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Transportation and growth management


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Transportation and growth management a planning and policy agenda
Running title:
State transportation policy initiative
Physical Description:
vi, 130 p. : ill., charts, maps ; 28 cm.
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
State Transportation Policy Initiative (Fla.)
Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Transportation -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Bibliography: p. 127-129.
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
General Note:
"This report is one of a series of publications resulting from Phase I of the State Transportation Policy Initiative"--Preface.
General Note:
"January 1994."

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 023367761
oclc - 32452688
usfldc doi - C01-00293
usfldc handle - c1.293
lcc - HE212.F6 T7 1994
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Transportation and Growth Management: A Planning and Policy Agenda Center for Urban Transportation Research University of South Florida


TRANSPORTATION AND GROWTH MANAGEMENT: A Planning and Policy Agenda CUTR Center/or Urban Thmsportation Research 1/niversity of South Florida 1994 Center for Urban Tl'&nsportat!on Research January 1994 STATE TMHSPORTATIDH roucr OOT1AnVE




Preface STATE TRAH.sPOJ\TATIDH PDUCY IHITtAnVE Re<:ent legislation and fiscal t r e nds i n Florida and nationwide have crea ted a unique combination of restraints and opportunities, providing an impetus for examin in g the way Florida conducts transportation planni ng. Is\ response to these challenges, the Florida Legislature and the Governor's Office directed the Cente r for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR} to undertake the State Transportation Policr Initi ative (STPI}. Th e purpose of this study is to reevaluate the way transportation i nfrastructu re and services are planned and deve loped at t he state an d l ocal levels in F l o rida an d to formulate options for implementing requirements of the 199 1 Jmermodal Surface Trans-porution Efficiency Act. Efforts undertaken as part of Phase I of STPI include: a comprehensive review of local an d regional planning in Florida in the contex t of State growth management requirements and federal legislation 3n evaluation of the impact of community design on transportation needs a review of the literature on t he transportat ion costs of urban sp rawl an evaluation of comp rehensive transpo.rtation planning for state purposes an exam i nation of the relat ionship betwee n air quality and lran sport.ation as practiced i n Fl o rida -an evaluation of t rends and forecasts of Florida's population and trnnsp o rtat.ion characteristics a study of t rans it transportatio n demand level of service, and concurre nc y issues and of congestion management and urban mobility planning preparation o f a state land use map by florida's Regional Planning Councils This report is one o f a series of publicat i ons re.sulting from Phase f of the State Transportation Policy Initiative. State Transportation Policy Initiative Project Manager: Edward A. Mierzejewski, P.E. Center for Urban Transportation Research w


STATE 'I'RAmPUIITAnOM Plll.ICY IHinA 11VB T he assistance of the f oll owin g is gratefully acknowledged fo r their gui<:L'lnce and expertise on this iv S TPI Stccting Committee Chester "Ed" Colby Metro-Datk Tum it Agrr. g Dona l d Ct:Uie, Jr. Floridians for Bttttr Transpoaation The .Honorable Mario Dia -Balart F!oritk S&lle &nate The .Honorable James Hargrett, Jr. Florida State &mue Wal lace Hawkes Ill Grtir.a. b1r. The Honorable Ed Healey FWri.tUt Houst of Rrprnmld:f.T.Jtl Arthur Kennedy Phwidd irAmportRlhJH Commissio11 David Kerr Chairman, Florida TransporttHion Commitikm Gerhard Mei.sds f!r(!V(Iff, University ofSoxtb fi()Tida The Honorable Vernon Peeples FloTida of Rtptt-.$(11ftttit'tS Linda Loomi s Shelley &trttaf:A florida Dtp. tttmtllt ofCommuttit; Affoirs Ben Watts Swtlary. Ffodd.t DtpdtllfltHI fljTramportaJion Virg inia Bass \Vethercll SrrJtU)'. ftof<:J!Jt /kpdrlmmt of EftVi rfJnmmtal Prouuio11 Jack Wilson 1#t Wilson OJmpany STPI Technical Advisory Committee John Johnston Ft9rilla Home of Commi ller o n TrnlltpCJYttufqn Jane Mathis Ploridd iran$fl(Jrlatiotl Ct:nnmission l>atrkk McCue Florida Dtpartmmt Richard McElveen Dtptlrttr.rnt of E:nvirflmnrntal ProtJi()n David Mohler F/Qrltla State Sma(4 T!ttmji() Tiati().n Crmtmitue James Murley JOOQ Prr!ndJ of Fl&ridA Ben Starrett Pforii11 lHpar11x.rn.t of01mmunity Affairs Wes Watson f'tttritla Tutmil AssUili'tm Randy Whitfield MPO Allvisory Committee Special thanks t o th e staff of local governments. metropolitan p lan.ning organizat ions. regional planning counci l s. and the many other agencies and in divi dua l s participated in this research. l'NNpor

Contents INTRDDUCnDN .. ------..... An O varvisw of the Report Recurring Thames --..---THE POLICY CONTEXT ................................................................................................................................... ............... ELMS-HI: The Changing Growth Managemen t Framework .. .. ........ ........ ........................... ...... .. ISTEA .................................. ...... ---.. ............. ........ ....... ...... ...... .. Tha package ...... .. ......... ......... ............ ........... ... .............................. .. ..................... ........ ........ ......... ........ A boost for transit ............. ..... -.. ........ ......... -........... .................................... -..................... ................ Financial requirements ......................................................................... -.. .......... ....... -. ........ .. ... ,_ ......... Flortda lS'l'EA ..................................................... ....................... -......... -......... _. ....................................... CONCLUSIONS, ............................ .......... -......... ......... .......... .............................. ... ................. -.......... DETERMINING FUTURE LA.ND USE NEEDS ......................... -........... .......... ....................... ......................... The Futura Land Usa Planning Process ........ -----Socio acon.o.mic forecasting ....................................................................... ....... .............................. .. . .. Land usa forecasting and flexibility ....... ... .. ...................... ........................ ................... .............. Residential land usa needs .. ...................... ........................ .................... ,_. ........................ Commercial land use needs .................... ... .......... ... . ... ........................................................... ........ . Industrial land use needs .... .._ .. .......... ......... .................................... .......... .._ ........ .. .... ................ Case Stu.dies .................... ............................ .......... ..................................... .................... -....... ................. .. Lea County ........ _. .. .................. ............ ............. ............. T ......... .._ .. .... ........................................................... .. H i llsboroug-h County .......................... ................................................... u ............ ......... -...... ..................... Pasco County ........................................................................................................................... ._ ..... .......................... .. Pinellas County .......................................................... .. _, ........ ............. ................................ .. . ... .. ,,,,,_, Ol-anga County ....... .............................. ......... ......................... ............................................ -....................... Orlando ............. .................. ............... .. .............................................................. ........................................... Land Use C J aasifjcatian SystaJn.s ................... . ....... -.............. ....... ............... ............... ................. ......... .. .. Land Usa Ratios ......................... .._ .................... ................................................ ......... .._ ............................................. Land usa imbalanca and tranBporlation demand ---ConclusiQI\B ........................................................................................ ................................................................................. DETERMINING TRANSPORTATION NEEDS ----State Transportation P lanning .................... ,_ ......... -..................... ............... ................ .................................... The Florida Transportation Plan ..... ... ..................................................................................... ._ ...... ..... .. State Transportation Improvement Program --The New tntarsta.ta highway policy ................... ... ., ..... .................................. ..... ............... .. ........ The Florida intraatala highway system --Metropolitan Transportation Planning ......... ... ........... ........... .......... .......... ............................ .. ....... .. . Manapment systems ........ .. ............ ............................... ......... ._ ......... .. .......... .... ....... ... ........ .._ ... . -. ..... .. Matrupolitan long range planning ..................... -.......... ... ...... .-. ...................... .................. .... ......... Transportation Improvement Programs .......... ... ............................. ........ .. ......................... .. ........ .. Tha Modeling Pracesa ........ ............ ........................................ ...... . .......... ........... ...... ........ ......... .......... ... 1 1 2 5 9 12 13 14 15 16 16 19 19 20 2 1 22 23 23 24 24 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 32 35 37 37 38 40 41 41 41 44 44 46 46


,SrATB 111AH51'0RTATIDN PIIUC't INITIA11VJ! VaUdity of underlying aasumplious ............... _,, ... ........ .. ........ .... .... ,,, .... .. .. .. .... ..... .... UncertaJ.nty of input assumptlou .................... ....... _... ...... ........ ._ ............... .. _,,, .. _.,, .... ...... Tha link bstweeD transportation and Jand uae ....... ..... .-.. -................ . _., ............. .... M.odal and lntannodal Plannin g --.. --.. -Florida int81'11l0dal and proC888 -.. -" -Planning fur a mullimodal aystam ............ ........... .......... .... ............................. ............ ..... ....... Porta and aviation -.. ---: ....... .... ..... ......... :... ....... -........ -....... -...... ....... COORDINATING LAND USB AND TRANSPDRTATIDN ....................... ......... ....... ... .. --.. Regia.nal MabiUty and Land Uu CanJlicta ., .. .. .. .. .... .. ...... .... ........ ._ ....... __ ...... ....... ., .... ...... Citiz811 ()ppos:itian .. ................... ............................ ... ......... .... ... ., ........ ........ ........ -......................... V . won ..... ....... ................... ......... ._ .. ......... -.......... ......... -..................... ._ .................... -....... ...... Land Davalopmant Regulation ............ .. ....... ... ....... ............ ... ........ ....... ...... ... ....... ..... ...... Concurrency, Through Traffic, and Regional Demand .......... _.. ......... .. .. ..-. ....... -......................... ._. Wh.a paya1 .. ...................... ......... .......................... -...................... ......... ........ -........ -....... ....... Stale LOS and funding concama ..... ........ ....... .. ........ ............................ ..... ..... ...... .. .. Concama of sm.all tawna and rural areas ......... .......... ........ -......... ._ ....... -................ -..... -. Toward a more flexible approach,.,,_ ........... -......... ......... -.................... ._ ....... ..... ............. R oadway cunc'Dl'riDCY and transit ...... ........... -.......... -......... -......... -....... -............ .. _.,,._. Caaatal Development ... ........ ........ -. .... .......... .......... ......... .._. ......... ......... _.. .. ...... .... ..... .. ... ...... _. .. INTERGDVERNMENT AL CODRDINA TlON ................. -........................ _, .. ,,. ,, __ ....... -......... -....... ..... .... .. RegiDlUll Planning Councils .. ........... -........... .......... ........... ......... ....... ......... ...... ...... _,,,, .. Controvaray and conflict ..... _. ........... ......... -......................... ......... -...... ......... ................. ._ ..... amendments ..... .. ......... ...... ,. .. .. ,,. ... .......... ......... ....... ,_ .. ..... -. ...... ..... -.... .......... ....... -......... .......... ...... ....... .... ..... ..................... -. ..................................... .. Matropolitan Plaonlng Orgaulzationa ........ ..._ ........... .... ..... ......... ......... -. ........ _, ,, .... ...... ... ...... .... O:rganizatlanal Boundaries ........... ....... ....... .... ..... .......... ._. ........... -.. .. ... ......................... _,, . ..... ..... Developments of Ragianallmpact .............. .... ....... ........ .. . ...... ....... ... ....... ................ .... .. The review praC888 ...... -......... ........... ........... ............ -......... ........ _, ....... ............. -...... -Praa and CDl\8 al the DJ\1 procea ............... .......... ................... ... ................................................. Changes to the DRI program .......... _. ............ ._ ........... ......... ......... -....... .................................... Con clusions .. ..... ....... .. ........ ......... ....................... .................. .. .............................. ................ Dispute Resolution .................................. ......... .......... ........................ ......... -................. .............. State mandates,, ...... .......................... ._ ........... __, ......... ................................ -.......................... .... ELMSm soluti.ana ....................... ......... -........... -......................... _.. ......... _. .................... ...... _.. ........... Can.cluaiona .. ....... ........ ......... .,.._ .......... _,_ ...................................................... ....... ....................... .. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDAT I ONS,_ ........... .......................... ......... -....... _.. .......................... -... Land Use Planning Practic.e .... ......... __. ....... -.......... -..................... ................................................ .. TransportaUa n Planning Practice ...... .......... ........... .-. .......... .. ..... . .. ....... .. ... ................... ..... CoardinatiDg Land Uu and TI"B..UUpDl'tati.Dn .......................... -................... ................... ....... ........ .. Intergovernmental Caordination ............ ... ........................... .......... -......... -....... .......... .......... .... .. APPENDIX I: A SUMMARY OF BLM"S-W .......... .. ,, ................................... -........ ................. -.... ..... -.. NOTES .... .. ................. -........ ......................................... .......... -......... -....... ................. ,_, ................ .. .. REFER.ENCES ...... -......... _,,. .. .. ........................ . ....... ... ......... ......... ......... .......... -........ -...... _. ..... -.. 47 49 50 52 52 53 54 57 58 59 59 62 63 65 65 66 66 68 69 77 77 78 8 0 81 a2 a3 as 85 as 87 as 90 so 92 93 95 95 99 102 107 113 123 127


Introduction This work element of the State Tramper tat l o n Policy Initiative is a review of local comprehensive plans in relation to F lorida's growth management require ments. Thi s comprehensive study consid ers the changing policy context for land use and transportation planning, and id entifies k ey issues that mu st be addressed in improving the consistency, coordination, and quality of local and regional planning efforts Major topic areas include: determining future land use and t ransportation needs; consistency of land use and transpormion p lanning; and intergovernmental coord i nation. A cross-section of regions across the state were selected for study in an effort to capture F lorida's local and regional diversity. These included selected local governments, metropolitan planning organizations, and regional planning councils in the Miami metropolitan area, Southwest Florida, the Orlando metro p olit an area, the Panhandle, the Treasure Coast, and Tampa Bay. The resea rch process also involved extensive interviews with state, local, and regional planning officials, and a review of relevant litera ture,local comprehensive plans, long range transporta tion plans, and other docu m e nts. An Overview of the Report The Center for Urban Transportation Research {CUTR) has evaluated th e legislative framework and rules that govern state and local t r ansportation planning during a period of substantial change. The lmermodal Surface Trans portation Efficiency Act (lSTEA) in 1991 all,d changes to the F lorida Transpon:ation Code and growth managemen t legislatio n during the 1993 F lorida legislative session have creaced a new policy framewor k for transportation and land use planning. The first chapter reviews the p olicy context for planning in Florida and implic at ions of the changing policy framework. Concerns have been raised that local governments are-planning for more growth than necessary t given reasonable assumptions--a prospect that could result in premature investment in expanding transportation and other public facilities. Assumptions used in the development of socio -economic and land use for ecasts are critical because these data are the starting point of the transportation planning process. The second chapter reviews methods used by local governments to plan for fut u re land use needs and address es the issuC "How much is too much?" It is widely understood that there is two way interaction betwee n transportation systems and land development. Yet this inter action is not adequately reflected through conventional p lan ning and modeling methods. Greater consistency must therefore be achieved through adherence to a commo n policy f rame work i n the land use and transportation de-cision process--.. policy framework established by State and federal law. Issues and recommend.,tions regarding current t ransportation phmning pract ice are examined in the third chapter. The challenges of achieving consistency between land use and transportation plann in g are discussed in the fourth chapter. Finally, the report addresses the question of intergovernmental coor d i nation. STAT1: TIIAHSPOIITAnDN POJJCY IHlTIATIVE I


2 STATE TRAH'SPORTATIOH POLICY INITIA liVE Successful local transp ortat ion plans and programs requir e coordination on several levels, i ncluding coordination with adjacent communities, with the region and state, within the jurisdiction, and across agencies that represenc different transp o rta t ion modes. I STEA and the ELMS-Ill amendments to Florida's gr owt h manag e m e n t legislat i o n are placing even stronger emphasis on the role of intergovernmental coordination i n achievin g plann i n g and policy objec tives The challenges of i ncer governme.n tal coordination and opportunities rniscd by the new statutory framework are discussed in the fifth c ha pte Recurring Thamea Several recurring t hemes emerged during the course of this study: Vision Vision is an e ssential component of planning. E f fective visions i ncorpo rnte a broad range o f goals and translate values md pre f erences into specific ac ti on strategies. The -resu l t .is a plan that i s accessible to the public, offers short and long t-erm r esults, and inspires political support. Limited plann i ng budgets, a short time f rame for prepara tion, and the demmds of fulfilling state planning requirements resulted in a first round of plans aimed more at "achieving compliance" than establishing a lo ng term vision. Wi th the majority of plans in compl iance, communities and MPOs now have t he fram ewor k for o stab l i sh i ng a local and regional vision. Adding to the difficulty of coordinating land use and transportation is the absence of regional c o nsensus on how to grow. The ch a llenge wiU be achieving harmony among conflicting visions. Continuity an d Leadership. Cont i nuity of public policy and effective leadership go hmd in hand, and both are crucial t o the success of l o c a l and regional p lan ning efforts. Jurisdictions with strong, high quality p lanning program s attribute their success to the v i sion and commitment of thei r local e l ected officials. P rob l ems with inte rgovern m e ntal coordina tion of planning e f fons occur primarily i n the p ol i tical a r e na. Some co mm u n it ies are moving from t h e council/ manager system, where authority is more d ispersed1 to a strong mayor system in the hope of achieving more effecti,e political leader ship Yet leadership remains an elusive issue, tie d more to the individual than the governmental structu r e Commu n i ties should harness t he lead ership po tential of citizens and civic l eaders in the private and nonpro fit sectors 10 improve the quality and c ont inuity of the planni ng progra m Pu blic e du c at ion an d outreach will b e crucial to the long term su ccess o f p lan ning efforts Economic Development. Long range transpormtion ond l ond use plonning canno t b e effective without grappling with the la rger questions of economic develop ment. Consideratlon must be given to characteristics o f the local and regional economy, because these a r e the n eeds that. the t r ansponation system must serve From a growth mana g emen t perspective, characteristics of loca1 and regional rni es s trongly i nfl uence the rate, timing, locatio n, and qua l it y of land development Higher costs associated with urban inful and redevelopment can d i scourage reuse of declining urbanized a reas, without a concerted publ ic stra tegy for u rban revitalization. Transportation fac il ities arc essential for economic growt h, but expan sion decisions ca nnot be independe n t of growth management object ives. Coordi nation of transportatio n and growth management programs will u l t i mat el y enhance regiona l prosperity a nd quality of life. Effective pu blic leadership and a coo r d i nated economic development agenda that includes the private secto r are essential but frequently missing fro m the planning process. TronJpOrl.ltim! and lirowtb Hanopmtmt


Sustainabi.lit.> is also at iss ue -the need to balance economic productivity the long term fiscal, environmental, and social costs of production. Water i s p erhaps the greatest natural limiting factor to Florida's capacity for urboniza tion. Yet water management efforts have been impeded by the difficulty of a chieving cooperation between com peting jurisdictions a n d a history of inadequate stormwarer management. Despite the immense contribution of agriculture to Florida's economy and the nation s food supp l y, agricultural lands are being removed from p rod\lction at all alarming rate due to residential conversion. Com .. petition for increased agricult\lral produc tion continues to force heavy r eliance on synthetic pesticides an d fertiliurs; strain ing Florida's sensitive ecosystem. Mony areas in Florida depend upon construc tion and tou rism as a major part of their economic base But to preserYe its quality of life, Florida must c ontinue to provide opportunities, services> and infrastructure, while maintaining ameni ties of the natural and built e1tvironment . Coastal Developmettf-High demand for coast.! development has produced a policy d i lemma How do we accommodate the desire of citizens to live and recreate along coasta l areas, given th e substantial threat to public safety and p r operty associated with hurricanes and lloods? State policies restrict coastal development due to h3Zards associated with hurricane-prone a reas, the substantial public cost of rebu ilding, and the environmental sensitivity of coastal areas. Yet state policies res tr icting ooastal development hav e not been effective because of strong pressures to develop co-astal areas. Local growth management plans mus t address hurrican e evacuatio n needs a nd recogniu che safe lim its of coastal deve lopmen t. Public land acquisi t ion is one possibility. Private Property Rights. Public regula tion sometimes goes so far as to intetfere with consti t utionally prote<:tcd property rights. As the state and local growth m a nagement framework evolves, land holders and real estate groups are ques t ioning the effect of these programs on private property rights> and the t hreat of regulatory takings claims is growing. Yet governments also add value to private land t h rough regulatory actio n and expansion of public facilities. The d e bate over private property right s is being reframed to recognize pub l ic rights. Dispute Resolution. Competition over taX base, conflic tin g development goals, an d a strong home nue orientation fuels d isputes betwe e n juris d ictions. Public efforts to manage or redirect growth can further lead to politico! upheav.I and regulatory takings claims. The courts arc a cost ly and often ineffective f o rum for weighing planning policy. As pl anning c onsiderations become more complex, greater reliance is being placed upon mediation as a method of resolving intergovernmental conflicts and finding common ground between private initia tives and public policy. !nformatiotl and Resources. Successful planning requires consistent, adequate funding for the time and expertise required. Resource are causing problems with maintaining t he continuity and quality of local plann in g and regula tory efforts. The planning process also relies upo n accurate and sufficient data. Although there i s a weald> of data, much of i t is not shared or is compiled in a manner incompatible for multiple uses. Local land use classificatio n systems vary widely, making it difficult to ev.Iuate development trends on a local or region! basis. Geographic informatio n systems are ope ning up new possibilities in plann ing and are suggesting the need for SlATE TIIANSPDRTATIDN POLitY OOTIATIVE 3


greater consistency in inlonnatio n and dassificatlon systems. Unctrtainty. The effectiveness of p l a n ning depends u pon the degree to which present actions and investments meet future needs. But long range planning is uncertainespecially in rapid l y growing areas. Prese nt transp ortation planning methods assume the realization of one scena ri o and fail to accommodate the many contingencies that coul d affect future conditions. T ransponation planning methods and requirements can be revised to acknowledge the i nherent uncertainty of the plan ning process and to addr ess alternative future scenarios Regulatory Policy. Land development regula t ion s should reflect p lan ning goals. Y et local regulatory systems often fail t o provide what the community is t rying to achieve from a poli cy p erspective AI though congested commercial strips top the l ist of the publi c"s least desired devel opmcnt patt erns the local p lan ning and regulatory framework continue s to. . p rescribe the m Pre-exi sting land dtvJStOn or development patterns remain a practl cal constraint, but bureaucratic and political resistance to change and the threat of litigation have hampered effort$ to i n novate or strengthen local planning and regulation. An effective regulatory program is essential to achieving better coordination between land use and transportation. Communities should reeval uate their land development regula t i ons in the conttxt of modern needs.


The Policy Context In 1950, the popu la t i on of F l orida was just u nder three .nllllion. By 1990 F lo rid a's p opu la t io n had reached nearly thirteen .nllllion The reasons for this have been well docum ented--employme n t and vacation opporturu ties, affordable air condit i o ning m osquito control, growth in the number and affluence o f retirees, and improved r oadwa y access. U r b aniza ti on has been particular ly great along the Atla ntic and Gu lf coasts an d within the corridor con necting Tampa and Or la ndo. Based upon a variety o f demo graphic assumptions for fertility d eath rates, and .nllgration, F lorida i s expected to re ach a populatio n of ju s t under 19,000,000 b y the year 2010.2 F lorida's attr a cti ven e ss al so relates to a l ong tradition of re luctanc e to taX citi zens, business, or industry. A s t ud y by th e F lorid a Taxation & Budget Refo rm Commission c o ncluded that Fl o rida has a higher tax capacity and lowe r tax effort t han any State considered to be a reg ion al c ompetitor.' Ad valorem property tax e s ar e the la rgest single source o f tax revenue for loc al go ve _rnment services. Yet F lori d a's $25,000 homestead exem p tion excluded nearl y $78 billion worth of resi dentia l property fro m local tax rolls, an estimated $1.6 bill ion loss in fJScal year 1991-92. In Holmes Co unty, an estimated 54 percent of residentia l property is entire ly exem pt fr om taxa ti on.' Rathe r than ris k the pol itics of p roperty tax increases, many jurisdictions have relied on pay later grow t h plans to provid e public services and facilities. The combi nati on of lo w taxes, high growth, and i nadequate planning o r regulatory contro l s i n many jurisdictions created a climate ripe for haphaza rd growth Irre s p onsible developer s pla tted huge areas and sol d the m o ff lot by lot to unsuspecting buy ers across the coun try, o n l y to lat er declare b ankru ptcy. Cities like Palm Bay and Port St. L ucie were lef t to sh o u lder service costs as the re sid ent p o pula tion exploded M ajo r tho r ough fares across Florida were rapidly inun dated with strip malls and, in the all u re an d pro.nllse of growth development a ppro vals were pushed thr ough with l i ttl e regard for p lan n ing considerations. The resul t was a legacy of lo w quality spra wl i n g development with serious long t erm implica tions for t h e state's physical and econ omi c growth. lnceruive urba niza tio n has had envir on mental im pli cations as well. W ater is being used faster than i t can be rep laced in many part s o f the s tate, fresh water supplies are geographically unevenly distributed, and w at er s u pplies are vulner abl e to contamina t ion. Wildlife habitat is disapp earing at an alarming r ate, with several species facing extinction. Currentl y ra n ked i n the top ten agric ultural states, Florida s agricultura l s ector is fundamenta l to the sta te econo my and the natio n's food supp ly. Yet prime agricultura l land i s being ra pidly con verted to residential use. In t h i s cont ext the Fl orida leg islatur e moved to str engthen local p lann in g programs. The push for stronger plalll)in g began w it h the passage of t h e Environmenta l Land and Wate r Management Act i n 1972, a mandat e for l ocal phnrung and lan d development reg u la tio n in 1975, a nd a push f or coor d i nated an d fiscall y respon sible p lanning t hat cu l minate d in the "Gr owt h Manageme n t Act of 1985 (see Tablel). STATE TRANSPIIRTAnDN POIJCY IH111A nvB 5


STATE TIWISPORTAnON POJJCY tNm.AnvE 6 Tohla I CJIRliiiDLDGY OF TIIANSPDRTATIOH AND llRIIWTII MANAGEMENT Dl FL01I1DA 1962 Fedaral-AidMighway Ad: Mandated long ra,nve tr"an$p0rtaticm planning as a pf'81'eqtlisite for ledtrti funding. Plans must be based on a continuing,, compn}umtoive, and COOIJCNtive lJ"anS'pprt:atn process. Pron'ded d.eve)opme:ru of transportal:ion sy<m5 embracing aU transpOrtation model:. Establishsd tedaral policy thai urban ftnsportation be intcgra.tcd. with land development 1972 En.u.nm .. lal LoM OUid Water Ha

Talde I (mn linuad] 1980 l'lollda Re!llonall'laDn!Df c'"""u (RI'C) Ao:t (Chaptur ISO, P.S.) Mandated the creadan of RPC1 in each comprelumsive pla.nninu cUutrict ol ella stute. Extsttng RPCs and cwncils ol govemmiD'II w ertlo b11 rootganiztd under these requiremtnta. Required. one-third ol the vCitlng mombml Gn an RPC"s gover1llftg board. b e gubcamatorial awotntccs and not less dtan tmth!Mo bo tlldod localofficialo. -80th fll'l: .. ....,.,.. .... regibMk>o Ad (CI>apOar 186 ) Raquiml the Office ol tho Gov.,.., Jo p_.o a Sbolt Plan for GJOIV)h and....-ft to thol..,;.:t.nue. Slrtngthaned the mandatl for RPCt lo pl'tlp:u-e Regional Policy Pla.rul and O'PPI'OPfilloted fund!nq fur lhal PW'P068 Required stale agendet ta PI'IPIIt tw&cUDNlpians; to serve as basis for b\MIQetJ. Oave RPCs a stronger l'Cile iD &.winG local C:Ol"f'Pilanoe with slat. and regional poll.des and b:l pn,.;dc tochnleal.-... 101oco1 ao""""""-19&5 IB7 ,F.5.) CrtalldiiOie ........................... ...... Ra'fialoo&: to Lacal OonnunDI C.mpnlwnsin Pla.D.nirlg and Lalld flqu1ation Act (Chapter 163, P.S.) Required all local con'lptth&nltvt plaN be con.R:.Un.l wtth the Stat. Compmhol\live Plan and Comprehensive Regional Pol!cly Pla.n.a. )Wquired public faciUties and IIIII'Vlcu needed to support ck-volopment be avaJ1able wltll tha impact ol the deveJopmtnl 1988 Statelllghway Accoa "-

8 sun 'nl.ANSPORTAno:H POLitY llmlA 11VE Table I (=rfinuod) l'loriAio lnllutate S)'BI8m PlaD OeUna!ed a statewide 'Y51cm of limited acCII$$ facilitiiS that allow high speed and high volums traH:it movatn8tlt 1992 EnLro""""'tal LaM Muagom .. t Study (ELM91Il) Put torth 174 reco:mmandalions, most of which were incorporated Into the Local Govem.ment Comprehenstva Ptannlng and L:and Oevelopl'l".d!f\J, House Bill 231 S, ELMS m Act. State Maoqmuont Act, ....,.dod ( Sottiou 335.18) Prohlbits delegatkln of permil authority tn local governments. Protu'bita local government from adgpting more W\ngent &QCC6& sta.n.da.rds for state hivhWaJ$. Allows property ownH"'l to have dlJed access to stale highway unless it interferes with public caletr or hlgt\way operatioaal tapdty. 1993 Lccal Gav....,...l ComprehiiiiSiY& Plannlng and l.aJul D&Yelopmeot (H111188 Bill 231 5) Required strategic MW growth management section to b8 added to ths State Comprehensive Plan. P hued out DRI program and replaces U w ith strongu inlergovemmental c:oordiN.tion requirements for local cornprMensive plan5. ht.creas9d the flexibility of transportation concwT8ncy to accommodate infill dsveklpment and ocher state goals. RPC s role u promoting c:oord.ination, reviewing and land we and_ ... plans, and mcdl&tin9 disou,.. between lo ti m ing) and location of growt h. The legislature mandate d Swe rev ie w of comprehensive plans t.o assure compliance with the s tate growth management policy, required consistency betwee n plans and regulatory programs, and adopted a State policy plan to provide the poli c y context for regional and l oca l planning (Chapte r 18 7 F.S .) The intent of the Growth Management Act was to enco u rnge sustainabl e long tern > growth. The le g is lation required local governments to prepare financia lly fea sible plans. Concurrency was introduced, re q uiring the. necessary faci l i t ies and seJVices be in place when

for $mailer comm u n i ties, limited by inadequate p l anning budgeu and insufficient stoff. And t h e compliaocc process was often mired i n bureaucracy as the Depart m ent of Community Affairs and local governments wra ngled over the terms o f qua lity pl anning At the same time, concurrency, impa ct fees, and the p ro spect of nual and coastal growt h controls were fueling the politics of plannin g Growth management became a wh ipp ing po s t for a vari ety of economi c ills-in cluding a recession and s pate o f overbuilding that had t urned the real est ate industry upside down. Y e t layers of regulation and revie w bad inde e d c:.used developmen t costs to s piral a nd more than a few developers had been hel d hostage i n debates over .. consistency" 3ll d comp liance. Many began to quest io n wh ether the gro,.ing p reoccup atio n with the g r owt h man a g ement process had come at the expense of priv ate property rights Private p roperty rig hts i n terest s b egan to call for language in State planning legisla tio n emphasizing the Fi f th Amendrnen t of the U.S. constitutio n, which p roh i b it s the t a king of private property for public use without just compensati on. Ch apte r 163 was amended to recognize these constitutionally-pro t ected private p rop erty rights. ln july 1992, the F l orida ugal Fo u ndation was established to inv estigate judicial and regu lato ry pro ceedings t hat impinge on the righu of pro perty o w ners. The 1993 Florida Legislatur e passed CS/ SB 1000, c r eating a study c omm issio n to research the issue of inverse condemnation This paralle led a national priv ate pr operty rights campaign i n 1992 t ha t intro duced p ri vate proper1.y rights bill s in 27s tate l egislatures.' But CS/SB 1000' was vetoed by Governor Lawton Chiles over conc erns t hat the p ropose d "compositio n and charge to t he commission ... woul d stac k the deck on the side of private i nterests. lt was replaced with Executiv e Order No. 93-150, crea t ing a priva t e pro p e rty rights commission composed of a more balanced membership and charged with addressing governmen t interventi on b oth in its capacity to reduet and enbtttue property values (see Table 2). In tense development pressure, con s trai ned publ ic budgets, and an e nviro n mental crisis hav e come t og ether i n F lorida to define t b e conte x t for p lanning and growth management. Continuing barriers t o achieving pla nning goals are growing u n certainry regarding the regula tory limiu of po lice power and the lack of a coo rdinated a pproach to land us e and transportation planning. A c oor dina ted planning effort recognizes that transportation not on l y supports p hysical and econ o m ic growth in Florida, but also can direct and reinforce eco nomic development. Another challenge bas been u ndert aking tramp o rtatio n p lann ing within a crisisd riven p olitic a l e nvironroeJlt that favors fast, visible resulu over long term pla n n ing solu tions. And p lan nin g practice, although strong ly defined through statu t e i n some C<>ses has not lived u p to the q ual ity and coordina t io n of effort envisioned by the legisla ture ELMSIII: The Changing Growth Management FrameWIIl'k In 1?91, Governor Chiles assembled the third E nviro nme n tal Lond Management S tudy Committee (ELMS-III) to address F lorida*s c o ntinu ing growth management needs (sec Appendix 1). The ELMS -lll Comm ittee dea lt wit h a n um b e r of issues aimed at refining the Stat e's plann ing and growth management framework and add ressing conc ern s over private property rights. Concurrency, intergove rnmental coordination, defining the :>ppropriate relationship between state and local p lans, pub lic infr.s t ructu r e funding, the Devel 9


STATE 'I"RAHSPORTATIOM POLICY DmlATIYE opment of Regiona l Impact prog ram, and the role of regional planning counc i ls were among the many topics of debate. After del iberati n g for approximately one year, the ELMS-III Committee made several recommendations that were late r trans lated into CS/1-IB 2315, Local Government Compr ehensive P lann i ng and Land Development (hereinafter the ELMS III Act). The bill was into law by Governor Chiles in May 1993 and took eff ect on july I 1993. These amendments established the next steps i n the evolution of F l orida's growth manage ment framewor k (see Table 3). The DRI program will be p hase d out in all but rural counties and small cities, whic h have t he option to retain t he p r ogram. It will be replaced by a revised intergovernmen ta l coordinatio n element that must include procedures to identi f y joint planning areas, a dispu t e resolution process. a process to modify outstanding D RI orders, and a process to d e termine and mitigate extra jurisdictiona l impacts. These joint processes must include interloca l agreements fo r location and extension of public infrastructure subject to concurrency, such as t .ransponation fac i lities. The framework for managing Tahlo2 EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 93-150 TilE OOVEIINOR'S PROPERTY RIGIITS STUDY COMMISSlON D 1M Governor's Propmy Rights Study Cornmis:6ion n shall be c:umpNcd of 15 persons appointed by the Governor 3$ (aJ three private property owners; (b) OM CQQROmis:t tamiliar with evaluation of prope:rty ; (c) two 1ocal g.Jvc:rnmcnt offic:ials; (d j the Secre&ary of tha Ilepartment of Comm..Wty Atfairs or her (e) the Seaetary of the F1orida llepaJtmenl o f Environmental Protection or M:r da&ignee; (fJ a l'8J)f'868Rtativ from a WatCl' Ma.nagancnt Diwict (g) three representatives of ClOnservalion organizations; (h) ono person rccom.meM.ed by the Speaker of the HoUSI8 of Representatives; (i) one parson recommended by the President of \he Senate: ij) One repre68DtatiV8 of the Florida Bar, WhO 6h:all &'V8 a5 chair, The Commission &hall be charged with pr96l8flting a J"88))l1 to the Govcmar with to the of the Hot.ISie and President of the Senate by January 3D, 1994, whkh 1'1\&kes spedfic recommendations on tha JoUowing: 10 ( a ) the i$:&ue ol prol.ection of prfva!t proper1y rights and the J)J'OU!Ction of the public interest in proper growth management and snvironmcntal ,...,ction; (b) the cummt at1d potential etiectivenea of Florida law in providing sub&tantially affcdud perSOns with thangeg; necessary to Q:&Sun ma.ningful effective remedy to affected property amounts ; (c) tha degree to which the value of property owned by pel'$0ns other than. those seeking approval of nsw development may be advei'$C.Iy attecttd by ad;acent new development that is authorized by state agencies and local governme:nts, and th.e suggsstion of any nsw rcmedia necos;.sary to equitably prot&ct tNt rig.htl: of these property own81'6; td) the costs and pcmntial funding sources wUh payrnetllS of claims by landowners tabn any revi&iONi o( FlOrida law, as weU u alte:malive rcmcdic;: f or such dainll; I e ) an asaessmenJ at the degree to which the lo&& of fait marbt value alllrivate property due to regulatl.ons is offset by th.e anhancement of value attributable to government action; and wh-ethef' tha specification ol a partial.1.a.r &Qtutory standard pmviding for the reca.pture by the pu.blic ol an increase in fair nwbt value caused by imposition of a regulation or dwlocation ol a publicly hw:lod i.n&utrutture would be worbbla, and ia1r. Transpartaticm and Gtowth Hanapmllllt


tl"ill1$pon.ation concurrency was substan ti2lly revised t o provide greater flexibility in meeting State and local growth man agement goals. Exemptions for infill and red evelopment were allowed, reflc<:ting the realization that transportation concurrency requirementS sometimes conflict with other goals, soch as limiting urban sprawl and promoting downtown revito1lization. Long term conc urrency management area and a "pay and go process that permits payme nt of foes in l ieu of trnnsponat.ion facili ty improv e ments were estab l ished. A less cutnbersome process pr ovided for adopting Transportation Con c urrency Management Areas ('fCMAs), which permit the application of areawide level of service (LOS) standards within aCtivity centers in return for promoting uan.sit and other mobility objc<:tives. To address concerns that S tat e govern ment was not assuming respons ibili ty f o r con currency, the ELMSffi Act provided local governments with authority to set level of serv ice st.ndards on state roads t h at re not part of tb e Florida Intra state Highway System The Act a lso subiects state faciljties, such as state universj ty x.., ""-a111w EJ.MS.m All-campuses and roads, t o local LOS standa.rds and requirements. Campus master plans must no w be with the comprehensiv e plan of the host local government, and s pecific consideration must be given to land development and traffic circula tion issues. The ELMS III Act also requ ired revision of the State Comprehensive Plan to provid e more strategic d irection to growth management Previous l y, general I s rel ating to growt h and devel opment in the State Compre hensive P la n were to be implemented through three agency '"translational plans": the Florida Trans portation Plan, the State Land Develop ment Plan, and the State Water Use P lan. The 1993legisl. ation changes this structur e by replacing these three translalional pb.ns with combined Strategic Growth and Development Plan. Amon g other things, the Strategic Growth and Development Plan must be revised tc identify urban growth centers and give guidelines for the a pp r o pria t e l ocation of urban growth inte gra te State policy for tra n sport ation wit h land devel opment, oir q uality and water resources and provide guidelines for the Ta\le 3 ELMSJll AMBNllMEHlS ..,_ outlbo d....,_ a1 rogioaal-(11111)-l>y ISSS, -on ..,&o 1o maid in ....n.t alios and...,. ... tht: DRI pnagnm wllh llrOclger cac..clinatiCM EIJmlnato ON o ..,.,rity af liPCs 1o _.). DR! dr1oloomeM ..-.!'" ; ... ,. 111ANSPORT.\TIDH POLJtY OOTlATIVB 1ncreue the floxillilitt of ttaNportatlcn omcurrency by pnMdi:Dg IOC\tf term conc:&llf'tnCY area&( C"JCc:mption& lor redevtl.opmlnt or LnfW, ll pay and go option in Mil of and ateawidal vol ol t orvlcl Gta.l\datds In activity centers ; Provldo locala.ulhority to set &eve! ol se:rvicc standards on l16tii"'OdJ, exotpt for tho&e daign tttd u part of the Florida lntr&ital t Highway Syatem; ..minto th1 cont\IJTBl'ICY prevtously allowed for stato Jndudtng the state university systmn ; Loc.algovernme:ota within metropolitan pla.nnmg argani.utkln boundarl.u m\1:11 pi: a new element that consoUdatu aU upactl of I'Jrmtnata lh twb yearly limit an aDIClldmcnt6 m 1ocaJ vovemment JW:&D& and strcamllne amendment adapl:ia'l; -ON*'" ...,.,.W."""vc piaD 1o ....,SIIe ,.... -logic dhoctioo 1o growlb management II


1 2 development o f State transporto.tion corridors, public transpon:nion corridors) n e w interchanges, 211<1 new airpons. This new Strategic plan will land, waxer, and transpomtion planning, and provi de greate r guidance t o local governm e nts in carrying o u t their com prebensive plan s. Revisions of the State plan reflecting these changes will be prepa r ed by t h e G o vern or's Office by October 15, 1993, for revi e w b y t h e Administration Commissi o n (a s h ort odop tion schedule tht my pro v e unreal iscic). S imilarly, the ELMS-III A ct revised the r egion.! p o li cy plan s t o b e strategic, rather th-an com prehensive, and con.sls tent with th e S trategic Growth and Develop ment Plan. Although consider ation was giv e n to sunsetting Regional Planning Councils {RPCs), inSted the decisio n -. .. as ma de t o reoutborize RPCs and redirect their r ole away from Devel opment of Reg ionallmpaet and plan review and toward providing technical assistance-and mediating planning and development di sputes RPCs ore now responsibl e f o r co n d u ct ing a cross.acceptance negotiati o n process to r esolve regional and l ocal plan inco n s is tency, coord i nating l and de v e l opment an d t o foster regional transpor t a t ion systems, and identifying ineonsis te n cies between local government plans and those of transponation agencies and M POs. ELMSIII clirected the Governor's offic e t o revi ew th e a ppropriateness of the RP C bo undar i e s T T;lnsportat ion fundin g was a nother concern addressed b y ELM SIII. Ef fectiv e May 1 1 993, an addition a l o n e to five cent l o cal opti o n gas tax may b e l evie d upon every gallon of motor fuel sold in a c ounty. Such a tax may b e a d opte d b y a majorityplus one vote o f t h e governing body of the county o r b y referendum. T h e t a x must b e i mp ose d by J u l y I to be e ffect i ve SepteJ n ber of any year. Prior to impos i ti on of the tax, the eounty may establish by interlocalagrccment with tht mun. icipalities within 'he county, a formula for distrib u ting the entire proceeds of the tax. If no i merlo cal agr eement is reached, t h e pro ceeds o f the taX will be distributed amo ng the county and muni c i pol i t its based on transportati o n ex p en di tures o f each for the precedi n g fiv e fisca l y eors Loca.l governments must util ize t h e a d ditiona l l ocal option gas u x reve nu e for transportation expe .nditures n eeded to meet the capita l improve m ents element of the ad o pted compreh e n sive p l an The ELMSIII Act .!so requires that tht D epartment of Community Affairs ond the Florida Depanment of T nnsporta tion srudy corridor preserv.nion issues in Florida and d e v e lop a model tronspona tion corrid or protection ordin;mcc for use by loca l g o vernm e nts. G uid elines for de

Defense Highway Program was winding down. It wos then that policy makers began attending to a new concern though the Interstate program was i n many ways a huge success, it bad not solved the problem o f traffic congestion in urban a reas. With urban travel growing and fewer opportuni ties for highway expansion, new sol utioru; had to be found. But dissent over fut u re directions raised debates for a reduced rather than enhanced f ederal role in sur face transpor tation. By 1987, the push for increased investm e n t and need for a more strategic approach to transportation problems led to the for m ation o f the Transportation 2020 Task Force. After extens ive factfinding, including 65 srassroots pub li c forums across the country, the Task Force proposed a nati ona l transportation strategy. The recommendations included more funding for surface transport ation; greater flexi bility; a stronger emphasis on safety; assurance o f equitable alloc.'ltion; regulatory reform in freight transporta t ion ; improvement in air quality; atten tion to intermodal access; support for pub lic transportation; a nd more i nves t ment in research .. with an emphasis on intelligent vehicle highway systems.' These recommenda t ions set the tone for a national strategic pla n ning effort t hat culminated in the first comprehensive policy statement to come out o f the U.S. Department of 1'ransport.ation in more than a decade. The Statement of N ati onal Tra nsportat ion Policy combined the strateg ies of Transportation 2020 and others in to what became the policy fnmewor k for a new intermodal surhcc transportation program. Debat e over reauthorization of the s urface t r ansportation program focused largely on funding Issues included the shortage of financial resources, whether to increase the federal gas tax, how much to authorize for the program) the amount of flexibility i n using funds for non highway purposes, the federal matchins s hare, and the amount of authority to give local agencies in p r ogramming the funds." D isput e s also cent ered on w hethcr to continue federal transit opera t ing ruosistance, criteria for new r all transit systems, and cannarking funds for special projects U l timately, Congress set tled on a package of authorizations that afforded consider able flexibili

STATE TRANSPORT AnON .. POIJC'I' Dm1A11VE 14 be used for a var i ety of purposes includ i ng bill board control or removal, stormwat e r pedestrian and b icy cle amenities. acquiring scen i c ease ments, historic preservation, or archeo logica l research The Su r face Transponatio n Program (STP} establ i shed a transportation b loc k grant p ro gram for State and local g o vern ments, authorized at $23.9 billion over s ix years. F unds may be applied to constructlon activi ti es on any fe deral aid roads, or to b r idge projects on any publ ic road reg a r d less o f f ederal-aid status. O ther eligi ble projects incl ude trans i t capital projeccs; carpool, p>rking, bicy cle and p edestria n f acilit ies; highway and trans i t safety improveme ntsi traffic monitoring, management and control; wetland mitiga tion; and cranspottation control measures for reducing traffic congestion and achieving a i r q uality objectives For the first time, states are permitted to use regular l y-apportio ned funds for remova l of nonco nfor ming billboards. New outdoor advenising CQntrol s will app l y to the I nterstate System, the 199 1 Federal Aid Primary System, and any othe r highway included on the National Highway System If i llegal signs were not r emoved by t he owner with i n 90 days afte r enactment of ISTEA then states must remove the signs an d bill the owners. For desig nated State scenic byways, I STEA prohibits erect ion of any signs except for thos e exempted under the Highway Beautification Act of 1965 (i.e onpremise and for sale signs). The new Congestion Mi tigation and Air Qual ity Im provement or CMAQ pro gram ("See-Mac") was estab lish ed under STP for transponation projectS that enhance air quality j n ozone :and carbon monoxide oonattai1tment areas. CMAQ authorized $6 bill ion with an 8 0 percent federal matching share ; funds are distrib uted based on the state's share of the pop u lat ion of air q ualit y non-att:>.inment areas weighted by the degree of air pollution, wi t h each State guaranteed a 11 2 percent minimum apport ion ment. If a state or MPO fail s to c arry out emissions reduction re qu irements i n the State Implementation Plan for a .ir quality required by the Clean Air Act Amend ments of 1 990, then the Environmentol P rotect ion Agency may withold all or a portion of its h i ghway money. To test pricing strategies for reduci ng congestion, a Conge-stion Pric i n g Pilot Program was established for five pilot pro jects, wlth the re q uirement that three be on Interstate Highways Conges t ion pric ing imposes graduated user f ees or toll s to discourag e peak hour travel by commuters a tec hniqu e b ase d upon the eco nomics o f supply an d demand. A lloiiBf lor tnmsit Over the pas t decade, f ederal fun ding for transit has b een cut more than 50 per cent i n r eal te rms, even as the Americans with Disabi litie s Act and t he Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 i mposed new feder a l mandates fo r transit service H I STEA brought relief through higher funding l evels and greater leverage to transit i n the project selectio n process. Changes t hat provi de a more level playing field include b roader project selection c r i teria that a dd ress overal l social, energy, econ omic> and environmental effectS i n weighing h i ghways ag a inst transit rather than cost alone. Tide III o f I STEA, the Federal Transit Act Amendments of 1991, increase d t he federal matc h i ng share for transit fr o m 75 to 80 percent, making it equa l to that of most highway programs and thus a neutral factor in project selection Al though the Interstate program will receive a 90 percent m;ttch. transi t wiJI b e af. forded a 90 percent match for capit a l costs associated with implementing the cans with Disabilities Act and the C l ean


Air Act Amendments of 1990. Greater fundin g flexibility allow s previously highw<>y-only doll-.s to be transferred to transit p rojects. Although in large metro politan areas Section 9 transit funds under Title III (barring operating expenses) are <>!so eligible for tran sf er to highway programs, this is subject t o sever<>! restric tions (Sec 3013[hl). The Cle<>n Air Amendments of 1990, ISTEA's CMAQ program, md new metropolitan p lanning requir e m e nts mandateser ious conside ration of transit a lternatives to road buildin g-esp ecially in air qualit y nonattainmont areos. When preparing transportation plans and TIPs, areas must incorporate T ransportatioo C o ntrol Measures (TCMs)--projects that improve traffic flow reduce conges tion, or reduce veh icle usage. These include improved public transi t, dedicated high oe<:upancy vehicle lanes, park and ride programs, and others that suppo rt transit service." ISTEA p rohib its use of any CMAQ funds for constructing highway lanes unless they are dedicated to h i g h occu pancy vehicles during peak trav el times. Complementing tran s i t requirements is a federal push for T ransp ortatio n Demand M anagement (TDM) to impr ove mobi lity and m eet air qu<>lity requirements. TOM refers to a wide range of techniques for reducing demand and encouraging mod e shifts. Examples in clude ridesharing, vanpools, tel ecommuting (work at home p rog rams), flexible working hours, related public re lations and outreach efforts, lim it s on p-.king spaces, higher parking fees, and tra nsit subsidies. Finam:ial requinmumts It remains u ncerta i n how much ISTEA money ult imately will be made available, but appropriation levels alr eady have fallen short of expectations. Authoriza cion l evels tbat have not b een met in clude those for transi t, which was app rop riated only $3.8 billion of ISTEA's $5.4 billion authorization for FY 92. New "pay 3S you go" provisions require states to include i n their S t ate T ranspor rocion Improvement Program (STIP) only t hose projects where full funding can "reasona bly be anti cipa ted to be available" for the pro j ect within the time contem plated for completio n St-ates must prepare a fmanci<>l plan for the STIP that iden tifies funding sources and revenues and is tied to the priorities and time tab les established i n the STIP. One reoson for t hese changes was to prevent "wish list" projects or programs v.rith no ide n tified source of funding from distorting the air qu<>lity impact of a Transportation Impr ovement Program. Questions surround the issue o f what does or docs n o t qualify as a reasonably antic ipa ted funding source-especi<>lly given the vagaries of the feder<>l appro priations p rocess. Senate Report 10271 advised that funding levels, existing bond in g au t hor ity, existing state and local tax revenues, allocation of feder a l funds under the Surface Trans portacion Program an d other relevant factors may be used in determi ning whether fund ing can reaso nably be anticipated." Speculative or prospective sources, such as unauth orized b ond issues or unenacted tax increases or tolls, v.rould not qualify. On a region<>! level, MPOs ar e required to evaluate t h e financiru feasibility of pro posed improvement prog rams and pre par e a balanced TIP t hat reflects the cost of the projects, available revenue, and any inn ovative f undin g strategies to be pursued. The TIP may only include pro jects or phases of projects "i f full fun ding con reasonably be anticipate d co be available for the p roject w ith in the time period contemplated for completion of the project" (Sec. 134[h)[SD. MPOs must also demonstr at e adequate financial Sf ATE TIIAJISPORTATION POLICY OO'I'IATIVB 15


16 comm.itmcniS for projects identified in the long nnge plan. Flarida ISTBA The Stote of Florida passed CS/SB 1328 in 1993, known as Florido ISTEA to carry out federal ISTEA directives on the State level. The new tra n sportation l aw changes the requireme nts for the Florid a Transportation Plan, including requiring an annuol updato of the Florida Trans por tation Plan, and establishes requiremeniS for a five-year Stte T nnspor=ion Improvement Program-including a requiremenl for consi stency with the long range Florida Transportation Plan. S tat e and metropolitan pla nning require ments are :.lso subst:lntla.lly revised, requirin g greater public involvement and attenti on to the planning considerati ons detailed in ISTEA. These considerations include the impact of tronsporttion on land devdopment patt

issues will require a phenomenal change in the way rnnny communjtie s and MPOs do bus iness. Profess ional politi a ore also at issue. T ronsportation plann ers, urban designers, and land use plann ers must work cooperatively if congestion management and mobility objectives are to be realized. Dispute reso lu tio n technique s wil l be crucial not o nly to comprehensive planning, but also to effecti ve regional transportation plmnin g un der lSTEA. Region<>i planning co uncils and metropolitan planning organizations mw>t be m ore effective jn their eff orts and building con sens u s among their member go vernments. The p oten tial rewards and trade-offs municipalities can mal



Determining Future Land Use Needs State pla nning and groWth managem e nt policy ca lls for provision of publi c facillties concurrent with the impacts of developmen t an d encourages bigher intensity gro"'th witbin and around already urbanized areas. Compact growth is the goal-a term that discourages ribbon or leapfrog development in favor of conservation o f rural l ands and a plan for plusi ng growth and the extension of public facili t ies and services out from the ur ban core. Concerns have been raised that some comm uni t ies are setting aside for more land than required to date reasonable estimates of prospect that would undermine planning goals and could lead to overprojeccion of transportation and other facility needs. This chapter examines methods used by local govern ments i n Florida to determine future land use needs in the comprohe n sivc planning process and issues surro und ing the question ho w mu c h i s too much?" The chapter begin s with an overview of the land use plan ning pro cess-includin g socio-economic foreeast ing, l and use allocation, and land use classification systetns-and discusses a variety of issues that should be addressed in the effort to guide lan d use and transportation planning toward growth nm1agcment goals. Tho Future Land Use Planning Process Com prehensive planning guides the l ong term development of a community. The comprehensive plan analyzes develop mcnt trends, identifies key planning issues, provides the policy framework to future growth, and specifies action Strategies. It is an opportunity to increase citizen awareness o f the forces of change and enab les the community to make in formed decisions regard ing a strategic co urse of action. T echnical stud ies o f growth trends and lnd use needs provi de a starting poi nt for preparing a lte rnative devel opment scenarios. A scenario is selected based up on local policies and communit y consensus. Preparation of a land use plan begins with analyses of chnocteristics of the land, including existing land use, land division and ownership, public hcilities and utilities, n-atur:tl resource inventories, and land suita bility ot>Olyses for various types of development. A future land use plan i s prepared based o n pr ojecte d land use needs, plannin g principles, and commu nity g oals, objectives, and policies. R ule 9]-5.006(2) requires the future lan d use plan to include: review of available facilities and services to serve existing land uses and lan d for which developm ent orders have been issued, M wells a d etermination as to whethe r the character and magnitude of existi n g vacan t or undeveloped land is suitable for use; analysis of the amount of land needed to accommodate the projected population, based on categories of land use and their densities or intensities of use, the estimated gross acreage needed by category and a descriptio n of the meth o do logy used; analys i s of the need for redeve lopment includ i ng renewal of bligh t ed areas, and elimination or reduction of uses inconsistent with the community"s character and proposed future land uses; analysis of the proposed dev elopm ent and redevel opment of floo d prone areas based up on a suitabi lity determination from Flood lnsurnnce Rate Maps, 19


20 STAft T'IWISPORTAnDH POUCY' oonATTVE F l ood Ha zard Boundary Maps, or other more a.ccurate informatjon Future land use fo=asu arc typically based on a relationship between popula tion o r employment and land use acreage. However, loc:U governments that are nearly built out may begin with available acreage and base their popul ation proje<: tions on desired densities 1111d future l and use. Another essential inpu t to determin ing future land use needs i s the l ocatio n and capaciry of existin g facilities, includ ing water :1nd sewer, schoo ls, parks and recreation, emergency services, and roa.ds. Level of service standards and avi l able cap acity are compared to future populo tion to determine future facilitles needs. Rule 9}5 requires that plans must be fmancially feasible. C.pital improvement elements must demonstrate tb2t facilities or services are available or planned tO accommo date the projected population. This helps assure that local governments do not anti c ipat e any more growth than they can reasonably afford, given con stra i ned local budgets and the existi n g burde n on area taxpayers Socio-IJCJ1JlOlJJic iunN:utJDg P op ulation and employment projections are the basis for determining future land use needs. Population projections :lrt used to estimate residential land use needs, whereas employment proj:ti ons are used to estimate nonresidential land use needs. Rule 9j-5Jl05(2)(e) of the State Administrative Code requires compr

22 exceed 12S percent of the mount re quired to accommodate the future projected population. What follows is a review of the general process and methods wed for estimting furure land use needs and case s.udies of how this method is applied in selected Florida com.munit.ies. Hesiden!W lend Will n llllds Populatio n estimate s and persoo s ptr h ouseho l d r a tios are uscxl to determine residential acreage ne e d s. A generalized process for trans lating population into residential lan d use needs is presented in the MSPO "Workbook for Preporing a Master Plan" as follows: a) calculate acreage in each residencial subarea or zoning district; b) determine the desired residential density (dwelling units/ocre); c) apply the eStimated future population to eaeh areas based on current avera&e den sity by subarea or d) divide t h e f u ture population by t h e estimated average househ o ld size ot that density to determine the number of future dwelling units; e) cakulate acreage needs for d"elling units by multiplying the density by the total of dwelliag units; f) adjust the gross acreage for right-of-way needs by multipl ying it by 1.25 percem.11 Residential acreage needs are sensit.ive to household size, changes to the existing stoc k o f housing, desired d ensity, and vacan c y r at e c h anges A l t h ough the use o f a five percent v acancy rate i s common, communities w ith season! populations require special stud ies to determine reasonabl e vacancy rates. Estimated acreage needs will vary according to assumpt ions regardins household size and housing mix or density. Higher densities a

future residential pop u lation capacit y in a n entire co u n ty (see Lee County). The cltollenge is to p lan for the population capacity of large vested plats whil e preserving residential opportun ities in other a reas Clea rly the timing of future growth is an issue it\ any future lan d use plan especial ly where v ested deve lopmen t must be addressed. If buildout occurred toO rap idly, then it cou ld overload pu b l ic facilities and services. An alternative for balan ci n g n e w and vested res i dent ial growth with the capacity of public faciliti e s is to time and phase residential d evelopment Faced w ith 40,000 approve d a nd vested residential units, Mart i n County e sta b l ished the A ctive Residen t ial Developments Program (ART -AP)-Il unique management system that accou n ts fo r approved and ne\v projects through a 15-year p lanning period. AR T -AP is an early war ning system for mon ito ring a ctive resi dential build ing to ensure adherence to tbe 125 percent rule of the Department of Community Affa irs_ With in t h e 15-year pla n nin g period, five -yea r i n cr ements are estab lished wit hi n which the 40,000 units are a llocate d over the first, secon d and t hi r d fi,e-year p e riods. New developmem requests must estab lish timelines so as not to exceed availab l e public f a c i lit y c a pacity within ony of those five-year periods. Commercial land DSII nl!flds Commercial land u s e ntm mercial space needs ore f ir st allocated to availaple space on exist ing commcr<:ial sites (including vacant, underutilized and transitional are as) and t h e n to w>develo ped land If more land i s availabl e than needed for these uses, the surp lus land s hould b e entered into a surplus lan d tally or converted t o other use s Many local governments, especially t hose encompassing the u rb a n and suburban fring e, allocate a majority o f their e.stimat ed comme rcial acreage needs i n rib b ons along rnajor corr idor s. This has encour aged "urban sprawl" an d bas led to land use a nd tran s portation confl ic ts (see chapter on "Land Development Regula ti o n"). A mor e desirable approach is to provid e for a well balanced system of nei ghborhood commercial uses and encourag e developm ent of commercial services core areas served by l ocal road s and access .ible via alternative modes of transportation. Industrial land use nl!flds For i ndustr i al land uses, it is necessary to develo p local standards for densit ies as determined by changing technology a nd oth e r trends These densi t ies a re in t he f o rm of employees per a c re or are m ore d e tailed acco rding to type of indust ry. Floor area ratios derived f rom surveys i n floor space per e m p lo y ee are used to determ ine employees per acr e Estimates o f employment growth are t hen a pp l ied to factors f or emp loyees per a c re to det ermine the acreage needed. Care must STATE TIWISI'ORTAllOH POIJCY IHJTIA nVE 23


2 4 be exercised because the rate of growth of land use needs for industry may not necessarily follow the rate of growth in employment. EStimated industrial acreage needs are allocated first to vacant industrial areas and then to vacant undeveloped land taking into accoun t spatial and l oca ti onal nee

combine d capacity to accommodate far more than re-asonable given projected population for the pl anni n g period. Lee Cou nty 's Evaluati on and Appraisal R epo rt (EAR) acknowledged that t h e fut ure la nd use map at build-out could a ccommodate approximate ly 664,000 more people than projec t e d for the year 2020 p l anning hor i zo n Much o f t his discrepancy was attributed to the prese nce of two larg e platted a n d vested commun itiesthe Ci t y of Cape Coral and unin c orporated Lehigh Acres. Lehigh Acres i n u n inco r porated Lee County contains o ver 130,000 p latted lots. The developmen t rights of these l ots a r e protected by a determination of veste d rights and two settlemen t agr eements wit h th e D epartment of C ommunity Affairs. Lee County proposes t o address this p rob lem th rough a Vested Communi ty la nd use category in wh i ch bui lding perm i ts wou ld be granted for a specified number of additional dwelling units by the year 2020. It also specifies a maxi mum d ensity and prohibits further subdivision of previously platted lo ts. Cape Coral, an incorporated m unicipality in Lee C o unty) a lso contains thousands of lots platted and vested for devel o pmen t in the 1960s and 1970s. The popu lati o n a ccommod ated u n der t he Cape Coral Plan for t h e planning p eriod is more than 100,000 persons higher than the commu ni ty' s p rojected population yet th e plan was found in compliance because the development rights of the area hav e a l r eady been vested Lee Count y argues tha t this same co nsid eration should b e given the Co un t y, and that the surplus r epresented by Cape Cor a l should not be considered wh. en evaluati n g the populati on accommodatio n capacity of the L ee County fut u r e land use plan. By subtra ctin g out the popu la tio n s u rp l u s r e prese nted by Cape Coral and revising the aq:ea g e quantities of various land use catego{ies, Lee County argues that t b e pop u lation of itS fut ure land use map would be appro ximately 19 percen t greater than the pro j ected county p op u la tio n This falls within the 25 percent flexi bility margin considered necessary f or the market to operate. The C o unty also proposed to eliminate a regulatory ov erlay that restricted building pennits to a certain percenroge of b ui ld out for each planning district. The ove rlay was adopted to manage the rate of gr owth i n th e u n i nco rporate d County. Yet planners say it is confusing and unwi e ldy to administer. Another proposa l to phase building p e rm its o n ly i n L ehigh Acres, however, a lso was dropped, leaving t h e County with n o mechanism for managing the ra t e a nd tim ing of gro'llrth. Growth of L ehi gh Acres will be an ongoing prob lem given an actual gro-.,-th rat e of 107 percent between 1980 and 1990. Cape Coral and Lehig h Acres t ogether c ou ld accommo d ate a significant portion (if not all) of t h e future pro jecte d popula t ion of Lee County o ver the p l ann ing period. Yet because the p lats are already vested and b ecause coastal portions o f the county have are already developed and continue to e xperience s ubStantial opment pressure, the County wishes to p lan for that growth and to preserve some residen t ia l opport unities i n the unincor p o rated areas outside of Leh igh Acres. This illustra tes t h e d ifficulty of planning under t he constraint of immens e, residential plats, vested for develop ment. Sta t e a nd regional planning and financial resources should be targeted toward assisting communities l ike Lee County ul addressing the problems posed b y these huge vested plats. Growth management mechan.isrn..c;, such as t imed restrictions on issuance of bui ldin g p ennits, address the need for balancing provision o f i nfrastruc ture and services with demand. Yet, STATE TRAIISI'OIITATillll P DLIC't INlTIAnVE 25


. 25 STATE TRAHSPORTATION POJJa IHITIAnVE given the magnitude of prob le ms p osed by t hes e plats, a more strategic approach is nee de d to manage long term publ ic cost s ond the q u ality o f the built env iron ment. Strategies fo r retrofitting the se areas are presemed in the discussion o f land use imbala nces later in this c hapter Allotber discrepancy in Lee County's futu re land use plan rel>tes tO the CO\In ty's projected industrial l and use needs. The current ratio of m a n u fact uring employment to population in Lee t.y was estimated at .019 or 1. 9 percent. To promote i ndustrial development and diversificatio n an ambitious t:trget f o r manufacturing employment was set at 7.5 percent by t he year 2010. Severa l land use designat ions were provided on the Future Land Use Map to accommodate various levels of industrial development, including Industrial Developmen t t wo lndustriallnterchaoge categories, lnten siv e Development, Central Urban, and Urban Comm\lnity. The County's Evluation and Report (1993) that the cou nty b a s been \lnable to attract projected levels of industrial deve l opment To address the shortfall, the County plans to: eliminate indus trial categories for interchange -a.reas; scale back acreage des igna ted under the Industrial Development classi fica tion f rom 967 1 acres to 9426 acres; change t h e definition of the Industrial Development category; and concentrate economic d iversi ficatio n effol'tS upon the airport s i te and university site development. The site selected for the tent h Sute univ ersity is e:ost of l-75 and south of t he Southwest F lori da Regional Airport. The Lee County EAR propos e s re des ig natin g approximately 2,800 acres of land within this vic.inity from "'Density Reduction/ Groundwater Resource P rotection to "University Community." The Countys policy for Groundwater Resource Protec tion Areas (Policy 1.4 .4) would seem to prohibit con sideration of such a site f or intensive development. Specifica lly, t he po l icy states that these ar eas prov l de substantial recharge to aquifers and p e rmitted land uses shall be compatible with maintaining surface a nd ter levels Coumy plann er s have stated that they will require a regional management and ter protection st rategy for this e nviron mentally sensi ti v e area. Yet. concerns remain regarding the effect of such int e n s ive developme. n t o n t he are.a's water resources. The proposed future land use p la n fo r the area also suffers from i nadequate atte ntion to the overall lan d use mix. T he plan calls for 100 percent of the University Community" acreage to be for residential usc at a n ovenll density of 2.5 units p er acre, to be ch>stcred at high e r densities. Assuming an average household size of 2.09, the County estimates that this artoa would accommodate a total p opu lation of nearly 14,000 persons during the planning horiZOl\. But rather than i ntegrating a mix of goods, services. and recreational opportunities into the context of the U niversit)' Deve lopmen t area, t he pl a n calls fo r focusing non -l"esidernial activity MOund new interchange ares--a proposi tion that does littl e to remove local t r affic off of the region's major thoroughfares or to allow non vehlcular access. The County s "Ne\v Community"' land use cat e g o ry, which calls for large-scale, multi-use pl-anned communit ies woul d seem to be more appropriate. Hillsbarough CDunty Hills borough County used BEBR high projectlons for the ir permanent popula tion e stimates and projec.tions. The seasonal population estimates and projec-


tions were based on three components: seasonal housing units, tr:UlSient popula tion (hoW/ motel occupants), and migrant formworke r population. Se2sonal hous ing units were based on dota from the 1980 census. The tronsient population represents tourist ond business trips, estimated by the Division of Hotel/ Motei/Restauronts, ond was proj ected using a mathematical extrapolation model. The migrant farmworker compo nent was based upon data from the Florid Rural Legal Services, Inc and Hillsb orough County School Board statistics on migrant children enrollment. This component of the seasonal popula tion was expected to decrease over the planning period based on an assumed in agricultural a=te and changing harv.,.U,g techniques. Employment estimates and projections were prepared for th{ce employm ent categories: industrial. commercial, and services. The contro l total for the 1988 employment estimate was based on two sources: annual average employment as repor ted by the F l orida Department of Labor and an estimate of sole proprietors produced by the U.S. Bureau of Eco nom ic Analysis (USBE.A). Distribution ofthe 1988 employment control total inro the three employment categor ies of industri al. commercia), and services was acxom plished by appl ying the percentage distribution of Department of Labor data by employment category ro the control toto!. The 2000 and 2010 contrOl totals were obtained by applying the average obsolute onnual change observed between 1974 and 1988 in the Department of Labor and USBE.A data. These control totals were thon divided into industrial, commercial, and service employment categories as well." Future land use needs for Hillsborough County were determined based on a future land use soenario of nodal activity oen.ters. The function and character of each node would be used for cbssifica tion purposes (High Intensity Node, Mixed Use Region.! Node, Communiry Center Node, or Neighborhood Node). Pri o r to any evaluation, lond use catego ries were revised from those used in previous pbn.s, to ccount for post problems and address specific citizen concerns. Assumptions regarding buad out w ere made to identify ho lding capaci ties for e:och land use type and adjusted to accowtt for disparities between permitted and actua l development by p lan category. Hillsborough County did not experience the level of growth expected prior to plan preparation -on e x pectation that had led the County rouse the high growth scenario, rather than the recommended medium growth sccmrio of the Bureau of Economic and Business Research. The Hillsbor ough Co unty MPO bad olso used the !Ugh growth sccnorio for transporta tion facility planning. Becouse of shortfall in projected growth, the Hillsborough C i tyCo unty Planning Commission recommen ded that County Commission ers scale back p lanning projectlons to a medium growth scenario. lbc recommendation was based not only on a population shortfall but olso upon environmental coocerns and policy chonges oimed at encouraging redevelop ment mass transit, and compoct growth." Supporting the policy change, said the Planning Commission's report, was a countywide visioning effort in which residents indicated support for "quality, manoged growth" over "ropid popubtion growth". To fulfill these objectives, the Planning Commission proposed down zoning the density and in tensity of development in severo! areas of 1 1 illsb.Or.Q.!!gllfounty PaiiCG Callllty Pasco County used BEBR medium population t hen applied share and linear population projection meth od STATI TRAHSPORTA110H POUtY lHmAltVI 27


28 ologie for forecasting. In determining se2Sonal population, the 1980 U.S. Ce0$U$ was ui to determine the number of units held for occasional use and the n um ber classified as S easona l/Migra t ory. The Cens u s inf orm a ti on a l s o prov ided on av erage non-resident ho u seh old s i ze of 1.91 persons per un i t, which W>S app l ii tO the number of unitS to der i ve seasonal residents in seasonal housing unitS Information from v.rious Sute, regional, and Counry agenci .. was us! to detor mine the number of motel unitS and recre:atlonal vehicle spaces in Pasco Cou nty in 1987, against whi ch the 1.91 was m u lti p lied to get seasonal popu l ation i n mo t els and cam pg ro unds The t ota l s f o r seasonal ho u sin g urutS an d ca mp grounds/ motels were added to the total resident population. This n umber was dividi by tOtal perm110eot population tO derive the eounty's searooal multiplier of 1.22." E mployment projections wer e based on a r e gress i on analysis of t he reht ionsh i p b e tween employ m e n t i ncr ease and po pul ation gro w t h The m e tho d in volve d disoggregat io n of emp loyme n t data inro industrial comme rcial trade, and service employment. Separ.ue regressions were perform! for industrial, commercial tradf!', and service employ ment. The lhree regressions wtre summed for total projec ted e mployment T h e data were divide d int o m u nicipa l and a r eas. A rat io o f emp l oy mem t o populat i o n in 1 9 8 7 for ea c h local g overnment was u sed to disaggr egate the dott:L into municipal and u ni n co rporated areas and project future e mpl oyment Project! acreage requirements for each land use type were es1imatod U$ing t he following assumptions and techniquCl. Future p-ermanent popub.tion estim:uts were converted t o househol ds on the basi s of 2.28 persons pe r hou s e hold. A fac tor of 2.05 p ers ons per househ old was us! to convert future seasonal popula tion estimates to households, rather than the average household size of 1.91 us! for mo t els and campgrounds It is unclear whether t hat p o rt ion of seasonal populallo n predicted to reside i n such facilities was diff e ren t i ated fr om estimates o f futu re seasonal h ousing needs (see Pine llas County met h od). Tbc future housing unit mix fof" perm-a nent and seasonal households was as sum! tO remain constant from 1987 to 2010. Based on existing zoning, verage gross dens i ties were 2.1 dwelling u n itS pe r acre for sing l e family 15. 0 unit s p e r acr e f o r multi-fornily, and 8.8 uni ts per acre f o r manufac.uar<:d housi ng Non-residential acreage was computed on the basis of future employment by place of work for each of eight major standard industrial classification (SIC) groups. These groups were conSt: ruction, manufacturin g ) trans p ortation 2nd utilities, wholesale t tade, retail trade, finance i n s u ranc e and r eal estate; services, gove rnment Agri cu l tural acreage was treated a s a resi d u a l f unccion of t hese groups, a s !a r ming and agricultural rel ated employment was projected t.o e xperience a net decline." Pln.Jlu County Because it is faclng build-out, Pinellas County pre pa r ed its own resident pop ula tion projeCtions, rather than using thos e of BEBR wh i c h com i n u e upwnrds < V e n a ft e r t he year of pr o j ected b uil d-o u t. Based o n his tor ical data, the county estimated that it will be built out by t he year 2030. Since 1976, Pinellas County has us! socio-economic v.riables to forecast population and employment. The numbe r of residentS in single-family and mu l ti family dwelling units and othe r variables, su c h as automobile owners h i p per dwe lling u n it w ere used to d ev el o p per manent ( r e side nt} populatio n and


seasonal (transient) p opu lation. To establish the 1980 b aseline, occ-upancy rnres used were: single-family dwelling unit, 2.16; multi-family dwelling unit, 1.65; and seasonal units, 2.16. The next step was to determine 2030 conditions. These figures were gcne!' other lan d uS categories con tainin g seasonal dwelling units are the ce1ttral business district, downtown bus-iness district, and general commercial land use categories. The factors used to dete rmine units per acreage for each land use type were: perm anent tourist lacitities .. 30.0 units per acre temporary tou rist facilities15.0 units per acre cen trnl business district0.1 units per acre downtown business district 0.1 unitS" per acre general commercial -0.1 u n its per acre Thes e factors were used to calculate the n umber of dwelling units, which were then multiplied by 2.16 to obtain the seasonal population." Once the 2030 population was determined, the figures for each of t he IOyear periods (1990 to 2030) were calculated b y subtracting the total population for 1980 from the 2030 total and multiplying t he remainder by the cumulative growth curve factors for each 10-year period." The same method ology is used for calculating employment fig1.1tCS, using industrial, commercial, and retail employment, income, and school enrollment variables. Pinellas Coumy bases its future land use on its countywide Comprehensive Land Use Plan. The Plan contains information on the acreage of each land use category in the coumy and shows the relatio nships between each c ategory and t he total county area. According to th e Plan, acreages used represented "ultimate land usc condition s" in Pinellas County because much of the county is already developed and little overall change is expected in the future." Orange County Orange County's resid e nt projections were based on BEBR' s 1990 medium projections. Data from the 1980 U.S. Census was used to estimate the ratio of no n-permanent to permanen t population. The number of tourists was projected using a worst-case scenario of 100 percent occupancy of hotels and a p ersons per room figure of 2.0. Total hotel/motel rooms were projected by assuming the ratio of 1987 hotel/motel rooms to 1987 commercial employment. Employment projections were based on historic trends of the ratio of employment to population. These projections were distributed among employment sectors, which formed the basis of the projection of commercial and industrial acreage future needs.rr STATE TRAHSPIIRTAnDM POLICY IH111A nVE 29


STATE TRAHSPORTA110H POJJtY IHI11A TIVE 30 The race of projected population and employment growth was used to deter mine future land use needs for housing commercial and industrial space, as well as a range of public ;md private facilities. Person per household factors were used to determine total number of residential u nits needed b y the permanent popula tion. The dwelling type (single family, multif amily etc. ) was calcula ted based on historical percentage distributions and additional units were added to reflect normal vacancy races and non-permanent residents. Future residential otcreage needs were based on the number of units and at various planned densities. Future commercial and industria l land use needs we-re estimated from employment forecasts by using an employment/ acreage facw r Future recreational facility needs were estimated b ased on the adopt ed level of service standards for active and resource based rec reation sites. The transportation and utillties land use re-quirements were factored from popula tion p ro jections, except for and aviation acreage, which was based on facility expansion plans Future institu tiona land use needs were also based on popubtion projections, using an inst itu tiona l acreage/populotion ratio. The amount dedicated on the future land use map to agricultura l use was related to projected agricultur a l employment. 2* In the case of O r ange County, previous socio-economic proj ections used in major transportation planning studies, suggested that BEBR estimates of existing popula tion in Orange County were on average 27 percent low. As a result, a n additional 14,300 acres, beyond that represented within the urban services boundary was requested by the County and appro,ed by Secretaria l Decree, over objection s of Department of Community Affairs staff. Orlando The City of Orlando based its resident population projections on BEBR's 1989 medium projections for Orange County, which were proportioned among the municipalities and unincorporated are a s of the coumy. Because Orlondo's popula tion had comprise d a decreas i ng share of Orange County's population fro m 1970 to !990, a trend t hat was expected to continue Orlando used a 2.0 percent averag e decrease in share per deode to projec t its populatio n as a share of Or ange Countys population This was validated using a top/ down, bottom/up approach. The p r ojections with the top/ down approach were done using a share of growth analys is (or ratio me t hod) to determ ine future population b a sed on BEBR's projections for Orange County. The bottom/up appro ach was used to v alidate those projections using a housing and vaca n t land analysis, com p l eted to determine if adequate land were availab l e to accommodate the projected growth. Orlando used the following formula to calculate seasonal population: Se(IJO!lal Pop11lation = (Number of Hotel Units x Occupancy Rate) x Persons per Unit +Homeless +Inmates +Naval Training Ctmer Residellls This formula does not includ e migrant far m workers or hotel seasonal res idents as the exist ing land use invento ry revealed land use.s to those populations do not occur within Orlan do's corporace limits. Employment e stimates were based on BEBR's population p r ojections, using an inc reasing employment to population ratio. This was proje c ted based on an allocation of land use demand across Traffic Analysi s Zones used for transpor tati o n modelling p u rp o ses." The follow ing methodology was used to prepare est imates of land needed t o accommodate project e d population.


The 1987 vacant and agricultural land for each traffic zone, t he projected growth in dwellillg units or floor area for each land use category, and the 1987 density or floor area ratio were entered into a spreadsheet. The l ikely intensity of projected fucure growth i n each traffic zone was estimated. These estimates then were used to calcula te the area nee ded in acres to accommodate future growth for each land use category by ? The total acreage for all categories i n each traffic zone then was calculated. The estimated acreage required induscrial agricultural, r ecreational, conservation, educational, public buildings and grounds, othe r public facilities, and his t oric resources. The Model Future Land Use Element recDmrnends the follDwing classifications f or residential usc: Low (5 du/ ac Dr less); Me&wn (5-10 dulac); Hig h (10.20 dulac). Local govern.mertrs p erm itted to combine public buildings and g rou nds, other public faci. l ities, and educational uses into one lan d use category and "utilize other categories o f the public and private use ofland. Existing land use must include vacant or undeveloped land while future land uses are also req uired co include historic dls<.r(ct boundaries, and t-ransportation concurrency management areas. Communities vary widely in density measures for high, medi um, and low d e nsity residential usc and some classify residential land uses based on structural type rather than densi ty. The existing lan d use map for the Ciry of Ft. Picr<:e uses single-family and multi-family classes based on stncture, such as single-family, duplex, and triplex, while their future residential land use is based on densities. The City of Stuart combines both ap proaches of structural type and density with low densicy residential and mulci family residential land uses. Stuart describes that multifamily is "related to living quarters with thre e or more units per building. Maximum density usually 10 units per acre. Lee County uses broad categories, -Such as "suburban, outlying suburban, and intens ive and has ac leas t four separate yet overlapping classifications for l ncerchangc areas. Communities range from one to as many as four commercial land use classes, and there is suhs">ntial overlap between c ommercial offjce, and i ndustrial land use categories. Some land use plans fail to adequately describe which use.s are included within a lan d use class and sorne define a lond use by existing zoning guidelines. Overly generalized lan d use classifications or too many individuallond use classifications make it extremely difficult to decipher land use trends. A standardized classification system would go far in improving current planning practice Such a system would pose many advan">ges. I t would simplify communication between planners and the public ; offer opponunitie$ for comparative studies; make it easier to determine consistency of planning effortS across jurisdictions ; and allow for more systematic reseai:"ch inco regional urbanization crends. A standardized land use classifica t ion system would not l imit the type of land uses a community could use. Rather, the classification system would reflect the broad range of possible land use categories and jurisd ictions would select from the list depending upon their unique circum -stances. STATE TRANSPORTAnoN PQUCY JMTJAnVE 31


32 A standard i zed local land use class ifi catio n system cou l d be based on the Standard Industrial Classifica tion (SIC) system de ve l o ped by the U.S O ffice of Man ag .. meot and Budget The SIC system u ses te n broa d cat egories to group land u se In turn, each category i s t h e n subd iv ided t o render greater detail or a ggregated for a r e gio nal view Many pla n n i ng agencies ha v e adopted or deve loped a s imi lar ap proach to t h e Standard Indust ri al Classification System. Land Usa Ratioa In crea ting a fut ure la nd use p lan, the l ocation a n d amount of v ario us land uses shoul d be est i m ated not o n l y i n abs olu t e terms but also in relation to other land uses. A l ook at e xisting land use ratios is an i ndica tor o f past tre nds and helpfu l for iden ti fying fut ure needs To bette r r ep resent. t h e urbanized portion of a c-ity. land use ratio s may be c a lcu lat e d as a p r o p ortion o f de veloped land, excluding ag riculture and vacan t land. Surveys of la rge and small cities nationwide sh o w thatsubu rban i zation since World Wa r ll has increased re.sidentialland use ratios. J1 A compa rison of land us e rat i os in 1955 an d 1992 in the tab l e be low reflect chan ges in deve l o pme nt patterns Nationwide land use ratio comparisons over t ime for both large and small cities a lso show an increase i n the proportion of Tab la 4 CIIAHGES Uf llRBAN LAND USE RATlliS, 1955 TO 1992 (Pm:ontagn of Dnalopod Lando ) Url>on Population Uodor 100,000 Ovw 100,000 y-IS 55 1992 1955 IS92 Reside:ntial LaM Use 42% 5 2% 4 0 % 48 % Comm...W larul u .. 3% 10% 3% 1 0% Jndus( Land US8 8% 7% 6 % 10% Public Land Use 47% 3 1 % s l,. 32% Souma: t:.lturis, 'Bringing t..,d Us. R..fios = n. so., PAS Hw.o, Atnerica1t Pl.aMing Assoattion,. August I 952 commercia l l and use, particularly d ue to land intensive st rip development and re gional mal l s. The a utomo b ile parking needs of these types of commercia l deve lopment can dou b l e the total land requirement. Commercial la..nd use has also increased due to the trend toward low density office pa rks outside the downtowns. After residential lan d use, tran sportoltion and utility us es ha ve con si ste ntly covered the second highes t amo u nt of acreage i n a c i ty, du riog the time p eriods for which th e nationwide surveys were u nd ert a k en. n Land uselmbalancrr and transpa.rtetion demand Urba n core areas, su c h as the Stuart o r Orlando, are characte ri zed b y a r e lat ively balanced mix of commercia l resi dential industrial, and institu t ional or other land uses Newer communities on t he urb a n o r suburban fring e, however, are c haract erized b y a muc h higher rel ative proport ion of residential land u se t o commercial, instituti onal, and other land uses. T his describes the trend toward "bedroom" communities (see Figure 1). Large single-use land areas create specia l p r o b lems for transportation. Typic al suburban d eve l opmen t consists of sing l e fami l y residential suburbs served by c o mmerc ial corr id ors and employment act iv ity cen t ers. T h i s trend in d e ve lop ment p atterns i n creases depende n ce on the automo bile-fun ne lln g more residents o n w arterials wlth a corres ponding increase in t.raffi c congestion. A t the extreme a re c ommunit ies in F l orida t hat a re a lmost e n t irely s ingle fam i ly resi denti al. The City of P ort St. Lucie for example is a 78-square mile r esident i al plat la id out by General Dev elopment Corporation i n the 1960s T he l and wa s su bdiv ided in t o 10 ,000 square foot lots and the n mass marketed across the country Platted co mmunities l ike P ort St. Lu c i e are dramat ic e xam p les Transpartati an azul Browtft Han apmnt


of the tr.dfic problems created by large single use land areas. They also represent the problems inheront with inadequate review of development proposals and counter the argume n t t hat development decisions should be entirely marke t driven. Eightynine percen t of Port St. Lucie's land area is devoted ro sin&Je-family residential use, at a density of about four units per acre. Less than six percent of Boulevard and Prima Vista Boulevardand n o direct north/south <>nerial. Residents travel along the east West arterials onto US Ito trave l to work o r shop. Commercial development is focused along US I and i n crea singly alon g Port St. Luci e Boulevar d, with both ro3.dw2ys s u ffering from severe traffic congestion. Ahhougb the City's comprehensi ve plan includes a variety of policies and strategies Fjguro I CIIMPAJUSOH OF EXISTING LAHD USE RATIOS Percent Cape Coral Stuart Percent Res. Com. Ind. lnst Oilier the community is rese rved for commcr cial use and even less for industrial or institution al uses In 1980, it housed only 15,000 people. But as a pri mary source of afforda ble housing i n the region, Port St. Lucie's popu lation has exploded in the past decade. T h e result is a community which at 30 percent build-out has a population of 65,000 residents with less than six percent of its bnd area devoted to commercial and office usc. Port St. Lucie will accommodate an estimated 172,000 persons by 2015. The pla t of Port St. L u cie inclu des only two eas t w est arterials--Port St. Lucie aimed at land use convers ion, the existing p latted lots are already vested. This constrai n t has been reflected in future use proj ections tht show a continua tion of ex i s tin g land use ratio s into the future (see Table 5). A mixed use DRI was proposed on one of the c ity's few large vacant parc els tO the north, but itwas not designed to provide a functional mix of uses that could serve as a down town or service center for the city popula tJon In Port St. Lu cie, residential development is not subject to concurrency beca use the lots were already vested. Stt e growth 33


Sf ATE TRAHSPORTA.TIDH POJJCY lllmATIVE Pennanent Total Housing Units Land U.. N eeds ( em;) management laws, how ever, requ ire that the transportatio n system mai ntain a rea sonable LOS To ac comp l ish t his Port St. Lucie Bou l evar d is being widene d from 4 to six lanes-t he maxim u m avail abl e r ig h t of way. T h e City's tot. transportation needs are overwhelm i n g, cons uming a large p ortion of the region's transportation resources. Co unt y plan ne rs estimate that over $12 million ha ve b een spent o n Port St. L uci e since 1988 Table 5 em OP PIIRT ST. LUCIE FI.ITI1RE LAND USE NEEDS, 2015 ca pac ity and b uild i ng new bridges and corridors will hel p add ress problems created by t h e poorly desi gned st ree t system. But t hese s o lutions are not su fficient to solve the congestion prob lems of platted communities ove r the long term becaus e they fail to addre ss the related causes of conge.sti on--a dramu.ic l and u se i m bala nce, au t omobil e depen d e n t develo pment patterns, :l.l)d the absen ce of a commercial core. Port St. L ucie' s east/ west arterials are alread y experiencing deve l opmen t pressures t hat wilt without strict access controls, le ad to funct ional d egradatio n o f t hos e roadways. 1988 Percent 2015 Pnunt 43, 34S 171,817 20,88t 75,713 JW;denlial ( 4 du/acre ) 5.220 89.0% 21 182 89.0% The alternative is to revamp the local r egulatory framewor k to foster acces s to g o o d s and services within the community .and restrict access connections along existing arter i als to preserve regional mobili t y. In tum, l and use stra te g ies would i nclude encou raging a complemental)' mix o f uses; con so l idating parcds where feasi b l e co perm i t commerc. ial and office development; and. if po ssib le, retrofitt i ng the community with an Commm:W 351 6.0% 1,422 6. 0% Industrial 150 2.6% 610 2 6% Institutional 140 2.4% 568 2.4% Totals 5,861 1 00.0% 23,782 tOO.O % Sou.rca City of Pot1 St. LocH Comprebansin Plan_ fllrle JSSD$ p. 14. 34 a n d i t will take at least a n additiona l $50 million to address proj ected improve m ent n eeds over the plann i ng horizon Port St. L u cie is one of man y p l a tted communities acros s F l orida, includin g Port Charlotte, Cape Coral and Leh ig h Acres (also known as "the sleep i ng gian t") All ar e bedroom commun i ties with the poten t ial for rapi d growth os a source of affo.-dable housing. AU of these p l ats force resi dents onto a po o rly d e s i gned meet sy stem served by a few constrained arterials for the journey to lvork in nearby ci.tics. The built environ men t in these communities ha s lit era lly mandated traffic c ong e s tion. Retrofitting o rc as like t he se w ill be a growing problem in F lorida. Adding lone urban core or service center. use is not sufficient. There m ust be a func t i onal relationship between la nd uses i f efficient tran sportation sys te ms ar e to be achieved. Retrofitting furthe r requires a n u rban desig n p l an and i ncorporation o f u rban design principles into ne igh bo rhood planning an d si te p lan revi ew T his wi ll a ssu re t hat land use or density changes will en han ce rather than detract from neig h borhood qu alit y B ecause it is only now deve lop ing an d is served by a grid stree t system, the p otemial for retrofitting Leh ig h Acres is especially goo d Su ch land usc and eco nomic develo pment strategies would complement mobilit y objecti v e s and enhan ce the q u al ity of the f utur e built e nvironment.


Conclusions Many f,.ctors, both methodological and philosophical, influence determinations of future land use needs. Clearly, Florida communities represent a var iet y of planning circumstances, particularly with regard to anticipating future growth. Orange County experiences a mass seasonal influx of popu la tion due to inte rna tional tOurist attractions and growing convention activity. Seasonal population increases affect the land use needs of many coastal counties as well. Other communities--like Lee County or Port St. Luci e -must plan under the constraint of huge, poorly designed residential plats already vested for devel opmen t. The MiamiDade metropolitan area faces tre -mendous uncertainty in evaluating socio-demographic change given continu ed im rnigration, Census undercouncs, and often inaccurate ratios of persons p e r household across ethnic groups The basic concern over population projections is acc-uracy. Rule 9J-5 requ ires local governments to demonstrate dtat future land use plans are financially feasible and to use professionally accepted methodologies in pro j ecting future population The Department of Commu nity Affairs has reviewed local p opulation pro ject ion met hods for professional acceptability in determining compliance with Chap ter 163, F.$. Our review verifies t hat local governments have adhered to professionally accepted meth odologies in proj ecting future population. However, socio-economic forecasting depends heavily upon the assumption tha t the future will reflect historical trends. But the futur e may de p art fr om those trends. The degree of occuracy in predict ing the magnitude and location of season al residen ts will affect estimates of the corresponding demand on public services and infrastruc t u re. In turn, co. mmunlties T...,_rtatton aDd Srowlb Managemsnt must maintain a tenuous balance between the transport.ttion capacity needed co serve the peak popu latio n and the capacity needed during the off-peak season. Due to this uncertainty, decisions i ng future population forecasts f requently enter the poli ti cal realm. Reaching agreement as to an urban area s p opula t ion f orecast is politically sensitive because anticipated growth rates drive decisions regarding transportation expen ditures and the timjng of t r ansportation improvements. The risks of anticipating too much growth -are premature overexpenditure, ineffi<:iencies in service provision, and fewe.t resources for mor e pressing community needs. The risks of anticipating too little growth could include underinvcstment in transporta t ion improvements) increased congestion, violat ion of level of service standards, and risk of developmen t moratoria Political d e bates also center on the effect of growth rates and growth management requirements on local and State economic development goals. Many local govern ments prefer to err on the side of antici pating too much growth rather than too l i ttle Higher an ti cipated population provides greater flexibility in future land use determinations and may mean higher funding levels in term s of St.'tc and federal revenue sharing programs. Although fle xibili t y is e ssentia l for planning purposes, allocating too much land for development can disto n reason able projections of future facility needs and encourage hapha-

36 STATB TIWISPORTATUlH POI.It'IIIIITIATIVB The potentil for overpro jection of transpo r tatio n f aci lity needs makes itessential that inputs t.o t ransportation demand forecast i ng models i nclude a ssumptions b ased upon reasonab l e market absorption For example after recognizing an excess of vested (DRI) development rights in Escambia and Bay Count ies in relation to actual grov.'th trends, the area MPO scaled back its D RI projections to provide greater accuracy in determi n ing t ransportation needs. Contemporary pla nni ng and growth management programs raise another consideration. Although socio-e<:onomic and futur e land use projections ar e helpful in evaluating past and current tren d s less emphasis is being p laced on such projec tions in planning practice than was previously true. The traditional "rational" approach to p lannin g has been gradually reinvented to harness the po l i tical and d iscr etionary nature of community development decisions. The reasons for this are many. F irst projections :lre based on past t rends and that are -subject to treme .ndous uncertainty. If t h e plan is too re lian t on this method and pro j ections are flawed, then i t would require substantial and costly revision. Second, communities that wish to diverge from past trends should no t depend on this method to determine future development patterns. The Ci ty of Orlando, for example, has indicated a desire to accommodate less growth than allocated under BEBR projection s. Third, contemporary planning has become increasing l y partici patory as communities strive to establish a c.o.mmon v is ion of how they want to grow. Growth management influ ences the rate, timing, quality, and location of land development based on plan nin g goals and a locally preferred future. A loc a l plan ning and growth management program may represent departure from past trends and would have some bearing upon assumptions incorporated into future population and land use projeetions. Thus, in contemporary p lanning, socio econom i c and land usc projections are viewed more ''a s an early warning monitoring, and p lann ing tool, rather than t he central foundation of the plan."" I t is also recognized, in the discussion of land use rat i os, that the l arge r cha llenge of manag i ng orderly and efficient growth cannot be met sole l y by addressing prob lem s relating to the amount of lan d allocated, but also must address the l an d use mix. Communities should evaluate la nd use needs of p lann i n g s u bareas, and provlde a mix of land uses and services nee ded to create functiona l, l ivable ne ig hborhoods This requires additional attentio n to fle xibl e zoning and urban des i gn in i t iatives that have proven highly succe-ssful in creating balanced ne. ighbor hoods where res idents can "li ve, shop, work and play." An issue that causes difficulty in evaluat i ng l and use trends and f\lture land use needs among neighboring commu n ities however, is 'V.ide variation in land use classification systems. A stan d ardized land use classification system would enab le comn:lunities to evaluate growth trends locally and regionally an d determ ine consiStency of planning efforts. A "common lang u age'' in add ressing land use i ssues would improve comm.u.nication between communities on these issu es and make l and use plans more comprehe ns i ble. Such a system would not limit the ability of commun i ties to creat i vely plan for future lan d use ne<-ds or to estab lish mixed use districts. It would reflect the broad range of possible land use catcgo ries, including aggregations of uses, an d jurisdictions would select from the lise depending upon their unique circum stances.


Determining Transportation Needs This chapter reviews the current transpor tation p l anning process and new require ments for metropolitan tn>.nsportation planning under the Intermodal Surface T ransportation Efficiency Act of 1991. It begins with an overview of new state pla nning requirements and their re lation ship to the m etropolitan planning process and concludes with au ana lysi s o f t h e adequacy of tradi ti onal modeling methods for determining future transportation needs. Stata Transportatinn Planning ISTEA prov i des t he first f ederol mandate for statewide tnlllSportation p lann i ng --.. process modeled after that for metropoli tan planning organizations. State Depart ments of T r ansportation (DOTs) must prepare a policy plan, l ong range t ransportatio n plan, and Statewid e Trnnsporta tio o Improvement Progn>.m. S tate lon g range plans and transportation improvement programs must be consistent ru1.d coordinated w i t h each other and with metropolitan transportation plarts and improvements programs. They must also cover a broader range of t.ransportation modes and advance connectivity between t hos e modes. Planning requirements emphasir-e the ro le of the State in assuring coordination and consistency of transportation pla nning and programming across the various tn>.nsportation, land use planwng, and envirOJlme.ntal permitting including those of bordering states that share a metropo lita n area. States must address 23 factors in the p lann ing process, modeled after those for MPOs, including acqu i sition and preserva t ion of rights-of way for future transportation corridors, strategies for incorporating pedestrian and bicycle facilities, and met hods to r educe single occupant motor vehicle t ravel (see Table 6). States must also address the l ong range needs of the State transportation system and pursue innovative f inancing, such "' value capt\lre pricing tolls, ond conges tion pricing in addr.,'Sing those needs. New transportation management syscems must be developed to assist with needs detennination and improve managem ent and operation of existing facilities. Previously, state long range plans represented a 20-year set of investment p rioriti es. Now they must be more strateg ic and evaluate alterna tive long range strategies for addressing needs. The St.1te long range plan must be completed and approved by the Governor by January 1, 1995. ISTEA calls for greater pub l ic participa tion in the transportation planning and p r ogramming process at both the state an d regional level. Citizens, affected publi c agencies, representatives of trans portation agency emp l oyees, private transportation providers, and other interested parties must be provid ed a reasonable opportunity to comment on long range p lans and TIPs prior to approval Proposed rules, currently being promulgated by FHW A and FTA would require states nd MPOs to allow

SrATB TRAHSPDRTATIUH POLitY IHmA11VE A $hift in transportatio n decision authori ty has occ urred in met ropo l itan areas of 200,000 p e rsoru or more In a move designed to increase local leverage and strengthe n regiona l coord inati on ISTEA tran sferred authority fo r priori t y transportation investments from the state DOT Ortation facilities, major freight distribution routes, national parks, recreation areu, monuments and historic sites and military installatiDN. 8. The need for oonnodivily o f roads within the IT\eti"'pplitan area with roads the merropoli.lan area. 9. Thcb'QnspOrtation needs idmtihcd thn:lugh l.lSC of the tnana!Jf:mml reqWred b y ISTEA. 10. Pre&arvation af ri;ht:sofway lor c:onstruction ol future transportation projct:t&, iru:luding identiJi.c:aUon of unused rightsof way which may be needd fot future transportation corrid01'1J and idantitication of thoee corridor& for which adicxn is m05t needed to PMniOnl da9truction ot loss. t 1. Methods to enhance the eftldmt ft\OV9ment ol fretght 12 1ne use ol We-.eyde cocts 1n lhe detign and engiti.Mrin!J of bridges, runnels, or pavement. 13 The ovarallsodal, ecanomic, energy, and environmental elfects of transportation dac:isions. t 4. Methods 10 expand and enhance lrabll.t services and kl tnttease the use of such services. 15 Capital investment thai would rerult in increased secw1ty 1n transl.l systems. 38


porution and coordintion, perfonnoncc monitoring. ond 6Ye"y'"" program ond resource plan. During 1993, the Florida Transportation P l an will be revamped to coordinte with the new leg i slative requ i rem ents of F lorida ISTEA and the ELMS In Act. The ELMS-lll Act calls fo r the plan to serve as one o f the base documents for the newly devdopod growth manoge ment portion of the state comprehensive plan. ISTEA modified the formot and content of the FTP I t must consider the needs of t he entire stat e transportation system, while examining an modes to meet such needs and prov iding for the interco nnectio n of modes in a compre hensive inter.modal transportation system. FIC:tod fD bt 14 SbtW Pl&tw I The resul13 af lha IST1!A _.....o The FTP must now address the twenty factors identilied in ISTEA incl uding: process for determining transportation needs of areas that includes consul tatio n with local elected officials; consi ste n cy of d1e p lan with comprehensive regional policy plans, MPO plans, and approved local government comprehensive plans so as to contribute to the mangement of orderly ond coordinated community development; the effect of transportation decisions on lond use and l and development including th e n eed f o r cons istency between tra 1 uportation decision making and the provisions of all app licable Table 6 (-uod) 2. My fcdott.l, S.ate_.. or local energy go.fl, olljadiv851 programs Of rcquirtmenll. Sf A Til TIWISPURTA'I'IDII PWC't llllllA!lVI 3. Sttwtagiss for inllulXm Ad. 10. __ lacilitia 11. Tha ovtnll SIOCbl, economic, IIMf'VY, Uld cmritoMielrt:ll etf.ects ofl!'allspartatlaa '*1:11-. 12. MeU\ock ttl reduce traffic crmgalticln and prtYCnt it from. developing in .,.. when tt does rull yel oceur,1ncludinq mtd\odl whk-.h reduce molor vehicla tnvcl, pa.rtic:ululy clngle-occupant motor vehicle nvol. 13. Metfwds to expand and enhance triU\IIIt IOt'Yices and to incr8ase the uso of sooh sorvceL 14. Tho cfft ol tran!rpartatlon decision on ll.nd u;e and land development, including tlo need for consistency bet'Mien trnnliJ)Orti.Uon aJld the provtalont of .U applic:abls shortmge and ltmg"fllage land. and development plans. 1 5. The transportalion needs identWocllhrwgh U98 of management systema I"CCqulrtd by ESTEA. 16. Where appropriate, the U&C of iMova.Uve mecflanisms for financing projma, 1ncl\MUng valu. capl:ut8 pricing:, tolls, ud cong..Utm llritln;. 1 '/. Pr.crtaticm of righls-af-way for fulutt traNportatkln tdmtiHcarion of unused that may be ......W b Ntwe CC!l"ridcn. and of those wttidtws for which ldbt II n111111 oeedld 10 prsvsat 18. Tho--lloll-'laornoGo-t9. 6Q effldat of tii.CJIXJt whid& 20 IJio.o:yde ..... In the da;gn oM_...., of loridgo&, -.1., ................... gil& 21. Coordination ot mehopuli.tan tJ"annllortllUon plaM and prognms with tbo aat.wW.traNporta.lion plans and proQ'Nfftl. 22. Invelllment Slralegies to improw Stile and local roads that SUJIIIOI't MU'IIItc:onomtc growth and tourism d:avltlt11m1mt,.lxtder:ll mou:rce management, and lond managsmsnt practic:as. 23. The gmc:ID'Di& of lndLan tribal govti"MMMn.ta: over lands within diet boundM' o( 1M Slate. 39


40 STATE TRAHSPOI!TA11llll POIJCY lHltlA nVE short-range an d longrange land use and development plans (see Table 6). Florida I STEA prov ide s guide lines for increased publ i c participation in dev e lop ing the Florida Transportation Plan. The publ ic is provided opportunities to comment on the FTP, specific project p lans, and proposed project design through a public hearing process The hearing is required to include a presenta tion and discussio n of 23 considerations the FTP must address. StJJte T.I'IUISpDl1aliDn lmpl'Ovsmsnt Protp'IUD (STIP) The Statewide Transportation ment Program required by JSTEA must have at l east a three-year horizon (or longer upon discretion of the St3te) and reflect projects identified by MPOs, as well as proj ects of rural or statewide significance. For nona ttainment the STIP must conform to the State Impl ementation Plan for <.'frying out the re quirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration--along with the Environmental Protection Agency w here air qual it)' issues are concerned-arc responsible for ensuring that states and MPOs live up to ISTEA's new requirements. If a state or MPO fails to carry out air quality requirements in the SIP, the C lean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to withhold all or a portion of its highway monies The STIP must be developed by FOOT in cooperation with MPOs. T he FHW A/FT A I n terim Gui dance on Statewide Planning Requirements states that "it is expected that the T ransporta tion Improvement Program for each metropo l itan area or part thereof withi n each state will be incorporat ed, either directly or by reference, imo the STI P u l t ima te l y appro,ed by the State and the Secretary." To b e i nclud ed in the STIP, projects must be: proposed for federal or state funding; consistent with long-range component of the FTP; consistent with the Sute Imple mentation Plan for air quality in designat ed air quality nonattainme u t areas; and anticipated to be fully funded wi t hin the time period contemplated for project comp l etion. Projects included in the STJP will be selected as follows: projects undertaken in areas of le$S than 50,000 population aud projects undertaken in areas on the National 1-!i ghway System or pu rsuan t to the bridge and interstate maintenance programs shall be selected by the state in cooperation with the affected l ocal officials; projects unden.1ken w ith federal or state funding in areas with a population between 50,000 and 200,000, shall be selected by FOOT cooperation with the MPO, in conformance with t he Transpon::nion Im provemen t Program for the area; projects carried out within the b oundaries of the transportation management area., for areas ove r 200,000 population with fede r a l or state participation shall be selected by the MPO, in consultation with the State, in conformance with the Transporta tion Improvement Program; and projects undertaken within the bou n daries of a TlviA on the National Highway System or pursuant t o bridge and interstate maintenance programs shall be selected by the state i n cooperat ion with t he M PO. During development of project plans, FOOT i s required to hol d at l east one publ ic hearing prior to f acil ity selection,


corridor or s ite selection and design proposal selection Thi s is esta b l ished to allow interesred persons to effectively parti cipate in transportation p l anning, site and r oute sel ection, and location and design selection. Finall y, prior to conducting a design hear ing affected property owners must be notified. Affe<:ted property own ers i n clude those whose property is within 300 f eet of t he center line of t h e proposed facility a nd those whose safety or physical, economic and social environ ments will be affected. Tbe Fllll'ida intrastate highway system The Florida Intrastate Highway System (FIHS) is the statewide system of limited access and con t rolled access facili t ies t h a t allow for high-speed and highvolume traffic m o vement within t he state (Sec. 338.001 F.S.). This system was designated by FOO T a n d adop ted b y the legisl ature i n an effort to preserve regiona l a nd sta tewide traosporta tio n mo bility. The FIHS p rogram involves development a nd improvemen t of a system of highways with s trict access <:.ontrols. P r ocess, C ri teria, and Standards for the FIHS P lan emphasize th e need t o coo r dinate with local government s on managing access to those ponions of the FIHS t hat arc not limited access facilities. The Department of Transp o rtatioll is charged with making the necessaty system improvements and e ntering i nt o formal agreements with loca l govern ments for coordinating land use p l anning and regulation with state access s tandards for controlled access facilities. All seg ments a re planned to be brought int o com pliance w i t h system criter ia and standards within a 20-year per i od. This de adline however, may pro ve unwor k abl e given a subst antial s h ortfall in projected funds available to the FDOT to br ing the system up to FIH S standards within 20 years. Thus findi n g adequ ate funding to maintain an d i mprov e Fl ori da's priority statewide system o f high ways will remain an ongoing challenge for FDOT and the legislature The new interstate highway policy In November 1991, t he F lorida Depart ment of Transpo rtati on established new policies to direct the developmen t of t h e F lorida Interstate Hi g h way System. The new FDOT policy does much to support and advance the p rinci ples o f ISTEA. U nder the new policy, all modificatio n s to the Inte rstate Highway System mu st b e consistent w i th s tate goals and objectives aimed at reducing the cnvironmemal impac t of the system, increasing efficien cy, promo ting public t ransit and carpooling, and allowing space between selected corridors for high speed rail. All Highway Master Plans must be rev ised to reflect po licy changes and ne w Master P lans will be developed for all remaining sections of the system. To increase efficiency, the Interstate system will be expanded to six lanes where operating <:.ond i ti ons do not me e t FDOT minimum LOS sta ndards. Future growth of the was restricted, however) to a maximum of ten lanes and t h e constnction or mod ification of int er changes was pro h ibi ted unless approved b y an Interchang e Justi ficatio n Report. In urba nized areas with po pula tions greater th an 200,000, the updated Master Plan s will includ e four phys ically separated, e x clusive lanes (two in each direction) for th r ough traffic, public tra nsit, and o t he r high occupancy vehi cl es. Metropolitan Transportation Plalllling Met r opolitan Plann ing Organizations are responsible for cartying out l ong range t ransportatio n p lanning and setting transportation programming priorities for met r opolitan areas. MPOs were created in 1975 to carry out t he urban transporta tion p lann ing mandate s of the Federal 41


42 Sf AT TJWfSPOAT A'I'IOM POUCY IHIT!ATIVE H ig hway A dministrat io n and the Urban Mass TransitA d ministration (now the F ederal Tran s i t Adm i nistrat ion or FTA ). T h ey w e r e to be esta bl i sh e d in all u r ban ized ar eas of 50,000 p o pul at i o n o r mo r e and were to work i n coope ra tion w i t h the Stat e DOT and t ransi t op e ra t ors. The t r ans p onati o n planning process was to be con tin u i ng. cooperati v e and compre h en sive" ( also kn o wn as 3 -q a n d Ml'Os were t.o pro vide a "fonm for cooper a t iv e de cision mak i n g b y principa l electe d o fficials of g eneral purpose local g overn ment ." IST EA r e tain s mu c h o f the flavor of the ori g inal M P O legislation wit h s o m e F">g1U8 2 modific ati o ns Coordi nati o n require m e nts) b icycle and p edestrian p lanning. traosit alterna tives, t r ans p o rta t i o n de mand managem ent. public participationall h a ve b een p art o f t h e MPO process s i nce 1 975. T h e n ew p lan n i n g r e q u ire m e n t s include a much st.ron gcr i nt erm o da l em pha s i s t h e c arrot of mo r e m on e y and funding flexibili ty, t h e st i c k o f require d conformance w i t h dea n a i r Stand a r ds, an d gr e ater recognition of t h e needs o f commerci a l t r a n s portation and t h e eff i c ien t m ove m ent o f f re i ght. ISTEA requ ir'es c o nside ra t ion o f 1 5 i nte r rel ated factors by MPOs in prep a ri ng the lo n g r ange transp orta t io n pl an METIUIPOLITAJf PLANNING DIUIAHIZATIIINS AHD DES16HATED TIIAHSPOIITAT!ON MAHAGEMEHT AliEAS D MP O (:0 2 00,0 00) M PO/TMA (> 200,0 0 0 )


including land use, intermodal connectiv ity, and enhanced transit. service (see Table 6). The intcrmod al emphasis is aimed at achieving better coordination and cons i stency of effohs across the many agencies and organizations involved in transportation plann i ng and service provision. L ong range pions must a lso address the effect of transportation pol icy decisions on land use and d evelopmen t and demonstrate consisten c y with all applicable land use and development p lans. Met ropolitan areas of ove r 200 000 persons----and others u pon request o f the Governor-are designated T r ansporta tion Management Areas. Thirteen of Florida's 25 MPOs lie in TMAs (see F i gure 2). Metropolitan planning req uir e ments for TMAs include development of a congestion management pla n and congestion management system that tracks the cffeet of transportation demand reduction and operational management st rateg ies on traffic congestion TMAs i n designated non attainment areas must also meet special requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (see F igure 3). Oth e r less urbanized areas ar e permit ted to use abb rev iated plau ning proce dures, depending on the comp l exit y of the i r transportati on problems. Flgunt3 DESIGNATED NONATTAINMBNT AIIEA5 Designated Nonattairunent Areas IIIII Transitional MargiJ1 al Moderate 43


STATE 11WISPORTATIDH POLU:Y OOTIATIVE 44 The new requirements are designed to discourage thetraditional reliance on constructing nev. facilit ies to solve traffic c o ngestion. lnstead, MPOs must empha s i ze pres erving t h e existing transportation network through transportatioo systems managemen t techniques that improve system efficiency and transportation demand management strategies to reduc e the number of travelers. Pl ans must also include met hods to expand and enhance transit service and encourage transit useincl uding trans i t-oriented land use and design strategies. Manapmlllll symms B ette r mobility planning means accom m o dating multimodal alternatives i n transportation planoing efforts. T o assist -.vith t his effort, IS TEA r equires St'ate DOTs and MPOs to cooperate on devel opment and lmplementation of six new management system s. Reliable systems must be developed to manage and moni tor f ederal -ai d h ig hway pavement mainte nance, bridge maint enance, hig hway safety, traffic congestion, pub lic transporution facilities and equipment, and intermodal transportation facilities and systems. Proposed rules c all fo r states to certify that they are implementing t he six management systems by January 1, 199S. The congestion management and i ntermodal management systems are the newest :1dditions to transportation planning. ISTEA states that the intermoda l management system must provlde for improve ment and integr ation of "aU of a Srates transportation systems and shall ioclude methods of achieving the optimum yield from such systems, increasing productivity in the State, increasing use of advanced technologies, and encourage tbc usc o f innovative marketing techniques, such as just-in t ime deliveries" (Sec. 303[e]). Draft rules for management and monitor i ng systems issued by USDOT in March of 1993, advise that an effective intermodal syste m would address the following: tonnuLionsthe convenient, rapid, efficient and safe transfer of people and goods among modes; choiara greater variety of modal opportunities fo r travelers to c hoose fromi and coordination anti coopr.ralion-c ollaborative efforts between planners, users. transit providers to resolve travel demand T he draft rules call for conge stion man a gement systems to ident ify areas where congestion occurs or may occur, ide n tify the causes of the congestion, evaluate strateg ies for managing congestion and enhancing mobility, and develop a plan for implementation of the most effective strategies n Congestion management systems are to address a wide va riety of traditional and nont r aditiona l strategies including transportation demand management, operations improvements. measures to support transit, congestion pricing, land use managemen t and activity cent ersrra teg ies, access management techniques, incident management strat e gie s, and Inte l ligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS) applications. F l orida ISTE.A requires each MPO to prepare a conge.stion management system and cooperate with FDOT on p reparation of all other systems. MBtraJIOlitan long nonge planning Each MPO is responsible for preparing a comprehensive transportation p lan that considers long range goals as well as transportation system management measures. ISTEA modified the compre h ensive transportation plan, now t he long range plan, and provided s peci f ic guide lines con cerning its development and Traupo.rtalia.n IUid Grawlh H.maga numt


content. The MPO long range plan must be consistent, to the maximum extent feasible, with future land use e lem ents and the goals, objectives and po licies of the approved local government compre hensive plans. In turn local governments must consi d er the MPO long-range p lan in the d c.veloprncnt of the transportation elements of the loca l government compre hensive plans. At a minimum the MPO long range plan must: identify transportation facilit ies, includin g maj or roadways, airports, seaportS, commuter rail systems, trans it systems, and intermodal or multimodal terminals that function as an integrated metropolitan t.ransporta cion system, wit h special emphasis on transportation facilities that serve national, statew ide, or regional functions; include a financial plan that demonstrates how the plan can be imple mented and recommends innovativ e financing techniq ues; assess capit al investment and other m easures necessary to ensure the preservation of exi sting metropolitan transportation systems and make t he most efficient usc of existing transportation facilities ; indicate proposed uansportation enhance m e n t a ctivities. nonattainment areas must also plan in accordance with the State Implementation Plan for air quality developed pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments. MPOs must assist FOOT with mapping transportation p lanning boundaries a nd in performing duties relating to access management. funct ional c lassification, a nd data collection. MPOs must a l s o enter into the following agreements with FOOT: a n agreemem clearly establishing the coopera t ive relationship e.ssenti:tl to accomplishing the transportatio n planning requirements of state and federal law; an agreement with the metropolitan and regional intergovernmental coordination a nd review agencies serving the met ropo litan a r eas, specifying how a ctivi ties will be and how transportation planning and progl"'.uruning will be pa

46 may, upon approval o f the de p artment and ap p l icab le fede ral governmenta l :\gency. adopt a n a l ternative program or mechanism t o ensure citize n involvemer u in t.he transportation planning process. Tl'IIIISJIDrlalion lmprovamantl'rr1grluu MPOs a re responsibl e for creating and annually updating a Trans po rtati o n Imp ro v em ent Program t hat consists of i mprovements recom m e n ded from the long range trans po rtation p lan. This incl udes f ed erally-aided t ran sp ortotion facilities and improvements as w e ll as other t-ransportation facilities and im pro vements to be funded from t h e State Transportation Trust F u nd. The TI P must be consistent. to the maximum extent feasib le, wit h local gove -rnmem comprehensive plans in the region. Projects i n the TIP ca n only be removed or reschedu l ed i n subs equent TIPs by the jo int action of the MPO and FOOT. E ach TIP is deve loped in cooperation w ith t h e state and affected pub l i c tran s portation ope r a t ors a nd must now include the following: a priority l ist of p roj ects and project phases to be funded with State or federal funds; a l ist of projects for fundi n g under the Federal Trans i t Act; a financ.ial plan that demonstrates how the TIP will be carr i ed o ut; gr o uping of projects and proj ect p hases of slmila r u rgency into appr opriate st:1ging p eriods; examp les of spec ific projectS w h ich further the lo ng range pla n and indication o f how the TIP r elates t O the long r ange plan ; any i n cons istencies of pro jects or projec t phases wit h local go vernment comp re h e n sive p lans; an d indicate how im p rovements are co ns i stent with seaport a n d a i r p on: master p lans an d public transit development plans. T he MPO mus t also de v elop a U nified P lan n ing Work Program (lJP WP) t hat d oc umen ts t he p lann i ng budget and planning activities u ndertak e n d uri ng the year. ISTEA states that tho UPWP s houl d be de v eloped in co opera tio n with FOOT and publi c transpo1 t-ation provid ers. On the lo ca l l evel the Traffic Circ ula tion and Mass Transit Elements of loca l government comprehenslve plans must conside r t h e ado p ted l eve l of se rvic e standa rds> improvements> expansio n s and n e w f acil i t i es planned in the FDOT Five Year Work P rogram and t h e MPO p lan s (9]-5.007). Goals and objec tiv es of each plan must coordinate with the MPO plans, any p u blic trans portation ty, a ny appropriate resource planning a nd ma nage ment pla n and FDOT's F i ve-Year Work Pro gram. Review o f the lo cal compre hens ive pl an is cond uct ed b y the FOOT's D istric t Office for Planning and P rogramm ing. Among other things> the review 'viii examine intergov ernmental coordination t o ensure coordinat ion with a ll appropriate a dopted plans and pol i cies, with speci f i c atte n t io n given to consistency bet w een the compre hensive p l an, MPO p lan s, an d FOOT's plans and w ork program The Modeling Procesa The urba n tra nspo rtatio n pl anning process uses a series of sequentia l models to describe the i nteraction s b e rween land use> the trnnsportation sysrem> and travel characteristics. The State of Florida has sta nd ard iz ed this proce ss through itS widely distribu ted FSUTM S mod e l s. The sequent ia l tran sportation p l anning models are summarize d in Tobie 7.


The p rocess begins b y dividing the planning -area i nt o traffic analysis zones a nd estimating various socio-economic a ctiv it y measur e s for each zone such as pop u latio n emp loym ent and other socio-economic indi cators. B ased on land use and socioeconomic characteri stics, t h e t rip g eneration m o del e stimates t he nu m ber of trips produced by or attrac ted to each zone. Genera lly this is done for a 2 4 hour period. Based on productions a nd attractions in each zone and c h aracteristics of the transporta tion system, the trip distribu tion m o del estim ates the number of trips from each zone to all othe r zones. Modal spli t involves t he d ivisio n of t rips be tween each pair of zones into modal alternativesp rimarily the proportion travel l ing by automobile versus pub lic t.rans p onation T raffle assignment models specify the particular t ranspo rta ti on li nks utilized between each set of zones and the tota l number o f trips on each link. The models are normally a pplied on a 2 4-hour basis, with various "rules of thumb" applied to transform the 24hou i vo lumes to peak period direction al v o lumes. This same procedure is used for all z ones for trips to a U oth er zones. By examining the tota l network loadings of the traffic assignment process we can compare traffic deman d with the traff ic..:arrying capacity of each link. The results of these models are then compared to the base year i n whic h land use and traffic counts are known. By comparing m o d e l output with know n traffic counts, adj ustm ents can be made t o various su bmodels until the outp ut a ccur at ely reflects g round traffic coun ts. This process is kn own as c.l ibra rion and validation. After models hav e been calibr ated using base year data, they are applied wit h forecast y ear lan d use and transportation system characterist ics with the assump Tn1JB11011allon and Growth MaD.ogemenf tion t hat basic trip characteristics do not change ove r the forecast period. The quality of model results is d e pendent upon the reasonableness of t h e socio economic activity measures and lond use assumptions foreca st in t h e future year. The t ransportation planning process described above is used by MPOs i n F l orida and a cross the natio n. It utilizes a methodology that originated in the ear ly 1960 s and has c hanged only modestly i n t!1e last 30 years. Virtually all MPOs a pp l y this s e quence of models based on econom ic and land use chara cteri stics f orecasted for the st"Ud y area in some futur e year--generally 20 years into the future A Tabla 7 \STATE lliAH5PQJ\TAnDN POJJCY IHITJA TIVE long range transporta tio n plan SEOIJENTIAL TRANSPORTATION PROCESS 1S pro duced, based on that forecasted f uture land use scenano. The plan Land U:;e Location an.d intsn$ity of dcvolopmm'll Trip GeneratiOn How many trips ant mad;? Trip Distribution ... to where? r.fodal SJ!llt what lt\Cia.DS? As5ig;runenl ... by what palh? is t hen staged, so t hat ear l y i m plemen ta tion proj e cts are t imed for consistenc y with the lon g range p lan. Validity at undBI'lying aiiBUJJipUans Compu ter-based tran s p ortatio n p lanning models were initially crea ted in the 1950s and 1960s for a pplicat io n to long rang e regional t ransportation plannin g prob lems. Over the years a number of refinements have b een made. The as sumptions b uilt into the models are reasonable but imprecise characterization s of r eality. S ome u nd e rl ying asswnp tions of transportat ion plann ing m odels are t hat : trip generation is related to land use characteristics; 47


48 STATE TRAHSPORTAnON POIJCY 0011ATIVE trip linkages between zones are dire<:tly related to tbe levels of activity in those zones; lr'ip link-ages between zones are inversely r elated to tbe difficulty of getting between zones; and trip s between zones gene.rally take t he path of least impedance Each of these assumptions, as generalized sta tements, are well-tested and demonstrable. Yet travel behavior is extremely complex and the combination of t h ese factOrs, as described by mathematical relationships, exp lains only a portion of real world travel behavior. Models must therefore be calibrated to rea l world conditions by applying adjustment Most fre quently adjustment factors take the for m of time penalties appl ied to pa!ticular links to correct for modeled traffic ass ignments greate. r t han ground counts. Alternatively, trav e l speeds specified i n the model may be increased if the model is u nderassi gning traffic to a particular link. The result is often a traff ic volume assignment that has been forced to correspond with ground counts, but a netwo r k description t hat fails to reflect the condition of the facility. Further more, these adjustments ohen lack any theoretical basis. The ultimate test of the models is base year t .raffic assignment results To what extent do traffic assignments from the model refle<:t known traffic volumes, based on known land use activities? Even after the application of heuristic ad just ment factorS1 results can be imprecise. In one development impact study conducted by CUTR, comparisons of actual traffic on a network with that calibrated and validated b y lo c al government staff revealed t he following discrepanc i es (actual vs. model}: 23 ,600 vs. 32,400; 21,900 vs. 32,000; 26,200 vs. 18,20 0; and 21,200 vs. 13,900. These comparisons are for a b a se yea r condition in w hich there was complete knowledge o f land use and traffic conditions. It is d ifficult to argue that the models give acc urate forecasts of future conditions when traffic assignments for known conditions reflect major errors, even after adjust. ment. T hese examples are by no means isolated. The calibration standards generally used for these mode ls a ccept h igh levels of error. Standards used in Florida call for assigned vehicle miles trave led {VMT} and vehicle hours traveled (VHT} to be within five percent of .actual counts, on an area1uide basis. Obviously> thls dard can be met while having enormous variabil ity on individual l inks. Volume-to-count ratios on screenlines, used to compare estimated with actual traffic volumes, are required to be within 10 percent for screenlines greater than 50,000 vehicles per day, and within 20 percent for screenlines less than 50,000 vehicles per day. Similarly, a comparison of traffic crossing a scrtenline c:1n indicate a high level of precision, while volumes on individual links cut by the screenline can have high deg rees of error. A percent root mean sq uar e error in the 35 to 50 percent range is considered acceptable and error ranges as high as 29 p ercent on individual freeway links and 56 percent on two-lane arte .rials a re acceptable for calibration purposes. Given the lack of precision in duplicating known conditions, how much confidence should we have in model outputs fo r uncertain future conditions? let us not conf use complexity with precision. Unfortunately, our de.sire for a n "impar tial" number may b e causing us to place unwarranted c onfidence in model results. For some of the uses to which the models are b e ing p ut, the phe nomenon being mea sured is smalle.r than the noise in the mode ls


UnciJl'taiD.ty ollnput assumptlans Limitations in the precisio n of the trans ponat ion planning models pale in comparison to the uncertainty o f inpu t assumptions. How precise can we be i n forecasting national social and economic f act ors 20 yean into t he future? Given the inherent levels of uncen a inty how precise can we b e in f orecasting F lor ida's share of that nationa l economic activ ity 20 years into t h e future? Assuming we could forecast F lorida's sha re, how precise C interest and a myriad of other influe nces? Yet the reality is t hat we do precisel y this in every loca l g o vern ment, w i t h determin isti c certainty. Ev i dence of t h e massive unc ertainty in the forecast ing o f land use, e cono mic activity, a n d transportation d emand can easily be f ound by reviewing local mass print media. In the recent p a st t he Tampa Tribune has f e atur ed a number of art icles demon strating t he u nc ertainties: A Sep te mber I 1991, article discusses t h e massive c hanges that have c h allenged the groMh of T am pa Int ernational Airpon, inclu ding such u npredictable eventS various airline b a nkruptcies and major investments i n c o m pet ing airports in S ara sota, Fon M yers, an d Orlando. An Octobe r l20, 1992, article titled "Co u nty planners to re commend reducing po}>ulation estimate note s t h at Hillsbo r ough Co u nty pop u lation foreca sts f or t he year 201 5 are no w expected to be 166,000 fewer than had earlier been officially forecast ed for the year 2010. A May 21, 1993, article titl ed "Florida's flllances lo oking better quo tes the director of the Florida Legislature's econo m i c research unit as saying, 'The problem with out forecasting techn iqu e is that we are always wrong." An August 22, 1993, a rticle notes that "Co unty charts chan g e o f course [as] pl an n ers arc revisin g the county 's development plan t o reflect a sl o wing o f the growth rate o f the 1980s." If we go beyo nd the local prin t media, we can find additional examples: Various recent foreo= ts of Tampa CBD employment for the y ear 2 0 1 0 have range d from 50,000 to 90,000, w hile current employme n t is approx imatel y 28,000 and barel y h o l din g its own. A feature article in t h e April26, 1993, i ssue of Forba on t h e n ew Denver Int ernational Airp ort n otes that "Denver i s abou t to open a replacement airport. Who needs it ? Nobody. E i t her the tax pay ers o r the bondho lde rs are cand idates to be stiffed." The prob lem i n Denver, according to Forbes, is that "th e Denver boom fivled.'' Leonard Evans, writing o n Futur e Pred i ct ion s and Traffic Safety Research" ia t he Janu ary 1993 T raffic .Qjtarter{y notes that "Although the predicti o n methods of astrologers and academics differ, two t a boo s s ee m to ap pl y equaUy to each. F irst, i t i s socially g au che to q u e s tion the foundat ions on which their predictions rest Second, it is positively host ile t o qu estion how a n e arli e r p r edictions ma tched what act u ally hap pened : In a Marc h April1993 a rt i cle in TR Nt1JJS, "Tr apped i n t he Forecast An Econom ic Field of Dreams," Louis S Thom pson prop oses the "g iggl e" t est to evaluate t h e reasonableness of forecasts. ,STATE TIIAIISPiliiTAnOH POLICY tHmAnVE 49


STATE l"R.AHSPORTA TIOJrf POJJCY DIITIATMl so Instead of recognizing t his u ncertainty, we continue to plan for a n optimal response to a set of forecasts that will almost certainly notmaterialize. We deve lop plans as if we could take a rifle s ho t 20 years int o the future and pred ict with certainty the precise magnitude and distribution of activities w ithin a region. The reality is quite different--more l ike a shotgun blast. The t ransportation p l anning p rocess sho ul d be revised to recognize the uncer tain ty inhere nt in transportation model ling, and particularly in forecasting model i n puts. A substantially different t r anspor tat.ion p l anning proce .ss can be construct ed that explic.idy recognizes uncenainty, deals with alternative scena rios, and maximizes flexibility. A decision process that recognizes these factors should produce plans that are less de t erministic, instead allowing future plans and projects to respond more dynamically to real events as t hey unfold This issue will be addressed in Phase II of this study and is expected t o r e sult i n proposals for revi s ion of state guidelines to incorporat e t he explicit recognition of unce n ainty into the metropolitan transp ortat ion planning proc.ess. TbelinJc bstwnn lr&JispOrtation and land use I nterre la tion ships between transportation and land use are well known to transporand land use planners. We know that there arc importnt tradcoffs b e tween regional mobility and tand access aod that access managemen t is an impor tant tool in preserving the mobility function of our h ighw ay system We know t hat land use decisions affect cransport a tion demand and that tra nsportation i nvestments ar e a major factor in location decisions. On a regional basis, transpon:ation facili1ies are de terminants of the shape and characte-r of urban f orm. Circumfer entia! highways constructed around major cities have demonstrated the role of t.ransponation lnfrastructure in shaping urban areas. The quintessential American land use, the suburban shopp ing maU, is frequently locat ed ac chc i n te rchange of a l imited access h ighway with a major arterial and always with accessibil ity in mind. The State of Fl ori d a has recog n ized this important inter:tction 21.1d is making great strides in promoting integrated lan d use and transportation planning. F l orida has recognized {hat plan nin g fo r u se, tra nsp ortation and other i nfrastn1cture must he integrated to achieve the State's growth management objectives. T he difficulty confronting transportation and land use planners is how to incorpo rate this integrated philosophy into te chnical pr-actice. The i ner actions between transportation and land use are r:lrely acknow l e dg ed i n analytical proce dures Most often, land use is taken as an exogenou s variable to be input lnto t he complex urban transportation planning mode l s and a great dea l of effort is spent testing and calibrating the models to assure that the replic-at\on of current conditions is acceptab le. Applications are made to alternative tra nsportat ion net works t o test the effectiveness of each network i n meetlng anticipated demands of the land use scenario. If time and budg e t perm i t the trlp distribut i on process may be recycled to te. st a lternative networks. But. the impac1 of the transportation system on the placement of land use activity is entirely overlooked. This proce s s may be ade quate when only r na r ginal changes ar<: made in the trans portation sys tem, but is not appropri:a.te in the context of lo ng-rang e comprehen sive pla n ning. It overlooks a very impor tant fact--the specific>tion of future land use and econ omic act ivitie s are highly


dependent o n an assume d future t-ransp or tatio n n etwork. This assumption is not necessaril y explicitindeed, it rarely is. Nonetheless when fut u re land use plans are developed they are based on some anticipation of the futur e transportation network. Our standard appr oach recognizes that land use influences t ransport a t ion Howev e r, in the transportati o n plann ing process, transponation fcilities ore implicitly assumed to have no impact on land use. O ne p r oblem with t h e in pu t of a fixed lan d use scenar io is t h e p robable u nderes timatio n of t ra ffic volumes on major new hig h way facilities. Even though a pro posed new highway would d ra matically al t er the trnnsp ortation system, opening up vast undeveloped areas, the traffic modelling process for the study was hosed upon a single set o f land use assumptions t hat did not reflect the pro posed new facility Even without a r eallocation of land uses, initial foreca st yeor model runs show daily traffic volumes in the range o f 40,000 io 100,000 in this rapidly grow ing area. After t he facility is b uilt, it will a lmost cert-.Un ly reach i ts design year traff i c more quick l y than predicted, because, in fact, the facility will redir ect development to ward itself Yet this fact of economic development i s typically ignored in the transpona t ion plan ning p rocess. Another examp l e is the case of a F lorid a coasta l city, where sever-al recent studies have i n cluded a regiona l transportation plan update and studies to test the feasibil ity of a new water crossing. Here again, the process that was employed was one of assigning traffi c f rom a fixed set of land use assumptions ooto -alternativ e transportation networks. Because t h e .alt e rna t ive n etworks included major d ifferences in a proposed new water crossing, the probable land use chorocreristics under each t r ansportation n etwork wou l d likely b e very differen t No netheless, t h e process ignored these effects and redistrib uted and reassigned traffic fro m the some land use scenario, whether or not the new water crossing was part of the test network. This m cthodologieal shortcoming may accoun t for the common experience of a new or improved t ransportat ion facil ity reaching its 20-year des ign capaci ty within a few years o f open ing. Both o f these projects had highly quali fied and dedicated planners and engineers working on them. Discussion s were held concerning the possibility of recycling t hro ugh the land u s e assumptions, and in both cases discussions ended at t he. staf f level. Several factors contrib uted to the decision to shoncut the technical process. The primary a rgument was the cost. Testing l remative land use scenarios cou ld increase the cost by a factor of 50 to 100 percent. Another argument was the political d i fficul ty of getting local MPO members to understand and en dorse a single set of forecast year land use data Introducing alternative lan d use scenarios. based on 3lternacive transporta tion netwo rks, woul d be far more compli cate d making it even more difficult to achieve consensus. These arguments are not trifling ones; t hey r eflect the real environme nt in w h ich p lan ner s and engineers opernte. Nonetheless, it accomplishes little to focus on refined model calibration, when the input data a re a mere shadow of the probab le reality. Instead, s t r ong a rgu mcnts shoul d be presented to policy makers t o j ustify the additional tim e and cost t o develop a m ore i ntegrated plan ning approach. What is needed is inte gratio n of a future land use p lan and major features of a transportatio n n et work into a single scenario. Alternatlve scenari o definitions would i nclude a combination o f land use arid transpona cio n assumptions. One altcmat :ive future STATE TIIANSPOIITATION POtiCY INlT1A11VE 51


52 STATE T'RAHSPDRTATIOH POLJCY OOTIATIVE scenario might be that a major new highway facility would be built during the planning horizon With this assumption in mind, land use allocations would be performed, which in turn would be lnput to a transportation network te-st of this combined land use and t ransportation network. Modal and lnlllrmodal Planning Transportation planning and operations have customarily been separated by mode. ISTEA now requires a sh if t toward considering ways in "hich the transponation S)'Stem can be made "seamless." Closer consideration of the connections betv.een d ifferent travel modes promises to enhance mobility while making most efficient and effective use of each transportation mode within the overall syst em. ISTEA embraces two related concepts, intermodalism and muhimodalism. The te rm "multimodal implies several modes or methods of travel. JSTEA recognizes that relate d transpor tation systems are \ t nderdeveloped, forcing heavy reliance on the automobile. Multimodal planning under ISTEA will involve trade-offs in transpottation inve stment and programming as planners strive to achieve a coordinated transporta tion network that offers travellers with greater var.iety of modal alte-rnatives. lntermodal refers to con n ectivity or the linkages between modes. It includes physical facilities as well as the opera tiona! system that enables efficient transfers. such as coordinated routing. scheduling, and unified fare systems. Another aspect is provision of tion to travelers. The San Franc isco Bay Area, for example, has developed a regional transportation database, tying all transit systems toget her, that provides customers with inform3tion about the best route options, transfers. schedules, and fares for a particular tri p origin and destination. )4 The concept of imcrmodalism originated from cargo shipping an d includes such goals as fast, r eliab l e de l i very of freight and j\IStin-ti mc delivery. ISTEA applies the inrerrnodal concept to human trans port, as well. The benefits of intermodalism include improved cusrom er choice system-wide accessibility for all sectors of sociery and enhanced econom i c Gre.ater efficiency may also result u1 terms of fuel conservation and time savings due to reduced conges t.ion.,;s Fllll'ida 1nt&mtDdal plan and pi'OCIIss In response to the requirements of JSTEA, the Florida Department of Transportation has embarked on two state plans-one emphasizing multimodal transportation planning and the other intermodal transportation planning. The 1995 Florida Transporta tion Plan will include itS first lntermodal Implementation Element. A draft report of the P rel imi na ry lntcrmodal Planning F rameY.ork is currently under ation by the FOOT lntermoda l Task Force." The draft plan calls for an intermodal planning process that is integrated with the Florida T ransporta tion Planning The process would include criteria for identifying and ranking projectS and programs, a data management systems. a demand forec.sting process, a needs identification process, funding sources, advanced technologies and innovative techniques (including regulatory changes), and a strategy and action identi fication process. The strategic planning process is intended to help FOOT and local govern ments move from a modal planning pt

in demand associated with intennodal improvements.Js Issues relating to intermodal p lanning identified in the Preliminary Intermodal Planning Framework include incorporat ing statewide i ntermoda l planning in regional and l ocal plans and vice versa; defining intermodal constraints and opportunities; serving tourists more efficie ntly; accommodating pedestrian and bicycle linkages; determining seaport and airport li nkages with rail and highway systems; identifying b enefits from resolv ing gr:ade crossing conflicts; meeting data needs and establish ing performance monitoring techniques; business and economic investment considerations in developing intermodal facilities and services. The draft report recommends that State demand forecast ing models be used to determine intermodal flow to the region, and MPO models would be used for demand forceasting withi n the region. Selected projects would have to m eet ISTEA requirements, State requirements of the Systematic Planning Process, and be consistent with the MPO L ong Range Plans. To prioritize projects, weighted factors would be used. Criteria for selecting projects, program ming the i ntermodal p l;m, and monitoring performance wiU be modeled after those used in local, regional and State planning effortS and compare d to criteria used in other states Programming criteria will involve quantitativ e evalua tions, such as point rating systems and benefit/ cost ratios, as well as other criteria such as geographical equity, pro ject r eadiness and proje cts t hat prO mote multijurisdict i onal cooperation. PlSJJJJing far a mullimodal system Since World War II, Amer ican society has become increasingly depende nt upon the automobile and t h e highway system has been expande d to accommodate that need. The concepts of multimodalism and i ntermo dalism recognize that there are lim its to how large the highway system should become, there is value to be gained from developing other modes of travel, and tha t modal opportunities should be increased. To advance these objectives, t he Preliminary Intermodal Planning Framework recommends that the FSUTMS smt e models incorporate consideration of auto, rail, air, truck, water and public transportat ion. The final report will pro vid e guidelines for im p roving the models, i ncl uding forecastin g techniques and crave! behavior factors. Although efforts to improve the demand forecasting models ore worthwhile, ther e is persistent risk in placing too much cortfidence in model resu lts. The FSUTMS models were originally devel oped f or highway corri dor studies. Since then, the models have been used for a variety o f app lications for which they were n ever intended. Furthermore, f orec asts of future t ra vel needs arc based in p art upon past and present travel characteristics. Planning f or futur e travel possibilities using current demand fore casting models is limited by t he f act that many modes of transportatio n arc either absent or so underdeveloped as to pre elude widespread use and thus are not measured. Pedestrian trav el, for example, i s not considered in the FSUTMS models because it currently represents such a small proportion of overall travel. Thus, the type of travel data collected and the way it is organized can i n fluence how travel needs a re identified, defined, and emphasized. Because curre nt travel behavior fuels the desire and the need for "more of the same,"' the process of i dentifying transportati on needs becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. It is importan t to consider that demand for alternative modes of transportation will not become 53


5 4 STATE TRAIs markets and the promise of fut\lre trade w ith Cuba. The Pon of Miami, current ly the cargo hub of Latin American and the Caribbean and the largest handle r of containerized cargo i n the state of Flori d a, is adding another 100 ac res to its 225 acre contai ner pon on L ummus Island .4 1 The Port ofT ampa is the eleventh largest pon in the U.S. and is expanding its capacity to handle general and containeri7..ed cargo!1 A major new cargo facility


was recently completed, with another under construction-each wit h a 100,000 square-foot wa(ehouse. P ortS are also capt u ring a growing share of the tourism market as cruiselines increase in popularity. As home port to 20 cruise ships, the Port of Miami has the distinction of being the "Cruise Capital of the \VI orld." The Port ofT ampa is planning a $200 million entertainment complex and cruise terminal, ca.lled Garrison Seaport Center, t hat port officials expect could atttact as many as three million visitors per year. Plans call for a new aquarium, curr ently under construction, as well as an amphitheater, restaurants, shops, and two new cruise tenninals to accommodate the demand. 'X'ith only two cruise lines two years ago, the Port of Tampa will have five and possib ly six cruise lines by the end of 1994. This also has implica tions for the g ro wth and development of Tampa's central city. Downtown Tampa and Yhor City could harness the growt h opportunities from Garrison Seaport Center. but not without a coordinate d land use and transportation strategy that combines shopping and recre ati onal activities in these areas with safe pedest ri an and transi t access from the Port. Alternatively, airports assuming a pivotal ro l e in the world econo my due to major changes in how the world does businessincluding international sourcing, "ju svin time"' delivery processes that drastically cut production and delivery cycles, and growing demand for rapid air sh.ipme nt. A recent trend in the aviation industry is the combination o f manu fac tu ring and air freight systems into a single air-cargo industrial complex. North Carolina is first i n line with plans for a "Global TransPark"--a state-of-the art intcrmodal facility tha t synchronizes production and delivery to virtuall y eliminate inventory. 0 F l orida is rapidly emerg ing as a global gateway, and cargo is a rapidly growing component of the state's aviation industry. Miami International Airport handles nearly one million tons of cargo annually. Moving cargo of this magnitude requires a highly efficient trucking transponation system. The Dade -County Aviation Department has been coordinating with the MPO on this issue. One outcome was the provision of a new interchange off the Palmetto Expressway to serve the airport C.'ltgO area--an improvemen t t hat also r emoved heavy truck traffic from a nearby congested intersection. With the American Trucking Association predict ing a 28 percent increase in truck traffic by the year 2000, coordination on freight issues will remain an ongoing need:14 Aviation is also crucial for trans porti ng the millions of touris ts and conventioneers that visit the state eaeh year. Avia tion officials advise that airportS in Florida tend to be orig i n and destination airports-that is, the majority of passen ger s either begin or end their t rip here, rather than connecting through. The Orlando area alone expects an increase from the current 40 million to approxi mately 60 million visitors per year by the year 2000. The significance to aviation is that approximately half of the tourists th at visit Florida each year will come by air. At the same time airport congestion is reaching crisis proportions The Boeing Commercial Airp lane Group i s predicting a 240 percen t increase in domestic traffic nationwide by 201 0 and only a 20 perce nt increase in flight capacity at t he top 50 U.S. airports." \Y/ith ijmited capacity for airports to absorb a greater frequency of flightS, aviation technology is moving toward increasing the size of aircrnfts--with plans already under way for a 700 passenger jet. All of tbis pointS to an even greater burden in terms of the amount of surface tra nsportation that both ports and STATE TRAIGI'ORTATillN POLIC'f INI'nAnVE 55


lrrATB TRAHSPORTATJnH PDUCY lHlTlADVE SG airports will generate in the future An integrated system for collecting and distributing goods and people from these f acilities will be crucial to st1pporting tourism and other industries in F loridaand to remaining competitive in t h e global marketplace. What is needed is a coordinated governmental strategy that supports eco nomic development thr ough coordinated comprehensive planning and strategic i n vestment in ports and aviation. Yet this has been hampered by i nadequate attention t o intermodal access needs of these f acilities by communities that house internationa l pons or airports, and a narrow view of the ro1e these facilities co uld play in the local and regi onal economy. ln a critique of airport planning in the United States, Christop her Duerksen et a!. describe the problem: Major higbwa; aaes.s is addressed. but master plamtn-!. rtlrely consider arMwide access Consideration of economic impaets. us11al{y part of the e nvironmtnral impact analysis. tends f() focus on changes in emplo;ment disTI(ption of exi5ting businmcs, and the liltt-not on maximizing development opportunities. Land use pltlnning is most likely to focm on ttmtrolling uses that may create htU.11rdJ to air navigation rather than on broader issues. like the best /I)(Jttion for hotel and commercial USt$. tO The outcome of planning efforts sur rounding to tv.o new international 'lirports, one i n Denver and another in Pittsburgh, has revealed further potential pi t falls-including counterproductive competition between loc..l governments for thei.r share of the economic pie, and a continuing tendency of transportation planners to overre l y on highway solutions to access needs. In th i s context, efforts to coordinate l and use planning and la nd use controls have largel y failed and the potential f or transit continues to be discounted. But unlike states with little or no influ ence over local land use planning, Florida's growth management mandates for regional consistency and coordination of planning efforts provide State and regional agencies with some leverage for improving coordi nation on these issues. Given the i nter dependence between portS, airpo rts, and highways effective i nt crmodal planning will be essential. High priority should be placed on im proving intcnnodal connectivity and multimodal 3Ccess to pores and aviation facilities in the loc a l and regional planning process-and in S tate t ransportation investment decisions. Alt h ough ISTEA requires th at MPOs created in 1991 or t hereafter appoint port and aviation representative-s to their voting membership, this remains optional for MPOs already in existence. Appointing representatives o f port and aviati on to the voting membership of their respective MPO would be one step toward raising regional awareness of these issues and enhan c ing intermod a l coordination.


Coordinating Land Use and Transportation Coordino ting la n d us e and transponotio n has been described os a "chiek en and egg" problem, due to confusion over what comes fU"st. I deally compreh ensive planning would establish a community's preferred devdopment patterns and a transportation system t o fulfill that de.ired future In t urn, sme and regional transportatio n planni ng would establish the state wide networ k, and access would be restricte d between and around built : 'rcns to preserve the regional movement of traffic. In this s cenar i o, lmd develop ment patterJlS would support a variety of modal alternativ es and be designed so as not to conflict with regional mobility objectives. Yet land use and transp ortation are rarely coordinate d to achieve growth manage ment o bjectives. Instead, transportatio n planning respo n ds to growth by incrcos ing access to land and services. As trans portatio n faci l i ties are s upplied to acco m mod n c growt h they generate additional demand for land developm ent. Corridors a nd inrercbange areos become the focus of intense development and growth along the corridor and outward ultimately creating anothe r cyde of growth and c:raffic co ngestion. In chis context. a preferred balance between managing and a ccommodat ing g rowth i oeldom achieved. One problem is that futu re land use plans and transportation models determine future need by past trends into the future. This assumes that communi ties have litde co nt rol over their design future Yetlocal policy could be iorm ulat ed to influence groMh patterns through in_lra.structure investment deci.sions. land u se plann ing, and strong re g ul atory measures. Noneth eless, eiiom to achieve bette r coordination between lan d use and transportation are frequently mire d in political and institutional gridlock. Fiscal zoning (an ove rridin g emphasis on enhancing the taX base), a m.ismatcb bcrween local control over land planning state or control over trans ponati o n planning, the NIMBY (Not in My Baekya rd) phenomeJ>On, l egal battle s over p r ivat e property rig)!ts, land p lan n i ng and r egul ation that perpe tuates auto dependen ce, and tbe pol itical bias toward quick fix solutions are amo n g the man y factors tbat impedo regional coordin ation of transportation ond land usc objec tives. ... A parodigm shift is required to achieve land planning and regulotion that sup ports mobil ity and better regiona l coordi natio p o f transpor tMio n and land use pla n ning. One examp l e of how t h e process could work is a natio nal researc h demonnration project tolle d LUTRAQ in Washington County, Oregon. LUTRAQ was commissioned by 1000 Friends of Oregon to devdop an altern .. tive to a proposed Western Bypass freewa y that would extend outside Portlands urb-an servlce area bou ndary. Concerns were rni.led that the b ypass w oul d bring pressure for a n interchange o u tsi d e the urban service area a nd inevita ble sprawl. The planning process involved overlaying light rail transit on transportation corri dors identified in the txisting regional tr2nsportation plan. With the of ncotraditi onalist Peter Calthorpe, series o f transit oriented developments (TODs) were systematically applied alo n g the corridor. Corridors were planned to 57


SrAl'B 1'1tANSPORTAT10H I'OIJCY IHI11ATJVE 58 preserve the existing mix of h ousi ng densities, b\lt to focus higher density housing i n and around TODs. Light rail would be supported by a system of feeder operating at eight-minute h eadways between urban neigh bo r hoods and rail stops. and express buses from areas further out. This ";as combined with transportation demand management strategies incl uding downtown parking l i mits and higher parking fees to support l ight rail use. Planners also w i ll model th e land ase and transportation consequ e nces of both the LUTRAQ and bypass alternative into the year 2040, incorporating the impact of highway expansion on regional growth and congestion Regulatory changes woul d include permitting TODs as-of -right around transit stations and i ncreasing density requirem ents i n campus style office p arks to promote reu se o f parking areas. Innova tors in coordinating lan d use and t r ansportation at the local l evel include the City of Orlando, Florida. Orlando's regulatory framework includes mixeduse corr i dors and mandatory m ixed use in activ ity centers. The City eliminated strip commercial districts and limited the supply of commercial areas to encourage reuse. Other changes include minimum residential dens itie s in certain areas, a traditional city over lay district that supports pedestrlan amenities, and a sweeping approach to access manage ment. Regional Mobility anti Land Usa Conflicts Among the factors impeding coordina tion of land use and transportation are underlying conflict s between loca l and regional goals. Land use d ecisions are. a local pre r ogative, and reflect a broad range of issues and objec ti ves-includ ing t h e effect of transportation corridors on neighborhoods and community charac ter. Transportation d ecisions are guided from a state or regiona l perspective with an emphasis o n efficient regional move ment of traffic These cwo perspectives fre q uently collide as illustrated with t he proposed extension of t he Crosstown Expressway in Hillsborough County. T h e ext ension of the C r osstown Ex press way was recommended in the MPO's 20 1 0 long range plan. The purpose of the extensio n was to e n hance mobility on the Florida I n trastate system for east-west interreg i onal traffic traveling through Brandon, much of it truck traffic, and to increase mobility be t ween Brandon and Tampa's ma jo r employment centers.' Aher several alternative align meots, the Expressway Au t hority sett led on an elevated extenslon that would run above the SR 60 Brandon corridor. SR 60 runs thrO\>gh tbe center o f Brandon, an unincorporated and primarily residen tial community east of Tampa, and the proposed elevated expressway would divide the community in half The Hillsborough CityCounty Planning Commission rejected the proposal as inconsistent wich the comprehensive plan. This decision was based on the Commis sion's efforts to prepare a Commun ity Design Element and a mid-range plan for Brandon that addressed visual appearance, enhancement of t h e bus iness district, and the overall function of the community Debates also centered on whether regional demand W

The Crosstown E xpressway extension raised valid t ransportation and community concerns t ha t ulti mately may be irre co ncilable in the absence of an accept ab l e alte rnati ve alignmen t Yet unde rlyi ng the confli ct is the reality tha t Bm ndon e volved as i t did c re ating access problems o n the r egio na l transportation network, b ec a use of the a bsence of a coordinated, long term approach to tran sportatio n and land use planning. Such a plan could have limited co mme rci al de velopm ent o n SR 60 encouraged d evelopm ent of an u rban core and s e parated neighborhoods from the impacts of regional t raffic. Citizen Oppasitilm Citizen. opposition is ano ther ob stacle to coordinatio n of land us e an d trans po rta tion Much of this opposition rela tes to locally u nwanted land uses, such as u rb an hi ghways, a i rports, and transi t lines-the phenomenon common l y referred t o as NIMBY. Yet citi7..en opposi tion is increasingly related to any physical changes perceived as a threat to "quality of life"in cluding m ixed use rezoning, road wideni ng, density increases, or as wi t nessed i n Sarasota County--develop ment in general (also k now n as BA NANA--Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anyone). The growing ski rmishe s over growth, says Architect Roge r L ewis, a r e "actually symp t o matic o f a fund amen ta lly flawed process f o r designin g t h e future built Lew is a ttributes the problem to t he l ack of a lo ng-mnge vision an d t h e reality t hat even visionary plans are profoun d !) diff icult to carry out and enforce. P la nning occurs in a cul t ural context of ind i vidua l autonomy and p ri vate property righrs, a po litical c ontext that strives for a demo cratic ideal, but lacks continuity i n leadership, and a legal com ext that thrives on conflict and is poody e qu i p p ed to address complex lan d decisions. TI'IUISJ101faliDn and Growtb MauagBliWII In th is context, c i tizen reactions to growth r e flect va lid concerns a b out the ability of pl anner s and public officials to preserve or enhance the qual ity of their Jiving environment. Public opposi t ion is most effectively addressed thro u gh community debate. T rade-offs must be c ommu nicat ed in terms of c os ts and benefits if citi zens a re to reach consensus on the level of service they a re willing to accept and t h e ty p e of communi t y they wish to creat e Yet land use or transportation initiativ es are oft en communicated through public hearings, f orcing the pub l ic into a reactive m o de. Excluding t h e publ i c f rom the p lanning and decision process, fuels public suspi cions and i ncreases the potential for public opp osition to p lanning proposals. Vision L ack of coordina tion betw een land use and t r ansport2cion relates to problems inhere n t i n the p lan n i ng and regula tory framework. O ther i s sues are i nstitut io nal or p olitica l in na ture The root of the problem, however, is the absence of a local or regional vision on how and w h ere growth sho u ld occur. Each community p re par e s a development plan in the context of i ts boundaries, w i t h little regional c o ordination of physical and econo mic development goals. Con si st en cy of land use is evaluated at the jurisdiction,s borders) but consistency o f land uses is an ambiguous t e rm. If lan d uses confli ct, which community's land use obj e ctives should tak e precedence? H ow should communi ties d eal with p hiloso phical d iff eren ces ove r how to gro w ? Fiscal motives may also confl ict with a long term vision i n z o ning or rezoning decisions. A community faced with a p roposal for a regional mall on the u rb an fringe, may be motiv ated more by the desire to crea te jobs and enhance t he local tax base, than whet he r the proposal is ,STATE TRAHSl'OIITAnDll POLICY rNmA11VE 59


so SfAT TRAHSPORTA11QH POIJCY IHmATIVB cons i s t ent with the comprehensive pla n or th e capa ci ty of availabl e infrastructur e Given declinin g State and federal funding, l ocal governments are increas i ngly motiva t e d to maximize their fiscal return i n land usedecisions. Lac k of visi on in comprehensive planojng efforts also relates to the lac k of attention to urban design issues. U rban design i s the clement most frequently m i ssing fr om the plan nin g proccss, yet i t i s fundamen ta l to the quality o f li f e issues that fuel citizen concerns o v er growt h S ome of the more effective u rban visions have c ombined urban design and econom ic co nsi d erations The c i ty of Swan > on F lorida s Treasure C o a st, bu i l t its plan n i n g efforts upon the qualities t hat cit i zeJlS prefer--qua l ities that re late to t h e c i ty's historic c harm Thro ugh design c h arettes, the City defined t hese qualities, determin ed existi ng thr e ats to its charac ter, a nd devised a plan and regulatory Tabla B scheme aimed at creating a l i v a ble, e conomically v ibrant community. Ef f ective vision s t ranslate broad based value s a nd individual preferences into specific action Strategies (see T a bles 8 and 9). T hey id entify t hose aspects of the communit y t hat resid e nts would like to p reserve, and those tha t they wish to change Design charettes .are effective because they tran slate citizen p references into a clear course o f action The res ul t is a plan t hat is accessible t o the p ublic, offe rs sho n and long term results and insp ires p ol i tic a l sup port. Economic devel opment, t ransportation planning organizational develop ment-all benefit from a visi onin g eff ort. The challeng e is acbieviog h arm o ny among what are somet imes conflicting visions. Stuart, Orlan d o and others across Florida are demonstrati n g that economic d eve lopment and growth manag e m e n t can go hand in h a nd, and t hat a coordinated A I'RliPffiEII TIIAJISPORTATIOH VISIDH FOR IIILLSBOliiJII6 COUNTY, FLORIDA V111Dtl Statement; There/$ a balanced rranspOJ" system linking regianwlde acrtvny .:snrm, with an emphasis on 1.111 of tht! UA'I'S S?(J)61isnce. GooJ., 1) Bulld a eommuti!'J' rail system 1n tht! Tampa Bay region 1n the future. 2) Build 8 trolley system which conneeu. Ybor City, downtown Tampa, and the Westshore area. 3) Mere loc:l1 Mid exprea buses in the futul'e with reduced headway& to S to J 0 mlnutes 4) ilt:'velop a vystem of feeder bU&eS to commut ers to raillr8.1Utt stalions. 5) Build 8 system of bibways which can be used for many bi,ps ondm-10 mile&. 6) Form lransportation demaJ'Id m.a.n.aQCms:n1 U&Odations (TMA&) in the Univcn;ity North area., Brandon., Canollwoocl RU&kin,. St. Petersbwg, Clearwater/Countryside, and Palm Harbor. 7) Ensure that stale growth management regulations re!aUve to coacurreru:y allow for mare intanse davelopme:nt and inJill pro}ects acknowledging that a more I:Movative way o( measuring levels of serrice on the highway systam is nacessary to achieve a more W'ban devclaprnent 8) Ameru:t land devc&opmenJ regulations to rcqWre \Mt b;a5ic and services are provided wi1hin lhe nf!W commwtity, eliminating the naoess:ity to travet'S8 th.e extamal road netwmt.. 9) Develop Unlon Station tnto the transporUUon hub of lh.e Bay area Wlth transfer points befween high speed rail, commuter rail tralJey cars and buses.. Additionally, ei\5\U'e that Union Station is equipped w ith shower facilities and b i cycle st0f'a98 facilities. 1 D) Provide multimodal transfer stations throughout th& urban area where buses rail automobiles, and b i cycles came tngethe:r. Additionally, provide services such u day cue and clry cleaning aJ these ssaticms. 1 1 ) Encou.r;.ge telework centers in QmjW\Ction with multimodal nnde:r stations to aUow employers the option of aUowing their employee$ to tclccommutc to work, reducing miles trtveUed during peak hOW'$.


vision is fundamental to creating l ivable, prospering communities. Ironical ly, State plonning requirements have been cited as a barrier to achieving vision in the local comprehensiv e plan. Inadequate fund i ng for planning efforts and the sho rt time fram e for preparatio n frequently resul ted in a cookbook ap proach to pl anning aimed more at "achieving compliance than establishing a Jong term vision. Sl In an eHort to incorporate visioning int o the local comprebell$ive planning process, the ELMS-ill Act added l:mguagc to Chapte r 163 enco u raging local govern ments to develop a vision for their comm unity based on tlteir desired future appearance and qua lities. Local governments are to review comprehensiv e pJans, land development regulations, and capital improvements programs ahe r their vision has been created to ensure that these instruments will lead the community toward its goal. Neighboring communi ties are encourag ed to participate i n creating a "greater-than-local" vision, especially those s haring natura l, physical, or economt c res ources. Some communities are already undertak ing local and regional visioning efforts. Palm Beach and Martin Counties have engaged in planning forum to identify alternative land use an d development scenarios that will reduce urban sprawl and make the most out of public facilities and services. The overall mission was to devel op a conccptuol pion for the future that counties and municipalities could use in guiding and coordin ating future growth. discussion sessions were held in August of 1993, a process that culminated in a greate r unders=d-Tolllo9 A PRIIPDSBD TRANSPOIITATIIIIf VISION P1lR TRIMBT, PORTLAND, OREGOH MWJon: Tha of TriMst (rh.oi'J'aiM transil fgCnq<) 1# M &a.W"a tnobUitr lor urowtitg, wt1an regiot1. Th following stn:tegia wppM"t tN mJiilfiHU 1 1 -bUipOrtalionli)'lMm roll&blllty an4-.....,.., ... ropWn ... 2 1 -ridership (.......Uy 200,000 110 690,000 rideos/dly by 2005;. l l Doaeaselhe-uooo ...t _....,.;t vddclos aod llvoo 'I'UOiinll ..U corridols wllh !Wo""" lA -6) In pa:tnership with other jurildlctiona1 help USW'I! that B S percent ol aD new growt.h within the: Urban Growth BoW\duy tl within a fi.vunh\ute waDe. of ma;:.t tf'anllt. Create lOmi:tntte co1'1'1dort: to lncnutiJ*Icl, ltcqu.cncy and reliability of sorvlco, to that a bus arrives avery 10 mlnu1M. Wodt with other jW'iAil;tions tJW bWisit is: vi.VIkD prcfmecl treatment oa roid&. locrwago car-ud roloo lrWIIil rsvenll8&. Pmide almostckl::lr-bdcwalinl.-lil:r'Wkll tD to taD IO.II\IMII-bQc cattdon. l)eoJa trtp.planlring -....sol 1rips ...t...,! liobot ---modo.. Cream aJtradive, pecllarian Uld. bib ca'tirwmen.ts. Succel5fut!y one ct IliON fuellecMolagies. Deve!'l' Purslolo i;.int clevelopmenl opportu.n.Uics at key transit statiorls. 61


62 ing of the issues and dialogu e toward reachlng consensus on a regional land use vision. The desired product of the forum will be a Strategic Growth and Develop ment Plan for the region. One method of encournging greater attention to vision in the planning process is through mapping build-<>ut, as it is currently prescribed i n the futu r e land use plan and zoning map. If this i s done on a countyv.r ide or multicoumy basis, it will provide a visual picture of where the region is heading based on the current planning and regulatory program. This will facil i tate identificat ion of potential problem areas and development of alternative scenarios The Palm Beach County and Marti n County efforts are examples of how communities have used alt.ernativc land use scenarios to coordi nate toward a countywide or multi .. county vision for future growth and development. Land Davelopmanl RagulaliDn Local regulatory systems in Flo r ida often fail to provide what the communi ty is trying to ach ieve from a policy perspec tive Commercial strips are a case in point. The dominant growt h pattern in Florida, especially in unincorporated count i es, has been large residen t ial subdivisions served by commercial corridors, where all trips are forced onto arterials for basic goods and services Although cluttered and congesred com mercia! strips top the list of the public's leaSt desir ed deve lopment patterns, the local planning and regu latory framework continues to prescribe them. The practice of strip zon ing major corridors for commetcial use is wide spread The primary reasons are accessi bility and the expedience of rezoning highway frontage for commercial use odd itionalland is needed. Contributing factors 3 r e the rigorous separation of land uses prescribed by conventional zoning and the absence of a coordinated ap proach to neighborhood plan11ing in deve loping suburban areas. Extension of utilities along highway rights of-,vay promotes this linear lan d use pattern, and commercial busjnesscs favor corridor loca tions because of the ready supply of drive-b) customers. Ye.t, as developm ent intensifies, the growing number of curb cuts and turni11g m o vements confl ict with the intended function of anerials --to move people and goods safe ly quickly, and efficiently. Unlike urban downtowns or activity centers, commercial strips are not de signed for pedeSirian or transit access. Commercial corridors, r esidential areas, and office parks are freq u ently sealed off from eac h other with wa ll s, ditches, load i ng docks and a host of other barri ers-including t he heavilytrnve lcd arterials that serve the m. Poorly coordinated access systems force mor e trips onto the arterial, traffic c o nflicts multiply, and congestion increases. As the level of service declines, a dditiona l lanes, controlled medians, and other expensive retr ofitting measures arc neede d to maintain t he capacity of the corridor for regional traffic Businesses also suffer as accessi bility deteriorates. The long term resu l t is functiona l deterio ration of the roadway and transformation of the commercial strip into a confusing jumble of signs, curb cuts utility lines, and asphalt. Yet these corridors are essential to moving people and goods. U l timately the entire cycle is dysfunc tionalusacrificing economic development, community character, and mobility object ives. Regulatory innovation and design solu tions are difficult to ad\-ance without strong leadership and support from state and l ocal elected officials. The thre at of litigation has unher constrained e.fforts to inn ovate or strengthen the loca l


r egulatory approach. Politica l opposit i on and legal threatS to access m.."Ulagemen t on bot h a state and local level, for exampl e are contributing to function a l deteriora tion of portions of the state hi ghway system. T h e courts are an ineffective forum for weighing these public policy decisions, which are b ecoming i nc reasin g complex. Pub l ic education and mediation activities are more effect i ve and less methods of improving coordinatio n i n these matter s A effort would h elp buil d public sup port for regulat ory innovation by e stab lish ing the re lation ship between public polic y aod t he app ropri ate tools for managin g a nd guiding urban growth. Clearly coordination of lan d use and transportation requires so und planning aJid strong Iota! regulatory authority over land development. In tum local govern ments must be encouraged to a p ply new regulatory tools including access manage ment and .flexible zoning to improve coordinat i o n between lan d development and regional mobility This will require a stronger partnership b etween State and local gover n ments in ca rrying out the intent of t he Florida Transportation P l an and s tate g row th man ageme!l t requirements Concurrency, Through Traffic, and Ragimlal Demand Although traffic conges t ion is a regional phe n omenon trnnsportatio.n con curren c y i s not coordinated on a regional basis. Substan tial variati on frequently exists io the method used for measuring level of service and managing cotlcur r ency across jurisdictions wit hin a single region. Judsdictions i n the Orland o metropolitan area, fo r example, exh i b i t a broad range of methods in LOS measurement and concurrency mano:tgcment sys tems Another limitation of tran sportation concurrency is the piecemeal app r oach to evaluating syste m performance. Under Traospwtdan and Gmwth />Wragemen/ the curre n t framework, Jocal govern ments divide their transport-ation net work into roodway links and intersec tions to m o nitor level of service and determine concurrency Mo s t commun i ties evaluat e level of service using a vol ume to capacity m tio that divides peak hour demand volume b y the maximum capacity of the roadway or intersection '!'hi s approach to ide n tifying and provid ing for roadway improvement needs presses local o fficials to reaet to cooges tion on specific l i nks or intersections. Thus i t has done litt l e to a ddress the relationships between regional develop ment trends and traffic congestion. It has also led to a narrow view of potential solutions, which revolve almost exclusive ly around building new roads, adding m ore lanes to an existing facility, or impro ving s ignaliz-ation The emphasis on supply strategies, without equal emphasis on managing demand has led to conflicts between transportatio n concurrency and other srate, regional, and local goals. Leapfrog development, con stra ints on urban in f ill a nd redevelopment, the threat of wide spread development morator i ums and destructi o n of comm unity c hara cter are among the major prob lems related to the tra n sportation concurrency framework. Some of these conflicts relate to the reliance of transportation concurrency on local solutions to transportation demand that is generated, in varying degrees, f rom outside t h e jurisdiction The amou nt of degradation on a system due to growth in throu gh t r affic is no t uniform It tends to be far higher in comm uni t ies situated on major tr anspor tation corridors or with crossroad s in several directions. Conununities tha t lie in the p ath of thro ugh traffic, and those in areas expe ri encing he avy tourism, are trul y constrainoo in their ability to m:1nage level of service and congestion Sf ATE TIWISPDI!TATION PO!JCY lllll'IA T1VB 63


STAft TIWISPORTA nO N PO!JCY llmlA 11Vl using strategies oimed at limiting land development. Major metropolitan oreos often experience substantial residential activity ln fringe ore:as, while core reos struggle t o meet the growing demond. Ormge County, for example, faced on some of its major thoroughf>res, wh1le ne. ighboring counties continued to perm .it building octivity along those Just across the border-increasing demand on those corridors. After extensive negotiations with the State, Orange County was allowed a 15 percent degradation of peak hour 1 raffie volume on iu constrained and bocklogged roadways. Nonetheless, the underlying problem remains. This issue reverberates across juri$diccioru in high growth oreos. Mrtin County is impacted by externa l development on the causeway and from adjacent co unties and their municipalities. On a smaJier, the Village of Tequesta in Palm Beach County is adversely impa c ted by develop ment approvls in Martin Cou n ty. The Martin County Commission considered the possibility of cost sharing with adj acent juri sdiclions to address d eve l op ment activity across the border that generates a need Cor transportation improvc:menu within Man in County. The city of Stuart, l ocate d off o f,US lnd the Florida Turnpike on Flonda s rnp1dly growing Tre-asure Coast, is dilemma in 1his regard. Through ns comprehensive planning effort,_ Stuart developed vision that emphaSius preserving its "old town charm. By enhancing community charact.r and supporting pedetrian-oriented this policy framework hos helped sumu late revitalization of the downtownwhich, say City offici a ls, is now nearing 100 perce .nt oecupncy Stuart is also ntarly built out and yet traffic on its roadways cont.inues to increase due to high grov ..-th in the sur rounding area, including Hutchinson Isbnd and Port St. Lucie to the north-a bedroom community that provides affordable housing for those who com mute into Stuart for work. Through traffic is also growing north/south via US. I and SR AlA and east-west along Monterey Roa d To address these pres sures, Stuart could expand its facilities. Yet to do so would undenrune the city's effons to enhance its historic character. Development moratoriums congested roadways would do little to reduce demand from exterm.Uy gener ated trips. This raises severu policy questions. What is a community's "'fair share" of a regional transportation problem? Should munici palities be required to increase local roadway capacity to accommodate gro"'1.h in the s urrounding region? How do we reco n ci l e road widening or poten tial m o ra to r iums with elfons to preserve commun ity c h aracte r o r downtown? Are local l i m i t s on lan d deve l opmen t eff e ctiv e in add r essing regiortal tra nsponatlon p r o blems? The transportation conc urren cy management area (fCMA) approach offers one o l temative. To quaufy for TCM A designation, on area must be a "compact geographic area with an network of r oads where muluple v1able alternative travel paths or modes are a>"1lilable for common trips. TCMAs provide relief from the need to increase lane capacity to meet peak hour demand ln urban downtowns and activity centers, provided the community engages in a comprehensive program for demnd. This may include congestJon management alternatives, like transit, transportation demand limitS on the number of parkmg spaces, :and pedes:crian circulation plans.


Yet the TCMA approach is reserved for "compact geographic areas with an existing nenvork of roads where multiple viable alternative travel paths or modes are available for common trips." This would not include linear problem areas, such as intense ly developed corridors, or the low density develop ment patterns typical of so many Florida communities. The TCMA policy also falls short of a regional or even citywide perspective. Cities and counties will have difficulty addressing congestion problems in activity centers through transit, TDM, and other trip reduct ion alternatives without a regional perspective of the problem and regional cooperation to ward a solution. Who pays? Conflicts over financing shared impacts have also arisen between large and small jurisdictions within m etropolitan areas. Officials in Orlando and Orange County expressed concerns that smaller ties have not contributed their fair share bec ause they have no transportation impact fees, continue to seek .annexation, and allow development to occur and spill off onto already constrained State high ways and County roads Counties may by referendum enact countywide impact fee sharing to address regional impacts. Yet a referendum to allow a countywide system o f impact fee sharing between unincorporated Orange County and irs municipalities failed. This has had a negative effect on the arterial network and has been a shortfall in efforts to develop an effective regional trnnsponation strategy. Only the DRl process provides an opportunity for f unding t ransportation impacts that cross county borders Without a carrot and stick approach it is doubtful that communiti es would enter interlocal agreements across county boundaries for impact fee sharing or concu rrency managemen t The severity of the local rransport.1tion deficit in some areas raises the need for expanded funding authority or a longer time frame for addressing mobility needs. T h e new long term concurrency manage ment area approach provided under the ELMS-111 Act has gone kr to address this previous shortcoming of the transporta tion concurrency framework St1ile LOS and funding conCI!J'JIS Funding and equity concerns surround t.he concurrency framework th at req uires cornmumttes to overcome a transporta tion deficit caused by decades of rapid growth and underfunding-particularly on Stale roads. Historically, much of the controversy related to the requirement tha t municipalities maintain level of service standards set by the F lorida Department of T mnsponation for State roads. These were set largely at LOS D in urban areas, LOS C in transitioning areas, and LOS B in rural areas. Municipalities were required to maintain these standards wherever feasible and provide adequate justification if not. Yet, because of growing regional demand, peak hour traffic congestion on major thoroughfares in metropo1itan areas has often exceeded the req u ired state level of service threshold. Peak hour traffic on the state system i n many large metropoli tan areas is often at LOS E or F The USI corridor on the Treasure Coast, for exampl e curre ntly operates at LOS E. The ELMS-lli Act has addressed this prob lem by providing local govern ments with authority to set their own level-of servic e standards on the State Highway System, except for roadways designated as part of the F lo rida Intrastate Highway System. Yet, from the state perspective, local planning and regulatory practi c e has exacerbated state funding backlogs. The tendency to strip zone major arterials for commercial use adequate STA11l ll!AmPDRTATWH PQJJCY JHmATIVE 65


66 controls has seriously undermined the level of service on m-any state roads, and interchange areas have exploded in the absence of subrea planning and develop ment controls. Concurrency has don e mu ch to h e lp increase recognition of tho relationship between development decisions and tnmsponation ment needs. eon ...... oJ ama11 toWZI5' aud mra1.,... The concurrency framewor k poses special problems for small towns and rural areas. The city of Chipley is a small community in Washington Co unty that developed on the intcncction of two State roads. When the community received a request to l ocate a discount re tail store south of th e main int ersection, officia l s found that one regional discount store co u ld consume a large amount of the city's roadway capacity. A few more projects of similar intensity and Chipley could reach iu capacity limit. With no right of way to expand its tw o l ane road downtown, a propose d alt ern tive is a bypass that would bypass the downtown business district. Such a solution would be cost prohibitive, and the city i.s reluctant to remove pass-by traffic from the downtown area-for obvious economic reasons. Funherm ore, a by-pass may not be the mOSt d! Plnning Cou ncils, in identifying reason able alternatives to meeting their trans portation mobility needs. They should be assisted with developing alternative modes of tran sponation appropriate to their size and circumstances. They should be encouraged to take risks and use creative planning and regulatory ap preaches. Concurrency management in rural areas is perhaps less pr=ing than in areas experiencing rapid growth. It is crucial, however, for small and rura l comm unities to build their capacity tO p l an and guide future development. Th e time to address pbnning considerations i s before prob l ems occ ur. Rural areas have the advantage of being able to capitali ze on the mistakes and solutions of other> and preserve their character, envir onment, and prosperity as they grow. Yet they "'qu ire assisu.nce with developing planning nd regulatory sySiems that are appropriate given their adminiStrative capacity. Toward a more Daxlb le approach These issues ill ustrate some o f the practi col problems of the tran sportation conc urrency framework Clearly, traffic is not confined to a specific link or imerstion. Nor do transportation systems end at the county or municipal boundary. Yet in monitoring level of service for concurrency 1 local goVern ments stop at these artjficiallines. In this co n text, the relationship between regional develo pment trends and movemem of traffic has been largely neglected Califo rnia allow s counties to exemp t extemally-generated trips from LOS when preporing co ngestion management plans. Yet this has been raised as a major shortcoming of their congestio n management legislation. Rather, some transp ort:;ation profession:;als in Florida are recomm ending that portation concu rrency managcmem s hould be mov i ng toward a regional or syste mwide approa c h Transportation conc urrency could b e defined o n a corridor or systemwi de basis, or within the context of the long range transport tion plan. The planning approach would define the region's long range transporta tion plan as the "adequuc public facility for transportation concurrency manage ment;51 The rationale is that a regional or


systemwide vie w is essenc.ial if we a(e to effectively coordinate the benefits of other efforts such as transportation demand managemen t and transit. A transportation concurrency manage ment system proposed for San Diego, California was bsed on two strateg ies: a 20yea r horizon for attaining pre ferre d levels of service to avoid moratoriums and areawide level-of-service averaging to allow deficient levels of service in inten sive urban areas to be offset by excess capacity in other areas. This approac h has been praised for recogni zing that correcting infrastructu r e deficie n cies and providing capacity to serVe new growth typically requires a long horizon and community-wide approach. Recognizing problems inherent in the transportation concurrency framework, ELMS-III proposed several revisions aimed at i ncreasing flexibility. The bill includes provisions aimed at reducing barriers to urban infill development and redevelopment caused by transportation concurrency and to accommodate transit TDM, imd other ways of enhancing mob ility. Local governments are required to establish guidelines for granting these exemptions, which are permitted only if th e development is consiste nt with th e comprehensive plan and either promotes public t ransportation or is i n an area designated in the p l an for in fill, redevel opment, or downt o wn revltilization. Communities a re also offered relief from the periodic site specific con ge stion caused by specia l events. The b i ll also increases local flexibility in managing concurrency on State road ways. For all roads on the State Hig hway System other than those designated as p art of the Florida Intrastate Highway System, local governments may "establish an adequate LOS standard that need not be consistent with any level-of-service standard established by the DOT" (Sec. 163.J180(5][d]. Transportation Concurrency Manage ment Area. were written into legislation as another flexible application of transporta tion concurrency, for the purpose of promoting u rban infilland redevelop ment. TCMAs are to be identified in the local comprehensive p l an and may only b e applied in a "compact geographic areas with an existing network of roads where multiple, viable alternative travel pa ths or modes are availa ble for comn1on trips." Local governments may establish areawide levels of service standards for t .rv.utsportauon concurrency management areas based upon "an analysis that pro vides for a justification for the areawide level of service, how u rban infill develop mentor redevelopment will be promoted, and how mobili ty will be ae<:om plishcd. ... The legislation provides a three-year time frame for bringing transportation facilit ie s on line, but provides for a lo nger te rm concurrency management system with -a p lan ning period of up to 10 years for specially-designated distri cts where significant backlogs exist. 1bese must be adopted as part of the comprehensive plan. Communities may adopt incerirn level of service standards on facilities and may rely on a 10-year schedule of capital impro vements as a basis for issuing development permits in these d i stricts. The pro vi sions allow extension of the long term concurrency mana ge men t system to 15 years depending upon: the extent of the backlog; whether the backlog is on local or Stat<; roads; the cost of eliminating the backlog; and the local government's tax and o t her revenue raising efforts. STA1B 'lliAiiSPIJIITA noN POIJCY IHITIA nVE 67


-sa STATE 111ANSPORTA'nOM POLitY D if transit facilities are evaluated for roadway concurrency, then a consistent application would suggest that roadway projects also be eval uated for their impact on adjacent road segments. For example, if a new highway redistributes enough traffic onto crossroads to vio late the level -ofservice standards on those roads, shollld the new highway be required to mitigate those impacts? Clearly, this ":ould be an absurd interpretation of the t.ransporta tion concurrency rul e. Part of the problem is that t ransportation concurrency, as it is statu t ori l y defined addresses transportation facilities in terms of roadways and defines transportation concurrency in terms of highway level of service. Even tr3nsportation con.currency exceptions for urban infill and redevelop ment projects. provided by the new ELMS-111l cgislation, pertain only to roadway concurrency exceptions. The overlooked fact is that public mass transit facilities, such as bus and rail stations, are as much a part of t he urban transporu tion system as are interc hanges of lim i ted access highways. Given that both transi t and highways provide transportation service, why i s transi t treated as a cause of congestion, rather than a solution?


Roadway concurrency evaluation should be revised to recognize that public mass transit s uch as rail stations, transit depots, bus stations, and park-and ride facilities are all part of the roadway traffic congestion solution, not part of t he problem. This conclusion is consistent with the original intent of transportation concurrency, to ensure that transporta tion facili ties are available to address the impacts of land development. Coastal Development Almost 80 percent of Florida resid e nts currently live in the 35 coastal counties which comprise the "coastal zone .. for planning and coastal resource manage ment purpose s (Chapter 380.205[3], F.S., as amended by the ELMS-III legislation). Beach property is among the m ost demanded real estate in Florida. Yet hurricanes, tropical storms an d shoreline erosion pose a serious threat to public and private investmen t in these areas. Most of Charlotte County's shoreline, for exam pie, is zoned for residential use. Yet there is continual shoreline crosjon, both gradually and drastically during a storm. According to the 1987 Coastol Manage m ent Element of the Charlotte County Comprehensive Plan, property values th r e atened by erosion exceed S31 million Beach renourishmcn t is costly, and the effects are generally not permanent. Paths of storms are unpredicta ble. Fl ori da in its entirety is storm prone, but coasta l areas a re particularly risky due to the combination o f high wind and flood ing. The vulnerability of F lorida 's coastal areas was most vividly illustrated by Hurricane Andrew in August 1992, which dislocated over 200,000 people and destroyed over 85,000 businesses. Flood damages were estimated at $25 billion. Access and commu n ication to some areas were cut off for weeks. The clean-up and restor ation continue one year later. Hurricane evacuatio n is vital ly imponant to southwest F lorida. The region is more vulnerable to storm surge than anywhere else in the state. The extent of hurricane storm surge inundation has been plotted in the "Hurricane Storm Tide Atlas for Lee Co u nty : prepared by the Southwest F lorida Regional Planning Co uncil; based upon the category of the h urricane and a number of other variables. Depending upon the path and intensity of the storm, the Atlas shows tha t any a rea along coastol Lee County could experience flooding f,r several miles inland, in many cases as far inland as 1-75. Evacuation times depend upon the density and magnitude of the endangered population as well as the transportation system used for evacuation purposes. Lee County has among t h e longest estimated evacuation times in t h e state. The region a l goal for evacuation times in Southwest Florida is to restore the evacuation times to 1985levels by 1995 and to not exceed an evacl!lltion time of 18 hours for the entire region by 2010-'' The Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council id e nti f ied a n u mber of problems in achieving this goal. In some coastal counties in the region evacuation times for a Category I storm, which is the category of least intens ity can exceed 26 hours. Rezoning and rebuilding applica tioos are not reviewed for t heir impacts on evacuation routes and times. Evacuees, many of whom a re new to Florida, may have little experience with hurricane evacuat1on. Mobile home areas are of particular concern because of thei r high vulnerabil icy to strong winds and the potential for building materials from destroyed homes to turn into flying debris. Inland Florida counties must not only consider people evacuating inland, but also th eir own populations must evacuate because of the high p ercentage of people living in mobile STAlE 'liiA!ISPDRTAntlN P

,STATE TRAHSl'ORTAnON POIJCY 1HI'I1ATIV! 70 homes In 1987, for example, almost 4 4 perce n t of Glades County residents lived in mobile homes or recreational vehi cles.!> The highway map of southwest Florida revea1s fev.r alternatives for evacuating low ground. 1-75 northbound follows the coastline and leads motorists toward and alongside the coast in Sarasota County up toward the storm-prone Tampa Bay area, which itself has among the longest evacuatio n times in the state The Cape Haze Peninsula in Charlotte County is especiall y vulnerab le. Undergoing continuing resident i al building, much of it advertised as luxury single. family and condominium development this area is served by j ust two routes off the peninsu la --U. S 41, which hugs the shoreline as it leads to the Tampa Bay area, and State Route 776, which is a two lane bridge as it crosses over the Myakka River to the mainla nd. There are many such bott lefl;un 4 necks in coasta l areas across the state. Evacuation routes themselves may flood in the event of heavy rainfall prior to the hurricane (see Figure 4). This discussion raises some questions: What is the exte n t o f government responsibility to protect the public in these matters? What should the public reason ably expect? The more government tries to protect the public, the more the pub lic expects to be protected not only from unavoidable danger, but also from their own decisions. In this case, it is the decision to locate in a storm prone area with full expectation of safe evacuation in the eve-nt of a disaster and post-disaster emergency serv1ces. New l egis l a t ive sessions spawn new prepa r edness i nitiatives, especially foll ow ing major storms. The 1993 legi slative amendments included a number of bills to address disaster planning For examp l e lllllllllCAHE EVACUATION ROUTES SUBJECT TO PLOOIIIN1I Evacuation route-segnlents p rone to flooding ScMoat: Sou fllwut Jf.gioa.J Plurllillg CoW\dl, Huni12tao neu.atioa Srud.y Updaift, 1987 TroMpOZtalion and Gmwlh Manapmant


CS/CS/HB 911, resulting from the Governor's Disaster Planning andResponse Review Committee, requires t h e p reparation of a State emergency manag e ment plan to coordinate resources. It will address government agency coordination, evacuation, shelter> communication, provision of food and medical supplie s and othet items. A lth ough the plan is intcndcd to mini mize public expenditures, plan prepara tio n is to be funded by surcharges on prop e rty i nsu ran ce policies, totaling approximately $12,700,000. It was an ticipa ted that costs of p lan preparation may ex cee d r even ues by approximately S3,060,000. Because not all property owners with insurance policies Ji\re on the b each, the total insmed population is s u bsidizing hurricane protection for those choosing to liv e on the beach. A spokesman of A.M Best Company, which rates t he finan cial health of i n s u r ance companies said that Florida resi dents have enjoyed unrealistically low p riced homeown e r' s insurance for decades." M a n y la rger insu rers hav e since i ncre ased thejr premiums 20 to 35 percent While illSurance companies have paid more thon S 15 billion for rebuilding after Hurricane Andrew, many i nsu rance companies have e ith er moved their business out o f F lori da or b e com e insol vent Because the State guarantees insurance policies, t h e taxpayers may be left foo tin g part of the bill." The prob le m of subsidized c oastal living goes beyond the state of Florida to the N atio nal F lood Insurance Program ( NFIP) Hom eo wner 's insurance policies do no t cover floodi ng Separate polici e s must be obtained through the N FIP The or igin al concept o f the National Flood Insun>nce Act of 1968 was two f old : to help coastal communities r ec over from flood devastation and to impose building e le vation requ i r ements u pon coa stal redevelopment, as established by the Fede. ral Emergenc y M anagement Agency. While the bu ilding elevations have r educed flood the combination of floo d insurance, disaste r relief and flood control structures have had the u n intended effect of enc o uraging n ew development in flood p rone areas." Presently, insurance rates to individ ual coast a l p rop erty owners a re low, while the t rue cost burden of disaster r elief is greater and is paid for b y the state and the nation as a whole. Additionally, recon struction after a disaster is often similar to that which was originally there. While many Flo ridian s a re now being denied homeowners insurance, t h e rebuilding continues. Many resi d en t s ;are replacing their destroyed homes with ones that are m ore expensive than b efore. The community of Homest ead is re b u ilding much the way it was p rior to Hurri cane Andrew Nationwide, examp le s can be fou nd in which comm unities rebu i ld in the same disaster-prone areas. Observ ers of disaster aftermaths note a strong psyc hological need to r e build exactly the way it was prior to the disaster.s9 Al t h ough it remains certain that severe s torms and hurricanes will h i t F lorida no one knows exactly when 2nd where t hey will h i t. This uncertainty about the octual de gree of d anger has resu lted i n a lack of i ndividual conviction t o avoid these areas. Most urb an develo pment in Charlo tte County is within the Hurricane Vulner a bi lity Zone (t h e 100-year hurric211e flood zone). S o me of this is comp rised of older development that does not conform to minimum s tan dards for grou nd floor elevations. Approximate l y 43 perce n t of t he dwelling u n its were built befo re 1974, p rior to the County's p articipation in the Noti o nal Flood Insurance Program. The County's zoning regulations for non conforming uses require any struct u re that ,STATE TRANSPilliTATIIIII POLICY lHinAnVE 71


72 STATE TIW!SPOIITATIQH POLICY IHmATIVE undertoes substantial improvement or en largement (exceeding 50 p e r cent of the origi nal enclosed a rea) t o eleva te the lowest hab itable floor to th e lOOyear flood l evel as speci fied on Flood lnsur ance Rate Ma p s. The re are approximately 300,000 p latted lots in Charlotte County, most of whic h are platt ed at four l ots per acre. Accord ing to t he g rowth management strategy o f t he Future Land Use E l e ment i ntens ive. res-idential and associated commercial development should be d i rected to the Urban S ervice Area. Tbe County's Urban Service Aie a bas been defined bas ed upon existing patterns of develop ment a nd p ub l ic f a c ility prov i si ons with in the Coun ty and t he City. A r e v iew of t h e l ocations for the Urb an Service Area and the Hurricane Vulnerabi lit y Zone show that these area s generally o verla p. W hile it may b e difficult to reverse t he effects of prior p u bli c facility prov i sion, t he purpose of growt h management i s to attempt to a lte r ex isting patterns of d e ve lopmen t t.hat are u nw i se. The Charl otte County Coasta l Manage m ent E l eme n t identified that there has been no formal mec h ani s m in p lac e for the rev i ew o f su b DRI devel opmen t projects as t o their impact o n disaster preparedness and h urrican e evac u ation routes. The Coasta l Element present s an e x ce lle nt d iscu ssio n of grov.rth manage m e .nc techniques to r educe risks to li fe and propeJt.y, including land acq uis i tion plan n i ng and zoning, fi scal poli c i es, pub li c improvements, t ransfer of deve lop ment right s (rDR) and envi ronme n ta l controls. Charlotte Co unty' s survey of t he u se of t h ese techniques across fou r southwest Florida count ie s and t heir municipal itie s i nd icates that acquisition, public improve ments TORs, and fiscal policies are generally not used while en vironmem.l controls and planning and zoning are usc..-d or pro moted f or use.60 Hov.ever, env i ron m e ntal contr ols, such as mini mum building elevations a nd storage ca pa c itie s i n drainageways have not l i mi t ed deve lopmen t in d te hurricane floo d zone. T h e Coast a l E l ement l ists lan d uses that sho uld be discou r aged i n high hazard areas, including mode r ate and high d e n sity residential deve lop ment, commer cial and industrial deve lopmen t school s and ut i lity developmellt. Encouraged uses include water dependent commercial ind ustri.l and tourist de velopme nt, agriculture and estate housillg (from one unit per five acres to two u nits per a c re), While n o mention is made o f low d en s ity residen t ial d evelopme n t (one to five units per a cre), a review of th e lan d u se map shows t h at the vast majority of land within both the urban service area and the hurricane vulnerability zone is lo w density r esidential If these low density residen tia l areas were to d evelo p according to the e x isting trend, exte n s iv e homebu i l ding on one qua rte r acre l ots will occu r I t appears t ha t a bu ild out scenari o o f low densit y residen tial deve l opment, as Charlott e County define s it, wou ld r esult in a la rge n um ber of new residents requiring evacuation in the event of an emergency. A review of the ava il a b l e h urrican e evacuation routes i n the a rea i nd icates few option s. State requ irements for the coast.l manage me n t clement of the loca l government compreh en siv e p l an establish go als to restr ict deve l opment activities where appropriate to protect human l ife, l imi t pu bli c expe nd itu res and prote<:t natu ral coastal resourc es. Al l loca l gov ernments locat ed i n the coa stal zone (abutting t he Gulf of Mex i co or t he Atlan t i c Ocean) must prepare a coastal managemen t clement that contain s a co mp o n ent outlining principles of hazard mitiga tion and population e vacuat ion and a redevel-


opment component containing p rinciples for eliminating unsafe development when opportu n ities arise (Cha pter 163.3178(2], F.S.). The coastal managemen t element must also contain specific objectives promo t ing the above g oals. These must include an objective to prepare post-disaster redevel opm ent p lans that will reduce exposure of human life a nd property to na tura l hazards and an objective to direct popula tio.n concentrations away from known or p redicte d coastal high hazard areas. The 1993legi slative amend ments simplified the def ini t ion of "coastal high haz ard are a to mean the area requiring evacua ti on during a Category 1 hurricane as defined by the Regional P l anning Coun cil's hurr icane evacu ation study for that local government. Rul e 9J-5.012, F.A.C also identifies required policie s to carry out the above r equired objectives. These policies incl u de the iden ti fication of regulatiom or management techniques for: limiting developmen t i n coast al h igh hazard areas, and relocating or replacing inf rastructu r e away fro m these areas. The 9J-5 draft ru le s p ropos e to amend this policy to reflec t 1993 legislative c hanges t o C hapter 163.3178, F.S., emphasizing t hat application of mitigati on and redev el opment policies will be at t h e d i scretio n of local governmen t. Rule 9J5 also in cludes a policy to identify r egulatory or management tech n iques for post-disaster redevel o pm ent, inc luding how to limit redevelopment in a reas of repeated damage. Again, 9} draft revisions i nclude emphasis that the i dentification of such po l icies ar e based on locally d e t er mined criteria and a pp r opr iaten ess T h e ELMSIll Final Report cites that no local government bas thus f a r p repared a post-

The St.te Comprehensive P lan, Chapter 187, F.S. contains several goals and pol icies that pertain to storm a nd flood h a zards With t he exception ofT ourism, all of the State goals listed in Table 10 promote efforts to roin.irojze development i(Upacts o n the sensitive coastal environ ment and protect pu b lic safety by discouraging development in coast al high hazard areas Tourism is a major part of t he economy of Florida. T h e implementing p ol icy of the tourism goal to s upport tour ism in those areas of the state desiring to attrac t to urists, conflicts with the other srate goals bec;.--ause most locations att ract ing visitors are the coasta l a reas STATE TIWiSPORTATiliN POLICY JMnADVE Ti le 1993\ egis lativ e amendments to Chapter 186, F.S created the Strategic Gro"'th and Development Plan to give strategi c guidance for implementing the state compre hensive plan. Among several items, the Strategic a nd Develop ment Plan must estab l ish priorities regarding coasta l p lanning and resou rce management, as ELMS -In recommended, and must provide guideli n e s for determin ing where urban gro"'th is a p p rop riate and should be encouraged. Thi s is an Tabla 10 STATE PLAHNING BOALS AND PIIIJCIES RELATED TO COASTAL MAHAGEHENT TGUrism; Florida wW attract at least 55 tourist& llfVI.lWiy by 1995 and chaD suwort effcuu by all areas of the sta.ta wishing lO dewlap or expand touris,.,elahld ot011omleo. llne po)Jcy to imp!.,..t this goo) is 10 promote statewide touriim end SIIJliiOit promotional effort& iD t hof;e parts o( t1w state lh:rt desire 10 attract vls1tott. Publit: Saftty: f1tuicla sbaU the pubUc by protect1ng lives and property from natunl and manmade disutcn Potides pcrta.l.n:Lng to this goal include ths requiremsnllhat local govemme:nts, in ooopention with ngional and &tats agend.c$1 'P1"JPQJ'e advanee plans far the safe evacuation of cOalltal and a.dq)t plans and policies to protsct public and private and human Uves from lhe effscts of natur9l disuters. Watvr JI.OG012ft:llill: florida shall maintain the functions of natural system&. PolicW& fD this goal iJ\cludo the di!lcouragarnent of divBf'Sio:n, or d:am.ming ol natural riverine systems and antOU.raginiJ dtvelopment of a scrld management by state and local govarnme:nts that preserves hydrologically signif1canl wetlaru!s and other natural flood plain features. Coutal and Marina Rsavnrc:as: Florida sbal.leru;uro that clevclopme:l'll and marine reSOW"ta usa and beech acC888 improvc:mcmt& in coastal areas do Dol: endangltr public safety or Important n atural resowtes. PoliciBS implementing th1i: goal indude thB ol J:tlte fund expenditures that subsidize dsvelopnumt in hiQhhU4l"d ccwtal areu, encouraging land and water t.1$U5 whi.c:h IU'e ble wi1h the prot ection of ssnsitiva mast&l J'tiSOUJ'CICS, and protecttng and restoring the ecological fWidions ol wetlands systmts to ensure their long--tmn environmmtal, 8o:lnomic, W n:creational value. Land U&a: Davelapme:nt shall b e d.i:rccted to th.o:;e ueas which hava in place or have agrem'leats to pravlde,lha land and watar resources, fiscal abilili6& 8l1d SCtVite capacity to accommodate growth in an cnviron.l'Nintally a.cceptable mamt21". A policy pertaining' t o Rooding is to coM:idCT, in Jand use regulation, of land we em water quality and quantity the ava11nbWty o( land .. wa.IBr IUid oOwr mtUNJ resources to meet demands, and ths fot Doodlng. Florida shall direct ll'anspOrtatloa lmprovements to aid in tM management of arowth and shall have a state transportation sys:tsm that ini8Vf9W& highway, air, mans trarlstt and other transportation modes. Ons poliey pcnains to "orm.llazank Is to a void tnw;portation improvements which eocourage OJ' subsidil8 inc.:r8a&cd dsvclopmcnt in coutul ttlghhaurd areas Of' in ide:ntified enviroNt'lentally gensiJ:1va areas such as wstlaods, Ooodway;, or productiv;t a.teas. 75


7& STATE TRAHSPORT A T10H POLU:Y OOTlA TlVE opportunity for c hanges to be made in t h e state Restricting coasta l lan d devel opment, as promoted in the state growt h management legislation, is difficult in part because of the large degree of vested property in storm-p rone areas. Cape Coral, the largest city in U:c County, is an example of a veste d and p latt e d com munity bu ilt upon very low and wet land prior to coa sta l management. T here are over 400 miles of drainage canals through out the c ity that w ere dredged to make the surrounding ground high enough to bu i ld upon. The p l atted l and w ith its circuitous resid e ntial streets and c anal system represents an area wlth few options for improving traffic flow and enhanc ing evacuation Des p ite circum stances like these. many people continue to move to F lorida with the intent of l iving on the coast or ncar coastal areas. Due to the l'.ay transponatlon concurre ncy is accomp lished in F lorida urban areas th e provision of increased roadway capac ity provi des for addi t ional development in these a r eas. The 1 993 amendments to Chapter 339. 1 75, F.S. designated a mobility element to include an evaluation of the capability to evacuote coasta l populations prior to an impending natural disaster The initial goal should be to minirnize the need for expanding roadways and adding new corridors in hazardous areas throug h deve l opment restrictions. More of the e cost of coastal development, including enhanced transportation facilities for successful evacuat ion, should be borne b y those choosing to l ocate in coastal areas. Devel opment controls s houl d be strictly en forced and subsidizing development through insurance and disaster relief s hould be corefully reconsidered. Coastal communities must difficult trade-offs between allowing waterfront development in hazardous an:as, which contributes to the economy in the short run, and coastal development, bec a use of the r i sk to property and human life At t his t i me, some commu n i ties are choosing the short -run benefits of waterfront development a nd not applyi ng land use planning, zoni ng. and other tools reducing the risks in flood prone areas to the extent tbat State goals pre scribe. While re<:cnt legislative changes resulting from ELMS-lll have made strides in the recog n i t ion that restricti ng coastal devel opment can help to minimize public expenditures and risks to sa fety and property damage, more action is needed. The prospe ct of short -run economic benefits must b e adequ ately weighed against infrastruc ture investments and local development decisions that will ensure community prosperity over t h e long run Highway improvementS t hat provide adeq uate eva(..'\lat io n capacity, for examp l e. will be effective only if accom panied by develo pmen t control s. It is evident. lhat coastal c o mmunities can make fuller use of lan d use planning, land development regulation and other tools to re d uce t h e risk to t he publ i c and pr eser v e the resources es.t;ential to contin t1ed tourism .and long term eco-. nomiC prospcnty.


Intergovernmental Coordination The o verriding conclusion of the many individuals interviewed for thi s study w.s that intergover nm ental on land use and =porunion U.Ues occurs on a staff level, but frequently deteriorates on a political level. Coordination and consistency problems across jurisdictions tended to relate to p hilosophical differences over how to grow, and regional compet ition over enhan c in g the local tax base. On a regional level, several officials were critical of the lack of coordinat i on between regional planning counci l s and metropolitan planning ort-t.niz.ations on land use and transportation issues. Regional Planning l'.ouru:ila Florida's first regiona l planning entities were crea ted in 1972 under Chapter 380, the Environmen tal L a nd and Water ManA-gement Ac t, to carry out Develop ment of Regional Impa ct review. Their respoMihilities included reviewing local DR! proposals, iden tifying any negative impacts on the region and recommend ing changes to mitigate impcu. They were also given auth ority to appeal development orders to the Suite Adminis trative Commission With the 1985 Planning and Growth Management Act the role of RPCs was expanded. Although they retained their role in DR! review, t hey were also to engage i n regio n al planning and serve as a regional forum for coordinating planning and growth management and resolving lOClll and regional disputes ($Ce Tble 9). Under the statutory framework, regional planning councils were to facilitate intergove rnmental coordinatjon; serve as a regional clearinghouse for federally assisted projects; provide technical ta11ce on planning and growth manage ment; assist with emergency manageJncnt planning; set regional goals and policies; assist with DR! review; coordina te land use information and data collection; and mediate conflicts between local govem ?"ents on planning and development J.Srue$, Each RPC was to prepare a co mpre hen sive reg iona l policy p lan that translated State goals int o a regional p olicy frame work that w o uld guid e local comprehen sive planning and growth management. The pions were to address s ignificant regional resources, infras[.ructure needs, other U.Ues deemed important to the region, and regional U.Ues for use in reviewing ORis. In tum, local compre hensive plan s were to oddress aU regi. onal policies re l evant to local circumstances. The RPC' s ro l e in plan rcvie'l)' was to ensure consi stency o f local comprehen s ive plans wid the r

STATE TllAHSI'UJITAnDN ,. PDIJCY lHlllATIVB MPOs. For those municipalities outside MPO boundaries RPCs ma y also assist in developing the transportation element of local comprehensive plans. RPCs have set planning standards and policies that are re g ulatory i n nature even though their statutorily defined role is nonreguhuory in natun! and 78 Conlnlvenry and C

should transition themse lves away from being a regu l atory agency that hammers developers on DRis to an agency that facilitates and accommodates responsible urban g r owth. They need to become technical resources for local governments and consensus-building vehicles. They should do t hings lik e define wher e urban boundaries and service areas should be, and in that context you could build an effective urban transportation strategy that fits i n with that vision and that consensus o f where we'r e going." Despite general dissatisfaction with t h e appeal authority o f RPCs, some support was expressed for a regional role in development review. "\VIe recognize that local governm e nts are sometinles too close to the development process to be able to say no .... Regions can make the toug h recommendations," said one loca l official. Concerns were raised tha t rescinding the authority of RPCs to appeal DR!s may reduce their effective ness in resolving disputes. "If w e don't a ppeal or have the right t o appeal, I don't know how we'll effectively negotiate," said one regional planner. A case i n point was the Southwest Florida RPC's interventio n on behalf of Punta Gorda on a proposed pipeline th at would have run from Tampa to Lee Cottnty directly t hrough the City's watershed. Because of the RPC' s efforts, an agree ment was r eached to move the pipelin e In this instance, the Deearcment of Community Affairs had ta ken the posi tion that the pipeline was not a ORland thus the problem may otherwise not h.- e been resolved. An advantage of RPCs is their ability to provide efficiency and economy in addressing p roblems commo n to many communities. Examples of projectS or serv ices suggested as app rop riate f o r an RPC included preparing model ordi nances; geograph ic inf ormation systems and mapping; development of hazardous w a ste management guidelines; preparing hurricane evacuation plans; assisting in development negotiations; and studies of sit ing locall y unwanted land uses, such as landfills or hazardous waste transfer sites. The Treasure Coast Regionall'!ann .ing Council provides planning services to local governments, which typically canno t afford to retain a f ull range of expertise on staff-especially in the area of urban design. To accomplish this objec tive, th e Executive Directo r limited the number of s taf f instead focusing resourc es on pro,iding high salaries to attract experienced professionals. A mu ltidisc iplinary team of experts was assembled to c arty out comprehensive analysis of complex planning problems induding ecologists, transportatio n system planners architects/ urban design ers) economists, and urban p lanners. "We're the only agenc y that looks at problems comprehensively," said Ex ecu tive Director Daniel Cary. The West Florida Regional Planning Council (WFRPC), wh.ich serves commu n ities in Florida 's Panha11dle, is freque n tly called upon for technica l assist:mce. WFRPC serves as the MPO staff for Fort Walton P anama City, and Pensacola. Several local governments bad also con t r a cted with t he W FR PC to prepa re thei r comprehensive plans because they had no planning staff. The WFRPC works week ly wit h about eight communities and answers month ly requests for special pro j ects from about fou r to five others. The region also assists qualify i ng local governments in obtaining affordable housing assistance from the SHIP program and offers to administer the SHIP program to encourage participatiOn. Rural counties and several of the smaller cities in Flori da's Panhandle have little l ocal p lan ning capacity. Holmes County, ,SfAT TlWm'DRTAnON POlJCY IHit1ATIVE 79


Sf ATE 'lllAHSPORTAnDM POtJCY 1HmA. TrY! 80 for example, has a planning commission that mcx:ts sporadically, a building offic i al, and one administrative assi stant. In the city of Boni f ay, the City Coun ci l acts as the P lann ing Commission and t he C ity Clerk pro vides planning services. In some of these co mmunities the WFRPC has been called upon to perform daily planning and administration activitiesincludin g answering d evelopment ques t i ons. T h e .se activities are carried out b y the r egion 's comprehensive planning director on the l imited plan review and technica l assistance budget. The cost of p lan amendments has been a serious constr amt WFRPC noted t hat turnover of l ocal elected o fficial s has caused setback s for the planning effort, because of the need for reeducation and lack of continuity in leadership. To help fill this gap, t he RPC has conducted workshops to fami liarize new officials wi t h the p lan ning and growth management requ irem ents. They a l so have established a toll free telephone numb e r that citizens, officials, and develope r s can call if t h ey have q u est i ons or issues. The outreach effort has he lpe d generate support for planning, red u ces c i tizen opposition, and hel ps build re lationsh ips between regional and local staff-a f a ctor that sraff feel has helped i n crease t heir effectiveness They recom mend a continued outreach role and additional State funding to assist with t his effort. ELHS-m amtmdmaniB In 1992, strong d i ssatisfaction wit h how some RPCs wer e i n te rpreti ng their role culmi n ated i n adop tion of Chapter 92 182, auth o rizing the legislature to "sun s et" RPCs as of Sep t ember I 1993. ELMSll1and ACIR were charged with reviewing the role of RP Cs and either to address t h e l e g isla t ive proposal to sunse t t h em entirely, or r ecommend statutory changes to en hance that ro le The recorn mendations of ELMS-Ill resisted sunsetting RPCs and instead revi s ed their role. The emphasis was o n elimina t ing the quasi -r egu l atory func t ions o f RPCs and instead emphasizing their role in promoting intergovernmental co o rdina tion. er1suring regional consistency of lan d use and t ra nsportat i o n planning, and mediating p lannin g and development d i sputes. T he amendments prohibited RPCs from performing quasi-regu latory functions or setting binding level of serv i ce standards for local facilities. RPCs retained authori ty to propose objections, recomm enda tions, o r comments on local plans or plan amendme n ts, but may no longe r directly a p peal DR! development orders and thei r rol e in DRI review was restricted until the DR! process is terminated The new rev i ew criteria provide that RPCs may only address state and regional resources and i mpacts on adjacent j u risdic ti o n s in rev i ew of DR!s. T he amendments provide an expedited revi ew process for those DRI's deemed consiste n t with the local compre h ensive plan, l i m it req u ests for additional data fr o m the R.PC t o t wo and requi r e a public hearing on the project within 9 0 days after the RPC issues a n ottce. The regional pol icy plan ba s been r ede fined as a strategi c rather than compre h ensive planning document. The p lan must address affordable hou s i ng, econom i c development, eme rgency redness. natural r esources of r egion a l significance. and regional transportation. RPCs must id e ntify the loc at ion o f regionally sigoifi cant nat.ural resources and ot her issues may be i ncluded at the discret ion o f the RPC. Plan n ing standards musr be a d opted by two-thirds vote of member governments an d may be used fo r plan n ing p urposes only-not for permitting or r egulatory purpos es


Smotegic regional po l icy p lans must contain re gional goals and policies that address regional transportation. The RPC's role in tran sportation planning was defined as: coordinating land development and transportation policies in a manner that fosters region wide transportation syswms, and reviewing plans of i ndepen dent transportation authorities and l.VlPOs to identify inconsistencies. In address in g regional transportation, the RPCs were encouraged to: remmmend minimum dmsity guidelines for dtvdopment along designated public transpMtati()n CQrridors atJd itkntfb invtStment strategies flY/ providing transpQTtation infrastructure gr01.uth is desired, rather than foaiSing primarily on relievitlg congestion in areas tohtrt growth is discouraged. (Section 186.507[12D RPCs were required to expand their membership to improve coordination between land use, environmental issues1 economic development and transporta tion planning at a regional level. The Governor must appoint ex-officio representatives of FOOT, the Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Commerce to the mem b e rship of the RPCs and may, but I S not required to appoint, exofficio members of the MPO and regional water supply RPCs are required to carry out a "cross acceptance .. process for addressing sistencies between the r e gion.! policy plan and local comprehensi'<'e plans. Consistency between plans may be achieved through a process of negotiation involving t he lo cal governments or the regional p la n n ing counci l that prepared the respect ive plans. RPCs must also establish, by rule, a formal dispu t e resolu and Brawth Mansgsnuml tion process that attempts to resolve disputes through voluntary meeting, before progressing to mediation. arbitration, or administrative or judicial actio.o. The legislation provides that RPCs shou ld not be irwolved in addressing disputes involving environmental permits and other regulator y matters, but instead should focus on planning issues. Conclusions The success of Flo rida's p lanning and growth management framework depends upon the capacity of local governments to plan RPCs could help build this capac.i ty by collecting and providing hig h quality land use, socio-economic, and environmental data. Awa reness of regional trends and conditions, access to data and information, and the ability to build broad-based expertise moke RPCs a valuable resource for assisting with the local pla nning and growth management process. Among the services most needed are mapping, urban design, and assistance with developing regulatory approaches for various purposes. Nowhere is the economy of providing services at a regional level more apparen t than in the area of geographic i nformation systems (GIS)-co mputeriud mapping syswms that are Cl

STATE TRAif.SPIIJITAnDH POLICY llll11A nvE 82 RPCs should continue to build their geographical data bases and enhance their capacity to provide GIS mapping services in a region This information would be much more easily updated than hand drafted maps because it is already comput erized. Furthermore, naps could be printed out at any scale for overlay purposes. U standardized, this informa t io n would raise awareness of loca l and r egional development trends and enable local officials to make more i nformed planning decisions. RPC. should also be encouraged to conduct research on a l terna tive regulatory approaches for loca l governments and prepare sample regulat.ions w ass-isr them in carrying out their lan d development goals. RPCs must develop more effective ways to coordinate planning and devel opment dec isions across jurisdictions-a role that the n ew ELMS legislat ion has empha sized. The ELMSIll Act moved to enhance the RPC's role in co ordi nating land use and transporta tion, yet fell short of requiring MPO membership the RPC. Separation of regio na l land usc and transportation planning betwe.en RPCs and met ro politan planning organi.zations (MPOs) could hampe r regional coordina tion efforts. Collaborative phutning efforts and formal coordination betwe en MPOs and RPC. would he appropriate given ISTEA's emphasis on a more co mpre hensive approach to congestion management. Matrapolltan Planning Organizations A shift in transportation decision aut hori ty has occurred in metropolitan areas of 2001000 persons or mor e. designated as Transportation Management Are-as. In a move designed to increase local leverage and strengthen regional coordinatiort, ISTEA transferred authority for prioritiZ-ing transpon'3tion in ves tments in large metropolitan areas frorn the State DOT to the MI'O (Sectio n 134 (iD. MPOs tha t served in primarily an advisory capacity in the past will now face the challenge of coordinating a regional transportation policy and v is ion, sening priori ties, and mak ing difficult funding trade-offs. MPOs that had alre ady assum ed a leader ship position, will now have greater authority i o advancing their vision T he rapidly growing Orlando m et ropo l i tan area. for exam ple, is pushing for a plan that embodies a shared vision of the regio ns transportation future. Toward chis end, are-a offlcials formed a transportation roundtable to evaluate coordination of the regional transport ation network The f orum is co-chaired by the Mayor o f Orlando and the chair of the Orange Coumy Com.mi. ssion and com prises adjacent Osceola and Seminole Counties and high level representati ves of area transportation agenc.ies including the Greater Orlando Aviation Authority, T riCounty Transit ( LYNX). Florida DOT, the Expressway Authority, and the Commuter Rai l Authority The first product o f the roundtable is a plan representing the region's future land use and transportation system as con tained i n adopted loca l future land use and agency transport at ion plans The objective is to b uild public confidence in regional transportation planning effortS and regiona l support for a comprehen sive, multi-agency strategy, thus enabling the continued a vai lab i lit y of local funds and improving perfonnance in obuining State and federal funds. The regional coordination challenge is especially great whe r e multiple MPOs have been designated i n a single metro politan area. Although ISTEA re quires coordination, it leaves the decision on planning area boundaries up to the Governors. Under I ST EA. "More t h an on e MPO may be designated within an urbanized .area .as defined by the Bureau of the Census only if the Governor


dete rmines that the size and complexity of the urbanized area make designation of more than one MP O for such a rea approp riate" (Section 134[b][6D Where MPOs ar e pennitted to coe:.:ist in a metropolitan area, t he y must consul t each other an d FOOT t o coordinate plans a nd progl'ams. To reduce the pote ntial for uncoordinated plan ning, many advocate consolidation of MPOs in such regions into a siugle planning agency. The hi gh growth Tampa-St. Pe ters burg m e t ropolitan area i n Flo rida for c:.:ample, contains four MPOs--one for Hi llsboroug h, Pi nellas, and Pasco counties and a newly f ormed MPO for Hernan d o County. S11ggestions to co ns olidate these u n der a s ingle m e tropolitan planning organization hav e met s trong opposition. Arguments against consolidation have centered largely on home ru le concerns. Each of t h e MPOs has argued t ha t sub-regional MPOs are closer to the citizens and have a bette r ability to trade-off community an d transportation goals. Alternatively, ir has been argued tha t cou n ty -based MPOs are like!)' to short change regional trans p orta t i on projects, in favor of local concems Instead of merging across jurisdictions MPOs in the Tampa Bay Area have established a Joint Coordinating Counci l and formal mechanisms for coordina ting p l anning effo rts. As a condi tio n for approval, Gov ernor C hiles further r equ i red that eac h MPO within the transportation management area (Hillsbo r ough Pi nellas, Pasco) dev elop a join t long range plan, co ngestion management system, a coordinated proj e c t s electi on process, and a co ordinated air quality planning process." This may be sufficient but a regional MPO would r educe re d u ndancy i n plannin g efforts Separating MPOs by coun ty lines also increases th e likelihoo d that parochial politics will interfere with regional planning goa l s The TampaS t.Petersburg area, for exam ple, op e rates a s a n i nterdependent, regional tra nsporta tio n system. The two jurisdictions, in Hi ll sborough and P i n ellas counties, also c ompete vigorous l y for economic devel o pment. The concern i s t hat county based MPOs may begin to resemble arms of C oun ty governme nt more t han unbi ased coordina t ors of t h e metropolitan p lanning progra m The Governor has given the Tampa Bay area t w o years to demon st rate whether these c o unty MPOs can effectivel y coord inate and develop a u nified regional transportatio n plan Although regional consolidation may b e desirabl e it is not sufficient to assure coor d i nati on among member govern mentS. The divis i ve n ess of regio na l pol i tics will r emain a barrier to achieving regional consensus on transportatio n and ultima t ely land use issues. But g iven the trade-offs local governments can mak e under t he more flexib le funding guidelines, m e tropo l itan areas may find ways to get a long. Communities most l i kely to capitalize on ISTEA will be t hose with a regional transportation vision and p lan in hand. Those who can't agree rnay be left empty handed Drganizaticmal Boundaries Ov erlappi n g boundaries have i ncreased th e difficulty of coordin ating t ransport. tion and la nd use plann ing efforts due to inconsistency of service of different agencies that d e al with transportatio n or land devel o pm ent issues. The Tamp a Bay Regional Planning Co u ncil, for.exarnpl e deals with Hi!lsbo r o ugh, P i n ellas, Pasco, and Manatee counties a region that comprises five different Metropo!it'an Plonning Organizatio n s and two FDOT distr ict offices (see F igure 5). In other cases, one J.VIPO may serve mo r e than one county but be spread across two different FDOT dist.ricts. STAT'S TRAHSro!ITAT!OM POUCY OOTtAT!VE 83


84 STATE TRAHSPOJI.TATIOH POLICY lNI!!AnvE A nother problem aris e s from the way FOOT dis t rict boundaries have b een drawn. FOOT District 6 encompasses Dade aod Monroe counti es, while District 4 includes Broward, Palm Beach M artin, St. L u cie and Indi an River c ounties j o urney-to-work data from t h e 1990 U.S. Census reveal t hat a strong regional tie exists between Palm B each, Broward and Dade counties, yet t hey are in two d iff e rent FOOT districts In fact muc h of the commuter assistance work b e ing carried on in Oistdc t 4 is an attempt to miti gate travel into District 6. All of t hese problem s are compounded i f transportation i mprovements impact other areas, like the environment or h\1man service agenc i es. T h e s e a genc i es have boundaries set up based on their particula r needs, which often transcend transportati o n issues. For example, the Figw9 5 Southwest Florida Wate r Managemen t Distric t covers a Jarge area that encoro passe s four separate DOT d i stricts, -and fiv e d iffe rent Re giona l P lann ing Councils The underlying q uest ion associa ted with boundary issu es is one of regionalism and consiste n cy. Most trans portation plan ners agree that regional travel has a great impact o n our transportation network. To m iti ga t e irnpacts, reg iona l solutions are requi r ed. However> in many a r eas decisions that impact regional travel are being made stri ctly based on local objec tives. This undermines the need to p r eserve regional mobility o n the state h ighway system and g lve s rise to the need for a consistent regional approach. Agency boundaries should be reeva l uated to r e duce servic e area incon sistencies hel p f a ci l itate better reg iona l coordina uon AllEIICY liOUMIW\Y IIVEIILAP, TAMPA BAY AJIA [I FlXJT' District 7 South'"'est Florida Water Management District Metropolit.m Planning: OrganiZations TampaB.,y Pl.amtlng Council


Developments of Ragionallmpact Some lan d uses, because of their size, character, or location, have impacts that exten d far beyond the development site. A regional mall stimu lates spin-off growth i n the surrou nd ing a rea and, depending upon its location, may burden t h e infr.>. s t ruct ure and service capacity of several comm unities. Airports, power plants stadiums large residential developmems theme parks, and major resorts are also among this category of la nd uses with impacts that may extend f ar beyo nd a {ocal gover n men t 's boundaries. The Development o f Regional Impac t process is a mechanism for balancing local interests i n reviewing large scale develo p ment p r ojects, with regional and state concerns. I t requires local governments to evaluat e regional impacts of large development projects--includin g environ mental impacts, the effects on regional public facili ties and services, a n d the burden on area taxpayers--in the development review process. In turn, it expands parti cipatio n in development revi e w t o affected State agencies, and to othe r communities in the region through t h e Regional Planning Council. A DRI is define d in Florida Statute as "any development which, because of its character, tnagnitude, o.r locat ion, woul d have a substantial effect u pon the h ealth, safety, or welfare of citizens of more than one county" (Section 380.06, F.S.}. Although it focu ses o n crossco unty impacts, municipalities '\vi thin the county adjacent to t h e development site may re<:juir e t h e ir concerns be addressed in the DRI a pp l icat i o n and review process. T he Growth Managem ent Act of 1985 amended Chapte r 380, F.S. to t hresholds for determining whether a p r op osed project s hou ld be considered a DRI. Although t h e thresholds are numerica l standards, some r oom for discretio n was p r ovided. Develop ments below SO percent o f the n umerical thresh old were to be excluded from consideration, and those above 120 percent of the thresho l d were i ncluded. Those b etween 80 and 120 percent might be considered a D RI dependin g upon i ndividua l project char.>.cteristics. Projects .in this gray area may re<:juest a binding l etter o f determina t ion from the Department of Commu n ity Affairs on whe t her they should or should not be consid e red a DRI for review p urposes. The 1'8V1ew prtH:1H111 The review pro cess b egins wit h a p reapp l ication conference with the developer and Regional Planning Coun cil. The RPC invites representatives from all affected state and f ederal agencies, as well as representatives fro1n adjacent l oca l governments. This conference determines what .informatio n the devel oper must provide; ot her agency permits required; regional issues; and officials from adjacem communities may express con cerns they would like addressed in the application. Applications typical l y document h ow t he project will impact the e nvir onment natur.>.l resources, historic a nd archaeolog ical s i tes the economy and fiscal resourc es, trans p ort ation, wastewater and soli d waste disposal drainage and water supp ly, e nergy, educatio n an d housing, police, ftre and emergency services, and recre at ion and open space. These applications are the primary source of data and analy sis for evaluati n g the proposal. After comp l eting the application copies a re submitted to the local governmen t, the Regional P l anning Council, and DCA for formal review Other agencies t hat request copies also may review them If the RPC determines t hat the applicati on i s compl ete and sufficie n t for review, it notifies the local government of sufficiency. The determi nacion o f suff i ciency may involve several STATE TRAHSPORTAnDH POUCY IHmAnVE 85


as STATE TIWm'ORTATJml POLitY IN!TIAnVE requests for additional data. The lo.:a l government then schedules a public hearing, giving at l east 60 day s advance notice. The Rl'C has 50 days to review the application hold a publ i c hearing, and submit a report with recommendations to the l ocal government. It may r eco mmend approval, approval with conditions, or den ial The local govern ment must take action on the application within 30 days of holding a public hearing. The develop ment or der is reviewed by the developer, t he RPC, and DCA and, within 45 days of issuing the order, the RPC o r DCA may appeal the order to the F lorida Land and Water Adjudicatory Commission T his right to appeal provides "teeth" to the RPC' s rec ommendat ions. Standing to appeal is also given to the deve loper and a property owner within t he defined planning area A vote to appeal often prompts a negotiation process to settle the dispu te before reaching the formal hearing. Oncea project. is approved, development r i ghts conferred on the project are vested according to the conditions set forth i n tbe development order lf the deve l oper then wishes to change the project, and that change is .substantial enough to warrant additional review, then it is dee me d a "subsuntial deviat i on'" and must un dergo further D Rl review. Substantial deviations arc defined in Chapter 380 through both discretionary and non discretionary standards. Pros and CDM ol the DRl prot:8BS Proponents of the DR! process argue that it provides for a more thorough review of large scale development than would otherwise occur, given limlted resour'ces and the i nadequacy of lo cal data--especial ly in smaller communities and rural areas. It provides adjacent countie s ond affected agencies a stronger voice in guiding the development decision process for projects that could have a major negative impact on regional resource.s. infrast.ructure. and grovnh management efforts. As commu nities grow md push against each others boundaries, a strong m ec hanism for managing regiona l impacts and arbitrating regional disputes is essential. Critics of the DRI review process say i t is unreasonably lengthy, expe ns ive, and dupljcates other regu l atory efforts. The cost of processing a DRI ma)' range from S250,000 into the millions.'' Because r egional planning councils have not been lim i ted in the amoun t of data they may r equeSt of opplicants for a s u fficiency detennination, the DR! process often several years--despite StricL time limi ts i n the act. T he Depart ment of Community Affairs and Regiona l Plan ning Councils have heen accused of using the DR! process to address shortcomings in the local compreh e n sive plans-placi n g developers i n an untenable posit ion The quantitative thres holds are called ineq u itable penalizing large development projects wit h a cumbersome review proc<'Ss while disregarding the cumulative and often more dama ging-impacts of "su b-th res hol d" projects. Some communities have a l so used the process to impose excessive exactio n s in return for development approval. The role of Regional Planning Councils i n the process has been another source of contention. RPCs have b een accused of overStepping regional cons i derations in the DR! review process to interfere with local de velopment decisions Nonethe less, given t he sweeping scope of State groMh management policy, the line between local and state or regional considerations is seldom clear. Confus ing the issue is the fact that some communi ties have re lied on regional planning staff for technical assistance during loca l DRI review or in negotiating conditions for approval. Regional plan ning staff may be


torn between the r ole of "consultant" and "watc hdog" where lo cal and regional ob jectives diverge. Efforts to provide alternative s to the stan dard DRI process have ha d varying success. The Florida Quali ty Develop-:. ment program w:>s to provide expedited review for ORis tha t advanced Stat e goals, bu t has proven equally lengthy. The l ittle DRI" alte rna tive permitted transfer o f DRI revi ew from r egional agencies to cou n ties, yet n o county ever file d for certification. One alte rnative that has been effective is the downtown DRI or areaw ide DRI process. This process permits a loca l govern men t or developer to file a DRI a pp lication for a large geographic area o r downtown. Once ap proved, all future d evelopment consistent wit h the develop ment orde r may proceed without regio nal review Downtown 3Jld areawide ORis have been useful in guiding planning a n d permitting of development and redevelop ment in d owntowns and activity ce.nters and have re duced delays associated w ith review. Changes to the Dm prt1fll'81D Broad dissatisfaction with the DRI process and the role of RPCs in DRI review resulted in a decision by ELMS-ill to phase out the DRI program. In its p lace, l ocal gov ernments must adop t arl intergovernmental coordination demen t t hat provides m ethod of reviewing and a pp r oving d e velopment with im p act s on mor e than one ju risdictions. The element m u st be adopted by December 31, 1997. Once it is adop ted, rhe local governme n t may opt out of t he DRI program. Small counties Qess than 100,000 persons) and cities (2500 or less) may opt to retain the DRI program. The intergov ern mental coordination element must esta blisn an a l tern at ive process for addressin g issues managed throug h t h e DRI process This includes: a process to determine if deve l opment proposals wou l d have significan t impacts on other local governments, or reglonal resources or faciliti es identifie d i n the st ate and regional plan; a process for mitigating extra ju r isdict ional impacts, w ith a n option for regional mi tigat ion; a dispute resol ution process for timely r esolu t ions of d isputes p e rtain ing to development proposals that impact adjacent a r eas; a p rocess for mod ifying development orders t hat is con sistent with the loc.l plan policies and preserves recognized developm ent rights; and a proced ure t o identify and impl ement joint plann ing areas--especially for annexation or joi nt i n frastruc t ure servtce areas. In addition, each cou nty m unicipalities within th at county, school board and service provider s must establish by interlocal or formal agreement, joint processes for collabor ative planning and decisio n making o n the location and extension of public facilities sub ject to concurrency A deepwate r port may opt out of the DRI review program if it successfully completes an alternative comp r e h ensive d eve l opmen t agreemen t wit h a loc al governmen t In t he interim and for jurisdictions th at r emain in the program-the DRI process has been amended. DRI t hreshold s wer e revised to reduce barriers to infi.ll cncour age a higher proportio n of residential development i n mixe.d use projects, and promote compact developm ent and f a c i litate hotel and resort projects thot will serve existing conventio n centers The revised thresholds apply o n l y to u rb a n central business distri cts and regional activi t y c enters, and were c reased: STATE TRAHSPCJITA11DH PO!Jt:Y IHITIA TlVE 87


90 Sf AT TR.AHSPQRTA110H POUCY IHl11AnvE and providing for joint infrastructure areas have addresse d many of the issues t hat ORis were intended to address. Nonethele-ss, there are cen:ain features of the DRI process that may not be ade quately addressed through the intergov ernmental coordination req u irements. Key among these is that the DRI process has been the most effective way of coordi na ting provisio n of capital im provements with development o f large scale projects o n a regional basis. Concurrency does not cross borders and in some respects ORis have been more effective than concurrency in balancing infrastructure supply and demand. How will the multi jurisdictional impacts of la rge pro j ects b e assessed? ORis resu l t in more detailed collection and analysis of da ta t han otherwise would be available for consideration during development review. \Vhat motiva.tioo is there to ensure that the impacts of a development on local governments other than t h e host government are adequately addresse d? It is uncertain whether communities will acknowledge those externalities and voluntarily share in the regio na l costs of larg e proj ects Disputa Rasolutlon From a transportation perspective, d ispu t es between State and local govern ments or between jurisdictions have arisen from growth management requlre ments that plans be cons.istent across j urisdlctions and w lth State and regional policies, and that adequat e pub lic facilities be i n place to support development. Disputes between local governments and the Department of Community Affairs on transportatio n issues frequently i nvolve locally adop ted level-o f-service standards for roadways and plans for future facility expansio n as set fonh in the transpon ation element of local comprehensive plans. A dete rmination that local plans were no t in compliance with either the State or regional plan1 res ulte d in disputes over whether s tate planners could fairly assess (consistency .. of the loca l plan with State policy and management requirements. The gist of the argument: how can a state agency adequ ately understand local transportat ion issues so that all conflicts arc appropriately resolve d? Conflicts and disputes between local government generally develop in one of two broad category areas. T h e first is in problems with differing viewpoints and approaches to roadway characteristics. For example, Gulf Boulevard in Pinellas County, the only north-south arterial along the County's barrier islands, goes through several changes from two lane roadway to two lan e with ce nter turn la ne to fou r-lane undivi ded to four l ane with median divider. However) th e road does not progress from one type to the next in t he hierar chy but from two lane to four lane back to two lane to four la ne These orcas get highly congested during tourist season and suffer from virtual gridlock on some weekends during the year. Compounding the problem i s the inability of some of the affected jurisdictions to correct the road way because no future right of way was established and development has occurred at the edge of the roadway. Concurrency has -also g l ven rise to intergo vernmental disputes. The reliance on level of service Standards forces communities in metropolitan core area. s or along major traffic thoroughfares, to limit d evelopment because they have exceeded their level of service Standard. Yet rapid growth in surrounding commu nitie s may be the primary cause of de-gradation of the core communities level of service (see chapter on Concurrency). State mandatsa In response to Florida statutes, the Department of Community Affairs adopted Rule 9J-5, which spells out t he


minimum criteria to be used by DCA in review of local comprehensive plans. Of particular interest, in regards to transpor ... tat.ion, ate Sc<:tion 9]-5.007 dealing with the traffic circulation element and Section 9J-5.008 dealing with the mass transit element. S planned for in the Fwrida Dep"rtment of TrallSportation Five-Year Transportation Plan and the plans of the appropriate metropolitan p!ttJming organization and sho11ltl, to tht maximum extent feasible as determined by the /oral adopting the local comprehensive plan, be compatible with the policies and guidelines of !iUch plan< U nder r equi r ements of 9J-5.007(3)(b), local governments must also: roordinate with the p14ns and programs of all)' appropriate tm:trapa/.itan pkmning organizaJion, any public transportaJitm authority, atry appropriate re$Outte planning and management plan prepared to ChdjJter 380, Florida Statut and guide/in.s of s:

92 STATE nt.AHSPORTATIOH POJJCY INlTTA TMl regiona l agencies to show a preponderance o f evidence to suggest the plan is not i n accordance w i t h regional or State plans. If after deliberation t he outcome is still deb ata ble, then the local p lan must b e found in compliance Section 186.509 of the F lorida Statutes mandates that the Regional P lanning Council shall establish an informal media tion process to resolve conflicts between local governments relating to comprehen sive pla n s. The term i nformal" has been int erpreted in a va riety of ways by regional c ouncils ; however, given regional variation and practices, this may in fact be a good soluti on. Finally, Section 380.07 o f the F lorida Statutes provides for a formal dispute reso lu tion proce -ss for disputes that arise from Develop ments of Regional Impact. Section 380.07, F.S. re presents the only State Statutory guidelines t o deve l op formalized disput e resolution guidelines for conOicts arising fro m growt h manage ment J ssues. ELMSIn solutions The ELMS legi slation detailed specific changes to t ry and m i tigate some of these disputes This i ncluded an importan t role for regional planning councils in the dispute resol utio n process. Specifically, the majori t y of legislat i on that deals with dispute re sol ution is found in section 30 and 35 of the ELMS bill. S e c t ion 35 of the ELMS bill scates that : Eath Rcgiomli Planning Olund/ shall rstAblish a diJputt resolution process to r(.(;()ncilt diffirmas on pltmning and growsh manttgmu:nt im1es betuem /oml g()vernmcnts, regirmal agtncit$ and private imere:sts. Further the ELMS bill requires regional planning councils to c onduct a crossacceptance process w ith l ocal govern ments regarding inconsistencies between local a nd regional plans. This process would i nvolve an analysis of co nfli cts between local and r egional p lans which would then be provided to the l ocal gove. rnment as a form o f technical assistance prior to the preparation o f the Evaluation and A ppraisa l R eport. New Jerseys c ross accepta n ce p r ogram consi sts o f a process of negotiated consis tency, based on voluntary cooperation. The first ste p is t o compare plans to identify inconsistencies. The second step allows for negotiation between St..te and local officials. The third step is th e resolution of conflicts through revisions to the planning docume nts. Throughout the p rocess. tra i ned mediators participate in discussions to ass ist in the resolution The move t oward a "cross accep t ance process should go far i n addressi ng compliance d ispu tes between stat e and local government and help strike a better balance bet ween State, regional an d local planning goals and issues. The E LMS bill a lso call s for a stronger role for Regional Planning Cou ncils in a ddr ess ing regiona l transportation issues and to help coordinate lan d use and transportation po licies so that t hey foster a region wide transportation system. As part of the legislation ELMS re qu i res the Regional Pl anning Councils to ide
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impacts o n adjacent com munities or iden tified state an d / or regional resources or faciliti<-s. Finally the ELMS legislation requ ires th a t each loc a l p lan i dentify a n d impl ement joint p l anning areas to facili tat e b et t er coordin a tio n of development impacts. Interviews with local officials conducted as p art of tlus pro j ect p oint to the reaso.os why the ELMS-ni comnlittee devoted so much time t o this issue; every intervieVi'ee mentioned the need f or State and regional agencies t o recognize t hei r unique ness and be flexible in disputes. The E LMS legisl ation, as stated earlier has pro vided the framework necessary to allow e ach region to d e velop an appropriate conflict resolutio n process. It i s now u p t o the regional and local agencies to
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Concl u s i ons and Recommendations The conclusions and recommendations of t his study are derived f rom issues dis cussed in more detail in pr:evious chapters, and reflect concerns raised by the many l ocal, regional, and State p l an n ing officia l s and other interested parties interviewed over the course of this study Some of these recommendations address i ssues of practical co ncern in planning practice, including the need for technical assistance programs and p l a n ni n g support services for l ocal governments Other recommen dations address the p olicy inten t 'of the Intermodal Surface Transportat ion Efficiency Act of 1991, the Florida ISTEA Act of 1993, and Florida s growth man agement requirements as amended by ELMS-III in 1993. Land Usa Planning Practice R.ccommeruLtlion 1: The ElMS-III legislation has required that State and regional policy p lanning be more strat& gic. This study strongly supports this recommendation. It is further recom mended that the Department of Commu nity Affairs should be strategic in eva. lu ating compliance with stale policy Rules should continue to clarify performance objectives, but in evalu ating compliance the Department should focus on specific strategic issues of state and regional concern, as identified in the state and regional strategic plans. State mandates for local p lann ing are complicated by a general lack of agree ment in the planning professio n over what constitutes a good plan or planning process In a commentary on Sta t e planning mandat es, Susskind (1977) warned that mandatory p l anning guide lines t end to e i t h er be "too vague to be jnsr ructive o r e n force a ble or too specific to be sensitive t o local variations." He co n cluded that efforts to regulate the style aud substance of loc al p l anning are also constrained by t he reality that p l ans and the p l anning process must be responsive to local politics and must engender partt c tpauon T hese issues all h ave surfaced in F lori da's effort to promot e growth managem ent. The Department of Community Affairs has been p l aced in t h e often untenab l e position of sorting out the terms of "qualiry" planning. Although the policy intent of the growth management require ments is widely supported by many local o fficials, there is a general percept ion that the comp l iance review process has suf f e red from "rnicromanagement" of loco! p l anni ng. The most common concerns are that State policies and rules are either too vague and discretionary to ins t ruct local governments (and thus are also diffi cult for t he State to enforce), or too prescriptive to be re l evant in terms of variation in local needs As a result, the compliance process, trans f ormed the p l anning motivation from a shared sense of purpose to one o f reluctant compli ance -with a decidedly d i fferent outcome i n terms of loca l support. The pl an ning an d growth managemen t mandates emerged from broa d based consensus that something must be done to prevent t he worst. But as Stat e growth management requirements a r e refi ned a more strategic approach to determining compliance would be desirable to encour age the best in local planning The burden of demonstrati n g co m p lian ce with STATO TIIAIISPORTA11DN POLICY INITIAnvE 95

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STATE t'RAH'SPmlTAT10N .. PDI.ll:'f IKmA liVE 96 v ague or overly presc ri ptive planning rt." cconomic forecasts, current densitic:s, and current land use ratios arc useful indicators of STOWih trends, local govern ments should he discouraged from rdying too heavily on them in determining future land use needs. Plans should move toward a vision of the communi ty's desired future and greater emphasis should be plac.ed upon action strategies for achieving that vision. Toward this end, this study strongly supports the ELMS-III amendment to Section 163 3191, F.S., encouraging local govern r:ncnt$ to u s c the Evaluation and AP"" praisal Report to develop a loc-al vision that could serve as a basis for revising the local comprehensive plan. This shoul d be provided for in Rule 9). Concerns have been raised that many local comprehe n s i ve plans lack vision. Some o f this may be related to the heavy emphasis in Chapter 163, 9J-5, and the M o del Future Land Use Element, on socio econom i c forecasting in determ i n ing futur e land use needs. Although population and future land use forecasts are hel pful i n d e velop ing a future land use plan, less emphas. is i s being placed on them in planning p ractice than was previo u sly true. In a guidebook on modern p lanning practice, Wyckoff {MSPO 1992) id e n tified several reason s for this First, projections are based on p3St trends and assumptions that are subject to tremendou s uncertainty. If t h e pl a n rel ie s too heavily on this m e t hod and projections are flaw e d, then i t woul d require substantial and costly revision. Seco nd, communities tha t to diverge fro m past trends should not depend on this method t o det ermine future develop ment patterns contemporary planning has become inc re as i ngly partici patory as communities strive to establish a common vision of how they want to grow. In contemporary plan ning prac t ice, c o ncluded Wyckoff, pro j ections are viewed as an warning, monitoring, and planning tool rather than the central fou nda tion o f the p lan." Recommendation 3: Chapter 163, F.S. should require local governmen t s to conside r alternative fu ture land usc scenarios based upon goals, objectives, and policies of t he comprehensive plan. In developing or updating the future land u sc plan, local governments should dearly identify where the current plan and regulatory program (i.e. zoned use and densitie s) will eventually lead in terms of a buildout scenario This should also be done on a countywide basis or multi county b as is as a method of developing a vision for the rc.ogioo's future growth and development. State p lann ing requirements should require communities t o e va luate tive land use scenarios i n preparation of the future land use map. One method of . encouragmg gr eater attentton t o vt.ston m the p lanning process is through mapping buil dout as it is currently prescrib e d in terms of loca l zoning buildout. If thi s is d one on a countywide or multi..c o u nty basis, it will picture of where the region is heading base d on the current planning and reg u latOry program. T his v.ill fa c ilitat e identif i cat i o n of poten t ial problem areas and development o f alte rnative scena.rios. An exampl e is the appro a c h used in the Pa l m Beach County Transporlstion and lin>wtb Management

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and Martin County U rban Form Study, described in t he fourth chapte r o f this report. Recomme11datio" 4: The ELMS-III legislation recommended that the De partment of Community Affairs serve as a clearinghouse for providing information on visioning and to provide grant.s to encourage loca.l governments to develop a vision As par t of this effort tbc Department of Community Affairs should initiate a study of future land usc planning methods, to result in a guide book on preparing and updating a future land use/growth management plan. This would replace the Model Future Land Usc Element and would also provide methodological guidance on how to incorporate "vision into the future laud use planning p rocess. Recommendation 5: Local governments should d i scourage large single-use land areas Land use needs should be evaluated not only but also on a neighborhood basis. Rule 9}-5 should clearl) emphasize thes e considerations. The proposed rules on urban sprawl are mo--ving in this direction. Many Florida com m unities, particularly those bui l t since the 1 960s, are character ize d by large expanses of single family resident i al deve l opment served primari l y by comme rcial corridors. This trend bas been exacerbate d by the rigorous separa t ion of residential and nonr esidential ac ti v ity. The larger challenge o f manag ing growt h cannot be met sol ely by add re ssing probl ems r ela t i ng to the amoun t of land allocated, but must also address the lan d use mix. P la n s should require a mix o f l a n d u ses and services needed to create functional, l ivab l e n eighborhoo d s w h ere r esidents can "li ve, shop, work and play." This will require increasing at tention to performance zoning, neig hborhood planning, a n d urban design initiatives that have prov en and Growlb Msnagamtmt hig hly successful in creatin g a better quality of life t hrough the built environment It should be clar ifi ed that the pus h for pro v is ion o f h i g her density, m i xed use neighborhoods is not a pus h to r eplace single family hous i ng. Rather, it is an effort to inc r ease c ho ic e in the housing market. Larg e lot sing l e fami l y res i den tial d e velopment h as be e n the dominant residential l and use form since World War II. Y e t while si n gle family housing is still the housi n g of c h oice for many Ameri cans, especially fami l ies with c h ildren, i t is essentjal t o maximize choice i n the h o using market. T h e demographics o f American society a re changing an d groups S\ch as the e l der l y, "empty nesters," single perso n s, and childless couples a r e growing segments o f our society, with need s t h a t hav e been l argely und e rserved in the current r e sidentia l m arket. Limited c h oice i n the current housing market does not necessarily i n dicate a lack of a mar k et for h ousing alternatives Recomm.endation 6: The Department of Community Affi>irs should undertake a spedal projec t to assist local governments in addressing the planning and environ mental problems posed by large vested residential plats. Timed restrictions on issuance of building permits ar c one way to balance growth with the capacity of public facilities and services. 'Ibis should be complemented with longer term s t rategies, such as consolidation of parcels, access management along existH iug arterials-, and a program to reuofit platted communities with attractive and accessible service ccnten or an urban core. Flori d a's p l a tted communities exempli f y the traosporration probl e m s posed by l arg e single use land area s Many of these larg e, residential p l ats f orce res i dents onto a poorly d esigned st r eet system served by STATE 'l'IWISPORTATUIH PDIJCY IHmAnVE 97

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STATE TRAHSPORTAnOH POIJtY lMITIAnvt sa a few constrained arterials fo r the journey to work in nearby cities. The built environment in these comm u nities has literally mandated traffic congestion. Retrofitting areas l ike these will be a growing problem in Florida. Adding lane capacity and building new bridges and corridors will he l p address problems created by t he poorly desig ne d street system. But t hese solutions are not suff icient to solve the congestion prob lems of platted communi t ies over the long term because they fail to ad d ress t he related causes o f congestion-a dramatic lan d usc imbalance, automobile depen dent development patterns, and the absence of a commerc.ial core. Some platted communi tie s also pose serious environmental and public con cerns, in cluding the p o tential for ground water contamination. A large portion of Port St. Lucie, for examp l e is currently serv ed by septic and well systems. Loca l governments will need the support of the State and of Regiona l P lanning Councils in developing a more st.rategic approach to managing platted communities. Recommendation 7: State planning requi rements should be amended to require local governments to address economic development considerations in determining future land use and trans portation needs, within the context of existing plan clements. The Department of Community Affairs should provide methodological guidance to local govern ments on this issue. Economic development should he viewed comprehensively in t he context of o verall community development and qua lity of li f e. Economic develop ment professionals advise that a variety of factors play into busin ess relocation decisions--including a cces s to a high quality labor force, low operating costs, qualit y of l ife, pr oxim ity to rnajor markets, and so on. Business location decisions a metropolitan are-a emphasize issues such as commuting rime, coSt-of-living consideration s and quality of the public school system. Thus, access and location are key, but should be defmed i n much broader terms than availa bil ity of lan d or a major highway In turn, t ransportation capacity and commuting time s ca n b e improved through a variety of land use and trans portation strategies. A comprehensive approach to economic development will preserve and enhance qualities that make a community and region att:ractive to businesses. In turn growth management i s an essential tool in achieving sustainable economic growth. Recommendation 8: Local governments should work closely with area estate developers and lenders in removing barriers to achieving land use and t rans portation objectives and facilitating innovation. Phase II of this study will identify such barriers and alternative strategies for supporting private sector innovation. A hostile lending market, overbuilding, and an economic recession have discouraged real esme developers from innova tio n Land developers will be reluctant to p rovide a l terna tive forms of development in the absence of community assistance due to the tremendous risk they must assume and conservatism of the lending market. Many loca l governments have further exacerbated this problem with regulatory barriers to innovation, including lengthy and uncertain review processes. Local regulatory programs are typical ly designed to pre,ent the worst, and lack adequa te incentives and guidance for the l evel of performance desired Recommendation 9: This study strongly supports the need for Regional Plann ing Councils to provide technical assistance to local governments on specialized professional planning needs. Now that the regional role in administrating the ORI review process i s being phased out, RPCs should engage in dialogue with

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member governments regarding how to strategically refocus the ir staff and resources to best assist loc3l governs:nents in meeting their planning needs. Successful planning consisten t, adequate funding for the time and exper tise required. Resource constraints are causing problems with maintaining t h e continuity and quality of local planning and regulatory effons. Local govern ments muSt expend a large amount of t heir planning r esources on .administrative and review functions, l eaving little time or money for proactive planning or research efforts. O n e of the most influen tial contributions that RPC. could make to the success of local comprehensive planning is the provision of quality data, information, and specialized planning services. This is particularly imporrant for small-and mediumsiud localities t hat cannot afford specialized staff. Examples o f se.rvices needed by local governments t hat cou ld be provided by RPCs include GIS mapping, urban design, and assistance w ith developing regulatory approaches f o r growth management purposes. Recommendation I 0: Regional Planning Councils should develop and maintain complete land use and land cover data bases (including utilitiest street systems, plats) and enhanced GIS capabilities to assist local governments in their land use planning efforts. Informatio n currently collected and maintained by various local and regional agencies (including Water Management Districts) should h<: identi fied and updated. Tbe State and member local governments should provide finan ciaJ assistance to Regional Planning Councils toward this effort. Land use data bases and GIS capabilities vary across regional planning councils. Although some loca l governments are pursuing geographic information systems for growth management purposes, economies of scale would be achieved by providing GIS mapping services to local governments on a regional level. Geo graphic information systems are opening up new possibilities in planning and arc suggesting the need for greater consisten cy in information and classification systems. Placing such services at the regional level would conserve planniug reso urces over the long term, while enhancing the q uality and capacity of local planning progrnms. Recommendation 11: A standardized land use classification system should be adopted by the Department of Commu nity Affuirs and required for use in preparation of local laud usc maps. Local land use classification systems vary widely, making it difficu l t to evaluate consistency on a regional bsis. A stan dardized land use classification system would simplify communication between planners and t he public; offer opportuni ties for comparative studies; make i t easier to determine consistency of pJanniug efforts across jurisd ictions; and allow for mor e systematic research into regional urbanization trends. Land use classifications could be based on Standard Industrial Classification codes-, as is currently the practic e in many F l orida communities. Such a system would go far in facilitating local and regional geographic information systems, would be useful for economic developmen t purposes and would still re tain flexibility needed for future land use planning. For example, land use classifications could still be aggregated into locally desired land usc categories for futur e land use planning purposes. Existing land use maps, howe ver would document land uses according to th e land useclassification code fo r inclusion in a GIS data base. stATE TRAIISPDRTATiliN POLICY mmATIVB 99

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STATE TIWISPURTAnDN POIJCY INmA11'1B Transportation Planning Practice too Recommendation 12: The Flo r ida DOT should refine regional travel demand forcc.a.sting models and traffic impact study methods to measure the effec t of alternative development patterns on the number. length, and type of trips Despite ISTEA's emphasis on land use strategies that support mode shifts, urban form remains the missing link in the t r ansportation p lan ning process A rev iew of interactive models for land use and transportation conducted fo r 1000 Friends of Oregon indicated that regi onal travel demand forecas ting in the U.S. is lacking in its abi l ity co simulate how congestion and travel costs influence where people choose to work or loca te a buslness and how urban design oriented to pedesc.rian. bicycles and transit can influence individual trave l decisions Analysis of transportation impacts should be refined to reflect differences in traffic impacts of post \VI orld \Y/ar II suburban development patterns from those of communitydesign -oriented to pede-strian, bicycles, and transit Recommendation 13: The transportation planning process should be revised to recognize the uncertainty inherent in transpOrtation modeling, particularly in forecasting model inputs. Phase II of this study will explore possible alterations to the transportation plan _oing process that better acknowledge forecas ting limita tions and incorporate uncertainty Florida MPOs apply t h e F SUTMS models for describ i n g t he i n teraction between land use and t ransportation and determining the number of t rips, origins and destinations o f these trips, the mode use d, and t h e path taken. FOOT should b e applauded for its national leadership in making these models available to l ocal governments and MPOs. Yet travel behavior is extremely comple x and t he com b ination of factors described by mathematic al relationships, e xplains only a portion o f real world travel behavior Assump tions bui l t into the models a re reasonable but imprecise characterizations of reality. Such limita tions in the preci sion of transportation planning models are compounded by t he uncertainty of forecast i ng socio economic and land use conditions 20 years into the future. The tra nspo rtation plann i ng process should explicitly recogn i7.e this uncert ainty, deal with alternative scenarios, and maximize flexibility Recommendation 14: FOOT's transporta tion p lanning guidelines should size that decisions on whether to provide alternative modes of transportation should not be based exclusively on s h ort term or evaluation of current demand, but should a l so be based upon long term public goals and objec t ives. A shift from a predominantly automo bile-oriente d transportation sys tem, to a multim o dal system, will require pub li c commitment to make the necessary investment. u p front In the short nm, it will always b e cheaper to add highway capacity than to provide fixed guideway trans it. But ove. r the long run the volume of ridership w i ll incre ase and the incremental cost will reflect that of h i ghways Communities like Atlanta, Georgia, that have deve loped success f ul fix ed guideway transit systems did so upon a long range vision. It must be recognized t hat demand for such systems i s not spontane ous but mus t be fostered through co nc erted public Strate gies. Like land use forecast ing, if trans portation demand is predicted entirely based upon current trends then lack of choice in the curren t system will continue to mandate more of t he same. This is no t t o suggest t hat fixed guideway is appropri ate for every urban area. There will be

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cas<:s where foced guideway does not make sense, even over tbe long tenn. Recommendation 15: High priority should be placed on improving intermo dal connecti vity and multimodal access to ports and avia t io n facililies in the local and regional plannin g process and i n State transportation investment decisions Consideration s hould be given to appointing representatives of port and aviation authorities to the voting mem bership of their respective MPO to help improve interm.odal coord i nation. The State of Florida relies on ports and aviatio n ro support tourism and other econom i c development nnd t o remain com p eti tive in an in creasi n g l y globa l marketp la ce ISTEA abo calls f o r greater atte ntion to interm odal planning as a me>.ns of en h ancin g and preserving tbe ability of America to compete in tbe world economy. This will become increasingly crucial as foreign markets are opened up for free trndc Ports will serve as gateways to other nations and must hav e the capaci t y to move freight effi cien tly to harnes s t hese opportuni ties. Ports are also capturing a growing s hare of the tourism market as eruisdine s increase in popularity. Airports are assuming a pivoul ro l e in tbe world economy due to major changes in how the world does business-including international sourcing, just.-in time" delivery processes that drastically cut produc tio n and delivery cycles, and growing demand for rapid air s h i pmen t. In F l ori d a aviation is also crucial for tra n sporti ng the millions of tourists tba t visit the state each year. In rum, avia tion t cclmology is moving toward incr...sing the size of airerahs, due to limited capacity for airportS ro absorb greater frequency of flightS. A ll of this points tO an even greater burden in tenus of the amount of surface trnnsport ation that airports and ports will generate in tbe future. An integrated system for collcctin g and distributing goods and people will be especially crucial to Florida's future, consid ering majo r increases jn p opulation and tourism over t h e past fe w decades. The world has seen a changing empha s i s in public policy as the politics of th e Cold War have been repbced by an economic war. The state of Fl orida must retain itS competitive edge to preserve tbe prosperity and quality of life for its citiunry. One barrier tO tbis has been inadequ ate atten tion tO intermodal p l anning and invest ment in l andsid e access sys tems to serve ports and airpom by so me regions that house such facilities. A coo rdinated govern m ental>'tr ategy that supports economic development through strategic investment in ports and aviation will be incre>.Singly essential in tbe changing world economy. This strntegy must further recogniu the need for sustainable ec-onom.ic development that manages pollution, conserves nat.ur:a.l resoutces. and control s ot h er negative externalities of p ro duct ion. Recomment!ntion /6: The Legislatur e should provide adequate funding to allow the Florida Depar tmen t ofTransportation to improve a n d maintain the Florida Interstate Highwa y System (FIHS) consistent with lcgisl2tivc intent that established tbe FIHS. FOOT should a lso pl ac e hightt priority o n programming im p rovements to the FIHS than for non FIHS projects on the State Highway System. The F l orida Int erstate Highway System (FIHS) is the Statewide system of limited access and controlled access facilities that allow for high-speed and high-volume traffic movement within tbc state (Sec. 338.001 F.S.). This system was design. ated by FOOT and adopted by the legislature in an effort to preserve regional an.d statewide transp ortat ion mobility The FIHS program involves devel opment and

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srAT T!WfSPO!ITA110H POJJCY IIIITIATIVE 102 improvement of a system of highways with strict access controls. The Department ofT ransportation is charged with making the necessary system improve ments and enteri ng i nto formal agreements with local governments for nating l and use planning and regulation with State access standards for con t rolled access faciliti es. All segments are planned to be brought in to comp liance with system criteria and standards within a 2 0-year period. An imp ortant part of this is t h e new Secre tary's Interst at e policy, which calls for sepa r ated HOV and t h r ough lanes on segments of the Interstate. This deadline may> ho weve -r, prove unworkable given a substantial shortfall in projected funds available tO the FOOT to bring the system up to FIHS standards within 20 years. Thus, finding adequate funding to maintain and improve Florida's priority statewide system of highways will remain an ongoing challenge for FOOT and the leg isla ture. Because the FIHS is the backbo ne of the State transportation system and is vital t o the movement of people and goods around the state it should receive a high priority in the assignment of available funds to projects. Specifically, i t shou ld receive a higher priority than nonFIHS projects on the State Highway System. Coordinating Land Use and Tranoportat!on Recommendation 17: The Florida Department of Transportation should continue to address land development considerations in its intc:rmodal and multimodal p lanning framework. T his should address the need for land usc planning and land development regulation that support alternative modes-of transportation and connectivity between modes, and the need for guideway or transit plans to be complemented by land usc plans that focus development around transit rather t han disperse it. Multimodal and intermoda l p lann ing initiatives must b e combined with land development programs that g u ide the dens ity, mix, and proximity of lan d uses The success of alternative modes of transportation and connectivlty between those modes depends upon a built envi ronmenr rhat supportS alternative modes of access including pedestrian access. Specifically, guideway or transi t plans need to be complem e n ted by land us e p l ans that focus deve lopmen t rather than dispe .rse i t. Transit oriented developments (rODs) are one alternative. Recommendation 18: MPOs, RPCs, local governments, and divisions-of State agencies involved in addres-sing land usc/ transportation interactions should avoid si11gle purpose (i.e . land use only, trans portation only) planning programs and solutions and coordinate to build multidisciplinary teams of professionals t o address land usc and transportation problems. FOO T and DCA should initiate continuing working groups among their staffs to develop coordinated land usc and transportation approaches. Public policy considerations ha ve become increasingly complex, requiring mulrid i scip li nary solutions. Organiza tiona! separation between land u se and transportation planning functions bas reduced the capacity of planners to coordinate on these issu es Lack of a multidiscip l inary view has promoted compe-tition rather than collaboration betwee n disc i plines, to the detriment of pub li c po licy. Transportation planners, enginee -rs, urban desig ner s and land use planners must work coope-ratively if congestion management and mobility objectives are to be realized Planning, design, and economic development professio na ls shou l d be encouraged to

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coordinate across disciplines and bring their unique expenise to bear on defining equitable solutions to traruportation and land development issues. &commenda tion 19: Local govc.rnmc:nts should co ordinate with the F l o rid a Deportment of Transportation and their MPO to preserve designated future right-ofway and this effort 1hould be supported by the legisl ature. threats to con:idor preservation have hampered efforts t o improve coordi nation between land use and transporta tion sysc:ems. The Florida DOT is currently evaluating corridor preservation stron. The importance of this to a costeffective tr.l!lSpOrtation system cannot be overstated. 20: The Department of Commu nity Affairs should place bigb priority on preserving the levd of service on the Florida Interstate Highway Syste m in its rules related to transportation concurrency acc:ption area$. Although the legisbture encourages flexible approaches to transportati on concurr ency within urbani%ed areas, the preservation of statewide mobility demands that level of service on the FIHS be maintained The FIHS plays a vital role in the commerce of the State. This important role should be protected, even in the case of transp ortation c.:oncurrency exception areas. In the case of the Interstate system, emphasis should be placed upon ing LOS StODdards on the future lanes reserved for HOV and long diStance trips. Rteom.mendation. 21: Local governments shou ld manage access to land develop ment along major thoroughliln:s nd coordinate with FOO T on managing :lCC:C$5 to the state b.ighway .system, especially those highways designated as part of the Florida Intnstate Highway System. FOOT should undertake a series of statewide semi nan to encourage access management at the local level and provide regulatory guidance on this issue. The tenets of access and location that guide business l ocation decisions, result in development pressures along major thoroughfares and n<>ar highway inter changes. Yet land development regub tion has not adoquatdy addressed the need for well access systems on such corridors. Access management is essenwu to protect the safety and mobili ry of the travelling pub lic, while preserv ing opportunities for co mmerce. The Center for Urban Re search is collaborating wit h the Florida Department ofT r>nsportation to develop modd land development and subdivision regulations that support o= manage ment. MPO and FOOT district staff should provide technical assiStance to local governm ents in adapting these model standard s for l oca l use and encour age regional coordin atio n on this effort. Recommendation 22 : The lcgislturc should support FOOT io its effort to carry out the requirements of the State Highway System Access M onage mcnt Act and amend Chapter 177 relating to the subdivision of land, to require local governments to include FOOT io review of subdivision activity on the State Highway System. The 1992 legislativ e session amended the State Highw.. y System Access Manage ment A ct in manner weakened the authority of the Florida Department of T ran.sportation to manage access to the state highway system. This, combined frequent litiption over access management issues. threatens to impede access managem ent efforts It is essential for the legishu"Ure to show strong support

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STATE TRAHSPORTAnOH POLICY IHmAnvE 104 for access management and avoid amend ments that weaken state or local a u thority i n this m atter. In turn, Chapter 177 should be amended to provide for FOOT review of proposed plats that would require access to the State Highway System. This w ould provide district transportation officials with an opportu nity to catch access problems early in the p lat review process a nd participate on d esign solutions. This has been used successfully in other states and would assist loca l govern m ents, especially those wit h limited administrative capaclty, in their subdivisi on review efforts. Ruommtndation 23: FDOT districts should work with local governments co establish limits and alternatives to commercial stripping of major arterials. This could be achieved through intergov ernmental agreements. FOOT and DCA should prepare and distribute an advisory circular to all local governments on this issue. Local governments within a region often designate miles of thoroughfare frontage for strip commercial development. Reasons for this are accessibility and the exped i ence of rezoning highway f rontage for commercial use, compare d to plan ning an d providing local access roads off the arterial or highway. Yet the practice of unrestrained commercial stripping has i nterfered with regional commuting and the efficient movement of goods and freight. In fact, many businesses that locate on such corridors do not rdy on pass-by troffic for customers and thus do not require t horoughfare frontage. They would prosper in locations near thor o u ghfares if they were provided loca l access systems and land. Local govern ments should provide a system of local roa ds to complement thoroughfare access and e n courage development of comrner cial centers. r ather than commercial strips. In turn, t hese centers should be accessible to the adjoining land area rather chan walled off, as is the case with commercial strips. Recommendation 24: The Florida Depart mcnt of Transportation District offices and respective Metropolitan Planning Organization should coordinate with local governments on managing the impacts of new interchanges. Land dc:vclopmc:nt and access management plans should be prepared for interchange area.$, with financial or staff assistance: from the Florida DOT and/or area MPO. Preparation of access management plans should be required in the FOOT Trans portation Procedure for Approval of New or Modified Access to Limited Access Facilities. New hig hway interchanges can have substantial impacts on land development patterns around the function al area of the i nterchange. In turn, if land development ls not prope rly managed it can create safety hazards and interf ere with the flow of traffic onto and off o f the i n terchange. An access management plan would identify the appropriate access system : .tround t h e interchange area in accordance with desired land dev elopme n t patterns. Such a plan would protect the function of the i nterchange and roadway network, while providing access to land develop ment and preserving economic develop ment opportuni t ies of land around the highway interchange. Financial or Staff assistance shou l d be provi dcd by t h e FOOT and MPO staff to assist local govemme. nts with managing the impacts of new highway i nterchanges Recommendation 25: Local governments should foster multi modal access to goods and services within neighborhoods and major activity centers. Urban design and regulatory/site plan n ing including perform.ance zoning, neotraditional town planning, and transit oriented developmen t have

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offered creative solutions to fostering multimodalacc:ess and comp:u:t urlnn form. Communities hould be encour agoo to look to these and othet Slr.1tegies to establish betur linkages between residential areas and commercj,.J service center. These isues are discussed in rnore de: tail in a separate State T ransporta tion Policy Initiative report on communi ty design and transportation prepared by the Florida Center for Community D esign and Research ac the University of South Florida. R.commudation 26: Priority should be given to maximizing the potential of the current system of major thoroughfares before dding new lane miles. The policy intent of ISTEA is to make the most out of the existing highway netWork, before adding any new lane miles, and to provide grearer modal choice in the transportation system. The new FOOT Intrastate Highway policy is already moving i n this direction. ISTEA identified a variety of strategies to im prove operation of the existing highway system, including transport:nio n demand management, transpo rtation systems mo.nQigement hnd use and activity center stmtegies, incident management, intelli gent vehicle high way systems, :10cess rnanagenu!nt, and othen. l\>IPOs must give adequate priority to these altetnatives in prepuation of the TIP. ReO be required co coordinate concurrency monitoring efforts with cat:h other in metropolitan regions comprised of more than one MPO. Greater consistency i s needed in the t cchnico.l metho d of monitoring concurrency within regions that share a transpoltlti o n network. A regional approach to mo n ito ring transportation concurrency would provide 10(,3} g overrt ments with the abiliry t o monitor the implications of development ctivity STATE TIWISPOIITAT10M POLICY IHmAnVE

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STATE TR.A.HSPORTATIOM PCUCY INITIATIVE JOG outside of their jurisdiction on loca l lev e l of service. This may more effectively reflect the relationship between regional development trends and the movement of traffic and the benefits of t r ansportation demand management and transit on l ocal and regio na l level of service One vehicle for achieving t his could be t h e congestion management systems required by ISTEA Rec()mmtndation 29: Local governments should use methods to monitor transportation level of service that arc perfor mance based and emphasize moving people and goods, not vehicles. The ELMS-III amendments included a variety of provisions to cocoungc this by in creasing the flexibility of transportation concurrency management systems. Over-reliance upon supplying additional capacity as a sol u tion to congestion has contributed t o leapfrog development by constraining urban inf ill and posing the threat of development moratoria where incre asing c apacity is i mpractical or financially p roh ibitive Metho d s of measuring ond applying l evel of service stondards should d irec t decision makers beyond provi d ing incremental capacity improvements N e w methods arc needed t hat consider the transportation system as a whole to find compr ehensive long term sol utions that enhance capacity. encour age modal alternatives, and provide incentives to managing dem an d Some local govemmems are alre-ady pursuing this. for pie, evaluates volume to capacity on its corridors based on the person trip capac.i ty, rather than the ,chicle trip capacity. These alternatives are discussed in m or e detail in a separate State Transportation Policy Initiative study of level of service standards prepared by t he Center for Urban Transportation Rese ar ch. Recommendation 30: Public mass transit facilities should not be subject to roadway concurrency. Statutory language: pertaining to transportation concurrency should clearly exempt public mass trans-it facilities from roadway concurrency requirements. This would include Chap ter 163.3180(5), F.S. pertaining to tran .. portation concurrency exception areas In reviewing trnnsportat.ion concurrency> local governments evaluate mass transit fac il ities > such as commuter r ail stations or transit t erminals, as t raf fic generators. The ove rlooked fact is tbat public mass transi t facilities are as much a part of the urban transportation system as are inte rchanges of limited access highways. The development of a new interchange redistributes t ra ffic on connecting streets in much the same way that traffic is redistributed by development of a new rail station. Yet rail s tations are evaluated for roadway concurrency, while h ighway interchanges are not. Rail stations do not generate new trips; they red istribute existing t rips. Their net effect is an overall reduction in vehicle miles travelled. Given that both transit and hig h ways provide transportation service> why is tr ansit treated as a cause of conge-stion, rather than a solution? Part of the problem is that transportation concurrency> as it is statutorily defined, addresses transportation facil i ties in terms of roadv.ays and de.fines transportation concu r rency in terms of highway level of service. Even transportation concurrency exceptions for urban infill and redevelop ment projects, provided by the new ELMS-Ill legislation, pertain onl) to roadwfV concurrency exceptions. Clearly, roadway concurr e ncy should not be applied to other rransponation facilities. This conclu s ion is consistent with the original intent o f transpon3tion concurrency> to ensure that tra nsporta tion fac i lities are available to address the impact s of land development. Roadway concurrency evaluation should be revised to recognize that public mass transit facilities are part of the roadway traffic

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congestion soluti on, not part of th e problem. U nder the current s tatutory language and draft rules, p ublic mass transit facil ities a r e on ly exemp ted f r o m meeting roadway concurrency where the l ocal government e xercises its optio n to establish a tatio n c oncurrency exception area, and t h en only where specifically p rovide d for by t hat local government. Local govern ments must als o gain a determination of com pliance f rom t h e Department of Community Affairs. S tatu tory language pertain ing to concurre nc y i n Chapter 163.3180, F.S. should be amended to exempt all public mass transit facilities from meet ing roadwa y concu r rency requireme nts-not j ust in exception areas, but as a general rule. In turn, the t er m "public mass transit facilities" should be d efined under C h apter 163.3164(28), F.S., which con tain s the present def ini tion for "pro jects th at promote publi c tra nspo rta tion." Recommendation 31: Chapter 163.3180(5)(b), F.S. should be amended to include t r ansit-oriented development area s as a n exception under the l ocal government roadway transportation concurrency exception area option Chapter 163.3180(5)(b), F.S. currently provides transportation concur rency exceptions for u rban inf ill develop ment u rb an r edevelo pment, and downtown rev ital i z a t ion A fourth exception should be added to this list al lowing for transit oriented dev elopment areas located within a defined radius surrounding rail stations or any other permanent tr.J.nsit statio n d irectl y serving passengers. This new exception would be consi stent wit h t h e intent for urban i nfill urb an redevel opmen t and downtown revitaliz ation, in t hat all apply to some defined geographic area, rather t han to a spocific develop ment projec t The transit ori en ted development opti o n could then be embl ished by governments accord ing to criter ia defined i n 9}5 F.A.C. These criteria shou ld require local govern ments to defin e t he geographic boun d aries for the exception area as well as l ist pedestr ia n -friendlY site design features for use in eval u atin g the p roposed develop meni T hese may include: a) distance from the d evelopment entrance to the permanent transit station; b) provisio n o f feeder transit stops and shelters with seating and other amenities; c) provision of walkway s that are lighted and provide direc t access. Recomme ndation 32: Local governments should reevalu ate their land development regulations for compatibility with the goals, objccti"Y"es, and policies of the ir comprehensive plan. Land development regulat ions and administrative processes oft e n fail to prov ide wh at communities are trying to achieve from a policy perspective. Phase II of the State T ranspo rtati on Policy Initia t ive will evaluate c urrent regulatory practice in relatio n to fut-ure land use plans and policy and p r ovide local gov ernments with gu ide l ines 3.nd rccom m en dations f o r strengt h ening the linkage between plann ing policy and regulatory practice. Intargavemmsnlal Coordination Recommendation 33: The boundaries of FOOT Districts, R e g ion a l Planning Councils, and Metropolitan Planning Organizations should be reevaluated to coordinate service areas and reduce fragm e ntation. The legis lat urc:'s Advi sory Council on Intergovernmental Relations would be a logical organization to perform such in evaluation for the legislature s consideration. Regio na l transportatio n solutions will be much more difficult t o coor d in at e g iven STATE TRAIISI'OIITA TlUM POLICY JJanAnVE =================107

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' STATI> TllAHSPORTAnOH POLICY IH1TlATJVE lOB the current problem of o'erlapping agency boundaries. Fo r example, sing l e MPOs should not be spl i t between separate Regional Planning Councils, as ls currently the case with the Sarasota Manatee MPO. This is especially impor tant given changes to the RPC role in tn>nsportation planning under the ELMS III legislation. FOOT district boundar ies could also be revised t o better encompass int erdependent service areas For exam p l e, Dade, Browar d and Palm Beach Counties function as an interdependem transportation system and are a .;ingle air quality nonattainment are:.t, but sp l it between two FOOT Districts. Recommendation 34: MPO boundaries should be based on considerations other than county jurisdictional boundaries, such as journey to work and other factors indicating regional interdependence of the transportation network. This study supports the recommendation of the ACIR that strong consideration should be given to merging MPOs that Be within the same metropolitan region and expanding existing MPOs, rather than creating new MPOs, as metropolitan areas expand. ISTEA transferr e d authority for pri oritiz ing many transportation invcstmcncs in large metropo l itan areas from the state DOT to t he MPO. The challenge for MPOs will be to establish regional transportation policy, set prloritles, and make hard f unding decisions in a h i ghly charged politica l climate. Although home rule pol i tical representation is essent ial in a democratic process, poli t i cal tion can magnify barriers to achieving reglona l consensus on transportation mobility issues A regional forum could help reduce the potential for counterpro ductive compe t ition by pushing members to address their concerns and coord inate improvement needs within the context. of a regiona l interdependent transportation system. Muldictory with the designated rol e of the MPO. MPOs are responsible for rtgiontd transportation planning, whereas lo"tl planning staff and e l ected officials are responsible for addressing transportation issues of lotttl concern and for representing these loc:::al concerns ln rt."gional forums. It appears that the l ine between these two functions has been blurred, to the potential detriment of regional coordination. MPOs that lie in the same metropolitan area have been given two years t o de monstrate their ability to adequately coordinate their efforts to address regional transportation needs and to meet the plann i ng challenges and funding opportunities of ISTEA At the end of two years, if renewed coordi na t ion efforts among MPOs have not been successful, t:hen the current organiza tion of MPOs should be reconsidered Recommendation 35: M.POs should take the lead in d<-vcloping a formal approach for forging consensus toward a regional transportation and land use vision. Metropolitan regions comprised of mote than one M.PO should cooperate on the visioning effort.

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Land use policy and development deci sions are made by loca l government. T ransportation decisions emphasize regional movement of traffic and are guided by a state and regional perspective These two perspectives ofte11 conflict. due to the lack of a coordinated, long term approach to planning Adding to the present difficulty of coordinating land use and transportation is the absence of local or regional consensus on how to grow A strong vision for the future development of a community and region would help to reconci l e land use and transportation trade -offs, address the long term mobility needs of t h e commun i ty and facilitate growth management goals. W i t h the majority of plans in comp l iance communities -and lvlPOs now have the framework for establishing a regional transportation vis ion. The regional challenge will be achieving harmony among conflicting visions. Nonetheless such a vision will be essential to harness ing the potential of federal funding under ISTEA. Each region will have to develop an a pproach to suit their needs. The regional "transportation roundtab l e" approach used in the O rl ando/Orange Cou nty metropolitan orea, described e arlier in this report is one poss i bility. Another approach was that used in the Palm Beach County and Martin County Urban Form Study and related Planning Fo ru m Conference. A l though nei the r of these efforts were spearheaded by a n MPO, this would be an appropria te role for MPOs in the changing transportation policy framework under ISTEA. R.ecommendation 36: Formal between RPCs and MPOs should be mandatory in setting regional land development and transportation policy. Both ISTEA and the ELMS-III amend ments call for stro n ger regional coordina tion of la nd use and transportation p l anning. The ELMS legislat ion has charged RPCs with coordi n ating l and development and t-ransportat ion poli cies in a manner that fosters region wide transportation systems and reviewing plans of independent transportation authorities and N lPOs to identify incon sistencies. Because !:viPOs are responsib l e for regional transportation planning, it is essential tha t RPCs coordinate closely with lVIPOs in this effort. Recommendatio n 37: 1'be Gov ernor should appoint ex-officio representatives of each Metropolitan Plann.iog Organi>.a tion to the membership of their respec tive Regional Planning Counc i l. The ELMS-III amendments expanded the membership of RPCs t o i mprove coordination between land use, e n vironmental issues, economic develo pment, and transpo rtation planning on a regional leveL T h e Governor was required to appoint ex-officio represen t a tives from various state agencies, but appointment of an ex officio representative of each MPO w ithin the region was left optional. Because MPOs are responsib l e for carry ing out regional transportation planning, it is recommended that an MPO represen tative be appointed to the respective Regional Plann ing Counci L P l anning under both ISTEA and the ELMSlll amendments will become more participa to ry. Regional plann ing counci l s and metropolitan planning OI'ganizat ions must. be more effectiv e in coordinating thei r efforts and building consensus among their member governme nts Recommwdation 38: With t he DRI process being phased out, local govern ments have been required to delclop a process for managing multijuri s dictional impacts of large scale development within their intergovernmental coordina tion element. They should further be required to evaluate development review requirements in their land development code for adequacy in addressing the STATE TRANSI'O!ITATION POIJCY IKIT1A11VB =================109

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, ., POLICY llii11ATIVE impacts of large scale development projects. liD The DR! p r ocess resulted in mo re de tailed data collec t ion ond analyses for large scal e projects t h an w o uld have o t herwise be e n condu cted. The replace ment of this important functio n will depend upon high quality compre h ensi v e planning and d eve lopm en t r e v iew procedures. Develo pment. re.viev. r eq uiremen t s for large development projects should p r ovide for re v i ew by the FOOT Dis t r ict w here sta t e are i nvolved, t h e water management d istrict and other appropriate entities. Recommendation 39: Local government s should be requi red to address the effect of development decisions along major thoroughfares on the level of service of neighboring jurisdictions that sbare that thoroughfare. This should be addressed within the intergovernmental coordina tion cle ment of the local comprehens iv e plan. Althoug h transpo rtation demand i s ohe n generated outside a jurisdiction due to regional growth or throu gh traffic orig i natin g outSide t he region) transpon a tion co ncurrenc y is n o t coordi11ated on a r e gio nal basis The imp acts o f regional development trends upon t raffic conges tion on a p arti cular link rema i n la rgel y ignored. Several c ommunities r aised conc erns t hat development p ermittin g acr oss the bor der alo ng m ajor thor o u ghfar es was threatening to overload their cap acity from a concurre ncy per spe ctive. Local g overnme n ts should be required to recogn i ze and address th e effect of their developmen t deci s ions along major thoroughfares on neighbor ing c o mm unities from a concurrency p e rspec tive. Ruommendation 40: This study supports th e recommendation o f the ELMS-lll Committee that the Department of Community Affairs should prepare a model post-disaster redevelopment plan with implementing ordinances. Chapter 163. 3178, F.S. ho uld be amended to clarify the responsibilities of jurhdictions located in the coastal zone for preparing post-disaster redevelopmen t p l ans and the DCA should a l so amend Rule 9)5 .012 to contain minimum criteria for p ost-d isaster redevelopment p lan s Recommendation 41 : Preparation of the growth management portion of t h e State Comprehensi v e Plan provides an opport un ity for prioritizing goals, where necessary. It is recommend ed that the Strategic Growth and D evelopment P lan clea rly establish the priority of m i nimiz.. ing risk to public safety, the:: environment, and public ove r coastal economic development act iv ity that increases such risks Severa l goa l s and pol ic ies in the Sta te Compr ehensiv e Plan call fo r the need to minimize impact. on environm e n t a lly sensitive a reM and promote safety by d i sco u raging development i n high hazard areas. These goals a r e somet i mes i o conflict v.ith the sta t e goa l prom ot ing tourism for t he eco n omic growth of F l orida, as a major p a rt of F lorida t ourism consists of b<,ach dev elopme n t A majori ty of Fl oridians also l ive i n c oas tal co u n ties Nonet hele-ss, many such areas are a t ris k of damag i ng win ds and flo odi ng during severe or even moderate storms. Yet coastal dev elopment continu es wit h inadequate consideratio n o f these r isks an d t he publ ic and p rivate coSts o f provid ing for develop ment i n areas prone to f r eq\lent floodi ng or at h igh risk of eros i on. Commun i ties appear compelle d to rebuild at any cost. even i n a r eas where p a s t develo pment decisions were not c onsist ent with cur r ent pl a n ning or g rowth management p olicy. Evacuat ion time s for a hurricane o f l east in t e ns ity for example, can e xcee d 26 hours in some TNMJ)Ortation and Growth Manapmenr

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counties, yet local planning has not adequately addressed this problem. Coastal living continues to be subsidized by unrealisticill y priced h omeowners insurance i n addition> Federal Flood lnsurance, although i nsurance companies arc increasingly attemptin g to s hift this burden onto homeo wners. The true cost of disaster relief, however, is mucb greater and is paid for by society as a whole R etommtnd41ii11U 42: The Florida Department ofTransportarion, in crotion with the Deputment of Commu nity Affairs, should adopt an officio! network of hurricane evacuation routes of s tate significance. Currently, hurt'icane eva cuat.iori pl _ans are rhe responsibility of County Civil Defense Directors who ore responsible for designating emergency evacuation routes in rheir county. It is important rhat evacuation routes of state significance be well maintained an d protected against flooding or other obstacles to evacuotion Designation of an official evacuotion network will allow rhese facil ities to be properly protected. R ecommenJatiom 43: The ELMS-Ill recommendation that Regional Pla ooing Councils assume a stronger role in coordinating planning effortS and mediating disputes ac ross local govern ments is strongly supported. MPOs shoul d also adopt proeedures for dispute resolution. Effective d i spute resolu tion techniques will be crucial not onl y to comprehensive plaoni ng, but also > effective regional transporta tion p l anning under ISTEA. With the greater emphasis on public participation in the tranSportation plan ning process, MPO staff must develop strong dispute resolution tecbniques for forging cons ensus on the difficult trade offs they will face. If Florida comm uni ties ore to realize the potential benefits of the new planning framework, they must rea<:h a consensus on tranSportation and land use issues. The divi$iveness of regional politics will remain a h urdle in coordinating l and use and transportation und e r ISTEA and catc growth manage t n ent Recommentlltlitm. s 44: Loca l governments should punue formal mediation to :address disputes over private property rights arising from pla nning and regula toty initiatives, as a less costly and ofttn more effe ctive :altcro11tive to litigation. This cou.ld be provided as an administra tive remedy in the land development code. T h e courts arc a costly and ofte n ineffective forum for weighing planning poli cy. As plannin g considerations become more complex, greatu reliance should be placed upon mediation and negoti ated develop ment agreements as a method of finding common ground betWeen private initia tives and public policy. Recommendatio11 45: Planning agencies should cstablih ttrong public outreach programs to inform citizens, the private sector, and elected officials regar d ing strategic objective s, stim ulate debate:: rcgording the appropriate course of action to acbi .. e th .. c obj cc tivu, and gcncrote political support for planning i n i ti.a tives. Problems with coordi na t io n of plann ing efforts occur p rimarily in rhe po l itica l nrena. Neig h bo rhoo d and environmental groups have become increasingly concerned about the effect of lan d devel opment astd transportation initiatives on community character, the environment, aod overall quality of life. Such conflica ore magnified by concerns over property rights, lack of continuity in political l eader$hip, and the fact that legislative and regulatory solu tions hav e not been en ough to address rhe broader =================tt l

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lrrATB nlAHSPORTATIOM POLitY OOT!At!VE 112 spectru m of land policy i ssues Engaging citizen invo lveme nt in the p lan ning p rocess i s essential to addressing cltizen concerns o ver growth and buil ding publ i c suppon: for planning Communi tie s should address the concerns of stakehold ers and h arness t he l eadership potentia l of c i t i zens and c i vic in the private and non profit sectors to improve the quality an d continuit}' o f the plannin g program

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Appendix I A Summary of ELMS-Ill Vision Sectio n 163.3167 o f the F l orida Statutes is amended to encou rage local governments to develop a "vision" based on the future appearance and qualities of their commu nity. Local governments are to review comprehensive plans land devel opment regulations, and the capital improvem e nts programs after their vision has been c rea ted to ensure that they will lead the commun ity tow ard its goals. Nei gh b o r ing communities-.. especially those s haring natural, physical or economic resourcesare encouraged to p a rticipa t e in creati n g a "greater-thanlocal vision. The local vision must be consisten t with the state vision when adopted, and in ternally con>iStcnt with its local plan Alt hough the ELMSIII Act d id not include provisiofis for produc ing a state vision, the EU...fS-I11 Committee r ecom mended i ts preparation '(to set fon:h the destina tio n we want to reach b y means of ou r planning and growth management programs." The vision would provide an image of the state as it appears in 20 to 30 years Acting as the preamb l e to the state com prehensive plan, it would serve as a foundation for Florida's state plan ning p r ograms. Th. e recommended visioning process emphasizes public participatio n to create a vision that stems from the collect ive ideas of all Flor idians. State Comprehensive Plan Growth manageme n t t ranscends local boundaries and responsi bilities of individ ual un.its o f government. Therefore, the Legisla ture called for a more integroted planning system that. ensur es intergovern mental coondi.nation on issues posed by the s tate's continued g r owth and develop m e nt. The State Comprehens ive Plan shall provide direction to all levels of governme n t regarding the orderly social, economic, and physical growth of the state. Further guidance is also provided in coordinating State agency S
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STATE TIWIS3'0!ITAnOH POUCY INrnA nvt 114 provide guidelines for where u rban growth is appropriate and sho u ld be encouraged; provide guidelines for state transpon-ation corridors, pub l ic transportation corridors1 new interchanges on l i mlte d acc ess fa ci lities, and n e w airports; provide coordinated state planning of roa d rai l and wate rborne transportation f acilities designed to take the n e eds o f agriculture into consideration and to provide for the transportation of agricul t ural pr o ducts and suppliers; provide a statewide policy to e n hance the multiuse waterfront. developmen t of existjng deepwater pons, ensuri ng that p ri o rity is given to water dependent land uses; recommend w h e n and to what degree l ocal plans must be consisten t wi t h the growt h management portion of the State Comprehensive P lan; reco mmend how to integrate the state water p lan, the state land developme n t p lans, an d t ranspo rtati on plans required by Chapte r 339, F.S., Transportation Finance and Planning; and set recommendations con cerning what degree of consistency is appropr iat e for the strategic r egional policy p lans. The Legislature direc .ted the Executive Office o f the Gove rn o r to prepare the growth managc :mcnt portion of the Compre hensive P lan by Oc tober 15, 1993, for review by t h e Administration Comm ission The Committee has con cluded, however, that g iven the complexity and breadth of this legislative mandate, and the fact that the entire comprehensive p Jat t w-as to be eva1uated and rewritten, t h e time frame for prepar-ing the growth management eleme n t was unre. alist i c -and a n extension was requested. The growth managem ent portion is to have legal effect upon adopt ion by the Legislature and t h e Legislatur e is to indicate which plans, activities and permi t s must be consiste n t w i t h th e growth pon.ion of the State Comprehens i ve P lan llien nial review of the growth m a nagement portion will be co nd ucted b y the Office of the Governor i n conjunction with the evaluation of the State Comp r ehensive Plan. Areas a! Crilil:al State Conca m The Act promotes coordination between Sme, regional and local agencies in guiding development within a n Area of Crit ical State Co ncern. The Departme n t of Commun ity Aff a irs shall recommend actions local government and state and regional agencies must take to carry out principles for guid i ng develo pment. Broader authorit y is also granted to all affected State agencies to adopt perm i tting standards and criteria that further the purpose of the designation. When desig nating an Area of Critical State Concern, the Administ ration Commission is direct ed to provide a dear statement of the purpose of the designat ion and to develop a check list of act i ons that will result i n de designat ion. Section 380.05, F.S. i s amended to set f orth guidelines i n dedesignating an Area of Critical State Concern. Six months after designating an Area of Critical St ate Concern-and any time < hereaft er as d i rected by
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Regional Planning Councils Although u nder review for sunsetting, RPCs were retained and recognized "as F lorida's only multipurpose regional entity that plans for and coordinates iotergover.amenml solutions to growth related problems on greater-than-local issues." The Act emphasizes the role of RPCs i n regional planning and coordina tion, and not as a pennitting or quasi regulatory agency. Additional powers have been granted to RPCs, including: coordinating regional entities i n developing the strategic regional policy plan; conducting a negotiation process i n tended to resolve inconsiStencies with regional and local plans; coordinating land development and transportation to foster regionwide transportation systems; and reviewing plans of transportation authorities and MPOs to identify inconsistencies between those agencies, p lans and local government plans. Local governments may opt f o r regional mitigation on planning a nd groMh management disputes. The Act directs the RPC to establish a dispute resolution process that provides for meetings among disputing parties, i nitiation of voluntary mediation, :md initiati on of arbitration or administrative or judicial action where appropnate. The current boundaries of the RPCs were established in 1982, pursuant to the F lorida Regional Planning Council Act. Due to Florida's rapid population gro"l\oth and lack of any previous systematic review, the Office of th e Governor shall complete-:.t review of regional planning council boundaries by January 1, 1994. The review will ensure t hat revised boundaries will comprise a workable system for effective regional planning. Regional Pulicy Plan Regional Planning Councils were directed to make the regional policy plan m ore strategic in nature. The Act renamed th e regional policy plan as the "strategic regional policy plan" and specified which areas the p lan will address. The plan shall contain regional goals and policies that .&dress affordable ho u sing economic development, emergency preparedness, natural resources of regional sjg.nificance, regional transportation, and any other subject relating to the particular needs of The strategic regional policy plan shall be consiStent with the State Comprehensive Plan and the RPC must submit an EAR on its strategic regional policy p lan every five years based on a schedule set by the Governor's office and coordinated with local EARs. The Act states that the standards included in strategic regional policy plans may be used for p l anning purposes only and not for permitting or regulatory purposes. To e liminate conflicts between State and regional agencies, an RPC may not adopt a planning standard that differs mater i ally f rom a planning smndard adopted by rule by state or regional agency, when such rule expressly states the planning stondard is i n tended to preempt action by the RPC. Concurrency r equirements prohib it an RPC from establishing binding level of-service standards for public facilities and services provided or regulated by local governments. Also, any inconsistenc y between a local plan or amendment and the strategic policy plan cannot be the sole basis for finding the plan or amendment not in complianc e lnll!r!Javel'lll1181ltal Coordination The intergovernmental coordination e lemen t was expanded and strengthened STAtE TIIANSPil!ITA110N POIJCY lNmAnVE ================= 1'15

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STATE TJWCSPQRTAnOH POJJCY IHmA1tVE 116 to promote increased cooperation among governmental agencies and address development issues previously covered by the development of regional impact (DR!) program. Currently, many comprehen sive pla ns lack effective guidelines for coordinating publ ic d ecision making and revi ewing i mpacts of deve l opment proJects. The element wou ld be required to in clude: a process to determine and mit igate. extrajurisd ictional impact s of developme nt with an option for regional mitigation; a process for modiflcation of outstanding DR! development orders; develo pment dispute resolution process ; procedun:os to identify joint planning areas; and guidelines for recognit ion of campus master plans. An improved i n tergovernmental e l ement, consistent with the ELMS changes1 is a prerequisite to terminating the DRI program. Local gove rnment s must implement t he amendments necessary to strengthen the element by Decembe r 31, 1997 Local governments who ex er cise their option to retain the D R1 program are not required to expand their intergov ernmental coordi nati on e lement., but must address the new intergovernmenta l coordination requirements in their Eva l uation and Apprai> .. l Report New requirements also p rovi ded for the formation of interlocal agreements b etween -a county, municipalities within that county, th e district schoo l board, and service providers to promote join t processes for collaborative planning and decis ion making. Among other things, activities involving cooperation may include locat i on and extension of public facilities subject to concurrency, and siting facilities with countywide s ign ifi cance. Davalopmants of Rsgianallmpact The DR! program will be phased out in jurisdictions that ha ve adopted an expand ed intergove rnmenta l coordina tion e l ement and land development regulations that impl ement the expanded element, and have comprehensi ve plans in comp l i ance. Counties with fewer tha n 1 0 0,000 residents, m unicipalities \vit.hin thos e counties and municipa l ities of f ewer than 2 5 00 residen ts i n counties in excess of 100,000 residents, shall have the option of continuing to participate in the DRI program through resolu tion or ordinan c e. When the population exceeds the requ i r e ments to re tain t h e DR! p rogram or i f the governing b o dy revokes the option, t he local government sh all termi nate the DR! program. If a development lies within a jurisd i ction that retains the DRI program and a jurisdiction that has terminat e d the program, it $hall underto DR! review. Previously approved DR! orders shall contin u e to be effective,. a n d may be enforced or abandoned. Proj ects that would have undergone DR! review bu t for termination are subject to appeal and enforcement by the Departm e n t of Community Affairs. In t he meantime and for all jurisdictions that retain the DRI program, review requirements have been substantially revised. As of December I, 1993, rules will b e adopted to implem ent new DR! thresho l ds wit hin urban central busi ness districts and regional activity c enter s. DRI thresholds will be amend ed as f ollows: a 50 percent incr e a se for residential, hote l motel, office and r et ail devel opments; a 100 percent increase for multius e developments, provided one la nd use is residential and amounts t.o not less

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than 35 per cent of the j urisdiction's appl icable threshold; and a 150 percent increase for resort or convention hotel developments, provided the increase is specifically for a proposed resort or convention h otel located i n a county with a pop u l ation greater than 500,000 and the local goverrunent specifically designates tha t the pro posed resort or conven t ion hotel development w ill serve an existing conv e ntion cen t er built prior to July 1 1 992, t hat comprises more than 250,000 gross square feet P rocedures for processing DR! applica tions that require plan an1endments have been streamlined. Comprehensive p lan amendments related to a development o f re giona l impact can now be initiated by the dc'l'eloper. T he local government must hear both the D RI application and che comprehensive plan amendment at the same public hearing." Thereafter, the appeal process for the local developmen t ord ers and the compliance process for plan amendm e nts remain unchanged. The developer ma y requeSt expedited DR! review if the proposed DR! is certified by t h e local government to the Departmen t o f Commun i ty Affairs as consistent with the local comprehensive plan The abbreviated review process includes: a short appl icat ion fom1 t o be promulgated b y DCA by rule; a limitation on suff i ciency of infonnation requeSts-the RPC may r equest additional informat ion no more than twice> unless the developer v.raives this l imitation; and a limitation on the time for setting the loca l public hearing of no later than 90 days after t he RPC issues noti c e that a public hearing may be set, unless by the devel oper. The Act revises RPC rev i ew of the regional impact of a DR! application The list of specific issues for regiona l review was eliminated with t h e excep tion of the effect o f the project on th e a bility o f people to find adequate housing reasonably accessible to t heir p lace of employment. RPCs are directed to address the i mpact of the project on state or regional resources or facilities identi fied in applicable stare or regional p larlS, and whether the project will signific antly impact adj acent jurisd ictions. At the request of an adjacent local government, t he RPC may rev i ew and comment upon issues of concern to that government. RI'Cs may no longer appeala loc.l government's decision to a pprove or deny propose d ch3
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STATE T1lAHSPQRTA11QH PmJCY lHlllATIVE liB age, potable water, parks and recreational f:acilities, and rnass tr ansit where applica ble. However local governments now have the option to extend concurrency require .ments to include other forms of infraStructure as the gr owth management system mature-s. The Act established t hat new facilities must be in place no later than the issuance of a certificate of occupancy with certain exceptions for transportation and parks. Parks and recreation facil i t ies to serve new developments shall be in place no later than one year after the issuance of a cert ificat e of occupancy However, prior to the issuance of a certificate of occu pan cy, l and must be dedicated or acquired by the local government or t h e developer 's fair share funds must be committed. e and other public facilities and develop ment will also be subject to concurrency. Conc e rns have arisen regarding which governm e n ta l agency s hall est ablish level of-service Standards when m ultiple public agencies are i nvolved. The new Act specifically states that on ly governmental e n tities responsible for providjng, financ ing, operating or regulating facilities shall establis h binding level-of-service standards for pub l ic facil i ties. T11111SJ1Dl'tation ConCU1TIIru:y The A c t requires that transport at ion facilities are required to be in place to serve developmen t three years after issuance of a certif ica t e of occupancy. However. re-ali z ing that transportation concurrency may interfe r e -with other goals o f local comprehensive plans, the Legislature perm i tted local governments to grnnt ceruin exceptions from concurrency requirements. Such excep tions m:1y be iss ued for projects that pro.mote public transportation) or within an area \vhich the c omprehensive plan designates for urban inf i ll development, urban redevelopment, or downtown revita lization. Also, any fac i lit}' w ithin t h e preced ing exception are a s or in an \lrban service a rea that creates (special part-time demands" on transportation infrastructure, such a s stadiums or arenas, may also be excluded from concurrency requ1rements. Local governmentS can adopt a longte r m tra nsponauon concurrency m an:1gement system w i t h a pla n ning period of up t o 10 years for significantl y backlogged dis tricts. These must b e adopted as part of the co mpr e hensiv e plan. The local plan can adopt interim le ve l-of service s tan dards on certain facllitie.s a n d may rely on the schedule of capital improvement s as a b a s is for issuing development permlts. The Act allows e x tension of the long term concurrency management syste m to 15 years d e pending u pon: the extent of the backlog; whether the back log is on loc al or sta t e roads; the cost of e l iminating the backlog; and the local governments tax and other revenue raising efforts Under certain situations, a developer may p roceed w i t h develo p m e nt i f transportation concurrency requirements are not met Co ndi tions for the pay and go" option i nclude: development is consiStent wit h future land use designation; local plan i ncludes a capital i mprovementS element that provides for transportation facilitie s adequat e to serve the pro p osed development; local government has provided a fair share of the cost assess mem to the landowner fo r tran sportatlon f acilities; a nd the landowner has made a binding commitment to the locot1 govern ment to pay f air share of the cost of p roviding the t ransport a t i o n fac ilitie s to serve the. dev e lopment. A de minimis impact that will not. C:luse significant degradation of the existing

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level of service on transportation facilities was deemed consistent with concurrency requirements. Local governJ:nenu are encouraged to ollow de minimis impacts on facilities for projects that do not degrade the adopted level of service standard more than 3% of the maximum volume. The Act also gives the government with funding and maintenance respons ibili ty over roads more control over concurrency service levels. Local ment lev el -of-service standards for the I ntrastate Hig hway System must be consistent with FDOT. However local governments can establish t h ei r own level-of -service standards on all. other roads on the State Highway System. Transportation Co ncur rency mcnt Areas (fCMAs) were written i nto legislation as a nother flexible a ppl ica t ion of transportation concurrency, for the purpose of promoting u rban infill and redevelopment. TCMAs are to b e identified in the local comprehensive plan and may only be applied in a "compact geographic area with an existing network of roads where multiple, viable alternative travel paths or modes are availab le for comm on trips." Local governments may establish a separa.te areawide level of service standard within the TCMA based upon an analysis that justifies the LOS standard, how infill or redevelopment will be promoted, and how mobility will be accomplished w ithin the TCMA. Chapter 9}5, F.A.C. will be amended to carry o ut the ELMS changes. Transportalinn Element of the Comprehensive Plan A new t .ranspOrt.'3t:ion element must be adopted by local governments within Metropolitan Plaon in g Organization boundaries. The new element will conso l idate all aspects of t ransportation and include: traffi c circulation, including major thoroug.hf:.tre-s md other routes, inchtding bicycle and pedest rian v.ays; all modes of travel, such as pub l ic transport atio n, pedestrian, and bicycle travel; parking facilities; aviation, rail, seaport facilities and services to serve existing land uses; the availability of facilities and services to serve existing land uses and the compatibility between future land use and transport-at ion elements; the capability to evacuate the coastal population prior to an i mpending natural disaster; airportS, projected airport and aviation develo pment and land use compatibility around and an identification of use densities, building intensities, and transportation management programs to promote pub1ic transportation systems in public transportation corridors so as to encourage population densities sufficient to support such systemS. Review of Comprehensive Plan Amendmenta Changes to the local plao amendment adop t io n and review process will allow local governments to amend their com prehensive plans in a more time ly man ner Prior to ELMS, all proposed com prehensive plan amendments automatical ly underwent review by DCA, which collected responses from other state agencies. Review of amendments shall be comp l eted by the DCA only if it is requested by the Regional Planning Council, an affected person, or the local government transmitting the plan amend J .nent. However, DCA may still review any proposed plan amendment regardless STATE TIIAHSI'ORTATIOH POLICY IMTlATIVE ================ 119

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STATE TJIAHSPORTA1WI POLitY llQTIA nVE 12 0 of whether a re q uest for review has bee n made. W hen rev i ew is requested, the Regional P lan ning Cou ncil's r eview is lim i ted to effects the amendment will have on regional resources or facilities in the s trategic regional po l icy plan and extra jurisdictional impacts that would be i nco nsisten t w ith the comprehensive p lan of the affected government Incon sistency bet w een a local plan amendment and a strat egic regio na l po li cy plan may no t be the sole bas i s for the RPC to find the 2men dmen t not in comp lian ce Evaluation and Appraisal Reports Eva l uation and Appraisal Rep ons (EARs} have been requi r ed of loca l governments for the purpose of monitoring the effectiveness of the comprehensive plan in guiding the community toward its goa l s and objectives. The Act states that E ARs shall be the principa l process for updat i ng loca l comprehensive p lans to refle ct changes in state policy on planning and growth management. I n addition to other co mponents, EARs must now i n cl ude: the effect changes i n state la w h ave upon local governm e nt comprehensive plan s ; actions to be taken with respect to planning i ssues identified in t he repon; and proposed plan amendments necessary to carry ou t issues raised in t h e r e port S u bmission of t h e EAR to t h e Depan ment of Community Affairs has been extended to no l ater than seven years after the adoption o f the com p rehensive plan, periodic reports every five years t h ereafter. DCA's review of the EAR wiJl no t include a 1'co mpliance .. decision but s hall be limited to time ly submission and inclusion of the p resc ribed compo nents. DCA will adopt rules for review of re p orts and may delegate review o f the report t o the respective R egional Council. W h en developing an EAR, a mun i cipa l ity wit h 5000 r esiden t s or l ess or a county with 5 0 000 residents or l ess, has the opt l o n to foc us on selected issues or elements. Mu n ic i palities with 2500 res iden ts or le ss must submit. an EAR no later than twelve years after t he adop t ion of their comprehensive plan, with period ic reports every 1 0 years thereafter. Annexation and Enclavas Previously, an annexing municipality had to submit a separate vote when annexing my contiguous. comp act unincorpora te d are-a. The new la w states a vote by the annexing municipality is n ecessary if t he total area annexed exceeds f ive percent of t h e total land area of the municipa l ity. If the propost-d annexed area contains no voters then the property owner consen t i s required to proceed with the annexation. Until a comp r ehe n sive plan amendment is adopted by t h e municipa lit y, an an nexed area is su b ject to county land use plan and county zoning or subd i v ision r egu l a tions. T h e Act amen ds C h apter 171, Municipal Annexat i on or Contraction, to include a d efi n i t i o n o f 'cenclave" as any u nincorp o rated area that i s enclosed wit hi n or bounded b y another municipality and/ or a natural or manmade obstacle. Recognizi n g that enclaves can create signl flcant prob l ems in p lanning growth manage ment, and serv i ce delivery, the Le g islature declared that i t is t h e po l icy of the state t o eliminate enclaves. The Act expedites the a nnexation of enclaves of 10 acres or less by a llowing to annex by interlo c a l agreement wit h the county having j urisdiction of the enclave, or annex an enclave with fewer than 25 voters by municipa l ordinance -w hen the annexation is approved by at least 60 percent of the voters who resid e i n the

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enclave. These p rovisions do not apply to undeveloped or u nimp roved re:al property. Unlvenrity Campus Master PlaiUI It i s l egislativ e inten t to provid e s p ec i a l growth management provision s to recognize the u nique relationship between c ampuses of the State Un iversity System and the local gov e rnm ents in which they are loca t ed. The Board o f Retents has be e n directed to pre pare and adopt a campus maste r pl an for each campus of e a ch inStitution over which i t bas juris d ic tion by July 1, 1995. The c ampus master p l an must contain e lements relatin g to futur e land u sc intergov e rnmenta l coordination, capita l i mprov e m ents, recre-.Jtio n and ope n sp2ee) genera l infraStructure, h ousing, and conserva tion. The transportation e le ment muse address r easott.\ble transporta tion demand management techniques to minimize off site imp acrs. The plan mus t not be i n conflict with the comprehensi v e p l a n o f the host or affected loco! gov ern ment while remaining consistent with the Stat e Compre hens i ve Plan C ampu s mast e r plans mus t be updated e v e 1-y five years. The Administ ration Commission shall provide a disp ute reso l ution process which will medi ate between the Board of Retents ortd an aff ected party that chal lenges t he ad o pted p l an A pet i tion filed by an affected local governm en t is l i mited to issues pertaining to the publi c faciliti e s o r services they provide or to the direct impact the campus would have on their jurisdiction. State University System Concurrency TMllt Fund The General R e v e nu e s e rvice charge, a 7.3 perce nt dedu c ti o n f rom revenues raised by any l ocal op d o n m o t o r fuel tru<, shall be deposi ted i n the new State University S y stem Concurrency Trust F und Mon eys in the Fund shall be used for fun ding State University System offsit e im p rove m e nts required to meet concurr ency standards Funding Effective May I 1993, an additio na l one to five cent l ocal o pti o n gas tox ma y be levied upon ev ery gallo n of motor fuel sold in a count y Such a tax shall be adopted by a majo r ity plus o ne vote of the g overning body of t h e county o r by referendum. The ux must be imposed by July 1 to be effective Septembe r of any year. Prior to imposi t io n o f the ux, the county may esta b lish b y interloc.I agre em ent with t h e municipalitie s within the county, a f o rmul a f o r divid ing u p t he entire proceeds o f th e tax. If no i n t erloc.I agreemen t is reach e d the p roceeds of t he tax s hall be dist ributed am ong the county an d mu nicipalities based on transpo rta tion expenditures of each for the preced ing five fi.scal years. Local governm e nts must u tilize the additional local o p tio n gas tax r e venue for transportatio n elCpena ditures needed t o meet the capital im provements ele m e n t o f the adopted comprehensiv e pbn. =================121

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NOTES 1 E. Fernald and E. Purdum, eds., Atlas of Florilla (Gainesville: University Press of Florida), 131. 2 L. Bouvier and B. Weller, Florida in llJt 21st Ctn/Jiry: 1'he of Pop;tlalion Grovilh {Washington, D.C.: Center lo r Immigration Studies), 51. F lorida Taxation & Budget Reform Commission> Florida's Fiual Future J3alandng Nttds & Taru (1991), 2S.26. I nformation provided b y the Senate Finance, Taxation, and Claims Committee, Tallahassee, Florida, August 1993. s Florida's Fiwl Future, op dt., 35. Conservation Foundation, Guide TtJ Florida Envbonmmldl !SSJits and Information (Winter Park, Florida), 129. 7 Wendy M. Clark, soundin&<." WakrF ronl RraJ &tate, May 1993, 30. Memorandum from Florida Governor Lawton Chiles to Secreury of State Jim Smith, June 4, 1993. Tr.msportation Alternatives Group, "Future Federal Surface Transportation Programs: Policy Recommendations," Washington D.C., January 1990. 10 USDOT, Urb1t111'ransporldtion Planning in the Uniltd States: /J11 Historiral 0VO'flicw, Re\ised ed., (Nov ember 1992), p. 240. 11 Eileen Gallagher, Senate Committee on Banking, Hous ing & U rban A ffairs, Transi t Gets a Lih," STPP B.Uttin (fanuary 14, 1992). Fedual &gilttr 58 (1) (fanuary 4, 1993). o K. Williams, "IS'fEA: New Directions for Trnn.sportation, .. !..and Law & Zoning Digest 45(7) (fuly 1993), 3 -9. " The Great Comprom ise: Urban P l anners Got ISTEA Power But Will They Be Able to Use It?," PWFinll7tr:ing (May 1992), 16. JS Staff of the Bureau o f Economic and Business Research. personal interview,lvlay 1993. Chapin and Kaiser, Urban Land Ute Planning, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1985), 408. t1 Wtkbook for Preparing or Updaling a Jltftuter Plan or Pnparing a Crowsh Managemtnt Plan. Pre pared for the Michigan Society of Planning Officials, by Planning&. Zoning Center, Inc., Lansing, Michigan, March 1992. 1 The Planning Commissi on, $qcoaonomic Data for tl;-e 2010 Umg Range Transp
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STATE TRAHSPORTA11DH POLICY ll!mAT!VE 124 2 Pine Has County P lann ing Department, Future Lat;d Use Element. August 1989, pp. 2512 Ibid. 253. 26 Ibid., 167-8. Ornnge Coun t y, Orange Coun(l Compuhmri-"' Plan, Future Land U;e Element Oul y 1991), 68-71. Ibid., pp 73-97. n Cit y of Orl a n do Planning and Develo p ment Depanmem, City of G"rowth Management Plan: Populalion and Eamomic Projcdions (August 1991), PE-3 PE-18. Ibid., 73 97. ChriStopher Harris Bri nging Land Use Rat ios In t o the '90s," PAS Mmo (Chicago: American Planning Associatio n, August. 1992). Data c ompiled by the PAS Memo i nclude t hose take n from the following surv eys: /..and USis h: Ame.riCiln Cities, Harlan d Banho lom e w and Ja ck \Vood, 1955; Eisner and Associates, 1939Urban Umd Politia and Land-Use Omt rol Vol VI, Nonhern Americai and Gregory Longh ini and Mike Sutton, PAS Memo, May 1983. H M. Wyckoff, ct 31.,:tvilchigan Society o f Officials, ()n Puparing or n MttJitr Plan or Prtparing ,,-Growth Managtmmt Plan, prepared b y P lanni ng & Zoning Center, Inc., L01nsing, March 19'92. H "Pri v ate Sector' Briefs," FTA Office of Priv at e Sector I n it iatives, \Va.10hington, D C. Vol 4, No. 12, J uly 1993. J) "Tr ansp ort a tio n Community Moves Towards Defin it i on o f I me rmodalism.'" N3tional Trans i t Institute, New J ersey: Ru tgers University, Spring 199 3. )' Draft report of the Prtlimittary h1Urmodal Planning FramtUl()rk, prepared for FDOT by Wilbur Smith Associ3tCS August 13, 1993. 3 7 Ibid ., 13. Ibid. p. 1 4 Background P a per pre p ared or the North Palm Beach County / Southern Mart i n County P l an n ing Forum coo r dinated by FAU/FlU joint Center for E nv ironmental and U r b an Problems and FAU Institute of Govetnme ot August 26--28, 1993, 11. Ibid., 15. 4 1 Ce rv ero, "Congest ion Relie f : The Land Usc Altern3t ivc,"' journal of Planning Education & &! Southwest F lo r ida Regional P l anning CouncilJ Regional P oli(!'l P/drl: GOtlls. antf Polidts, adopted June 20, 1991 7.13. /bit!., 7.12. 41 Porto M i ami 1993 Port Direc.toty. 49 I n forma tio n on the Pott of Tampa was obta ined ftom the Tampa PoJt Authority 1994 Official Directory, Maddux Report X(11) (December 1993), 53-92.

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" ]. Kasorda, A Global Air Carg<>-lndustrial Complex for North Caro lina," C J. Snyder, Tampa Tribune, May 23 1993. S. Cohen, Insurance After Andrew," Tampa Tribane, J une1, 1993. J. Holwa y and R. B urby, "R educing Flo od Losses, Local Planning and Land Use Controls, journal of thtAm
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REFERENCES Arn.erican Planning Associati on F lorida Wth Managtment Att: From Planning t o Land Dtvtlopmmt Ft. Lauderdale: FAtl/FIU, Joint Center for Environment...! and Urban P r oblems, 1989. Center for U rban Transporcation Research Roadwll.J) Lcvel.ojS
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STATE TRAHSI'ORTATIOH POLICY !Nl11AT1VE 128 McClendon, 8 . and R Quay. Mastnin.g Changf: Winning StratrgieJfor Ejficti't>'t City Plmming. Wash i ngton, D.C.: Planners Press, American Phnning Association, 1988. Newman, P., and J. Kenworthy Citit:S and Atomobile Dtpmden: An lnu rtuUional Sourttbock. Gower Pub lishing Company 1991. Planning and Zon ing Center lne. Workbook for Pupari1tg or Updating a ,Waster Plan or Prepating a Growth Plan. March 1992. Porcer, D., and B \Vatson. ''Rethinking F lorida's Grov.1.h Management Syst em ... Urban Land (February 1993): 21-25. Puliminary lntrrmodal Planning Framewurk, Drafl &pori. Prepared for the FDOT by 'X'ilbur Smith Asso ciates, August 1993. Siemon, C. "Growth Management. in F l orida: An Overview and Brief Critique." In D Port-er, ed., Stalt and Rtgionallnitiati11t$for Managing Policy hsuey and Conarm. Washington D.C : U rban Land Institute, 1992. State Comprehensive P l an Committee. Kr;t /1) FlbriJa'$ Future: Wi'nning in a Cbmpttitive Wbrld. February 1987. Transponat ion Research Board. TranspcrtatiO!f and Eronomic Devtwpmttu !990 1724 (1990). 17x Urban Form Sou{y: A Vision for Palm Bt.ath Co:ml) Background paper prepared by the North Palm Beach County/Southern Martin County P l anning Forum and coordinated by the FAU/FIU,Joint Center for Environmental and Urban Problems and the FAU Institute o f Government, August 1993. '"Urban T ransponation Planning Agencies Assess Modal Options Urban Oatlook (August 1992): 6-7. York, M ed. C ompacl U r ban Dtvtlopment in Florida: A Roundtable Di.Jcussion. Ft. Lauderdale: FAU/F1U,joint Center for Environmental and Urban Problems, April1989. Plans and Related Documents Stahl Depanment of Community Affairs. TbeStaJtland On-.Jopmmt Plan, March 1989. FJorida Depanment of Transport.ation. 11M flon'da Aviation S.J1ttm Plan, Executivt Summary (/889 2005), Marth 1989. 1"Jx Florida Aviation Sys1m1 Plan, 1' SNpplcmtnl (/8892()()5), j\lne 1989. ---Tht 1992 Florida Transportation Plan. 1992. llegianal Broward Councy Metropolitan Planning Organizadon. Unifitd Planning Work Program of Transpotlation Planning A F
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Orlando Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organiz.1tion. Otbmdo UrbanArttt Tramportalion Planning Process, February 1992. Orlando Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organizat ion OU/11S TrampqrtdJiOJ< Stxdj; 1991 A nnuttlRsport, 1992. Tampa Urban Area Metropol itan Planning Organization. 2010 Long Transportation Platt. September 1991. ____ S onomi< DaJafor lht ZOIQ Long Range Transportation Plan Updme, April 1992. South Florida Regional Planning Council South Flotilfa &gional Plan, August 1991. Southw est Fl orida Regional Planning Council. Southuvst Florilfa &gionttl Comprehensive Po/ifY P/a,.,Jurse 1991 St. Lucie County Metropolitan P lannin g Organizat i on. Ft. Pitr"i5t. UicieArea Transportation Stu> Summdly Report. Prepared by Traffic Plann in g and Design, In c !985. St. Lucie Metropolitan P lanning Organization. T ramporlatUm Jmprtnltmmt Program FY 1992/92 through 1991f98, 1992. Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council. TrUJJ.Nfe Coast Regional Plannhtg Comprdxnsive Poli9 Plan, Aprill987. Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council Ju piter Farms Case Study. Local Broward Compret-.nsiv< Plan, as antenlfISW< P/4nfor UnintX>rporat Co1111ty Tuhnir41 Support DOtumtnt, Decembe r 1988. PintltiiS Co1111ty Comprehtnsive P/at1, as amendtd, October 1991. Cil) of Porl St. Lutie Comprebm$ittt Plan, June 1990. City of Port St Lrie Corridor EMluations. Prepared by Kimley-Iiorn and Associates, Inc., May 1992. St. Utcit Comprehemive PUm Update,Januaty 1990. Ci!JI ofSIIIart Compre!temiw Growth Management P/4n, Decemb e r 1989. Tramporllllion Cotridol'$: Mting tht ofGrou>'lh Managtmtnt in M iami, Septem ber 1990. Ci!J! if Winter Park Comprthtnsiw Plnn, 1991.

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lirA Til tiWISPORTA11011 POIJtY OOTIA TIVE 130 n'Jioansportation and Growth Management: A Planning and Policy Agenda CUTR Proje<:t Team : Kri stin e Williams, AICP Sara Hendricks, AICP Stacey Bricka Daniel Rudge Irene Nikitopoulos CUTR Canter for Urban Transportation R898arch College of Engineering o f South Flor ida 4202 E Fow ler Avenue, ENB 118 Tampa F L 3362().5 350 (813) 9743120 fax (813) 9745 168 Gary L Brosch, Dirtaor

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Transportation and growth management :
a planning and policy agenda.
1 7 246
State transportation policy initiative
Tampa, Fla. :
Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida,
vi, 130 p. :
ill., charts, maps ;
28 cm.
"This report is one of a series of publications resulting from Phase I of the State Transportation Policy Initiative"--Preface.
"January 1994."
Bibliography: p. 127-129.
Also issued online.
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