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At-grade busway planning guide


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At-grade busway planning guide
Alternate Title:
At grade busway planning guide
Physical Description:
viii, 81 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Shen, L. David
Lehman Center for Transportation Research
National Urban Transit Institute (U.S.)
United States -- Dept. of Transportation. -- University Research Program
Lehman Center for Transportation Research, College of Engineering and Design, Florida International University, State University of Florida at Miami
Available to the public through the National Technical Information Service
Place of Publication:
Miami, FL
Springfield, VA
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Bus lanes -- Design and construction   ( lcsh )
High occupancy vehicle lanes -- Design and construction   ( lcsh )
Roads -- Design and construction   ( lcsh )
Transportation -- Planning   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 79-81).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
Performed by the National Urban Transit Institute, Lehman Center for Transportation Research, Florida International University and supported by a grant from the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, University Research Institute Program.
Statement of Responsibility:
L. David Shen ... et al..
General Note:
"December 1998."
General Note:
"Report no. NUTI95FIU1.2"--Technical rept. standard t.p.
General Note:

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aleph - 001927987
oclc - 44787164
usfldc doi - C01-00149
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At-grade busway planning guide /
L. David Shen ... [et al.].
3 246
At grade busway planning guide
Miami, FL :
Lehman Center for Transportation Research, College of Engineering and Design, Florida International University, State University of Florida at Miami ;
Springfield, VA :
Available to the public through the National Technical Information Service,
viii, 81 p. :
ill., maps ;
28 cm.
Sept. 1997-Dec. 1998.
Performed by the National Urban Transit Institute, Lehman Center for Transportation Research, Florida International University and supported by a grant from the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, University Research Institute Program.
"December 1998."
Includes bibliographical references (p. 79-81).
"Report no. NUTI95FIU1.2"--Technical rept. standard t.p.
Also available online.
Bus lanes
x Design and construction.
High occupancy vehicle lanes
Design and construction.
Design and construction.
1 700
Shen, L. David.
Lehman Center for Transportation Research.
National Urban Transit Institute (U.S.)
United States.
Dept. of Transportation.
University Research Program.
8 773
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].


"''-National "'IIQL Urban ..J.dQL T ranait I "'lr "'lr natltute at tho CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH Unlvrsity of South Florida Florida State University Florid A&M Unlve,.ity Florida JntematJonal University At-Grade Busway Planning Guide L David Shen, Hesham Elbadrawi, Fang Zhao and Diana Ospina Principal Investigators Florida International University December 1998 Lehman Center for Transportat i on Research College of Eng ineering and Design Florida International University The State University of Florid a at Miami M i ami, FL 33199 TEL: (305) 348 FAX: (305) 348-4057


TECHNICAL REPORT STANDARD mLE PAGE 1 2 Acceub'l No. 3. NUT195FIU1.2 ... 'Tllle oiNJ So..IJIIilUI Flol)e<1 0fllt At-Grade Busway Planning Guide December 1998 &. Coot "'-'lhOI'If) 8. Ptf1Qimlll{l Rllpotl No. L. David Shen Hesham Elbadraw i Fang Zhao a nd Diana Ospina t. fgari!Wi011 Uld Acklti W 10. WQII( unll No. Na tio nal Urban T ransit Institute Lehman Cen1er for Transportalion Research, Florida lnlemal i onal U n iversily Universily Park, Miami, FL 33199 II. Ot Gttnl No. 1 2 SPQ!Itorirl; 13. T Apolt aM P

ACKNOWLEDEGMENT This project is made possible through a grant from the National Urban TransitlnstiMe (NUTI). Their support is gratefully acknowledged. We would like to express our sincere thanks to the following individuals: Sataya Pinapaka, a graduate assistant, for his effort in research in the literature and collecting and compiling in formation on busway transit systems. For Ms. Vivian Donis for her grammatical review of the report and for here administrativ e efforts made this project possible. We would li ke to our A orida Department of Transportation District VI, Miami -D ade Transit Agency and Miami-Dade Metropolitan Planning Organization for the encouragement and their technical support. The views expressed here are those of the authors' and do not reflect the opinions or policies of the National Urban Transit Institute. iii


Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION ................... ...... ....... ..... 1 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW ........... . . ........................ 3 2. 1 Ottawa Canada .... ..... ..... ... ...... . ............... 3 2.2 Pittsburgh, PA . ......... ............ . . ... ....... ... 7 2.3 Runcorn, UK ....................... ............. ..... 10 2.4 Brisbane City Queensland ...... . .......... . ...... 12 2 .5 Abidjan, Cote D'l voire ............. ... . . ...... ....... 17 2 6 Ankara Tu r key ........... ......... . .... ... . ... 17 2. 7 Belo H orizo nte, Brazil ........... ..... ... . ... . ........ 18 2.8 Istanbul, Turkey ..................... ... ... . ....... . 18 2 9 Pone Alegre, Brazil ............. ........................... ..... 19 2.10 Sao Paulo, Brazil ......... ................ . ........ ...... 20 3.0 AT -GRADE BUSWAY SAFETY .... . .................................. 24 3.1 Overview of Accident Types and Possible Solutions ....... ...... .... 24 3.1.1 Side-Aligned At-Grade Busways ... . . ................ .... 24 3.12 Med i na At-Grade Busways ............... . . . . ...... 25 3.2 Alignment Consideration ........... . ......... . . .......... . 26 3 3 Intersection Design and Contro l ................ ................. 26 3.4 Safety Analysis of the South Miami-Dade Busway ..... ....... ........ 26 4.0 BUSWAY PLANNING .... ............. .... ...... .......... 29 4.1 lntroducllon ..... ....... ...... ............ .... ............ 29 4.2 Busway Performance ....................................... 31 4.2. 1 Effect of Specia l Operational Measures .................. ..... 31 4.3 Capacity of At-Grade Busways ............ ....................... 34 4.3.1 Development of Revised Capac i ty Estimate .................... 36 4.3.2 Capacity Adjustment for the Availability of Ovenaking Facilities ...... 38 4.4 Bus Stop Capacity .............................. ... ............. 39 5.0 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR AT-GRADE BUSWAYS ............ ............ 41 5.1 Introduction ...... .............................. ............. 41 5.2 Right of-Way Characte ris tics . .................................. 41 5.2.1 Median At-grade Busway Cross-section ...................... 42 5 2 2 Side-Aligned At-grade Busway C ross-s ection ... ............. 45 5.3 Bus Stop Characterist i cs ................. . . ........... ...... 47 5.3.1 Bus Stop Location . . . ...... ..................... ... 47 5.3.2 Station Amenities ....... ..... ................. . . . 49 iv


5.4 Customer Information at Bus Stops ................... .... . .... 54 5.5 Elderly and Disabled Requirements . ................... . ........ 56 5.6 Bike Lanes ........... ........................... .......... 57 5.7 Horizon t al and Vertical Clear ance for Buses . . . . ...... . ..... . 59 6 0 PAVEMENT DES IGN ...... . . . . .... . . . . . . .... . . .... . 61 6 1 Types of Pavements ................... . ..... ......... ..... ... 61 6.2 Design Factors .... . . .......... . . . . ...... . ...... 62 7. 0 TRAFFIC CONTRO L DEVICES ........ ..... . .......... ............. 65 7 1 Busway Sign ing and Pave m ent Marking ........................... 65 7.1.1 Signing ................. . ................ ............. 65 7 1.2 Pavement Marking ...... ............................... 6 8 7.2 Priority al Traffic Signa l s .... . ............ .................... 70 7.2.1 Phase Splitting ..... . .............. .................... 71 7.2.2 Preferential Treatment ............ . . ............... . 71 7.2.3 Simul ation ..................................... . .... . 73 8.0 BUSWAY LIGHTING .. ................................................ 7 6 9.0 CONCLUSION ...... . . . ........... . ........................ n 10 0 REFERE N CES ... . . . . . ................................... ... 79 v


Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Tabl e 2.3 Table 2 .4 Table 2.5 Tabl e 2.6 Table 2.7 Table 2.8 Table 4.1 Tabl e 4 2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 7.1 List o f Tables Total Annua l Cost Comparison Based on 625 ,000 Pop. Leve l ............. 4 Technical and Op e rating Fact tor Ottawa T r ansitway . ........... . .... 6 Tota l Dail y Transit T r i ps to Work By Allegheny County Workers .... ..... 7 PAT Fiscal Performance for Sel ected Years ......... . . . ... ..... 7 Key Performance Ind i cators for Brisbane for 1991 and 2011 . . ...... . 12 Physical Characteristics of Busways Surveyed ................ . ...... 22 Passenger Boa r d i ng T imes by City and Fare Collect i on Arrangements . .... 22 Maximum Observed Peak Hour Bus Flow, Available Passenger P laces and Passenger F l ows at Peak Load Points on Selected Busways . ..... . 23 Similar Types of Bus Lanes and Busways .................. ........ 35 Leve l of Service for Bus Stops ..... .... . ........... . ....... ..... 37 Va l ues of Percent Fail ure and Assoc i ated OneTail Normal Va r iate, z ...... 38 Capacity Analys i s for Pittsburgh Busway ..... .... ....... ..... ...... 39 Recommended Cross-section Widlhs for Median At-grad e Busways W i thout Overtak i ng Faci l ities Carrying More than 60 Buses/hour ... . . . 45 Recommended widths of Bike Lanes . ....... ........... ........... 57 Safe Stopping D i stance and Detector Setback .................... 7 4 vi


Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 Figure 2.10 Figure 2.11 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5 .5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8 Figure 5 9 Figure 5.10 Figure 5.11 Figure 5.12 Figure 5.13 Figure 5.14 Figure 5.15 Figure 5.16 Figure 5.17 Figure 5.18 Ust of Figures Ottawa Transitway Station .... ............................ 5 Runcorn's Busway ..................... . . . . ...... . ......... 10 Runcorn Busway Alignment ............................... ....... 11 Brisbane City Past and Expected Growth in Population, Vehicle Trips/day and Vehicle km/day ............................................... 13 Arterial Street Busway Plan ....................................... 1 5 Intersection Busway Grade Separation .... ... , , .............. 15 The Kizllay Bus Stop with no Overtaking Facility, Ankara, Turkey .......... 17 Off-line Bays for Belo Horizonte Busway ........................... 18 Lateral Busway Using One Half of a Dual Roadway, Istanbul Turkey ....... 19 Bus Ordering Assembly Area, Assis, Brazil ........................... 20 Median Busway, Sao Paulo Brazil ................ ........ .... 21 South Dade Busway Configuration .... . . . . . . ................ 26 South Dade Busway Collision Diagrams ............................. 28 Feasibility of Busway Along Exiting Road ............................. 30 Operating Speeds lor Selected Busways ........................... 31 Relationship between Une-haul Throughput and Passenger Transfer Demand 32 Trunk and Feeder Service In Curitlba, Brazil ........................ 32 Bus Ordering Technique ........................................ 33 Off-board Ticketing, Curitiba, Brazil . .... ............... .......... 34 Typical Busway Cross section in New Roadways or Abandoned right-of-way 41 Typical Busway Configuration ..................................... 42 Typical Bus stop Layout ,Belo Horizonte, Brazil ...................... 43 Typical Bus Stop Layout, Sao Paulo, Brazil ....................... 43 Median At-grade Busway, Curitiba, Brazil .... ................... 44 Median At-grade Busway, Befo Horizonte, Brazil ..... . ....... .... 44 Median At-grade Busway Cross-section ................. ..... ...... 45 Typical Cross-section of a Side-aligned At-grade Busway, Miami, FL ....... 46 Side-aligned At-grade Busway at Station Area with Overtaking Facility, Miami, FL .......................... . ........ . ..... 46 Different Locations of a Busway Stop ........ . ......... ......... 48 Ottawa Tran s itway Station ..................................... 49 South Dade Busway Station, M i am i, FL ................ ...... 50 Ughts at Busway Stations .............. ........ ..... ........ 50 Bike locker ..... ............................ ........... 51 Dual Bike Locker . . .............. . . .... . ..... . ... . 51 Bike Rack . .............................. ................... 52 Vending Machine at Bus Stops .......................... ... .. 52 Communication Facilit ies at South Dade Busway .......... . .... 53 vii


Figure 5. 1 9 F ig u r e 5.20 Figu r e 5.21 Figure 5.22 Figure 5.23 Figure 5.24 Figure 5 .25 Figure 6. 1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6 3 Figu re 6.4 F i gure 6.5 Figure 6.6 Figure 6.7 F i gure 6.8 Figure 7.1 Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3 Figure 7.4 Figure 7.5 Figure 7.6 Figure 7 7 F i gure 7 8 F i gu r e 7.9 Route In f ormat ion at South Da d e Busway Stop ............ . ..... 55 Elec t ronic Transit I nforma t ion Panel at a Bus Stop . . . ....... .... 55 Shelter Design Example to Meet ADA Requirements . . . ........ ..... 56 Wheelchair l i ft in Operation .... ..... . .......... .......... . . 56 Ught for B ike lanes at Intersections ....... . ....... . . . . . 58 V e rtical and h o r i z o nta l Illumination ......... . ..... ................ 59 Vertical and Hor izontal Clearance for Busways ........... ....... ... 60 Typical Cross-section of Conventional Flexib l e Pavement . .............. 61 Typical Cross-section of Full Depth Asphalt Pavem ent .. .............. 61 Typ i cal Cross-sect io n of CRAM ..... ........ ................. 62 Typ i cal Cross-sec t ion of a R i gid Pavement .................... .... 62 Cross secti o n f o r Busway Flexib l e Pavement ..................... 63 Cross-section for Busway rigid Pavement ..................... 63 Cross-section for Bus Pad Rigid Pavement ... . ..... ... . . 64 Concre t e Bus Pad at Bus Stops ....... ...... ................... 64 Sign at the Entrance of South Dade Busway ............ ............. 66 Busway Crossing Sign at an Atgrade I ntersection, Miami, Fl ..... ...... 66 "STOP HERE ON RED" Sign, Miami, Fl ............................ 67 Bike lane Sign along the Busway ........... ................ ..... 67 Pavement Marking at the Entrance of South Dade At-grade Busway ....... 68 Pavement Marking at the Entrance of the Busway in Hong Kong .... ..... 69 "BUS ONlY" Pavement Marking at South Dade Busway At-grade Busway Intersection ........ . . .... . ........ .................. 69 South Dade Busway Center Una Pavement Marking ............. .... 70 Method of Phase-splitting to reduce Bus Delay at TraHic Signals ......... 63 viii


1.0 INTRODUCTION The basic traffic and transit goals should be to improve the speed, reliability, and capacity of bus operations (TCRP Report 26). Bus speed and capacities depend on how frequent the bus stops are placed, where the bus stops are loca ted, traffic conditions along the busway, and whether buses can pass and overtake each other. Bus travel times and speeds are Important to the transit passenger, transit operator, traffic engineer, and transportation planner. The transit passenger wants a quick and dependable trip while, the transit operator measures and analyZes bus speeds to set, monitor, and refine schedules; estimates vehicle requirements; and plans new routes and services The tra ffic engineer uses bus speed to assess the impacts of traffic control and bus priority treatments. The transportation planner uses speeds to congestion and provide input to transit demand and modeling process. Busway transit with the physical separation of buses and other traffic is a true urban mass rapid transit option. Comparable to Light Rapid Transit (LRT), busway transit offers the possibility of intr oducing a mass transit system at a relavely low cost. It is Important to distinguish busway transit from other bus priority measures Which are more limited in their scope. When a new town is to be bum, the opportunity can sometime be taken to provide a busway Which will go nearer to houses, shops and workplaces than convenonal public transit services or in some case than private automobiles, giving the bus an advantage over other private modes of transportation. As car ownership increases congestion on streets, the busway will remain free from congestion at all times and this will give more powerful encouragement for the use of public transportation. At-grade busways can be a major component of strategies designed to make better use of existing transit facilities with relatively low capital expenditures. The objective of at-grade busways is to attract auto drivers or other transit users from ma jor traffic corridors by improving comfort, economy, travel time, and quality of transit services and providing express services that collect transit riders from residential neighborhoods and parking facilities The main advantages of at-grade busway transit systems include the following (Shan et al., 1997): Flexibility-Since buses can approach and leave a busway at Intermedia te points, many routes serve the passenger catchment area, with significantly fewer passenger transfers than would be requir ed with a fixed guided system. Busway trans i t can also closely match capacity and service quality to changing passenger demands. In most cases, they can provide one seat trips Self-enforcementBecause a busway physically separates buses from general traffic, b usw ays are virtually self-enforcing and are therefore superior to traditional "paint-and-sign bus lane priorities. 1


Incremental Development Busway transit can be imp lemente d In stages and sections of even a few hundred meters, whereas rail transit requires a depot and significant route length before it can attract many passengers. Busways can be expanded incrementally and can be enhanced and implemented In phases by adding physical separation from general traffic causing a minimum disturbance to traffic. Low Construction Costs Busways may be implemented at a re lati vely lower cost by using existing or abandoned rlght-

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Ottawa, Canada Ottawa has the most successful extensive busway system in North America. The region consists of 11 rural and urban municipalities with a metropolitan region of 650,000 persons. Ninety percent of the population resides within the urban areas. Employment is dominated by the federal government which accounts for 22% of all jobs in the region and half of the 28% of all jobs that are located in the downtown area. Due to an ant icipated increase In the metropolitan population, employment and increase in the transit ridership, the transit operating agency's (OC Transpo) task was to develop a rapid transit plan for the region Attracling the commuter was the key to success as they made up the single largest group of per io d travelers (Bonsall 1989). OC Transpo adopted a two-phase approach. Rrst, it made every effort to inc rease the efficiency and use of the existing bus system In the region. This Includes efforts to spread out the peak period and the of various bus priority measures. OC Transpo's consultant suggested that the region would be best served by an outs i de-in transit development strategy. This enta iled building the rapid transit lines fro m the outside relying initially on surface street operations in the central area. The downtown segment was the most expensive to construct and was therefore deferred in favor of less costly construction in the ccrridor leading to th e downtown. The near term benefiVcost ratios were much higher lor the relatively inexpensive outer segments than for the costly CBD l in ks. A lso, forecasts of future transit use ind icate d that the building of a costly tunnel or any other grade-separated facility in the downtown area could be safely deferred for 20 to 25 years (USDOT, 1992). By using the outside-in approach Ottawa was able to begin the building of three segments of the busway with the largest net benefits, meaning the congested travel corridors leading to downtown. The choic e of a specific technology was strongly influenced by the outside -i n approach. As such, the techno lo gies considered were limited to systems that could operate at-grade on downtown streets. This produced two viable options, a bu sway or a light rail system Based on a transit system that can handle up to 15,000 passenge rlhr/di rection and can operate at-grade i n th e downtown area, the following f ou r rapid transit alternatives were investigated: (USDOT, 1992) (1) A busway system using standard buses. The busway operations should incl ude semi-express and local stopping services and are designed to minimize transfers by combining feeder and line haul routes whenever possib l e. (2) A bus t ran sitway system with the same characteristics as (1 ), exceptthat articulated buses are used wherever there is sufficient projected use to maintain a min imum ten-minute peak period headway. 3


(3) An LRT system with standard bus feeder routes. (4) An LRT system identical to (3), except that articulated buses are used rather than standard buses whenever demand is sufficient to use them without reduc ing peak period headways below 10 minutes. These four alternatives were then compared using the following criteria; capital and operating oosts, level of service, staging flexibility, and environmental impact. OC Transpo gave the heaviest weight to the total annual system oost (USDOT, 1992). The total annual costs (1989 dollars) for the fou r alternatives were obtained by adding total annual operating costs to the annualized costs of each component of capital cost as shown in Table 2.1. The busway using articulated buses proved to be the least expensive with an annual oost of $117 million. The LRTwlth standard feeder and local service with an annual cost of $140 million was the most expensive alternative. The lower operating costs of the busway alternative are due to its close demand/capacity relationship and savings from the inte r l ining of buses between routes on the busway. With the rail system, the opportunity to short turn trains is limited so that the train capacity exceeds the demand except in the downtown area. In the case of the busway, the use of many different bus routes produces a greater opportunity to adjust the overall system capacity to match the demand as It varies along the transitway. The lower operating cost of the best busway to the best LRT alternative reflects the fact that busway alternatives can achieve a better match between demand and capacity (USDOT, 1992). Table 2.1 Total Annual Cost Comparison Based on 625,000 Population Leve l (Millions of 1989 US Dollars) Busway Light Rail Cost Standard Articulatad Standard Articulated Bus Bus Bus Bus Annual Operating Costs $93.93 $83.67 $91.83 $84.42 %of Low Cost Alternative 112% 100% 110% 1 01% Annual capital Costs $32.11 $32.95 $48.73 $49.54 % of Low Cost Alternative 97% 100% 148% 150% Total Costs $126.04 $116.62 $140.56 $133.97 % of Low Cost Alternative 108% 100% 121% 115% 4


The busways are designed so that Ottawa's Transitway system will be able to acx:ommodate a large Increase In passenger demand in the future. System planners originally designed the busways so that they could be converted to light rail which was up-gradable to heavy rail, if the future levels of ridership make such convers ion is necessary. The proposed CBD bus tunnel is also being designed to penmit conversion to heavy rail. Busway stations provide passenger loading and unloading, protection from inclement weather, and information services. Fares are collected on board the buses. However, over 75 percent of the passengers use monthly passes and cash passengers must pay the exact fare as drivers do not provide change. Fares very by time of the day and area served Station platfonms on the grade-separated portions of the busway are 55 m. long, providing sufficient space for up to three buses to l oad and unload passengers at the same time. Winters are quHe bitter in Ottawa, thus each station consists of a series of small shelters linked by covered walkways as shown in Figure 2. 1. The shelters are designed to accommodate different types of buses operated by OC Transpo. Shelter door openings are designed in such a way that the buses' front and rear doors line up with the shelter doorways. During the cold Ottawa winters the shelters are heated for the comfort of waiting passengers. Figure 2.1 -ottawa Transltway Stat ion 5


The bus way services i n Ottawa include a m ixtur e of d i fferent rout e type s Some i s exclusive busway service operating along the b u sway and stopp ing at each station as rapid transit service. Other routes operate on both the surface and part or all of the busway. Technical and operation characterist ics of the Onawa transitway in shown i n Tabl a 2.2 Table 2.2Technical and Operating Fact for Ottawa Transltway TECHNICAL FACTS Leng1h Exclusive right-of-way 19.6 km Priority lanes 9 7 k m Mixed traffic 3 .3km Total 32. 6 km Stations Number of Stations 23 sla ti ons P l atforms 6 m wide x 55 m l ong Road way Width Mainline 13 m (2-lane, 8 m roa dway with 2.5 m shoulders ) Stations 17 m (2 pla tform seiVice lanes, a nd two passing lanes) Park and Ride Spaces 1535 park i n g spaces (4 park-and-ride l ots) OPERATIONAL FACTS R idership Weekday pas se nger vo l ume 200 000 passengers Peak hour passenger volume 1 0 000 Passengers/hour/direction Bus Service Number of daily buses 700buses N umber of buses/pe a k 1 90 buses hour/direc tio n through CBD Express routes 78 route s Loca l r outes 4 6 routes Trunk route 7 routes Source : OC Transpo Fact Sheet 1996. 6


2.2 Pittsburgh, PA The Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAAC), through its Port Authority Transit Divi s i on (PAT) is the first transit operator In the Uniteo States that has built and operated exclusive busways. Pittsburgh Is one of the nation's most important transit market (Development Along a Busway, a Case Study of Development along the East Busway in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1996). In 19n, PAT opened a 3.8-mile South Busway and in 1983, it opened the 6.8-mile Martin Luther King, Jr. East Busway. A third busway, the 8 1-mile Airport Busway/Wadash HOV facility is under construction and scheduled for completion in the year 2000. In the 1980, Pittsburgh was ranked the seventh highest metropolitan area with journey-to-work transit mode split of 11%. The central city of Pittsburgh Is relatively compact (55 square miles) and has relatively high population and deployment densities. High densities and low levels of auto ownership are translated into high levels of transit use. Pittsburgh is ranked as the eleventh highest ridership in the nation with 88.9 million annua l unlinked trips in 1985 (UMTA, 1987). While Pittsburgh was r anked the seventh highest metropolitan area with journey-to-work transit mode split of 11%, the transit ridership and modal share started to decline as presented in Table2.3 and PAT has experienced growing financial problems as shown in Table 2.4. Table 2.3 -Total Daily and Transit Trips to Work by Allegheny County Workers Number Percentage Change 1960 1970 1980 &o-70 7o-80 6o-80 Total Daily 617,900 617.200 664,600 -0 .1% 7.7% 7 6% Transit 133,335 109,551 98,231 -17.8% -10 .3% -26.3% Percent Transit 21.60% 17.70% 14.80% -17 .7'% -16.7% -31.5% -Soun:e: U.S. Census, Populatron anci Housmg, 1960,1970, 1960. Table 2.4-PAT Fiscal Performance for Selected Years (millions of 1989 dollars) 1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 Farebox Recovery 89.6% 64.8% 50.8% 49.1% 44.1% Total Revenue $ 103 .10 $ 90.20 $ 74.50 $ n.6o $ 81.70 Fare Revenue $ 99.20 $ 86.80 $ 71.50 $ 75.40 $ 73.70 Total Expenses $ 110 70 $ 133.90 $1,407.00 $ 153.50 $ 167.00 Operating Deficit $ 7.70 $ 43.70 $ 66 .20 $ 76.00 $ 85.30 Source: PAT Annual Report 1970-1986 7


In August of 1968, thre e rapid transit facilities were approved as part of a countywide rapid transit system. The building of two exclusive busways was recommended to serve corridors south and east of the CBD. The busway proposal appeared because rail advocates were unable to agree on the technology (heavy rail, sky bus and LRT) to be used. South Busway The 3.8mile, two-lane exclusive South Busway was opened in 19n to bypass severe congestion at the Liberty tunnel which is considered the major roadway link between the CBD and the South Hills area. 1.7 miles of the South Busway In South Hills consist of exclusive two fourteen feet wide one-way lanes with curbs on each side. The remaining 2.1 miles are shared with the t rolley Before the South Busway was opened, buses experienced d iff iculties in operating on local streets due to the hilly terrain of South Hills area In order to avoid steep grades, the South Busway was built parallel to N&W railroad tracks on virtually a flat grade. Buses on the South Busway save from six to 11 minutes over buses before the opening of the busway. Due to the operation of the South Busway, PAT was able to eliminate more than 160 bus trips per day from the congested streets of South Hills (US DOT, Jan 1992). The ridership of the South Busway exceeded all expectations, where ridership increased 16% from routes using the busway. A total of 17 routes uses the busway, including the new service ro utes added after its opening. The exc lusive segment averages approximately 400 bus trips per direction per day. EastBusway Due to a seven-mile backup at the peak periods, plans were set to rebuild and repair the Penn Lincoln Parkway. It was estimated that to rebuild the parkway and add a third tube to the tunnel would take seven years. The proposed reconstruction would also severely disrupt traffic, thus the East Busway was a compromise. Original plans for the East Busway assumed the exclusive use of an abandoned rail right-of-way. Then the busway was squeezed into the right-of-way leaving room for two Conrail tracks, providing a safe operation for Conrail trains (US DOT, Jan 1992). The construction of the East Busway involved relocating and rebuilding the Conrail tracks and widening the right-of -way at several locations. The construction also includes replacing the four tracks by two new tracks, two-lane busway, building a separation wall between the railroad and the busway, reloca t ing utilities, lowering the track bed, reconstructing vehic le and pedestrian overpasses, building bus ramps, and providing stairs and ramps to enable passengers to reach below -grade busway stations 8


The original p lan for the East Busway was an 8-mile (12.8 km) facllity from downtown Pittsburgh to Swissvale, but due to Swissvale's residents concerns about noise, pollution and safety at the below-grade busway stations that would be fully inv isib le from streets, the busway was reduced to 6.8 miles Thus, the new East Busway connects downtown Pittsburgh and the eastern suburbs of Wilkinsburg The East Busway is served by 31 PAT bus routes. Twenty -nine of these are express or flyer services and only two are busway routes which stop at all busway stations (US DOT, Jan 1992). After the opening of the East Busway, 17 existing express routes were shifted onto the busway r ight-of -way. Most of the flyer and express routes stop at only two of the six East Busway stations. Flyer routes serve outlying suburban communities located closer to the eastern terminus of the busway. A rider to Downtown from the eastern ter minus in Wilkinsburg which used to take from 20 to 60 minutes depend ing on the weather and traffic conditions, now takes between a nine and 13 minutes depending on the number of passenge r stops. Fifty-seven developments along and near the busway were constructed since the opening of the East Busway in 1983 Six of these developments are shopping centers or office and warehouse complexes with a total of 61 tenants, and 47 are new developments (Development Along a Busway, a Case Study of Development along the East Busway in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1996). These developments are adjacent to or within a 1,500 foot radius from the busway stations (5.7 minutes walking at 3 miles/hour (4.8 km/hr)) Forty-four developments are adjacent to or near stations and 13 are greater than 1,500 feet (450 m). The most common uses for the developments along the East Busway are retai l, office, residential, and medical. Although th ere are a number of manufacturers loca te d along the East Busway, their number Is declining due to the reduced importance of d irec t rail access for many industries and the preference of new manufacturers to locate i n Greenfield areas (Development Along a Busway, a Case Study of Development Along the East Bus way in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1 996). The total value of the development along the busway is $302 million, of which $248 million {76%) is new construction. The development clustered at stations accounts for 58% of the total investment ($176 million). 9


2.3 Runcorn, UK In 1964, the town of Runcorn and its surrounding areas was designated as a New Town. An increase in the population from 30,000 in 1964 to 100 000 in 1990 was expected (NATO 1976). Due to the Increase in population, a proposal was made to have a specially reserved route for rapid transit service that would serve as a spine to the neighboring communities. The suggested busway was intended to provide a fully integrated public transit service with different activities In the town and in such a way it would also provide a level of service competitive with private vehicles. The New Town was planned around the busway, Which has the shape of a number eight, shown in Figure 2.2, centered on newly developed shopping and commercial areas. The origina l town, which formed the starting point for the growth of the New Town was mainly in the area covered by the western l oop while the new part of the town Is now shaped around the eastern loop. ---... ----"""' =c--.en ,.__..ntiU 001: ......... $0 -........................ ._ .... fltlle Figure 2.2 Runcom's busway 10


The 7.5-mile (12-km) phase of the busway started operation in Spring 1973. It linked five new res idential developments, two industrial areas, and the town shopping area. The complete busway consists of 19 km of separated roadway and 8 km of all-purpose roads. Approximately, 0.625 miles (1 km) of the busway in the shopping area is elevated, while th e rest of the busway is at-grade with the exception of grade separation at some major intersections About 64% of the busway alignment is in an exclusive righ t-of -way 14% on an expressway where buses operate with other traffic, and the remaining 22"/o on local roads where buses share the right-o f-way with general traffic. Figure 2.3 shows part of the Runcom's busway. Within the eastern loop, local communities with a population of about 8,000 are centered on the busway bus stop, which is usually near local shops, a primary school and other facilities. Walking distances to the bus-stops were kept short where 90% of the working population is living within five minutes walk time to the nearest stop. The integration of the separated busway track i n to the city structure has enabled the area to be served by shorter total l ength of bus routes than if buses were operated on a conventional road network The average speed of buses on the busway Is app roximately 19.5 mph (31 kmlhr) compared to 12 mph (19 km/hr) for buses on conventional roads. This higher speed and shorter route length enable the frequency of the bus service to be 2 .5 times higher on the busway than on conventional roads for the same operating costs .. .. t:<.O Figure 2.3 -Runcom Busway Alignment. In order to encourage the use of the buses, planners determined the following : Automobile parking is loca ted further from major land use than corresponding bus service stops, including residential areas. Bus frequency levels are 5 -7 minutes during the off-peak hours for 80 percent of all passengers. There is a maximum 5-minute walk to bus stops 11


The total construction cost of the entire busway is $15 million (1973) including the land costs. About 90% of the construction costs are attributed to the grade separate and the elevated sections of the busway. 2.4 Brisbane City, Queensland Brisbane City has a good public t ransp ort system with both train and bus services. No new rai l extension of any note planned with the City, and the bus system is increasingly impacted by traffic congestion, Which reduces the level of service to passengers and increases cots (Travel Smart, 1994). Thus. the Brisbane City Council has plans to double the proportion of public transport usage by the year 2011, as presented in Table 2.5. The key to increasing the use of bus systems is to improve their speed, frequency, reliability and comfort and to ensure providing bus service to the CBD and to new employment areas i n Brisbane. Table 2.5 Key Transport Performance Indicators for Brisbane for 1991 and 2011 Characteristics 1991 2011 %Chg. Average vehicle speed (km/h) 41.5 34.7 16% Vehicle travel (million km/day) 19.1 27.6 44% Vehicle travel (1000 hrslday) 461 796 72% Vehicle operating costs (million $/day) 5.1 8.1 58% Cost of travel time (million $/day) 6.8 11.8 74% Total vehicle emissions (1000 tonneslyear) 223 380 70% Costs of accidents (million $/day) 174 251 44% Source. Travel Smart Trat11c Reduction S/ralegy, Bnsbane C1ty, 1994 By studying the travel data of 1991 and 2011, the City of Brisbane concluded that the public transport share of peak per iod travel has to increase by 25% from the exiting modal split of 24% to a future 30%. Otherwise, the land use and livable city goals will not be achieved and both people and jobs will migrate to co mmunities outside Brisbane to avoid congestion resulting in creating suburban development rather than livable urban deve lopment. This will not only will increase traffic congestion that leads to more urban sprawl but also the result i ng environmental, energy, safety and social costs will reduce the future economic deve lop ment in Brisbane. In order to avoid this, half the peak hour transit r iders and the majority of Brisbane residents traveling into the CBD in 2011 have to use bus system because the rail system itself will not meet the needs. Figure 2.4 shows the past and expected growths in population, vehicle trips per day, and vehicle 12


km per day. I t can be concl uded from this figure that the car usage i s increasing faster than the population. .. -------... ,,,..&alton ----------""'"*.,..,..,. ,._ -Vthldo .... .,_.. ,...,,_ _<-I T ...... _.._= 'I ,.. .............. ...,.. / .I -'.-n_, ..... i .... / 'i --?/ t i -1 -2 : J i : I 7 l i I I I .... 1910 .... .... .... 2010 CM UU8'f {f m,., lfi.IA .&"

passengers. Bikeways will be added to the busway corridors whenever feasible. Special bus and HOV lanes are undertaken with the beginning of the busway construction. Within the 2011 time frame. the technologies employed in the raid bus system will include: Buses in mixed traffic flow. Rapid bus services In bus/HOV lanes with and without other priority treatments. Rapid transit bus service on exclusive busways As in Ottawa, it appears that a decision to build the busway system will cost Brisbane and Queensland taxpayers less than the "do noth ing aHemative" and at the same time will contribute Brisbane's 2011 objectives. It was found that by year 2011, the busway will save tax payers about $60 million. In addition, the busway strategy will avoid another $50 million annually in the urban sprawl and pollution costs. Other benefits of the busway include a reduction of 62% in the amount of emissions and the creation of 21 ,000 employments per years of dur ing the construction of the busway. Brisbane's Busway Description The busway in Brisbane has two general forms depending on the nature of the corridor in which the busway is located. For high speed operation {80 km/h), the busway typically consists of two 3.5 meter lanes in addition to two 0.5 meter paved shoulders. At stations, the cross section is widened to provide two 1 1 .5 ft (3. 5 m) stopping lanes and two 12.3 ft (3.75 m) through lanes. A central barrier is ins ta lled to discourage at grade crossing of th e busway by pedestr ians The average platform width varies from 13.1 to 19.7 ft (4.0 to 6.0 m) depending upon local conditions and sheHer arrangements. At stations, acceleration and deceleration lanes are also provided to enhance the high speed operation. In low speed urban arterials where the busway operates in a speed comparable with the adjacent general traffic, different design standards are used. The busway consists of two 12.3 ft (3 .75 m) lanes and between two 1 1.5 It (3.5 m) curbed la ndscaped medians. At stations, the medians are paved to provide the platforms while buses use the opposing lanes to pass a stopped bus as shown in Figure 2.5. The arteria l busway can accommodate low volume turns across its right-of-way and atijrade signalized intersections. Signal preemption of transit is used to improve transit operation. At high volume intersections grade separation of the busway movement is justified and shown In Figure 2.6. 14


High frequency bus services running the full length of the corridor and stopping at each station are provided. Passengers access this service by walking or cycling to the station, t ransfe r rin g from feeder buses and by using park-and-ride and kiss-and-ride facilities located along the corridor. Figure 2.5 Arterial Street Busway Plan Source: McCormick, June 1995 . . Figure 2.6Intersection Busway Grade Separation Source: McCormick, June 1995 15


Brisbane's Busway Operating Concept The busway provides unlimited Uexibility to tailor the transit operation to suit corridors and regional needs. Buses can operate on and off the busway right-of-way and therefore offer the opportunity to link feeder and line haul express services to reduce the need for passengers to transfer. The typical busway operation configuration consists of a high frequency service running the full length of the corridor and stopping at each station. Passengers access this service as they would a light rail service by walking or cycling to the stations, transferring from feeder buses and by using park-and-ride facilities where provided (McCormick, June 1995). The busway basic service is supplemented by other high frequency bus routes that typically p ick up and drop off the majority of their passengers at on street locations away from the immediat e busway corridor. Such services may operate only over some sections of the busway to take advantage of the high operating speed of the busway and/or to serve particular stations and trip generators long the busway corridors. The service types will inc lude : All stop routes which operate from one end of the busway to other providing a service similar to that of conventional rapid transit. Feeder bus service which serve each of the busway stations and all stop service In the same way as they would serve a rail system. Express bus routes which pick up passengers at bus stops in residential areas and/or at park-and-ride lots and then enter the busway and operate in a skip mode to their ultimate destination (usually CBD). Reserve direction express services which operate from a major transfer stations on the busway in a skip station or all stops mode along the busway and then directly to major employment centers remote from the busway corridor. Regular on street services that make use of a section of the busway to avoid congested areas 16


2.5 Abidjan, Cote D 'lvolre T he bus way in Abidjan was imp l emented as part of a comprehensive traffic management program, includ ing an Urba n Traffic Control System. The latera l 2ane busway is located on a dual2-lane roadway across the CBD. The busway has on-line stops with no special operationa l features. Single-deck buses are operated on the busway. The functioning of the busway is unsatisfactory since long bus queues form at busy stops during the P M. peak period Passenger wait ing areas at some bus stops are inadequate and safety barriers have deteriorated due to poor maintenance (TRRL 329 1991 ). 2.6 Ankara, Turkey Ankara's busway is a median busway system that is located in the middle of a busy roadway that connects to the CBD. The busway performance i s greatly i nfluenced by the I ntersections. Conflicts and genera l traffic congestion occasionally require the intervention of police and bus inspectors to manage traffic (TRRL 329, 1991 ). Buses are separated from other traffic on both sides by a raised islands and 1.5 m high fences as shown In Figure 2.7. The numbe r of buses operating along the busway Is low in relation to passengers demand and so average bus occupancy is high, and bus overcrowding causes long delays at some stops. Figure 2.7The Klzllay Bus Stop, Ankara, Turkey with no Overtaking Facility Source: TRRL 329, 1991 1 7


2.7 Belo Horizonte, Brazil A purpose buiH, median busway links the city center with low-income suburbs (TRRL 329, 1991 ). At the city center where the busway ends, buses have exclusive use of the lower level of a double deck tunnel through a hill to link the busway with the CBD. The busway has an offline station which permits overtaking as shown in Figure 2.8. The busway is separate f rom the general traffic by landscaping islands of varying width. Bus services are operated by various companies under a coordinated munic i pal policy Buses are color coded according to the line type (express, semi exPress and local) Figure 2 8 Off-Line Bays, Bel o Horlzonte Source: 1993 2.8 Istanbul, Turkey The Taksim -Zincir likuyu busway is an exclus ive CBD busway in the middle of general traffic lanes. Buses are separated lrom general traffic by a continuous 1.5 m high fence (see Figure 2.9). Although some private o p erators are permitted to use th e busway, the majority of the buses using the busway are operated by a public bus company. Over 80 bus routes use the busway and all share the same stops which result in disorderly stops and bus congestion. Some bus services run nearly empty while others are overloaded. As overtaking is not possib l e overloaded buses delay empty buses. Traffic signals at some intersections allocate short green times to the busway causing delays and bus clustering, which in tum aggravates problems at bus stops (TRRL 329, 1991). 18


Figure 2.9Lateral Busway Using One Half of a Dual Roadway, Istanbul, Turkey Source: TRL, 1993 2.9 Porto Alegre, Brazil The Assis Brasil busway, shown i n Figure 2.10 is located on a radial corridor which connects the CBD with suburbs. At bus stops, staggered online passenger platforms minimize road width requirements. Between bus stops, busway running sections are separated from general traffic by heavy studs (TRRL329, 1991 ) Bus services are operated by private companies which function under a municipally regulated regime. Single deck buses of various s ize s are used by the operators. In peak periods, some companies use passenger trailers towed by conventiona l buses to increase capacity. Urban bus services use the busway while minibus and interurt>an buses use the general traffic lanes. During the P M peak period buses enter the busway in the same sequence as the bus bays within the stops. This technique is known as bus ordering. The busway was physically neglected due to politica l factors and due to fund shortages. The physical conditions of the busway road surtace platforms and shelters have deteriorated over the years. Operationally, the busway carries high bus and passenger volumes but the throughpu t i s constrained by a bus stop at a busy suburban center (Obirici) where large volumes of passengers board buses in the evening peak period. 19


The Farrapos median busway links the CBD with other major suburbs and with the Assis Brazil busway. The Farrapos bu sway runs parallel to the Porto Alegre metro. One end of the busway i s located at the edge of the city center where extensive traffic management measures have been imp lemented, inc l u d ing a bus street of disperse buses to local terminals. Although the busway carries high bus volumes, passenger transfer demands are relatively light along its length Design and operational characteristics are s imilar to those f o r the Assis Brazil busway. Figure 2.10Bus Ordering Assembly Area, Assls Brazil Porto Allegre, Brazil Source : TRRL 329, 1991 2.10 Sao Paulo, Brazil The Avenida 9 de Julho/Santo Am a ra Busway, shown in Figure 2.11, extends along a radial corridor to the southwest of the city center. The busway is disc o ntinuous fo r two short sections One through a tunnel where there is i nadequate width for the full busway/road cross the section and one through an underpass A key function is tha t overtaking lanes are provided at all bus stops which mini mize delays and enables semi express bus services to operate on the busway without stopping Pedestrian and passenger movements alon g the busway are contro ll ed by guard rails and signals. The median has cha in-link fencing to discourage pedestrian crossing Within the bus stop areas buses in opposing directions are separated by concrete barriers Between stops, the busway tracks are separated from general traffic by heavy road studs. 20


Figure 2.11 Median Busway, Sao Paulo, Brazil Source: TRL, 1993 Bus services including double deck and trolley buses are operated by both state and private bus companies in a regulated environment. The busway management is handled by the state bus company. Over 150 bus routes use sections of the busway. One of the main problems of the busway is the lack of infonnation at bus stops. One of the two non-overtaking bus stops causes congestion where buses queue to access the stop during the evening peak period Tables 2.6, 2.7 and 2.8 provide a summary for the surveyed busway in this report 21


Table 2.6 Physical Characteristics of Busways Surveyed Location Avg. Stop Avg. June. Special City Length Spacing Spacing (Km) ( M) (M) Features Abi djan Blvd De La 1.27 400 160 None RDn' Ankara Besevter -3 6 3 10 410 No ne dlkimevi Belo Av. Cristiano 8.57 610 920 Overtaking at Horizonte Machado Stops Curiliba Eixo Sui 9 5 430 430 Trunk &Feeder Istanbul Taksim -2.27 310 4 10 None -Zincirti k uyu Assis Brasil 4.5 580 4 10 Bus Port Alegre Farrapos 2.8 560 390 Bus ... Sao Pau l o Av.9 De 7.9 600 530 Overtaking at I MML 3.;i 9, Table 2.7-Passenger Boarding Times by City and Fare Collection Arrangements City Lost Time T ime/pax Entry Fare Collection (Sec) Method 10.3 0.9 Free E ntry Turnstile Bangkok 9.8 1.2 Free Entry Conductor Belo H orizonte 5.2 1.5 Free Entry Turn s tile Sao Paulo 8.6 1 .3 Free Entry Tumstile Ankara 23.0 1.8 Driver Supervised pay Box 13.1 1. 7 Driver Pay Driver I stanbul 9.3 2.3 Driver Supervised Pay Box 8 4 2.2 329. 991 22


Table 2.8 Maximum Observe

3.0 AT-GRADE BUSWAY SAFETY Similar to light rail transit (LRT) systems, at-grade busways can provide a safe mode of transportation in terms of total accidents or accidents per mile travel. Uke other public transportation modes accidents produce problems of th e public image and create transit agency liability Thus, appropriate actions should be taken during the p l anning, design and operation of at-grade busways to minimize conflicts. The purpose of this chapter is to provide information to facilrtate the safe, orderly and integrated movemen t of traffic on the busways and adj acent roads, and to provide guidance and warnings needed for safe operation of individual elements of at-grade busways. At-grade buswaysare similar in operation to exclusive LRTwith at-grade automobile, bicycle and/or pedestrian crossings. Thus, some of the safety considerations can be adopted by at-grade busways. The following section presents an overview of the possib l e accidents on at-grade busway right of-ways followed by an overview of possible solutions to minimize the possibility of accident rates. 3.1 Overview of Accident Types and Possible Solutions Safety problems are g iven important concerns in any transit system and any accident may impact the ridership due to problems with the public image. Expected accident causes for at-grade busways a r e as follows: (TCRP 17, 1996) 3.1.1 Side-Aligned AtGrade Busway 1 Pedestrians trespass on side-aligned at-grade busway right-of-ways where no sidewa l k i s provided. This design disrupts the normal pedestrian travel pattern Solution: Install fence or install sidewalk if none exists 2 Pedestrians jaywalk across at-grade busway right-of-ways due to the absence of sidewalks on both sides of the side-aligned at-grade busways Solution: Install fence to separate the bus way right-of-way or provide curbside landscaping, bol lards or barriers 3 Pedestrians and motorist confusion about which way the busway vehicle is approaching. Solution : Busway vehicle should operate with headlight on all the time and i nstall internally illuminated signs displaying the front or side view of a bus and the direction of approach. 4Side-aligned wo-way at-grade busways operating on a wo-way street may cause confusion to motorists. especially at night when the headlight of an approaching busway vehicle appears on lhe right-hand s ide of the road. Solution: Replace s ide running with 24


median operations. 5-Motorists make illegal left turns across the busway immediately after the termination of their left turn green arrow. As a result, they might be unaware of a busway vehicle approaching the intersection at a higher speed. Solution: Improve enforcement and ins tall active BUS COMING sings 6-Motorists violate the right-turn red arrow and may be unaware of a busway vehicle approaching the intersect ion from the left-hand side. Solution: Improve enforcement and I nstall active BUS COMING sings. 7 Red time extension due to multiple busway vehicle preemption may make motorists who are waiting to cross the busway tracks to become impatient. Solution : Limit multiple bus preemption within the same cycle. 8 Complex intersection geometry may cause confusion to motorists, pedestrians and b icyclists and complicate their decision-making about crossing busway intersections. Solution: Simplify roadway geometry and use traffic signals or other active controls to restrict motor vehicle movements while a busway vehicle crosses the intersection. 3.1.2 Median At-Grade Busways Lack of safe, clearly defined pedestrian crossings at stations, intersections and mid-block locations may be a source of hazards to pedestrians Solution: Define pedestrian pathways; design stations to prevent random crossings of the busway lanes, Install safety islands; and install pedestrian automatic gates, swing gates, bedstead barriers, or z crossings. Lack of passenger waiting areas. Solution; Provide a sufficient passenger waiting areas lo handle the maximum expected number of passengers at the peak periods. Motorists violating t raffic signals at perpendicular at-grade crossings try to beat busway vehicles to the inte rsection especially when the busway vehicles are moving at relatively low speed. Solution: Improve enforcement, provide a left-tum phase after a through busway vehicle phase, and/or install active BUS COMING signs. Motorists making left-turns blocking the busway right-of-way. Solution: Coordinate traffic signal phasing and timing at intersections and provide sufficient left-turn storage pockets. Motorist confusion between the busway signals and general traffic signals especially left turn signals. Solution: Provide busway signals that are clearly distinguishable from traffic 25


signals and whose indications are meaningless to motorists and pedestrians. 3.2 Alignment Consideration Good alignment choices and design geometry are essential for safe busway operation. The busway alignment must be chosen carefully with full consideration to general traffic and ped estrian travel patterns and roadway operating co ndit i ons. When the geometry is poor, traffic devices may provide relativ ely little safety benems. 3.3 Intersection Design and Control Intersection design and con t rols should clearly define and control conflicts between busway vehicles and adjacent road users. Left turns across the busway rightofway affect both the capacity and the safety of at-grade busways. Thus, left turns should either be provided and protected or prohibited and redirected Traffic signal controls should always be carefully coordinated with the roadway geometry. 3.4 Safety Analysis of the South Miami-Dade Busway, Miami, FL The South MiamiDade Busway is an 8.2-mile (13 km), separate, at-grade roadway for the exclusive use of buses and emergency vehicles. The busway was built in an abandoned railroad rightofway located to the west of US 1, as shown in Figure 3.1. Buses operate on two exclusive at-grade 12-foot (3.6 m) lanes with a 4 -foot (1.2-m)buffer in between. At station areas, the width of the busway increases from 28 feet to 52 feet (8.5 to 16 m) to allow express buses to bypass other local buses alighting and boarding passengers at the stations (Shen et af., 1997). I .. I I I I I I I t I I I I I I tll / tltlt I I I I I I N I I I .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Busway Southbound Northbound US I Figure 3.1 South Dade Busway Configuration 26


The busway Intersects with 20 major signalized intersections of which 1 1 are within a 50 to 80 feet (15.25 to 24.5 m)separat ion distance between the busway and the pavement edge of US 1. At these intersections, the bu sway and US 1 operate as a single signalized intersection (combined Intersection). In order to operate the busway safely, exclusive right tum lanes with right tum signals along the US 1 southbound were added at most of the intersections to provide an exclusive right tum movement (Fowler 1995) Another safety measure was the conversion of northbound left tums to restrictive protection phasing. Due to the close separation distance between the busway and the US 1 edge of pavements a portable message sign was installed during the early periods of operation with NO TURN ON RED indication, which wam the motorists with the new signal configurations and the operation of the busway. Side street operations were also converted to directionally separated phasing. Programmable signal heads were installed at the side streets to prevent motorist confusion between busway and US 1 signal heads. Advanced vehicle motion detectors are installed on the at-grade busway to allow express buses to travel from Dadeland South Station t o Cutler Ridge Station without stopping. The advanced vehicle detectors are placed at 600 feet (183m) and 375 feet (1 14.5 m) before the intersection to allow an approaching bus if arriving during the allowable preemption window, to p roceed through the intersection without stopping (Fowler 1995) Sufficient is given for the preemption phase to terminate and clear before a bus reaches the dilemma zone. Thus, express buses can travel the entire length of the at-grade busway without making a local stop. Since the beginning of the South Dade Busway operation in February of 1997, 25 accidents occurred, of which 19 accidents were classified as vehicle collisions and the remai ni n g 6 as noncollisions with passenger injury. Figure 3.2 shown the number of accidents, directions of both transit vehicle and other vehicles i nvolved types of transit vehicle, and number of injuries. As shown in Figure 3.2, most of the accidents occurred where the busway is far from US 1 (from 250ft (76 m) to 400 It (122 m)). Also, most of the vehicles i nvo lve d in accidents with transit vehicles were heading east toward US 1 From this we can conclude that people are not used to the existence of the busway at the locations of the accidents. Also the occurrence of more than one traffic signal one for the busway and one for US 1, may have caused no fusion for some drivers when they have different light indications. Two out of the six non-collision accidents occurred when the transit vehicle driver was trying to avoid a vehicle crossing the busway and the other one when trying to avoid a pedestrian. Reviewing the causes for accidents, the following suggesting may be done: Increase the motorists crossing the busway with coming transit vehicles by installi ng active BUS COMING signals at the in te rsection. 27


Avoid the installation of multiple signals to reduce the motorists' confusion between the busway signal and US 1 signal. Install pedestrian signal with clear indication when to cross. Also, to install pedestrian signals with indications LOOK BOTH SIDES BEFORE CROSSING Figure 3.2 South Dade Busway Collision Diagrams 28 Tlfll Dlic ftllot'JI> ... ....


4.0 BUSWAY PLANNING 4.1 Introduction In planning a busway system, it i s important to distinguish between a basic busway as a traffic management measure to meet shortterm traffic objectives and a bus-based mass transit system, including special operational measures, to meet medium-long term objectives. There are more than forty busway exits worldwide (TRRL 329, 1991 ). Only half of the cities that have busways have developed them in a systematic and comprehensive manner as part of the city's mass networ1<. The best example of is the busway system in Curitiba and Ottawa, where the busway is the backbone of the public transit system radiating from the CBD to where the city growth is focused. There is no value in providing bus priority measures where transit service is poor, costly, or nonexistent; where there are neither buses nor congestion; or, where the community has no desire to maintain and improve bus services or to enforce bus priority mea s ures. Planning and implementing bus priority measures requires: (HCM 1994) A reasonable concentration of bus services; High degree of bus and vehicle congestion; Suitable streets and roadway geometry; and Community willingness to support public transport and enforce regulations. Thus, it is necessary to have a demand policy management to support the allocation of the required right-of-way. When passenger demand is high, the numbe r of passengers that can be transported along the busway is substantially more than those transported by private vehicles along the same right-of-way. When allocating a right-of-way for a busway, it's use must be justified. If the bus flow on the busway is relatively low for the majority of time, this can lead to future elimination of the busway. The trade--of! between the general traffic flow and the bus flow is presented in Figure 4.1. Case lour in Figure 4 1 Is when the busway may be imp le mented as the road is already running near capacity and the allocation of bus lanes would not benefit other road users unless additional capacity was provided. The main objectives of imp lementing bus priority measures are: Relieve congestion; Alleviate exiting bus service deficiencies; Buses can operate at higher speeds; 29


Achieve attractive and reliable bus service; Serve demonstrated exist i ng demand; Provide reserve capacity for future growth in bus trips; Attract auto drivers; Relate long-range transit improvements and downtown development programs; and Have reasonable construction and operational costs --*" ...... I c ... t I lc-: f ... ....,. be ""*'ll ,., ...... .. ... lltioriti. 1\0\ ........ Figure 4.1 -Feasibility of Busway Along Existing Road Source: Design Guidelines for Busway Transit, TRL 1993 The key factors of implementing a busway as a bus priority measure are: The intensity and growth prospects of the CBD; The historical and potential future reliance on public transportation; Street width, configuration, continuity, and congestion; The suitability of existing streets for an exclusive busway; Bus operating speed and service reliability; Availability of alternative routes for d is p laced auto t raff ic; Locations of major employment centers in relation to bus services; Express and local bus routing patterns; 30


Bus passenger loading requirements along curbs; and Commun ity atti tude s and resources 4.2 B usway Performance The performance of !he busway depends mainly on the bus and passenger flow relationship as well as the operating speed of the buses on the busway right-o f -way. Figure 4.2 shows the operating speeds for selected busways Accordingly the bus and passenger flow and the operating speed of the buses depends on the existence of some busway features discussed below. 20 I 1 5 10 5 0 0 & ; c .. '!I '5 .Ill i .I> IIi ... c l! .i ;:. Figure 4.2 Operating Bus Speed s for Selected Busways. Source: TRRL 329, 1991 4.2.1 Effect o f Speci a l Operati o nal Measures Various techniques !hal may be implemented to enhance the performance of a busway include: (TRRL 329, 1991) Bus Overtaking Facilities at Sto p s: Bus overtak i ng faci li ties can be provided in several ways to offer a powerful mean of enhancing the performance Overtaking facilitie s permit express, semi -express and non-stopping bus services to pass by other buses board i ng and alighting passengers at stops. The provision of the overtaking fac il i ties increases the 31


throughput and decreases the bus tri p time to match service cha ra cteristics to passenger demands. The re la t i onship between th e line-haul throug hput and passenger demand Is shown in Figure 4.3. 350 """ 2 300 r.. ., High capacity t>us stop 0. c g 2!>0 :.. I "' " 200 s Standard bus stop .!: t!>O "' Ql 100 1 1 1 t 1 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Passenger s boatdi ng at b us stop (per h our) . F tgure 4.3 -Relattonshlp between Lme-haul Throughput and Passenger Transfer D eman d Source: TRRL 329, 1991 .. 300C Trunk-and-feeder Operations: Curltiba is the only known b usway system to operate exclusive l y with trunk and-feeder servic es see Figure 4.4. Althou g h such operations were a l so in t roduced in Porto Alegre, the scheme was subsequently removed due to difficu l ties related t o private sector ope rat i ng concessions and to passenger resistance to enforced interchanging A successful trunk-and feeder system necess i tates integrated fares and ticket in g in order to p e r mit "free passenge r tran sfer between feeder and trunk bu s es ------, = :t: : = ' e-11----- .. .. ,_ ...... ---B : i: c::::J sf ... .._ ..... c::J .... I c::::J I !j'[-----;;;;;;;:;;:;;;;;; ------->===( --,-I ,._....,o<'.,....c.'I'OIOII>41 .. ----Figure 4.4 -Trunk and Feede r Service in Curltlba Brazil 32


Bus Ordering. COMO NOR is a technique which Involves assembling buses into conveys at the start of a busway in a sequence corresponding to the route and stand order at individual bus stops along the busway. The principle is to minimize delays by having groups of buses start and stop almost simuHaneously (similar to cars of a train). The first operational system was introduced in Sao Paulo and subsequently COMONOR was applied in Porto Alegre on Assis Brasil and Farrapos. However, the technique was found to be too difficult to sustain operationally and was superseded by events in Sao Paulo and evolved into bus ordering in Porto Alegre. With bus ordering shown in Figure 4.5 each bus route and bus is allocated to one of three groups A-B-C and, lor the outbound movement during the evening peak (the predominantly critical boarding direction), buses are arranged, as far as possible, in the correct order at the beginning of the busway. Buses can be ordered using manually-controlled gantry mounted traffic signals as in Porto Alegre. This technique enables Assls Brasil to accommodate up to 18,300 passengers/hour/direction (pphpd), without bus overtaking facilities or other special measures. Analyses suggest that at high passenger transfer demands bus ordering might increase bus and passenger throughput by 10%, with a reduction of travel time through the bus stop area of the order of 25-40%. _\ ""\ c __ c:=l c:=l =--(;/ "--c h '' .. Figure 4.5-Bus Ordering Technique. Source: TRRL 329, 1991 Use of High-capacity Buses: The use of high-capacity buses such as articulated can increase passenger line-haul throughput, provided passengers board and alight efficiently at critical bus stops. Line-haul throughput is broadly proportional to bus capaclty and bus flow, subject to passenger transfer capacity constraints at busy bus stops. Off-board Ticketing. Where entry to a bus is unobstructed by fare collection or ticket validation, boarding times per passenger are lower (about 1 second/passenger) than where entry is restricted. Consequently, off-board ticketing offers the possibility to reduce passenger service time and thereby to reduce bus dwell time and increase commercial 33


speed. Although the po ten tial benef its will depend on the existing situation and future fare collection, t ick eting and boarding arrangements, analyses suggest that bus travel time through the stop might typ i cally be reduced by about20-25%. The only known busway with off-board ticketing is Curitiba. as shown in Figure 4.6. Traffic Signs/ Techniques to Favor Bus Movements: Various techniques are available to favor buses. Including: selective detection and demand dependent stages. However, more sophisticated biasing techniques would be required with high bus flow since buses would continuously call for priority. Bus Dwell Time Umltsllon: Oocasional very long bus dwell times at a stop were observed at several locations to have a very adverse effect on the throughput and service reliability (Gardner, 1991). If staff could be assigned to limit bus dWell times in busy periods, the more severe disturbances might be avoided. Figure 4.6Off-board Ticketing, Curitlba, Brazil. Source: Major 1997 4.3 Capacity of At-Grade Busways This section focuses on the capac ity of at-grade busways where bus movements are impacted by traff ic control s i gnals and patterns of passenger boarding and alighting. As bus capacity deals with the movement of both people and transit vehicles, the capacity of a bus priority treatment depends upon the size and configuration of t he vehicles, and how often they operate. It also reflects the 34


interactions between passenger traffic concentrations and transit vehicle flow. Operating policy is also one of the factors that affects the busway capacity that specifies service frequencies, minimum separatlon between successive transit vehicles, and allowable passenger loading. Severa l studies were done focus ing on the capacity of bus lanes which has a similar concept to at grade busways. The mai n difference among the three types of bus lanes, presented in Table 4.1, Is the availability of the adjacent lane for buses to pass other buses, right-tum queue and other bus lane obstructions Table 4 1 also shows the corresponding busway to each bus lane configuration Type 1 bus lanes are similar to a busway with no overtaking facility, where both cannot pass other buses loading and unloading passengers in the station areas. A type 2 bus lane is similar to a busway with overtaking facilities, where buses can pass other buses loading and unloading passengers at bus stops. A type 3 bus lane has no similar busways as busways consist of only two lanes (one each direction) and buses are not allowed to use the opposite direction to pass other buses. Thus, busways can use the same formulas used to calcu late the capacity of bus lanes. Table 4.1 Similar Types of Bus Lanes and Busways Type Bus Lane Configurations Similar Busways 1 No use of adjacent lane for buses to Busway with no overtaking facility pass other buses, right-turn queue and other bus lane obstruct ions 2 Partial use of adjacent lane for buses to Busway with overtaking facility pass other buses, right turn queue and other bus lane obstructions 3 Full use of adjacent lane for buses to N/A pass other buses, right-turn queue and other bus lane obstructions Various formulas to estimate the capacity of bus berth, bus stop or bus route are presented in the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 1994). These formulas show how the number of buses that can be accommodated at a given stop relate to the dwell times at stops, the clearance times between successive buses and the amount of green time per signal cycle. The general formula provided by the HCM to calculate the capacity of the bus lane for a single bus lane where buses may not pass each other, which similar to a busway with no overtaking facility is: C = ( g/C)3600RNb B (g/C)D+tc 35


Where: c. = buses per hour per channel per berth. D = bus dwell time at stop (sec). t, = clearance time (headway) between buses (sec), usually 10 to 15 seconds. N = number of effective berths. R = reductive factor to account lor variations in dwell times and arrival. Assumed in the HCM to be 0.833 lor buses for service level E. g = effective green time per cycle (sec). c = cycle leng th (sec). This formula reflects near-side stops and was assumed to be a reasona b le approXimation for the far side stops. The factor "R" takes Into account the variations In dwell times. Maximum capacity was assumed to have a 30% failure : i.e R = 0.833. The "R" values were calibrated based on a dwell time coefficient of variation of about 0.4 to 0 5. 4 3.1 Development of Revised Capacity Estima1es The basic bus berth capacity equation was formulated to provide a more precise treatment of bus dwell time variability (TCRP 26, 1997) The resulting equations were as follows for uninterrupted and interrupted flow conditions, they assume that: Unsignatized Signalized c ---"(g"-i_C),_3s_o_o __ b-tc +(g/c)D +ZaCvD This equation assumes that the time spent loadin g and discharging passengers on both the green and red phases are proportional to the green time per cycle, respectively. Where: = capacity of a berth in buses per hour. = clearance time between buses, (i.e 10 to 15 sec). 36


D g/C So z, = = = = average (mean) dwell time (sec). effective green time per signal cycle. standard deviation of dwell time (sec). one-tail normal variate corresponding to probability that queue will not form from behind bus stops The percentage failure rep resents the probability that bus stop capacity is exceeded (queue forms behind a bus stop), and is keyed to Level-Of-Service in Table4.2 (Table 12-17 of HCM). The value Za, from basic statist i cs, represents the area under one tail" of the norma l curve beyond the acceptable level of probabil ity of a queue f o rming at the bus stop, and thus represents the probab il i ty that a queue will no t form behind the bus stop. Typical values of Za for various failure rates are shown in Table 4 3. Table 4.2 Level of Service for Bus Stops Effective sec/hr Inde x Approx. Probability of LOS R Value (3,600 R) LOSE= 1.00 Queues forming Behind Bus Stop A 0.400 1,200 0.40 1 B 0.500 1,800 0.60 2.5 c 0.667 2,400 0 80 1 0 0 0 750 2,700 0.90 20 E 0.833 3,000 1 .00 30 Capacity E Perfect 1 000 3,600 50 Conditions . Source. HCM 1994, Transit Capac1ty, Table 12 37


Table 4.3 Values of Percent Failure and Associated One-Tall Normal Variate, Z, Failure(%) z. 0.01 2.330 2.50 1 960 5.00 1.645 7.50 1 .440 10.00 1.280 15.00 1.040 20.00 0 840 25.00 0.675 30 .00 0.525 50.00 0.000 Source Fmal Report, TCRP A, 1996 The previous formulas indicate the following: (TCPA 26, 1997) Capacity decreases as the mean dwell t ime i ncreases. Capacity increases as the g/C ratio increases. The increase in the capacity is not directly proportional to the increase in g/C because some of the clearance time, T,. i s not affected by the gtC. Capacity decreases as the variability in dwe ll time increases. For the same mean dwell time bus lane capacity would be greater for a stream of buses with similar dwell times, than for buses whose dwell time is much h igher or lower than the average. Thus, the mixing of bus routes at a bus stop that experience long dwell times (such as park-and-ride) with those that e xper ience short dwell times (such as l oca l service) may reduce the overall capacity of the busway. Capacity reflects the level of fail u re that is accepted. 4 .3.2 Capacity Adjustment for the Availability of Overtaking Facilities When all buses stop at every curbside bus stop in an on line busway station, the availabil ity of an overtaking or an off-line station becomes necessary only for lane obstruction passing. The ability of express buses to pass other buses boarding and alighting passengers at bus stops improves the bus speed and the busway capacity. Thus, the corresponding increase in the capacity of at grade busways ranges between 50 and 100 percent depending on the following: 38


1-The length of deceleration and acceleration lanes. 2-Number of berths at each bus stop. 3The distance between the busway stop and an intersection. 4-The capacity of buses operating on the busway (minibus, standard b us. or articulated bus). 5-Existence of advanced vehicle detectors which allow express buses to travel part of or the entire length of the busway without stopping. 6 -Level of training and experience of the drivers The follow ing is an example of the capacity analysis for Pittsburgh Busways. Table 4 4 -Capacity Analysis for Pittsburgh Busway MINIMUM STOPPING SIGHT SAFE STOPPING SIGHT DESIGN SPEED DISTANCE DISTANCE (MPH) S.S.D. CAPACITY S.S.D. CAPACITY (Ft.) (Buses/Hr) (Ft.) (Buses/Hr) 30 375 380 220 610 40 615 320 360 530 50 915 275 540 455 60 1,275 240 750 400 . .. . Source. Capac1ty Analysis of ExclusiVe Busway/HOV/Carpool Facilltms, Houston Trans1t Consultant, December 1981 4.4 Bus Stop Capacity Due to the complexity of bus and passenger interactions at stops, it i s impossible to specify a single set of bus stop capacities. Simulation can be used sometimes to test particular options based on local behavior. In this section, some indicative performance figures for various busway stop layouts and operating regimes are presented These layouts are the come out of an empirically-based spreadsheet calculation procedure using observed passenger demand profiles and behavior, and bus operating characteristics. The busway stops can be one of the following: Two-bay bus stops where buses can usa either of them. Buses can also leav e the station i n any order depending on the loading time; Threebay stops where either buses can use any bay or buses allocated to spedfic bays 39


(A-B-C); Four-bay bus stops where buses are assigned to one or two groups of bays. Each bus allocated to two bays (AABB); or six-bay stops where buses are assigned to one of two groups each of which is allocated to three bays (AAABBB ). Busway stop capacity also depends on the following: Improved board i ng/alighting conditions (fare collection methods); The use of high capacity buses; Bus ordering, buses are assembled into the correct route order before entering the stop; or Trunk-and-feeder services. 40


5.0 DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR AT-GRADE BUSWAVS 5 1. Introduction This section of the report discusses the at-grade busway in f rastructure components in detail including; right-of-way, bus stops shelters, bus bays i ntersection layout, traffic signal priority and the above-mentioned busway operational measures A typical at-grade busway should include two through exclusive bus only lanes with an optional two extra lanes at the station areas to allow express buses to bypass other buses boarding and alighting passengers Deciding whether to install a median or a side-aligned busway mainly depends on the existing right-of-way configuration, as well as, the characteristics of the corridor on which the busway will be insta ll ed. I ..... om I 14 0 18.0 m + 1.2 m t1u1rw j Mln4.0m I Figure 5.1 -Typical Busway Cross-section In New Roadways or Abandoned Right-of-Way. 5 2 Right-of-Way Characteristics At-grade busways can be introduced along ex i sting roads, using abandoned or sharing railway right-of way, or they can be purpose built. Along an existing road, a busway can run in the midd l e of the roadway (med i an busway) or along the curb ( l ateral busway or curbside busway). Figure 5.2 presents different busway alignments. A purpose-built busway can accommodate dedicated at-grade bus only roads (e. g., Runcom New Town, UK), an abandoned r ailway right-of-way can be modHied for the busway operation (e.g Miami, FL) A busway can also share the right-of-way w i th other modes of transit i n part of its alignment (South Busway, Pittsburgh), and a dedi cated right-of-way along a new road (e.g. Avenida Cristiano Machado, Belo Horizonte, B r azil). 41


5.2.1 Median Atgrade Busway CroS$-Sectlon The Insertion of a new busway in an existing roadway is a difficult issue that arises over the allocation of road space between the conflicting demands of different road users. In many cases, there are insufficient rightOfways to add two more exclusive busway lanes. Thus, a median at grade busway usua lly consists of an exclusive two-lane roadway, one lane in each direction, reserved for the use of buses. Unless. there is enough right-of-ways near the intersections, two extra lanes (one eaCh direction) can be added as an overtaking facility at the station area Otherwise, the buses on the busway have to operate in the same order from beginning to the end of the busway. Figures 5.3, 5 .4, 5.5 and 5.6 show different median busway alignments. The total width of the bi.Jsway is a function of its design speed. Table 5.1 represents some of the recommended lane width and different separation dimensions shown in Figure 5.7. v A I y Figure 5.2 Typical Busway Configuration 42


Sus stop ---------------------------Bus slop Figure 5.3 -Typical Bus Stop Layout, Avenida Cristiano Machado, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Bus stop ---------------Bus stop Figure 5.4 -Typical Bus Stop Layout Avenlda 9 de Julho, Sao Paulo, Brazil 43


Figure 5.5 Median At-Grade Busway, Curitiba, Brazil Figure 5.6. Median At-Grade Busway, Belo Horizonte, Brazil 44


Table 5.1 Recommended Crosssection Widths for Median At-grade Busways with No Overtaking Facilities Carrying More Than 60 Buses/Hour. Design Speed Width (m) (kmlh) Bus Lane Central Outer Total Width Separator Separator 100 4.00 0 40 0.75 10.30 80 3.75 0.40 0.50 9.30 60 3.25 0.40 0.30 7.90 40 3.00 0.40 0.20 720 Source TRL 1993 Central SeP,arator Outer Separator t Outer Separator I I I I I I I I I I t I I I ____ Figure 5.7-Median At-Grade Busway Cross-section. 5.2.2 Side-Aligned At-grade Busway Cross-section A Side-aligned at-grade busway is usually planned and installed in newly constructed corridors where the right-of-way needed is reserved and driveways for businesses are permitted at the busway side. Typically, a side aligned busway consists of an exclusive two lane roadway, one lane each direction, reserved for the use of buses as shown i n Figure 5.8. For high speed operation o f 50 mph (80 krnlhr) lane width may vary from 9.9 to 13ft (3 to 4 m) depending on the space available. If the right-of-way permits, an extra four feet (1.2 m) separation distance (buffer) between the two directions may be placed. Shoulders may also vary from 1.6 It to 8 It (0.5 m to 2.5 m). At stations, two extra lanes (one each direction) are placed. This will result in one stopping 45


lane and one through lane. This cross-section will allow non-stop or express buses to pass by other buses loading and unloading passengers at stations as shown in Figure 5.9 (South Miami Dade Busway in Miami, Florida). A fence is usually installed at the station area to separate the two direction of traffic and to prevent passengers from crossing the busway within the station area. Typically, the cross-section at the station area varies from 75 fl to 85 fl (23m to 26 m) including a 13-ft (4-m) station platform tor each direction. . . Figure 5.8 -Typical Cross-section of a Side-aligned At grade Busway, Miami, FL Source: LCTR Photo Collection Figure 5.9 Side-aligned At-grade Busway at Station Area with Overtaking Facility, Miami, Florida Source: LCTR Photo Collection 46


5.3 Bus Stop CharacteristiC$ The provision and subsequent spadng of bus stops are dependent on the purpose and the design speed of the busway. If the busway is to service as a rapid transit corridor between a remote residential zone and a central business district (CBD), few If any stops would be provided. If h owever the busway travels through passenger catchment areas, stop spacing is considered to be: (Held, 1990) close {0.3 to 0.625 mile) where passengers would walk to stops; interme diat e (0.625 to 0 .94 mile) where passengers would ride other buses to stops; and long (0.94 to 2 8 miles) where passengers would drive private vehicles to stops. These distances compared to standard on-road stop spacing usually in the order of 820-985 It (250-300 m). It should be noted that close and possibly intermediate stop spacing would p revent buses from attending Class A busway design speeds in the order of 62.5 mph (100 km/hr). The design of bus stops should be such that delays assodated with loading and unloading affects only the bus in question. Thus, ideally either bus bays or overtaking facilities should be provided into the bus stop design if the right-of -way permits. Passenger security is a major issue in bus stop design and location, because the design and location of the bus stop can positively or negatively in fluence a bus patron's perception of that bus stop. Landscaping, walls, billboards, and solid structures can restrict sight lines and provide spaces to hide. Thus, transit agencies should carefully review which ameni ties are to be inc luded at a bus stop and consider any factors that may influence secu r ity 5.3.1 Bus Stop Location At-grade busway stops like any other bus stops can be located at the near side or the far side of an intersection as well as mid-block. Several considerations should be taken into account when determining the location of a busway stop. Figure 5.10 shows some of the considerations when locating a busway stop. These considerations are imp ortant when the volume of buses joining and leaving the busway alignment from and to local streets Is relatively high. Typically, Case II is used for mid-block at-grade busway stops, but Case I a nd Case Ill may be implemen ted at intersect ions where bus volume joining or exiting the busway is high, respectively Buses will have time to for the green ligh t to make a right tum instead of blocking the way for express buses. Advanced Vehicle Detectors When Planning to install advanced vehicle detectors on the busway to detect and allow express on the at-grade busway to travel the e ntire length or part of the busway without stoppir.;, i at intersections, it is recomm ended to locate 47


the busway stops at the far side of the int ersection If the station is located at the near side of the intersection,local buses will be detected and will obey the busway stop loca ted at the near side of the intersect ion while having a green signal to cross the intersecti on. Thus, causing an extensive delay for side street traffic crossing the busway. Ap(lrooch Tcpe.r 60' Uinimum 80' Onirob le I Berth Area 1 1 oeocrture icp!" I 50' 40' Mi:nimu!'TI 1 ----I 60' Dttircble I I CASE FARSU TUIIIOUT I I -90' Totot LM9t l'l 10' rD.:Ib 110' Total lt-n MIHILOCK TURNOUT 150' Totol 190' To1o1 Lefto9'1'1 (dHVcble) I I I I I I 10' Miflimum:::;:::: 12' ..J! "'I ""B,--us,..----,1 :----I CASE .. N&AII-tiiDE TURNOUT I 110' Tatot Length 1 1JO' Tot o t Lenqtl'l (:y*oble) I -d1 ,...! ""'e=-u-s----,11 1 10' Minimum::> 12 Oesircble "" Aleo Hott: t\mcftsions of top5 c:uumc lllol tiUSC1 WI dKtltrolt mosltf itl Ult trO'Vd tore. 0 SO' fOt tiXtl oddll1ion.ol sfotldc< bus tile turaout ot IJ'It wnr t:imt. Otocf'llool't "'" Oimensiont or ,... C$$11mt (hel busts il ;,. lbe depOI'IlNJ lr'O'CI lone. F igure 5.10 Different Locations of a Busway Stop Source: MST, January 1996 No Overtaking Facilities If overtaking facil ities are not provided along the busway, i t is recommended to locate the bus stops at the near side of the intersections. Especially if bus volume is h igh, loca t ing the bus stops at the far side of the intersection might result in bus back-ups that may block the intersection causing delay to side street traffic. If it is necessary to locate a bus stop at the far side of the intersection, bus stops should be located at a sufficient distance from the Intersection to allow a space for expected buses arriving at the inte rsection. The only draw back of this solution is increasing the walking distance to transit riders to go to and from the bus stop to their destination. 48


5.3.2 Station Amenities Certain passenger comfort features should be included in the design of all busway stations. Other features may be provided only under certain conditions. The materials that are used for the construction of bus stop amenities should be weather resistant and withstand continual use, and can be easily maintained. Primarily, wood, concrete, glass, and plastics are used at the bus stops. The types of amenities that are to be provided are the follow ing: Bus Stop Shelters -The area used by passengers waiting for a bus, boarding or alighting from a bus, should be provided with shelter at each loading bay, as shown in Figure 5.11, to protect riders from rain, snow, cold weather during winter, or direct sunshine during warm weather Full platform canopies may be considered when there are high levels of passenger activity to the extent that boarding passengers cannot be accommodated within the shelter area or whe n buses are not assigned to a certain bay at the bus stop, as shown in Figure 5.12. In most instances, the estimated number of passengers boarding has the greatest influence on what type of shelters to be used. Other factors that can influence the size of the shelter include availability of the righH>f-way width, utility pole locations, existing structures, and maintaining proper circulation distances around existing features. Benches-Benches provide comfort and convenience at bus stops. Benches are usually i nstalled on the basis of existing or projected ridership figures. Benches should be installed at each bus stop for elderly and disabled passengers. The location of benches shou ld be coordinated with existing shelters and shade trees, street lighting, and ADA mobility clearance. Figure 5.11 Ottawa Transl1way Station 49


Figure 5.12 South Dade Busway Station, Miami, Florida Source : LCTR Photo Collection Lighting Lighting affects bus patrons perception of safety and security at a bus stop. Good lighting can enhance a waiting passenger's sense of comfort and security. On the other hand, poor lighting may encourage unintended use of the facility by non-bus patrons, especially after hours. Sufficient lighting should be provided to ensure adequate visibility when the facility Is in operation. Illumination requirements are often a policy of individual transit agencies, however, Installing lighting that provides between two to five foot candles is the general recommendation. Such Illumination should be sufficient for reading, to avoid injury due to physical hazards and to discourage crime. Figure 5.13 shows a location for lighting pole at a bus stop. Figure 5.13-Lights at Busway Stations. Source: TCRP 19. 1996 50


Bicycle Storage Facilities-Bicycle storage facilities, such as bike lockers and bike racks, may be provided at bus stops for the convenience of bicyclists using transit. Before creating a bicycle storage facility, planners should consider the location. type of rack and the number of racks to be installed (Figures 5.14, 5.15 and 5.16). Proper storage of bicycles can reduce the amount o f visual clutter at a stop by confining bikes to one area. Bike storage area should be located away from other pedestrian or patron activities to improve safety and reduce congestion. Also, the location of bike storage facilities should be located with existing on-site light ing. Paved access should be provided between the bike storage area and the bus s top, and should be constructed with non-slip concrete or asphalt that Is property drained. Figure 5.14-Bike locker Figure 5.15-Bike Locker 51


Figure 5.16 Bike Rack Source: Technical Handbook of Bikeway Design, 1992 Vending Machines The vending machines can provide passengers with the reading material while they wait for the bus. Vending machines should be located so that they do not obstruct accessibility causing inconvenience. Also, they shou ld be properly maintained to avoid the accumulation of trash in the form of news papers (see Figure 5.17). Figure 5.17Vending Machines a1 Bus Stops Source: TCRP 19, 1996 52


Trash Receptacles -Trash receptacles can improve the appearance of a bus stop by p rov id ing a place to dispose of trash. The receptacle should be l ocated in an area where it will not get direct sunlight which can develop the foul odor and must be emptied regularly. Shopping Cart Storage Area-Proper storage is needed for shopping carts at bus stops near commercial shopping areas Because bus stops nonnally do not have storage faci liti es for shopping carts. carts often litter the area around the stop and along the sidewalk accessing the stop. Communications-Telephones at bus stops are not required under ADA, but if telephones are in place, they shouldn't obstruct access to the facility. Phones should be suitable for users with hearing lmpainnents. At least one phone shou ld be accessible for whee l cha i r users. Telephone directories can also be made available. Pay telephones may be provided at all bus stops with off-street bus fac i lities. They create a feeling of security for the commuters and will be handy in the emergency time. A direct line to transit information shou l d also be considered. (see Figure 5.18). Figure 5.18 Communication Facilities at South Dade Busway Source: LCTR Photo Collection 53


5.4 Customer Information at Bus Stops Many transit agencies took steps to increase and improve transit service information at bus stops (TCRP 17, 1996). Transit service information at bus stops is important to transit users and can effectively increase ridership by retaining existing riders and potentially attracting new riders to the transit system. The service information may inclu de: Schedule information Route maps System maps Fare Information These displays may range from small display panels affixed to the bus stop sign supports to large displays employing color graphics depicting route and system maps and other information that can be useful to transit r iders. As a result of various studies and surveys it was decided that it would be an effective way to adopt a pictograph to identify a bus stop with route numbers and special messages provided with each route (see Figure 5.19). The transit information telephone number can be displayed on all bus stop signs. Route and passenger information can be displayed jn various ways A flag sign i s the most common method used by transit agencies to display informat i on The Installation of schedule holders or schedule and route information on the shelters are also commonly used. The actual displays mounted on the sign can include the transit agency logo, route numbers available at the stop, type of route (local or express), and destinations for a limited number of stops. Scheduled holders are included at sites with large passenger volumes The schedule holders can be mounted on the flag sign inside a sheller. Interior panels of shelters can also be used for posting route and schedule information. Side pane ls may be large enough to d isplay the entire system map and can inc lude backlighting for display at night. Some recomm endations for rou te or patron information display are as follows: Provide updated information when changes are made to routes and schedules. Consider the quality and appearance of the information displays Follow the ADA clearance, mobility, and visual guidelines for access of in formation by individuals with impairments. According to RTD, 1988 the amen i ties that have to be provided for the bus stops inc lude: Transit Information-Bulletin boards or kiosks may be provided, and maintained with the maps and schedules of the rai l and bus lines that serve the station. Fare information may also be posted. Appropriate signage can be p rovided to clearly indicate the other mode station access points and direct ion to bus lines from all rai l access points. The individual line route and schedule information should be provided at each bay for the lines serving that bay. This informat i on should be updated within 24 hours of any service change. 54


Figure 5.19 Route Information at South Dade Busway Stops Source: LCTR Photo Collection Advanced Technology Applications The use of teclmology to inform users through video displays, electronic signage and programmed aud i o announcements are suitable for high-volume with relatively controlled environments. (see Figure 5.20) Figure 5.20 Electronic Transit Information Panel at a Bus Stop Source : TCRP 17, 1996 55


5.5 E l derly and Disabled Requirements All stations should be designed to provide easy access to the elderly and the disabled. Appropriate curb cuts and ramps should be made wl'lere required to meet the access ing needs. The minimum dimensions for a bus stop pad and shelter is presented in Figure 5.21. Since most of the transit buses are equipped with wheelchair lifts (see Figure 5 22), located at the front or the rear door, bus stop design has to allow for either possibility. n 59!:'*= .. __ .,_._ & __ ., .... ( .----... ... --.. -Figure 5.21 Shelter Design Example to Meet ADA Requirements Source: TCRP 19, 1996 Figure 5.22 Wheelchair Uft in Operation Source: TCRP 19, 1996 56


5.6 Bike Path Many cyclists are discouraged t ram traveling on bikes. The road network includes major obstacles to negotiate on two wheels and does not allow suHicient space for bicycles. Providing a bikeway along busways can provide a safe environment for cyclists wherever the right-ofway permits or when a new busway is under construction. Bike path along a busway are suitable for bicycle travel, lin king two or more locations. Also, bike paths can be connected to other bike trails or bike lanes in the area forming a bikeway network. RlghlofWay Bike path along a busway can be designed to be used by more than one group (pedestrian, joggers, wheelchair users, etc.). However, in urban areas where bicycle and/or pedestrian traffic volumes are high, the risk of conflict and accidents increases and the efficiency of bicycle travel is reduced In this case, it is desirable to separate cyclists from pedestrians. A minimum separation distance should be provided between the busway and the bike lanes The width of the bike path depends primarily on the volume of bicycles using the bike lane Table 5.2 presents the suggested widths of bike lanes. Table 5.2 Recommended Widths of Bike Paths Traffic Volume Configuration Width < 1,500 cyclists/day Unidirectional 2.25 m Bidirectional 2.75 m > 1,500 cyclists/day Unidirectional 2.50 m Bidirectional 3.00m Source. TechniCal Handbook of Bikeway DeSign, Quebec, 1992 Obstacles Various elements may hinder the construction of roadside bicycle paths, Including mai l boxes, billboards, steep side slopes, privat e access roads, and signage. These obstacles are easy to work around or move, but must be taken into account when planning for a bike path along a busway. Roadside poles. such as electrical lines, street lights, etc., present some major obstacles for cyclists. Thus, I t is desirable to provide a separation distance of at least 1 meter (3 feet) between roadside poles and bike lanes. Road Irregularities Due to the l ack of shock absorbers and the low volume tires, bicycles do not cushion cyclists very well against impact. Thus, the quality of the bike lane riding surface is very important. The following measure should be taken into consideration: Public utility installations such as manholes cover, sumps, and gates chambers must be level with the surface of the traveled way. 57


Control joints must be inspected. The surface must be maintained regu larly to remove sand, earth, and other matters that may cause skidding. Surface Irregularities which may make riding uncomfortable bumpy or lead to drainage problems must be eliminated. Dra i nage grates must have narrow opening and be oriented perpendicular t o the rid i ng surface, to p revent b icycle tries from slipping into them. L ighting Effective lighting is an essen t ial element o f safe travel on bike paths in the darkness or evenings. The horizontal light should be strong enough to enable the cyclists to follow the bike pa ths easily, to spot any obstacles and to read surface markings. An effective vertical light should enable cyclists to read road signs and spot other cyclists coming from the opposite direction (Figure 5.23). At in t ersections, the vertical illumination l eve l should ensure that cyclists are clearly visib l e to motorists The bike path should be illum inated to the same le vel as the street for a distance of 25 meters on either side of the intersection (Figure 5.24). I I -----r-----Figure 5 .23 Ught for Bike Paths at Intersections Source: Technical Handbook of Bikeway Design. 1992. 58


Figure 5.24 Vertical and Horizontal Illumination Source : Tachnicaf Handbook of Bikeway Design. 1992. 5.7 Horizontal and Vertical Clearances for Buses A minimum of 2 feet horizonta l c lea rance should be provided between the curb a n d any lateral obstruction along the busway. While in statio n areas, 5 feet minimum clearance should be provided. Obstacles within the station area should not oonflict with the movement of passengers. Vertical clearance should be determined according to the type of buses operating on the busway. In the case of standardsized buses, the min imum clearance is 14' 6'. 59


e...._..., ,_ -, ... ........... ( ...... ........ , .............. ue.-. . G --. ... ''11 o.,..,...,t) ... :Figure 5.25 Vertical and horizontal Clearance for Busways Source: MST, January 1996 60


6 0 P AV E MENT DES I G N The process o f select i ng the proper pavement t ype is complex and h a rd to d ef i n e I n the final analysis the selection process I s an economic decision. although all engineerin g factors must be properly and carefully conside r ed i n such an ana l ysis (AASHTO 1993). Depending on economy and the models chosen to ana lysi s all the eng i nee r ing fac t ors, the pavement type yielding the highest benefiVcost r a t i o w o u l d be the proper c h o ic e 6 1 Types o f Pave m en t s There are two maj o r typ e s of pav e ments: Fle xib l e or aspha l t pavements and rigid or concrete pave m ent s 1 F le x i ble Pavements: Flexib l e pavements are constructed of bituminous and regu lar materials. There are types of construction have been use d for flexibl e p avements: conventional flexible pavements full-depth asphalt pavement, and ccntai ned rock asphalt mat (CRAM) The typ i cal cross section for the three types of the flexib l e pavemen t are shown in Fig ures 6. 1 6.2 and 6.3. I l u J I cc I Z C0 11t / t:ou:n.o I 2" jn, l"ttf Con/ tate Cevrsc I 4 -1: i n I Su)ba Coun-e 4-U coe,... n N 4 to Fi gure 6. 1 Typ ical Cross-section of Co n v e ntiona l Flexible Pavement Source : Huang 1993 Asphalt Surface 2 t o 4 in. 2 to 20 i n A s p h a l t Base Prepared S ubgr a de Figure 6 2 -Typica l C ross-section o f Full Dep t h Asphalt P avemen t Source : Huang 1993 61


Hot Mix Asphalt t.S-4 Sn. in. 4-8 in. Hod1fi0d Dense--Graded Hot Hix Asphalt Figure 6.3 -Typical Cross-section of CRAM Source: Huang 1993 2. Rigid Pavements. Rigid Pavements a r e constructed of portland cemenl concrete. Figure 6.4 shows a typical cross section for rigid pavements. In contrast to flexible pavements, rigid pavements are placed either d irec tly on the prepared subgrade or on a single layer of granular or stabilized material. r-I flortlan.d C.OJW;ftte I w -r--12-in. L or Sub b UC' or M.ay Noc se 1 ---------------------------J 4-U in.. Figure 6.4 -Typical Cross-section of a Rigid Pavement Source: Huang 1993 6.2 Design Factors Design factors can be divided into four categories as follows: (Huang 1993) Traffic and Loading. Traffic and loading to be considered including axle loads, the number of load repetition, tires contract area, and vehicle speeds. Environment. The env ironmental factors that influence pavement design include temperature and precipitation, both affecting the elastic moduli of the various layers The damage caused by both temperature and precipitation during a month or a season is evaluated and summed throughout the year to determine the design life. 62


Materials: The properties of material must be specified. so that the responses of the pavement such as stresses, strains, and displacements in the critical components, can be detennined These responses are then used with the failure criteria to predict whether failure will occur. Failure Criteria: A number of fai l ure criteria, each directed to specific type of stresses, must be established. Typically, the busway roadway surtace can either be paved with asphalt or concrete depending on the bus traffic volume, environment, and construction and mai ntenance costs. A typical roadway pavement with a side slope of 2% and 7% slope ol the curb can be used lor at-grade busways. The thickness of the pavement layers depends upon the average daily traffic volume and the resistance value of the base soil. The preferred pavement at station areas should be made of reinforced concrete to handle the additional stresses from the frequent stopping of heavy buses. Bus pads may be installed during busway construction or r ehabilitation, or may be installed as a separate project. The detailed cross-section of busways and bus pads paveme n t thickness and slope are shown in Figures 6.5, 6.6, and 6.7. The benefit of Installing concrete bus pads shown in Figure 6.8 at bus stops is to reduce maintenance and pavement damage. ASPHALT ROADWAY Figure 6.5 Cross-section for Busway Flexible Pavement Source : MST, January 1996 CONCRETE ROADWAY Figure 6.6 -Cross-section for Busway Rigi d Pavement Source: MST, January 1996 63


CONCRETe BUS PAD {9"". e,. e "::er) !uif

7.0 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES 7.1 Busway Signing and Pavement Marking The capability of roadways to safely and efficiently serve vehicular traffic is dependant to a large extent on adequacy of traffic control devices. The majority of motorists drive in an orderly and safe manner, provided they are given reliable regulatory. warning, and guide information (Brockenbrough and Boedecker I 996). The need to provide advanced warning for unusual roadway, roadside, operational and environmental conditions has resulted in the development of a wide diversity of devices. The majority of these devices can be categorized as warning signs contain i ng different symbols and legends. Other warning devices include flashing beacons. rumble strips, pavement surface treatments and pavement markings. Device complexity ranges from simple passive warning signs to devices that are activated by vehicle speed, headway, or presence on one or more approaches to a potentially hazardous roadway element (MUCTD). Signing and pavement markings along the busway alignment and at-grade intersections have an important function in providing guidance and information lor transit vehicle drivers and other road users. 7.1.1 Signing In the design of warning s i gns, It is important to remember that the signs are designed to draw attention to themselves through contrast, color, shape, composition, reflection, and illumination with a simple message providing a c lear and understandable instruction to the motorists Sign size, symbol size, lettering size, and placement should be such to allow adequate time lor proper response. Standard sign letters are prescribed in the Standard Alphabets for Highway Signs, which should be used to develop lettering size and style. Sections 2C1 2C2, and 2C-40 of Manual of uniform Traffic COntrol Devices (MUTCD) contain i nformation that must be followed in the design of warning s i gns. In addition, Sec I A-7 of MUTCD lists additional publications and documents that provide requisite i nformation lor the proper design of warn i ng s i gns. Estab l ishing the need for supplemental devices requires identifying the problem l ocations and performing a safety and/or operational analysis. Def i cient locations can be identif i ed by traffic safety management system, citizen complaints, employee observations, and/or safety ana l ysis (Brockenbrough and Boedecker 1996). For at-grade busways a "DOT NOT ENTER" sign may be installed at both end of the busway and at each busway cross ing as shown in Figure 7.1. The role of this s i gn is to minim ize the motorists' 65


confusion between the busway right-of-way and general traffic right-of-way This Is essential where the busway alignment is close to the g eneral traffic roadway. Also, the installation of "BUSES CROSSING", shown in Figure 7.2, or suSWAY CROSSING" signs should be in stalled on the streets crossing the at-grade busway to warn them with the busway operations. Another type of sign that should be installed the implementation of side-aligned busways and where ther e is a close separation distance between the busway and the parallel general t raffic roadway and the existence of more than traffic signals for the side streets is the sTOP HERE ON RED" sign shown in Figure 7.3 It will reduce the motorists' confusion of the existence of multiple stop bars and multiple signals. Figure 7.1 Sign at the Entrance of South Dade Buaway Source: LCTR Photo Collection Figure 7.2 Busway Crossing Sign at an At-grade Intersection, Miami FL Source: LCTR Photo Collection 66


Other infonnation signs may be installed along the busway alignment such as speed limit for buses, bike lanes and bike trails (see Figure 7.4), etc. Figure 7.3 "STOP HERE ON RED" Sign, Miami, FL Source: LCTR Photo Collection Figure 7.4 Bike Lane Sign along Dade Busway Source: LCTR Photo Col/eel/on 67


7.1.2 Pavement Marking Pavement markings are used to supplement other traffic control devices such as signs, signa l s a nd othe r mar1

Figure 7.6 Pavement Marking at the Entrance of the Busway In Hong Kong Figure 7.7 "BUS ONLY" Pavement Marking at South Dade Busway At-grade Intersection Pavement markings along the busway itself should consist of center line and curb marking. The center line provides Important guidance to bus drivers as It separates traffic traveling in opposlte directions. It is recommended that the center line consists of two normal solid yellow lines which indicate that passing is prohibrted (see Figure 7.8). 69


Figure 7.8 South Dade Busway Center Line Pavement Marking Source : LCTR Photo Collsction 7.2 Priority at Traffic Signals A large amount of traffic delays i n urban areas are due to the conflict at road intersections. At intersections controlled by traffic s i gnals, there may still be a delay of up to one cycle caused by the signals themselves. Since urban bus routes typically pass through many signal-controlled i n tersections. the cumulative effect of such intersection delays on the overall journey can be substantial and can lead to excessive bunching and bus irregularity. Strateg i es for awarding priority to transit vehicles have been developed and tested in the field using computer simulation over the past 20 to 30 years. If signal cycle t i me i s generally long, the effec t of the delays at some intersections may be seriously destructive. One method of reducing delays is to provide shon cycle times at intersections carrying an appreciab l e busway flow. Shonl ng the cycle length a l ong an aneria l reduces stopped time delay to both transit and private veh i cles (Urbanik 1997). In some situations, shon cycles can increase the capacity of a s i gna l -controlled intersection. Thus, all traffic not only buses will benefit. However, i f a cycle is too shon that the capacity becomes insufficient to pass all the traffic arriving at the intersection the delays to alllraffic, including buses, will rise rap i dly. The me ri t of shoning the cyc l e length must be wei ghed against the capacity reduction along the anerial (Urbanik 1997) Thus, implementing bus priority t r eatments will benefit buses from shoner delay at intersections due to shorter cycle time On the other hand the non-priority traffic would lose due to lower capacity resulting in the use of a less-than-optimum cycl e t i me. 70


7.2.1 Phase Splitting Another method of decreasing the delay to buses is to split the bus green period into two as shown in Figure 6.1. This techn ique can be appl ied to Isolated signals or to appropriate intersections i n a network and to both fixed-time o r vehicle-actuated signals Splitting phases refers to splitting a transit signal phase into multiple phases whose total time equals I ts original duration. This reduces the cycle length for the transit veh i cle's approach, without altering the ove r all intersection cycle length If the green phase containing the bus flow is spli t into two short green periods separated by two phases for nonbus flow, the maximum delay to buses can be almost halved, and their clustering reduced The cost is negligib l e and the total capacity of the intersections is slightly reduced. To obtain a full benefit, buses must be able to cross the intersection during the first green phase following t heir arrival at the intersection. 7.2.2 Preferential Treatment The use of bus priority s i gnals is a method of provid i ng preferential treatment to buses using the busway by altering the signal timing plan to favor buses on other traffic disturbing the bus flow. If individual buses are detected on a busway, they can be given a priority as they arrive at an intersection. This may require the installation of vehicle detectors on the busway lanes approach ing an intersection. Vehicle detectors are pri mary r equisites of actuated signal control, as they sense vehicular demand and relay the data to the local intersection controller or master controller so that appropriate signal indications may be displayed. The selection of the type, design and installation of various types of detectors is a function of the operational requirements and physical layout of at-grade busway intersections. 71


. ---Bus ttaft!c -Non-bus traffic ... _., ..... ,.. i 'f A B c E:j E:j . Figure 7.9 Method of Phase-Sphttmg to Reduce Bus Delay at Traffic Signals There are several signal priority techniques that can b e used to favor buses on other vehicular traffic. (AI-Sahili t 995)) Green Extension and Red Truncation: Green extensions and red truncations are forms of active priority which s tea l green time from cross-street approaches to be added to the end and beg inning of the transit approach's green phase, respec tively. This means extending the green phase beyond ns normal setting to allow th e bus to pass the i ntersection. If the signal phase serving the bus operating in a through lane approach the intersect io n is already green, then the green can be extended past its normal end time. This extension is usually lim i te d to a maximum value. Hounsell (1995) found that the use o f green extensions alone, without re d reduct ion had the best overall impact upon traffic. Phase Recalt. This priority treatment advances the busway green phase by prematurely terminating all other non-bus phases. This may be considered by providing a minium green time for the phase to be prematurely terminated. If the signa l phase is red, then the green will retum earlier than normal. Phase Skipping. To facilitate the prov is i on of the bus p riority phase, one or more nonprio r ity phases may be omitted from the normal phas e sequence. 72


Compensation: One may choose to compensate for the time lost from the other non-bus phase in the next cycle to limit the adverse effects that priority traffic has caused to nonpriority traffic. Conditional versus Unconditionat. Active priority measures can be grouped into conditional and unconditional priorities. Unconditional priority is the provision of signal priority each time it is requested after all other vehicular and pedestrian safety-required intervals are satisfied. In some cases, preemption is disruptive to cross-street traffic, thus, it would be better to subject preemption to certain conditions. These selective conditions determine when or if the signal priority will be granted to the busway traffic. Thus, in a conditional priority scheme, a transit vehicle is not necessarily given priority at an intersection every time priority is requested. Instead, the well-being of cross-streets are considered before priority is granted to transit vehicles' approaching transit vehicles. Several parameters must be established before signal priority can be effectively granted to buses (Bowen 1994). The degree of intersection saturation below which priority may be granted is a highly important parameter. If this value is too high, the usefulness of green extensions or red reductions will be lost when used in heavily congested environments. In addition, the intersection level-of-service (LOS) may be further sacrificed through the excessive use of signal priority However, if this value is set too low. buses which could have benefitted from signal priority will not be granted a green extension or red reduction. The f requency of bus arrival should also be considered in the appropriate signal priority strategies. For example, in London when buses were operated with one minute headway, providing green extensions only was identified as the optimum strategy. When operating at headways shorter than one minute, adjusting signal timing to allow for bus progression was recommended. Location of Detectors Many state and local agencies have established p olicies and standards related to the longitudinal location (setback of detectors relative to stop bar) Ideally, the detector location should consider the speed, type and volume of approaching vehicles as well as the type of controller unit. Table 7.1 presents a range of suggested detector setbacks. The values were determined as a function of the deceleration rate, reaction time and deceleration distance. This table is more conservative than that used by many agencies in that it is based on a deceleration rate of tO tvs (3 m/sec2) rather than 12 fVs2 (3.66 m/sec"). 73


Table 7.1 Safe Stopping Distance and Detector Setback Speed", V Decel T i me Reac. DisL, Decel. Diet., mph ft/sec t (sec) R (It) D (It) 1 5 22 .0 2.2 22.0 24.2 20 29 .3 2 9 29 3 42.9 25 36 .7 3. 7 36.7 67. 3 30 44. 0 4 4 44 0 96.8 35 51.3 5.1 51.3 131. 6 40 58 7 5.9 58.7 172. 3 45 66. 0 6 6 66.0 2 17.8 50 73 3 7.3 73.3 268 6 55 80.7 8 1 80. 7 325.6 60 88.0 8 8 88.0 387 2 65 95.3 9 5 95.3 454. 1 . Des1gn speed or high-pace speed Use mul tip l e detectors or volume-density modules Where: Dece leration rate, d Dece l erati on time, t Speed v React ion t ime, r Reaction distance R Decel erat ion distance D Safe stopp i ng distance, S 7.2 3 Simulation 10 fVs Vld, seconds = fils 1 s = R + D, fl Total Dlst. s (It) 46. 2 72. 2 104.0 140 8 182 .9 231.0 283 8 341.9 406.3 475.2 549.4 Delector Setbac k (It) 45 50 105 140 1 80 230 b b b b b Several simulation models and field experiments w ith signal preempt i on have been cond ucted In the Uni t ed States and Eu r ope since the earl y t 9605 S i mulat ion showed increas i ng bus delay savings when signal p rio r ity was used with decreas i ng i ntersection saturation l evels ( Hounsell 1 995 } Vincent et a l.( 1978 ) used a m i croscop i c bus priority assessment simulation (BUS PAS ) program to tes t five preemption control st rateg ies at an i nte rse ctlon. They examined green extensions only; green extension, red t runcatio n, and no compensation ; green extension red 74


reduction and compensation; re d reduction and no compensation; and red reduction and compensation. Jacobson and Sheffi (1980) developed an ana lytical model of delay at isolated signalized Intersections with a bus preemption scheme. The model treated the beginning time of the green period as a random variable, the density funct ion of which was developed. The model also assumed a Poisson arrival process for the vehicles approaching the intersection. Four cases were analyzed including; no preemp t ion and minimization of total person delay; no preemption and minimization of total vehicle delay; preem pt i on and minimization of total person delay; and preemption and minimization of total vehicle delay. In 198 5 Smith developed a bus signal preemption algorithm for the New Jersey Department of Transportat ion to be incorporated into th e NETSIM simulation model. The study tested advancing or extending green while still maintaining a minimum side-street green plan. The preemption process resulted in saving of 6.2 vehicle-hours and 9.2 passenger-hours over the peak hour. Benevelli et al. (1983) conducted a study on bus signal preemption using the urban traffic control system/bus priority s.ignal model, which i s a microscopic traffic simulation model that was developed by FHW A. Using TRAF-Ne tsim to test the effectiveness of active signal prio rity AI-Sahili (1995) found that arterial traffic suffered from overall increa sed delays whenever signal prio r ity was in itiated. Since the arterial traffic was rather high, upon receiving signal priority, signal progression along the arterial was lost, resulting in increased downstream intersection delay. Therefore, along heavily traveled arterials, signal progression, rather than signal priority, appear to be of prime importance. The sensitivity of transit signal priority success to the rat io of arterial and cross-street traffic selected for th e analysis were 2:1, 3:1 and 5:1. Simulation results indicated that negat ive impacts introduced through the various signal priority techniques are significant at low volume ratios (2:1 ), but significant at high volume r atios (5:1). However, benefits from signal priority in terms of reduced bus travel times and delays decreased with increasing volume ratios because at high volume ratios, signals are already timed to favor the bus approaches. Accordingly, the success of transi t signal priority appears to depend on: Traffic characteristics at i nter section where priority is use d. Transit service characteristics. Geometry of inte rsect ions 75


8.0 BUSWAY UGHTING Proper l y designed and i nstalled roadway l ight i ng can result in significant reductions in n i ghnime traffic accidents. act as deterrent to crime, i ncrease commercial activity, and improve aesthetic value. The requirement for adequate visib i lity i s essential for safe traff i c operations during both day and night operation Visibility can be d i vided into three classifications: perception recognition, and decision making. Effective ligh ti ng can aid these tasks by providing the quality of light required by human eye to increase its visua l acuity (Brockenbrough and Boedecher 1996). Busway lighting can adopt the same l i ghting specifications for major roadways. The area classif i cations (commercial, residential, and intermediate) also depict the lighting design needs for lighting along a busway. Traffic vo lume, number of pedestrians at-grade intersections turning movements, s i gnalization, and unusual geometric are some elements that make kighting os streets and busways desirable To determine if the roadway lighting is warranted, the analytical approach developed by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP Report 152) can be used. This approach is used to obtain a quantitative measure of the effect of the roadway characteristics on driver visual informat i on needs. After rating all the characteristics the score are summed to obta i n an overall measure of driver information needs This method is flexible and permits modifications to fit local needs. The net safety benef i t from increasing visibility is in f luenced by the hazard posed by the roadway lighting or ils support acting as a fixed ob j ect. If roadway illumination is not warranted, or i f it is installed wrong, there is a strong poss i bility that traffic hazards will be increased rather than reduced by providing illumination. The Roadside Design Guide (by AASHTO) requires the lighting designer not only to produce an effective, efficient lighting system but also to consider removing the hazards i nherent in such a system The following points should be considered to increase the safety due to lighting installations: Remove the haza r d from the right-of-way Locate the hazard in a place less likely to be struck Provide a breakaway support Provide a barricade There are severa l tested and approved devices by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for the breakaway structure of the light poles. These devices should be used as prescribed, but it is up to the des i gner to use the proper device i n the particular situation 76


9.0 CONCLUSION 1. At-grade busways can be an integral part of the countywide rapid transit improvement plans. Thus it is important to distinguish busway transit from other bus priority measures which are limited in their scope. 2. Only haH of the cities that have busways have developed them in a systematic and comprehensive manner as part of the city's mass trans" network. 3 At-grade busways can be a major component of strategies planning and designed to make better use of existing transit lacillties relatively low capital expenditures. 4. At-grade busways can be implemented as part of traffic management programs. 5. Several approaches can be used in the implementation of at-grade busways (outside-in or inside-out). The choice of a specific approach for a c;ty is strongly influenced by the level of congestion, availability of current right-of-ways, availability of funds, and current and future transportation plans. 6. At-grade busways can be a fully integrated service with existing and projected activities in a city and in such a way It can provide a level of service competitive to private vehicles. 7. At-grade busways can provide a last, convenient and reliable transit service to ensure effective public transportation and to create a region wide system or network of transit priority that can be quickly enough to influence new land use developments. 8 Safety problems for at-grade busways should be given Important concerns during the planning and design periods. Any accident may impact the ridership due to problems with the public image. 9. Intersection design and controls should clearly define and control conflicts between busway vehicles and adjacent road users. Also, Traffic signal controls should be carefully coordinated with the roadway geometry. 10. It is necessary to have a demand policy management to support the allocation of the required right-of-way. 11. The performance of the busway depends mainly on the relationship between the bus and passenger flow. as well as the operating speed of the buses on the busway right-of-way. 12. Various techniques may be used to enhance the performance of at-grade busways. 77


13. Bus stops should be located in a way that will not affect the capacity of at-grade intersections. 14. Amenities at busway stops should be considered during planning and design as they provide passengers with comfort, convenience and sense of security. 15. The choice of the busway pavement depends on the economy and the models chosen to analyze all the engineering factors involved. 16. Pavement markings, signs and other traffic control devices along at-grade busways will provide safety for both transit and vehicular traffic. 17. Properly designed and installed roadway lighting results in significant reduction in nightime traffic accidents, act as deterrent to crime, increase commercial activity, and improve aesthetic value along busways 78


10. REFERENCES AASHTO, Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, Washington, D.C., 1993. AI-Sahili, K. and W. Taylor. Evaluation of Bus Priority signal Strategies in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Transportation Research Record 1554, 1995, pp. 74-79. Benevelli, D. A., A. E. Radwan, and J. W. Hurley, Jr. Evaluation of a Bus Preemption Strategy by Use of Computer Simulation. In Transportation Research records 906, TRB National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 1983, pp. 6Q-67. Bonsall, John, 1989. Transitways: The Ottawa-Carleton Experience. Ottawa-Carleton Regional Transit Commission, June 1989 Brockenbrough, R. and K. Boedecker Highway Engineering Handbook : Building and Rehabilitation the Inf r astructure. McGrawHill, 1996 Bus Priority Systems NATO Comm i ttee on the Challenges of Modem Society, CCMS Report 45, Transportation and Research Laboratory, London, 1976. Capacity Analysis of Exclusive Busway/HOV/Carpool Facilities, Houston Transit Consultant, December 198 1 Des ign Guidelines for Busway Transit. Transport Research Laboratory, Overseas Center, TRL, Overseas Road note 12, 1993 Designing for Transit: Amanual for Integrating Public Transportation and land Use in Monterey County Monterey-Salinas Transit (Msn. California, January 1 996 F owler Brian C. The South Dade Busway. In the 1995 Co m pendium of Techn i cal Papers, ITE 65" Annual Meet i ng, ITE. 1995, pp. 508 511. Gardener, G., P. Cornwell and J. Cracknell. The performance of Busway Trans i t in Development Citi es Transport and road Research Laboratory Research Report 329, 1991. G u idelines for th e locatio n and Design of Bus Stops. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council Washington. D C TCRP Report 19, 1996. High Occupancy Vehic l e Project Case Studies: H i storical Trends and Project Experiences August 1992, USDOT 1992. 79


Highway Capacity Manual (HCM)Special Report Third Edition. Transportation Research Board. National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1994. Hounsell N. B., and J. P Wu. Pub li c Transport Priority in Real Time Traffic Control Systems. Applications of Advanced Technologies in Transportation Engineering, pp. 71-75, June, 1995. Huang, Y. Pavement Ana l ys i s and Design. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632 1993. Increasing the Productivity of the Nation's Urban Transportation Infrastructure: Measures to Increase Transit Use and Carpooling, January 1992, USDOT 1992. Jaco bso n, J andY. Shetfi. Analytical model of Traffic delays Under Signal Preemption: Theory and Application. Presented at the 59"' Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Boa r d, Washington, D.C., 1980. Jacques, K. and H Levinson Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials, TCPR Report 26, 1997 Korve, Hans W., Jose I Far ran and Douglas M. Mansel. Integration of Light Rail Transit into City Streets, TCRP Report 17, 1996. Major, M. J. Brazil's Busways. Journal of Mass Transit Vol. 23, No. 3 1997. pp.26. Manual of Uniform Traff i c Control Devices (MUCTD) for Streets and Highways. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. McCormick, A. A Busway Strategy for Brisbane City, Volume 1, June 1995. Shen D., H. Elbadrawi, F Zhao, and D. Ospina Atgrade Busway Study National Urban Transit Ins t i tute, December 1997. Travel Smart A Traff i c Reduct i on Strategy for Brisbane. The Brisbane City Council 1994. Technical Handb ook of B ik eway Design : Planning, Design and Implementation. Canadian International Development Agency Quebec, 1992. Urban i k II, Thomas and R. W Ho l der. Eva luat ion of Priority Techniques for High Occupancy Vehicles on Arter i al Streets. Texas Transp ortat ion Institute, Texas A&M university, July 1997. Wohlwi ll D. E Develop m ent A l ong A Busway: Case Study of Development Along the Martin 80


Luther King Jr. East Busway in Pinsburgh, Pennsylvania. Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA. 1996 Vincent, R. A., B. R. Copper and K. Wood. Bus Actuated Signal Control at Isolated Intersections: simulation Studies of Bus Priority, Report 814. Transportation and Road Research Laborat ory, Crowthorne, Berkshire, United Kingdom, 1978. 81


-''National -,0'Urban .J.OO.\. Transit -,r ,r Institute A pril 1 3 1999 Ms. Elaine Ms. Amy Stearns and Ms. Robin K line U .S. Depl. of Transportat ion RSPNOffice of University Rese arch 400 Seventh Street, S W DUR1 Room 8417 Washing t on, DC 20590-000 1 Dear Ms. Joost Ms. Stearns and Ms. Kline : College of Engineering University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, CUT 100, T mpa, FL 33620 {813) 974-3120 SunCom 574-3120 Fax (813)974-5168 GaryL. Brosch, CUTRDlrector Steven E. Polzin, NUTI Director Consortium MemberS: UNIVERSITY Cl'ltrlo A. Wright, Pt!O, P E)i(KtQf l "'d PfofHSOI' OW. of !ngll'loOr1"'9 TedlnofoiJY Pos t Of'f'lce &ox 164 Tall a huwo. Ft. 32 301 (904} $99-340$, Fu (904) Sf1 FLORIDA INTERNA OONAl. UNfVERSITY l D"ld Shon, PhO, Pf Civi l ll'td EnYitonmtfltll Engfl'lo

-''National .,0'Urban .J.OOL Transit .,,. .,.,. Institute April 1 3 1999 U S Department of Comme r ce National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Spring f ield. VA 22161 Gentlemen: Uhe CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH College of Engineering. Unlvtrsity of South Flortcfa -'Z02 E Fowler Avenue CUT 100. Tampa, FL 338lQ..537S SunCom574-3120 Fo x (l13)t74-&1&1 Gai)IL Bloseh CVTRD/rector SteVM E. Polrln. Hun L ConsortiumMemb.,.,: Ft.ORtOA A&M UNM!ftSifY Ch1r'lts A WriDflt. Phi), PI and P r oi .. A4r O i v. of Engtn .. ltng Tech1141ogy Po.t D

.J'-Nationa l .,0'Urba n .J.Oo.-. Tra n sit .,t"" .,t"" Institute April13, 1999 Mr. Hany Hersey FHWA Liaison Na tiona l Highway In stitute 901 N Stuart Stre et Suite 300 Arl ington, VA 2220 3 Mr. Chuck Mor i son FT A Lia i son I Sen ior Program Manager Human Resources, Room 6429 Federal Transi t Admin is tration U .S. Department of Transportation 400 Seventh St. S W Washington DC 20590-0001 Dear Mr. Hersey and Mr. Morison : atlllo CEmER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH College of Engineering, Unlversrty of South Florida 4202 E Fowfer Avenue, CUT 100, Tampa 'FL 33620375 (813)914-3120 SunCom $74-3120 Fax(813)t74-51&8 Gaf}'L Brosch. CUTR Director Steven E. Polzin NUn 0/recto r FlOitiOAA&M WriVERSilY CN!kt A Wt!.gM, PfiO ,I OlrMtor and hortnor 0111. ot fllo!n .. ringlec:hnol ogy Otllc Box U4 Tl1!41t--.e R. ;n(l1 tto4a Fu fi!O'J Hll'nt FLOfiiiOA.IHTtRHA TI0Ho\.\.IIHIVR.$1T'I' L. DtYicl Shtn, PltO, P'l Q\'11 .,.d E"IW!r61'1/Mt'lltf fl'lglnMI\ng UfiiYttllty P .. IIC CUI'IjW .. VH-110 Ml.wlll, FL 3St9 9 (lOS) ""'.30$5, r::u (301} ;Jo6t4tot Dlrt FL 3130$.303'7 MWSC't,. F.u (t04) 14U.Uf I n accordance w ith th e report ing req uireme n t s of th e Resea rch and Spec ial Programs Administration at U S Department of Transportation, enclosed is one bound copy of the following final research reports : Year Three : Niche Marketing: Opportunities for Increasing ShOrtand Long-Term Transit Ridership, by J Joseph Cron in, J r .. Ph D .. W ill iam A. Must a rd, a n d Michae l Brady, Ph D ; FSU4. Year F ive : AtGrade Busway Planning Guide by L David Shen Hesham Elbadr awi Fang Zhao, and Diana Ospina; FIU1 Mad e possibl e through a grant from the U.S. Dep artment of Transportation Un i v ers ity Research l nstilute Pr ogram these reports were produced by the Na tional Urban Transit Inst it ute (a con sorti um o f universities US F FAMU FlU and FSU). Please contact me if you have any quest i ons cia Bapti rogram Assistan t E nclosures cc: Amy Stearns/Elaine JoosVR obln Kline, RSPA Conso rtium Members Steve Polz i n NUTI Director


-''National .,0.'Urban .J00L Transit .,r .,r Institute April 13, 1 999 Ann Marie Hutchinson Mid-Atlanti c Universities Transportat ion Center Pennsylvan i a State 231 Research Office Building Un i versity Park PA 16802-4710 Dear M s. Hutch i nson: altho CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RJ!SEARCH College o f Engineering, of South Florida 4202 E. Fowt.r Avenue CUT 100, Tampa FL 33820..5375 (813)174-3120 SunCom57-3t20 Fox(lt3)97"-St61 G>ryL.IUoh,CVTROirccto.SWierl E. Polzin, H IITI Olrocfor Jl Con$0rliumMemb.ra: FLOIVOA AIM UNIVIRIITY C1111"1n A. Wl"'llrlt. Pl\1), ftl Cl"tKIOI' ttld Pf-Ofenor ftQii,.Mtl g Teclwlol otY Potl Ofl'lce llc;u: 114 fIIIIWittt .. FL 3:tl07 { to4) '". F:lll (lOti flt,2J3t FI.OIIUOA IMTEA."Uo 1'IOHA1. UHMII31TY L 0..-ld "-0. N Cltrll 1nd EA'ItteMIM!t.l rtl ....... g Unhtni'Y Plttl Ct"'f"' .. lltMii. FL. i;ltH po51 a4.)0Jfrr. F.u tlH} In a<:COrdance with the reponing requirements or the Research and Special Programs Adm i n i stration at U S. Department of Transportation enclosed is one bound oopy of the following final research reports : R.Of!X)& IU TE UNNOtii1'Y Mo4ho111 Dhc:t of R...-dl 11M s.ntut Ttllafln-. A. ).2:)01..)0)1 Year Three : (904) WDOt, ,u. ........ %2.1 Niche Marketing: Opportuni t ies tor Increas ing Short and LongTerm Transit Ridership, by J Joseph Cronin, Jr Ph.D William A. M ustard. and M ichae l Brady, P h.D.: FSU4 Year Five: At-Grade Busway Planning Guide, by l. David Shen, Hesham El badrawi, Fang Zhao a n d Diana Ospina; FIU1 Mad e possible through a grant from the U.S Department of Transportation, University Research Institute Program these reports were produced by the National Urban Transit In stitute (a consortium of univers ilies-USF. FAMU, FlU and F SU). Please contact me if you have any questions 7 Enclosures oc: Amy Stearns/Elaine JoosVRobin Kline, RSPA Consortium Membe r s Steve Pol z in. NUTI Director


N ational Urban .J.OOL T ranait -,r Institute April13, 1 999 Mr. Marion Hart Stale Pub lic Transportation Administrator F l orida Dep artment of Transportation 605 Suwann ee S t re e t M S 57 Tallahassee. FL 32399-0450 Mr. Jay Goodwill Director Sarasota County Nea T ransit 5303 Pinkn ey Avenue Saraso ta, FL 34233 Mr. Roger Sweeney Executive Director Pinel l as Suncoast Authority 14840 4'1" Street Nort h Clearwater FL 34622 Gent l emen : at the CEJO"ER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH College of Eng1neoring, Un1 vet$lty of South F1ortd1 4202 E. Fowttr Avonue, CUT 100, Ttmpa, FL 33620-5375 (813} t74 SunCom 1574-3120 Fax(813} 974--S168 G.vyL.. Sro.sch, CUTR Direc-tor S ttvttt HIR1 Dirtctor Jam ContorrJumMwnbers: Fl.OftiOA A&.Y UHrVeRSITY A.. Wltgllt. l'tiQ, PE ---DIY. ol lftgii!Mrir!g TICMoiOOY ,..,t Olf'lt 84 164 T ... IIUU ... fL 3l'l01 (to4 llt:IS06 Fu ( 9041 Slt.IUt FLOIIIJDAiiHT!ANA TIONAL UNIVI5RSITY L 111-, Pld), PI Chi Wid Elleiln.....,O hdt vtt-11t Mr-.1, n. ft tJOSt ).41.)0$$., ,_ (3051 3AWIOI FLORIDA ST.-, T UNIVERSITY Wllllem "'"""' OI11U0' O t l b 'Hai'Ch and S-lflt ll'lt,NII for M.wttellllg All""'"' Trnuporuuon ............ ... T ............ fl, ( 101 J ..... uot. fu. f*l NU:Dt Enclosed is a oomptimentery set of tedmical reports produced as part of our research program at the Nationa l Urban Transit lnstil\Jte : Year Three : Niche Markeling: Opportunities for Increasing Shortancl Long -Term Transit Riclership, by J Joseph Cronin, Jr. Ph. D ., William A. M ust a rd and Michael Brady, Ph. D .: FSU4 Year Five : AtGfade Busway Planning Guicle, by L David Shen Hesha m Etbadrawi Fang Zhao and Diana Ospi n a : FlU 1 As more reports become available, we will ship them to you. Continuous thanks a ncia Baptiste P r ogram Assistant Enclosure s cc: Steve Polzjn, NUTI Direetor