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Corridor Safety Improvement Program impact evaluation

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Title:
Corridor Safety Improvement Program impact evaluation
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida. Dept. of Transportation
University of south Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research
Publisher:
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Traffic safety -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Traffic surveys -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corridor Safety Improvement Program (CSIP)   ( lcsh )
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letter   ( marcgt )

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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usfldc doi - C01-00253
usfldc handle - c1.253
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CORRIDOR SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM IMPACT EVALUATION CUTR

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CORRIDOR SAFETY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM IMPACT EVALUATION Prepared by the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) December 1994 This r eport was prepared for the State Safety Office, Department of Transportation. State of Rofi
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Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CSIP Goals and Objectives: Ellllluation Plan Development . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Florida Avenue CSIP Evaluatio n Plan . . . . . . . . . . 3 lnterstate-4 Evaluation Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Methodology .......... ......... ............. .... .... : . . . . . . . . . 6 Florida Avenue Pl&E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 lnterstate-4 PI&E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Analysis and Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Seat belt use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Reduce speeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Reduce DUI inddents . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Reduce incidents of dangerous driving . . . . . .. . . . 18 Reduce the number of crashes, Injuries, and fatalities . . . . . . . . . 20 Summary and Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Appendix: CSIP Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 iii

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List of Figures Figure 1 Florida Avenue Seat Belt Use Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 2 1-4 Seat Belt Use Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 3 Florida Avenue DUI Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Figure 4 1-4 DUI Arrests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Figure 5 Florida Avenue Traffic Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 6 1-4 Traffic Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Figure 7 Florida Avenue Vehicle Crashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Figure 8 1-4 Vehicle Crashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Figure 9 Florida Avenue Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Figure 10 1-4 Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 iv

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I n trodu cti on . CORRIDOR SA FETI IMPROVEMENT P ROGRAM IMPACT E V ALUATION The Corridor Safety Improvement Program (CSIP) concept Is a multi-agency approach involving law enforcement, emergency medical services, public education and roadway eng i neer ing to reduce accident rates. The concept involves the coordination and convergence of safety efforts of the various agencies on speclflc traffic corridors. Through this coo rdinated effort, the program goa l is to deve l op an I ntegrated approach to the application of highway safety countermeasures by affecting the three critical e l ements of highway crashes: t he human, the machine, and the environment Examplesof the CSIP approach may include public I nformation and education campaigns, Increased en f orcement of t raffic laws, reduced response time strategies for emergency service prov i ders, and l ow cost, quickl y impl emented engineering or des ign changes. T his project involved the devel opment and impl ementat i on o f evaluation p lans for CSIPs in Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Districts One and Seven. The CSIP In FDOT District One is identified as the Florida AvenuejState Road 37 corr i dor i n Lakeland The corrido r Is a tota l of 10.05 miles or 16.20 kilometers. The CSIP In FDOT District Seven is identified as the lnterstate-4 ( 1 -4) corridor pro j ect between Tampa and Plant C i ty Its length i s 25 25 miles or 15.73 kilometers Both programs were conducted s imul taneously. The evaluation p lan proposed for the project involved two stages: evaluation of the CSIP process and the product or impact. of the CSIP. The forst phase of the project, process evaluation, invol ved t he development of a CSIP Implemen tation manual t hat woul d be available for use by other areas cons i dering impl ementation of CSIP. The manual Community/Corridor Traffic Sofety Programs: A Resource Manual, identifies the necessary steps to facilitate the planning and implementation of CSIPs and recounts problems and solutions experienced by others in CSI P devel opment These exper iences and sol u tions were drawn from the CSIP general meetings of various emergency medical servic e, l aw enforcement, public e ducation and information safety, agency r epresentatives and state and local elected officials which comprised the component groups desc ribed i n the manual ment i oned a b ove. Additional information was drawn f r om reports and documents avail ab l e through a clearinghouse established as part of the project

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CSIP Impact ev.Juauon The second phase of the project, im pact evaluation, is this document The proposed goal of the impact evaluation Is to identify, document, and evaluate the countermeasures implemented in the two Florida CSIPs. It was necessary in this phase of the project to focus on the goals and objectives established by the groups working with the two corridors. The following objectives for the Impact evaluation were established: assist the CSIP participating agencies I n stating program goals; formu late the agencies' goals Into measurable objectives; develop an evaluation plan which includes identifying data sources, statistical treatment( s ), and study and control groups; specify and imp l ement the data collection procedures; and report and analyze Impact data. CSIP Goals and Objectives: Evaluation Plan Development The imp act measures were developed from the goals and objectives stated by the various agencies that comprised the component groups for the two CSIP projects. (The appendix contains a listing of the groups and the agencies represented.) Key e lements i n the development of the impact measures were the availability of data and the means of data collection. The CSIPs' goals and objectives and the subsequent impact measures were used to develop evaluation plans for each project Control corridors were selected for eaclh project corridor. State Highway 301 in Sarasota was selected as a norl-equivalent control corridor for the Florida Avenue CSIP because it has physical and use clharacteristics similar to those of Florida Avenue. The location of the control corridor in the same FOOT district was anticipated to allow better coordination of data collection, such as speed studies. The control corridor also would provide a similar historical experience. an important factor in attempting to control the validity of the study results. The control and target corridors did not share the same broadcast media markets; therefore, the likelihood of spillover from the public awareness campaigns and other safety efforts was anticipated to be minimal. Interstate 295 (1-295) around Jaclcsonvllle was initially selected as the control corridor for the 1-4 CSIP because it resembled 1-4 in traffic volume and use characteristics. The 1-295 corridor was also beyond the target broadcast media range; It was anticipated that spillover would be minimal. During 2

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the course of the project, however, random shootings of motorists occurred on 1-295 and the State Highway Patrol advised the project participants that data collection along the corridor was unsafe. A new control corridor, lnt erstate-7 5, south of Gainesville, was selected for gathering seat belt data while 1-2 9 5 continued to be used for data related to speed studies. Florida Avenue CSIP Evaluation Plan The evaluation plan for the Florida Avenue CSIP includes the objectives, the type of data to be collected, the data collection, and reporting frequencies. The plan elements are as follows: 1 Increase seat belt use in the corridor. a. Seat belt survey: a monthly seat belt survey was scheduled to be conducted in the Flor ida Avenue corridor and the control corridor, Highway 301 In Sarasota. b. Seat belt violations: a monthly printout was to be generated that detailed the seat belt violations written in the corridor. c. Public information and educawn (PI&E): examples of each p iece of printed media-brochures, pamphlets, bumper stickers, billboards, buttons, and so on-mentioning seat belts and their use, along with the distribution of such media, in the corridor was to be reported. The tota l column inches of newspaper articles concerning seat belts and their use In the corridor and all broadcast media releases and their content were also to be reported. All PI &E Information was reported on an as-occurred basis. d. Enforcement cwert/me: the total number of overtime police enforcement hours In the corridor was to be reported on a monthly basis for as many months as the overtime efforts were used. 2. Reduce speeding along the corridor a. Speeding violations: a monthly printout was to be generated that detailed speeding violations written In the corridor. b. Enforcement overtime: the total number of overtime police enforcement hours in the corridor was to be reported on a monthly basis for as many months as the overtime efforts were used. c. Speed studies: monthly speed studies were to be conducted in the Florida Avenue and the control corridors. d. Public information and educawn (PI&E): examples of each p iece of printed media-brochures, pamphlets, bumper stickers, billboards, buttons, and so on mentioning excessive speed and 3

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CSIP Impact Evaluation speeding. along with the distribution of such media. in the corridor was to be reported. The total column inches of newspaper articles concerning seat belts and their use in the corridor and all b roadcast media releases and their content were also to be reported. All PI &E information was reported on an as-occurred basis. 3. Reduce the incidents of driving unde r the influence (DUI) violations in the corri dor. a. DUI violations: a monthly pri ntout was to be generated that detailed DUI violations written In the corridor. b Public information and education (PI &E): examples of each piece of printed media brochures, pamphlets. bumper stickers, billboards. buttons, and so on mentioning DUI, along with the distribution of such media in the corridor was to be reported. The total column i nches of newspaper articles conceming DUI violations in the corridor and all broadcast media releases and their content were also to be reported. All PI &E i nformation was reported on an occurred basis. c Enforcement overtime: the total number of overtime police enforcement hours in the corridor was to be reported on a monthly basis for as many months as the overtime efforts were used 4. Reduce the Incidents of dangerous driving In the corri dor. a. Violations: a monthly printout was to be generated which detailed all dangerous driving v i olations written in the corridor. b. Public information and education (PI&E): examples of each piece of printed media brochures, pamphlets, bumper sticlkers, billboards, buttons, and so on mentioning dangerous driving activities, along with the distribution of such media, In the corridor was to be reported. The total column inches of newspaper articles concemlng dangerous driving in the corridor and all broadcast media releases and their content were a lso to be reported. All PI &E information was reported on an as-<>ccurred basis. c. Enforcement overtime:. the total number of overtime police enforcement hours In the corridor was to be reported on a monthly basis for as many months as the overtime efforts were used. 5. Reduce the number of crashes, injuri es, and fatali ties in the corridor. a. Crashes:. a monthly printout was to be generated that detailed all crashes in the corri dor. b. Injuries: a month l y printout was to be generated that detailed all traffic-related Injuries in the corridor. c Fatalities: a month l y printout was to be generated that detai led all traffic-related fatalit i es in the corridor 4

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CSIP Impact Evaluation d. Engineering: a complete list was to be complied that detailed all engineering or design Improvements and their date of completion along the corridor. e. Pubfic information and education (PI&): examples of each piece of printed media-brochures, pamphlets, bumper stickers, billboards, buttons, and so on mentioning crashes, Injuries, and fatalities, along with the distributiop of such media, in the corridor was to be reported. The total column inc hes of newspaper articles concerning crashes, injuries, and fatali ties in the corridor and all b roadcast media releases and their content were also to be reported. All P I &E I nf ormation was reported on an as-occurred basis. 6. Reduce the response time for emergency medical service (EMS) and fire vehicles In the corridor. a. Trame signal devices: a report was to be compiled that lists the date that the traffic signal devices for EMS and flre vehicles became operational in the corridor. b. Response time: Vehicle response time r eports were to be kept for EMS and ftre vehicles operating in the corridor. These times were to be compared to the times prior to the Installation of the traffic signal dev i ces and to the times of EMS vehicles operating from stations on routes outside of the corridor. c. Public information and education (PI&E): examples of each p iece of printed media-brochures, pamphlets, bumper stidcers, b i llboa rds, buttons, and so on-mentioning EMS and fire activity, along with the distribution of such media, in the corridor was to be reported. The total column Inches of newspaper articles conce rning EMS and fire vehicle response time in the corridor and all broa dcast media releases and their content were also to be reported. All PI &E informa tion was reported on an as-occurred basis. 7. Reduce bicycle and pedestrian crashes in the corridor. a. Pedestrians: a monthly printout was to be generated that detailed all crashes involving pedestrians In the corridor. b. Bicycles: a monthly printout was to be generated that detailed all crashes involving bicycles in the corridor. c. Engineering: A complete list was to be compiled that detailed all engineering or design improvements and their date of completion along the corridor. d. Public information and education (PI&): Examples of each piece of printed media-brochures, pamphlets, bumper stickers, billboards, buttons, and so on mentioning pedestrians and bicycle safety, along wlth the distribution of such media, in the corridor was to be reported. The total column Inches of newspaper articles concerning bicycle and pedestrian crashes in the corridor and all broadcast media releases and the ir content were also to be reported. All PI 5

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CSIP Impact &E Information was reported on an as-occurred basis. lnterstate-4 CSIP valuation Plan The 1-4 evaluation plan included pre and post program implementation objectives, data collection, and reporting similar to that of the Florida Avenue plan. The similarities between the two p l ans are such that the 1-4 plan is not reproduced in this report M ethodo l ogy Comm i ttee members indicated during the first quarter of the project potential data sou r ces as a means of monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the CSIPs. The following data were to be collected on a monthly basis, except where indicated, for both projects in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the CSIPs: bicycle and pedestrian crash printouts crash, injury, and fatality printouts dangerous driving vio l ation printouts DUI vio l ation printouts EMS and fire vehicle response time preand postImplementation report engineering or design Improvements report police enforcement overt ime hours seat bel t surveys seat bel t vio l ations printouts PI&E material distribution reports (as occurred) speed studies speeding violations printouts traffic signal device report Data collection began during the first quarter of the project, i n some cases, as early as January 1992. The Initial data consisted of historica l information and some crash statistics. Although data collection began early in the project, a number of difficulties were experienced in securing enough of the necessary data to conduct evaluations of impact measures. For example in one citation data set for the six-month period of July through December 1992, the first two months' data is from one data source. The remaining four months' data combines two sources. Data collection was omi tted for some periods all together, due to the lack of availab l e personnel. I n the case of engineering and design 6

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CSIP Impact Evaluation changes, it should be noted 1hat 1here was some difficulty In collecting pre-change data, a key element In conducting analyses of conditions after 1he change. Data collection and reporting practices of 1hls nature significantly influenced the scope and degree to which the impact measures could be analyzed. One of the results of this project, as discussed In detail below, is recommendations for future data collection and reporting procedures. Some analyses were conducted on specific data sets such as crash data Examples of such analyses include comparisons of the number crashes by year, day of the week, and time of day. While these analyses are useful, their beneflt may have been Increased had there been comparable control data. The analyses of these impact measures were provided as part of the quarterly reports which were prepared and submitted throughout the project. Data collection activities ended December 1993. Florida Avenue P/&E Although the bulk of 1he objectives and lmpact'measures for the Florida Avenue corridor were similar to those for 1-4, there were differences in the PI&E approaches. There were two PI&E objectives stated for the Florida Avenue corridor: 1. Increase awareness of 1he need to proceed with caution in the corridor, and 2. Reduce the number of crashes along the corridor by 10 percent. The PI&E implementation plan Included the development of a Heads Up! Drive Safe, Shop Smart" theme and the backing of local bus i nesses owners in the effort. The corridor includes approximately 400 restaurants, corporations, strip shopping centers, and banks. Through group and one-on-one meetings, 1he program was introduced to local businesses. The distribution results are detailed below. Program activities for the Florida Avenue corridor began June 3, 1992. 'Heads Up!" Public Education Program A total of 250, or 60 percent, of Florida Avenue businesses displayed 'Heads Up!" posters and point of purchase cards. These businesses also passed out flyers, promoting safe driving, buttons, and stickers to customers About 25 percent of the businesses also had their employees wear "Heads Up!" 7

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CSIP Impact EvaluaUon buttons. Major employers along the corridor distributed flyers to employees and placed posters in employee break and lounge areas. Twelve billboards were donated and 96,000 households received "Heads Up!" flyers with utility bills. All local pizza outlets placed "Heads Up!" stickers on carry out and delivered pizzas. The 20 movie theaters, in the area, displayed "Heads Up!" slides before movie showings. Meetings were held with major Lakeland radio stations and all played the four public service announcements produced for the project. Radio talk shows interviews were booked and several artides and an editorial were written in the Lakeland Ledger and Polk County's Tampa Tribune. Educational materials were also provided to the schools surrounding the corridor and drivers education programs. /nterstate-4 P/&E Kick.{)ff Event The opening ceremony to mark the beginning of the program was held on January 26, 1993. The event was underwritten by Progressive Insurance and was attended by almost 200 people from the Tampa and Plant City Chambers of Commerce, legislative aides, local elected officials, law enforcement personnel, and community and traffic safety personnel. Four television stations, four radio stations, and the two daily newspapers provided the media coverage shown below: Television coverage WFLA, Channel 8, Noon, 01/26/93 WFLA. Channel 8, 6:00p.m. 01/26/93 WTOG, Channel 44, 10:00 p.m. 01/27/93 WTSP, Channel10, 11:00 p.m. 01j26j93 WTSP, Channel10, Noon, 01/27/93 WTSP, Channel10, 5:00p.m. 01j27 j93 WTSP, Channel10, 11:00 p.m. 01/27/93 WTVT, Channel13, Noon 01/27/93 8

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Radio spots Q 105 WFLA WSUN WUSF Newspapers and Journals St. Pete Tim<>S, foul'-<:olor, 3 column x 10' story, front page Tampa Tribune, four-co lor photo front page Tampa Tribune, 1 column x 16" story, Metro section, page 3 Tampa Tribune, editor ial cartoon, 1-4 Speedway Tampa Bay Business journal, 1 column x 81h" 14Signoge 01j2Sj93 01j28j93 0 1j28j93 02/01/93 02j12j93 Four, four foot by n ine foot (4' x 9 ) banners were produced and i nstalled along 1-4 for two week periods throughout the yea r The banners displayed the theme, "Survive t h e Drive" In bright colors of purple, orange, and yellow. The banner Installation was used as another opportunity to generate med i a coverage on the p r ogram Stor ies appeared as follows: Television WFLA, Channel 8, Noon, 06j29 j93 WFLA, Channel 8, 5:00p.m. 06/29 j93 WFLA, Channel 8, 6:00p. m., 06/29 j93 WTOG, Channe l 44, 10:00 p.m 06j29j93 WTSP, Channel10, Noon, 06j29j93 WTSP, Channel10, 5:00p.m. 06/29/93 WTSP, Channel10, 6:00p.m. 06j29j93 WTSP, Channe l 10, 1 1:00 p .m. 06/29/93 WM, Channel13, Noon 06j29j93 WM, Channel13, 5:00p. m 06j29j93 WM, Channel13, 11:00 p .m. 06j29j93 Other formats Tampa Tribune, Metro section 3 column x 10 story, 06/30/93 WFLA Radi o, taped news segments 9

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CSIP Impact Eval uation Public Service Radio Campaign Two professionally produced radio publ i c service announcements were deve loped and d i stributed to all23 major rad i o stations i n d1e Tampa Bay area. These PSAs were used throughout the campaign by t h e stations during peak hour trips. Public Service Newspaper Advertisements The Tampa Tribune, one of the two local daily newspapers was unable to provide newspaper space for publi c serv ice advertisements duri ng the course of the project. The newspaper, however, has a radio buy called "Metro Traffic' that was tagged wid> the "Survive the 1-4 Drive" theme. Paycheck Stuffer Program/Distribution of Materials to Area Corporations A l ist of d1e top 38 major corporations and office buildings in d1e Tampa Bay area was developed for the initial distribution of public awareness and educational materials. The target group represented a significant portion of the working population of the Tampa Bay area. By the end o f the flrst phase o f the project, material had been distributed to 24, or 66 percent, of the corporations. BUMPER fJAYCHECK W I NDOW CORPORATION STICKI!RS STUFR!RS POST!RSIFLYERS DECALS 100 North floricla 2 0 20 20 AM Arthur & Company so 100 Bsmett Plaz.a (Leuin,s otfa) 25 25 1 Citkorp 600 City ol T 1000 1000 1000 1000 Faison & Assoo.tes first Rorid-.t Tawer (le'Uing Offlce) 800 800 1S Floricli C.OC..Cola 600 Pf'lt City Chambcf' ql so so 2 T:wnpa C h ambe r of Commerce so GTE Corpon.tion ... Hog.nGroup 6oo I 6oo I s I 600 10

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CSIP Impact Evaluation aut1nR WINDOW CORPORATION STICKERS STUFFE.:RS POSTERS/FLYERS DECALS Lakeo-d Bulfcling 30 10 landmartc Centre 7 7 7 Metropolitan S,mple hcbge One Mack Center (leasing Offtce 2.5 C u system. Inc. (2) 14 Soud'leastern lnwrance 200 600 1S Riverside Plaza (Lc:ulng Office) 2.5 6 Seminole Electric Coopera.tiYG Smple$ 27S 5 Samples Tampa City Center (leasing Oflke) 12 I Tho TriOOnc 300 300 20 300 Ybo ._,. ( L""' Offi
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CSI P Impact EvaluaUon Analysis and Findings Assessing the overall effectiveness of the CSIP proved to be difficul t as there were few ways to quantitatively monitor such programs. Much of the data received from the various participating agencies d i d not allow for rigorous sta tistical analyses In many Instances, the data e i ther were collected before the PI&E campaigns or after the campaigns were completed. In order for the data to be analyzed In terms o( the effectiveness of the PI&E campaigns and other safety efforts, comparab l e data sets would need to be availab l e before. at strategic points during, and after the comp letion of the campaigns. One positive i mpact of the campaigns was the eagerness of the various law enforcement and other safety personnel to participate i n the program. The enthus ias m of the various police and patrol un i ts, medical, flre, and other safety personnel in attending meetings and providing i nformation was an integral part of the overall program. This i ncreased awareness may be assumed to lead to decreases in accidents and so on. There was one source of data. the speed stud i es, that cou l d be used to gauge the effectiveness of the PI&E programs. The speed study data was collected from May 1992 through December 1993. The anal yses is prov ided after Seat bel t use" in this section. Descr i ptive stat i stics also are provided for other selected data sets. The reporting periods for the data sets may vary due to the data collection and reporting difficulties discussed earlier The statist ics are provided in order as they relate to the impact measures. Seat belt use The following figures compare seat belt use along the target and contro l corridors The months shown are the periods where data was available for all four corridors. 12

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CSIP Impact Evaluation Florida Avenue A comparison of seat belt use on the Florida Avenue corridor and the control corridor, Highway 301, is provided below. 11!'2 01/ OlJ'! OVfl OSJ'l 0<;>3 07/03 Figure I f/orido Avenue Seat Belt Use Comparison. Soore<>: CU1R The average seat belt use for the Florida Avenue corridor In 1992 was observed to be 50 percent. Seat belt use appeared to increase along the co rridor by one percent in 1993. The average seat belt use for the control corridor for the same time periods were observed to be 46 and 45 percent. respectively. The increase in seat belt use on the F lorida Avenue corridor and the decrease in use on Highway 301 were not statistically signiflcant. 13

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CSIP Imp act Evaluatlon Interstate 4 A comparison of seat belt use on the 1-4 corridor and the control corridor, 1-295., is provided below. -.... "" "" .,,. '"' "" 11J"l 01/)l OJf'J 04/U OS/fJ 06/JJ 07/n Flsu'"" 2 1-4 Seat Bc/c Use c.m,..rlson. Source: CUTR The average seat belt use for the 1-4 corridor was observed to be 51 percent during the period shown in Figure 2. The average seat belt use for the control corridor was 50 percent during the same period. There is no statistical significance i n the differences between the percentages of seat belt use along the two corridors. 14

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CS1P Impact Evaluation Reduce speeding The speed study data contains many pieces of Information that relate to the speed of a vehicle. For the purposes of this analysis, it was necessary to create a variable, called difference that represents the difference in the vehicle's actual speed and the posted speed limit at which the observation was made. This allows for comparisons of areas that have different posted speeds. Two separate analyses were conducted to determine what effect, If any, the PI&E programs had on the Rorida Avenue and 1-4 corridors. For the purposes of the first analysis, the two time periods considered are: BEFOREAFTER -before the PI&E programs began. Any data collected In 1992 was considered as part of this time period. during the PI&E programs. Any data collected during the 1993 calendar year was considered as part of this time period. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure was conducted on the individual corridors to determine if differences existed between the BEFORE and AFTER d i fferences of speed for each corridor. The results va r ied. There was a significant difference between the BEFORE and AFTER periods in the F l orida Avenue corridor. The AFTER period had a significantly lower difference (in the actual versus the posted speeds) than the BEFORE period, i ndicating that the PI&E program may have been effective in r educing speeds. However, the 1-4 results showed just the opposite. The difference in the actual versus the posted speeds increased after the program was started, i ndicating that vehicle speeds were increasing. These results initially appeared contradictory until the control corridors were considered. The differences observed closely matched the differences found In the control corridors over the same period of time. The Highway 301 corridor saw a significant reduction of the difference variable, and, hence, speeds, just as the F l orida Avenue corridor. The 1-295 corridor had results that were comparable to the 1-4 increase. This suggests that the P I&E programs had little effect on the speeds relative to other uncontrolled variables that affected both the target and the control corrido rs. The second ana lysis that was conducted treated each of the months as individual time periods. May 1 992 was designated as time period one and each month thereafter was given the appropriate time value. For instance, the last month of data, December 1993., was time period twenty. The 15

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CSI P Impact Evaluatlon corri dors were each subjected to a regression analysis that searched for a linear relationship between the difference variable and the time period The resu l ts agree with the ANOVA procedures presented above. The Florida Avenue corridor regression analysis revealed a s i gn ificant negative relationsh i p between difference and time. That is, as time increased, the difference between the actual and posted speed limits decreased. Again, this seemed to suggest that the Pl&E program may have been effective. For 1-4, however, the trend was reversed; a positive relationship existed. Again, this difference can be explained by looking at the control corridors where similar relationships were observed. As with the ANOVA, t h e regression analysis provided no conclusive evidence to suggest that the PI&E programs accounted for the reduct ion in the speed.s of vehicles travelling In the corridors. Reduce OU / /ndde n u A samp l e of the enforcement efforts to reduce incidents of DUI are provided for each CSIP project. 16

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CSIP Impact Evoluotlon florida Avenue The number of DUI citations written along the corridor for the calendar years of 1992 and 1993 and shown below. Figure 3 Florida Avenue DUI C/tGtlons. Sowce: Lckelafld Pollee Deportment During the calendar year of 1992 there were 23 uniform traffic dtations for DUI written by the Lakeland Police Department. The number increased to 41 for the same period in 1993. This represented a 78 percent Increase in the number of citations written. Although the numbe r of arrests may have been expected to decrease In 1993 as a result of the Pi&E efforts, any decrease appears to have been offset by the increased enforcement activities. This appears to be an i nstance where the ability to measure the impact of the goal, "Reduce the incidents of driving under the influence (DUI) violations i n the corridor, may have been adversely influenced by one of objectives, such as enforcement. 17

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CSIP Impact Evoluatlon Interstate 4 A comparison of tl'le Hillsborough County Sheriff's Department enforcement activities as related to tl'le reduction of DUI incidents is shown below. (These figures do not include enforcement activities conducted by the Florida Highway Patrol ) s ' 1 Figure 4 1-4 DUI AtTests. Soorce: Hlllsboroogh County Shotill's Offlce. Q ,.,, '"' There were 1 5 DUI arrests along the 1-4 corridor during tl'le period of January through September 1992. The number of arrests for the same period in 1993 was 19. This represented a 27 percent increase. Reduce Incidents of dangerous drMng The figures below are comparisons of the number of traffic citations related to speeding or dangerous driving. 18

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CSIP Impact Evaluation 'Fiotiifll Avenue The figure below compares the traffic citations issued along the Florida Avenue corridor for "careless driving" and speeding. Fipre 5 Florida Avenue Troffte Citotions. Source: Lakeland Pollee Oep<>rtmtflc The total number of traffic citations written on the Florida Avenue corridor for careless driving for the 1992 calendar year was 437. The number of citations decreased in 1993 by nine percent or to 396. The total number of traffic citations written for speeding on the corridor for the same period was 489. The number of citations for this type of violation decreased in 1993 by seven percent or to 453. 19

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CSIP lmpa
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C611! 111Jp!Kt e..loatlon Florida Avenue A comparison between the 1992 and 1993 vehicle crashes along the Florida Avenue corridor is shown below. Figure 7 florida Aenue Vehicle Crosh&s. Source: Lokefond Police Deportment There were a total of 524 vehicle crashes along the Florida Avenue corridor during the 1992 calendar year. The number of crashes decreased over the same period of 1993 to 471. This represented an 11 percent decrease. Control data is not available. 21

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CSIP Impact Evaluation Interstate 4 The number of vehicle crashes along 1-4 for January through September 1992 and 1993 is shown below. Fi1ure 8 1-4 Vehlde Croshes. So..-ce: Hillsborottgh County Sherill's 0111ce. From January through September 1992. there were 434 vehicle crashes on 1-4 from the city limits of Tampa to the Polk County line. There were only 381 vehicles crashes for the same period during 1993. This represented a 12 percent decrease In vehicle crashes. The data for the control corridor is not available. 22

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CSIP Impact Evaluadon FloriJa Avenue The number of injuries that occurred along the F l orida Avenue corridor d uring calendar yea r 1992 are compared to the number of Injur i es that in 1993. 1S 10 s Figure 9 Rorida Avenue Injuries. Source: U>keland Potk:e Deportment Yur Ill .,, 19tl There was a tota l 134 injuries during the ca l endar year of 1992 along the F l orida Avenue co r ridor. The number of i njur i es decreased to 127 during 1993 The contro l data i s not available for thi s co r ridor. 23

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CSIP Impact Evaluadon Interstate 4 A comparison of the number of injuries reported along the 1-4 corridor for January through September 1992 and 1993 is shown below. Figure I 0 1-4 Injuries. So
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CSIP Impact Evaluation made on the available data as to the overall Impact of the program, however, specific objectives such as reductions in the number of crashes, injuries, and fatalities appear to have been achieved. Summary and Implications Several of the goals of the CSIP, including of coordination among various agencies and reductions In the number of crashes, Injuries, and fatalities, appear to have been met. The fact that the amount of data that was compiled could be collected and reported over the course of the project demonstrates the coordination and cooperation that developed between the participating agencies. The coordination efforts by these agencies on the project may serve to Improve their Individual safety efforts. Overall, the coordination and cooperation experiences of the participating agencies have fostered the development of two county-wide corridor safety programs in Hillsborough and Polk counties. Again, this increased awareness alone may lead to safety improvements. The Florida and 1-4 CSIP evaluation plans described earlier set forth the program objectives and means of measuring achievement of the objectives. The extent to which the program objectives were met is not clear from the available data collected and reported during the course of the project. Some of the uncertainty can be attributed to the scope of the project as well as the evaluation design and data collection. One of the main goals of a CSIP is to bring together many of the agencies involved with traffic safety and to collectively work to determine what factors affect such variables as vehicle speed, mentioned earlier as the difference in the actual versus the posted speed, and seat belt usage. Ideally, from an analytical perspective, when designing a new roadway, such knowledge would lead to accurate predications of vehicle speeds and seat belt usage on the roadway. On existing roadways, the relationships discovered between the factors could lead to new procedures targeted to reducing speeds or Increasing seat belt usage. Once a better understanding of th ese relationships has been achieved, putting the knowledge to use could be relatively straight forward The statistical tool that lends itself nicely to thi s type of assessment is regression analysis. Given certain settings of one group of variables, the factors, a reliable prediction of the value of the desired variables can be made. What is needed, however is some unit of measurement that is consistent across all of t he different variables that to are to be measur ed. Herein lies the major problem experienced in data collection and reporting on this project. 25

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CSJP Impact EvaluaUon While the amount data collected was extensive, no common thread existed among the different sources of the data. For instance, large amounts of data were collected from both the speed and seat belt studies However, the speed data from the 26,669 vehicles sampled includes no seat belt data. Ukewise, the 75,869 vehicles that were included in the seat belt study contain no speed information It Is not possible to use a regression analysis that considers the 102,538 (26,669 plus 75,869) pieces of i nformation since no single piece of data contains all the information needed. The onl y common element to all the data collected is the period of time in which I t was collected, the month. From a statistical point of view, the 102,538 veh i cles are reduced to monthly flgures of which this analysis had nine in common. The information that is lost In such a reduction is enormous. Within each study, valuable information can be leamed. The speed study provides very meaningful and usefu l information about speeds within the corridors that were sampled. The same can be said for each of the data sets that were collected. However, with all of the different factors that affect the dependent variables of interest, any significant results found are subject to questions of validity and are limited in terms of application. When attempting to combine all of the data sets provided by the CSIP, the resulting data set consisted of nine pieces of information. These nine pieces represented the nine months of data where complete data was available. The problem with such a data set is that no useful results can be detected. While the goals of the CSIP were on target, the limitations of the data collection and reporting limited the conclusions that could drawn regarding program effectiveness Consideration should be given in future CSIP Impact evaluations to the following recommendations: 1. Engage data design and analysis resources early in program activities. These resources should work witlh the participating agencies to assess available data and to facilitate the design of instruments to collect additional data. This early interaction should increase the practical applications of the impact analysis. 2. Collect all or as many is feasible of the factors on the same vehicle when Investigating how different factors will affect a dependent variable of interest. This would involve a massive coordination effort between agencies at tlhe data collection level, however, it promises to yield 26

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CS I P lmp>ct Evaluation APPENDIX CSIP COMMITTEES 28

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CSIP l mpoct Evlfuall< FLORIDA A VENUE C SIP COMMITTEE MEMBER S Larry Adkison Ed Rice Gerald Lott Richard Gillenwater E. Doyle Lasseter Cathy Palmer Roger Castle David Urla Frank Redwlck Don Nix Sergeant Chuck Smith Lieutenant Rodger D King. Sr. Harvey Craven William Kenley Robert Marotti Joe Dixon Karen Bonsignori J. R. Humphrey CUTRjUSF Staff 29 FOOT, Tallahassee FOOT, Tallahassee FOOT, District 1 FOOT, Di.strict 1 FOOT, District 1 FOOT, District 1 Lakeland Fire Department Lakeland Traffic Department Lakeland Traffic Department Lakeland Traffic D e partment Lakeland Police Department Polk County Sheriff Polk EMS Pol k County Pol k County Schools School Bus Transportation Roberts Communication AAA Auto Club South

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larry Adkison Gary Amig Keith Crawford Lee Royal Ueutenant J. D. Morris Randy Bly, Chai rperson Greg Holm David Albers Jill Batista Ellen Brank ley Steve Cotrell Debbie Herrington lieutenant E. L. Johnson Harry Mofield Greg Prytyka Robert Hancod< Andrew Walker Jad< Espinosa Deputy Alan Hill Brett Saunders Bob Goldhammer P. A. Norris Chief Rounds Ueutenant Carl Rupp Mary Beth Deer Matt Ballabon Corporal K. Buddy Brogdon Don Dvornik Maurice Brazil CSlP lmpl
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Contributing Stoff: Mark Dummeldlnger Patricia Henderson Beverly G W ard Vicki Zambito Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) College of Engineering University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, E NB 118 Tampa, Florida 33620.5350 (813) 974-3120