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Florida five-year transportation disadvantaged plan, 1992-1996

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Material Information

Title:
Florida five-year transportation disadvantaged plan, 1992-1996
Physical Description:
xiii, 48 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Florida -- Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged
Florida -- Dept. of Transportation
Publisher:
Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
People with disabilities -- Transportation -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Paratransit services -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Older people -- Transportation -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 47-48).
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared for the Florida Transportation Disadvantaged Commission and the Florida Dept. of Transportation by the Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
General Note:
"June 1992."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 028862239
oclc - 747509717
usfldc doi - C01-00204
usfldc handle - c1.204
System ID:
SFS0032303:00001


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FLORIDA FIVE-YEAR TRANSPORTATION DISADVANTAGED PLAN 19921996 Technical Memorandum No. S Goals and Objectives Prepared for the Florida Transportation Disadvantaged Commission and the Florida Department of Transportation by the Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida June 1992

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PREFACE This is the fifth of five technical memoranda to be produced by the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) for the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission and the Florida Department of Transportation. These memoranda, along with a final report, will comprise the Florida FiveYear Transportation Disad van taged Plan that is mandated by Chap ter 42Z013 (14), Florida Statutes. Technical Memorandum No. 1 provided an introduction and historical perspective to transportation disadvantaged services in Florida. Technical Memorandum No. 2 reported on statewide operating data, on results of an attitudinal and needs survey, and on an evaluation of the existing transportation disadvantaged system in F lorida. Tec hnical Memorandum No. 3 presented demand forecasts for transportation disadvantaged transportation services over the next five years. Technical Memorandum No. 4 provided estimates of the cost of meeting the demand and explored the ability of current funding resources to meet that cost. Technical Memorandum No. 5 discusses policy issues, goals and objectives, and implementation strategies. The preparation of this report has been financed in part through a grant from the U.S. Departme nt of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration (formerly the Urban Mass Transportation Administration), under the Federal Transit Act 11

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FLORIDA FIVE-YEAR TRANSPORTATION DISADVANTAGED PLAN Technical Memorandum No.5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The technical memorandum that is summarized here presents: (1) methods for addressing the unmet demand for specialized transportation services, (2) a process to evaluate the performance of the local community transportation coordinators and the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission, and (3) a five-year action plan for the commission. part of the performance evaluation process, goals and objectives have been developed for both the commission and the local coordinators. The commiss ion's goals and objectives are presented in this executi v e summary. The goals and objectives for the local coordinators, which are very similar to the commission's, are presented in the technical memorandum. As indicated by the analysis presented in p revious technical memoranda, the demand for TD transportation services in the state by the transportation disadvantaged is significantly greater than the supply of these services. This unmet demand is due to a number of factors, including the high level of trip subs idiza tio n, and there are many policies and actions that can be undertaken to reduce unmet demand. At perhaps the most basic le v el, as shown in Figure ES-1, there are two solutions to the problem of unmet demand for TD transportation services: (1) demand for services can be regulated or (2) supply of services can be inc r eased. W ithin each of these two areas, there are a number of more specific ways in which unmet demand can be reduced. While some o f these are beyond the direc t control of the commission, most can be influenced by commission policy decisions or actions. iii

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PROBLEM Demand Supply -.. E 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SOLUTIONS STRATEGIES Funding Increases Increase Efficiency Increases Supply Coordination Admi ni stratio n Organ lzatlon Monito ring Planning Technical Supporl Demand Management Cosl Reductions FIGURE ES-1 Strategies for reducing unmet demand. The demand-side strategies include changing eligibility requirements in order to reduce the market size for these services, increasing prices (i.e., fares) tha t passengers pay, and changing the characteristics of the product/service (e.g., chang ing the advance rese rvation time). The supply-side strategies include increasing funding, increasing the efficiency of services, and reducing the cost of service (e. g ., through use of volunteers or through pooling b ulk purchases of certain items, such as insurance and equipmen t ). O ne of the supp ly s ide stra tegies, improving efficiency, leads to an increase in the supply of services (and, consequently, a decrease in unmet demand) because resources are used more economically. Efficiency can be improved through coordination, by improving the administration and organizational structure of the coordinated system to eliminate duplicative efforts, through effective planning and technica l support, and by implementing a performance evaluation program. I V

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Performance evaluation is an important diagnostic tool used by management to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of an operation and to measure progress toward meeting organizational goals and objectives. It can also identify areas that require corrective actions when performance does not meet expectations. Performance evaluation also provides funding agencies, elected officials, the general public, and users of the system with a "report card" on performance of the system. Figure ES-2 shows the six basic steps in the performance evaluation process that is recommended for the commission. The performance evaluation process must have some framework for measuring progress, success, or Eetablfsh goale, objectives, and atrateglea I Select meaauree to evaluate performance Collect and tabulate data AnaJyze meaauree Present the reaulte I Take corrective aotlona monitor roeulta FIGURE ES-2. Performance evaluation process. v

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY achievement. This framework is established through the development of goals, objectives, strategies, tactics, and performance measures. Goals are broad conditions that define, in general terms, what the commission hopes to achieve. Objectives communicate to participants in the coordinated system (e.g., the commission, local coordinators, and operators) what is expected of them, in quantifiable terms. Objectives must be consistent with the established goals so that achievement of the objectives should ultimately result in achievement of the goals. Strategies are actions designed to achieve objectives, while tactics are specific implemen tab le tasks. Performance is evaluated through the use of quantifiable performance measures. These measures provide information to management on the progress of current strategies and tactics in meeting objectives and, ultimately, goals. This information can be used to adjust strategies and tactics, or to change objectives if they are determined to be inappropriate. Of the six steps in the performance evaluation process, data collection and tabulation is the most time-consuming. Nearly all of the data necessary for these measures are presently collected in some form and a t some leve l (e.g., in annual operating reports, memoranda of agreement, local coordinator fmancial reports, and driver or dispatcher logs). In the future, as the comm1ssion reviews and possibly changes objectives and strategies, data needs may also change. The analysis of the data is one of the most important steps in the performance evaluation process. Performance measures are usually analyzed by a time-ser ies comparison, by a peer group comparison, or by comparison to performance targets. A time-series analysis illustrates how performance is changing over time, and at what rate. The second technique, peer group analysis, is used to compare performance of one operator, or local coordinator, with the performance of a group of operators of similar size, operating environment, and modal characteristics. The third type of analysis is a comparison of performance to pre-determined targets. This type of analysis is difficult for specialized transportation services because general standards do not exist. In some cases, however, targets can be established if there is sufficient, accurate historic data . V1

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY There are two recommended levels of performance evaluation. The first le\'el involves the evaluation of the commission in its role as the state level coordinating organization. At the second level, the local coordinators will be evaluated based on the operating performance of the coordinated TD transportation services that operate in their service areas. For the commission's performance evaluation program, it is recommended that performance be measured using a time-series analysis and an analysis that compares performance to targets. A peer-group analysis is not recommended for the commission evaluation because there are no equivalent state-level coordinated systems similar to Florida's system. It is recommended that the performance evaluation of the local coordinators incorporate peer group analysis in addi tion to the time-series analysis and the analysis utilizing performance targets. Many of the performance measures used for the commission and local coordinator evaluations will be the same. The goals and objectives of the commission are presented in Table ES-1. There are five areas in which there are established goals: availability, efficiency and effectiveness, quality, funding, and accountability. Each goal has three or four objectives that com!punicate the expectations of the coordinated system. There are only minor differences between the commission's and the local coordinators' goals and objectives because at either the statewide or local level perspective, the commission and local coordinators share common interests in providing transportation services to transportation disadvantaged persons. However, because the roles and responsibilities of the commission are different from those of the local coordinators, there will be differences between the strategies and tactics implemented by the commission and those implemented by the local coordinators. The types of strateg i es and tactics that the commission would implement involve activities rel ating to program administration and coordination. Conversely, the strategies and tactics implemented by the local coordinators invo l ve the delivery of service within Vll

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Table ES.l. Goals and Objectives. Objeotlve 1 Promote the provision of seNices to meet the demand for non-sponsored trips. Objective 2 Promote the provision of services to meet the demand for sponsored trips. ObJeellve 3 Support establishment and continuation of TO plaMing and service delivery systems. Objective 4 Improve passenger awareness of TO transportation services. Objectlve 1 AccOfll!llish service delivery. Objective 2 Ensure effectiVe statewide program administration. Objective 3 Promote optimal utilization of services provided. Objec11ve 1 Objective 2 Objec1ive 3 Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Objective 4 Promote utilization of the most transportation mode. Encourage courteous customer relations and passenger comfort Promote service that minimizes customer travel and watt times Require the provision of safe and reliable service. =,., Increase total TO funds to meet more of the demand for non-sponsored trips. Encourage public and private agencies to Identify and allocate sufficient transportation disadvantaged funds to meet the transportation needs of their TO clients. Protect the principle of malntenancEHlf-effort in program funding. Adhere to procedures, r(jes, and regu lations established by the state of Florida Cany out legislative mandates. Promote uniform, accurate, and timely submittals of data and contracts. Collect, compile, report, and maintain data necessary for evaluation ol statewide TO program. their local service areas. Since the services provided within each of the local coordinators' service areas tend to be unique, strategies and tactics may vary from one local coordinator to the next. viii

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The commission's strategies and performance measures are presented in the techn ical memorandum. Tactics will be developed by commission staff during preparation of the annual work program. The goals, objectives, and performance measures for the local coordinators are presented in the technical memorandum. These goals and objectives will serve as the basis for communicating the commission's performance expectations of coordinated 1D transportation services. Because the local coordinators are responsible for the local delivery of 1D transportation services, they are responsible for developing and implementing service delivery strategies and tactics that will result in their meeting the expectations expressed by the commission in the local coordinators' goals and objec tives. The goals and objectives should be reviewed annually by the commission and modified as ch!lnging conditions may warrant. Progress toward meeting the objectives should be measured and reported ann ually as part of the commission's annual report and operating status report. The action plan outlines t he specific strategies to be undertaken by the commission. It is important to stress that program strategies may change over t ime as market conditions change and as the commission continually evaluates i ts performance. The plan cons ists of: (1) actions that are recommended for implementation during the first year of the five year plan, (2) ongoing actions to be undertaken in s ubsequent years, and (3) actions to be included in the commission annual work programs as funds and staffing permit It should be noted that the listed actions are selected from the extensive list of strategies recommende d in the technical memorandum. The actions presented in Table ES-2 require either policy decisions or s ign ificant planning and management activities and illustrate the recommended focus of commission activity over the next five years. ix

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Table ESZ. Action Plan for the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission. Develop strategy to reduce unmet demand. review current practices for imp lementing Chapter 427 guidelines. recommend procedures for use in local areas to ensure that the most needed trips are programmed for dellvety. consid er other strategies to regulate demand and Increase supply. Develop procedures for Implementing Chapter 427 ellglbiity guidelines. Collect data needed for local coordinator pertormance evaluation. I n itiate procedures to collect data for commission perfonnance evaluaVon Review goals and objectives. Review strategies. Conduct commission and local coord i nator pertorrnance evaluations. Participate In state comprehensive plaming and transportation planning processes. Develop and Implement marketing/outreach programs. Monitor the impacts of ADA Implementation by mass transh on demand for TO transportation services. Evaluate costetfectlveness of different provider network types (e.g., brokered, single-provid er, and mul ti provider). Periodically I dentify unmet demand. Identify n u mber of trips provided outside ollhe coordinated system. Implemen t Insurance cost con tainment program Continue to develop marketing programs to encourage volunteeffsm. Check for duplication of effort among slate and l ocal plann ing staff and reduce duplication where appropriate Assist l ocal coordi n ators In efforts to Improve vehicle reservation and scheduling functions. Develop standard pro cedures for handling trip requests that consider all modes and relevant costs Assist i n developing local fare structures. Ide n tify training needs and develop appropriate tra i ning programs. X

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xi

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CONTENfS Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii Ex t s ... ecu IVe ummary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Ust of Figures ................................................. xiii I..ist of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . xiii Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Methods to Reduce Umnet Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Demand-Side Methods . . . . . _ . . ; . . . . . .. . . 2 Market Size Reduction . ... ... _ . . . . . . . . . 3 Price Increases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Product Changes .................... . . . . . . . . 4 Supply-Side Methods . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . 5 Funding Increases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Efficiency Increases . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . 5 Cost Reductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Perfonnance Evaluation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Goals, Objectiv es, and Performance Measures . . . . . . . . . 10 Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Reporting of Results ....... ..... ................ . . . . 22 Diagnosis of Results and Couective Action .......... ...... . 22 Service Availability Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Effectiveness and Efficiency Measures . . . . . . . . . . 24 Quality Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Funding Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Accountability Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Five-Yeat Action Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Summary ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 XII

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. CONTENTS (Co nt .) Appendlx Goals, Objectives Measures, and Straiegies for the 'ID Commission . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 30 Li s t of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Ust of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Figure 1 F igure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 LIST OF F I GURES Strategies for reducing unmet demand . . . . . . . . 2 Performance evaluation process . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Example of time-series presentation . . . . . . . . . . 18 Example of peer-group presentation . . . . . . . . . . 20 &le of compariso n to pre-dete r mined target . . . . . 21 &l e pages from operating status report . . . . . . . 23 LIST OF TABLES 'ID Commission Goals, Objectives, and Measures ......... 11-12 Local Coordinator Goals, Objectives, and Measures . . . . 13 Potential Conflicts Among Objectives . . . . . . . . . 15-16 Data Required to Develop Performance Measures . . . . . 17 Possible Local Coordinator Peer Groupings . . . . . . . 19 Action Plan for the Transportation D isadvantaged Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 x iii

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FLORIDA FIVE-YEAR TRANSPORTATION DISADVANTAGED PLAN Technical Memorandum No. 5 INTRODUcrtON This is the fifth of five technical memoranda that comprise the Florida Five-Year Transportat ion Disadvantaged Plan. This report presents: {1) methods for addressing the unmet demand for specialized transportation services, (2) a process to evaluate the performance of the local community transportation coordinators and the Transportation Disadvantaged Cornnrlssion, and (3) a five-year action plan for the cornnrlss ion. The analysis p resent ed in Technical Memoranda Nos. 3 and 4 suggests that the demand for specialized transportation services in Florida is significantly greater than the supply of these services. A number of demand-side and supply-side strategies to reduce unmet demand are discussed in the section following this introduction. In the second section of the report performance evaluation processes, including goals, objectives, and performance measures are developed for both the local coordinators and the cornnrlssion. Included in the cornnrlssion's performance evaluation process are recommended strategies for meeting objectives These strategies form the basis of the commission's five-year action plan, which is presented in the third section of t his report. METIIODS TO REDUCE VNMET DEMAND As discussed in Technical Memoranda No.3 and No. 4, there is a significant amount of unmet demand for 1D transportation services. Unmet demand is forecasted to be 10.6 million trips in 1992 and to increase to 11.8 million trips in 1996. Many of the major issues that co ncern the commission's coordinated TD system involve unmet demand and the various methods of reducing it I t is important to note that the gap between supply and demand wjll be dealt with. That is, at some level, someone will decide who gets service and who does not, and w hat kind o f service they get. The danger is that these decisions will be made by default if there is not a rational decision-making process i n place that explicitly addresses these questions. If made by default, these decisions may be contrary to the 1

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policies of the commission and may hinder the achievement of the commission's goals and objectives. These decisions can be explicitly addressed at the local level or at the commission level or at some combination of the two, but a number of issues should first be considered. As shown in Figure 1, there are two broad solutions to the problem of unmet demand for 1D transportation service: (1) demand for service can be regulated, or (2) supply of service can be increased. Within each of these two areas, which are also referred to as "demand side" methods and "supply-side" methods, there are a number of specific methods in which unmet demand can be reduced. While some of these are beyond the direct control of the conunission, most can be influenced by commission policy decisions or actions. PROBLEM Demand Supply -., E c: ::> SOLUTIONS STRATEGIES Funding Increases Increase Efficiency Increases Supply Coordination Administration Organization Monitoring Planning Technical Support Demand Management Cost Reducllons FIGURE 1. Strategies for reducing unmet demand. Demand-sjde methods Demand-side methods are intended to affect the level of demand by potential users. Demand for 1D transportation services can be regulated by (1} changing the size of the market for the service, (2) changing the price of the service, and (3) changing the service itself. 2

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Market Size Reduction. The size of the market for 1D transpo r tation services can be affected by changing the eligibility criteria for the services changing the maximum income level of persons to whom the services are made available). While the eligibility guidelines in Florida are specific in their intent transportation disadvantaged persons are defined as those who because of age, disability, or income status are unab l e to transport themselves or to purchase transportation), it is uncertain what measures or methods the local coordinators use to determine a person's aDility to transport themselves or purchase transportation. Many local coordinators provide non-sponsored general trips (i.e., trips that are not subsidized by an agency or program) to any elderly, disabled, or low income person regardless of his or her need for specialized transportation. Establishing specific criteria and a procedure to determine eligibility based on need would regulate the use of the services by those who have other suitable transportation options. One broadly interpreted guideline invo l ves the determination of "ability to purchase transportation" based on income level. At issue is whether income level alone is sufficient reason to consider a person transportation disadvantaged. If so what income l evel should be used as a cutoff point? Various social service organizations and programs, such as Medicaid, determine eligibility based on family income relative to the federal poverty level (e.g., 125 percent of the poverty level). Some of these persons may use 1D transportation services for trips sponsored by Medicaid even though they have sufficient resources to provide their own transportation. The Americans with Disabil i ties Act (ADA) of 1990 has established eligibility requirements for certain specialized transportation services in areas served by fixed route transit. The ADA eligibility guidelines are generally more restrictive than those in Chapter 427. For example persons who are confin e d to a wheelchair are not eligible for the complementary paratransit service mandated by the act if they are able to get t o a bus stop and use accessib l e fiXed-route service. Many local coordinators, however would provide service to any wheelchair-bound person For blind persons the ADA guidelines are more subjective Eligibility for blind persons under the act is based on an individual's comfort and self-confidence in his or he r ability to use fixed route service. However, most l ocal coordinators, if not all, would not turn down a trip request by a blind person. The commission has several courses of action that it can follow regarding eligibility First, it can permit the local coordinators to use discretion to interpret the Chapter 427 guidelines. This would shift a major program policy to the local l evel. Alternatively, the 3

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commission can strive to adopt more uniforin eligibility cri teria. For example, the commission could use either a person's eligibility for Aid for Families with Dependent Children, or tax records that show family income below a specified percent of the federal poverty level (e.g., 100 or 125 percent) as a measure to determine eligibility based on inability to pay for transportation. While the commission can clearly affect the size of the 1D market through changing eligibility criteria, there are other factors that may have a similar impact on market size but are beyond the influence of the commission. Changes in the methods in which health care is delivered, such as an increase in the provision of i n-home nursing care, would reduce the number of persons who need transportation to hospitals or doctor offices. Advances in health care, such as new treatments for persons with Alzheimer's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, could also reduce the number of disabled persons in need of specialized transportation service. Changes in tecbnoloc may also affect the 1D market size. For example, improvements in road signage may extend the driving capability of e lderly persons by several years. Price Increases. Service pricing is an important demand-regulating mechanism. As discussed in Technical Memoranda Nos. 3 and 4 a large part of the unmet demand in the 1D coordinated system is related to the level of trip subsidization. I n creasing passenger fares would both regulate demand for the service and increase operating revenue. This strategy, of course, needs to take into Consideration the ability of persons to pay for services. Product Changes. Changing the product can make that good or service more or less attractive to consumers and, thus, affect its demand. 1D transportation services can be changed in several ways. One way is to change its design. For example, if service were not provided at night or o n weekends, 1D persons would either adjust thei r travel patterns, use other modes, or not make trips during these times. Changing the amount of time a person must call in advance to reserve a trip would also affect trip demand. Currently in the coordinated system, the minimum amount of time required to reserve a trip is generally 24 hours in advance. If this advance reservation time were increased, the demand for discretionary and "spur-of-the-moment" trips would decrease. Passenger wait times, in-vehicle times, and travel time reliability are other examples of other service characteristics that, if changed, would influ ence the demand for the service. 4

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Another way to change ID transportation services is to establish trip prioritization. Many local coordinators currently cannot meet all of the requests for trips in their service areas. To ensure that basic trip needs are met, many local coordinators have adopted a variety of trip prioritization procedures. Most of these procedures give priority to medical or other life-sustaining trips over more discretionary trips. Some local coordinators, on the other hand, do not discriminate by trip purpose and simply provide trips on a "first come, first served" basis. The commission can approach trip prioritization in the same manner as trip eligibility. It can permit local coordinators to develop individual procedures to se t trip priorities, or, alternatively, it can develop a uniform statewide prioritization procedure Supply-side methods These methods involve increasing the overall supply of services to reduce unmet demand. Supply can be increased by (1) increasing the leve l of funding for services, (2) increasing the efficiency of services, and (3) reducing the cost of services. Funding Increases. An obvious and important means of increasing supply is by obtaining additional funding for ID transportation services. The TD Trust Fund is the. most recent source of funds added to the program. Implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act should also increase overall funding for TD transportation services. Fixed-route transit operators are required by this act to provide both fully accessible fixec:J-route and complementary paratransit services These services are expected to supply trips to many disabled persons who presently use services provided by the coordinated system. Although it is pres ently unclear exactly how the ADA paratransit services will be funded, there may be some competition for funds at the local level by fixed-route operators and local coordinators. Efficiency Increases. Increasing the efficiency of services can lead to an increase in the supply of services because resources are being used more economically. Efficiency is a measure of the level of output (e.g., vehicle miles or vehicle hours) provided for each unit of input (e.g., employees or vehicles). Improving efficiency generally means that more output (i.e., service) can be provided with the same or less inputs. 5

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Efficiency of service can be im proved in a number of ways. Coordination can improve efficiency by reducing duplication and fragmentation of services and encouraging the sharing of resources. Improving program administration and changing the organizational structure to eliminate duplicative administrative and planning efforts also contributes to improved service efficiency. Implementing a performance evaluation process can lead to greater efficiency by providing managers with information that can be used to diagnose problems areas and to take corrective action. Planning activities, such as development of local five-year 1D plans and service plans, can improve efficiency because these plans attempt to more closely match local service with local service needs. P roviding technical SIU!POrt to local coordinators and operators in areas such as driver training, safety, scheduling, data reporting, and accounting may also lead to greater service efficiency. Demand management strategies can also improve efficiency. Often referred to as demand-side coordination, demand management involves coordinating rides rather than vehicles The goa l of demand management i s to increase the grouping of trips and the sharing of vehicles through modification of passenger schedules. This strategy does not result in a decrease in trip demand, but rather a decrease in the demand for vehicles. The capacity (or supply) that is made available can be used to meet some of the remaining unmet demand in the system. There are several demand management strategies that can be used in the coordinated system. One strategy is to encourage ro persons to schedule trips with similar purposes or destinations during specified times so that local coordinators can group these trips and increase vehicle toads. Local coordinators can also encourage service providers (e.g., agencies, doctors, and hospitals) to change scheduling practices to match 1D service availability. Another demand management strategy is to establish specific times for certai n types of travel. For example, a shopping tour service could be established during off-peak hours on certain weekdays. Persons requesting shopping trips would then be referred to this scheduled service. Marketing and promotional programs to educate the public about the service and to promote usage during periods o f tow utilization are also effective. demand management strategies. Efficiency can also be improved over the long-term through changes in land-use patterns. For example, if facilities used by 1D persons (e.g., congregate dining sites or sheltered workshops) are sited close together these persons would be able to meet multiple trip purposes in one trip. These facilities could also be located near population centers to 6

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reduce trip lengths or along transit ro utes to encourage use of fixed-route services rather than 1D transportation services. Although the commission cannot control directly the siting of these facilities, it can encourage government agencies to consider transportatio n costs when making facility location decisions. Cost Reductions. F o r a given level of funding, a reduction in the cost of service permits an increase in the supply of service. While cost reductions in the provision of 1D transportation services can be ac hie ved through the efficiency improvements discussed above, there are other ways in which costs can be reduced. Pooling bulk purchases for such items as insurance and equipment purchases is one way to reduce costs. Use of volunteers as drivers, reservationists, or office assistants can also reduce t he overall cost of providing service. Di verting 1D trips to the state's fixed-route transit can also reduce overall costs. Some lower-income 1D persons would use fixed-route transit if they could afford the regular fare. If these persons were provided with monthly transit passes, a significant number of 1D trips could be diverted from paratransit to regular public transit at a very low cost per trip to the 1D program. To summarize, there are numerous demand-side and supply-side methods that can reduce unmet demand. To the extent that there remains unmet demand, the supply of service will have io be rationed. How these issues are addressed are policy decisions the commission and other participants in the state coordinated system must make. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PROCESS This section of the report describes the performance evaluation processes for the commission and the local coordinators. The focus of the commission evaluation process is on its programmatic duties, while the local coordinator process focuses on service delivery. OVeMew Florida's 1D program, like other specialized transportation programs, receives a large share of system operating funds through subsidies from various governmental and social service agencies. In order to provide the most trips with available funds and to demonstrate that publicly-provided funds are spent wisely, managers of specialized transportation systems should strive to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their systems. 7

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Performance evaluation is an important diagnostic tool used by management to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of an operation and to measure progress toward meeting organizational goals and objectives It can also identify areas that require corrective actions when performance is substandard (e.g., when a particular performance measure is unfavorable when compared to the system's historic performance or to other peer systems). P erformance evaluation also provides funding agencies, elected officials, the general public, and users of the system with a "report card" on performance of the system. This accountability feature is important given the intense competition for scarce public funds and the need to demonstrate that funds are used in the best manner The performance evaluation process must have some framework for measuring progress, success, or achievement. This framework is established through the development of goals, objectives, strategies, tactics, and performance measures. Goals are broad conditions that define, in general terms, what the commission would like the coordinated 'ID system to achieve Objectives communicate to participants in the coordinated system (e.g., the commission, local coordinators, and operators) what is expected of them in terrns that can be quantifiably measured Objectives must be consistent with the established goals so that achievement of the objectives should ultimately result in achievement of the goals Strategies are actions designed to achieve objectives, while tactics are specific implementab l e t asks. Performance is evaluated through the use of quantifiable performance measures. These measures provide information to management on the progress of current strategies and tactics in meeting objectives and, ultimately, goals. This information can be used to adjust strategies and tactics, or to change objectives if they are determined to be inappropriate. Figure 2 illustrates six basic steps in a performance evaluation process. The first step in the performance evaluation process is the development of goals and objectives. In this report, two sets of goals and objectives are presented: one set for the commission to use to evaluate its performance in administering and coordinating the statewide 'ID program, and a second set for the commission to use to evaluate the performance of the local coordinators in arranging and providing 'ID transportation services. The selection of the performance measures used to evaluate progress toward meeting objectives and achieving goals is the second step in the performance evaluation process. It is important that these measures be causally r e lated to the objectives and that the objectives be measurable. The performance measures that the o rganization selects will determine the specific types of data that need to be collected 8

PAGE 22

. Eetabll1h ;0111, ob)ectlwe, and ttrategies I Select maeurea to evaluate perform anc e I Collect and tabulate data I Analyze meuuree I Pre .. nt tht r11ult1 I Take correctiV'8 actlone and monitor reeulte FIGURE 2. Performanc:e evaluation process. The third step in the performance evaluation process is data collection. The principal means of collecting data on the coordinated 1D system is through the annual operating reports (AORs) submitted by each local coordinator. These reports will provide data for both the programmatic evaluation of the commission and the service delivery evaluation of the local coordinators. After the data is collected, the fourth step in the performance evaluation process is analysis of the performance measures. There are three types of analyses that can be performed: trend analysis, peergroup analysis, and analysis of actual performance relative to pre-determined performance targets The fifth step in the performance evaluation process is the presentation of the evaluation results. The method of presentation is important because it aids management with interpretation and communicates results to outside constituents. The sixth and final step in the performance evaluation process is implementing corrective actions and monitoring the results of those actions This is probably t he mos t 9

PAGE 23

important step in the process. Depending upon the problem areas uncovered by the performance evaluation, corrective actions can be implement e d at either the commission or local coordinator level. The following sections describe the recommended performance evaluation processes for both the local coordinators and the commission Programmatic and service delivery goals and objectives, and recommended measures to evaluate performance, are presented. The data required for the evaluation are identified, reconunendations concerning the types of analyses to be performed are provided, and formats for the presentation of results are presented. Goa l s. Obiectives, and Perfonnance Measures Goals, objectives, and performance measures for the commission and the local coordinators are presented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. (Recommended strategies for the commission are presented in the appendix). There are five areas in which goals have been established: service availability, efficiency and effectiveness quality, program funding, and program accountability E ach goal has three or four object i ves that communicate the expectations of the coordinated system There are only minor differences between the commission's and the local coordinators' goals and objectives because, as stated earlier the commission and local coordinators share common interests in providing transportation services to the transportation disadvantaged. However, because the roles and responsibilities o f the commission are different from those of the local coordinators, there will be differences between the strategies implemented by the commission and those implemented by the local coordinators The types o f strategies and tactics that the commission would implement involve activities relating to program admi ni stration and coordinat i on. (Tactics will be developed by commission staff during preparation of the annual work program.) Conversely, the strategies and tactics implemented by the local coordinators involve the actual delivery of service. Since the services provided within each of the local coo r dinators' service areas are unique, may vary from one local coordinator to the next. The goals and objectives should be reviewed annually by the commission and modified as changing conditions may warrant. Progress toward meeting the objectives should be measured annually and reported to program constit u ents 10

PAGE 24

.... >-' TABLE l. TD Commission Goals, Objectives, and Measnres. : '". . : Goals._ .. .' . .. s : . . : .... :.' .,. .,y, (1) Ensure availability of service to the transportation disadvantaged (1) Ptom01e the of setVIe.s to meet the demand for non-sponsored trips. (2) Ptomote the provision of stNioes to meet the demand fot sponsored trips.' (3) Support es.tabt!shmeot and continuation of TO planning and service dellvefY sy$1:eoms. (4) Improve passenget awareness of TO transportation services. (1) number of non-sponsored trips Q.e., ttil)$ purchased With TOC funds) (2) percent nDrHponsored tripe are of demand for non-sponsorlkf trip$ (3) vehicle miles per TO capita (1) number of sponsO
PAGE 25

..... N TABLE 1 { Continued). ,' .. .. ,. (4) Ensure necessary funding to support the TO program. (5) Ensure program accountability (I} fnereue tolet TO funds to meet more of the demand for non4ponaortd tfips (2) publlo and private agencies to identify and allocett suffioltnt transporta.tk>n dlsacfvamtQid tundt JO meet the .... spoiWion -ollhoir 1D dients. C3l "''""" lho pdnclplo ., __ In _.,., biding. ( 1 ) Adhere to pt'OOidUrts, rules. and regulaliont esttblillh.td by the state of Aollcla. (2) carry outlegl l lttl,. mandatts. (a) Promote unWorm, accutat.e, and timely submittals of dlta and contracts. (t) amount of monty distributed ftom TO T rust Fund for non-tpoti&OI'ed ltlps {2) perotnt fartbox revenue is of opetatlng tlCpt nse (3) total funds recetved from new (1) amount of TO trantpartation dol&ara ldtntlfltd by 1t1te agencies i n ABEl (2) ptrcont 04 -agencies that identify TD 1ran1porlallo n dollars (ll) PlfCOill Onlpllo, repon. and makllaln I (1) pub41c&llon Of annual ovlluollon u pon oiOMUaii'Oj>On data -to<--ol-wldt TD progrt.n\.

PAGE 26

.... w TABLE 2. Local Coordinator Goals, Objectives, and Measures. : '::: : .-.. :';y ."J'_?, . UV11:11>,.:_:. <:<
PAGE 27

An important consideration in this step is that the goals, objectives, and performance measures in one area may conflict with those in other areas. In oth e r words favorable performance in one area may result in poor performance in other areas. Table 3 illustrates how some of the commission's objectives may conflict with others. Recognition of these conflicts is important because the may accept, for example, an increase in the unit cost of providing service if it results from an expansion of service into areas that are more costly to serve Similar conflicts are present among the local coordinators' objectives. These conflicts should be considered when the commission staff establishes targets for the performance measures that will be used to determine progress toward meeting s tated objectives. Data O!llectlgn The annual operating reports will be the principal source of data for the performance evaluations of the commission and local coordinators Table 4 lists the data needed to calculate the measures and the source from which the data can be obtained. More data are required for the commission evaluation and all of the data required for the eva l uation of the local coordinators are also required for the commission evaluation. Nearly all of the data necessary for these measures are presently collected in some form and at some level (e.g AORs, MOAs, local coordinator financial reports, and driver or dispatcher logs). Most of the data are now collected by the commission through the annual operating report. A number of data items (identified in the table by an asterisk) are not collected by the commission, but are probably collected by local operators or local coordinators. For those data items not presently collected, the recommended source of the data is shown. In most cases the recommended data source is the annual operating report Ana l ysis Performance measures are usually analyzed in a time-series or a peer group comparison, they are compared to pre-determined targets. A time-series analysis illustrates how performance is changing over time, and at what rate. The performance measures used in a time-series analysis identify symptoms of prob l ems, not necessarily the root cause. For example, a time-series analysis may show that operating cost per passenger trip has increased by a certain amount over a five-year period The measure will not, by itself, indicate whether the problem is the result of rising fuel prices, higher insurance costs, an i ncrease in the provision of more costly trips (e.g., special medical trips), or a decrease 14

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-v. TABLE 3. Potential Conftlcts Among Objectives. (1) Ensure availability of service to the transportation disadvantaged. (1) Promote the provision of seMc::es to meet the demand fw non4ponsllshment and continuation o1 TO planning and service delivery systems. (4) lmprOYe passenger trWsteness of TO ttarrsportatlon services. (2) Ensure that service Is I (t) Acc:ompllsh .,.,,,. .. ffe
PAGE 29

..... "' TABL E 3. ( Co n t in ued) .--..... ..,. -., ...., Y""". "G is .. -.... oa .-...... 1 . . -. '. (3) Enswe that quality SM'ice is attained. ( 4 ) Ensure necessary f un d ing t o s u pport the TO program. (5) Ensure program accountablily :_.,_ ,. 'lE i j """' #. -.-t-"!:l''"'W .... -.......... .. ,.. . .._ ,-.. ..... -...--EntuMg pa--il on impoltant olljoc:IM, but can bo -'ly ...._ .,.,_., __ comfotlll dlffblit .. Uld .. .,. ..... ... boyofld wl11t -ld bo co.-red applloss cost... (2) Ptomot. HI'\IIC. that minimizM eustotntr This objective ltl n potential connict with the etfic:iency and etfectfwn"' otljlct.'vts. tiiVII and Wilt limtt.. Tt*Wol and walt tlmtt Cln be minimb:ed by tran spol1iog petaooe dfi*lt from tM trip ori9ln to deadnt1fon, wtthout addit i onal passengs. tS} Rtqulrt the provi s ion of safe and reUabte No poteotltl confllott MI'YICI. (1} lncteue lotal TO fu ndt to meet more of N o potentia l oonfllcta. the for non-spon&Oted trips. (2) EnoouIiol c:onfl'-rtg\ll&dont Ntablilhtd by thl Stitt of Ao
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TABLE 4. Data Required to Develop Performance Measures. data not currently coJiected by TOO in productivity. Some of the "hews" and "whys" raised by one performance measure can be answered by evaluating other measures. In some cases, however, more detailed performance 17

PAGE 31

audits are needed to understand why performance is changing. Figure 3 is an example of a time-series p r esentation showing historic values of passenger trips per vehicle mile. The values are those of an individual local coordinator; the average for the statewide system is also shown for graphical comparison. Paaaenger Trlpa per V t l'lfcte Mile B CTO -State Average 0.20 -1. 0.18 0.10 +-o .os 0.00 ..__ 1988 1987 1988 1989 1990 FIGURE 3. Example of time-series presentation. The second technique, peer group analysis, is used to compare performance of one operator, or local coordinator, with the performarice of a group of operators of similar size, operating environment, modal, or other characteristics. A peer group analysis is not recommended for the commission evaluation because there are no equivalent state-level coordinated systems similar to Florida's system. A peer group analysis of the local coordinators would be useful in identifying those local coordinators whose performance is out of line with others, but because of the variation among local coordinators and the operators that provide service in their service areas, the value of this type of analysis as a diagnostic tool is limited As shown in Table 5, several types of peer groupings of the local coordinators are possible. Of these possible groupings, a peer group based on service we is not appropriate because most local coordinator networks offer all types of services and operating data are not separated by service type. Segmenting local coordinators by organization type is only 18

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useful if the local coordinators included in the groupings are single providers (i.e. the only service provider in the cou nty) or if all of the operators in a local coordinator's multi provider or brokered network are the same organization type. Separating local coordinators based on their operating environment (i.e., urban or rural) is presently the most useful peer grouping because there are clear differences in operating characteristics between the two environments For example, operators in urban areas generally have higher uni t operating costs than those in rural areas F igure 4 is an example of a peer group presentation showing operating cost per passenger trip for urban local coordinators. It is also useful to form a peer group based on local coordinator network we (i.e b r okered, single-provider, and multi-provider networks). This type of peer grouping is particularly valuab l e in evaluating cost differences among these methods of providing service. A peer g r oup based on network size, using characteristics such as number of vehicles or passenger trips, would also be useful given that economies of scale may affect the provision of service. TABLE S. Possible Local Coo r dinator Peer Groupings. .. PHr Gr<>up,Crlterlo,. : . . : : Possible Peer GrouplngJ ... Service Typ e 1) Demand-Responsive Systams 2) RxedRouto Sy$tems 3) Systems Organization Type 1) Privatt No n-Profit OrganizatiOn$ 2) Private For-Profit Organizations 3) Govemmnt Ag.nctts 4) Public Transit Aonde$ Operating EnWonment 1) Urbanized Area Systems 2) Rutal AJee 1) Blo4
PAGE 33

Org,Oac,Sem Dade Polk Okaloosa Clay Broward Martin Hlllaborough I ndian Alv.r Voluala Brevard Eacambla Palm Beaoh Bay Sa int Lucio Alachua Char lotto Paaco Sara1ota Lee Manat e e Plnollu Monroe 1 0 .00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.0 0 FIGURE 4 Example o f peer gro u p p resentation. performance measure by using, for example, the 75th percentile value of the measure from a group of local coordinators (i e the performance measure achieved by 75 p ercent of the local coordinators in the group was unfavo r able compared to this value). Selecting the 75th percentile as a target encourages i mprovement f o r 75 percent of the local coordinators whose p e rformance i s unfavo r able compared to the target. For those coordinators that currently exceed this target level, the value establishes a minimum acceptable level of performance. TI!ustrative examples of 7 5 th percentile values for several performance measures were computed for urban and rural county local coordinators and are shown below: ferfonnance Measure Urban Rurnl Operating cost per passenger trip $4.70 $4. 28 Operating cost per vehicle mile $1.22 $0 86 Passenger trips per vehicle mil e 0.24 0 21 A cci d ents per 100,000 veh icle miles 0 .82 0 77 Targets have not been developed for most measures because historical data is insufficient or not available to establish a standard. As more data is collected over time, the commission can then establish st andards for additional measures. F igure 5 shows an 20

PAGE 34

example of a performance measure compared to a pre-determined target for an individual local coordinator. Patenger Trlpa per Vehicle Mile 0 .30.-----------------------.., Aotuel Tlrtltl 0.20 +--0.16 ;--0.10 +-0.05+--0.00 .L__ 1992 1993 1994 1995 1998 FIGURE S. Example of comparison to pre-determined target. While a single target for a group has an advantage of being simple to monitor, there are several disadvantages associated with this approach. First, the target may be umealistic for some local coordinators whose performance is significantly below it. Second, the target does not encourage improvement for those local coordinators whose current performance is better. Third, a single target ignores the individual nature of the local coordinators. An alternative to developing single targets for a group is to select targets for each local coordinator. A simple approach would be to establish a target for a local coordinator in the forthcoming year that is, for example, 10 percent above (or below, depending on which indicat es better performance) the value achieved by the local coordinator for a performance measure in the current year. For the commission's performance evaluation program, it is recommended that the rime-series analysis and comparison of perfonnance to pre-determined targets be used. It is recommended that the performance eval uation of the local coordinators also use these types of analyses as well as the peer-group analysis. Both the commission and local coordinator evaluations essentially consist of the same evaluation procedures and 21

PAGE 35

performance measures. The obvious differenee is that the commission's evaluation uses system-wide averages of the performance measures, while the local coordinator evaluation focuses on performance of each coordinator. Reportin& of Results There are three important characteristics of an effective summary presentation of the performance evaluation: (1) the list of performance measures is typically limited to ten or fewer, (2) these measures are easily understood, and (3) a simple. graphical presentation of the results is essential and should incorporate information from the time-series analysis, peer review analysis, and the comparison with targets. The operating status report, which is prepared by the commission and which focuses on the operations of the local coordinators, could include a summary of the performance evaluation of the local coordinators It might also be useful to revi se the present format of the operating status report to place greater emphasis on the individual coordinators. A sample of how the data of a single local coordinator can be presented is shown in Figure 6. System totals and averages would be included in a summary section. The commission's annual report which is a report on its progress in meeting legislated duties, could include a summary of the performance evaluation of the commission The report can be modified to show system totals and averages for selected performance measures and to provide some discussion of the overall results of the evaluation and any corrective actions that may be adopted in the commission's work program in the following year. Diamosis o( Results and Cones;tm Action The last and most i(p.portant step in the performance evaluation process is the diagnosis of problems and implementation of corrective actions. Performance measures provide the basis for diagnosing problem areas and determining the success of actions taken to correct problems. It should be cautioned, however, that many of the performance measures will identify symptoms of problems, but not necessarily their root cause. Use of secondary or supporting measures or information can often provide greater insight into causes of change in performance. 22

PAGE 36

N w Community Transportation Coordinator Samp l e County 1 990 Operating Data AddreM Ft. 1Ut1 (t13) 123-<165'7 G E NEJW.. I NFORMA!JON COM tC:C Pelted Serkelype Olgenlnfon TwO$)ehl.tlng &M1onmont -l)po SeMo Tol TO Colf9CKY I ltl C.logot)' I JE:RYIOf HOUR$ I ........ Slmdo.y Holldey Sctwd u .. Vftt!CU IHV't!O'O.W !II! D-3Y..n uv ..,.. Nt YeatS 10.12Yt.,. 13+ Yea:s TOiol Mt.JoMOoo 10/t/88. 8/30/&0 Par81ramll, &.Ae So C0fnl'l'll$$'leirl .. Dtf*, ot aoa. n Bfeollv.MM and atlet.lay: HHSaM HAS 2SI ,Ot.a Mile 0.37 ... ct Educll'llon (sl4let 0 Coti,I'Pt.aMnftt Trip $1.00 .... OtPI. ot Alfalrt 0 COit/VNdt MI .. ..... ..... Otpb. of ...... """'"""""" QIAMitt: Otho Progre:n 0 Mdcl'er1tt/IOO,OOO Vcth ..U.. 2.00 Ut Non.COnfl-tet loc.aJ 25 14$ v.tl ......... 81-.akdO
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Once a problem is diagnosed, either the commission or the local coordinator can use this information to develop effective corrective actions to ameliorate the problem. In some cases, however, changes in a performance measure that would normally be considered unfavorable (e.g., an increase in operating cost per passenger trip) may be acceptable given the greater importance of other objectives (e.g., increasing service for more costly trips). A discussion of the potential conflicts among objectives is provided in an earlier section. This section of the report provides a brief discussion of bow performance measures and other supplemental data can be used to identify problems and causes of change. Examples are provided for several of the goal areas. Service Availability Measures. This goal area involves the provision of service to meet the demand for service. One important availability measure is the percent the supply of non-sponsored trips is of the demand for non-sponsored trips. This measure will show how effective the commission and local coordinators are in meeting this demand; however, changes in this measure can be affected both by factors that are related and by factors that are unrelated to the commission's and the local coordinators' specific actions to improve this measure. Examples of these factors include: The cost of non-sponsored trij>siTD Trust fund moujes. Costs of providing service generally follow an upward trend because of inflation. Therefore, TD Trust Fund monies must increase at a fasier rate than the growth in trip costs for this measure to improve (assuming demand does not change). Eligibility/market size changes. If eligibility guidelines or demographics change so that the market population for TD transportation services increases, demand will also increase. This will negatively affect this measure, if trip funds are not increased. Marketing/Outreach Programs. These programs can increase the public's awareness of and demand for TD transportation services. Without a corresponding increase in levels of service, the overall availability and quality of the service may deteriorate. Effectiveness and Efficiency Measures. While availability measures may show whether the eligible population is being served, these measures will not show bow efficiently 24

PAGE 38

or effectively the services are being provided. Two efficiency measures are operating cost per vehicle mile and the percent administration costs are of the total operating budget. The first measure provides an overall assessment of how efficiently or economically the coordinated system or a l ocal coordinator provides service. The latter measure can be used to identify one area that may be contributing to a change in trip costs. There are several possible reasons why the coordinated system or a local coordinator may experience higher unit costs of service, including: Labor rates or maintenance costs. Labor rates are largely determined by external factors such as prevailing wage rates in an area or the availability of skilled labor. In some cases, an operator can effectively lower labor costs by using less expensive part-time drivers or volunteers. Maintenance costs can be controlled to some extent through preventative maintenance programs and through timely replacement of vehicles. Use of certain quality performance measures, such as vehicle miles between breakdowns and on-time performance can provide information to support this diagnosis. Administrative costs relative to the leYel of service provided. It is important that the definition of administrative costs be carefully defined and consistently applied throughout the coordinated system. Administrative costs should not include passenger reservation and dispatching costs. Driver hours relative to revenue vehicle hours How efficiently the driver is used is crucial because driver costs account for the greatest share of trip costs Time not spent in revenue service (i.e., dead time) may indicate ineffective dispatching or trip scheduling. It may also result from the type of service provided. For example, demand-responsive service in areas where trip lengths are long may result in a high percentage of dead time in a system. Old. fleet The age and condition of the vehicles in service will largely determine the level of mai.ntenance costs. As stated above, preventat i ve maintenance programs and timely vehicle replacement can minimize these impacts Effectiveness measures show how well the service is used. One important effectiveness measure is passenger trips per vehicle mile. This measure suggests how 25

PAGE 39

effective the coordinated system or a local coordinator is in delivering service. There are a DlliDber of factors that can affect the number of passengers trips per vehicle mile, including: Averaee trip len&t)1. In rural areas, trip lengths are generally longer than in urban areas. As a result, fewer passengers per vehicle roile are carried .. Population densjty and concentration of passengers More passengers are likely to be carried per roile in densely populated areas. However, these areas are usually more congested, which can reduce service productivity . 'fipe of service provided. Demand-responsive service usually is not as effective as scheduled fixed-route or subscription service Many of the trips provided in the coordinated system, however, are sporadic and ind ividual in nature and are not easily grouped. Scheduling and dispatchine efficiency These two fact o rs can greatly affect service effectiveness. Review of secondary measures (i.e., measures used to evaluate other objectives or measures that may not currently be collected), such as o n -time performance or passenger trips perm capita may suggest problems in this area. Quality Measures. Performance evaluations often concentrate on financial and productivity measures, and overlook the importance of measures that evaluate the quality of service. The percent of on-time pick-ups is an important measure not currently compiled in the coordinated system. This measure can be affected by a number of factors, such as vehicle breakdowns, poor vehicle scheduling, operating conditions, poor driver performance, and lack of knowledge of the service area. In cases where none of these factors is the cause of a problem, dispatchers will usually adjust schedules to allow more time for trips. Funding Measures. These measures are generally straightf orward, that is, use of secondary measures will not usually be required to diagnose problems related to funding Examples of these measures include the amount of money distributed from the m Trust Fund, and funds received from new revenue sources. on-time JWformance can be obtained from driver lop;. The commission staff should survey the local coordinators to detennine the most cost-effective method for collecting this data, if not presently collected by a local coordinator. One cost-effective method is to perform an annual sample survey of driver logs covering a short period of time, for instance, over a oneweek period. 26

PAGE 40

A:ountability Measures. Like funding measures, accountability measures are fairly straightforward. These measures will indicate whether the commission or local coordinators are meeting accountability requirements. The preceding discussion, as stated earlier, is a brief overview of how performance measures are used to diagnose problems. In order to develop corrective actions, the problem must first be diagnosed. Because the possible problems and corrective actions that could be faced by the commission and local coordinators are limitless, an exhaustive discussion on this subject was not provided. As experience is gained in conducting performance evaluations at both the commission and local coordinator level, the value and effectiveness of the performance evaluation process will increase . FIYEXEAR ACTION PLAN The action plan presented in Table 6 outlines the specific strategies to be undertaken by the commission. It is important to stress that program strategies may change over time as the commission continually evaluates its performance and its objectives. The plan consists of actions that are recommended for implementation during the first year of the five-year plan, of ongoing actions to be undertaken in subsequent years, and of actions to be included in the commission's annual work programs as funds and staffing permit. It should be noted that the actions listed below are selected from the complete list of recommended strategies in the appendix. The actions presented in the table require either policy decisions or significant planning and management activities and illustrate the recommended focus of commission activity over the next five years. Thi s action plan and the rest of the five-year plan should be viewed as part of a dynamic, continuing planning process. This process should include annual performance evaluations of the state 'ID program, annual reviews of the commission's goals and objectives, and continual reviews of the commission's strategies and action plan. SVMMARX This report presented methods for addressing the unmet demand for 'ID transportation services, a process to evaluate the performance of the local coordinators and 27

PAGE 41

Table 6. Action Plan for the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission. Develop strategy to reduce unmet demand. review current practices for implementing Chapter 427 eligibility guidelines. recommend procedures for use i n local areas to ensure that the most needed trips are programmed for delivery. consider other strategies to regulate demand and Increase supply. Develop procedures for Implementing Chapler 427 ellglbilty guidelines. o Collect data needed for local coordinator performance evaluation. lnnlate procedures to collect data for commission performance evaluation. Review goals and objectives. Review strategies. Conduct commission and local coordinator performance evaluations. Participate In state comprehensive planning and transportation planning processes. Develop and implement marketing/outreach programs. Monnor the impacts of ADA implementation by mass transit on demand for TO transportation services. o Evaluate cost-effectiveness of different provider network types (e.g., brokered, single-provider, and multi-provider). Periodically Identify unmet demand. Identify number of trips proVIded outside ol the coordinated system. o Implement insurance cost containment program. Continue to develop marketing programs to encourage volunteerlsm. o Check for duplication of effort among state and local planning staff, and reduce duplication whare appropriaie. Assist local coordinators in efforts to improve vehicle reservation and scheduling functions. Develop standard procedures for handling trip requests that consider all modes and relevant costs. Assist In developing local fare structures. Identify training needs and develop appropriate training programs. the commission, and a five-year action plan for the commission. The major report findings are summarized below: There is a significant amount of unmet demand for m transportation services in the state There are two broad solutions to the problem of unmet demand: Demand for service can be regulated. Supply of service can be increased. 28

PAGE 42

Demand for services can be regulil.ted by: Changing the size of the market for the service. Changing the price of the service. Changing the service itself Supply of service can be incr eased by: I ncreasing the leve l of funding for services. I ncreasing the effi ciency o f services. Reducing the cost of service. Implementing a performance evalua tion process is an important strategy that can lead to increased efficiency. Performan c e evaluation is a six-step pro cess: Develop goals and objectives. Select performance measures Collect data. Analyze the data. Report the results. Ililplement corrective actions and monitor results. There are five goal areas for the commission and local coordinators: Service availability. Service efficiency and effectiveness. Service quality. Program funding Program accountability. The next report to be submitted is the final report. It summari zes the five technical memoranda that were produced as part of development of the five-year plan. 29

PAGE 43

APPENDIX Goals, Objectives, Measures, and Strategies for the TD Commission 30

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TABLE A. Goals, Objectives, Measures, and Strategies for the TD Commission. OBJECTIVE 1: Promote the provision of seMcea to meet the demand for non-sponsored tfipt. MEASURES (1) number of non-eponeored trips Q.e., trips purchased with TOC funds) (2) percent non-spoMOred trips are of demand for non-tponsor.cl trlps (3) vehicle milO$ TO oaplta STRATEGIES (1) Oiattibute TO Ttusa FUnd monies for non-sponsoftd trips. (2) Roduco market entry bllrilfO for potonUal TO service providers. (3) Rocommond speolflo otigll>ill1)1 guld oll"" (4) Recommend procedure for local area to u se to ensUfe thai the mott ""ded ttipt ate programm.t for deliv ery (5) Annualfy comp&fe forecatted demand for and suppty of non-$ponted trips (6) Encourage the provision of slf'llioe by volunteers. {7) Identify barriel'1 prohibiting the coordination and acct$Sibt4ity of transportation servleos to TO p&r$0nS and aggreSSively purwe the elimination of these barriers [FS 427.013 {8) As:sbt communities ln developing transportation systems designed to s.rve tM transponation disadvantaged [FS 427.013 (6)). (9) Develop needs-based erit&rla that must be used by an CTCs to establish trip-purpose priorities for non-spo nsored trips (FS 427.013 (22)). OBJECTIVE 2: Promote the provi-on of services to meet the demand for sponSOled trips. MEASURES (1} number of sponsored trips (2) percent sponsored trips ate of demat'ld for apon&Ot'ect trfps 'STRATEGIES (1} Aeduee market entry barriers for p01entlaJ TO aetvice providers. (2) Annualfy identay u nmet demat'ld fOl sponsored trips. (3) Encourage the provision of service by vokJnttm. (4) Requi re that CTCa arr .. transportation aeMcn for th t dltntt of all human-strvlct aQeneits. (5) Pccwlde a proctS$ by whi ch alternative transportation serYices can be obtained when the CTC is u nable to meet agencies' t:tanspom. tion need$. (6) Identify barriers prohibiting the cootdination and aceeuibi l ity of transportat ion servic es to TO p erson s and aQgteSW.Iy pursue the elimination of these barriers (F$ 427.013 (4)). (1) Assist communltiea in deveklpitlg transportation 8y$tema designed to aetve the transportatiOn disadvantaged (FS 427.013 (6)) 31

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TABLE A. (continued). OBJECTIVE 3: Support establishment and continuation of TO planning and service deflvery systems.. MEASURES (1) number of countiH with TOC-approved CTCs (2) number of> countiH awarded TOC pSaraning grants a nd having apptoved current flvre.year loeat TO plans STRATEGIES (1) Participat e in state compreh e nsive plaMing and transportation planning processea (2) Etlc:outage transportation planning organizatiOns co oonsidtr the mobility n e eds of TO peraons: during the development of transpotta.tion plans (3) Pt
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TABLE A. (continued). OBJECl1VE 1: A=>mpllsh --offectiYO HMce delivery. MEASURES (1) operating cost per passeng trip (2) opotallflg coot per whlcle rrOie STRATEGII!S (1) rmplement performance monitoring program that wiJI allow the commiUion to assess program porformance. (2) Conduct ..,nual pflfformanc:e audits of .. lected CTC.. (3) Implement Insurance coat containment progtam. {4) Evaluate the appropl'iattontu of exitting and propoMd minimum standards (e.g. ttandards for i nsuranc e covetage, sei81Y. end tepog). (S) Encoul'llg8 local ateaa to evaluate the relative coat effe ctiV9f'less of private provision and public provision of services. (6) Deve6op marketing programs to encourage voluntterlsm. (7) Promote imp"o'W'ements to vehicle reservation and scheduling functions. (8) Conduct tralnlng workshops fOf schedulers and dispatchers. (9) Concfuct training workshops to lnsttuct CTCs and operators in cost-effective opetatlng procedures. (10) Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different provider networif types. (11) Evaluate the cost..tfectivenea& of computerized data ,-.porting. (12) Review TO legi siation and administtative rutu as needtd to dtt.rmi ne if any changes are a.ppropti&tt (13) RleYMw, monitor, and recommend changes to proposed legislation to Commission and TO activities.. (14) Provide a prooess by which ahematlve transportation servloet can be obtain.ed when the CTC Is unable to met a.gencitt' transportation nttd$. (15) Requite that CTOa and local coordinating boards annuatJy evaluate the apptopriateneu of continuing transportation sei'Viots. ( 16) As:ture that all prooedurH.. guideli nes, and dir.ctivn is:sued by member departments are conducive to the coordination of transportation seMces (FS 427 013 !nJ. (17) Develop standards covering coordination, ope ration 00$1$. and utilization Of trantportation di$AdvantaQed services (FS 427.Q13 (8)) (18) Ptepa re a statewide 5-year transpOt"tatlon cllaadvanteged plan wttldl addresses the transportation problems and needs of tht ttanspottJ.tion d-.ntllged (FS 427.QI3 (14)). (19) Dtve..,p and maintain an i nteragency ttansponatlon manual [FS 427.013 (18)] (20} Establish a review pi'Ocedure to compate the rates proposed by altetnative transportation operatoa with IM rates charged by CTCs (FS 427.013 (23)J {21) Conduce a cost-comparison study of sln9le-coOC'dlnator, multi-coordinat o r and brok ered CTC networks (FS 427.013 (24)1.

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TABLE A. (continued). OBJEcnv 2: Ensure effective statewlde program administration. MEASURES (1) number of law paymeniS by TDC (2) number of houta spent on TOC ataff training (3) number o1 monitoring visits to CTC. (4) to Which mandated deadlines are met STRATEGIES (1) Develop administrative poJieies and office procedures for the TO CommJsaion, and set forth policies and procedures In manuals. (.2) Promote Improved oommun5cation among program participants. (3) Dtvt4op ongo4ng 'raining for oommlssion staff. (4) PrOII!do profHslonal d...,lopmon1 opportunities for S1aff. (5) Set pttsonal goats and objecti\IM for statf. (6) Oevetop annual budget adequate to fulfill commission duties. (7) Prepare annual wotk program. (8) Annuafly evaluate pel'$0nnel needs. (9) Check fOf duplication of effo1'1 among state and local plannlng staff, and reduce duplication where approptlate. (10) Ottetmine which TO ptog.ram dutit$ can mo&t effec.tiv.ty be camtd out at 1he statt 1...,..1 vtr$US the local t evel (1 1) Assure that all pt'Ocedures, guidelines and directives Issued by member departments ate conducive to the coordination of 1ransportallon services (FS 427.013 (7)). (12) Design and develop transportation disadvantaged ttalnlng programs [FS 427.013 (19)}. OBJECTtVE 3: Promote optimal utilization of MJVIOH provid ed. MEASURES ( 1) paasenger !rips par whicle (2) punnger tflpt per how (3) passenger trips per wt'liole mile STRATEGIES (1) Encourag e multi-county OOOI'dination. (2) Promote improvements in vehicle reaeN&tion atld scheduling functions (3) Encourage the siting of program facilities near transportation f8cilities. (4) the deveklpment of rue polldes that promote the optimal u tlllzatlon of transportation services { e.g., ott-peak disoounts). (5) Assure that all procedures guidelines. and ditedives i&.wed by mM'Iber dopartmenu afe eonduolvo to the coord i nation of tranaportation services (FS 427.013 (7)}. ( 6) Coordinate all tl'aMpOrtation dl'sadvant&Qed prcgramt with appropriate state, local, and tedeml agenciM, and public transit agencies t o ensur e compatlbiUCy wlth existing transportation ayst8ma [FS 427.013 (20)). 34

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TABLE A. (continued). OBJECT1VE : Promote utlllzatkln of the moet COS1-effect1Ye uantpOnation mod. MEASURES (1) pen:ent volunteer -provided trips are of total trips (2) percent group trips are of total (3) por<:ent fuced..,uto trill$ aro of total ttfpo SmATEGIES ( 1 ) Promote tl\e expkHatlon of IOW
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TABLE A. (continued). OBJECTIVE 2: Promote service that minimizes customer travel and walt times. MEASURES (1) percent of on-time p5ckUPi (2) number of complaint$ STRATEGIES (1) Promote Improvements to vehicJe reservation and scMdu"ng functions. (2) Conduct tral'nlng workthops for schedulers and dispatchers. (3) Develop stand ard operating proo tduttt. {4) &ress Importance ot minimizing cus.tomer tfavel and wait time& In TOC publications (5) Oe\ply fo< and accept funds, g1antt, gifto, and saNices from the Feder1.1 Government. stato local governments, or prlvll8 funding sources (FS 427-013 (11)). 36

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TABLE A. (continued). OBJECTIVE 2: Encoutagt J)
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TABLE A. (continued). OBJECTIVE 1: Adhere to procedures, rules, and regulations estabilhed by the stal8 of Florida. MEASURES {1} sa11oloctory audit and legislative report (2) progr ... 1oward met11ng 1he 24 dU11n mandalad I n Chapier 427-013, FS STRATEGIES (1) Assign a staff member th e r e sponsibility of tnsul'ing oompli.anct with aw. admlnlttratM proee c hJft!S. (.2) AAnually r eview TO legislation and administrative rules to determi ne if any cl\angtJS ate nttdc-d. (3) Review proposed leglslatlon related to Comnrission activitiea. (4) Complie all a vailable itlforma.tlon on the ttansporta.1ion servlees for and needs of the transportation diaadvantaged in the &tate (FS 427.013 (1)]. (5) Develop and monitor rutes and procedures to implement the provisions of Chapte r 427, FS [FS 421.013 (9)] (8) Review and approve m e morandums of agrMment fot the provisions of coord inated transportallon services [FS 42.'7.013 {15)]. (7) Review, mon l tof, and eoordlnate all transportation diMdvantag:ed local government,. state, and fedeml funds requests and plana for conformance with eommistion policy (FS 427 .013 { 16)J, OBJECTrYE 2: Carry ou t l egl$latlve mandatn. MEASURES (1) progress toward meeting ll>e 24 duties mandaled In Chapter 427.013, FS STRATEGIES (1) Establish and monitor work plan and SChedule for aooompltshm tnt of t aoh of tht 24 mandates. (2) Assign an indMduaA to be responsible fOC' each of the manda.IH. OBJECT1VE 3: Promot t uniform, accurate, and timely submittals of data and contracts MEASURES ( 1 ) peroent of AORs and MOAs received on time (2) numbtr of AORs and MOAt rejected due to I naccurate or i ncompJete reporting STRATEGIES {1) Ptovid ongoing ttcl'ln ic&l wpport. (2) Conduct training programs on data col l ection and (3) Mnually evaluate formats of required reports and contracts. { 4 ) Compate AORs and ABEs. {S) Standar
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TABLE A. (continued). OBJECTIVE 4: CoUect. compile, report, and m ai ntain data necessary fDf evatuation of sw.ewtd e TO program MEASURES (1) publio&tiOn of annual performance evaluation as prt of annulil STRATEGIES (1) lmpl em.nt performanc e monitoring program that wl al low the commission to assess program petfotmanoe. (2) Determine an reponing process for the annual plri'ormanct evaluations. (3} Ettablish tt&.tewidt obj&ctivn fat pi'O\Iicllng transponation servtcts for the tr&nspona_tion (FS 427.013 (2)] (4} Make an annual repon to the Govef'nOf, the PtHident o1 the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives by March 1 of oach yeat [FS 427 .013 (12)] (5) Con&Ofidatt IM annual budgett estim ates of rnembtr departm ent and i$$ut a report (FS 427.013 {13)1. 39

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ABE ADA AOR ere CUTR FAC FDOT FTA FS HHS HRS MOA TD TDC UMTA List of Abbreviations Annual Budget Estimate Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Annual Operating Report Community Transportation Coordinator Center for Urban Transportation Research Florida Administ'rative Code Florida Department of Transportation Federal Transit Administration Florida Statutes Health and Human Services Health and Rehabilitative Services Memorandum of Agreement Transportation Disadvantaged Transportation Disadvantaged Commission Urban Mass Transportation Administration 40

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Glossary Accidents the total number of reportable accidents resulting in property damage and/or personal injury. Annual Budget Estimate -a budget estimate of funds available for providing transportation services to the transportation disadvantaged that is prepared annually and covers a period of one state fiscal year . Annual Operating Report -an annual report prepared by the community transportation coordinator detailing its designated-area operating statistics for the most recent operating year. Brokered CTC Network type of ere network in which all transportation services are contracted out to other operators (the CTC operates no service). Chapter 427, FS the Florida statute establishing the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission and prescribing its duties and responsibilities. Community Transportation Coordinator (CTC) -a transportation entity recommended by an official planning agency to ensure that coordinated transportation services are provided to the transportation disadvantaged population in a designated service area Formerly known as a coordinated community tranSportation provider. Coordinated Community Transportation Provider predecessor to the community transportation coordinator. Coordinated Trips passenger trips provided by or through a CTC Coordinating Board entity in each designated service area composed of representatives appointed by the official planning agency Its purpose is to provide assistance to the community transportation coordinator concerning the coordination of transportation services. Coordinating Council for the Transportation Disadvantaged created in 1979 with the express purpose of coordinating transportation services for the transportatio n disadvantaged by developing rules and procedures to implement Chapter 427, FS. Also known as the Coordinating Council. The predecessor of the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission. Demand the amount consumers are willing to buy under certain prices and other market conditions, such as consumer tastes and preferences concerning the good or service, consumer income, consumer awareness of the good or service, and prices of substitute goods or services. 41

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Demand for TD Trips the amount of TO trips that would be made at prevailing trip costs, level of trip subsidies, and market conditions. In the five-year plan, total demand for TO trips is the sum of demand for general trips and demand for program trips. Demand for Travel the number of trips desired on all modes and for any purpose. Demand-Responsive Service a transportation service characterized by flexible routing and scheduling that provides door to-door or point-to-point transportation at the user 's request. Derived Demand demand for a good or service that is linked to (derived from) the demand for another good or service. (e.g. demand for participation in an agency-sponsored program, such as congregate dining, creates demand for transportation to the program). Designated Service Area the geographical area, consisting of one or more counties, in which the ere is the designated provider. Effectiveness Measure a performance measure that indicates the level of consumption per unit of output. Passenger trips per vehicle mile is an example of an effectiveness measure. EMciency Measure-a performance measure that evaluates the level of resources expended to achieve a given level of output. An example of an efficiency measure is operating cost per veh icle mile. Fixed-Route Service transit service in which the vehicles follow a schedule over a prescnbed route. Full Time Equivalent (FfE)a measure. used to determine number of employees based on a 4().bour work week. One FIE equals 40 work hours per week. General Trips passenger trips by individuals to destinations of their choice, not associated with any agency program. Goal broad-scoped conditions that define what the organization hopes to achieve. High-Risk or At Risk Child -a preschool child with one or more of thirteen characteristics that p l ace a c hild in greater risk of developmental disabilities. Latent Demand demand that is not active (i.e. the pot ential demand of persons who are not presently in the market for a good or service). Memorandum of Agreement a binding standard contract between the Transportation D isadvan taged Commission and a ere. This contract and i ts provisions serve as a performance and reporting standard to guide the delivery of services by all agencies or entities that provide tr ansporta tion disadvantaged services Metropolitan Planning Organization the organization responsible for transportation planning and programming in urban areas. Also serves as the official planning agency referred to in Chapter 427, FS. 42

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Mode Choice a choice among possible means of making a trip. Possible modes include automobile, fixed-route transit, paratransit, walking, and others. Mulll-Provlder ere Networktype of ere in which the ere operates some transportation services and contracts other service with other operators Non-Coordinated Trip a passenger trip provided outside of the coordinated 1D system. Non-Sponsored Trip a passenger trip that is not subsidized in part o r in whole by any local, state, or federal government funding source. Non-sponsored Transportation Disadvantaged Person an individual who meets the definition of a transportation disadvantaged individual and is not subsidized for transportation financial assistance. Non-sponsored Transportation Disadvantaged Trip a trip for a transportation disadvantaged individual that i s not subsidized in part or whole by a funding source. Objective speci fic, measurable conditions that the organization establishes to achieve its goals. Official Planiling Agency the agency designated by the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission to appoint the community coordinating board and recommend the community transportation coordinator for each service area. Metropolitan planning organizations are automatically the official planning 11gencies in urban areas. Operating Cost reported total expenses on operations, including administration, maintenance, and operations of service vehicles, and excluding capital spending. Operating Revenue all revenues and subsidies utilized by the operator in the provision of transportation services. Operating Statistics operating data on various characteristics of operations, including passenger trips, vehicle miles, operating costs, revenue, vehicles, employees, accidents, and roadcalls. Operating Status Report an annual report issued by the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission that compiles all the data submitted in the Ann)lal Operating Reports. Paratransitspecialized transportation service provided by many types of vehicles (including automobiles, vans, and buses) that is typically used by transportation disadvantaged persons. Examples of paratransit service include demand-responsive service and subscription service. Passenger Trip a trip made by a passenger on a single vehicle. H a passenger transfers from o ne vehicle to another to reach a destination, he or she is counted as making two passenger trips. Also known as a one-way, unlinked passenger trip. 43

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Peer Group Analysis a common technique used to evaluate the general performance of a single operator r elative to the performance of a comparable group of operators of similar size, operating environments, and modal characteristics. Performance Measure statistical representation of how well an activity, task, or function is being performed. Usually computed from operating statistics by relating a measure of service output or utilization to a measure of service input or cost. Program Trip a passenger trip supplied or sponsored by a human service agency for the purpose of transporting clients to and from a program of that agency (e.g., sheltered workshops, congregate dining, and job training). Roadcall a revenue service i nterruption caused by failure of some mechanical element or other element. Rule 41-Z, FAC the rule adopted by the Transportation Disadvantaged Commissio n to implement provisions established in Chapter 427, FS. Section 15 Report -an annual report required of all Section 9 transit agencies by the Federal Transit Administration. Section 9 Transit Agency -an agency that receives federal funding under Section 9 of the Federal Transit Act. Single-Provider CTC Network the network type in which the CTC operates al l of the transportation services. Sponsored Transportation Disadvantaged Person -an individual who meets the definition of a transportation disadv-.1ntaged individual and is subsidized for transportation financial assistance. Sponsored Transportation Disadvantaged Trip a trip for a transportation disadvantaged individual that is subsidized in part or whole by a funding source. Sponsored Trip a passenger trip that is subsidized in part or in whole by a local, state, or federal government funding source (not including monies provided by the TD Trust Fund). Subscription Service a regular service with prearranged routes and schedules for persons who sign up in advance. Supply the amount of goods or services provided by suppliers at various prices and other market conditions, such as cost of inputs (e.g wages and materials), prices of related goods and services, technology, expectations of demand, and competition in the market place. Target some t hing established by authority, custom, or general consent as a model or example. 44

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Transportation Disadvantaged -in Florida, those persons who because of physical or mental d i sability income status, or age are unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportation and are, therefore, depe n dent u pon others to obtain access to health care, employment, education, shopping, social activities, or other life-sustaining activities, or children who are handicapped or high-risk as defined in s.411.202. Transportation Disadvantaged Commission an independent organization created in 1989 to the. coord i nation of transportation services provided to the transportation disadvantaged population. Replaced the Coordinating Council for the Transportation Disadvantaged. Transportation Disadvantaged Funds any federal, state, or local funds available for the transportation of the transportation disadvantaged. Includes funds for planning, administration, operations, and capital equipment. It does not include funds used for the transportation of children to public schools. Transportation Disadvantaged Category I Population disabled, elderly, low-income persons, and "high-risk" or "at-risk" children who are eligible to receive go v ernmental and social service agency subsid i es for program and general trips. Transportation Disadvantaged Category II Population persons who are t r ansportation disadvantaged according to the eligibility guidelines i n Chapter 427 (i.e., they are unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportat i on). Transportation Disadvantaged Trust Fund -a fund administered by the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission in which all fees collected for the transportation disadvantaged program shall be deposited. The funds deposited will be appropriated by the legislature to the commissio n to carry out the commissio n 's responsib ili ties. Transportation Improvement Plan a staged multi-year program of transportation improvements, including an annual element developed by an MPO specifying program activities for the current fiscal year. Transportation Operator one or more public, private for-profit, or private non-profit entities engaged by the community transportation coordinator to provide service to transportation disadvantaged persons. Trend Analysis -a common technique used to analyze the performance of an organizat i on over a period of time. Unmet Demand the number of trips desired but not provided because of insufficient service supply. Urbanized Area -an area designated by the Bureau of the Census that contains a central city or cities and surrounding closely settled urban fringe (suburbs), which together have a population of 50,000 or more. 45

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Vehicle Miles the number of miles traveled by vehicles providing passenger service. Vehicles number of vehicles owned by the transit agency that are available for use in providing services. 46

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List of References AnnUal Qperating Re,ports. Submitted by Community Transportation Coordinators (previously Coordinated Community Transportation Providers) to the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission (formerly the Coordinating Council for the Transportation Disadvantaged). 1985 -1989. Compex Corporation. N a tiona! Urban Mass 'framportation Statistics: 1986 Section 15 Annual RePQit. UMTA-VA-06..()127-88-1. Alexandria, Virginia.: U.S. Department of Transportation, 1988. Compex Corporation. National Urban Mass Transportation Statistics: 1987 Section 15 Annual Report. UMTA-VA-Q6-01Z7-89-1. Alexandria, Virginia.: U.S. Department of T ransportation, 1989. Compex Corporation. National Urban Mass Transportation Statistics: 1988 Section 15 Annual Re,porl UMTA-VA-()6-0127-90-1. Alexandria, Virginia.: U .S. Department of Transportation, 1989. Comsis Corporation. 1989 Annual Report: Indiana Public Transportation. Silver Spring, Maryland: Indiana Department of Transportation, Division of Public Transportation, 1990. Miller, James H. S hared-Rjde Paratransjt Performance Eva].uatjon Guide. UMTA Report PA..()6-0101. U.S. Department of Transportation, 1989. Operating Status Re,ports Tallahassee, Florida: Transportation Disadvantaged Commission (previously the Coordinating Council for the Transportation Disadvantaged). 1985 1989. Section 15 Submitted by Section 15 Operators to the Urban Mass Transportation Administration. 1989. Senate Committee on Transportation. A Review of the Coordinating Council for the Trani!JlOrlation Disadvanta,eed in the De,partroent of Tranportation. n.p.: Senate Committee on Transportation, January 1989. State of Florida Office of the Auditor General. Performance Audit of the T ransportation for the Disadvantaged Program of the Coordinating Council on the Disadvantaged and the De,partment of Transportation. Tallahassee, Florida: State of Florida Office of the Auditor General, 1987. Transportation Accounting Consortium. Rural Tranportation Accounting: A Model Uniform Accounting System for R ural and Sl?ecialized Transpo rtation Provi ders. DOT-1-87-08. Lansing, Michigan: U.S D epartment of Transportation, 1986. 47

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Transportation Accounting Consortium. Simlifrine Human Service Traosponation and Small Transit System Accountin&: A Six State Perspective. Lansing, Michigan: U.S. Departmen t of Transportation, 1983. Transportation Disadvan taged Commission. State of Flprida Transportation Dj saclvanta eed Handbook. Tallahassee, Florida: TD Commission, 1989 Transportation Research Center of Indiana University. Handbook for Mwia11ement Performance Audits. DOT-T-88-21. Bloomington, Indiana : Urban Mass Transportation Administration and U.S. Department of Transportation, 1988. U.S. Bureau of tbe Census. 1980 Census of tbe United S!aies. Washington, D .C.: Bureau of tbe Census 1981. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1990 Census pf the United States. Preliminary Results. Washington, D.C. : Bureau of the Census, 1991. 48


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