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Performance of Florida's public transit systems : executive summary


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Performance of Florida's public transit systems : executive summary
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Florida. Dept. of Transportation. Public Transit Office
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
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Tampa, Fla
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Subjects / Keywords:
Local transit--Florida   ( lcsh )
Urban transportation--Florida   ( lcsh )
letter   ( marcgt )

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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usfldc doi - C01-00334
usfldc handle - c1.334
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Executive Summary August 1995 RIDA'S TEMS


PERFORMANCE OF FLORIDA'S PUBLIC TRANSIT SYSTEMS Prepared for Florida Department o f T ransportation Publ i c Transi t Office by Center for Urban T ransportation Research Co ll ege o f Engineering University of South Florida Ex ecutive Summary August 1995


FIXED-ROUTE SERVICE 1 DEMAND-RESPONSE SERVICE 16 Florida s Transit Systems 2 Passenger Trips 17 Hurricane Andrew Still Impacts Statewide Trends 3 Operating Cost Per Passenger Trip 18 Financing Transit Operations 4 Service Miles 19 Operating Cost and Revenue 5 Operat i ng Cost Per Service Mile 20 Ridership, Population, & VMT 6 Ridership, Population, & VMT Growth Rates 7 Passenger Tri ps 8 COMMUTER ASSISTANCE Operati n g Cost Per Passenger Trip 9 PROGRAM 21 Serv i ce Miles 10 Florida Commu ter Assistance Program 22 Operating Cost Per Service Mile 11 Primary Marke t Coverage of Florida's CAPs 23 Flo ri da System Peer Groups 12 Commuter Assistance Services 24 Factors Influencing Transit 13 Proposed Eval u ation Measures 25 Yearly Performance Trends 14 Park & R ide Lot Program 26 Commuter Rail Peer Review Analysis 15 FOOT-Monito red Park & Ride Lots 27


FIXED-ROUTE SERVICE Type of transportation involving passenger revenue vehicles repeatedly following a consistent time schedule over the same route Also known as fixed route/fixed schedule service. In Florida, fixed-route modes include bus, automated guideway, heavy rail, and commuter rail.


Brevard Ekoward Hitlsborough Key WHt Late land .... Ma.natee greater than 200 buses 50-200 buses 10-49 buses 1-9 buses 0 other systems Sp3ce Coast Are.a Transit MiGomi Broward Transit Division N$ w Smvrno County Area T rans i t Orl ando Regiona l T rans i t Sys tem P41m Bcooh H ill sb oroug h Area Regional Tansit ... 00 J aekiwtwilla AuthoritY Pilwllos W&at DOT La k eland Alae Mass Tran$it D istrict TaiiD has:;ee Lea Cou11tv Tr

D,\fJ Hurricane Andrew Still Impacts Statewide Trends With 49 percent o f sta t e wide passenger trips and 36 p e rcent of statewide service miles, Miami heavily impacts statewide transit system data. Hurricane A ndre w's significant effects on M i ami's transit service in 1992 an d 1993 also have affected s tatewi de trends. The hurricane resulted in Miami's transit ser vice being halted for near l y e week e n d no t b e ing comple t ely restored for approxim a t ely t w o weeks. F ollowing the hurri cane, h o w e v er, Miami in crease d service levels sharply. Durin g most of 1993, purchased emerg e n c y t r ans portation se rv ices w ere provided in south D a d e Co u nty t o a i d in r ecovery efforts. F in a n c i a l ass istance from t h e Feder a l Emergency Management A gency allo wed for this serv i ce t o be provided at no cost to passengers in h e avily damaged a reas. Since the eme r gency s ervice was phased out by Septembe r 1 993, declines in passenger trips and service miles occurred between 1993 and 1994. The table below illustrates the comp a rative trend s for Miami, all other Florida fixed-route transit systems, and the statewide total during these years as well as tor the 1992 -1994 period. MIAMI ALL OTHERS STAT EW ID E MEAS URE Parcent Change P orotntCMnga Percent Change Percent Cbar10e P e rcent Change P e nent Change 19921984 1993-1994 19921994 19931994 19921994 1993-1994 Passenge r Trips 12.9% -10.5% 8.0% 2 .9% 10.3% -4.2% Serv i ce Miles 6.7% -21 7 % 9.4% 4 .3% 8 4 % -7.0%


Financing Transit Operations Trends in funding sources for transit operations: Federal funding has declined from 20 percent to 11 percent; e State funding has increased from one percent to 13 percent; Local funding has remained stable at approximately 46 percent; and e Operating revenue has declined slightly from 32 percent to 30 percent of total funding for transit operations. Funding Sources for Transit Operations 40%+-------------------------30%+----l. 1984 111111994 1-% of Total Funding Federal Funding State Funding local Funding Operating Revenue


Operating Cos t and Revenue Since 1984, statewide total operating costs have increased 114 percent. Twenty-five percent of the increase is attributable to the rise in operating costs between 1992 and 1993. Between 1993 and 1994, operating costs actually decreased less than one percent, the first decline during the eleven year period. Operating revenue has financed appro ximately 30 percent of operating costs over the eleven-year period. Statewide Total New Starts Existing Service $300 000,4l00fi Opera t ing Revenue 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1 991 1992 1993 1994


?\\\'l Ridership, Populati o n & VMT Statewide total fixed-route ridership increased almost 31 percent and demand response ridership increased 465 percent between 1984 and 1994. During this same time period, statewide total population increased 26 percent and the number of vehicle miles travelled throughout the state increased approximately 42 percent. State Population 1985 1986 1987 1988 198S 1HO 1891 1192 1193 1994 Fixed-Route Passenger Trip s State VMT (0001 1984 1185 1181 1117 11t8 1919 1190 1991 1992 1993 1994 Demand-Respo nse Passenge r Trips 1 WUVU',UVU1984 1985 1986 1887 1988 1989 1990 1991 1892 1993 1994 1884 1886 1881 1887 1988 1989 1990 19911992 1893 1984 Sofm lol' I 96.1993 na!ewide populdoh MHI VMT dr WM liN I SStl Rorid6 Statislieal Ab$U otct tBurau of Economk HH SuliM$6 &,SNfdl). BEBR rl 1994 PQIIfMIIM tiM llfNI FDOrl TtMsptltf.nbn SUtbtk:s Ofllt pro"fllthd tM 1994 VMT dft ..


'f:l\\'4 Ridership, Population, & VMT Growth Rates A comparison of growth rate trends, using an index base of 100, indicates that the growth over time in statewide total fixed-route ridership has kept pace with the trends in statewide total population and VMT. It is also evident that the growth in demand-response ridership has exceeded that of any of the other tlrree variables by a significant margin 600 / I/ v -500 0 0 ... II 400 Gl x"' (IJ Will 300 Q. zs -;: 0 200 .. Cl

Ridership on Florida's public transit systems has increased 31 percent since 1984. Between 1993 and 1994, ridership declined four percent from 172 9 million trips to approximately 165. 7 million trips. However, total ridership has increased more than 10 percent since 1992. . 120.00(),0()0 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1984 1996 1886 1887 1986 1999 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1888 1990 1981 1992 1993 1994 All

Operating Cost Per Passenger Trip Operating cost per passenger trip at the statewide level has increased 63 percent since 1984. This measure increased approximately four percent from 1993 to 1994, after remaining stable in 1992 and 1993. Statewide Total 19841985 198& 1987 1988 198 9 1990 1981188Z 198 3 1894 Miami I II c I I i i ::I I I i i i I I I I I I 111111111111 : I : I I I LJ_I I I I I I I 1984 1 985 1986 1987 1988 1988 1890 1991 1982 1993 1984 lnffetlon All Other Systems ' II 1 .1! L' I ... ' I i II I i f 'll I I I I I I 1.11. 1 JlliiiIJI. Ill I J J J I I I I I 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991199Z 1993 1884 All v

Since 1984, the amount of service provided (i.e., service miles} by Florida's public transit systems has increased 41 percent. Between 1993 and 1994, service miles declined seven percent from 86. 1 million miles to 80. 1 million miles. However, the. number of service miles has increased more than eight percent since 1992. 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1984 1986 1986 1887 1888 1999 1990 1991 1982 1993 1994 1984 1985 1986 1967 1969 1969 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994


'0,\'fJ Operating Cost Per Service Mile 'f!:A\'.1\ Operating cost per service mile has increased 51 percent since 1984; however the cost per service mile for bus service increased only 43 percent, a slightly lower rate than inflation during this time Statewide Total-All Modes 1984 1985 1886 18871888 1988 1980 199119921993 1994 lnRotion Bus 1984 1985 1986 19871988 1988 1890 1891 1882 1883 1994 1984 1985 1986 1 9871988 1989 1990 19911992 18831894 Inflation .R;.ail Iii Guideway Inflatio n All volues on t his P J!Jff r q prc:umr lixcdrOUt(!/fix.Mst:Mdule setvice 011ty. Data for I!J94 ilre preliminary, not lin#/ Villid

. Florida System Peer Groups GREATER THAN 200 BUSES COMMUTER RAIL Miami T riRail plus six non Florida p e ers plu s three n o n-Flor i da peers 60 TO 200 BUSES Browa r d County Hillsborough County Jacksonville Or1ando Palm Beach County Pine lla s County p l us six nonFlorida peers 1 TO 9 BUSES K e y W est Manatee County N e w Smyma plus six non-Flor i da peers 1 0 TO 49 BUSES Breva r d County E s cambia County Gainesville Lakeland Lee County Sara s o t a County T allahassee Volus ia County plus eight non Florida pee r s


E1''1 Factors Influencing Transit Numerous factors influence transit's performance including those related to system management and staff, local policy decisions, and the operating environment. MANAGEMENT /STAFF skills & experience training leadership morale service design service quality LOCAL POLICY DECISIONS land use urban design parking zoning service levels fare policy OPERATING ENVIRONMENT density land use pattems congestion geography transit dependency


a'' '0,\f.J Yearly Performance Trends Cost Per Passenger Trip Cost Per Service Mile 1 1 1 1 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 Number of Florida systems performing above or within 10% of their peer group average. Number of Florida systems not performing above or within 10% of their peer group average.


'f:l\\'.! Commuter Rail Peer Review Analysis 'ff:l''& A peer review analysis for the commuter rail mode was conducted as part of the 1993 Performance of Florida's Transit Systems study. In this analysis, Tri-County Commuter Rail Authority's (Tri-Rail) performance was compared with that of three non-Florida peer systems: MARC in Baltimore, CaiTrain in San Francisco, and VRE in Virginia. Passenger Trips (000) Service Miles (000) San francisco Baltimore Battimore San Francisco Tri-Rail Tri-Rail Vlrginla Virginia 0 1,600 3,000 4,500 6,000 0 1,250 2.600 3,760 6,000 Cost Per Service Mile San Francisco Baltimore Baltimore TriRall TriRail San Francisco Virginia Virginia 10.00 $2.50 $5.00 $7.50 $10.00 $0.00 $4.00 $8.00 $12.00 $16.00


DEMAND-RESPONSE SERVICE Type of transportation characterized by the flexible routing and scheduling of vehicles for the provision of point-to point service at the user's request with less than 24-hour prior notice. Typically, this service is provided for the transportation disadvantaged, i.e., persons who because of physical or mental disability, income status, or age or who for other reasons are unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportation, or children who are handicapped or high risk as defined in Secti on 411. 202, Florida Statute s \ The data presented in this section have been compiled for only those systems that report their demand response (DR/ service for Section 15 purposes. These systems are identical to those shown on the map on page 2, with the following additions: Bay County Council on Aging Bay Coordinated Transportation and Ok a loo sa County Coordinated Transportation. Also, it should be noted that Tri-Rail, New Smyrna and Key West do not provide any DR services.


Ridership for the demand -response modes either directly operated or purchased by Florida's public transit systems has increased 465 percent since 1984. Almost 40 percent of the increase occurred between 1992 and 1994, after the passage of the 1991 Americans with Disabiliti es Act (ADA). From 1993 to 1994, total demand response ridership increased 13 percent. 1984 1186 1181 1917 1911 1989 1990 1991 1992 llt3 llt4 1884 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1892 1893 1994 1984 1985 1986 1887 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 IBn 1994 AI v41/uu M rbi$ teptNMt HmMd"f'UPPOIU Mfr. IJHS bHn kK only 1/ton tr#IMII .I'YI'f*'M drat wpon I.S.WM tiS J*POI

Operating Cost Per Passenger Trip Operating cost per passenger trip at the statewide level for the demand-respons e mode has increased 62 percent since 1984. This measure has declined almost six percent since 1991, despite a three percent increase between 1993 and 1994. Statewide Total 1914 1185 18111 187 1 188 1 9811990 1991 19921993 1994 Miami All Othe r Systems 1984 19851886 18871988 1989 1990 1991 1992 19831894 1984 1985 1986 18871988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 All on tbi$ r.,..unt S't'ioo only. TM d&lll biiWI bHn f 91' Mit tbon trMil ...,.,.rMIS Wr ttept kK S.Cdon 16 lht lor 1994 Mt NnM vMidiltH .............................................................


Since 1984, the amount of demand-response service provided either directly or via contract by Florida's public transit systems has increased 857 percent. Similar to the case for ridership, a significant portion (49 percent) of the increase occurred between 1992 and 1994, after passage of the ADA in 1991. From 1993 to 1994, total demand-response service miles increased 33 percent. 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1890 1991 1992 1993 1984 1985 1986 1887 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1984 1985 1988 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1892 1993 1884 All vllli.JIJS on this page :;ttrvico only. T1w datil NM compiled for only lhos. tumsit that t(Jj)t)ft for S.ctioo 16 pvrpq$11$. 1994 tMe preliminary. not final validated numbfln


E1''\ e\\\"J Operating Cost Per Service IVIile Since 1984, the statewi de total operating cost per serv i ce mile for the demand response mode has decreased four percent. The overall decline in this measure is attributable to the 13 percent decrease i n cost per mile between 1993 and 1994. Statewide Total 1!14 1985 1881 11171888 11811 890 111$11992 1993 1994 Miami All Other Systems 1884 1986 1888 1987 1988 198! 1990 199119921893 1814 1984 1985 1916 19871188 1988 1880 19111912 1993 1894 A#"**$ M this page nPtNtfll dNndruPMM SYk only. The dt bNn frN tNtly thoH triiMir th#t repon/or s.ctioR 16 O.lMI 1894 hM lifN/ v dlt:U t

COMMUTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Program initiated to coordinate the utilization of existing transportation resources in order to provide a responsive, low cost alternative for addressing urban highway congestion, improving air quality, and thereby reducing the need for highway capacity improvements. To achieve these goals, the program encourages the use of transportation demand management strategies such as carpooling, vanpoo/ing public transit, bicycling, walking, telecommuting park and ride, and alternative work hours, among others.


West Florida FDOT funds a variety of services designed to aid commuters. Commuter assistance seNices, tnmsportation management association s or organizations ITMAsJ, park and ride lots, and transit corridor programs all help to keep Floridi ans moving. .. Transportetlon Management Association ITMAI Commut er Assistance Program ICAPI FDOT works with local governments, MPOs, and the private sector to focus the efforts of the Florida Commuter Assistance Program. Currently, 18 existing or developing commuter assistance seNices and TMAs are being funded by the Department. Cphol City UACTA Or IIndo Ft. Louderdo l South UNll Gltewey TamfNt W ettlhote City TMA We$t P elm BeiKh Wett Pflm TMO Univcr:;ity/Ahllaya Cotrld TMA Civic C4mor Civic Ctnter TMO Downtown Orhndo TMA Wut F l ori d o Wut Florida Commuter SCi'vice$ Proonm Dovm t o wl\ Ft. lauditr'dete TMA .htokS<>n vi U ti Jiit:kaonv ille Sh;wo A R i dc South Bc.nch TMA SACS 8a.y Attl Comm utor UnivCf'$ity N01th Tran..,ortt tlon t nitistiYO LYNX I. V NX She teA-RJiton & Rural Ttansp. CAP Wc$1.$hore Allanea TMO Gold"-" Gold CoHt Commutor Services n. S

r:J,\fi Primary Market Coverage of Florida s CAPs r;Cl' The seven commuter assistance programs in the state encompass 2 7 of Florida s 67 counties for purposes of their effective coverage. The estimated number of commuters in these counties for 1993 is approximately 2.9 million persons. This means that the seven programs sre able to provide commuter assistance services to 77 percent of the state's estimated 3. 8 million commuters. Commuter A ssista n ce Program 1993 Estimat e d Commuters West Florida Commuter Services Program 218,766 Jacksonville ShareA-Ride 218,817 Bay Area Commuter Services 626,419 lYNX S h are-A-Ride 376,341 Space Coast. Commuter Assistance Program 129, 071 Suncoast Metropolitan & Rural Transportation CAP 166,327 Gold Coast Commuter Services 1,208,975 Total for CA P s 2,944, 716 Total for Florida 3,826,947 % of Statewide Total 76.9% The lt(lff'IIHr of "'OOittlf'Nit,. W#$ und to of tlto CAPIMnc. thll IJf'I"UP I& ctJ

Commuter Assistance Services Commuter assistance services provide commuters with different ideas on how they can curtail their use of single-occupant vehicles {SOVs), via a mix of strategies that are promoted through regional and local programs. The mix of services offered generally includes ridematch databases, matchlists, surveys, assistance in forming vanpools/carpools, and informa tion on public transit. Selected Commuter Assistance Activities 7 of 7 CAPs Reporting 7 of 7 CAPs Reporting 5 ol7 CAPs Reporting CarNanpools Formed (1,235) 4 of 7 CAPs Reporting 3 of 7 CAPs Reporting The information qn this i$ 1$94--95 dllt11 th;,t was C()J(ected kom stsce Commuter As3ls ta nce Programs fCAP$1 ................................. b.y.tM .. .. .. ..............................


0 Commuters Requestin g Assis tance Number of per son s req uesting assistance of some sort such as carpool/vanpool matchlist, transit route and/or schedule information, telecommuting information, bicycle route and/or locker/rack information, etc. 0 C ommuters Switch ing Modes Number of persons who actually use the information provided to change from their current SO V mode t o carpooling, vanpooling, t ransit use t elecomm utin g, walking, or b icycling. 0 Vans in Service (where applicable) Number of commuter v an s on the road and/or tile number of v anpo olers participating in B vanpool. 0 Vehicle Trip s Eliminated Number of SO V trips tha t were eliminated due to persons using a shared mode or telecommuting as a result of the commuter assistan ce services/information provided. 0 Vehicle Mile s Eliminated Number of SO V miles that were eliminated due to persons using a shared mode or telecommuting as a r esult of the commuter assistance services/information provided. 0 Emplo yer Contacts Number of employer contacts, including the number of em p loyees at each site, by specific categories such a s the number contacted by let ter/fax, by phone, in perso n and the number of follow-up calfs or visits. 0 Major Accomplishments Listing of achieve ments s uch a s transit services initiated/improv e d, educational programs initia t e d, transp ortat ion plannin g initiatives, guara n teed/emergency ride home projects init i a ted, and other implementation activit ies. 0 Parking Spaces Saved/Parking Needs Reduced Number of persons at each employment site that are using alte rnative modes thereby indicating the impact on parking need s at the sites 0 Commuter Costs Saved Total cost savings that have been achieved ass result of the elimination of SOV miles of travel. It is recommended that AAA s average cost per mile be utilized in this calculation


:3 fd\\1 '(:l\fJ Park & Ride Lot Program r;JfJ\ FOOT's Park and Ride Lot Program enc ou r ages the use of h i gh-oc c upancy vehicles (transit carpools, vanpools) by provi ding safe, convenient parking for c ommuters. There are currently 102 park and ride lots for which data are available throughout the state with over 18,000 total spaces. The average use of these lots is 56 percent (based on spaces) with 17 percent of the lots exceeding 95 percent occupancy P a r k & R i de Lot Suppl y B y Di s tric t P a r k & Ride Lot Inventory By Dist rict District No. of lou No of Spaces One 4 101 Two 6 892 Th,.... 16 418 Four 18 1.582 : 6,001 0+----------FIVe 5 808 One Two Three Four Five Six Seven District Six Seven TOT A L 33 12.415 20 2.000 102 18,216 TN MIU/te:B 1w tM inforrJ'Uiol.ion ,.s.nt< t>n 1/Jb .,., $f$(ttm &pan lor 1M Rf'Nkh ec.mmur w which wu tlw Fbit/11 of T1W1$p01ttion. nd tM FhitSa Park Md Nf r..dky lftwnroty. ___


FOOT--Monitored Park & Ride Lots 'f{;l'f1\ FOOT currently monitors appro x imately 53 percent of the 102 park and ride lots in the state. These lots comprise 12, 12 7 spaces, or about 67 percent of the state' s total park and ride lot capacity. The average use of these lots i s 52 percent (based on spaces) with 13 percent of t he lots exceeding 95 percen t occupancy. Park & Ride Lot O ccupancy Di strict Average s S e lected High Occupancy Park & Rid e Lots 1 40%..-----One T hree Four Five Six Se v e n Distr ict 120%+---100%+----O n e Four Five 8 "' --5 Jl Si K District :;outwt for the ptNefJted on tltls page is11 dt8ft Sy$18m Report for fM Florid

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