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Brevard County transit development plan, 1995-1999

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Material Information

Title:
Brevard County transit development plan, 1995-1999 final report
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Space Coast Area Transit
Publisher:
Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Local transit -- Florida -- Brevard County   ( lcsh )
Paratransit services -- Florida -- Brevard County   ( lcsh )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida.
General Note:
Prepared for Space Coast Area Transit.
General Note:
"August 1994."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - C01-00281
usfldc handle - c1.281
System ID:
SFS0032364:00001


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. BREVARD COUNTY TRANSIT DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1 1 FINAL AI! AUGU8T1 ror 1.IJiian 'f>ansponallon lltseanJh

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BREVARD COUNTY TRANSIT DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1995-1999 Final Report Prepared for: Space Coast Area Transit + X SPACE COAST ARE A <:TRANSIT Prepared by: Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida CUTR Augast 1994

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Space Coast Area Transit 401 South Varr Avenue Cocoa, Florida 32922 (407) 635-7815 Transit Director: Don Lusk Project Manager: James Liesenfelt Center ror Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB 118 Tampa, Florida 33620-5350 (813) 9 74-3120 Suncom 574-3120 Fax (813) 974-5168 Director: Projec t Managers: Gary L Brosch Daniel K. Boyl e Rosemary Math i as Daniel Rudge Fredalyn Frasier Dennis Hinebaugh Suzanne Dieringer Shelly Happe l Rebecca Rahimi Project Staff: II

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CONTENTS Lis t o f Figures : ......... : ............. ............. : ........... ...... .. . ........ . ........ ..... ....... .. ...... ...... : . . v List of Tab l es ......... ........... .... . ... ........ ......... ........ .... ................ ...... . ...... ...... ...... .. ........... vi Executive Summary . .... ......... . . ......... .... . ............... . . . .... . .... ........ .... . . ... ... . ... . .. ... x Chapter 1 Introduction.. ... ............... ...................... . .... . ............. . ... ... ........... ... ... ........ 1 Area S ett ing ............. .. ............... .... ................ ... . ...... .... ........ .......... ............... ......... ... I Brevard County Demographics........................................ ... ....... . ...... ..... .... ....... .... 3 SCAT OnBoard Survey Analysis ... ....... .... .... ... ... .... ............. ... ... .... .. . ......... ........ 14 SCAT Operator Survey . ...... ...... . ................. ............................ ............................ 24 In terviews with Key Local Officials .. .......... ... ........... ...... ... .............. ................. .... 26 Focus Groups with Non-Us ers .... ......... ..... .. ......... ... ... .............. ..... .. ... ....... .. .... ...... 32 Chapter 2. Goals and Policy Objectives ... ... ..... ..... .... .. ......... ... ... ...... ......... ...... ... ......... .36 Goals and Policy Objectives-SCA T ......... .............. ................... : ..... .......... ....... ..... 36 Goals for Local Coo rdinating Board .............. .... ............................ ................... ...... 40 Transit Related Goals in Other Sources .... ... ... ... .... ....... ....... ............ ... ................... 42 Chapter 3 Perfonnance Evaluation .......... .............. .. ... ...... .... ..... ..... . .......... ..... .. ......... 60 Performance Evaluati on of Existing Transit ServiceI ntroduction ............... ... ..... 60 History : Transit Service in Brevard County ....... .............. . ..... ..... ........ .... . ...... ..... 61 Fixed-Route Service .... .... ................ ... ........ ... ... .... . . .... ........... ......... .... .. 63 Demand-Responsive and Subscription Service.... ........ ...... .. ... ... ........... ..... 67 Vanpool Service .... ...... ............... ...... ......... ............... ... .............. . ........... .... 68 Evaluati o n of SCAT Service ... .... .... .................. ... ...... .... . ..... ..... . .... .... ..... ..... .... 12 The Purpose of Performance Review ....... .............. ....................... .............. 72 Performance Review Database ........ ... . . ..... . .... ....... ... ................ ................ 75 Transportation Disadvantaged Trend Analysis ...... ........ .... . . ......... . ..... . . 78 Vanpool Trend Analysis .... .. ....... ... ...... ................ ....... ..... .... ......... .. ........... J9 Community Transportation Coordinator Peer Revi ew Analysis.......... ......... ....... . 84 FixedRoute Peer Review Analysis . .......... ........ ... . .... ................. ... ....... ...... ....... 88 Fixed -Route Performance Indicat ors ........ ....... ................. .... ........ ......... .... 90 Application to SCAT Goals ..... ...... ... ............ ... ... ... ... ............................... ...... ..... . I 06 Chapter 4 Demand Estimation and Needs Assessment. ....... ... ................ ...... ... ... 112 Current and Future Demand for Transit Service ...... .. ........ ..... . . .............. .......... 112 Fixed-Route Demand Estima tes .... ..... ..... ...... .... .... ............. ....... .......... ...... 112 Demand Responsive Service Ridership Estimates ........... ... ...... ...... .. ........ 123 iii

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Van pool Ridership Estimates ................ .......... ..... ... ................... ........ ...... 127 SCAT N eeds Assessment. ..... ..... . . ....... .. ...... ..... ........... .. ............ ........... l27 FixedRoute Service . ..... .... ...... ........ ....... ................ ....... ....... . ...... ........ 135 Demand Responsive Service ............ ...... ........... . .......... . . .............. ....... 13 5 Vanpoo1. ........ ..... . ..... ....... .. ..... . ....... ..... .... ..... ........ .............. ...... . ......... 139 Summary: Transit Demand and Needs . .......... . .... : ...... : "' 139 Chapter 5 -Alternatives and Recommendations ......... .. ... .................. ..... ... .......... ..... 142 Introduction ....................................... .................... ... ............. ........... ....... .... ..... .. .. .142 Public Comments .. .. .............. ..................... . . .... ...... .. ... ........... ...... ..................... 143 SCAT Altematives ..... ............................... .... . ........ .... ........... ..... ..... ........ ........... 144 F uture Directions ................. ... ... ... .......................... ......... .. ................... .... ..... ........ 148 Fiv e Year Transit Development Plan: Findings and Recommendations....... .. .. ..... 152 Five Year Transit Development Plan: Financial Plan.... .... . . ... .............. ...... ......... 163 APPENDIX A: Brevard Census Tables and Tract Maps ............................ .... ................. .. 170 APPENDIX B : SCAT On-board Survey .. ... ....... ............... ... ....... ....... ....... ..... ......... .. .... l92 APPENDIX C: SCAT Operator Survey . ........ . ........... .... ........ ..... ..... ......... ... ... ..... ........ l95 APPENDIX D: Interview and Focus Group Questions ................ ................................ ..... 203 APPENDIX E: Glossary ofTerms ... ........ ... .... ........ ........ ... ... .... .... . ...... . .. ...... ...... . ...... . 209 APPENDIX F: SCAT Trend Analysis Tables (Vanpool) .. .. ............................. .............. 214 APPENDIX G: SCAT P eer Analysis Tables ........................ ....... ......... ............... .... ......... 218 APPENDIX H: SCAT Vehicle Inventory ...... ... .... ......... . . ...................... ..... ........... .... ... 228 IV

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FIGURE Figures 1-7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure II Figure 12 Figure 13 A Figure 13 B Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure20 Figure 21 Figure22 Figure23 Figure24 Figure 25 Figur e 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure29 Figure30 Figure31 Figure 32 Figure 33 A Figure 33 B LIST OF FIGURES PAG E miTRODUCTIONANDBACKGROUND Census Tract Maps -Demographics APPENDIX A SCAT Demographics ... .............. ............ ... ... ... ..... ... ..... .............. .. .. ..... ..... 17 SCAT and Brevard County Demographic Comparisons .. ...... .. ..... ...... . . 19 Frequency/Length of SCAT Use .. ... ........ ..... .... ......... .. .. ......... ... ................ 2 1 SCAT Trip Purpose ........ .......... ......... ................ ......... ........ ...... .. ............... 22 Riders' Rating of SCAT Service .......... ..... ......... .... ...... ... ............. ........... 23 North Brevard County Transit Routes ......... .... ....... ................. ................ 64 South Brevard County Transit Routes ....... ..... .. .. .. ..... ..... .. ...... ...... ...... ..... 65 EVALUATI ON OF. SCAT SERVICE Factors Affecting Transit Performance .. .. ...... ..... ... .. .. ..... ... .... ...... ...... ..... 73 Passenger Trips ..... ...... ... ...... .......... ..... ....... ...... ............... . ......... .......... 91 Vehicle Miles .... .......... ........................ .... ........ ............ ............ ....... ........ 91 Revenue :tvfiles .... ....... .. .... ....... .... .... ... ..... ........ ........ .......... ... ..... ...... .... .... 91 Total Operating Expense .... .. . .... ...... ......... ............ ............... .. ..... ......... 93 Total Maintenance Expense ................ . ....... .... ............ ........ ........... ........ 93 Total Employees ..... ......... ......... ... . ... ... ............ ...... ..... ........... . ..... ..... .... 95 Vehicles Operated in Maximum Service .............. .. ........ ........................... 95 Vehicle Miles Per Capita ............ .................. .... ........ .......... .. .................... 97 Revenue Mile Per Route Mile ........... ... .... ......... ... ................. ....... ..... .... .... 97 Passenger Trips Per Capita .............. ............ ........................... ................... 99 Passenger Trips Per Revenue Mile ... .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .... ... ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 99 Average Age of Fleet ... .......... ........ .... .......... ........ .... ................................ 101 Revenue Miles Between Roadcalls ............ ...... .............. ..... ...................... 101 Operating Expense Per Capita ....... . .............. . .... ...................... ... ...... ...... .1 03 Operating Expense Per Passenger Tri p .......... ........... ................ .... .. ........ 1 03 Operating Expense Per Revenue Mile .... ....... .... .... .... ............................... I 03 Passenger Trips Per Employee ................ ............... .................................. .I 05 Revenue Hours Per Employee ..................... .. ............... ..... ..... ..... .. .......... I 05 CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND FOR TRANSIT Transit Supply and Needs, North County ...... .... .. .... ....... ........................ 121 T ransit Supply and Needs, South County .. ..... ............ ............... .. ............. 122 v

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TABLE Table I Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Tab le 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 1 0 Table II Table 12 T able 13 Table 14 Table IS Table 16 Table 17 Table 18 Table 1 9 Table 20 Table21 Table22 Table 23 Table 24 Table25 Table 26-A Table26-B Table27 Table 28 Table29 Table 30 Table 31 Table 32 LIST OF TABLES PAGE BREVARD COUNTY DEMOGRAPIDCS Population and Population Density... ...... ...... .... ..... ....... .... ....... ... . ...... 3 Tract Population and Population Density .. .... ............................... ... ..... ... 4 Population Age Characteristics .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... . .. .... 5 Population Age Characteristics by Census Tracts .......... .... ... ........ ...... .. .. .. 5 1994 transportation Disadvantaged Population by Group .... ........ .. .... ...... 6 Household Income Distribution ..................... ... .... : ...... ...... ....... ....... ....... 7 Income Characteristics for Brevard County .... .... ............ .... ... ........ ...... .. .. 8 Vehicle Availability .... .... . .... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. . .... .. ... . .... .... ....... ... . .. .... . . .. .. . 9 Vehicle Availability by Census Tracts .................. ........... ..... ......... :.... ...... 9 Employment Characteristics .............................. .... .... ... ........... .... ... ... ...... 10 Work Commuting Patterns .. ............. ..... ... .......... ..... .... ....... .... .... .... .... ....... 10 Work Commuting Patterns by Census Tracts.... ......................... .... ...... ... 12 Travel Tim e to Work...................... ......... ..... .. ... ..................... ....... ......... 1 3 Travel Time to Work-Percentage Over 25 Minutes....... ...... ...... ..... ... ... 13 Means of Travel to Work.......... .. .. ...... .... ........ ......... .. .. .. .. ... .... ... .... ......... 13 Percentage Using Carpools and Public Transportation................... ........ 1 3 Demographic Comparison of SCAT Riders with Brevard Population . . 18 GOALS AND POLICY OBJECTIVES SCAT Goals ... ................ .... ............................... ... ... ... .... ... ..... ......... . .. ... ... 39 Transportation Disadvan t aged Program Goals .............. .................. .. ....... 4 1 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXISTING TRANSIT SERVICE Brevard County Bus Fare History .................... .... .......... ... .. ... .... ... .... ..... .... 63 Overview of Space Coast Area Transit Fiscal Year 1993 .. .... ..... ... .... .... 77 Trend Analysis for Brevard County CTC .... .. ....... ..... ............ .. .... ... ........ .. 79 Vanpool Performance Indicators ......... .. .... .... ...... .... ... .... ...... ...... .. ...... .. ... 80 Vanpoo l E flfectiveness Measures .. ........ .. .. ........... :.. .... ....... ..... .. .. ..... ..... ... 81 Vanpoo l Efficiency Measures ............... ........... ............ ........ ...... .... ... .. .... 83 Median Performance Measures by CTC Groups ..... ..... ....... ........ .... .... ... 85 Median Performance Measures by CTC Peers ....... ...... ....... ....... ...... .... .... 87 Fixed-Route Transit System Peer Group .................. .... ... ....... .... ... ....... .... 89 Fixed -Route Service Area Population, Ridership and Levels of Service 90 Fixed Route Expenses ............................................................... ......... ..... 92 Fixed-Route Employees and Vehicles............ ..... ............. ...... .... .... .... ..... 94 Fixed-Route Service Supply and Service Availability ...... .................. ... 96 Fixed-Route Service Consumption ..... ..... ............... ................... ... .... .... .... 98 VI

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Table 33 Table 34 Table 35 Table 36 Table 37 Table 38 Table 39 Table40 Table 4 1 Table 42 Table 43 Table44 Tab le45 Table46 T able47 Table 48 Table49 Table 50 Table 51 Tab le 52 Table 53 Table 54 Table 55 Table 56 Table 57 TableA 1 TableF-1 Quality ofFixed Route Service .: .... .. : ...... ......... : .......... .. ......... ...... ..... ... !00 Fixed-Route Cost Efficiency ....... . . .... ...... .... ..... ...... ........ .... .... .. . ........ 102 FixedRoute Labor Productivity and Energy Utilization .. .......... ... ........ .... I 04 Space Coast Area Transit Goals .............. ............... ... .............. ............ ..... 07 P erformance Measures Applied to SCAT Goals .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 108 SCAT Performance Strengths and Areas ofPotential Improvement, Trend Analysis .. ...... ..... ........... .... . ..... ....... ... .... ........ ....... .. .... ...... ............ .l09 SCAT Performance Strengths and Areas of Potential Improvement, Peer Review Analysis ........... .... .... . ........ ........................ ....... .......... .... II 0 CURRENT AND FUTURE DEMAND FOR TRANSIT SERVICE Projected Fixed-Route Ridership for SCAT . ......... .... ...... ....... ...... ......... 113 Peer Group Comparisons with SCAT .................................... .. ...... ........... 114 Peer Subset Comparisons with SCAT ... .. .. .. .... . ...... ...... ...... ........ .. .. .. ...... 115 SCAT Projections Based on Per Capita Averages in Peer Groups .. ....... 116 Impacts ofFare and Service Scenarios .... ...... .................... .... ...... .... ......... 118 Base and Enhanced Fixed-Route Ridership Projections for SCAT......... 119 Transit Dependent Census Tracts .............. .................... .. ...... ................... 120 ADA-Eligible Persons and Trip Projections .. .......... .. .. .. ...... .. ...... .. .. .. .. .. ... 124 Projected TD Population and Paratransit Demand and Supply................ 126 Potential Brevard County Vanpool Market, 7 Passengers Per Van Average................ ........ ...... .......................... ........ 130 Potential Brevard County Vanpool Market, 10 Passengers P er Van Average .......... ..................... .............. .... .. ................ .......... ...... 130 Potential Brevard County Vanpool Market, 12 Passengers Per Van Average ........................................ ....... .... ............... .. ................... 13 1 Potential Brevard County V anpool Market, 1 5 Passengers Per Van Average ........... ......................................... .... : .............. ............... .13 I Vanpool Ridership Projections for SCAT ....... .................................... ..... 1 32 Projected Demand and Supply ofPublic Transportation in Brevard County .. ............................................ .................. .......... .. .. ..... ..... .141 FIVE YEAR PLAN: ALTERNATIVES AND RECOMMENDATIONS Projected Base FiveYear Budget fur SCAT .......... ................................... 165 Estimated Cost of Recommendations .... ............................ .... ................... .166 Projected SCAT Budget, Including Recommendations .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... !68 APPENDIX A Population Density by Census Tract ....... .... ............ .... ..... .... ........ ....... ...... 171 APPENDIXF Vanpool Performance Indicators .............................. ............. ..... ............... 215 VII

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TableF-2 TableF3 Table G-1 Table G-2 Table G 3 Table 58 Table 59 Table60 Van pool Effectiveness Measures . ... ... .... .... .. ...... ..... . ....... ... ... ..... ... .... 216 Van pool Efficiency Measures ....... . . ...... ..... ......... ..... .... ... .... ... ... .. ... ... . 217 APPENDIXG System Total Performance Indicators .... ..... ...... ... . . ... ....... . ..... ....... ... ..... 219 System Total Effectiveness Measures ..... . .. . .... . ... ... ... ...... ... . . ...... . ... ... 222 System Total Efficiency Measures .... ..... ........ ........................ ........ . .. ... 225 APPENDIXH SCAT Vehicle Inventory Directly Operated Motor Bus and Demand Response . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. 229 SCAT Vehicle Inventory Purchased Demand Response.. .. ........ ... . . ... 229 SCAT Vehicle Vanpool ...... ........ .... ... ..... ... .......... .... .... . ... 230 VIII

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IX

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Executive Summaey The Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) has contracted with the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners to prepare a five-year Transit Development Plan for Brevard County and Space Coast Area Transil Each transit property in Florida that receives State Transit Block Grant funding is required to prepare a transit development plan. This requirement is intended to ensure that the provision of public transponation service be consistent with the travel needs and mobility goals of the community. In establishing a strategic context for transit planning, the transit development plan can serve as a guide in the future development of the transit system. FOOT's intention in requiring transit development plans is to encourage the consideration of strategic issues, mobility needs within the context of overall planning and development effons, and prioritization of needs in the form of a staged implementat ion plan. Relevant plan characteristics include an exclusive focus on transit, an emphasis on transit s role a t the community level, and explicit co nsideration of external factors affecting the viability of the transit system. Many of the concepts of strategic planning (vision, external orientation and future focus) are applicable in the preparation of the transit development plan. Space Coast Area Transit (SCAT) was created from a merger of two former transit providers in the county on October 1, 1985. At the time of the formation of SCAT, the merged systems switched to an exclusively demand-responsive focus for service. The concept guiding this decision was to provide transit service to those who needed it most, primarily the elderly, those with low incomes, and persons with disabilities. It was not until October 1991 that SCAT reestablished fixed routes served by conventional transit buses on a f"Lxed schedule. Space Coast Area Transit is a division of the Human Services Department of Brevard County. SCAT provides fiXed route service, subscription service for various social service agencies, demand responsive service through a private contractor, and a vanpool program. Medicaid transportation is supplied by a private provider, Coastal Health System of Brevard. Operation of fixed route, paratransit and vanpool services makes SCAT unique among Florida transit properties. Throughout this transit development plan, all three modes are given detailed consideration, thus making the plan's scope broader than usual. X

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Public input is extremely important in the process of preparing a transit development plan. As described in Chapter One, CUTR conducted interviews and focus groups to gather information from key local officials and those who do not use transit. CUTR used the results of a recent (1993) on-board survey to determine the travel characteristics and perceptions of current riders. In addition, Space Coast Area Transit and CUTR sponsored a public meeting on July 6, 1994 to present preliminary findings and obtain input with regard to the future direction of the transit system. The public comments are summarized in Chapter Five. The executive summary presents the key approaches and findings from each chapter of this report. The recommendations developed in the final chapter are also included in the executive summary for easy reference. Chapter One examines the distribution of relevant demographic characteristics, such as income, age and vehicle ownership, within the county. In general, Brevard C o unty is predominantly lowdensity and suburban in character with income and vehicle ownership levels above statewide averages. but there are areas of the county that are exceptions to this general trend. Chapter One also includes the results of the i nterviews, focus groups, on board survey and operator survey. Specification of goals and objectives is an important element of the transit development plan. Chapter Two develops agency goals, based on a workshop conducted with the TDP review committee, comments from the Brevard County metropolitan planning organization, findings from the interviews, focus groups and surveys, and discussions with SCAT staff members. Among areas and issues addressed by the goals are the provision and coordination of transit services, marketing and informational efforts to increase the visibility of transit, increased efficiency, and accountability. Chapter Three focuses on service evaluation. Trends in various performance measures for paratransit and vanpool service are utilized, along with a comparison with similar fiXed-route and paratransit systems in Florida and the southeastern United States. Paratransit service performs very well, both over time and in comparison with its peers. SCAT's vanpool program is a model for similar programs throughout the country. The fiXed route system is much less established than in other systems of similar size (fixed route service was XI

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reestablished in Brevard County only in 1991), and the fixed route peer results are more properly interpreted as providing an indication of the future potential of fiXed route bus service as the system is developed in the coming years. Chapter Four describes mobility needs in Brevard County and presents various estimates of current and future demand. FOOT has consistently emphasized the importance of taking all mobility needs within a transit agency's service area into account when preparing a transit development plan. SCAT is well-positioned to meet diverse needs with its fixed route, paratransit and vanpool services. In FY 1999, the demand for public transportation in the county is estimated at 2 million trips, and the level of unmet demand, based on ridership and service projections, is estimated at 300,000 trips. Chapter Five presents alternate scenarios open to SCAT as it looks ahead over a five-year period. Comments received from the public hearing are included in this chapter, and were considered in the development of these alternatives. Recommended short-term priorities for SCAT include a continuation of the current mix of service, a concentration on improvements to existing service before major extensions of service, and a focus on the travel needs of residents who must rely on public transportation. The discussion of alternatives leads to the process of defining a vision for Space Coast Area Transit. Chapter Five also includes the fiveyear plan for SCAT The plan is the culmination of all previous chapters, and contains detailed recommendations to help SCAT realize its vision and achieve its goals. The recommendations are included in the following sect i on of this executive summary Recommendations Recommendations are prioritized by time frame for implementation: immediately; over the next one to two years; over the next three to five years. Within each time frame, recommendations with a higher priority are generally listed earlier but related actions are grouped as appropriate; thus, the numbering scheme is not strictly in priority order. xii

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Actions to Be Initiated Immediateiy 1. bus stop locations and Install bus stop signs. Bus stop signs should be placed first at tbe most frequently used locations, at transfer points,and at major intersections, and eventually be installed at all bus stops. The fastest way to accomplish this would be to use generic signs typical of otber transit systems, although signs incorporating an agency logo could be designed in a relatively short period of time. The signs should include tbe telephone number for SCAT information. In tbe future, signs might also show tbe route number(s) of buses which stop at the particu lar location. Stops with tbe greatest numbers of passengers should include a route map and schedule. :Z. Paint all SCAT vehicles. The blue and white color scheme used recently is attractive and should be applied uniformly to all buses in SCAT's fleet as well as to vans and other vehicles used for TO service. This will increase awareness and reinforce the id entity of SCAT as the public transportation provider in Brevard County The only allowable exceptions should be tbe specially-painted "tbeme" buses, which generate additional system revenue. 3. Monitor TD service as the transition to SCAT operation continues. Any start-up of tbis nature is inevitably hectic and confusing The provision of TD service will require special attention, and this leads directly to the next recommendation. 4 Develop a plan for using new TD Trust Fund money. SCAT should develop a written plan for using the additional TD Trust Fund money being made availab le by the Commission for the Transportatiop Disadvantaged. This additional money should be us.ed to improve service in areas that seem most appropriate for SCAT, given tbe system's goals and tbe requirement tbat the funds be used to provide new TD trips. S. Establish and hire a new staff position to oversee the TD program. This position requires someone familiar with the 'I'D program in the State of Florida who can effectively manage service delivery. 6. Continue to research and Implement computer-based applications that enhance system operation. SCAT has begun to use technology to improve system efficiency and xiii

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effectiveness by implementation of a personal computer network., paratransit schedu ling and dispatch software, state-of-the-art radio communication equipment, telephone voice messaging and automatic call distribution systems. Other applications to be examined include smart fare collection systems, on-board mobile data terminals, and geographic information system (GIS) mapping integration. 7. Establish superstops/transfer centers at major locations where bus routes intersect. Locations such as Merritt Square Mall, the Government Center complex, and the Melbourne shopping area are appropriate for this treatment. These centers/superstops should be the first to receive new signage and information displays on SCAT routes should also be provided at these locations. 8. Install bus shelters and benches at appropriate locations. The busiest bus stops should have bus shelters to protect waiting passengers from inclement weather, unless there is a sheltered area nearby (e.g., at Government Center) where passengers can see the approaching bus. Benches should be provided at additional stops. Often bus shelters and benches can be installed free of charge to the transit agency in exchange for the right to advertise on them. SCAT should be careful to maximize its revenue as this is implemented. Cities served by SCAT may also be willing to work with the transit agency to provide shelters and benches. 9. Retain South Tenninal on U.S. 1 for transit use, unless another equally convenient location can be found. Given the size of Brevard County, SCAT clearly needs two storage and maintenance facilities for its vehicles. Operating south county service out of the Cocoa facility would result in dramatic increases in non-revenue vehicle miles and vehicle hours and damage the efficiency of SCAT service. 10. Explore the future of Medicaid non-emergency transportation service. This service, currently contracted to a non-profit transportation operator, expires in March i996. There are advantages and disadvantages surrounding continued contracted operation versus direct operation. 11. Continue to work with human service agencies purchasing subscription services to collect the tully allocated cost of operating the service. The agreements which collect less XIV

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than fully allocated cost create situatloiis iii Wlirai agencies are subsidized. This lessens overall revenue available for public transit operations. 12. Improve coordination with cities In the county. As a county agency, SCAT may at times not work as closely with local city governments as it should. Special efforts should be made to keep the cities infonned with regard to transit issues, and to enlist their cooperation in matters such as installing signage, shelters and benches and possibly securing funds for general transit operation. 13. Continue the public and employee input processes as part of the county's and SCATs commitment to total quality management (TQM) principles. There is clearly a strong interest in transit service, as shown by the attendance at the public meeting held as part of this IDP process. SCAT has a good record in the area of sponsoring public hearings and meetings in an attempt to keep the community infonned. This process should continue. 14. Encourage and support the formation of a Citizens Moblllty Advisory Council. SCAT should consider fonnalizing one part of the process of obtaining community input by sUpporting grassroots efforts to form a mobility advisory group. Such a grqup can serve as an effective condu it in communications between SCAT and the general public. 15. Complete and print a map and schedules for north county fixed-route service. The recent brochures for south county service are among the best transit maps and schedules produced in Florida. North county broch ures are in progress. 16. Establish a formal training program for all personnel who interact with passengers. Although training is provided in a number of areas, a formal tra ining program should be instituted to ensure that all drivers are trained (and re-trained at regular intervals) in the areas of defensive driving, passenger assistance techniques, sensitivity, drug and alcohol abuse, and proper handling of passengers who become ill or injured. Further, reservationists, schedulers, and dispatchers should be well-versed in telephone techniques, such as call-intake procedures, complaint and grievance resolution and handling difficult cal lers Finally, administrative staff should keep current with changing Federal, state and local regulations (i.e., procurement issues, drug testing, electronic grant management). XV

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17. Improve marketing and customer Information. This applies to all components of SCATs service. Vanpool and possible carpool programs require consistent marketing efforts to be successful. TO-eligible riders need to know how to obtain service Fixed-route maps and schedules must be distributed and updated on an ongoing basis, and information on routing and hours of service must be readily available. Educational programs for the general public should be pursued, along with more traditional marketing efforts to increase awareness and encourage use of SCAT services. 18. Create a marketing stalT position. The various activities involved in providing information, marketing the system and interacting with the public should be the responsibility of a single person. SCAT should establish a marketing position and recruit an energetic, knowledgeable individual to take on these responsibilities. Activities such as public presentations, liaison with local and county public officials, resolution of ongoing service issues (less politely called "complaints"), coordination of agreements with other human service agencies, vanpoolfcarpool coordination, provision of information, design and conduct of marketing campaigns, one of which could include the design of a new transit system logo, and interaction with the proposed Mobility Advisory Council would be included in the job description for this position. The best-run, most efficient transit system in the world still needs someone to spread the news among potential riders. Other small transit systems in Florida have attributed ridership growth to innovative marketing activities Such a person can also free up existing staff time spent on similar activities, and increase productivity and morale throughout the agency. 19. Formalize internal performance measures. SCAT keeps track of ridership and system performance on an ongoing basis. Formal guidelines or performance measures to be used in measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of transit service would be appropriate. Some type of performance measure should be applied to all modes, although comparison across modes might be difficult due to the different nature of the components of the transit system. Certainly measures such as riders per hour or per vehicle mile could be used within fiXed route or TD service to evaluate the relative effectiveness of individual routes or trip types. 20. Formalize a monitoring program. Once appropriate performance measures are selected, a schedule for monitoring system performance should be established This will be xvi

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particularly important for tracking the progi'Jss.of new routes or changes to current service structure, but should also be used to service . . :Zl. Establish an ongoing vehicle replacement program. Buses and vans are expensive capital items with a relatively fiXed life. For future capital planning needs, a schedule of vehicle replacement should be established with the goal of spreading future capital costs as evenly as possible while continuing to place attractive, functional vehicles into service every day. 22. Study the possibility of using ISTEA funds for vehicle replacement In the years 1999 through 2001. Twenty of SCAT's current vehicles will become eligible for replacement in the years 1999 to 2001. Alternate funding needs to be found, given current outlays of Section 9 funds. SCAT will need t o work with the Brevard County Metropolitan P lanning Organization using the flexibility provided by ISTEA to address vehicle replacement. 23. Follow and coordinate with the Empowerment ZOne and EnterPrise Community application. Transi t service is often considered essential in providing mobility to and from such areas, and there may be special needs that SCAT can meet if the designation is granted. 24. Ensure fixed-route service Is In compliance with the ADA. I n addition to providing lift equipped fiXed-route service, SCAT is required to provide other amenities for passengers with disabilities, such as announcing major stops and transfer points along routes, and making schedule information available for visually impaired persons and others 25. Continue implementation of SCAT's ADA plan. Federal regulations require full compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act by 1997. Now that SCAT is transitioning delivery of the TD paratransit program from Coastal to SCAT, the transit agency must begin registering eligible clients and phasing in ADA complementary paratransit service. SCAT should follow its plan for complying with the six eligibility criteria outlined in the federal regulations (service area, response time, fares, trip purposes hours and days of service, and capacity constraints). XVll

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26. Establish eligibility requirements for TD/ ADA service. Experience elsewhere in Florida has indicated that the initial eligibility requirements promulgated for 1D service or ADA service often are the difference between success and failure. Overly generous eligibility standards can swamp the transit sYStem and result in poor and irregular service for those who need it most. 27. Refine TD goals with the Local Coordinating Board. The goal-setting process undertaken by SCAT for this 1DP was successful in obtaining public input and building goals from the ground up. The 1D goals established by the Local Coordinating Board might be revisited in order to make them more representative of a community vision for this service. 28. Continue to encourage the vanpool program. There are not a great number of recommendations with regard to SCATs vanpool program, because it is obviously very successful. Vanpools are ideal in serving major employment sites which are not centrally located, such as the Kennedy Space Center. This program should receive continued monitoring, support and marketing among potential employers and vanpoolers. 29. Consider the feasibility of a regional commuter assistance program. As noted in this report, carpooling has a potentially greater market than vanpooling, because carpools are generally easier to form. The lessons of the past twenty years include the facts that carpooling will not happen by itself, and that commuter assistance programs (CAPs) are needed. Florida is embarking upon a major effort in this field. This is a natural area in which the expertise gathered through the vanpool program can be expanded. SCAT should be heavily involved in any consideration of a CAP for Brevard County. 30. Consider the feasibility or purchasing new rideshare matching software. The current matching system is inadequate. SCAT should explore the possibility of purchasing new rideshare matching software, either on its own or in conjunction with any proposed regional commuter assistance program. xviii

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Actions to Be Initiated over the Neit" Ohe to Two Years 31. Establish regular service to County. Residents south of Palm Bay . have limited mobility. SCAT should provide additional1D service or a regularly-scheduled fixed-route bus (one or two times per week) to the communities in southern Brevard County. 32. Conduct an in-depth study of new llxed routes after one year of operation. A year's time is sufficient for the new routes established in December 1993 to have built up a ridership base. A study utilizing the performance measures developed in recommendation 13 should be conducted in the winter of 1994-1995. Results should be used to modify these routes as needed. 33. Examine TD demand to identifY clusters which might be served by rlXed route. Fixed route service, if well-utilized, is less costly to provide than TD service. The fact that SCAT operates both services (except for Medicaid paratransit service) affords opportunities to shift passengers from a more costly to a less costly mode, where feasible. 34. Conduct a full survey of llxed-route service, including on-ofT counts by bus stop. The survey will provide valuable information regarding origins and destinations of current riders. The data gathered will be useful in implementing several of the following recommendations. 35 Improve service frequency on the busiest bus routes. More frequent service in areas where demand is heaviest will enable transit-dependent passengers to travel more easily and will attract choice riders. One or two routes should be selected, on a trial basis, for improved frequency. 36. Improve service coverage In transit-dependent areas. As shown in the census tract analysis, in which transit service was compared to the distribution of the transit-dependent population, there are areas of the county that appear to need additional service. SCAT should determine appropriate options, including rerouting and route extensions, and implement changes to provide better service to those who need it most. xix

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37. Begin Medicaid bus pas s program. When fixed-route service is expanded, consider providing monthly bus passes to persons who are Medicaid-eligible and requiring them to use fixed-route service for their appointments instead of more costly paratransit services. Persons with two or more Medicaid appointments during a month who can use ftxed route service should be targeted. 38. Begin a park-and-ride lot program. Efforts are currently underway to identify suitable la<:ations for park-and-ride Jots to serve as a transfer point from automobiles to buses or as a staging area for vanpools These efforts should be continued, and a pilot program undertaken to construct and operate at least one park-and-ride lot. Ultimately, such lots could be a central point for TD shuttles operating to and from the passenger's home, a nd passengers who were able could transfer to fixed-route service. 39. Consider the best fit for SCAT within Brevard County's organizational structure. As transit increasingly becomes part of the community, it may be appropriate to reloca t e SCAT from the Human Services Department to elsewhere in the county organization, or even to elevate it to a separate department. The TDP does not offer a recommendation on this issue, but does stress the need to keep the various elements of transit service (fixed-route, TD and vanpool) together in one division. This ensures that coordination take place and avoids duplication of service and organizational struggles over which department is to provide certain types of service. Given the interrelated nature of SCAT's current service (e.g., buses used for subscription TD service in the morning hours). this organizational unity for transit is essential. 40. Implement express bus service. Express buses could operate in conjunction with park and-ride lots to serve longer-distance trips within the county. The focus groups suggested that there is interest in this type of service, particularly to major destinations such as Merritt Square Mall and possibly Government Center. 41. Conduct a marketing campaign highlighting destinations reachable via transit. As service is impro ved, it is important to get information out to the public on ways to use transit . XX

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42. Print a transit book containing a systemwide map, individual route maps and ... .:. schedules, and information on all modes. The route brochures SCAT has produced have been very well received, but a single source information on the system as a whole would be useful. Information on 1D service and thC; vanpool program is also appropriate for this type o 43. Arrange for a bus system map and TD/vanpool information to be included In the telephone directocy ror Brevard County. This is an easy way to make information on the transit system available to the general public in their homes. 44. Examine the possibility of operating a beach trolley along AlA, possibly connecting with other SCAT service. Other systems in Florida have had success with a rubber-tired beach trolley. Service is provided free or at a reduced fare, with the private sector and/or the localities contributing to the operating cost. A beach trolley could make it easier for tourists to get around without requiring an automobile. 45. Pursue a dedicated funding source, possibly portion of the local option gas tax. SCAT Is underfunded compared to other transit systems in Florida and the Southeast. A dedicated local funding source would place SCAT's finances on a firm footing and permit service improvements to be made. Local funding can also be leveraged as a match to federal grants and assistance, resulting in additional money for Brevard County. 46. Examine heavily traveled corridors for potential fixed-route service. As discussed in the alternatives and reflected in the recommendations so far, the primary focus over the near term is for SCAT to improve its existing service. At the same time, however planning should be undertaken to determine the feasibility of various candidate corridors for increased service in the later stages of the fiveyear plan. 47. Establish and/or work closely with a commuter asslstance program (CAP), if deemed feasible. Recommendation 29 above suggested that the potential for a regional CAP be examined. If there is merit in such a program, then SCAT should be active in its implementation, possibly as an expansion of the vanpool program. xxi

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48. Become more involved in the review process for infrastructure improvements (e.g., sidewalks) In the county and the cities. Decisions regarding infrastructure are often made without regard to trans it needs. SCAT should be involved in reviews to ensure that appropriate infrastructure and street furniture are avai lable along streets on which its bus routes operate. 49. Increase the transit agency's Involvement In land use development and the comprehensive planning process. Land use patterns have a major impact on tbe effectiveness of a transit system. Neotraditional planning and transit-oriented development are some of the recent concepts affecting the design of subdivisions and large developments. The new town of Viera is based on many of these principles. SCAT should seek to become involved in the review of land use and development plans so that it can offer its views on elements that help transit to work effectively. An appropriate pilot project in this area is for SCAT to be involved in the Viera West transit management plan o n an ongoing basis. SO. Evaluate SCAT's organization and staffing needs. Among the immediate recommendations are new marketing and TD positions. Many of the recommendations in this section suggest a possible need for adwtional planning personnel. The need for an assistant to the Executive Director should also be considered. 51. Apply for Federal Seclion 8 planning funds. SCAT currently receives no Section 8 funds for planning purposes. Such funds can be used to support add iti onal planning staff as well as to pay for planning-related studies like many of those recommended in this TDP. Currently, these transit funds are used by the MPO Planning Staff. 52. Review the route numbering scheme used for bus routes. There may be a more logical scheme which makes i t easier for potential riders to identify where a bus goes (e.g., routes starting with a certain number serve a particular pan of the county, numbers ending in zero connect wfferent pans of the county). XXll

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Actions to Be Initiated over the Next Three to Five Years 53. Provide Saturday service. Saturday be instituted on a few routes at first, and clearly on a trial basis. ADA requires that complementary service also be provided. Routes oriented toward shopp ing and social trips are the best initial candidates for Saturday service. 54. Provide fixed-route service earlier in the morning, during the peak commute period. Most of SCAT's buses are used for TD subscription service up until 8:30 or 9:00 a.m., and then are used on the fixed routes. The morning peak hours form an important part of t he service day for most transit systems. As SCAT evolves, the need for earlier service on the fiXed-route system will be more compelling. SS. Provide later afternoon/evening s ervice. As in the morning, most SCAT buses are used for TD subscription service in the afternoon peak hours. Routes serving Government Center in Viera operate until 5:00 p.m., and the recently-inaugurated beach route serving Cocoa Beach continues to provide service past 6:00 p.m. Many speakers at the public meeting expressed frustration with the inability to attend evening social events because of SCAT's limited service hours At a minimum, late afternoon service should be provided on SCAT routes, and the possibility of evening service should be explored 56. Expand service to new areas. In the later years of the time frame covered by the TDP, expanded fixed-route service will be considered. The planning studies undertaken in the earlier years should provide an indication of areas where new routes are warranted. Speakers at the public meetin g mentioned Palm Bay and intercity service within t he county as perceived service needs. 57. Purchase additional vehicles. These will be needed to provide additional s ervice. 58. Examine service to employment sites and oriented to the work commute. Peakperiod morning and afternoon service is most likely to be used by workers traveling to and from their jobs. Current routings and potential new routes to employment sites should be examined, keeping in mind that vanpools continue to serve this market very well. xxiii

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59. Address zone problems with TD servlte when the VA Hospital opens. The new VA hospital in Viera is expeaed to be a major trip generator for ID-eligible and ADA-eligible persons. SCAT will need to review service parameters to ensure that these persons are well served. 60. Consider provision of weekend service on a demand-response basis Instead of operating fixed routes on Saturday and Sunday, the possibility of using SCAT vans to provide demand-response service should be explored. This may be particularly appropriate for Sunday service. 61. Study the possibility or reorienting the fixed routes into a grid system. A grid system provides good north-south and east-west service, with transfers avai lable at places where routes cross. A grid network also increases t he availability of the bus in many parts of the service a rea. It is generally mos t appropriate when there is a fairly high level of system usage, and thus must be evaluated carefully before being implemented in Brevard County. These recommendations are intended to help SCAT realize its vision of enhancing the mobility of Brevard County residents who need or want to use a comprehensive transit service. As SCAT moves into the future, it will undoubtedly encounte r all kinds of different scenarios that cannot be realistically forecast. It is anticipated that the plan will be updated on an annual basis to account for changing conditions. These recommendations constitute the current plan of action for improving public transportation in Brevard County. XXIV

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Study Area Setting Chapter 1 Iutroduction Brevard County is unique in tenns of its geographic setting and demographic profile. The county encompasses several major bodies of water: the Banana Ri v er, the Indian River, and the St. Johns River, in addition to its Atlantic coast boundary The length of the county is extensive; from north to south it is approximately 70 miles long and only 20 miles wide. This distinctive geography is one factor that has influenced the uneven growth pattern in the county Most of the population is scattered throughout the county except for several dense pockets that elrist in the northern, central, and southern areas These major population and growth centers include Titusville located at the far north end, Cocoa and Cocoa Beach in the central area, and Melbourne and Palm Bay at the southern end of the county. Brevard County experienced a 46 percentage increase from its 1980 population of272,959 to a total population of398,978 in 1990 However, there are only two municipalities with populations over 50,000. The southern cities of Palm Bay and Melbourne have populations of 62 ; 632 and 59,646, respectively This distnoution of population reflects the low density of the county In contrast, the maJor employment centers in Brevard County are highly concentrated. The three major employment centers (the Space Center, Patrick Air Force Base, and Melbourne/Palm Bay) have contnouted to the uneven growth experienced during the past decade. Most of the residential and employment growth continues to occur in the south as a result of the rapid expansion of the electronics market. Meanwhile, the other areas of the county have experienced a slower rate of growth since 1990 Aside from its permanent population, Brevard County bas a significant tourist industry that should not be ove rlooked when examining transit service According to the Brevard County Tourist Development Council, a total of 1.2 miUion touris ts visited the county in 1993. This unique set of in Brevard County: the unusual geography, the low population density, the high employment concentration and the considerable distance between urban centers, 1

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has contributed to a development pattern which in essence divides the county into three distinct regions. As previously referenced, they are in general terms: the northern region; the central region which includes the mainland, Merritt Island; and the central beaches, and the southern region These factors along with the rapid southern growth, and a significant tourist industry present an exceptional challenge in the delivery of transit services. The following section highlights population characteristics of the county as a means of analyzing tbe transportation conditions and needs within the county 2

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BREVARD COUNTY DEMOGRAPHICS .. ,. This section summarizes demographic and ll!:B!Ititnic data for Brevard County. Specific demographic chanicteristics related to potential trattsit use are presented. All data were obtai n ed from the 1990 and 1980 Census ofPopulation and Housing. Figures 1-A through 7-A, referenced in this section are presented in Appendix A. Population and Population Density Table 1 displays population, population growth, and population density for Florida and Brevard County Brevard County hall relatively low population density compared to the State. Table 2 shows population and population density for the five most populous census tracts in Brevard County The population densities fur the county by tract can be seen in Figure 1 -A, with red showing the densest tracts. The densest tract i s number 668 with 6,560 persons per square !nile. Most of the county has fewer than 2,500 persons per square mile. However along the Indian Ri ver in the southern portion of the county, the density increases Specifically, in the three cities of Melbourne, Titusville and Cocoa Beach the densities are the highest within the county Generally, high population density is more conducive to transit use. Population growth for the county from 1980 to 1990 was almost 50 percent, or an increase of 1 26,019 people. Because new census tracts have been added, it is not possible to provide growth data for all census tracts in the county Table 1 Population and Population Density 3

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Table 2 Tract P o pu lation and Popula ti on Density 713.31 NW Palm Ba 13 627 I 198 .39 621.01 PSJ-Port St. John 13 002 I 153. 85 652.32 Micco 9376 189.29 631 Roclde e!Vierra 9 325 596 18 641.22 North Melbourne (Eau 7,949 2,361.27 Gallie P opu l ati on Age C h arac teri stics Table 3 shows age group percentages for the county and Fl orida. Brevard County is within +/I 0 percent of the State figure s e x cept for t h e age category of 60 years and over In this category they are 1.3 percent less than the State percentage. Table 4 shows the tracts that have greater than 30 percent concentrations of the age group 0-17 years Table 5 shows tracts that have greater than 35 percent of the age group 60 years and over Age groups on both ends of the scale are of significant inter est in regard to transit use because the young and the elderly often do not have adequate acces s to automobiles and therefore rely more on public transportation Tract 668, with 42.7 percent of the populati o n under 18 years of age, has the highest proportion o f persons in this age category in the cou nty T his cen sus tract i s also amo n g the most dense in the county and is located along the Atlantic Ocean in the Melbourne Beach area. Tract 652.32 has the highest proportion of p e rsons age 60 and over (66.4 percent). This census tract is located in the south e astern comer of the county along the Indian River. Figure 2-A shows the percentages of persons over age 60 by census tract T racts with high concen t rations of elderly are shown in gray 4

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The highest percentage of persons in the age group 25-44 are located in the suburban portion of the three previously mentioned cities Wrthin the county as a whole, the age group 25-44 comprises the largest percentage of the population (31.5 pe)tt\if Brevard Florida 713 31 NWPalmBay Table3 Populatio n Age Charac t eristics for B revard C o u nty and Florida 21 .9% 8.6% 31.5% 10.4 5.4% 22. 1% 9.2% 30.5% 10.1 4 .5% Table4 Po pul atio n Age Characteristics 30.4% 5 22.3% 23.6% 40.1% 35 .0%

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Transportation Disadvantaged Population Chapter 427 of the Florida Statues defines transportation disadvantaged (TD) persons as : ... those perscns who because of physical or mental disability, income status, or age are unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportation and are, therefore, dependent upon others to obtain access to health care, employment, education, shopping, social activities, or children who are handicapped or high-risk or at risk as defined ins. 411.202." The Florida Coordinated Transportation System (FCTS) serves two population groups. The first group, referred to in this report as the Category I TD population, includes disabled, elderly, and lowincome persons, as well as children who are "high-risk" or "at-risk." These Category I persons are eligible for trips that are subsidized by social service or other governmental agencies. The second population group, referred to as the Category II TD population, includes those persons who are transportation disadvantaged according to the definition in Chapter 427 (i.e., they are unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportation). Members of this population, a subset of the Category I population, are eligible to receive the same subsidies as Category I persons plus the y are eligible to receive TD Trust Fund monies for trips that are not subsidized by a social service or other governmental agency. Table 5 presents information on the TD population for the county and shows the number of persons and the percentage of total county population in both categories. TD data are 1994 estimates derived from the CUTR publication "Florida Five Year Transportation Disadvantaged Plan," June 1992. Brevard Coun Table 5 1994 Transportation Disadvantaged Population by Group 45,235 74,640 TD Category ILow la
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Income Characteristics Table 6 shows the distribution of the county and in Florida. Brevard County has a lower percentage ofhouseholds with income under $20,000 compared to the state percentages. Also, Brevard County has a higher percentage of households with income above $40,000, compared to the State. Table 7 provides information on the census tracts with concentrations of 30 percent or more households with incomes less than $10,000. Income is an important factor in determining usage of conventional public transit systems. In general, low-income persons rely more on the public transit system for mobility and access to jobs, shopping and entertainment. In Brevard County there are only five census tracts where 30 percent of the households have an annual income below $10,000 as shown in Table 7. These tracts are predominantly located along the Indian River in the three major cities in the county. Median income for the county is $30,534. Figure 3-A shows the percentage of households with annual income below $10,000. Tracts with a high concentration of low-income households are shown in red Table 6 Household Income Distribution Brevard 11.8% 18.4% 18.9% 15.7% 12.00/o 23.3% Florida 15.1% 20.1% 18.8% 14.8% 20.8% 7

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Table 7 Income Characteristics for Brevard County 608 Titusville 47.7% 626 Cocoa 46.6% 649.02 41.3% Melbourne 607 Titusville 35 .0% 648 Melbourne 31.3% Vehicle Availability Table 8 presents the distribution of vehicle availability among households in Brevard County and Florida. Table 9 includes census tracts where at least 20 percent of households do not have a vehicle available. In Brevard County only 5 percent of households do not own a vehicle. This is much le ss than the Florida average (9 percent). Figure 4 A shows concentrations of households with no vehicles available by census tract. The only tract with more than 40 percent of households with no vehicle available is Tract 608 in the Northern part of the County, and is shown in red Almost all of the tracts within the county have at least one vehicle available The three major cities have census tracts where there are concentrations of households with no vehicle available, but the suburban population generally has access to automobiles. The census tracts where no vehicle is available are in areas with concentrations oflow-income households 8

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Employment Characteristics Table 8 Vehicle Availability 5% 38% 41% 9% 41% Table 9 Vebide Availability 23.4% 15% Ta b le 10 displays the percentage of the population 16 years and over in the labor force and the percentage of the tabor force who are employed (non-military). The percentage ofBrevard County workers in the labor force (62 percent) is slightly higher than the State percentage (61 percent). 9

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Brevard Trave l to Work Table 10 Employment Characteristics 61.9% 94.3% Table II shows work locations and the extent of intercounty commuting for Brevard County Table 12 shows census t racts within the county where greater than 50 percent o f the labor force worked within the central city. Th e majority of the labor force (53 percent) works in the suburbs, while a significant minority ( 42 percent) works in the central cities. Census tract 647, located in Melbourne, has the highest percentage (66. 1 percent) of central city workers in the county Table 11 Work Commu ting Patterns .. .. ., ' ". > ; . .. .,_ i n . Worked .. "' :r,. ...; .. < in Outside the :Centr al v. .. > _.,<;;. ,.., :it\i countv ; . i .. . Suburbs Brevard 41.8% 53.0"/o 5.3% County 10

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Table 12 Work Commuting Pattern 644 Melbourne 51.0% 641.21 West ofMelboume 50.1% Travel Time to Work Table 13 presents the distribution of travel time to work for Brevard County and Florida. The majority of Brevard County residents have work trip commutes ofless than twenty minutes. Only 25 percent ofBrevard County residents have work trips of thirty minutes or more, compared to 30 percent ofFiorida residents. Table 14 shows travel time to work for tracts with travel time greater than twenty-five minutes. Figure 5-A shows average travel time for census tracts. All three census tracts with average travel time greater than twenty-five minutes are located in the western suburban areas of the county II

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Brevard Table 13 Travel Time to Work 17% 3S% 23% Table 14 Travel Time 713 32 SW Palm B a 712 St. John's River area 711 St. John s River area 26.7% 26.4% 2S.8% Means of Travel to Work IS% 10% Table IS shows workers' means of transportation to work U se of public transportation for the jowney to work is very low in B r evard County. The overwhelming majority of workers are driving alone Table 16 shows carpoolingfvanpooling and public transportation use in Brevard County. Figure 6-A shows percentages of workers using carpools/vanpools with high concentrations displayed in pink. The census tract with the highest percentage of carpoolers (24 percent) is located in Melbourne along the Indian River. Figure 7-A shows percentages of workers using public transportation with high concentrations shown in red. Census tract 627 has the highest percentage of public transit use (6 percent). This tract is located in Cocoa along the Indian River 12

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Table 15 Means of Travel to Work 80. 6% 13.0% 0.3% 2 1% 4.00/o Table 16 Means of Travel to Work 23 8% 627 Cocoa 5.5% 23.00/o 608 Titusville 3.6% 3.4% 625 WCocoa 22.3% 685 2 .6% River 21.6% 20. 1% 13

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SPACE COAST AREA TRANSIT ON BOARD SURVEY ANALYSIS This section summarizes the results of the Space Coast T ransit Agency (SCAT) on-board survey of fixed-route bus rider conducted by the transit agency in the summer of 1993. Information obtained from this survey includes trip purpose data, rider' perception and rider demographics The data will be used in long-range plan updates, route p lanning and marketing efforts Overview oftbe Space Coast Area Transit System During the period of this survey SCAT operated 11 buses on 10 routes serving Brevard County. In 1992, SCAT provided 114,865 trips on its fixed-route service. Survey Methodology The SCAT on-board survey was designed to elicit descriptive information outlining the characteristics and traits of SCAT customers. The characteristics and traits outlined are both travel related and demographic A question rating the fixed-route service was also included. Greater knowledge of existing customers wiU enable SCAT to focus on relevant transit needs and issues. A large sample" estimate of the number of surveys was made from an estimate of the daily users from SCATs 1992 ridership statistics. ruder data was then screened and stratified by service route Bus trips were selected for surveying by random means at the discretion of the survey taker, with attention given to cost-effective assignment of the survey personnel. In addition, several of the route were surveyed on multiple days to insure a variety of sample respondents and minimize group survey biases. In order to eliminate regional biases within the county, the number of surveys on each route was proportional to the route's ridership total. Survey administration was carried out by two survey takers during the period from July 1993 to September 1993. The survey taker first established that the rider had not been previously surveyed. The respondents were then asked if they would like to fill out the survey themselves o r would prefer to have the survey taker complete the form. 14

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SCAT On-Board Survey Analysis The SCAT on-board survey analysis is &l information, travel behavior, and user perceptions of the service. Each section provides information that will be useful in improving the performance and service of SCAT. Demographic data collected in the SCAT survey include age, gender household income, number of vehicles in the rider's household, and whether the rider possessed a driver license. This demographic information identifies current market characteristics of SCAT riders and may also be used to determine how this market segment has changed over time. Travel behavior includes items such as trip purpose, duration and frequency of use. This information contributes to effective scheduling and general policy decisions. From the demographic and travel behavior characteristics, a statistical ridership profile can be determined for SCAT patrons. This profile will enable SCAT to pinpoint specific market characteristics and segment which are useful for the implementation of marketing strategies. SCAT System Profile -Demographic Information A number of questions were asked of patrons in order to establish a demographic profile of the typical SCAT patron. Demographic-related questions include age, gender, and household income. Each of these questions is briefly discussed, and the responses are presented in graphic form. Figure 8 shows demographic information for SCAT riders and Figure 9 shows demographic comparisons between SCAT and Brevard County. Age-As Figure 8 illustrates, over70 percent of the respondents are over the age of 60. The greatest concentration (40 percent) falls within the 60 to 70 age group. Only 20 percent of Brevard County in the similar age group ( 60 to 69), as can be seen in Figure 9 In the Census data, age categories begin with the 0 year and end with the 9 year (e g., 60 to 69, as opposed to 61 to 70 in the same analysis), but the ranges are similar enough to afford reasonable comparisons. The survey also showed the 7 percent of the respondents are over the age of 80. The results travel that 70 percent of SCAT riders are elderly. Younger riders make up the rest of SCAT passengers surveyed, 15

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with only 25 percent within the age of3 I and 60. Only 4 percent of the respondents are under 30, while 27 percent of Brevard County residents are in this age group. Gender Systemwide more women use SCAT service than men. Seventy-eight percent of the survey respondents are female, while only 22 percent are male This typical of findings on gender for other transit systems. The gender split for Brevard County is 49 percent male and 51 percent female Household Income The survey results show that over 52 percent of the respondents would be considered to be low income (household income under $ 15,000), compared to only 20 percent of county residents. In addition, 28 percent of the survey respondents reponed incomes between $15,000 and $19,000, compared to 9 percent for Brevard County. Of all the riders surveyed, only 12 percent have incomes over $30,000. Vehicle Ownership -One-third of the survey respondents indicate owning at least one vehicle, while 67 percent repon not owning a vehicle. This suggests that a large ponion of SCAT patrons are "transit captives" typical of a conventional bus system. For Brevard County as a whole, only 5 percent of households do not own a vehicle. Possession ofPriver LicenseThiny-five percent of survey respondents are licensed drivers while 65 percent do not have a driver's license Summary of SCAT and Brevard County Demographic Comparisons Comparison between SCAT users and the Brevard County population are sh own in Figure 9 Table 17 provides data for Brevard County in four demographic categories. SCAT riders are more likely than county residents to be female and to be over 60 years of age. Demographic categories underrepresented in SCAT riders includes persons under the age of40. SCAT riders are much less likely to own a vehicle. Finally, transit riders have significantly lower incomes than county residents. 16

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Age Figures SCAT Demographics Under 11 11 to 20 21 to 30 31 to 40 41 to 50 51 to 60 61 to 70 71 to 80 81 and over Oo/o 1 Oo/o 20% 30% 40% 50% Gender Vehicle Ownership Household Income Less than $5,000 $5,000-$9,999 $10,000.$14,999 $15,000.$19,999 $20,000-$24,999 $25,000-$29,999 $30,000-$39,999 $40,000-$49,000 Over $50,000 0% 1 Oo/o 20% 30% 40% Driver's License 17

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T a bl e 1 7 Demograp hi c C omp arison of SCAT Riders wit h Brevard County F ''i iff; \.: p 'tfi,' t 6 < a 01'1,\\ .; ; t"!F' ;_::;;;1/:i ::J, " ", :tq, __ ' """ <**-';B ...... ; ""* y { Gender M ale 22% 49% Female 78% 51% Age I 0 year s or und e r 0% 12.8% II to 20 year s 1.7"/o 12.8% 21 to 30 years 1.7% 3 .7% 31 t o 40 year s 5.()"/o 16.3% 41 to 50 years 11.8% 118% 51 to 60 years 8.4% 10.3% 61 to 70 year s 40.4% 117% 71 to 80 year s 23.5 % 7 .8 % 81 years or m o re 7 .6% 2 .7"/o V e hicl es in Household N one 6 7 % 5% On e or more 33% 9 5 % Hous eho l d Inc ome $4,99 9 t o less 10.1% 4.4% $5,000 t o $ 9 ,999 32.8% 7.4% $10 000 to $14,999 9 .2% 8 .9"/o $15,000 t o $ 19,999 28.6 % 9.5% $ 2 0,000 to $24 999 4 .2% 9 .7% $ 2 5,000 to $ 2 9 ,999 2 .5% 9.2% $30,0 0 0 to $39,999 5 .0% 15.7% $40,000 to $49,999 2 5% 12.0% $ 50,000 t o above 5 .0% 23 ,2% Pos sess i o n o f Drivers License Y es 3 5 % NIA N o 6 5 % N/A 18

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Flgure9 SCAT. & BJ,eyard County Demograpftlc Comparisons Under 11 11 to 20 2110 30 311o 40 411o 50 5110 60 61 to 70 71 to 80 81 and over .SCAT 1111!1 Brevard Counly 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% SCAT Brevard County Gender Female 51% Household Income Less than $5,000 $5,000-$9,999 $10,000-$14,999 $15,000-$19,999 $20 ,000-$24,999 $25,000-$29,999 SCAT $30,000-$39,999 llllill Brevard County $40,000-$49,000 Over $50,000 0% 1 Oo/o 20% 30% 40% SCAT Vehicle Ownership 19 Yes 95% No 5% Male 49%

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SCAT System ProfileTravel Behavior Frequency ofUseForty-eight percent of the r espondents use SCAT daily and 45 percent ride the bus on a weekly basis Only 7 percent use the bus less than once per week, as shown in Figure I 0. Duration ofUse-As can be seen in Figure 10, 41 percent of SCAT riders may be characterized as long time users, (4 years or more). Forty-three percent have been using SCAT less than one year, representing new riders. Rider Trip Pumose Figure II shows that 53 percent of the respondents report the purpose of their trip to be shopping Twenty-five percent indicate work as the purpose of their trip. The remaining 22 percent state the purpose of their trip as medical, social, personal or school. SCAT System Profile -Rider Perception Quality of Service-SCAT's service received very favorable rating, with over 75 percent rat i ng the service as either very good or good. As can be seen in Figure 12, 51 percent of the riders surveyed rate the service as very good and 25 percent of the respondents rate the service good. A fair rating was given by 18 percent of the respondents, with only 6 percent rating the service as poor or very poor. 20

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Flgure 10 Frequency / Length of SCAT Use Frequency of SCAT Use Dolly 48% 7to8 8% LKS 4 % Monthly 3% Weekly 45% Years Using SCAT 21 Less than 1 16%

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Figure 11 SCAT Trip Purpose Work Shopping Medical Social Personal School Other 0% 10% 20% 30% 40%. 600/o 22

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Ve
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SCAT OPERA TOR SURVEY Bus operators are an invaluable source of infonnation on the day to day operations of any transit system Surveys were distributed to all operators by SCAT management. Results of the survey are discussed below A copy of the operator survey and the full survey results are contained in Appendix C A total of 11 surveys were returned by operators The most frequent complaints received by the operators from passengers concerned bus routes (not going where the patrons wanted), the lack of Saturday and Sunday service infrequent service, and unclear, confusing bus schedules Lack of evening and morning service and difficulty in obtaining information also appeared, but to a lesser extent. By and large, the operators viewed the passenger complaints as valid When asked to rate possible improvements the bus operators expressed a preference for the installation of bus stop signs. Second ly, operators stated the need for better route and schedule information Additional time in the schedules, operation of weekend service, and installation of bus shelters at bus stops also ranked high. Five operators stated that there were no safety problems. No specific safety problems were mentioned by more than one operator Route 8 was tbe only route mentioned by more than one driver as having a schedule prob lem. Several routes were mentioned once. Drivers responded that night service was not necessary (by a margin of 7 to 4), and that Saturday service was necessary (by a margin of 6 to 4). Operators were evenly split on the issue of Sunday service. Seven of the eleven drivers stated that they felt their input is valued by administrative personnel. The operators were evenly divided on how they envisioned SCAT evolving. Statements included offering more door-to-door service, becoming a smaller scale LYNX (Orlando) transit system and moving more people where they want to go. 24

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Responding to the question on what can be done to encourage drivers to be customer-se rvice oriented the operators stated equally that most di:ivers already are, and that written guidelines and better training would help. Other comirieirtS'iricluded making the drivers "ride" the bus, offering refresher training classes and putting more time into the schedules to give drivers the opportunity to answer patrons questions. 25

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INTERVIEWS WITH KEY LOCAL OFFICIALS Background The examination of public perception and opinion of transit service is an integral component of the planning process for preparing a transit deve l opment plan. The community's view of transit can provide insight in detennining if agency goals and objectives match the citizens' expectations of public transportation In addition, the manner i n which transit and related transportation issues are viewed can strongly influence whether they are considered a local policy priority. Important to this process is how community leaders view the system, as they are most often the conduit for pubic opinion and responsible for policy formulation and funding. The Space Coast Area Transit (SCAT) Agency identified key local officials and community leaders to interview. I n March of 1994 CUTR conducted a total of eleven interviews with individuals representing cross section oflocal interests which included the human services sector, the business community, the defense industry, local government, and elected officials. This section provides a synopsis of the interviews conducted with key local officials in which their impressions of the current transit service i n Brevard County were discussed The summary is outlined in the following three topics: perceptions, improvements, and policy issues. Perceptions The comment most consistently expressed by those interviewed was that SCAT is perceived as a special service provider and is not intended to be a 'traditional' transit system for use by the general public. For the most part, the system is characterized as a service for the transportation-dependent: those who have no other means of transportation; the elderly and person with disabilities. This perception of a segmented ridership was one of the two major themes that underlined most of the discussions; the second was accessibility and convenience of the system While the interest in transit has increased as some citizens, specifically the elderly have expressed their willingness to pay for the service if provided, the public's awareness of the current operating system remains very low. Most respondents noted that some people are aware that a bus system exists; however, they have little knowledge of where the routes run or how to access the system 26

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Consequently, SCAT appears to be less responsive to the needs of those in the general community who would use transit as a choice rather than out of necessity. It was noted that SCAT's current efforts to heighten awareness of the sysWili and mural buses; and the redesigned routes with new easier to read color coded route maps are all steps in the right direction. As mentioned in one interview "image can go a long way in promoting a system These improvements are the results of public meetings conducted by SCAT as part of the Brevard County Government's Total Quality Management initiative that focuses on the citizen as the customer. When convenience and reliability of the system were discussed, the geography of the county was frequently mentioned The general opinion held by those interviewed was that the county, in fact, consists of three separate and distinct regions: Titusville to the north, Merritt Island, Cocoa and the beaches as the central region; and Melbourne/Palm Bay as the south region. The general consensus was that the transit system has not taken into account the unique geography or the polarized urban development of the county. The result has been a system that is time consuming and confusing to use; particularly when travelling to the different urban areas of the county It was pointed out that travelling north to Titusville or south to Melbourne or Palm Bay is a comp l ex undertaking. Here again, it was mentioned that increased dissemination of route information would assist in alleviating some of the confusion associated with the routes. "The current routes do not take people where they want to go or get them there in a timely manner is how one interviewee summed up the present service. The staggered operating hour of the buses makes travel difficult to coordinate and the likelihood of being stranded for an extended period is perceived as very high. Other transit related issues were also discussed during the interviews. Most interviewees felt t hat the current fares ($1.00 for the general public, and $0.50 for elderly/handicapped) were appropriate for the service provided and did not preclude individuals from using the system. It was pointed out that in Melbourne the service is free and "they love it, especially Trinity Towers", which is a high rise with mostly elderly residents. Some respondents felt many of the elderly in the community would favor increased funding to the system if it was more responsive. However, they did not see much support for the idea in the greater community. Several stated that other cities should help subsidize the system. It should he noted that the City of Melbourne is the only city that currently supports the system with an annual contribution of $26 00; however, this is a decrease from contributions made in past years Also, the city of Palm Bay currently funds a portion of two summer bus routes 27

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Most of the respondents associated traffic congestion in Brevard County with peak time commuter traffic, special events, and road construction The level of impact of these factors fluctuate depending on tbe area of the county. While traffic congestion was generally perceived as not being the routine p roblem that is i n more urbanized areas, it was noted that congestion will become an important issue to address as the county continues to grow. Parking was not seen as a problem in the county, with the exception of the beaches. The installation of parking meters on Cocoa Beach was not viewed favorably among several of the interviewees; one thought it sent an unfriendly message to the tourists while another thought meters would only exacerbate parking problems Most of the respondents were familiar with Coastal Health Services, the company providing service for the transportation disadvantaged population in Brevard County It should be noted that at the time of the interviews, Coastal was about to transfer all TD service with the exception of Medicaid operations to SCAT. One participant observed that many transportation disadvantaged persons rely on family and friends as their first choice in meeting their mobility needs For the most part, Coastal is perceived as a service prim arily for Medicaid clients. The groups' general perceptions of TD service were very similar to those regarding the bus system. Most participants viewed the current transportation disadvantaged service as too limited in terms of the types of trips p rovided and the hours of operation. Their specific concern was that t he present TD service did not adequately address non-medical transportation needs such as transportation to employment, and evening and social outings Improvements The ideas for improvements to the system were varied and keenly reflected the respondents' perceived needs of their client base and constituency. Nearly all of the interviewees agreed that SCAT has accomplished a great deal in meeting the needs of the transit dependent with the limited amount of funds they receive. As noted in the discussion, "The money has been well spent addressing a population that really benefits from the system Most participants were of the opinion that t he county should not expand the current system, but attempt to reconfigure the existing routes into a more practical and convenient system for its present users (the elderly and transit dependent) by developing stronger linkages among the three county areas and convenient local routes. The general consensus was that only after the current shortcomings of the system are addressed should the county consider doing more in terms of route 28

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expansion. As one individual plainly stated, "market what you have." The minority view among respondents felt that the coumy should begin to look toward new ridership in the pre-teen, teen, beachgoers/tourist, and community coll.ege population. Those with expansionist views also expressed that the county should develop a long range plan for a mass transit link from the Space Port and cruise lines to the Orlando Airport. During the course ofthe discussions, many of the interviewees concluded that different levels and types of transit were needed for the northern, central, and southe m portions of the coumy. These specific needs of each area were discussed and several interviewees suggested that smaller buses that run more frequently on routes specially designed for each area of the county would greatly enhance the transit system. Overall, the interviewees agreed that SCAT should make improvements in system accessibility and heighten its marketing efforts so that in time, the system will attract more users. The discussions regarding system improvements inevitably led to comparisons between SCAT and the LYNX system operated in Orlando. The Orlando system was considered a"true" transit system by those interviewed. One of the top suggestions given for the SCAT system was to designate bus stops and erect bus stop signs. It was pointed out that LYNX has clearly defined routes that are color coordinated with the bus stops and signs. LYNX's strong marketing campaign was often cited as a model SCAT could borrow from to enhance its public outreach efforts. It was also suggested that SCAT consider a full-time marketing person to promote the system as it evolves. Other marketing suggestions included increasing dissemination of schedule and route information in each area of the county by using local newspapers and organizational newsletters as well as other electronic media. It was the general consensus of the interviewees that the Brevard County transit system is underutilized. Some of the respondents felt that SCAT should shift its focus from using the larger buses and take a lead role in the development and promotion of the park -and-ride program in conjunction with an expansion of the vanpool program. This was suggested as one method to alleviate commuter congestion in the area. Another recommendation was to use the vanpool program to enhance TD service in the county. One respondent suggested the use of small vans for non-medical trips that could serve as feeders from TD clients' homes to regular designated bus stops. 29

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The goals that were most often expressed by those interviewed pertained to making the existing system convenient, reliable, and safe for the passengers. More specific goals included the expansion of fixed routes where they would be utilized, compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), recovery of the fuUy allocated costs on social service contracts, an in-depth feasibility analysis of the transit routes, the development of more park-and-ride sites, and increased marketing. Policy Issues of Local Concern Several policy issues that extend beyond the transit realm such as the political and physical geography of Brevard County were also discussed. The concept of transit has received lukewarm support from local municipalities and even less in terms of financial support. As cited previously, only the cities of Melbourne and Palm Bay contnoute to the transit system. Critical to the future development of the system will be how the county and SCAT address the low level of financial support from local government. There is a consistent majority vote at the county level in favor of the current system; however; the amount of funds provided each year is fixed. In the past, it was difficult for SCAT get county general funds beyond the amount that was needed to meet its federal matching grant requirements. The approach taken at the county level has been to address most of the transportation concerns associated with the urban growth by earmarking funds for roadway development and expansion rather than allocate additional funds for the delivery of transit service. The result is that transportation infrastructure has by far overshadowed transit as a priority in the local funding process, and coordination efforts between the two are at best minimal. Space Coast Area Transit Agency has made recent gains with its first-time allocation of ad valorem tax dollars in 1994 This development was viewed as a positive step for the underfunded system. Nonetheless every year SCAT must go through what one interviewee described as the tin cup routine' to get its portion of the local option gas tax. The extensive length of the county along with other factors such as the rapid development experienced in the southern end, and the establishment of the governmental center west of Interstate 95 pose unique transit coordination issues for Brevard County. Most felt that the county transit policy was designed as a boilerplate approach for a countywide system which was never fully implemented and lacks long-range direction at the county level. It was evident from the general comments of the interviewees that the consequence of having little coordination and support for 30

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transit within the county has been the operation of a "fledgling" and fragmented system that, wi. tb the exception of the southern routes fails to address specific local needs. Interview Summary There were many suggestions provided by those interviewed as to how SCAT could enbance its transit service. Foremost were the suggestions to market the system aggressively to the public as a means of increasing non-users' awareness of the system. Most of the interviewees thought SCAT should focus on increasing its current ridership and not on expanding into other markets More information on the operating hours and schedules, the routes, and how to access the system is needed. Closely associated with the awareness of a transit system is the establishment of a physical presence, specifically the designation of bus stops with appropriate signage. The posting of signs is an important step toward developing a transit system that is recognizable and viewed as legitimate by the public. Others observed that greater coordination between the county and municipalities will be required to design routes that address local transit needs. Finally, local funding options or capital improvements to support transit service in the municipalities should also be explored by SCAT. 31

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FOCUS GROUPS WITH NON-USERS Background The purpose of conducting forums with individuals in the community who do not currently use the system is twofold. First, non-users represent the potential ridership market for a trans i t system. Con seque n tly, their opinions and observations can provide insight as to how the system is viewed within the general public and what enhancements might be considered to attract this audience. Secondly, these observations present an opportunity fo r the transit system to further assess its understanding of the community's transit needs. The focus groups are intended to provide qualitative infonnation regarding the system by facilitating open-ended discussion. Three daytime focus group sessions for non-users were conducted in Brevard County The first meet i ng was held March 15, 1994 in Cocoa Beach; the second on March 28, 1994 in Melbourne; and the third meeting was held April 7 1994 in T itusville. An evening focus group was scheduled for March I 4, 1994 in Cocoa Beach, but none of the invited participants was able to attend. As a result of this experience, no additional evening groups were scheduled The names of potential participants were randomly selected from the telephone directories of each area. Only those who had not used the transit system in the past year were invited to participate in the focus group meetings Each session provided valuable infonnation regarding the transit concerns and attitudes of non users. The discussion outline used to facilitate the sessions is presented in Appendix D Focm Group Assessments When asked why they do not use the transit system, the general consensus of the non-users was that SCAT does not take them where they wish to go on a relative time schedule with transfer convenience. As noted by one non-user the limited routes and 'banker's hours' of operat ion prompt concerns about being stranded. The participants characterized the system as unreliable due to irregular bus schedules and the sense that the buses often run late. Consequent ly, the non-users found i t more convenient to use their cars to run errands rather than spend time and effort determining how to use the bus to reach multiple destinations in a constrained time period. Several of the participants commented that very little infonnation is publicized about the schedules Quite a few had their own questions regarding the routes and where to access the system. The 32

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participants confided that their general lack of laiowledge regarding the schedules and routes was also a major reason why they did not use the system. Another impediment associated with using the system was the fact that there are no marked bilg iir transit signs advertising the system. Most of the participants surmised that while in their view transit information was not readily accessible, they could probably call tbe county if they needed :o<:bedule information. Not being able to make transfers was suggested as another barrier for not using the system. Several of the non-users stressed the importance of being able to transfer between the different routes They felt transfers were essential to system convenience, particularly for Brevard County because of the long distances between the urban centers. It was also recommended that the transfers could be sold for a modest fee. Others mentioned that there really are no incentives for those who own or have access to an automobile to use the system. Most observed that the level of congestion has not reached the point where drivers are seeking other modes of transportation. I n fact, one participant pointed out that the widening and construction of new roads in the county only further encouraged automobile use Most of the non-users mentioned they enjoyed the privilege of owning their car and being able to travel whenever they wished. As one participant stated, I don't use the bus system because I can still hop in my car and get as far north or south without running into a lot of congestion or having a parking problem. When I was in a large city, Washington D .C., it was more convenient to use public transportation Interestingly, these participants also strongly expressed the opinion that efforts should be made to reduce the number of single occupancy vehicles on the local roads. This is not an unusual attitude. In many communities, automobile drivers are likely to support transit for other people so that they can enjoy less congested roads. The prevalent opinion held by the non-users of the transit system is that SCAT is not a service for them and is not marketed with them in mind. Most characterized the present transit system as service for who do not have a choice'. Several of the non-users pointed out that SCAT needs to initiate an education program to reshape public views of the bus system if they wish to appeal 33

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to a larger audience. Advertising the schedule on a regular basis was considered the key to heightening non-users' awareness of the transit system. The general perception of the transit system by the non--users is that it is limited in scope in tenns of where it runs, when it runs, and how it runs. As a result, the system does not meet their travel needs In addition to this most of the non-users characterize the system as primarily a service for individuals who have no other means of transportation. Many of the participants agreed that some kind of measures were needed to reduce the number of vehicles on the roads and encourage more people to use the transit system. They also, expressed a willingness to use the system if it were made more convenient. Focus Group Suggestions The non-users viewed the lack of continuity in the daily operating hours of the buses as a major shortcoming in the existing transit system. Out of this discussion came the suggestion for the development of routes and schedules that correspond more closely with standard travelling hours as a means of making the system more convenient and attractive to non-users. Other convenience--related suggestions addressed the enhancement of routes. One of the non-users from the Titusville area suggested a central pick-up location (e.g. the Miracle City Mall), where people could board the bus for destinations in the southern and central parts of the county. The Merritt Square Mall was frequently suggested as a preferred stop by members in the Titusville and Melbourne focus groups. It was also pointed out by several of the non-users that in some areas of the county there is a desire to have express routes that link to other urban areas rather than extensive intra-city circulator routes. Another area suggested for improvement was marketing of the transit system. Most of the participants reported that the transit system has very little presence in the community. Several of the participants recommended using the weekly community papers to advertise the bus schedules and routes It was also recommended that SCAT utilize the public access cable channel and air public announcements. The non-users stressed the importance of having the route and schedule information presented clearly in a fonnat that would be easily understood. One non-user suggested a SCAT information number that could be used as a marketing tool whereby citizens would see the number posted on buses, in local papers, and on biUboards. 34

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. ... It was the general consensus of the participants that clearl y marked bus stops with route information were definitely needed and would assist in the marketing of the system. Several of tbe non-users mentioned the bus stop and route maps of the LYNX system in Orlando, as a good example of transit. However, most felt that the marketing efforts for Brevard County did not have t o be as extensive as the LYNX marketing campaign. Again, it was stressed during the discussion that the bus stop and route information must be clearl y identified and presented Focus Group S ummary For the most part, the reasons for not using the transit system stem from one major impediment: the lack of available transit information. Other perceived deterren t s to using the system include: inability to transfe r inconvenient routes inconsis tent operating hours undependable schedules confusing routes unreliable limited accessibility not a system for the general public It was the general consensus among the participants that corrective steps to address the critical areas of system reliability, con venience, and promotions would greatly enhance the current transit service and increase ridership on the system. Their specific recommendations included: bus stops with route information schedule and route continuity increase promotion/marketing-weekly papers, public access television and a transit information/hot line improve timeliness establish transfer system smaller buses focus on increasing ridership evaluare express routes instead of circulators 35

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ChapterZ Goals and Policy Objectives The identification of goals and objectives for a transit system is a fundamental step in the development of a Transit Development Plan ('IDP). This section summarizes the numerous policy issues identified in discussions CUTR held with community leaders, the Local Coordinating Board, (LCB), the TDP Advisory Board, transit staff; and the general citizenry The issues highlighted during the discussions constitute the policy core from which the proposed goals for SCAT were developed. The preliminary goals have been further supplemented with an examination of existing transit-related policies assembled from the Brevard County Comprehensive Plan. These other transit-related goals are presented in the final section of this report, along with a brief statement identifying where they are incorporated into the proposed goals and policy objectives for SCAT. These goals also will feed into the Coordinated Transportation Development Plan (CTDP), required by the Florida Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged. The aim of this strategic policy approach is to formulate a comprehensive set of goals and policy objectives that reflects the community's vision of transit in Brevard County as well as the existing transit policies. The proposed goals for SCAT are presented in the following section. SCAT Goals The proposed goals for SCAT are a result of a policy generation approach designed to solicit input from an array of community interests As previously mentioned, numerous interviews were conducted with key loc al officials and other transportation providers as part of this process. Comments from discussions with LCB members regarding SCAT's purpose were also considered. The information gathered from the focus group meetings held with t he public, specifically the comments of non-transit users, were incorporated as well. A goal-setting workshop conducted with the TDP Advisory Board, which has oversight responsib ilities for the development of this particular TDP, proved particularly helpful in the final summation of the proposed goals. In addition, staff members of SCAT were asked to provide input in the goal-setting process. 36

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The proposed goals focus on five interrelated policy areas that are inherent to an effective transit system. These include : Route structur e and accessibility Coordination Marketing Efficiency Accountability The proposed goals are presented in the foUowing tab l e along with their corresponding policy objectives. Each policy objective outlin ed in the table addresses, in a broad policy context, actions to be taken in order to achieve the st a ted goal Goa/1: To enban<:e the existing fixed route system, focuses on quality and !ICCCSSibility aspects of the system. The policy objectives under this goal address several of the major issues brought forth during discussions of the system, such as increasing the service span and the frequency of service and addressing work related travel needs. Goa/2: The second goal is to increase the level of service coo rdination. System coordination Is inherent to transportation p lanning. However, the level of coordination of SCAT's present routes merits closer investigation. Specific actions to be considered under this goal includ e the development of a grid system to serve multiple destinations throughout the county, as weU as the development of transfer facilities at busy central locations. Goal3: To intensify marketing efforts and increase the visibility of SCAT, can be considered the pivotal component of the proposed set of goals SCAT's physical and market p resen ce in Brevard County is very low. Policy objectives under thi s goal outline measures that are intended to increase aware:oess' of the transit sys tem in the community and in tum, increase ridership. The proposed key steps toward achieving this goal include: increasing the amount of publicized information, specifically for routes and schedules, establishing formal bus stops with shelters, and marketing transit to tourist and youth 37

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Goa/4: Focuses on improving the efficiency of the system. The objectives of this goal outline performance measures designed to ensure that service utilization is maximized while maintaining affordable passenger fares. The specific measures tbat SCAT should establisl! include: monitoring ridership and demand, and tracking on-time performance of vehicles. SCAT should also investigate methods to leverage local funding. The performance measures mentioned here represent monitoring and evaluating tools that provide the service information needed to manage a dynamic and diverse transportation system such as SCAT. GoalS: The fifth and final goal focuses on internal and external accountability issues related to the system. The policy objectives linked to internal issues addr ess areas sucb as compliance witb governmental regulations, the accuracy of co llected data, and timeliness of report/grant submittals. This goal also incorporates SCAT's responsibility to promote citizen participation in the transit planning process as weD as to develop policies that are consistent and complementary to community goals. The intent of this goal is extended to include efforts to work cooperatively with other local and regional planning entities to develop a truly coordinated transit system. The goals and policy objectives presented in this technical report reflect the strategic focus of the transit development plan and are purposely designed to address the broad concepts of transit system operation that were identified during the goal setting process. Consequently, the policy objectives range in their level of specificity. It is envisioned that these goals and objectives will provide the framework from which SCAT can develop definite measurable objectives. 38

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Goal 1 SCAT Goals Establish transit service as a viable transportation option in Brevard County Expand fixed route serviO. aha hours of operation, if need is established. Establish measures that advance SCA 'l's fixed route sm1oe as a \1able alternative to demand response service. Consider express bus routes. Examine redesigning certain routes and schedules to serve worl< commuters. En<:ourage Transportation Demand Management (TDM) measures such as park-and-ride Increase the level of system coordination Enhance the level of connectivity between the North/South and East/West routes by establishing a grid system. Consider Nortb/Soulh route configurations as feeders to expanded East/West routes. Integrate transit needs into the land use planning/development and permitting process. Establish fonnal tnnsfer cent ... nocations. Intensify marketing efforts and increase visibility of SCAT the availability of information regarding the routes and schedn l es through a formal marketing program. Consider lite placement of covered bus shell.,. at key locations. Promote community dforts. Consider marketing specialized routes e.g., besch routes for tourists. Marl
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Brevard County Local Coordinating Board Goals for 1994 Transportation Disadvantaged Program The Transportation Disadvantaged Program is an important element of the Transit Development Plan for Brevard County. In addition to developing long-range policy and planning efforts, this TDP is intended to serve as the Coordinated Transportation Development Plan (CTDP), as promulgated by the Conunission for the Transportation Disadvantaged. The TD goals presented in this section will serve as foundation of the CTDP element which will be incorporated into the more comprehensive document. the TDP. At its January 3 I, 1994 meeting, the Brevard County Local Coordinating Board (LCB) amended its 1993 goals and adopted a set of goals specifically addressing the transportation disadvantaged (TD) program. The 1994 goals fall into the following three categories (see Table!). I. Program Funding and Finance 2. Urunet Demand 3. Coordination These goals are more operational in nature than the broader goals stated in the Brevard County Comprehensive Plan. As such, they do not reflect a long-term strategy for the TD program in Brevard County Additional strategic goals for the TD program will be included in the Transit Development Plan (TDP) document. 40

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Table 19 Transportation Disadvanbged Program Goals Brevard County LCD Goals Adopted 31, 1994 Program Funding and Finance No. 1 Investigate and pursue all additional sources of funding including increases to clients and agencies providing service. No.2 Continue efforts to coordinate dispatch and related services between Coastal Health Systems of Brevard, Inc. and Space Coast Area Transit. No.3 Review the allocatio n of resources to the Transportation Disadvantaged Subscription service and make recommendations for most efficient and effective uses of funding. Unmet Demand No.1 While medical transportation needs are critic31, all n .eeds should be reviewed so that no segment of our community is left unserved. No.2 Work and training trips are important to self-sufficiency, ex:pand such opportunities by establishing a plan to address needs, provided funds are available to defray cost. No.3 Review the transportation needs of the socially isolated individuals. No.4 Review system fraud by reviewing methods to ensure that medical trips are truly medical and not used as a method to make a reservation and trip for a non-medical purpose. No.5 Implement no-show policy and evaluate results. Coordination No.1 Coordinate with the Child Care Association of Brevard, ln. and all other existing transportation resources. No.2 Mail yearly informational letter to all agencies who use the system suggesting that they coordinate \vith the Community Transportation Coordinator before program changes occur, such as new locations, new hours of service, new buildings, etc. No.3 Develop and implement the usage of a client satisfaction survey Source: Brevard County Local Coordinating Board 41

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TRANSIT-RELATED GOALS IN OTHER SOURCES The Comprehensive Plan for Brevard County was reviewed to identifY the existing body of policies that support transit. These policies are quite extensive, covering a range of important transit issues. The policies presented in this section were compiled from six key elements of the Comprehensive Plan. They are: Mass Transit Element Traffic Circulation Element Ports, Aviation, and related Facilities Element Future Land Use Elemen t Conservatio n Element Capital Improvements and Program Element The goals from these elements are presented along with their spec ific objectives policies, and criteria MASS IRANSIT: GOALl: Soun:e: BREVARD COUNTY SHALL PLAN AND PROMOTE A MASS TRANSIT SYSTEM TO ADDRESS THE CURRENT AND FUTURE TRANSPORTATION NEEDS OF THE CITIZENS OF BREVARD COUNTY. Brevard Countv Comprehensive Plan, Revised August, 1990, Mass Transit Element, pp. X 19. Objective 1: By 1992, a cost-effective mass transit system should be established that is soundly managed and fiscally responsible in part based on existing and proposed major trip generators and attractors. Policy 1.1: A management structure shall be established and maintained which provides efficient and effective mass transit service on a county-wide basis 42

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Criteria A: B r evard County shall asses the existing and projected operation and management structure of the Space Coast Area Transit. Standards and operating procedures will be established as necessary. Policy 1.2.: Standard s shall be implemented that will utilize all equipmen t p e rsonnel, and facilities of the mass transit system to their utmost efficiency. Criteria A: Brevard County shall support the Metropolitan Planning Organization in the updating of the Brevard County Transit Development Plan. Policy 1.3: Incentives, such as priority parking, shall be adopted to promote the use of van pools or car poo l s in the urban and urbanizing service sectors Policy 1.4: Support the designation of high occupancy vehicle lanes where deemed feasible and i ncreased peak hour user rates for transit and other high occupancy vehicles Policy 1.5: Criteria A: Criteria B: Criteria C: Criteria D: Criteria E: Funding mechanisms shall be adopted that maximize system revenues. Fare policies shall be developed. Local government participation shall be analyzed. Agency contracts shall be discussed analyzed. Maximum Federal and State assistance should be sought to defray the costs of capital equipment and operating expenses, thereby reducing government subs idy. Utilize the Msistance of the Florida Department of TranspOrtation in acquiring funds in coordination with the Coordinating Council of the Transportation Disadvantaged Polley 1.6: Mass transit services and facilities shall be considered as an alternative to roadway construction for expanded capacity. Policy 1.7: Brevard shall review and consider those recommendations in the Transit De v elopment Plan being prepared for the Metropolitan Planning Organization and adopt a plan which supports the efficient development of an intramodal transportation plan for the County and which is consistent with the following criteria Criteria A: Connecting I Port Canaveral, Kennedy Space Center, airports, and military establishments; 43

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2. Municipalities and the beach-side communities with the mainland; 3 Government centers, industrial and commercial center; 4 Education centers CriteriA B: Transit connections for Commuter R.aiVHigh Speed Rail/Magnetic levitation, ports, airports, and roadways. CriteriA C: Intracounty links as well as intercounty connections. CriteriA D: Interlocal agreements should be adopted with other local governments and agencies to provide transportation services and facilities that are economically and environmentally sound Criteria E: Joint venture agreements with private interests and other levels of government should be supported as solutions to mutual problems. Objective 2: Establish transportation corridors that integrate transportation and land use decisions with infrastructure development. Policy 2.1: All transit corridors designated by Brevard County shall consider mass transit as a viableuse of that corridor. Criteria A: Brevard County shall review existing transportation corridors to determine their current use or multimodal use. Where feasible mass transit shall be encouraged. Policy 2.2: Brevard County shall designate specific mass transit corridors on portions of selected expressways and arterials in urban and urbanizing service sectors. Policy 2.3: Adopt location standards and incentives that will encourage residential development and redevelopment to locate along mass transit corridors in urban and urbanizing service sectors. Policy 2.4: Adopt and implement a right of way protection plan. CriteriA A: Building setback standards shall be established to protect the right-of-way of the existing and future transit corridors. Criteria B: The plan should propose measures for acquisition of right-of-way that may include but is not necessarily limited to dedication of right-of-way by the land owner at the time of platting, public/private joint venture, and grants from federal and state governments. Criteria C: The plan should include implementation strategies. 44

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Objective 3: The location of transit lines aild i'erirunats shall be placed to encourage growth that will maximize the use of mass transit service and minimize negative impacts on residential communities. Policy 3.1: Establish incentives that provide for mass transit services within the urban and urbanizing service sectors and discourage services within the ruraVexurban service sectors as designated by the Future Land Use element except to transportation disadvantaged residents Policy 3.2: Mass transit facilities and services shall be commensurate with and properly timed with projected needs Criteria A: Brevard County should assist the Metropolitan Plarming Organization in the updating of the Brevard County Transit Development Plan. Criteria B: Once the Brevard County Transit Development Pan is prepared, Brevard County should implement those portions for which the County is responsible. Policy 3.3: Level of service standards shall be based on the operational efficiency of the demaodresponse system as well as the efficiency of contractual services. Criteria A: If all of the contracts that SCAT is able to sign with agencies are fulfilled, then the level of service is considered to be adequate Policy 3.4: Brevard County shall promote "infill" development thereby reducing urban spread and establishing urban densities capable of supporting an efficient mass transit system. Criteria A: In monitoring and evaluating the successes and failures of the Brevard County Comprehensive Plan, the reduction of urban spread shall be assessed to detennine whether or not it was reduced. Criteria B: When commenting on plans prepared by municipalities, the densities within municipalities should be examined Densities sufficient to support mass transit systems should be encouraged within the municipalities of Brevard County Policy 3.5: Brevard County shall evaluate all proposed roadway projects to determine their existing use demands, future needs, and the proposed roadway projects role as a 45

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catalyst for development to promote orderly development and "leap-frog" growth. Criteria A: Brevard County shall consider mass transit as an alternative to new roadway construction. Criteria B: Land use designations for development shall be appropriate to the functional classification and the design capacity of the impacted roadways. Objective 4: A mass transit system of public and private partnership shall be developed and maintained to serve the basic transportation needs of the transportation disadvantaged in Brevard County. Policy 4.1: Social services and community filcilities should be more accessible to the transportation disadvantaged through the provision of mass transit service programs Policy 4.2: Mass transit service should be provided to connect elderly residential neighborhoods with life support facilities such as shopping centers and medical filcilities. Criteria A: Brevard County should participate with the Florida Department of Transportation in achieving coordination of a transportation system for the transportation disadvantaged. Criteria B: In cooperation with the Florida Department of Transportation, measures which Brevard County could to provide mass transit services for the transportation disadvantaged shall be identified Criteria C: Appropriate measures shall be included along with the measures proposed in the Trans it Development Plan for consideration and adoption by Brevard County. Policy 4.3: Specialized transit services should be provided to connect disabled adults to employment, independent living, education, and lei sure services Criteria A: As part of the Brevard County Transit Development Plan and in cooperation with the Florida Department of Transportation, Brevard County should implement programs which are identified as necessary to provide transportation to the transportation disadvantaged. Policy 4.4: Brevard County shall implement a plan to assure that the mass transit service effectively serves the needs of the handicapped through properly equipped vehicles. 46

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Polley 4.5: Low income neighborhoods should be connected through mass transit services with . major employment, shopping ceiliers, and other life support facilities and services. Criteria A: This policy should provide guidelines for Brevard County at such a time as the county wiD provide traditional public mass transportation such as. buses. Criteria B: Brevard County may recommend a mass transit service on a contract basis with the County to municipalities that have low income neighborhoods. Policy 4.6: Brevard County should expand transportation services for the disadvantaged to those persons in need, and not already participating in a social service program. Policy 4. 7: Transit use priority should be given to those residents who are most dependent upon the transit system for basic transportation needs. Objective 5: Brevard County shall coordinate the planning of mass transit services and facilities with the affected planning and operational agencies and other governmental agencies Policy 5.1: Brevard County should actively participate in the Brevard Area Transportation Study in support of the Brevard Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). Criteria A: The Brevard County staff shaD continue to participate on the Technical Advisory Committee of the MPO. Criteria B: Brevard County shall support the Citizen Advisory Committee of the MPO. Policy 5.2: Brevard County should utilize interlocal agreements as a solution to transportation needs and problems. Policy 5.3: Brevard County shaD utilize to the maximum extent possible the Growth Management Unit in the FDOT District Office. Policy 5.4: Where mass transit is feasible, coordinate with FDOT and other agencies in enhancing interurban and interregional mobility within designated statewide corridors as well as designated local corridors. Objective 6: Mass transit facilities should be environmentally sound and energy efficient. 47

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Policy 6.1: Ridesharing programs and other transit services should be promoted in urban areas to reduce peak hour automobile use thereby improving air quality and reducing gasoline use. Policy 6.2: Brevard County should establish a park and ride program Criteria A: Evaluate the extent of subsidized transit service in order to establish a viable ridership base. Criteria 8: Develop and implement service routes and schedules in response to identified and projected ridership needs Criteria C: IdentifY _potential park and ride sites and acquire land as necessary to establish parking facilities. Criteria D: Prepare and disseminate public information programs to promote the park and ride program. Criteria E: IdentifY and procure funding for tbe park and ride program. Policy 6.3: Adverse impacts upon the cultural and historic resources of the community should be avoided during the construction, operation, and maintenance of the transit system. Criteria A: Utilize guidelines and standards of the Traffic Circulation element. Policy 6.4: Adverse impacts of the natural resources of the community shall be minimized during the construction, operation and maintenance of the transit system. Criteria A: Utilize guidelines and standards of the Traffic Circulation element. Policy 6.5: The mass transit system should minimize adverse i mpacts on residential neighborhoods and communities. Reference: This goal is emphasized in each of the proposed goals for SCAT, particularly in Goals 1,2, and 4. 48

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TRAFFIC CIRCl!LA TIQN: GOAL: Source: BREVARD COUNTY SHALL UNDERTAKE ACTIONS NECESSARY TO PLAN AND PROVIDE FOR A COST EFFECTIVE COMPREHENSIVE TRANSPORTATION NETWORK. Brevard County Comprehensive Plan, Revised February, 1993, Traffic Circulation Element, pp. IX-96. Objective l.l:Brevard County shall adopt standards that maximize the efficient use and safety of roadway facilities. Policy 1.1.2: Review existing standards addressing on-site traffic flow. Where necessary, adopt design criteria providing for parking space, aisle size and arrangement, pedestrian traffic patterns, bicycle facilities, and loading facilities and accesses which provide safety as well as convenience. Criteria A: Parking requirements should be designed to promote public transit as a viable alternative in high-density areas by amending existing parking requirements to locate mass transit loading and other high occupancy vehicle parking near entrances to buildings or to reduce the number of required parking spaces. Criteria C: For those businesses or industrial operations that will participate in ridesharing and staggered work hour programs, parking space numbers and sizes shall reflect those programs and create disincentives for single occupancy automobile usage. Objective l.Z:Brevard County shall initiate programs and policies that maximize the efficient use of safe roadway facilities. Policy 1.2.1: Support programs which encourage the sharing and use of high occupancy vehicles . Policy 1.2.2: Establish a park and ride program which includes the designation or acquisition of sufficient parking area in conjunction with current roadway development planning. Policy 1.2.5: Brevard County shall design its future transportation corridors to accommodate a multirnodal transportation system where deemed feasible. 49

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Policy 1.1.19: A Level of Service management plan, the purpose of which is to maintain or improve the level of service while accommodating the impact of development shall include but not be limited to the following components: Criteria C: Criteria F: Ridesharing and staggered work hours ; Mass Transit strategies utilizing the designation of mass transit corridors and primary station locations along with appropriate land use designations to maximize the existing and future feasibility of mass transit operations Reference: This goal is addressed under SCAT Goal 2. GOAL: Source: BREVARD COUNTY SHALL SUPPORT AN INTEGRA T ED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM THROUGH PARTICIPATION IN A HIGH LEVEL OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL COORDINATION Brevard County Comprehensive Plan, Revised February, 1993, Traffic Circulation Element, pp. IX-124. Objective 3.2:Brevard County shall support interagency coordination in order to meet current and future transportation needs Policy 3.2.6: Utilize where feasible the transportation research center to be established in conjunction with tbe State University System. This center will be available to conduct basic and applied research in support of technical and policy related transportation issues. Policy 3.2.7: Utilize technical assistance and information provided by the FOOT to integrate transportation systems by enhancing intermodal transfer facilities such as airport bus, rail, and water terminals Reference: Generally addressed in SCAT Goal 2 and Goal 5. 50

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PORTS, AVIATION, AND OTHER RELATED FAcn.ITIES: GOAL: Source: SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF PORT, AIRPORT, RA1L AND RELATED FACILITIES TO SERVE THE PRESENT AND FUTURE NEEDS OF BREVARD COUNTY AND TO FURTHER ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INTERAGENCY COORDINATION. Brevard County Comprehensive Plan, Revised August, 1992, Ports, Aviation, and Related Facilities Element, pp. Xl58. Objective 4: Brevard County should support the development and maintenance of a comprehensive rail system to meet current and future needs and further economic growth of the County Policy 4 1: Brevard County should support rail developm e nt plans that will accommodate future demand created by the Port of Canaveral. Policy 4.2: Brevard County sho u ld participate in the planning process to ensure that the development of the system shall be cons i stent with the Brevard County Comprehensive Plan. Policy 4.3: Brevard County should utilize the technical assistance provided by Florida Department of T ransportation in the acquisition of needed right-of-way for the approved Florida High Speed Rail alignment. Policy 4.4: Brevard County should encourage the scheduling of train movements and speeds through urban areas so as to avoid conflicts with peak hour roadway traffic. Policy 4.5: Railroad companies should be encouraged to locate general yards in areas that will not incur major conflicts with vehicular traffic 51

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Policy 4.6: Piggyback trailer on-or off-loading railroad terminals should be located in proximity to major roadway corridors and concentrations of customers. Policy 4.7: Brevard County should support the location of new track routes that avoid conflict with traffic routes. Criteria A: Roadway overpasses should be utilized where traffic conflicts may occur to allow for the continued flow of automobile traffic. Policy 4.8: Brevard County shall support and encourage the location of High Speed Rail/Magnetic Levitation projects through Brevard County. Criteria A: This encouragement shall take the fonn of Staff, and/or other designees as approved by the County Commission, maintaining and furthering ties with the Chambers of Commerce as weU as private industry regarding Commuter RaiVHigh Speed Rail/Magnetic Levitation transportation systems. Criteria B: StaB; and or other designees as approved by the County Commission, shaD maintain and further cooperation with the local, state and regional authorities as well as the Port of Canaveral in regard to the Commuter Rail/High Speed Rail/ Magnetic Levitation transportation systems. Criteria C: Efforts shall be made to include the Canaveral Port Authority in the plans for Commuter Rail/High Speed Rail/ Magnetic Levitation systems by coordinating with its staff and reviewing plans as described in policy 5.2. Policy 4.9: Brevard County should consider providing mass transit service to support the development of Commuter Rail/High Speed Rail/ Magnetic Levitation if a franchise is awarded which would locate a rail line in Brevard County. Objective 5: Brevard County shall promote interagency coordination oftransportation activities that wiJI ensure the orderly development of water, rail, and air transportation facilities. Policy 5.1: Brevard County should continue to participate in the Brevard Area Transportation Study in support of Metropolitan Planning Organization Criteria A: Brevard County staff shaD continue to participate on the Technical Advisory Committee of the MPO. 52

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Crite r ia B: Brevard County should actively support the Citizens Advisory Committee of the MPO Policy 5.2: Brevard County will support long range transportation planning to ensure integrated access routes to' airp o rts, ports rail or related facilities and industrial commercial and education centers with other modes of surface, air or water transportation Criteria A: Brevard County shall continue to participate in the Metropolitan Planning Organization in cooperative efforts to facilitate, encourage and p lan integrated access routes to the above named facilities. Criteria B: Brevard County shall review site plans for commercial, industrial, and educational facilities with consideration to the facilitization of integrated access routes C ri te r ia C: Bre vard County shall participate in the review of plans for transportation systems and submit favorable conunents in support of those actions that provide for integrated access routes. Cri teri a D: Brevard County shall coordinate with the Florida Department of Transporta tion, property owners and developers in providing right-of-way for these integrated access routes. The county shall submit favorable conunents regarding those plans which ensure and maintain consistency of access routes as well as protecting them from encroachmel)t. Criteria E: These transportation corridors shall be recorded on the future land use map in order t o ensure that they are protected from encroachment. Policy 5.3: Brevard County shall review the implementation plans of state agencies within statewide transportation corridors. Where Brevard County has jurisdiction it shall be consistent with or further those plans. CrJteria A: Transportation corridors are defined in the Traffic Circulation e lement of the Brevard County Comprehensive Plan. Policy 5.4 : For those facilities for which the County has jurisdiction, Brevard County shall coordinate surface and water access to ports, airports, rail, and related facilities. Criteria A: All expansion of facilities for which Brevard County has responsibility shall be consistent with the Future Land Use map and Future Traffic Circulation map. 53

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Policy 5.5: Brevard County shall review and comment on plans which address the movement of goods through or within Brevard County The County shall support those plans which promote the efficient use of multimodal transportation services such as sea, rail, truck, and air. Policy 5.6: Brevard County shall consider multimodal transportation as alternatives to the expansion of roadways or the provision of new roadways. Policy 5.7: Brevard County shall establish local transportation corridors which connect multimodal facilities or could p r ovide for multimodal facilities. Polley 5.8: Brevard County shall support those plans of other local governments and agencies which protect the port, airports, railway, or related facilities from the encroachment of incompatible land uses Policy 5.9: When reviewing other local government and local plans, Brevard County shall support with favorable comment those plans which provide for the mitigation of existing adverse impacts from the development of ports airports, rail, or related facilities upon natural and historic resources and land uses. Policy 5.10: When reviewing other local government and agency plans, Brevard County shall support those plans which avoid future negative impacts from the development of ports, airports, rail, and other related facilities upon natural and historic resources and land uses. Policy 5.11: Brevard County shall recommend to the Metropolitan Planning Organization that the citizen representation to the Citizen Advisory Board should be increased in order to allow for greater representation of community values in the transportation process Policy 5.12: Brevard County shall encourage space related development in the Gateway Center/Spaceport Florida area and other areas in proximity to the Kennedy Space Center and other areas in Brevard County. Reference: Included in SCAT Goal 2 and Goal 5. 54

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FUilJRE LAND USE; GOAL; TO MANAGE GROWTH IN BREVARD COUNTY IN A MANNER WHICH IS CONSISTENT WITil THE CAPABILITIES OF THE NATURAL AND MANMADE SYSTEMS AND WHICH MEETS THE PUBUCS SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC NEEDS. Source; Brevard Coumy Comprehensive Plan, Revised February 1993, Future Land Use Element, pp. XIII-48 Objective 1; Brevard County shall limit urban sprawl by directing new residential developmen t to areas where the densities are compatible with the established growth patterns and where public or private facilities and services are available or pr ogrammed, t o serve the deve l opment at or above the levels of service adopted in this Comprehensive Plan, and ensure that coastal area densities are consistent with hunicane evacuation capabitities. P o licy 1.1; Adopt an Urban Density Area, as part of the Land Use Map series, to include those areas, where the essential public facilities and services are available to support development of an urban density. O b jective 4; Brevard County shall provide for adequa t e and appropriate lands for the location of commercial land uses, through the Land Development Regulations, to serve the needs of the projected residents and visitors of the County. P o l icy 4. 1 0; Appropriate l ocation s for tourist commercial land uses, whic h serve the needs of tourists and seasonal residents in a manner which is sensitive to natural resources, shall be based upon the following minimum criteria: C r i teri a A; Tourists and commercial land uses shall provide "extended stay" visitors with convenient access to the natural amenities, tourist attractions or centers of employment of the County. However, adverse impacts upon the residential community and natural resources shall be minimized. 55

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Criteria B: The prirnaiy uses within tourist commercial areas are hotels and motels. Supportive land uses, such as restaurants, gas stations or souvenir shops, should be provided for convenient access to the tourists and for minimal impact upon the residential community and natural resources. Criteria C: Tourist commercial land uses in Mixed Use Districts located on the barrier island north of the south boundary of Cocoa Beach shall be limited to thirty (30) units per acre Criteria D: Tourist commercial land uses in Mixed Use Districts located on the barrier island between the south boundary of Cocoa Beach and the Melbourne Causeway (SR 192), shall be limited to twelve ( 12) units per acre. Criteria E: Tourist commercial land uses in Mixed Use Districts on the South Beaches which is that area of the banier island located south of Melbourne C auseway (SR 192) shall be limited to eight (8) units per acre. Criteria F: Tourist commercial land uses in Mixed Use Districts on the mainland may be considered for densities up to thirty (30) units per acre provided they are limited to the following locations: I. Intersections of major "through-county" transportation corridors with major arterials or roadways of a higher classification. These uses should be limited to a one-quarter (114) mile radius from these areas; 2. Within the Merrin Island Redevelopment Area, consistent with the Merritt Island Redevelopment Plan, up to thirty (30) units per acre may be considered; 3. Within one-quarter (1/4) mile radius of the Valkaria and Space Center Executive Airports; and 4. Within one-quarter (1/4) mile of the SR 405 Corridor; and 5. Within one-quarter (114) mile of a high speed raiVmag lev terminus. Criteria G: Other locations within Mixed Use Districts may be considered for tourist comrnercial land uses, with a Conditional Use Permit, if convenient access to the natural amenities or tourists attractions would be provided. However, these uses should be limited to areas where such uses are established and where the functions of the natural amenities would not be limited to areas where such uses are established, and where the functions of the natural amenities would not be endangered 56

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Objective 8: Brevard County shall provide 'of" adequate lands to meet the existing and future needs for public facilities and services, consistent with the Capital Improvements Program and the policies and the criteria of this Comprehensive Plan. Policy 8.1: Public facilities and services shall be designed 'vith capacities sufficient to support the needs of the projected population and the intensity of future development. Policy 8.2: Planning for public facility and service expansions into undeveloped areas should consider the area's suitability for urbanization based upon the environmental constraints, existing and future land uses, and the availability of other land uses and services Policy 8.4 : Brevard County should coordinate with the Florida Department of Transportation in defining right-of-way needs for proposed roadway improvements, extensions or new corridors and establishing mechanisms for right-of-way acquisition and protection, as identified in the Traffic Circulation element of this Comprehensive Plan Policy 8.5: Brevard County should utilize the technical assistance provided by the Florida Department of Transportation in the acquisition of right-of-way for the proposed Florida High Speed Rail alignment, as identified in the Ports, Aviation and Related Facilities element of this Comprehensive Plan. Reference: Addressed in SCAT Goall, Goal2 and Goal 5, CONSERVATION; GOAL: Source: PROTECT, CONSERVE, ENHANCE, MAINTAIN AND APPROPRIATELY USE NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, MAINTAINING THElR QUALITY OF LIFE AND ECONOMIC WELL-B E ING O F BREVARD COUNTY. Brevard County Comprehensive Plan. Revised August, 1991, Conservation Element, pp 1-53. 57

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Objective 1: Air quality within Brevard County shall meet or exceed the minimum air quality as adopted by the Florida Depanment of Environmental Regulation. Policy 1.4: The County shall reduce the potential for mobile source emissions by the following means: CriteriJI C: Promote alternative tranSportation methods such as carpooling, vanpooling and mass transit. Reference: This goal is induded in SCAT Goal 1 and Goal 5. CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS AND PROGRAMS: GOAL: Source: BREVARD COUNTY SHALL UTll..IZE A CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS PROGRAM TO COORDINATE 1lffi TIMING AND TO PRIORITIZE 1lffi DELIVERY OF PUBLIC FACll..ITIES, PROGRAMS, AND OllffiR CAPITAL PROJECTS WHICH SUPPORTS THE GROWTH MANAGEMENT GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND POLICIES OF 1lffi BREVARD COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE PLAN AND ENCOURAGES EFFICIENT UTll..IZATION OF ITS PUBLIC FACll..ITIES. Brevard County Comprehensive Plan, Revised August, 1992, Capital Improvements and Programs Element, pp. XV-55. Objective 4: Brevard County shall provide the public facilities needed for developments approved prior to the adoption of this Comprehensive P l an Brevard County shall also ensure that public facilities required to support public growth and redevelopment, maintain the acceptable level of service standards established within this Comprehensive Plan. New growth shall contribute its fair share of the costs associated with the provision of necessary public facilities. Policy 4 .1: Brevard County should adopt impact fee ordinances based on the cost of proving needed capital facilities to support new growth. Criteria A: Impact fees shall not be used to improve facilities determined to be deficient based on the established acceptable levels of service standards on or after the effective date of said ordinance. 58

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Criteria B: Impact fees should be considered to fund the following capital facilities needed to support new growth: I. Transportation Systems; 2 Potable Water, Sanitary Sewer, and Solid Waste and Collection and Treatment Systems; 3 Park and Recreation Sites; 4. Schools and Library Systems; 5 Correctional Faciliti es and Emergency Services. Reference: This Goal is generally addressed in SCAT Goals 1, 2, 4, and 5. 59

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Chapter 3 Perfonnance Evaluation of Existing Transit Service Introduction This Chapter assesses the performance of Space Coast Area Transit services. A review of SCAT was conducted utilizing measures that address three major categories of system operations. These evaluation categories are : system performance, effectiveness, and efficiency. The performance evaluation is comprised of two parts. The first part contains a trend analysis for the directly operated demand responsive service and the vanpool program. The trend analysis is based on historical operating data from the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) statewide performance evaluation and from SCAT Annual Operating Reports. The data covers a six year period from 1987 to 1992. A trend analysis for the fixed-route motorbus service was not performed due to the limited data. SCAT began operating fixed-route service in October of 1991. Consequently, only one year (1992) of the Section 15 report data, which is used for trend analysis, is available. However, as a preview to the evaluation component, a system profile that highlights the 1993 data is provided in the next section of this plan. The second part of the evaluation addresses system performance as compared to similar systems within and outside the state of Florida. This peer analysis focuses on the fixed-route and demand-responsive services, and incorporates the same three evaluation categories used in the trend analysis. The results of the performance evaluation are then analyzed in the context of the goals and policy objectives previously identified in Chapter 2. It is vital that the entire performance evaluation exercise take into full consideration the unique nature of SCATs operations, i.e., the hybrid fixed-route system, the demand-responsive and vanpool. programs. Many times the mistake is made of treating the performance evaluation, particularly the peer assessment, as a "report card" rather than as only one of many useful diagnostic tools to suggest positive aspects of current service and to identify opportunities for improvement. As will be seen in the following sections, demand-responsive services perform very well when compared to SCAT's peers, while the vanpool program is uniquely successful, one of the best of its lcind in the entire country. These services have received the most attention and a large share of capital and operating funds over SCAT's history. 60

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In recent years, SCAT has begun to mO\ie 'li'i>ffi a demand-responsive focus to a fixed-route, "traditional" transit service. It is interesting that during this time period, other fixed-route transit systems in the state have been required, through transportation-disadvantaged (TD) service requirements and nationwide ADA mandates, to move in the opposite direction, toward the ooordination of demand-responsive service for TD clients and others. Both transitions are difficult ones, requiring different approaches to meeting the mobility needs of riders. With SCAT's relatively long-term experience in demand-responsive service, the agency continues to be among the leaders in the state ofFiorida in terms of demand-responsive performance. At the same time, however, the recent origin of the fixed-route service leaves SCAT at a disadvantage when compared to other systems which have had several decades to build a fixed-route ridership base History: Transit Service in Brevard County The vast llll!iority of existing transit services and filcilities in Brevard County were developed in the mid-seventies. In 1974, several of the communities of Brevard County organized to start the Brevard Transportation Authority (BTA) as the transit provider for the oounty, At that time it was envisioned the BTA would operate transit services in the county under a interlocal agreement between the oounty,local governments and the Florida Department ofTransportation (FOOT), As it turned out, the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners and the municipalities io the central and north areas of the county declined to participate in the interlocal agreement that set up the BT A. While the BTA was viewed as the transit provider for the oounty, its service area included only approximately one-third of the county's population, mainly in the southern portion in and around Melbourne. As the county's only transit provider, the BT A operated a traditional fixed route bus system. Its ridership consisted mainly of senior citizens and lower income residents in the City of Melbourne. At the same time the BT A was being formed, the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners participated in the formation of a separate transportation system for senior citizens and persons with disabilities. Prior to 1974 there were several not-for-profit agencies which provided transportation services to their clients. These agencies, with the assistance of the County Commission, merged their services to start the Consolidated Agencies Transportation System (CATS) CATS was charged with providing service to senior citizens for medical, shopping and congregated meals. CAT S also provided transportation service to developmentally and other disabled patrons for transportation to training centers and sheltered workshops and to the economically disadvantaged 6 1

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for medical and child care services. CATS operated as a subscription service (requiring reservations) and was free to Usei:S, Funding for the service was derived from various non-profit agencies and the County. A significant part ofBTA's ridership market consisted of senior citizens who were qualified to ride the CATS system. In 1983, BTA urged local officials to provide some delineation of the service areas for both transit systems in order to preserve market equity and to alleviate associated conflicts. On October 1, 1985, the two systems were merged to form the Space Coast Area Transit (SC A T) as the county's transit provider. At the time of the formation of SCAT, the merged systems switched to an exclusively demand responsive focus for service The concept guiding this decision was to provide transit service to those who needed it most, primarily the elder l y, those with low incomes, and persons with disabilities, Service was oriented toward social programs such as congregate meal sites and training workshops. It was not until October 1991 that SCAT reestablished fixed routes served by conventional transit buses on a fixed schedule Space Coast Area Transit is a division of the Human Services Department of Brevard County SCAT provides fixed route service, subscription service for various social service agencies demand responsive service through a private contractor, and a vanpool program. Medicaid transportation is provided by a private provider, Coastal Health System of Brevard. Tab l e 20 presents the fare history of bus service in Brevard County The current SCAT fare structure has been in place since 1987. The cash adult fare on SCAT buses is $1.00 with senio r citizens, persons with disabilities, and students paying one-halffare at $0.50 College students must show valid identification to pay the discounted fare. Transfers from bus to bus are free Children under 5 ride free. As described in a later section, the fare for Transportation Disadvantaged service in Brevard County is $2 00, with senior citizens and persons with disabilities paying $1.00 SCAT began offering pass books in 1993. Each passbook contains 12 ride tickets for the price of 10. The current adult pass book sells for $10 00, while the senior citizen, disabled and student pass books sell for $5, 00. Pass books are available by mail or in person from the SCAT operations and administrative office in Cocoa 62

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Talile 20 Brevard County Bus Fare History Tronsfer NA Free Free Free Student $5.00 Fixed Route Service SCAT currently operates bus service on 14 routes from 6:55am until 7:15pm Monday through Friday, as shown in Figures 13a and 13b. Route 21 serving the City ofMelboume also has Saturday service. Two of the routes (Routes 33 and 34) only operate during the summer months. Fiscal Year 1993 ridership on the fixed route service was 131, 996 Fixed route ridership represents 18 percent of the total system ridership of753,580 for FY 1993. 63

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ROOTE2 ROUTE9 ROUTE30 II ROUTE31 .. ;; 0 ROU'l:E 6 & llll10 scale: 1 In & .668 m .. Figure 13A North Brevard Cou nty Trans i t Supply ,... "' "' b

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) Bus Routes OU> ROU'I'E 11 OU> ROU'1'E :n OU> ROU'I'E2A OU>Roun:n ROOT811 ROOTBn II ROOT81 ROliTEU ROUTB17 Ill ROIITI!lt 0 ROliTE29 ROU1'&30 ROU1'E3L scale: 1 In 5.007 ml Ill Figure 13B South Brevar d County Tran s it S upp l y I

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In December 1993 SCAT fixed route service underwent major modifications. The goals of the system modifications were to: reduce headways; provide service closer to the residential areas with a wider array of destinations; provide more miles and hours of service These were also to be accomplished with only a minor monetary impact on system operating costs In this regard, the following changes in fixed route service were implemented in south courity service in November 1993. Figure I A shows north county routes, while Figure I B shows new and o l d south county routes. Route2 Route 9 No changes (note that modification to this r oute in May 1994 doubled the amount of service, and with 50% of the non Federal operating costs funded through a service development grant from the Florida Department Route 520 Route21 Minor route alignment changes, and Saturday service hours Route22 Eliminated, partially replaced by new Route 26 Route23 New Route24 Eliminated, partially replaced by Routes 23 and 27 Route26 New Route27 New Route28 New Route29 New Route 30 No changes Route 31 Route32 Eliminated, partially replaced by route 29 Route33 No changes Route34 No changes 66

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Demand-Responsive and Subscriptio n Service The Florida Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged has designated SCAT as the community transportation coordinator (CTC) for Brevard County. CTCs are responsible for coordinating the provision of transportation services for persons who are defined as being transportation disadvantaged (ID). Category I of the TD population is broadly defined as including persons who are senior citizens, have a disability, are low income, and/or are children at-risk Category II of the TD population includes those persons in Category I who are unable to purchase or otherwise secure transportation services. The Commission helps to pay for the cost of providing TD transporta t ion through a fonnula allocation from the Florida TD Trust Fund. Because of the unique nature of SCAT's service design, all modes of public transportation in Brevard County explicitly serve the TD population When not being used in fixed-route bus service, as d e scribed in the previous section, SCAT buses provide subscription bus service for persons traveling to training centers, sheltered workshops, congregate meal sites, and similar destinations Any group sponso red (and paid for) by the county, a municipality, school board, senior citizen group, or social service agency may subscribe for service. The typical service day consists of transporting residents from a designated site to the agency facilities between 6:30a.m. and 9:30a.m. In the afternoon, the bus reverses the route returning the clients home, generally between 2:00 p.m. and 6:00p.m. Som e buses also provide trips to meal sites from II :00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. The current cost for this service is S 1.20 per vehicle mile which is billed to the appropriate sponsoring agency. Other residents of the county may use this service for $1.00 per one-way trip; senior citizens and persons with disabilities are charged SO. SO. Another type of demand-responsive paratransit service is p r ovided by Coastal Health Systems, a not for-profit agency. Under contract to the C T C Coastal provides door-to-door service, both for TOeligible clients as well as for Medicaid clients requiring transportation to Medicaid approved medical appointments Coastal provides TD paratransit service from 6:00 a.m. to 6 :00 p m weekdays. (Saturday service is provided for dialysis appointments ) TD clients pay $2.00 per oneway trip ($1.00 for senior citizens and persons with disabilities), with the rest of the cost per trip paid by SCAT and the Commis s ion for the T ransportation Disadvantaged according to a base plus mileage fonnula Because the demand for TD service is greater than the funds available, a monthly payment cap and a set of trip priorities have been established 67

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The current trip priorities for TD trips by type are as follows: Medical appointments 55 percent Food shopping s P'cieei'it Employment 20 percent Other 20 percent Medicaid transportation service is provided free of charge and i s availabl e Monday through Saturday (The state Medicaid program pays Coastal for the trips it provides.) Although Coastal's five-year contract does not expire until March 31, 1996, Coastal bas notified SCAT that it no longer wishes t o provide the TD portion oft he paratransit service. SCAT i s in the process of acquiring vehic les to move the operation of the TD transportation services in-house. Coastal will continue to provide Medicaid transportation services until the end of the current contract. Currently, SCAT is operating all TD subscription work trips and will be providing service for all TD dialysis trips by the end of June I 994. Ridership on the demand-responsive (Medicaid ancl TD transportation) service and subscription bus service totaled 363,555 in FY I 993, which represents 48 percent of SCAT's total system ridership. The county vanpool program is another transportation service option available for human service agencies. Agencies may lease vans through the vanpool program to transport their clients. Thirtyfour vans are Cllrrently being used in this capacity. The vanpool program is descnoed in more detail in the following section Vanpoo 1 Service In addition to the fixed route service and demand responsive services geared to the transportation disadvantaged, Space Coast Area Transit operates the designated local commuter assistance program office .. The commuter assistance program is administered by the FOOT and was developed to assist local residents and businesses in the establishment and use of alternative transportation modes and other transportation demand management strategies While Space Coast Area Transit provides assi st ance in carpool formation, alternative work hour program development, marketing of alternative transportation, and employer outreach and education, the focus of the program has been on vanpool fonnation 68

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In 1982, the Brevard Transportation Authority (BT A) received a federal demonstration grant to promote ridesharing as an alternative to traditional public transit service. BTA operated the service with its own staffunti11985, when it was put out for competitive bid. The vanpool program still serves as an alternative to subscription bus service. The advantage to a vanpool program is that fewer people are needed to fill the vehicle (8-15 passengers), and stops to pick-up and discharge passengers tend to be more conveniently located (usually at the rider's front door). Other advantages include the potential for passenger travel time savings, the ability to serve low density areas, and employer-recognized benefits of reduced absenteeism, tardiness and commute stress. The disadvantages ofvanpooling include the perceived higher costs of participation concerns over administration, and coordination services. To address these disadvantages, Space Coast Area Transit has developed a unique program that utilizes a third party provider, Vanpool Services, Inc. (VPSI). Under this arrangement the vans purchases are subsidized by Brevard County utilizing funds provided by the federal, state, and county government for the express purchase of transit capital purchases. Once the purchases are made, Space Coast Area Transit leases the vans over to VPSI which sub-leases the vehicles to each vanpool group. Under the lease VPSI provides all maintenance, insurance and administration, and provides back-up vehicles in the event of unforeseen mechanical problems. This type of arrangement is beneficial for all three parties. First, Space Coast Area Transit, through the purchase of the vans, is allowed to include the van pool operation as part of their transit system for all statistical reporting requirements. In addition, the capital costs of van purchase can be at least partially recovered when the vans are resold. (Vans are replaced after a set time period, 4 years or after a certain predetermined mileage figure is reached, 100,000 miles.) The vanpool users realize cost savings over other vanpools because much of the capital purchase expense is removed from the monthly lease fee. This results in a cost savings of roughly $300 to $500 per month for each vanpool ($400 vs. $700 to $900). Finally, VPSI benefits from having an expanded market with which to operate since the perceived prohibitive costs are greatly reduced. This allows vanpools to form before every seat is filled. In fact many vans are operating without the full complement of passengers because existing riders buy-up the extra seats so that they have more room in the van. This increases their monthly cost by only about $5.00 per month per person. 69

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Currently, Space Coast Area Transit and VPSI operate 80 vans of which 46 are used as commuter vans. The rest are local human service agency vans, leased to the agencies for $575 per month to provide transportation services to transportation disadvantaged individuals. Fiscal Year 1993 ridership for vanpools was 261,572, or 35 percent of total system ridership. VPSI projects a 10 percent growth rate per year fur the vanpool program based on the current levels of dedication and use. At present 90 percent of all vans in the purchase cycle (already purchased or under purchase agreement) are dedicated to identified markets. This compares favorably to national vanpool figures in which 80 percent of vans in the purchase cycle are dedicated, and to Florida vanpool statistics in which 60 percent of vans are dedicated. Overall, the Space Coast Area Transit vanpool program is one of the top vanpool programs in the country, and the leading vanpool program in Florida. In the United States, only four vanpool programs, located in much larger metropolitan areas, have bigger fleets. While the vanpool program has received the most attention other commuter assistance program activities have been undertaken. Unfortunately, statistical information on these programs is not collected. Therefore, the following discussion is based on observations and data collected from interviews. Carpooling makes up a significant portion of alternative transportation mode use in the United States. In Brevard County, carpool formation efforts have been minimal. Space Coast Area Transit has not received funding to upgrade its computerized rideshare matching system in several years and therefore is somewhat technologically limited. The quality of the database, which is both small and has not been updated in the past year, limits the effectiveness of the matching service. Because of the importance of the ridematch system, the carpool formation efforts are in need of improvement. Other rideshare support programs are also lacking. Despite the efforts of Space Coast Area Transit, the Park-And-Ride Lo t Program is also in need of improvement. While some sites are being considered fur a park-and-ride lot, no lot currently exists in Brevard County. These lots can be serve as vital links for carpools and vanpools as meeting sites. Many ridesharers will utilize park-and-ride lots as the one designated central meeting point for many, if not all, of the pool members. This offers a time savings over door-to-door pick-up service or a series of transit stops. Park-and-ride lots can support not only carpooling efforts. also but transit efforts. In May, the Brevard County 70

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Commission approved construction of the county's first park -and-ride lot at Eau Gallie Boulevard and Interstate 95. Space Coast Area Transit Commuter Programs staff have dedicated a great deal of time to employer outreach This has led to the promotion of other TDM strategies, such as alternative work hour arrangements and telecommuting. However, a system of measuring the results o f this outreach is not in place Therefore, the effectiveness of these outreach efforts cannot be measured. According to national research, employer outreach is an important first step in the process of convening drive alone commuters into users of alternative forms of transportation. It should also be noted that the employer outreach efforts of Space Coast, when compared to other programs in Florida, is above average. The commuter programs staff identified one major weakness in the existing program as a lack of a structured marketing program This can be attributed to the lack of adequate funding for promotional efforts. While marketing and promotion of TDM efforts has long been considered a key element to TDM program success, a recent report from the Federal Highway Administration, Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management Measures indicates the marketing and support is one of the least-considered measures in developing a successful TDM program. Importance should be placed on increasing public awareness of TDM with special emphasis on educating decision-makers and transportation professionals. 71

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Evaluation of SCAT SerYice The Purpose of Performance Review A p erformance evaluation is only one method of evaluating a transit system's operation A performance review is intended to assess trends in system performance over time and also to evaluate the transit system in comparison to systems of similar size. As noted earlier, there is often a mistaken tendency to treat an evaluation of this kind as a report card, as opposed to one of many diagnostic tools to identify areas of potential improvement along with positive aspects of current service. Therefore, the reader should exercise considerable caution in interp r eting the results. An analysis of this type does not report on the extent to which other objectives of the transit system are being achieved. For example, the performance evaluation will not directly measure several relevant considerations such as passenger satisfaction with regard to levels of service, taxpayer and public attitudes toward the agency, employee morale, success in attaining minority hiring or contracting goals, quality of planning, contributions to economic development, air quality improvements, or other goals that may be important to the transit system. Jn addition, several aspects of quality of service are not measured in performance evaluation. These include vehicle cleanliness and comfort, operator courtesy, on-time performance, quality of marketing and passenger informa tion support, and level of satisfaction with hours of operations, frequency of service, and geographic coverage of the service. Jn addition to understanding the limits of this analysis, the reader should use caution in interPreting the meaning of the various measures. The performance evaluation does not necessarily provide information r egarding which aspects of performance are within control of the agency and which measures are not. Figure 14 is a schematic of the factors that ultimately affect transit agency performance. SCATs unique operating environment presents additional factors that complicate the performance review Specific factors contributing to the challenge of conducting a meaningful performance review for SCAT, particularly its fixed-route system, include the following. 72

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MA*OtlfOOIIT.V' ---Figure 14 Facton Affecting Tramit Perf'onnance LOCAL f'OUCY DICIIIONI -----......... ---- The relatively recent origin of fixed-route service in Brevard County. This factor precludes the use of any trend related analysis. The lack of a history of fixed-route service also has more subtle effects: there is limited awareness in the community of how the fixed route system operates, and there is no base of ridership which has been built up over decades of operation, as is typically found even in systems in small cities. Limited peak-hour service on fixed routes. SCAT operates its fixed-route service primarily during non-peak hours, using its buses to provide subscription bus service for the TO population This is very atypical of conventional transit systems, which orient a considerable portion of their service to the peak morning and afternoon commuting time periods. The geography of Brevard County. Brevard County is long and narrow, providing a larger-than-normal service area for the county transit agency. As many interviewees noted, the county is often considered as three separate areas: the northern portion, centered around Titusville and containing the Kennedy Space Center; the central portion, including Cocoa and Cocoa Beach ; and the southern portion, with Melbourne and Palm Bay. I t is difficult for transit, especially fixed -route transit, to provide efficient and effective service over such 73

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a large service area. Politically, however, there is a sensitivity concerning equal treatment for each part of the county. S<::A'I's. ha!)(ls are tied 'vith regard to providing the most appropriate type of transit service to a of the county. Low poputiltion density within the county. Fixed-route transit works best with high residential and employment densities. While other Flo rida systems also face this dilemma, the unusually large service area in Brevard County presents special problems for SCAT. The absence of a strong central city with extensive employment. Many older transit systems developed around a focused central business district, and continue to provide service to downtown areas. While Main Streets have declined all over Florida in the post-war era, there is often a concentration of public employment sites remaining in downtowns. Brevard County is obviously different. In addition, its major employment sites (Kennedy Space Center, Harris Corporation) are located at the fur ends of the county. Incidentally, this is one reason why vanpooling is very appropriate and very successful in the county In summary, performance reviews are a useful and important tool in monitoring and improving transit system performance However, it should be recognized that the results of trend and peer analyses are only a starting point for fully understanding tbe performance of transit systems. The issues identified as a result of the evaluation pmvide the basis for a series of questions that can lead to an enhanced understanding of the "bows" and "whys" of system performance For fixed-route service in Brevard County, the performance evaluation is best viewed as providing an indication of the future potential of fixed-route bus service as the system is developed in the coming years. The performance review has two parts. The first part examines trends over time for the directly operated demand-responsive service and the vanpool program. The second part evaluates fixed route and demand-responsive service by comparing SCAT to systems of similar size. Performance Review Database To receive federal funds, transit systems are required to report a varie ty of d ata in a standardized format, resulting in what is known as a Section 15 report. Since 1979, when this reporting requirement was instituted, additional refinements in data collection and reporting have increased 74

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the accuracy, reliability, and comparability of the data. The data are for the fiscal year used by each transit system. For Florida transit systems, the fiscal year runs from October I through September 30. For the fixed-route peer and the vanpool trend analyses, data were taken from published national summary reports of Section 15 data and from individual Section 15 reports provided by the transit systems for fiscal year 1992, the most recent year for which finalized data are available for all peer systems. Transportation disadvantaged peer and trend analysis relied on data contained in the annual Statewide Operations Report. With the exception of data on service area population and the inflation rate, all information was provided directly by the transit systems. CUTR did not collect any original data or conduct any audits or on-site analyses of the data or data collection procedures. Data DefinitionsTo fully understand the data presented in Section 15 reports, it is important to understand the definitions of the terms used in the document. In many instances, these definitions differ from initial perceptions and may be subject to interpretation. The Appendix to this Technic .al Memorandum provides a detailed glossary of terms used by Federal Transit Administration. There remain some discrepancies between systems as to how terms are defined and how information is collected; accordingly, caution should be used in interpreting findings, especially for those variables that are more likely to be subject to variation in definitions. Examples include some variation in the specific definitions of "roadcalls" used by the various properties Other transit systems differ in how employees are categorized among administrative, transportation, and maintenance tasks, and in how costs are allocated between the transit system and a parent governmental body. The national inflation rate, as defined by the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index (CPl) for all items (including commodities and services) from year to year, was used to deflate cost indicators so that they could be presented in real terms. From 1984 through 1992, service and labor costs tended to increase at a faster rate than did commodity prices. Therefore, transit operating expenses, which are predominantly comprised of service and labor costs, may be expected to increase somewhat faster than inflation even if the amount of service provided were not increased. Performance Indicators and Measures The evaluation measures that are used throughout the performance evaluation are distributed among three major categories: performance indicators, effectiveness measures, and efficiency measures. Performance indicators report absolute data in the selected categories that are required. These tend to be key indicators of overall transit system 75

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perfonnance Effectiveness measures typically refine the data further and indicate the extent to which various service-related goals are being achieved. For example, passenger trips per capita is an indicator of the effectiveness of the agency m meetmg transportation needs. Efficiency measures involve reviewing the level of resources (labor or cost) required to achieve a given level of output. It is possible to have very efficient service tlil!H f i\.ot effective or to have highly effective service that is not efficient. In addition, the service can be both efficient and effective or inefficient and ineffective in attaining a given objective. Overview of the System Space Coast Area Transit (SCAT) is a division of the Human Services Department of Brevard County and is directly governed by the Brevard County Commission which is comprised offive elected officials. Its service area encompasses the entire county. Space Coast Area Transi t directly operates demand-response services as well as contracting to provide additional demand-response and vanpool services SCAT began operating fixed-route services on October I, 1991. The transit facilities and equipment are owned by SCAT. Space Coast Area Transit also directly manages system operations and administration, and employs all transit system personnel. 76

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Table 21 Overvie w of Sp a ce Coast Area Transit F iscal Year 1 993 Moto CO < ' .: ' <.' . > Passenger T rips Per Revenue Mile 0 .32 0.59 0 16 Revenue Miles !!<:tween Incidents 139,456 53,209 n!a Revenue Miles !!<:tween Roadcalls 27,891 24,558 n/a xm;r . ..:: ;.;:. > _._ ,,_. IJ_. Operating Expense Per Passenger Trip $7.15 $6.61 SL34 Operating Expense Per Revenue Mile $2. 26 $3 .89 $0. 22 F arebox Recovery 9.15%1 0.9609 Full Cash Fare $1.00 vanes varies Average Fare $0.611 $1.29 I Motor bus and demand response are reported as one mode mlhe Space Coast 1993 Seebon IS report 77

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Table 21 presents a general overview of selected system operating characteristics, perfonnance indicators, and performance measures for the motorbps, directly operated demand-response, and vanpool service in fiscal year 1993. Transportation Disadvantaged Trend Analysis A trend comparison was made for the performance of the Brevard County CTC over time. Because of limited data availability, only three fiscal years were compared : 1991, 1992, and 1993. Table 22 shows the performance measures during each of the three fiscal years. This trend analysis represents a combined set of statistics for all TD transportation services coordinated through the CTC including TD and Medicaid paratransit fixed route, and subscription service From this table it appears the Brevard County CTC has performed well over time During the three year period, total passenger trips increased by 14.4 percent; total revenue miles increased by a similar amount (15. 0 percent) Vehicle miles per TD capita also increased, as did revenue rniles per TD capita. Another significant improvement wa5 the 41.4 percent decrease in operating expense per vehicle mile, which is excenent, as well as a corresponding 9 2 percent decrease in operating expense per revenue mile. A significant improvement also can be seen in the 328.4 percent increase in the number of vehicle miles between roadcalls, which means that vehicles are in good repair and are experiencing fewer service interruptions due to roadcalls. The 50.5 percent decrease in accidents per 100,000 vehicle miles is also noteworthy Local revenue as a percent of operating expense also has improved; however, there was a slight downward trend in the most recent fiscal year The issue appearing to need further analysis and perhaps some corrective action would be in the areas of passenger trips per vehicle and per revenue mile: In both measures, the Brevard County CTC has e x perienced a decrease in productivity (13.6 and 4.5 percent, respectively) These decreases may be due, in part, to l onger trip lengths; however, additional attention sbould be given to understand the implications of these changes in measures 78

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Table22 Trend Analysis for Brevard County CTC -13; 6% 41.1% 17.3% Vanpool Trend Analysis The following discussion provides analysis of Space Coast Area Transit's Vanpool program for a five-year time frame from 198 7-1991. Selected perfonnance indicators, effectiveness measures and efficiency measures are analyzed. As a group, these statistics reflect the growth of the vanpool program and the impact of social service agency vehicles being converted to commuter vans. Given the rise in Brevard County suburbanization, and the cost of insurance, all of which increased significantly, the relatively minor fluctuations here are a sign of a strong program 79

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Vanpool Performmce lndicaton Table 23 presents data from FY 1987 through FY!1 !)92 concerning vanpool performance ind icators Passenger TripsThe strong 56 percent growth rate iri passenger trips is attributable to the rise in the availability of relatively low cost vanpools. Vehicle Miles Th e 246 per cent increase in vehicle miles is a reftection of the growth in size of the vanpool fleet and t h e rate of suburbanization in Brevard Counl}'. The increase in low densil}' development is best served by vanpool and carpool programs. Total Operating Expe nse in 1984 S -These increases are a result of the dramatic rise in insurance costs and a moderate rise in maintenance costs, both of which are directly charged to the operators. Vehicles Available for MnimlliD Service v. Vehicles Operated in Maximum ServiceThe disparity in these numbers is reflected in the need to accommodate back-up vehicles and the popularity of "buying-up" seats for added comf ort. The low cost of the vans for users facilitates the buy-up. Tablel3 Va npo o l Performance Indicators Total Operating l!xperue 121.18 146.06 216 .99 227.78 247.20 221.60 82 .86% Vehicles Available for 33. 00 42.00 61.00 ss.oo 68.00 15.00 127.27% m 32.00 40.00 58.00 SS.oo 44.00 67.00 109.38% 80

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Vanpool Effectiveness Measures Vanpool effectiveness measures are shown in Table 24. Average age of fleet is usually considered a measure of quality of service, but is included here for the sake of brevity. Vehicle Miles Per Capita-This measure showed a healthy increase of 208 percent between 1987 and 1992. This is reflective of the increase in the vanpool program. Passenger Trips Per Revenue Hour-A 13 percent decrease over the time period is somewhat surprising. The fact that revenue hours grew faster than passenger trips most like l y reflects the tendency of vanpool users to buy-up seats. Average Age of FleetWhile the fleet age bas increased significantly, the impact of this factor is minimal given the strong maintenance and replacement programs in p l ace Table 24 Vanpool Effectiveness Measures 1:, . .: ,. ;, n . . .. ; .. .. %Chailge j(i 1987,, 198& 1989 L99Q_. 199!:. 1992 '"' ,, . I : .. ''1987-1 992 {> ,. 1>."' ._. -' , . . Vehicle Miles Per Capita 1.18 1.93 2.31 2.39 2.78 3.6 4 208.55 Passenaer Tri,. Per Revenue Hour 4.31 3.87 3 .34 2 .99 4.48 3 .77 12.53% A verae A2eofF!eet (in Years) 0 .50 1.21 1.44 2 .41 3 .19 2 5 9 418 00% Vanpool Efficiency Measures Efficiency measures for vanpool operation are discussed below and presented i n Table 25. Operating Expense Per Capita -While the operating expense rose 103 percent over the reporting period the increase reflect s the rapid growth of the vanpool program 81

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.. Operating Expense Per Peak Vehicle -Given the rise in Brevard County suburbanization, and the cost of insurance, all of which increased significantly, the relatively minor here are a sign of a strong program. Operating Expense Per Passenger Trip As a result of the shift in focus from service vans to commuter vans, the expense per trip would naturally increase. While actual operating expenses have remained fairly stable, the number of trips is significantly reduced thus driving up the expense per trip. Operating Expense Per Revenue Hour A 28 percent increase in operating expense per revenue hour i s a reflection of reduced hours of operation for Commuter vans vs. service or agency vans which operate more hours during the day. Vehicle Miles Per Peak VehicleCommuter vans tend to operate during peak periods and have long trip lengths (national average trip length for commuter van is 24 miles). Given these parameters, it is not surprising that vehicle miles per peak vehicle increased by 65 percent during the period. Revenue Hours Per Total VehicleThe 21 percent decrease is again a reflection of the shift in emphasis away from service vans to commuter vans. 82

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PerC aoila OperatiJl& Expense Per Peak Vehicl e r'oooi Operating Expense Per Passenger Trip Oper a ting Expense Per Revenue Hour Vehicl e Miles P er Peak Vehicl e (001)) Vehicl e Hours Per Peak Vehiclo;_(OOOl Revenue Hours Per Total Vehicles (000) Table25 Vanpool Eflicieo cy M e asures $0.36 $ 0 43 $0.64 $0. 72 $4.18 $4.19 $4. 47 $ 5 20 $ 0 % $ 0 91 $1.38 $1.66 $4. 15 $ 3 52 $4.60 $4.95 13.72 1 8 .68 16 .05 17 37 1.03 1.19 1.02 1.11 0 .98 1.13 0 92 !.OS 8 3 $0.80 $0 73 103 99% $7.4 6 $4.5 8 9 50'/o $1.69 $ 1. 4 1 4 6 52% $7.56 $ 5.3 1 28. 1 6 % 25.8 8 22.72 65 62% 1.04 0 9 1 -11 .68% 0 64 0 .77 21.92%

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Community Transportation Coordinator Peer Review Analysis In evaluating 1D service, CUTR compared SCAT to its community transportation coordinator (CTC) peers. For comparative purposes, C'lj(i;. groups were created according to the four categories listed below .1 System Size (measured in terms of total CTC system ridership). Operating Environment (urban or rural service area designation). Organization Type (public transit agency, government, private not-for-profit, or private for-profit) Network Type (sole provider, partial brokerage, or full brokerage). The Brevard County CTC (SCAT) is classified as a category "5" system (with 200,000749,999 annual TD passenger trips), operating in an urban service area (designated according to FDOT criteria), organized as a public transit agency, and coordinating trips as a partial brokerage. The median Fiscal Year 1993 performance measures for the Brevard County CTC (SCAT) and each of these peer groups are shown in Table 26 I CUTR, SUltewide OperOiions Report: Fiscal Year 1992193, (Tallabassee, Florida: Colll!1lission for the Trausportalion Disadvantaged, January 1994), 84

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Table26-A Median Performance M easures b y CTC Gro u ps Trips per Vehicl e Mile .19 .21 .19 22 T rips pe< Revenue Mile .21 .25 2 1 .23 Operating Expense per Vehicle $0 .72 $1.45 $1.34 $1.65 $0 .79 $1.59 $1.71 $1.72 $3 .84 $7 .01 $7.31 $7.51 Accidents per 100,000 Vehicle .90 1.84 1.68 1.10 Local Revenue Percen t of Operating 39.4% 18.6% 47.9% 26.5% Given SCAT's service configuration, it shoul d be k ept in mind that any comparison between SCA T and its peer gr o ups is only one facet of a comprehensive view of how well SCAT is performing. Nonetheless, SCAT does appear to compare favorably with its peers for most performance measures SCA T is particular l y strong wit h respect t o the three operating expense measures. The costeffectiveness of SCAT's system may be attnllutable to the various modes of transportation available to the TD popu l ation and incorporated into the CTC system, including fixed route service which is typically less costly on a per trip basis than paratransit. Likewise, SCAT performs well in terms of its accident rate and vehicle miles betw e en r oadcall s SCAT also exceeds the median peers for its s ize category and other partial brokerages in t erms of 8 5

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the local revenue as a percent of operating expense; only peers who are urban public transit agencies out-perform SCAT in this performance measure. CUI'R also compared the Brevard County CTC to four similar CTCs in Escambia, Lee, Polk, and Volusia Counties. Not all of these CTCs are in the identical peer CTC groups; however, these particular CTCs are similar to Brevard and also were used in the fixed route peer comparison. All four have relatively large ridership (category "5"), are designated as having urban service areas, and coordinate trips either as full or partial brokerages. Escarnbia County is a private for-profit CTC, Lee County is a private not-for-profit CTC, Polk County is a government CTC and Volusia is now a public transit agency CTC (although it was a private not-for-profit C T C during the time when these performance measures were derived). The comparative performance measures for Fiscal Year 1993 are shown in Table 26. Again, SCAT compares favorably with other similar CTCs As was the case for the peer group comparisons, these comparisons with similar CTCs provide helpful insight into how well Brevard County appears to be performing statistically, but should not be used as the sole measures to make inferences about the quality of service. Further Brevard County's numbers reflect the combined effect of paratransit, fixed route and subscription services. Nonetheless, on a systemwide basis, it is reasonable to conclude that the Brevard County CTC does compare well to its peer groups and similar CTCs. 86

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Table26-B Median Performance M easures by CTC Peen Passenger Trips pe:r Vehicle Mile 0 19 0 .23 0 .20 0.12 0 .13 0 .21 0.25 0 .21 0.23 0.15 Operating Expense per Passenger Trip $3.84 $5.43 $7.10 $9.50 $8. 41 2 1 Local Percent of Operating 39.4% 5 .5% 18.1% 26 .8% 13.5% 87

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Fixed-Route Peer Review Analysis A fixed route peer review analysis was conducted in order to compare the performance of the Space Coast Area Transit Agency with other similar transit systems in Florida and the United States. This analysis is based on 1992 data from the Federal Transit Administration's section 15 reports. The criteria used to select peers was based on operating characteristics (the amount of service provided, the number of vehicles operated in maximum service, the number of days service is provided) and exogenous factors (service population, geographic setting, and service area population density). However, the primary determinants for selecting peer group candidates were geographic setting and the number of vehicles operated in maximum service. The graphics presented throughout this section represent vanous performance indicators, effectiveness measures and efficiency measures from the analysis. These figures indicate the rank of systems from best to worst for each performance measure as well as the peer group mean which is i ndicated by the vertical line. The percent deviation from the mean for SCAT is also presented. The 16 systems that comprise the peer group are presented in Table 27 on the following page Detailed data tables for the peers are provided in Appendix G. SCATs unique operating environment was recognized at the outset of the performance evaluation As previously mentioned, SCAT's hybrid services present several challenges in conducting an analysis of this type. The challenge holds particularly true for the fixed-route service, which can be generally characterized as having a large service area with low population density and a low level of service due, in part, to the limited hours of bus operation In addition. SCATs fixed-route service does not have a long history of operation and thus bas not had the time to develop an extensive ridership base which bas come to rely on the buses. For these reasons, peer analysis should no t be viewed as a "report card" for SCAT. As will become readily apparent in the following tables, these conditions significantly influence SCAT's ranking among peers in the various performance measures. The peer analysis presented here for fixed-route service should be considered instead as a means of defining the potential for such service in Brevard County, as measured by what has been achieved in other systems. 88

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Table 27 Fixed Route Transit System Peer Group 1ifiS$iJ[t*$6:(it k' 1.'! JEp(fe # '$\6; ... ::;; #k; : .. .... ...... $'-.... tJo::t4'>"; '4 Tallahassee Transit Authority TALT Regional Transit System (Gainesville, FL) ARTS East Volusia Trans it Authority VOLT Escambia County Transit Authority ECTS Lee County Transit LCTS Sarasota County Area Transit SARA Lakeland Area Mass Transit District LAMT Space Coast Area Transit SCAT Chapel Hill Transit, NC CHAP Columbus Transit System (METRA),GA COLU Greenville Transit Authority, SC OREN City of Jacksonvi lle Transit System (Jatran), Miss JACK City of Lafayette Transit, LA LAFT Trans it Authority Lexington (LEXTRAN), KY LEXI City ofLubbock (Citibus), TX LUBB City of Raleigh Transit Division, NC RALE 89

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Fixed -Rou te Performa n ce Indicators Population, Ridership and Levels of Service The population of Brevard County was used to approximate the service area population for Space Coast Area Transit (SCA1). County populations were generally u sed for the Florida peers. Service area populations for non-Florida transit systems were provided directly by each peer system. SCAT's service area population is 108 percent above tbat of its peers, with a service area of 4 1 7,740 In the category of passenger trips provided, SCAT is significantly below the mean, as shown in Tabl e 28 Vehicle miles and revenue miles are both below the peer group mean indicating l ower levels of service. SCAT is 59 percent below the peer group mean for vehicle miles and 63 percent below the peer group mean for revenu e miles. These measures show that SCAT has the largest service area population of its peers and the lowest number of passengers and level of service. The size of the county and the limited amount and relatively recent origin of fixedroute service combine to affect perfonnance measures. T able28 Fixed-Rout e Service Area Populati o n, Ri d ership, and Levels of Service County/ Service Area Population 417, 740 49 830 4 1 7,740 200,550 108% Passenger Trips 123,210 123,210 3,749,750 189,770 93% Vehicle Miles 456,430 456, 430 1 ,603,370 1,128,230 -59'.4 .Revenue Miles 400,210 400,210 1,516,41 0 1,083,640 -63% 90

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0 Raleigh TaJ&.haueol Voluslo LMC...nty GeinefVI'Columbus Lubl>odt 1.000 0 2.000 3,000 4,000 0 Figure 17 Revenue Miles (000) 400 800 1,200 91 Figure 16 Vehicle Miles (000) 400 100 1 ,200 1.600 1.600 2.000

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Ni can be seen in Table 29, operating eXpense for SCAT is 69 percent below the peer group mean. and is the lowest for the systems presented. While minimizing operating expense is generally a positive goal, these results suggest that the funding level is very low for a system of this size. Likewise, maintenance expenses for SCAT are weU bel ow tbe peer group mean. The maintenance expense is 66 percent below tbe peer group mean. This measure can be attributed to tbe amount of service provided. Revenues are not broken down between tbe fixed-route and demand-responsive services ; tbu.s, no operating revenues are included in Table 29. OperatingEJcpense $916,040 Mllintcnancc Expense $241,350 Table29 Fixed-Route Expenses $916,040 $5,188,620 $233,370 $1,319,090 92 $2,966,500 -96% $ 707,520 -66%

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Lee Columbu s L.afyette Lakeland a.....,anl $0 Figure 18 Total Operating Expense (000) $2,000 $4,000 $ 6,000 Figure 19 Total Maintenance Expense (000) Raleigh Lexingto n Vofusie Escamilla Olapef Hill G,..,ville Lubbock Gainesville $0 S3 00 $600 S900 $1 200 51, 500 93

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Employees and Vehicles Table 30 presents the peer results in SCAT utilized approximately 16 full time employee equivalents, while the peer group mean was 65 employees. This represents a 72 percent difference from the peer group mean. The number of vehicles operated in maximum service by SCAT was II, which is 58 percent below the peer group mean of almost 27 vehicles. SCAT bas the fewest employees and vehicles of all the peer systems, refiecting its relatively recent origin, small size and limited amount of service offered Total Employees Vehicles Operated in Maximum Service Table 30 Fixed-Route Employees and Vehicles 15.8 15.8 128.8 II II 42 94 65. 37 -72% 26.75

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lexington Columbus Chapel Hill Gainesville LoeCounty Greenvill E scamblo 0 0 30 10 Figure 20 T o t a l En1DIIOV4!es 60 90 120 20 30 95 150 50

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. Service Supply Service supply, as measured by vehicle miles per capita, is significantly low when compared with the peer group mean. As Table 31 indicates, SCAT provided only 1.09 vehicle miles per capita, 85 percent below the peer group mean. Once again, this reflects SCAT's relatively recent entry into provision of fixed-route service and the limited amount of service. Service Availability SCAT provided 890 revenue miles per route miles in 1992. This measures is 83 percent below the peer group m ean of 5,340. SCAT's extensive service area and infrequent levels of service can explain in large part this low effectiveness measure. Table31 Fi. xed-Route Service Supply and Service Availability Vehicle Miles Per Capita Revenue Miles Pe< Route Mile 1.09 890 1.09 23.96 890 11,050 96 7.24 -85% 5,340 -83%

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Tallalwlss H lexington Lafayette Lakeland Volu Columbus RaJ h Gaiii
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Service Consumption SCAT is significantly below the peer group mean in terms of service consumption, due in large part to the limited amount of service and the lack of a history of transit in Brevard County. Table 32 shows 0 .29 passenger trips per capita, which translates to 97 percent below the peer group mean Passenger trips per revenue mile is 81 percent below the peer group mean. Passenger Trips Per Capita Passenger Trips Per Revenue Mile Table32 Fixed-Route Service Consumption 0 .29 0.29 50.31 0 .31 0.31 2.71 98 13. 24 1.67 -81%

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Hill .._ Figure 24 Passenger Trips Per Capita .-----..., Jackson GreenvillegL---f---7L----"""7L-------i 0 20 40 60 Figure 25 P a ssenger Trips Per Revenue Mile Lee 0 1 2 3 99

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Quality of Service Considering SCAT is a relatively young system, it performs generally well in terms of quality of service measures, as shown in Table 33. The peer group mean for the average age of fleet vehicles is approximately nine years. The age of SCAT's vehicles is 4.7 years, which is 45 percent below the mean. SCAT's performance is favorable in terms of revenue miles between roadcalls. Here, SCAT rates 155 percent above the peer group mean of 5,220 revenue miles between roadcalls. This measure is an indication of the reliability of fixed-route service Average Age of Fleet Revenue Miles Between Roadcalls Table 33 Quality of Fixed-Route Service 4 .79 2 .75 16.6 13,340 1,080 13,340 100 8.71 5,220 155%

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Lafayette Gainesville Figure 26 Average Age of Fleet (years) Jadcson Escambla-l?===:;z:: ==:;z::==:;z::==+----r 0.0 4.0 8 0 12.0 16.0 20.0 Figure 27 Gainesville 0 3,000 6 000 9,000 12,000 15, 000 1 0 1

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Cost Effi c iency Table 34 indicates that SCAT's perfonnance in cost efficiency is mixed. The operating elq>ense p e r capita is significantly below the p e er gro u p mean. In fact, SCAT' s $ 2.19 operating eJqJense per capita is th e lowest in the peer group SCAT's operating expense per passenge r trip is 244 percent a b ove the peer group mean. These low statist ics are a reflection of SCAT's small budget for a service area of it s size as well as the low levels of ridership. SCAT's perfonnance indicator for operating expense pe revenue mile is favorable, at 16 percent below th e peer group mean. Overall, SCAT's efficiency is very good w hen measured per capita and per unit of service The high operating expense per passenger trip suggests that SCAT's fixedroute s ervice has n ot yet reached the point at whic h there are economies of scale in the operation. Operating Expeose Per Capi t a Operating Expense Per Passenger Trip Operating Expense Per Revenue Mile T a ble 34 Fix e dR o u te Cost Efficie ncy $2.19 $2.19 $77 .06 $7 43 $0.80 $7 43 $2.2 9 $2. 14 $3 86 102 $20 .05 -89% $2.16 244% $2.7 4 -16%

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$0 .00 $2.0.00 Figure 28 Per Figure 30 $80.00 Figure 29 Operating Expense Per Passenger Trip $0.00 $2.00 54.00 58.00 Operating Expense Per Revenue Mile $0.00 $1.00 $2.00 SJ.OO 54.00 103

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Labor Productivity SCAT is below average in overall labor productivity, providing 910 revenue hours per employee, or 25 below the peer group mean. Also, SCAT's number of passenger trips per employee at 7,800 falls significantly below the peer group mean of 28,750 as shown in Table 35. These measures are also a reflection of limited fixed-route operation and a consequent lack of economies of scale. Revenue Hours Per Employee p..,enger Tri ps Per Employee Table 35 Fixed-Route Labor Productivity and Energy Utilization 910 910 1 ,650 1,210 -25% 7,800 7,800 60,150 28,750 -73% 104 /

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0 20 40 60 ao Figure 32 Revenue Hours Per Employee Lee 0 0 4 0 1 1 2 2 105

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Applicatioii "iW'SCAT Goals In order to assess the specific performance evaluation results for SCAT it is useful to review the goals previously identified. Specific performance. evaluation measures can be identified that assist in determining the extent to which SCAT is meeting each of the stated goals. Table 36 reit erates the goals presented in Chapter 2. Table 37 presents the SCAT goals with their applicable Section 15 performance measures. Note that there are other measures that can be used in determining the extent to which SCAT is meeting its proposed goals; this section addresses onl y the use of Section 15 performance measures. The intent of this section is not to suggest that performance evaluation is the only mechanism for assessing whether goals are being achieVed. The performance indi cators derived from the Section 15 reporting system, are believed to provide a good representation of overall transit system performance However as illustrated in the table, the performance evaluation measures do not comprehensively cover the objectives identified under each goal For the most part, the performance measures correspond to what can be considered the 'nuts and bolts' of transit operations the components that are easily quantified. Several of the policy object ives cannot not be m easured through this mechanism and require additional information or more subjective evaluation. As noted during the development of the goals, it is envisioned that the policy objectives will provide the framework from which SCAT can establish definite measurable objectives Other policy objectives require a single action such as the decision to establish transfer centers Nonetheless, a consideration of the applicable measures provides a useful starting point for identifying system strengths and areas of potential improvement, as well as fully understanding the status of SCAT in its efforts to achieve these goals 106

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Expand fixed route service areas and hours of opcratioo, if need is Emblish measures that advaooe SCA Is fixed route service as a viable alternative to demand response service. Consider express bus routes. Examine redesigning oerta.in routes and schedules to serve work conunute:rs. Encourage TransportAtion Demand Management (TOM) measures such as park-and-ride Enhance the level o f eonoeetiv ity between the NorthiSouth and East/West routes by establishing a grid system. Consi der North/South route coofiguratioos as feeders to expaoded East/West routes. Integrate transit nocds into the land use planning/development and pcnniHiog process E stablish formal transfer eenterslloeatioos. IDcrease the availability of information regarding the routes and schedules througll a formal marketing program. Consider the pLacement of covered bus shelters at key locations. Promote community outreach/education effons. Consider marketing specialized routes. e.g., beach routes for tourists. Market transit to youth (pre-teens & teens) with the beaches and malls as key destinations. Develop internal performance measures to track system utilization and aansit dernaD
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Goall Goal2 Goal3 Goal4 GoalS Table37 Eslablish 'l'lansit Service as a VIable Transportation Option in Brevard County Increase lbe Level of System Coordination IntenSify Marketing Efforts and Increase Visibility of SCAT Promote System Efficiency Ensure Sys!elll Accountability 108 Service Supply Vehicle Miles Per Capila Service Availability Revenue Miles Per RoUie Mile Quality of Service Average Age of Fleet Revenue Miles Between Roadcalls No applicable performance measures in Section IS database. No applicable performance measures in Section IS database. Specific actions are addressed in the recoQlJilell.dations as system enbancements. Service Consumption Passenger Trips Per Capita Passeoger Trips Per Revenue Mile Cost Efficiency Operating Expense Per Capita Operating Expense Per Passenger Trip Operating Expense Per Revenue Mile Operating Ratios Local Revenue Per Operating Expense Vebicle Utilization Vehicle Operated in Max. Service Labor Productivity Revenue Hours Per Employee Passenger Trips Per Employee No applicable performance measures in Section IS database.

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Stren gths and Areas of Potential Improvement A summary of SCAT's perforrtl&IIU strengths and areas of potential improvement based on the trend analysis for the eTC/transportation disadvantaged and vanpool services is provided in Table 38. The intent of this table is to identify those performance areas where the trend data has worsened A perfonnance strength is defined as any performance area tbat improved or was maintained over the trend analysis time period. An area of potential improvement is defined as a trend that declined over the trend analysis time period Tabl e 3 8 SCAT Performance Str e n gt h s and Areas of Potential I mprovement, Tren d Analysis Kw 'm? I :'.1!2-.: '';''f';' . . ... ; . -:;. ... I '' Areas otP.ote o tlal Improvemeot :. .. '' .. N > . : . . CTC Passenger Trips Passenger Trips per Vehicle Vehicl e Miles & per TO capita Passenger Trips per Revenue Mile Revenue M i les & per TO capita Operating Expense per Passenger Trip Operating Expense per Revenue Mile Local Revenue % of Operating Expense Vehicl e Miles Between Roodcalls Aocidents per 100, 000 Vehicl e Miles Rickrship and Levels of Service No improvement needs identified Vanpool. Scrvioe Supply and Consumption Cost Efficiency The trend data for tbe CTC s transportation disadvantaged s ervices indicate a strong program Overall, the CTC performance has steadily improved over the three year period (FY 1991-1993) that was examined However, several of the performance measures experienced a slight decline and warrant further investigation. including passenger trips per vehicle mile an d per revenue mile. As previously mentioned, the changes in these measures may be partially due to longer trips. A summary of performance strengths and areas of potential improvement based on the peer review analysis for tbe fixed route and CTC service is provided in Table 39. Performance strength is defined as a perfonnan c e area that is equal to or better than the peer group average while an area of potential improvement is d efined as a performance area tbat is below the pee r group average. 109

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. Tab le39 SCAT Performance Strengtbs and Improvement, Peer ReviAnalysis Fixed-Route CTC Quality of SetVice Operoting Expense per Revenue Mile Maint"""""" Expense Ridership and w'Cis of Service Service Supply and Coosulnption Cost Efficiency Quality of SetVioe Ridership and Levcl of Service Cost Efficiency Operoting Ratios Vehicle Ulilization Labor Produclivity Scrvice Coosulnpticn SCAT's performance is less favorable in the fixed-route peer review analysis, as expected . The results of the peer review analysis for the fixed-route clearly reflect the newness of the service as well as the SCAT's atypical operation. Other factors such as fixed-route service operation concentrated in non-peak hours, and configurations and schedules contribute to low ridership and low productivity in the performance measures outlined above As with most transit systems, increased ridership can improve these performance areas and it is expected that SCAT's fixed-route system will continue to attract riders as it matures The performance measures summarized in the preceding table as "areas of potential improvement should be further examined and closely monitored as the fixed-route system evolves. These areas as well as other component s of the system are addressed in the r ecommendations of this study As noted in the CTC peer section, SCAT's performance among other CTCs is very favorable in comparis on with its peers SCAT performs particularly well in the cost efficiency and quality of service measures. For instance, SCAT rates far below peers in the operating expenses and in the measures of acciden ts per 100,000 vehicle mile and vehicle miles between roadcalls. Only when SCAT is compared to peers by system size does its performance drop, and only in one category (local revenue percent of operating expense) In this particular measure, SCAT is outperformed by urban transit peers 110

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The trend and peer review analysis cannot determine the extent to which improvements in these areas would result in positive ridership response, increased far e box recovery and the like However SCAT should concentrate on addressing conditions t hat are within its control as a means of strengthening areas of potential improvement. Consequently, the trend and peer review analyses can be helpful in developing a better understanding o f SCAT performance and identifying target areas for additional attention and improvement. These target areas form the framework of the Transit Development Plan in which detailed policy and operation strategies for SCAT will be presented. Performance evaluation measures do not comprehensively cover all of the objectives of a transit system However the results of the trend and peer review analyses provide useful information and serves as input to the next chapter. I I I

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Demand Estiiiuation liiid Needs Assessment The Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) is under contract with the Brevard County Board of County Commissioners to produce a five-year Transit Development Plan for Brevard County. Among the tasks for this project are to prepare estimates of demand for transit service over the five-year period, to assess mobility needs in the county, and to present alternate methods of increasing mobility through transit system improvements. Various methods of estimating demand for transit. service and assessing unmet mobility needs are presented and discussed below. These techniques utilize the data and findings from aU previous tasks Transit service alternatives are identified through the interviews, focus groups and surveys and through CUTR's experience in other urban areas similar in size to Brevard Current and Future Demand For Transit Service There are several different methods available to estintate the level of demand for transit service in Brevard County. Transit demand can be estimated by the use of trend analysis, peer comparisons, service and fare elasticities, census tract analysis, interview and focus group results, and survey results. The fOllowing sections estimate the demand for fixed route, demand responsive and vanpool services in Brevard County The final section integrates the results of the mode-by-mode analysis. Fixed Route Demand Estimates Ridership Trends Due to the type of service operated by SCAT and its predecessors, fixed route ridership and demand responsive ridership were combined in the Federal Section IS Statistics. For this reason, no accurate long term historical fixed route ridership data is available. In Fiscal Year 1992 SCAT reported fixed route ridership at 123,210. In FY 1993 ridership increased by 7.2 percent to 132,065. In December 1993, SCAT modified its'fixed route service network by eliminating three routes and adding five routes to the system. This change in service adds to the difficulty of assessing recent ridership trends. Fixed route ridership on the modified system for January through March 1994 is 33,129, a 2 2 percent increase over the same time period in 1993. Based on recent ridership trends, annual ridership over the next five years is estimated to increase at approximately two to five percent per year as the new service matures Assuming a five percent annual increase SCAT fixedroute ridership in FY 1999 is estimated at 177,000, as shown in Table 40. 112

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TABLE40 Projected Fixed-Route Rldenbip for SCAT < ,., F .. 1999 Fixed Route 132,065 138,068 145,602 152,882 160,526 168,552 176,980 Ri Peer Group Comparison -One alternate approach in detennining the extent of transit demand is to compare per capita ridership, service and spending levels at SCAT with those at similar systems in Florida and the southeastern United States. The peer review analysis contained in Chapter 3 presented a wide array of data for 16 transit systems that have between 10 and 49 buses. Of these systems, half are in Florida and half in other southeastern states. By taking the averages of ridership per capita and other measures and then applying them to Brevard County's population, it is possible to estimate the level of demand for transit service in systems of this size, all other things being equal. Table 41 presents the results of this exercise The peer group systems averaged 13. 24 riders per capita, while SCAT averages only 0 29. If Brevard County were to match the average riders per capita for the peer group, SCAT ridership would increase to over 5 5 million from its existing 123,000. Similarly, SCAT provides significantly less service, as measured by vehicle miles per capita, than the peer average. Service levels would have to increase by approximately six-fold to match the peer group. Maximum number of vehicles in service is also significantly lower for SCAT The operating expenses per capita for SCAT are one-tenth the peer group average. Projected operating expense would be $8.4 million based on the per capita peer group average 113

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PopUlation Riden per capila Vehicle Miles per Capica Maximum Vehicles Operated Opmling Expenses per capila Projecred SCAT Ridership Based on Peer Averages Pro jecred SCAT Vehicle Miles Based on Peer Averages Pro jeered SCAT Operating Exp Based on Peer Averages fAALk4i Peer G r oup Comparisons with SCAT For Fixed-R oute ODly 417,740 0.29 1.09 II $2 .19 Actual 1 23,000 Projected 5,531,0 0 0 Actual 456,000 Pro jeered 3,024,000 Actual $916,0 0 0 Projecred $8,376,000 200,550 13.24 7.24 27 $20.05 1,897,700 1,128,230 $2,996,500 One factor to consider in interpreting these numbers is the difference in measuring service area population. SCAT and other Florida sys tems use the county population, even if the transit system does not serve the entire county Systems outside Florida often use actual service area population. Thus, p e r capita measures are generally higher for non-Florida systems. It may be instructive to look at subsets of the peer group, since with only 11 buse s in maximum s ervice SCAT is on the low end of the 10 to 49 bus category. Table 42 presents the ride r ship and service data for SCAT, the full p eer gro up, and three different s ubsets: systems with 10 to 24 buses, peer group systems in Florida, and systems in Florida with 10 to 24 buses. As can be seen from the table, S CAT performance results are more in line with th e small Florida system averages, suggesting that a greater discrepancy between SCAT and the averages of the full peer group res u lted from inclusion of larger (25 to 49 bus) systems and systems outside Florida. Even so, SCAT has significantly l ow e r ridership less service, and lower expenses than would be expecte d for a system of its size in Florida. The relatively recent start-up of fixed route service in Brevard County, the corresponding lack of a history of transit usage in the county, and low popu lation densities in SCAT s service area play a large explanatory role in the low ridership, service levels and expenses. 114

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Table 43 presents SCAT projections based upon the per capi t a averages in the peer group and the peer subsets. For example, annual ridership estimates range from 1 963,000 if SCAT per capita ridership were to match the average of small Florida systems to 5,531,000 if SCAT per capita ridership were to match the peer group average. In similar fashion, projected annual vehicle miles of service range from 1,938,000 to 3,024,000, and operating expense projections range from $4,499,000 to $8,376 ,000. TABLE 42 Peer S ub6et Compal'i
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TABLE43 SCAT ProjectiODS Based on Per Capita Averages In Peer Gro ups Projected Ridership 1 23,210 5,531,000 2,670,000 4,215,000 1,963,000 Projected Vehicle 456,430 3,024,000 2,005,000 2,619,000 1,938 000 Miles Projected Opernting $916,040 $4,800,000 $6, 709,000 $4,499,000 Expense While peer group analysis is useful for comparing the relative performance levels of similar systems, caution must be used in applying these results to demand estimatio n and needs assessment. The underlying assumption that the propensity to use transit is constant across urbanized areas of similar size and similar transit system characteristics ignores differences among cities in urban development, demographics and quality of service In SCAT's case the high end oftbe range is clearly out of reach. Even projections at the low end, derived from averages at Florida systems with between 10 and 24 buses, would result in a ISfold increase in fixed-route ridership and a quadrupling of fix ed route service and expenditures However, there is another way to use the peer analysis to assess demand. If it is assumed that the peer subset 3 (small systems in Florida) is the most appropriate peer group for SCAT and that the per-capita estimates derived from this peer group measure total demand for public transportation (not just the demand for fixed-route service), then the peer results indicate a demand for approximately 2 million trips per year, as shown for projected ridership under the peer subset 3 column in Table 42. This total demand for public transportation can be met by a combination of fix ed-route, demand responsive and vanpo oVcarpool services. Supply and demand of service for the other modes wiD be considered after a discussion of additional means of identifying the need and future supply of fixed-rou t e service. 116

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Service and Fan Elasticities Another means to estimate future demand is by the use of service and fare elasticities. Elasticity is a measure o f the sensitivity of a dependent variable (e.g transit ridership) to changes in an independent variable (e.g., fare or service level). While considerable variation can exist, especially for changes at the level of individual routes, fare and service elasticities have been found to be reasonab l y constant for transi t systems of all s i zes at the aggregate system level. Elast i city values published by the American Public Transit Association (APTA) are -0.43 for the elasticity of ridership with respect to fare (fo r systems serving area ofless than I minion population) and + 0 6 for the elasticity of ridership with respect to service. This means that a I 0% increase in transit fare will result in a 4.3% loss in ridership, while a 100/o increase in levels of service (usually measured b y vehicle miles) will produce a 6% increase in ridership. Transit riders are generally more sensitive to level of service than to fare. Tabl e 44 presents results of three scenarios for SCAT. The first is a I 0 cent fare incr ease, which produces a ridership decline of 5,298. The second is a rollback in base fare to 90 cents, which increases ridership by the same amount as the decrease in the first scenario. The last scenario is a 10 percent increase in vehicle miles, which produces a ridership increase of7,393. Table 44 also shows resul ts in terms of operating revenue and expense for each scenario The fare increase scenario results in a net financial impact of +$4,651 despite the loss of ridership, due to the higher fare paid by the remaining riders. Next in terms of net financial impact is Scenar i o 2 at -$5,393 despite the increase in riders, due to the lower fare paid by existing riders. Scenario 3 shows the greatest ridership increase, but a 10 percen t service increase is presumed to require a I 0 percent increase in operating expenses, resulting in a net financial impact of -$86,577 The results of the elasticity calculations indicate that increasing service levels may not necessarily produce the anticipated results, since the cost involved in service expansion is significant. A ten percent increase in vehicle miles would be a major challenge for any small transit agency. These results imply that proposed service improvements must be closely scrutinized for their impacts o n cost as well as ridership. Also important however, is the fact that all service extensions are not equal; an improvement targeted at a specific corridor or location where there is significant demand can perform much better than these aggregate averages. 117

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TABLE44 Impoocts of Fare ud s ..... '!-.. Fare $1.00 $1.10 $0.90 $1.00 Aveagc Fm $0.68 (I) $0 .75 $0.61 $0.68 Vebicle miles 456,430 456, 4 30 456,430 S02,073 Ridership 123,210 117,912 128,508 130,603 Operating Expense $916,040 $916,040 $916,040 $1,007,644 Olange in Ridership -5,298 +5,298 + 7,393 Cbange in Revenue +$4,651 -$5,393 + $5,027 +$91, 604 l. Represents FY 1993, FY 1992 fare DO( available. For the purposes of estimating demand, Table4S presents fixed-route ridership estimates assuming that an annual tO percent increase in service would result in a six percent increase in ridership and that this increase would be in addition to the assumed rate of ridership increase of five percent. Table 45 also includes the original fixed-route ridership projections from Table 40. The resulting estimate is 234,000 trips by FY 1999, compared to the original estimate in Table 40 of 177,000. Given that the actual level of change in fixed-route service is likely to be somewhere between zero and 10 percent annually, it is estimated that the fixed-route portion of SCAT will carry 200 000 passenger trips per year by FY 1999. 118

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Census Tract Analysis Census tract data can be used to compare demographic information, particularly the distribution of low-income and zero-car-ownership households, with the existing transit network configuration. This type of analysis is useful for determining whether census tracts with transit-dependent characteristics are adequately served by the existing transit network. TABLE45 Base and Enbaaeed fued-Roate RlcHnblp Projections for SCAT :"1'" fi "' '-1 ': ,., . .. '"' ,, '""E .. . ; ; fl': 199/1". FY 1998, FY q A$. R !",.,. i '' . -v_ 1999 j, > . .. ..... Base (No 132,065 138,068 145,602 152,882 160,526 168,552 176,980 Service Increase) Enbaneed (10 132,065 138,068 153,922 170,853 1 89,647 210,508 233.665 percent annual service increase) Table 46 presents the results of this analysis. Primary tracts are defined as those tracts where more than 20 percent of households have incomes under $10,000 and at least 20 percent of households do not own a car. Secondary tracts are those meeting only the income criterion. All but census tracts 622 and 627 in Cocoa are served by the existing transit system, with those in Melbourne receiving more service Figures 33A and 338 show primary and secondary transit dependent census tracts with an overlay of SCAT's fixed route network. Based upon this analysis, there are only two tracts identified as transit-dependent which are currently unserved (both in Cocoa, in Figure 33A). Two other areas (census tracts 608 in Titusville and 697 in Cocoa ) warrant further detailed analysis with regard to the possible need for additional service coverage. Interview, Focus Group, and Survey Results-Results of interviews with key local officials and focus groups with non-users have been discussed in Chapter I. Local officials and non-users reported potential demand for increased hours of operation Both groups also expressed the need to provide better service in the local areas of the county (north, central, south), and to analyze the potential for express bus service and park-and-ride lo ts. 119

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607 Titusville 608 Titu sville 626 Cocoa 627 Cocoa 6 48 Melbourne 649. 02 Melbourne 622 Cocoa 623 Cocoa 647 Melbourne 651.01 Melbourne 651.22 Melbourne 697 Cocoa TABLE46 Transit-Dependm t C en s us Tracts 2,30 Easrem of tract served Route 3 terminates at courthouse 30 S oulbem ponion of census tract served 520 31 Not adequately served 520 S outbem portion o f census tr.tct served 21, 26, 29 Serves southern and nonhwesrem portions of ttaet 21, 26 27 29 Adequatel y served NA N o t served 520,31 Adequately served 21, 26, 29 No service in nonhero &Jtd cen.tral ponions (nonhero balf is Melbourne Aiipon) 27,29 Adequately served 27,29 Adequately s e rved 520 S erves eastem boundary only 120

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711 B u s Routes ROU'I'E2 ROU'I'E9 W ROVTE30 a ROI!mJl 0 R()(II'S 6 a 020 Dct-clont I noels a l'riiDory Ill s.-., Figure 33A North Brevard County Transit Supply and Needs 621.0 1 6ll.Ol ,..

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v Figure 33B South Brevard County Transit Supply and Needs .. "' -- \ Bus Routes 1 2 2 s ao .31 4 Ill 5 6 7 li 8 Transit Dependent Tracts 13 Pri'nory ria Secondary Scale: 1 in 7.953 ml

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Other areas for improving fixed route service are identified in the SCAT goals estab l ished as part of the TDP and contained in Chapter 2. These goals are a result of meetings with key local officials, focus groups of users and non-users, discussions with the local coordinating board, and the goal setting workshop with the TDP Advisory Board Desired improvements identified in the goals include serving the work commuter, establishing a grid system, and establishing formal transfer centers. The survey of bus operators identified two areas for new or modified service One is to serve the entire beach area, and the other was to serve Greyhound and Job Services in Cocoa Bus operators also generally agreed that there is a need for Saturday and possibly Sunday service. D emand Res p o n sive Service Ridership Es tim ates A m e ri ca n s wit h Disab i lities Act .In addition to requiring transit agencies to provide aceessible fixed route bus service, tbe Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires t h ese agencies to provide complementary paratransit service. SCAT bas until 1997 to phase-in its complementary paratransit service, which must "shadow" the fixed route service area and provide a comparable l evel of service for persons who cannot use the fixed route service The regulations define the service criteria that must be met when implementing complementary paratransit service. The six service criteria, described in Section 37.31 of the federal regulations (49 CFR Part 37), are: Service area Trip purpose Response time Hours and days of service Fares Capacity constraints Section 37.123 of the ADA regulations describes the eligibility standards for the paratransit service. To be eligible for ADA complementary paratransit services persons must be unabl e to use fixed route service for some or all of their trips because of the nature of their disabilities. A person who is b lind or uses a wheelchair, for example, is not automatically eligible for ADA paratraosit unless be or she is specifically unable to use the fixed route service. Brevard can manage the demand for ADA complementary paratransit services by following the strict ADA paratransit eligibility standards outlined in the regulations. This would encourage the use ofless-costly fixed route service by those who are able to do so. 123

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ADA requires public transit systems to prepare a Complementary Paratransit Plan describing the system's implementation plan for the ADA paratransit service and to provide annual updates to the plan. SCAT's plan includes several sections: a discussion of the fixed route and paratransit service currently provided; a proposed implementation plan for the ADA paratransit service; a proposed process for determining eligibility for the service; a public participation process; plans for coordinating the ADA paratransit service; a passenger management system; estimates of demand for ADA paratransit ; and certifications and resolutions According to SCAT's 1994 plan update. the number of persons certified eligible for ADA paratransit service is projected to increase from 1,200 in FY 1995 to 2,400 in 1997, and ADA paratransit ridership is projected to increase from 15,000 in FY 1995 to 25,000 in FY 1997, as shown in Table 47 SCAT will be in full compliance with the requirements for ADA complementary paratransit service in 1997. For the last two years of the TDP time frame, it is assumed that ADA-eligible persons and trips will grow by five percent annually. Number of PeiSODS Certified ADA-Eligible Number of ADA Parattansit Trips Provided TABLE47 ADAEililble Ptr$0a and Trip Projecllons year ,:'1991.' 1,200 1 ,800 2,400 15,000 20,000 25,000 ' ' ., 1998 1999 2,520 2,646 26,250 27,563 Sow:ce: Space U>ast Arm 1fansirl994 Update to the ADA &quirtd Complementary Pararransit Plan (1995), 199&.1999 esdm11ttd based on 5 percent OMUDI gruwth. 124

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Fixed-route service improvements such as i'OUte:eiCtensions, lengthening of the span of service during the day, and provision of weekend service, have definite implications with regard to ADA requirements. Complementary paratransj_t service must be provided during the hours of normal . . . . .. fixed-route operation, and must be made available to all eligible persons within three-quarters of a mile of a fixed route. Thus, such proposals as evening or weekend fixed-route service or introduction of service to new a.reas will also expand the required hours or geographic service coverage of complementary ADA service and thus increase the projected number of ADA trips. Brevard County is in the process of transitioning the provision of paratransit services (except for Medicaid trips) to SCAT from Coastal Health Systems of Brevard, Inc. (Coastal will continue to provide Medicaid trips) SCAT will be providing ADA complementary paratransit service for the ADA-eligible population, as well as paratransit service for persons who are transportat ion disadvantaged (TD}. The 1D population (described in the following section) includes most persons who are ADA eligible. TD Paratransit Service -Brevard County, in cooperation with the state, has pursued the development ofparatransit service for individuals who are elderly, disabled, and/or low income, and for children who are "high risk" or "at risk" of developmental disability. In Florida, these persons are referred to as the transportation disadvantaged (ID) population. Chapter 427 of the Florida Statutes charges the Florida Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged with the responsibility to ... accomplish the coordination of transportation services provided to the transportation disadvantaged." To ensure coordination of these services, the Commission contracts with community transportation coordinators (referred to as local coordinators) to provide 1D transportation services within each county. SCAT serves as the local coordinator for Brevard County. As described in Chapter 1, Florida's coordinated TD system serves two 1D population groups. Th e first group, referred to as the Category I 1D population, includes all persons who are disabled, elderly, and/or low-income, and children who are "high-risk" or "at-risk." These Category I persons are eligible for trips that are subsidized by social service or other governmental agencies. The second population group, referred to as the Category II 1D population, is a subset of the Category I population and includes only those members of the Category I population who are unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportation. Members of the Category II population are eligible to receive the same subsidies as Category I persons plus they are eligible to receive monies 125

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from the state's TD Trust Fund for trips that are not subsidized by a social service or o t her governmental agency Projections of the TD population and of paratransit service demand and supply were developed using the method described in the 1993 report, Methodology Guidelines for Forerosting TD T r ansportation Demand at the County Level, prepared by CUTR for the Commission (the model describes the calculations and functions in detail) The model forecasts TD Category I and Category II populations using data from the Bureau of Economics and Business Research (BE BR), the U.S Bureau of the Census, and the local coordinator As shown in Table 48, the application of this methodology to Brevard County for Fiscal Year 1995 resulted in a projected Category I TO population of 155,425 persons and a projected Category II TD population of31,415 persons. TABLE48 Projected TD Popu.latlon and ParalraDslt Demand and Supp l y '[J: ;;: o .. .. .. . : < '..' : : Lf' ,ti: . PY i99s !lY '1999 <
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Similarly, TD supply estimates are based on the same data as demand estimates, plus the annual budget estimates developed by the Commission. The assumption is made that all trips provided through TD Trust Fund subsidies are for triPS and that ten percent of all other trips are general trips. As shown in Table48, trips in F i scal Year 1995 is projected to totall.049 million trips, including 787,000 trips provided or arranged for by the local coordinator within the coordinated system, and 262,000 trips provided by operators outside of the coordinated system The unmet demand is forecasted by subtracting the projected supply from the projected demand for TD trips. As a result, i t appears the unmet demand for paratransit trips in Brevard County during Fiscal Year 1995 will be 160,000 Vanpool Ridership Estimates While fixed route service demand can be estimated by using such techniques as trend analysis, peer comparisons and service/fare elasticities, vanpool service estimates, especially in Brevard County, are extremely difficult. In a previous chapter, trend analysis was conducted on Section 15 data for the vanpool service. This analysis reveals the difficulty in dealing with vanpool service estimates. During the review period, the vanpool program was modified to change the o ri entation to commuter vans from agency vehicles. As a result, some categories showed phenomenal growth while others were plagu ed by severe declines. Projections of need or demand using these statistics would yield unrealistic estimates and lead to service development that could prove both unnecessary and extremely costly. Service and fare elasticities are also not appropriate tools to use in estimating demand for vanpools. It should be noted that the vanpool program that exists in Brevard County is intended to be a costrecoverable program. Fares for vanpool participants are priced to recover all operating costs While the federal government, using Section 9 money, and Brevard County make the capital investment by purchasing the vans, at the end of the four year lifespan of the commuter van, the vans are sold and this money is returned to the county. All of the local purchase price (10 percent match for Brevard County) is recovered by the aftermarket sale of the vans. Therefore, changes in fares of the vanpool program would only occur if the county decided to reduce its capital purchase subsidy. Therefore, in an effort to provide a fair estimate of demand for the vanpool program, census tract analysis, interviews and focus group results will serve as the basis for much of the appraisal in this 127

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section. Below are the results of the evaluation conducted on the Brevard County vanpool program, with particular emphasis on census data analysis and the results of focus groups and interviews. T rend A n alysis -As discussed in the previous chapters, trend analysis reveals a phenomenal growth rate. Between 1987 and 1993, the vanpool fleet grew from 33 to 80 vans. However, the first year of the Brevard vanpool program was 1985, j u st two years earlier than the first year of the trend analysis. Transportation demand management experts agree that a new program will take between three and five years to get started During this period programs are fine tuned and the previously untapped market adjusts to the existence of the service. Therefore, a more accurate picture can be drawn by examining trends in the vanpool program from 1990 to present. During that tim e period the van pool program showed a healthy growth rate of approximately ten percent per year An accelerated growth rate occurred during the period between 1990 and 1991 when the vanpool program focus was changed from social-service agency based to commuter-van based. After the transition, growth rates stabilized and hovered around the five percent per annum rate. Projected into the future, a five percent annual growth rate would make the Brevard vanpool program larger than benchmark vanpool programs in Seattle and Hartfo rd, two of the nat i on's largest. Given that agency demand for vans, which makes up roughly 45 percent of vans in operation, is e x pected to remain fairly small during the next five years a five percent growth rate is probably realistic to expect Census Tract Analysis According to a 1990 report by Commuter Transportation Services Inc._ van pool success is attributed to three criteria, of which certain thresho lds must be met. The first is distance. Vanpooling becomes a viable option for most commuters if the distance they travel is greater than 20 miles. The second is travel time. For vanpooling to be attractive, travel time for the commuter must exceed 30 minutes. Finally, for a vanpooling program to be successful. the cluster area (the maximum distance all participants must be from each other at either or both ends of the trip) must be 3 miles or less These criteria make sense, given the importance of time and money in the eyes of most commuters Additional time to pick up all riders is not as significant to long commutes (an extra five minutes to pick everyone up i s less of a factor if the drive alone commute would be thirty minutes, then if the drive alone commute was 10 minutes). The additional time is the trade-off to the cost savings. According to the 1993 Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) handbook, Implementing Effective T ravel Demand Manasernent Measures, approximately eight percent of all wor k ers meet 128

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the criteria for vanpool commuting. AcOO-filinttoCensus Joumey-To-Worlc data for Brevard County, the total employment population is 183,269 Thus, 14,662 Brevard County workers have the potential to fill vanpool seats. On average, onlY. one person in ten of the potential market will actually consider switching to a vanpool. TIW@ilm.ing market for vanpools in Brevard County is then limited to approximately 1466 persons. Under these conditions a number of scenarios evolye which are depicted in Tables 49 through 52. As an example, if we assume a national vanpool occupancy average of 12, then 122 vans would be needed to achieve a I 00 percent market penetration rate, 6 1 vans to meet SO percent market penetration, and 30 vans to achieve a 25 percent penetration The total number of commuter vans already in use in Brevard County is 46 a 38 percent market penetration rate. These figures reflect the exemplary status of the Brevard vanpool program, whose size rivals that of van pool programs in much larger urban centers While there is room to expand the program, the phenomenal growth cannot be expected to continue at its current rate. A continued growth rate of five percent per year would be somewhat ambitious, but given the outstanding results of the program not impossible. Based on FY 1993 vanpool ridership totals of slightly over 250,000 per year, the projected vanpool ridership at the end of the five-year period (i e., FY 1999) would be just under 350 ,000, as shown in Table 53. 129

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n=l4,662 n 14, 662 Table49 Poleatial Brevard County Vanpool Markel 7 Passengers per van averqe Table so Pountial Brevard C onaty Vanpool Market 10 Passengers per van aerage 130

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nl4 ,662 r:' ' : ' 'i'aliJeosi Poteotlal Brevard Coaaty Vanpool Market lZ Passeagers p.,. van a .. rage Table 52 Poteotlal Brevard County Vanpool Market 15 Passengers per van average 13 1

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TABLE 53 Vanpool Rldenlllp Projedloas for SCAT 258,029 270,930 284,477 298,700 313,63(; 329,318 345.784 Interview and Focus Group Results In the vast majority of focus groups and interviews the topic of vanpools was rarely mentioned. While the vanpools are an important part of Space Coast Area Transit s service delivery system, the general public does not seem to recognize that fact. This can be attributed to a lack of marketing to the public. For the citizens to equate the vanpool program with the transit agency, educational outreach and promotion must be done In many of the focus groups and interviews, the lack of morning and afternoon fixed-route service was seen as a weakness of the transit agency. Under the current system, transit could not meet the needs of the commuter. This issue is addressed by the vanpool program. While many transit dependent citizens could utilize transit service for work trips, the vast majority of commuters are not transit dependent. In fact, a profile of vanpool commuters shows that the majority have professional, technical, management, or administrative jobs, are primarily male, have an average age in the early 40 's with a higher than average salary. Given these parameters, travel choice is based more on convenience and cost and less on dependence. Door-to-door service without numerous stops or transfers is more convenient and saves more time than traditional fixed-rout e service Other Consideration.s -Space Coast Area Transit serves as the l ocal commuter assistance program (CAP) provider for the Florida Department of Transportation (FOOT). Under this arrangement, SCAT provides commuter assistance in the following areas: Rideshare Arrangements, including Carpooling and Vanpooling Alternative Work Hours Information on Transit Services Marketing of TDM Strategies -Parking -Ridesharing -Pedestrian/bicycle 132

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' ' .. SCAT has neither the resources nor the experience to provide services beyond services beyond vanpooling For example, while the potential vanpool market is eight percent of all employed persons, the potential carpool market is 25 percent of all employed persons. This is a significantly larger rnarlret than that being tapped by the vanpool program. Unfortunately, for carpool programs to be effective, a good, up-to-date database of carpoolers is needed as well as the marketing to reach these people. Without a large or the ability to purchase new ridematching software SCAT must make do with the limited resources it has. While there seems to be little demand for the other services available under the CAP, the program could be expanded, become more visible, and open up new markets The services of the CAP remain the one area of highest untapped potential of all SCAT services. An additional factor to consider is logistics. For a vanpool to be formed, between seven and 15 people who live within a 3-mile radius of each other must have similar work-schedules, express an i nterest in vanpooling, and have job-site destinations within one mile of each other Carpools only require that two to three people have similar commute parameters. Generally, the distance required to interest commuters in carpooling is shorter than that for vanpools because time delays t o pick up one or two other persons rather than six to fourteen others are significantly lowe. r This makes carpooling more appealing, and more people are willing to arrange it on a trial basis. Regardless of whether the focus is on vanpooling, carpooling, or transit service, park and ride lots can add incentive for people to try rideshare alternatives. The time savings which accrue from having 12 vanpoolers meet at a central location rather than 12 separate sites are significant. I n addition, a stop at a park and ride lot along a traveler's route adds only a small amount of time to his or her trip. Driving to someone else's residence may add as much as five minutes to the commute trip, which is a significant enough delay to discourage rideshare arrangements. The fact that SCAT CAP services have not been expanded has been linked somewhat to a Jack of certainty about the future status of the CAP program in Brevard County. In 1992, the Florida Department of Transportation unveiled a new approach to commuter assistance program service delivery Instead of having a series of small local and urban CAP programs, the state intended to move to larger regionalized CAP programs. Under the plan the SCAT CAP program was to be rolled into a regional program based in the Orlando metropolitan area and include Brevard and V olusia Counties. To date, that consolidation has not taken p lace. This has had senous repercussions on the ability of SCAT to expand its program. 133

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The two areas in which the regional program would impact Brevard County, are in the areas of CAP marketing and da t abase software Both of these services would be provided by the regional entity The prohibitive cost of adequate rideshare matching software is best handled under a regional approach SCAT CAP services would be able to access the database via modem and provide improved matching services. Marketing materials, the development of which can be expensive, wou l d also be handled by the regional agency with generic materials developed that could quickly and cost -effectively be adapted to meet Brevard County needs. Unfortunately, many questions remain about the structure and organization of regional CAP agenc ies in Florida Given that Florida is one of the few states that has considered a regional approach, lack of prior experience or lack of measurable success has left man y questions unanswered. Until these issues are resolved, SCAT CAP program elements will probably continue in its current fashion and funding level. Once a decision is made, SCA T will need to move quickly to ensure that the needs of its commuting publi c are adequately addressed. Given the uncertainties surrounding future CAP funding and the lack of baseline information from the existing carpoo l program, no e s timates of future demand for carpooling are provided. 134

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SCAT Needs Asussment Fixed Route Service The previous section has outlined demand estimates for transit service in Brevard County. In certain cases, such as the census tract analysis, an attempt was made to compare demand with existing transit service. This type of comparison is the basis for an assessment of unmet transit needs, along with consideration of existing perceptions of the transit system and of the goals and objectives developed in an earlier task. The elasticity calculations yield only a six percent increase in ridership for a 10 percent eKpansion in transit service, although ridership increases might be optimized if routes and areas for eKpansion or new service are carefully selected. A service expansion of this magnitude would involve a significant commitment of resources, even if done in phases, so this should be considered the upper bound of what is realistically possible over the neltt five years, unless significant new resources are directed to transit service. The concept of ''uomet demand" can be interpreted in more than one way. It can mean those persons who want to use transit today but are not able to do so for all of their travel needs. It can also be viewed more broadly to include those persons who do not currently use the transit system but who might be induced to become riders through various changes to the system. The primary focus in this needs assessment is on the first group, because the mobility issue is more pressing for these riders. The latter group of potential riders must also be addressed in any needs assessment, since they comprise the most promising market for future transit growth. This future growth will result in better service for all riders, captive as well as choice. Based upon the system goals and objectives, demand estimates and the findings from previous tasks, the following mobility needs have beenidentified. Note that these are not listed in priority order. Afternoon peak period/evening service Morning peak period service Improved frequency, especially on the busiest routes Saturday/Sunday service EKpress service Service to major employment sites Eltpanded service to new areas Grid system Bus schedules oriented toward work trips Improved service coverage in the northern county transit dependent areas 135

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Afternoon Peak Period/Evening ServiceAt present, of the fourteen SCAT fixed routes, eight routes start their final trip before 4:00p.m The exceptions are routes serving the north beaches, the Government Center, and the two summer only Palm Bay beach routes. The desire for later transit service bas been strongly expressed by riders, non-users, drivers and local officials. Of the fifteen other systems in SCAT's peer group, ten provide later evening service and seven operate at least until!O:OO p.m In SCAT's case the issue is not so much providing evening service as it is to begin providing service in the afternoon peak period between 4:30 and 6:30p.m. to serve working commuters. Only four of the current SCAT routes which operate throughout the year have trips starting after 5:00p m and one after 5:30p.m (the beach route runs until 7:15p.m.). Obviously the working commuter is not served by these hours of fixed route operation. A first step in providing afternoon peak period and/or evening tran s it service is to identify trip generators which produce a large number of trips during these time periods. The major employers, industry, shopping malls, and hospitals are among the obvious generators. Hours of service could be extended on routes serving these locations, as well as routes serving transit-dependent neighborhoods. Exact hours of operation should be determined through detailed evaluation during service design. Service into the evening might encourage shopping mall workers to commute via transit and open up employment opportunities for those without access to an automobi le. Even a more modest lengthening of the service day would support the objectives of increasing mobility for captive riders and providing service to working commuters. Financing afternoon peak period and/or evening service is probl ematic Whil e some existing equipment can be utilized, a majority of the current b u s fleet is used for demand responsive service during the afternoon peak period. Also, ADA paratransit service would need to be expanded to match the new hours of service. Further, additional labor costs for this service may be significant. M orni n g P ea k P eriod Service Morning peak period service would generally serve the working commuter as while afternoon peak period service would also serve discretionary shopping trips. Therefore, while afternoon service can be added without the morning peak period service the opposite is not necessarily true. Curr ently, t h e first trip in the SCAT fixed route system starts at 6 : 40a.m. Two other routes have service starting before 7:00a.m.; four routes begin between 7:00 and 8 : 00a.m.; the remaining seven routes begin between 8:00 and 9:00a .m. Of the 15 other systems in the SCAT peer group fourteen 136

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provide earlier service than SCAT. Twelve of the systems start service before 6:00a.m.; two start between 6:00 and 7:00 a.m., and one starts at 7:00 am. A modest lengthening of service hours starting at 7 :00a.m. could have a major positive impact on attracting additional work commuters. Again, as was the case for evening AtlA; service would need to be expanded to maU:h the new hours of service . . . . Improved Frequency Current SCAT service is provided at a frequency of one bus per hour on four routes, with tbe remaining routes providing service every two or three hours. It is very difficult to attract choice riders out of their automobiles at this frequency. On i ts busiest routes and corridors SCAT might consider experimenting with a frequency of one bus every 30 minutes during peak hours This would be in accord with the objectives of providing mobility and promoting transit usage. The fiscal implications of improved frequency are significant. Additional equipment will be required along with additional labor costs, and no funding source is immediately identifiable. One possible approach is to select the most promising route as a test case. If overall service elasticities hold, route ridership might increase by 60 percent during peak hours, since service is being increased by I 00 percent. On its busiest route with the highest demand, however, SCAT might expect to experience a greater than average ridership increase Saturday and Sunday Service SCAT does not operate any service on Sundays and holidays and only one route (21 Melbourne) operates on Saturdays. Since the market for Saturday and Sunday service is unknown, a limited pilot program might be proposed to operate service on Saturdays on selected routes at reduced frequencies. Routes serving malls, hospi tals and other attractions open on Saturdays would be logical candidates, along with routes traveling in transit-dependent neighborhoods. It should be noted that all of the fifteen other systems in the SCAT peer group provide Saturday service, while only silc provide limited Sunday service Thus, providing Sunday service may not merit high priority. Should SCAT decide to start Saturday and/or Sunday service, ADA paratransit service would need to be expanded to match the new hours of service. Express Service Express service is generally provided from a suburban outlying area to an urban high density employment site, such as a Central Business District In meetings with the focus groups and key local officials, the need for express service in the County was discussed. CUTR completed an analysis ofbus service, including express service for the Cocoa Beach area in October 137

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of 1 993. That report presented the need for potential express service from Melbourne and/or northern areas of the county to NASA and the Patrick Air Force Base. Other express issues discussed as part of this study were to serve trips between the north and south sectors of the county with express service. SCAT is currently negotiating with the FDOT for a park-and-ride lot along Eau Gallie Boulevard at I-95 &rvice to Major Employment Sites The onboard survey results of SCAT bus riders revealed that only 25 percent ofttansit riders were going to or from work This suggests that a major transit market (employment sites) might not be adequately served by the present system configuration and schedules One of the objectives for SCAT is to seek out markets for transit service at employment sites and major trip generators. Expanded Service to New Areas Areas identified as currently unserved or underserved include portions of Titusville, Cocoa, and beach areas. Service to these areas conforms with the goal of ensuring availability of service. Greyhound and Job Services in Cocoa were discussed as needing service, and might be accommodated through the rerouting of current service. Grid System A grid system is defined as a service pattern in which routes run parallel and perpendicular to one another. This type of service creates opportunity for routes to intersect, allowing for convenient transfer and movement throughout the system. Due to the geography and road networks ofBrevard County the opportunity for this network on a regional basis is limited. It is, however possible to consider this type of service in the City of Melbourne eliminating much of the circuitous l ooping of routes. Work TripsWork trip service is a combination of three of the previous alternatives d i scussed above. I n orde r for SCAT to provide service for workers, i t must implement earlier morning and later evening peak period service, and pro vi de more service to major employment sites. This level of service change i s an issue for further detailed analy sis, and must consider the increased operating and capital expenses necessary to provide this service. Improved Service Coverage in Transit-Dependent Tracts Primary and secondary transit dependent census tracts have been i dentified earlier, and Table 46 and Figures 33A and 33B compared the fixed route system with areas of transit need. These concentrations oflow-income and zero-vehicle househo l ds have a clear need for transit service. 138

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Demand Responsive Service As shown in the previous section of this chapter the estimated unmet demand for paratransit service i n Brevard County is 160 000 trips during FY 1995. This is expected to increase to 171,000 by FY 1 999. This assessment of paratransit needs is based on projections of TO-eligible population and application of trip aveia.ges, and so is more quantitative in nature than the fixed route needs assessment. An important unknown in these calculations is the effect of transitioning a significant portion ofparatransit services to SCAT from Coastal to SCAT. Future developments with regard to the fixed-route service in Brevard County could also have an impact on the need for TD service. Van pool The existing vanpool program in Brevard County is one of the most successful anywhere in the country, and has achieved a significant level of market penetration. At present, it appears that the supply of vanpools is in close balance with the demand. Present and future needs are greater for carpooling The potential carpool market, as noted above, i s considerably larger than the potential vanpool market, due largely to the increased flexibility involved in carpool formation. The lessons of the past twenty years suggest that carpooling will not happen by itself except in times of rapidly increasing gasoline prices. There is a need for ongoing programs to support carpooling. SCAT has not been able to attract sufficient resources to focus on carpools or other elements of the commuter assistance program. This is a major area of unmet demand, and presents a significant opportunity for the near-term future. Summary: Transit Demand and Needs It is important to keep i n mind that the overall need for public transportation i s not mode-specific, although analytical techniques make it easier to assess demand on an individual modal basis Brevard County is an excellent example of the in!ercbangeability of transit modes to meet demand For example, the vanpool program has been extremely successful in serving the long-distance work commute market, which in other urbanized areas might be met by express bus service The unique characteristics of major worksites such as the Kennedy Space Center particularly the long journey from the gate to the actual offices, would put express bus service at a disadvantage by adding significantly to the non-revenue vehicle miles traveled after dropping off passengers in the morning 139

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or on the way to pick them up in the afternoon. The vanpool program is ideal for such a situation, because the van remains parked at the worksite during work hours. There are many other examples ofwbat might be termed overlapping travel needs To the extent that the fixed route bus system becomes fully accessible in accordance with ADA requirements, some of the demand for 1D services can be shifted to fixed route service. Within reasonable bounds of convenience, the mode of transit by which service is provided is less important than the fact that mobility is being offered to those who need it to complete their daily travels Thus demand estimates should not be viewed as additive across modes. A total estimate of the need for public transportation in Brevard County has been derived from the peer analysis in the fixed-route section of this chapter. The annual demand is approximately 2 million trips. As shown in Table 54, fixed-route service is estimated to Carty 200,000 riders by F Y 1999 (the final year covered under this transit development plan) Paratransit service will account for 1,167,000 riders, and vanpools will serve 350,000 riders. The three modes will have a combined ridership of approximate l y 1,717 000 trips, leaving a shortfall of 283,000 trips per year. Thus, unmet demand in FY 1999 will be slightly under 300,000 trips. 140

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TABLE 54 Projected Demand alld Supply o{ Pu)lllc Transportation in Brevard County . ,.. . . Public for It must be emphasized that the results should be considered a very rough, ballpark estimate of the nature and extent of demand, and that the proportion of ridership may shift among the three modes in response to decisions regarding service expansion and related factors. This chapter has also identified specific transit needs, and that portion of the analysis will lead to the identification and evaluation of alternate ways for Space C.oast Area Transit to meet these mobility needs. These alternatives can be global, in the sense of which of the three types of service to promote in the next five years, and can also address more specific market issues such as meeting the demand for work trips. Chapter 5 will list and evaluate potential service alternatives for SCAT. 141

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ChapterS Space Coast Area Transit Service Alternatives Introduction Previous chapters have taken as their prilruuy focus the description of existing transit conditions in Brevard County As noted in these sections, the combination of fixedroute, paratransit/transpoJtation disadvantaged, and vanpool services makes Brevard County's transit system unique. The current transition from paratransit to fixed-route transit also marks Space Coast Area Transit as different from other Florida transit systems, which are facing a change in the opposite direction away from an exclusive focus on fixed-route service. The purpose of this chapter is to identifY and evaluate various service alternatives for SCAT over the next five years. In keeping with the strategic nature of the transit development plan, alternatives are broadly defined to indicate possible directions for the transit agency as it considers how best meet mobility needs over the next five years. Some of the alternatives are mutually exclusive, at least in the sense of establishing priorities. Many transit systems have discovered over the years that they cannot serve all demands, but must select the most promising markets or the areas where the need for transit service is greatest This is especially true in times oflimited budgets. While FDOT has suggested that the process of identifying alternatives in the TOP not be constrained by fiscal resources, a successful approach avoids "blue-sky" wish lists in favor of approp riate decisions regarding the best course of action. Alternate futures for Space Coast Area Transit cannot be developed in a vacuum. The transit development plan process has emphasized the vital irnpoJtance of public input, in the forms of interviews with key local officials, focus groups with non-users of transit, an on-board survey of current riders, and the development of goals through the local review committee Before developing and considering a list of alternatives, CUTR conducted a public meeting to permit intere sted Brevard County residents to express their thoughts on the issues facing the transit system. Thirty-ei ght people, aside from county, state and local government employees and representatives attended this meeting, conducted on July 6, 1994 at the Government Center (Building C) at Viera The meeting began at 6 :30 p.m. and lasted until approximately 8 : 15 p m CUTR staff presented findings from the first four chapters and then invited those in attendance to come up to the microphone and present their opinions regarding transit service and future needs in Brevard County To obtain the 142

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greatest possible response, sheets of paper were circulated (along with pens and pencils) among the audience with a single question written at the top: .. 1 What should Space Coast Area Transit do in the next 5 years to develop a service that meets the needs of Brevard County residents? The following section presents public responses to this question and other comments made verbally at the Jul y 6 public meeting. These responses were used to identify and evaluate alternative means of addressing the most important trans i t issue s Pu b li c Co mmen ts The citizen comments provided during the public meeting covered a broad range of transit issues. However, the predominant theme emerging from the meeting centered around the issue of accessibility and visibility of the SCAT system. The comments of one citizen advocate succinctly put forth the concerns of her constituents which were echoed by many of citizens present. Their remarks included: The need for clearly marked routes with bus signs. The need for benc he s and/or shelters along the bus routes T h e need for bus routes with operating houu to serve the working population The need for more information to the public regarding the transit system. There was a general consensus among the citizens that several underserved pockets existed in the service area. Many of the speakers expressed the need to review the existing routes to ensure that they actuaDy served the population truly dependent on the transit system. Several residents from the City of Palm Bay stressed the need for better East/West connections of existing routes, a need t hat also was highlighted during the previous goal setting workshop as well as in the interviews with local decision-makers. Other members of the public noted that the transit service in the southern portion of the county had not kept pace with the tremendous growth in the area. 143

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Meeting the needs of the paratransit users was also brought forward during the pubic meeting. While some of the users expressed satisfaction with the current service, they also saw t he need to expand the level of service and coordination Recommendations for enhancements included: Increasing the timeliness of client pickups. Reducing the "hold-time" on the phone when clients attempt to make reseJVations. Increasing the number of vans so to lessen the length of trips, particularly for the very frail clients and at-risk children. Enhancing the system to provide trips for social activities nonmedical trips. The recommendations and comments presented here are summation of numerous issues discussed during the public meeting. At the close of th e meeting, it appeared that most of the citizens generally agreed that SCAT could begin enhancing service to the community by first getting the word out about the system, addressing the transit needs in the growing areas, establishing consistent and e>epanded hours of operation, and reevaluating current routes and bus stops to ensure greater service coverage and convenience. The specific individual comments were later transcribed and provided to SCAT. They will serve as reference tools in the preparation of the final Transit Development Plan for the county. SCAT Alternatives Alternatives in three major areas are presented and discussed below. These include whether to change the focus to emphasize one of the three transit modes, whether to concentrate on system e>epansion or current service improvements, and how to identifY the market for transit in Brevard County. What Type of Transit System Perhaps the most fundamental question facing Space Coast Area Transit is what kinds of service it will provide. This question is more directly relevant to SCAT than to other transit agenc i es in Florida because of the diverse types of transit service currently offered. Along with operating t he fixed-route bus system, SCAT clearly has the most active and successful vanpool program in the state, and is also the local Community Transportation Coordinator for TD service. It is the exception 144

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rather than the rule in Florida that the same agency is responsible for and operates both fixed-route and TD service. Thus, SCAT has real choices to make in answering questions regarding service. Should Space Coast Area Transit services it now offers to favor one type of service over others? What are the relative priorities among the fixed-route, paratransit and vanpool modes? Public opinion as expressed in the July 6 meeting, the focus groups and the review committee has mvored the fixed-route component while also supporting the provision of service for the elderly and persons with disabilities through the TD program. There is not extensive public awareness of the vanpool program. The lack of vanpool awareness is not surprising when the findings of the previous chapters, that the market for vanpools encompasses only eight percent of the population, are taken into consideration. The interest in fixed-route bus service may also reflect the perception that TD and other paratransit services do not constitute a "real" transit system, which has schedules, buses and fixed routes. This perception is not confined to this system; in met, it may be less strongly held in Brevard County due to the wide variety and high quality of alternate services. Nevertheless, there is a strong association between the concept of public transportation and the sight of buses traversing major streets. The interviews with key local officials and comments made at meetings of the Brevard County Metropolitan Planning Organization strongly suggest a lack of unanimous support for a fixed-route system. Opposition to a fixed-route system for Brevard County is based on a perceived lack of utilization of the existing fixed routes and concerns over cost. The decision to focus on one particular aspect of SCAT operations may also have implications for where SCAT belongs in the county organizational structure. Currently, the Transit Services Division is part of the Human Services Department in the Community Services Group. This placement reflects SCAT's key role in serving the transportation disadvantaged community. If the fixed-route element of transit service is expanded, then Transit Services might better fit in another department, or possibly even as a new department of its own. While not related directly to service alternatives, this organizational alternative deserves attention. 145

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Transit System Expansion? A related issue in the discussion of the overall type of transit system to be proposed for Brevard County concerns whether (and if so, when) the system should be expanded. The alternatives in this case are between service extensions to serve new markets and a concentration on improvements to the current transit network. While service extensions are most often visualized as the primary means to expand service, an increase in the span of service also falls under this category At the public meeting and in other forums, there was considerable support expressed for weekend service Improvements to existing service generally focus on issues such as reliability and frequency of current service, customer satisfaction, condition and appearance of the transit vehicles, and ease of use of the system. More frequent bus service, designation of bus stops with signs, widespread distribution of fixed-route schedules, and shorter response times for arranging 1D trips are all examples of possible improvements which have been raised by the public. Some market-related concepts are not readily defined as either an expansion or an improvement. For example, extending service to later in the evening could be placed in either category. Decisions on serving new markets also point up the lack of a clearly-defined line between these alternatives. Two potential areas for increased SCAT attention are the work commute and the youth market. Serving these markets might be accomplished with a restructuring of existing service, or may require service ex:pansion focused on the travel needs of workers and youth. While decisions regarding whether to look to new areas for growth in transit ridersl\ip and service or to concentrate on improvements to the current system overlap the previous discussion related to focusing attention on a particular component of current service, there are certain decisions that are independent of a shift in modal focus. For ex:ample, a focus on the work commute alternative might be seen as having implications for fixed-route bus service in the morning commuter period However, the vanpool program is geared totally toward the work commute, and has been very successful in serving commuters. In similar fashion, 1D services can be focused on bringing together persons with disabilities and job opportunities. A decision to direct SCAT efforts toward the work commute may be accomplished by a variety of means and would not necessarily have an impact on the component services of the transit system. 146

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Despite overlap between the two sides of the extension versus improvement alternative it remains a very important decision in t enns of the future fOGUS of Space Coast Area Transit Fiscal resources and staff time and energy are limited, and priorities with regard to these choices wiU have a significant impact on th e vision of what SCAT can be and on the means to achieve that vision. Who Rides: Transit-Dependent versus "Choice" Riders The third broad alternative for SCAT to consider in establishing future direction might be phrased as the transit-dependent rider versus the rider with other travel alternatives. Should SCAT orient itself toward providing service for those who truly need public transponation to achieve any level of mobility, or should SCAT focus its effons on making transit readily available to the average Brevard County resident? The question of who rides is vital to other decisions on the transit system. The types of services to be offered, and the need for additional or improved service both depend to a large extent on the definition of transit's customer The impact on the broader community is also influenced by the maricet served by transit. In a sense, the answer to this question also determines the transit system' s place in the community. There is no question that one of the major roles of any transit system is to provide mobility to those with no other choices No matter what form the transit network ultimately takes the transit dependent market (generally defined to consist oflow-income households, persons with disabilities, the elderly and those without access to an automobile) forms the underlying ridership base This is particularly true in Florida and other Sunbelt states that have grown around the automobile in the postwar era The issue bas more to do with whether or not the transit-dependent market is defined as the sole market for transit. C hoice riders require more initiative and attention. The quality of service must be higher in order to attract and retain these riders. A decision to pursue choice riders affects the way in which the SYstem is marketed. On the other hand, transit systems with a significant proportion of choice riders are geoeraUy more integrated into the fabric of the community and have greater potitical acceptance Current transit service in Brevard County is focused almost exclusively on the transit-dependent rider. The major exception is the vanpool program, because it offers potential users greater 147

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convenience, cost savings, and an easier commute. It should be noted, however, that the vanpool program also serves a transit-dependent clientele through its leasing arrangements with social service agencies. Public input seemed to favor a system more readily usable by the general population in the county These are among the major alternatives to be considered when assessing the course that public transportation should take in Brevard County over the next five years. These alternatives have very different implications with regard to how the transit system will appear and function five years from now. The altematives also offer divergent directions for the transit agency. These future directions are discussed in the next section Future Directions None of the sets of alternatives presented in the preceding section presents a clear-cut, mutually exclusive choice A decision to enhance one component of the transit system does not mean shutting down the other modes. Improvements to current service can be implemented along with new transit services, as deemed appropriate. Attention can be given to the travel needs of transit dependent and choice riders. Choices regarding future direction are more a matter of emphasis among the competing alternatives. This should not be taken to mean that the choices are not important, since there are very different implications resulting from a shift in emphasis. Public opinion generally (although not unanimously) favors an increased focus on the development of the fixed-route network, along with continued attention to paratransit service for the transportation disadvantaged population. As noted earlier, the general lack of awareness of the vanpool program on the part of the general public reflects the limited number of people who are candidates for using a vanpool. While fixed-route service should receive more attention, especially with regard to the perfonnance of the new routes instituted i n October 1993, it is suggested that the overall focus on the various components of SCAT service remain essentiaUy unchanged. The transition of non-Medicaid TD service provision from Coastal Health Services to SCAT will require ongoing monitoring, and TD riders are expected to continue to constitute the majority of SCAT's patronage. The vanpool program should continue to be supported in order to build on one of the major success stories of SCAT to date. SCAT should also be willing to provide different types of service to different areas of the county, as appropriate. While political realities suggest the 148

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... . .,.., .. need to treat each sepa(ate area of the coutit}' 'equally, there are clearly places where fixed-route service is more appropriate, just as there are markets where vanpools are particularly effective. . . :. , The issue of the most appropriate location for SCAT within the existing county organizational struc ture was raised with regard to possible changes in focus on a particular element of transit service. Given the previous recommendation, no organizational changes are necessary at this time. However, it is suggested that SCAT retain responsibility for fixed route, TD and vanpool services whether or not an organizational change is ever deemed appropriate. The public was split on the issue of expansion versus improvements, with clear support for improving the current service by actions such as providing formal bus stops with signs, clarifying and distributing passenger information, and shortening the response time for scheduling m trips. More frequent service received more than one mention. There was also significant support for expanded transit service, especially on weekends and in growing areas such as Palm Bay. The proposed strategy is to concentrate on improvements to current service over the next one to two years, after which appropriate service extensions should be considered This strategy allows SCAT to support and then build on its strengths in a timely fashion. As discussed earlier, the transit-dependent population will continue to be an important part of SCAT's ridership. The public preference for a fixed-route system reflects in part a desire to make the transit network more readily available to the average citizen and to ensure that the transit system provide maximum mobility choices or freedom for such citizens. There was a clear awareness of the importance of continuing to provide service to those who need it most. Attracting choice riders is appropriate as a longer-term goal for Space Coast Area Transit, in conjunction with the possible shift to expansion of service in the latter yea(S of the five-year time frame covered by this TDP In the near-term, SCAT should focus on serving the transit-dependent population in Brevard County. This is SCAT's most natural market and deserves the greatest attention over the next two years. The alternatives selected form an overall strategy of first improving current service and then examining possibilities for expanding transit service in Brevard County. While this strategy may seem unduly cautious to those who see a great need for increased transit, it has the benefits of building on SCAT's existing strengths and ridership base and providing the time needed for the improvements to take effect before more dramatic changes are considered. There are opportunities 149

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under this strategy for "mid-course corrections," in reaction to changing conditions in Brevard County. Finally, this course of action avoids the pitfitlls involved in attempting to grow too fast, to change an at once. There are still perceptions of transit as a failed alternative, owing to events that occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. While perhaps not widely held, these perceptions need to be taken into account in order not to repeat past mistakes. Individual recommendations are described in the following chapter Before discussing specific actions to improve transit in Brevard County, however it is appropriate to delineate the vision for Space Coast Area Transit that flows from the alternatives in this chapter. Space Coast Area Transit Vision The process of developing a 1DP is intended to reflect and define a transit agency's vision of the role public transportation will play in the community. In some cases, an agency may have undertaken a strategic planning process and outlined its vision as part of the process More typically, the transit agency is extremely focused on day-to-day operational issues and has not had the opportunity to reflect extensively upon its vision. In SCAT's case, there is no written document that spells out the vision for transit service in Brevard County. Discussions with SCAT staff members, county personnel, key local officials and members of the public have revealed a fairly consistent view of SCAT's role. As noted in previous sections, there are differences of opinion in bow the transit agency should carry out its role There is widespread consensus, however, on a vision for transit in the county The alternatives selected in the previous section also help to define this vision. Simply staled, the vision for SCAT is: Space Coast Area Transit provides mobility for residents of Brevard County who need or want to use a comprehensive transportation service. T h e definition addresses travel needs for all types of purposes : work, shopping, social, medical and other trips. This vision encompasses all types of riders transit-dependent persons without other alternatives for getting around as well as other county residents who find public transportation to be convenient, affordable and dependable. It is important to note that the vision is neutral with regard to individual elements of transit service By focusing on mobility needs, the vision does not endorse one specific type of service but recognizes the diversity of means available at SCAT to meet those needs in the most appropriate manner. Indeed, other transit systems in Florida that have 150

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traditionally relied solely on fixedroute service are not so wellpositioned or flexible as SCAT to address overall mobility needs of county residents ... The flexibility afforded by the current SCAT network of public transportation options is very valuable as the Space Coast heads into the future. Even over the short -term future covered by this transit development plan, there will be continuing changes in residential and commercial development, demographic composition, and tourist activity that wiU affect the travel needs of the community. SCAT is weU-positioned to take advantage of opportunities to provide the most appropriate type of transit service to meet emerging mobility needs. The following chapter contains specific recommendations to improve public transportation in Brevard County over the nelct five years. The recommendations are grouped by time frame for implementation, reflecting their relative priority Taken together, these recommendations form a series of reasonable actions intended to help SCAT move closer to achieving its vision. 151

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Five_ Year Transit Development Plan: Findings and Recommendation s This chapter summarizes findings with regard to transit service in Brevard County and presents recommendations for Space Coast Area Transit over the next five years Recommendations are prioritized by time frame for implementation: immediately; over the next one to two years; over the next three to five years. Within each time frame, recommendations with a higher priority are generally liste;d earlier, but related actions are grouped as appropriate; thus, the numbering scheme is not strictly in priority order. ACTIONS TO BE INITIATED IMMEDIATELY 1. Identify bus stop locations and instaD bus stop signs. Bus stop signs should be placed first at the most frequently used locations, at transfer points ,an d at major intersections, and eventually be installed at all bus stops. The fastest way to accomplish this would be to use generic signs typical of other transit systems, although signs in corporat ing an agency logo could be designed in a relatively short period of time. The signs should includ e the telephone number for SCAT information. In the future, signs might also show the route number(s) of buses which stop at the particular location. Stops with the greatest numbers of passengers should inc lude a route map and schedule. This action addresses Goal 3. 2. Paint all SCAT vehicles. The blue and white color scheme used recently is attractive and should be applied uniformly to all buses in SCAT's fleet as well as to vans and other vehicles used for TD service. This will increase awareness and reinforce the identi ty of SCAT as the public t r ansportation provider in Brevard County The only allowable exceptions should be the specially-painted "t heme buses, which generate additional system revenue. This action addresses Goal 3 3. Monitor TD service as the transition to SCAT operation continues. Any start-up of this nature is inevitably hectic and confusing. The provis ion of TD service will require special attention, and this leads directly to the next recommendation This action addresses Goal 4 4. Develop a plan for using new TD Trust Fund money. SCAT should develop a written plan for using the additional TD Trust Fund money being made available by the Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged This additional money should be used to improve service in areas 152

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that seem most appropriate for SCAT, given the system's goals and the requirement that the funds be used to provide new TD trips. This action addresses Goals 1 2 and 4. S. Establish and hire a new staff position to oversee the TD program. This position requires someone familiar with the TD program in the State of Florida who can effectively manage service delivery. This action addresses Goals 1 and 4. 6. Continue to research and implement computer-based applications that enhance system operation. SCAT has begun to use technology to improve system efficiency and effectiveness by implementation of a personal computer network, paratraosit scheduling and dispatch software, state of-the-art radio communication equipment, telephone voice messaging and automatic call distribution systems. Other applications to be examined include smart fare collection systems, on board mobile data terminals, and geographic information system (GIS) mapping integration. This action addresses Goal 4. 7. Establish superstops/transfer centers at major locations where bus routes intersect. Location s such as Merritt Square Mall, the Govenunent Center complex, and the Melbourne shopping area are appropriate for this treatment. These centerslsuperstops should be the first to receive new signage, and information displays on SCAT routes should also be provided at these locations This action addresses Goal 2. 8. htstall bus shelters and benches at appropriate locations. The busiest bus stops should have bus shelters to protect waiting passengers from inclement weather, unless there is a sheltered area nearby (e.g., at Government Center) where passengers can see the approaching bus. Benches should be provided at additional stops. Often bus shelters and benches can be installed free of charge to the transit agency in exchange for the right to advertise on them. SCAT should be careful to maximize its revenue as this is implemented. Cities served by SCAT may also be willing to work with the transit agency to provide shelters and benches. This action addresses Goal 3. 9. Retain South Terminal on U.S. 1 for transit use, unless another equally convenient location can be found. Given the size of Brevard County, SCAT clearly needs two storage and maintenance facilities for its vehicles. Operating south county service out of the Cocoa facility would result in dramatic increases in non-revenue vehicle miles and vehicle hours and damage the efficiency of SCAT service. This action addresses Goal4. 153

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10. the future of Medicaid non-emergency transportation service. This service, currently contracted to a non-profit transportation operator, expires in March 1996 T here are advantages and disadvantages surrounding continued contracted operation versus direct operat i on This action addresses Goals I and 2 11. Continue to work with human service agencies purchasing subscription services to collect the fully allocated cost of operating the service. The agreements which collect less than fully allocated cost create situations in which agencies are subsidized This lessens overall revenue available for public transit operations. This action addresses Goal 4 12. Improve coordination with cities in the county. As a county agency, SCAT may at times not work as closely with local city governments as it should Special efforts should be made to keep the cities informed with regard to transit issues, and to enlist their cooperation in matters such as for installing signage, shelters and benches, and perhaps securing funding for the transit system general operations This action addresses Goal 5 13. Continue the public and employee input processes as part of the county's and SCAT's commitment to total quality management (TQM) principles. There is clearl y a strong interest in transit service, as shown by the attendance at the public meeting held as part of this TDP process. SCAT has a good record in the area of sponsoring public hearings and meetings in an attempt to keep the community informed. This process should continue This action addresses Goal 5. 14. Encourage and support the formation of a Citizens Mobility Advisory Council. SCAT should consider formalizing one part of the process of obtaining community input by supporting grassroots efforts to form a mobility advisory group. Such a group can serve as an effective conduit in communications between SCAT and the general public. This action addresses Goal 5. 15. Complete and print a map and schedules for north county faed-route service. The recent brochures for south county service are the best transit maps and schedules produced in Florida. North county brochures are in progress. This action addresses Goal3. 16. Establish a formal training program for all personnel who interact with passengers. Although training is provided in a number of areas, a formal training program should be instituted to ensure that all drivers are trained (and re-trained at regular intervals) in the areas of defensive 154

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. driving, passenger assistance techniques, sensitivity, drug and alcohol abuse, and proper handling of passengers who become ill or injured. Further, reservationists, schedulers, and dispatchers should be well-versed in telephone techniques, such as call-intake procedures, complaint and grievance resolution, and handling difficult callers. Finally, administrative staff should keep current with changing Federal, state and local regulations (i.e., procurement issues, drug testing, electronic grant management). This action addresses Goals 3 and 5. 17. Improve marketing and customer information. This applies to all components of SCAT's service. Van pool and possible carpool programs require consistent marketing efforts to be successful. TO-eligible riders need to know how to obtain service Fixed-route maps and schedules must be distributed and updated on an ongoing basis, and information on routing and hours of service must be readily available. Educational programs for the general public should be pursued, along with more traditional marketing efforts to increase awareness and encourage use of SCAT services. This action addresses Goal 3. 18. Create a marketing staff position The various activities involved in providing information, marketing the system and interacting with the public should be the responsibility of a single person SCAT should establish a marketing position and recruit an energetic, knowledgeable individual to take on these responsibilities. Activities such as public presentations, liaison with local and county public officials, resolution of ongoing service issues (less politely called "complaints"), coordination of agreements with other human service agencies, vanpooVcarpool coordination, provision of information, design and conduct of marketing campaigns that could include the development of a new logo, and interaction with the proposed Mobility Advisory Council would be included in the job description for this position. The best-run, most efficient transit system in the world still needs someone to spread the news among potential riders. Other small transit systems in Florida have attributed ridership growth to innovative marketing activities. Such a person can also free up existing staff time spent on similar activities, and increase productivity and morale throughout the agency. This action addresses Goal3 19. Formalize internal performance measures. SCAT keeps track of ridership and system performance on an ongoing basis. Formal guidelines or performance measures to be used in measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of transit service would be appropriate. Some type of performance measure should be applied to all modes, although comparison across modes might be difficult due to the different nature of the components of the transit system. Certainly measures such 155

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as riders per hour or per vehicle mile could be used within fixed-route or TD service to evaluate the relative effectiveness of individual routes or trip types. This action addresses Goal 4 20. Formalize a monitoring program. Once appropriate performance measures are selected, a schedule for monitoring system performance should be established. This wiU be particularly important for tracking the progress of new routes or changes to current service structure but should also be used to monitor ongoing service. This action addresses Goal 4. 21. Establish an ongoing vehicle replacement program. Buses and vans are expensive capital items with a relatively fixed life For future capital planning needs a schedule of vehicle replacement should be established with the goal of spreading future capital costs as evenly as poSSible while continuing to place attractive, functional vehicles into service every day This action addresses Goals I and 4 22. Study the possibility of using ISTEA funds for vehicle replacement in the years 1999 through 2001. Twenty of SCATs current vehicles wiD become eligible for replacement i n the years 1999 to 2001. Alternate funding needs to be found, given current outlays of Section 9 funds. SCAT wiU need to work with the Brevard County Metropolitan Planning Organization using the flexibility provided by ISTEA to address vehicle replacement. This action addresses Goals 4 and 5 23. FoUow and coordinate with the Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community application. Transit service is often considered essential in providing mobitity to and from such areas, and there may be special needs that SCAT can meet if the designation is granted This action addresses Goal 5 24. Ensure fixed-route service is in compliance with the ADA. In addition to providing lift equipped fixed-route service, SCAT is required to provide other amenities for passengers with disabilities, such as announcing major stops and transfer poi n ts along routes, and making schedule information available for visually impaired persons and others This action addresse s Goal 5 25. Continue implementation of SCAT's ADA plan. Federal regulations requ i re full compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act by 1997. Now that SCAT is transitioning delivery of the TD paratransit program from Coastal to SCAT, the transit agency must begin registering eligible clients and phasing in ADA complementary paratransit service. SCAT should follow it s plan for !56

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complying with the six eligibility criteria outlined in the federal regulations (service area, response time, fares, trip purposes, hours and days of service, and capacity constraints). This action addresses GoalS 26. Establish eligibility requirements for TD/ADA service. Experience elsewhere in Florida has indicated that the initial eligibility requirements promulgated for TD service or ADA service often are the difference between success and failure. Overly generous eligibility standards can swamp the transit system and result in poor and irregular service for those who need it most. This action addresses Goals I, 2, 4 and 5. 27. Refine TD goals with the Local Coordinating Board. The goal-setting process by SCAT for this TDP was successful in obtaining public input and building goals from the ground up. The TD goals established by the Local Coordinating Board migbt be revisited in order \ o make I them more representative of a community vision for this service. This action addresses Goals 4 and 5. 28. Continue to encourage the vanpool program. There are not a great number of recommendations with regard to SCATs vanpool program, because it is obviously very successful. Vanpools are ideal in serving major employment sites which are not centrally located, such as th e Kennedy Space Center. This program should receive continued monitoring, support and marketing among potential employers and vanpoolers. This action addresses Goal I. 29. Consider the feasibility of a regional commuter assistance program. As noted in this report, carpooling has a potentially greater market than vanpooling, because carpools are generally easier to form. The l essons of the past twenty years include the facts that carpooling 'viU not happen by itselt: and that commuter assistance programs (CAPs) are needed. Florida is embarking upon a major effort in this field. This is a natural area in which the expertise gathered through the vanpool program can be expanded. SCAT should be heavily involved in any consideration of a CAP for Brevard County. This action addresses Goals I and 5 30. Consider the feasibility of purchasing new ridesbare matching software. The current matching system is inadequate. SCAT should explore the possibility of purchasing new rideshare matching software, either on its own or in conjunction with any proposed regional commuter assistance program. This action addresses Goal 1. !57

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ACTIONS TO BE INITIATED OVER THE NEXT ONE TO TWO YEARS 31. Establish regular service to southern Brevard County. Residents south ofPalm Bay have limited mobility. SCAT should provide additional1D service or a regularly-scheduled fixed-route bus (one or two times per week) to the communities in southern Brevard County This action addresses Goal I. 32. Conduct an in-depth study of new faxed routes after one year of operation. A year's time is sufficient for the new routes established in December 1993 to have built up a ridership base. A study utilizing the performance measures developed i n recommendation 13 should be conducted in the winter of 1994-1995. Results should be used to modifY these routes as needed. This action addresses Goal 4. 33. E:umine TD demand to identiJY dusten which might be served by faxed route. Fixed-route service, if well-utilized, is less costly to provide than 1D service. The fact that SCAT operates both services (except for Medicaid paratransit service) affords opponunities to shift passenge r s from a more costly to a less costly mode, where feasible. This action addresses Goal I 34. Conduct a fuD survey of fixed-route service, including on-off counts by bus stop. The survey will provide valuable information regarding origins and destinations of cunent riders. The data gathered will be useful in implementing several of the following recommendations. This action addresses Goals 1 and 4. 35. Improve service frequency on the busiest bus routes. More frequent service in areas where demand is heaviest will enab l e transit-dependent passengers to travel more easil y and will attract choice riders. One or two routes should be selected, on a trial basis, for improved frequency. This action addresses Goals I, 2 and 4 36. Improve service coverage in transit dependent areas. As shown in the census tract analysis, in which transit service was compared to the distribution of the transit-dependent population, there are areas of the county that appear to need additional service. SCAT should determine appropriate options, including rerouting and route extensions, and impl ement changes to provide better service to those who need it most. This action addresses Goal I. !58

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37. Begin Medicaid bus pass program. When fixed-route service is expanded, consider providing monthly bus passes to persons who are Medicaid-eligible and requiring them to use fixed-route service for their appointments instead of more costly paratransit services. Persons with two or more Medicaid appointments
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42. Print a "tnmsit book" containing a systemwide map, individual route map$ and schedules, and information on all modes. The route brochures SCAT has produced have been very well received, but a single source of information on the system as a whole would be useful. Information on 1D service and the vanpool program is also appropriate for this type of publication. This action addresses Goal 3. 43. Ammge for a bus system map and TD/vanpool information to be included in the telephone directory for Brevard County. This is an easy way to make information on the transit system available to the general public in their homes. This action addresses Goal3. 44. Examine the possibility of operating a beach trolley along AlA, possibly connecting with other SCAT service. Other systems in Florida have had success with a rubber-tired beach trolley. Service is provided free or at a reduced fare, with the private sector and/or the localities contributing to the operating cost. A beach trolley could make it easier for tourists to get around without requiring an automobile. This action addresses Goals I and 3. 45. Punue a dedicated funding source, possibly a portion of the local option gas tu. SCAT is underfunded compared to other transit systems in Florida and the Southeast A dedicated local funding source would place SCAT's finances on a firm footing and pennit service improvements to be made. Local funding can also be leveraged as a match to federal grants and assistance, resulting in additional money for Brevard County. This action addresses Goal 4. 46. Eumine heavily traveled corridors for potential raed-route service. As discussed in the alternatives and reflected in the recommendations so far, the primary focus over the near term is for SCAT to improve its existing service At the same time, however, planning should be undenaken to determine the feasibility of various candidate corridors for increased service in the later stages of the five-year plan. This action addresses Goal I. 47. Establish and/or work closely with a commuter assistance program (CAP), if deemed feasible. Recommendation 29 above suggested that the potential for a regional CAP be examined. If there is merit in such a program, then SCAT should be active in its implementation, possibly as an expansion of the van pool program. This action addresses Goals I and S. 160

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... . . . 48. Become more involved in the review process for infrastructure improv.ements (e.g., sidewalks) In the county and the cities. Decisions regarding infrastructure are often made without regard to transit needs. SCAT should be involved in reviews to ensure that appropriate infrastructure and street furniture are available along streets on which its bus routes operate. This action addresses Goals 2 and 5 49. Increase the transit agency's involvement in land use development and comprehensive planning process. L and use patterns have a major impact on the effectiveness of a transit system Neotraditional planning and transit-oriented development are some of the recent concepts affecting the design of subdivisions and large developments. The new town of Viera is based on many of these principles. SCAT should seek to become involved in the review ofland use and development plans so that it can offer its views on elements that help transit to work effectively An appropriate pilot project in this area is for SCAT to be involved in the Viera West transit management plan on an ongoing basis This action addresses Goals 2 and 5. SO. Evaluate SCAT's organization and staffing needs. Among the immediate recommendations are new marketing and TD positions. Many of the recommendations in this section suggest a possible need for additional planning personnel. The need for an assistant to the Executive Director should also be considered This action addresses Goal 5 51. Apply for Federal Section 8 planning funds. SCAT currently receives no Section 8 funds for planning purposes. Such funds can be used to support additional planning staff as well as to pay for planning-related studies like many of those recommended in this TDP. Currently these transit funds are being used by the MPO planning staff and the impact to the MPO funding would have to be addressed. This action addressed Goals I, 2 and 4 52. Review the route numbering scheme used for bus routes. There may be a more logical scheme which makes it easier for potential riders to identify where a bus goes (e. g routes starting with a certain number serve a particular part of the county, numbers ending in zero connect different parts of the county). This action addresses Goals 1 and 3. 161

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ACfiONS TO BE INITIATED OVER THE NEXT THREE TO FIVE YEARS 53. Provide Saturday service. Saturday service should be instituted on a few routes at first, and c learly on a trial basis ADA requires that complementary service also be provided Routes oriented toward shopping and social trips are the best initial candidates for Saturday service This action addresses Goal 1. 54. Provide fixed-route service earlier in the morning, during the peak commute period. Most of SCATs buses are used for TD subscription service up until8:30 or 9 :00a. m and then are used on the fixed routes The morning peak hours form an important part of the service day for most transit systems. As SCAT evolves, the need for earlier service on the fixed-route system will be more compelling. This action addresses Goal I 55. Provide later afternoon/evening service. As in the morning, most SCAT buses are used for TD subscription service in the afternoon peak hours Routes serving Government Center in Viera operate until 5 :00 p.m., and the recently-inaugurated beach route serving Cocoa Beach continues to provide service past 6:00 p.m. Many speakers at the public meeting expressed frustration with the inability to attend evening social events because of SCATs limited service hours. At a minimum, late afternoon service should be provided on SCAT routes, and the possibility of evening service should be explored This action a ddresses Goal I 56. Expand service to new areas. In the later years of the time frame covered by the TOP, expanded fixed -r oute service will be considered. The planning studies undertaken in the earlier years should provide an indication of areas where new routes are warranted. Speakers at the public meeting mentioned Palm Bay and in tercity service within the county as perceived service needs. This action addresses Goals I and 2 57. Purdtase additional vehides. These will be needed to provide additional service This action addresses Goal 1. 58. Examine service to employment sites and oriented to the work commute. Peak-period morning and afternoon service is most lilcely to be used by workers traveling to and from their jobs Current routings and potential new routes to employment sites should be examined, keeping in mind that vanpools continue to serve this market very well. This action addresses Goal I 162

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59. Address zone problems with TD service when the VA Hospital opens. The new VA hospital in Viera is expected to be a major trip generator for TO-eligible and ADA-eligible persons SCAT will need to review service parameters to ensure that these persons are well served This action addresses Goals 2 and 4 60. Consider provision of weekend service on a demand-response basis. Instead of operating fixed routes on Saturday and Sunday, the possibility of using SCAT vans to provide demand response service should be explor ed This may be particularly appropriate for Sunday service. This action addresses Goals I and 4. 61. Study the possibility of reorienting the faed routes into a grid system. A grid system provides good north-south and east-west service, with transfers available at places where routes cross A grid network also increases the availability of the bus in many parts of the service area. It is generally most appropriate .when there is a fairly high level of system usage, and thus must be evaluated carefully before being implemented in Brevard County. This action addresses Goal!. Five-Year Transit Development Plan: Financial Plan Up to this point, the TDP process has not been constrained by fiscal considerations, in accordance with i ts strategic intent. Demographics, survey results, community input in various forms, and peer and trend analyses have all been used to assess the demand for transit service and identify mobility needs in Brevard County. The recommendations presented above have arisen from the public input and technical review processes The final step in the TDP is to estimate costs for these recommendations and compare them against current and anticipated financial resources. Like many small transit agencies, SCAT does not perform five-year budget projections as part of its budgeting process. Space Coast Area Transit has made available its budget for the current fiscal (FY 1994, ending September 30) and the next fiscal year (FY 1995). Table 55 presents projections of SCAT's current budget, without any changes to the transit system for fiscal years 1995 through 1999, the time period covered by this TDP. FY 1994 is also included for informational purposes. A five percen t annual increase in both revenues and expenses was generally assumed in projecting budget item s through FY 1999. The only exception to this rule was for Federal operating assistance which was h eld constant throughout the five-year period due to 163

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1.IJlCeltainty surrounding this component. It should also be noted that capital expenses and costs were obtained from the Brevard County MPO' s Transportation I mprovement Program Certain adjustments were made to the FY 1995 SCAT budget to account for three new sources of funds The first adjustment was to Federal operating assistance, which was increased by $161 ,000 to account for the federal share of a Section 1 8 grant ($49,000) and a Section 16 grant ( $ 112,000) The second adjustment was to State ope rating assistance, increased by $378 ,000 to account for increased TD funding ($364 ,000) and the assumed state match to the Section 16 grant ($14,000). These adjustments result in a surplus in FY 1995 (SCAT's original budget without these adjustments was balanced} and in future years. I t should be noted, that d u ring the preparation of the TDP these p rogram expenses were not yet budgeted which accounts for the surplus Budgeted expenses are reflected in Tab l e 57 Table 56 presents the costs associated with the recommendations made i n thi s TDP, and the projected date of imp l ementation These costs are based on several overall assumptions fo r items ranging from unit cost per bus shelter to the average l ength of a route extensio n T hese are the most reasonable assumptions available for a study of this kind, but the cost estimates should be refined at the time the recommendations are implemented 1 64

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PV 96 FV 99 ate enimlltcd biiMI'loo flY 9 1 firm"" TABLE 55 ilve-Vear : FY98

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TABLE 56 EsUmated Cost of Rtcommeodatioas .. .;, !"";': .. ., I. .... ..,. ..... s,o.., .... 1.>00 13 v oanl -,. 2. hbllbu ... ..... ., ""
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S. New'n)$\lffperson s:n,soo plus 35$ frlngc 1 penoa $44,000 she.lttn and so (3 1995-91 ...... $1,260 000 1997 Table 57 incorporates the summary subtotals and totals for revenue and cost from Table 55 and the cost and revenue estimates from Table 56. Table 57 shows the financial impact of implementing these recommendations on SCAT's budget. As can readily be seen, a shortfall in SCAT's budget is anticipated to occur in FY 1995 as the result of capital and operating expenses incurred in the first year of the 'IDP. !67

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Projected SCAT Budaet, IDdudlAJ Recoauaeudallons Original Operating Operating Expenses Resulting from Capitll Expenses Resulting from Recommendations Operating Reve:aue Resulting from $5,678,264 $5,962,177 $6,260,286 $ 440, 000 $ 826 000 $ 1,491,500 $ 32,700 $ 95,200 $6, 573 300 $6,901,965 $ 1,571.500 $ 1 666,500 $ 103,200 s 112,700 It should be noted that the assumptions regarding Tables 56 and 57 are very conservative T here are no savings assumed from actions recommended to increase efficiency and no economies of scale reducing unit costs as the system increases in size. Given the uncertainties in these p r ojections, it is appropriate to err on the side of caution Nevertheless it is clear that there are a numbeT of recommendations for which no predictable funding sources can be identified Several potential revenue sources might be used to fund the recommendations without obvious funding sources FDOT makes Service Development grants available to cover the cost of new or expanded transit service. There is the potential for cost-sharing with the private sector on proposals such as the beach trolley Section 8 funding, none of which is 168

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currently used by SCAT, could support additional planning or planning-rel ated staff positions. A dedicated local funding source could be established for transit in Brevard County. Additional federal grants might be obtained, partictitarly ifiocai money is available as a match. In this way, local dollars can be leveraged to the maximum extent possible There are many uncertainties concerning these budget projections, let alone potential future funding sources As SCAT moves into the future, it will undoubtedly encounter all ldnds of different scenarios that cannot be realistically forecast. This reinforces the usefulness of annual updates to the 'IDP. Perhaps the most enduring value of the transit dev elopment plan is the viSion that has been developed for Space Coast Area Transit out of the extensive public input. 1 69

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APPENDIX A BREVARD CENSUS TRACT DATA AND MAPS 170

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TABL.EA-1 Population D!!n!lity. by Census Tract . Bnward County, 1990

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Tract 663.02 Traet665 Tract667 TABLEA-1 Population Density by Cens TIKt Brevard County, 1990 1.17 1.03 1 .38 .. 61 1.51 0.00 : 3 :7 8 0.78 .. 3,427 2,223 4,799 $ ,., (,..;.,3.999 ... <.- 6,350 .. ,.._.,.,.,;.. : . ?.3.18 '. 5,328 2,938.08 2,164.50 3,482.60 4,199.82 \' 2,116.49 '$. '<" ,,.,2 ,327.58 4,179 .29 ... < 16 <" ' 4,276 . .. 2,730 ?;665 4,291 vv v ,., ...,,.,. 5,464.44 ;_"' . 0.00 ; .. 1; 1So.43 3,481.39 ; 2 ; 000:10 851.30 .. ,;, .. 3 .755: : 1 ,257 3,132 4 ,36.01.' 3,506 0 .... : < ... 932 1,195.17 . ... 3 909 68 . -" . 2 408.52 J <; 5,018:84 205.59 .. ,,, 2;009.81' 0.00 0 :00 9.88 22.71 8.28 .', .{.-,.-,, .. ;. . 1,868.04 ..,._ ,,

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TABU:A2

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TABLEA-2 Age Distribution Brevard County, 1990 645 328 173 t-.. ' -' 373 > <)._ 1,339 < 7'4e. . 1,197 2 052 ', .. ,. 1 : 4 1 2t j 16 713 283 391 240 ,.,. ., :. .' 473 .. '' ,. 172 . I > < 0 0 18$ 542 509 492 0 0 i .... 233 172 292 ":260 66 251 303 189 141 0 "''0 78 ., 130 145,;: 269 56 186 : 0 007 670 'S62 870 330 '544 675 1,008 535 587 0 0 101 124 194 1,4;70 471 ,' 1 305 ..

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TABLEA-'3. Brevard 1990

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Tract665 937 101 Tract898 653 69 Tract70 1 0 0 TABLEA-3 Household Income Brevard County, 1990 187 212 173 153 173 _,._ < <:: ,-,.-< 0 .: 170 111 226 236 ,,, ".'17 3 450 > """ ""' : _ 138 '.' 104 224 ... 126 -v-; 165 188 141 138 160 J 31!>'. I""' 318 240 0 200 0 0 ., 54 1 44 106 ' 119 .272 327 99 303 198 17s. .. 217 "V ,. n 131 :: 355 '191" 0 225 148 152 ... 128 201 78 68.''' .. 188 342" 171 173 .. 0 0 27 107 86 464 'illh 560 $40.284 ' '"' '6&f,.;,, $35,421 .. 283 $33,1n 894. ', $4'7,162 868 ... 974 371 $25,514 $25,112 0 $0 ''699'. $43,700 331 $32,645 365 $38,406 879 $55,606 382' $33,614 88 $27,880 151 623 382 402 29$ 0 0 107 153 '.'

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TABLEA4 Vehicles Available .

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TRACT Tract lle3.02 Tracte64 Tract665 Tract666 Tract667 Tr.ct666 Tr.ct669 Tr.cl671 Tr.ct681 Tr.ct682 Tractlle3 Tr.ct684 Tr.ct686 TI8CI891 Tract892 Tract693 T111C1694 Tr.ct6ll6 Tr.ct696 Tr.ct697 Tract 698.01 Tr.ct701 Tr.ct 701.99 TI8CI711 Tr.ct712 1 447 2.227 973 __ .... ... .,;., 891 1,890 .............. ,.. .. ... 1140 # ... "" 2,672 576 2 ,597 1 ,612 ... ..,., ..... ,. ... -;,..,. .. ).602 1 ,235 1 ,080 1 ,551 1,543 725 1 ,075 1,214 0 0 333 646 Tlaet713.01 589 Tr.ct 713.21 '-.2.195 Tr.ct713.22 1,966 .,. 713 .,... 'ihiHif.t r.Gl. .. .. .. '/_,.,,. .. Tr.ct 713.31 4,596 Tract713 .32 .. .,.!_ TASLEA-4 Vehicles Available Brevard County, 19110 None : 1 2 .. Available Ava1iilite Available AVIiltibte Available 33 334 ... "" 35 666 0 666 23 430 127 939 5 1 97 48 25 52 9 52 0 159 105 73 28 251 529 953 426 :495 633 419 669 246 1 182 629 1 021 460 1,540 165 '>{ 1 ,042 0 28 50 2 1 102 44 58 212 20 85" ' 17 "'""' 164 . 0 0 8 0 0 506 331 253 559 384 384 222 684 401 587 0 0 74 130 0 76 41. . 1 ,004 52 472 62 1 ,222 7 '327 848 813 558 963 .. 182 228 117 202 899 141 -, r ,.p 963 .. ,...,. 310 148 1 ,004 lle3 641 1 ,322 274 1 ,025 t509 380 466 746 684 0 853 475 620 746 712 240 333 632 8os 654 553 0 0 139 346 301 1 ,318 1,067 1,071 .. 2,552 595 ;.295 253 71 282 49 170 164 1 26 116 '.< 112 66 0 263 192 157' 319 176 38 109 285 ... 204 198 143 0 0 66 135 142 337' 291 O:-__ ,.:/, 39

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TABLE A-S Worker Commuting Patterns Brevard 1990

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T AB LE A S W orlte r Commuting P-m8 Breva r d County, 1990 621 -> ,. )<-' .,.-'. 62() 336 '' 666 '" 511 617 '" 41 ., ... 135 ,. .'. y : . . .,_' ,_ 'l' 196 152 337 195 .. 74' . 354 :; So': ": : 1, 118 . '-'< "-f" > : ':11$2 : "'. .. 113 441 ,._,.,,,_, < '"'-I" > .351' 78 902 >>. (H-o, :44 '' i "' .. -. ',. .v 661 0 0 409 319 zft. 191 285 <>- -i.' 122 >'. $ .... -.-" .,,_ ,;, 350 113 29 :2s.; > ,. ..... 1,643 59 '< .. . ' ... ; .:.-1 . 7 .. ..... 9 132 296 280 '329" 0 .. 0 200 ; 231 ; 107 < f :. :!)6:4 479 8 1 6 762 1 ,511 1, 918 1 ,35 9 422 .578 1,749 1 6 i.ss2 1 044 1,073 1 ,550 1,489 515 964 1,288 1',67 6 1 ,360 1 :373 0 55 259 737 359 926 791

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TABLEA-6 Trave},J.i\111' ' . Brwarii 'CO)Jiity, 1990

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TABLEA-6 Travel Time Brevard County, 1990 365 156 ,. .... : "' 7& ... :,: 390 156 40 (oe. 106 .o/'('-$3. n 28 :20 179 0 15 131 eo 57' _, 2 .. ., _.. .. 7 ) ;. v .: > :' -.. *'w --::* "'' Trct 88S.02 61 W 310 437 206 46 96 tSI 7 74 28 0 te; 27 r - ,. ,._, , . .,_,. .. -"'""""' -"' -' :.,.. .. _ 11-"'! 1 21"' -_._; .. .... ... , '><.,&,-' !'4' 4 > .,. '-) . ''" .... 23 J Tractee5 66 170 209 219 213 e& 118 0 12 : .. ._. :sc---::462., 224' ... .t m ;. ,.. -48: ... ................... .. ..... ,-....... --... .. .. . ? -.<; 152 Troctee& 97 383 396 : ,_ ):3108 ;_; 378 292 <142 140 272 392 302 23 345 Tt.UM2 ..... .2fJ9.: :n5& '' ':S47194;'', m .. _, '. >, ,Jj_--.. '""''>..,., .. .,. .. )-$, 103 302 32 75 ': 1 :98' 42 512 '.' 78'' 182 00 178 13 ., 143 Trett883 43 150 131 79 94 53 357 2t., ... 184 78 55 38 S&. 52 170 ":86''' ... / '""'"' ............. I 't se C ., "ZI ..... e :-t 2e -.r ;. ... .. . T-885 114 300 518 529 300 181 402 72 23 .... :i . .. .. ..,.,.. .. .. _, ., "> . 82 ..... 44 --98 > 0 0 TroctM 71 60 Trect701 0 0 0 0 0 255 231 184 283 '. 245 163 0 if 53 85 0 "" ,. ' o .., 357 32 0 .. >.o ).-90 0 0 0 0 : .. 184. : 342: : '.': .. 41 ....... >' 35 0 88' 68 90 104 198 75 197 147 132 19 323 122 145 2S1 .. 195 ' 392 150 178 . 60 41 40 27 63 25 28 22 20 11 .., 127 42:, : {' :81 0 38 . ,ss 23" 32 42 119 27 98 .'5 43' 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . ,_ 1 0 > o . 52 69 0 :. .,. ., '. '"'"' 34 41 84 .. 57' 13 71 < 8Sf : '' : 1!4 .. 148 241 1&4 79 < 73 28 21 (-. "685 .. '' '->>6' '192 328-" S2 : .. . .. . .74 11o 78 0 83 7 31 7 68 rt 29 20 0 S 1 <14 18 19 56 15 78 21 .., 24 43 0 0 21 50 24 90 68 110 7 43 *" 24 0 81 :.0:'/ .36 22 74 13 t3 73 8 10 6 e ,. 8 o 0 5 0 7 27 6 9 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 8 18 14 81 58 41 .'18 62 23 16 11 22 43 1<61J 55 0 8 1 4 73 7 8 ,19 0 55 12 '21 41 87 21

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TABLE A.-7 Means Oi'Tiaiiffoitlillim Brevard County, 1990

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Drow . TABLE A-7 Means of Transportation Brevard County, 1990 Carpool AJoc:w T Pubtro natlo Trwoct 652.01 Tract652.02 Tract 852.31 Tract 852.32 Tract 681.01 . Tract681.02 Tract682 .. .. '"'' Tract 683.01 Tract 663.02 .. .Tf11ct 884 Tract685 Tracteocs Trwoct687 Trsct688 Trwoct689 Trsct871 Tract881 Tract883 Trsct684, Tract88S Tract 686.99 w Tr'a9} 891 2,111 .... .. 1,291 .. ' 1 ;611 . , 1,438 ; . ". """... 1,363 \ 1,018 : 1,319 '1 1 ,045 1,847 1 249 ... 2.396 '942 2.057 . 1,230 718 """ a\ 2,030 0 '1:169 1 718 1,718 513 o887 1,515 1,811 ... ... ..... _., 1,402 Tract692 T ract693 Tract894 T ract895 Trsct696 Tract697 Tract 698 .01 Tract 696.02 Tract 699 01 Tract699.02 .,..,. .... 1432 ,,,,, fh,, Tract701 Tract701 .99 Tract 711 Tract 1 12 Tract 713.01 ,. ... ,.. T(llct 713.21 Tract 713.22 ........ .. :r rsct 713.23 Tract 713.31 Tract713.32 0 322 794 2,387 .. 335 287 127 280 196 182 125 138 194 155 117 213 148 354 308 185 289 147 142 135 249 0 234 149 105 142 104 38 208 103 266 251 0 0 99 J, 132 109 348 316 337 1101 3S8 0 2 0 12 Q 0 7 9 0 0 0 9 0 7 0 71 10 0 18 4 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a .. 0 o. 0 0 16 0 88 188 66 47 . ... 26 44 116 60 92 96 23 17 -42 -173 .. > ... ;; . ,. ' 0 ' "' "' 38 15 44 18 16 27 60 .. 0 52 12 38. 0 Q 0 2if . 6 48r/'. 86 26' .. 41 123 139 122 1 52 81 62 61 128 60 42 171 57 125 238 161 71 92 4 7 206 54 16 11 38 61 148 123 67 87 25 84 107 33 0 55 38 27 41 104 21 63 72 22

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INWt -r..,. .. .,. .-.c...., Q...,.,llk I II I dt .,.._ Gwc;a,Nr BREVARD COUNTY 1990 P opulation Density P t r Squon Milt CENSUS TRACTS Population DensitY 0 Less than 2 ,500 GJ 2,50 1 t o 4 ,999 mJ Over 5,000 .. .: :."\ ... > . ' --.;

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--rr.,. ... ., .._..,_ Ct; ;'WI Ltt -0 C $Ph llJk IlL .,.._ BREVARD COUNTY 1990 Population Ag e 60 Years + Ptrctnl of Populalion CENSUS TRACTS % of Population .OtoiO% II II% to 15% 0 16% to 0 21% to 25% !ill 26% to 30% Iii 31% to 35% Ill Over 35%

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ifMAIUM .: :. : .... .... .. : .. .: ... . . . : ... . .. . ,. / ,: ........... ....... o-., ewe ,.kbaxdi --g ............... :: : ... .... ... : .. . BREVARD COUNTY 1990 Income Below $10,000 Households CENSUS TRACTS % Below $10,000 Ill 0 to 10% lim 11% to 19% f!l ZQ"/o to 29% tlllil 30% to 39% 40%

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'" ...... .., .._..,_ o:tt: a d ,_ ... I IIIIa .,.._ BREVARD COUNTY 1990 Travel Time to Work Workers 16 Yean+ J I CENSUS TRACTS Average Time (Minutes) Ill 0 to 15 Minutes 0 16 to 25 Minutes I!Y:I 26 to 30 Minutes Over 30 Minutes

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; .... .-. ... ,. : -> ......... .._ .. .,_ c ......... ... -BREVARD COUNTY % 1990 With No Vehicles Households CENSUS TRACTS % No Vehicles Available 0 0 to 10"/o IZJ 11% to 20"/o 31% t o 40"/o Over 40%

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. 1 "i ; ... ,, .. ........ ., c a ;II a r do c 0 ....... ) ... .... : . ': BREVARD COUNTY 1990 % Using Public Transportation ... . ... ..... -. . . . Wo.rbn 16 Years+ CENSUS TRACTS % Using Public Transportation Zero (00/o) 1% t o 2% [ill 3% to 4% 5% or Mor e

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,.,. .. ., -""""' GJMr a .. -c ..... c ....... .,... ' BREVARD COUNTY 1990 % Using Carpools Worbrs 16 YetUs+ CENSUS TRACTS % Persons Cmpoo1ing 0% Using Cmpoo1 1% t o 10% EJ 11% to 15% [JJ 16% to 20% fil Over 20%

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APPENDIXB SCAT ON-BOARD SURVEY 192

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SPACE COAST AREA TRANS I T BU S SURVEY ( 4 0 7 ) 633 1878 TO BUS RIDERS: W e woul d like t o know yom desires to plan transit service. Will you p l ease answer the foUowing questions about the !rip y
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9 What time of day would you use the bus if it ran more frequently? 10. 1L 12. 13. 7:ooa 1:00p 8:00a 2:00p Are you a licensed driver? 9:0Qa 3:00p _Yes How many OPerating vehicles are in your household? Two o r more w .. a vehicle available to you to make this trip? How long have you been riding SCAT buses? 10:00a 4 : 00p No Yes None 01 Years ll:()()a 12:00p S:OOp Eveni n g _One No 1-3 Years 4-6 Years __ 6-8 Years 9 Years or More 1 4. How would you rate existing bus s ervice? 15. 16 17. 18. . VeryGood What is your gender? What is your age? 41 -50 51-60 What is your occupation? Manager /Professional TechnicalfSkiUed Homemaker My family income is: $0-$4,999 $15,000-19,999 $ 30,000-$39,999 Good Fair Femal e Male 0-10 11-20 61-70 _Service _Domestic _Student SS,000-$9,999 $20,000-$24 999 $40,000-$49 999 Poor _Very poor 21 31-40 71-SO 81 and above Clerical Retired Other $10 000-$14,999 $25,()()()..$29,999 $50,000 or more 19. We welcome you r suggestions for the bus s ystem. Please use this space for your comm ents.: ___

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' -APPENDIXC SCAT OPERATOR SURVEY 195

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SCAT OP ERAT OR SURVEY I. The following is a list of possible complaints passengers may voi ce to bus opera tors. P I"""' rank the 5 complaints you hear most frequently (I being the most frequent). __ fare is too high __ infrequent service __ bus doesn't gu w h ere I want __ bus is late __ bus leaves stop too early bus i s not clean --bus is not comfortable _ need Saturday/Sunday service __ need m o rning service 2. What is your opinion of these compl aints? Are they valid? __ passengers Qannot get information __ bus schedule too hard to understand __ eating or drinking on the bus smoking on bus --route or destination not c l ear __ no bus shelters/benches __ need evening service _ OTHER (specifY) ____ 3 Tho following is a list of poss i ble improvements t o th e transit system. think would be helpful (I most helpful). Please rank all the improvements tha t you __ opera t e new smaller vehicles __ p u t up bus stop s i gns __ maintain buses more frequatUy __ give more time in schedules __ provide beuer route and schedule information __ OTHER (please specifY)-------4. Do you know of any safety problems on any routes? Please describe. __ l ower the fares __ put up shelters at bus stops __ operate weekeod service __ reduce headways 5 Are there any schedules or parts of schedules which arc. difficult to maintain? __ yes __ no If yes, which routes? ______________ 6. /Ue tho:
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7. In your opinion, is night service necessary? __ yes no 8. In your opinion, is Saturday and/or Sunday service necessary? __ yes _no 9. What arc the sttcngths of the Space Coast Area Transit system? 10. What are the weaknesses of the Space Coast Area Transit aystem? II. Do you feel that your input and infonnation is valued by administrative personnel? -yes no I 2 How do you envision the transit system evolVing over the nest few years? 13. What can be done to encourage drivers to be customer-servi ce oriented? 14. Ate there any oth.,-comments that would be helpful to us? THANKS FOR YOUR HELP!

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TABLEC-1 M"'t Frequen t P assenger Complaints About SCAT l deotllled by Bus Operaton SCAT Operator Survey Mott Frequent Complaints (i) n. '110. 'I want 46 Need. 28 too hard to 27 24 Need 1 6 Need 7 l I 6 No bus' s I 5 Need = set. 5 T rip time too 4 "'' 2 2 I. Five points for each first priority ranking, down to one point for fifth priority ranking. Flgurel # of Responses II 7 8 7 5 3 3 2 2 I 1 2 I V alidity of Passenger Comp l aints as Reported by Bus Opera ton

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TABLEC-2 Inopronment Arou for SCAT Identified by B111 Operaton SCAT Operator Survey lmprovemeut # ol Responses I Five points for each fli'St priority ranking. down t o one point for fifth priority ranking. TABLEC-3 SCAT Safety P roblems Identified by Bus Operaton SCAT Operator Survey Safotv Problem No safetv probl ems Route 27 going into South Lake Toolcn fi traffic Left tum north) on Bimini Routes 6 and 8 crissctossing State Road 3 without a traffic l igh t Tree limbs blocking vision at RR tracks on Barton and US #I Intersection ofl-95 Northbound in10 Gard
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Route 2 6 (520) 6 (520) 8 (520) 8 ( 520 8 (520\ 9 9 24 30 520 TABLEC-4 Roulel'lrith Sdteclule Probluu ld0111111ecl by BIU Operators SCAT OperllorSurvey . Diflicult to I of Maintain Route Responses Schedules 8 5 2 I 3 l 4 I s l 6 l 9 I 21 I 26 I 30 I TA BLJ: C-S SCA T Routeo to Modit)' !den tilled by Bus Opera ton SCAT Operator S ugKCIIed 1\todllleatlou Need more time in schedule Need t o closer to downtown Grcvhound and Job Services Start I 0-15 minUICS earlier to Wuestolf Hospital Sbould not go to W'llll! Di
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Is nilU>t: Is TABLEC-6 S CAT StrengthJ u d Weaknuset ldeatifled by But Operaton SCAT Operator S u rvey Comment ;STRENGTiiS . ,,, ,.,._. .; 0; .. ..... ,,..; '; ' Drivers ;Emp(ovee:L .. : . Management listening t o drivers Providirur,scrviOc: tO c lienlll wbo coold not ltet OUl without it WEAMNESSES Not enoullh service Hahds tied bv Countv < Not all of beach Jl Need more part time drivm More advertising Not undcrstandin the citiz=l Buses tied uo doina contract work before 9 :00am and after 3:30 om Need POOl of on-cal l drivers Schedules not coordinated at transfer poinl:l TABLEC-7 Response to Q u.,t loos 7, 8, I I SCAT Operator Survey y., No 4 7 6 (I) 4 Do you feel your input is valued 7 3 by I Two operato,. re>'pOilded "yes to Saturday service only 0 I I

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T A B LE C8 How do you Envision SCAT Evolving ? SCAT Ope r a tor Survey Comments #of Resp o n ses Nore 2 More doo r to door service 2 . . Smaller scal e Lvnx svsteni 2 Movina more people w h ore they want to RO 2 Just getting by I Larger and successful I TABLEC-9 What c-an be done t o encourage; d rivers o be cuat omer-se rvic:.e o ri ented? SCAT O pera tor Survey Co mm e nts #of R esponses No 3 Mos t drivers are 2 Written guidelines better training 2 Make driv er s ride bus I Refre sher lraininR I More time in schedules to vcdriv(rs unity t o answ.,. questions I

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APPENDIXD INTERVIEW AND FOCUS GROUP QUESTIONS 203

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INTERVIEW QUESTIONS A WHERE WE ARE 1. How much awareness of and interest in transit does the community have? 2 How is the bus system perceived in the community? 3. What is your perception of transit's role in the community? 4 Is the transit system responsive to community needs? How are those needs communicated to the transit system? 5. Is the transit system easy to use? 6. Is information on transit readily available in the community? 7. What is your opinion of the transit fare? 8. Is traffic congestion a problem in Brevard County? If so what role can transit play fu alleviating this problem? . . 9. Is there a parking problem in Brevard County? If so, how does this affect transit's role in the community? B. WHERE WE WANT TO GO 10. What goals has the community and elected officials voiced for transit? 11. How can the transit system better meet community needs? 12. What do you see as appropriate goals for the transit system? 13. How do the following resources and constraints affect the transit system in reaching its goals? a. Community attitudes toward transit b. The political environment c. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the community

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d. Geographic characteristics of Brevard County 14 What is happening in Brevard County in terms of residential and oommercial development? How much? Where? How can transit best respond to these trends? 15. Should Space Coast Area Transit be looking at new markets for trans i t service, or should it oonoentrate on its existing markets? 16. Should Space Coast Area Transit oonoentrate on any one specific aspect of transit service over the next few years, such as fixed route transportation disadvantaged, o r the vanpool program? 17. ls there a willingness in the oomm u nity to oonsider additional local funding sources for transit? C HOW WE GET THERE 18. What improvements are needed in the transit system to attract more riders and meet community goals? 19. 1s there a need for park and ride lots possibly in oonjunct ion with express bus service? 20. Are there areas currently not served or underserved by transit that s h ould receive a higher priority? 20 What other policies should be changed to help the transit syst e m reach its goals? D. SUMMARY 21. What are the major problems with the transit system? 22. What are the major strengths and acoomplishments of the transit system?

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NON-USER FOCUS GROUP STRUCIURE SPACE COAST AREA TRANSIT GENERAL INTRODUCTION Who I am Why we are here Not a rail sales pitch Outline of bow we will proceed QUESTIONS 1. What are some of the reasons you do not use the transit system in Brevard County? (Probe all participants for reasons and follow up) (be sure to mention fixed route, td (vans) and vanpool program) (Discussion could go for up to 30 minutes) 2. I'd like to share some answers to this question from transit surveys in other placeS and get your reactions (Ask all that have not been mentioned). does not go where I want to go too far to walk (how far is not too far?) does not run when I want to travel (when?) not frequent enough unsafe (bus/bus stops?) can't stop off on my way can't come and go as I please don't know how to use don't know where to get infounation takes too .long not comfortable not clean rude operators/personnel costs too much not dependable (how not?) dislike other passengers (why?) prefer to ride with friends like to drive dislike waiting (how long is good to wait?) bus only for those with no choice prefer to go places alone routes are not direct don't like to transfer

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3. Now I'd like to ask you what it would take to persuade you to ride transit? (Probe all panicipants for possible enticements) (include fixed route, 1D and vanpools) (Discussion can go for up to 30 minutes) 4. Again, here are some answers from surveys taken in other places. Please tell me if they apply to you (ask all that have not been mentioned): direct service without transfers more frequent service (how frequent) convenient times of service (when?) more bus stop signs more passenger waiting shelters better bus schedules and maps more bus routes (where?) more convenient transfer points and times (wherefwhen?) lower fares (how low?) free coupon to trY the bus newer buses (what about old?) more vanpool information more 1D information easier way to schedule 1D trips 5. Here are some reasons riders have given us why they like transit. Do you think any of these would persuade you or your friends? save on gas minimize wear and tear on car no place to park too expensive to park more relaxing than driving can read/sleep/do work traffic congestion is too bad to drive reliable transportation safer meet people quiet

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6. Do you ever ride transit in another city when you travel? (If anyone does ... ) Do you like it? Is it better than Brevard County's system? What about it is better? 7. Any final suggestions for improvements to Space Coast Area Transit?

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APPENDIXD GLOSSARY OF TERMS 2 0 9

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PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Couaty/Seryice Area Population -Used to approltimate tbe service axea population for each of tbe Florida tnnsit systems and is taken from tbe 1991 Fl orid" $tatistic"l Abstract. Altbougb the transit authorities' actual service axeas may aot correspond exacdy wilb !be county boundaries, this measure provides a good approximation of overall market size for comparison of relative spending and service levels among communities. This is particularly true in Florida where transit systeDlS are, for the most part, co1111ly-based. Se;rvice area populations for non-Florida systeDIS are provided by each individual system included in tbe evaluation. Natloaallntlatlon Rate-Used to deOate tbe operatiog cost data to constant 1984 dollars. lntlation-a
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Total Local Reyepue AU revenues originating at lhe local level (excluding star<: ana feaeral assistanCe). ORC!llt!nl Rcl'Cnue lncluaes passenger tares. speciallra!lSit tares. scbool bus service revenues, freight tarim. cbantr service revenues, ttanSponation revenues, subsi
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Pwm&er Trips p.,. CanHa-Avenge llliD1ber of 1121!Sit l>oan!inas per pmon per year. This number is in areas Wbete public. cransporwioo is Where there arc more transit depe:odents and is a measure of tbe extent 10 whicb !be publi<: utilliell b\liiSll jiVi:n rervice area. Pwenm Trips l'b' Rmn!IC MUe -The raW> of passenger triP" to reyenue miles of service; a key indicator of service effectiveness that is influenced by the l evels of <1eman<1 and !be supply of service provided. P,oaec Trips Per Rew!!IC Uour The ratio of passeoger trips 10 revenue hours of oper81fon; repons oo the effectiveness of !be service since hours are a beaer represeruation or the resources consUIDed in providing service. Aural' SpHd A =8 speed of vehicles in opera!ion (including to and from tbe garage) caleulated by dividing total vehicle miles by total vehicle hours. Rcm!ue Miks --., IDddS!JII -Number of revenue miles divided by tbe number of incidena; rq>Oru the average inlerval, iii miles, becween incidena. Bevmue Miles Between RO!Idca!la -Number of reveoue mlles divided by roag expenditures divided by the total annual ridership; measure of tbe efficiency of aansportiog riders; one of the key indicators of comparative performaoce of properties since it reflecu both the efficiency wilb whicb service Is deUvered and the market demands for service. it Opcntloc R:meose Per PJ.g expense divided by the anoua1 reveoue mlles or servi measure of !be efficiency with which servk:e is delivered and is another key comparative indicatOr. Operatlna E xpen se Per RciC!II!O Hou r OperaW>g expeose divided by revenue hours of operation; a k y comparative measure which dlmrs from operating expense per revenue mile in that tbe vehicle speed is f tored out. This is ofieo itoponant since vehicle speed is strongly influenced by local a:affic conditions Mablleaaace Expease Pu Revmue MUe -Mamtmaoce cost divided by """-enue miles l!blateaauc:e Expe!JS Per 0Rm11b!& E1!!!0!L1e -Calculan!d by dividing maitotmnce a.pense by ope: r expense; expressed as a percent of tOtal operatiog expeose farehox Recoym Rado of passenger fare revenues to tollll operarina expenses; an illdicalor of tbe e of revenues provided by the passengers.

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Local Rerenue Per Open!lnr E!J!H!K-Ratio of totlllocal colllllli11DCDt with respect to totll operating expense. Operating Revenue l'e!: OpentiDr E!!!H!K -Operating ratio calculatcd by dividing operating revenue by totll operating expense. Yehlc:!e Miles Per Peak Yeh!de -Vebicle miles divided by tbe number of peale vehicles. It is an indicator of bow inltll.Sively tbe equipment is used and is inJiuencecJ by the bus travel speeds as well as by me l evels of service in tbe off-peale time periods. A more unifomt demand for service over tbe day would result in a higher number. Vel!lcle Hours Per .Peak Vel!ide-v ehicle hours for vebicle miles and again reflecls bow intenSively equipment is utilized. Re!
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APPENDIXE SCAT TREND ANALYSIS TABLES (VANPOOL) 214

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PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 1987 S pace Coast Area Trnnslt Vanpool P e rfonnuuce Ind icato r s 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 %Chango 19871192 12.311% . nla nlo nla ...... nla ';"o:OO }. . n1a . ,. -... I ,.,...,.; , ,,,,,

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El'fECTIVENESS MEASURES SEAvt<:E SU9PLY .... ........ -,;: ..... .. ..__. ...._."' II' .. ,.., -I -. .... ..iiri.a6 "-..... ol Fleel (In,_.) --.,.. . ... IMIIorel ;... T CUIRoodcllo ,..----.-1tt1 Space Cout Ana Trush Vonpool EtrtdlvOMOs Meu11ra '"' '"' Zf --r 1no '"' m q::: "lin 3 11 I 2.59 8 00 ...... ..... -:-J .. .... --A.: ..... IIC,..._ 1117tf2

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EFFICIENCY MEASURES 1987 COST EFFI C IENCY Space Coos! Area Transit Vanpool Emdency Mea s ures 1988 1989 1990 . h: .. .. ,., .... .. . ... . .. .. .. . ,., .:Operouog :,-:h!.-11 .r i.'<';'$0.38 :. .;_;._: $0A3,. ...,,, ....,. ,....,.;J .. :-. .... .-,-_ -Operalfng Expense Pet Peak Vehicle (000) $4.15 v . OperaUng Passenger Milo .. > .$(.38 O,.,j)4,''tv..,<; ',A" .... ,( , : .,; /'f.oA 'I,; ,> .. ,...., t ) $0.03 I .. <.-. $0.22 1i I"'!P
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APPENDIXG SCAT PEER ANALYSIS TABLES 218

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PRFORMAHCE INDtCATORS SJ11cm Total .. MotortHu Vdlide Catecol')'

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PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Sytlem Total Performanlndicato n (rontln!Md) 10-4 9 Moto rflw Vhlcle Cal< gory LElO Totl WBB LUbl>ock TOilol LeTS LoeCOimly Toal COLU Columtl
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PERfORMANCE INDICA TOft S Sytl-ToW Performauce lndicaton (
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EFFEC11VENESS MEASURES SERVICE SUPPLY System Total Effectinoess Measures 10-49 Motorbus Vehl
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EFFECT111NSS MEASURES SERVICE SUPPLY QUAUTY Of SERVICE ..... -.. . ..:;::: -' ,. ._,. T ot11 Roedcals --------R---R-AVAJW!IUTY Sytlan Total Elre
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EFFICIENCY MEASURES COST EffiCIENCY Sy1te111 TotalEffkie.nc:y P.Jeaauret 10-49 MoCorl>us Vehltle Categol')' CHAI' RALE TALT Tatlaho .... loCal JACK T-VOLT v-. TARTS -..... T-

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EFFICIENCY MEASURES COSTEFFICIENCY Syttem Total EfTidtncy MtatUI'el (oonlinued) 10-49 Vehlde Categ o ry lXI L.ulnafon ToCil LU88 Lubbocl! Total LCTS Lee County Total COLU Corurnb
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EFFICIENCY MEASURES COST EFFICIENCY System Total :Effil LAFT Lafayette Tolal SCAT Brevard Total Peer Group MNn

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APPENDIXH SCAT VEIDCLE INVENTORY TABLES 228

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Tabl e 58 SCAT Vehi cl e Inveutory Directl y-Operated Moto r Bu s and Demand Respolllie Year Number o f Vehicles 1981 2 1987 7 1977 I 1978 2 198 9 8 1990 5 1992 3 Sow-"" 1993 Section IS RepM Year N u m be r of Veh i cl es 1991 5 1991 2 1991 2 1988 1 199 1 I 1990 2 1991 7 1988 I 1991 I 198 9 6 1 9 88 I Source 1993 Section IS RepM Nu.mber of N umber o f Ac tiv e ADA V e h icl es Ac c e ss ible Vehi cl es 2 0 7 0 1 0 2 0 8 0 5 0 3 0 Table 59 S CAT Ve hicl e Inventory Purc h as ed Demand R es p o n se N u .mber o f Nu mber o f Active AD A Ve hi cles Ac cessi bl e V eh icl es 5 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 I 0 2 0 7 0 I 0 I 0 6 0 I 0 Seating Capacity 41 43 26 24 30 32 32 Seating Capacity 6 5 3 6 1 4 14 12 6 7 15 17 Total Miles o n Vehicle d uring Peri o d 24 000 215 000 12 0()0 7 000 262 000 207 000 118 000 Total Miles o n Vehicle during Peri o d 252000 100 000 90000 3 000 57 000 95 000 341 000 46000 52 000 354 000 33 000

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Year Number of Vehicles 1987 7 1987 0 1988 5 1988 I 1988 2 1988 2 1989 2 1989 2 1989 2 1990 2 1990 5 1992 8 1992 14 1992 3 1993 10 1993 6 1993 8 1993 I Source 1993 Sect1oo I 5 Report Table60 SCAT Vehicle Inventory Purcllased Van Pool Number of Number of Active ADA Vehicles Accessible Vehicles 7 0 0 0 5 0 I 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 5 0 8 0 14 0 3 0 10 0 6 0 8 0 I I Seating Total Miles on Capacity Vehicle during Period 15 93 000 7 40000 IS 77,000 5 19 000 13 38 000 10 25 000 15 49000 7 41 000 11 42 000 15 25 000 11 142 000 11 244 000 15 157 000 7 63,000 15 134 000 11 124 000 7 122,000 5 4,000

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... Center Jfoc :ReaeMch Um-sllliy O

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