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Technical memorandum number three and Technical memorandum number four


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Technical memorandum number three and Technical memorandum number four Florida barriers to station area development and recommended strategies for overcoming them
Portion of title:
Florida barriers to station area development and recommended strategies for overcoming them
Alternate Title:
Enabling station area development in Florida towards more cost effective rail transit investment
Physical Description:
1 online resource (38 p.) : ;
Sheck, Ronald C
Florida -- Office of Public Transportation
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Transit Solutions (Firm)
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Local transit stations -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Land use -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Local transit -- Finance -- Florida   ( lcsh )
rail transit   ( trt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 33-36).
General Note:
Performed by Transit Solutions for the Florida Dept. of Transportation Office of Public Transportation.
General Note:
"Project manager, Ronald C. Sheck."
General Note:
"March 2000."

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 029120422
oclc - 753725999
usfldc doi - C01-00185
usfldc handle - c1.185
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TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM NUMBER THREE AND TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM NUMBER FOUR: FLORIDA BARRIERS TO STATION AREA DEVELOPMENT AND RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES FOR OVERCOMING THEM Enabling Station Area Development in Florida: Towards More Cost Effective Rail Transit Investment for Office of Public Transportation Florida Department of Transportat io n 605 Suwanee Street (MS 26) T allahassee Florida 32399-0450


TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM NUMBER THREE AND TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM NUMBER FOUR: FLORIDA BARRIERS TO STATION AREA DEVELOPMENT AND RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES FOR OVERCOMING THEM Enabling Statum Area Development itz Florida: Towards More Cost Effective Rail Transit Investment for Office of P u blic Transportation Florida Department of nansportation 605 Suwannee Street (MS 26) Tallah>ssee, Florida 32399-0450 tluough Center for Urban Transportat.ion Research College of Engineering. UniverSity of South F lorida 4202 B. Fowler Avenue, C U T 100 Tampa, FL 33620-5375 (813) 974-3120, F ax (813) 974-5168 by Transit SoJutions 4612 Evanston Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103 (206) 632 -3443, F ax (206) 6323444 Email: March2000 Project Manager R o nald C. Sheck Project Slqff Scott Place


TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction I Barriers and Overeominl! Tbem 3 Knowledge and Perceptio n 5 Market and Location 11 Government Rules and Regulations 15 Public and Pri vate Financin g 23 Community Vision and Co ntext 27 Maklng it Happen 31 Usefu l Materials 33 Useful Co n tacts 37


INTRODUCTION The two previous technical memoranda in tliis Enabling Station Area Development in Florida: Towards More Cost-Effective Rail Transit Investment, introduced the subject of station area development, identified examples from transit systems across the United States, and produced an inventory of what, if any, developmen t is occurring at the 62 rail transit stations currently in place around Florida, and at the 14 stati ons that are either under-construction or soon will be. This technical memorandum identifies barriers to statio n area development and recommends strategies for overcoming them. Barriers have been identified and classified into several categories. Within each of the categories, specific situations are cited. The ramifications of these situations for station area development are discussed. Strategies, tactics, and actions are recommended for ove r coming these barriers. Barriers are conditions policies statutes, regulations and perceptions that hinder development around rail transit stations i n Florida It was the original intent o f this study to focus on institutio nal barriers; in particul arthose government constrains, both formal and informal, that prohibit, preclude, constrain, or othenvise limit actions that could assist in carry i ng out development around rail transit stations. However, as the research probed more deeply into the issues associated with station area development, it became apparent that other factors beyond the impact of government were very important in the process. Knowledge, or lack thereof, and perception about what station area development is, or isn't, and what impact in can have on the community adjacent to the rail station, have also emerged as critical elements in determining if development will go forward. Market is also very crucial to the implementation and ongoing success of station area development Much, if not most, of the development will be carried out by the private sector. Private sector investment, by its very nature, expects a profitable return on investment This only happens if there is a market for what is being placed in the station area. Financing, is a third, essential, yet very complex component of the station area development process. Without financing, development will not take place. To secure funds to carry out de velopme nt may well involve both public and private sector participants. Generally, public and private funding sources have quite d ifferent objectives. They also have different sets of constraints that may limit their options as to what they can support and carry out. Often their "rules" work against the collaborative kind of joint public/private se ctor parti cipation that is so eritical i n moving a significant station area project forward. Government is a major player in what happens at, or around, rail transit stations. The transit system is a public entity and must adhere to rule s applied to it by s tate or l ocal statutes and ordinances, and I


usually receives federal, and in Florida, state ftnancial assistance. Accept ing federal or state funds may also impose a set of constrains Development ofland around rai l transit stations must also conform to local rules, regulations and policies. It is in local government that constraints exist as to the type and intensity of developm e nt that can be implemented In Florida, the size and intensity of local development may also be subject to state growth management requirements and scrutiny. For development to proceed it must be acceptable and conform to both state and local requirements. Barriers, and how to overcome them, have been grouped into five broad categories: !.knowledge and perception; 2. market and location; 3. government rules and regulations; 4 public and private ftnancing; and, 5. community vision and context. Each ofthe broad categories is further sub-divided into a set of more specific barriers For each barrier, one of more actions is proposed to overcome or circumvent the barrier These actions range from educational and informational strategies to re-examination of policies by key players, to legislative changes that allow things to happen in a different way than they have in the past. Some actions involve specific state or local government action. Others require forming collaborative relationships between partners from the public and private sectors. Still others call for a re evaluation of the local community future by a committed citizenry. What follows in the ensuing pages is an outline of acti on steps that are essential for overcoming various obstacles and barriers, and thereby enabling rail transit station area development in Florida. Within each of the categories barriers are explained their importance noted and a set of actions identified These actions can be considered as the "game plan" for getting station area development moving ahead in a manner that makes investment in rail transit more effective, and that co n tributes to the quality of life in those Florida communities that either have, are building, or considering, rail transit as part of their transportation system The actions are presented as a series of recommendations. The recommendations are, in large part the result of examination of the station area development process in cities across the U.S. where this topic has been successfully implemented. 2


BARRIERS AND OVERCOMING THEM Barriers to station area development are not confmed to wbattransit agencies and other government entities can and cannot do. Perception and ignorance are also significant issues Lack ofknowledge and familiarity with this topic is a key problem to overcome-one that can best be done with education and dissemination of good information. Understanding what station area development is all about, and how it can contribute to the goals of a community, is very important Some commun ities have a limited view of where they are going in the future. It is important that cities and towns look ahead and decide what they want to be like Only then can they start to explore how they might get there. Other barriers are fmancial, both the ability to raise the needed money, and limitations on how it can be used. Still others are and institutional. These barriers l imit the actions of both government and private individuals and businesses. Some barriers are purely the resu l t of tradition and inertia, "We've always done it that way. Moving ahead with station area development requires thinking, "outside of the box." The sections that follow group 16 recommendations into various categories. T he recommendations propose various actions be undertaken, and by various actors--including government agencies, the private sector, professional and advocacy organizations and individual citizens They are based on observations and conversations with transit operators, local plarmers and developers, community leaders, government agencies citizen and environmental advocates; and on first hand visits to many transit station area developments in a dozen cities across the land, i n c l uding all of the eltisting transit stations in Florida The 16 recommendations include: Establishing an education and outreach effort to increase awareness of station area development. Collaborative efforts by local government and business to learn about successful station area development across the country and sharing the infonnation the l ocal community. In volving a broad spectrum of the community in station area planning Devel oping a package of materials about each station area to facilitate good investor decisionmaking 3


Assisting potential station area businesses in gathering information for a thorough market analysis. Modifying Concurrency requirements to allow for greater flexib i l ity in the use of public transportation, transportation demand management, and intelligent transportation systems technology. Incorporate transit station area development as a category for inclusion by DCA in its review of local Comprehensive Plans. Action by local governments to provide for special transit station area zoning. Ensure that adequate access linkages are put in place between transit s tatio ns and adjacent neighborhoods. Allow transit agencies to purchase land and assemble property adjacent to transit stations for development and redevelopmen t purposes. Allow for greater flexibility in the use of state and local government, and transit agency funds, to assist station area development. Allow transit agencies to issue revenue bonds to assist in station area development. Allow for tax moratoriums on new development at transit stations in order to encourage private sector investment. Encourage lending inst itutions to recognize and support the viability of mixed use development. Initi ate and cany out a broad-based Community Vision for each metropolitan area in Florida that includes a transportation component. Encourage locating public facilities at transit station sites. 4


KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION Station area development is not a widely known concept in Florida. Even among the transit and urban planning conununities there is limited familiarity and experience with the subject. Mention "transit-oriented development," or "station area development" outsid e o f transportation, planning o r architectural groups and you will be met with blank face responses Few Floridians are aware of w hat these terms mean. However, many are concerned with urban mo b ility congestio n, and tranSportationrelated issues which affect the quality oflife in our metropolitan areas. In addition to being un-aware of what "station area development" i s they are also unfumiliar with its importance as a powerful tool in helping to so lve some of these urban issues. When !he subject is brought up at open public meetings on planning of urban rail transit, !hose citizens who are aware ,of the concept often express a perception that station area development is exclus ively offices, retail and high density residential jammed together in multi-story ,high rise buildings. While some may see !he benefits in this, olhers react wilh repugnance and horror. The rich variety of poss i bilities of varying compositions and mixes of uses, densities, and architectural styles, is often overlooked. A common perception, among !hose that do know !he term is thatt his is high density, urban congestion, !hat flies in the face of what they see as d esirable in Florida. This perception may b e !h e result of personal life exp erience of having lived in, or traveled to, New York, Philadelphia, or Chicago, and seen in place what they do not want to be brought to Florida metropo litan areas. Few Floridians are aware of !he varied, positive aspects of station area development which have evolved in Atlanta, Dallas, Portland, Sacramento, San Diego, San Jose, Washington, D .C., and other communities where rail transit has been put in place in recent years Unfamiliarity with the concept is not limited to the general public. Those in Florida most likely to receive inunediate economic benefits from loc at ing a new activity or business near a rail transit station are also without much knowledge about the concept or how it mig ht benefit them. Developers, entrepreneurs, investors, business people, store owners and operators in this state, usually do not have much experience with th e advantages of transit-related development or redevelopment. There are some exceptions to this particularly in the Miami area where station area development has been in plac e at some Metrorail and Metromover locations for a number of years. A few developers and other business persons may have been i n volved with projects in oth er states, or are aware of them. 5


Rail transit is currently a part of the metropolitan transportation system in three southeast Florida counties (Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade), and in Jacksonville. By late 200 I it v.11l be part of the system in Tampa when the Streetcar line linking Ybor City with the Channelside District and the south end ofDov,ntown Tampa is completed. In spite o f political setbacks in Orlando and Tampa for proposed light rail projects, these may well be revisited in the future. The 40 stations in Miami, 18 stations along the Tri Rail system, the 8 stations in Jacksonville, and the 12 stations to be builtin Tampa, provide considerable opportunity for linking rail transit and development or redevelopment to enhance community life. Recommendation J, FDOT and DCA should embark upon an education and outreach effort, in collaboration with local transit, planning, and community development agencies, to increase about transit station area development This effort should emphasize how transit and development can work together to enhance the quality of urban life. It should also focus on how station area development can be a win-win for investors, the transit agency, and station neighborhoods. FOOT and DCA are the responsible agencies for funding and/or approving transportation planning and i nv estment, and community planning processes and efforts across Florida. Tr ansit has been identified as a component of gromng importance in Florida's transportation future. DCA is concerned with the reasonableness oflocal planning efforts and their commitment to a number of goals including environmental quality, urban livability, and citizen access to housing, jobs and needed services. Trans it can be a powerful tool in helping achieve these goals. Station area development is one point where FDOT and DCA have a common nexus. These two agencies should collaborate to develop a program to educate local communities about the benefits of station area development. This collaboration should include the follomng actions: Establish a stat e clearinghouse of information on station area and transit-oriented development. This would include a depository of information: i.e., publications, films, slides, videos, etc. collected globally, but with a U.S. emphasis, that would be available on a loan basis to interested agencies, parties and individuals. Prepare and distribute a set of materials on station area and transit-oriented development that would give an objective view of the topic, describe the role of various players, and provide an outline of the process involved in developing successful projects. 6


Make available a se t of experts on this subject, either agency staff or independent resource p ersons, who would be available to share their expertise with local communities. Establish a web site that would include a list of key contact persons at state and local government agencies, and from the private sector, who have been involved with successful station area development. The web site would also carry news items about station area development issues as they arise in Florida, and reports on specific development projects elsewhere. Recommendation 2. Transit agencies planning to construct rail transit should solicit the cooperation and collaboration of their local planning, economic development, and other agencies, and of local business and community kaders IJJ team about successful station area development in oilier cities across tile country. They should bring what they llave learned to tlteir own community and sllare it with local citizms. Applying station area development in Florida is not "reinventing the wheel." Although the concept is new to many political and business leaders, and most citizens, it bas been applied very successfully in numer ous communities across the county; and at selected stations in Florida--primarily on the Mettorail system operated by MDTA. Reading about the subject, looking at photographs ina book, or watching a video or slide presentation, can provide a basic sense of what station area development is all about. However a first hand look with a chance to observe what is actually there and ask questions of those involved, can be a much more meani.ngfullearning experience. There i s much to be said for the adage, "seeing is believing." A variety of steps should be taken to familiarize local business and community leaders with station area development. These actions should be taken in communities that currently have rail transit and are pushing ahead with station area projects; and they should be underway where rail transit is being introduced into a community for the first time. The initiative for these steps should fall to the ttansit agency. However, they should invite the cooperation and collaboration of other agencies and organizations concerned with planning and development. This should include local business organizations, i.e. Chamber of Commerce, Dov.'lltown or Neighborhood development organizations; community improvement groups, etc. Among the actions that should be considered are: Holding special workshops on the topic of station area development with invited speakersi . e, from the FOOT/DCA Clearinghouse, research centers, other transit or development agencies that have relevant experience to sbare, a developer who has had a successful project, a neig hborhood leader from another city to te ll how it contributes to that community. The 7


workshops should focus on both opportunities and process. They should include examples of a wide variety of development mixes, densities, and architectural styles. The discussion should include costs and financing alternatives Follow up meetings, and perhaps even the creation of an organization to further the issue, should be outcomes of an initial workshop. Carry out a visit to a community which bas carried out station area development successfully. Th e city selected should be as similar as possible in its economic, demographic, and geographic conditions to the F lorida city that is considering station area development; or it shou l d be a city that has achieved certain goals that make i t highly desirable to emulate. Those going on the trip should inclu de a wide spectrum of community leaders agency personnel, members of local organizations concerned with the community's vision and future, and i nterested citizens. A condition of going on the trip should be a willingness to s hare their experience with others upo n their return Recommendation 3. Involve as broad a spectrum of the community as possible in station area planning. Transit agencies planning for rail should take the initiative to provide a good forum for public discussion; and should encourage participation in this discussion by elected officials, business and other community leaders, land owners and residents of stalion neighborhoods-a// stakeholders in the quality of community life. Station area development is about p lannin g for the future. It is absolutely essential to involve those who will share most i n that future Those living nearby, riding the tran si t system considering a business investment in the area nearby, responsible for the public investment, or concerned with the overall well-being of the city, need to have an opportunity to discuss what is being planned for a station area. Maintaining an open process is critical; it makes common sense and will pay dividends in terms of contributing to the support for the transit investment-an investment that usually requires some tax investment and therefore impacts those in the immediate vicinity of the station if not all across the metropolitan region. The effectiveness of having an open process will be enhanced by having followed Recommendations I and 2 before carrying out planning for each station. The open planning process should include the following: A series of informational meetings covering the proposed or p lanned rail transit system or line where interested and affected parties can get an overview of the concept and preliminary plans. Having a basic understanding ofhow the system fits together, and what other parts of the metropolitan area are linked together, can help clarify the perspective of a particular local stat ion area. Looking at the big picture first can make it easier to get discussion going about 8


what the possibilities might be in the local neighborhood at its station site. Rather than conduct a meeting for each proposed station site, it is probably more effective to bring together two or three adjacent stations. This will make it easier to identify common concerns that may extend across neighborhoods. There is also an advantage in that the richness of mixing neighborhoods together may increase the flow of ideas, and lead to a greater sharing of creativity. A set of workshops need to be conducted for planning each of the station areas. Whil e the transit agency should take the lead in this, it also needs to involve the local planning agency, neighborhood associations, economic development agencies, housing authorities, street and road agencies, schools, libraries public parks, and other government and public agencies with facilities in the area Co-sponsorship of the workshops with the local p l anning agency and/or neighborhood association is a good strategy because it indicates broad interest and sensitivity to local concerns Local business owners and residents need to be invited to attend The goal is to maximize the input opportunity of the station area stakeholders These meetings should have some structure that would include presentations by planners, architects and engineers on the transit agency concepts and p lans. However, it may be highly desirab l e early in these meetings to give citizens a chance to voice their ideas about what they want-or don't want-in the area. The workshops a l so provide an opportunity for those proposing new development, or redevelopment, to test the reaction ofthose living in the area. Bringing in representatives of the local community who have traveled and seen station area development e l sewhere, or bringing in someone from anothercommunitythat has been involved or affected by station area development can also be useful 9




MARKET AND LOCA TION Rail transit station sites are specific geographic locations. Developing these station areM by attracting new activities there is what this concept is about. Development requires investment If that investment is to come from the private sector, the new activity must be able to produce a profit. Therefore it is important to select activities for which there i s a market. The activity may b e a flower shop, dry cleaners, or convenience store that serves the surrounding neighborhood; but there must be a market for the activity. Apartments, townhouses, and even compact, closely spaced single family homes can be elements of station area development if there is a market for additional housing in the metropolitan area. The same holds true for office space. The selling point for locating homes and offices at the rail transit station is that the trains provide good access to other places in the community Residents living near the station can get to work or shopping without having an automobile. Employers can offer their workers the possibility of getting to jobs by using transit--perhaps saving the employee the cost of a second automobile; and saving themselves money by not having to build so many parking spaces. Public officia l s may decide to l ocate a community wide facility -one that draws upon the entire area as its "market" --like a convention center, sports arena, or performing arts center at a rail transit s t ation site. The more attendees that are able to getto an activity atone of these facilities on trdllSil, the less demand there be for parking facilities; roadway and street congestion will be lowered. The successful location of any activity at a station area development site requires a thorough understanding of what the market is for the proposed activity For the investor in a sroall business, this means obtaining good information about the nei ghborhood around the station For someone planning to locate an activity that may draw upon other areM of the city, it may require having that same information for the area around several other stations, or the immediate neighborhood .. Recommendation 4. Transit agencies, itt collaboration with local planning and economic development agencies, should prepare a package of materials about the characteristics of each station area in order to facilitate good investor decision making. Such material will also be useful to support the plwming process and be an important tool in the overall strategy of encouraging higher density use in rail transit corridOr$. Where neighborhood desires show a preference for maintaining the status quo at a staJUm area, the preparaJion of an Inventory can be helpful in guaranteeing that existing conditions are maintained. Accurate, reliable information is essential to understanding both the unique character of each station area, and what the opportunities might be for new activity--if that is a desired option on the part of those who live and/or own businesses in the adjoining neighborhood. Local planning agencies the 11


transit agency, tax appraisers and tax collectors, the U S Bureau of th e Census, state and local highway agencies, state and local agencies that monitor environmental condi tions, and others, have a vast amount of information on our urban areas. However, obtaining that informat io n for a specific station site, requires a visit to numerous sources of information. Pulling information toge ther and presenting itas a single source for the station area will facilitate the planning process, allow for better understanding of the neighborhood by those who live, work and play there, and will enable investors in a new business or activ ity to make better decisions. This information will also be useful to public officials and others involved in the allocation of public resources, and in attaining community goals including social justice Several cities have conducted this type of inventory of station areas for a variety of purposes Marketing development opportunities is one important goal of packaging the material at the station level. Sometimes this has been aggregated into a system-wide collection. Tri Met in Portland, Oregon has done this for the two light rail lines it has built over the past decade and a half. Technical Memorandum Number Two: Inventory ofFlorida Station Development Sites and Opportunities, in this current study for the Florida Department of Transportati on, is another example of this type of inventory. Information is usually collected for a buffered area ranging from I /4 to Yz mile in radius around the transit station. Station area inventories should i ncl ude a variety of information selected from the following mix o f item s : A map and/or aerial photograph of the station area, to show loca tion of the major features including rail l ines, bus routes, streets buildings, and vacant areas. Population of the area, although obtaining an accurate count is difficult. Demographic characteristics of the population Current and future land use maps. Property values, both land and buildings in both map and tabular formats. Identification of major buildings and other landma rks. Description of the area--backed up by photographs. Map of age of buildings--older ones may be candidates for historic preservation or potentially removable for new and higher uses. 1 2


Inventozy of vacant property, Other information as needed. Recommendation 5. Transit agencies plamling for station area development need to assist potential businesses locati11g at stati011 sites in obtaining tile 11eeded information for a tllorougll market alllllysis. To be most effective thi s will require collaborative efforlS with local planning aJzd economic development organizations. Many businesses in Florida will be breaking new ground when they choose to become part of a station area development. I t is vezy important that the y survive and flourish. Because of the access that a rail transit station provides to a larger segment of the community, and the flow of people through the sta tio n, the market area may be somewhat different than that of a traditional location that does n ot offer the advantages of the transit s ite. This condition exists for all new i nvestment activity that may occur around a rail transit station--whether it be a co n venience store, restaurant, apartment or condominium complex, or an office building. This is less of a hazard for a firm that is from another state, or perhaps even a south Florida location, that is experienced i n station loca tions. For most Florida rail transit stations, develope rs or businesses selecting a nearby site will probably be unfamiliar with the market area configuration associated with rail transit locations. In any case, the transit agency and ot hers can assist the investor i n obtaining essential market informatio n that will result in a better business investment. Most businesses are vezy market consciou s Recognizing and defining a market must be done within the overall context of what is happening in the metropoli tan area for many busine sses. As an e.xample, the City of San Jose, California, conducted a maJor asses smentofhousingneeds in the mid-1980s at the same time light rail transit was under-construction. The study identified a shortfall of25,000 housing units over a ten year period. Builder's responded quickly to meet the nee

Providing oontacts with similar types of business i n transit statio n area locations in other cities. Identify ing fmns and/or agencies that carry out the type of analysis that is needed by a business considering loca ting at a transit station site. Identifying data resources within the local area that might be used in conducting the market analysis, including demographic profiles of transit riders 14


GOVERNMENT RULES AND REGULATIONS Government rules and regulations appl y significant constraints to station area development in Florida. Thi s is not necessarily by intent. Rather it is th e result of other actions that are embodied in state law or local ordin ances and regulations that limit possibilities and discow:age opportunities for station area development. Fl orida is a Growth Management state, and the legi sl atio n that has established growth management regulations recognizes the importance o f providing adequate transportation infrastructure to meet the needs that new development generates This is incorporated into the concept of"Concurrency. Concurrency is embodied in provisions of Florida's Growth Management Act and requires that the impact of new deve l opment on transportation be mitigated by providing additional roadway capacity. In order for development to proceed, a commitment must be secured from the deve l oper and/or a local government agency to carry out the needed capacity improvements "co ncurrent with the deve lo pment. T ransportation capacity i mprovements are defined as roadway impro veme nts, although municipal governments can request and get an exceptio n for certain de velopment if transit is present. Localland use planning and zoning in Fl o rida consistent traditional practices that have evol ved in the same manner all across the country, provides largely for separate and distinct land uses Separate spaces, or zones, are provided for distinct activities. Residential, commercial, office, public, industrial and a few other ca t egories have produced preferred land use p atterns that discourage mixing uses on the same' piece ofland. Most l o ca l zoning ordinances also limit the use of space by requiring minimum sizes for certain activities. This has been particularly effective in residential zoning w here minimum Jot sizes in most places have created lawn and garden space around most homes, and discouraged more compact housing. This arena is one which requires significant action in order to facilitate and encourage station area deve l opment. Recommendation 6. Modify Concurrency to allow greater flexibility in m eeting transportation 11eeds through the use of public transportation, transportation demand ma11agement, and intelligent transportation systems technology Where bus and/or rail trmtSit are present, or will he implemented with t11e proposed deve/opmem, reduced roadway capacity and parking requirements should be allowed consistent with ridership targets for public trattSiL 15


Currently, meeting the expanded transportation needs associated with new development projects is met by expanding roadway capacity to meet the expected growth in travel. Where transit is in place, or can be added as a transportation alternative the demand for roadway capacity should be reduce d in a proportional manner. The high capacity of rail transit in particular can be a significant offset for further roadwa y investments. This is especially critical s i nce roadway capacity increases in urban areas require acquiring additional right-of-way. This can be financially expensive, and very disrupti v e of n eighbo rhoo d social cohesion and economic viability. To put the argument another way, the substitution of transit for roadway capacity can also allow for a greater concenttation of development on the same piece of land. The reduced number of automob ile trips generated by the new development can result in savings on adjacent roadway expansion and on lowered demand for parking space as part of the development. Savings result both t o the public sector which is funding roadway conslrUction and maintenance, and t o the private sector in terms of building and maintain ing parking spaces. A reallocation ofimpactfees from road to transit projects is also a requirement of implementing this recommendation. Thi s reallocation should be proportional to the anticipated shift from automobile use to transit. It should be obvious that co-locating development and transit at the same site will have benefits to both the developer and the transit agency assuming that the site is also accessible by pedestrians and automobiles. A growing number of deve lopers across the countzy have become involved in transit station area projects. These projects range from medium and high density residential, to office space, to commercial retail, to a growing variety of mixed use projects. Transit agencies benefit from increased ridership, and from revenue s1reams resulting from leasin g property at station sites, or from tax revenues associated with value capture as property appreciates. The tradeoff benefits of transit for roadway subs titution in assoc i ation with development is well understood in a growing number of metropolitan areas around the countzy. Atlanta, Dallas, Denver, Portland, Sacramento, San Diego San Jose, San Francisco, St. Louis and Washington, D.C. all offer good examples (See Reference Materials and U seful Resources) Recommendatwn 7. Incorporate transit station area development as a category for inclusion by by DCA in its review and evaluation of local Comprehensive Plans Rail transit stations, intercity rail and bus terminals, local transit centers, and intermodal faciliiUs, are worthy of consideration by local communities as they plan for the future. 16


Transit station area development is a too l that can assist in economic revitalization and quality of life enhancement. While the major focus of this study has been on rail transit stations, and these are metropolitan phenomenon with urban and suburban lo cations other station opportunities exist in smaller stations where intercity bus and rail services exist, or w here local transit service has a central hub location. Ina few cases intercity and local services have been brought together, and the potential exists fordoing more of this. Part ofDCA's responsibility is to assist smaller communities with the planning process. DCA has community quality oflife improvement as a policy goal. These two can come together in projects which bring transportation modes together-and ther e is opportunity to use the station or multimodal terminal as a catalyst for renovating or upgrading the adjacent area; perhaps even providing a new focal point for redevelopment of a small urban community DCA, by incorporating the concept of station area development into i ts review of local comprehensive plans, can local communities with information on how this might work i o their unique situation. FDOT can assist in this through the identification of resources that can be secured by the local community for the transportation portion of these facilities. Numerous examples can be seen from all across the country of the use of rail or bus stations, local transit centers, or intermoda l facilities, that have aided communities in upgrading blighted or run down areas, or become new community centers. Florida has an excellent example in Ocala where an historic railroad station has been rehabilitated as an intermoda l station with Amtrak, Greyhound, l oca l transit, a police station and park. Other emerging projects exist along Tri Rail at West Palm Beach and at Boynton Beach. Recommendation 8. Local governments need to provide for special transit station area zoning. Transit statians create unique opportunities that are best utilized by special mixes of activiJies which produce unique land use cqmbinations, and require to be economieaUy viable that set them apart from more tradiJional zoning categories. Successful deve l opment around transit stations is usually a departure from traditional local patterns that have been defined b y local planning and zoning efforts. Examination of transit station sites reveals that most are located in areas dominated by perhaps two or three land use types, and perhaps a handful of zoning categories. Some may be within an area that is a single land use, or even a single zoning category. The very nature of station area development is that the site now has potential access by a great many peopl<>-those riding the transit system can board or alight there. It is probably located on a major street that may be bordered by sidewalks, thereby allowing for automobile and pedestrian access 17


The added accessibility that transit brings to the site translates into good potential for many activities: housing; office employment; retail that may be neighborhood, or corridor, or city-wide, in its market orientation; public facilities that are easily reached by a large segment of the community population. The accessibility advantage also increases the value of the land. This in tum requires a higher return on investment per unit of land. In order to justify the in vestment it is necessary to maximize the use of space. The most common way to do this is to raise the density possible on the station area land. Station area land attracts uses that not only have a high return by unit of space, but also ones that have complementary relationships, or share an interest in a clientele that moves through the stat ion to use transit. The result is an in vestor-drive n desire for a mix of activities at a station site, although one use may dominate. For example, a suburban station site may be proposed that is dominated by moderate to high density housing, but have a handful of activities (i.e. news stand flower shop, laundry and dry cleaners, day care center) serving not only the immedia te housing development but also those passing through the station to and from homes further away or nearby work sites. A closer-in station site might have an office building, hotel and conferen ce center and supporting businesses (i.e. restaurant, car rental office supply)as proposed uses. Realizing these activities may be possible under existing zoning in city center location s where a general "urban core" use designation may be in place. This type of designation usually allows considerable flex.ibility as to use and density, although elements of compatibility are required. However, outside oflarger central cities i t may be necessary to create a special "transit statio n area" or"transit development" category that can be overlain on the existing land use and zoning patterns to allow for the flex.ibility that statio n area deve lopment requires. Municipalities, and counties where transit station potential exists outside of incorporated communities, should proceed to adopt these special zoning districts for station area development. Among the conditions that should be incorporated into th e zoning ordinance are: The station area zone should extend at least 1/4 mile, but probably no more than Y, mile from the station site. Mixed uses should be allowed, but compatibility of uses must be required within the zone, and permitted uses should be determined with input from the adjacent neighborhood. Densities adequate to insure a fair return on investment should be allowed, but adequate protection should be required to prevent development from overwhelming adjacent areas A step down of densities should also be required to provide an appropriate trans ition to existing development beyond the station area zone. 18


Several Florida counties and cities have adopted special zoning categories associated with transit station area development: Miami-Dade and Orange counties; Orlando, South Miami, and Boca Raton. Other citie s outside of Florida have also created special districts or zoning categories. Atlanta, Denver, Portland Sacramento, San Diego, and San Jose are examples. Recommendation 9. Local governments, DCA, and FDOT should work together to ensure adequate Unkages be put in place between transit stations and adjacent areas and activities. Numerous rail transit stations in Florida are separated from nearby and activities by barriers or lack of easy access. Considerabledevelopmenthastaken place near rail transit stations on both the Tri Rail commuter rail and Metro Dade Transit Metrorail systems, yet it is difficult for transit riders to get to nearby work sites or shopping at several stations. Conversely, residents living in apartments and condominiums quite close to rail transit stations fmd no easy way of getting to the facility. The result is lower transit ridership at these sta tions than would nonnally occur if access were made easy. A secondary impact is one of safety and security for those walking from the transit station to nearby office buildings, shopping centers, homes, etc. Getting to or from the station may require forging a path throughj\lllk or debris strewn vacantlots; risking cutting through heavy vehicular traffic on major arterials ; or finding a circuitous route that may lead past abandoned or derelict buildings. Good sidewalk. connections are conspicuously absent from several stations on both systems. No direct pedestrian connections exist at the West Palm Beach Tri Rail station to office buildings, a hotel and apartments to the west; nor at Golden Glades to apartment buildings to the southeast. A particularly vexing problem exists on Metrorail where the line parallels South Dixie Highway for several miles. Metrorail stations are all on the west side of the highway. Passengers with origins or destinations east of the highway must cross six l anes of traffic at signaled intersections with considerable turning traffic. Only the Viscaya station has a pedestrian overpass. One of the most noticeable rece nt disconnects is at the South Miami station where a major mall opened directly across the highway from the station. Pedestrian access requires a five block surface sidewalk. trip crossing two major arterials. Actions recommended to meet the needs of good station access into neighborhoods include the following: FDOT, DCA, the transit agencies and local governments should work together with local citizens to identify access issues at all of the current rail transit stations in Florida. Once the 19


issues have been identified, solutions should be proposed, evaluated and implemented. Improved transit ridership, improved user safety, and enhanced development opportunities will result at existing stations. FDOT and DCA, in cooperation with local governments, should require adequate station area pedestrian access, as well as local transit connections, automobile and bicycle access and parking at aU new transit stations being planned. Recommendation 10. Transil agencies should be allowed to purchase land and assemble property adjacent to transit stations for developmnt and red e velopmellt purposes. The acquisilion should encompass more than what is needed for the station facility and adjacent parking, road, and pedestrian access. The agency should confme its role to assembling the property for development purposes, carry out necessary infrastructure and site improvements, but not act as a developer. One problem that deters station area development is the lack of readily available land in large enough parcels to be economically viable for justifica t ion of the private sector investment. Often land ownership is fragmented. Assem bling several parcels to get one of sufficient size by normal processes of purchase through private sector acquisition can be long, complex and expens ive. If the transit agency could assemble parcels adjacent to the station, combine them into a single parcel, or re-plat them to provide parcels of proper dimension, then the potential for attracting inv estment to the station area increases. Florida statutes, local ordinances, and transi t agency by laws should be amended to allow transit agencies to acquire land around stations for purposes other than access or parking. These changes should also allow the agency to carry out limited improvements to these sites to make them more attractive to developers. Conditions imposed upon transit agency acquisition of a site should include: A competitive process shou ld be used to solicit proposals for use of the site. Selection of the deve loper should be based upon both the bid price for the property (either dir ect oy,nership or long-tenn lease), and the proposed best use of the property as agreed upon by a multiple party review committee that would include the transit agency, local planning and economic d evelopment agencies, neighborhood representatives, and a knowledgeable fmancial institution. Property acqui red should be adjacent to the station and only include contiguous parcels within 1/4 mile of the station. 20


Improvements fimded by the transit agency could include demolition of existing structures; site varung and preparation including drainage and utility relocations or improvements; closure, removal, or building of new roads and sidewalks; fencing and retention walls; and limi ted other improvements necessary to make the parcel or parcels marketable for development. This recommendation is consistent with what is allowed by local governments to carry out economic development or revitalization efforts For example, the City of Tampa has acquired numerous properties in the Ybor City area, consolidated parcels, and re-bid them for sale after determining the highest and best use and establishing a minimum price. Po.rt authorities also have this power and have exercised it in several Florida cities. This strategy has also been used by other transit agencies outside of Florida to carry out large scale developments--notably in Atlanta and Washington, D.C. 2 1




PUBLIC AND PRIVATE FINANCING Station area development has evolved into an identifiable actiVity over more than three decades. Joint public and private use o f station areas began with projects on the BART rapid transit system in the San Francisco Bay Area, and at WMA TA stations in metropolitan Washington, D.C. in the 1970s. By the late 1980s the c oncept had spread to a dozen other new rail transit systems, and today station area development is part of almost all new systems being built, or where extensions of existing ones are being put in to place, or are planned. The earliest tradition was characterized by a fairly strict separation of financing. Public funds available from federal, local, and somewhat later, state governments, were limited to use for only those portions of the station area that were directly related to rail service, or connecting bus transit, or automobile access and parking and sidewalks for the rail station. Investments in buildings, parking lot s access, and landscaping that were for private use could only be paid for from private sector funds. As station area development has become more widespread thecomplexityofwhat is ''pub lic and what is '(private interest has inc-reased. Governmentparticularly the federal government--and transit agencies and local governments, have recognized that considerable public benefit accrues from transit station area development. Perhaps most importantly, transit ridership increases. Revenue from tenants and from real estate sales reduces the need for tax expenditures Fewer automobile trips resulting from increased transit use, and reduced trip chaining where goods and services are available at a transit St!ltion, mean less congestion and improved air quality. The importance of station area development can be seen in the Federal TransitAdministration(FT A) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency joint projects that stress the importance to urban quality of life. FTA has created a "livable communities" grant program to support transit station area development. TEA-21 has expanded the use of federal transportation funds to allow local govi>mments and transit agencies greater flexibility in the use of transportation planning money, and allowed the use of transportation dollars to assist redevelopment efforts in certain ways. This flexibility needs to be extended to state and local funds in Florida. Recommendation 1 J. Allow for greater flexibility in tlze use of state and local government, and transit agency funds, to assist station area development in Florida. Current limitations on tlte use of tltese funds makes the implementation of development or redevelopment projects more difFtcult. 23


Local transit agencies are funded from a variety of sources : federal and state grants for capital assistance; state grants for operating assistance; local funds from gas taxes, ad valorem property taxes, or sa les taxes. Local taxes may be either from dedicated sources, or from allocation of general funds by county and municipal governments. The amount of dedicated sources is also determined by elected governments; although options also exist for public referenda on some taxes. The use of these funds is largely limited to operating and capital costs, including administration and planning. Rolling stoc k (buses, vans, and trains), maintenance facilities and equipment, stations and shelters signage, right-of-way acquisition and construction of track or bus ways, are all eligible costs. Land for station sites appurtenant parking lots, and road and pedestrian access improvements are also allowed. Acquiring land by the transit agency at the station site for purposes other than transportation uses is currently prohibited. Amending state law local ordinances, and transit agency charters, to allow for use of state and local transit funds to acquire land and carry out site preparation work for station area de,elopment purposes by a to-be-determined third party, would facilitate more development i nitiati ves This would also put the transit agency in a better position to create additional ridership, and to meet other community goals that transit can help accomplish. Conditions and limitations as proposed for Recommendation I 0 should also apply here. Recommendiltion 12. Allow transit agencies to issue revenue bonds to assist in area devewpment purposes. Bonds would be paid back from lease or sale of station area property. Another strategy for carrying out station area development by transi t agencies would b e to allow them to iss u e revenue bonds pledged against revenues generated by the development. These revenues would come to the transit agency as either long term lease payments, or as one-time sale proceeds The bonds would be used to acquire land specifically for development purposes, and to carry out basic site development infrastructure and grade improvements necessary for placing the proposed development(s) on the property. This approach has the advantage of addressing concerns with use of public funds collected for transportation purposes to fund projects that may be perceived by some as totally unrelated to transportation. It also has th e advantage of placing the agency in more direct control by not being obligated to another government agency or political body for a funding allocation to carry out the sta tion area development project 24


Precedent exists for this approach in Florida statutes that allow local govenunents to issue bonds for redevelopment purposes with repayment from rents, sale, special assessments or general revenues. The same conditions as proposed in Recommendation I 0 are also suggested for inclus i on in this recommendation Recommendation 13. Allow for tax moratoriums on new development at transit stations In order to encourage private sector lnvestmmt. Tltis may, or may not requil'e, changes In local ordinances; but it will require cooperation and consent from local govemment taxing autltorities. Developers may be reluctant to cany out station area development because they are unfamiliar with the concept, wary of the potential benefits that result from a location with transit service, or are concerned about the viability or volatility of the surrounding neighborhood. They want to minimize risk and maximize return on investment. In order to attract them into new ventures in a new setting it maybe necessary to offer some incentives Packaged parcels and improved site infrastructure may not be enough for developers to make a commitment to a new venture. By providing a moratorium on ad v alorem property taxes for a certain specified period, usually an initial start up of five to ten years, a possible dev elopment project should b e more attractive to developers and their investors. Achievement of this recommendation requires a cooperative agreement b etwe en the transit agency and local govenunent taxing authorities. The trade off for granting a tax moratorium is between the loss ofinunediate tax revenue and anticipated longertenn gain through increased sales, new jobs, and other revenue streams that may result from the new development. Ample precedent exists for providing tax relief to attract deve l opment or redevelopment I t is a tool that has been used by many local governments to attract new business into a community. Applying the concept to station area development can strengthen the hand of transit as a growth management and economic deve l opment tool. Recommendation14 Encourage banks at1d other financial institutions to recognize the viability of mixed use development. Explore wll)ls of minimizing /endi11g Institutions concern with risk =ociated with new ventures that Involve co-ownership of real property Station area development projects involve complex property p atterns and rel ationships. ln mixed use deve l opments, residential, office and commercial uses, in various permutations and combinat i ons, may share the same site, or even the same b uilding. Most development requires financial backing in tenns of loans from banks or other fmancial institutions that provide the capital to carry out the project. Land and/or build i ngs b e come the collateral for these loans. Identifyi n g the collateral is 25


simple when buildings with their separate and distinct uses are involved It becomes more complex when office residence, and/or retai l stores, each with a separate risk or payback potent ial, share the same building. Many financial institutions are reluctan t to make loans where there are a variety of risk scenarios in the same building. The concern is that the most risky activity may jeopardize the others. Banks and financial institutions need to be able to feel more secure with the viability of mixed use projects and the stability of their investment. There needs to be an explor ation of ways of minimizing the risk. The lead in carrying out that exploration must come from those mo st like ly to benefit from this type ofinvestment--transit agencies local governments and local business community leaders. Several Florida transit agencies serve stations where development potential is h igh. These agencies should ban together and solicit the support of their state organization, the Florida Transit Association, and perhaps even the national organization, the American Public Transportation Association {APT A), and begin a dialogue with the others involved The dialogue should include representatives from financial in stitu tions and developers, both from Florida and other parts of the country that have experienced successful station area development. Being able to assuage the fears, and lower the perception of risk, of those lending the money would go a long way towards assisting station area development in Florida. 26


COMMUNITY VISION AND FUTURE CONTEXT How a community perceives itself and its future is extremely important for transit station area development. Florida communities have a great deal of infonnation about themselves that can be expressed in maps and statistical compil ations. Population distribution, demographic characteristics, land use and zoning conditions, property and buil ding values, location of employment, travel patterns, d i stribution of educational, cu l tural, recreational, sports, medical and religious sites are but some of the factual data collected that provide a statistical cross section of the community at the present. What is much more nebul ous and certainly a topic that not a U cities and towns have addressed, is what the future slwuld be like. A growing number of our cities and t01NlJS across the nation have carried out a process to establish what they desire as the future outcome of their community--a vision for the future Unli)

Recommendation 15. Local business and community leaders and organizations in each Florida metropolitan area should take the initiative to develop a process that will lead t o the preparation of a Community Vision. The process should involve the widest possible range of community input, not be dominated by single interest groups, and be taken to grass roots neighborhood levels. The role of transportation as a tool in achieving the Vision should be emphasized in the process. The development of a Vision can provide a forum for the discussion of transportation issues, and transportation a lte rnatives. It offers an opportunity to think collectively on identifying the problems and proposing solutions One of the key ad v antages of discussing transportation during the Vision process is that it allows for rel ating transportation to the daily life patterns and needs of citizens, and offers an opportunity to share how transportation and ne i ghborhoods can work together to create more livable places. If rail trans it, or even improved bus transit, are in the community plans, this is tbe place to introduce station area development into the discussion. It is also the p l ace to demonstrate how this has benefitted other cities across the land. A likely outcome of the community visioning process will be a desire to have more public facilities, and better access to them, as well as improved access to jobs, housing, and shopping. Station area locations can facilitate both the former and the latter. A great many players enter into the locational decisions associated with building new home s, apartments and condominiums; in the corporate decision to locate and office; or in the coming together of many retailers in a major suburban mall, or downtown shopping precinct. However, the choice of where to build new public facilities is often left up to elected officials. Here they have an opportunity to act decisive l y. Recommendation 16. Encourage locating public facilities at transit station sites. Signifzcant benefits result where public transportation options are available Including: lowered space requirements; reduced traffic congestion; better safety and security; and cost savings in terms of capital investment. Many urban communities have recently built, or are planning for major public fac ility investments. These include convention centers sports arenas and stadiums, performing arts centers museums, libraries, and even hospitals and school s Co-locating these facilities at transit stations can produce major cost savings. By enabling patrons to access a football s tadium ballpark concert hall, convention center etc. by transit, the amount of parking required can be significantly reduced If enough trips can be diverted to transit, then demand for roadway capacity on the surrounding streets can a lso be reduced. Congestion, noise and other negative aspects of major event center traffic can be mitigated by providing a transit alternative 28


An increasing number of metropolitan areas across the COWltry have made decisions to locate major facilities in proximity to transit stations In some eases such as Baltimore and St. Louis, new >"lations have been opened to serve new sports venues San Diego located Qualcom Stad iu m (home of the Chargers), at a light rail station where as many as 25 percent of game patrons now use transit. Portland, Oregon decided to locate its new convention cent e r on the Eastside Max light rail line, and limited parking to only 80 spaces. San Diego and Baltimore also have located convention centers adjacent to rail transit stations Hotel development has followed, and been accompanied by high density residential and mixed use retail at the same station site In Seattle a new baseball park (Safeco Field) has been sited next to the existing (and soon to be replaced) Kingdome football stadium; both are within a short walk of King Street Station which will soon be served by SoWlder commuter trains and light rail. Considerable redevelopment has been stimulaied around this site because of the proximity of new transit services that will begin to be available in late 2000. A growing trend in development at rail transit stations bas been the clustering of moderate to high density residential activity. These concentrations support additional retail stores and attract office employers as well. Numerous examples of this phenomenon exist around the country More are appearing every year. Proximity to rail transit bas been sited as a consumer benefit in advertisements for housing adjacent to stations from Atlanta Baltimore, Dallas, Denver, Los Angeles, Portland, Sacramento, San Diego, San Jose, St. Louis and Washington, D.C. The trend in station area development is expected to continue. Nearly every issue of Urban Land pub li shed in the last three years bas some reference of a station area development accomplishment. 29




MAKING IT HAPPEN Station area development is a reasonable expectation in Florida communities that either have, or are building or planning, rail transit. Some planned station area development has taken place in Miami where Metro Dade Transit, o ther local government agencies, and private developers and have successfully carried out projects at several Metrorail stations. TriRail is pursuing projects at two stations on its commuter rail line linking Palm Beach, Broward, and Miarui-Dade counties. Additional potential exists on both of these systems, on Metromover in downtown Miarui, in Jacksonville where Skytrain serves eight stations, and in Tampa where work is underway on the Tampa-Ybor City Streetcar Turuing potential into the best possible real projects requires some effort. This research project, "Enabling Station Area Development has been carried out to help in that effort. The first product of this study, Conditions of Successful Station Area Development, has examined the benefits of station area development at a broad level. Transit operators benefit from increased ridership that results from the agglomeration of activity at stations Residential concentrations are important trip generators. Empl oyment locations, shopping centers sports and cultural event centers can be important trip attractors. Community benefits result from improved accessibility options for travel, and from reduced roadway congestion as automobile trips are diverted to transit Improved air quality is an important by product. Urban growth management strategies benefit by being able to channel higher density growth along certain key corridors where transit provides mobility. Station neighborhoods can be made more attractive and pedestrian friendly through good urban des i gn. Developers and investors benefit from improved accessibility for residents, customers, and clients and by having a reduction in expensive parking construction Development, redevelopment, and neighborhood preservation strategies are all beneficiaries of appropriate station area development. This teclmical memorandum outlines the factors that have made station area development a success Numerous examples of successful station area development from rail transit systems around the country are included. Th i s material can best be used to inform local communities about general and specific benefits of s tation area development. The second teclmical memorandum, Inventory of Florida Station Development Sites and Opporhmities, provides a thumbnail sketch of each of the existing and under construction rail transit stations in the state Location, station area characteristics and land use, land and building values, availability of vacant l and, possible opportunities, parking and transit services are all included in the data set for each station. An aerial photograph, and a set of ground photos of key or representative elements is provided. A summary of the most important of these elements is provided for each of the five systems (Tampa streetcar, Jacksonville Skyway, Miarui-Dade Metrorail, Miami-Dade 31


Metromover, Tri-Rail commuter rail) in a table to enable i nterested parties of make quick comparisons of the potential This information will be of particular interest to potential developers and investors, as well as to local planning agenc i es and the neighborhoods around the stations. The third component of the study, this document Florida Barriers to Station Area Development and Recommended Strategies/or Overcoming Them, is the result of examining conditions that have made station area development successful elsewhere, and the constraints that can deter success from happening in Florida. The constraints were identified in the process of visiting each of the station sites, and in examining the legal statutory, and policy contexts in which station area development takes place in Florida and elsewhere. A series of recommendations are made in this document to facilitate successfu l station area development in this state Some of these require legislative action, either at the state or local level. Others require changes in policy. It is important that these recommendations be adopted In doing so, the potential quality station area development that will tru l y benefit all of the parties involved, can be realized in a quicker and more beneficial manner The three documents are designed to be used as a set of tools to move station area deve l opment ahead in Florida. The fll"Stdocument provides the conceptual understanding of station area development and useful examples The second lays out the dimensions of opportunity in Florida, probably larger than most would have anticipated, and provides a "hook for attracting specific interests The last document is an action plan for improving the process and enabling the projects and dreams that will emerge from digesting the first two documents to actually happen 32


USEFUL MATERIALS Arrington, Jr G.B. Beyond the Field of Dreams: Light Rail Growth Management in Portland. Tri-Met. March, 1995. Association of Bay Area Governments and Bay Area Air Quality Management District. Design Strategies for Encouraging Alternatives 115 Auto Use Through Local Development Review. Undated. BCTransit(Victoria, Canada). Transit Friendly Subdivision and Development Guidelines. Undated. Bernick, Michael; Cervero, Robert and Gilbert, Jill Market Opportunities and Barriers to Transit Based Development in California August 1994. Calthorpe Associates. Transit-Oriented Design Guidelines City of San Diego. August, 1992. Calthorpe Associates, Mintier & Associates. Transit-Oriented Development Design Guidelines. Sacramento County Planning & Community Development Department. September, 1990. Cambridge Systematics, Inc., eta!. Making the Land Use, Transportation Air Quality Connection, the LUTRAQ Alternative/Analysis of Alternatives, An Interim Report. Prepared under the sponsorship of 1000 Friends of Oregon, October !992 Carter, John and Matthias John. Transit-Supportive Land Use in Montgomery County, Maryland. Montgomery County P l anning Department and Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission. April, 1995. City of Boca Raton. Co1u:urrency Management System Administrative Manual for the City of Boca Raton, Florida, 1991. City of Gresham; Oregon. Community Development Department. Transportation System Plan. Transportation Land Use Standards Project. November, 1994. City of Los Angeles Planning Department and Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Land Use! Transportation Policy, Feasibility Analysis and Recommendations for Implementations. Final Report and Appendix. December, 1993. 33


City of Portland, Office of Transportation. Designing Our F uture : A Charrette at the Regional Rail Summit 1992. City of San Diego. Urban Village Overlay Zone. July, 1995. City of San Jose, Department of City Planning and Building. Tamien Station Area Specific Plan. March, 1995. City of Vancouver and Clark County, Washington. Transit Overlay District. May, 1995. Creating Transit Supportive Regulations: A Compendium of Codes, Standards and Guidelines. Complied by the Municipal Research and Services Center of Washington. August, 1995. Denver Regional Tr ansportation District. Creating Livable Communit i es: A Transit-Friendly Approach June 1 996 Development Incentives T hat Support Transit. Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Flo rida, Tampa, 1994. Florida Administrative Code Chapter 9J-5, "Minimum Criteria for Review of Local Government Comprehensive Plans and Detennination of Compliance." Tallahassee: F l orida Department of Community Affairs, April 1 992. Gallagher, Mary Lou. A Pyramid Along the Mississippi Planning June 1991. pp. 13-15. Greater Denver Chamber o f Commerce DR COG and Regional Transportation District. Suburban Mobility Design Manual. February, 1993. Guideway Transit and Intermodalism: Function and Effectiveness. Case Study: Atlanta Center for U rban Transportation Research University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, I 996. Guideway T rans i t and Intermodalism: Function and Effectiveness Case S tud y : Sacramento C enter for Urban Transportation Research. Univ ersity of South Florida. I 996. Guideway Transit and lntermodalism: Function and Effec tiveness. Case Study: San Francisco. Center for Urban Transportation Researc h University of South Florida. 1997. 34


Guideway Transit and Intennodalism: Function and Effectiveness. Case Study: South Florida. Center for U rban Transportation Research University of South Florida. 1997. Hess, Stephen and Meyer, Paul I. Urban Land. Santa Fe Depot-Repositioning an Urban Development Plan. April, 1994. pp. 62-64. L-os Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Transit-Based Housing Symposium ; Emerging Designs for TransitBased Communities: Case Studies ofThree Metro Stations. April, 1993. Maryland DepartrnentofTransportation, Mass Transit Administration Access by Design: Transit s Role in Land Development: A Developer's Manual. September, 1998. Metropolitan Dade County. Ordinance No. 78-74. Fixed-Guidew ay Rapid Transit SystemDevelopment Zone. Adopted October 17, 1978 Metropolit3!1 Transit Development Board. Designing For Transit: A Manual for Integrating Public Transportation and Land Development in the San Diego Metropolitan Area. Ju l y 1993. Montgomery County Planning Department; Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission. Transit-and PedestrianOriented Neighborhoods Design Study: A Strategy far Community Building in Montgomery County, Maryland. March, 1993. Morris, Marya ( ed), Creating Transit-Supportive Land Use Regulations. Planning Advisory Service Report Number 468, American Planning Associati<>n, Chicago, 1996. Palm Beach County, Department of Planning, Zoning and Building. "Mass Transit and Land Use Options, A Vision for Palm Beach County," (draft) June, 1993. Pelham, Thomas G.," Adequate Public Facilities Requirements: Reflections on Florida's Concurrency System for Managing Growth," florida State University Law Review 1993, vol. 73,973-1052. Regional Transportation Authority, Center for Neighborhood Technology. Routes to Future Growth: Fostering Transit-Oriented Development in Northeastern Illinois. February 1995. Regional Transportation Commission of Washoe County, Nevada. Planning/or Transit: A Guide for Community and Site Planning. J\Ule, 1992. 35


Sacramento Regional Transit. Transit Master Plan: Transit! Land Use Coordination and Long Range Development. April 1992. Salvesen, David "Promoting Transit-Oriented Development," Urban Land, Ju ly, 1996 pp. 31-35. Snohomish County Transportation Authority (SNO TRAN). A Guide to Land Use and Public Transportation Volume II: Applying the Concepts. December, 1993. Southern California Association of Governments. Prototype Transportation/ Land U s e Ordinance and Report J anuary, 1987. Southern California Association of Governments Prototype TransporTation/ Land Use Ordinance and Report January, 1987 The Washington Regiona l Network for Livable Communities. A New Approach: Integrating Transportation and Development in the National Capital Region. Chesapeake Bay Foundation May, 1994. Tri County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon. Planning and Design for Transit Handbook: Guidelines for Implementing Transit Supportive Development. Portland, Oregon, January 1996. Transit Cooperative Research Program. The Role of Transit in Creating Li v able MetropoliTan Communities TCRP Report 22. National Academy Press. Washington D.C. 1997. Transit Cooperative Research Program Traffic-Friendly Streers: Design and Traffic Management Strategies to Support Livable Communities. TCRP Report 33. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. 1998. Transportation Rule Working Group, Oregon Chapter of the American P l anning Association. Recommendations for Pedestrian, Bicycle and Transit Friendly Development Ordinances February, 1993. 36


USEFUL CONTACTS Doug Allen, V i ce President, Planning, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, P.O. Box 660163 1401 Pacific Avenue, Dallas, TIC Phone: 214-749-2750. S. Bruce Allen, Development Manager, Portland Development Commission 1900 S. W. Fourth Avenue, S uite 100, Portland, OR 97201. Phone: 503-8323357. G. B. Arrington, J r Parsons BrinckerhoffQuade & Douglas, Inc., 317 S.W. Alder Street, Suite 950, Portland, OR 97204-3539. Phone: 503-274 9554 Tara Bartee, Office of Public T r ansportation, Florida Department ofTransportation, 605 Suwanee Street (MS-26), Tallahassee, FL 32399-0450. P hone: 850-414-4500 Bill Boothe, Principal Planner, BRW, Inc., 505 East Jackson Street, Suite 209, Tampa, F L 33602. Phone :813-224-0448 Steve Carroll, Manager o f Rail Devel o p ment, Hillsborough Area Regional Transit, First of Amer ica Plaza, Suite 1600,201 Kennedy Bou l evard East, Tampa,FL33602. Phone : 813-22 3-683l,e xt. 109. D De Wayne Carver, Assistant D irector, F l oridalnstitutc for Marketing Alternat ive Transportation, Florida State University College ofBusiness, Tallahassee FL 32306-3037. Phone : 850644-2509. J. Scott Herc i k, S enior Director-Advanced Projects, Planning and Development, Amtrak 60 Massachusetts Avenue, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002 Phone: 202-906-3495. Fred Kent, President, Project for Public Spaces, Inc. 153 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10014. Phone: 212-620-5660. L. Richard Mariani, Manager, Passenger Faci lities, NJ Transit O n e Penn Plaza East, Newark NJ 07105-2246. Phone: 973-49 1-7208. JohnB.McNamara, AlA, AICP, Prin cipal, BRWinc ,3003 N Ce n tral Avenue Suite 700, Phoenix, AZ 85012. Phone: 602-234-1591. Alvin R. McNeal, Manager, Property P l anning & Developmen t, Wash ington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, 600 Fifth Street N.W., Washington, D C 20001. Phone: 202-962-1240. Douglas R. Porter, AICP, Pre s ident Th e Growth Management Institute, 5406 Trent Street, Chevy 37


Chase, MD 20815. Phone: 301-656-9560. Harry D Reed III, Public Transportation Manager, District Seven, Florida Department of Transportation, 11201 N McKinley Drive, M .S. 7-330, Tampa, FL 33612 Phone : 8 1 3 -975-6408. Samue l Seskin, Senior Associate Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., 3 1 7 S W Alder Street, Suite 950, Portland, OR 97204-3595. Phone: 503-274 9554. Effie S. Stallsmith, LivableCommtmities Program, F e deral Transit Administration, Office of Planning, TPL-21, 400 7"' Street S.W., Room 6100, Washington, D .C. 20590. Phone: 202 366-5653. Frank D. Talleda, Chief, Joint Deve l opment & Leasing Division, Metro Dade Transit, Ill N.W. First Street, Suite 910 Miami, FL 33128. Phone: 305-375-3013. Michael Williams, Transportation Planning Manager, Tri County Commuter Rail Authority, 800 N. W. 33"' Street, Suite 100, Pompano Beach, FL 33064. Phone: 954-788-7897. 38

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Florida barriers to station area development and recommended strategies for overcoming them
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towards more cost effective rail transit investment
Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research,
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