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The use of GIS in public transportation

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Title:
The use of GIS in public transportation
Portion of title:
Use of geographic information systems in public transportation
Physical Description:
1 online resource (72 p.) : col. maps. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Florida -- Dept. of Transportation. -- Research Center
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Publisher:
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Local transit -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Bus lines -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Geographic information systems   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 71-72).
Statement of Responsibility:
Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
General Note:
Title from cover of e-book (viewed Aug. 5, 2011).
General Note:
"Prepared for Florida Department of Transportation Research Center."
General Note:
"June 1995."
General Note:
Includes glossary.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029179647
oclc - 745456667
usfldc doi - C01-00270
usfldc handle - c1.270
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SFS0032358:00001


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THE USE OF GIS IN PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Prepared for: Florida Department of Transporta t ion Research Center June 1995 CUTR Cente r for Urban Transportation Research College of Eng ine ering of South Florida 420 2 E Fowler Avenue, ENS 118 Tampa, Florida 33620-5350 ph (813) 974-3120 fax ( 813) 974-5168

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II

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Table of Contents Acknowledgements. ... .......................................... ............................................. ... ... .............. . . ...... ....... iv Section 1: Int roduction ............................ ................................................................................................. 1 Section 2 : GIS i n T ransportation .................... .......................................................................................... 3 Section 3: Overview of the Use of GIS in Transtt .............................. .. .. .......... ...................... ........ ...... ..... 7 Sect ion 4: Review of Transit GIS Activities .. .. .... ....................................... ...... ............... ...... .................... 13 Sect ion 5: Inventory of GIS-T in Florida ................................................................................. .......... ........ 39 Section 6 : Conclusions .... ............................. ................... .. ....... ...... ..... . . . . ..... . ........ ....... . ... . . .... . . 49 Appendix A: Survey In strument.......... ............ ...................... ..... .......... .............. ....... ........................ ....... 53 Appendix B: Gl5T contacts i n Florida .. .... ............................................................................................. 59 Appendix C: Summary of Survey Res ul ts .. ........................................ ...................................................... 65 G l ossary ...... .................. .......... .... ............. ..... ...... .. ..... .................... .. ... .... .. .... ............ .. ............... ... ...... 69 Bib liogra phy................................ .. .................................. .. .............. ........................ .................. ....... .... ... 71 Ill

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Acknowledgements This report was prepared in coope ra tion the State of Florida Department of Transportation (FOOl) and the U.S. Department ofTranspo rtation. The p roject was made possib l e through the FOOT Research Cen tefs Research Idea Program. Their support is grate fu lly acknow led ged. The op i nions fi nd i ngs, and conclus io ns expressed in t h i s public a tion a re t h ose ofthe authors and no t necessari l y those of t h e Florida Department of Transportat ion or t h e U.S. Department of Transportation. lv Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engi n eering University of Sou th F l orida 4202 E. Fowler Avenu e ENB 118 Tampa Flor ida 33620-5350 (813) 9743120, fax (813) 974-5168 Gary L Brosch, Director FOOT Project Manager: Tara Bartee, Planning & Grants Administrator The Office of Public Transportation Operations CUTR Project Team: William L. Ball Principal Investigator/Research Associate Fredalyn M. Frasier, Research Associate Mitchell P Yorl<, Research Associate Tiffany T umer. student Research Assistant Review and comments from the following individuals are g ratefully ac k nowledged: Patricia Henderson Dennis Hinebaugh Steven E. Polzin, Ronald C Sheck, Ike Ubaka

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SECTION1 Introduct i o n Significant potential exists for the use of Geographic I nformation Systems (GI S) in public transportation. Some agencies and transportation planning organiza tions have become extremely active in the use of GIS; howeve r,lhe more active users have been typica l ly within the l argest transit systems and metropolitan planning organizations. Smaller plann i ng organizations have been l ess likely to invest the resources necessary to estabfish a GIS th at i s adequate enough to result in significant b en efits This is pr i marily due to the fact t hat in the past, the resources necessary to initiate an d maintain a GIS were rather significant. Only In recent years has the technology progressed to the po int where basic GIS fun ctions and applications have become more affordable for smaller agencies A l though many of F lori da's transportation planning orga nizations are using GIS mos t have not yet taken full advantage of the range of GIS applications I n 1988, Simkowitz concl u ded t hat transportation agencies are still in their infancy with respect to the use and application of G IS. The use of GIS technologies in highway planning and management has been rather extensive, while research on t he use of GIS applications in transH has been l imited.' T his was con firmed In the l iterature review conducted for th i s report As a resuH, it i s believed that the literatu r e summarized In t h is report is one of t h e mor e comp r ehen sive reviews of GIS applications in transit planning and analysis to date The creati o n o f geograph i c databases for areas served by public transit can s i gnificantly enhance the transit p l an n i ng ca p abi l ities of loca l transit systems, metropolitan p lanning organizations and other p l anning organizations Potential benefits Inc l ude cost savings resu l ting from i n c r eased efficiency i n perforning transit planning and analysis, increased precision in planning activities, t he ab ili ty to assess the of more service alterna tiyes, quicker response time for assessing the implications of service design and frequencies, more and better customer information for existing and potential patrons, and the abi l ity to communicate the results in a format that can be readily understood by the public and decisionmakers, among others P ROJECT OBJECTIVES The purpose of this project is to summarize and advance t h e state of the art In the use of GIS for enhancing t he capabilities In transit planning and operations Four major objectives were ide ntified, including: i dentification of uses for GIS in pub lic transportation comp il ation of an inventory of transportation-re l ated GIS systems, databases, a n d applications i n Flo r ida documentation of uses for G I S i n transit through l iterature review survey resuHs, and personal interviews development of examp l e uses of GIS that will be shared with transit agericies throughout Florida and the U.S The first three objectives are achieved with the information compiled in this Interim report, and the conclusions p r e sented in this report setthe f r amework for applications that will b e developed i n the r e mainder of this project O VERVIEW OF INTERIM REPORT Tliis i nterim report was prepared to document the range of GIS uses in publ i c transportation I n addition the final section in this report provides concl u sions regarding which GIS uses should be developed as example'S in the rema inder of the project. Each section Is summarized bel ow Section II p r ovides an i ntroduction to GIS in transportation (GIS-1). GIS-T is defined and the primary functions associated with its appl ication are identified and summa .. r i zed. The section concludes with a p r el i minary discus-1

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sion of a framework appropriate for the establishment of a transit GIS Section Ill presents potential uses for GIS I n public transtt as compiled thcough titerature review and discussion with individuals in the transportation plann in g profession. The r ange of uses is categorized according to four major app l ication areas. Including the following: information dissemination transit plann i ng facil ities and real estate management operations and control The categorization of applications is followed by the of the potential of GIS along with factors related to the i mplementation of a transit GIS. The section concludes with an overview of how GIS has evolved over the past few decades. Section IV summarizes the l iterature on the use of G IS in public Summaries of specific research projects and papers are presented based on the categories tified in Section I I. The l iterature review provides a sound foundation for understanding the uses of GIS that are curren tly being used in publi c transit. Section Vprovides an inventory of GIS activities in Florida, with an emphasis on uses of GIS in transit. This inventory is the re sutt of a survey of agencies in Florida, including t ransi t systems, metropolitan plan ning organizations (MPOs), regional planning councils (RPCs), and FOOT District Offices. The section also includes a summary of the survey research methodology as well as a presenta tion of the survey resutts. Some of the issues addressed in the GIS survey include organizational perceptions related to GIS, transit applications, sources of data, soft ware platform, coordination and i mplementation strate gies Section V1 presents a series of recommendations regard ing which specific uses of GIS have the greatest potential for offering benefits to Florida s transtt systems. FOOT and cum have determined jointly which applications should be pursued as example uses of GIS throug ho ut the remainder of this project. Three appendices are provided at the conclusion of the report, including a copy of the survey instrument in Appen .. dix A, a r.st of GIS contacts at Florida's transportation agencies in Appendix B. and a summary of survey results in Appendix C. HOTES Woodrow W. N i chols, Jr. "GIS Tin Transtt Planning and Managemenr (Raleigh, North Carolina: Southeast ern Transportation Center The University of North Caro l ina Institute for Transportation Research and Education, May 1994), pp. 3,4.

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SECTION2 GIS in Transportation The purpose ofthis section is to provide a brief discussion of the use of GIS In transportation. This review includes the discussion of a series of issues, inc luding defining GIS in transportation, understanding the primary GIS-T ana lytical functions and Identifying a framework for establish ing a transit GIS. DEFINING GIS IN TRANSPORTATION The use of geographic analysis in transportation requires the union of GIS and an integrated transportation informa tion system (IllS). To better understand this union of information systems. clear definitions must be identified for each information system as well as for the resulting information system that combines a GIS and an ITIS. The literature offers n umerous definitions far the term "GIS." In the narrowest definition, GIS refers only to specialized software designed for the management and analysis of spatial data and their attributes. Broader definitions have been offered that suggest that GIS refers to both hardware and software, while others have i ncl uded databases in the definition. The l iterature also was re viewed to estab l ish a consensus definition of an ITlS and the resulting union of the two Information systems, geo graphic Information systems for transportatio n (GIS-T). These defini1ions are provide d below. Geographic Information System -A system of hard ware, software, data, people, organizations, and insti .. tuU onal arrangemonts for collecting, storing, analyz ing, and disseminating information about araas ofthe earth.1 Integrated Transportation Information Sys/9111-Acom puterized system that enables the collection, storage, and use of all multimodal transportation-related data. Geographic Information System for Transportation (GJS .. T) an Qnhancod GIS and an Enhancements must be made to the GIS to ensure that the geographic data are presented and processed in a form compatible for transportation applications, while ITISs must be enhanced to structure attribute databases that provide consistent geographic reference data in a form that is compatible with the enhanced GIS. GIS-T Functions In order to better understand the general uses of GIS-T, it is useful to i den tify and define the primary analytical functions that a comprehensive GIS could offer poten tially. NCHRP Report 359 provides a good description of the seven primary functions, as summarized bel ow (1) Basic Functions Basic functions of a GIS inc lude the ablUty to edit, d isplay and measure base maps that are within the system. The edi1ing funct ion provides the ability to add or delete various point, l ine and/or polygon databases, as well as to change the attributes of these databases The display feature allows for the creation of thematic maps that Illustrate the attributes of selected features using shading, color, sym bols etc The ability to measure the length of lines and area of polygons is also a basic fun ction needed for a GIS. (2) Overlay Two or more base maps can be displayed at the same time using the overlay function. In addition to illustrating the features of each of the individ ual base maps, the display also represents the features that are common to all of the maps included in the overlay. For example, a 1 /4-m ile buffer that was generated around trans it bus routes could be overlaid on traffic ana lysis zones to estimate the transn service area, as well as service area population and characterist ics. 3

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(3) Dynamic Segmentation This function is "the division or aggregation of network links into segments that are homogeneous for the specified set of link atbibutes."5 It is dynamic in the sense that i t is gene rat ed In response to the current network attributes When attribut es a r e changed. a new set of ho mo geneous segments are dynamically" generated. (4) Surface Modeling Surface mode l ing is a function that generates a threedimensional model of l and forms or other features of the surface. A lthough useful for plann ing and analyzing highway design, this function is not commonly used for transit plann i ng and analysis. (5) Raster Display and Analysis p rov i de a sound description of the capabilities of a com prehe nsive GIS-T. For most t rans it appl i cations. the use of one or more of the basic, overlay, and routing functions is l i kely to be sufficient. FRAMEWORK FOR A TRANSIT GIS In the idea l situation,transildata w ou ld be one component of a comprehensive G I S T system t hat is sha re d by all agencies i n a g i ven geog raphic area In rea l ity this seldom occurs primari l y due to the inabil i ty of agenc ie s to collaborate on a re gional G I S T program. Iss ues such as commitment, funding, maint enance human resources, and admin i s t rative deci s i ons, among others, typically prevent the coordination necessary to create a regional geographic syste m Ills beyond the scope of th i s projecttodiscuss the imp l ementation of GIS in this broader context it is important to point out the need for coordinaThe raster display fun ction allows photographs and other ti on among agencies that requ i re the use of many of the images to b e included within a GIS. For example, In addrtion t o providing a database of characteristics, a bus stop inventory a lso might include raster i mage photo graphs of each bus stop l ocation same databases. Keep i ng this broader perspective in mind t h e i nformatio n necessary to d evelop a comprehensive trans i t GIS i s p res ented in Table 1 A series of databases i s i dentified (6) Routing and placed into one of four categories i nc l uding l i ne polygon point, and attribute databases. it i s no t Ro uti n g functions inv olve the ability lo identify shortest necessary to have all of these databases to use GIS, th i s time paths and optimal routes based o n a given set of isadescriptionofwhatmightbeconslderedacomprehen network attributes. Th i s functi on has been ava ilabl e in sive trans it G I S travel demand software for years and is now incorporated into many GISs s uch as TransCAD Tra nsCAD is a GIS softwa r e that in c l u des a variety o f procedures used in transportation planning and travel demand mo de l i ng, in cluding s h ortest pa th routines and routi ng and scheduling mode ls. among others (7) Links to Other Software I n order to take advantage ofthe full range of GIS-T uses, the ab il ity to Hnk a G I S to other softwa r e appl i cations is necessary. Examp l es of other software applications that may be usefu l when linked to a G IS incl ude transportation p lanning demand models and highway design software. Although not all ofthese functions are necessary for the d evelopment and u se of a tra nsit GIS, t hese functions 4 NOTES Dueker and Kjerne as cite d in A.P. Vonderohe, L. Travis, R.L. Smith and V. Tsai, Adaptation of G eographic Information Systems for Transportation, NCHRP Report 359 (Washington. D C.: National Academy Press. 1 9 93) p. 10. 'Vonderohe et at., p. 11 /bid .. '/bid.,p.41. 'Ibid.

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: TABLE 1 Common Databases for a Transit GIS Line 03tabase Polygon Database Point Database Attributes stre-et network U ni ted States fixed t ransi t facil it ies s egmen t attributes r ailroads state activ ity centers roadway chatacteristics transit routes counties bus stop s t rans i t seJVice r ivers bodies o f water she l t ers politica l boundaries stations zip codes other ridership traffic analysis zo n es census tracts polygon attri b utes block groups demograp hics b l ocks travel characterist ics o ther lan d use point attribu t es facility characterist ics activity ce nter data bu s stop characteristics shelt e r c haracte risti cs station charact e ristics other 5

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6

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SECTION3 Overview of the Use of GIS in Transit This section provides an overview of the potential uses and benefits of GIS for transit planning and analysis. It summarizes GIS uses In trans it i n terms of four application areas, and Identifies factors related to the implementation of a transit GIS. CATEGORIZATION OF USES FOR A TRANSIT GIS Based on review of the l iterature the potentia!.uses of GIS for trans it were i dentified and placed i nto one of four categories, including the following: information dissemination trans i t p l anning facUlties and real estate management operations and control Three references were i dentified thatfocus specifically on the Identification and discussion of GIS appl i cations In t ransit.' In addition nume ro us papers and pubfications were collected that descr ib e the use of GIS for specific app .lications in transit planning and operations. As indi cated p reviously literature on the specific appl i cations of GIS in trans it is somewhat limited. This was confirmed in several of the references that were identified. 2 An over view of the four categories is provided in this section. Information Dissemination Th i s category refers to th e design and production of cartographic materials that can quickly and easily convey i nformation to patrons. management board members, and the general publ i c. A GIS gives transit systems the ability to create system maps, sector maps. and i ndividual route maps. In addition changes In route structure can be updated r ela tively easily with a GIS. With these base maps in p l ace, additional Information can be overlaid to provide a visual representation of service and service area characteristics Examp l es of Information that can be overlaid on the transit netwo rk include demographic characteristics, travel b ehavior characteristics, transit service characteristics and proposed transit s ervice. The abitity to disseminate a nd convey information that i s easi ly u ndersto od by board members and the general publ i c i s a very simple, yet effective, application of GIS. Transit Planning The genera l area of transit p lann ing has the larges t number of potential uses for GIS. GIS p rovides a more sophisticated too l for enhancing the capabmties of transit planners and dec lslonma kers Service p l anni n g rider ship for ecasting, accessibility analysis travel dem and model i ng, and market analysis are examples for usi ng G IS within this category. Th e uses within this category are discussed in detail later in th i s report in a review of th e literature and in the conclusions presented reg a rding the deve l opment of e
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Operations and Control GIS a lso can have an important fun cti on in the ope ra tions and contro l of transit service, both fixed route and paratransit. It can be used t o improve customer assistan c e throug h the enhancemen t of custome r i nform ation services. Information can be provided regarding the use of t r aditional t ransit services as well a s carpool and vanpool formation. Anot her examp le in this category is the int egration of an a utoma tic vehicl e location (AVL) system with a GIS. This en ab les t h e geograph i c display of transit vehic les i n rea l time AVL is a technology that provides continuous tracki ng of vehicles through devi ces as simple as an on board transponder communicating with a roadside sign post to soph isticated G l obal Pos iti oning Systems (GPS ) lic e nsed by th e U S D epartment of Defense for t racking by sat ellile The use of G IS fo r the sche du l ing and dispatching of paratrans it veh i cles is another example with in th i s cat egory. Paratransit service dispatching requires a significan t amount of detai l as il re l ates to serv i c e area cha rac teristics. including address, intersection, and landmar k geocoding with grouping and r ou ti ng p ro c e du res fo r schedu lin g. POTENTIAL BENEFITS From t he pers p ective of the tr ansit system there are n ume rous po tentia l benefits of using GIS to enhance planning and provision of transit services. These benefits are summar ize d be l ow. ( 1) Increased Efficiency Once a GIS is in place it provi des a mec hanism for automating the production of maps t hat were p rev io u sly created manually. In addition. since the process i s auto mated, more maps can be generated that d i s play a var ie ty of info rmation characterizing the system transit service. the service area and t h e seNice a re a population, among othe rs. Increased productiv ity i s a result of: a a reduction in or elimination of redundant activities, r esulting in sav i ngs of ti me money and staff. better data management, which results in lower c osts and better planning and decisionmaking. rapid, shared access to mo re data and compre h en sive information analysis and reporting capabilities. which impr oves responsiveness. (2) Increased Precision In Transit Planning and Analysis A GIS can provide the abil ity to quickly access more data in a ma n ner tha t supports improved data Interp retatio n and i ncreased precision i n the planning and ana lysi s of transit services. In creased precision is a direct resuft of geog r aphically r eferen cing transit fac il ities and serv i ces and then overlaying attribute databases that c h aracteri z e the geographic locations. (3) Increased Ability to Assess the Feasibility of Service Alternatives A comprehensive G I S can enhance the abifity to assess the feasibility of serv ice an ern atives For examp l e, once necessary da tab ases are In p lace a n d accessib l e to the GIS a market ana ly sis can b e conducted fo r proposed servi ce alternatives to determine the attemative with the greate s t market potential. (4) Quicker Response Time for Assessing the Implications of Service Design and Frequency Adjustments A GIS can provide a mechanism for assessing more quickly the implications of modifying serv i ce, frequency, and other service character i stics. O nce the transit ne t work is loaded on a GIS along with servi ce and pop u l ation characteristics the Impact of changes can be analyzed (5) Enhanced Ability to Convey Information Perhaps one of the most powerful appl i c ations of GIS for transit is the enhanced ability to convey information to decisionmakers, existing and potential transit patron s a nd the general public. The old cliche, "a picture i s worth a thousand words" has great significance when trying to i nform an unsoph i s ti cated a udience that la cks the techni cal expertise necessary to understand a n d in terpret i nfor mation provided by trans i t p l anners In addition, GIS provid e s an excellenttoo l fo r improving customerinforma ijo n services.

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(6) Increased Ability to Manage Facilities and Land . ' '"' The abitity to geographically reference the location of transit facilities and land, along with the associated char actelistics, enhances the capabilities of transit systems w ith respect to managing these assets For example, a comprehensive bus-stop inventory in a GIS gives transit planners t he ability to quickly identify bus stop locations that have certain characteristics, such as shatter availabil ity and handicap accessibility. Many of these benefits were acknowledged i n a recent i ss u e of Passenger Transport by Paul A. Toliver, Director otTr ansit a t Seattle/King County Metro in Seattle. Toliver i nd i cates that the development of a GIS provides for a more efficient opera ti on and decreases errors In customer and planning information. He also Indicates that t he cost savings and error reductions that can from the implementation of a GIS are a gency-wide. FACTORS RELATED TO IMPLEMENTING A TRANSIT GIS A number offactors related to the imp l ementatio n of a G I S T within a state DOT environment were identified i n the NCHRP Report 359. The following tist of factors was adap t ed for i mplementation specifically within transit sys tems. Each fact o r is Identified and discussed below. (1) Institutional Support Full Imp l ementation of a GIS within a trans i t system requires leadership that has the foresight to envision and articulate th e potential benefits of emerging techn o logies suc h as GIS Emphasized benefits are those that fill certain needs that were not satisfied previo u sly or can be sati sfied with GIS at a lower c ost. (2) Management Support Pe rhaps the most significant obstacle to overcome i s the po t ential for l ack of support at the managementlevel. This Is tru e a s it r elates t o the planning of a GIS a n d to the imp l ementation process following the plan The best way t o overcom e this obstacle is to continuously share the p otential and actual output and results of a GIS. This may b e accomplished by sharing work prepared by other o rgani z ations with management and by fully informing . management of progress being made In t he In-hou s e development of a GIS. (3) Staff Resources The lack of qualified staff can be a significant obstacle to the f ull i mplementation of a G IS. In particular, any orga nizatio n in the process of deve l op i ng a G I S needs a strong supporter on staff to lead the way in the planning and implementation process The successful implementation of GIS in state Departments of T r ansportation throughout the U.S. have all involved one or more individuals who have been strong supporters in the developmen t o f the technology within thei r r espective organizations Typi cally, the leader(s) are not high level managers but emerge from the technical staff. (4) Long-Term Planning The p l ann ing and implementation of a GIS should not b e based on short-term needs of the transit system. To the extent p o ss i ble all potential uses of GIS that are being cons i dered by the transit system shoul d be i dentified In order to have the i nformation sufficient to p l an for these uses from th e e a rly stages of GIS program devel opment. (S) Resources for Planning Adequate r esour c es must b e allocated i n order to plan for the successful deve l opment of a GIS within a trans it p l anning organization. Given the tight budgels o f most transit systems, this often can be used as a reason not to i nvest i n a GIS Thi s further supports the need tor a technical staff supporter to argue for the allocation of resources for the plann ing a nd Implementatio n o f a GIS. (6) Selection of Technology and Platform The selection of the approp ri a t e software and opera ti ng platform may be the most d ifficult deci sion that must be made Since the technology is evolving so quickly It Is extremely difficult to maintain a complete understanding of the software, hardware and data management capa bifities and appl i cations available in the industry For this reason, ma n y transit planning organizations will not have th e expertise needed to make these d e ci sions, resulting i n th e need to seek outside assistanc e. 9

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GIS IMPLEMEHTATIOH IH PERSPECTIVE GIS as it is understood today was initiated in the early to mid 1960s the Canadian Geograph i c Information System and with systems developed by the King dom Experimental Cartography Unit. Commercia l turn key systems began emerging in the ear1y 1980s with the early development of the software ARC/lNFO by the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The first version of ARC/lNFO was rel eased in 1982.' The use of GIS has grown substantially in the 1980s and 1990s and i s used commonly today i n tho public and private sectors throughout the world. This is reflected In the 1994 GIS industry Survey conducted by GIS World, Inc., a private company that offers an array of GIS prod ucts and services. Organizations from around the world respo n ded to the survey resulting in the identification of 480 GIS products and servi c e providers. Significant growth in this industry will u n doubtedly continue. Although it is beyond the scope of this report to recom mend a detailed framework for the implementation of a transit GIS, i t is important to put into perspective many of the issues associated with implementation. With this in nind a brief d iscussion of relevant issues is provided in the rema inder of this section. The i mplementation of a G I S is a significant commitment for any transportation planning organization and is considered a costly long term under1aking. This was particu larly true in the early development of the technology when GIS products were expensive and their benel!ts some what uncertain; however, as the technology continues to evolve, the cost of acquiring, operating, and maintaining a GIS is declining and the quatity and user friend i ness of th o products a r e improving. As a result what may have requ i red a substantial i nvestment and not been affordable only five years a go may be affordable to many of these same organ i zations today. Not only is it now affordable, GIS technology incl uding software, hardware data inte gratlo n and training, has evolved to contributa further to the feas i bility of GIS implementation. The affordabillty of a GIS, however, does not make the i mplementation process an easy one. As indicated previ ously the decision to imp l ement a GIS is a substantial commitment not j ust from a monetary perspedive. The 10 GIS implementation literature i-s in agreement regarding one of the most important ingredients to successful imple mentation-the need for support from all l evels within an organization especially from management. In addition, success is usually dependent upon a single person who leads tho charge in the development of the system. I mplementation failures are usually a of people problems and seldom a problems." The message is clear Even though GIS Is fast becoming an affordable option for even the smallest organizations agencies contemplating GIS investments should proceed with caution It is recommended that organizations d& velop a strategic pian for the development of a GIS prior to investing In the technology. This plan may include coordination efforts with other agencies in the area to enable the sharing of databases and other resources. It may be appropriate to seek outside assistance in the early stages of implementation to ensure that the organization has a sufficient understanding of relevant issues and applications However, important that employees of the organization play an integral role in the planning and development of the system so they can carry on the efforts once the outside assistan c e i s no longer available Some skepticism may persist in many organizations regarding the sign i ficance of GIS benefits in transportation planning. This may stem from a bel ief that GIS does n o t add anything new to the planning process that was not a l ready handled in some othe r way I n the past. Some even suggest that using GIS to perform certain tasks may take even longe r than it did prev i ously since it provides oppor tunities to produce more than is really needed to accom plish certain objectives. If at all possible this skepticism should be eliminated prior to implemen t ation Th i s might be accomplished through a more formaifeaslbmty assess ment of a GIS program i nclud i ng both quafltative a n d quantitative analyses. SUMMARY In addition to categorizing the potential GIS applications in transU, thJ s section presented potential benefits implementation obstacles, and a general discussion of imple me-ntation issues. By no means is this intended to be a comprehensive discussion of the I ssues associated the i mplementation of a transit GIS; however it does Identity many of the major issues associated with making

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TABLE 2 Uses of GIS hi Transportation Information Transit Facilities and Real Operations Ol.sseminati6n Planning Estate Management and Control .. map production .. improvements to .. bus stop inventory .. custome r inf ormation -telephone-based planning models -par!< end ride lots systems customer information route planning -shelters interaction w ith AVL services -schedule planning .. paratransit dispatching -ridematctdng Title VI requirements -maintenance facilities emergency response -vanpool formation -ridershi p forecasting capttal investment visualization and mode choice modellng analysis presentation -service area analysi s faciiHies location -thematic maps markeVdemographic space utilization analysis -real estate i nventory -ADA planning -route maintenance -reverse commute -maintenance sched-analysis oorrldor studies -survey anatysls incldant a n alysis -crime analysis -emergency cont-lngency planning -accessibllity analysis data integration a decision regarding GIS i mplementation within a trans" planning organization. Tab l e 2 provides a l ist of the potentia l uses of G I S in transit, summari:ted according to the four major categ o ries i dentified in thi s section HOTES Caro l L. Schweiger "Current Use of Geographic Information Systems in Transit Planning" (\)SOOT, Fed eraiTransltAdmln istration, Office of Grants Management August 1991); Kenneth J. Dueker eta I., "GIS Applications In Urba n Public Transportation: Pilot Projects and Imp le mentation Strategies for Tr>-Met, Portland, Oregon" (Port land: Center for Urban Studies and Transportation North west, October 1991); Woodrow W. Nichols, Jr., 'Gis-T in Transit Planning and Managemenr (Raleigh, NC: The University of North Carotina Institute for Transportation Research and Education, May 1994). Dueker et a l ., p 4 William L Ball, "Economic and Policy Considerations of Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS): Asullng sassing the Economic Feasibifity of APTS (Tampa: Cen terforUrban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, October 1994), p. 15 Dueker et at, p. 11. 'Paul A. Toliver, "Higl>Tech Support Can Keep Transit Moving Ahead," Passenger Transporl(March 6 1995 ) p. 6. A. P Vonderohe, L. Travis, R.L Smith, and V. Tsai, Adaptation of Geographic Information Systems for Trans portation, NCHRP Report 359 (Washington D.C.: Na tional Acade my Press, 1993), p. 36. Woodrow W. Nichols Jr., G is-T In Transit Planning and Management" (Raleigh, North Carolina: Southeast em Tra n sportation Cent er, The University of North Caro l in a Institute for Transportation Research and Education May 1994) p. 5 GIS World, G/S World Sourcebook 1995, 6th Edition (November 1994) p. 23. 11

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' Stan Aronoff Geographic lnfonnation Systems : A Management Perspective (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: WDL Publications, 1989), p. 259 '' Aronoff p. 249 1!1

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SECTION4 Review of Transit GIS Activities This section reviews recent GIS activities throughout the United States that are relevant for public transit The review includes a discussion of national activities. general studies related to the application of GIS to transit and transportation i n general, and a review of the three specific transit application areas, including information dissemina tion, transi t planning and facilities/real estate manage ment. NATIONAL ACTIVITIES Several national efforts are under way to advance the use and application of GIS for public transit. These efforts are i dentified and summarized in this section. National Transit Geographic Information Systems The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) is in the process of developing a national Transit GIS, which Is being designed t o provide the following: Inventory and Selected Data Related to Fixed Public Transit Facilities -rapid, light, and commuter rail systems public bus routes stations and maintenance facilities people mover systems feny termina ls and routes ru ral operator service areas areas and key transit stations serving the disabled urbanized area boundaries selected operational data for systems selected FTA grants management informat ion data Census demographi c information Selected Inventory of All Modal Transportation Facilities highways freight and passenger rail systems and stations airports marine ports intermodal termina ls high occupancy vehicle facilities Intelligent Transportation System corridors and routes data and project alignments of proposed Federal capital investments Enhanced Transportation Management and Analysis capability enhanced data v i sualizations and presentation database integratio n management analyses FTA Trien nial Review data Transportation Improvement P l ans Unified Work Programs capital project oversight data Congestion Mitigation A ir Quality project data ambient air quality non .. attainment areas transportation demand management strategies urban transportation p lanning models emergency response plans 13

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The database will enable the immediate display ofinven tory and selected data of fixed public transit facilities throughout the United States. The geographic infor mation will be based on street segments provided in TIGER (Topographically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing) files that a re compiled by the United States Bureau of the Census. Also included in the database will be congressional, state county, and urbanized area bound aries. The database also will include transit data such as service area population ridership passenger miles, and route/rail miles. This informati on will be compiled lor all transit modes, including rural and uman bus systems commuter rail subways, light rail, rapid rail, people mover syst ems. high occupancy vehicle systems ferry tenni nals, and transitways. Hatlonal Conference on GIS In Public Transportation A National Conference on GIS in Transit will be held in Tampa in August 1995. CUTR i s planning and hosting the conference as part of the second year research program of the Na tio na l Urban Transit Institut e ( NUTI). NUTI is a federally-funded consortium of several Florida universi ties l ed by CUTR at the University of South F lorida. The conferenca is being designed to bring together represen tatives from transit operators, planning agencies, and the research community to share experiences, perspectives, and views on this subject Among the topics that are proposed for the conference are: current GIS applications in transit benefits and fimitations of GIS the future of GIS implementation obstacles to GIS imp lementatio n organizational structure and setting for GIS data integrity and management available of GIS software for transit planning types o f spatial data data sources FTA's national GIS transn database 14 GEHERAL STUDIES Summaries o f several general studies related to the appication of GIS to pubfic transit are provided in this section. These summaries provide the reader with a status report on the state of the art in the use of GIS in transportation These documents were also were used as references in the preparation of prior sections in this report. For a more detailed description of the references refer to the bibliography. "GIS Applications in Urban Public Transportation: Pilot Projects and Implementation Strategies for TriMet. Portland, Oregon" (October 1991) Kenneth J. Dueker, Ric Vrana and Gary Bishop Sponsored by the Tri-County Metropotnan Transportation Distlict of Oregon (Tri-Met) and the U.S. Department of Transportatio n through TransNow t his project was con ceived to identify GIS applications for the trans it system In P ortlan d TransNow is a transportation research center cons isting of a consortium of Pacific Northwest universi ties le d by the University of Washington. In addition to providing a mechanism for ide ntifying how GIS could increase the effectiveness of transit management, the project also provides an opportunity to disseminate infor mation to agencies throughout the U S. that may benefit from the project results This report is one of a series that was produced as part oflhe project conducted for Tri-Met. The primary objective of this phase olthe research was "to examine the suitabi lny and flexibil ity of a common geo graphic database to serve a variety of appflcations within a transi1: organization.'" In order to achieve this objective, four pilot projects were selected for implementation, in cluding: in corp ora ting transit routes into a GIS, with re lation to an enhanced TIGER fil e analysis of aged and disabled paratransit clients and trips to determine th e proportion served by fixed route transit service use of GIS for analysis o f la nd use adjacent to and near bus shatters use of GIS to relate bus stop locations to traffic zones

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T his research report indicates that the application of GIS technology to urban transit Involves numerous issues incl uding the identificatio n of requirements for several application areas, the adoption of an integration strategy based on common of geography, the eva l u atio n of the analytical and data modeling contributions of a number of GIS vendor products, the assessment of the results of several pilo t projects, and the Identification of implementation strategies. This particular report focuses on the experience of Tri-Met in Its effort s to implement a strategy of database i ntegration based on a modified version of t h e TIGER fine files. "Geographic Information System Applications for Trt-Met: Needs Analysis and Preliminary Implementa tion Plan" (October 1990) Kenneth J. Dueker Ric Vrana, and Gary Bishop This report id entifies the current and use of GIS by the transit system servicing th e Portland Oregon metropo l itan area In addition to a general d iscussion of GIS applications in transit, issues concern i ng the integration among spatially related dat asets are i dentified and discussed. Fiv e functional areas wer e i dentified that represe n t the transtt sys t em's current or potentia l use of GIS, i ncluding faci l ities management faci l ities engineering, service planning, operations and control and customer service. The areas identifi e d are similar to those used to categorize appUcations in this r eport with the exception tha t facitities engineering is identifi ed as a major applicatio n area. A s ummary ofthese functional areas is provided below. Facilities Management Seve ra l outslde plant faci lities' were iden1ified by Tri -Me t for which a GIS inven to ry w o uld be usefu l for potential facilities management applications of GIS T h ese facili ties i nclude: B u s routes consisting of TIGER street segments, which allow lin kage to local governme nt street data Shetters, l inked to routes, bus s to p and T IG ER files Park and R i de locations, con taini ng attributes such as type of ownership, number of spaces, and uti l i zation, related to bus stop and route ....... !' Bus stops/signage, rel ated to stop number and routes LRT ro ute facifities and stations, spatially referenced by milepoint Speclftcally, the potential of GIS I n facl6ties management applications includes determining th e optimal routes for maintenance crews servicing bus stop shelters without re gar d for the Individual bus routes they serve Interest exists i n comb i ning, when possible shelter and bus stop signage maintenance with other assignments such as the del i very of tickets, passes, and schedules t o sales outlets. In addition, im portant right-of-ways such as the Transit Mall merit spec ial databases in order for management to access pro p erty information spatially or to present the re s u lts of att rib ute searches as maps Facifities Engineering Although recognized as not being a high priority for Incl usion In a GIS, the possibility for i ncluding plans for buildings, along with an Inventory of facilities within build in gs, was recognized In addition the engineering design of l i ght r ail transit lines cou l d benefit from the combined use of CAOO photogrammetry, i mage processing and GIS to pro duce 3 0 visua6zations of proposed designs. The report Indicates that this wou l d require the inte gration of rasterized image data and vector design data o n a surface the landscape. Service Planning Service p lanne r s r equire spatially aggrega t ed and dlsag gregated data referencing regional demog rap hic and eco nomic characteristics. G I S facilitates this req u ireme n t. Two applications of this data are r oute p la nning and schedule planning Applying GIS to route planning allows p l anners to assoc i ate a particular route with demand and utilization data. Linking route, traffic analySis zone and bus stop data to TIGER file street segments allows flex ib iaty i n developing these associations. In a d dition, l in ki ng automatic vehicle l ocation and automatic passen ger count data using th e GIS and TIGER can serve to estimate bus stop boardings and allghtings. Atthough its function is more t emporal than spatial H is importan t to in corporate map d i splays i n the analysis of schedule planning. Th i s is espec i ally true when analyzing schedule exception reports. A GIS can be used to a rc h i ve and analyze these reports by location, route and time. It also 15

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enables planners to l i nk transrt service data to important information, such as traffic volumes, traffic signals, con struction zones, and traffic accident data. Operations and Control GIS can be used i n operations and control to provide a database that can be acc essed quickly to provide informa tion regarding the topology of the route and street struc tures within the service area. GIS can then be used in conjunction with Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) sys tems to monitor transit vehicies in real time. In addition, GIS can provide significant assistance i n paratrans i t dis patch, since door-tCKioor service requires address, inter section, and l andmark geocoding, along with grouping and routi ng procedures for scheduling. Customer Service Th e applications of GIS tor customer service purposes incl ude telephone information services, trip planning as sistance, and map products tor customers. Applying GIS to trip plann ing assistance means prov iding the transit rider with the nearest and most direct route within walking distance for the desired trip. This includes identifying the connecting routes and proper transfer information. Trip plann ing Is especially important for special needs/ paratransit riders. A GIS can be used to provide a wheelchair passenger with information concerning all the handicap ped accessible stops along a route that can take that person to their final destination. This would require a database containing attribute data for bus stops in orde r to determine its accessibiUiy In addition it Is important for th i s person to obtain transfer infor mation A GIS should be able to inform the disadvantaged passenger of time limi tations or other factors associated with transferring that may make an inte rmoda l trip unacceptable Providing passe ngers with trip information can be performed over the phone or specialized route maps can be mailed directly to the customer. "GIS-T in Transit Planning and Management" (May 1994) Woodrow W. Nichols Jr. Similar to the project at hand, this study was designed to advance the understanding of potential applications of GIS for transit planning and management by: 16 reviewing current GIS concepts affecting transit identitYing useful GIS applications in transit planning and management demonstrating how different flow-control rules can be simulated within a GIS for transit planning and man agement The report discusses a number of applications for GIS -T, in clud i ng network applications, demand modeting, aggre gate now predictio n trtp distribution patterns, emergency contingency planning, accessibitity analysis demand respo nsive transportation planning customer or passen ger information systems planning. The report also pre sents and summarizes several GIS application categories fo r as proposed by the Massachusetts Bay Trans portation Agency (MBTA), including service routing, facili ties, real estate, police, ridership, and enginearing A more-detailed consideration of the GIS-T identified in this particular report is provided in Table 3 More speciftc apptication examples were demonstrated or discussed using data from the Transportation Information Management System (TlMS) for the city of Durham, North Carolina. These examples incl uded the use of networks, shortest paths, traffic assignment, routing and scheduling, spatial interaction, and location/allocation. REVIEW OF TRANSIT PLANNING AND ANALYSIS APPLICATION AREAS Selected is summarized in this section to illus trate many of the GIS applications identified previously. The applications are categorized according to the three applications areas that are relevant to this project, in c ludIng Information d i ssemination transit planning and analy sis and facilities/real estate management. As in dicated previously applications related to the operations and control systems are excluded from this l iterature r eview and are beyond the scope of this project. In the case of Information dissemination, a series of carto graphic examples is provided to illustrate the ability to convey a significant amount of information. Information Dissemination A series of cartographic examples Is presented in this section to illustrate the effectiveness with which GIS can

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TABLE 3 GIS-T Applications Service Routing Route Mafntenance Transportation Planning Customer Information Schedule Maintenance Address Location Route Mapping Pal1cing Access Special Needs Serviee!: Facilities Building Locations Powe r Plant Locations Cable Routing Building Matntenanc:::e Network Schema Ucs O ffi ce Equipment 1 0 Bus Stop I nventory Maintenance History Hazardous Materlals Space Utilization Real Estate Property Management Land Use Planning Parc:::el ldentific:::ation Records Management Insurance Management Economi c Development Parcel Mapping Political Boundaries Transit Police Crime Analysis Patternsffrending Call Dis patch ing Distance Calculation Emergency Response. Manpower Dispatching Ridership Demographic Analysi s Marketing Surveys New Service Analysis Commercia l Advertisi n g Canvassing Enginee ring Secvice Area Mapping Facilities Design Hazardous Waste Water Location Utban Planning Map Generation convey info rmati on that is related to transit. A majority of these examp l es was produced as pert of p re vio us and existing CUTR projects while some were created spe c ifi cally fo r i ll ustrative purposes in this report. Figures 1 through 9 are described below and illuslfated on the following pages San Francisco Rail Systems (Figure 1) Rail l ines and stations for San Francisco ra il systems are I llustrat ed, In c l uding those for CAL TRAIN, Bay Area Rapid Transit and San Fran cisco MUNI. l ntermodallocations a lso are i dentified. . : . Proportion of Population Over Age 60 by Cen sus Manatee County (FL) (Figure 2) This map d isplays t he proportion of popula tio n over age 60 by c e nsus l!act in Manatee County Manatee Cou nty Area Transit routes are over laid to portray transit servi c e available to elderly populations. Brickell Mefrobus Origin/Destination by Tnlffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) (Figure 3) Thi s map portrays the Melfo-Dade Transit Metromoverin Miami a portion ofMetrorail, and the proportion of Brickell Metrobus rider origins and destinations by TAZ. Escamb l a County (FL) Area Tnlnsit (ECA T) Network & Transit Dependent Tracts (Figure 4) This map portrays the transn routes for ECA TIn relationship to the cl assification of census tracts in terms of estimated transit dependency The tracts were ranked according to transit depen dency potentia l and p l aced Into one of four categor i es, inclucling primary secondary, ter tiary, and none. Transitdepenclencypotentialls. estimated based on three characteristics in cluding the proportion of elde rly persons, low income households, and 0-veh i c le households within census tracts lnte=un(yTransferLocalions, Tri-Countycom muter Rail Authority (Tri -Rai/) (FL) (Figure 5) The TriRall commuter rail line and stations are display ed a l ong with the Intercounty transfer locations. Carpooling to Worl< by Census Tract, Lee County (FL) (Figu re 6) The proportion of workers tha t carpool in the i r journey to wall( is presented by census tract of res idence for Lee County. Proportion of Worl
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FIGURE 1 S.n Fr811clsco Rll Systems N ('\"""-' K ' M ..... 1 """Cloy -oCAL TRAIN ...... BART MUNJ INTERMOOA LISM ..... :''o Sn r ... 1.5 3 ... ol .. ""' . '.' ,...., 18

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.. "' Bus Routes 1 2 l 4 10 Percent ,. 75 3;1 o6S 2& o3a 2llo25 Undw22 c..-c.;y 0 1 2 -FIGURE t Proportion of Population Over Age 60 by census Tract, MMatcc County

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!tO FIGURE 3 Brickell Mcvobus Or l g l n /Dcstlutl on byTAZ Metrorail Pe r ce nt T AZ. 101020 1210 1 8 4 l o 1 2 010 .. ...... -... .. ..

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FIGURE 4 ECA T Transit Network and Transit Dependent Tracts 0 1 5 3 M iles ROUTES 2 l s 7A 711 OS ..... 108 12 13 .. IS ... Census Tracls 21

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22 Flgwc 5 lntcrco.ty Tr-.fer Locations TriCoty eo-utcr Rll Autltorlty (Tri-RII) Tri-Rail Stationts 0 Busto Bus Transfer Locations --Tri-Rail

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w FIGURE 6 Carpooling to Work by Census Trac:t, Lee County r ..... ........... --------.. _, 1 ?:'r 1 .15%to24% I t1'3 10% to 1 4 % L 0 Vnde< 10 % 0 5 10 Miles ---------------

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, >-.. c: s " ... .. .. :I c: 0 f'l ... > 0 .... Ill 0 lj ;:;::t- i 0 > = VJ "' :2 .. ... ... 0 0 0 c: 0 .. ... t E 0 a. l!!!(b .t ml!:lo -----------------------------!Z4

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Flswe a Humber of Coravters IIkins to Work by Census Trec:t, D.cle C-ty .9Y 0 2 4 Miles Nu m ber of Peopl e Biki n g t o Work [] 0 1 0 3 (95) 310 13 (54) 131 0 2 2 (40) 221 0 J.f ( 37) (;) 34 l o 56 (27} 56 to 1 61 (14} iS

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. .: : ... ,. :: . ... : ;: .. : : .. : .: : FIGURE 9 Plnells Popultlon within 1/4 Mile of the PSTA Network Population within Service Area 1992 C$11SU$ T rac:t Boundaries PST A Bus Route> \ \ : : . . ... : : .. . .. . .. ... . ,: .. : . : .: : : .. ..

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residence in Lee County. Number of Commuters Bll
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data for four variables including work peri od job classifi cation. carpool participation and parking seni ority. Map Products -The map products produced from the overlay analysis Included a general street and bus route map of the study area, a density map of employee loca tions in comparison to the bus route network and a zoom plot of an area In close p roxitrity to OHSU. These are general maps created for v i sual inspection. More detailed mapping was performed for analyzing the potential of dedicated van service routes. This set of maps includes overlays of potential van corridors on existing bus lines. van corridors in relation to park-and-ride loc ations (including the 500 foot buffers), density map of O HSU employees and the potential van corridors, and a density map of employees within a half-mile and one-mile buffer of the park -and ride locatio ns ResultsUpon visual inspection of the maps and from the tabular analysis, Tri-Met decided notto change its regular bus routing or specifically to increase OHSU employee ridership The tabular analysis revealed that over 40 percent of all OHSU employees were within 500 feet of existing bus service. The potential of dedicated van service seemed more promising to Tri-Met officials The tabular analysis re vealed a large number of OHSU employees having no parking seniority that is, they did not qualify for the timited number of parking permits available at the OHSU site Visual review of the maps revealed a large number of employees l ocated within either a half-mile or one-mile radius of the park-and-ride l ocations or within the 500 foot buffer elong the potential van corridors. "Use of GIS in Transit Alternatives Analysis" (May 1993) William G Allen, Jr., and Srinivasan Mukundan Research Overview Most major transit studies apply computer based methods to forecast transit ridership when transit alternatives are proposed, i e service level changes or new capital investments occur Specifically, computerized transit networks are employed to create zone -to-zone travel times which are in tum Input Into mode choice models for the assignment oftransit trips. Refiable projections of transit ridership are dependent upon the accurate specification of these attematives within the compute rized networ k !tis the planners job to modify the coding of computerized transit networks to reftect these changes. The process coding of the existing network is simple since the routes and services physically exist and timetables, route maps and fare schedules are available. However, th e process of coding transit and producing ridership projections has several Inherent problems in cluding the following: It Is common for staff members coding these alterna tives to be unfamiliar with the geography of the area and the transit system itself. Therefore it is often diflicult to translate a planner's true intentions into network coding changes. The tradeoffs between In-veh i cle time (IVT) and out of-vehicle time (OVT) are difficult to ascertain, thus affect the results of mode choice modeling. The details of these alternatives are rarely speciflc enough to be represented accurately in computerized form. Due to these problems it is not uncomm o n for an alterna tive to result i n worse service than the service it rep l aced This often goes undetected as it would require a complex and tedious effort to acquire the necessary data for examination. However by applying GIS, researchers are able to display the data in a manner in which problems are more readily evident. This procedure involves comparing the weighted travel time between two network alternatives and producing zone-level files representing these differ ences. These differences can be easily represented through thematic maps produced using GIS software. These maps are effective in showing whether or not changes in the network coding ach ieve the desire d goals. This type of analysis is particu l arly Important for conduct i ng federaly sponsoredMematives Analysis (AA) projects Specifically, AA projects are examinations of transit capi tal investments in specific urban corridors. AAstudies are usually part of Draft Environmental Impact Statements requ ired before federal funds are remitted for Preliminary Engineering phases. To help monitor and justify these large capital investments the FTA developed a set of specific guidelines for AA studies including the develop-

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ment of a Transportation System Management atternative (fSM). A TSM alternative is designed to represent the optimal surface transportation network possible without Imple menting fixed guideway transit. The TSM atternative has two functions: to estimate the impact on ridership through in\proved bus transit service atone, and to serve as a base for comparing all "build" alternatives. The AA process requires t he calculation of a series of evaluation statistics to assist In determining the preferred atternative. These evaluation statistics include analysis of ridership and travel time effects for each atternative. The application of GIS to AA was investigated through a project funded by the Maryland Department of Transpor tation (MOl). The AA guidelines were followed since MOT's goal was to obtain federal funding at a later date. T he project covers the Maryla nd suburbs east of Wash i n gton, D.C., specifically the Addison Road-to-Bowie cor ridor. This corridor extends 11 miles to the east, across Prince George County towards Bowie, Maryland. The western and of the Addison Road-to-Bowie corridor Is the Addison Road Metrorail station which Is the current eastern end of the rapid rail system in the Washington D.C. The goal ofthia project was to analyze the ridership, cost, and other impacts from extending bus transit service from the Addison Road station to Bowie and to compare this TSM alternative to five guideway alternatives. The five guideway options included extending the currentMetrorail service to Bowie as well as building a new lightrailline or busway faciBty. Complementary feeder bus systems were included for each guideway option. The actual analysis of the alternatives was performed using the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments' (MWCOG) 1 ,478-zone travel forecasting system. The system i ncludes several mode choice models applied using MINUTP software and customized FORTRAN pro grams. The resutts of the modeling process were ana lyzed and displayed using the GIS software, Atlas MapMaker. Methodology-The focus of the study was a quantitative comparison of equivalent travel times for the different networks (transit alternatives). Equivalent travel time refers to the weighted combination of in-vehicle and out of-vehicle times (wa l king waiting, and transferring) as related to mode choice. The weights came from MWCOG's mode choice models with walk and wait times having of 3.5 rel ative to run time. Before the actual analysis could be performed in GIS, two preliminary steps had to be preformed. (1) The geographical unit utilized in this study was the traffic analysis zone (fAZ). MWCOG had previously digitized the TAZ borders creating a boundary file; this file was adapted for use In th i s project. (2) The data created through the mode choice modeling procedures had to be converted to a usable format for the GIS software. Atlas MapMaker uses data in fixed formats (xBase, ASCII comma-separated, etc.) in which the data appear in rows and the data fields are represented by columns, while the transit planning programs process data in binary matrix format. How ever MWCOG was able to convert th e data to a usable fixed format through the MINUTP software. The analysis was first conducted to compare the No-Build option to the TSM network to ensure thatthe TSM network provided better service to all travellers In the conidor. Because this was the In itia l comparison, a great deal of time was required to make the process run smoothly and correct some coding errors that became evident. Subsa. quently each guideway alternative was compared to the TSM network The amount of effort required to perform comparisons became less intensive with each subse.. quentguideway option Although the procedure apptied in this analysis could be used to compare any alternative, no comparisons between the No-Build and guideway options or between guideway options were conducted. The comparison between networks employed GIS soft ware i n the following five step process. Step 1: Display walk access percentages Applying MWCOG's mode choice model data, the GIS software was used to display the percentage of persons in each zone that could access trans i t by walking. step 2: Display transit connectivity This step displays the zone-zone transit travel times and determines whether each zone is connected to the transit network. A zone may not be connected if it is too far away 29

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from the nearesttransitline This step appr.esthe informa tion in the zone-zone traveltime matrices produced through the pathbuilding and skimming programs. Step 3: Display transit impedance values to/from selected zones This step involved identifying one zone in the he art of Washington, D .C. central business district as the key destination of transit trips. Transtt trave l times were extracted and displayed for all corridor zones to this key destination zone. Absolute travel times were stratifted into ra nges to display travel time contours. This helps to identify "tunnels" which occur from improper line coding. It also is possible to display the travel times into Its compo nents: origin walk, initial watt, in-vehicle, transfer, and destination walk. Step 4: Compare transit impedance values In this step transtt impedances are compared between two networks including invehicle and out -of-vehicle travel times, as well as an equivalenttraveltime equal to the sum of in-vehicle time plus 3.5 times the out-of-vehicle time. Defining equivalent travel time i n this manner represents the true transit impedance as estimated by the mode choice model. Step 5: Compare transit trips The mode cho ice output from a corridor zone to the CBO zone can be displayed in several ways through GIS : the absolute number of transit trips, difference in the number of trans it trips between two attematives percent share for each zone, and the number of transit !lips from a zone which experience an improvement or worsening of travel time (in comparing two This last item is referred to as "loser's analysis." Map ProductsA sampling of the map p rod ucts produced and presented In the published report is provided at the conclusion of this summary and includes the following : study area maps displaying the difference between guideway atternative 3 and the TSM's equivalent travel times between c orridor zones and the CBO zone for both walk-access and drive-access transit trips 30 map identifying the number of transit trips for which Memative 3's equivalent travel time is 10 minutes or faster than the TSM network map Identifying the number oftranstt trips for which for which Mernative 3's equivalent travel time is 10 minutes or slower than the TSM network map displaying the equivalent travel time difference between the no-build option and the TSM atternative Results-Steps four and five are particularly important to planners. In step four displaying changes in transittravel times (the differences between two alternatives) to the CBO zone highlights the corridor zones where travel times would tum out be longer or shorter given the alternative Examining the IVT, OVT, and equivalent travel times reveals zones where increases and decreases in transit mode share are probable. GIS can display time differ ences making easy to examine if these resuns are reasonable given the original inte n t of the ahernalive. This study illustrates the benefits of applying GIS to transtt atternalive analysis. It also reveals that network coding is a difficult task and errors can be made easity. However. it Is possible through careful examination of GIS output to detect possible errors in network coding. GIS mapping also provides a systematic method for analyzing the service levels offered by each atternative. The mapping power of GIS provides insight into the data that resuns from mode choice modeting that may have otherwise been unnoticed. In addition, the maps can be useful in commu nicating the resuns to decisionmakers and the public. "Applications of GIS in Planning Transit Services for People With Disabilities" (January 19941 Massoud Javid, Prlanka N. Senevlratne, and Prabhekar Arralurl Research OverviewIn this paper the objective was to use GIS to plan transit services for persons with disabili ties. The lack of data wtth respect to travel patterns of people with disabilities resutts i n difficutties in planning these transit services. As a resuh, various assumptions must be made to estimate demand, select routes, and schedule services. Combining block group population data with the general travel characteristics of persons with disabifities can yield

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reasonable estimates of the demand for transit services by persons with disabilities. A GIS can computations on such data to arrive at these estimates and atso can be used for scheduling demand responsive services where fixed -ro ute transit service is not available. This paper is based on a study that examined the pros and cons of using GIS for estimating the demand for services by persons with disabilities and for scheduling demand responsive transit services. Logan City, in Cache County, Utah, is used as a case study In this report Methodology This study first estabUshed three data bases created from T IGER files and 1990 census data. The three databases include: a line database consisting of nodes and links The nodes represent intersections and sometimes rrid block points at the end of street segments. The l inks rep resent road segments with nodes on either side. The line database shows the road network throughout the County and any calculations with respect to length can be performed in this database. a polygon database consisting of census blocks, block groups, census tracts, county and state layers. The census blocks in this study were combined into 55 block groups and further aggregated into 18 census tracts. Each of the layers In c luded the land area of associated polygons. a point database with only one layer and nodes. This database includes lnfonnation, such as addresses and coordinates of major generators and attractors. Two other databases were buitt subsequently from the three primary databases. trip origins and destina tions of persons with disabilities (obtained from a previous study) were input into the point database. These points were represented by overlaying the labeled line database on the point database. Second, the six transit routes of the Logan Transit District (L TO) were built separately from the l ine database. The number of persons with disabilities was estimated In two ways. First, the number of persons with dlsablr.Ues was estimated as eight percent of the total population (derived from a previous study) However, this assump tion can result in problems depending upon the variability of the disabled population among block groups. .. .... The second method was applied to circumvent the prob !ems that resutt from the first method. This method estimates the disabled pcipulation as.the total number of persons with disabiHties estimated by the Census muHi ptied by a factor of two. This factor of two, derived from an earfierstudy of the area, adjusts the population to account fur the younger population that is excluded by the Census in counting persons with disabilities. Two methods were used to estimate the demand for lransit among the six L TO routes, the area method and the street segment method. Both are based on the assump tion that demand is directly proportional to the number of persons with d i sa bilities in the catchment (service) area. Therefore, the service area and population had to first be defined. The catchment area was defined as a rectangu lar area one-half mile wide along the transit route (1/4 mile buffer) The two methods to estimate demand are sum marized below. Area Method The area method assumss demand to be equivalent to the ratio of the catchment area to the total area in a given block group. Specifically: o D D, p ,(a{t>yr, where: 01 =transit demand in block group i "' population of poople with d lsabiities in block group i a,= catchment area in block group i A,= total area of block group i r, =.probability of using for a person with a disability in block group i Street Segment Method The street segment method assumes demand is proportional to the ratio of the length of the road segments in the catchment area to the total len gth of all roads In the block group. Specifically: D = 01 = p1(1/L)r1 where : D =transit demand in block group i p1 = population of people with disabilities in block group I 31

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1 : the length of road segments in catchment area and block group i L,: the total length of all road segments in block group i r,: probability of using transit for a person with a disability in block group I Both methods require the computation of the probability (r) of using transit for a disabled person within a given block group. This probability depends on the characteris tics of the persons with disabilities residing In the block group. For instance, a person with a mobility limitation Is mere likely to use transit than a person a visual i mpairment. Thus, r, i s defined as: In summary this paper concludes that GIS can be a valuable tool for estimating demand and then developing strategies for meeting the demand through the optimal structuring of routes. However, analysts should proceed with caution since results generated by the GIS are dependent entirely upon the accuracy of the base data used In the development of the system. "Analysis of Transit Service Areas Using Ge<>graphic Information Systems" (1992) Wende A. O'Neill R. Douglas Ramsey, andJaChing Chou Research OvervlfiW -A transit route s service area is defined as the area within a certain walking distance or travel time. Identifying service area population and char acteristics Is important when additional routes are being considered and for evaluating the current level of service where: p(t/dj) : probability of using given a in a particular service area. person has type J disability This study examnes two procedures for Identifying a p4i proportion of people with type j disability The term p(t/dj) was identified in previous studies in the area where the population of persons with disabilities and their travel patterns was observed. In addition to demand estimation GIS can be used in vehicle routing and scheduling for demand resp onsive services The origin and destination dataset was used to create a hypothetical routing assignment. Ten origins and three destinations were selected as pick-up and drop-off locations. A road network covering all these locations was c reated a ndTransCA D's routing and scheduling functions were performed. The pick-up/drop-off strategy identified i s based on minimzing costs with traveltime being the cost minimizing factor. The parameters used in the example are provided in Table 4. After 20 the optimal routes and schedules were produced. Results -TransCAD version 2.1 was used to estimate demand for the six routes. The results are in Table 5, Each method of demand estimation has advantages and disadvantages Either method may be selected for use depending upon the characteristics ofthe block groups in the study area In the case study presented, it was concluded that the road segment method provided better estimates due to the existence of numerous parcels of use in the study area. 3!2 transit route's service area. These procedures both use GIS buffering procedures. The traditional method of buffering determines a transit service area by estab6shing a euclidean (straight line) buffer polygon around a transit route. This process assumes that all travel distances are "straight lines" to the transit route The problem with applying this type of b uffer is that many times It Is not a straight walk from a residence to a bus stop; often street networks must be followed which make travel times longer than the ideal euclidean path Using this type ofbuffercan result in the overestimation of the number of streets and population served. The second procedure attempts to eliminate the error of the euclidean buffer technique. This method creates buffers around all street segments within a certain walking distance to a transit route and combines these buffered segments to form one service area polygon. In addition. there is no rule defining the appropriate size of the street segment buffer. Methodology-Two procedures for performing the analy sis were identified and i nvestigated in this project, includ i ng the standard buffer methodology and the network ratio methodology. Each method is summarized below. standand Bllffer MethodologyThe standard buffer meth odology typically uses a GIS system to place buffers

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around transit routes or bus stops. For . TABL example, it Is commonly assumed that individua ls living within aquarter-mllewalking distance of regular local bus service comprise the true service area population. Underthis assumption, aquartermile buffer would be created around all bus stops and/ o r routes. The assumed distance for the buffer varies with the type of transit ser vice. For example, the buffer is commonly increased for express bus service. Parameters Assumed for Example Application Number of pick-up points 10 Number of drop-off points 3 Demand at each pick-up point(# of passengers) 1 Vehicle capacity(# of passengers) 4 Areas or polygons created by the buffer l ine can then be overlaid onto other poly gons in a database, such as census tracts or block groups. The value of a given Fixed service time at each plck- ment circa 1950. The street networ1< is 33

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primarily grid but the blocks are more rectangular than square. Occasional cui-de-sacs and dead-end streets do exist. (3) a newer re sidentia l development of the 1980s and 1990s. The street network has no apparent pattern. For each photograph, the street with the transit route was id entified and an arbitrary rectangular analysis zone (ap proximately 2 100 feet x 2 000 feet) was established around the route with one edge of the zone aligned with the transit route street and the other edge parallel to it. A euc lidean buffer l ine was drawn paralle l at approxi mately 1 ,600 feet from the transit route street. The area of the an alysis zone was determned from the photos as was the buffer zone area and total street miles. ResultsThe actual nu mbe r of houses was determined from the p hotos. The area ratio model and the network ratio model were then used to estimate the number of ho uses within the service area as defined by both the eu c lidean buffer and the network walking distance method. The results of the analysis are presented in Tables 6 and 7. The network ratio method was more accurate for determining the number of households i n primarily resi de ntial. modified grid street network areas. However this method resuned in a larger area when estimating the number of households for the downtown, regular grid network. This may be the resun of the nonuniform distribution of housing stemming from the mixed residential-commercial land use. "Short Range Transit Planning and Marl
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. . !ABLE 6 Standard Buffer MetlitMSiogy Vs. Aeria l Pflotographs Neighborhood 1A 18 2A 28 3A 3 8 Total Houses i n Allatysis Zone 253 243 134 126 91 15 3 Houses i n Service A r ea (Area Ratio 186 182 135 92 69 1 1 7 Method) Houses in Service Area (Aerial 216 212 135 122 85 150 Photo graphs) Erro r Rate 13 .8% 1 4 .2% 0.0% 24.6% 16.8% 22.0% TABLE 7 Network Rati o Methodology vs. Aerial Photographs Neighborhood lA 18 2A 28 3A 38 Total Houses in Analysis Zone 253 248 184 126 9 1 1 53 Houses in Service Area (Natwork Rati o 152 149 1 84 108 86 1 10 Me t ho d ) Hous&s i n Servioo Area (Aerial 195 195 184 117 86 1 2 4 Photographs) Error Rate 22.1% 23.6 % 0.0% 14.5 % 0 .0% 1 1 3% by SANDAG are the responsibility of each ofthe Individual operators within the reg i on. The committee developed a fist of 20 potential transit apptications Subsequently, six applications were se l ected for SANDAG to develop. A description ofthese six appli c ations including t h e required da ta bases functional category, and status are provided In Table 8. SANDAG h as developed the test set of databases for the base appl icati ons. SANDAG andthetransitoperators are curre ntly using the databases in eva l uating the capacity of route segments by time of day, analyz i ng buffer areas around new transit corridors, and creating demographi c pro fi les of transit corridors. The GIS was customized to make it as user-frie ndly as possible and supports data in several fonnats including spreadsheets databases and text formats. The G I S allows the transit staff to query any database j o i n databa s es w ith common geography, and d i splay the fin i shed data In map, tabular or chart form "The Use o f Geographic Information Systems for Customer Service in Urban Public Transportation" (Ja nuary 1992) Kathleen Hancock and Mark Abkowilz Research OveiView -After evaluating several GIS app5cations, the Nashville Metropolitan Authority (MTA) decided to initiate the c re ation of a geographical Information system (GIS) beginning with the development of a passenger Information service (PIS). The PIS pro vides custome r service support including telephone in quiries, trip planning assistance rideshare match i ng, and spec ia l needs i nfonnation provisions and fe atures. 35

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TABLE 11 Summary of GIS Uses for Transit, SAHDAG Applicat i on Description Database( a) Transit service Using a d efinition of potential transit ridership including Census data, potential employment, rncome, low auto availability, renter. age, and' Employment i nventory, other variables, derine areas underserved o r not served by Transit oove-rage transit. Socio-flconomi c Socio--economic profiles of areas surrounding stops. routes, Census data profil es of route segments. Allow staff to buffer an area within a Employment inventory, areas specified distance to a stop or route. Transit coverage surrounding transit Physica l Maintain physica l characterist ics of bus/tro l ley stops, display SANDAG and o perator cha r acte ristics ADA accessible stops, etc. For example, what i s the bus stop inventories of tra nsit distribution of accessible bus stops? Route ana lysts Anal yze existing and planned routes by stop actMty Transit coverage. Route capacities, analysis of passenger k)ads by route segment. alternatives, Passenger counts, Surveys Title VI Identify minority a reas, transit accessibi lity, and m inority Census data, Passenge r evaluation routes for FTAfTiUe V I requirements. counts, Transit coverage Fut ur e growth I dentify a rea s of f o riH:ast growth and r elate these changes SANOAG population of areas to transit (current and planned service). For exampl e wha t employment, and land i s the expected population growth within the service area of use forecasts, Transi t a planned light rail line? coverage Methodology-This report describes t he system design, system developme nt. and app6cation desi gn and opera ti on of the PIS This option would not have been feasib l e given MTA's l imited res ources; however Vanderbin University had previously created a GIS platform for a product called GRAPHNET. A customized version of GRAPHNET was createdforMTAandnamedTRANsitSYStemforDAvidson COunty or TRA N SYSJDAOCO. System Design -The i nitial design problem was to choose between three design and development stru c tures : modifying PIS system and incorporating GIS features, modifying a GIS to Include PIS requ ire ments creating a new system inc o rporating both elements System DevelopmentThe platform for MTA's GIS was estab l ished from a previously developed system inco rpo rating its graphic display fea tures and database manage mentsyslem Thespeclficgraph icdi splayfeaturesadopted from this system i ncluded the windows format user interThe extent of MTA's current PIS was limited to the use of face and the zoom, pan and redra w functions hardcopy schedules a nd the personal memory of cus tomer service representatives. For tha t r eason, and the fact th at M T A desired to expand the role of GIS, the first opti on was ruled out. MTA also re cognized that no GIS packages could perform all the functi o ns t hey desired out of a P I S Therefore. the third option was s elected to in corporate both GIS and PIS e l ements i nto a new system. 36 TIGER files were obtained to provide the street network. In order to support the rout e optimizatio n function the links and nodes in the street network had to be uniquely identified with a node or ink number Each node number was assigned a latitude and longitude coordi nate. The node numbeiS for either end of a link were assigned to the l ink number The street name and address range were

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assigned to the link number as well. I n a d dition, bus and disabled in the most cost effective manner. and schedule information were obtained from Wiffi'lhe enactment of ADA regulations, qualified individu Dav idson County landmark file was created. Application als can now use complementary paratransit service to Design and OperationThe P IS mustanswerthe customs erve their tra n sit n eeds This type of service is very ers questions in a timely and straight forward manner. expe n sive, particularly in comparison to fixed route ser The graphic nature of a GIS serves this function well. Pullvice. Further, many disabled riders appreciate the lode down menus and user-response windows were lnco rpopendence offered by using the fixed route system rated as a part of TRANSYSIDAOCO to add to the usefu lness of the system. The variety of questions customer service representa tives are asked can be categorized as scheduting,locating, and routing inquiries. A customer pull-down menu was deve l oped for each category Scheduling menu -Using the scheduling menu, rel) resentatives can open route maps through entering the route number or highl ighting the desired route from the pulled-down list of routes. Two routes can be opened side by side for CO!llparison. Location menu The location menu provides various options for l ocating routes, bus stops, streels a n d landmarks on the map These can be located through entering the name of the attribute or using the point and-shoot option with the mouse. Once a route bus stop, or othe r featUre is h ighlighted, the Scheduling menu brings up the schedu le for that route. Routing menu -The routing menu performs several functions. I f the customer provides an Intersection or l andmark for a trip origi n or destination the nearest bus stops are Identified. The system providee a l ist of alternative natnes in instances where an exact match does not occur. Given both a trip origin and destina tion, the menu will highlight the appropriate route(s) and the corresponding schedules are displayed Transfer information is also prov i ded. This menu also allows for time constra i nls t o be entered, upon which an optimal route and schedu le is provided. "Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority Bus Stop lnven tory" (February t995) CUTR Project Summary Research Overview Uke all other major transit systems i n the United States, the Pinellas SuncoastTransltAuthor ity (PSTA) is working to provide trans i t service to the In this regard, PSTA is seeking to develop a bus stop inventory database ftle containing adequate information so that PSTA will be able to decide whether a particular paratrans i ttrip can be made using a fully accessible ftxed route seNice in l ieu of paratransit service The database also will assist in responding to customer inquiries as to the amenities and configuration of part icular bus stops. A bus stop inventory can be set up i n the most basic database environment. Once the bus stop database has been created in a Geographic I nformation System (GIS) and augmented by adding the route atignment, route characteristics, demographlcinformetion background road network and jurisdictiona l boundaries, a wealth of infor mation can be derived CUTR is currently compiling the bus stop inventory and performing preNminary analysis of the data for PSTA. Methodology The PSTA bus stop inv entory Involves three major tasks : collecting bus stop data, entering the data into a Maplnfo dat abase, and performing transit apptications using Maplnfo. Collecting Bus Slop Data -PSTA currently has approxi mately 7 800 bus stops serving 55 routes. Ofthese stops, approximatel y 140 have shelters. The following data were collected for each of the 7 ,800 bus stops : l ocation (reference) number and Intersecting street names approximate distance (feet) from nearest Intersection (nearside, tars ide or mid block stop) distance between stops routes served by stop intersection/roadway characteristics Q.e., S-lane un d i vided with continuous left tum lane, signalized Inter section, etc.) 37

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bus stop amenities (I.e., sign type, shelter, ben ch, concrete pad, garbage can, inform ation display, etc.) pedestrian amenities (I.e., sidewalk, handicapped accessibility, swale, grass, curb pay phone, lighting, a dj acent land use, political jurisd iction, etc.) Entering Data into Maplnfo GIS Database The bus stop data are in the process of being compiled in a database for use in Maplnfo. Existing route alignments were created as an additional layer to fully utilize the capabilities of the database. Users will be able to access the data by zooming in on a route further detailing the specific inter section, clicking on the specific bus stop, and accessing the database of the bus stop inventory. Transit Applications Using the Msplnfo SystemUsing the background bus route and roadway alignments, 1990 Census tract, block group, o r block level data, and avail able route characteristics (I.e., headway service hours, on/off counts by stop, route ridership, etc ) were attached to the database. Specific appli cations are being explored as additional uses of the database for PSTA such as: Tttle VI program requirements One at the require ments of the Federal TtUe VI program is that transit systems show that transltservlces are being provided equitably to minorities In the service area. This must be shown o n maps that designate service area cover age and the extent of minority population by census tract A GIS can be used to comply with this require ment. Through Maplnfo color graphics will be. cre ated representing minority census tracts superim posed with the existing bus routes, distinguishing those tracts adequately served by the system i n compfiance with Title VI. Americans with Disabiities Act (ADA)-As part of the ADA legislation. PST A is required to establish comple-38 mentary transit service by 19 97. The GIS system will Identify the eHglble areas within the mandated 3/4mlle service area and be capable oftracking origin and destination information of the paratransit users for route analysis. Color maps will be provided highlight Ing the 3/4 mile corridors along each route. Service Area Coverage/Population Ttie determination of service area coverage and population w!U be automated. In addition, the characteristics of th e identified service area population will be derived based on data compiled from the 1990 Census. This i s particularly useful for the evaluation of various route alignment and stop l ocation scenarios. to Use Transit The GIS database will be developed using 1990 Census information to aid In developing the market potential along new routes based on specific demographic characteristics (I. e., income, auto ownership, gender, ethnic origin, age, etc.) within a s pec ified boundary of the route. Map Products -In addition to the deliverables h lghUghted in the above section, CUTR will provide PSTA with ten 8-112" X 14" color maps of the county including bus routes with the following census data by tract; population. popu lation density, age, race, income, and auto availability. Estimates of the populations served by transit (I.e., within 3/4 mile) will be developed and presented in a Technical Memorandum. NOTES USDOT, Federal Transit Administration, Geographic Information Sys t ems: A Component of the National Transportation System" (information packet)

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SECTIONS ,, ' Inventory of GIS-T in Florida A survey was designed and conducted to collect Informa tion from Florida's transit ag8ncies regarding their use of GIS. In addition to the transit agencies, the survey was also adm inistered to the regional planning councils, met ropol itan planning organizations, and the Florida Depart ment of Transportation district offices. The survey was designed to produce an inventory of transportation-re lated GIS systems, databases and uses in Florida along with a d irectory of GIS contacts within transportation organizations throughout Florida SURVEY METHODOLOGY The survey was conducted i n three primary steps: (1) Designing the Questionnaire The first step was to design a questionnaire to collect Information that would assist in deterrrining the current status ofGIS-Tin Florida, as well as to prol/lde operational and po l icy information at the organizational level regard ing th e imp lementation and use of GIS. (2) Mailing the Questionnaire Packet The second step in the process was to mail the survey to the transit agencies and planning organizations through out the state. A total of 60 surveys was distributed-32 to MPOs/RPCs, 20 to transit agencies, and 8 to the FOOT d i strict offices Qncl uding the Turnpike Office) Respon dents were asked to complele a contact form upon receipt of the survey and tax it to CUTR in order to Identify the i ndividual responsible for GIS within th e organ izati o n. These designated individuals could then be called upon later in the survey Process. (3) Tracking the Survey Results The third step Involved follow-up calls to designated contact parsons to collect survey responses over the phone clarify any questions that respondents had regardln g the s urvey Instrument, and remind them to return the comple-ted questionnaire. A copy of the final survey instrument is provided in Appendix A, while a list of the organizations that indicated having a GIS along with their designated contact names is presented in Appendix B. Asummaryofthesurvey results i s provided in a series of tables in Appendix c. As indicated previously, the survey i nstrument was de signed to ascertain the role of GIS in each ofthe respective organizations. In addition to establishing a designated GIS contact within each organization, questions were designed to address a number of issues related to the implem e ntati on and use of GIS, in c l uding : current use of GIS organizational perceptions GIS software and platform i mpl ementation strategy SURVEY RESULTS As prelllously no ted, 60 surveys were disbibuted. Re sponses were received from 56 transportation organiza tions Including 30 (out of 32) planning organizations, 18 (out of20) transit agencies, and all8 District offices. The results of the survey are summarized in the remainder o f this section. Current Usc of GIS This component oflhe survey was designed to identify the extent to which GIS i s used within each organization as well as how it is used. Respondents were asked to provide info rmation regarding the extent of use, the areas of use, and types and sources of data that are being used. Extent of Use -A total of36 of the 56 responding organi zations, or 64 percent, report having an estabtished GIS 39

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within their organization. Of the 20 organi zations that reported not having a GIS 11 indicated plans to implement a GIS i n the future. The use of GIS is more prevalent among the transportation planning organizations, with 23 of30 MPOs and RPCs (n percent) indicating having and using a GIS. Four of the planning agencies that do not have a GIS i nd icated plans to i mplement GIS in the future. In contrast, only 6 of 18 transit agency respondents (33 percent) reported using GIS in their organizations. However of the 12 transit agencies that reported not using a GIS, 7 indicated plans to use GIS in the future (58 percent). Responses were received from ailS FOOT District Offices. However, since the Tum pike Office does not have an i n-house GIS but uses a consultant for all GIS work they are exc l uded from the remain i ng resu lts. On average, transportatio n planning orga nizations indicated that their GIS system was utilized approximately 21 hours per week for transportation plann i ng purposes. The six transit agencies that repo rted using GIS indicated an average use of 23 ho urs per week fortranstt-related planning. How ever, respondents us i ng GIS as a tool to aid in the provision of paratrans it service noted the need for a full40-hour-per-week opera tion. FOOT District offices reported using the irGISapproximately 19 hours per week. Figure 10 summarizes the use of G IS i n Florida's transportatio n organizations. FIGURE 10 Current Usc of GIS, of Florida Transportation Organizations Plannlrtg Organization. Transft AgencfH FOOT Dlsbict Olllcoo Total FIGURE 11 Areas of GIS Usc, 11 of Florida Transportation Organizations Map Production Land UM Ptann:lng Ridership Forecasting S.nriee Planning Mart
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FOOT D i strict offices Include highway planning and map production. Types and Sources of Data-Tra nsportation organizations also were askedwhetherthey have any road network data s tored electronically Those answering yes were asked to indicate all sources that apply to their data. The sources of road network data are listed below in order of the frequency of responses for all transportation organiza tions. digitized in-house (61%) local MPO (58%) TIGER (56%) USGS (28%) state DOT (25%) DIME (17%) ETAK(11%) The most common sources of road network data for planning organizations is digitizing In house and/or using TIGER as abase to begin development of a network. Most tJansltagency respondents i ndicated relying on either the local MPO or the County I n which they operate for road network data or, in some cases, digitizing information inhouse. In addition to relying on the state DOT and the local MPOs, several respondents from the District offices Indi cated using USGS and TIGER In the development oftheir base networks as well. Respondents also were asked to indicat e other types of data that are stored electronica.lly within their organiza tions. Tables 9 and 10 provide an overview of these results for planning organizations and tJansit agencies In Florida. Organizational Perceptions Organizations were asked to provide a definition of GIS as it is used in their organization. The following definitions capture the focus of most responses: A GIS provides the ability to link data to maps and to display data spatially In a more meaningful and comprehendible manner. 1 A regional database for integrating hind use, transpo r tation network. and transit services and facilities for applications i n travel planning. service planning, and operations. 2 Interestingly all the definitions addressed the technical, spatial, and database aspects of a GIS; howev er, human and organizational elements were not explicitly addressed in the definitions provided. A majority of respondents noted the most pressing Issue they had to face in terms of planning, developing, and/or managingtheirGIS was dala conversion and compatibility in terms of database file and map fonnat. This issue was n ot nmrted to compatibility with external agencies; i n fact, compatibility with other departments within an organiza tion also was noted. Second to the compatibility issues faced by most of the organizations was the issu e of limited financial and p er sonnel resources Many agencies indicated they were In the earty development stages of their GIS and noted thai the level of effort and time commitment require d for database development was subs tantia l. The need f or additional hardware and software enhance ments was another key issue indicated by respondents. A related issue presented by respondents focused on the need for standardization in the GIS field in terms of state and localintergovemmenta l coordina tion as well as the need for standards at the national level. The top three organizational issues noted by the respo ndents are pre sented in Figure 12. GIS Software and Platform Of the 36 organizations with a GIS, 15 reported using ARCnNFO as their primary GIS software This was followed by Maplnfo and ArcView, which was ind icated by 7 respondents each. In addition, several other types of GIS software are used by tJansportatlon organi zations in Florida, inc luding Atlas GIS, lntergraph and GenaMap. Nine of 23 planning organizations with a GIS indicated using ARC/INFO as their prtmary GIS software. This was followed by Maplnfo (5 users), ARCMew (4 users), and Atlas GIS (4 users). Other resp onses i ncluded GenaMap ( 1 user) and Vision (2 users). 41

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.. 10 -MPO BlowlfdMPO a. ........ o MPO HIIIIOOidtMPO Niplls MPO PMnO.amMPO PucoMPO -MPO SatumMPO HemandoMPO S.. Luat MP.O Tallhauee MPO V<*lslaMPO Apalaehee RPC C.MI Fl.RI'C Eli:t C.nlrill Fl RPCI()dondo MPO N E florldo RPC SOOOh florida RI'C T-O.,.RPC Ttus&n Cout RPC RPC No X X X X X X X X TABLE 9 Types of Electronic Data Maintained at Florida' s Plannlns Organizations Roll a.. IUSJ ... .. A VI. Tnnsit ... Vthklt Pol Traftk C.. o.m ... ... maJnt/ IJbJ -_ .. ....... ...... ., -o!On .... & .... ... ... ,,._ ....... ....... W'J -........ ..... ..., ...... P!o -.... .... -... --..... -,.. .. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

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... "' Transit Agency Escambla Coun ty Transit Hil lsbo rough Area Region al Transit Jacksonvill e Transit Key wast Transit lakeland Atea Transit Lynx-Central Fl Regional Transit Lee County Tra nsit Manat e e County Transit M etro-Dade Transit Palm B ch County Transit S u ncoast Transit Regiona l Trans.Jt Gainesvill e Sarasota Area Tran sit Smyrna Space Coa st Area Tra n sil T a ltah assee Transit TriCounty Commuter Rai l E. Volusia Transi t No data X X X n/a n /a X TABLE 10 T y p es of Electronic D a t a M aintain e d at Florida' s Tra n sit A g enc i es Vohicl Traffk: Cen Demo A eel l nei Rail Bus Rl9hl Bus AVL Transi t Park Rider malntl IUcal anal gra dent dents Bus Traffic translt transi t o f time sign-Slat &ride shi p boun-ysis sus plllc locawith stops s.lgnal stor routes routes way points p0$1 Ions loiS data tracts data tlons polli;e daries zonas X X X X X X X X X X . X X X X X X X .ow. X . -""' X X X X X X X X X X X X X )( X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

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FIGURE 12 The 6 transit agencies with a GIS use either ARCnNFO (2 users) Maplnfo (2 users) ARC/ View (1 user) or GenaMap (1 user) Top Three Organizational Issues for Florida Transportation Organizations The FOOT District offices indi cated using ARCnNFO (4 US ers). lntergrap h (3 users) and ARCMew (2 users). Oa1it Conversion & Compatibility Pet"SSf''neUTime COfTIT'Iitment The distribution of GIS software within Florida s transportation organizations is presented in Figure 13. The other category Hardware & Software Enhancemtntl appears unusually large due to several responses that are not actually GIS software, including AutoCAO and FSUlMS. The most common GIS hardware platform for all of the transportation organizations is the personal computer workstation, which was indicated by 18 planning organiza. lions, 3 trans it agencies, and 4 District offices. This rs followed by networ ked PCs (6 planning organizations, 2 transit agencies. 3 District offtces) and Unix workstations (8 planning organizations 0 transit agencies and 3 Dis trict offices). A summary of the GIS software and plat forms used by Florida's transportation organizations is provided in Tables 11 and 12. Implementation Strategy Each organization also was asked if they had some type of GIS plan or implementation strategy. Eighteen ofthe23 transportation planning organizations and all of the transit agencies with a GIS Indicated having a policy outlining the planned development of a GIS. In addition, all 7 District offices ind icated plans to enhance their G IS. FDOT STATEWIDE STRATEGIC GIS PLAN The FOOT Central Office is currently developing a strate gic plan for GIS for the central and district offices. The initiative currently proposes a five-year Implementation plan. The yearly milestones of the proposed strategic plan beginning with FY 1995, are outlined below. Year 1: Exploration of GIS technology 44 Development of prototypes of strategic GIS applications Testing data distribution methods Installation of "starter" GIS infrastructu re at the Central Office and District level Year 2: Production deployment of mapping ROW application Distribution of data on a broad basis Year 3: Further deployment to include full scale ISTEA management systems Year 415: Infrastructure enhancements The proposed plan states specifically that the actual deployment of applications will be dependent upon when the work program application (WPA) is developed. Some olthe specifics of the planned Infrastructure for FOOT are discussed in the following section. The development of this statewide system is based on three main goals: to improve understanding of and participation in FOOT work program development activities to increase the efficiency of agency operations to increase the available information upon which managers can rely' Most of the FOOT district offices that were contacted indicated that they were awaiting the results ofthe Central Office study, which is expected to conclude sometime In October 1995. The district offices are, for the most part,

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FIGURE 13 Use of GIS Software by Type of Transportation Organization In Florida ARC/INFO ARCNiew Maplnfo AUasGIS GtnaMap Other using a.n ARC/INFO GIS p l atform. However, it was noted that there are approximately 8 to 10 unofficial platforms tha t exist statewide The proposed G I S stra t egic p la n i ncludes establishing an ARC/INFO and MGE/Intergraph platform initially, and each d i strict office will be re spons i ble for developing the specifications for its system. The strategic plann i ng efforts of the C entral Office are presently being examined by a Planning Agencies I!IBII Tlansll Agencies 0 FDOT Districts consultant team as part of an eval uation and enhance ment study The future development ofFDOrs statewide G I S will be of particular Importance to the organizations addressed in this report. The planning process under taken by FOOT was extensive, and many of the organiza tions suNeyed as part of this report could benefit from a similar but scaled down effort th at would strategically add r ess their deve l opment of G I S 45

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T.ABL 11 GIS Environment for MPOs In Florida Level of Coordination Agency Software Platform Centralized Decentr alized B r eva r d Co u nty MPO X Broward Co u nty MPO X Chatlott& County MPO X H ernando/Sprin g H i l l X MPO Hillsborough County X MPO Lakeland/Winter Haven X MPO Metro-Dade MPO X Naples/Collier County X MPO Pasco Cou nty MPO X P i n e llas County MPO X S arasota/Manatee CountyMPO X St Lucie County MPO X T a llahassee/Leon County MPO X Volusia County M P O X SUMMARY In summary, many of Florida s transportation p l anning organ izations are actively using GIS. Although this is not the case for the trans it agencies In the state many of them have p lans to pursue a GIS In the near future. While a G I S has been incorporated i nto many of the planning organizati o ns within F l orida the specific devel opment of GIS-T platforms is i n the early evolutionary stages. The strong l and use planning emp hasis at the 46 ARC/INFO PC Stations. Networiced. & Mainframe ARC/INFO 1 PC Station 3 Networt
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TABLE GIS Environment f o r !and T ransit A g encies I n Florida Level of Coordination SoftWare Platform Agency Centralized Decentralized Apalaehee RPC X Centra l Florida RPC X East Central Florida X RPC/MPO North East Flo ri da RPC X North Central Florida X RPC South Fl orida RPC X Southwest Florida RP C / X Lee County MPO Tampa Bay RPC X Withfacocchee RPC X Centra l Florida Regional X TranSP. Authority ( L ynx) East Volusia Transit X (VOTRAN) Hillsboroug h Area X Regional Transit Trans i t Age n cy X P in&llas Suncoast X Trsns;t Space Coast Area X Transit the abi i ly t o t hen use t h at info r matio n in a manner that Is efficient and effective. T h e level at which these organiza ti o n s deve lop or use sophisti c ate d tra nsp<>rtation mode l s, ISTEA management systems and programs will be di rect l y r ela ted to how organizati o nal coordination ( i nterna l and external) i s addressed. HOTES Wes t F l orida Regi ona l Plan n ing Council. Central F l or ida Regional T r ansportation Authorily. A1!as GIS 1 PC 51ation PC ARCANFO 1 PC Station ARC/ I N F O 1 PC Station 1 Unix Worlcstation Geo SQL 4 PC Stations ArcView 2.0 15 Networked PCs Atias G I S 5 PC Stations PC ARC/ INFO Arc View 1 PC Station Atias GI S 1 B Netw011Ce d PCs ARC/INFO 3 PC stations ArcView 5 U n ix W o rbtatio n s PC ARCnN F O 2 Ne-tworice d PCs Sun 1 N etworked Uni x ARC/ I NFO Maplnfo 1 PC Station ARCnNFO 1 PC station Comsis 11 Networt GIS Support Team Dra ft GIS Strategi c Plan, F l orida Departme n t of Transp o rtation, Jun e 199 4 G I S Deve l opment S upport Team, Strategic Plan For Geographic Information Systems, Florida Department of Tran s portation 1994. 47

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SECTJON6 Conclusions Based on the infonnation compiled In this interim report, a series of example uses of GIS in trans i t were recom mended for development In the remainder of this project. These examples can then be shared with transit systems to Illustrate many of the potential uses of GIS i n transit planning and operations. The recommendations made by CUTR were revised based on review comments from FOOT. This section presents the specific examples that were agreed upon by CUTR and FOOT as uses that should be demonstrated in the remainder of this project. The pro cess for selecting recommended appRcations involved tw o major considerations: (1) applications that are more likely to provide Immediate benefits to Florida's t ransit systems, and (2) app l ications that can be adequately developed and applied In an example within the resources of this project. \Mth these considerations In mind, a brief summary of what would likely be incl uded In the develop ment of each appl ication is provided below. A number of additional recommendations Is provided regarding app l ications that are beyond the sco pe of thi s pro ject and are left for future research and application USES SELECTED FOR DEMONSTRATION (1) Customer Information System A customer information system w i ll be developed using a G I S to integrate and display t ransit I nformation that could be accessed by transit agency personnel. For example, te l ephone info rmation personnel cou l d use the system to prov ide i nfonnation to existing and potentia l customers. The customer information system will include maintaining infonnation for telep h one inq u iries and tri p planning assis tance. Databases .nece ssary for deve l oping this info r ma tion system include the geographic location of current routes and stops, route schedule i nformation, and the l oca tio n of landmarks and major activity centers. Demon stration of this use of GIS will Include the following at a minimum. A line database that Includes the street network, railroads, selected transit r ou tes, and rivers. A polygon database that InclUdes b oundaries for a number of geographic elements, including county, water census tracts, and block groups. A p o i nt database that incl udes sel ected bus stops, landmarks, and major activ ity centers An attribute database that Includes characteristics of transit service, r o utes, and bus stops. (2) Service Area Analysis A service area analysis will be conducted for a sel ected transit system In Florida This will result in a better understanding of the characteristics of th e serv ice area popu l ati o n within a reasonable distance from the transit network. The analysis will in clude the creation and pro duction of the followi ng, at a min i mum. A line database that incl udes the street network, ra il roads, transit routes, and rivers. A polygon database that Includes boundaries fo r a number of geo graphic elements Including county, water, c e nsus tracts, and block groups. An attribute database that incl udes Cens u s demo graphic and travel behavio r characteristi cs for the pol ygon database. A 1 /4 mile buffer around the bus route network to characterize the service area population within walk ing distance. A 3/4 rrile buffer around th e bus route netwo rk to characterize service area population for ADA pur-49

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poses. Various buffering assumptions will be tested to iden tify their advantages and dlsadvantages. Additi o nal analysis will be conducted using th e data base to measure the extent of service coverage and quality of service in general. A series of color maps to display selected character istics of each o f the service areas and to illustrate the development of this application A short report to accompany the color maps and document the application. (3) Route Level Analysis Two routes (one local bus route and one express route) will be selected from a Florida bus transit system for a more detailed i nvestigation. Although this appl ication is similar to the service area analysis this analysis would be extended through the expansion ofthe databases and the development of more analytical applications. The follow ing tasks will be conducted as part of this app l ication, at a minimum. A line database that includes the street network railroads, selected transrt routes and rivers A polygon database that includes boundaries for a number of geograph i c elements including county water, census tracts, and block groups. A point database that includes bus stops for the selected routes. An attribute database that includes Census demo graphic and travel behavior characteristics tor the polygon database, t ransit service characteristics tor selected routes, and bus stop characteristics associ ated with selected routes. 50 A 1/4 mil e and 3/4 rrile buffer around the selected routes to characterize the service area popu la tion A 1/4 mi l e and 3/4 mile buffer around the bus stops of the selected routes to characterize seNice area popu .. lation and compare the results with buffering around the routes A series of color maps to display selected character istics of each of the service areas and to illustrate the development of this application. A ShOrt report to accompany the color maps and document the application. (4) Title VI Program Compliance The guide lines tor comptiance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 will be reviewed to determine which elements of the program can be accomplished through the use of a GIS. The purpose of the program is to "ensure that no person in the U .S. shall, on the ground of race. color or national origin be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal ftnancial assistance fromthe Federal TransitAdrrinistration (FTA) The primary GIS appWcation for Title VI program compli ance involves the program-specific requirements, which are required of applicants, recipients and subrecipients These requirements were desig ned for recipients that provide public mass transit service primarily in service areas wrth populations over 200 ,000. The product of the development of this application will be the identification and production of a series of color maps that ensure compliance with the geographic components of the program. Appropriate FTA representatives will be contacted in an effort to obtain approval ofthe output. The application will be documented in a short report that will accompany the series of sample color maps. RECOMMENDED USES FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT As indicated previously, four applications were selected based on their potential to benefit Florida s transit systems and on the resources available in the remainder of this project. A series of additional applications is identified in this section as potential, future research opportunities. (1) Ridership Forecasting The development of a GIS app lica tion that incorporates a model for forecasting ridership would be extremely useful to transit systems, but requires resources beyond the scope ofthis project Through the use of existing flterature

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on ridership forecasting and existing databases,lidership characteristics might include approximate distance (feet} potential could be assessed for proposed routes and for : from nearest inte rsection (nearside, farside or mid block changes in existing routes A proposal designed to stop), distance between stops, routes served by stop, accompfish thi s application was submitted to the FOOT intersection characteristics, bus slop amenities (shelter, transit office by CUTR last year but has not been funded bench, etc.), and pedestlian amenities. CUTR is currently ( "Estimating Transit Mode Split Using GIS"). preparing a bus stop inventory using GIS for the Pinellas (2) Potential for Shifting Paratranslt Trips to Fixed-Route Bus Service With the enactment of Americans with Disabilities Act regulations, qualified individuals can now use comple mentary paratranslt service to accommodate their public transportation needs. A GIS can be used to deterr'rine which parattansit !lips could be served potentially by fully-accessible fixed-route service. As a resutt, a process for assessing the potential for shifting paratransit trips to fixed-route service is appealing. A sample of origins and destinations of ADA paratransittrips for a transit system could be geocoded and existing fixed bus routes could then be overlaid to identify specific trips that have the potential to be served by fixed-route service. A series of color maps will be prod uced to Illustrate th e results of the appficati on. In addition, a short r eport will be prepared to document the application. (3) Accessibility Analysis An application involving the development of various ac cessibifity measures could be carried out to illustrate and examine the accessibility of various populations to transit Such an effort could play a role in answering questions such as what share of the region's populatio n lives within a 30-minute transit trip of the central business district or what share of the region 's jobs are accessible by a one transfer bus tlip. A series of maps could then be created as part of a case study to illustrate the use of various accessibility measures. For example, the population within a 30-rninute bus trlptothe CBD could be displayed using travel time contours. (4) Bus Stop Inventory A comprehensive bus stop inventory provides an exten sive database of information that can be accessed relatively quickly. In addition to providing the general location of each ofthe bus stops, the inventory also can include any bus stop characteristics that are of interest. Example Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA). (5) Public Transportation Management Systems The lntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of t 99 t requires state highway agencies to establish formal information management systems rela ted to bridge man agement, intermodal transportation, pavement manage ment public ttansportation, safety, and traffic congestion. GIS has been used in some state agencies to assist in accomplishing these mandates and has been explored in some research efforts. Further research in this app l icati on is needed. One of the proposed t 996 NCHRP research projec1s involves the development of public transportation management systems and is an opportunity for investigat Ing the use of GIS in complying with this mandate. (6) Accident A11alysls Automobile accident analysis is one of the more common applications of GIS in state highway agencies. This application easily could be extended to use GIS in the analysis of accidents for a ttansit system. The abifity to reference accident locations and relevant characteristics of accidents provides a mechanism for th e compilation of a c omplete database of accidents. Such a database could be used for a number of purposes, such as data manage ment for Section t 5 and the identification of areas of recurring accidents throughout the transit network. SUMMARY AHD COHCLUSIOH Based on the Information presented in this interim report, it i s clear that the use o f GIS in the planning and analysis of public transportation serv ices can result in numerous benefits to transit planning organizations. Using this information, several demonstrations of GIS uses in transit were selected for development in the remainder of this project. These applications were selected according to the perceived potential for providing the most benefit to Flolida's transit systems. 51

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APPENDIX A Survey Instrument 53

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Inventory of Transportation-Related GIS Systems, Databases, and Applications A survey conducted by the Cent er for Urban Transportatio n Research (CUTR) University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620-5350 (813) 974 3 1 20 Fax (813) 974-5 168 Sponsored by the Florida Department ofTransportation Date: I 195 Int roduction To The Project and Survey The following survey is part of a Florida Department ofTransportation sponsored project titled GIS Applications in Transit Planning and Analysis The purpose of the project is to document existing and potential Geographic Infonnation System (GIS) applications in transit p lanning ; inventory those systems and applications in Florida, and develop select appl ica tions as potential mode l s for use in Florida Each respondent to the survey will be provided a copy of the inventory report which will detail transportation-related GIS systems, databases and appli cat ions in the state. If you have any questions regarding the survey form, please contact Ms Fredalyn M. Frasie r at (813) 974-3120. Thank you for your assistance with this import ant effort. I. Name of Organiza t ion: ___________________________ 2. GIS Contact(s): a. Name and Tit le: _____________________________ Address : City: _________ _______ Zip Code: _______ Phone Number: _________ FAX Number ______________ Electronic Data I n terchange informa t ion, if available _________________ b. Name and Tit le: _____________________________ Address: City: _________ State : __________ Zip Code: ________ Phone Number: _________ F .<\X Number ______________ Elec t roni c Data Interchange information, i f available'------------------A. ORGAN I ZATIONAL PERCEPT IONS: 3a. How is GIS defined in your organizat ion? Provide your formal or informal definition: ----3b. Doe s your organization have GIS Plan or Implementation Strategy ? YESO NOD

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B. CURRENT USE OF GIS IN YOUR AGENCY 4a. Does your agency currently use GIS? YESD NO D 4b. If no, do you have plans to use GIS in the future? YESD NOD you responded NO to questi on 4a you need only complete sections D, E, I, and J of the s urv ey. 5. How many hours per week is the GIS system used in each department? Dept. ( )hrs Dept. ( Dept. ( )hrs c AREAS OF USE: Check all areas in which GIS is currently being used in your organization a D Transit ridership forecasting h. D Automatic Vehicle Location D Service Planning I. D Paratransit scheduling & D Marke t analysis Dispatching b D Transit scheduling and run cutting J D Fixed facilities and real estate c. D Map Products: design and publ ishingmanagement specifically: specifically: Dbus stops D system maps D transit stations D route schedules and maps D park and ride lots D operator maps k. D Poli c e operations Dother I. D ADA compliance d D Telepho ne-based customer information services m D Title VI monitori ng e D Ridematching ( van or cars) (minority population service) f. D Transit pass sales n. D Other functional areas : g D F ixed-route transit dispatching D. SOURCE OF ROAD NETWORK DATA 6. Does your agency hav e road network data stored ele ctronically? YES D NO D Check all sources that apply to your electronically stored data: a. D b. D c. D e. D Digitized in-house Local MPO State DOT USGS-DLG f. D ETAK g. D TIGER h D DIME I D Other (specify):

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E. TYPES OF DATA 7 Do your agency have any transit data stored on comp u ter? YESO N O 0 If yes indicate w hat types of data are stored electronicall y : a 0 Rai l transi t routes k. 0 Vehi c le maintenance & storage b 0 Bus transit r outes (e.g. garag e s ve h icle shops) c. 0 Rights of wa y I. 0 Poli tical boundaries d. 0 Bus stops m. O Traffic Analysis Zones e. 0 Bus timepoints n. 0 Ce n sus T ra c t boundaries f 0 A VL s i gnposts o. 0 Demograp hic data g. 0 Traffic signals p 0 Accid ent locat i o n s h. 0 Transit stations q. 0 I n c iden ts requ i ring police response t. 0 Park and Ride lots r. 0 Other data: J. 0 Ridership data F GIS SOFTWARE IN YOUR O R GANI Z ATION 8. Indicate the packag e s curre n tly u se d in your agency: L i s t packages and application s u sed in the f ollowing departmen ts D e partment GI S CAD Other (speci fy) Planning Sched u ling Dispatching Engineering Mark eting Others ( s pe cify)

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G. GIS PLATFORM Check the type of platform used in each department and indicate the numbGt of machines Department StandAlone Networked Stand Alone Networked Mainframe or Other (spec:ify) PC or Mac PC or Mac Unix Mini Tcnninals : . # . .. PC Mac PC Mac PC Mac PC Mae PC Moe PC Mac Planning Scheduling Dispatching (specify) H. GIS COORDINATION 9 Is there a single department responsible for the overall management of the GIS? YES 0 NO 0 If yes, name of the department: _____________ I 0. Indicate who is responsible for maintaining/updating the base map and databases for your system. 0 Single department (name):-------,---------------0 Joint responsibility (two o r more depts): ___ ____________ 0 Commrittee: ________________________ 0 I. IMP L EMENTATION STRATEGY: II. Do you have p l ans to expand or enhance your curre n t system? YES 0 NO 0 Check the general time frame most applicable: 00-6months 01-2yrs 06mos.-l yr. 02+ yrs 12. What do you consider the most pressing issue or concern your organization has had to face in terms planning, developing, and/or managin2 a GIS system? ______________ __ J. OTHER ACTIVE AGENCIES 13. Do know of any other transit agencies or MPOs who are currently using or considering implementing a GIS? YES 0 NO 0 Agency Name: ____ _____ Contact Person and Phone Number: _____________ _, __ .__ ___ ,..THANK YOU,..

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APPENDIXB GIS-T Contacts in Florida Metropolitan Planning Agencies Brevard County MPO GIS Software : ARC/lNFO GIS Contacts : Mike Wentworth and Randy Smith Address : 2715 St. Jons Street Melbourne, FL 32940 Phone Number: (407) 633-2085 Fax Number. (407) 633-2083 Broward County MPO/Broward County Transportation Planning Division GIS Software: ARC/INFO Hernando/Spring Hill MPO GIS Software: GIS Contact : Address: Phone Number : Fax Number: ARC/INFO and Maplnfo Jerry Greif 20 North Main Street Room 262 Brooksville, F L 33601 (904) 754-4057 (904) 754-4420 Hillsborough County MPO GIS Software : GenaMap and Maplnfo GIS Contact: Jamie Robe Automation Group Man-ager Address: 1 8th Floor GIS Con tact: Samuel Evans, Chief of Urban InformsPhone Number: lion Systems Fax Numbe" 601 East Kennedy Blvd. Tampa, FL 33602 (813) 272-5940 Address: Planning Information Technology Divi(813) 272-6258 sion Broward County Indian River County MPO 115 South Andrews Avenue, Room 329 Phone Number : Fax Number. Ft. Lauderdale, FL 3330 1 (305) 357-6596 ( 305) 357-6694 Charlotte CountyPunta Gorda MPO GIS Software : GIS Contact(s): Address: Ph o ne N umber. Fax Number: Ale/CAD and ArcVIew (ARCJlNFO link to the county) Lisa Beever MPO Director 28000 Airport Road, A-6 Punta Gorda, FL 33982-2411 (813) 639-4676 (813) 639-8153 GIS Software: GIS Contact : Address: Phone Number: Fax Number : Futu r e plans call for implementing a GIS in 1 yrs. Robert. M Keating, AICP, MPO Staff Director 1 840 25th Street Vero Beach, FL 32960 (407) 5670-8000 ext. 245 (407) 770-5095 Lakeland/Winter Haven MPO (MPO Section of Polk County Planning Div.) GIS Software: ARC/INFO GIS Contact: GIS Contact Dennis Murphy, County GIS CoordinaAddress: Eugene Henry, Principal Planner P.O Box 1969 tor Address: 18500 Murdock Circle Port Charlotte, FL 33948 Phone N umber: (813) 743-1268 Fa x Number: (813) 743-7987 Bartow, FL 33831 -1969 Phone Number: (813) 534 Fax Number: (813) 534 -6021 59

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Martin County MPO GIS Software: ARCilNFO GIS Contact Kevin Kayzda, GIS SystemAdministra-tor Address: 2401 S.E Monterey Road Stuart, FL 34996 Phone Number : (407) 288-5927 Metro..Oade MPO GIS S oftware : GIS Contact Address: Phone Number: Fax Number: AtlasGIS Jae Manzella, Planning Technician 111 N. W. First Street Suite 910 Miami, FL 33128 (305) 375-4507 (305) 375-4950 Naples (Collier County) MPO GIS Software: Maplnfo GIS Contact: Jeff Perry, MPO Coordinator Address: 2800 N. Horsesh oe Drive Naples, FL 33962 Phone Number: (813) Fax Number: (813) 634-3826 Palm Beach County MPO GIS Software: ARC/INFO through the Palm Beach County Plann ing Dept. GIS Contact : Paul Larson Address: P.O. Box 21229 West Palm Beach FL 33416-1229 Phone Number. (407) 684-4170 Fax Number: (407) 478-5770 Pasco County MPO GIS Software: ARC/INFO GIS Contact : Nellie Robinson, GIS Coordinator Address: Pasco County Government Center S 230 7530 Little Road New Port Richey, F L 34654 Phone Number: (813) 847-8140 Fax Number: (813) 847-8084 60 Pinellas County MPO GIS Software: Vision, AtlasGIS GIS Contact: Brian Smith, Director Address: 14 S. Fort Harrison, Suite 2000 Clearwater, Fl 34616 Phone Number: (813) 464-4751 Fax Number : (813) 464-4155 Sarasota/Manatee County MPO GIS Software: GIS Contact: Address: Phone Numbe r: Fax Number: Maplnfo and MapBasic Bill Sparrowhawk, Planner 7632 301 Boulevard Sarasota FL 34243 (813) 359-5772 (813) 359-5779 St. Lucie County, Community Development GIS Software: Ultimap (phasing out) to lntergraph GIS Contact: Ed Blaine, GIS!Technical Services Su pervisor Mike N. Dhart, Tra n sportation Planner Address: 2300 Virglnla Avenue Ft. Pierce, FL 34982-5652 Phone Number: (407) 462-2756 Fax Number: (407) 462-1735 Tallahassee-Leon County MPO GIS Software: Vision GIS Contact Rick Fausone, Research Supervisor Address: 300 S. Adams Street 4th Floor Tallahassee, FL 32301 Phone Number: (904) 8918600 Fax Number: (904) 891-8734 Volusia County MPO GIS Software: Atlas GIS GIS Contact: Ming Ma, Senior Transportation Plan ner Address: 133 E International Speedway Blvd., #22 Daytona Beach, FL 32118 Phone Number: (904) 239-6455 Fax Number : (904) 239-6463

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Regional Planning Councils Apalachee RPC GIS Software: AllasGIS GIS Contact: R i chard Turner, Data Manager Address: 314 East Central Avenue Blountstown FL 32424 Phone Number: (904) 647-4571 Fax Number: (904) 647-4574 Central Florida RPC GIS Software: GIS Contact Address: Phone Number: Fax Number: PC ARC/INFO Parrish Simmons, MIS Manager P .0. Box 2089 Bartow, FL 33831 (813) 534-7130 (813) 534-7183 Ees1 Central Florida RPC/Ortando Area MPO GIS Software: GIS Contact: Address: Phone Number: Fax Number: ARCnNFO Robert Todd, GIS Manager 1011 Wymore Road, Suite 105 Winter Park, FL 32789 (4 07) 623-1075 (407) 623-1084 North Central Florida RPC/Gainesville MPO GIS Softw are: AtlasGIS and PC ARC/INFO .'. GIS Contact: Gerry Dedenbach, Principal Planner Gainesville MPO Address: Phone Number: Fax N umb er: Kevin Parrish, Database Manager 2009 N.W. 67th Place, Suite A Gainesville, FL 32653 (904) 955-220 (904) 95$.2209 North East Florida RPC GIS Software: GIS Contact: Address: P hone Number: Geo /SQL and ArcVlew Ken Heatherington, Senior Transp. Planner/GIS Coordinator 9143 Phillips Hwy., Suite 350 Jacksonville, FL 32256 (904) 363-6350 Fax Number : (904) 363-6356 South Florida RPC GIS Software: GIS Contact Address: Phone Number : Fax Number: ArcVlew, Atlas GIS Manny Cela, lnfonnation Systems Mgr 3440 Hollywood Blvd. Suite 140 Hollywood, FL 33021 (305) 985-4416 (305) 985-4418 South West Florida RPC/Lee County MPO GIS Software : GIS Contact: Address: Phone Number: Fax Number: Tampa Bay RPC GIS Software: GIS Contact: Address: Phone Number: Fax Number: ARC/INFO, ArcVlew Hunter Wynne, Regional Planner P.O. Box 3455 N. Fort Myers, FL 33918 3455 suncom 749-n2o SunCom 749-n24 ARCnNFO Marshall Flynn, DP Manager 9455 Koger Blvd. Suije 219 St. Petersburg, FL 33702 (813) 577-5151 (813) 570-5118 West Florida RPC GIS Software: GIS Contact: Address: Phone Number: Fax Number: Currently conducting GIS feasibility/ needs assessment (as of 3/95) Mike Zeigler, Director ofTransportation Planning P.O. Box 486 Pensacola FL 32593..0846 (904) 444-8910 (904) 444-8967 Withlacoohae RPC GIS Software: GIS Contact: Address: Phone Number. Fax Number: Maplnfo Unda Sloan, Planning Director William E. Taylor, Graph ics Chief 1241 SW 10th Street Oca l a, FL 34494 (904) 723-1315 (904) 723-1319 6f

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Transit Agencies Hillsborough Anta Reg i onal Transit HARTline GIS Software : Mapl nfo Q nterfaces with AVL ) Plan to acqu ire GenaMap GIS Contact S t eve Roberts Manager of information Systems Address : 4305 E. 21st. Street Tampa FL 33602 Phone Number : (813) 623-5835 Jacksonville Transportation Authority G I S Softw are: GIS Contact Addr ess: Phone Number: Fax Number : Acqu iring Maptitude Geo r ge Brown, Manager of Serv i ce Development & Planning P O. Box Drawer "0" o r 100 N Myrtle Avenue Jacksonville FL 32203 (904) 630 3153 (904) 63D-3166 Lee County Transit Addr ess: Phone Number : Fax Number. 1 1 1 N. W. 1 St., Suite 510 Miami FL 33176 (305) 375 2139 (305) 375-119 2 Palm Beach County T ransportation Authority GIS Software: GIS Contact Address : Phone Number : Fax Number. Teleride SAGE and GSShed Plus Jerry Brian Manager of Planning Bldg. S-1440 PBTA West Pal m Beach FL 33406 (407) 233-1166 (407) 233 1140 P i nellas Suncoast Transit Authority GIS Softwa r e : G I S Contact: Address : Phone Number. Fax Number: Acquiring Maplnfo D i ane Smith, Transit Planner 14840 49th Street Clearwater F L 34622 (813 ) 53D-9921 (813) 53D-1292 Sarasota County Area Transit GIS Software : Plans to acquire G I S in 3 years Bruce McQuade Plan to implement GIS within 6 months GIS Software: (as of 3/95) GIS Contact Address: 5303 Pinkney Avenue GIS Contact: Chris Leffert Address: 10715 East Airport Road Ft M y ers, FL 33907 P hone Number. (813) 277 5012 Fax N umber: (813) 277 -5011 LYNX Transit Central F lorida Regional Transit GIS Software: ARCANF O (shared through the MPO and RPC) GIS Contact : Bill Morris, Senior Planner Address : 1 200 West South Street Or1ando, FL 32805 Phone Numbe r : (407) 8412279 Fax Number: (407) 244-3398 Metro-Dade Transit Agency GIS Softwa re: G I S Contact : 62 ARCnNFO Ar cVoew, Maplnfo Mariae l ena Salaza r, I nformation Sys tems Manager Sarasota, FL 34233 Phone Number: (813) 9519850 Fax Number: (813) 923-5924 Space Coast Area Transit SCAT GIS Software : S c hedul i ng/Dispatching System. ON UNE (PASS) GIS Contact Jim Liesenfelt Transit Planner Address : 401 South Varr Avenue Cocoa FL 32922 Phone Numbe r : (407) 635-7815 Fax Number : (407) 633-1905 Florida Department of Transportation (FOOT) Dlsfl1cr 1 G I S Softw are: ArcVoew, M i crostation G I S Contact: L awrence Massey Public Transporta tion Spec i alist Address: 2295 Voctoria Avenue, S u ite 292 Fl. Myers, FL 33901

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Phone Number: Fax Number. District 2 GIS Software: GIS Contact Address: Phone Number: Dlstrlct3 GIS Software : GIS Contact: Address : (813) 386-2341 (813) 388-2353 PC ARC/INFO MGE -Intergraph Lany Parks, Project Development En gineer 1901 S. Marion Street Lake City, FL 32056-1089 (904) 752-3300 ArcView, AutoCAD In-housedeveloped automated mapping Marvin Stuckey Director of Planning P .O. Box 607 Chlpley FL 32428 Phone Number. (90 4 ) 636-0250 Fax Number: (904) 636-8159 District 4 GIS Software: GIS Contact: Address: Phone Number : Fax Number: Dlsrr/ct 6 ARC/INFO ArcVie w, MGE -I ntsgraph Shi-Chlang L1 3400 W. Commercial Blvd. Fl Lauderdale, FL 33309-3421 (305) 777-4601 (305) 777-4671 GIS Software : ARC/INFO GIS Contact James D Kimbler, D irector of Planning Address: 5151 Adanson Street Winter Park, FL 32804 Phone Number: (407) 623-1085 Fax Number : (407) 623-1196 Dlsrr/ct 4 GIS Software: GIS Contact: Addre ss: Phone Number : Fax Number: Disrr/ct 7 G IS Software: GIS Contact : Address : Phone Number : Fax Numb er: ARCJ1NFO, MGE-Integraph Albert Dominque z, P.E ., Management System & Statistics Administrator 602 S. Miami Avenue Miami FL (30 5) 377-591 0 (305) 377-5967 ESRJ, MGE l nt&rgraph Thomas M. Kelly, GIS Coordinator 11201 N. McKinley Driv e Tamp a, FL 33812-6403 (813) 975-6774 (813) 975-6635 District 8, Turnpike District GIS Software : ARC/INFO (through consultant) GIS Contact Joey Gordon Systems Analysis Man ager Addres s: Phone Number: Fax Number: 121 1 Govenors Square Boulevard Suite 100 Tallahassee, FL 32301 (904) 488-4671 (904) 487-4340 63

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APPENDIXC Summary of Survey Results A. ORGANIZATIONALPERCEPTIONS Does your organization have a GIS p l an or Implementation strategy? Response P lanning Tra n sit FOOT Total Organizations Agencies District Offices YES 18 60% 5 28% 7 1 00 % 30 55% NO 12 40% 1 3 72% 0 0% 25 45% B. CURRENT USE OF GIS I ... YOUR AGE .... CY Does your agency currently use GIS? Respons e Planning Transit FOOT T otal Organizations Agenclos District Offices YES 23 n% 6 33% 7 88% 36 64% NO 7 23% 1 2 67% 1 1 2% 20 36% The Tu rnpike Office (Distric t 8 of FDOT) does not have an in house GIS; all GIS work Is provided by a consultant. Does your agency have plans i o use GIS in the future? (asked of agencies not current ly using GIS) Response P l anning Transit FOOT To ta l Organiz.ations Agencies Dis trict Offices YES 4 57% 7 58% 0 0% 1 1 58% NO 3 43% 5 42% 0 0% 8 42% 65

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C. AREAS OF G I S USE Areas Plan ning Tr a nsit FOOT Tot al Organizat i o n s Agencie s Distr ict Offices Ridership Forfl!casting 5 22% 3 50% 0 0% 8 22% Service P lanning 4 17% 3 50% 0 0% 7 1 9% Market ing 4 17% 3 50% 0 0% 7 19% Transit Schedules 2 9% 3 50% 0 0% 5 1 4 % Map Production 13 57% 3 50% 2 29% 16 50% Customer I nf ormation 2 9% 3 50% 0 0% 5 1 4% R idematch 1 4% 1 1 7% 0 0% 2 6% T ransit Pass 0 0% 3 50% 0 0% 3 6% Facilities Management 3 13% 3 50% 0 0% 6 17% ADA 0 0% 2 33% 0 0% 2 6% Land Use 6 35% 0 0% 1 14% 9 25% Level of Service (LOS) 3 13% 0 0% 0 0% 3 8% Traffic Analysis Zones. 2 9% 2 33% 0 0% 4 11% Paratransit 0 0% 3 50% 0 0% 3 6% Highway Transportation 0 0% 0 0% 2 29% 2 6% Right-of-way Plann ing 0 0% 0 0% 1 14% 1 3% Envi ronmen ta l Mgt. 0 0% 0 0% 1 14% 1 3% D. SOURCE OF ROAD HETWORK DATA Areas Planning T r an.sit FOOT Total Organizations A gencies Dis trict O ffices D igitized i n house 1 6 70% 3 50% 3 43% 22 61% L oca iMPO 12 52% 4 67% 5 71% 2 1 58% Stato DOT 4 17% 0 0% 5 7 1 % 9 25% USGSDLG 5 22% 1 17% 4 57% 10 28% ETAK 3 13% 0 0% 1 14% 4 11 % TIGER 1 4 61% 2 33% 4 57% 20 56% D IME 2 9% 1 17% 3 43% 6 17% 66

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,. I o. i , '. I ' E. TYPES OF DATA STORED ELECTRONICALLY Areas Pl anning Transit FOOT Total Organizations Agencies District Offices Rail rout es 6 20% 1 6% 0 0% 7 13% Bus transit routes 8 27% 7 39% 0 0% 1 5 27% Rights of way 4 13% 1 6 % 0 0% 5 9% Bus s top s 4 13% 7 39% 0 0% 1 1 20% Bus timapoints 3 1 0 % 5 28% 0 0% 8 15% AVL signposts 1 3% 2 11% 0 0% 3 5% Traffic signals 7 23% 0 0% 1 14% 8 15% Transit stations 4 13% 4 22% 0 0% 8 15% Park and ride lots 3 10% 3 17% 1 14% 7 13% Ridersh i p data 4 13% 8 44 % 1 14% 1 3 24% Vehic le Malnt. & Stor.aga 5 17% 3 17% 0 0% 8 15% Political Boundaries 15 50% 3 17% 4 57% 22 40% T raffic Analysis Zones 1 4 47% 3 17% 5 71% 22 40% Census tracts 13 43% 4 22% 3 43% 20 36% Accident locations 11 37% 2 11% 1 1 4% 1 4 25% Incidents requiring poUCQ 3 10% 1 6% 0 0 % 4 7% Demographics 5 1 7% 12 67% 1 14% 1 8 33% Roadwa y Characte ristics 0 0% 0 0% 1 14% 1 2 % T ra ffic Coun t Statio n s 0 0% 0 0 % 1 14% 1 2% F GIS SOFTWARE IN YOUR ORGANIZATION Areas Planning Transit FOOT Total Organizations Agencies District Offices ARC/INFO 9 39% 2 33% 4 57% 1 5 42% ARCNiew 4 1 7% 1 17% 2 29% 7 1 9% Atlas G I S 4 17% 0 0% 0 0% 4 11% G enaMap 1 4% 1 17% 0 0% 2 6% Vision 2 9% 0 0% 0 0% 2 6% Map lnfo 5 22% 2 33% 0 0% 7 1 9 % MGE-Intergrap h 0 0% 0 0% 3 43% 3 8% AutoCAO 3 13% 2 33% 2 29% 7 19% FSUTMS 0 0 % 0 0% 2 29% 2 6% Other 0 0% 2 33% 0 0% 2 6% 67

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G. GIS PLATFORM Areas Planning Transit FOOT Total Organizations Agencies District Offices PC Station 18 78% 3 5 0 % 4 57% 25 69% Nelwo rke d PCs 6 26% 2 33% 3 43% 11 3 1% Unix Workstation 8 35% 0 0% 3 43% 11 31% Mainframe Terminal 3 13% 1 17% 2 29% 6 17% Query P Cs 2 9% 0 0 % 0 0% 2 6% Macintosh 2 9% 1 17% 0 0% 3 8% Other 0 0 % 1 17% 0 0% 1 3% H. GIS COORDINATION Response Planning Transit FOOT Total Organizations Agencies District Offices Centra lized 11 48% 2 33% 1 14% 14 39% Decentralized 1 2 52% 4 67% 6 8 6 % 22 61% I. IMPLEMENT ATIOH STRATEGY Do you have plans to expand or enhance your c u rrent systems? If so, indi cate the time fra me. Areas Planning Transit FOOT Tota l Organizat i ons Ageneles District Offic:6S N o 5 22% 0 0% 0 0% 5 1 4% 0 6 months 9 39% 3 5 0% 4 57% 1 6 44% 6 months -1 year 3 1 3% 0 0% 0 0% 3 8% 1 -2 yea rs 4 17% 1 17% 0 0 % 5 14% 2+ years 2 9% 2 33% 3 43% 7 19% 68

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Glossary Attribute-A type of nongraphic data that describes the entities represented by graphic elements Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL)-A computerized system which tracks th e current location of fleet vehicles using radio transmitters to assist In dispatching and routing. CADD Computer a i ded design and drafting. Software that automates architectura l planning, and engineering des igning and drawing Central Business District (CBD) -The geographic area generally defined in planning terms as the area having the highest concentration of business people and land values and also serves as a center of governmental and cultura l activity. Database A specific grouping of data within the structure of a data base management system that has been defined by a particular use, us e r. system or program. Digital Data-Data represented by a sequence of code characters, readable by computer. Dynamic Segmentation-A method of referencing road attribute data (lines or points) on demand, based on a variable segmentation of a single network and permits multiple overlapping of attributes to be stored with duplicating data. Flat File-A two dimensional data structure commonly used as an interchange format for the loading and exchange of digital data ; also called a sequential file. Geobase File-A data base that integrates three major classes of spatial identifiers : site addressees geographica l area identification codes, and coordinates. The basic record in a geobased fil e consists of a single segment of roadway. Geocode-Aspatial index code (e.g ., addresses, parcel numbers) I dentify ing unique points, lines, or areas that is stored in both graphic and nongraphic data. Geographic Information System -A system of hardware software, data, people, organizations, and institutional arrangements for collecting, storing, analyzing, and disseminating, i nformation about areas of the earth. Geograph i c Information System for Transportation (GIS-T) -A system that merges an enhanced GIS and an enhanced Transportation Information System. Global Positioning System (GPS) Nine satellites originally developed by the U. S. Department of Defense for nav i gation. GPS relies on the satelfites to deterrrine geodetic coordinates (longitude and l atitude) and provides the most accurate form of land surveying. Hierarchical DatabaseA method to classify data where the structure is based on parent-child or one-to-many relationships w i th exp l cit pointers that define the r elationsh i p between segments of a record. 69

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Network Analysis Procedures thatsupportthe evaluation of movement o f pheno mena through a Nnearsystem based on a number of criteria Used to ca l cula te optimal routes and optimal locations for facllties on a network. Overlay A laye r of data representing one aspect of relat ed information P olygon. An area defined as a tw o-dimensio nal figure with three or more sides i ntersection at a lik e number o f points. Raster Image Graphic s patial image in which the data is s t ored In the form of regular grid cells or pi xels Relational Database A database structure commonly used in GIS in w hich data i s stored based on two dimensional tab les where multiple relations hips can be defined and establshed i n an ad-hoc manner Surface Modeling A computerized function that allows the use r to generat e three-dimensiona l mode l of land forms or other features of a surface. TIGER File (Topographically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing) U S. national digita l database of planimetric base map featur es, Including the location of a ll stree t addresses in major urban areas as well as all w a ter bodies, highways and rel lroeds Produced by the U. S. Ce nsus Bureau. Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) Analysis units based on the transportation netwo rk that enable the planne r to Dnk information about activities travel, and transportation to phy s ical locations. Transportation Informa tion System A computerized system that e nables the col lection storage and use of a H mu ltlmodal transportation re l ated data Vector A Di rected segment w i th magnitud e commonly represented by the coo rd inates for the pair of end points. Vecto r data refers to data in the form of an array w ith one dimension link, polygon or point Workstation A device or a comb i n ati on of devices integrated to p ro v ide the user with graphic d ata entry display, and mani pulation Sources for Glossary Joh n C Antenucci Kay Brown Peter L Croswell and Michae l J Kevany Gecgrapflic lnfonns6onSyotems : A Guide to the Technology Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York New Youk 1991 Bobby Harris GIS and Tran sportation URISA Workshop Milw au k ee, Wisconsin. 199 4 Int e rnational City Management As soc iation (ICMA). The Lo cel Gov e rnment Guida to Geographi c lnfonnslion Sys tems: Planning and Implementation Pll, Wash in gton D .C. 1991 United States Geologica l Survey N ationa l Mapping Division Wa s h ingto n. D.C. : U. s. D epartment of the Interior Spa/181 Data Transfer Standards Version 12192. 70

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'.. Bibliography Allen, Jr., William G and Srinivasan Mukundan, 'Use of GIS in TransltA i tematives Analysis' Presented at the Fourth National Conference on T ransportation Planning Methods Appications (May 1993). Antonisse, Robert, Marc Bailey, and Roy !.a motte, "Using ARCnNFO Software to Create a GIS Transportation System," ARC News (Summer 1991). Aronoff, Stan, Geographic lnformaffon Systems: A Management Perspecffve (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: WDL Pubfications, 1989). Ball, Wiluam L "Economic and Policy Considerations of Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS): Assessing the Economic Feasibility of AIPTS' (Tampa: CenterforUrban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, October 1994). Cu lp Unda, 'Short Range Transit Planning and Mar1
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Javid Massoud, Prianka N Seneviratne, and Prabhakar Amlluri, AppHcations of GIS In Planning Transit Services for People With Disabitities' Presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting ofthe Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 940266 (January 1994). Johnson, Brad H .. and Michael J Demelsky, "A Geographic Information System Environment for Transportation Management System.' Prepared for Mid-Atlantic Universities Transportation Center (CharlottesviUe, VA: Univer s i ty of Virginia Ja nuary 1993). Lycan Richard, and James D. Orrell, "An Analysis of Bus Ridership Potential to Oregon Health Sciences University Using a Geograph i c I nformation Systems Approach (Center for Urt>an Studies and Transporta tio n Northwest F ebruary 1990). Nichols, Jr., Woodrow W ., "GIS-T in Transit Planning and Management; (Raleigh NC: Southeastern Transporta tio n Center The University of N orth Carofina Institute for Transportation R8$earch and Education May 1994). O'Neill Wende A. R. Douglas Ramsey, and JaChing Chou "Analysis of Transit SeNice Areas Using Geographic Information Systems Transportation Research Record 1364 (1992) Pub i c Techno logy Inc., The Urban Consortium and International City Management Asso c iation, The Local Government Guide to Geographic lnfonnation Systems: Planning and Implementation (1991). Schweiger Carol L. "Curran t Use of Geographic Information Systems in Pla nn ing" (USDOT Federal Transit Adm in i stration Office of Grants Management August 1991) Schweiger, Carol L. "Current Use of Geograph i c Informa tion Systems in Planning" Transportation Research Record 1349. To l iver Paul A., "High-Tech Support Can Keep Transit Moving Ahead," Passenger Transport (March 6, 1995) p. 6. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal "National Geographic Information Systems: A Component of the Nationa l Transportation System ( i nformation packet). Vonderohe A .P., L Trav i s, RL Smith and V Tsai, Adaptation of Geographic l nfonnation Systems for Transportation NCHRP Report 359 (Washington, D C.: National Academy Press, 1993).