampere-hour discharge/trip mile (see Figure 2) ranged from 2.1 to 3.3 arnp-hrs per trip mile reflecting driver differences in the operation of the bus (Data from both battery packs) The average battery temperature rise for the daily trips was less than 10 degrees C. The recharge energy in ampere-hours ranged from 25 to 210 (see Figure 3). Figure 1 Distaneti Discharge Ah Vs Trip No: PSTA Electric Bus 70.00.---------------------------,.250.00 60.00 !0.00 f :!! 40.00 I= 30. 00 g 20.00 10 .00. 200.00 3. 150.00 j! l DkWhl ': -+-oAll 100.00 f Q 50.00 0 00 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 1 3 1 4 15 18 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 2.4

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Figure 2 Ah I mile Vs Trfp No: PSTA Electric: Bus 1 . 2 3 .. 5 s 7 8 9 1 0 , 12 13 ,.. 15 17 15 ti 20 21 22 23 24 Tr1pNo: Flgure3 CNirge Energy Ah Vs Charge No: PSTA Electric Bus f f -_1,.1[---1 3 1 e t 1 0 '' 12 13 ,.. t$ t& c:MrttNo: 1 8

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ELECTRIC BUS CASE STUDIES There were 18 agencies contacted, representing the following nine states: Alabama, Tenness ee California, Georgia, Maine. Massachusetts, North Caroli.na. Pennsylvania and New York. The mean of the results showed that in most cases electric transit vehicles (the a>erage vehicle being the 22-foot transit bus) are aesthetically pleasing to the riders quiet, clean and a good id ea for the environment. The problems of introducing an electric bus into the transit system have included, but are not limited to. limited range, a need for specialized (trained) maintenance. and a need for an open line of communication with the manufacturer for trouble shooting. We ha,e incorporated all responses received verbatim, the fust three of which are very extensive. Below are the survey results. Georgia Tech El ectric Bus Eva l uation Bus Description Capacity: 32 passengers seated, 24 standing. Length 193 inches, 33,000 lbs. Propulsion: AC motor, 3 phase, oil cooled, 230 hp, 250 ftlbs. of torque. Motor Controller: Input 336 vdc, Output 3 phase ac, 640 amps. Speeds: 55 mph forward, 15 mph reverse Range: 70 miles@ 55 mph. Acceleration: 0 to SO in 32 seconds. Batteries: 112 absorbed electrol}1e, 12v leadacid b atteries arranged in 4 packs of28 bat. ea. Tires: Michelin II R22.5 Radial STl "Ultra Lowrolling Resistance". Brakes: Hydraulic power disc brakes with regenerative assist. Regenerative braking converts mechanical to electrical energy for battery recharge Window s: Azurlite glass solar control. Heat: Diesel powered beater Air Conditioning: Four electric heat pump units, roof mounted. Charger: Input I SO kva with 480v, 3 phase, 60Hz and 120v, I phase, 60Hz. ; Output 420vdc, 320 amps. Based on EPTI technology, charges 112 batteries in 2 hours. Errvironmenkll Effects Air Quality/Emissions A major concern in urban areas of the United States is meeting the air quality requirements established by th e Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compelled by successful citiz
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Particulate Matter (PM I 0) Solid or liquid particles of I 0 microns or less, which is one-seventh the width of a human hair. Diesel vehicles are significant sources of particulates. According to tbe Atlanta Journal/Constitution. "These very fme particles are inhaled deeply into the lungs, wltere they weaken lung and heart tissue. It is anticipa ted that the EPA will severely tighten PMIO standards in the near fuw.re". Sulfur Dioxide (502) 502 forms sulfurous or sulfuric acids that deteriorate lung tissue (particularly if accompanied by small particulates). -carbon Dioxide (C02) Although C02 has no direct advene effect on people, animals, or plants, carbon dioxide em i ssions have been implicated as the preeminent greenhouse gas responsible for global wanning. The Atlanta tegion is currently listed as being in "serious nonattainment" for ozone. The federal standard for acceptable ozone levels is 120 parts per billion. Metro Atlanta exceeded that level 16 times in 1995, with readings rang ing from 125 to 190 (AJC, 2128196). The reduction goal is a 15% decrease, to be achieved by 1999. If air quaJicy fails to improve "penalties include withdrawal of federal highway funds, ranging up to several hundred million dollars per year, and emission offsets for new or modified sources on a ratio of at least 2 to I. Also, indivi dual sources within an area that {ails to achieve compliance may be penalized by up to $5000 per ton ofNOx and VOC. Further consequences of failing to achieve attainment in a costeffective manner are reduced competitiveness of industry and business, and loss of jobs" (Waterpower). States have considerable flexibility under lhe CAAA to implement alternative control strategies For instance, the California Clean Air Act of 1988 led to the establishment of a quota by the California Air Resources Board for zero emission vehicles" (ZEV) of2% of all new vehicles produced and offered for sale in 1998, rising to 10% in 2003. Stringent requirements such as this have led to the investment of money and talent to build alternative power vehicles. The electric bus, whicb is the subject of this evaluation. is one such vehicle. Emissions Generated l:1y Operating Buses Emissions are generated by operating both diesel and electric buses; however the emissions are generated differently and at different magnitudes. Obviously most emis sions associated with lhe diesel bus are produced at the vehicle itself, and spewed directly into the local air where the bus is being driven. Emissions from electric bus operation are produced at the power generating facility(ies) producing the electrical energy necessary to accomp lish recharge of the vehicle's batteries; no emissions are produced at the vehicle itself. The spectrum of power generation sources include coal, oiVgas, nuclear, hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, cogenention, and biomass. The actual electric vehicle-related emissions vary depending upon regional power sources (SBETI Report). O.nerating power at a remote facility has distinct advantages: "The location of power plants outside the core (without emissions inside the core) oftbe non-attainment area act as an air quality management tool, e .g. by displacing pollution from power generation during heavy traffic (or heavy power use) periods" and away from the densely populated urban area" (Waterpower). Although power plants would still be releasing driving-related emissions, smokestacks can be equipped with scrubbers to remove some of the gases before passing into the air" (Business & Society Review). Electrical.ly powered vehicles can be refueled late at during off-peak energy production hours. This "reduces the formation of harmful ozone, a photochemical process that requires the presence of sunlight." (SBETJ Report). Transporting & Storage of Fossil Fue l s Envirorunental impacts associated with the transporting and storage of fossil fuels include: F umes emitted while transferring fuel from tanker vessels, trucks and pipelines. 20

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Spills alongside piers and/or drippings from loading arms. valves and other flanged coMections and the probability of oil contaminating rainwater are ever-present problems. Contaminated ship ballast water should be pumped to an oil separation facility before being discharged into the sea (World W i de Shipping). Underground storage tanl
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The Buses The 22-foot model accommodates 22 seated passengers, with room for eight to ten standing Chattanooga currently operates thirteen 22foo t buses; 6 propelled by DC motors and seven which are propelled by AC motors. The buses vary in range available per charge from 45-60 miles The top speed of the buses is 40 mph. The electric fuel supply ., is provided by four battery packs equal t o 216 volts. The buses often are provided with a longer service time through a "bartery cbang.Out which consists of removing the four drained batteries and replacing them with freshly charged ones. A pallet jack is used by one person to exchan ge batteries in 10-15 minutes. CARTA also operates two 22-foot models which contain 5 000 pOunds of batteries that produce 300 volts and bas tho capability of a quick" battery cbangeout due to the batteries location within the bus. A second type of31-foot bus. which utilizes a fully integrated motor and transmission won a race against its diesel counterpart at the Atlanta Motor Speedway in May, 1994 Th e die.stl took an extra 6 .545 seconds to run the course and 15. 039 seconds longer to reach a speed of 40 miles per hour. Parmers in Chananooga's Electric Bus Initiative Transit: Chattanooga Atea Regional TranspOrtation Authority (CARTA) transportation authority operates electric buses on one downtown shuttle route and is committed to placing battery-powered v ehicles on regular li.ne routes. CARTA is able. to offer the zero-emission shuttle service free of charge through the revenue from two parl
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designs. with earlier buses also benefiting from these advancements by being updated and retrofitted with improved parts or components. Conlact: Joe ferguson, (423) 821-3146 Ooananooga's Electric Bus Initiative: Impact Impact of Electric Buses in Chattanooga Most imponantly, the Chattanooga Electric Bus Project has paved the way for acceptance and adoption of alternative fuel vehicles in Chananooga and surrounding areas which will have an imporl3nt effect on the air quality and pollution index. Chattanooga's system creates jobs for drivers and those involved in the research> development, manufacturing, and testing of the buses. The addition of the two parking garages with retail shops also created new jobs and opportunities. The shuttle also boosts downtown economic development by delivering riders to the front doors of businesses in that area. There has been a deftnite decrease in the number of vehicles in the part of the city where the shuttle operates and a continuous increase in ridership on the electric shuttles. 'The system is educational. Chattanooga has become a model for electric buses; hundreds of representatives from around tile world have visited Chattanooga to study its electric mass transit project. f n addition. the city's quality of life is enhanced by a transit system that diverts auto uaffic from its urban core. The use of zero-emission battery-powered electric buses eliminates the pollution problems often assocjated with mass transiL In addition to their non-polluting benefits, electric buses offer a number of other advantages: They are very quie<. They need no tune-ups or oil changes. Because they are so lightweight they reduce wear on roadways and brakes. Because they use no fossil fuel. electric buses create no exhaust smell. Electric buses cost more to buy but soon pay for themselves because of the low ape rating and maintenance costs. In Chattanooga, the fJtSt electric buses cost 4.5 tents to 5.7 cents per mile for fuel compared to 18.5 cents for diesel fuel. Electric buses convert virtually all their fuel energy into usable power. They also run on domestically-produced electricity and help reduce this country's dependence on foreign oiJ. Many models offer low-floor designs that meet the Americans with Disabilities Act requirements without expensive lifts. Santa Barbara M etropolitan Transit District Santa Barbara, California We did contact Gary Gleason at 805/963-3364 Gary noted that the best attribute of the electric transit vehicles is that people like them, because they are clean and quiet. We were the pioneers getting them going and we are thrilled with them. The worst attribute though, is that in their experience. "we had al1 kinds of problems because there was no one to support what we were doing-it was the problem of being fii'St. Part A: There are people who make buses, batteries, chargers, motor conO'ollers, and they need to be able to talk to each other and not play the blame game when something goes wrong. The biggest problem is not any one of these elements, but the bus itself, the people who tend to build the buses are not experienced at bus building. There are expectations by drivers of the bus. and. of course there are limitations due to the nature of elecO'ic buses. Part B is the people [users) that get into electric bus programs witbout being ready; they should only be introduced into specifically [electric bus] readied situations. The range is dependent on how and in what conditions (avg. mph) the bus is driven. Their range is different under differen t duty cycles. There is a lot to know before getting into elecuic buses. Success is dependent on the level of commitmenL We work through the problems to satisfy the customers. If users only listen to tbose who have a vested interest-lite vendors, the eustomers, the electric companies-the transit operator winds up with an electric bus without knowing the requirements and limitations. It is not more difficult it is just different." Santa Barbara Electric Bus The Santa Barbara Metropolitan Transit District (MTD) introduced battery-electric uansit vehicles into regular service in January 1991. This novel application of elecuic propulsion ensured quiet, exhaust-free, odorless operation. and proved to be an immediate success with riders. 23

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MID's fleet is the larges1 in the nation and presently stands at thineen transit vehicles with another five in fabrication. Vehicles range from the twenty-two foot open-air trolley style shuttle vehicles, to a thirty-five foot heavy-duty transit bus that incorporates several advanc
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Operational Factors The cost of recharging an electric vehicle per mile driven is a function of the cost of electricity and the AC energy consumption rate. At the present rate of 8.5 per kWh that MTD pays for offpeak electricity, the per-mile cost of "refueling" MTD's Electric Village r is 24% higher than that for its dieselpowered Villager coun terpart. However, the electric rate struccure for commercial EV recharge facilites is currently under review by the Public Utilit ies Commission; under the proposed rate of 4.3 pet off -pe ak kWh, the refuel cost for the ele<:tric bus would be 37% Jess than that for the diesel bus. Battery energy effici encies for the MTD fleet average 70%. Individual stt effic::iencies range from the Jow 60% range t o the low 80'.4 range, depending upon battery age, chemistry, and recharge profile Passenger loads and most accessory pOwer loads have less impact on vehicle range than do route characteristics and driver perfonnance. MTD experience has shown that driver energy consumption can vary by up ro 50'/o, depending upon route characteristics. Therefore, the implementation of appropriate driver training can be critical to the success of any given operation. The use of advanced battery chemistries to achieve substantial increases in performance costs [en.s of thousands of dollars per transit vehicle. It is therefore cl ear that the economics of eJeerric vehicle technology are such that performance incre-ases derived from reductions in energy consumption are far more cost effective than those obtained by increases in availab l e energy. Regenerative (electrical) braking extends vehicle range by an average of I 7% on MTD's routes. The use of regenerative braking has aJso extended lhe life of the mechanical braking system by approximately three-fold. Occasionally, during the course of normal route service, an electric bus does not possess sufficient remaining energy lO complete its usual mission. The causes of such occurrences include deficient battery ceJI(s). an excessive energy consumption rate, incomplete battery recharge the previous night, and cold -temperature operation. MTD' s electric vehicles exhibit a higher incidence of road calls than occur with the diesel fleer by a factor ofapproximately two It is anticipated that future availability of advanced perfonnance batteries will pennit fleer operation with greater margins between required energy and available energy, thereby r educing the incidence of low-pov.er events. The fluctuating "micr(K:ycle" energ.y.nansfer environment attendant to electric vehicle (EV) operation results from varying power-transfer levels during vehicle acecleration, steadystate motoring, regenerative braking, and brief dwell periods. Such micr
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reactive organic gases, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide are reduced by at least 95% after electric conversion. MainletUlllCt The cost of maintaining MTD's electric Oeet is 400/o lower than that for its small-diesel fleet on a cost-per-day basis. The battery-eJecuic fleet has a reduced range capacity as compared with the dieseJ fleet, however, which results in application of the electric fleet to lower average speed reduced mileage service. Because of the reduced daily mileage associated with the electric fleet, cost on a per-mile basis favors the diesel by approximately 10%. Nearly one-third of the cost ofEV maintenance involves the traction battery. The majority of battery maintenancecost is related to the diagnosis and rectification of vehicle low-power occurrences. Such events are invariably caused by premature cell degradation. If valve-regulated "'maintenance free"' battery products prove to be more susceptible to premature degradation than the more abuse-tolenmt "flooded" baaeries as most parties suggest, then the net impact of such products on maintenance costs will be unfavorable. During the 8,000 driving cycles performed by MID's elec:uic fleet, only 2 I2 banery cells out of I ,852 have required replacement. This relatively low overall cell failure is believed to be the direet resul t of careful and methodical battery maintenance. A marked increase in cell failure rate has been encowttered during the last quarter of 1994, however, as some of the baaery sets begin to approach "end of life" Projected cycle life for the flooded lead-acid battery is at least 1 ,000 cycles lr(rasmu:rure MTD utilizes severa l battery charger topologies: ferroresonant, three SCR I three diode, and rwelve SCR. The chargers VIII)' in terms of delivered charge profile profile adjustability, AC input current harmonic distortion (8% to 60"Ao), pow e r factor (0.67 to 0.99), DC ripple current (8 amps to 60 amps peak-to-peak), and ACto DC energy efficiency (0.87 to 0.96) MTD has recently formed the Santa Barbara Electric Transportation Institute (SBETI), a non profit entity organized to facilitate the introduction of battery-electric transportation. The functions of the SBETI include participation in appropriate technology evaluations and developmentS, acquisition and reduction of data pertinent to promising technologies and disseminat ion of relate d information to tbe industry at large. The SBETI also provides assistance to other fleet operators that requiresuppon towards the implemenwion ofbattery-electrie transit programs, including assistance with vehicle proctuement specifications, driver and mechanic training, and data coJJec.tion. When the promotion and controversy concerning b'ansportation and all the maintenance, fuel, and lifo-cycle cost analyses have run their course, and whichever way regulations and market forces steer the future of the transportation industry, several simple, unequivocal facts will remain from the Santa Barbara MTD electric transponation experience Once is that the present state of battery-electric propulsion technology can be successfully applied to cer1ain transit applications Another is that the public does respond very favorably to creative approaches to public ttansportation. ADd a third is that during the [11$1 follf years ofbaaery-electric ttansit operation in Santa Barbara, the emission of over ten tons of air pollutants was prevented as a resuk of the replacement of djesel buse. s with batteryelectric shuttles. Most parties wiU agree that these are significant accomplishments Four Year Report on BaaeryElectric Tnmsit Vehicle Operation at The Santa Barbara Mettopolitan Transit District May 1995 Report Number FTACAI Prepared by: Santa Barbara Electric Transportation Institute (SBETI) Telephone: (805) 568-0985 Telefax: (805) 962-4794 Hoover City Schools Hoover, Alabama Contact Gene Mcfall, Interim Supervisor for Transportation at 205/4 39-1120 One Blue Bird electric bus in operation. The best attribute, the bus is quiet. The ataibute. its been more trouble than good 26

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City of Phoenix Phoenix, Arizona No response from M i ke Nevarez at 6021262-7242 Antelope Valley School District California Ken McCoy, Jarrod (Fleet Manager) at 805/945-3621. We had one clettric bus, but it burned. No plans to reinvest at this time. Beaumont Unified Scbool District Beaumont, CaJifomia Dale D Avignon at 909/845-3010. We have now in Operatioo one 34-foot electric school bus from Blue Bird. The best attribute is the quietness. The worst attribute has been a lot of battery pack problems Contract with A ro Z Bus Sales contact Tom Orr at 909 781-7188 now in experimental phase taken a "wait and see" attitude. City of Berkeley Berkeley, California There was no response from fleet manager Kevin Mathy at 510/ 643-8039. Regarding the vehicles cunently in operation: 4 22-foot electric buses (operated at UC Berkeley) 3 22-foot ele ctric buses (in City ofBerl
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The worst attribute was that i t is not working at this time, many problems with it, e.g., keeping batteries, interlock brake problems, U-joints not CV joints (loud popping sounds when making turns). Pans not easily accessible. No heater in it so can only use it in the Summer time. City of Savannah Savannah, Georgia We contacted Cindy McGinnis at 912/236. She confumed that they have four22-foot elewic buses with propane ac from A VS currently in operation. She noted that the best attribute of including electri c buses in th e fleet is that it is a great idea, quiet and clean. The worst attribute, though. is that it is not, in her opinion, ready for application in a transit system like ours (Savannah's). Georgia Power Company Atlanta, Georgia We tried to contact Glen Mouldin at 404/5()6.. 7964 pagerl-888-524-9326, but received oo response. Greater Portland Transit Portland, Maine We successfully contacted Sarah doDoes at 207m4-0351. S he told us about the three 22-foot elecnic buses and one pending in Spring from A VS. She noted that the best attribute is certainly the air quality benefits And the worst attribute would be the low range, only good for specified service, not for ftXed route transit. National Wildlife Visitor's Center Laurel MaJYiand We were unable to contact John Sour at 301/497-5761 regarding their one 22-foot elecnic tram from SVMC. City of Framingham Framingham, Massachusetts We were unab le to contact Cindy Femee at 617-56().9157 regarding their three SVMC 22-foot DC electic buses in retail area shuttle service. Martba's Vineyard We $UccessfUIIy contacted Terri Spalla at 508/627-9663 to discuss their one 22-foot elecnic bus from SVMC. The best attribute, Teni noted was the quality of environmental aspects of no gasoline or diesel fumes. lbe worst attribute was when they acquired the bus in 1995, they never had the proper facilities for charging it. It has never been co ndusive on our island-because we lack the charging. It has been a real cash cow, taking a lot of money to keep it maintained. Up for bid, we are getting rid of it. City of Charlotte Charlotte, North Carolina We successfully contact T im Shawver at 704-382-4449 to discuss their four 22-foot elecnic buses w/propane powered heating & ac from A VS. The best attribute, he noted, is thai they use electricity. The worst attribute is their limited range. Lanta City of Allentown, Penmylvania We were able to contact Ken Quinty at 6101774-5432 to discuss their one 22-ft. electric bus from AVS. Ken noted that the best attribute is the quietness, but the worst attribute is it's lack of flexibility and application range is a big part of why the limited applications C ity of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania We spoke with Bill Phromrner (at 4 12-393-6317) to discuss their one 30-foot hybrid electic w/propane manufactured by APSIEDN. He noted that the best attribute is that it works well as airport shuttle with its limited 28

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range. Bill commented that the "Key to success would be rcsourc;e. s and people dedicated to the EV cause, i.e . the se t up in Santa Barbara and Chattanooga. You need a point of eo.ntact to resolve problems-an integrator (between the transit agency and the manufacturer) to keep the buse s going and work together on the trouble shooting." City of Providence Providence, Rhode Island We were unable to make contact with F.red Brown at 40Jn84-9578. We do have on record that they currently have two 22-foot electric buses w/propane ac, both of which were manufactured by AVS. Westchester County Wbite Plains, New York We did successfully contac t Peter Sanchirico at 914/285-5006 to discuss the one 22-foot electric bus they bad ftom A VS. Peter noted that the best attribute is that it is a good idea for the environment. The worst attribute. according to Peter,is that it just didnt work for us-we returned it because it never goc the range we needed. It never went above 29 miles on a charge. It needed to be charged twice a day. We ran it on a relatively flat service, but it never worked for us. We will be looking at hybrids nexL (Note: This bus was rumored to have been re-sold to a Massachusetts user.) Pacific Gas & Electric California We spoke to Kent Harris about their one SVMC 22-foot electric bus and one Electricar 22-foot electric bus. H e noted that the buses operate at various CA loc ates for extended time periods. Tha t the best attribute is that they are quiet, clean operating, reasonable cost, low floor designed, Usbaped seating (not traditional bus seating) and when you stay on top of the maintenance, there are little maintenance problems. The worst attr ibute, he noted is the low top end speed of about 30 mph, adequat.e(at best) suspension (not smooth) and a limited range of about 40 miles. City of Palm Desert, California Tom Bassler at 760/346-0611 l SVMC 22-foot electric open air bus Now it is being operated and m aintained by the Sun Line Transit Agency-which, according to Tom, is it's best attribute. "I don't maintain it anymore. It was a maintenance nighanare because we had no one on staff that was qualified to take care of it." Now, with Sun Line Transit maintaining the electric bus, it is on a local shopping fixed route and does fme on one charge. City of Peta luma, Callfornia We spoke with Jane t Ream at 707n78-4643 regarding their one Blue Bird 35-foot 12 passenger school bus. The best attribute is that "it was technology, state of the art, it was supposed to be able to run I inherited it when I took this position. We had one of the first the prOtOtype. And they [the manufacturers)learned from the mistakes. They still have to come up with longer range and things to get the batteries and controllers to work together-{he bus and the charger [makers] need to get together a little more. We received this one through a grant, and the district didnt put out the monies themselves." The worst attribute, according to Janet, i s that "We had a lot of problems with the battery and chargers. It runs real quiet when it runs. Environmentally, it is g1eat! No pollutants! ltjusc bad a lot of problems with it. w e are ironing it out. We have been working with it for a couple of years and have only a few thousand miles on it Through hybrid technologies, longer range can be gotten out of a charge. We are limited to a range of about 50-60 miles a day. Most all of our runs are more than that, and i t is strictly a flat land bus. The more hills, the more it drains the battery. We have bad some adverse problems that maybe others wouldn't. I would like to see the project succeed, b ut there are still a lot of nuts and bolts that need to be tightened. We are not quite there yet-we are still in the experimental stage so we can't count on it on a daily basis. We just do th.e best that we can It takes a lot of the mechanic's time-and we are just working through the problems." 29

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City of Torrance, Cal ifornia We spoke to John Hall at 31017816980 about their one SVMC 31-foot e l ectric bus and one Thomas Built 35 -foot electric school b u s John commented tha t "(! is a prototype. We have gathered information. Hughes [drive technology supplier) gathered most of the informat ion They b u ilt the motor.:, the software. The worst thing about the bus is the battery technol ogy it is a long way from where it needs to be. It's useful hour.: [of service) are no t enough. We have learned a Jot making this a worthwhile investment. It has a ways to go before it gets to an everyday transi t application." City of Denver Colorado We were unable 10 talk to John Davis at regarding their six 40-fo o t mall vehicles which were manufactured by BMIN etter Miami Beach Electro Wave This project had many doubters prior to its institution in February 1997. However, in just the first seven weeks, they have carried over 168,000 passengers This service follows a very easy -tc>-under.:tand route along Washington Avenue that is approximately 2 .5 miles in length and takes people 10 numerous locations in South Beach. The fundamental idea was to minimize the par k ing problems in the South Beach district by encouraging people 10 pari< in parking facilities and use the shuttle 10 get around the district. The Electro Wave service runs from 8am to 2am Monday through Wednesday, Sam to 4am Thur.:day through Saturday. and lOam to 2am on Sunda ys. There are seven 22 foot all-e l eclrie vehicles in the fleet, with six in service at all times to provide headways of 8 to I 0 minutes Service is free to passengers. Each vehicle seats 22 passenger.; and stands another 15. Seating is cushioned, wrap-around style inside the bus. There are large, unobstructed windows, a ir conditioning (which is run off a separate propane genattr), colorful artwork on the outside o f each bus that gives each bus an individual look, and brochure racks inside with materials from the projects sponsors (talher than poster advertisements}. Drivers wear colorful, shirts leeve shirts and shorts. There is music playing insiqe the vehicle off tapes that were donated by another private sponsor. All vehicles are low floor, with ramps to help the disabled board. Part of the attraction of the service is the more intimate siu of the vehicle. l1tat message really comes across when one of the Electro Wave vehicles is sitting right next to an older MOTA 40foot transit coach. The eetro Wave is like the new Volkswagen Bug Cute. To satisfy demand the city is ordering six more vehicles from A VS out ofChananooga, Tennessee. The city has contracted the operation of the service out to Coach USA. That company is charging the city $1.2 million per year to operate the service during the hours mentioned above. Thi s includes an revenue service on the streets, plus a dispatCher working from the city's maintenance facility, and street supervision. In addi t ion, the ciry estimates its annual maintenance expenses to be $500,000. They need two technicians on each shift. The city also has a full time project manager wbo over.;ees contracts, markets the service, and applies for grants The city does not yet know what the normal e l ectric bill will be for the vehicles, but will know very soon. The $400,000 maintenance facility is located within a few blocks of the end of their route. It operates with two large doors open at each end, and with two large fans at the top of two w a lls that maximize the circulation of air. This helps dissipate the hydrogen gas thai forms when charging lead-acid batteries. If the fans were to stop for any reason, the battery chargers in the facility would automatically stop. The facility is not very large (about 35' x 35'}, and is not intended 10 serve as housing for the vehicles. It serves primarily as housing for the battery charger.; and battery packs. Each vehicle bas two sets of lead acid battery packs, featuring 72 cells. Each battery pack i.s about three feet long, two feet deep, and two feet wide and weighs 2,200 pounds When a bus is nearing the e n d of its charge, it comes in to the maintenance facility. There, a technician uses a forldift type of hand truck device to slide the battery packs plug them into the chargers in the facility, and place two freshly cbarged battery pa cks in. The whole change-out takes about 1 2 minutes, and the bus goes back in service Ideally they would like three 30

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battery packs for each vehicle .. one in the bus while it is operating., one that is being cbarged, and one that has already been charged. A charged battery pack will hold the charge for about a week. The span of service with an electric vehicle is highly dependent on the operator. The same bus's batterie. s can last up to II hours, or b e drained in 30 minutes, depending on how skilled the operator is with the accelerator. Jackrabbit stans and any unnecessary pressure on !he accelerator can wear a battery pack down quickly. The object is to keep your foot off the accelerator unless necessary, and to accelerate smoothly. They are CWTently averaging about 6 to 8 hours on one charge. Hence, each bus hu tO get its batteries changed two or three times a day. It current l y takes about four hours to prop e r l y charge the banery packs. They like to have the battery pack "rest" for au hour or two after bemg charged. The Battery packs supposedly can handle up to 200 charges before needing to be replaced. They are hoping to get quick chargers, which will reduce the time to about an hour F lorida Power and L igh t, as well as the monitors donated the current chargers. The Banery packs come from England. The project manager said training for technicians was extremely important to help extend the life of the batteries. The city has been very happy with the vehicles and the manufacturer They have had more problems with the air conditioning than any other aspect of the vehicles. They operate off a 1200 cc propane engine that takes 12 gallons of fuel. The manufacturer sends a representative down to the Miami Beach facility for a full day every two weeks to monitor performance and follow up on any problems The vehicles cost $211,000 apiece. The city has an open purchase order for additional vehicles that other jurisdictions can piggyback on. They estimate it would take about 4 months to satisfy an order for more vehicles. CMAQ funds were used to pay for most of the costs of the vehicles but there were seven different funding sources for the entire project. These vehicle s a1so h ave regenerative brakes. though it add a great deal to the power source. Marketing the service was important to the city, and over $60,000 was spent on promoting the service. Obviously. they were effective, given the overwhelming ridership they are experiencing. They wo. rked closely with the local merchants who give IOOA discounts t o anyone who can show stamped green tickets indicating they rode the shuttle (only good on the day they ride). Many businesses shunned the proposed service, but are now scrambling to somehow be associated with it. Its biggest probJem is its success. It bas to rum away as many passengers as it does picks up, and the next bus is probably just as full. The shuttle was also designed to help with the parking problems the beach ex.perieoces at night. People cruise continuously lookin g for parking near the nightclub or restaurant they want to go to, causing significan t traffic congestion. The shuttle is having some success here, too Parking revenues are up 20'.4 over last year at the major parkixlg garages, attributed to people parking and taking the shuttle. The service is also helpful in being good eyes on the street. Given the relatively short rou te, the drivers get pretty familiar with the environmenL They are calling the city police whenever they see problems or suspicious incidents. That has alreadY been helpful. All in all it s a huge success in terms of ridership and community goals. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The electric is still a prototype and not yet a full production vehicle. However, under a cooperative, responsive environment significant insight can be gained for future applications. The maintenance and driver training must be delivered in a time-ly manner to be effective. inscructions must be delivered in a direct, consistent manner. Other locations and transit propenies involved with electric bus applications should form a co-op for direct mformation sharing (e .g., Santa Barbara, CA. Chattanooga, TN Birmingham, AL, Savannah, GA, White Plains, NY, Portland, OR, Allentown, PA, and Duke University). At the present time, the banery is the apparent "weak lixlk" because there are not enough failsafe mechanisms If specific recharging procedures are completely understood and followed regularly, it appears that r:nost of the problems may be eliminated. Detailed record keeping by a fully dedicated, trained, maintenance person is critical to 31

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project success. It is imperative that a daily log book be kept on ALL electric bus related activities and correspondence. A general lac. k of worlting experience for all panies involved is the major contributing cause for the past problems encountered. Trojan and A VS had not yet developed a seasoned working relationship. In particular, the degree of uncertainty regarding bus performance was either unknown or not communicated effectively between A VS, Trojan, and PSTA. The fmdings of Trojan's battery recharging dara gathering trip among all their customers shou ld also be requested by PST A. This learning experience wa$ fairly well documented, and all panies showed concern in making the demonstration a working experiment. However, specific responsibilities and expectations were not defmed at the project outset. Single points of contact should be establ i shed for A VS, Trojan, and PST A. Currently, the bus is consistently attaining a maximum nmge of64 miles during trial runs, and the <>n-board data acquisition system is being tested. ,.We have a responsibdiry to try buses that run on alternative fuels", Jill Cappadoro (PST A's Marketing Director) has said. But perhaps the ultimat e reality is best expressed by Mike Siebel (PST A's Director of Planning) when be said, "there may never be a future for big electric buses because of their power requirements, but i t could work well for the smaller ones." This quote comes from Ted Jack:ovics' March 31", 1997 article in the Tampa Tribune Future partly cloudy for PSTA 's solar bus. NEXT STEPS At this point in time, PSTA bas three basic options : I. Do nothing Continue to operate the electric bus as a dora-gathering experiment. 2. Request that AVS take the bus back and either refund all or a significant portion of PST A's purchase price or apply those dollars to a "new gen-eration" A VS bus--similar to those supplied to Miami Beach. 3. Convert the battery-electric bus to a hybrid-electric by the eddition of an on-board auxiliary power unit (APU), controller/conditioner, and other necessary hardware. Each of these possibilities would incur some costs. I. Continued operation of the electric bus as an interesting "experime nt should only be done if significant outside funding sources can be accessed. 2. AVS may not be in a position to refund or apply any monies -PST A may simply be without an electric bus. 3. Conversion funds should be sought from as many outside sowces as possible. The electric bus evaluation team (PST A, CUTR, USF Electrical Engineering Department) is currently considering the implem entation of Option #3 Under this option, a new shared funding approach is being sought for on-going field performance evaluation and bus conversion It is anticipated that the bus will be loaned to the USF Electrical Engineering Department for a two-year period to facilitate this activity. 32

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge the Pinellas County Metropolitan Planning Organization and the Florida Department of Transportation, who are funding this project through a joint participation agreement under the local Conges t ion Mitiga tion and A i r Quality (CMAQ} program. The Pinellas Suncoast Transi t Authority has also pennitted CUTR to sliMe the lessons learned with those involved with or contemplating similar evaluati. ons The views expressed in this paper are solely the author's and d o n o t necessarily represent those of the Pinellas MPO. FOOT, or PSTA. PROJECT CONTACTS Pinellas Sunooast T rans it Authority Mike Siebel, Planning Keith Grant, Maint enance (813} 53Q-9921 Advanced Vehi c le Systems, Inc. Joe Ferguson, (615} 821146 Trojan Battery Company Brad Dwan, (31 0) 946-8381 Ascension Technology, Inc Miles (617} 89Q-8844 Center for Urban Transportation Research, USF Senior Research Associate Michael C. Piell'zyk, (813) 974-9815 Center for Urban Transportation Research, USF Fuels Program Manager John B r adley (813} 9744135 Clean Energy & Vehicle Research Center University of South Florida George Moore (8 13) 974-4771 33

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APPENDIX A QUARTERLY PERFORMANCE REPORTS FROM USF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 34

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UNIVERSITY of S OUTH FLORIDA CLEAN ENERGY and VEHICLE RESEA.RCH CENl'ER TAMPA,FL33620 PSTA ELECTRIC BUS PROGRAM First Quarter (March !3, 1 997 Junel297) Pha,. Jll Statu< Report Svnopsis The fust quarter of Phase Ill of the Alternative Fuelslrnplemeotation Plan for PSTA was successful in establishing reliable operation of PST A's electric bus. The bus has new battery packs and all current modi fications of the GE drive ua.in. A relief driver bas operated it most of the time. The driving distance has ranged from severaJ miles to eighty -four miles and has, at this time, demonstrated that the bus can reliably operate within its design range Analysis of operating data coJlected lhis quarter indicates a maxi.mum range of?S-85 miles to 80% discharge of the battery's capacity (continuing monitoring will update this value in future reports). PSTA has taken on more responsibility for maintaining the bus as extended .. warranties expire. The data acquisition system was inspected, modified and repaired (see attached inspection reportAppendix B) in June in anticipation of returning the bus 10 revenue service. Data Collection and Analysis Valid trip and charge data was collected June 24 an. d 25 and partia lly valid data was collected June 26, 27 and 30. One problem discovered was the use of an "old vintage data collection disk and Ibis has been resolved The second problem appears 10 be removing the disk too quickly after the charge cycle has been completed. The data collection hardware is working satisfactorily. Two data channels are not working properly i.e the battery compartment temperarure sensor on the passenger' s side and the relati v e hwnidity on the air conditioner's di.scharge. A replacement temperature sensor has been delivered to PSTA and the relative humidity sensor is on back order. Ampere hour discharge for daily trips has ranged from 79.28 to 155.04 arnphrs. The average battery tem perature rise for the daily trips has ranged from 4.851 to 7.489 degrees C. The average air conditioning temperature has ranged from 61.3 to 63.3 degrees F The recharge energy reached a maximum of 154.11 arnp-hrs. Summary and typical trip and charge data collected and is included in Attachment A. The ELECTRIC BUS The calculated maximum range o f the bus is 75 to 85 miles using 80% of the battery pack's energy supply. Passenger loading will have some small effect on the operating range. The bus's comfort conditioning system is meeting the desired c omfort level with no passengers Passenger loading should not cause any problems. Findings and "'Open Items" The most significant fmding is the calculated maximum range of 75 to 85 miles using 80% of the battery pack's energy supply. The next decision concerning route selection and operation practices wiiJ be to decided if 80% DOD or some lesser value is 10 be considered a full operating cycle.

PAGE 40

PSTA s active role in this demonstration project has been the key in moving this project forward and js vita lao successfully completion. The charging cycles wiU need to be evaluated to determine the amount of energy put into the battery. Consistent undercharging will reduce battery r ange and shorten life. The major tec-hnical equipment problems appear to be solved.

PAGE 41

APPENDIX A

PAGE 42

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS DATA ANALYSIS I I TIME PERIOD COVERED : 3/97-6/97 PSTA ELECTRIC BUS DATA ANAL YSIS I RIPCYC CHARGE CYCLE-ESTM MAX VGBTR A-C DR I VER ES T M VGBTRY PERIOD MILES MP HR %DOD E. RANG R ISE C TEMP F ROF IL MP-HR %SOC RISE C D174 NO TRIP DATA RECORDED 154.11 100 7 872 D175 50.89 136 .35 52.4 77.63 5 654 63.3 HA ;AB 148 1 100 2.593 D176 118.71 45.7 4.851 62. 2 7.14** -D177 79 .28 30.5 7.489 61.3 30.3** .. -D180 155.04 59. 6 4.791 63.1 -**DENOTES RECHARGE DATA FILE REFLECT "PLUG-IN" BUT NO POWER CHARGING *DENOTES OBSOLETE DATA DISK W I TH INAPF'RQPRIATE CONfiGURATI O N j Page 1 of 1

PAGE 43

. SAI\1PLE OF A TYPICALMDAS DATA FILE

PAGE 44

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6/25/1997 TRIP DATA ""'' BlKY B I K Y BTRY CAB AMB A-C CAB A-C AC T IME VOLTS AMPS SPEED TE M P-4 TEMP-P TEMP TEMP TEMP TEMP HUMID HUMI D 1 345.14 19 .05 1.29 -40 35.5 28.3 27. 8 27 .64 24.39 28.25 79.4 2 32 32 2 342.28 32 .83 2 3 -40 35.8 26. 1 29 8 27. 52 -24.51 28.25 79. 3 31. 64 : 340.3 43.09 3.75 -40 37.1 ?7 2 8 5 27.52 .51 28.25 79.3 3 1 .64 1 I 4 338.32 50.56 5.19 -40 37.4 27.6 7 9. 3 3 1 .8 4 340.7 4 33.12 6.2 -40 36.4 28 1 27 ] 7A 18 31. 35 -... ,. ......... 1 u 3 45.8 2. 78 6 .06 -40 36.4 25.9 29.5 r9.o .. 1 .8 4 1 345.8 3.37 5 05 -40 37.1 28 3 27 8 346.02 2.78 3 17 -40 33.8 28.1 27.8 27.39 -24.39 28.25 79.' 9 346.24 2 2 1 29 -40 36.9 29.2 27.4 27 .39 -24.51 28.25 79.1 1 0 346.24 2.2 0.42 -40 37 25.3 27.8 27.39 -2 4.39 28.37 78.1 ---40 35.7 28.3 29.6 27.27 .3 9 28.25 78.1 2 -40 36.3 2 6.3 29 4 27 15 -24 .3 9 28 .2 -. 3< u '" -40 35.8 26.3 29 26.66 -24. 39 28 25 76 86 31.84 347 34 2 .05 0 28 -40 36.4 28 4 29 6 26.54 -24.51 28.25 76.86 32.32 347 .56 1.91 0.42 -40 37.8 27 3 29 6 26.42 -2 4 39 28 .25 76.73 32 32 29 347.12 2 2 0.42 -40 37.6 28.8 26 3 26.42 -24.51 28 37 76. 4 9 32.32 30 347.12 2.2 0 ;(2 -40 36.8 28 29 7 26.29 -24 .51 26 37 76.49 32 32 31 347.56 2.05 0 .28 -40 36 3 27 28 4 28.42 2 4 .51 28.25 7R 32 347.34 2 .05 0.26 -40 36 4 25 9 29 7 28.29 -24.51 28.1: 33 347.56 2.os o .28 -'40 36. 4 28.1 27 8 26.29 -24. 39 28.13 1 76. 121 sa1 34 347.12 2.2 0.28 -co 36. 4 21 29.2 28.17 -2 4.51 28.2r 35 347.34 2.05 0 28 -40 36.8 26.3 30 2 26.17 -24 .51 28 13 [ 76 1 Page 1 of280

PAGE 45

PSTA ELECTRI C BUS 6/25/1997 TRIP DATA I 361 347.34 1 2.2 0.28 -40 36.7 28.5 27 4 26.17 -24 .39 - 2.2 0.28 -40 36.4 27 27 4 26 .05 -24.39 32.6 1 ftr 0.28 -40 38.1 26. 8 29.1 28.05 24 .39 28.13 1 75.6 4 1 347. 1.28 -40 37.4 27 .6 27.8 25.9 3 -2 4 .39 40 347 34 2.05 0.28 -40 35.9 26 1 29.6 25.81 .39 ... u.. 41 347.58 2.05 0.28 -40 37. 1 27.9 29.5 25 .81 -24.39 28.25 75.39 3:.. ... 42 347 34 2.2 0.28 -40 36. 3 26 .3 28.3 25 .68 -24.51 28.25 75 .39 32 81 43 347 58 2 .05 0.13 -40 36.8 28 3 29.5 2 5.58 -24 .39 28. 25 75 .15 e 44 347 .58 2.05 0 13 -40 35.8 27.4 27.8 25 .58 .3 9 28.13 75.27 . 45 347.58 2.2 0.28 40 38.7 2 8.7 27 8 25.44 .51 28.25 75.27 347.58 2.2 0.28 36. 9 26.3 28.8 25.44 -24 .39 28. 25 75.27 32.32 ... 347.34 2 .05 0.28 -40 36.4 28.1 28 5 25.44 -24.39 28. 25 75. 27 32.32 1 .. a 1 347.58 2 .05 0.42 -40 38. 7 29.1 29 5 25.32 -24 .39 2 8.13 75. 15 32.81 't05 0 13 -40 36 7 26 . 2 29.5 25.32 .51 26.13 75 .02 32.81 2.2 0.28 -40 38.7 27.5 27.8 25.32 24. 39 28.25 74.9 32.3 347 .56 2 .05 0.42 -40 35 26 .3 27.6 25 .32 24 .51 28.25 74.78 1 .. .ll 347.56 1.91 0.28 -40 35 26 1 27 25 2 348 1.91 0.42 -40 36.1 27 29.1 25 2 -24 .39 347.56 1.e1 o.42 ..-40 38. 5 29 r -.r ,.,.. .. 1 SS 3.48 2 .05 0..42 .-40 33. 6 27 ..... v., ,....,.,._., ..., ..,. 1 ..,.,.,.,.,lJ 58 347.34 2.05 0.13 -40 34.7 26.3 28 5 25.07 .51 28.13 74.54 32 .8!J 57 347.34 2.2 0.28 -40 36 27.7 26.3 24 .95 -24.51 28.25 74.41 32.3: 58 347.34 2.05 0.28 -40 35 28 28 5 24.83 -24.51 28.13 74.41 33.: 1 59 348 2.2 0.42 -40 35.7 29 5 30.2 24.83 24.39 28.25 74.41 32.811 347 34 2.05 0. 28 -40 33.8 26 1 29.3 24.83 .39 28.13 74 .17 32.81 8 -40 35. 2 28 27.4 2 4 .83 .39 26.25 74.29 33.! u .,.,,,.,., u.-.2 -40 36.7 25. 3 30.6 24.83 .39 28.25 74.17 32,81 63 348.02 10.26 0.42 -40 38 27 28 8 24.71 .51 28.25 74. 29 32.81 64 343.82 17.59 1.29 -40 36. 7 27.7 29 24.58 .39 28.25 74 .29 32.81 85 343 38 2 1.98 2.16 -40 36. 8 26.3 26 3 24.58 -24 .39 28.2 : -66 343 .16 19.93 3.02 36 7 29 5 28.3 2 4.34 -24.51 .. --. 35.6 26 30.6 24.34 4 .39 28 -40 35 27.7 ?A A ?dAR .?A --------------__ ,,.. .,., .,,46 2.49 1.87 -40 33.8 28.2 27.8 24 .34 24 39 28.13 73.93 32 .81 70 348.88 2.93 0.71 -40 3M 27.9 29.8 24 .34 -24.51 28 .13 73.56 32.32 71 346.24 2.49 0.4 2 -40 35.2 2 7.9 26.6 24.34 4.39 28.13 73 .56 33.3 '72 346.9 2.64 0.42 -40 36.4 28.8 27-.6 2 4.1 -24.39 28.13 73.19 32.81 Page 2 of280

PAGE 46

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6/25/1997 TRIP DATA 73 344.26 13.92 0 .71 -40 33.8 27.9 29.5 24.1 .39 28 72.95 33.3 74 343.82 15.83 1.43 -40 36.7 26.1 27.8 23.85 .39 28 72. 7 32.81 342.72 21.25 2.01 -40 35 26 6 27.8 23.85 .39 27.88 72.46 32.81 76 341.4 27.99 2.88 -40 36.7 26.8 29.1 23.85 .39 27.88 72.22 32.81 77 339.86 32.54 3.89 -40 37 27.3 30.2 23.73 .39 28 72.22 32.81 I 78 339.2 37 96 4.76 -40 35.8 27 7 28.7 23.73 -24.51 28 72.09 32.81 -337.23 42.65 5.92 -40 36.9 24 6 28 23 .61 .39 27.88 71.85 --. -. . -40 36.9 24 6 28.2 23.73 .39 27.88 71.73T 32 ""2 . 41.04 7.51 -40 37 26.3 28.8 23.61 .51 27.88 71.61 : 335.91 43.82 8.52 -40 36.4 24.6 28.9 23.49 -24 .51 27.88 71.3e 0" 335.25 50 .27 9.53 -40 36 7 26 27.8 23.36 .51 2 -:;-;; 84 334.37 53.79 10.54 -40 36.7 28 9 27.8 23.49 -24.39 85 333.49 56.57 11.41 -40 35.7 28.1 27.7 23.3l 86 332.39 60.23 12 28 -40 35 27.8 28.3 23.36j 331.73 62.58 13 -40 35.2 25.9 26.: 86 331.51 62.87 13.58 -40 36.7 28.1 28.1 89 331.07 62 14 14.3 -40 36.7 28 2 -. "' --------------ttU.l:fO 1 ... oo U 36. 7 27. 6 90 333 05 49.98 14.88 -40 """ "''"' "''" ..... -7.01 27.7 15.17 -40 33.8 26 7 26.1 23.' 1.92 -1].88 14.88 -40 36.4 26.3 28 23. 1 .. --. 1.45 -40 35.8 27 29.5 23.' . ,58 .97 13.58 -40 35.8 27 2" . 95 345.8 .31 12.42 -40 36.7 27.9 ? 1 96 345.58 .53 10.98 -40 36 27.5 27 -'3.82 3.66 10 4 -40 36.7 26.3 21 .6l 10.11 -40 35 2 26 vv 35 6 28.7 :_ j .79 10 83 -40 37.1 28.4 ----101 335.25 44 .41 11.41 -40 36.8 26.1 291 102 334.59 46.6 11.7 -40 35 24 6 28.! 103 334.37 46.75 12.57 -40 35 8 27.4 27 1 22. 22. 39 2.51 --391 27 7 70 .26 70.o:1 33.3 t? A1 27.88 27.88 27.88 27.88 27.88 !7.88 IU.l4 32.1 69.89 32.1 69 89 32.1 69.89 32.1 -...... -7.88 69.28 7.88 69.16 .. 7.88 69.04 32 .81 27.76 68.92 33.3 27.76 68.92 32.81 L51 27.76 68.67 32.81 1.39 27.76 68.92 32.81 104 334.15 49.39 13 -40 36.3 26.1 29.2 .?A 27.76 68.92 33.3 105 333.49 50.85 13.43 -40 34.9 28 1 30.2 ? 106 344.48 .51 13.43 -40 33.4 26.2 29. 2 u ... 107 344.92 28 11.99 36.1 27.8 28. 8 22.39 108 344 7 8.35 10.54 -40 36 7 26.1 29 22.'261 .. 109 344.7 .13 9 .24 -40 35.3 28.9 27.8 :"., 1A Page 3 of280 3: .u;.o 1 27:66 69.16 32.81 27.76 68.8 a ?? 68.8 32

PAGE 47

PS T A ELECTRIC BUS 6/25/1997 TRIP D ATA I 'oOI 344.26 1 ;2. 2 8.23 -4 0 36.1 26.2 : 27. 27 1.89 7.79 -40 36. 2 27 28.41 : I .;..;._ ... 1 ------ --27"J6 27 76 3:l.ll' I 33. : ... ',76 118 344.04 2.64 5.92 -40 3.5 28.1 29.5 22.02 .39 27.76 68. 19 33. 119 344.04 2 .78 5.77 -40 36. 1 27 29.4 21. 9 -24.51 27. 76 68.19 33.3 1 20 343.18 9.53 5 .63 -40 34.5 28.3 29 5 21. 9 -24.51 27.76 68.43 33.3 121 337.45 40.01 5.77 -40 35 26.1 29.5 21.9 .5 1 27.76 68.19 33.3 122 335.47 47.19 6.2 -40 33.4 21.3 29.5 21.65 -24 .39 27.88 68.31 32.81 1 123 333.71 55.4 7.36 40 36.1 21 28.4 21.65 .39 27.76 68.67 33.3 332.17 82.58 8 .52 -40 34.2 24.2 28.5 21 53 4.39 27 .76 68.92 33.3 330.85 69.32 9.53 -40 35 25.9 28.4 21.65 .39 27.64 68.92 33.3 126 329.31 76.21 10,83 -40 38. 1 26 3 28.2 21 .53 .51 27. 64 68.92 127 327.99 83.24 12 13 -40 36 7 28.3 27 21.41 .39 27 . . 14:591 .... .>9.2 21.ss 24.39 21 .e 26.7 27. 2 7.5 27.6 21.53 .39 27.64 67.94 28 29.6 21.41 -24.39 27.76 67.82 .,)".Q 32.8 33:: 33: 3 132 344 .0 4 -7.33 11.64 -40 25 .9 29.6 21 41 4.51 27 76 67.45 ....... 133 343 .38 .64 9.53 -40 35.6 28 29.5 21.29 -24.51 27.76 67.45 33.3 134 343.16 -0.44 8.66 -40 34.9 27 2 9.5 21.29 .39 27 64 67.45 33.3 135 339.68 21.98 8.23 -40 34.2 27 26.3 21.17 -24.39 27.64 67 45 3 -------4 0 35 28.8 27 21.17 24.51 27.52 67.45 I '"'I WO.VOI .7.341 9.53 1 -40 34.5 27.9 29 .5 21.17 .5 1 27.52 67.2 1 138 334.371 49.541 10 25 -40 36. 7 26 29 6 21.04 -24.39 27.64 67.09 a 1.44 10.83 -40 34. 1 26.6 29 6 20.92 .39 27. 64 66.64 33.3 .... _;.98 11.55 -40 38. 7 27.4 28 5 21. 04 -24.51 27. 52 66 6 32 81 oll wl.95 57, 16 12,42 -40 34 9 28 1 27 20 92 o24.51 27 52 66.48 333.27 50.56 13.15 -40 35.9 28 28.2 20.68 27.64 66.48 40.01 13.58 34.1 27.9 28. .65 13.43 -40 35.3 28.7 24.u ,u.u 10 .55 13 .15 . -40 35 6 28 7 29 20 8 148 1 344.921 .23 12.13 -40 35 27 28 4 20.68 27.521 33.3 -Page 4 of 280

PAGE 48

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6 /25/ 1997 TRIP DATA 147 3 44.7 -7 77 11.55 --40 34.-7 24 6 27 4 20.68 24 39 27.52 66 35 32 .81 148 344.92 -5.86 10 .54 --40 34.9 27.2 29 1 20 55 24 39 27.52 66.48 14 9 344 7 .78 9.2 4 --40 35.9 28 .7 29.6 20.55 -24. 39 27.52 66.35 32 .81 ----,,78 7 .38 --40 33.8 26.2 26. 1 20.55 4.39 27.52 66.35 33 3 .81 6.78 --40 35.3 26.2 30.2 20 55 .39 27.52 66.11 33 3 5.28 8 06 --40 33.8 28 28.3 20 43 .51 27.39 66.35 32 .81 -.. 8.5 3.48 -40 34.5 26.1 27.2 20,31 .39 27.52 66.3! 156 336.96 35.32 4.16 --40 35.8 28 27 4.._ 20 3 1 24. 39 27.39 159 337.2 3 40.3 5 46 --40 36. 4 21.3 28 33.71 32 .81 "33.7i 160 335.9 1 4 7,9 2 6.76 -An '>A? ?" '> ?A" 161 33 4 59 52.17 7.51 -40 30.9 24.5 25 .9 20. 162 334 37 52.91 6 37 --40 36.1 28 5 29.5 20 183 333.27 58.26 9.1 --40 38.4 24 .6 25 5 20 1 164 332.17 61.85 9 96 --40 35 27 6 26.8 2 0. 191 165 331.29 68 .83 11.12 --40 33 6 28 7 26 3 20 07 1 166 330. 4 1 71.08 11.99 --40 36.1 26.2 25 7 20 07 1 -------"8,59 12 86 --40 36.1 27 24.6 19 94 >VV 63.46 13,87 36.8 26.2 26 5 19 94 169 333. 271 50.27 14.16 ---4036.1 ___ 26. 3 27 170 ---.. ---.... .,, .24:391 1 39 '.39 1 27.27 --. 27.39 V..OD' .;JL. Q I 27.27 64.64 32.81 27.39 64.28 - 27.27 64.26 6 4.28 .. 171!j_ 342.061 10,41 12.42 -40 33 8 27.9 27,.. ... 22.:!1 1 2 .13 -40 35 .6 28.7 29 .5 19.56 39 27 27 63.91 33.3 12 .42 -40 34.5 28.1 28.3 19 58 -24 39 27 15 63.79 33 3 1 1 8 2 337.D1 38.1 12 .42 -40 36.1 27 27.8 19.58 39 27.15 63.91 33 3 I 183 336.79 38.1 12 .57. -40 33.8 27.9 28.3 19 . 46 4 .51 27.27 64.03 32 .8 1 PageS of280

PAGE 49

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6/25 /199 7 TRIP DA T A 184 338.54 27.41 12 57 -40 36 28.1 28.3 19.48 .51 27.27 84.15 32.81 185 340.52 17.29 12.28 34.7 28. 3 27 19.33 .39 27.15 64. 4 33.3 188 340.98 15.1 11. 99 -40 38 27 28 19.46 .51 27.27 84.84 33.3 187 340 74 18.58 11.12 40 35.3 25.7 28 19.21 .51 27.27 64.64 33.3 188 539 2 24.18 1o.63 34.3 28.1 27.9 19.33 .39 27.2 7 64.77 32 81 189 339,42 23.16 1o.63 -40 34.9 26 27 19.21 .5 1 27.15 64.64 32.81 190 339.64 23 .16 11.27 -40 35.6 28.3 28.3 19.21 .39 27.27 64.64 33.3 191 340.3 17.44 11. 12 -40 34.7 27. 1 24.6 19.21 .39 27.15 64.84 32.81 192 341. 18 14.66 11.27 -40 33.6 26.6 28. 5 19.33 .39 27.27 64.77 33.3 193 341.62 13.92 10.83 -40 33.7 28. 1 27.9 19.09 .51 27.Q3 64.64 33.3 194 341.18 14.22 10 .54 -40 35.3 26.6 27 19.09 .51 27.03 64.77 33.3 195 341.18 14 .66 10.11 -40 34.7 23 29 19.21 .51 27.15 64.77 33.3 198 341.4 15 .24 9.96 -40 34.1 27 27 19.09 .3 9 27.15 64.84 33.79 197 342.28 11.72 9.53 -40 34.7 26.1 29.6 19.09 .39 27.15 64.52 33.3 198 342.28 13 .48 9 .96 -40 34.7 25.3 28.4 19.21 4.39 27.03 64.64 33.3 199 342.06 13.48 9.96 -4 0 35.6 23 25.3 19.09 .51 27.03 64.64 32.81 200 342.28 13.19 9.53 33.6 26.3 28.4 19.09 .39 27.15 64.77 33:3 201 342.28 13.04 9.67 40 35.8 28.1 28.1 18.97 .51 27.03 65.01 33.3 202 342.28 13.19 9.53 35.6 26.1 27 18.97 .39 27. 15 64.89 33 : 3 203 34 1 .62 13.19 9.39 35 25.5 28. 7 18.64 .3 9 27.03 65.01 33.3 204 341.4 18.61 9.1 -40 34.4 20.4 28.1 18.97 .51 27.03 64.89 33' .3 205 340.3 23.45 9.1 -40 35.6 27.9 27.4 18. 97 4 .5 1 27.03 85,01 33.79 206 3311.42 27.7 9 53 -40 35.5 26. 8 29.6 18.84 .51 27.15 64.89 33. 3 207 336 .9 8 28.58 9.96 -40 34.3 25.3 27. 4 18.72 .39 27.03 64.64 32.81 208 338.98 29.75 9.96 -40 3 2.7 27.9 28.8 18.72 .51 27.03 64.84 32.81 209 339.2 29.46 10.25 -40 3 4.9 25.3 27.4 18.84 .39 27.15 64.84 33.3 210 338.76 30 .04 10.25 -40 34.3 24.4 27.7 18 .72 .39 28. 91 64.52 33.3 211 338.1 30 .63 10.25 -40 33.4 23.7 28.7. 18 .7 2 .51 27.03 64.84 32.81 212 338.32 30 .48 10.54 -40 33 28.7 28.5 18.72 .39 28.91 6 4 .77 33.3 213 338.32 31.22 10.98 -4 0 34.5 25.4 29.5 18.72 .39 26.91 64.77 33.3 2 1 4 336.32 31.51 11.27 -4 0 33.4 27.9 29.4 18.72 .39 28.91 85.01 33.3 215 338.1 31.51 11.41 0 35.6 26.1 28.2 18.6 39 27.03 65. 38 33.79 216 338.1 31.8 11.7 0 33.7 28 28.1 18.72 .51 27.03 65.25 33.3 217 337.88 32.24 12.13 35.7 21.3 29.6 18.6 .51 27.03 85.38 33.3 218 337.45 32.98 12.42 34.1 21.2 29.5 18.6 -24.39 26.91 65.38 33.3 219 337.66 33.85 12 .57 ..40 34.2 27.9 29.1 18.48 .39 26.91 85.25 33.79 220 337 .23 34.29 13 .29 -40 34. 7 .24.8 27 4 18.8 4 .51 26.91 65.38 33.79 I Pege6of280

PAGE 50

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6/25 /1997 TRIP DATA 1 221 337.23 34.68 13 .58 -40 34.7 28 29 8 18 48 -24 .51 26.91 65. 38 33 : 7 9 222 338 54 25.79 13. 72 -40 33.8 24 2 28 8 18. 38 -24 39 26 .91 65 5 33 3 223 343.82 -3.68 13 72 -40 35 24 6 28.5 18 .38 -24.39 26 .91 65 .74 33 3 224 345. 14 -11.14 13 -40 35.1 27 9 27 4 18.4 8 -24 5 1 27.03 65 62 32 .81 225 3.7 -4 69 12.57 -40 34 9 27.2 27 5 18 38 24.39 26.91 65 74 33 3 --343.38 4.69 12.13 -40 34.2 24.2 28 4 18 48 -24 39 27.03 65.86 33.79 '.3.38 7.47 11.55 -40 34 7 25.4 29 6 18.36 -24.39 26.91 65 38 33 3 9.53 11.21 -40 34.7 25.4 27 4 18 23 -2 4.51 21,03 65.01 3-----"' 2.72 9.97 10.98 -40 36 26.3 29.5 18 .23 -24.39 26.78 9.61 1 0.5 4 -40 34.9 26.1 27.4 1 8 23 .39 26.91 64.64 33.: --40 35.4 24.2 26.3 1 8.23 -24.51 26.91 64.52 32.81 -40 35.2 27 28.7 1 8 .23 -24.39 26.78 64.28 33 3 9.6 -40 36.7 21.3 24.2 18 23 -24 .51 26.91 64 03 -. 235 236 237 238 239 Uo( 7 240 93 -40 33.7 27.2 27 0 -40 33 8 24 2 27. 2 18 23 -24 39 26.78 -i .22 -40 33 8 24.6 28 8 18 36 -24.39 26 .91 63 .g' i.7 4 33 4 26.7 28 18 11 -24.39 26.78 63 .79 28 28 2 18 23 -24 .51 26.91 63 79 ; 26.1 28 1 18 .11 -24. 39 26 78 26.8 29 5 18 .11 -24. 39 26.78 i ,0 1 1 . i.28 ... -40 35 3 26.8 27 9 18.11 -24 39 26.66 1 .42 -40 36 9 24.2 27 18.11 -2.4. 39 26.78 v-"' 0.28 33 7 27.1 28.5 17 .99 -24 .51 28.78 244 343.16 15.53 0.71 -40 33.8 24.6 28.6 17 .99 -24 .39 26.78 '! 4 5 3.26 6 .3 1 40 35.4 26.4 29. 6 17 .99 .39 26.78, 1 246 345.14 4.84 1.14 4 0 35.6 26.2 29 17.99 -24 .51 26.78 '!47 345.36 4 98 0.85 -40 35 28 28 17 .99 -2 4 39 26.91 63.4: 250 -;;r'7' 0.28 4 0 35.1 2 4 .2 28.1 17.99 -24 39 26.78 63 0 .28 40 36.7 28.4 27 17 .99 2 4.51 26.91 1 42 40 35 28.2 1 28 -40 36.1 28 ""' 98 0 28 -40 33 8 24 2 2 8.1 17 .99 -24 39 26.78 63 33:3 33 .' 33: 33.: 3 3 0.42 -4 0 35.2 26 4 27. 5 17 .87 -24 3 9 26 66 6 3. w w.v 2 5 4 346 24 2.2 0.28 -40 36.3 26 3 28.6 1 7.87 -24. 39 26 66 62. 9 3 33.3 255 346. 02 2.2 0 42 -40 34 7 . 26.2 2 7. 8 17 .75 -24 39 26 66 63 .06 33.3 256 346.46 2.2 0.42 -40 38.7 26 1 27 5 17 .75 -24 39 26 78 63 18 33 .79 --------257 34e.s 2.2 o .... o 36. 7 "'.,."' "'A II! .. .., "711! ...... "I'\ t, Page 7 of280

PAGE 51

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6 / 25 / 1 997 TRIP DATA "' -40 36.1 27 27.7 17.75 .4.39 26.66 63.06 '33.791 1 .. 346.68 2.2 0.42 -40 36.7 27.5 27.7 17.75 .39 26.66 63.06 79] 260 346.68 2.2 0.42 -40 35.6 26.2 29.6 17.75 4 .39 26.66 63. 06 261 346.68 2. 2 0.42 -40 35.7 27 27 8 17.75 4 .39 26.l 262 346.68 2.2 0 4 2 ...sn ?.4" ?A 17 "' .?.4 "' ---. .... .......... Z4 2.05 0.28 -40 33.7 28.1 28 3 17.75 .39 26 .66 63. 18 263 3-46.24 -.. 2. 2 o .42 -40 3-4.9 28.2 29 17.62 -24 .39 26.54 63.18 33.79 "-W 346.46 2.2 0.28 -40 36,8 28 29,5 17,5 ,51 26,54 63,3 33.79 266 346.9 2.2 0 28 -40 36.7 26.2 26.3 17.62 .51 26 .54 63 .18 33.79 267 346.9 2.2 0.42 -40 36.7 27.9 27 17.62 .39 26.54 63.18 33.79 268 3 46.9 2.2 0 .28 -40 37.1 27.2 28.3 17.62 -2 4 .39 26 .54 63.18 33.79 269 346.9 2.34 0.28 -40 33.8 26.4 28 .7 17 5 .5 1 26.54 63.42 33. : 270 346.9 2.2 0.42 -40 36.2 27 29 5 17.5 .3 9 26.42 2.3 4 0.28 -40 36.5 25.5 29 5 17 5 -24.51 26 54 --.39 26.54 63. 54 33.3 47.34 2.2 0 . 42 -40 35.5 27.3 26 3 17.5 .39 26.54 63. 42 33.71 274 347 12 2.3-4 0.28 -40 36.3 25 .5 27.6 17.5 4.51 26.42 63. 54 33.: 275 346.9 2.2 0.42 -40 3 4 .5 27 .9 29.5 17. 38 4 39 26 .54 63 54 33.71 278 347.12 2.05 0.28 -40 3 4 5 28.7 27 7 17.5 .39 26.42 63. 67 33.3 1 277 347.12 2.34 0.42 -40 33.8 27.4 27.7 17.5 .51 26 .5 4 63. 79 -.. 276 346.9 2.34 0.42 -40 35.2 27 27.2 17.38 .39 26.42 63. 79 33.79 , . M or ft ... 28,8 17,38 ,51 26.42 64,03 33,79 --64.15 33.79 2.2 0.28 -40 36.9 28.3 28.5 17.26 -2 4.39 26.42 64.03 33.79 284 347.34 2.2 0.42 33.8 24 6 29 17.38 .39 26.42 64.03 33.3 285 347.34 2.2 0.42 -40 36.9 25.9 26.1 17.26 39 26.42 64.03 33.79 286 347 .56 2.2 0 42 -40 36.4 28.2 28.7 17.38 .39 26.42 63.9 1 33.79 ?87 347 34 2 2 0 42 33.8 24.6 28 2 17.38 -24 .39 26. '" - -.... ..... .. .... ....... ..... ..... ?A. I 288 347.34 2 2 0.28 --40 35.7 "" I ".. .. 289 347.56 2.34 0.42 -40 36. 5 27.4 28 8 17.26 -24 .39 26. 290 347.34 2.2 0.28 -40 35 25.2 28 .8 l7 .26 _-24.39 26 291 347.56 2.2 0.42 -40 36.7 27.9 29.5 17.21 33 292 347.56 2.34 0 42 -40 35.7 23 25 5 . 17.26 -24.39 26.29 63.91 33.
PAGE 52

PSTA ELECT RIC BUS 6/25/ 1997 T RIP DAT A ,..... ---> 1 .,..,,,., ..... u ... u -40 36.2 27 .3 28.8 17.28 -24.51 26.29 63.91 33.79 rA 2.05 0.42 -40 35.7 28 8 29.8 17.01 -24.39 26 17 83.79 33.3 fl 2 .05 0,28 -40 36 28.6 24.8 17.13 24.39 26 2 9 63.67 33.3 348 2.2 0.28 -40 36.7 24.6 26.3 17.13 -24.51 28.29 63.67 33.79 347.3 4 2.05 0.28 -40 35 26 5 '28. 7 17.13 -24.51 26 29 63.67 33.3 347.56 2.2 0.28 -40 35 6 28.3 29.5 17 .01 .51 28.17 63.54 33.3 301 347 56 2.2 0.42 -40 35 8 25.7 26.1 17 .01 24.39 26 .17 63.67 33.79 302 348 2.05 0.28 -4 0 35.2 27.9 26 .6 16.89 .39 26 .17 63.54 33 3 ---40 35.2 26 6 30 2 17 1 3 -24 .51 28.17 63.42 33.3 """' .,..,,,., '' Uo'O -4 0 35 25.4 27 ,8 17,01 .39 28.17 63 42 33.79 305 348 2 2 0.28 -40 34 9 25. 4 29 .5 17.01 -24. 39 28. 17 63.42 33.1 306 348 2 2 0.28 -40 33.8 24.2 24.6 17.01 -24.39 26. 17 63. 3 33 .. 307 348 2.2 0.28 -40 36 27.1 29 17.01 .39 26.1" 308 347 78 2.2 0.28 -40 38.7 24.4 27. 8 17.01 -24. 39 28. 1 309 348.22 2.05 0.28 -40 36.2 27.9 27.9 17 .01 .39 28. 17 63.54 33:3 348 2.05 0 42 -40 33.4 24.6 28. 6 16.89 24 39 28 17 63.42 33.3 347.78 2 2 0 42 -40 35.2 25.7 26.1 16 89 -24.39 28 05 63.42 33.79 28 7 27 4 16. 89 -24.51 28 17 63.42 33 3 36.6 27.2 2 7 16. 89 -24 .39 26 17 63.18 33.79 348.22 2.05 0.42 -40 36.7 27 5 27.7 16.89 -24 .51 26.05 63 3 33.3 315 347 .78 2.05 0.42 -40 38.8 28 .7 27.8 16 .8 9 .39 28 .0 5 6U2 33 .79 316 348.44 2 05 0.28 -40 33.8 27 29.6 16 .89 -2 4.39 2 5 93 63.3 33.3 317 348 44 2 2 0.28 -40 35.2 27.9 2 8.7 16.89 -24.3 9 25 93 63.3 318 348 2.34 0.28 -40 35 6 25 4 28 5 16.77 39 28.05 63.18 33 . JI 319 348 2.2 0.28 -40 36.4 24.6 28.2 16 .77 -24.39 28 05 63.18 -- 25.4 28.3 16.77 24 .51 28.05 63.3 -------40 34.9 26 26.3 18.77 -24.39 "", "'"-,,, -40 33.8 24.6 28.2 16 77 -24.51 25.93 62.93 33 79 323 348.22 2 2 0.42 -40 35 7 27.9 27 .3 16.77 .51 25 93 63.05 33.3 324 348 2 2 0.42 40 36.7 2 1.3 27 7 18 .65 .39 26.05 63.06 33.71 325 348 22 2 2 0.28 -40 36.3 25.9 29 5 16 .77 24.51 25.93 63 18 33.3 1 328 347.7 8 2 2 0.42 -40 36 5 24.6 27 16.77 .39 25 .93 83.18 33.: 327 348 2 .05 0.28 -4 0 35.2 28 .7 29 .5 16 .65 -2 4.39 25.113 6318 3? 81 328 348 44 2.2 0.42 -40 36.2 27.2 28.6 16 77 -24. 39 25. 329 348.22 2 2 0.42 -40 36 7 26 26.3 18 77 -24. 39 25. 330 348 2 2 0.42 '40 33.4 27.9 27.4 16.65 24.5 1 25. 1 331 348 44 2.2 0.28 -40 36.7 28. 1 27 4 18.6 5 -24.39 25.J"' Page 9of280 '"I 7Q '

PAGE 53

PSTA ELEC"T:RIC BUS 6 /25/1997 TR I P DATA 332 348.44 2.2 0.28 -40 33. 4 28.' 1.6 5 ).52 1.52 25.931 63.541 333 347.78 2.2 0.42 -4 0 36.8 24 6 25.8 334 348.22 2 2 0.42 -4 0 3 4.9 27 29.2 '25.811 E 13.3 335 348.22 2 2 0.42 -40 3 4 .9 27.4 29. ... .. _.. 63. 33. 33. -336 347.78 2.2 0. 4 2 36.7 26.7 27 1 1 ou 63. 337 348 44 2.2 0,42 -40 c O .... v ........... -"" 1 ..... 2s:9:il "" 33 338 348.44 2 .05 n ---40 35.7 28 29.!J. 16.6a ......... ... ..... .O.Oll ( 0.42 -40 34.5 21. 3 28 : 1 1 3431 3491 1.42 -40 35.5 24.6 28.5 1 6.52 .39 25 .8 1 63 1.42 -40 36.7 26 .8 29 1 1 6.52 -24.51 25.8 1 63.1>o ..,,{V 2.05 0.4 2 -4 0 35.8 27.9 27.5 1 6 52 -24.39 25 .8 1 63.79 33 .79 :\48 '' 2.2 0.42 ----40 35.2 27.9 29 5 16.52 -24 .39 25.68 63.79 33.79 341 2.2 0.42 -40 36.4 26.2 28.7 16 .52 .51 25 .8 1 63 .91 : 2 .34 0.42 -40 35 27 27.4 16.52 39 25.68 63.79 33 J( 2 .2 0.28 -40 36.7 26 29.1 16. 4 -24.39 25 .81 83. 91 33.n . 2.2 0.28 -40 36 28 2 29 15.4 53.111 33, 7 !2 2 2 0 42 -40 36.9 27 .9 29.8 16 4 -24.39 25.56 63.79 33.7 >.44 2 .05 0.42 -40 33.8 28.1 28 8 16 4 24.39 25.58 63.87 3370 )3 .. ' ,VI -.'W 355 348 44 2 .05 0.28 -40 35.9 26.5 27 7 ----16.4 .39 25.68 63.79 33.3 356 348.66 2. 2 0.42 -40 33.8 26 7 28 16. 4 -24 .39 25 .56 63.67 33 79 357 348 22 2. 2 0.4 2 -40 35 6 25.6 29 16.4 -24.39 25 .68 63.79 33.3 ft.& .. 2.05 0 .42 -40 35.2 2 7 1 28 7 16.4 24 .51 25 .68 63.54 33.3 0.4 2 -40 35.5 25.4 29 5 18 4 -24.51 25 .68 63.54 33.3 --0.42 40 35 8 27.9 26 .8 16.28 -24.51 25 .68 63.54 33.79 351 348 44 2.05 0.42 -40 36 7 21.3 27 18.28 24 .5 1 25.68 63.54 33.3 362 348.44 2.05 0.28 -40 36.3 24 .5 29.5 1 6.4 24.51 25 .58 63.54 33.3 363 348.4 4 2.2 0.4 2 -40 35 26 28 16.28 .5 1 25.56 63.42 33.79 364 348.22 2 . 2 0.42 -40 35.6 24.2 29 5 16.28 -24 .51 25 58 63.42 33.79 365 34 8.22 2.2 0.42 -40 35 . 2 5.5 29.5 16.28 -24.51 25 58 63.54 33.3 I 366 348 .66 2.2 0.28 36.7 .26.4 29.5 16.28 39 25.58 63.54 33.3 ftA348 ,88 2,2 0 42 -40 37)1 25,9 28 18 28 ,39 25 ,58 63,67 33 3 348.88 2 2 0.42 -40 36.2 27.2 28.7 16 28 24.39 25 .58 63.79 33.3 Page 10 of 280

PAGE 54

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6/25/1997 TRIP DATA ...... a22.94 51.15 8.52 -40 38 7 29.2 29 4 1 8.89 -24. 15 27.84 55 .61 51.381 9953 322.28 54.81 9 24 -4 0 39 3 29.3 31.2 1 6 89 -24.15 27.84 55.36 su 9954 322.28 53 35 10.11 -4 0 39 3 31 31.3 16 89 -24.27 27.84 55.36 51. : 9955 324.26 43.38 10 4 -40 39 27 30.3 16.77 .27 27 .64 55.36 51.3 9956 324 69 40,3 10,69 -40 39 29,7 32,6 16,77 ,27 27 ,84 ._A. 0 9957 327 .11 24.77 11.12 -40 38 6 26 3 31.3 16.89 -24.15 27.52 55.24 AA<08 329,75 14,07 10.98 -40 38,7 31 27,6 16,77 27 27,64 55,12 51,381 I 333,93 .91 10.69 -40 39.7 29.7 32.4 16 .77 -24, 27 27,84 54.87 51.38 9960 333.27 -1.17 9.96 -40 40.2 28.8 30.4 16 89 -24. 39 27.52 54.87 51.38 9961 330.85 13.04 9 .82 -40 37.6 24.6 31. 1 16.89 -2 4.27 27.8 --. 1 9962 330.85 12.02 9.82 -40 38.9 29.2 29A 9963 330.85 11.43 9.53 ...c -4U 41U.:l
PAGE 55

PSTA ELECTR I C BUS 6 /2 5 /1997 TRIP DAT A 9989 336.13 .56 14.3 -40 39,9 29.7 32.4 16.77 27 27.27 55.85 9990 336.35 .1 13.58 -40 36.4 28.5 33 16.89 . 27 lj5.85 51.87 9991 335.91 -11.72 12.67 -40 37.9 28.6 33 16.77 -24.27 27.64 56.0 9 51.36 9992 335.69 .11 11.55 -40 39 6 29.1 27 6 16 .77 .27 27 .5 2 56.34 51.38 9993 335.03 -6.3 10.54 -40 40.2 28.8 30.5 16,89 15 27.52 56. 46 51.38 9994 327.99 35.76 10.11 -40 39.5 30.3 30.5 16.77 .1 5 27.64 56.58 51.38 9995 325.79 44.55 10.25 -40 38.4 30.5 30.5 16 .89 .27 27.52 56.46 6 1 .38 ---324.69 46.75 10.54 -40 37.8 27 .4 31. 9 16.77 -24.15 27.52 56.46 51.3vvv 324.04 4 7.19 11.12 -40 39.5 28.8 29.7 16. 77 .27 27 .6 4 56.46 51.8 -998 324.04 47.92 11.55 -40 39.1 29 6 27 6 16.77 -24.15 27 .6 4 56.7 9999 323 36 50.42 12.13 -40 39. 6 29.6 ----27 .8 16.77 -24.27 27 .64 56.58 .. 10000 322.51 51.731 1 2 .86 -40 39.6 27 .7 31. 2 16.77 -24 15 27 .64 56.46 51.87 322.28 52 .61 13.4 3 -40 39.6 27.5 30. 4 16.77 24.27 27.52 56.34 51.381 uuu.ll 322.94 48 .07 14.01 -40 37.8 27.4 27 16.77 .27 27.64 56.22 51.8 7 ----325.35 36.49 14.45 -40 37.8 26.3 27 1 6.77 -2 4.15 27 .52 55,97 51.38 ( 325.79 34.29 14.88 -40 38 6 28.1 29 6 16.77 -24.27 27 .64 .. 325.35 35.03 15 ,46 -40 39 1 26.3 31. 3 16.77 -24.27 27 328.01 34 .59 14.88 -40 38.7 27 .8 31 16 77 .15 10007 327.11 26.67 15.03 39.5 29 30.7 16.77 .15 27. 10008 335.69 .56 14.3 -40 38.4 31 31.5 16. 77 27 7 .881 13.43 -40 39.5 31 31.5 16.77 24.151 27.52T 1000 -40 38.8 30 32. 1 16 .77 -24.2'!1 27.52 1 lUUll .7 10,69 -40 39.5 28 5 32.4 16. 77 10012 334.81 -4.98 8.52 -40 39. 1 29.6 30 16.77 1001 3 333.49 1.91 6.35 -40 39.5 29.1 29.4 16.77 10014 333.05 4.89 3.31 -40 39.5 27.8 31. 3 16.77 10016 332.83 5.42 0.71 -40 40 29.6 30.5 10018 333.49 2 49 -40 38.3 30 32. 3 -40 39. 7 30 4.15 27 .64 27 .52 27.64 27 ss 54.87 1.87 55. 55. 1 ssl 1.87 51,87 '-. siTs ---40 39.1 28 39.6 2 9( ... v.... ... . ...... !.OS 0.56 .. 16.89 J o.u 55.36 .. ....... -4 0 38.' -40 38, !.34 2.34 1 ;;;;;211 333:71 51.87 1.7 -40 39.. ... .... ---.. ,. ---40 3!1 1 28.6 27.8 16.8 9 -. 7 .64 ---40 38 28 5 31.3 ov.vo j 4 27 .64 54.75 I Jvu-<5 ) .. 33.93 1 0 .711 -40 36.6 30.3 30.7 16.71( 27 .64 54.83 51.38 Page 271 of 280

PAGE 56

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6/25/1997 TRIP DATA 1 10026 333.71 2.34 0.56 -40 38 28.3 31.8 16.89 -24.15 27.64 54.51 51.87 10027 333.93 2.49 0.71 -40 39.4 29.7 30.5 16.77 -24.27 27.64 54.38 51.38 333.71 2.34 0.71 -40 37.7 27.8 31.7 16.77 24.15 27.52 54.26 51.87 333 93 2.34 0.42 -40 39.6 30.4 29.7 1 16.771 -24.27 1 27.64 54.14 51.87 --... .. ... ...... 333.71 2.34 0.56 -40 37.8 27.4 30.7 16.77 -24.27 ..:t. o" ""I" I 10031 333.71 2.64 0 .56 -40 38.6 29.1 29 9 16.77 .27 27.64 54.02 51.87 10032 333.93 2.49 0.56 -40 39 29. 6 30.5 16.77 -24 .27 27 .64 53.9 51.87 10033 333.93 2.34 0.56 -40 39.2 28. 8 32.1 16.77 10034 333.93 2.34 0 .71 -40 39.6 30.3 29 7 11 10035 334.15 2.34 0.58 -40 38 27 . -. 1.51 )38 333.93 2.2 0.85 -40 38.4 29. 8 v o u ',75 !37 334 .15 2.34 0.58 -<40 37.8 27.6 29.7 16.6! 333.71 2.49 0 .71 -<40 39 30 2 29.7 16.65 24.15 334.37 2.34 0.56 -<40 38 31 30.7 16.77 -: 334.37 2.49 0.71 -<40 39.5 29.4 31.7 55: 56.1 10041 333.93 2.2 0.42 -<40 39 29.7 30.5 16.71 1 -: I;.A 10042 333.93 2 05 0.58 -<40 36.6 31 27.8 16.77 1 56. 10043 334.15 2.34 0 .71 -40 37 8 29.2 31 16 .77 -24 15 56.1 11 11 1---40 37.8 27.8 27.8 16.77 -24.27 27.64 -0.71 38 27.6 31.1 16.77 .15 27.52 15 2 49 0.58 -40 39.6 29.6 31 18.77 -24.27 27.64 57.07 2.34 0.71 -40 37.8 26.3 27.8 16.65 -24.15 27.52 57.19 2.2 0.56 -<40 39 .7 30A 29.9 18.65 -24.15 27.52 57.32 -40 39.9 28.8 30.3 16.77 -24 .15 27.39 57.32 -<40 39 5 29.1 31.5 16.65 .15 27.52 57.44 -40 39.4 30A 31.1 16.65 -24.15 27.52 Si 0.56 -40 39.5 29 8 31. 5 16.65 -24.27 27.52 .... ... 0.56 -40 39 29.8 30.4 15.65 -24 .15 27.52 58.05 i 7 7 .871 R7l -. 52.35 51.87 !.49 0.71 -40 39.9 30 31.1 16.77 -24 .27 27.52 56.17 1005 0056 10058 10059 10060 1006' 1006: 2.49 0.71 -40 39.8 29.1 32.1 16.65 -24.27 27.52 58.41 52.35 2.2 0.42 -40 39 31 30.5 16 .77 -24 .2 7 27.52 58.78 51.38 2.49 0.56 -40 39.7 30 .3 30.1 16.65 -24.15 27.52 59.15 51.87 2. .49 ) !\A 1.71 0 39.1 26.3 27. 8 18.89 -24.15 27.52 59.27 51.87 0.56 -40 39 28.6 32.4 16.77 -24.15 27.52 59.39 51.87 0.71 -40 38.8 27.7 30.1 18.77 -24.15 .52 59.51 -40 39.6 29.7 32.4 16.77 -24.27 27.39 vv.ov -40 39.8 28.5 31.3 16.65 .27 27.52 60 ot.o71 t Page 272 of 280 -

PAGE 57

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6/25/1997. TRIP DATA ;006;1 I f::l 100 2 lVUII 329.31 10078 327.99 10079 3: 326.Q1 I 1UUOll 326.67 10082 326.01 2.34 0.56 -40 38.8 29.4 30.1 16.77 -:. .... u ou-"" "o.ot 2.2 0.71 -40 40 27 27 8 16.77 -24.27 27.52 60.25 51.87 2 .7 8 0.71 -40 39.5 27.7 29 6 16 77 -24.27 27 .5 2 60.49 51.87 2.: :2. 2.3 2. IV\ 38.1 40 .89 35:47 37.96 0. 0.561 IT 4.321 5.63 6.49 t -40 39. 8 29.5 31.1 16.77 -24 15 27 .5:2_ 60.6!_51.87 -4 -401 39 -40 40 2 I I '""I 16.771 -29. 5 29 16.77 27.521 61.35 -40 38 31 29..t: IQ.O" J:'t,o;, -40 39 30.1 31 16.89 .15 27.52 -4 0 38 27.7 31.4 16.77 '4.27 27 .52 -40 39. 1 28.6 27.8 16.89 r.g -40 39.5 29 30.7 16.77 .271 27.39 1 -40 38.7 27 7 30.1 16.65 .?A ?7 87 1.8 1. 8 51.38) -40 39.2 29.8 30.5 16.65 .,.,,,.;, .., 9 1 "'""' ...... -40 39.2 27.6 30.5 16.65 -24.151 27 . 39 ( 61.961 . -40 40 .3 29.6 31.2 16 .77 .27 27.39 62.08 -40 39.8 29 6 30.3 16.77 .27 27.39 62.08 -40 39.4 29.7 30.3 16.65 -24.15 27.39 R? n" -40 40 6 30 2 29.4 16. 77 .27 27.39 ...tn A Page 273 of 280 51.87 51.38 51.87 51.

PAGE 58

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6/25/1997 TRIP DATA ""100 331.29 11. 53 13.29 -<40 38.6 28 3 30 18 77 24 27 27.39 60 98 51.87 101 331. 29 12 .75 13 .29 -<40 40 28.3 31.3 18 77 .27 27. 52 81. 1 51.87 o v l02 331.29 10 85 13 15 -<40 4 0.2 29 4 31.8 18 77 4.15 2 7. 39 60 .98 51.87 10103 338 35 -15 .97 12 .5 7 -40 4 0 28.4 31 16.77 .27 27 39 81.1 51. 87 10104 338.57 -14 .95 11.99 -<40 39 8 28.5 31.5 18 .77 24. 39 27.27 60.86 51.8 7 10105 338 35 .19 11.27 -<40 40. 5 29. 5 29.2 16 .89 .15 27.27 60 .61 51. 38t 1 0106 336 57 .43 10.69 -<40 39.8 29 30 .5 16.77 .27 27. 39 80.49 51.87 10101 336.57 -1o,41 9 82 -40 39 6 30.3 30 3 1 6.77 -24.27 27.52 sor --'0108 335.69 .81 9.24 -40 39.8 28.3 16.77 .27 27.39 60 .:..>1 o.v/1 1109 327.11 39 .57 8 95 -<40 39.2 29.1 30 8 16 77 24.15 27.39 60.251 51.871 9 44.26 9.53 -<40 39.6 27.7 29.4 16 77 -24.15 27.39 -- -<40 39.1 27.7 31. 5 16 .77 -24 27 27.39 60. 39 1 27,6 M -<40 39.7 29.6 29.7 16.77 -24.27 27 39 60 37 1 ----------325.79 37.37 11.41 -<40 38 30.2 31 16.77 -24.15 27.39 60.1' I ovo .. :>1 327.55 29.02 11. 64 -<40 39 29.7 30 4 1 6.65 .15 27 .52 60 51.38 329.75 16 .7 1 11.84 -<40 39 3 28 2 31. 7 1 8 89 24.27 27. 39 59.76 51. 87 11.84 -<40 38.6 28 6 27.8 18 77 -24.27 2 7.39 59.51 51.3" .04 1U1 -40 39 30.5 31. 5 1 6.77 .15 2 7 52 5 9.15 14 10 4 -<40 39.6 30 30 4 1 8 89 -24. 15 27.39 < n 47 .23 9 .53 -<40 40 .3 27 29.4 16.77 24.39 27. 39 <;Q,, <;;;:"5 1 6.77 -24.27 27, 39 58 1,69 ..S.35 8.95 .... ... ... ., ...... --:. -5.72 8 37 -40 40 1 29.6 30.4 18 .77 24.15 27.39 58.9 si ' .,!\ 329.97 23 .6 8 37 -<40 40.2 29. 1 31.1 18.89 -24.15 27 39 58.9 52.: 329 09 26.53 8.66 -40 39.6 27.9 30.1 18 .89 27 27.39 58.66 51.8, 328.43 26.97 9.1 -40 40.2 27.7 31.3 16. 77 -24.15 27.39 58.54 51.87 328.43 27.55 9.53 -40 38 9 27.2 30.5 16 .71 - .. 330.41 16.12 9.96 -40 39 5 28.: -40 39.4 29.: f--.: I -v.V<:J ll,t,y I -40 39. 3 28,:., Y' -4.69 7.94 -40 39.4 29.5 ----.91 7.36 ---40 39.8 27 29.3 1 18 65 7.07 -4'0 38.6 28 5 31.3 16 .7ff 4.2 7 . _ 330.19 19 64 1 .01 -4 0 39.6 n6 29 16.77 1 -2 :n 10134 331.95 8.06 7,38 -40 39.2 26.3 30.f . o135 332.39 8 ,3 7.51 -4 0 37.9 26 .3 27.8 od.6 331.51 1 12.461 7 511 -<401 39.6 1 29. 8 1 29.81 10,1/J Page 274 or 280 I '"VI 27 39 57.68 27.27 57.56 51.8i 27.27 57.32 sus 51.87 57.19 1 s1:st 57.19

PAGE 59

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 328 65 328 .0 1 324 -4 1 33 1 46.17 6/25/1997 TRIP. DATA 1.22 -40 4o .2T 21.1 31 16.n .27 27.39 57. 19 51.87 '.79 -40 38.91 27.2 30.3 16.65 -24.15 27.27 57.32 51.38 1.521 -40 1_ 16.77 1 . 27 1 27.39 1 57.321 51.87 -40 38.8 29.8 29 7 16.77 -24.27 27.27 57 1 9 51.87 -40 39.8 27.4 29 1 16.n -24.27 27.39 57 07 51.8< 1o142 r 322 06 57 .01 -10.69 -40 39 .7 29.7 30.2 16.n -24 15 21.21 56 63 51. 8i v" 320 74 62.14 11. 7 -40 40.1 29.6 29.8 16.n .27 27 .39 56 .83 51.87 10144 320.S2 62.73 12.28 -40 39.6 28.6 30 3 16.89 .27 27.27 56. 7 51.87 10145 321.18 59.79 12.86 40 8 28.6 30 5 16.77 .27 27.39 58. 58 51.87 10146 321. 4 58.18 13.43 -40 40 30.5 31.1 16.77 .27 27.39 58. 58 51.38 10147 321.18 56.92 14.18 -40 39.6 28.6 29.2 16 65 -24.15 27.39 56.46 51.87 321.62 54.23 14 .59 -40 39 9 29 2 27.5 16.n 24 .2 7 27 39 56.58 51.87 322.5 51.44 1U8 -40 39 30 2 29 2 16.TI .27 27.39 56.48 52.35 10' I 322.5 50.85 15 48 -40 39.8 30.3 30 .7 16.n -24. 15 27 39 56.48 52. 35 323.6 43 .97 1 5.7 5 -4 0 39.7 29 7 30.7 16.65 4 15 27.39 56.46 51.87 <7 Q1 1 5.89 -40 4 0 3 29 30.3 16.65 24.15 27.39 56. 34 5 1 .87 22 '"'"'" __ .., ........ ... >J 29. 2 1s.n -2 4 .5 1 2 7.39 56.22 .......... .,J 9.87 -40 39.6 28 3 29.5 16.n .15 27.39 56 34 :; .;;; ""161 335.47 -6 6 8.81 -40 40 2 29 2 28.4 16.65 24. 15 27. 39 56. 4 6 52. 35 162 334.81 -0.73 7 .79 -40 40.2 29. 2 3 1.3 16.77 4 .27 27.39 56. 34 51.87 10163 328.65 33 .85 7 .07 -40 39.9 28.8 29.1 16.77 .27 27.39 56.22 51.87 1 10164 327.55 36.79 7 .65 39.7 29.5 30 1 16.65 24 15 27.39 55. 97 51.87 10165 328.43 27.7 7 .65 -4u 38.9 27.6 29..4 16.65 -24 27 27.39 55.97 52. 35 10166 329 97 20.08 7 .9 4 -40 39.8 27 5 3 1 1 16 .77 -24 27 27.39 55 .9 7 51.87 1 0167 329.97 18.03 7.9 4 -4 0 39.7 29.6 30.5 16.65 4 15 27.2 7 56.09 51.87 3 29 53 20.81 8.23 -40 40.2 29.5 29 4 16.65 .27 27.27 56.09 51.87 -101691" 329.09 23.6 8.52 -40 39.1 27.8 31.3 16.65 .2 7 27 39 55.85 51.87 17'!J. 327 99 28.29 8.66 -40 39.2 28.7 31. 1 16.65 .27 27.27 55.8 5 51.87 9.1 -40 39 5 . 29 30 5 16 65 .27 27. 39 55.85 51. 87 -iS I 0? -40 39.8 29. 1 31 16.52 -24 27 27. 39 i 10t73l 327.331 29 6 -40 38.5 28.8 30 4 .65 . 15 27 39 55. 48 51.87 Page 275 of 280

PAGE 60

PSTA Et.ECTR I C BUS 6/25/1997 --40 38 9 2 7.8 ....... ........ --40 39.6 27 .8 29.5 16 8 --40 38.9 26.3 31.7 18. 5: IV II I ""-Yo U I IVoVV -40 10178 329 75 17 10.83 --40 39.3 29.6 31 I 10179 329.75 16.71 10 98 --40 39.6 28,5 27.7 10180 329.97 17.44 16 .vv 16.65 TRIP DATA 27.27 SS.24 51.3 27.39 55 51.8 .... ..... 15 -24.15 27.39 54.75 51.87 27.27 54 .51 51.87 27.39 54.51 51.8 7 27.39 54. 38 51.871 51. 38 54,8 10181 329.31 17.881 --40 4 0 .4 29 .'71-40 39.3 28.6 27.8 16.52 -24.27 27.: 1 0182 329.75 .. 4Q 38 27 4 30,1 1 6 52 .2 7 27.'1v ..,...,,,. ..,, ,..,, 1.41 -40 39.9 28.8 28.8 16 .65 -24.15 27. 15 10183 329,75 I.24 11. 27 -40 39 7 27.3 16.: Jl>l 330.63 14.07 10 98 --40 37 3 27.7 3' 16.41 '", 27.27 54.51 su: 330.63 15.97 11. 12 -40 39 S 28.8 27.15 54.26 51.87 328.65 23.89 11.2 7 --40 38.9 2, .;ou... ,..,,; 27. 15 54.26 51.87 ... ot 24.n 11. 4 1 --40 39.8 29.3 31.3 18 52 -24.27 27.15 54.26 51 . 1 .55 --40 39 30.2 29 16.28 .27 27.15 54.51 -- }, Page 276 of 280

PAGE 61

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6 /25/ 1997 l.93 l 11.55 1 3< 29 __ .. I 10213 329.31 20.81 11.41 -40 38.9 27 .4 31 10214 329.09 20.96 1 1.55 -40 38.5 28.5 10215 327.55 2 8.43 11.41 -40 39.6 27 .6 1 29.5 1021 6 325.35 39.13 11. 27 ... ---- 1m17 324 .91 4 1.48 11. 1 38.7t 2it 29 7 . tu ft,.,l 10218 324.91 41. 18 11.-10219 324.91 38.69 12 28 27 I 10220 325.35 38.54 12.71 -4 10221 324.91 39.72 12.88 -40 39.6 29.5 . 324.9 1 40.3 1 3. 1 5 -40 40 27 32. 4.8.... ,. .. -....... ,.... ,..... ... ..... ........ . 15.03 u 324.26 41.77 1 5.48 ... 30: 1.1 10228 326.89 27 7 15.75 -40 31ft'' 28.. -10229 334.59 13.34 1 5.3 1 -40 39.8 29 6 29. 16.52 16. 52 16. -16. ...!ill 16.52 16.4 16.28 --. 10230 336 .79 .69 14.88 -40 39 28 8 30.3 16 4 11 338.79 .2 14 3 -40 38.6 26 2 28 .5 16. 28 . -79 .73 13.43 -4 0 38 24.6 30.3 16. 28 -.27 12.71 -<40 39 29.1 29 4 16.28 1.52 12 .5 7 --40 39.6 2 7.2 16.4 29.31 12.57 --40 39.8 28 .5 -<40 40 28.1 29.: io2361 30,63 1 --40 38.9 28.8 30,' --40 39.8 28.2 30. 1023 327 . --40 38.2 26.1 29.'u . TRIP DATA .. 7. 15 :>4.38 51.87 54.14 52 .35 4 54 14 51.. -. 7.2 7 27.27 27 15 53.9 51. 53 9 51. 53. 54, 1 I I 54. 1 ". 5 4. 02 5 .... .... ,c:.o ...... .. 27 03(__ 54.14 ( 51. 52. 27.15 54 1 4 51 27.15 54 .0 2 51.87 1 151 27.15 54.02 51.87 53.77 51.871 -24.27 27.03 5 3.77 51. 87 4 27 27.15 53.85 51.871 ......... ...... ----., ---.. .-... 27 .03 53 16 51.87 53.16 51.87 53 16 51.87 53 .16 51.87 53 29 51.87 t72 -40 39 29 .7 31 1 6.28 -24 27 53. 29 .. --1.78 1 1 6 -40 40.3 28.1 31. 1 16.28 -24.27 27 .03 53. 41 51.87 1.16 -40 39.6 29.5 30.3 16.28 .39 27.03 53. 41 51.87 10243 336.57 -17 15 13.43 -40 39.8 27.3 31. 3 16.16 24.27 27. 03 53. 16 52.35 .,J 8 7 10244 336.35 6.12 12.86 :1.. ..... .. ... .... ,. .... ... ...... ..... ... .... ,. ..... .... ... ... -......... 10245 3 .72 11'.27 .. --40 38 26.7 30 2 16.4 24 15 2.7.03 53.29 51.87 15.47 -6 .89 1 0.5 4 --40 39.8 26.3 28 .6 16 28 4. 27 26.91 53 .29 51. 1 102471 335.47 -6.3 9.53 --40 37.8 28 27.7 16 4 4 27 27,03 53 16 51,o71 Page 277 of 280

PAGE 62

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6/25/1997 TRIP DATA 10248 335.25 . . 8.95 -40 38 28 3 29.1 16.28 -24 .15 27 .03 53.04 51.67 1 10249 334.61 -2.05 8.23 -40 38.6 26 3 29.8 16.28 -24.27 27.15 53.04 51.810250 334.37 0 7.51 -40 39.5 27.4 30 .3 16.26 -24.27 27.03 53.04 51.8. . . . . . -40 39 6 28 29.2 16.4 24.27 27.03 53.16 .. i.28 ---->51 332.83 5.42 0 .58 -40 39.1 26.5 30 16.28 -24.27 27.03 52.92 51.87 . 332.83 4.98 0.58 -40 38.7 28 5 31.1 16.16 -24.27 27.03 52.92 51.87 ?7 5 72 0.56 -40 36.6 26.3 28 8 16.28 -24.27 26.91 52.92 51.87 331.07 331.51 -40 40.2 29 29 6 16.16 -2 4 .15 27.03 53.04 51.87 11.87 0.58 -40 38.6 26.3 28.4 16.16 -24.27 26.91 52.92 51.87 10270 1 332.831 5.28 0.42 -40 40.2 28.8 27.6 16.16 -24.39 27.03 52.92 51.87 . - ,;t u.42 -40 38.6 28.3 27.8 16.16 -24.27 26 .91 52.92T 51.87 i.13 ... -,,84 0.7 1 -40 39.9 27.6 26.1 16 .16 -24.27 26.91 52 92 51.87 : .98 0.71 -40 37.7 27.8 31. 1 16.16 -24.15 27.03 52.67 51.87 18 0.56 -40 37.8 26.5 31 16 .16 -24.27 27. 03 52.67 51.87 .. 98 0.42 -40 38.7 27.4 30.6 16 .16 -24 .15 26.91 52.55 51.67 Aft o :56 -40 40.2 27.3 30.5 16.16 -24 15 26.9 1 52.43 51.87 I OUL<. 0.1-> 0.71 -40 39.7 27.2 30.6 16. 16 -24 .27 26.91 52.19 51.67 10 278 333.49 4.98 0.58 -40 39 27.5 29.2 16.28 24.15 26.91 52.06 51.67 10279 333 49 4.64 0.71 -40 37.6 27 27.8 16.16 -24.27 26.91 52.06 51.87 1 10260 333.27 5.13 0.71 -40 40 28.4 31. 1 16. 04 -24 27 26.91 51.94 52] 10281 333.2 7 5.13 0 58 -40 39.8 28.6 30.2 16 04 -24.27 26.91 51.94 52 .l :.98 o,58 -40 39.7 25 5 27 5 16.16 24.39 26.91 51-94 51. 1 10283 333.27 4.98 0 58 -40 36.6 21 29. 8 16.04 -24.27 26.! 10264 333.27 5.13 0.56 -40 39 6 29 30.3 16 .04 24.2 7 26.7 Page 276 of 260

PAGE 63

PSTA ELEC T R IC BUS 6/2 5/199 7 T R I P D ATA ou"85 333.49 4 84 0.56 -40 37.5 27.7 29.3 16.16 -24.27 26.91 52.06 52.35 AA86 333,27 5 13 0.71 -40 40,8 29,5 29 ,4 16 16 4 .27 26.91 52.31 51,87 ""3.49 4 .98 0.4 2 -40 39. 3 27.7 29.7 16 16 24. 1 5 26 .91 52.19 51.87 5.13 0. 7 1 -40 39.5 28 3 30 16.16 2 4 .27 26.91 52 4 3 51.38 4 .98 0 56 -40 40.2 2 7.7 31.2 16.16 2 4. 15 26.91 52.31 51.38 1 .49 1 4 .98 0 56 -40 38 25 .7 27.8 16.04 -2 4.27 26 78 52.55 5 1 .87 -. ---40 39.1 28.6 29 7 16 .04 2 4 .27 26.78 52.8 52.351 I I .......... 1030 1 10302 10303 10305 )306 333. I o0307 333. .0308 333. : !7 -' i9i lQ1 5 -5 ::981 5.131 Fsijt 1 ,561 1 2 )309 333.491 0.56 .71 io31i 3 33.71 5 1 3 o.11T 1031 2 333.71 4.84 0. 7!1. 10313 333.27 4 .9" 10314 333.71 4.98 0.56 ----333.49 5 13 0.56 333.71 5 13 0.56 333.27 5.13 0.71 133.27 4 .'98 0.56 OW 0 333.49 4 ,98 0.56 10320 333. 4 9 5.13 0.56 1032 1 333.93 5.13 0.56 s -40 38.9 24.6 30 .6 16 .04 1<: ?A 7A <:? 0? <1 A71 -40 40 .8 29 30.2 16 16 -40 40.2 26.5 29.7 16.04 -4 0 39.6 28.5 29.6 16 .04 .? .. ?7 -40 39.6 27 ... ... 4... .......... ........ ... .. 4 0 38.9 2 8.8 29. 4 1 -40 38.6 2 8 5 31. -40 40.8 29.5 30.tT ou.u 40 29.5 27,a -40 40.8 28.5 27 !. -40 39.7 28.6 29 -40 39.4 29.5 30.3 -40 39 29.5 30 -40 39.3 27.1 6.16 1 -40 40 2 5.8 4 28.8 28. 7 -401 39. -40 ...... 2i -. 2l 26.1 26,' 26! 26.' .87 S3 S31 51. 87 gl 53.651 52. : .. 1;.,77 .... 54.02 54.14 51.871 51.38 5 1 .87 -. J1 .87 4VoUV ...4,75 51,87 26.78 54 .63 52. 35 26.78 54.87 51.8 26.86 55.2 4 52 . 48 51. 40 1.2 -24 .15 1 26 .781 55.6 1 51. ------40 1 11. o u. ou -24.15 26 .78 55.97 5 1 .87 ... ... ... .... -4( -401 16.16 -24.15 26.78 55 .97 52.35 16.16 -24.15 26.66 56.09 51--. --56.22 51. 38.61 28.3 i 16.041 24 39 28.66 56.46 52. 24.6 26.78 56.56 51.87 29.6 ....... ..... ... A.Vo r V oJV, I V f ,87 28.2 29 6 ( 26 .78 56.7 51.87 40.31 24.5 28 4 2 4 .15 26.66 56.7 52 35 Page 2 7 9 of 280

PAGE 64

PSTA ELECTRIC BUS 6125/1997 TRIP DATA --, r tvwovl ... -ov............ ...._ ........ o335 334 15 0 ,0336 10337 1.2sL 41. 3 29.4 31.6 15.18 24.27 25 .93 57.44 50. 6.49 -40 41.5 29.4 31. 9 15.3 .39 28 .05 57. 19 50. I _,,..,_,, u,n 7.94 -40 41.3 29.6 32.1 15.18 .39 25 .93 57.19 50.89 A Page 280 of 280

PAGE 65

APPENDIXB

PAGE 66

PSTA Service Report for wo rk performed by Carlos Hernandez on June 24, 1997 Time: !2:30pm to 5:30pm Assisted by Joe Becks of PST A 1. MDAS chassis was filthy, inside and out. The protective filtering installed by Jon Austin in the bus rear compartment had been removed. MDAS was opened to cleaned with compressed air. Recommend re-sealing compartment. 2. MDAS CMOS memory and internal components were all functional. 3. Found trouble inserting and removing disks. MDAS showed evidence of having been dropped, i.e., disk drive had slipped \4" below its window and an AID card IC was coming out ofits socket. Re-aligned disk and IC. Unit then operated normally. 4. Thennistor on driver-side battery pack was destroyed. Tested and prepared wire for new thermistor. Thermistor must be sent to Joe Becks, who knows how to install it. 5. Relative humidity sensor on air conditioner input is not functioning. The integrated RID temperature sensor in the same device is operational. If this parameter is still desired then a new sensor must be ordered. Jon Austin a t PSTA knows how to install these. 6. Hall current sensor (channel 7) for charge cycles is not functioning. Changed the MDAS configuration file line #II to use the other Hall sensor (channel2). We tested this against the charger display and it was accurate to within I amp. Recommend using this configuration, otherwise a new Hall sensor must be ordered and installed. 7. Speed tested and calibrated. Scale factor for speed was set as close as possible for five short test runs. Heavy storms did not allow extended test, and this parameter may have to be adjusted. For example: if a trip is known to be 5.0 miles but the MDAS calculates 4.7 then change the scale factor in the configuration file by (4.7/5.0) x (current scale factor) 8. All other sensors were inspected and tested The attached Excel files show a trip and charge cycle to verify this .. 9. A working disk was left in the bus so data collection should have already resumed. This disk should be enough for a day or two. Joe Beck at PSTA has requested a copy of the MDAS manual. I told him George Moore would get him one. Joe shows an interest in the MDAS and should be encouraged I recommend that a monochrome monitor and keypad be loaned or purchased for PSTA That is all that is needed for most trouble shooting. Monochrome monitors can be found for around $50 and keypads as low as $20. All MDAS disks must uve the new configuration me I have attached to your emails (PSTA.CFG). Please rename this file to X32.CFG and install it in all PSTA disks.

PAGE 67

UNIVERSITY of SOUTH FLORIDA CLEAN ENERGY and VEHICLE RESEARCH CENTER TAMPA, FL 33620 PSTA ELECTRIC BUS PROGRAM Second Quarter ( Julv 1997September 1997 l lJJ Status Report Synopsis The second quarter of Phase lJI of the Alternative Fuels Implementation Plan for PSTA started off very well after the first quarter had reestablished the reliability of the bus. Operations were gaining confidence that the bus would operate satisfactorily. However) the bus was taken out of service July 21st because ofintennittent shutdowns while in operation. Suggested factory maioteoance did not correct the problem. Severat'VehicJe Interface Modules"(VIM) and the controller/invener failed. A faulty tachometer was found to be the problem. A new tachometer, VIM, and controllcrfmvcrter was installed September 29,1997. The bus operated for approximately 55 miles the next day and then controller/invener trouble caused a shutdown. The bus continues out of service at the end of September 1997. Data Collection and Analysis Partial data was collected from July I, 1997 until the bus was taken out of service July 21, 1 997 and the tes t runs after repairs on September 29 and 30, 1997. The problem with charge cycle data collection continued after making sure that the data disk was no t removed too quickly after completing a charge cycle. The data acquisition system was inspected August 21st and sample charge data was correct. The inspection revealed that the data acquisition unit had bee:n wrapped in plas-tic and it is thought that for long charge cycles, such as overnight, the rising temperature inside the plastic made the unit unstable. Additionally, the data collection unit was rewired and moved to a position behind the drivers seat. Ampere-hour discharge/trip mile bas ranged from 3.00 to 2.42 amp-hrs per trip mile re flecting driver differences in the operation of the bus. (Data from both battery packs ) The average battery temperature rise for the daily trips continues t o less than 10 degrees C. The air conditioning system continues to operate satisfactorily The recharge energy in ampere-hours ranged from Ill to 218. Two attached graphs labeled "GOOD" and "BAD" operation illustrate the bus's operation for July I and 16, 1997. "GOOD operation shows operation that maximizes the driving range and battery life (July 16, 1997). "BAD" operation show reduced driving range and battery life (July I, 1997).Tbe key differences are: 1. Significant more "DC AMPS .. spikes above 200 AMPS on the ''BAD" graph. 2. Significantly more regenerative energy (shown by negative "DC AMPS" ) returned to the battery on the "GOOD" graph. 3. Lower average of the blue line plot for "DC AMPS" on the "GOOD" graph. The bus was driven 58 miles on July 1st ("B AD") and averaged 3.00 Amp-hrslmile. On July 16th ("GOOD") the was driven 54 miles and averaged 2 .42 Amp-brs/mile, a 24% improvement in mileage efficiency A heavy throttle probably causes the "DC AMPS" spikes and proper braking of an electric bus causes the regenerative energy

PAGE 68

The E I. ECIRIC BUS The calculate
PAGE 69

c: 0 :::: r: Q. 0 : 0 0 0 (!) : 8 SdW V ::>O g 0 8 w :It i=

PAGE 70

s:: 0 :;: "' ... "' Q. 0 -b < co : : : ... : . ., .. 8 N . . : . 0 0 SdWif :lO 0 g ... w i=

PAGE 71

UNIVERSITY of SOUTH FLORIDA CLEAN ENERGY and VEIDCLE RESEARCH CENTER TAMPA, FL 33620 PSTA ELECI'RIC BUS PROGRAM SPECIAL REPORT The attached charts labeled "Driver Profile 10/21/1997" is the first data collected since the recent drive train problems caused the bus to be removed from serVice. Also, AVS perfonned field service on the bus in mid October. The attached charts continue to indicate adverse operation of the bus. The overall chart covers a period of2. 1 hours. The other group of? charts is that same period but divided into one seventh intervals for a closer look at the bus operation. PSTA will not get the operating range and battery life that is achieved by electric bus operations i n Chattanooga or Santa Barbara transit systems with the continued operation as these charts show. "To the Floor" acceleration as shown by the "Motor Amps" spikes above 200 Amps is not really needed in operation since the electric bus has more than twice the acceleration capability of a diesel bus.

PAGE 72

!;; "' -..... -w ...J u:: 0 a: c. a: w > -a: 0 .. . . . ... .. : .... .. g "' . -.91 I . g Sdl'l\f 1:10101'1 0 ... .. 0 ";> .. .. . -. . .. . .. 8 ..,;:

PAGE 73

(!) 0.. !;; 0> :c -0 w ..J ii: 0 a: 0.. a: w > -a: 0 : --(I) I . . .. '. . 8 -SdW\' us > . SOl> . . lt> . L!Yi: tLC: ; A' 6EZ : lH I I Ltl I I : I ' 0 8 -

PAGE 74

w ...I u:: 0 a: a. a: w > a: c .,. . .. . : .... g "' . . . . J.:: :i -.. en I '. ' . g -Sdl'lV UO.LOW LO'i: .' &a . ... . ... ;. ... ;; ... . Y! -it ;. : .... :,. . ... g - ""''

PAGE 75

w ..J Li: 0 a: Q. a: w > a: 0 ; : ... . : .. .. .. . . . . ...}., .. ...,._ :;.:.?' .. .. ..! _.,.,:!" . . . . . , .(. . <...: ' .. -! "' I J 8 0 -SdW\f I:IO.LOW .;. . :" .. :: -.,., ... :il 8 -

PAGE 76

w ..J LL: 0 a: Q. a: w > -a: Q ....... 0 10 "' .,. . . . . . . .,: .. i "i3 en I -----. : . . SdWif 1:10.10W 0 HS uv .. ... . : . . ,. ; !'.;., g

PAGE 77

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UNIVERSITY of SOUm FLORIDA CLEAN ENERGY and VEHICLE RESEARCH CENTER TAMPA, FL 33620 PSIA ELECTRIC BUS PROGRAM Third Quarter 1996 Status Report Synopsis The third quarter of 1996 was spent supporting and providing trouble shooting assistance to the continuing problems of low range and reliability. Trojan the battery supplier, surveyed both battery packs and secured a range of approximately 60 miles on a full charg e. However, reliability of that range on a day-to-day basis could not be attained. One day you may get 25-30 miles, the next day the bus would stop on the route requiring a replacement bus for the passengers and towing of the electric bus back to the operating center. A VS completed the modifications to the cooling system for the drive motor replaced the inverter with a liquid cooled model and replaced the air compresso r power supply. A positive point from the data collection identified the driving cycle that indicated this electric bus was being driven in a "diesel bus" manner i.e. "Floor boarded on starts and quick on the brakes". This is not the recommended method of operating an electric bus. Data Collection and Analvsis MDAS system was reconnected this quarter and sporadic data collection was obtained. The driving pattern was determined from the bus operating data and is not in accordance with the recommen ded method of driving an electric bus. New data disk was supplied for the data collection. Findings and "Lessons Learned" The response time to investigate and solve problems, although this is a research type project, continues to be unacceptable. The main problem at this point appears to be battery pack reliability

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UNIVE R SITY of SOUTH FLORIDA C LEAN ENERGY and VEWCLE RESEARCH CENTER TAMPA, FL 33620 PSTA ELECTRIC BUS PROGRAM Fourth Quarter 1996 Stat u s Report Synopsis The fourth quarter of 1996 was spent supporting and providing trouble-shooting assistance to the continuing problems of low range and reliability. A comprehensive battery pack survey was performed during the month of October for all bus batteries. Both battery packs exhibited distress as indicated by significant spread in cell voltages and specific gravities and at least three cell were "dry" (the electrolyte level was below what could be accessed by the test hydrometer). PST A, however, did perform waterings of the battery packs in accord ance with Banery Procedures supplied by Trojan. Attached are the data sbeets for the batte!) survey. The bus was taken out of revenue service because of reliability problems and will not return until the range and reliability problem is corrected PSTA notified Advanced Vehicle Systems (AVS) again that the bus was not reliable and requested that the Trojan battery packs be replaced (see attached letter from Roger Sweeney). PSTA instructed CUTR to document the history of this bus to provide a formal, unbiased record for warranty claims and problem resolution. At the end of the quarter nothing was resolved. Data Collection and Analysis No significant data collection occurred during the quarter Several "old" disk were collected but did not provide meaningful data because of the outdated configuration file. One of the new" disk was collected with one good but short trip. Findings and "Lessons Learned" The main problem, in USF's opinion, is the battery pack reliability and should be the first problem solved. The response time to investigate and solve problems continues to be unacceptable. All data disks for the MDAS should be collected and destroyed and "new" disks will be supplied by USF when the bus problems have been resolved and it goes back int o service.

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UNIVERSITY of SOUTH FLORIDA CLEAN ENERGY and VEHICLE RESEARCH CENTER TAMP A, FL 33620 PSTA :EL:ECl'RIC BUS PROGRAM SPECIAL REPORT The attached charts labeled "Driver Profile I 0/2111997" is the ftrSt data collected since the recent drive train problems caused the bus to be removed from service. Also, A VS performed field service on the bus in mid October. The attached charts continue to indicate adverse operation of the bus. The overall chart covers a period of2.1 hours. The other group of7 charts is that same period but divided into one seventh intervals for a closer look at the bus operation. PST A will not get the operating range and battery life that is achieved by electric bus operations in Chattanooga or Santa Barbara transit systems with the continued operation as these charts show. "To the Floor" acceleration as shown by the "Motor Amps" spikes above 200 Amps is not really needed in operation since the electric bus has more than tWice the acceleration capability of a diesel bus.

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UNIVERSITY of SOUTH FLORIDA CLEAN ENERGY and VEHICLE RESEARCH CENTER TAMPA, FL 33620 PSTA ELECI.RIC .BUS fROGRAM Final Phase ill Status Report Synopsis This summarizes the one special and six quarterly reports into the three major evaluation areas. The "Bus" did not meet the operating range that is r equired for PST A's needs. The maintenance (mainly for component replacement and technical upgrades) and in particular maintenance shop support was significantly greater than anticipated. The manufacturer extended the warranty for replacement components. The "Bus" provided environmental benefits for Pinellas counry's air compared to diesel buses. T he "Battery" was the major source of problems. A combination of improper charger adjustment, the long lay-up of the bus for an automated fare system installation and incomplete battery maintenance instruction caused the first (including the spare pack) battery pack to fail nine months after delivery of the bus. Replacement battery packs from the supplier have performed satisfactorily through February I 998. Battery operating and charging temperatures were within acceptable ranges. The "Comfort Conditioning System" achieved it's designed purpose w ith plenty of margin for Florida's hot, humid summer climate. The Findings and "Lessons Learn ed" are: The most significant finding confirms that how a driver operates an e lectric bus is the major factor in determining the bus's operating range between recharge cycles and the battery pack life. A significant fmdin g is the maximum range of 75 to 85 miles using 80% of the b attery pack's energy supply for the best driver is not sufficient. Mobile Data Acquisition systems provide valuable operating and charging data to evaluate and solve problems. The manufacturer's response time to investigate and solve problems, although this is a research type project, is unacceptable.

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The delivery and initial training of transit personnel by A VS and T rojan was inadequate The coordination of infonnation from all suppliers to install operate and maintain an e l ectric bus program was inadequate. The major technical equipment problems for this technology version appear to be solved PST A's active role in this demonstration project was the key in moving this project forward and to completion. Data Collection and Analvsis The operating data for the October 1997-January 1998 period continues to demonstrate the significant variance in achievable range because of driver performance. Ampere-hour discharge/trip mile ranged from 2.1 to 3.3 amp-hrs per trip mile reflecting driver differences in the operation of the bus. (Data from both battery packs) The average battery temperature rise for the daily trips was less than I 0 degrees C. The air conditioning system continues to operate satisfactorily. The recharge energy in ampere-hours ranged from 25 to 210.

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APPEt.l>IX B: CUTR Resource and Information Center's Electric Transit Bus Information 47

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"1993 ITE Compendium ofTeclmieal Papers." presentation papers. :Institute of T ransportation Engineers, 1993. CUTR library. The Future of Advanced Electric Surface Transportation for Passengers in the U S./Sultan HE33J.C736 1993. "Alternate Fuels : A Decade of Success and Promise." conference proceedings. Reda Moh Bata editor.: Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., 1995. Alt ernative Fuels Library The Role of Government and Industry in the Development of the Electric Vehicle/WinD. Influence of Battery Characteristics on Traction Drive Performance/Winter. Comparison of Advanced Battery Technologies for Electric Veh. icles!Dickinson. Results of Advanced Battery Technology Evaluations for Electric Vehicle Applications!DeLuca Hybrid/ Electric Vehic l e Design Options and Evaluations/Burke. "Alternative Fue ls Insider Briefing." newsletter. : Computer Petro leum Corp., 1995. Alternative Fuels library Sept 8 fax. Westinghouse and Blue Bird to produce electric school and transit buses. "Bus Hybrid Propulsion Systems." presentation paper. Mark Brager. : Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas, 1 996. Alternative Fuel s Library. North American EV and Infrastructure Conference NAEVI 96 O rion Bus Industries is a major supplier of heavy duty buses to transit authorit i es throughout the United States and Canada. "Bus Ride." journal. William A.:. Editor Luke.: Friendship Publications, Inc. 1994. Reading Room. 30,02. Metro : A turnaround success story in Hous ton, Texas Self-propelled electric transit bus performs impressively with zero emissions "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter : Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1995. Alternative Fuels library 05,47 & 48. Nation's first solar energy/electric bus project to be brought on line. "Cltian Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1995. Alternative Fuels Library. 05,03. NYSERDA and Unique Mobility Will Deliver The Nation's First Hybrid Electri c Bus. E lectric vehicles: DOD Receives Positive Report on Electrosource Advanced Horizon LeadAcid Battery "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1995. Alternative Fuels Library 05,06 Cedar Rapids Consortium Announces Ele ctric Bus Project "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter. :Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1994. Alternative Fuels Library. 04,50. E lectric veh.icles: GM Working to Develop Long term EV I ndustry -Newly Named Zinc Air Power Corp. Says it Has Zeroed in on Elusive Electric Vehicle Battery-U. S. Electriear Introdu c es New Category of Electric Delivery Truck at 12th EV SymposiumUSABC Awards $18 Million R&D Contract to Developers of LithiumIon Batteries-Solar Assisted Air-Cond itionin g for Transit Buses IntroducedWorld's First "PurposeBuilt" Electric School Bus Running in California. "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." n ewsletter. :Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1994. Alternati ve Fue ls Library. 04, 5 1 & 52. Electric Vehicles: Bank of America Launches New Electric Shuttle at Lax-World s First Fuel Cell Powered Zero Emission Bus Kicks Off Shuttle Service at Lax 48

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"Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1995. Alternative Fuels library. 05 24. New Yorkers Will Test Hybrid-Electric Bus "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: Clean Fuel Vehicle Wee k, 1995. Alternative Fuels library. 05,25 & 26. Electric bus hits the road on Nantucket Island -Transportation Experts Explore Building Sustainable Transportation System "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: Clean Fue l Vehicle Week, 1995. Alternative Fuels library. 05,40. Electric Vehicles. CAL TART Rolls Out Nation's Most Advanced Ele c tric Transit Bus. New Electric Shuttle Buses Unveiled at California s Yosemite Park. "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter. :Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1995 Alternative Fuels library 05,42 Westinghouse to Co-Develop and Demonstrate Electric Buses in China. Super-Compact Turbogenerator Debuts as Powe r Source for Hybrid EVs and Stationary Power. Environmentalists and Entrepreneurs Hail Electric Vehicle Battery Report Automakers Say EV Battery Technology Progressing, Not Ready for Prime Time. "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1996 Alternative Fuels library. 06,23. Sacramento's First Electric Shuttle Fleet Shifts into High Gear. Massachusetts Communities Get Charged Up with New Electric Bus System. BAT Hybrid Electric Project on Display in Washington, DC. SatCom Demonstrates 98% Efficiency in Power Electronics for Turbine Alternators "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1996. Alternative Fuels library. 06,36. Electrosource and Blue Bird begin $530,000 electric bus project. "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter. :Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1996 Alternative Fuels library 06,38. Electrosource awarded three DARPA Electric Vehicle Programs. USABC Awards High -Powe r Battery Contracts for PNGV. Unique Mobility Delivers Advanced Electric Propulsion System for Hybrid Version ofHMMWV Military Vehicle. Rosen Motors Deve lops Hybrid Electric Motor. "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: C l ean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1996. Alternative Fuels library. 06,41. Ele ctric Vehicles. Ballard Power Systems Inc. Secures $1.2 Million Order from Volkswagen and Volvo. Ballard Schedules Bus Demo for Transit Officials in Los Angeles "Clean Fuel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: Clean FUel Vehicle Week, 1996. Alternative Fuels library. 06,42. Gillig Developing New Generation Hybrid-Electric, Low-Floor bus with Rockwell and Siemens Components Electric Vehicles. Costa Rica Selects City of Chattanooga to He lp Develop Electric Vehicle Initiative "Clean FUel Vehicle Week." newsletter.: Clean Fuel Vehicle Week, 1997 Alternative FUels library 07,06 Unique Mobility Announces Contract to Supply Electric Drive for Advanced Technology Transit Bus. 49

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"Clean Fuels: Progress and Experiences of Demonstration Programs." conference proceedings Mahesh Tawl er Editor : Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., I 995 Alternative Fuels Library Santa Barbara County's Clean Fuels Programs : Eleetric/CNG Hybrid Bus Developmen t and Demonstration/Dunaway Battery Powered E leclric Bus Industry Technology Status and Future/Nanda Electric Vehicle Energy Conservation to Improve Range and Performance/Gillespie. "CLIPS 02118/97." Public Information Office : Reading Room. Elecuonic (sic) buses to power around So Be/Elec tric Buses/Miami Herald "CLIPS06/23/94." Public Information Office: Reading Room. Battery-powered vehicles hit South Florida roadsquietly/ Electric Vehicles/Miami Herald "Community Transportation Reporter CTR.'' periodical : Community Transportation A ssociation of America, 1993. Reading Room. I 1,03. Plugging into electric buses. "Commun i ty Transportation ReporterCTR." periodical : Community Transportation Assoc i ation of America, 1995. Reading Room. 13,02. Speaker G ingrich: Looking Back, Look ing Ahead . Th e Re-birth of Eleetric Vehicles Community Trans portation Vehicles, by the Number Agi ng Fleet Threatens Service Levels and Safety Vans Small Buses Dominate Community Transit Fleets "Di esel Progress Engines & Drive. magazine : Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications, I 996. Alternative Fuels Library. Feb. Concept Truck Addresse s Future Clean Air Demands with Hybrid Turbin<>Eiectric Powertrain "Electric and E lectric Hybrid Al t ernative Fuel Vehicles for Transi t Applications." presentation paper. John McCloskey, Lawrence Witt, Joseph Hoffman, ct al. : Transportation Research Board, 1994. CUTR. 1994 TRB Preprint. 940626. "Electric Bus Operation and Evaluation In California presentation paper. Chira Cbeva la T., M. Puvathinga l and C. Venter. :Transportation Research Board, 1995. CUTR Library Thi s paper e v aluates the performance, energy consumption, range, and some cost characteristic s of the electric bus recently in use at the campus o f the University of California at Berkeley 1995 TRB Preprin t9502SS. "E lectric Buses In Operation-The Chattanooga Experien c e . presentation paper. Thomas W Dugan.: Transportation Research Board, 1994. CUTR. 1994 TRB Preprint. 940867. "Electric Power Systems: hybrids-batteries-fuel cells book. Edward Bass. : Society of Automotive Engineers Inc. SA, 1993. Alternative Fuels Library. SP-984. Comparison of Advanced Battery Technologies for Electric Vehicles. Electric Vehicles Magnetic Field Measurement. Vehicle Design Optimization for Minimizing Operating Cost s of Electric Vehicles. Hybrid Vehicl e Engi.ne Size Opti mization Energy Storage Options for Electric Vehicle Recharging Stations. Urban Electr ic Vehicle for Public Transportation. Analysis of a Diesel-electric Hybrid urban bus System. A Sman ConlrOl System for Electric vehicles Batteries. Switched Linear Induction Motor Freeway System Data. A Spreadsheet Model for Air Fuel ed Cell Stacks. Alternative Fuels Utilization in Fuel Cells For Transportation Ballard PEM Fuel Cell Pow ered ZEV Bus Characterization of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid System for Electric Vehicle Applications so

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"Emissions Impact of Roadway-Powered Electric Buses, Light-Duty Vehicles, and Automobiles." presentation paper. M. Miller, V Dato and T. Chira-Chavala., 1992. CUTR Library Transportation Research Board "The Feasibility of Electric Bus Operations For The Austin Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority presentation paper Thomas Fowler, and Mark E uritt.: Transportation Research Board 1995. CUTR Library 1995 TRB Preprint. 950885. "Findings from the 1996 Olympic Garnes: Concentrated Charging and Power Quality." presentation paper. Richard Bass, and Doug Handran.: Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas, 1996. Alternative Fuels Library. North American EV and Infrastructure Conference NAEVI 96. Battery powered electric transportation in the off-road, public mass transit fleet vehicle and emerging consumer markets is projected to increase dramatically in the coming years. "Four-Year Report on Battery-Electric Transit Vehicle Operation at the Santa Barbara Metropolitan Transit District." technical report. Paul Griffith.: Federal Transit Administration: Office of T echnical Assistance and Safety, 1995. Alternative Fuels Library. Battery-electric transit, battery-electric transportation, electric vehicles, operations and ma. intenance, batteries, chargers. Introduction. Fleet Description Data Acquisition Methodology. Operations. Maintenance. Batteries. Range Extenders. Battery Chargers. Powertrain sYStems. Accessory Equipme nt. E nergy Consumption. Emissions. "GLEAN/EV News newsletter. : GLEAN!EV NEWSGlobal Electric Auto News, 1995. Alternative fuels library. Nov. E-Buses Scale Yosemite. GAO Says USABC Fails to Meet Mid-Tenn Battery Goals: DOE Disput es GAO Assessment GM Hybrid to Use Optima Batteries. Sony Develops Lithium Ion EV Battery Utility Chief Foresees Major EV Role How Do You Drive YourEV. New York Study Foresees EV Range and Cost Problems Through 2004. "Green Car Journal." journal.: Green Car Journal, 1995. Alternative Fuels Library. 04,02. Patents Intelligence. Electric Auto Air Conditioning System-Fuel Cell Power Generation System-EV Drive System Uses Motor Coupled to Wheels-Technology: New EV Powertrain uses motor-wheels. "Green Car Journal." journal.: Green Car Journal, 1994. Alternative Fuels Library. 03,12. Electric Vehicles: Hybrid EVs Undergoing Testing In Gennany-Forecasts: On The Importance of Ultracapacitors to EVs-On Environmental Concerns and the automobile-Infrastructure: Recharging EVs with Solar Appears Feasible. Mass Transit: Iowa Consortium To Test Electric Buses. Patents Intelligence: Controlling Hybrid Drive of a Motor Vehicle-Traction Battery Exchange Station for EVs-Inductive Car Battery Charging Device-Exhaust Purifying Apparatus for Hybrid EV. -Automated Recharging of Zinc-Air BatteriesAC Motor system for electric vehicle -Drive apparatus for hybrid electric vehicle. 51

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"Green Car Journal. journal. : Green Car Journal, 1993. Alternative Fuels Library 02,03 Technology On a Path to the Electric Highwa y. EV Supplement Outlines Industry Efforts Use of Advanc ed Mat erials Urged. Governm ent Activities Implications of Prop osed U.S. Energy Tax. Info rmation Sources. Federal AFV Acquisition Report Mass Transit The Stealth Bus Patents Intelligence: EV Braking Co ntrol System-Impa ct-detecting battery disconnect for EV-S ealed Lead-acid battery for EVRegenerati ve braking EV with four motorsProfile: Advan ce d lead-acid battery consortium. Technology: Path to tlte E lectric Highway-Delco Rem y s Advanced lead-acid battery. "Green Car Journal." journal. : Green Car Journal, 1995. Alternative Fuels Library 04,08. Technology: P ower-Dense Fuel Cells -Batteries Electric Fuers z-one-Air Activities Increase In Europe. Calendar: Electric V chicles. Forecasts : On P owerplant Emissions Caused by EV Recharging-On Utilities Taking Leadership role for EVs -On the Coming to Market with Inadequate EVs.--US National Lab Report on EV Air ConditionersFuel Cell Research Report. Mass Transit: Unique Mobility-powered HEY bus in testing -H ybrid electric bus sets c l ass record. Patents Intelligence: Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell for vehicle-Vehi cle power meth.od using several fuel cells-Dri ve apparatu s for hybrid vehicleThermally regulated battery for EVs-EV contro l system includes acceleration pickup. Technology : Power-dense fuel cells. "Green Car Journal. journal. : Green Car Journal, 1995. Alternative Fuels Library 04, 10 Mass Transit. Advent o f the fuel cell bus. "Green Car Journal." journal. : Green Car Journal 1996. Alternative Fuels Library. 05,09. Fuel Cell Cars as Powerplants. D elco Working on Battery Thermal Management Unique Mobility Nets Awards for Traction Drive Ballard Receives $2.3 Million Fuel Cell Order. DyriEco/Lockheed Martin Sign Fuel Cell Agreement. E lectroscource Developin g New Battery for Bus Use. Hydrogen Tank System for Automobile Hybrid E lectric and IC Drive for Road Veh i cle Catalytic Convener for Hybrid Vehicl e Exhaust. "Green Car Journal." journal.: Green Car Journa l, 1996. Alternat ive Fuels Library. 05,10. Technology: H ybrid EV steal th bus makes debut. Production EVs for U.S. Market. "Hy brid Electric Drives for Heavy Duty Transit Buses ." presentation paper. Arthur Wu. : Society of A utomotive EngineersSAE, 1995. Alternative Fuels Library. SAE Technical Paper Series. In this paper discusses the design and performan ce of hybrid electric drive systems t hat run urban routes over a ten hour day without refueling or external battery charging while offering full passenger capacity and operational capability. Hawaii El ectric Vehicle Demonstration Program (HEVDP) "Hybrid Electric Propulsion DriveFull Performance with Improved Emissions, Fuel Economy and Maintainability ." presentation paper. Alan Hamilton Robert King. and William Broyles.: APT A, 1995. CUTR library APTA 1995 Bus Ope rations & Techno logy Conference. Hybrid Bus Development D rivers. What Values Does technology Offer to Transit? Hybrid Technology Values. New York Hybrid Consortium Overview The New York Consortium Electric Hybrid Bus Program Status. Bus Cycle Speed Profiles. Low Emissions Hybrid Bus Concept. Hybrid-Electric Bus Power Fl ow Diagram Modular El ectric Vehicle Program (MEVP) Components. GE Hybrid Propulsion System M odules. GE AC Integrated Wheel Motor To rque Envelope. 40' Hybrid Elec tric Bus Accelera tion Performance. NYBUS Cycle (first 100 Secon ds) 52

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Lab Test. GE Hybrid Propulsion. Preliminary Fuel Economy Measurement Results Baseline Diesel, Hybrid Mule Vehicle and '93 Series 50 Powered Bus. Conclusions. TF70l.A655 (1995 Bus Operations Conf. Binder) "IVECO Daily Electric Minibus Fully Accessible Disabled Passenger Bus Service London.". : Wavedriver Limited, 1996 Alternative Fuel Library. Vehicle Specification & Configuration. Vehicle Test Data. "New Fuels R eport." newsletter.: Inside Washington Publishers, 1996. Alternative Fuels Library. 17,12. New York State, private firm to develop hybrid-electric school bus "North America Bus Operations Alternative Fuel Developments and Overseas Design Influences." presentation papers. Stephen J. Brady. : Society of Automotive EngineeringSAE, 1994. Alternative Fuels Library SP-1058 ZF BE Drive Electric Drive System for Low-Floor Buses. "OTT TIMES." newsletter.: Department of Energy, 1995. Alternative Fuels Library. 03,04 On The Move OITs Hybrid Electric Vehicle Efforts Moving Ahead Rapidly "Passenger Transport." journal. 1992. Reading Room. 50,40. New York public-private venture to develop hybrid electr ic bus --SCRTD to desiglllightweight bus-"Passenger Transport journal. : APT A, 1992. Reading Room. 50,41. 1992 Annual Meeting Special Edition: San Diego Santa Barbara's electric shuttle service enjoys phenomenal success "Passenger Transport." journal.: APTA, 1991. Reading Room 49,40. LNG, Ethanol, LPG and electric buses round out alternative fuels picture "Passenger Transport." journal. : APTA 1993. Reading Room. 51,25 El Dorado National i ntroduces Low Floor Electric Bus. "Passenger Transport." journal.: APTA 1993. Reading Room. 51,47. Chattanooga Unveils Electric Bus. Torrance Rolls Out First ZEST Electrically Powered Bus. "Passenger Transport." journal.: APTA, 1994 Reading Room. 52,20 In Chattanooga, Electric Buses Are Here Now. Blue Bird Pioneer School Bus Use Kitsap Wins Award Using General Plasma Technology CALSTART Rolls Out Electric-Powered school Bus. Fuel Cells Can Provide Clean Energy for Buses. "Passenger Transport." journal.: APTA, 1994. Reading Room 52,32. Report on El ectric Vehicle Available. "Passenger Transport." journal. :APT A, 199 4 Reading Room 52,43. HARTline Unveils Master Plan Featuring Intennodal Terminal. Cedar Rapids to Test Electric Buses. "Passenger Transport." journal. : APTA 1995 Reading Room. 53,08. Hybrid electric bus Being tested. 53

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"Passenger Transport journal.: APTA. 1995. Reading Room. 53,19. Honolulu to Introduce Hybrid-Electric Bus Service NYC Transit Examines U s of Hybrid-Electric Buses. "Passenger Transport journal.: APTA, 1995. Reading Room. 53,32. Chattanooga Opens E lectric Recharge Station "Passenger Transport." journal. : APTA, 1 996. Reading Room. 54,04. White P la ins Shoppers Shuttle' tests electric-powered bus "Passenger Transport journal.: APTA, 1996. Reading Room. 54,19. A Focus on Alternative Fuels. Hybrid Electric Buses Enter Service in Honolulu. "Passenger Transport." journal.: APTA, 1996. Reading Room. 54,39. Richmond launches Fleet of Electric Buses. "Passenger Transport journal. : APTA, 1996. Reading Room. 5 4,49. Orion, Lockheed Martin Team Up to Build Hybrid Electric Bus. Las Vegas OKs Contract with ATCNancom. "Passenger Transport." journal. : APTA, 1997. Reading Room. 55,06. Orion to expand product line with HybridElectric, low floor transit bus. "A Planner's Guide to APMs: 1995 Edition." technical report. Trans21. : Trans21 I 995. CUTR library Electric buses and vans Vehicles-Propulsion elements-Misc equipmenL APM Consultants. TF70l.T772 1995. "Public Innovation Abroad." periodical. : International Center, Academy for State and Local Government, 1995. Reading Room. 19,12. Europe: Caen gets electr i c hybrid TVR. Paper looks at Urban Transport and the future. "Public Innovation Abroad periodical.: International Center, Academy for State and Local Government, 1990. Reading Room. 14,3. Advanced Systems : Sydney Plans for Electric Buses Transit Research Conference. "Public Innovation Abroad." periodical. : International Center, Academy for State and Local Government, 1993:December. Reading Room. v.l 7,n.l2. Electric Bus Fleet in Chattanooga. "Public Innovation Abroad." periodical. : International Center, Academy for State and Local Government 1 994 Reading Room. 18,03. Oxford Opts for Electric Buses. "Public Innovat i on Abroad" periodica l : International Cente r, Academy for State and Local Govemment, 1996. Reading Room. 20,03. Oxford Renews First E lectric Bus Service 54

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"Redefining the Market: Six Emerging Markets for Small Electric vehicles presentation paper. Tom Turrentine.: Electric Vehicle Association of the Amer icas, 1996. Alternative Fuels Library. North American EV and Infrastructure Conference NAEVI 96 Taxi service, urban areas in developing countries, residents of gated communities, resorts, retirement towns, new cities, station cars for mass transit systems. "Technical Solutions to Alternative Transportation Problems presentation papers : Society of Automotive Engineers SAE, 1996. Alternative Fuels Library. The Technological Opportunities of Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Meeting Both ZEV and PNGV Goals with a Hybrid Electric VehicleAn Exploration. A Hybrid Natural Gas Electric Fleet Vehicl e. Sensitivity Analysis of Hybrid Vehicle Designs. A Modular Simulink Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Tools and Strategies for Hybrid Electric Drive System Optimization Rapid Bus Project. Advanced Motor Control Electronics A Feasibility Demonstration Of an Electric Postal Delivery Vehicle. Use of Aluminum Heat Exchangers for Thennal Management of Vehicles The Prospects for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Second-Stage Results of a Two-Stage Delphi Study. A Technical Solution for Futur e Tr ansportation Using the Existing Roadway and Urb an/Suburban Infrastructure and Policies. "Transi t Operators: Successes, Frustrations & Opportunities." presentation paper Paul Griffith, and Gary Gleason.: Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas, 1996 Alternative Fuels Library North American EV and Infrastructure Conference NAEVI 96. Introduction. Successes. Frustrations. Opportunities. ''Transportation Quarterly." journal. : ENO Foundation for Transportation, I nc ., 1995. Reading Room. 49,02. Electric Vehicles: Promise and Reality. ENO Transportation Foundation ''TRR 1444: Energy and Environment Transportation Environmental Issues: Air, Noise, Water, Mitigation Processes, and Alternative Fuels." presentation papers. : Transportation Research Board, 1994. CUTR library. Electric Buses in Operation: The Chattanooga Experience/Dugan Regulatory Impediments to Neighborhood Electric Vehicles: Safety Standards and Zero-Emission Vehicle Rules/Lipman, Kurani. Prospects for Neighborhood Electric Vebicles/Sperling Roadway Infrastructure for Neighborhood Electric vehicles/Stein, Kurani Sperling. TRR 1 444 "TRR 1496 : Public Transit Public Transportation 1995: Current Research in Planning Management, Technology, and Ridesharing." Presentation papers. :Transportation Research Board, 1995. CUTR library. Feasibility of Electric Bus Operations for Austin Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority/Fowler. TRR 1496. "TRR I 503: Public Transit Publ ic Transportation 1995: Current Research in Operations." presentation papers. : Transportation Research Board, 1995. CUTR library. Metromover Extensions and Downtown Bus Service in Miami! Hinebaugh, Boyle. Electric Bus Operation and Evaluation in Califomia!Chira-Chavala, Puvathingal. Optimal Mixed Bus Fleet for Urban Operations/Lee, Kuo, Schonfeld. TRR 1503. 55

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"The Urban Electric Vehicle : Policy Options, Technology Trends, and Matket Prospects." conference proceedings. Organization for Economic Co-Operation And Develo pment Internation al Energy Agency OECD. : Organization for Economic CoOperation And Development International Energy Agency OECD, May 1992. Steve Polzin's office. Electri c Vehicles Energy and Environm ent. Electric Vehicles Infrastructure and Urban Planni ng. Electric Vehicle Technology Prospects: Customer Needs and Industry Responses. Policy Strategies and Market Incen tives for E V Deployment. The State of Electric Vehicle in E urope and in the WorldNew Technologies, Support and Co-ordination. Market Expansion Programme of Electric Vehicles Planned by the Ministry oflntemational Trade and Industry Japan. CITELEC, European Association of Cities Interested in Electric Vehicles Diverse Choices for Electric and Hybrid Motor Vehicles: Implications for National Planners Energy Demand, Emissions and Waste Management ofEVs, Hybrid and Advanced H eat Engine Vehicles. Energy Efficiency, Emissions and Costs: What Are the Advantages of Electric Vehicles. C02 and Pollutant Emissions of Catalyst-Equipped, Battery-Powered and Hybrid Cars, A Comparison Sustainable Mobility: A Systems Approach to Determining the Role of Vehicles Safety Potential of Urban Electric Vehicles in Collisions. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Vehicles How an Environment Advocat e Views Electric Vehicles Integration of Electric Vehicle s in an Urban Setting Geared to Transport Mobility. Infrastructure Constraints on Meeting the Market Potential of Electric Vehicles in European Cities. Introduction of Electric Buses for Public Transport in Several European Cities New Urban Goods Distribution Systems Possibilities for Electric Vehicles. Transport of People and Goods In Metropolitan Areas Roadway Powered Electric Vehicle System Development in California. The Electric Car and The Public Power System E lectric Utilities on a New Market. Expected Impacts of Urban E lectri c Vehicles on Needs for New Electricity Supply. How Far Can the Electric Vehicle Market Go On 100 Miles (162 Km)? The Renault Programmatic Approach to Cleaner European City Cars. Uti lity Roles in Developing and Promoting Electric Vehicles. Batteries and Drive Systems for E l ectric Vehicles Experience and Future Prospects Fast Recharge Batteries and The Future Outlook for Electric Vehicles. Experience with Electric Vehicle Concepts and Operation Customer Demands on Future Car Concepts with Alternative PowertrainsWhat are the Necessary Success Criteria. The Cleanair LA301 Electric Vehicle for the Los Angeles EV Initiative. Environmental Requirements and the Impact Prototype Vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium: Making Longer Life Batteries Affordable. Alternative Strategy For Introducing Electri c Vehicles. The Promotion Programme for Lightweight Electric Vehicles in Switzerland. Is There an Electric Vehicle Future ? Electric Vehicles in a Broader Context; Two Early or Too Late? Govenunent Policies to Ease Market Introduction of Electric Vehicles. Co nclusions from the Electric Vehicl e Policy & Technology Conference. Insertion of Electric Vehicles into Urban Traffic Plans. Parisian Programmes in Support of Electric Vehicles Perspec tives on the Introduction ofEVs in Athens. An Introduction Program for Electric Vehicl e s in Gotehorg City of Los Angeles Electr ic Vehicle Program. Outcome s of the "JERE Workshop on Electric Vehicles and Advanced Batteries" Opportuni ties for International Cooperation on Electric Vehicles. Fuel Cells and Other Long Range Technology Options for Electric Vehicles, Knowledge Gaps and Development Priorities. A Brief Survey of lEA-Sponsored Activity on Technology for Transpon. TJI63.A6.068 1992. "Urban Transport News." periodical. : Business Publishers, Inc., I 992. Reading Room. 20,20 S lants & Trends. Connecticut tests new bus te chnology. New York to develop electric bus. "Urban Transport News. periodical.: Business Publishers, Inc., 1992. Reading Room. 20,18. Maryland group to develop electric vehicles 56

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"Urban Transport News. periodical. : Business Publishers, In c 199 4 Reading Room. 22, 17. Quick Switch -out System Keeps Electric Buses Running. "Urban Transport News." periodical. :Business Publishers, Inc ., 1992 Reading Room. 23,20 Composite Material El ectr ic Bus Demonstrated by California Group. Chi cago Plans to be First with Fuel Cell Transit Buses. "Urban Transport News ." period ical.: Business Publishers, Inc. 1995. Reading Room. 23,24. Haste to Develop Electric Vehicles Could Slow by Change in Law. "The Urban Transportation Monitor ." periodical :Lawley Publications, 1992 Reading Room 0 6,09 Santa Barbara continues development of electric buses "The Urban Transportation Monitor periodical.: Lawley Publications, 1993 Reading Room 7,10. Accommodation of Electric Vehicles E xplored in N ational Competition. "The Urban Transportation Mon i tor . periodical. :Lawley Publications 1995 Reading Room 09,23. USDOT Moving Ahead With Seminars on EV Infrastructure Needs "The Urban Transportation Mon itor periodical : Lawley Publications 1994. Reading Room. 8 04. E lectri c Bus Used at Los Angeles Airport Uses Battery Change-out System "The Urban Transportation M onitor." periodical.: Lawley Publications, 1 994. Reading Room. 8,13. National Electric Vehicle Field Test Initiated In South e rn California "The Urban Transportation Monitor periodical.: Lawley P u blications 1995. Reading Room 09, 22. Solar Energy Used for Electric Bus. "The Urban Transportation Monitor periodical. : L awley Publications, 1994. Reading Room 8, 17. Symposium Features Electric T ransportation Technology Includes Both Transit and Highway Vehicles. "The Urban Transportation Monitor." periodical. :Lawley Publications, 1994. Reading Room 8, 18. Electric Vehicles on Display in Richmond. Cost Per T rip is Relevant. "The Urban Transportation Monitor." periodical.: Law ley Publications, 1995. Reading Room. 9,1 More and More Electric Buses Introduced "The Urban Transportation Monitor." periodical. : Lawley Publications, 1995. Reading Room. 09,18. CALS T ART unveils nation's most advanced electric bus. "The Zero Emission Vehic l e ZEV Activity Book." book. Odyssey team : EPA. Alternative Fuels Library Electric Bus. Electric Car. Coloring Book. 57


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