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Civic center TMO commuter characteristics study


Material Information

Civic center TMO commuter characteristics study
Alternate title:
Civic center transportation management organization commuter characteristics study
Physical Description:
iv, 89 leaves : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Civic Center Transportation Management Organization (Miami, Fla.)
Metropolitan Planning Organization of the Miami Urbanized Area
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, FL
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Commuting -- Florida -- Miami Metropolitan Area   ( lcsh )
Commuters -- Attitudes -- Florida -- Miami Metropolitan Area   ( lcsh )
Ridesharing -- Florida -- Miami Metropolitan Area   ( lcsh )
Transportation -- Planning -- Florida -- Miami Metropolitan Area   ( lcsh )
travel demand management   ( trt )
travel behavior   ( trt )
local government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 70).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
General Note:
Prepared for Miami Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization and the Miami Civic Center Transportation Management Organization.
General Note:
"December 1997."

Record Information

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University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001928074
oclc - 39938987
usfldc doi - C01-00341
usfldc handle - c1.341
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CMc CenterTMO Commuter Characteristics Study Prepared for: Miami Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (fti!PO), and the Miami Civic Center Transportation Management Organization (CCTMO) Prepared by: Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering, University of South Florida December 1997


Acknowledgement The CUTR project team consists of the following: Patricia A. Turner, Research Associate Mitchell P. York, Research Associate Daniel E. Rudge, Research Associate Phillip L. Winters, IDM Program Manager The team would like to recognize the following individuals for their assistance with the data collection portion ofthis research. Carol Bailey, State Attorney's Office Tom Cerney, Gold Coast Commuter Services Maria Crawley, Miami Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization Rolando Goll2a]es, Jackson Memorial Hospital Jesus Guerra, Miami Urbanized Arec Metropolitan Planning Organization !delia Hodges, fackson Memorial Hospital Danay Martinez, Miami-Dade CommUJli/y College Lucia Mendez, University of Miami Medical Ce11/er David Sappenfield Anat Schwartzhaum, Civic Center TMO Jed Shivers, University cif Micmi Medical Center Dan Thomas, University of Mwmi Medical Center Clark Turner, City of Miami Steve Zwang, Jackson Memorial Hospital The following CUTR staff assisted with data entry, GIS map preparation, compu ter support, and report production: Chris Bill in!:$ ley, Graduate Research Assistant, GIS map design and production Martin Catala, Graduate Research Assistant, GIS map design and production Francis C l eland, Research Associate, survey design Mark Fleeting, Network Manager, computer support Sandra Geahr, Program Assistant, report editing Jesus Gomez, Graduate Research Assistant, SW'11ey design Thomas Tu, Graduate Research Assistant, data entry Ben Walker, Graduate Research A s sistant, data entry Jason Winoker, Graduate Research Assistant, GIS map design and production Y anhu Zhou, Graduate Research Assistant, GIS map design and production The assistance of these individuals is both acknowledged and appreciated


TableofContents I. INTRODUCT .ION -----------1 RESEARCH OVERVIEW ................................................ ..... ... .... . .......... .... ......... .............. .... I RE:SBARCli 0BJEC11V:ES ..... .... ... ... ............... .... ..... .... ....... ... ..... ............ ....... ........................ 2 RESEARCH APPROACH ........................................... ... .................... .......................... ... ... .... 2 REPORT OROANIZAT!ON ........ .... .... ............... .................. ............ .. 3 n. LITE'RA TURE .. .. 4 PREVIOUS CIVIC CENTER TRANSPORTATION STuDIES .................... ............. . 4 TDM PLAN DEVELOPllfENT LITERATURE .......... . .......... .................... ............ ...... ......... ..... 6 PREVIOUS SURVEY EFFORTS .................. .. .... . ............... ........ .... ..... ....... 7 SUJo.iMARY .................... ....... ....................... ............... ...... .......................................... ........ 7 IlL DATA COLLECTION .............................................. .. ................. ........... ...... .. -8 CCTMO BOUNDARIES ........... ............. ........... ............................................... .......... 8 CCTMO MEMBER ORGANIZATIONS AND EMPLOYEE COUNTS ...... ... ..... . ..... . ...... ... .......... 8 EMJ'LOYEE REs1DNTIAL LoCATION 9 PAru

List o fTables Tab l e I. Civic Center 1MO Member Organizations and Number of Employees .......................................... 9 Table 2. Distance from Emp l oyee Home to the Civic Center by Employer .................................................. 9 Tab l e 3. Parking Supply and Deman. d Civic Center Area ........................................................................ 18 Table4. Type and Numbe.r of Services Available in C ivic Center by Zip Code .... ...... .............................. 1 8 Table 5. Civic Cente.r Roadways, Descriptions, and Daily Traffic Volumes .. ...................... ...................... 2 1 Ta ble 6. Metrobus Routes Serving CCTMO Member Locations ................................................................ 2 1 Table 7. Distribution of CCTMO Employees Around Transit Facilities .. .............. ...... ...... ............ ............. 22 Table 8. Weekday 1\'ansit Operating HOlliS ............................................................................ ................ .... 22 Table 9. Civic Center Bus Rout e s Serving Metro Rail Stations .............. .................... .............................. .. 23 Tabl e 10. Parking Availability at Metrorail Stations Where'Civic Center Routes Access ......................... 23 Tab l e II. Metro rail S tations Serving the Civic Center ....................... ............................... .............. ....... .... 23 Table 12. Transit Fares ............... ............ ....................... ................................................................ ........... .. 24 Table 13. AM P e ak Period Vehicl e Occupancy Counts-Civic C e nter Area .............................. ...... ... .. .. 25 Table 14. Miami Civic Center TMO Employee Transportation Survey Schedule ..... ................................. 27 Table 1 5 Survey Respondent by Employer rype .. ............ ..................... ............. .......... ............................ 30 Table 1 6. Distance Traveled in Daily Commute (One Way) By Employer ..... ............................ ....... .... ... 33 Tabl e 17. Time of Arrival to Wad< by Empl oyer ...... ................ .. ................... ...................... ........ ............ ... 35 Tab l e 1 8 Tim e of Departure from Work b y Employer .................................... .. ............. .... ..... .. ............... 37 T able 1 9 Commute Mode Choice by Employer ..................... .......................... .................. .................... ... 38 Table 20. M a jor Reasons for Not Using Bus Rail or CarpooWanpool by Employer ........... ................ .... 40 Table 2 1. Percei ved Parking Problems by Employer ............................... ...... ........... ................ ............. ..... 42 T a ble 22. Services Desired but Not Accessible wilhin Walking Distance by Employer ...... ...... ...... .... ...... 43 Tab l e 23. Employer-Provided Information o n Cun-ent Proo.,rams to Encourage Alternative 1\'ansp o rtation Use .. .. ..................... ......... ..... .................. ................ .................................... ............................ ...... ........... 44 Table 24 Employee Awareness of Employer-Provided Incentives to Use A lternative Transportation Modes b y Employer .............................. ................................................ ............................ ............... ........... ............ 46


ListofFigures Figure I. Civic Center Transportation Management Otgani2ation Area ............... ... ................. .............. . 10 F igure 2. CCTMO Area Total Employmen t Density ......... ...... ...... ..... .... ................... . ........ ................... ... 11 Figure 3. State Attorney's Office Employment Density ... .... ............... ..... .......... .... ... ................... .... . ....... 13 Figure 4. Jackson Memorial Hospital Employment Density ........ .................. ...... ..... ..... ......... ...... ............. 1 4 Figure S. M'!ami-Dad e Community College Employment Densicy ... .... ....... .............................................. I 5 Figure 6. University of Miami Medical Center Employment Density ..... .................. ..................... ....... . .... 16 Figure 7 Z ip Code Map Reference Map for Bro ward an d Dade Counties .............................. .................. 17 Figure 8. Jntermod al Transportati on Facilities Servicing CCTMO Area ........... ........ ......... .. ........ .. .......... 20 Figure 9. Demographic Profile: All Survey R eapondents ...... ............. ....... ................ . .......... .. ................... 31 Figure 10 Survey Respondent Trip Origins .... .... ... ..... .......... ... ... ........................................ ...... ....... ..... .... 32 Figure I I. D istan ce Traveled (One Way) from Home to Work: All Respondents .. . .. ....... . .... ................. 33 Figure 12. Time of Arrival to Work: All Respondent s ......... .................................. ......... ........ .................. 34 Figure 13. T im e of Departure from Work: AU Respondents .... ........... ................................. .......... ......... ... 36 Figure 14. Usual W ays o f Traveling to Work: All Respon dents ..... ................ ... .... .. ........... ........ ......... ..... 38 Figure 15. Major Reasons for Not Using Bus, Rail or Carpool!Vanpool: All Respondents .................. ..... 39 Figur e 16. Parking Problems a t Workaite: All Respondents ..... . ................... ........ ...... ....... ............... ... .... .. 4 1 Figure 1 7. Services Desired But Not Accessible Within Walking Distance: All Respondents ......... ......... 4 3 Figure 18. Employec>-Awaren. ess of Employer-Provided Incentives to Use Alterna t ive Transportation Modes: All Respondents ...... ........ .............. ............ .......... ............ ......... : ............................ 4 5 Figure 19. Extent That Factor Would Encourage U se of Alternative Transportation Mode: All Reapondents ................................................................................................... .. .. 48


I. futroduction about mobility traffic congestion, and air quality in the Greater M iami Civic Center area motivated the Miami Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization, hereafter referred to as the MPO, and the Civic Center Transportation Management Organization (CCTMO) to seek ways to manage and address these eon=. All forms of high-occupancy commute modes buses, carpools, van pools, and rail -as well as other lnlllSponatioo demand management (IDM) strategies can play important roles in addressing these concerns. Experience shows that encouraging greall!r use of high-occupancy commute modes is most effective in cities that devel op, promote, and implement a combination of 1DM strategies such as enhanced transit services and employer-s ponsored programs. The development o f effective strategies requires the characterization of commuter travel behavior as w e ll as an understanding of the factors that influence commuter travel decisions U n derstanding the se charact eristics and motiv a tions can assist in developing an d imp l ementing s u ccessful 1DM strateg ies an d other programs aimed to d i scourage s ingle occupant vehic l e (SOV) commuting_ This researc h project was undertaken to assist the CClMO in the developmen t and selection of potential TDM strategies for commuters within the TMO boundarieS. The Civic Center is a major employment and activity cent e r located in Greater Miami with many prestigiou s medical teaching research, and treatmen t facilities; education al institutes; ang government offices. The project consisted of: collecting data on commuter travel characteristics and attitudes toward al1emative commute options, developing a commuter characteristics data file, assim ilating employer employee, and transportation data from various sources, ide ntltYing potential 1DM strategies, and deve l opin g a plan to implement tbe recommended strategies. The study builds on previous work cond u c t ed by the CCT MO, Gold Coast Co mmute r Services (GC CS) and several consu ltants and was funded by tbe MPO The Center for Urban Transportat ion Research (CUlR) conducted the six month study which was accomplished through the collsborative efforts of v arious agencies and individuals includin g the CCTMO, Gold Coast Commuter Services ( GCCS), the


MPO, lhe Florida Department of Transportation (FD01), and CCTMO member representatives. This research was designed to meet several objectives. First, a major foous of the rese:ueb was to obtain a better understanding of the travel characteristics of employees, students, and visitors in the CCTMO service boundaries, as well as factors that may encourage eommute rs to consider alternative transportati on modes. This objective was accompl.ished through on-site surveys. The second objective of the research was to collect data on CCTMO member employers such as employee counts employer-provided transportation benefits and parking facilities; employee and student information such as travel origins and destinations; available setviee facilities such as restaurants and banks; and existing transportation facilities servicing the Civic Center area. This objective was aecompl.ished by assimilating previolis data collected and ioformation provided by CCTMO employer representatives. The third research objective was to develop a commuter cbaraeleristi cs data file that can be used to target TDM measures for CCTMO members. This objective was aeeompl.ished by entering survey data into a computer database software program. This computer file provide s baseline data for future commuter survey comparisons. A final research objective was to prepare an action plan to implement short and long term TDM strategies targeted toward commuters traveling to the Civic Center area. This plan includes goals and objectives of TOM strategies and an evaluation procedure to measure overall cffectivoness of the strategies. This objective was accomplished using the JeSUits of the literature review and survey in conjunction with other pertinent transportation data collected during the study. CU1R JeSearchers eondncted a number of activities to accomplish the study objectives. First, a literatore review was completed on Civic Center area transportation -re lated studies and TDM literature. The literature review provided an initial base of data and helped establish methodologies for the development of the TDM action plan. Second, two brainstorming meetings were conducted in Miami with the CCTMO director, MPO proje managers, and representatives from FOOT, Gold Cost Commuter Services (GCCS), and CCTMO members to discuss the SUtvey content and design and distribution method, as well as marketing strategies to improve survey participation. Surveys were conducted .of employees and students of CCTMO member organizations. These surveys provided information about commuter travel behavior, employer-based TOM programs, and attitudes toward using alternative transportati on modes. Third, researchers collected a variety of supporting data for the development of the TDM action plan. Data concerning employment, parl

employer chal:acteristics employee origins and destinations, and pedestrian amenities were assembled and analyzed. Several Geographical Information System (GIS) maps were produced from the collected data. Finally the survey results and other assemb l ed data were used to develop a TDM plan for the Civic Center area. The plan includes short and long-range strategies, goals and objeetives of each TDM measure, and evaluation procedures that allow the effectiveness of the recommended policies and strategies to be measured. The study results are intended t o provide a useful tool for CCTMO members to use when developing future TDM strategies. The remainder of this report i s divided into four sections. Section II summarizes the results of previous CCTMO transportation studies and TDM plan literature. Section Ill presents data collected on CCTMO members, employees, and existing service and transportation facilities in the Civic Center area. Seetion IV summarizes th e results of the employee surveys. The final section presents the TDM action plan and evaluation procedures. An executive summary of the research was produced to serve as stand alone docum en t for general public distribution.


II. Literature Review The literature review is threefold. First, previous Civi c Center transportation related studies are detailed. Second, literature pertaining to IDM plan development is reviewed. Finally, the previous Civic Center survey is discussed. Four existing studies provide a wealth of information concerning the existing transportation conditions in the Civic Center area. T hese reports not only provide a base of data, but also are used to help develop a TDM plan for the Civic Center 1MO. The Civic Center Pedestrian Amenities and Safety Study was prepared by Barton Aschman Associates, ln.c. in January 1994. The purpose of the study was to identify low cost measures to improve Civic Center pedestrian facilities that would subsequently encourage transit usage. The study identified 16 major pedestrian corridors They are: 1. Fred Cowell Mall Corridor 2. N.W. 17th Street Corridor 3. N.W. 14th Terrace/NW 11th Avenue Corridor 4 N.W. 18th Street/N.W. 8th Avenue/N.W. 19th Street Corridor s N.W. 15th Street (U ofM Hospital and Clinics) Corridor 6. N.W. 15th Street (JMH Towers) Corridor 7 N W. 16th Street (JMH/U ofM) Corridor 8. N. W. 16th Street (VA Hospital) Corridor 9. N.W. 14th Street Corridor 10. N.W. 13th Avenue Corridor 11. N.W. 13th Court Corridor 12. N.W. 13th Street Corridor 13. N W 12th Street Corridor 14. Bob Hope Road Corridor


15. N .W. 20th Street Corridor 1 6. N.W. 12th Avenue Corridor Twenty -four d eficiencies in six attribute categories (safety, security, traffic, transit, amenities, and other) were identified in the study. The deficienc i es include : inadequate transit stop facilities improper pavement markings poor street lighting lack of sidewalk space. It was noted that local maintaining agencies could implement the majority of the improvements to the deficiencies. Barton-Ascbman Associates, Inc prepared the Civic Center Existing Transportation Conditions stu dy in January 1994. Th e purpose of the study was to collect and present transportation data concerning the Civic Center lMO. An analysis of the data was not presented in this report. The data collected and presented include: 1. Exi sting traffic volumes 2. Existing transit service and use 3. Parkin g supply and demand 4. 24-hour machine counts at major parking facilities 5. 2-hour (AM peak period) vehic l e occupancy counts 6. Acciden t data summary 7. Existin g traffic conditions The data from this report reveals that the Civic Center area experiences heavy peak period congestion, especially along specific corridors; has insufficient parking availability; and lacks a significant carpooling population Desman and Associates completed the Miami Medical Center Parking Study in February 1992. The study is an update to a previous D e sman and Associates parking study--A Comprehensive Medical Center Parking!Paratransit Study, which analyzed the parking conditions at the Uni versity of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital (UM/JMH) The update also examines the parking conditions at several peripheral institutions including Cedars Medical Center, Veterans Administrat ion Medical C e nter, Miami-Dade Community College, the Professional Arts Center, and Dominion Tower. According to the findings of the study, an additional 1;1.77 parking spaces for UM/JMH and the peripheral institutions were immediately necessary Based on parking demand projections, a need of an additional 2,100 parking spaces was estimated for the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital by 1996. In addition, projected parking demands indicated the need for additional I ,41 8 spaces for the peripheral institutions b y 1996 as well.


Three reports were reviewed and subSeq uently utilized as a guideline for the Civic Center's 1DM plan. An overview of these reports follows. The Commute .Alternatives System Handbook (C* A*S*H) was prepared by tbe Center for Urban Transportation Research in August !995. CA SH provides a general introduction to TDM that includes an overview of the national conditions which have led to increased 1DM activities. This manual also describes various 1DM strategies, implementation mechan i sms, aod performance measurements. The TDM strategies discussed in this report include: 1. Ridesharing programs 2. Alternative wo rk hours 3. Telecommuting 4. Parking management 5. HOV lanes 6 Pedestrian and bicycle travel alternatives 7. Commuters of the future 8 Intellig ent transportiltion systems Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management was used to help guide the development of the CCTMO 'IDM plan. This report, prepared by' the Institute of Transportation Engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology for the Federal Highway Administration, provides guidelines for implementing specific 'IDM programs The study identifies the conditions in which specific 1DM strategies work best. The results of the CCTMO employee survey and the other data collection efforts are compared to the guidelines set forth in this study in order to identify appropriate 1DM measures. Profile of Existing CBD Travel Characteristics was the first technical memorandum of a broader study, the Tampa Downtown Mobility Initiative. This initiative was a joint effort between the Center for Urban Transportation Research and the Tampa Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization. The report is a compilation of var ious data, which provid es a description of the travel conditions relating to Tampa's CBD commute travel. The purpose of the study was to determine appro p riate 1DM strategies and establish goals and objectives for the program. Specifically, travel to and from Tampa's CBD was evaluated and the findi n gs used to develop strategies and recommendations fo r the design and implementation of congestio n reduction programs. These programs included ridesharing, flextime, and enhanced transit.


The Gold Coast Commuter S-e!Viees (GCCS) conducted an employee survey of CCTMO members in 199 4 and 19 95. However, because of the low response rates, a survey analysis was never completed. Upon discussing the survey with GCCS and the CC1MO employer representatives, two reasons were noted for the poor response rate-the length of th e questionnaire and the survey distribution method. The four page survey was included in employees paychecks and completed surveys were to be mailed back to GCCS. Approximately ISO surveys were returned. The literature review provided valuable information concerning existing transportation issues in the Civic Center area. This infonnation includes pedestrian issues, traffic volumes transit availability, parking availability, and vehicle occupancy rates. In addition, review of literature pertaining to TDM provided an important basis for d eve l oping the action plan. This basis included an existing TDM plan and TDM guidelines. It is important to note that the literature review showed that no trip reduction program or IDM p lan bas been developed for the Civic Center area.


ill. Data Collection This section summarizes the data collected on the CCTMO, TMO member organizations, employee coun1s, e mployee locations, parking, service, and transit facilities and veh icle occupancy rates. These data were obtained from information provided by the CCTMO, the MPO, CCTMO member representatives, and previous data collection effor1s. Located in Dade County Florida, the CCTMO service boundaries include State Road 836 (Dolphin Expressway) to the south, N.W. 20lh Street to the north. N.W. 7'" Avenue to the east, and N.W. !7'" Avenue to the west. The perirneter oftbe service area totals 3.4 miles and the total area is 0.7 square miles. Figure I shows the CCTMO area, tbe location of CCTMO members within the TMO boundaries, and existing transit and parking facilities. The CCTMO is composed of seven employers with a combined employment of nearly 25,000 (see Table !). The largest employer in the Civic Center area is Jackson Memorial Hospital, which employs 8,000 persons. Lindsey Hopkins Technical Educational Center and the University of Miami Medical Center each employ another 5 000 persons. 1\vo TMO m e mbers did not participa te in the data collection and survey efforts, namely, Cedars Medical Center, and Lindsey Hopkins Technica l Educational Center. As seen in Figure I, the locations of tbe TMO members are spread throughout the service area. Lindsey Hopkins and Miami-Dade Community College facilities are locate in the north-east comer of the service area with Jackson Memorial Hospital a few b locks to tbe south-west. Cedars Medical Center and Jackson Towers are located in the west-central area directly across from the Metrorail Civic Center Station. Th e City of Miami and Dade County offices are primarily located in the southwest comer. Lastly, the University of Miami Medical Center Campus is comprised of several facilities primarily located in the central area of the Civic Center TMO service boundaries. The seven employer members of the TMO represent approximately 14 percent of all Civ i c Center employers with more than I 00 employees. A detailed list of employers with I 00 or more employees is presented in Appendix A. .


Tablet. Civic CenterTMO Member Orgaaliations and Number of Employees Nore: .. CountY employee population within the CCTMO boundarifs fnclude: Clvk of the Courll 508, Adm. Office of the Courts-265, Pollee [)qxvtmenJ 168, Judicwl Administration-2$0; Public De/e.ntkr -37J, and State Attorney -700. CCTMO membership also incllltks inmates in the Corrections [)cp

Figure 1: Civic Center Transportation Managment Organization Area N I I -L / [ .. ..,,.,... I I I II 1U:: Jacbon Memorial Hospi,al Univei'$HJ of r:: ."' .... F/M Note : .Bus routes a r e color'<>oded a n d labe led,


N w s Figure 2-CCTMO Area Total Employment Density Over 30 Miles (0.7%) 20 Miles (42 .0%) Mile (2 6 %) 30 Miles (4.8 %) Total Employment b)'llpeod$ 1 Dot= 1 Employee


The zip code data were used to create employment density maps, which show the difference in employee commute origins, for eac h employer and are presented in F i gures 3 through 6 A zip code map of Dade and Broward counties is also provided in Figure 7 to help locate triP origins As these map show there are considerable differences in the locations of employee residences between employers A majority of State Attorney's Office emp l oyees live to the south of the Civic Center Area. The remaining employee residences are scattered throughout Dade and Broward counties. The greatest percentage of Jackson Memorial Hospital employees live to the north of the Civic Center concentrated around I-95. In contrast, the greatest percentage ofUMMC employee residences is located to the south of the Civic Center area. Lastly MDCC employee residences show no particular pattern of residential concentration Plentiful and affordable parking is every commuter's desire However, due to the heavy peak period demand for parking and limited spaces parking is a daily frustrating event for many employees in the Civic Center area. The Civic Center area contains over 15,000 parking spaces including o n street, off street, public, and private parking lots and garnges. Private parking spaces number 8,000 and public spaces total 7,000. Currently there are 12 parking facilities with more than 300 spaces. The most recent parking study performed for the Civic Center area was conducted by Desrnan Associates in 1992. The study projected parking supply and demand through 1996. Table 3 displays the 1996 parking supply and demand for the Unive rsity of Miami, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Cedars Medical Center, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Miami-Dade Community College, Professional Arts Center, and Dominion To wer For all locations, projected peak-hour demand is 13,290 compared to actual supply of 10,559 yielding a deficiency of 2,731 spaces. Based on a recommended supply utilizing 5 percent extra capacity, this deficiency was expected to increase to 3,158 spaces. Since the completion of the Desman and Associates parking study only one parking facility bas been constructed. The Highland Garage opened in 1994 providing an additional 1,500 parking spaces primarily for Jackson Memorial Hospital. No comprehensive parking supply and demand study bas been performed since 1992 however, APCOA estimates the imme diate parking need for Jackson Me morial Hosp i tal alone is more than 1, 000 spaces.


N s Figure Attorney's Office Employment Density Over 30 Miles (0.3 %) 20 Miles (50 1 %) Mile (0.5 %) 30 Miles (2.2 %) Stato Attomoy's Office b'J ZiPC* 1 Dole 1 Ern!>foY$&


w Figure 4--Jackson Memorial Hospital Employment Density N s Over 30 Miles (0.8 %) 20 Mtres (42.0 %) M il e (3.7%) 30 Miles (5.4 %) Jackson Uemorlal Hospital I Dot= I Employe&


Figure 5--Miami-Dade Com":'unity College Employment Density N w s Over 30 Miles (0.5 %) 20 Miles (39.0 %) 1 M ile (1.2 o/o) 30 Miles (4.6 %) Mlaml Dacle Community CotJege ..


Figure 6--Unlversity of Miami Medical Center Employment Density N s Over 30 Miles (0.7%) 20 Miles (41.4 %) 30 Miles (4.7 %) Unlvershy of Ulam 1 Medica l Center 't/JZ]pw.IO 1 Dot= 1Employeo


Figure 7--Zipcode Reference Map for Broward and Dade Counties N w s


lr ,-,,,,, , "-'-''"'-... --,,-.-1-J-:1 I . ':-11J_. '.: :213, \ .... : : . . . Sourc1: De.sman tmd As:sociat ss. Miami M ed i cal Qnt ar Parldng S t udy (1992) The availability of service facilities in the Civic Center area is an important indicator of the necessity for travel wi1hin and outside the Civic Center area during business hours. As shnwn in Table 4, the Civic Center area bas a large variety of retail stores, eatmg and drinking establishments, and other services such as beauty shops, child car e facilities and schools. 4 Type and N umber of Services Availabl e in Civic Center by Zip Code


Table 4. tYpe ad Number ofServicesAvallahle In Cl'vlc Olnter 'O.G;" ''" v"''"' ' ""'uv erur" . ,_. ... : i. , __ , . ... " *SIC =Standard Industrial Code Notes (I) Jnclutks SIC 602H022-6()19-603H061-6062-6081-6fJB2 (2) Totals include oil services localed within tlt6 thru zip code zones Tlu:se wnu tJCCeed the CCTMO boun.darles. Thus, some of the services listed in tlle Table are not aclually located within the TMO bowu/arie.s. &we: Amwican Bustnus fnj"()l'tn(f(ion, SaU:sL( USA /nttmcJ Web Site. htrp:// Employees, stUdents, and visitors commute to and from the Civic Cen ter primarily by automobile, transit, walking, and other means. Figure 8 illustrates the major intermodal transportation facilities directly servicing the CC1MO area including


FIGURE &--INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES SERVICING CCTMO AREA 1""1 .. rJj \= \ / I / (-, r-r-If IJ'L, ; .... ... l N ,_ / I I w E \ ''J 1--. J /. ... s / ,. """ r-'" 0 4 s -""' } i''l ) II! Ll / . r LEGEND ' .-( 1 ,z Broward and Dade County ..... Zip Codes v Metro-Rail . r / J I\/ /'' 1 HOV Lane Tri-Rail v Transtt-Routes " / 1;1( Major Roads 0 CCTMOAree Metro-Rail Station LJTR l,"..{


major roadways, transit routes, and Metrorail. This following section describes these facilities Roadways Travel to and within the Civic Center an extensive network of state, county, and local roadways facilitates area Within the Civic Center boundaries, there are seven primary roads providing circulation. Tab l e 5 lists these roads, their functional classification, and average daily traffic volume. More than on<>-half of the daily traffic enters the Civic Center via the Dolphin Expressway. Table 5. Civic Center Descriptioos, and Daily Traffic Volumes \"' 1; -. . . : Source: &rum--Aschman Associates, Inc. Civic Center Pedeslrlan AmMUits and Safety Study. 1994. Transit Six Metrobus routes and three Metrorail stations directly serve the Civic Center area. Table 6 identifies the routes serving each CCTMO member. Note: Peak hour only bus service Source: Metro Dade Transit Agency (1997) The employee home zip code data provided by the State Attorney's Office, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami-Dade Community College, and the University of Miami Medical Center were analyzed to determine the accessibility of transit to these employees. Using GIS technology, quarter-mile buffers were established around all Metrorail stations and the six Metrobus routes serving the Civic Center (see Table 6). These transit buffers were merged into the employee density maps previously


discussed and the nwnber of Civic Center employ ees living near transit facilities calculated. (GIS t echno logy was used to calculate spatial distributions only, therefore no map was generated). As seen in Table 7, 1.7 percent live within a quarter-mile of a Metrorail station and more than 17.2 percent live within a quarter mile of a Metrobus route. Specifics for each of the four employers are included in Table 7. Table 7. Distribution of CCTMO E01ployees Arouod T

Table 9. Civic Ce11ter Bus Routes Serving Metro Rail Stations S ource : Metro Datk TransiiAgency (1997) Table 10. Parking Availability at Metrorall Stations Where Civic Center Routes Access &urce: Me&o Dade Transit Agency, 1996 Tton.sit De\-elcpmtnt Program Three Metrorail stations directly serve the Civic Center area : Culmer, Santa Clara, and Civic Center Their location and average weekday and weekend hoardings are listed in Tabl e II. The primary station is the Ci v ic Center station located next to Jackson Towers and the VA Hospital. Of the 21 Metrorail stations, the Civic Cente r station is the fourth busiest with nearly 4,500 boardings per weekday. The other two stations serving the area are Culmer (810 boardings p e r weekday) to the southeast and Santa C l ara (530 boardings per weekday) to the north Table 11. MetroraU Stations Serving the Civic Center ' ,: .. .. SoW"Ce: Metro Dadl-TrQII.Itt Agency. 1996 Transit dswlopnwzl Program Table 12 s bOV>'S the fare structure for each MDTA mode. In addition to the reduced fares shown, monthly discount pass programs are available for corporate groups and college students '.1 ';;1\;fffi ....... '1(.1 .,_,.,. ... ,.'< .,. i

Table 12. Ttansit Fares . .. ' .. Note: *Reduced fares available for qualified senior citiuns people with disabtlities, and youtk $Qurce: Metro Dade T'lU1$iJ Agency (1997. Table 13 shows AM peak period vehicle occupaocy counts conducted at the entrances to II major parking facilities in the Civic C e nter area. The percentage of single occupant vehicles ranged from 72% (Miami Lot #18) to 96% (MDCC). The average for the II facilities is 88% single occupancy The average vehicle occupancy ranged from 1.37 (Miami Lot #18) to 1.05 (MDCC). The averag e vehicle occupancy for the 11 facilities was 1.14. 0 Compared to Florida and Dade County as a whole a larger percentage of Civic Center employees drive alone to work According to the 1990 U.S. Census of Population and Housing 72 percent of workers living in Dade County drove to work alone and 77 percent statewide.


Table 13. AM Peak Per.iod Vblclt O.<>uponcy Counts -Civic Ceulu Area Lol Spa,.. n lofVtblda lo!V-Willo lotV .. IdaWII-"ofVdllda % ofVdaicks Numbtr or A-Vftldo I Oocoput !I fort 'naa I Wllb 10ocopu< WiU. Mon.lhaa ""'-&tn Oocopol

N. Civic Center Employee Smvey Results Obtaining data on how employees, students, and visitors travel into and out of the Civic Center area was essential for the development of the Civic Center TDM plan. The data were collected through on-site surveys administered to employees and students who work and attend school in the Civic Center area. The purpose of the surveys. was to gather information about commuter travel behavior, employer-based TDM programs, and attitudes toward using alternative transportation modes. The following sections discuss the survey design and methodology and present the survey results. The survey instrument used to conduct the research was designed using standard design techniques. Several resources were utilized to develop the survey questionnaire. First, two organizational and brainstorming meetings were conducted in Miami with the research team and the CCTMO director, the MPO project managers, and CCTMO member representatives' to discuss the survey objectives, content, and design, and distribution method. Because previous transportation surveys in the Civic Center area had limited employee participation, it was determined that the greatest participation could be obtained by limi ting the questionnaire to a simple on&-page format and surveying the employees directly (i.e,, on location). Employer representatives suggested the best time and location for conducting the survey at their particular employer. In addition, it was determined that the target survey population would be daytime employees rather than shift workers Marketing strategies to improve survey participation were also discussed. Several methods were decided upon such as sending e lectronic mail announcements, distributing posters at employer locations with the date time and location of the event, and obtaining a letter of endorsement from employers encouraging employees to participate in the survey. It was also decided to invite representatives from GCCS, Tri-Rail, and Metro Dade Transit Agency to set up displays at survey locations with information on alternative transportation modes and answer questions from survey participants. Further, the CCThfO provided more than $500 in prizes such as gift 1CCThfO member repres:eatativcs p1cseot include: City ofMlamJ, DaiSe CoWlC)'. State Attorney's Office,Iacksoo Memorl:al Hospital, Miami-Dade Commuoit)' COJtee,e. and Unfverslly of Miami Medical Ccoter. Cedars Mcdieal Center and Lindsey Hopkins Teclmical Education Cmler did not particlptte in the meetl.ngs or the employee slln'eys.


certificates to local shops and restaurants as incentives to encourage employee participation. Advertisements annom1cing the survey invited participants to enter a drawing for these prizes. Second1 researchers examined previous employee comnrute survey instruments used to gather demographic and travel behavior characteristics to assist in the development of the survey questions. Many of the questions included in the ftnal version of the survey were developed to provide opportunities for future trend analyses. Finally, draft survey instruments, produced in both English and Spanish, were reviewed by the CCTMO director and MPO project managers. A fmal version of the survey instrument incorporated their comments and recommendations and is included in Appendix B. CUTR researchers and the CCTMO Director administered the CCTMO employee transportation survey over a three-day period on March 17-19 1997. The survey schedule was designed to maximize exposure to employees working daytime hours. Table 14 shows the times, employer sites, and locations of the survey events. Table 14. Miami Civic CenterTMO EmployeeTraDSportadoo Survey Schedule The survey team set up at the various times and locations with the surveys prominently displayed on tables along with pencils and registration materials for the cash drawings. Posters were also displayed explaining the survey purpose. Surveyors walked arom1d the area distributing surveys and inviting participants to complete a survey and register to enter the drawing In additio.n, surveys and flyers,


announcing when and where to return the completed surveys, were distributed at two parking garage locations in the early AM on two of three survey days. Overall participation in the survey event was gdequate. A total of 680 surveys were completed during the three-day event or approximately 4 percent of the total sample population (I 6,000 employees). Some difficulties were encountered while attemp t ing to collect travel behavior information on certain employer groups and visitors. Some employee groups were dispersed throughout the Civic Center area and could not be targeted at the selected survey locations. As such, researchers attempted to survey the City of Miami employees by coordinating a mail out of the survey form with employee paychecks. However, after repeated attempts to coordinate the survey, the process was abandoned due to budgetary constraints and the project end date. In addition, researchers attempted to obtain zip code data on visitors to major CCTMO employer locations from individual employers. CCTMO employer representatives provided department contacts that could assist with obtaining the zip code data. Over a period of weeks, these departments were contacted several times. Privacy issues regarding patients visiting medical facilities io the area complicated the data collection effort In fact, several med ical departm ents contacted would not provide visitor zip codes due to departmental policies and the inability to isolate zip code information from other personal data on patient records Of the employe.-s contacted, only the State Attorney's Office would provide zip code data on visitors. These data were available in paper format (approximately 14,000 forms). After discussion with the CCMTO director, it was decided that information on visitors to the State Attorney's Office would not be useful for targeted trip reduction strategies because most visitors to the State Attorney's Office are transported in state vehicles and are not generally repeat visitors to the area. A data entry codebook was created for the employee commute survey. CU1R staff entered the survey data into Lotus, a spreadsheet software program The statistical analysis was completed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The codebook and the computer file created from the survey data entry constitute the commuter characteristics data bank as specified in the scope of work and will be provided to the CCMTO director. The data bank serves as baseline data that can be used to compare future commuter survey results, monitor trends, and evaluate the effectiveness of implemented TOM measures. A combination of descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze the survey data. Frequency distributions wer e computed for each survey question. Bivariate analyses were conducted using the standard cross-tabulation program, yielding the appropriate tests of statistical significance. Tne next section provides a detailed evaluation of the survey data. Knowledge o f commuter travel behavior characteristics an d the underlying motivating factors that influence daily travel dec isions is essential in developing effective TOM policies and programs. Therefore, several survey ques tions were asked to gather demographic and commuter travel behavior information. Other


questions solicited information about employer-provided programs encouraging alternatives to single occupancy vehicles (SOVs) and factors that may encourage commuters to usc alternative tzansportation modes such as carpools and tzansit. The survey findings are discussed in four major categories. These categories include demographic information, trip and travel behavior characteristics, employer incentives to encourage the use of alternative modes, and factors that may encourage commuters to consider alternative transportation commute modes. Brief narratives are provided and accompanied by corollary data in graphical format. Demographic lnfonnation A number of questions were asked in order to establish demographic profiles of Civic Center commuters. Demographic and socioeconomic data collected include employer age, gender, and occupation Employer Table 15 contains a breakdown of the survey respondents by employers. Of the 668 respondents, 31 percent were employees of the State Attorney's Office, 28 percent were employed by Jackson Memorial Hospital, 13 percent were employed by the University of Miami, 8 percent were students, and 7 percent were employed by Miami Dade Community College. The remaining respondents were employees of various other institutions in tbe Civic Center area. Age, Gender, and Occupation Figure 9 contains a demographic profile of all survey respondents. As indicated, a plurality of commuters faUs into tbe 25 to 34 age group (30 8 percent) and the 35 to 44 age group (29.9 percent). Approximately three-fourths of all respondents (76 8 percent) were female. A majority of respondents indicated working in a professional capacity (34.7 percent), with clerical (32 7 percent) and students (9.5 percent) representing the second and third largest occupational groups respectively. A demographic profile of each CCTMO employer is contained in Appendix C


Please n

9. 18 to l5to 35to 45to 55 to 65to Profile: All AGE (N=663) GENDER Female 76.9% (N=653) OCCUPATION (N=652)


N w s Figure 10-8urvey Respondent Trip Origins Percent of S urvey B Grea t er th

Figure 11. Diotonce Travcled in Doil y Commute (Ooo Way): All Respondents MUtt Travtltd ------. ' 1 5.4 1 6-lOmilel 19.7 11 m iles 16-20 Ollles lJ.JOmllel 31-40 miles >40 mUn Petcml Cilbrg No

Time of Arrival to Wori< Respondents were asked to indicate !heir time of arrival to worll: on !he survey form. The dislribution of arrival times for all is shown in Figure 12. Overall, tbe peak arrival times occur between 6:46am and 8 :30am. The largest pm;en1age of commu ters (26.2 pen:ent) arrives to the Civic Center between 7:46am and 8:00 am. More than one-third of aU commuters arrive during three smaller peak periods between 6:46am-7:00am ( 11.2 percent); 7:16am-7:30am ( 11.4 percent); and 8:16am8 :30am {12.9 percent). Table 17 co ntains the d i str i bution of arriv a l times broken down by employer and stu dents. Note that !he peak an-ivai time for employers and students is between 7:46am and 8 :00am (excluding Dade County and Cedars Medical Center). Figure 12Time of Arrival to Work: All Rts pondtnts Arrlval1ime lam-5:59am 6ut-6:1Sam 6:16ut-6:30am 6:31am-6:45am 6:%am:0(bm 7:01am-7:15am 7:16am-7:30am 7:31am-7:45am 7:46a.D-3:00am 8:01am.S:15am 8:16am.S:30am 8:31am.S: 4 5am 9 : 01am-9:15am 9 : 16am-9:30am 9:31am-Upm U:Oipm-4:00pm 4 : 01pll1-7:00pm 7:0Jpm-U:S9om Note: ltcspoodents were a:sked: At what time do you generally arrive at wortc.'?"


Table 17. Time of Arrival to Work by Employer Time of Departure from Work Respondents were asked to ind i cate the time of departure from work. The distribution of departure times for aU employees is shown in Figure 13. As expeeted, the largest percent of commuten (24.0 percent) depart the Civic Center between 4:46 pm and 5:00pm. However, another significant peak departure time occun between 4:1 6 pm and 4:30, when 20.2 percent of commuters and students leave the area. Departure times timd to vary more when broken down by employers and students (see Table 18). The major peak departure time for the State Attorney's Office and University of Miami employees is between 4:46 pm and 5 : 00 pm. A larger percentage of students and employees of Jackson Memorial Hospital and Miami Dade Community College tend to depart the area earlier.


Figure 13. Time of Departure From Work: AD Respondents Departure Time tam-6:59am go.3 7:00am-9 :30am .1.8 9:31am-U:59am jO.O 12:00pm 3:59pm -.-.. -, 13 9 _, ,----------,: ... . -. -' 4:00pm-4:15pm 4:16pm-4:30pm 4:31pm-4:45pm 4:46pm..S:00pm 5:01pm-5:15pm .1.1 5:16pm-5:30pm _ 3.5 5:31pm-5:45pm 10.3 5 :46pm-6:00pm 6:01pm-6:15pm IO.Z 6:16pm-6:30pm -2.2 6:3 1pm-6:45pm go.J 6:46pm-7:00pm -2.9 ----------6.8 ---. 7:01pm-12:59am 8.9 Percent Citing Note: Respondents were asked: "At what time do you generally leave work'?" 24.0


Commute Charac:terlstics: The survey contained questions to detennine the usual mode of travel to work and the reasons for not using alternative commute modes. Mode Choice Survey respondents were asked to indicate what ways they usually travel to work and asked to check all modes that apply. Abnost three-fourths (72 percent) of all commuters and students usually drive alone to work (see Figure 14). Other popular ways commuters travel to work include: Metrorail (23.9 percent); bus (14.4 percent) and carpopls (13.5 percent). While driving alone is clearly the most often used mode by employees of all employer groups, University of Miami Medical Center employees tend to use Metrorail more often than students and other employees (see Tab le 19). Students were less likely compared to other employees to use alternative commute modes to travel to school in the Civic Center area.


Figure 1 4 Usual Ways of Traveling To Work: All Respondents 1ll ode Cited Dril'e alone Tri-raull-.0 Metro rail Meiromover 10.3 Bus . i ' > ' Walk 13.2 Bicycle .0.6 Motorcycle .0.6 Carpool Van pool 14.4 13.5 23.9 Other 11.9 Puant Citing Note: Respondents were asked: m what ways do you usually tra\e-1 to work?" (Please check all that apply. ) Pe.roentages do not totallOO percent due to the m ultiple response nature of the question. Tablel9. Commute Mode Cboice by Employer' 1 Tr;:<;;.':<': : . . ,.., .. ? ; ; .c,:?,t 7 .: : .:.""?"-' . 1 T01als do not J()O percent due to the mulJiplc 1'Sponse na/UI'e of the question. Source: CCFMO CommuJU Characteristics Study, /997.


Major ReasoM for Prtving Alone Respondents who indicated that they usually drive alone to work or school were asked to check the major reasons for not traveling on the bus, rail, or in a carpool, or vanpool. One-third of all commuters said that feeling comfortable and safe in their own vehicle was a primary reason for driving alone (see Figure 15). Running errands before and after work and having inegular work hours were other major reasons for driving alone to work or school (cited by 30.9 percen t and 27.6 percent, rospectively). Although the primary reason for driving alone is similar among various commuter types, other major reasons vary by employer groups. For instance, State Attorney Office employees cited the need to use their car during lunch and run errands before and after work as major reasons for driving alone. The lack of park and ride lots and bus and rail stops near home and lack of direct/connectingfexpress transit were major reasons c ited for not using alternative transportation modes by Jackson Memorial Hospital employees. University of Miami Medical Center employees tend to use their cars for work and run errands and cited the lack of direct/connecting/or express transit as a major reason for driving alone. Irregular work hours and the need to run errands before and after work binder students from using alternative commute modes (see Table 20). Figure15. Major Reason s For Not Using Bus, Rail or carpool/Van pool: All Respondents Need car for job Work irngalar hours Use car during luocb Run errands befortJafter work Parking is free Drive company car Gas is paid for No park & ride lots near home No bus/rail stops near home No direetfc:onntctiaglexpress transit .liatk of route/schedule information No convenient vanpooVcarpool Feel &afeT/comfortable in c3,. Lack of security at bus stops Lack of security at Metro rail stations Difficult to walk b1 area. Olber .. .. -Citing 19.4 Note: Respondents were asked; "If you drive alone to work, what are the major reasons for not travelin! on the bus, rail, or in a taJpOOl or vanpool?" (Please thedc all that apply.) Percentages do not tota.f 100 peroc.nJ; due to the multiple response nature of the question.


Ta b le 20. r.hjor Roasons Cor Not Usillg BU$, R.aU, or CarpooWaopoo l by Employer _, ..... ' '' $

Figure 16. Parklllc ProbiOIIU at All Rapoadenls J>robkm Cit..t Not e nougb parklllg spactS No covered parking Parking lot i:sn 't u f e after dirk P arking too far fro wortcsite Too expensive to park Dlmealt to park after lunch None Otbrg 37.8 R espoadans wm: asl:ed: "Wbaa, i!'any, P'tfdl>& P lhc multiple response nature of the questioa.. fel t that parking was too expensive and that there were not enough parking spaces (cited by 37.8 percent). Another major parlcing co n cern among survey respondents is safety. Almost on<>forth of the respond ents (23.5 percent) feels that th e parking lot is not safe after dark. Among Stat e Attorney Office, Jackson Memorial Hospital and University of Miami Medical Center employees, the high cost to park is considere d to be a significant problem (see Table 21 ). For students, the m:!jor parking problem is the lack of parking places.


Source: CCT.\10 Commuter Characteristics Study. /997 Accessible Seryjce An important factor in the decision to drive or walk during the lunch hour is the l ocation and accessibility of consumer services. As previously noted, the Civic Center area has several retail, banking, and eating establishments. Respondents were asked to identify (from a list ) which services not currently available that they would lik e to have accessible within walking distance from the work site (see F igure 17). Almost one half of aU respondents ( 46.5 percent) said that they would like to have an exercise facility clos e to the work site. (Only one exerc ise facility is available in the Civic Center area). Other services desired but not available within walking distance were cafeteria (35.8 percent), post office (29.1 percent) and retail shopping (29.1 percent). An exercise facility within walking distance i s the most desired service for Slllte Attorney Office, Jackson Memorial Hospital, and Un iversity of Miami Medical Center employees while employees and students from Miami Dade Community College indicated the need for an accessible cafeteria (see Table 22).


Figure 1 7. Scrviees Desired But Not Acussible Wltbia Walking DistaJlce: All Respo ndents Cafeteria ------ I Snack bar Dry c leaneraltaundry J!:xudse &tUlly !WaD Jboppiag BaakJJ:lg tcrvlcts/A'YM Post orr..., Child care Other N""" Rcoponclenls - askle would yO\llike to have to you within walking distance f.tom your work site'?-(Plea$c eheclc all that "''PIY .) POI;'-: _, ',,' ,.,_ ...... --'t:.;. StJurce: CCTMO Commlller Characierislfcs Sludy, 1997


Eroptoyer-Provjded Incentives to Use Alternative Transportation Modes Table 23 contains information collected prior to the survey on current employer programs that may support or encourage employees to use alternative tnlnSpOrtation modes. Th. is information was used to help target potential 1DM programs and marketing strategies for CC1MO employers. The infonnatioo was also compared to answers provided by survey respondents in order to assess employee awareness (o r lack of) employer programs or policies that promote alternative transportation use As indicated in Table 23, most CC1MO employers have few, if any, formal programs or policies providing incenti ves to use alternative commute modes. However, several have informal policies regarding flexible work hours and telecommuting established at the departmental level. Only Miami-Dade Community College offered free parking to all employees and provided transit subsidies for full time employees. Tabl<> 23. Employer-Provided Information oa Cu.rrent Programs to EDCOUrage Alternative Traasportation Use NottJ: NA = Did not supply information. ojfors free parking to investigators who drlvt state vehklu onzy .. No fonnal in Policy U established altht deparrmtntallevel, Source: CCTMO Employer Survey respondents were asked to identify programs offered by their employers that promoted the use of alternative transportation modes such as carpool and vanpool programs. Almost half of all respon dents (47.9 percent) indicated that their employer did not offer any programs (see Figure 18). One ftfth of the respondents (21.2 percent) indicated that their employer allowed flexible work hours. Some employers also pay part of or all parking fees, and part or aU bus and rail passes (cited by 15.3 percent and 11.2 percent, respectively). The results indicate that few employers offer guaranteed ride home, carpool rideshare matching, and vanpool programs. Employers more likely to allow flexible work hours inclu de the State Attorney's Office, Jackson Memorial Hospital, and Miami Dade Community College. More than half of Miami Dade Community College employees (51.5 percent) indicated their employer paid part or all of a bus or pass (see Table 24).


Figure 1 8. &mployee-Awanness of Employer -Provided Iucentives to Use Alternative Trausportatioa Modes: .611 RespondenQ lnntive Cited Pays pa.rt/all of bus/rail pass Allo" Oexlble work hour s Allow.s tdeeommu.tlng 1 .2 Po)'S port/all park!Dg fees Gunatucl ride bome program 10..5 C2rpool ridtsbare matcblag prognm 1.2 Vupool program ,O.l PrefereDtial p1rkioc tor carMnpools IIA None Oilier Note: Respendents wao aecl: "Wh;cn of !be followlnl.,_ your employer proviuted to of the question or overall confusion regarding employer programs


Table 24. Employee Awareness of Employer-Provided lntentlves to Use Alternative Transportation Modes By Employer Source: CCTMO Commuter Chargcteristics Study. 1997. Ext&nt Factors Encourage Use of Alternative Transportation Modes Respondents were asked to indicate to what extent certain factors woul d encourage them to use alternative transportation modes (e.g. carpoo l transit, bike, walk). The factors can be largely grouped into three major categories: transit improvements/expansions, employer-sponsored programs and policies and community-based improvements (i.e., improved pedestrian amenities and lighting, greater security etc.) Many of these potential strategies can be achieved through the collaborative efforts of the MPO, CCTMO MetrO Dade Transit Agency Tri-Rail, GCCS, and public and private employers in the Civic Center area. Factors that would strongly encourage commuters to use alternative transportation modes include (see Figure 19): Bus rail discounts (61.4 percent); Improved lighting in the Civic Center area ( 61.3 percent); Greater security at bus stops/rail stations (59.2 percent); Expanded bus/rail services (56.9 percent);


Express bus service (51.8 percent); and More park and ride lots (47 5 percent) Guaranteed ride home in case of emergencies if participating in carpooVvanpool program ( 49.4 percent). These results are expected espec ially considering that very few employers have such programs These types of programs are vital components in the development of an area-wide commuter transportation program and require less capital i nvesbneot than such strategies as building additiona l park and ride lots or expanding bus or rail services. Individual employer responses to this survey question are contained in Appendix C.


Fieure 19. Extent That Factors Would Enoouroge Use of Alternative Transportation Modes: All Respondents Not at ali Slightly encourage Strongly encourage Fac/07 Expanded buslraU service Express bus senlce Relocate bus stops-closer to work Mor e bus shelters/bus beJiclaes: Lanes reserved for carpools on freeways 1\fore park & ride lots Greater security at bus stops/rail stations F1ex:ible work hours Carpool ride matching service Vanpool prograra Reserved parking for ear/vanpoob Guaranteed ride home procnm Commuter Information Ce.ottr Sbowerslfacilitles for bike$ at work Bus/rail pw distounts Daytime shuttle bus Bicycle racks and storage Improved pedestrian amenities Improved ligbting in Civic:.Ccnttr area -. -.. -. ---36.1 385 . ,395 -. ------. ' I ''. . Percent Citing Note: Responde:nts were asked.: "Here are some factors that influence decisions o n how people oommute to and from work. Fofeach faetor, please c:heck. in the box the column that best dC$Cribcs to what eool, transi4 bike, walk)" Please check, Not at all, Sliglltly en>urage, Strongly encourage,


V. Civic Center 1DM Plan The puipOse of thi s Plan is to: Specify the marketing-related action s that the Civic Center TMO will take to achieve the objectives of Civ ic Center Tran sportation Mana gement Organizatio n (CCIM O). Provide the logic and rationale for the allocation of resources toward marketingrelated activities. According to the American Marketing Association, mlllketing is the process of planning and executing con<:eplion, prkfng. pro=tion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectiv es. Marketing activities include publicity, pricing, personal selling. advertising, product and service enhanceme nts, and the delivery of services This document has two sections: Section One provides narrative and background on the program goa ls, currellt mlllkoting situation, target markets, marketing messages, resources, and program object ives. Section Two consists of action plan s to achieve program objectives The focus of the first yeats action plan is primarily on perscmaliud service through the operation of the CClMO and, secondarily employer outreach efforts. By establishing credibility with the ultimate customer the COOlmuter the CClMO will have a stable foundation for future employer outreach efforts. Target Markets Primary Marlset: Commuters In desigping a rruuteting program, the CCTMO should have a clear target audience in min d The CCTMO must communicate with two mlllkets: commuterS and employers Various alternatives will address diffemtt needs. Often having parallel mlllke ting prognuns will be necessary one for each target market The CCTMO must understand and express its business to the commuter and employers through its marketing efforts. The CCTMO isn't in the business of collecting ridematching applications for "selling" eaipOols. The CCTMO offers


products 311.d services to provide commuters a fast, reliable, safe, on-time arrival at their destination without hassles at a fair cost. In other words, commuters want the option that best fits their needs. The CCTMO exists to provide the information and means to access the best option." FactOrs commuters in the CCTMO area consider when deciding commute mode include: Cost (48% state d it was ''Too expensive to park" and 61% would be sttongly encouraged to switch modes if employers or CCTMO provided bus/rail discounts) Travel time (express bus service would strongly encourage 52% of the respondents to switch modes. 63% would be sligbtly to strongly encouraged if lanes were reserved for carpools on freeways) Security/Comfort (33% of the survey respondents feel safer and more comfortable in their car and 61% want improved lighting) Flexibility (31% cited the need to run errands before/after work as a m'!ior reason for not using bus, rail, or carpools/vanpools and 28% work irregular hours) Available options (22% cited no park and ride lots near their home, 20"/o said there are no bus or rail stops near home) Convenience (21% cited no dir ect transit service and 15% cited no convenient carpoolslvanpools. A telephone poll conducted by CUTR in 1995 of south Florida residents who don't carpool on I -95 found that 72% would fmd it at least fairly difficult to form a carpool) The marketing message should get the target audience's attention, hold their interest, stimulate their intention, and bbtain their action. The objective of tbe CCTMO message is to cause behavioral action. In other words, the primary purpose of the CCTMO's marketing activities is to get commuters to change their mode of travel (i.e., join a pool or ride transit) or time of trip (e.g., staggered work hours) to reduce congestion and air pollution. Key benefits to emphasize in marketing messages to commuters include: Cost savings ( 48% of respondents report that it is "too expensive to park" and more than 26% of the respondents commute more than 20 miles), Availability of a guaranteed ride home program (49% of responde nts said this program would strongly encourage them to use alternative transportation modes), and Safety in numbers (59% expressed the need for greater security and concern with lighting in the Civic Center area a particular concern in the winter months due to the time change). TDM marketing is most successful with an appeal based on a rational approach. Other approaches, including so-called "cause" marketing, are not as effective because commuters make their choices about commute mode based on solutions to problems, not public benefits such as reduced pollution.


Therefore, inappropriate messages are those that stir up emotional responses using fear (e.g., air pollution is hurting our children) and guilt ("don't drive alone"). S imilarly, the message should provide the emotional support for making the "right" decision to use an alternative to single occupant commuting -at least part of the time. The CCTMO's message should focus on the commuter's ability to gather information and carefully compare their alternatives. Jf they perceive an alternative transportation option to provide advantages in convenience, travel time, cost, etc., they will rationally select it as an alternative. Examples of such messages include: "Beat the Street" (Florida) "It Pays to Ride with a Fri end" (Virginia) "The Best Way to Work" (Connecticut) "The One-Stop Commuter Shop" There also are advantages to carrying a theme over time by altering one part of it. This builds recognition while allowing all the products' advantages to be publicized. For example: "Why is CCTMO for you?" Answers could include "Buy passes for Bus and Rail Systems" or "Get Free carpool or vanpool information in 10 minutes." Testimonials from current customers also can be an effective way to carry a message. The use of comment cards included in every outgoing order can gamer these testimonials. Seoondarv Market: Employers The area has 22 employers who employ more than 100 employees. Employers are important to a s uccessful 1DM effort since they provide a common denominator among potential groups: the destination. Employer support will allow the CCTMO to spread the word about the program to more p eople, and use the employer-provided facilities for presentations and marketing efforts. Employers in the Civic Center area have several key needs that the CCTMO may address Ability to offer competitive employee benefits while reducing costs and administrative responsibilities (48% of respondents stated that they were unaware of any employer-provided incentives to use alternative transportation modes). Ability to attract potential employees to the area (only 35% of respondents commute less than 10 miles). Respond to employee concerns regarding limited and costly parking ( 48% of employees cite parking is "too expensive" and 38% cite a lac k of parking as a problem). The CClMO addresses these needs, in addition to offering numerous other benefits to employers. The other benefits include enhancing on-time arrival of employees, reducing traffic congestion around the site, decreasing absenteeism, and increasing productivity from employees who don't experience the stress of driving.


As with eommuters, the 18Iget market for employers share one or more of the following elwacteristi.:s: Draws from a broad labor pont and reauits regionwide (e.g. long distance commuters). Ha s a history of setting up progressive employee programs (e.g. on-site childcare) Has a history of supporting traDsit (e g., sells transit fare media) Has a hiS!ory of being environmentally proactive (e.g., started recycling progJalllS). Suffers from lraffie congestion or other transportationrelated problems around the work slte. Key benefits to emphasize in marketing messages to employers include : Retention and recruitment tool (65% of respondents commute 10 miles or more one-way and are subject to intercept by other employers offering similar jobs and but at lOCations closer to tbe employees home. In addition, parking = are a major concern to nearly half of the respondents) Productivlty impacts citizenship Reeruitment ond Retention. Wlty do employers care about retention? Simply stated, high turnover rates can have a significant impact on the productivity and, therefore, the pretax revenue of the organization. Employee losse s can lengthen production time, delay advances in research and development, and eontribute to lost or dissatisfied customers. Aeeording to human resources professionals, the hidden expenses of turnover account for 80 percent or more of the turnover costs. Some large portions of these = are the inefficiencies associated with the departing employees (i.e, short-timers), co-workers associated with departing employees (picking up the slack), and the inefficiency of the position being filled while vacant Similar inefficiencies exist for the co-workers and supervisors once the new hire is onboard Of course, the direct processing costs of recruitment by tho human resources department, interviewing candidate s by the supervisor, and relocating the new hire add to the total. Acconting to the American Bankers Association Banking Joumal, "Many bankers think they miscalculated when they find turnover costs of S20,000 per employee." Another study, reported in the December 1990 issue of "Personnel Journal," shows the costs can be much higher. The study CS!imated the cost for replacing a middlemanagement position in the research and development funelioo at an environmental specialty chemical company at more than $58,000 or about 1.5 times the person's salary.


A formula does not exist to convert the turnover reduction impact of a TDM strategy. However, TDM programs can lillike tlie case that even moderate investments would not have to reduce turnover by much to pay for itself. Assum e the employer estimates the costoftumover at$20,000 per employee. At that rate a $100,000 investment in a turnover avoidance strategy (e.g., transitlvanpool subsidies) would pay for itself in 12 months if the program avoided the loss of only five employees with an average salary of$40,000. Productivity. Several TDM strategies are also work-family programs that help contribute to productivity increases and/or decreases in operating expenses. For example, Florida Hospital in Orlando has about half its transcription department working from home. They report higher productivity and lower operating costs because of this program According to reseafch conducted at University of California, Irvine, absences due to illness were significantly higher for medium and high impedance commuters (based on time and distance). In a subsequent study, these researchers found that ridesharing buffered the stress of commuting, especially for long distance commutes (20+ miles). Good citizen. The CC'IMO should not discount th e community relations' benefits of employers who participate in the CCIMO programs. In particular, the medical oriented employers may seek to capitalize on the health benefits (reduced air pollution and stress) Messages delivered by highly credible sources (e.g., existing employers) are more persuasive. Using a picture and/or a quotation from a business leader and getting them to speak at business gatherings can increase the credibility of employer involvement in the CCIMO. This involvement also provides the opportunity for th e CC'IMO to present the employer as a good corporate citizen in the community. Staff The three primary responsibilities to be carried out by CClMO staff are: Personalized Assistance: responding to requests for information, and conducting follow up. Administration : supporting the Board of Directors, tracking expenses, stocking appropriate quantities of fare media, providing PDOT and MPO with progress reports, etc. Employer Outreach: promoting aU commute alternatives through publi c appearances, prov i ding information for employers to include at new employee orientations, helping witb the development of employers TDM programs, etc. The outreach and p ersonalized assistance functions require sales and presentation skills and the ability to work with managers and the public. The administrative functions are primarily in-office activities of a managerial nature


CCTMO Board of Directors The Board of Directors serves in a policy role for the CCTMO. Often the differences between policy versus operational issues are neither obvious nor clear cut. The chaUenge between the Board and the executive director is to decide the process for handling certain situations. Occasion.illy, the Board may delineate those items clearly within the complete authority of the executive director with prior approval and those items that require notification to the Board after the fact by the executive director. The following examples can best illustrate the relationship between the policy role of the Board and the operational role of the staff. The Board is responsible for fashioning the CCTMO's strategic plan. However, the executive director makes recommendations and cariies out the plan once ifs adopted. The executive director writes the grant proposals but must seek prior Board approval to submit the grant The Board approves the budget, formulates policies for financial management and internal control systems, and hires legal counsel and the auditor. The executive director drafts the budget, assures adherence to financial management policies and systems, and obtains bids for legal and auditing services. Reinforcement of the values and expectations of the CCTMO requires substantial personal commibnent and involvement by th e CCTMO Board of Directors. Board members must take part in the creation of strategies, systems, and methods for achieving excellence. The systems and methods need to guide all activities and decisions of the CCTMO. Board members' regular personal .involvement includes being visible at CCTMO activities, participating in strategic planning, reviewing of CCTMO performance, and recognizing employees for quality achievement. They serve as role models for staff and as representatives of the CCTMO for employers and government bodies (e.g., IVIPO). The major Board responsibilities are: hiring the executive director, developing a strategic plan that reflects the CCTMO's mission, identifying and selecting new board members, monitoring and evaluating the performance of the organization, the executive director and the fmances, and serving as a goodwill ambassador for the CCTMO. Before making decisions, board members must pay particular attention to financial management processes, financial statements, audit findings, and minutes to fully understand the issues.


. Program Goals The overall program goals must drive the CCTMO' s approach to marketing of the program. cum derived these goals by the current mission statement of the CCTMO and reviewing the bylaws of the corporation. According to documentation provided by the CCTMO, the mission of the CCTMO is to "function as a focal point for private and public sector efforts in initiating and implementing transportation demand management (IDM) measures. The CCTMO will actively solicit support, both financial and organizational, for a variety of IDM measures in oJtler to accrue benefits such as reduced congestion, improved air quality, reduced demand on traffic related infrastructure, increased mobility and general improvement in the environment or the service area." The bylaws of the CCTMO support this mission by focusing on activities aimed at advocating and promoting IDM by: 1 Providing a forum for and property owners to address common transportation concerns and to work cooperatively with govenunent to mitigate traffic congestion through a transportation management program; 2. Reducing traffic congestion, mobile source pollutants, and parking demand by organizing transportation programs including. but not limited to, carpooling, vanpooling, flexible and staggered work hours, parking programs, and a central information service on ridesharing, paratransit, public transportation; and other related transportation related subjects. 3. Promoting efficient transportation demand management systems and programs that will enhance the area's competitiveness and economic vitality and continue its image as an attractive place in which to live, work, and conduct business; 4. Administering contributions and grants to the Corporation from public and private sources and funds under contracts with public agencies and private organizations, in accordance with the terms and conditions of such contributions, grants and contracts in keeping with the purposes of the Corporation as stated in its Articles of Incorporation and these bylaws.


from the above mission statement and bylaws, CUTR has developed the following three goals.and eight contributing objectives. I Goal 1: Offer travel choices to increase mobility, reduc e congestion and improve air quality. Objective 1.1: Target the commute alternatives to various market segments Objective 1.2: Develop reinforcement and retention strategies for current commute alternative users Objective 1.3: Develop a program to encowage use of non-motorized commute modes Objective 1.4 : Develop alternative work hour programs and facilitate adoption by employers and commuters. I Goa/2: Enhance the Civic Center area as a business location Objective 2.1: Objective 2.2: Develop strategies to reduoe commuter vehicle traffic Develop strategies to improve the peroeption of transportation in and around the Civic Center I Goal 3: Establish partnerships Objective 3.1: Develop partnerships with employers Objective 3.2: Develop broad financial support to achieve CC1MO goals. The proposed actions related to TDM focus on the six stages of commuter behavior (see below) and programs offered by other 1MOs and/or employers of similar types: STAGE CUSTOMERSTATBMBNT CCTMO' sACTIONI Stage! Stage2 Stage3 Stage4 StageS Stage6 What' s this aU about? What's in it for me? How do I start? rm not sure I can do it. I'm an alternate mode user. My current alternative transportation mode satisfies me RESPONSE Increase awaren.ess of options Foster interest by promoting benefits Simplify the mode choice decision and provide a call to action Provide encouragement. Susgest Uial use. Focus energies on retention Treat commuters as a ambassador. Use testimonials and involve them in planning


Before examining the proposed actions, we should understand that each TMO is unique. FOOT's TMA Evaluation Criteria reflects this uniqueness. FDOT designed the Criteria to help TMOs/IMAs enhance their perfonnance through focus on dual, results-oriented goals: delivery of ever-improving value to customers, resulting in gTeater use of alternatives to the single occupant vehicle by commuters; and improvement of overall TMA operational perfonnance (e g lower cost per person served). The TMOI'IMA Evaluation Criteria consists of seven categories cover the breadth of lMO planning and operations. An eighth categozy, "Other," is provided to allow the TMO to provide any additional basis for evaluation The marketing action plan addresses each of the following criteria. Corporate Leadership and Invol ve m e nt. The l eadership categozy examines the TMO's Board of Directors or advisozy committee and executive director's or program manager's personal lea dership and involvement in creating and sustaining a customer focus, clear and visible values, and high expectations Reinforcement of the values and expectations requires substantial personal cotn.nUtment and involvement The leaders must take part in the creation of strategies, systems, and methods for achieving excellence. The systems and methods need to guide all activities and decisions of the lMO. Through their regular personal involvement in visible activities, such as planning, communications, review of TMO perfonnance, and recognizing employees for quality achievement, the Board members serve as ro le models for staff. Suitability of Goals and Objectives. This Categozy examines the process of setting goals and objectives. Major emphasis is placed on understanding why the TMO chooses its mission, goals, objectives, and activities. This action plan focuses on collecting baseline or benchmark information to set objectives Development and Deployment of Strategic Plaa. The Strategic Planning Categozy examines the TMO's long-range (e.g ., three years) planning pro cess and how the goals and objectives and annual work plans are integrated into the overall strategic plan. This element includes bow the TMO's planning process integrates commuter, member and employer requirements and how the TMO carries out plans. Also, thi s plan discusses how the TMO shares progress with key stakeholders such as the MPO and transit agencies. Financial Management Systems. This categozy of the FOOT TMA/lMO Evaluation Criteria examines the TMO's fmancial management systems. This information supplements the audit requirem ents contained in the joint participation agreement. The criteria address financial performance via two major avenues : (I) emphasis on improving productivity and lowering overall operating costs; and (2) support for TMA strategy development, TMA decisions, and innovation. Degree of Extlln121 Visibility. The external visibility categozy examines the TMO's advocacy, educational, and outreach efforts and how these relate to enhancing the customer service focus of the organization. Also, examined is the potential reach of


promotional efforts and their impact i n convincing customers to cons i der alternative commute modes. A significant portiorl of ibe following action plan is dedicated to efforts to promote the CCTMO to commuters, employers, and members. Effectiv e n ess of P rograms. This criterion examines the TMO' s opera t ional p erformance A successful evaluation will usc procedures that dotennine one or more of the following: (1) the extent to wbich the program has achieved its stated objectives (e. g., increases in Average Vehicle Occupancy); (2) the extent to which the CCTMO can attribute the accomplishmen t of the objectives to the program (direct and indirect effects); (3) consistency of program implementation to plan (relationship of planned activities to actual activities); and, (4) the relationsh i p of different tasks to the effectiveness of the program (productivity). TMOs in areas with a regional commuter ass i stance program (RCAP), the TMO may i nclude some performance measurements as part of the RCAP evaluation The CCTMO should coordinate eva l uation efforts w ith Gold Coast Commuter Services. Measure of Commuter and Member Satis f a cti on The Satisfaction Category e xamines the TMO's relationsh i ps with customers (i.e., commuters and members) and its knowledge of customer requirements. The action plan addresses how the CCTMO should determine customer satisfaction aod emphasize customer retention There are three main considerations in the development of the action plan: (1) emphasis on the TMO's mission, goals, and objectives as a basis for action; (2) criteria that address factors particularly important to the TMO's operations should receive relatively more emphas i s; and, (3) actions are results orien ted TMOs offer many operational activities to emp l oyers and commuters. The following table lists the percentage of TMOs offering a given service. The table compiles the results of two national surveys of TMOs in 1990 by TMOs in California and in 1993 by the Association for Commut e r Transportation. A cursory comparison between the two periods suggests a much broad e r product mix in 1993 TMA Products and Services 1990 1993 Advocacy Ridesharing promotion at employer sites PeriodicalsiMaterials printed Vanpool formation assistance Ridematching Trip reduction plan production Guaranteed Ride Home Develop/process employee surveys ETC Training Parking management assistance Transit pass sales ShuUle service Vanpool program subsidy 47% 96% 53% 90% NA 84% 42% 78% 4 2% 73% 39"/o 69"/o 36% 67% 39% 67% 47% 61% 34% 41% 39% 39% 39% 3 1 % NA 24%


From the above analysis CUTR recommends that the CC1MO d evelop and deliver the following 1DM products to the specified target markets. Rideshare Matching and Car:poo/!Vanp ool Services : The CCTMO s e rvice s will be directed primarily to persons working in Civic Center area and secondarily to students Vanpool efforts will be directed to commuters to the area who live more than 20 miles away. 11!wit Services and Promotion: The CCTMO will serve to establish employer outlets for employees and students in the area, and, secondarily to County residents and the publi c Employer Outreach: The CCTMO will coordinate and promote TDM services primarily to employers (private and government) in the Civic Center area and, secondarily, to developers and leasing agents in the area. The CCTMO service area has an estimated 22 large (those with I 00 or more employees) employers. I Parking Demand Management: The CCTMO will be directed primarily qt office building and corporate managemenz personnel responsible for parki'ng policies, and, secondarily, to commuters CUTR developed the following tables to help the CC1MO relate aetions to results The tables are constructed with five supporting columns to help the CC1MO identify aetions, measures of performance, current benchmark, suggested targets, and contributing factors. Each page relates to a single objective. The first column descri bes actions that the CC1MO would take to achieve that particular program goal. The second column includes the performance measures for gauging progress. The third column is used if benchmarks or actual results are available for each performance measure. The CCTMO could take thes e benchmarl

Goal!Offer Travel Chokes S h ort Range Objective 1.1: Target the commute alternatives to various mark et segments A ction Performance Benchmarks Targets Contributing Factors Measures Within 2 months, develop overarching theme with a Adoption of Key reasons cited for not using call t o action. Use Gol d Coast Commuter Service's theme alternative modes are: "Hang Up Your KeysDo n't Be an SOY" clip art comfort/safety of own car Highlight part-time use of modes and the comforrllack (33%} and run errands before/after worlc (31%) of stress of a ltomalive modes Within 2 months, customize brochure on options, Development of I multi-modal Only 17%of including transit routes and stations, with a call to brochure brochure employees/students who work action (e g., ridematching survey and CCTMO phon e at the sites providing zip code number). locations live within a 1/4 mile of bus route or l4 mile of a rail stop Within 1 0 months, develop "4-3-2-1 New Start" #persons placed 0 vanpools 2 vanpool s Fanning vanpools with a full assistance program to subsidize the cost of up to 4 in vanpools complement of riders is empty seats for new vanpool groups. Example: extremely difficult. A "New subsidize up to 4 empty seats for first month, 3 seats Start" program provides time for the seeond month, etc. II new vanpool and an incentive (costs will go up if they don't locate more starts riders) for current riders to loca t e additional riders . Within 1 0 months, bold presentations wilh groups of # new vanpoot 0 v anpools 2 vanpools 25 percen t of the workforce employees who live over 20 miles away from work. Starts lives over 20 miles away from the Civic Center Students have longer trips than commuters ---------


Goa l Offer Travel Choices Short Range Objectiv e 1.1: Targef the commute alternatives to various marke t segments ActioD Performance Benchma rks Targets Contributing Factors Measures Withio 6 months, distribute surveys/applications to H persons 500 Generally, 5 to 30 percent of area employees at targeted employer$. Process results registered persons requesting matching w ithin I week in coordination with Gold Coast information will change modes Commuter Services. Ongoing effort. (National estimates) Within 2 months, develop "How to Form a Carpool" "How to" guides None Guidance and encouragement and "How to Form a Vanpool" guides. Distribute with of trial use of al ternative modes all ridematchil)g requests. is required so commuters act upon matching information provided by GCCS on behalf of CCTMO Witbi.o 6 mon ths, develop a Civic Center Parking and # maps distributed None 1 map and 12 mont hly Parking oost and availability are Transportation Map with an insert on t he current costs updates key concerns. "Too expensive (update costs monthly). Package map in folder with to park" was cited by 48% of commut e aJtematives (e.g . ridematching brochwe, H requests for employees and Not enough traosit maps) to attract commuters, expose them to commute 300 requests (1,000 parking spaces" cited by 38%. a lternatives, and open the door to employers with alternatives 3 requests for maps distributed) This is probably the problem employees who have "perceived" parking problems. received matching info/transit employers bear from employees schedules for every 10 and voice to others not the maps distributed (rate problem with Jack of info on in Virginia) T DM and transit. Employers likely would welcome help with their perceived "parking" problem. Combining the so l ution of the problem (Map) with alternatives gives employees all their choices in one place. ------------


. GoallOffer Travel Choices Short Range Objective 1.2: Develop reinforcement and retent ioo strategies for current commute alternative users Action Performa nce Benchmarks Targets Contributing Factors Measures Participate in Gold Coast Commuter Se.rvices ORH establi.shed 15 trips per I 00 100 trips provided Work irregular hours cited by Guaranteed Ride Home program for existing transit registered participants 28% of employees riders, carpoolers, and vanpoolers. Generally, GRH programs are very low cost but high value. Too low usage may imply the level of awareness is too low or restrictions a r e too tight. Commuter concerns with leaving work for a personal emergency (e.g., picking up a i sick child) or unexpected ' overtime is primal}' objection to I a lternative mode u s e Within 9 months, in coordination with transit and #employers I employer currenUy 3 employers (with more Energy Policy Act of 1992 vanpool providers, develop employer-provided providing subsidy provjdes incentives to than 100 employees) allows employers to provide a transit/vanpool subsidy program. use bus or rideshare tax-free subsidy for transit and #employees (Miami Dade CC) 500 employees eligi ble van pool fares of up to $65 per receiving the mont"subsidy Consider packaging w ith GRH program, perhaps with Spaid by Oemployees a nominal fee attached to the GRH component (e.g. employers to $2 per employee). CCTMO for GRH I


Goal!Offer Trave l Choices Short Range Objective 1.2: Develop relnforcem

Goal I Offe r Travel Choices Short Range Objective 1 3 : Develop a program t o encourage use ot non m o torized commut e modtS Action Performance Benchmarks Target s Contributing Factors M easures Within 12 mo1tths, develop a program to # employers widt Unknown I 0 employers 15% of employees live within 5 employers to offer incent ives and s u pport for b i cycle bike racks/ miles Lack of security and and pedestrian programs. lockers/showers difficu l t to walk in the area were cited by about I 0 percent of tho employees Exercise facilities (presumably wi t h shower facilities) was dte service most desired by not accessible within walking distance (47%) Within 3 months, meet with area bike coordinators B i ket o-work Unknown 25% of respondents indicated and obtainmarke{ing ma t erials for distribution infonnation that bicycle rack s, show<.-rs, and employers (incl u de with Parking & facilities would strongly Transportation Map packet) encourage use. A nother 23% woul d be s light l y encourag e d --


Goal Offer Trave l Choices Short Range Objective 1.4: Develop an alternative work a r rangements p rogram a n d facilitate adoption by employers and com muters Act ion P erfor m ance Bench marks Targets Contrib u ting Fllctors ' Measllres Within 3 months, develop materials on #emp loyers wilh Jackson Memorial 2 new large employers Reducing the need to travel telecommuting. Wilhin 6 montbs, hold a workshop telecommuting Hospital is only large with telecommuting during peak periods should wilh on telecommuting. employer surveyed programs in tlle pilot reduce conges tion. !hat ,penn its stage telecommuting (on a department only level) # employees who telecommute Within 3 months, develop and distribute information # employers wilh Jackson Memorial, TBDb asedon Shifting the time of the trip may on staggered work hour and flexible worl< hour flexible work Univ o f M iami MC, schedul e developed by reduc e congestion. Slight programs to employers at Ute department a l leveL programs and MianliDade CC CCTMOwi th s taggering o f schedules would Develop schedul e of arrivals and departures among allow department s to employers appear to make a difference. set polic y toward For example, 26% arrive employers to determine how to shave the peak period. flexibl e worl< betwee.t 7:46 and 8:00a .m. but Reserve opportunity for transit riders and ridersharers schedules only 6 percent arrive 1 5 to shift schedules to accommodate transit schedules minutes earlier and 3 percent and pool partners. 26% arrive a t7:46 t o arrive IS minutes later. 8:00a.m . 24% dep art between 4:46 and S:OO p.m. --------------


Goal ZEn h ance the Civic Center Area as a Bus iness L oca tion Short Range Obje<:tive Z.l: Develop strategies to redu .ce commuter vehi cle Action Performance Benchmarks Targets Contributing Facton Measures Within 12 rnond1s, target a c ampaign to increase the #vehicles per 100 87. 7 vehicles per 100 5% reduction Efforts to move people from 2 frequency of alternative mode use to decrease the commuters travelers by ear person carpool to 3 person number of peak period vehicles per 100 commuters in (Civic Center Existing carpool or for encouraging order t o increase the number of parking spaces transit riders to use transit more available for visitors, patients, and clients. Ongoing nansporta tion (e.g once per week to three task. Conditions AM l>eak times per week.) are included in I Period Vehicle this indicator. Occupancy Counts) I Within 12 months, reduce traffic congestion in Civic VMT reduced by 2,400 VMT reduced 480,000 VMT reduced OCCS is conducting an Center area by fostering use of a lternative mode.-c; to mode per year per ridesharer evaluation that can provide driving alone. Ongoing task. (VIrgjnia) (Assumes 20% placed estimates for average VMT Vehicle trips into ridesharing reduced for South Florida reduced by mode. arrangement and 1,000 TMOs. # persons placed persons served) Alternative mode usage = into a ridesharing %transit + %carpool +%bike arrangement +%walk I


Goa! 2 Enhance the Civic Cente r Area as a Business .Locatioo S h ort Range Objective 2.2: Develop strategies t o i m p ro v e tbe per

Goal3Establish Partn ersh ipa Short Range Objective 3.1: Develop partnerships w ith employers to achieve CCTMO goals. Actio n Performance Ben chmarks Targets Contributing Factors Measures Wilhin 3 months, develop and dis tribute employer # of employer Unknown Contact all employers Employers must know what i s in outreach marketing matuulls on lDM strategies and contacts with more thaa 100 it for them. Issues such as benefits to business. employees (see Table perceived parking problems, Al Appendix A) recruitment, .retentioll., etc should be addressed. Within 2 m onths, establish an employer outreach # ETCs trained 7members JOETCs NumberofETCs is linked with campaign to appoint and train Employee H ETCs active the number of employers Transportation Coordinators (ETCs) t o involve assisted. However, 1 ETC may employers in mobility programs. serve several locations for that business . Within 1 2 months, increase the number of employers #employees NA 5 companies 61 peroent of employees s tated selling transit passes to employees. purchasing transit that bus/rail pass discounts passes would trongly encour age them to use alternative transportation #passes sol d


Goal3 Establish Partnerships S hort Ra nge Objective 3.2: Devel op broad financial suppor t co achieve CCfMO goals. Aclion Performance Benchmarks T argets Con trib uting F actors Measures Within 6 months, conduct s trategic plaMingfconsensus # of attendees Unknown 3 l o S year Sttalegic Employers generally b elieve building wo.rtsbop co describe lhe problems and relay # of employers plan tranSPOrtation problems can be infonnatlon of importance to area employer s (security solved much more quickly than issues, pedestrian improvements, etc. ) represented is usually the ease. Empl o yers must go lhrough an education process BEFORE chey will a dopt TOM solutionsd on't rush the process or push lhe TOM solution Costs and timing issues may make TOM one of the solutions IDENTIFIED by business as 1HElR solution. Within 2 months, attend and participate in MPO #meetings NA 80% of mee tings Mobility management plans are meelings to provide input aod guide development of attended coordina ced by the MPO. the CCTMO progi'Bm and services. #meeting s Regional transportation planning attended by and investment decisions are CCTMO made by chis body in coordination with FOOT. Within 12 months, solicit and obtain contributions $provided NA 25% of local funds Employers, including those who from members and o ther employers in support of required for t hose aren't m e mbers, may be willing CCTMO product s (e. g Parking and Transportation projects t o contrib u t e toward specific Map and T r avel Time Map) projects


References Barton-Ascbman Associates, Inc. Civic Center Existing Tl'llllsportation Conditions. January !994. Barton-Ascbman Associates, Inc. C ivic Center Pedestrian Amenities and Safety Study. January 1994. The Center for Urban Transportation Research Commute Alternatives System Handbook. August 1995. The Center for Urban Transportation Research. The Commuter Assistance Program Evaluatio_n Manual. 1991. The Center for Urban Transportation Research. An Evaluation Toolkit for Florida's Commuter Assistance Program (CAP). 1997. The Center for Urban Transportation Research. Tampa Dcwntown Mobility Initiative: Technical Memorandum Number One, Profile of Existing CBD Travel Characteristics. December 1990. Desman Associates, A Comprehensive Medical Center Parking/Paratransit Study April, 1988. Desman Associates, Miami Medical Center Parking Study. February, 1992. Institute ofTI'IlDSportation Engineers. Implementing Effective Transportation Demand Management Measures. June 1993.




Table A-1 Major Employe r s in Civic Center Area Business Name Add:rm ZIP Code PllOoe# Cont4tt Nme American Red Cross 1801 NW 9t\ A v e 33136Z 3051326-8888 Roger Svotloda 100 Anjdica Heallheare Svc 1 950 NW 1" Ave 33136Z 30SIS73S44 Bill Forand 10<1-249 Bascom Palmer Eye lnStitute 900 NW 17.a St 331361119 30$1326-81% MatY Lou .Lewi$ MD 10<1-249 Col umbia Cedars Medical etr 1400NW llthAvc 331361003 3 0$1325-5511 Ralph A Aleman 1,0004,999 Circuit Court-Criminal 1351 NW 120! St 3312$ 30SJ547-4888 2$<1-499 Dad< Counl)' Dept ofHeallb* 13SONW 14dt St Bid& 7 F13 33125 30$1324 Annie R $0<1-999 Dade County State Attorney" 13SONW121hAve 3313 6-2102 30S/S47..01 00 Katherioe Rundl e S Oo-999 Dade Intc:matiooal Inc 1851 DelaW\Ue Pkwy 3312$ 30SJ633-6461 D o n FUller 25<1-499 Easter Society 147$ NW 140! Ave 33125.16 30$1325..()470 Joan Bomstein 100.249 Florida Home Jiealth Svc 1 400NW121hAvc 33136-1003 30SJS4S-1111 Gaylyn Trmincy 25<1-499 Frederick Doogl as Elementary 314 NW 12111 Sc 33136-2514 30$1371-4687 lcaoelhe Thompson 10<1-249 l!Mbot Vi



' MIAMI CMC CENTER AREA EMPLOYEE COMMUTE SURVEY Itt coo,oera6on wSlh tfNJ CMc Ttan.$p0/t.QO:OO Tha :survey int:MdtJd to col1tclfnfcrmarJon on VIe bawl JM!tlwn$ of IHIOf>l$ wodotlg 11'1 the IA.Wnl 0\e Centfr 61'&8. Y()(.ll' j()pul Cl'l yovrttavt-110 .snd ftom .... 'Orlc i& f:7d.n:mcly varc,..,bfglo t M AN irllonnstiadc CC 0 U of M'f.aml 2 Q )ad:son HOSJ)ital o Other rmwM 3. Piwe r:sc: tbe mator lnu::BXXon nc01roR co your bolll(:'------------""'----------4. 01'111 .s..y, IIOW many miles do you tm'd (ocw Yt'<'Y) from yourb001e cov.'Ort? Cnp1W S. A t what tlmt do you II!MnHy o:rt WOJt? AMJPM At. wlt3t time do you ttam!ly work? _____ 6 In wb)t ways do you 1J8Ually uavei to work? tbiC apply.) __ o Drlw 1fol\(> 0 Bus o Ho tort)'dt 0 Otflu {Wtd V.'Oitt, v.bU: .:he msjOrrusons f or oot vav*c on biz, odA a WJ!OOI or vsnpool ? (Qed: 4 that apply.) a Nd a: lett lob 0 Ci.u 1$ paid fOl' 0 fetJ Afur/mort corniOrtabfe In car a Wed lrftauJW bout'S 0 No .md ridt loiS home 0 stC'IJI11)' b\1$" $tOJ!S/Shellc:n: c 1.R car dumg klndi o No bus/ni l UOrA near home o L&dc ol securtcy a.' Mttronil tudoc:'IS a Run e:rra'lds before/afttr woric 0 No direcclccnnecdt/exprus tRiti:Sit smice a Dffficu(t to walk m {Le.,aiine, 0 P,Jifd"' 1$ Frft 0 Lack of rolltt/sdltdullng lttfotm31i0n oo stdtwolk:s or stxt:cr, cmswction) Q Orlvecompan.yar a 0 Otbtr(spedSy\ 10. Vlblch o( the ftOt w:rrencl)t avaJablt 'AWi d you llt to aowsible to you wltllin dlsunce lfom )'Ollr wtri. w? Q Cafuttm c 0 Re$twrant 0 start o Po$c. Ornce 0 Cbilc1 Cll't 0 Publlc: dlamr S 0 0 c. Rtlcc.ate bus $llOJl$ dcer to worlc$iU O(<) 0 More btl$ Shdttrslbus benches O(d) 0 More P3rk anlktde lou O(e} 0 r. {amerz, JU2rds. ttt.,) at bus 0 { 0 0 0 SIIOps/rall stadoas e Fltxlb4t worlt boW'J or wort cb)'S 0 (8) 0 0 h. Carpool ride rmtd*lg service 0 (h) 0 0 !. proerw D (I) 0 0 J. Reserved Plfidn for arpoob: V3npools OO) 0 0 .. GuaraNetd ride home In w.e of if O (k) 0 0 Ia ai'J)OO&Ivanpoo! pro8Qm J. Tr.mworwim or Conlau.JM Information OQJ 0 0 '''"" m Showcrslf.ldlities ror btcyde:rs at '>'Vrtsite 0 (In) 0 0 .. PM diK:ounu 0 (ll) 0 0 o slwttlt bus to wms., ruuuracu. o (o) 0 0 blnb, ct.:. .. B l cyde ndo: !104 noact 0 {I)) 0 .. lrnpi'O\'ed pt6tsu13n mtaldts 0 (CI) 0 0 arNS,. rnoR resttktec:l \'elllcular more prottcttd etc. ) r. lll\illoYcd ligtul"' I n tbe Ovlc C.nfCr 0 0 Other facteaJ "vufd ruonetY !ainu is) 12.. a ... a 2scolt 0 c 6S 110 74 a Un6er 18 0 18to24 0 3Sto44 0 SSOCI64 Q Over74 13. Y

Appendix.C . .,


Figure C-1. 18 to ZSto 35to 4510 SSto 6Sto Profile: State Office AGE (N=ZOS) GENDER Female79% (N=ZOS) OCCUPATION Te<:bnioal (N=204)


Table C-1. ExteDt That Factor Would Eooourage Use of Alternative Transportation Mode : State Attorney Office :::: : . ,., -.... . : ' ' . . .... Source: CCI'MO CQmmuter Charactel'iGiics Sludy 1997


I I c-z. 18 to 2S to 35 to 4Sto SSto JacksoD Mt.morial AGE (N l79) GENDER Female 77.3% OCCUPATI ON (N= l 76)


fi<>urce: CCTMO Commuter Ciwacwistks Study, 1997.


Figure C-3. Demogra phi< Profile: University of Miami Medical Center 18 to 2510 35to 45 to 55 to 65 to Female 6 7.1% AGE GENDER (N-82) OCCUPATION (N-82) Male32.9%


T3ble C-3. Extent Tbat Factor Would Encourage U s e of Alternativ e Transportation Mode: Unlver$lty of Miami Medical Center .66 .zs:& .... Squ,..; CCTMO ComtUttr Choroclt.r/srlcs Sludy, 1997.


Ff&ure C-4. Demogra phic Profile: Student RHpoodellls AGE 18 to 25to 35 to 45 to SS to (Noo53) GENDER Female 77.4% (Noo53)


Table C4. Extent Tbat Factor Would Encourage Use of Altematin Transportation Mode: Student$ Scurce: CCTMO Comnw.ter Characteristics Study. 1997. )


Figure C-5. Demographic P rofile: Mlaml Dade Commuuity College 1810 25to 35to 45 to 5510 AGE 65 to ?"J I U 1==i====f.==F==i====r (N=45) GENDER Malel4.9% Femal e 85.1% (N=47) OCCUPATION (N-=44)


Table C-5. Extont Tbat Factor Would EDeourag e Use of Alternative Traosportatioo Mode: Miami Dade Community College Source: CCTMO Com,.,ter C haracteristics Study, 1997


C-6. Dade AGE 18 to 55 t o 65 to GENDER Male43.8 % Female 56.l% OCCUPATION


Table C-6. Extent That Factor Wowd Encourage Use of Alternative Transportation Mode: Dade Coutnty &nuce: CCTMO Commuter CJuuacterlslic.s Study 1997.


C.7. Profile: Cedars Medical Center 45 to SS to b4' 65 to 7 ... AGE (Nl2) GENDER Male 16.7% Female 83.3% (N=l2) OCCUPATION (N=12)


Table C-7. Extent That Factor Would Encourage Use of Alternative Transportation Mode: Cedars Medical Cenler Source: CCI M O C()mmuter Characteristics Study. 1997

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Civic center TMO commuter characteristics study /
prepared by Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
3 246
Civic center transportation management organization commuter characteristics study
[Tampa, FL] :
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research,
iv, 89 leaves :
ill. (some col.) ;
28 cm.
Prepared for Miami Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization and the Miami Civic Center Transportation Management Organization.
"December 1997."
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 70).
Also available online.
z Florida
Miami Metropolitan Area.
Miami Metropolitan Area
x Attitudes.
Miami Metropolitan Area.
Miami Metropolitan Area
travel demand management
travel behavior
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
Civic Center Transportation Management Organization (Miami, Fla.)
Metropolitan Planning Organization of the Miami Urbanized Area.
1 8 773
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
4 856