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Performance of Florida's public transit systems : executive summary


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Performance of Florida's public transit systems : executive summary
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Florida. Dept. of Transportation. Public Transit Office
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
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Tampa, Fla
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Local transit--Florida   ( lcsh )
Urban transportation--Florida   ( lcsh )
letter   ( marcgt )

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Performance of Florida's public transit systems : executive summary
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Local transit--Florida
Urban transportation--Florida
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research
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.. -' - __... # PERFORMANCE OF ELDRIDA'S \ ,,_ % . Executive Summary August 1998


PERFORMANCE OF FLORIDA'S PUBLIC TRANSIT SYSTEMS Prepared for Florida Department of Transportation Public Transit Office by Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida Executive Summary August 1998


FIXED-ROUTE SERVICE 1 DEMAND-RESPONSE SERVICE 15 Florida's Fixed-Route Transit Systems 2 Florida s Demand-Response Transit Systems 16 Financing Transit Ope-rations 3 Passenger Trips 17 Ope rating Cost and Revenue 4 Operating Cost Per Passenger Trip 18 R idership, Population. & VMT 5 Service Miles 19 Ridership & Popu lation Growth Rates 6 Operating Cost Per Service Mile 20 Passenger Trips 7 COMMUTER ASSISTANCE Operating Cost Per Passenger Trip 8 PROGRAM 21 Serv ice Miles 9 Florida Commuter Assistance Program 22 Operating Cost Per Serv i ce Mile 10 Primary Market Coverage of Florida's CAPs 23 Florida System Peer Groups 11 Commuter Assistance Services 24 Factors Influencing T ransi t 12 Evaluation Measures 25 Yearly Performance Trends 1 3 Par k & Ride Lot Program 26 Commuter Rail Peer Review Anatysis 14 Park & Ride Lot Occupancy Rates 2 7


FIXED-ROUTE SERVICE Type of transportation involving passenger revenue vehicles repeatedly following a consistent time schedule over the same route. Also known as fix edroute/fixed schedule service In Florida fixed-r o ute modes includ e bus, automated guideway, heavy rail, and commuter rail


., 8ttvollfd lkow11r d t ndi R i ver ..J1icn livU'IONI.y Tall llha. .. e. l(e-y V/Mt ()(.;11. o f W:<.ef" ArM M o \ n $ Di*\&: 1 VOIIIt !ll leo cw.,ty ArM T rll.ui t MilltnlD.:I6o T I Mlllf AQI\l'laV lVUX l'l'l 'rn I\ C o:.mtv Agoney Ptlfoeo Cou rw,. Pu bl i c Suneeilllt Ttllfllllf Al.lltlo rtty CouMy Att-11 T r on$il Tr i .Ccunty Comm,. 1 c r A'411 Authitv County of Voludo

ef!.'' Financin Transit Operations F:l''' Trends in funding sources for transit operations : 0 Federal funding has declined from 20 percent i n 1984 ($36,511,882) to 8 percent in 1997 ($3 7 ,243,5471; 0 State funding has inc re ased from approximately 1 percent in 1984 ( $2,624,611) to 11 percent in 1997 ($53, 717,0511; 0 Local funding has increased from about46 percent in 1984 ($85, 143,094} to 52 percen t in 1997 ($2 44,435,475); and 0 Operating revenue has declined from 32 percent in 198 4 ($5 9 149,340) to 29 percent of total funding for transit operations in 1997 ($136,880,696). Percant of Tot al F unding Funding Sources for Transit Operations 1997 ... I ... ... Federal F u nding State Funding .local Fun d ing O perating Revenue


Operating Cost and Revenue _,M ; 0 (.) "' c -... Q> Q. 0 Since 1984, statewide total operating costs have increased 148 percent. A large portion of this increase is attributable to the significant growth in the amount of service provided (i.e., service miles) by Florida's fixed-route transit systems during this time. Between 1996 and 1997, total operating costs increased approximately seven percent while service miles increased six percent. Operating revenue has financed approximately 30 percent of operating costs over the fourteen year period. Statewide Fixed-Route Total 1&9 Oper3'ting Con $44)(),004),000ti Operating Revenue Servic e Miles 198419851986198719881989 19901991 199219931994199519961997 (/) <1> s. n <1> s: ii' ..


f,11\1 'f:l\'f.! Ridership, Population, & VMT '(;l\'.1\ Statewide total fixed route ridership increased 35 percent and demand response ridership increased 436 percent between 1984 and 1997. During this same time period, statewide total population increased 34 percent and the number of vehicle miles travelled throughout the state increased 56 percent. State Population State VMT (000) &4 as as a1 sa as s o 91 s2 93 94 a s s& 11 Fixed-Route Passenger Trips 84 85 116 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 9 4 95 96 97 84 85 8& 87 88 89 90 9 1 92 93 94 95 96 97 D emand -Response Passenger Trips ::;--r--, $Q111'COI_, I!JIJ4.1!J9G .... ,'dl.t 11r:d VMT lift# tlito t !J!)7 Tt.>r>lfd lOOT., Tr""'MWI

Ridership & Population Growth Rates Q) .. .. a: A strategic goal of the Department as articulated in both the Transit Strategic Plan and the short-range component of the Florida Transportation Plan is to increase fixed -route transit ridership at twice the rate of population growth. From 1984 to 199 7, Florida's population increased by 34 percent while fixed-route ridership increased 35 percent. Between 1996 and 199 7 fixedroute ridership grew 3 3 percent compared to 2. 1 percent for population growth. Thus, during this most recent period transit ridership grew by one and a half times the rate of population growth. 16% 14% H Trip$ Slate PopWati.on 12% 10% .=.-.. .<: 8% "\. ;:i oe -1ft c c <( 6% 4% 2% 0% % % % "1.. '\ "1. 1\. ./ "1.. .... / / ........ 1 / 84/85 85/86 86/87 87/88 88189 89/90 901 91 91 /92 92/93 93/94 94/95 95/96 96/97


Ridership on Florida's public transit systems has increased 35 percent since 1984. Between 1996 and 1997, ridership increased more than three percent from 165.6 million trips to approximately 1 71. 0 million trips. In addition, total ridership has increased almost 14 percent since 1992. 84 85 86 87 88 89 fiD 9t 92 93 94 9& 96 97 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 !IS 97 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 9 7


'f:P.\1 Operatin Cost Per Passen er Trip Operating cost per pass e nger trip at the statewide level has increased 83 percent since 1984. This measure increas e d approximately three percent from 1996 to 1997. Statewide Total 84 a s a:t1 &7 as to 91 n n t4 as as 11 Miami 84 as a s r1 ea at eo n t3 u as as 91 1 1\l llt\ofl All Other Syste ms 84 85 86 87 88 81 90 11 t2 ., .. 85 t6 t7 tnlwiiOfl


Since 1984, the amount of service provided (i.e., service miles} by Aorida 's fixed route bus and rail systems has increased 61 percent. Between 1996 and 199 7 service miles increased 6 percent from 85. 8 million miles to 91.0 million miles In addition, the number of service miles has increase d 23 percent since 1992. u ss as tl aa n to 11 tt 93 S4 1s ss n 84 85 81 81 88 8 9 90 I I 92 83 84 IS 98 11 84 85 86 81 8 8 89 90 II 82 13 S4 IS !18 97


r;P.,U ""'"'j Operating Cost Per Service Mile Operating cost per serv ice mile h as increased 54 percent since 1984; however, the cost per service mile for bus serv ice increased only 47 percent, a lower rate than inflation during this time. 84 85 86 87 88 8'9 tO fl 81 13 t4 IS 98 SJ lnilldo n Bu s 84 85 88 81 88 89 90 II 12 13 t4 95 Sti 97 '""'""' R ail a nd Automate d Guideway 84 85 86 87 88 M 10 II 12 13 9ol IS 98 17 Rill 0 o..Mewy lnlf.IIP! iol'l


GREATER THAN 200 BUSES Miami plus seven nonFlorida peers 50 TO 200 BUSES Broward County HiUsborough County Jacksonville Orlando Palm Beach County Pinellas County plus six non-Florida peers _;COMMUTER RAIL Tri-RaiJ plus three nonFlorida peers 10 TO 49 BUSES Brevard County Escambia County Gainesville lakehmd lee County Sarasota County Tallahassee Volusia County plus eight non-Florida peers 1 TO 9 BUSES Bay County Indian River County Key West Manatee County Pasco County plus six non-Florida peers


Factors lnfluencin Transit Numerous factors influence transit's performance including those related to system management and staff, local policy decisions, and the operating environment MANAGEMENT/STAFF sk111s & experience training leadership morale service design service Q(la/ity LOCAL POLI CY DEC I SIONS land use urban design parking zoning se1vice levels fare policy OPERAT I NG ENVIRONMENT density land use patterns congestion geogrBphy transit dependency


o.WJ. Yearly Performance Trends 'f!;l\'A Cost Per Passenger Trip Cost Per Service Mile 19881989199019911992199319941 995 1 99 6 1968198919901991199219931994 19951996 Number of Florida systems performing above (i.e., lower cost) or within 1 0% of their peer group average. Number of Florida systems not performing above or within 10% of their peer group average.


Commuter Rail Peer Review Analysis A peer review analysis for the commuter rail mode was conducted as part of the 1996 Performance of Florida's Transit Systems study. In this analysis, Tri-County Commuter Rail Authority's f Tri -Rai/J performance was compared with that of t hree nonFlorida peer systems: MARC in Baltimore, Ca/Train in San Francisco, and VRE in Virginia. Passenger Trips (0001 Service Miles (0001 ,.----, San San Francisco Tri-A$11 0 2.000 4,000 8,000 Cost Per Passenger Trip Cost Per Service Mile SM Francisco Tri Rail Vlrglnla TriAaia Baltimore San frenei$CO 80.00 $3.00 88.00 $9.00 $12.00 $0.00 U.OO $1UXI $9.00 $12 .00


DEMAND-RESPONSE SERVICE Type of tra nsportation characterized by the flex i ble routing and scheduling of vehicles for the provision of point-to p oint service at the user's request wirll less than 24-hour prior notice. Public t ransit systems are required to provide this service to comply wit h the Americans with Disabilities Act. This service is p r ovided for persons ull8ble, because of a disability, to use an existing fix e d route system In Okaloosa and Sr. Lucie counties, all service is demand responsive. The data presented in this section have been compiled for only rllose systems tha t report their demand-response (DR) service for National Transit Database (NTDJ purposes. These systems are identical to the fixed route p r operties included in the previous section, with the following e xceptions: Okaloosa and St. Lucie countie s are added; Tri-Rail is not required to provide demand-respon s e service; and Key West is not required ro report demand response s e rvice in its NTD repor t Tile annual operating report prepared by the Commission for t he Transportation D isadvantaged would includ e the service reported here, as well as all other transportation service for the transportation disadvantaged in both urban and rural areas.


g r eater t ha n 99 DR veh icles 50-99 D R vehic l es 2 0 4 9 DR vehic l es 0 1-19 DR vehicles ""' &! ( Counly COJ.COOid. T tiU'I11j)Qo1$1 i M Mlafri t Jl.::.mi OIIdo T 1 .1nslt A(lctlllV' .... Co.S' A.,. C l4loCMI COIIIIIV' Coctd. TUII'I$pllltlllion 8row.,d Counry Miil$$ Turui t O iv blon Otlllllldo LYNX T ron$il County A&& Tt(IMri l Palm Btaeh P11lm Bc11eh County Tr.llll$il SV'Stllt 'll ..... PMOC0unry l'l.oblle TIM11pottlltion Hilllborou!;l"l Hll$bQ1\IV9h /<((Ill R&ljOtl lll TIM$1 1 ....... Pine!lllli Tr11tl$1t A11:t1od w l ndhtn AA.-Mdilln COulltv CO A Satat6t.a COIOf'IIV lotCII T tM'ItJ'I JKkoonllil!e Ti(l Sl. l....cill Counry COA Lekolend U!l.&hu:Y>;ueo Men; w:c Ceunty A11:11J Tre!Uit


Ridership for the demand-response modes either directly operated or purchased by Florida s public transit systems has increased 436 percent since 1984. More than 35 percent of the increase occurred between 1992 and 1997, after the passage of the 1991 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). However, from 1996 to 1997, total demand-response ridership decreased about three percent 84 as as a1 sa eg go st 92 s:J s4 as ss n AO' Vo'J,Ws Qll t h.;s utv.rc. Olio/. J>lo d-1111 bull fe r Ml rho.sll ;t.:wXt th c t tOPfN( lrx !ITO f).I-IJI(It 1!}!)7 INII ptll.\'m.'Niry, IIOt !illM tt;)/idllf(ld lllltJllN/ .'$ ............................................


Operating Cost Per Passenger Trip Operating cost per passenger trip at the statewide level for the demand -response mode has increased 108 percent since 1984. This measure increased about five percent between 199 6 and 1997. Statewide Total $ 12.0()+-----------,. 84 8 5 88 81 8t at 10 II 12 t3 t 4 85 96 87 IMItlon Miami All Other Systems ., as au 87 & a a t 90 s 1 s z 9 3 ac u as 11 84 as 86 87 sa at a o 11 u tn t4 11 aa 11 l n tl;,tion l n tl1don AJI.,MJ. t.hl t p. {(}pt'CVX!t ttr!.md>tOsprH\ff ffl# d#t co.-r.pi.ftNJ fMMiy d'Jo

Since 1984, the amount of demand-response service provided either directly or via contract by Florida's public transit systems has increased 1006 percent. Similar to the case for ridership, a significan t portion (57 percent) of the increase occurred between 1992 and 1997, after passage of the ADA in 1991. From 1996 to 1997, however, total demand response service miles decreased approximately one percent. 85 8687 88 89 90 II U tl94 95 S8 97 84 85 88 87 88 89 90 11 u 13 u 95 95 97 /ldY.I.WS (H I (f,;, pag;, f/WHnt dtNilalldNJ'KX>fl" ()Aif, 'fil e d.Jt

Since 1984 the statewide total operating cost per service mile for the dem and respon s e mode has increased one percent This measure increased less than three percent from 1996 to 199 7. Sta tewide Total 84 85 86 87 88 89 80 II 92 93 Set 95 96 97 l n l loti0t1 Mia m i All Other Syste m s $ 4 .00,.--------'-------.., 84 B S 86 87 88 89 SO 9 1 92 93 9 4 9 5 96 97 84 8 5 8&: 8 7 88 8 9 90 91 92 93 S4 95 96 97 IC'P,_.SfHit Ctlm:JrNhNO!X'/.Sti.::Cr. .V:<> Oilly. Wta lillY# r;ompilo;d f()l ON tll()$11 fl,)fM>"l J'O'.tl'llm.t /!lilt NtfMHr for ,({/) 19'97 'tl prc()m.V/..'"IY, POt firNt.' ..........................................



FOO T funds a variety o f services de s igned to aid commuters. Commutet assistance progtams !CAPs), l!anspottatiM mtJn/Jgement associations; organizations or init iatives (TMAs ); patk and ride Jots; and transit corridot programs all help to keep Floridians moving. Transponat ion Man a gement A$$Ocit6on ITMAI Commute r Assistance Prog ram ICA P ) FOOT wotks with local govemments; MPOS; and the private sector to focus the efforts of the Florida Commuter A ssistance Program Curtently, 21 commuter assistance programs and TMA s are being funded by the Depanment UACTA Fl. LMfo:UI Floricl110 flliarri B TMA Mi:$1)11tU.tiOI"I Oownw .. 'l'l T01m11o1o TIM) Alll lltflce TMO D!l'A'fltolol)mllnt AlllhoriW T MJ Flo rida North f'lor kla .Jaohonvllle SAC$ lYNX. 8p-Coll" SMART L co...,,v Gold (:oo)o!$1 Lee County Vlut Commvw Pl'eg,yn o l Nettl'l Rort& lbt LYNX Mctlititv Sp.:1o:4 $o;IIQ( U i l:Jll$lrl;l90 1 ilb:'l & flo;t$1 Ttllfl\ljl CAP l (:jl.P Ce4!:1t Co."'\...,.1111 lYNX Gold Coast Tltll .ft>IOICII (()( :/111 /JIIISIIII!ftd M d:o' } > i1 f(W d!O Ff11h.'<:h liy fhlt of ............................................


Primary Market Coverage o f Florida's CAPs The nine co mmuter assista nce prog r ams in the s tate e ncompass 3 5 o f Florida' s 6 7 c ounties for purposes o f the i r effective coverage. The estimat e d n umber of employees in th e s e c ounties for 1996 is appr ox imat ely 5 4 million pers o ns. This means that commut e r assistance services are a v a ilable to more t/1an 81 p e r cent of the state's estimat e d 6 6 million employees. Commuter Assistance Program 1996 Estimated Employees West Flofida Com muter Servic:es Pro g ram 337,861 Commu ter S rvices o f N o rth F lo rida 179 ,907 Jacksonvil le Sha,. A Ride 354,629 Bay Area Commuter Services 1,091,028 LYNX Mobility AUi 1tance 673,263 Space Coast Commuter Assistance Program 187,038 Sunco ast Metropolitan & Rural Transportation CAP 286.480 Lee County Commuter Asslstance Program 163.834 Gol d Coast Commuter Services 2 ,086,148 T o ta l for CAPs 5 .360.187 Total for Flor id a 6 586 ,000 'll> o f Statewide Tota l 81. 4'll> fht lltJmWot I'Pl OYHS w.u u'Hd 111 o t lf:tt this {J(OIIfli.l 'vtM'VUfld 10 o. t/11 PlimM'f m.tfto: ltH most IIJ!J($ J t>mD:.!Iof ompror'$ f o r 1M d l

::;;;;-\!1\1 'e).\\!1 Commuter Assistance Services Commuter assistance services provide commuters with different ideas on how they can curtail their use of single-occupant vehicles iSOVs), via a mix of strategies that are promoted through regional and local programs. The mix of services offered generally includes ridematch databases, matchlists, surveys, assistance in forming vanpools/carpools and information on public transit. Selected C ommuter As s i stance A c tivities fiiO /llf(l(tniHit)(t 0<1 tlli!H(Jt t89'/.98 tUlll!t : .tr.o11 _. fr o m "'-Piogr

0 Commuters Requesting Assis t ance Number o f persons reQuesting assistance of some sort such ns carpool/vanpool marchlist, transit route and/or schedule infotmation, telecommuting information, bicycle tOute and/or locker/rack information, ere. 0 Commuters Switching Modes Number of persons who actually use the information provided to change f1om their current SOV mode to ca1poo/ing, vanpooling, transit use, telecommvting, walking, or bicycHny 0 Vans in Service (where applicab le) Number of commuter vans on the road and/or the number of vanpoo/ers participating in B vanpoo/, 0 Vehicle Trips Eliminated Number of SOV trips that were eliminated due to persons rJSing a shared mode or telecommuting as a result of the commuter assistance services/information provided. 0 Veh i cle Miles Elimin ated Number of SOV miles that were eliminated due to persons using a shared mode or telecommuting as a result of the commuter assistance StJrvices/information provided. 0 Park ing Needs Reduced Number of persons at each employment site that are using alternative modes, tbereby indicating the impact on parking needs at the sites. 0 Commuter Costs Saved Amount of SOV costs that were saved based on the number of SOV miles that were eHminated due to persons (ISin g a shared mode or telecommuting as a result of the commuter assistance services/information provided. 0 Gallons of Gasoline Saved Amount of fuel saved based on the number o f SOV mites thot were eliminated due to persons usliJg a shared mode or telecommuting as a result of the commuter assistance services/information provided.


FOOT's Park and Ride Lot Program encourages the use of high occupancy vehicles (transit_ carpools, vanpools} by providing safe, convenient parking for commuters. Th ere are currently 1 09 park and ride lots on the FDO T inventory list witll over 25,500 total s paces. The average use of available parking spaces is over 43 percent with 16 percent of the lots exceeding 60 percent occupancy. Park & Ride Lot Supply By District Park & Ride Lot Inventory By District One Two Three Four Five Six Seven District District One Two Three Four Five Six Seven TOTAL No. of Lots No. of Spaces 3 72 21 4,377 15 375 19 4,511 6 424 24 13.873 21 1,900 109 25.532 i hil iJI(Orl't'NU.'()(J ptlt.Ulfl/ rM rl:h Wlt. t ()f)lAV!IId ltO!JI #:It CcmmuNI flttp!lr. MldlJ!t> P,rwJ; Alld R'dll lt>tlllflml'y prlljUiflld by;'* FJ(I(I 'dA ot TtMt.plltUH,"()(o .............................................. cv-


Metrorail serves 16 park and ride lots containing a total of 10,889 spaces. The remaining 93 lots on FOOT s inventory contain 14,643 spaces. Park and ride lots served by Metrorail have a 54 percent occupancy rate, compared to the 35 percent occupancy rate for all other lots. M et rorail Park & R ide L ots H ave Hig h Occupancy Rates Lot s Spaces %Occupancy Metrorall 16 10.80!9 54.0% All Others 93 14,643 35.0% TOTAL 109 25.532 43.1% 1 40 20 r-=-S e l ec t e d High Occ up a ncy P ark & Ride Lots .. -o; -;;;: i r-> g ilfl g w i 4 1\1 0 < i 0 ill "' 0 ,., l ; One Two T hroo Four Five Si x District Seven kofotmllfi.Of'l IJ t'l w.u obffit:ood from d:o Cr;.71rmr'" P' R/:potr Pd'*. 4M P..'W lote.\\ ':y lrrH-tl:otr o>r d:o 1/IJridtl lHPVflfmt ............................................