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The Westshore employee transportation survey :
1992 survey results and analysis /
prepared by the Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida ; contributing staff, Philip Winters ... [et al.].
[Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research,
1 v. :
ill., forms ;
"Presented to the Westshore TMA/Westshore Alliance."
"Report prepared through Florida's TMA Clearinghouse Project."
"Funded by the Florida Department of Transportation and the Florida Department of Community Affairs, Florida Energy Office."
Also issued online.
x Public opinion.
Origin and destination traffic surveys
Winters, Philip L.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
y USF ONLINE ACCESS
THE VlESTSHORE ElvlPLOYEE TRANSPORTATION SURVEY 1992 Survey Res ults and Analysis Presented To: T he Wests hore TMA!Westshore Alliance Report Prepared Through: Florida's TMA Clearinghouse Project Funded by: The Florida Department of Transportation and The Florida Department of Community Affairs Florida Energy Office Prepared By: The Center for U rban Transportation Research Co llege of Engineering U niversity of South Florida Con tributing Staff: P hilip Winters Stacey Bricka Dan Rudge Beverly Ward
TABLE OF CONTENTS fntroduction . . ... .. .......... . . . . .... .... . . ........ ... 1 Survey Results ............ . . ...... . .... ............ .... ..... 2 Analys i s of Data .......... . ...... .... . ...... ..... ........... 1 8 Appendix A: 1993 Wes t shore Employee Surv e y (b l ank) ..................... A I Appendix B: List of Respondent s by Employer ..... . . . . ....... . .... B 1 Appendix C: Region co des and Z i p codes . . .... ... . . ....... .... C-1 LIST OF FIGURES Figure I Quest ion 5 : If you w e r e to d ri ve d i rect l y from home t o work by yourself estimate h ow many it wou ld be, one way ........ 4 F i gur e 2 Que s ti o n 6: On a typical day, estimate h ow many m i nutes it wou l d take you to drive dir e ctly f ro m your home to work ....... 4 Fig ure 3 Ques ti on 7: O n a t ypical day, estima t e how m an y minutes it wo u ld take you to drive directly from y o ur work t o ho m e ........ 5 figure 4 Questio n 9: In a typical week, how many days d o you go directly to work w ith o ut m aking any s tops? .................... 6 Fig ure 5 Question 11: In a typi c al week ho w many days do you re turn d irectly home from work without maki n g any stops? .......... ... 8 Figure 6 Question 1 9: What time do you genera ll y arri v e at work? ......... 12 Figure 7 Q u es t io n 20: Wha t time do you generally leave work? .......... .. 13
Table I T able 2 Tab l e 3 Tab l e 4 Tab l e 5 Table 6 Table 7 T able 8 Table 9 Table 10 Tab l e I I Table 12 Table 1 3 Tab l e 14 Tab l e 15 Table 16 Table 17 Tab le 18 Table 19 Tabl e 20 Table 21 T able 22 LIST OF TABLES Ten most freque n t responses for where the res p ondents live .. ..... .. 2 Question 4: How do you usu ally trav e l t o work ? ........ ...... 3 Ques t i o n 8: I f you drive to work, do you usua ll y have trouble findi n g a parki n g space? . . ... .. .. .. ................ .. 5 Quest ion I 0: If you make stops on the way to wor k why do you stop? 7 Q uestion 1 2: If you make stops on your way ho m e fro m work why do you ..... .................... ...... 8 Question 13: How much money does it cost you to go back and forth to work each week? ......................... .... 9 Question 14: Compared to the various activities you conduct during the day, how s tres sful is your commute to work? . . . . . 9 Quest i o n 15: What do you th ink is the most im p ortant reason for reducing traffic? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Question 16: Which of the following means of commut ing wou l d you con s i der using at l east two days a week? ..... .... ... 10 Question 17: What would enc ourage you to use tbe commute alternatives you lis ted in ques r ion 16 above? ... . ............. II Questio n 18: I f you currently d o not use tbe bus to get t o wort.<. w hy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Question 21: How much flexibility do you h ave i n choosing the time you start work? ............ ......... ... ...... 13 Quest ion 22: Please check any o f the servi ces which are located withi n 3 b l ocks walking distance or on-site and/o r tbat you would like to have ac c ess to ........... ... ......... 14 Questio n 23 : During a typical week how many times each week do yo u use the foll owing fac il ities durin g lunc h hours? . .... 15 Question 24: What type of w ork do you usuall y do? . ........... 1 6 Question 25: Are you: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Question 26: What is your age? ...... .... ......... ....... 17 Que s tion 27: Pl ease i n dicate your year l y income category ........ 17 Question 28: Did you fill out an Empl oyee Survey last year? . . 1 7 What woul d encourage carpooling a t least twice a week? ........ . 18 What woul d e n courage vanpooling at l eas t twice a wee k ? .......... 19 What would encourage t ran s i t use at least t wice a week? ...... .... 20
lNTRQDUCDQN At the request of the Westshore TMA, the TMA Clearinghouse at the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) entered and analyzed the data from the 1992 Westshore Employee survey. The survey was de s igned by the Westshore TMA. The sample design utilized by the Westshore TMA was to distribute the survey to al l Westshore TMA member companies, who th en administered it to their employees in November and December 1992. This design excluded those Westshore companies who were not members of the TMA. In addition due to the sampling method used the amount of bias in the data cannot be determined. A total of 2,018 questionnaires were returned. The total number of surveys distributed was not available to calculate a response rate. The total number of responses to each question varies, as not all respondents answered all questions. The data are presented and summarized in the first section. The seco nd section contains analysis of the survey results, specifically focusing on factors that would encourage those who ClllTently drive alone to change modes to carpools, van pools, or transit. A third se<:tion contains recommendations for improv ing the 1993 Westshore Employee Survey. A copy of the questionnaire is contained in Appendix A. I
SURVEY RFSULTS The first quest ion asked for the name of the respondenrs emp l oyer. A total of 62 emplo yers were lis ted (see Appendix B for a complete list of respondents by emp loyer ). Fifty-eight perce n t of the respo n dents worked for one of three employers : USAA (32 perce n t), Chase Manh attan (18 percent), and Metropolitan Life (8 percent). Again, these employers exclude those compan ies that are not members of the Westshore TMA, as we ll as those member companies whose employees did not return questionnaires Question 2 asked respondents "What city do you live in?" Responses to tlus question were not analyzed, as Question 4 ("What is your zip code?") better defined residential pockets. Question 3 asked responde n ts for the intersection nearest to th eir home However, the wide variety of responses to th i s question again suggested that the use of zip codes would b etter focus geographic parameters. Respondents were asked for the ir hom e zip codes For analysis purposes, zip codes were combined by geographic region. A ppendix B conta ins the frequency of z ip codes reported and the regions t o which the y were assigned As shown in Table I the western portion of Hillsborough County was mos t freq u ently no ted by r espondents (18 percent). This area can best be described as that region of Hillsborough County that bord e rs P in ellas County. The second most fr e quent regio n was the New Carrollwood/Nort hda le area (8 p ercent). Pasco County was the third most frequen t response, given by 7 4 pe rcent of the respondents. Table I Ten most frequent responses for where the respondents live Regi o n Frequency Number Western Hillsborough 18.1% 360 New Carroll wood/Nort hdale 8 .0% 1 59 Pasco County 7.4o/o 147 St. Petersburg 6.2% 12 4 Palma Ceia 6 .0"/o 119 Northern Pinellas 5.5% 109 Town 'n Country 4 .8% 95 O ld C arrollwood 4.7% 94 College HiiVSeminole Heights 4 .4% 87 Westsh ore 4.2% 84 2
Question 4 asked the respondents for the mode usually used to get to work, as well as the Wests hore employ ees drive alone to work an average of 4.5 days per week The second most popular mode was "Carpool with 1 person ", used by 13.7 percent of employees on average, 3.2 days per week. percent of employees ride a vanpool an average of 3.2 day s per week. Of the 179 respondents who comp rise this nine perc ent, 166 (or 93 work at USAA. Table 2 Question 4: How do you usually travel to work? Usual Mode Days per Mode (home tO worlc) Mode Usod Frequency Nwnber' Mean S t d Dev. Drive Alone 78.5% 1584 4.5 1.0 Carpool wilh I perso n 13.7% 27 6 3.2 1.6 Carpool with 2 pmons 1.4% 29 3.0 1.7 Carpool wilh 3 pcr$Ons 0.4% 8 3.0 1.9 Carpool with 4 persons 1.0% 2 1 3.1 1.6 Ride in a vanpool 8.9% 179 3.2 1 4 Ride a bus 1.0% 20 2.8 1.8 Walk 0 .2% 5 4.0 1.4 Motorcyc le 0.1% 3 1.7 1.2 Bicycle 0.2% 4 2.5 1.9 Other 1.6% 33 Not<: Adds to more than 100 percent because ooukl select more than one mode as their answer. This indicates that some re.pondents use more than one type of mode durin& the week. Respondents were asked for an estimate of the d istance from home to work, one-way. As s hown Figure l, 56 percent of the respondents live within 14 miles of work An additional 37 perce nt live within 30 miles. The average one-way commu te for Westshore employees is 1 4.5 miles. The shortest distance reported was 1 mile (by 16 of the respondent s). The longest distance driven was 75 miles, reported by one respondent. 3
. Figure I Question 5: If you were to drive directly from home to work by yourself, estimate how many miles it would be, one way. <5 5 1014 1519 20 25-29 30 35 Estimated Milea.ge, Home to Work 40+ Question 6 asked the respondents for an estimate of the length of time it (ook to drive from home to the office. As shown in Figure 2, 40 percent of the respondents have a commute that is less than 30 minutes. An additional 44 percent commute berween 30 and 49 minutes The average commute was 2 8 minutes. The shortest commute was one minute, according to one respondent The longest commute was 90 minutes, as reported by rwo respondents. Figure 2 Question 6: On a typical day, estimate how many minutes it would take you to drive directly from your home to work ..... .IJ--------0.5% <5 5-9 10.t4 15-19 20.24 25-29 30-34 35-39 4Q.44 45-49 60-54 55 60+ Estimated T!llle (minutes). Home to Wotk 4
Question 7 as k ed abo u t the len gth of time it t oo k to drive from work to hom e As sho wn in Fi g ure 3 the re is an almost equ al d i strib u ti on o f wo rk -to-home co mmute times, with almos t h al f o f the respond e n ts needing 30 t o 4 9 minutes for thei r t ri p home. The a ve r age w o rk-to home comm u te tim e was 33 mi n utes. T w e n t y-two of the re sp ondents need o n e min u te to get h o m e from work, while two respondents n e ed 95 mi n ut es Figure 3 Question 7: On a typical day, estim ate how many mjn utes it would take you to drive d ir ectly from your work to hom e. < 5 59 11>-14 15-19 214 2 5 29 3().34 35.39 40 45-49 50 55-59 60+ Q u es t ion 8 a s k e d a bout difficulty in finding parking spa ces, b o th at the start of th e work da y and during th e workday. As shown in Tab l e 3 t en percent o f the respo ndents have difficulty findin g a par ki ng spac e at the s tart of the workday. Based on thi s s amp le, parking availability d oe s not a ppear to be an ov erriding conc ern. Fo rty percent sa i d th a t if they leave work and re turn during the day, they have tro ub l e find ing a parkin g space. T ab l e 3 Q uestion 8: If y o u drive to work, do you usu ally have trou b l e finding a parking space'? No Yes Number At s tart of yo ur w or1
Questions 9 through 12 deal with the issue of why people make stops during their commutes from home to wo rk and work to home. Questions 9 and I 0 deal with the home to work trip, while Quest ions II and 12 deal with the work to home trip. As shown below, one-third of these W ests hore employees drive directly from home t o work 4 days per week, on average Almost 50 percent o f the employ ees do not make any stops on their way from home to work. On average tbis sampl e of employees travels directly from home to work 4 days per week. Figure 4 Question 9: In a typical week, how many days do you go directly to work without making any stops? 1 2 3 4 Nlmbor of Days Traveleo Hom&-10WOI1< w1111out Responses shown in Table 4 indicate that respondents most frequently made stops on the way to work for the purposes of fueling their vehicles (36 percent), conducting bank transactions (12 percent), and dropping off children at childcare (II percent). However, based on the responses t o Question 9 the frequency o f stops per week i s likely to be few except to drop off children at ch ildcare or school. 6
Table 4 Question 10: If you make stops o n the way to work why do you stop ? Frequency of Number of Response Responses To get gas 35.5% 717 To go to bank 12. 1 % 245 To drop off children at childcare 11.4% 23 1 To go to dry cleaners 10.4% 209 T o drop off children at schoo l 8.6% 174 Post office 8 .2% 165 To eat 7 2% 146 To go shopping 6 5% 131 To conduct work related business 5 .9% 120 To pick up carpooler / vanpooler 4.1% 82 To go to doctor 4 1% 83 To drop someone off at work 3.4% 69 To exercise 1 .6% 32 To go to educational classes 1.2% 24 Entertainment (movie, etc.) 0.3% 7 None of the above 8.0% 161 Other 3.7% 75 On the return trip home, respondents reported that they travel directly home from work 3 to 4 days per week Figure 5 shows that 30 percent of the respondents make one stop a week on their way home from work. Almost 25 percent of the respondents make two stops during their commu te home. As shown i n T able 5, the most frequent reasons for stopping are: shopping (49 percent) fueling vehicle ( 49 percent), and stopping at the dry cleaners (29 percent). In general, these Westshore employees are m u ch mor e likely to make stop s on the trip home from work then on the trip to work (see F igures 4 and 5) 7
Figure 5 Question II: In a typical week, how many days do you return directly home from work without making any stops? 1 2 3 4 Numbtt of Days Travefed WQI1(to-Home w ithout Stopping Table 5 Question 12: If you make stops on your way home from work, why do you stop? Frequency of Number of Response Responses To go shopping 49 .4% 996 To get gas 49.0% 988 To go to dry clea.ters 28.7% 579 To go to bank 26.0 % 524 Post office 16.3% 328 To eat 15.0% 303 To p ic k up children at chlldc ar e 14.1% 28 4 To exercise 13.2% 266 To go to d<><:tor 12.6% 254 To go to educational clas.es 9.7% 196 Entertainment (movie. etc.) 7 .8% 158 To conduct work r e lated bwincss 6.8% 137 To pick up children at schoo l 5.4% 109 To drop off earpoole r / van pooler 3 9% 7 8 To pick up someone at work 3.8% 76 None or the above 3 .5% 70 Other 8.1% 163 8
Question 13 asked the respondents how much it cost them to commute to work each Over 90 percent of the respondents reponed that their weekly commute cost $25 or less. Only two percent felt it cost $3 5 or more. Table 6 Ques t io n 1 3: How much mon ey does it cost you to go back and forth to work each week? Frequency of Response Number of Responses s 0s 10.6% 207 $ s-10 32 .1% 627 s 10-15 28.2% sso S IS 25 21.7% 423 s 25 30 4.4% 86 $ 3035 1.2% 24 $ 35-45 0.9% 1 7 S 4S.or more 1.0% 19 The next question asked respondents to compare the stress they encountered on their daily comm ute to th e various othe r activities they conducted during the day. One-third of the respo ndents felt the ir commute was less str essful than most activities", and ano ther third fe l t it was "about as stre ssful as mo st a ctiv i ties." Only five p ercen t fel t their daily commut e was "muc h more stre ssful than most activities." Table 7 Question 14: Compared to the various activities you conduct during the day, how stressful do you find your commute to work? Frequency of Number of Response Responses Much more stressful chan most activities 5.2 % 102 More stres,sful than most aetivilies 17.5% 34 5 About as strcs.sfut as most activities 30.8% 606 Less streSsl\11 than most activities 31.4% 618 Much less s=sful than most activities 15.1% 298 9
Question IS asked the respondents for their opinion as to the most important reason for reducing traffic. The cho ice s presented tO the respondents included congestion, safery environment., and stress. Almost half felt that congestion was the most important reason for doing so. The environment and safety were second and thitd. Only seven percent felt that the reduction in stress was most important. Table 8 Question 15: What do you think is the single most important reason for reducing traffic? Frequency of Response Number of Responses Congestion 45.9% 901 Snfety 2 0.9% 411 Environment 26.3% 516 Stress 6.9% 135 Question 16 asked the respondent which alternative modes they would consider using for their commute at least two days a week. The results are shown in Table 9. Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that they would consider carpooling, while 36 percent said that they would not conside r any other mode. Vanpooling was the third most popular response at 30 pe rcent. It is important to note dlat tbese statistics an: for all respoodencs, including those who may already be using these commu1e alternatives (as indicated ln Question 4). Table 9 Questio n 16: Which of the following means of commuting would you consider using at least two days per week? Frequency of Number of Responses Response Carpool 41.3% 833 Vanpaol 29 .7% 599 Bicy.:le 2 .9% 59 Walk 1.0'/o 18 Bus 10.5% 211 None 35.5% 717 tO
Question 17 asked the respondents to indicate what would encourage them to use the commute alternatives indicated above in Question 16. The m ost encouraging incentive to the Westshore employees would be the assurance of a guaranteed ride home, as reported by 30 percent of the respondents. Sixteen percent of the respondents reponed that they would consider a different mode if they were allowed more flexible work hou rs Three other incentive s that rece ived frequen t responses were "Help finding people to ride with", "C loser or better parking for carpo o lsl vanpools ", and "Park & Ride lot near h ome" (14 perce nt, 12 percen t, and 12 percent, respectively). Guaranteed ride home services, helping finding others to share the ride, and promoting HARTiine services are existing services of the TMA that, through continuing efforts to increase awareness, could facilitate the use of alternatives to the single occupant vehicle for commuting to work. Additional program directions could include efforts to promote preferential parking for carpools and vanpools. Table 10 Question 17: What would encourage you to use the commute alternativ es you listed in Question 1 6 above? Frequency of Number of Response Responses Guanmt
|00is I vanpools 12.4% 250 Park & Ride l o t near home 12.4%, 250 Lunch time shuttles 8 8 % 177 High occupancy vehicle lanes 8 7% 17S Vanpoollbuspool subsidies 7.5% 152 Childeare facilities at or near work 6.9% 140 HARTline route and schedu lin g information 6 .4% 1 29 HARTline fare subsidies 4.6% 94 Awards/company recognition 4.5% 90 More fixed work hours 4 .0% 80 None of the above 22.1% 445 Other 8.4% 169 I I
Question 18 asked the respondents for reasons why they did not currently use the bus. Respondents were encouraged te check all !hat apply ", and thus some gave multiple responses. Thi s question focused on i dentifying bus service needs and the degree of reliance on a personal car. Forty percent said that a car was needed before or after work. However, considering the infrequent use of the car before and after work (see QuestiOflS 9-12}, the Westshore TMA could promote part time use of alternatives to the single occupant vehicle and encourage the linking of trips either on the days th e emplo yees drive alone or during the off-peak hours. of the responden t s indi cated that there was no direct trMsit serv i ce. Near l y 20 percent of the respondents repo((ed that there was no bus stop near their home. Table 11 Question 18 If you currently do not use the bus to get to work, why? . FreqU
figure 7 shows the distribution of employee departures, as indicated by the Westsbore respondents. The peak depanure times for Westshore are between 5:00p.m. and 5:45 p.m., when approximat ely 60 percen t of the emp l oye es depan. Figur e 7 Qu estion 2 0: What time do you generally leave work? 25% 20.8% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 4:00 4 : 1 5 4 :30 4 :45 5:00 5 : 15 5:30 5:45 6 :00 6:15 6 :30 pm Time Period Beginning Questio n 21 asked the r espo ndents for the degree of flexibility they have in their start times (not start arul stop tim es). As indicated in Table 12, only 30 percent of the respond ents Indicated that they had some flexibility in choosin g their start tim e at work. Assuming the respondents are represen tative of the total workforce alternative work hour programs may not signifi can tly reduce traffic co ngestion because of the rather equal distribution of arri val s and departures. Table 12 Question 21: How much flexibility do you have in choos ing the time you start work? frequency or Response Number or Responses None, my employer sets time 65.8% 1274 I IS minutes I 1.7% 226 16. 30 minutes 8.7% 168 31 60 minutes S .S% t07 1-2houn 5.6% 108 More than 2 hours 2 .7% S2 1 3
Question 22 asked respondents for services that are located on-site or within walking distance, as well as for desired services within the same walking distance Th e results are shown in Table 13. According to the Westshore e mployees there are many servi ces available to them either on si t e or within walking distance These include snack bars, restaurantsfcafes, a nd banks. They wou l d like to see mor e dry c l e aning es t ablishm ents, a post o ffice, and general r etail sho pping in the area. Table 13 Questio n 22 : Pl ease check any of the services (A) wh ich are located within 3 blocks walking distance or on-site and/o r (B) that you would li k e to have access to on-site or within 3 blocks walking distance from where you work A B Now on-site within 3 Want on-site withln 3 b locks b lock s Frequenc y Number Frequency Number Restaurant/Cafeteria 69.0% 139 0 13.3% 269 Snack Bar 68.2% 1376 5.6% 113 Banking 54.1% 1092 21.1% 426 Convcnimce Store 45.0% 909 17.5% 354 Exe-rcise Facility )2.2% 649 23.5% 475 Post Office 31.8% 642 25 .1% 507 Medical Services 26.5% 535 15.9% 320 General Retail Shoppin& 20.6% 4 1 5 24.4 % 492 Dry Cleaner 1 8.6% 375 26.5% 535 Child care Facility 5 .6% 113 23.0% 465 Other 4 8 % 96 nla nla Question 24 asked the r es pondents how often they u se d var i ous facilit i es, both within and outside lhe Westshore distri ct, durin g lunc h hours. Ac cording t o the re s ponden ts, 45 percen t of all We sts hore emplo yees use the area's restaurants and cafe t er ias at least twice a week during their lunc h hour. Other popular lunch time act ivities include banking and general retail s h o pping Fifteen to 25 peo;ent of all employees leave the area during luneh once a week, to perform th e same activities. It is important to not e that the definition of "wi thin versus "outside" Westshore was not made fo r the respondents, rather their responses were subject to their personal definition of the Westsh o re area boundary. 14
Table 14 Qu est ion 23 : During a typi cal week, how many times each week do you use the following facilit ie s during lunch hours A) at Westshore s hop p ing/ea ting areas, or B) at shoppingfeating places outside Westshore? A B Use During Lunch Use During Lunch within Westshore outside Westshore Frequency Number Frequency Number Restaurant/Cafeteria 45.2% 913 22.2% 447 Ba.tking 3 1.2% 630 18.1% 366 Genera l Retail Shopping 25.0% 504 17.0% 3 4 3 Snack Bar 24.3% 492 7.9% 159 Convenience Store 1 5.0% 303 11.2% 226 Post Office 1 4.3% 289 14.4% 29 1 Dry Cleaner 6.5% 132 1 4.6% 295 Exercise Facility 3.5% 70 10. 1% 203 Medical Services 2.2% 44 6.6% 133 Child Care Facility 1.3% 27 6.5% 131 Other 4 7% 95 n/a n/a Questions 24 through 28 are demographic q uestions. The typical respondent was female, age 30 39, working in a professionaVtechnical position, and earning approximately $20,000 to $29,999 annually. However, demographic information on the composition of their member s' workforces is not available. Neither is the informat i on on the composition of the non-members' workforces. Therefore, interpretation of the following demographic information may be limi ted to this sample. Question 24 asked about the respondent s job As indicated above, almost one-third of the respondents reported their occupat i on as "professional/technical". Twenty-three percent categori2Cd their wor k as clerical, while 19 percent perfonn salesfservice duties. 15
Table 15 Question 24 What type of work do you usually do Frequency of Number of Response Responses ProfessionaVTectmical 31.0% 602 Clerical 23.3% 454 Sales/Service 18.8% 366 MgrJAdmin. L7.7% 345 Executive 2 .1% 40 Production/Crafts 0 7% 14 Olher 6.4% 124 Question 25 asked for the respondent's gender. Tw o-thir ds of the respondents were female. This disproportionate number of female versus ma l e employees may be a result of the sampling methodology used. Table 16 Question 25: Are you Frequency of Number of Response Responses Female 68 .3% 1309 Male 31.7% 607 Question 26 asked the respondents how old they wer e. Almost 90 percent of the respondents reported their ages to be under 50. Only one percent were less than 20. One third fell in the 30 t o 39 year old range. 16
Tab le 17 Question 26: What is yo ur age: Frequency of Number of Response Responses less than 2 0 1.4% 27 202 9 29.4% 578 30 39 36.4% 714 4049 21.7% 426 so-59 8.9 % 175 6069 2 .1% 42 70 + 0 1 % I Q ue stion 27 asked t he respo nden ts for t h eir yearl y incom e Ove r 50 per ce n t of the respondents earned leS$ then $30 ,000. 1hirty-six perce n t earned $30,000 t o $39,999. Only ten percent reported to earn $50 000 or more T ab le 1 8 Questio n 27: Please indi c at e your yearly i ncom e category below : F requ ency o f Number of Response Responses l ess than $20 ,000 29.7% 47 1 $ 20,000 $29,999 34.3% 545 $30,000 $ 39,999 1 6.8% 267 $ 40,000 s 4 9 999 8 .9% 142 $ 50,000 s 69,999 6.6% 1 0 5 $ 70,000 or more 3.6% 57 T he las t question asked i f the emp l oyee had co m p le t ed a survey la st year Fifty-si x percent h ad, while 44 percent had not. Tab le 1 9 Q uestion 28: D id you fill out a n Emplo yee Survey las t year? Frequenc y N umber Yes 56.0% 1078 No 44.0% 848 1 7
ANALYSIS OF DATA More than three-quarters of Westshore employees (78 percent) i ndicated i n Question 4 that they drove alone to work on average 4 5 days per week. Yet, the average distance for all r espondent s is about 15 miles. The numbe r of single occupant vehicle users and the ave rage commute distance may indicate that there are a significant number of commuters in the Westshore area w h o would use an a lt erna t ive mode. O f particular inte res t is the number of these responde nts who wou l d consider u s ing an alternativ e mod e and live within feasible commute parameters (as defined by the Commuter T ransp o rtation Systems' Emp lo yee Transportation C'..oordjnator H andbook). The three most freque n t a ltern ative m ode responses to Q ue s tio n 16 were further analyzed. These response s wer e: Carpool ( 41 percent), vanpool (30 percent), and Bus ( 1 1 percent). The first analysis, at this leve l, began with pot ential carpoo l ers Of the 83 3 re s ponden t s who wou l d consider carpooling at least two days per week, 554 or 35 percent of respondents w h o drive alone are willing and able. These responden t s s tated that they would cons id e r carpooling at least two days per week and they live six o r mo re miles from t heir wor ksites. According to the fulwlQyee T ransportation Coordinator Hand boo k a one way distance of six to I 0 miles may be best suited for carpooling, and thus was used to analyze the d ata The potential carpoolers indicated in Question 17 those incentives that would encourage them to switch t o an alternat ive mode. Key ind i cators are shown below for this group o f respondents. The most frequently stated incentive for this group of res pondents was a guaranteed ride home (47 percent). H elp in finding people to ride with and mor e flexib l e work hours were a lso frequent responses. Table 20 What would encourage carpo o ling at least twice a week? Frequency Number Guaranteed ride home for emergencies 46.9% 260 Help finding people to ride with 30.7% 170 More flexible worl< hours 26.0% 144 Park & Ride l ot near home 22.6% 125 Closer/b etter parking for car/ vanpools 19.7% 109 Responses are based on those 554 respondents who currently drive alone to work, live six o r more mites from work, and stated that they would cons i der carpool ing at least two days pe r week. 1 8
The same analy s i s was perfonned on those drive-a lone commuters who indicated an interes t in van pooling. The respondents who would consider varipooling at least two days per week tota led 599 Of thi s tota l 272 or 45 percen t of respondents who d r ive alone are willing and able These respondents liv e 11 or more miles from t heir worksites (optimum distance from worksite for vanpooling). T he key ince n tives that would encourage them to swi t ch to an alternative mode are shown below. Again a guaranteed ride home was the most frequ en t response (50 pe r cent). Almost hal f of these respondents felt that they would be encour aged b y a company program. There is ove rlap, however, between those respondents who would swi tch to carpoo ling or vanpool ing. Table 2 1 What would encourage va n p ooliog a t least twice a week?* Frequency Number Guaranteed ride home for emergencies 50.0% t3 6 Company v aopools i buspools 46.0 % 1 2 5 Park & R id e l o t neat home 32.0% 87 Closer/better parking for car/ vanpools 26.5% n More flexib l e work hours 26.5% 72 Help fmding people to ride with 23.5% 64 are based on those 272 respondents who currently drive alone to work, live 11 or more miles ft o m work, and stated that they wou l d vanpooling carpooling a t least two days per week. The next s ig nificant a lt ernative commute mode indicated was t r ansit or "bus." TI1e tota l number of responden t s who would consider using mass trans i t or the bus at least two days per week was 211. This number was red uced initiall y by those already taking the bus and those who indicated tha t they did .not want to take the bus. The remainder was 135 r espondents, or 64 percent who were willing. When a commute parameter of one t o \0 miles (again based on the Emplo:tee Transportation Coordination M an ual) was app lied the n umber was reduc ed t o 86 or 41 percent. The i ncentives that would encourage these pot ential transi t use rs to switch are shown in Tabl e 22. These include again the guarante e d r i d e ho me (37 percent) as well as HARTiine route and scheduling information. Again, there is overlap between this group and those who indicated a willingness to rideshare or carpool. 19
. Table 22 What would encourage transit use at least tw ice a week? Frequency Number HARTline route and scheduling 43.0% 37 informa6on Guaranteed ride home for emergencies 37.2% 32 HARTline fare su bsidies 26.7% 23 *Responses are based on those 86 respondents who currentty drive alone to work. live 10 or less miles from and stated that they woul d consider using transit at least t'No days per week. RECOMMENDATIONS The results of the 1992 Westshore Employee Survey should aid th e Westshore TMA in it s planning efforts. Specifically, there is a strong indic ation o f the need to further promote/educate Westshore employees on the Guaranteed Ride Home Progrdlll. (Several respond ents ind icated they would be enco ur aged to use an alternative m ode if this program were avai la ble ) Question 13 ("How much money does it cost you to go back and forth to work each week?") is a good question to use as a means of establish ing the Westshore TMA's progress towards increasing awareness. However, the questions on parking and stress did not provide any information that was statist ically significant. In addition, it is important to remember the im pact that USAA's vanpooling program has had on the da ta. As stated above, of the respondents who indicated they currently vanpool to work, most work at USAA T he data analysis for the 1992 Westshore Emp lo yee Survey was limited by the lack of a sample design and some problems with q u es t ion wording and question intent. Each of these factors is discussed below, along with recommendations for im prov ing the 1993 Westshore Employee Survey. Sample design. When conducting a survey, a proper sample design ensures that the survey results are representative of the entire population. The method used should be one in which there is an equal likelihood tha t any member of the study population would be selected. In the 1992 Westshore Employee Survey, there was not a sample desig n Survey were distributed to member employers, who then administered them to their employees. This has limit ed the extent to which these results can be applied to all member employers. In addition, all non-member companies were exclu ded Since the purpose of the survey is to aid in guiding the Westshore TMA in planning activities for the upcoming year, non-member compan i es shou ld be considered as "potential" member companies, and their commuting patterns should also be con sidered. 20
By including a sample of both member and n on-member companies, t he Westshore TMA will be able to plan activities more accurate l y, and have a greater impact on the Westshore area Survey J)esign. Prop e r survey design allows accura t e interpretation of the data Two spec i fic issues are question wording and question intent. In tb.e !992 Westshore Em ployee Survey, the wording of s everal questions impacted the data analys is. One example of this is Question !6, "Whic h of the following means of commuting wou l d you consid e r using a t l east two days per week?" Responses to tl lis q u est i on were from both t hose who current l y used a particular commute alternative, as well as from those who wou l d consider using that commute alternative As a resu l t, the number of respondents who would consider using a particu l ar commute alternative was over-stated. This type of error could have serious implications if not detected. In another example, Question 23 asked respondents t o in dicated how many times each week they used specific facilities within and outside the Westshore area. However, "Westshore area" was not defined. This lim i ts the impact of how many respo n dents use facilities "outside" the Wests h ore area, since the boundary will vary by respondent. In terms of question intent, prior to designing a survey, it i s importan t t o d e t ernline the purpose and focus of the survey. There is a big difference between ques t ions used to determine if a circulating tr o ll ey wou l d work versus which types of businesses to attract to the ar e a. Using Question 22 as an example, part B asks for those services the respondent w ould like to have access to The data can greatly ass i st a deve l oper in attracting specific tenants for a building (i.e almost 30 percent o f the respondents would Like a dry-cleaner on site). However, if the purpose of the q u est i on was to detenn ine trip needs in order to assist in planning a circu l ator route, the data is not usefuL In designing the 1993 West s hore Employee Survey, i t is important to first determine what the results should accomplish. Will they be used pr i marily to help in p l anning Transportation Days for specific compan i e s ? Will they be used to develop a route for a Westshore trolley? Will they be used to determine change in pari-time use of alternative modes? Once the responses to the s e questio n s are determined, thi s will greatly aid in wording the quest i ons to co ll ect the correct data. the request of the Westshor e TMA, the TMA Clearinghou s e at the Center for Urban Transportatio n Researc h will be drafting the 1993 Westshore Employee Survey and corresponding sample design, which will address the iss u es listed above 2 1
APPENDIX A 1992 Westshor e Employee Survey (blank) A I
WESTSHORE TRANSPORTATION MANAGE:MENT ASSOCIATION Annual Employee Transportation Survey 1992
WESTSHORE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION Who is your emp l oyer? ---------1. What is your zip code where you live? ---2. 3. 4. 5 6. 8 Wbat c ity do you live in? -----Please list the major intersection nearest your home: ------and----How do you usually travel to work? Please write the number of days per weelc that you use each of the following ways of getting to work. Drive Alone Carpool with 1 person Carpool with 2 persoos Carpool with 3 pcrsoos Number of Days P er Weelc Carpool with 4 or more pelSOas Ride in a vanpool Ride a bus Walk Motorcycle Bicycle Other: (specify) If you were to drive directly from home to work by yourself, est imate how a.wlY miles it would be, one way. miles On a typical day. estimate bo w Jl'Wl)' minutes it would take you to drive d i rec tly from your home to work. minutes On a t ypical daY., estimate how many minutes it would take you tO drive directly from. your work to your home minutes If vou drive t o work. do vo u usuallv have ' finding a parking space : A A t the stan of your workday? No Yes __ B. If you leave work and rerum during the day> No Yes __ 9 10. II. 12. In a typical week, how many days do you go to work without xoaking any stops? days per weelc If you make stOps o n tbe way to work, wby do you stop? (Ched< aU rhaJ apply) A. B. c. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N 0 p, Q. to go to educational classes to drop children at cbildcare 10 drop child= at school to pick up carpooler/vanpoo l er to eat to drop sorneooe off at work to conduct work related business to go to dry cleaners to go to bank to go to doctor entertainment (movie, etc. ) to exercise to get gas to go shopPing post office none of the above Other: (specify) -------In a typical week, how many days do you rerum directly home from work without maki.Dg any days per week lf you toake stops on your way bome fr om work. why do you stop ? (Check allthar apply) A. D c. D. E F G. H. !. J. K. L. M._ 1\. o P. Q. to go to educational cJasses to pick up children at cbi ldcare to pick up children at school to drop off carpoo ler /vanpooler to eat to pick up someone at work t o conduct work related business to go to dry cleaner.; to go to bank to go to doctor entertainment (movie, etc.} t o exert;ise 10 get gas to go shop ping post office none of the above Other: (specify) --------
WESTSHORE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEJ\.IENT ASSOCIATION 1 3 14. How mu.ch money doe. it cost you to go ba<:k anecoguitioo HARTii.ae fare s.uheidies Guaranteed ride bome for emergeDCie$ Co-y vanpoolslhospools Vanpool lbuspool subsidies Help fl!lding people to ride with HARTline route and 5chedulin;: information CbHdeare facilities at or near work Park & Ride lo t near home High occupancy vehicle lanes Lunc h time sbuUies None of the abov e 0. P. Other: (opocify) ---------8 If you cune:culy do not use. the bus to get to work wby7 ( C1teck all rhor apply) 19. 2 0 22. A. No direct service B No bus stop oear bomc C. l...a&k infonuatioa D. Service not frequent 0110ugb E. !'4 o bus stop cea.r wort F. Need ear at work G. Need car befo re or after work H. Other. What rime do you generally arrive ac work'? : a.m ./p.m. What time <1o you general l y leave work? __ : __ a m. / p.m. How much 6 exib ility do you lave in choosing the time you start "'ori<'? A B c. 0 E. F None, my employer sets time I 15 millutes 1 6 30 millutes 31 60 millutes I 2 hours More than 2 hour& Pt .... c beck any of the services (A) which !!J; locared within 3 blocic.s waJ.kiDg distance or o n .. sir e and/or (B) that vou would like to llavo ceess to oo site o r within 3 bl ocks wal.lcing di staoce from where you work A. Medical Servi= 8 Soac k Bar C. Conve nience Store D. R""laW'allt/Cafe:eria E Child Care Facility F. Banking 0. Dry Clean e r H. E xercise Facility I. Post Office J. Oeaeral Retail Shopping A B Now Wan1 oa--sitc 00"-site withia within 3 b lock.s 3 btock.s K Other (specify)--------
WESTSHORE TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 23. Durioa a lypieaJ wee k how many times exh week do you use the followina foeilitiesduriJig lwtdt iu>= A) a1 WC$C$bo Westsbote Times/W .. Ic 8 Oul$ido Times/Wtelc K. Olbor (specify)------------Wbat rype o f work do you usually do: A. C lerical E. Producti on/Crafts B. Salos/Servic<> F. Executive C. Mi'. /Admio. G. Other D. Profe.ssiooalfl"echnical Are y o u : Male Femal e Wbat is your age: A _less than 20 E. so. 59 B. 20-29 F 60 69 c 30-39 o. 70 + 11. 40 49 27. Plexse uulicate y our yearly income category below? A. less than $ 20.000 B. $ 20,000 -$ 29.999 c. -$ 30. 000 -$ 39,999 o. -$ 40,000 -$ 49,999 E. __ $ 50,000$ 69,999 F. $ 70,000 or more 28. Did you fill outm Employee Survey last y...rl No Yes __ Thank you for completing this survey. The information you have p r ovided will ass ist the Westshore TMA with the development of meaningful commuter programs and activities for Westshor e emp l oyees.
APPENDIX B L is t of Respondents by Employe( 3-l
List of Respondents by Employer EIIIJlloyer ADP 2.4% 48 Aetna 6.8% 136 AHP 0.1% 2 American Apparel 0.1% I American Airlines 0.1% 1 AT& T /NCR 0.1% I Austin 0.4% 8 Barney's Coffee 0.1% I BHA 0.3% 6 Bruce Bishop 0.1% I CEFC 0.1% 2 CFO 0.3% 6 CH2i\if H ill, Inc. 0.8% 1 5 Chase 18.4% 367 CHMC 1.1% 2 1 CLW Realty 0.1% I CMBF 0.1% I Colonial Penn 4.2% 83 Computer Peop l e 0.1% I City Bank of Tampa 0.5% 9 Dental Health 0.1% I Or's Walk-in Clinic 1.0% 19 Famous Footwear 0.1% 1 Florsheim Shoes 0 1 % I Footlocker 0.1% I GE Services 0.6% 12 Greiner 4.0% 81 OTE Mobilnet 3.0% 60 HMP 0.1% I Humana 4.7% 94 Jay Jacobs 0.2% 4 Kissinger Campo 1.6% 32 Marty's Deli 0.1% I Meininger 0.2% 5 Met Life 8 .0% 160 NCR 0.9% 18 NDC 0.1% I One Memorial Center 0.1% 2 Oxford 0.5% 10 PFW&F 0 .1% I B-2
Paragon Group 0.2% 24 Parsons Brinkerhoff 1.8% 35 Picadilly Cafe 0.1% I Pein:ing Pagoda 0.1% 1 Preferred HC 0.1% I Primal Inc. 0.1% I Principal Financial 0.4% 7 Radio Shack 0 1% I Radisson Bay 1.7 % 33 Regis Hairstyle 0 .1% l Republic Insurance 0 .2% 5 RTC 0.1% I San Francisco Music 0.1% 2 Securtest 0.1% l Soapberry Shop 0.1% I Solutions Inc. 0.2% 4 Today's Temp 0.1% I USAA 31.9"/o 637 USBC 0.1% 2 Wade Trim, Inc 0.2% 3 Wilson Company 0.9"/o 18 West Shore Plaza 0. 1 % I Westshore Alliance 0.2% 3 Missing = IS B-3
APPENDIXC Region Codes and Zip Codes C1
REGION a Westem Hillsborough County Z1l! Number 33556 28 33615 157 33625 59 33626 IS 33634 76 33635 25 REGION,.Westshore Z1l! Number 33607 31 33609 52 33623 I Frequency 1.4% 7.8% 2.9% 0 7% 3.8% 1.2% Frequen'
.. REGION Unknown m Number 32578 1 33656 1 33685 I REGION=Brandon zjf Numb er 33510 24 33511 56 33519 I 0 .1% 0.1% 0.1% Frequency 1.2% 2.8% 0.1% REGION-Brooksville m Number 3460 1 I 34606 I 34607' 1 34608 2 34609 2 346 1 0 2 Frequency 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% REGION=Co ll ege Hill/Seminole Heights ZJF. Number 33603 43 33604 46 REGION=Clearwater Zl,e Number 34615 8 34616 6 34617 I 34619 15 34620 4 34621 ll 34622 5 34623 4 34624 8 34625 13 34630 3 Frequency 2 .1% 2.3% FreQ!!ency 0.4% 0.3% 0.1% 0.7% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0 6% 0 .1% C-2 REGION=Dade City Zl Nwnber 33524 J 33525 3 33526 1 33527 6 REGION=East Lake m Number 33610 22 REGIONInterbay Zlf Number 33616 24 REGION = Lutz Zlf Number 33549 74 fuQuency 0.1% 0 2% 0.1% 0 .3% FreQl!ency 1.1% 1.2% FreQl!ency 3. 7% REGION=Manatee/Sarasota Counties ZIF. Number 34205 1 34210 I 34234 I 34239 1 34241 I fmueucy 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
Pinellas County ZI Number 34683 19 34684 25 34685 9 34689 5 34690 2 34691 5 34692 2 3 4695 29 34698 13 Frequens:y 0.9% 1.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 1.4% 0.6% REGION -New Carrollwood/Northdale Z! Number 33624 159 Freguenc;y 7.9% REGIO N Northwest of USF, East o f Old Carrollwood Zlf Number 33613 35 Frequency 1.7% REGION = Oid Carrollwood Zlf Number 33612 37 33618 57 Freq u ency 1.8% 2.8% REGION=Orient Park ZI Number 33619 14 Frequency 0 .7% REGION = Palma Ce i a Zlf Number 33611 64 33621 I 33629 54 Frequency 3 .2% 0.1% 2.8% C-3 REGION =Pas co County ZIE.. Numb e r 33540 4 33541 4 33543 5 33544 13 33547 4 34634 I 34635 2 34639 24 34640 7 3 4641 1 0 34642 5 34643 1 34646 5 34647 4 34648 4 34652 3 34653 5 34655 7 34665 4 34666 8 34667 1 34668 4 34677 23 REG!ON = Plant City Zie Number 33565 6 33566 4 33567 16 Frcq.uenc.x 0.2% 0 .2% 0.2% 0.6% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 1.2% 0.3% 0 .5% 0 .2% 0.1% 0.2% 0 .2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0 .4% 0.1% 0.2% 1.1% Frequency 0.3% 0.2% 0.8%
REGION=Polk County ZJE Number 33803 2 33809 3 33811 I 33813 2 33816 I 33823 I 33880 I &equency 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% REGION= Port of TampafYbor City ZJE Numher 33602 II 33605 8 33606 23 Freguency 0.5% 0.3% 1.1% REGION=Southeast Hillsborough County ZlE Number 33534 2 33535 I 33569 23 3357 0 4 33572 I &equeocy 0.1% 0.1% 1.1% 0.2% 0.1 o/o REGION=Seffner!Eastcrn Hillsborough County ZIE Number 33584 22 33592 2 3359 4 44 33598 I Frequency 1.1% 0.1% 2.2% 0.1% C-4 REOION=SL Petersburg ZIE Num ber 33701 3 33702 27 33703 19 33704 4 33705 8 33706 3 33707 7 3370 8 3 33709 5 33710 7 33711 5 33712 4 33713 6 3371 4 5 33715 I 33731 2 Frequency 0.2% 1.3% 0.9% 0.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% O.J% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% REGION=Tampa Palms m tlumber 33645 I 33647 19 33649 I Frequency 0.1 o/o 0.9% 0.1 o/o REGION= Tem ple Terrace ZJE Number 33617 32 33637 22 Frequency 1.6% 1.1% REGION-Tow n n County Z1f Number 3361 4 95 Ereq.uency 4.7".4
REGION= Western Hillsborough County ZJ. Number 33556 28 33615 157 33625 59 33626 1 5 33634 76 33635 25 REGION Westshore zre Number 33607 31 33609 52 33623 I Frcguem;y 1.4% 7.8% 2.9% 0.7% 3.8% 1.2% Frequenc;y 1.5% 2.6% 0.1% C-1