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APTS needs assessment for Sarasota County Area Transit


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APTS needs assessment for Sarasota County Area Transit
Alternate Title:
Advanced Public Transportation Systems needs assessment for Sarasota County Area Transit
Physical Description:
100, 10 : ill., charts, 2 col. folded maps ; 28 cm.
Sarasota County Area Transit (Fla.)
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Local transit -- Technological innovations -- Florida -- Sarasota County   ( lcsh )
Bus lines -- Technological innovations -- Florida -- Sarasota County   ( lcsh )
Bus lines -- Communication systems -- Florida -- Sarasota County   ( lcsh )
Advanced public transportation systems   ( trt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 100).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
General Note:
Performed for Sarasota County Area Transit (SCAT).
General Note:
"October 2002."
General Note:
Final report.

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001927324
oclc - 50862004
usfldc doi - C01-00342
usfldc handle - c1.342
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APTS Needs Asses sment for Sarasota County Area Transit The opinions and finding s Transport ation Research Final Report P r epa r ed for ''1/Jo:se of the Cencer for Urban of South Florida and I)()( ne<:essarily chose of che Sarasota-:'CO'uncy Government This reporl has been prepared in cooperaeion wich S arasota County Area Transic (SCAT).


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TABLE OF CONTENT S lis t of Acronym s .............. . ........ .. ..... . .... .... ........ . . . . ... ...... 6 Executiv e Summa r y ... . .... ...... .. ......... .... ... ............ . .. . .. .... . .. 7 1.0 Intr odu c tion . . . . .... . . . .. .... . .............. ... ..... ................. . .. 8 1 .1 PROJECT OBJECTIVE .. .. .......... ................ ........... .... .. ..... ..... ......... ........ . ....... .. 8 1 .2 BACKCROUNO .................. ..... .. ...... ......... ..................... ......... .. ...... ...... 8 2.0 APTS / ITS Goal s and Objectives ...... .... . .... ........ ........ . ........ 9 2.1 APTS DEFINI T I ONS .......................... ............... 9 2.2 CURRENT APTS INDUSTRY DEV ELOPMENT ........... ...................................... 1 7 2.3 APTSfiT S GOALS AND 0BJECTMS .................................................... 1 7 2.4 NATIONAL ITS PROGRAM GoAlS ........................ ........................... 18 2 5 F L ORIDA 'S ITS STRATEGI C PLAN FINAL REPORT .... .................................... 1 9 3 .0 SCAT A genc y Pro f i le ............ .. .... .. . . . ...... ...... .... . . . ...... 23 3.1 SARASOTA COUNTY TRANSI T RHATED GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ........ ....... 23 3.2 SCAT GOALs/OBJECTIVES 25 3.3 SCAT PROFILE ............... .... .................. ......... ............... .................... .... 29 3.4 ISSUES AND TRENDS RELATING TO SCAT .............. ........ .................. 35 3.5 EXISTING APTS AT SCAT ................................................................ 37 4.0 N eed s Ana l yses . . .... . ....................... . .. . .... .......... ........ . 38 4.1 POTENTIAL APTS AT SCAT 8ASED ON INTERVI E W S ..................................... 38 4.2 NEEDS BASED ON SCAT AGENCY ISS UES ...................... . .................. ..... 39 4.3 NEEDS BASED O N SCAT GOALS ............................................................. ... 3 9 4.4 FOOT DISTRICT ONE ITS ARCHITECTURE ......................... ......................... 40 4.5 CANDIDATE NEEDS BASED ON ITS ARCHITECTURE ....................... .. ......... 44 4.6 PRIORITlZED SUMMARY OF NEEDS ............................................................. 45 2


TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont'd) 5.0 Profile of Technologies .... ............ ... ..... .... ..... ...... ........... 48 5.1 IMMEDIAT E NEEDS TECHNOLOGIES ........................................................... 48 5 2 SHORT-TERM NEEDS .... ............................................................................ 59 5.3 MID-TERM NEEDS ..... ........ ..... ..... .......................... ................................. 71 5.4 COSTS FOR RECOMMENDED PROJECTS ....................................................... 78 5.5 CHARACTERISTIC TRANSI T AGENCY COMMEN T S .......................................... 83 6.0 Peer System Experiences 89 7.0 APTS Recommendations for SCAT ..................................... 98 References . 1 oo Appendix A (Detailed Cost Spreadsheets) ................................ M 3


LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 : STEP (SCAT } GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ............. ..... .................... ....................... 25 TABLE 2: SCAT F IXED ROUTE SERVICES ........... .... ............................. ......................... .... 3 2 TABLE 3: SARASOTA TROLLEYS .......... . .. .. .................. . .... ............... . .......... ...... 33 TABLE4 : SCAT FARE POLICY ............ .... .. ............................... ..... .................... .. .... 34 T A BLE 5: SCAT TRANSIT PERFORMANCE MEASURES FROM FY 1999 TO F Y 2000 .. . . .. ....... 35 TABLE 6 : EXISTIN G APTS A T SCAT .. .. ... ...................... ...... ........ ...................... 3 7 TABLE 7: TECHNOLOGY FOR SCAT ISSUES ....................... . ............................. ........ ........ 39 TABLE 8: T ECHNOLOGIES BASED ON SCAT GOALS ... ........... ......... ........... ........ ... . 39 TABLE 9: PLANNE D APT $ FOR SCAT IN REGIO N A L ARCHITECTURE .................................. .41 TAB L E 1 0: APTS FOR SCAT ACCORDING T O R E GIO NAL ITS ARCH ITECTURE ........................ 44 TABLE 11: PRIORITIZED S UMMARY OF APTS TECHNOLOGIES ............................................. 45 TAB L E 12: OVERVIEW OF AVUGPS ...................................................... ......................... 49 TABLE 13: fARE MEDIA ADVA NTAGES A N D DISADVANTAGE$ .............................................. 53 TAB L E 14: fiNANCIAl ADVA NTAGE O F ELECTRONIC fARE MEDIA ......................................... 55 TABLE 15: COST FOR AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATIO N SYSTEM .. ...... ........ ........................... 79 TABLE 16: COST FOR ELECTRONI C FARE PAYME NT SYSTEM ................................................. 79 TAB L E 17: COST FOR AUT OMAT I C PASSENGER COUNTERS .. ................................................ BO TAB L E 18: COSTS FOR ON-BOARD SAFETY fEATURE S ......................................................... 80 TABLE 19: COS T FOR BUS S I G N A L PRIORITY .......................................... ........................... 8 1 TABLE 20: COST FOR ADVANC TRAVELER INFO RMATIO N SYSTEMS (VMS A N D ANNUN C IA TORS) .................................................................... .. ................... 82 TABLE 21: COST FOR ADVA N C E D TRAVELER IN FORMAT ION SYSTE M (WEBSITE} ...................... 82 TABL E 22: COST FOR ADVA NCED TRAVELER INFORMATION SYSTEM (IVR) ........ ..................... 83 TABLE 23: SUMMARY OF COSTS .................................................................. ....... ........... 99 4 a n H 'rt tz 7 a .,. nee a&?'r


LIST OF FIGURES FIG U R E 1: COMPONENTS O F TRAN SIT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ........... . .. . . . .. ....... .. 13 FIG U R E 2: APTS D E P L OYM E N T INCREASE IN THE US ........ ................................................ 17 FIG URE 3: SCAT ROUTE MAP (NORTHERN COUNTY) ...... .... .................. .... .. ..... .. ....... .... .... 30 FIG U R E 4: SCAT ROU T E MAP (SO UTHERN COUNTY) ........................ ....... .. ...................... 31 5


ADA APC APTS A TIS AVL BSP CAD CDPD CMS COTS CSR/IVR cvo DGPS EEPROM EFP FOOT FMS FTA GIS GPS GUI HOV IC ITS lVI LRTP MDT MPO NIA ROM SCAT SCAT Plus SIP TCP TIS TMC TMS LIST OF ACRONYMS American s with Disabilities Act Automated Passenger Counters Advanced Public Transportation Systems Advanced Traveler I n formation Systems Automatic Vehicle Location Bus Signal Priority Com puter Aided D ispatch Cellular Digital Packet Data Congestion Management Systems Cost of the Self Customer Speech Recognition/Interactive Voice Respo nse Commercial Vehicle Operations Differen tial Global Positioning System Electronically Erasable Programmable Memory Electronic F a r e Payment Florida Department Of Tr ansp ortatio n Fleet Managemen t Systems Federal Transit Administration Geographical Information Systems Global P os itioning System Graphical User In terface H igh Occupancy Vehicle Integrated Circuit Intelligent Transportation System Intelligen t Vehicle I nitiative Long Range Tr ansportation Plan Mobility Data Term i nals Metropolitan Planning Organization Nationa l ITS t\rchi tectur e Read-On l y Memory Sarasota County Area T ransit SCAT's P aratrans i t Division State Implementation Plans Tr ansfer Connection Protection Traveler I n fo rmation Systems T ransportation Management Centers T ransit Management Systems 6


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The APTS Needs Assessment for SCAT was initiated by Sarasot a Cou nty Gover nme nt. Advan c ed P ublic Tra n sportation Syste ms (APTS) need ed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of Sarasota County Area Transit (SCAT} in areas such as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (A TIS), T ransit Management Systems, Electroni c Fare Payment (EFP ) Systems, and Tran sportation Dema nd Managem ent (TOM) w ere assessed. T h e majo r o bje c t ives of this study were t o identify exi s ti ng a nd plann ed APTS for SCAT, id e ntify and prio r itize techno log ies that address SCAT needs, and calaJi ate costs associated to implement these t ech nologies Thi s s tudy examin ed eme rgin g techno logies in APTS and SCAT trends and issues t o provid e more effici ent, effect i ve a nd safe soluti o n s to current SCA T challe nges. To establis h APTS ne e d s for SCAT, curren t APTS industry trends, APTS goal s and objectives, SCAT goa ls, and existing APTS at SCAT wer e considered. Existing APTS at SCAT includes t ransit operations software and a Countyw ide Commun ica tion Syste m i n the area of Transit M anagem ent Systems (TMS). There is also a parti ally f unctioning EFP system with magne t i c f a re media. Interviews with SCAT emp loyees showed that an AVUGPS system is highly desirable. Staff also i ndi cated a fully working EFP syst em would sol ve many of the current pr oblems with cash and the ex i s ting fare boxes. A n nu n ciat o r s on buses and real-time i nformat i on for passeng ers wer e als o iden t ifi e d as key requirements for SCAT passeng ers. SCAT management prior i tized the APTS techno logies in to immediate, short-term and m id-ter m needs. An Automati c Vehicl e Locatio n/Mon i t oring (AVUAVM ) system with Mobil e D a ta Terminals (MO T ) a nd advan ced veh i cle and co ntro l cen t e r co mmun i cation system s i s th e most imme diate need (1-2 years). Smart card fare media and e l ectronic vending outlets are upgrades for the system within 1-2 years were also identified. Automated Passenger Counters CAPO, on board safety features a nd an upd ate to th e e x isti ng communication system is recomm ended f o r the veh icles within 1-5 yea rs. An i ti nerary p l a nnin g s ystem s and r eal -time in for mation systems with an u pdated website are als o needed i n t h e short term. Bus sig nal pri o rity o n congested co rridors is a lso a needed development in the short term. Transit a ccessibility systems are needed in the mid-term (5 10 yea rs). A vehicl e com ponen t monitoring (to gauge engine temperature, oil pressure conditions etc.) syst em for eac h vehicle is suggested as a m id-ter m need. Cost s and staffing requirements were calculated for projects i ntended to serve the i mmed iate a nd short-term needs. Capital costs for immediate needs are a little over $2.4 million and costs for short t e rm needs a r e nearly $3 6 million and t he oper atin g expenses per year for immedi ate needs and s hort -term n eed s a re nearly $0.73 million and 1 million re spect i vely. 7


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 PROJECT OBJECTIVES The purpose of th i s study is to assess the Intel I igent Transportation Systems (ITS) n eeded to improve the e ffici ency and effect iveness of Sarasota County Area Transit (SCAn in areas s uch as fleet operations and convenience to passengers. This study attempts to id entify and address area needs and objectives for Advanced Public T ransportation Systems (APTS) and correspond ing APTS enhancements inclu ding phasing, capital costing, annual operating costs, staffing r eq u irements and general conform i ty to N ational and State ITS Architectures. Major objectives of this study are to: "'' Identify existing and planned APTS projects for SCAT Assess and pri oritize needs for SCAT and passengers. )-Identify technologies that address SCAT needs and determine their proven capabilities and interoperabiiity with Sarasota County's ITS Plan and emerging statewide ITS Architecture. ? Develop a phasing plan for APTS technologies that need to be dep loyed i n the short t e rm (1 -5 years), mid term (5-1 0 years) and long term (1 0-20 years). "'' Provi de a detailed description of all the techno l og ies, capital costs, staffi ng needs, and main t enance and operations costs. This study is designed to document APTS needs assessment f or SCAT and will address all the major objectives mentioned above. This Final Report was prepared summarizing all fi nding s and rec om mendati ons from the two t echn ical mem orandum s previously submitted to SCAT. 1.2 BACKGROUND The APTS N eeds Assessment for SCAT was in itiated by Sarasota Cou nty Government in response to the numerous funding requests by Sar asota County agencies fo r APTS services and technologies. However in order to be compatible and i n teroperable with Sarasota County's ITS infr astructure and emerging statewide ITS Architecture SCAT req uest ed a review all prev ious APTS related projects and asked for recomm endations of APTS technologies based on area needs. Sarasota County's transit system is managed by the Tran sit Serv i ces (a part of Public Works Business Center) located at 5303 Pinkney Avenue in the County of Sarasota. The SCAT service area includes 45 fixed route vehicles and 31 demand responsive vehicles. 8


2.0 APTS/ITS GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2 1 APTS DEFINITIONS APTS applies state-of-the-art and e me rging tec hnologies to p rovide more efficient, effective and safe so lu tions to current transit problems For the purpose of this report APT$ and Transit ITS will be used inte .rchangeabl y. Tra nsit ITS is organized in parallel with the U.S. DOT 's Nati onal I T S Program in the follow i ng areas (1): )> Metropolitan I> Transit Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (lVI) )> Rural T h e Metropolitan component of T rans i t ITS focuses on urban and suburba n transportation in t h e following areas: Advanced Traveler Information Systems Transit Management Systems Electronic Fare Payment Systems Transpo rta t ion Demand Management Advanced Travele r Information Systems The Advanced Trave ler Informat ion Systems (A TIS) prov id e t r avelers with r eal -tim e transit and traffic i nformation. With the data from other IT S s ystems, the A TIS is able to provide travelers with pertinent information about the transportation system when the next bus or train will arr i ve the actual trave l time fro m point A to point B, and how many parking space s are left at the park and ride lot. T his information is disseminated to travelers through telephones, television monitors, cable and i n tera ctive telev ision radio electronic signs kiosks, personal computers handheld electronic device, pagers, and the I n te rne t (6). Target )> Increased transit rid ershi p and revenues )> I mproved transit service and visibility within t he community > Increased customer convenience )> Enhanced compliance w i t h the ADA Traveler Information systems are broadly categorize d i nto the following four major groups: 9 ..


PreTrip Information Systems This system p ro vides trave l ers with pertinent informat ion before they begi n their trip. In general, most information consists of transit routes, schedu les, fares, etc. T raditional pre trip i nformat ion systems use automated telephone tree systems or human ope r ators to assist trave lers, but some newer systems use computers, the Internet, and personal d ig i tal assistants, to provide the same informat i on mor e efficiently. In Terminal and Wayside Information Systems-This system pro vide s trave l ers with arri val and departure inf ormation, schedule updates, t ransfer information via electronic signs kiosks, and television monitors. In Term inal and Wayside Information Syst ems are still in t he i r infancy because systems a r e expe n s i ve to deploy. In-Vehicle Information Systems This system is similar to InTe r minal and Way sid e Informat i on Systems except i nformation is provided inside transit vehicles via small elect ronic displays and annunc i ators. In rail vehicles, annunciators are frequently used to announce the next stop. Dynamic Ride Sharing Systems This system automates the arrangement o f carpoo l s by using advanced computer and telephone technologies Drivers and rider s call a ce ntr a l clearing h ouse where a compute r searches a database a nd finds the best available matc h for riders and ride seekers. If sati sfactory, arrangements are made by direct contact between both parties and a carpoo l is formed Benefits of Advanced Traveler Info rmation Systems When A TIS are combined with computer and commun i cations technologies t hey p rovide vehic l e information to travelers at home, at work, o n the roadside or at bus and r ail transit stations The i nformat ion allows travelers to choose the most efficient and convenient modes of travel. Trave l ers can acoess rea l-t ime schedules and congest ion informati o n through telephones, cable television, dynamic message signs, kiosks or the Internet. The result i s greater conven i ence for r out ine or occasional travelers in using and choosing tra n s i t. Transi t Management Systems The Transit Management Systems (TMS) consis t s of fl eet m anagement systems and operational software/computer aided dispatch 10


Target Objectives > I mprove d operating efficiency > I mpr oved transit service and sched ule adherence J> In c reased t ran s i t safety a nd security J> Improved transit informat i on J> Increas ed compliance with the ADA TMS focus on improving transit operations, schedule ad h ere nce, and safety by deploying the following technologies: Automatic Veh icle Location (AVL) Systems This system is a computer based vehicle tr ack i ng system that uses electronic tags and a GPS p ositioni ng system, sign post and odometer, dead rec kon ing, or combination-to monitor vehicle locations in rea l-ti me. In the United States, transit aut horities use AVL systems extensively. Currently, t he re are at least 58 AVL systems in operation, under i nstalla tion, or planned. Over the past four y ears AVL system usage has increased by more than 200 pe r cen t a nd many more AVL systems are bei ng planned. Automated Passenger Counters (APQ-APC automate t he data collection of passenge r board ing's and alighting by time and l ocation. Data are used i n planning, operating, and scheduling activities; in Nat iona l T ransi t D atabase reporti ng, and as input for trav e l e r i n f ormat ion syst ems. Transit Oper ations Software-When linked with AVL systems, transit operations software can provid e real -tim e dispatching, faster responses to service disruptions, and coordination b etween transit service, such as a fixed-route bus and demand r esponsive transit vehicle. I n para transit ope ra tions, transit operations software is especially usefu l in scheduling and dispatchi ng. Computer aided d i spatch (CAD), combined with some f orm of AVL, is th e most popular f orm of t ransit operations software. An important component of CAD is the development of Transfer Connection Protection (TCP) software, which allows b u s operators to i nform passengers whether they will be ab le t o make a transfer to a connecting bus given current schedule adherence. Geographical Informa tion Systems (GIS)-GIS uses an electronic map and r e lationa l databases to visualize and analyze relationships between non-related data. In tra n sit GIS i s used to d i splay and analyze bus routes, facilities, shelters, emergency call loc at i ons, tr ip planni ng route choices, on time perfo rm a nce data and origin and destina ti on of r i de shar ing and para-transit custome rs. Mobility Manager-This i s a m echanism that i n tegrates and coordinates transportation services offered by multi ple providers (1). It helps service p rov iders reduce redu n dant billing and co l lection procedures and provides more c oord in ated service. :: ,-2 n&et rf'it*'A'!"'t'PX't'as 11


Mobile Data Ter m inals (MDn-This is a type of AVL system that can be used both in fixed route and para transit operations to dispatch messages (passenger pick-up and drop-of f addresses and instructions), record and temporarily store certain types of in f ormation about passenger pick-up and drop-off times, and collect stati s tical and performance data on services. Vehicle Component Monitoring-(e.g engine temperature, oil pressure conditions)This is a type of specif i c technology i ncluded i n an AVL system. It i s used to monitor and transmit veh icle mechani cal in formation to dispatch such as engine tempera t ure, oil pressure conditions. Transit Signal Priority Systems Transit Signa l Priority is a strategy by which a particular set of vehicles is given preference at traffic s i gnals, either anytime they arrive at an intersect i on or only under certa i n cond i tions (e.g., on time status, amount of traffic at opposing approaches etc.) A l though a transit vehicle does not warrant the urgency as e mergency vehicles, there are benefits to giving a bus priority at traffic signals under certain conditions. On-board Safety Features These i nclude features such as s i lent alarms for drivers and on board cameras to provide security and safety fo r persona l and passengers. One recent technology addition i s a Global Positioning System (GPSI Vehicl e Monitoring System. Th is provides a wealth of information relat ing to the vehicles activi ties with a data recorder and event monito r Similar to a "II ight data recorder" the System records date, time, l ocation, speed, and d irection of tr avel at user selectable intervals Transit Management Systems Benef its F igure 1 illustrates components of TMS. Some benefits of TMS not previously mentioned incl ude: J> In c reased efficiency, reduced operating costs, and improved services through more precise adherence to schedules. > I n creased ridership as customers are able to bener depend on transit through more efficient planning, scheduling and operations. );. Regular transmission of l ocation and schedule status information to d isp atch centers . J> Capability to monitor, supervise a n d control operations with real-time data i n ways that were previous l y impossib l e > Use information from AVUCAD software packages for other purposes such as customer information, p l anning and scheduling. > Reduction of d i spa tchers' workload because TCP software relies on data rather than voice commun i cation. Therefore, the dispatchers no longer have to be directly involved in t he transfer decision-making process freeing up radio system capacity. 12


figu re 1: Components of T ra ns i t Management Systems TRANSIT FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:S f . . jAdvaoQed Wireless l Electronic Fare Payment Systems AulomaUc Vehic l e localio n Electronic Far e Payment !EFP) systems use elect r on i c communication, data processing, and data s to rage techn i ques to au t o mate manua l fare collection proces s es. Electronic f a r e media are capab l e of stor i ng in f ormat ion in a read and/or write format. For c u stom ers transit becomes easier to use, because exact chang e is not necessary, and o nly a sing l e fare card is nee ded to use the syste m Target Objectives }-Increase d custome r convenience J> Expanded and more flexible far e structures > Expanded base for transit revenue J> R ed uced f are col lect ion and processing costs )> I mproved security of transi t revenue s The followin g a re some examples o f EFP systems: Magnetic Stripe Cards Magnetic stripes can be imprinted on ds m ade of heavy p ap er, thin plasti c, or heavier plastic such as that used fo r stand ard credit and A TM card s A num b e r o f transi t authorities use rea d-on l y magnetic stripe passes for buses and subways. High coerciv ity magnet i c media h ave bee n adopted by severaltransit systems to h i nde r the efforts of counte r fe i ters. Contact Smart Cards I n tegrated Circu i t (IC) sma r t cards each contain a m i crocompute r i n addition to e l ectronically e rasable progr ammable memory (EEPROM) a nd read-only memory I ROM). Th e EEPROM can be used to s t o r e i n fo r mation on t h e cash conte n t of the ca r d (use history, 13


and othe r data subject to cha nge). ROM is used for sto ri ng t he microprocessor's operating program, as well as card i dentif icat ion data. T he m i crocompute r is used to verify a user 's pos i tive i dentification numbe r fo r some tran s act i ons, guard agains t tampe r ing, a nd prov i ding for data enc r yption, for security o r p ri vacy, i f necessary. P ro xi mity Smart Card s Proxi mity cards can be used fo r i dent i f i cat i o n purposes In this appl icat ion, proxim ity ID cards simply i dentify the i r presence i n the v i cinity o f a card ... eading u n i t. They a lso s hare s imilarities with non-rewritable magnetic stri pe cards such as ATM or credit cards. They could be used as bus and subway passes; however, t hey are not being used f or that applicat ion anywhe r e in Nort h America. T hey are being used for key less e n try systems, perso n nel i dent i f i cation, and inven t o r y secur ity i n stores. In transit fa r e applicat i ons they prov i de the ope r ational capabil i ties f o r t ime-based and distance-based f are structure, in t e r -moda l and i n ter operator tra n s f e rs, and ancillary use as an "electron i c coin purse" for small non transit p urchases, with soph isti cated secu rity cap abilities. Cap acit ive l y C o u p l ed C a rds Capa ci tive coupling requires cards to each have two or mo r e a reas of metal foil covered by very th i n laye r s of plast i c i nsula t or that are intimate l y posi t ioned adjacent to s i milar a reas i n t he read -wri te uni t t hus creating capacito r s that coup l e the circu its in th e read write unit and car d. Bot h powe r and signals can be sent via this coup l ing. Capacitive coupling eliminates dir ect physical metal-tom etal contacts that can wear and corrode, thus i ncreasi n g lif etime and re l iab i lity. Al t hough compe ti ng with proximity cards and con tact car d s i n o t he r markets, capacitive l y cou p l e d cards have yet to be used i n t h e transit market Elect ronic F a re P ay m en t Systems Ben efits > E F P systems make fare payme n t m ore convenient for traveler s and revenue collection less costly for transit p r ovide rs. > When combine d with electro nic co mmun i cat i ons systems, da t a p rocessi ng computers and data storage systems EFP systems mor e e f ficient l y collect fares. > Car d s can be used fo r regiona l trave l on buses and rail a nd i n controlle d parking faci l ities. > These syst ems c an also be used to repo r t real-time trave l demand for b etter plan n ing and s che d u l ing of ser vices. > EFP systems speeds up the passenger b oard ing process, thereby shavi n g trave l t ime and i ncreas ing productivity. T r ansp orta t i on Deman d M a na g e ment Trans p ortat i on Demand Man agement (TDM) refe r s to a set of techn i q ues an d programs employed to reduce automob i le (singl e occupa n t ve hi cle) travel demand and red i stribute that d emand in higher occupancy veh i cles ( i nclud ing transi t), alterna t ive modes, space a n d ti me The techniques 14


and programs utilize advanced technologie s to monitor capacity and m a nage t he system i n real time, a s well as provide i nformation and ince n tives for travelers to find alternative solutions to traveling alone. An example i s the use of High Occupancy Veh icle (HOV) lanes on freeways i n which ca r s with two or more passengers can drive. The objective of such a program is to encour age carpooli n g on congested highways. Target Objectives )> Reduce the amount of automobile t r avel on the roadways )> Facilitate and increase the use of public transportation > Provide advanced vanpooling and carpooling commuter services > Appl y congestion pri c i ng programs > Manage parking and apply demand pricing TDM strategies that uti l ize ITS technologies include: Dynamic Ridesharing Dynamic ridesharing (also called r eal time ridesharing) is a form of carpoo l ing that provides rides for s in gle, one way tr i ps rat h e r than fo r trips ma d e on a regu l a r basis. Dynamic r i deshari n g can be either a program organi zed and run by an official agency or a system informally operated by participants. T he emphas i s i s on programs because only t hese use ITS technologies for matching riders with drivers Automated Service Coordination Automated service coord i nation can be d ef i ned as multiple transportation operators in a region that provide coordinated service with the assis tance of APTS technolog ies. By coor dinating the services o f mu ltipl e transportation operators in a region, the connectivity of public trans p ortat ion services can be greatly improved for persons who would h a ve to trave l on more than one transportation agency s veh i cles. This w ill produce the opportun ity for attracting more trips to pub lic transportat i o n. Transportation Management Centers Tra nsport ation Man agement Centers (fMCs ) are state-of t he-ar t facilities in w h ich transportation professionals can monitor, manage or control transit and/or traffic operations The u s e of ITS tec h nolog ies and services provides real-time management of public transit and/or traffic resources and capacity. Transit Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (lVI) The Transit l V I seeks to develop technologies that he l p prevent crashes. Advanced safety and information systems are applied to help drivers ope r ate transit vehicles more safel y and effective l y The current focus of T rans i t lVI is t o test these technologies on buses and para-transit veh i cles. Rail vehicles will be considered in the future. Accor ding to the Federal Transi t Adminis tr ation (FTA), the 15


: ::: ::..:::.:' ::: five most frequent crash types (comprising approx i mate l y 87 percent of all crashes i nvolving buses) are: 1) lan e changes and me r ges; 2) rear..end collis i ons; 31 inte r sect ion collisio n s ; 4) backing up coll i sions; and 5) buses running into parked cars. Based on this i nformation, T ransit l VI technologies are being tested to reduce these types of crashes. Lane Change And Merge Collision Avoida nce Systems provide various levels of suppor t for detecting and warning drivers of veh i cles and objects in adjacent lanes. More recent systems introduce capabilities that w ill provide merge adv i ce and/o r warn ings of vehicles i n ad j acent lane s whose pos i tions and re l ative ve l ocity make the planned lane change unsafe. Those capab ilities cou ld include speed and steering con tro l intervention for enhanced collision avoidance. Forward Collision Avoidance This feature senses the presence and speed of vehicles and objects in the vehicle's lane of travel and provide warnings and limited con trol of the veh i cle speed ( coasting o r downshift i ng) to minimize r isk of collisions w i th vehicles and objects in fro nt o f t he vehicle. Rear Impac t Collision M i tigation The two basi c concepts proposed f or thi s application is the following: trans i t bus -based systems to warn following driver(s) of potential coll i sion (e.g visua l warn i ng display on rear of bus); and impact injury and damage miti gation. Tight Maneuvering/Precision Docking This application posi ti ons the bus with precision re l ative to the curb or load ing platform. Drivers can maneuver the bus into the l oading area and sensors determine the lateral distance to the curb, front and rear, and the longitud i nal distance to the end of the loading a r ea. Drivers can override the s y stem at any time by operating brakes or steeri ng and mon itor the situation and take emergency action if necessary (for example, i f a pedestrian steps in front of the bus). Transit lVI Benefi t s The primary benefit to be derived by transit agencies is i mproved safety. An analysis on the benefits o f Transit lVI based on projected reductions of transit vehicle accidents and the resultant savings i n the form of avoided losses in transit accident fatalities, injuries and property damage was perfo rmed T his analysis projected that the total benefits, over the next ten years, for Tr ansit l VI technology deployments would range from $498.0 million to as high as $ 1. 2 bil lion (1). Target Objectives > Increased saf ety o f t r ans i t passenger s l> Reduced costs of transit vehicle mai ntenance and repairs l> Enhanced com pi i ance with t he ADA 16


2.2 CURRENT APTS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT There has been a sig ni fican t i ncrease in the dev e lopment a n d impl e mentati o n of APTS app l ications i n th e United States over the past few years, as shown i n Figure 2. S i nce 1 996, th e number of depl oyments o f APTS technologies has increased by over 70%. T he largest increases have been seen i n t he deployments of fleet m anagemen t systems, e l ect ronic fa r e pay ment systems, and advanoed traveler information systems. Toda y, AP T S techn olog ies are deployed (o r are be i ng planned for deployment) w i th in 1 92 fixed r oute bus syst em s 153 demand r esponsi v e tr ansit systems, 1 1 heavy rai l 12 l i ght rail, and 13 commuter rail systems. T ransit Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (lVI) technologies are current l y being researched and ini tia l deploym ents i n vehicle collision warning system s are b eing developed tested and evaluated. Figure 2: APTS Deployment I n crease in the US APTS Deployments 300r_ __:._:_ _______ __ 2501----- 1996 m 1999 N u mber of APT$ Deploymon ts 200 150 100 50 0 FMS OSfCAO ATIS EFP FMS OS!CAO A T I S EFP l V I TOCal lV I % 1996 1999 increase 105 228 117'!(, 194 255 31'lr. 99 180 62% 72 14 2 97% 0 0 0% 470 sos 71% Source: Adv a n ced Public Tr.'UtSJ)OrUition Syst e ms: The State of the Art U pda e 2!100, USDOT/fTA. December Legend FMS .. Fleet Systems A TIS Advanced Travel er l n f ormalion Systems lVI-I n telligent Ve hide Initiat ive 2.3 APTS/ITS GOALS AND OBJECTIVES CAD Compvt erAid e d Dispatch EFPE lectfonic F31e Payment Typica l tra n sit agency object ives r e lat e d to APTSII T S include (1): )> I mproved dispatching ope r ations and scheduling )> Redu ce the cost per passenge r trip )> Provide bette r passenger in formation an d o n-tim e performanoe > Promote open, interoperab l e systems i n ITS 17


. : ). Enhance the amount and quality of the data available for planning and analysis J> Improve safety and se<:urity for transi t operators and consumers A discussion of these objective s is provided below. Improvi ng Dispatching Operations Receiv ing and displaying accurate vehicle l ocation s should enhance the operations of the fleet Dispa tchers will have t he ability to track a vehicle, compare its location to a prescribed route and time point, and advise an operator of late or early r unning on a route. On the basis of this informat i o n, the operator can make necessary run adjustments. In addition to the field supervisors and the vehicle operators knowing that a vehicle is running off schedu le, the dispatchers have the ability to s ee the extent of the problem and how it may impact other routes or blocks. Reducing the Cost per Passenger Trip AP T S techno logie s will reduce operating costs by providing greater co ntr o l and accountability of fleet and resource management A growing interest has been savings in moving passengers from para-transit service to fixed-route service, which is less expensive on a per-ride basis and can accommodate additional trips a t l itt le or no cost. Providing Better Passenger Information This can easily be done through an on-line c us tomer inform ation system that would provide t he real-time locat ion of vehicles and informat ion about all types of transpo rta tion and trip itinerary planning using off-the-shelf technology. Promoting Open, Interoperable Systems in APTS The USDOT is in creasingly r equ iring that ITS implementations use open system architecture to encou rag e innovation and interoperability. Issues still remain. For example, to compare the schedu led versus real-time location of vehicles, a typical system would require an interface between the scheduling software and AVL. This is usually made available fo r an additional charge Improving Safety and Security for Transit Operators and Consumers Finally, impr oved safety and security for tran sit operators and customers is one of the primary obj ective s of all public transportation agencies. The ability of AVL to pinpoint the loca t ion of any vehicle in their fleet provides an additional security fe ature that will make operations safer. 2 4 NATIONAl ITS PROGRAM GOAlS The ITS Program id en t ifies five goal areas that ITS projects should address (2): J> Safety, measured through a reduction in aash rates 18


)> Mobil ity, measured through a reduction in and trave l time variability, as well as a n improvement in customer sati s faction l> Effic i ency, measured throug h increases i n t hr oug h put or effective capacity, as well as congestion re lief )> P r o d uct i vity, measu red throug h cost savi ngs )> E n ergy and env i ronment, measured t hr ough r educt i ons in emissions and energy consump ti o n 2.5 f L O RID A'S ITS STRATEG IC PLAN fiNA L R E PORT The purpose of t h e ITS Strateg i c P lan is t o gu i de t he Flo rida Depar t ment of T r ansporta tion (Foon, Florida Metropo l ita n P l anni n g Organizations (MPOs) and loca l governments in t h e plan ni ng, programm ing and impl ementation of i nteg r ate d mu l ti modal ITS ele m ents to max i mize the safety and efficiency of Florida's t r ansportation system. This I T S Str ategic P l an includes the FOOT's statew i de vis i on for I TS, as well a s a set o f gui d i n g p r i n ciples t o assis t i n the l ong-range planning an d p roject deve l opment needed to achieve that vision An ITS Business P l an is i nclu d ed th a t det a ils the recommended steps fo r the F OOT's ITS p r og r am d eve l o p men t an d depl oyment over the next five years. Coals from the Florida ITS Strate g ic Plan include: G oal1: Safe Tra ns portat ion for Residents, V isitors And Com merce ITS Objectives )> Min imize response t i me fo r incidents a n d accidents (incident managemen t programs) l> Reduce commercial ve hi cle saf ety viola t i ons (commercial vehicle operations ( CVO) safety programs ) l> Reduce wea t her;elated tra ffi c incident s (road weather information systems) )> Minimize g r ade crossing accidents (h i ghway r ail i nterface safety systems) )> I mprove emergency management communicat i ons (coordination of commun i cat ion fr equencies and real t i me trave l er i nforma t ion systems for evacuation an d major route closi ngs, re-rou tings o r r estrictions) )> Improve security for highway and t r ansi t users (sur ve illance cameras call boxes a n d e m erge n cy services support) )> Imp r ove the security, safety an d convenience of pedestrians and bicyclists (i m proved inte rfaces at p edestrian crossings, sig n al i zed intersections, kiosks and sur ve i llance systems) Goal 2 : P rotect i o n Of Th e Pub lic's Inves t m e n t I n T r a n spo r ta t ion ITS Objective s l> Reduced vehicu l ar delay f rom i nciden ts (incident r esponse prog rams) 19


> Improved peak pe riod flow and throug hput (traffic contro l sys tems and operations) R educe t h e cost of commercial vehicle f l eet operations (CVO and i ntermodal systems) > Assist in prov i d i ng safe and efficient maintenance of traffi c du ri ng project co nstru ct ion (work zone moni toring systems, real time trave l e r info rmation system s ) Goal 3: A Statewide Intercon nected T ransporta tion System That Enhances Florida's Economic Compe titiveness I T S Objectives > Reduce cost a n d delay of intermoda l (CVO and i n fo rma tion systems) l> M inimize shipping and delivery d elays t o improve freight operations (real-time system ma nage m en t programs ) )> Improved predictability of travel and delivery times ( incident management systems) l> Imp r ove efficiency of fleet ope r at i ons (CVO in f ormation systems) )> Improve t ouri s t access and convenience (special trave ler i nformation systems) l> Increase emp l oyment (new ITS i ndustry in F lor ida) Goal 4: T ravel Choices to E nsure Mobility, Sustain the Qualit y of the Environ ment, Preserve Community Val ues and Reduce Energy Consumption ITS Objectives l> Improve mobility and choi ces for highway and tr ansit users (ATIS s for conditions and modal/route options) l> I mp rove tour ist access ( specialized t r aveler inf ormation systems) > Reduce t he need to travel (commun i cations i nfrastructure t o support te l ecommuting, te l econfere ncin g, tele s ho pping, etc.) > Reduce energy use and environmental degradation (ITS system s managem e n t to r educe vehicle trips and veh i cle miles of travel) l> I mprove service for special traveler needs (smart cards computer aided dispatch ( CAD) and AVL system s to e n able tr u e demand-responsive transit systems) Improve multi-modal travel (smart car ds, traveler i n form at ion and transi t management systems to reduce trans i t trave l times ) l> Reduce energy use a n d delay associated with major incidents (ITS systems ma n agement and rou te diversion) l> Imp r ove efficiency of toll operat i ons (el ectronic toll collection systems) )> Enhance and support rides haring opportunities (high occupancy vehicle/high occupancy toll systems) Recommended actions defined in the FOOT's ITS Business Plan include steps in several major areas. These are described in the following paragraphs. 20


Plan nin g a nd Development )> U nde rtake strategic deployment- Provide a common framework fo r t he plan n ing deploy m e n t and in t egr ation of systems thr oug h ITS architecture and standards consistency-develop regional app l icat i ons of t he Nationa l ITS A rc hitecture (NIA), ma x imize t h e use of common archit ecture a n d stan da r ds; provide for a migration plan for olde r (legacy) systems to meet ITS standards and arc hi tecture consistency; establish a statewide ITS infrastructure through the use of statewide and national standards and a rchit ect ur e )> P romote ins titu tional and i nter jurisdictiona l coope.ration and coor d inat ion in t he planning, deployment operations, management and maintenance of I T S i n f ra structure-include .ITS in all regiona l and statewide processes for transportation infrastructure planning, development and maintenance emergency operations planning and managemen t and system ope r ations and management; optimi ze cooperation and coo rdination among ke y stakeholders, both vertical" (FOOT, local g overn men t MPOs) and 'horizontal" (transit and toll authorities, police, fire emergency management services (EMS}, etc.} )> Provide service on a regional, in te g r ated and i n terope rabl e basis-provi d e seam less service through the integratio n of t raffic operations and transit ser vices across jurisdiction a l lin es. l> I ntegra t e ITS planning and ITS-related opera tions plan n i ng with statewide, m etropolita n, authority a nd l oca l government p lanning processes; incorporate ITS plans w ith Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTPs) and with State lmplementdtion P lan s (SIPs} T ransportation Improvement Program (TIPs}, Conges tion Management Systems (CMSs}, Tr ansportation System Management (TSM) activities, etc. > Support concurrency/g rowth managemen t program-use ITS as means of both monitor i ng and supporting p rogram objectives; m ax i mize the use of ITS-developed data as a r esource for other planning nee ds )> E mphasize i ntermoda l/multi moda l ori entation to enhance both passenger and freight connections and transfe r s at ports, airpo rts and via all applicab l e modes. )> Utili ze proven cost-effect ive technologies to deliver new and e nhan ced services to travelers and system users; use total life-cycle cost ana lys is to select the appropriate ITS compo n ents and des ig ns. Operations and Management )> Provide performance-driven service, provide real time operat i ons and management o f all trans p o rta tion syst ems to maximize system performance, saf ety and time reliability; use ITS data t o make real time traffic control de cisi ons and to eva l uate transportation system performance . )> Adapt syst em operations and management strategies to c h ang i ng conditions incor p o r ate new and modify ex i sting service attributes based on perfo rm ance evaluations. rt'W' ds''nfrtm' zsn ,r,i;mn-21


> Provide emergency operations support-ensure traveler information systems and traffic management systems are capable of supporting hurricane and other emergency evacuation procedures. l> A ctively pursue inter-agency ope r ations and management agreements agreemen t s for t he operation, maintenance, staffing, data-sharing and management of I T S depl oyments Finance l> Provide ITS funding for NIA-consistent projects funding priorities should favor those ITS projects which are consistent with state and nationa l I T S architecture a nd standards. l> leverage value of conventional cap ital investment in roadway and transit improvements through ITS features that impr ove operational efficiency. l> Develop ITS funding s trat egies-purs u e deve l opment of specific fund i ng strategies for ITS deployment in the MPOs, TIPs and FOOT's Work Program. Such strategies should include funding for long-term operations and management. l> Capitalize on private sector resources-access technology, capita l and entrepreneurship through public-private partnerships and private sector i nformat ion service prov i ders (ISPsl; coo r d i nate electronic payment services, such as smart card technology, with private sector financial institutions; maximize customer-responsive commerc i al oppo r tunities (with revenue potential); capitalize on innovative finance for both capital and operat i ons funding through the use of privatization, commercializat ion and cost sharing; support private seetor initiatives for personal safety and mobility (e.g., May Day systems, onboard navigation, etc ) Public Awareness/Involvement l> Include education, train ing and outreach for policy makers, genera l public and technical staff. l> Respond to special user needs-provide for the mobility and safety needs of commuters, tourists, goods movement, pedestrians b i cyclists o ld er r oad users and mature dri vers l> Ident ify and support ITS advocates/champions-seek out and promote I T S champions in local government, public agen c ies, academia and the pri vate sector including the general public. Research & Development J> Support continued research and operational testing provide a systematic research program to evaluate emerg in g technologies, new systems, markets and planning methods. 22


3 .0 SCAT AGEN C Y PROFILE 3.1 S A R ASOTA COUNTY TRANSIT RELATED GOALS AND OBJ ECTIVES The transit related goals and objectives of Sarasota County are as follows (3): COAL 1 It shall be the goal of Sarasota County to develop and maintain a safe convenient effi cient transportation system which : recognizes present need; reflects the Future Land Use P l an and the plans of adjacent jurisdictions; provides for an affordable balance of alternative transportation modes; provides for safe, efficient inter modal tran spo rt ation linkages; and respects the int egrity of e nvironmen ta lly se n sitiv e areas. Traffic Circulation Sub-Element Objective 1 1 Development of a future thoroughfare system consi s tent with the adopted Futu r e Thoroughfare Plan a n d Maps, proposed population densities housing and employment patterns, and land uses, shall be based on the Future Land Use Plan and coordi nated with the plan s of adjacent jurisdictions. Objective 1.2 Sarasota County shall provid e for the protection and acquisition of existing and futur e rights-of-way including mass transit r i ght s-o fway and exclusive mas s trans i t cor r idors. Objective 1.3 Sarasota County shall provid e for a safe, convenient and energy efficient multi-modal tran sportation system Objective 1 4 The Transportation plan shall enable County resident s the oppor tunity to live and travel utilizing an integrated, inte r modal tran s portatio n system. Objective 1.5 All traffic circulation plan s and programs as well as aviation, port and rail p l an s and programs s hall be coordinated with the plans and programs of the State, the Region, the local Metropolitan Plan ning Organization and othe r l oca l jurisdictions. 23


Objective 1.6 Exist i ng neighborhood e nv ironments their cohesion, and in t egrity shall be specifically considered in the develop ment of the Year 2020 future Thoroughfare Plan, and in indi vidual roadway projects. Objective 1.7 Consider t he aesthetics of roadway corridors in the development roadway proj ects. Public Transi t Sarasota County Area Transit (SCAT) GOAL2 It shall be the goal of Sarasota County to provide public transit services within a framework of available finances, which provide a safe, convenient and economically efficient a l ternative transportation for current and potential users. Objective 2.1 To prov id e by the year 2005 public transit service l eve ls as measured by vehicle hour that at minimum match the percentage of growth in county population from January 1995 to January 2005 and that at a minimum approximate th e leve l of service found in other counties with sim ilar population. Objective 2.1 To main tain a formal method of evaluating route performance. GOAL3 To provide and enhance public transit services consis ten t with: the identi fie d needs of the County's population the constraints of the road network, and the prevailing urban land use patterns of the County. To coordinate public services with affected County departments, State programs and in i tia tives, State and Metropolitan planning activities and loca l jurisdictions in a manner that provides a stable and e ff ective public tran sit service in Sarasot a County. Objective 3.1 To continue and imp rove coordination of publi c transportat ion serv ice to bot h the general public and the special needs of the transportation d isadvan tag e d with adjacent communities, the Commun ity Transportation Coordinator the Sarasota County Transportation Disadvantaged Coo r dinat ing Board, other transportation providers, the Florida Department of Transportation and the Sarasot&-Manatee Metropolitan Planning Organization. 24


Objective 3.2 To coordinate land use plann in g and land development based upon existing major trip generators or attractor s safe and convenient transit terminals w i th the provision of public t ransit services. Objective 3.3 To invest igate and consider implementing alternat i ve program s to fund public transit. Port and Rail Sub-El ement GOAL9 It shall be the Goal o f Sarasota County to develop and main ta i n an environmentally s ensitive transportation system, which provides safe, conven ient, and effi c ient travel t hrough an affordab l e bala n ce th rough the development of a l te rnativ e t ransportation modes, the coord in ation with desired l and use practi c es, and the coordination with adjacent communities Objecti ve 9.1 T o conti nue through the year 2020, to rely upon existing regional ports t o serve the needs of Sarasota County residents. Objective 9.2 To encourage the use of rail l ines as an alternative means of transporting passengers and freig h t. 3.2 SCAT GOALS/OBJECTIVES The Sarasota Transportation Enhancement Plan (STEP) advisory committee, comprising representatives of public and private organizations of Sarasota County, is a futu r e orie n ted committee established to enliance mobility fo r individuals w ithin th e community. SCAT has decided to adopt STEP goa ls STEP goals and objectives are outl ined in Table 1. T bl a d b' e 1: STEP (SCAn Goa san . of transportation. relation.tO the stated need for a ' Goal 1 balanced q>ltfti:mi>datlransportatiO.. :. . : Conduct educational outreach activities related to transportatio n issues Imp l eme nt a media campaign to reinforce outreach activities D istribute periodic publications, such as newsletters ar1d press releases, that rein(orce educational ou treach campaian Coal2 .Recommend: piiblic oolicies that support a balanced multHl!odal tra nsportation system. Inform decision-makers, community leaders, and the public about transportation need s and issues. Assist dec ision-maker s in d eve lopin g po licies that promote multi-rnodal, sustainabl e transPOrtati on solutions ii S rca r1? rl 1 *trt :suM 1 t fsmn n ) 25 'ti'bn'tet'$rsnNH n e w '=

Goal3 Address the mobility needs of the underse rved populations and recommend solutions to meet those needs Identify under served popul ations in Sarasota Cou nty, including children, elder l y, and other special needs groups. Identify opportuni t ies and i nit i a t i ves desi gned to meet the mobility needs of unde r served popula t ions by maxim i z ing use of exi stin g transportation resources. lde1ltify methods to improve the ex i s ting transportat ion system to increase its use by underserved popu la tions. Develop new tranSPortation programs as needed to help meet the mobility n eeds of underset"ved p opulat ions Goal4 Create an integrated, countywide, multi-

Objective 1 1 This goa l focuses on t he impo r ta nce of co mmunity awareness regarding the need for a balanced, multi-moda l t r anspo rtat ion system in Sarasota County. T he policy objectives associated with this goal address acti vities desig ned to increase community awareness of the transpo r tation issues outlined i n the STEP These act ivities incl u de educatio n a l outreach activities, the implementat ion of a media campa i gn to reinforce outreach efforts, and t h e regu l ar d istr ibution of publica tions such as n ewsle tters and press r e lease to supp l ement community outreach act ivi ties. GOAL2 To reco mmend pub lic pol icies t h a t supports a balanced m ultimodal transportat i on system. Objective 2. 1 T his goal recogn izes the i mportance of tr anslati ng community awareness i nto public policies that provide support a nd i mplementation i nfrastructure f or the development of a balanced multimoda l transportation network in Sarasota Cou n ty. The ob j ectives associated with this goal e xtend educationa l outreach activities to decision ma kers and co mm u nity l eaders a s well as the public. Anothe r majo r compo n en t o f t h i s goal i s to provide assistance to deci sion-makers in the development of policies tha t pr omote and supp or t mult i -mod al, sus tai nabl e transportat ion sol utions GOAL3 To address the m obility needs of t he underserved popu lations and recommend solutions to meet t hose needs Object i ve 3.1 In the developmen t of a balanced multi-m od a l transportation syst em that attempts to meet b o th individuals and com munity mobility needs, it is necessary to identify and address the mobility needs of underserved popu l atio ns. This goal and its associated ob j ectives seek t o fill this gap by promo t ing act ivi ties d esigned to iden tify underse r ved populat i ons. In a d d i tion, th e objectives of this goa l also stress t h e impo rtance o f increa si n g opport u n ities for unde.rserved populat i on to use ex isti ng transportatio n programs and systems for their mobility needs. F inall y, this goal also calls for t h e deve l opment of new transportation programs speci f ically design ed to add ress mobility needs of underserved populat ions that cannot be met by exist ing transp o r tation programs. GOAL4 To create an integrated, countywide, mul ti-moda l transportation system that p r ovides l inks t o the large r metr opo l itan commun i ty. 27


Objectives 4.1 Thi s goal builds on t h e efforts o utlined in the p revious goa l b y provid ing implement able activities d esig n ed to pro vide the fou n dati on fo r an inte grated, countywide multimodal transpo rtation system. The obj ectives de v eloped to accomplish th is goa l cal l fo r t h e deve l opment of a plan fo r devel opment of a comprehensive m obility network that is co ordinated by a sing l e agency/operat i on. An i mportant component in the concept of a comp rehen s i ve mobility network i s a centralized informa tion and refer ral cente r that provides t ri p-p l anning assi s t ance. T h i s goa l also calls f o r the dev elopmen t of an ITS plan for the review and appl icati on of te chnolog ie s necessary for the cr eati o n of a n integrated c ountywide, mu l t i -modal transpor t ation system. GOAL S T o prom ote fu tur e-o ri en t ed tr ansit designs c oor d i nate d with the local environmen t, land uses, and surface transportation sys t e ms. Object i ve 5.1 This goal ackno wledge s the i mporta nce o f pr eserving the na tu ral environment in Sarasota Co u nty T owards this end, these goals and objectives f o cus on the provision of infr a str uctu r e and amenit ies that w ill facilitate greater use o f env i ronment f riendly transpo r tatio n a l te r natives to the p ersonal v e hi cle I n fr astructure that encourages use of tran sit and non-motorized f or ms of tra n s port i ncl u de side wal k curb cuts, and bike l a nes and shoulders The ob j ectives also c all fo r the installa t io n of passenger amenit ies at bus stops a nd tran sf e r c enters to i ncrease passe nger comfo r t, suc h as benches, shelters passen ger info r mation and telephones. Fin ally, the object ives associated with this goal a dvoc a t e collaborat ion with l ocal municipalities and n ei ghboring counties i n t he deve l opment of transportation alte rnat ives th a t are consistent with commu nity goa l s and values. GOAL6 T o secure f unding sources ded i cated to t he e n h ancement of mobility within the community Obj ective 6.1 Th is goal f ocuses most i mportantly on the lon g-term financial f easibility of the co mp rehensive mobility network envisioned i n STEP. Towar d s th i s end, the objectives of this goal seek t o secure a f u n d in g sourc e ded i cated to the enhancement of mobility in the community. In a d d ition the ob jectives call for increased local financi a l supp or t f o r transpo rtation service s designed to impr ove mobility f or u nderse rved populations. Finally, the i m po r tance of innovative publidprivate partnersh ips i s h i ghlighted in relation to the fun d ing and imple m e ntati on of an integra t ed countywide mult i -modal transportation system. 28


3.3 SCAT PROFILE Overview The Sarasota County Transportation Authority functionally operates as Transit Services within the Public works Business center of Sarasota County Government. The transit system is informally known as the Sarasota County Area Transit (SCAT) bus system (3). Their mission statement is to provide quality, rei iable, cost effective public transportation services for the benefit of residents and visitors of Sarasota County to ensure personal mobility and enhance their quality of life (4). The total fleet size is 45 buses all of which are wheelchair lift equipped. SCAT operates Monday through Saturday, approximately 6:00am to 7:00pm. T here is also an express bus route in service during morning and evening commuter rush hours Monday thru friday. Complementary para transit service i s provided th rough SCAT+ Plus (formerly, Senior friendship Center) for those who cannot use SCAT buses to make their trips. SCAT route s operate Countywide from Sarasota Bradenton Airport in the north to North Port and Englewood in the south, a distance of 40 miles. Figures 4 and 5 illustrate SCAT 's route in both northern and southern Sarasota County respectively (4). More than 94 percent of Sarasota Coun ty's population is now within 1/2 mile of a SCAT bus route. Organizational Chart There are currently twenty-eight positions avai lable in the transit division of SCAT (5 ) A couple of these positions have require more than one employee like the operation supervisor position which requires seven employees, and the bus operators position which requ ire s seventy-nine employees. Almost all the positions are currently filled with the exception of a few, which include Administrative Assistant II, Equipment Technician and Customer Service Representative positions. The hierarchy flows from the General T ransit Manager to the Administrative Coordinator and t he Administrative Assistant Ill. The division is then broken down into three major parts, namely the transit operations depar tment, finance department, and the equipment operations department. 29


Figure 3: SCAT Route Map (Northern County) ij) --.... -1 ....... ,. )>':':-...... .. ::::::

Figure 4: SCAT Routt Mat> (Southtrn County) --Atten11on: lo -" poinl! (of\ nQI u, .. 11-o> o.uw.lo ....... ,..,.,.. o e f1e to.: T:n"f'O A_,_..l!omlot J>eit1'. SCA l'<.l...WP : \'<1' .t ... ..... lho 'o<, (01 OUO!lS d '-:-bu.;,.,, clay :1:..,) ... kt old:>W nlm<:fe<> 001 fr SC A h olJ.w .. lc, 1o ... .... ..... 1.} 31 LEGEND -=o! c= ::==:al-== =:o.!b:-= .... , ... _.,.,


SCAT Services The following services are currently being offered by SCAT (4): Fixed Route SCAT's fixed route provide s s ervice a long the f ollowing routes. Table 2: SCAT Fixed Route Services 1 Fruitvi lle Road 2 Ar t School 3 Pine Craft 4 Lido 5 Osprey-Swi ft 6 Be n eva 7 Nev.rtown N E P l aza 8 9 Nor th Port 10 No route C urrently Assigned 11 Siesta Key 12 No rth Lockwood 14 Bee R idge 1 5 Airport/ca ttl emen 16 Englew ood 17 T r ail 18 Longboat 19 Pric e BLVD Express The SCAT Express provides service along the express routes nine and sixteen, which runs via Ring l ing Boulevard, Cattlemen Road, 1 -75 a nd jacaranda Boulevard. 32


Sarasota Trolleys The Sarasota trolleys allow customers to e njoy the view of downtown Sarasota, while conveniently and comfortably riding to their destinat ion via one of the SCAT's trolley car reproductions The trolley buses are air-conditioned a nd equipped to transport up to two wheelchair riders T ab l e 3 shows the types of trolleys offered du ri ng the week. bl Ta e 3: Sarasota Trollevs Route Sarasota Tr olleys Monday F riday Downtown loop Saturday Downtown Loop Monday Saturday Scenic Loop V-Route The V-Route is a trad itional fixed-bus, public transpo r tat ion ser v i ce. I t servi ces specified streets throughout Venice I sland from East Tampa Avenue to Publix on U S Business 41 and to jacaranda P laza Monday through Saturday fro m 6:00a m to 6:35pm SCAT-About Th e SCA T -About service i s designed as an alternat i ve to the "V-route and provides service to the enti r e Island of Venice (excep t Caspersen Beach) Monday through Saturday fr o m 6:00am to 7:oopm". Reservations for this service are guaranteed if made at least 24 hours i n advance or prior to 2.00pm the day before a schedu l ed tr i p. SCAT +Plus The SCAT + Plus servi ce is comprised of two prog r ams, namely: Transoortation SCAT + Plus provides specialize d door-t

Fare Policy Tab l e 4 is a summary of the fare policy of SCAT (4). a e are 0 ICY Tbl 4 SCATF PI" ' Provided : . . . Full Fare . . .: ... . . . . Basic Fixed..-oute Bus Fare $0.50 SCAT Express $1.00 VRoute $0.50 SCAT-About $1.00 Sarasota Trolley Main Street $0.2 5 Sarasota Trolley Scenic $1.00 Disabl ed and Senior Citizens F ixedmute Bus Fare $0. 25 Transportation Disadvantaged Bus Fare $2.00 Americans with Disabilities Bus Fare $1.00 Med i caid Monthly Bus Pass $2.00 Monthly Unlimited Use Passport $30.00 20 Ride bus punch card $ 1 0 .00 ADA Bus Pass FREE Discounted monthl y bus passport and 20 ride bus punch cards are also avai labl e for frequent rides who are senior citizens, d isabled or on Medicare. Disco u nted monthly bus passports are $15, while discounted 20 ride bus punch cards are $5. Up to tvvo children age 5 years or younger may ride the bus fr ee with each paying passenger. 34


Performance Measures Table 5 shows the changes i n various performance measures from FY 1999 to FY 2000 (5) Tab l e 5 SCAT T ransit Performance Measures from FY 1999 to FY 2000 General Performance Indicators FY98/99 FY99/2000 Percent Change Service Area Population 272 ,00 278 800 2 .5% Passenger Trips 1,607,504 1,620,586 0 8% Passenger Miles 9,279,654 10, 36 6,340 11.7% Route Miles 394.4 394.4 0.0% Total Opera t in g Expense $4,465,765 $4,966,701 1 1.2% Oper a ting Reven ue $1,162,470 $1, 096,567 EffM:tivoness Measures Veh i cle Miles Per capita 5.94 6.29 6 .1% Passenger Trips per capita 5.9 1 5.81 -1. 6% Average Ag e o f F l eet (years) 5 82 6 82 1 7.2% R e venue Miles Betwee n Acciden t s 167,492 96,184 -42.6% Effirioncy Measures Opera t i ng Expense Per Capita $16.80 $17 .81 8 .5% Oper at ing E.pense Per Passe n ger Trip $2.78 $3 .06 10.3% R evenue Hours Per Employee 1,103 1,206 9 3% 3.4 ISSUES AND TRENDS RELATING TO SCAT Based on the profile, performance measures and extensive communication with staff and management the following issues and trends were identified for SCAT. Increase frequencies on fixedroute system -SCAT i s looking at changing the majority of one-hour frequencies to ha l f a n hour, either system-wide or on the best performing routes. Marketing SCAT is p lanning on expanding and refining marketing to improve image, gai n ridershi p, and widen the potential customer base by targeting various socio-economic grou ps, s u ch as the youth market 35



3.5 E X ISTING A PTS AT SCAT Table 6 shows the extent of deployment of APTS at SCAT. a e x o stmg I T bl 6 E APTSA SCAT APTS Categories Status Det a ils Transit Management Systems Tran sit Operati o ns Softwa r e Operati ona l in Ins talled T rapeze PASS for parat rans i t january 2001 sch edu l i ng. Will be i nstall in g T r apeze I NFO to assist in tr ip plann i ng W i ll install T ra peze FX UTE to assis t i n p roviding i nte rnal managemen t contr ols. Communication Syste ms Operationa l Has 7 voice o nl y t a l k groups (chan n e ls) with County s 800 MgHz radio. It i s a Mororol a Astr o Diital Svstem 3.0 1 MBE. Electronic Far@ Payment System s Magnetic F are Media Not functioning I n st alle d Agent' s F ar ebox in Octob er 2000 Traveler Information Systems N one Transit Intelligent Vehicle Initiative None 3 7


4.0 NEEDS ANALYSES This sect ion contains SCAT APT$ nee ds analyses. Technologies that address SCAT needs and a determination of their proven capabilit ies and interoperability with Sarasota County's ITS Plan and emerging statew id e ITS Architecture were id ent ified. A detailed analyses of the technolog ies needed were assessed based on i nte r v i ews with SCAT personal, agency issues and trends, SCAT goals and objectives, a n d reg i onal ITS arch i tecture. These technologies were ranked and p rioriti zed by SCAT management. 4.1 POTEN TIAL APTS AT SCAT BASED ON INTERVIEWS Interviews with SCAT employees were conducted in October 2001 to determine the areas t hat can benefit from APT$ and what technologies are most highl y desired. SCAT para-transi t staff, maintenance staff and a fixed-route driver were interviewed face-to-face. The following is a summary of need s expressed durin g the interviews (6): )> GPS on buses was called the best thing (we) can ever get' by one employee. l> A staff member complained i t was hard to adhere to schedules because of heavy congestion on so me corridors. A well-des ign ed BSP system m ight correct this problem. )> A staff member expressed an interest in an automated telephone system that helps with dispatch calls and reduces instances of lost calls. l> The maintenance division wanted automation for accountab i lity o f fuel usage A staff membe r stated the inventory systems needed improvemen t. l> One of the more common l y c ite d difficulties among many staff members was with the current fare box system. A state-of-the-art EFP system would solv e t he continuing p roblems with bills and c.oins being stuck in far e boxes. > T he need to announce stops was a complaint by o n e of the staff members. If a driver is either running late or u nab le to make the announcements it increases t he chances they may neglect to do so. This can lead to custo mer confusion and d i ssatisfact ion. A PA system with an annunciator is an APTS solution for this problem. )> An Automated Information System with an i nteract ive web page i s another key requ irement stated by SCAT employees. Such a site would help furth e r customer support and increase the customer base's abi lity to effectively and conveniently utilize the transit system. 38


4.2 NEEDS BASED ON SCAT AGENCY ISSUES Table 7 summarizes SCAT agency needs based on its current issues. Table 7 Technology for SCAT Issues Agency I ssues candidate APTS Techno!OiiY \.Vid e n th e potentia l customer base to various socioReal .. t i me information has the pote ntial to improve economic arouos such as vouth markets transi t service and visibility w i thin the community. Update existi ng commun icat ions Improve exist in g communica t ion system to voice and data. Working with the MPO and FOOT to establish Real-time information with TCP soflware at th e park a n d-ride lots and ride lots would make them more conve nient fOt users. I mplement paratransit serv ice to the fixed CAD software w it h TCP software will help route system passengers make a transfe r to a connectic\g bus and c u rrent schedule adhere nce more rel iab le Establi s h alternative fare payment met h ods A working EFP system with a multi-moda l vo uche r prow am for transportation and a SCAT 'ali-day fare I oass" are octions. Enhance SCAT website P rovide real time information. Establishing a guaranteed ride home program Dynami c ridesharing program would facilitate and increase the use of SCAT. 4.3 NEEDS BASED ON SCAT GOALS SCAT goals along with the technology that ha s the potential to address a particular goal are tabulated below. Table 8 Technologies Based on SCAT Goals Goal Candidate APTS T echnol02v Goal 1: Increase communi ty awareness of T ravele r Information Systems Real-time i nformation tra nspor tat i on alternatives i n relat ion to the stated has t he pot ent i a l to improved tra n sit service and need for a balanced mul t i-modal transportation visib ility within the communi ty. system. Goal 2: Recommend p ublic policies that support a AVUGPS with CAD!rCP and Traveler lnfO

. . . : ., ... : Goal 5: To promote future-oriented transit designs T ransportation Demand Management combine d with coordinated w i th the l oca l enviro n men t lan d uses, EFP Systems -increases customer co nvenience and and surface transporta t i o n systems. reduces the amount of automobile travel on the roadways. Goal 6: To,secu r e funding sources dedicated t o the AVUGPS, CAD/TCP, Traveler Information Systems and EFP Systems Fa dlit a tes and increases the use of enhancement of mob ility w i thin the c ommunity. pu bl i c tra n sportat ion hence inc r easing mobi l i ty. 4.4 FOOT DISTRICT ONE ITS ARCHITECTURE Jaffe Engineering, along with K i m ley-Horn & Associates, I n c de vel oped t he Flor i d a Department of Tr ansp ortation ( FOOT ) Statewide ITS Architectu re based on the Nati o n a l ITS Architecture and t he Flor id a I T S Strateg i c Plan. The arch i tectu re i s defined by districts o n their website, http://www rid a/Default.htm. Each District has its own a rchit ec tur e interc onnect diagram t hat i s based on the needs of the stakeholders and th e local jurisdiction s within t ha t par ti c u l ar re g ion of t h e state. SCAT falls within the j u r isdiction of District One (7). The District One ITS Arch i t ectu r e interconnects m ulti p l e organizations, within its boundaries. These organizations crisscross between c oun t ies, citie s and MPOs. As with many o f the defined state architectures, District One inclu de s ma n y cust omize d market packages. Market p ackages are conside r ed on ITS building bloc ks. The t ra nsit rela ted mar k e t packages prioritized i n t he Dis trict One Architecture are s ummarized below and tab u lated in Table 9: Transit vehicle tracking The transit veh i cle t racking f or Sarasota County (bot h transi t and parat ransit) curre n tl y has transit sched u les a nd fare information accessible f rom web sites. In t he futu re, transit pa s s enge r s will make r equests f or service v i a these web sites. As a resu lt, d is p atc h would need t o be able t o receive and process the reque st t o the transit vehicle.<, which in turn wou ld need to be able t o accep t the i n f ormation. Th i s would req uir e transit veh icl e lo cat i on and schedu le perfor mance info rmat i on R e l ated t o transit vehicle tracking are tran sit traveler informa tion services. These would entail enhancing t he websites to provid e detailed transit in format ion a n d hand l e the requests. T ransi t fixed route operations -These r eq uire in teract ion between traff i c management transi t managemen t and the tra nsit veh i cle and d r iver Th e tec hnologi e s ne eded are traffic information for transit, driver availab i l ity, route assi gnment, veh i cle schedu le perf o rma nce, and d rive r in s tructions. The various areas involved wou ld all need to process and rece ive this informat i on. Demand re s ponse for county paratr a n s i t requires the same types of hardware and info rm ation, with t he diffe r e nce of servicing request s for transi t rathe r than schedules. Tra nsit security and maintenan<:e This cur r ently has little APTS app l ications. Emerg ency notificat i on is present o n transit, however emerge ncy data and acknowledgement is needed by t he 40


county emergency center, as well as SCAT's security. The vehicles also require emergency acknowledgement. In t he field o f maintenance, transit management and personnel requi r e vehicle condition infor mation, maintenance status, and work schedule. T he transit vehicle shou ld be able to trans m i t veh i cl e conditi ons via on-board maintenance. Mult i -m odal coordination In terms o f signa l priority requi re s significant APTS. T ra nsit management needs veh i cle schedule performance, while t he vehicle i tself m ust make the priority request. The traffic control equi p me n t (oper ated by City of Sara.sota ) must then accept the request, followed by traffic manageme n t via the TMC processing and execu ting the r eques t T h e multi modal coordinat i on as it rel a te s to t r an sit sch edu l e coordination is also com pl ex TRMS is c u rrently in p lace in Collier County, LeeTran, inter-city bus services SCAT, and MCAT. To furt her the service options, transi t multi-modal i nformation is needed between Lee Tr an bus high-speed f erry system, Southwest Flori da int e r national airport, SCAT, MCAT, and S arasota/Bradento n in ternationa l airport. b Ta l e 9: ed P ann APTS f s or R CAT i n Kegiona Arc h itecture Type of Market Participating Area Existing Flow Planned/Future Flow Package Transit Vehicle In format io n Servic e Provider Transit and fare Transit info rmation request Trackin g (SCAT) P rivate sector traveler sch edules information services Local agency web s ites T ransit Management (SCAT T ransit and far e Transit info rmatio n request Dispatch: Transit center schedule< Transit vehicle location data tracking and d ispatch) Transi t vehicle schedul e oerformance Transi t Vehi cle (SCAT transi t Transit vehicle location dat a vehicles: On-board trip Tra1'1sit vehicle schedule performance mo nit ori ng) Transit Veh icle Inf ormation Servic e Provider Transi t and fare Transit inf ormation request Tracking (County Pfivare sector travelet sche dules Paratransi t info r mation services Systems) local agency web sites Transit Management (County T ra n s it and fare T ransit informat ion request paratransit systems: Transi t schedules Trans i t vehicle locat ion data center tracking and dispatch) Transit vehi cle schedule pe rforman ce T ransit Vehicle (County Transit vehicle location data pa ratransit vehicles: Transi t vehicle schedule performance board trip mo nitor i ng) Tran s it Rout e Opera tions T r affic Man ageme n t Traf fic i nformation for transit ($CAT ) 41


_ ,:,.: \f.ai1 . . , -. , .. . 1 : ; \S:'' : .,., .. : -. .. _. !,'Y"; : "' : ; '\.::':: _. - """ for . Dispatch: Transit driver availabi l ity Transi t center fixed route Route assignment opera t ion s Transit D rivers Transit Route assignment Trans i t (SCAT transi t '"<"' vehicles : On-board fixed D river instructions Transi t Managemen t (County Transit driver availability Response Transit paratransit systems: Route assi gnmen t Operations Ttansit center Para uanslt (County operati ons Paratransit) .,,,. avai Route assignm ent ;r Management Transit emerg ency data (SCAT ) "' .... . Transit emergency coordination data r T r ansit Managemen t (SCAT .. T ransit emergency data I D i spatch: T ransit center Transit emergency coordi nation data vehicles: ., Emergency acknowl edgement T r ansit (SCAT T ransi t vehicle condit ions Maint e n ance Dispatch: Tra1\Si t garage Maintenance s t a tus (SCAD maintena nce} Transit work schedu l e T r a nsit Maintenance M status Personr1el Transi t schedule (SCAT """" .., veh i cles: Onboa r d Tran s it Management t:>'--"' r Transit vehicle sched ule performance Coordination D ispatch : Transit center Signal Priority (SCAn Transit Vehicl e (SCAT transit " performance veh i cles : On-board transit Local signal p r ior it y request Roadway (City of Sarasota L oca l prior i ty request traffic control equipment a n d Request for right of way S araso t a County traffic contro l equipment: Roadside 3 3 ere,; 7 ner e 7 sa, ft i 3 2 42 nest .. 7 sttcrnE t rtetr 3 I


Type of Marke t Par1icipatlng Area Exi sting R o w T raffic Ma n ageme n t ( City of S arasot a t r a f fi c s ignal c o n rro l s ystem and S arasota C ounty traf f i c s i g n a l control s yS-t e m : TMC mu lti m oda l coo rdina ti on) M u l t i Moda l T rans i t Man a g eme n t (Collier TRMS C oordinati o n -Coun t y d ev i ated fixed ro ut e coord i nation Tran s it Sc hedul e s y s t em: T ra n sit c enter multi Coor dinati o n modal co o r dina t i on) T ra nsit Mana g e m e r1t TRMS (le eT ran fix e d r out e t ra1\Sit co ordinat i o n d i spatch sy s tem: Tra n sit ce n t e r multi m o d a l coo r d i n a t i o n ) Transit Manage m e n t (Inter TRMS city b u s serv i c e : T r ansit coordin a t i o n c ente r m u lti-moda\ coor dinat i on) Multi Mod a l T ransp o r tat i o n Serv i c e Provider ( B uque bus high speed ferry system/ LeeT r a n inter m odal center / Southwest F lorida i n t ernatio n a l a i rport ) T r a n s i t Ma n a g eme n t ( S C A T TRMS d ispa t c h : T r a n s i t ce1Het' c o o rdinati o n multi-modal coordina t ion) Tra n s i t Man ag e m e nt ( M C A T TRMS d ispat c h : T ransit cent er coor d ination multi-moda l coord inati O n ) Multi--mo d a l T ra n spo rtation Servic e Prov i der ( Sar aso t alllr a d enton inte r n a t i o n a l airport) T rans i t Travel e r I n formation Servi ce Provider T ransit and fa r e In formation (local ag e ncy w e b pages) sc h edules (SCAT) Transit Man a g ement (Scat d i spa t c h : T ransit cent er info rmati o n service) lnfOt mation Service Provider ( P r i va t e sec t o r t ravelet i nformat i o n serv i ces } N o t e : F or deta1le d d 1 agra m s of t h e above m a r ke t pa c kages refer t o h ttp ://www.j e l o rida/d i str icts/ D 1/ D l .htm 43 Planned / Futu r e Flo w R equest f o r r i ght of w a y Transi t m u l ti-modal inform ation T ra n s i t m ulti-m o da l infor ma t i o n Tra n sit murti moda l information T r a n s i t multi-mod a l info rmati o n Transi t m u l t i -mod a l informati o n T r a n si t infor m a t i o n requ est T r ansi t a n d f a r e s c h e d u l es T ra nsi t info rmation r eques t Tra n s i t and f a r e sc h ed u l es


4.5 CAN D I DATE NEEDS BASED ON ITS A R C HITECTUR E Table 10 is based on the I T S marke t packages that have been suggested for SCAT. The candidate APTS technology group is suggested based on existing APTS at SCA T an d t h e futur e architecture flows suggested in tab l e 9. , . r II Table 10: APTS for : to . :._11 ; : . :Reason (Future A r ch1tectu!e Fiow)/. . CAT "Q .. ,. .... v .. Informat ion Transit schedules I SCAT T 1 "V" T r a n s it Man ageme n t Vehicle locat ion data Driver availabil ity and ins t ructions Vehicle schedu l e performance Loca l signal ."' Mul ti-moda l information and coordination SCAT I "'' ""'" "'V" > Transi t Management Maintenance status T ransit work schedule eme r gency data Management Emergency coordination data I SCAT Plus T ransi t "b' Route assignment Notes: 1 Real-time i n f orma t ion systems i nclude the following P re-4rlp Informati o n Systems In-terminal a n d Ways i de Inf ormation Systems In-vehicle Information System 2. AV L includes the follow i ng: T r acking uni t in cl udes GPS antenna and cab l e Mobi l e Data Terminal Workstat i ons : s Can a i daie ;APTS Technoiogy Group iluv systems"' Computer upgrade T r ans i t Operations Software CAD and Itinerary planning I Q U V U > Automatic Vehicle Location"' CAD and Itinerary planning sy s tems tt t P r Trans i t ,f(TSP) TSP "' T iming strategies AVL"' l ilY component monitoring E ngine temperature Oi I pressure condi tions On ..1 "'' '-V"""volit AVL121 ""VO systems"' AVlrn T r ansi t Operations Software CAD and Itinerary planning ======= 44 'ttl: '1n 'ora S a sm:it n a


I II Ill : 4.6 PRIORITIZED SUMMARY OF NEEDS Table 1 1 lists the prioritized summary of needs. T he findings from staff int erviews, SCAT goals, SCAT issues and the ITS A r chitecture for the region wer e presented t o SCAT management. Based on the f i ndings, management prioritized the AP T S technol ogies as s hown be low. The ranki n g guidelines for t he tables are as follows: J> 0 Do not want t o r ank at t his time J> 1 -Immedi ate Need (1-2 Y e ars) J> 2 -Short-ter m N eed ( 1 5 Years ) J> 3 -Mid-term Need {5 -10 Years ) )> 4 Long term N eed {1 0-20 Yea rs) T bl a e 11: Proorottz u mmarvo A ec no ogies edS f PTS T h Major APTS Cat egories Rank Comments Trans i t Managemen t Systemsimproves A utomatic Vehicle location (AVL) System-backbone of APTS 1 A utomated Passenge< Counters {APC) -improves transit info. 2 T ransit Oper ations Software-improve operatinR efficiency 1 Fixed route a n d pa r atransit Vehi cle Component Monitorina-imorove operatinl! elliciencv 3 On Board Safety Feature s -increase safety 2 Advanced Communi ca t ion System-improve information 2 Bus S i g n a l PriOfityimproves operaang efficiency 2/3 (conges ted corridors 2; no n-co ngested cor r i dors3 ) Ad vanced Travel e r Information Svstemsincrease reliability Iti nera ry P lanni ng Systems-increase reliability 2 Real time Informat i o n Svstems-increase ridershiJ> 2 Transit Accessibility Syst emsimprove customer conv e nience 3 \+Vebsite improve cuszomer conveni ence 2 CSRIIVRT e l ephone System improve custome r conveni e nce 3 Electronic Fare Pavmen t inJprov e se<:uritv of revenue 1 45


IV v Transportation Demand Managementbetter management 3 Automated Service Coordinat i on 3 Transportation Management Centers 3 Manage oark and ride lots 3 Transit Intelligent Vehicle Initiative-increase safety 3/2 (paratransit 2 fixed-route 3) No tes: Text in italics denotes possibilities by that particular technology. I mmediate Needs (1-2 Years) An Automatic Veh icl e Locati on/Mon i toring Automatic Vehicle L ocation l> Transit Operations Software l> Electronic Fare Payment Systems Short-Term Needs (1 Years) Automated Passenger Counters (APO On-Board Safety Features and an upgrade to the existing communication system are id entified as short -t e rm needs (15 years). An itinerary planning system and an updated Website (prov id ing realtime bus information) a re a lso needed i n the short term. This enables transi t customers to know exactly w hen the vehicle will arrive, even if it i s running beh ind schedule One of the r id er's most frequently cited problems is not knowing when the bus will arr i ve. To help i ncrease safety, Transit lVI for paratransit service is recommended within the next five years. It would also help assist in gathering data to better time the ro utes Bus signa l priority on congested corrido r s is also i dentif i ed as a short term need. 46


The followin g is summary of short-term needs for SCAT: Automat i c Passenger Counte r s O n board Saf ety Components J> Advanced Communication Systems B u s Signal Prior ity J> Itinerary Planning Systems Realtime Informa t ion Systems ;;. Web site Des i gn MidTe r m Needs (5 0 Yea rs) Tr ansit accessibil ity systems are need ed in the mid-te r m (5-10 yea rs). Transi t accessibility systems use techno logy to hel p solve problems of transit access for per sons with sensory and cognit i ve impairments. A vehicle componen t mon i to r i n g ( to gauge engine temperature, oi l pressure cond i tions etc.) system fo r eac h veh i cle is suggested as a mid-te r m need T ransportat ion Demand Manage m ent (TOM) areas of a u tomated ser v ice coord i nation transportation management centers and managed park a n d r i de lot s are also needed withi n the next 5-10 years. Transit l VI techno logies for fixed route b uses are recommended w i thin the next ten year s The f ollowing i s a summary of m id-term needs for SCAT: J;. Vehicle Component Moni toring J;. Transit A cces sibil ity Systems > CSRIIVR T elep h one System > Tran sportat ion Demand Management Au t omated Service Coordination Parki ng Management J> Transit Intelligent Vehicle Initiati ve Long Term Needs As the tec hnol ogies are changing rapidly, the r e are currently no sugges ted l ong-term (beyond 10 yea rs) needs for SCAT. 4 7


5.0 PROFILES OF TECHNOLOGIES 5.1 IMMEDIATE NEED S TEC H NOLOGIES Technolog ies i dentified i n the prev ious section based on SCAT imme d i ate needs are outlined below. This sect ion o utlines t h eir p roven capabil i ties, state-of-the-art, and c h al lenges to SCAT deployment for each of the prioritized technologies. AUTOMAT IC VEHICLE LOCATION SYSTEMS Descriptio n AVL systems are computer-based vehicl e tra c kin g s ystem s that use e l ectronic tags a n d a positioning system-CPS, Sign Post and Odom eter Dead Reckoning, or Combination to monito r vehicle locations in rea lti me. Veh i cle locat ion is de termined by the AVL system and transmitted a t regu l ar i n t erva ls to the transit dispatch cen ter (8). AVL is used f or various purposes ranging from emergency locat i o n of veh i cles, t o fleet management and monitoring, and data collection. They normally come equipped w ith a mobile data term ina l (MDT) for the driver t o communicate with disp at ch and to get d irect f eedback on on-ti m e stdtus. In the case o f paratransit, the mobile d ata t e rmi na l can give a driver his o r h er i tinera ry i ncl u d ing updates, such as cancellations, and same day booked trips. T h e dispatch center usuall y contains one or more s taffed d isp atch stations Each d ispat cher usually has two screens, o n e with a computerized m ap show i ng the current loc ations a nd status of all vehicles in service (covered by th e AVL), and on e which can disp l ay a variety of in f o rmation inclu d i ng communications with other drivers. Recent s tudies in d icate that the r e ar e nearly 75 transit systems i n the U.S and at least six Canadian transit authorities t hat have AVL systems operational, under installation or under planned implementation (8). An au t omated vehicle tracking system i s m a de possible by naviga tio na l technologies such as GPS. The following table summa r i zes the function, benefits a nd disadvantages of the CPS component in an AVL s ystem (8) r r ) s Us are *Ct wtP' na 't'MH-cb 48


Table 12 Overview of AVLJGP S T echnology How it Operates Advantages Disadvantages G l obal )> A network o f sat ellites in orbit )> Can be operated "" Tall buildings, Posit ioni ng transmits signa l s to the anywhere. tree cover System (and ground. Specia l receivers on )> GPS signals can tunne ls, or Differential each vehicle read the s i gnals be received. overpasses GPS) available to them and )> Does nor req u ire block tr i ang u late to determine purchase signals. l ocation. installation, or );. I f the agency expects there to m a i ntenance of be l ong periods between GPS wayside readings sometimes equipment. supp l emented with odometer )> Very accurate readings or even more (especially extensive dead reckoning. differentia l GPS. DGPS) Stat e-o f-the-Art The numbe r of operat i onal systems and t he total number of agencies ope r ating, installi ng, or p lann i ng AVL has increased manyfo ld i n the last ten years !8). In 1991, it was identified that only four transit agenc ies had operational AVL systems in the U n ited States, and onl y n i ne more were installing o r planning AVL systems. By 1999, 61 agencies opera t ed AVL systems, and another 93 were i nstalling or p l anni n g such systems. In addition to the i nc rease in n u mber of impl ementat i ons, there a l so has been a great shift i n th e location techno l ogy used away from signpost and odometer and towards GPS. S ignpos t and odometer systems drop from more t h an 40 percent of the tota l in the early n i neties t o less than ten percent i n 1999. GPS/DGPS systems increase f rom 25-30 percen t to about 70 percent over the same period (8) F urther, g i ven the AVL systems available to t hose agen cies now out to bid, it is l ike l y that a high percentage of the "unknown/ot her will become GPS/DGPS systems. This trend is even more remarkable as GPS wasn' t fully ava i lable until the early 1990s when all of t h e satellites were p l aced into orbit. Challenges to SCAT Deployment There are severa l c h allenges to the procurement of AVL systems !8) li> The first is their cost. Systems cost vaJy substantially, with a med i an of a r ound $8,000 per vehicle. 49


)> Second l y, the customization of software required to successfully operate t he AYL system at each location has been a p robl em and the major cause of implementat ion delays. }> F i nally acceptance of AYL systems by bus drivers and d i spatchers used to the old manner of operations can be d ifficult. Many drivers are hesitant about a system that can track their bus's every move. TRANSIT OPERATIONS SOFTWARE Even t h oug h SCAT is currently deploying some aspects of transit operat i ons software, the following techno l ogies are featured for future consideration (8) Transit operat i ons sof tware applications help transit agencies with: )> Route p l an ning }> Drive r schedul i ng )> Vehicle assi gnments CAD combined w i th some form of AYL is t he mos t popu l ar form of transit operations software. AVUCAD gives trans i t properties real time data capabil i ties in ways that were previous l y impossible such as: }> Moni tor )> S u pe r vise )> Con tro l operations Operations Software for Fixed-Route Bus Operations This is a major component of transit operations software. It involves the use of CAD systems appl i cation on fixed -route bus operations. Transit agencies use t his software for bus ser v i ce and operations planning. Custo mers benefi t from better iti nerary planning and t r ansfer connections. A number of trans i t agenc ies and their vendors have impl emente d or a r e deve l o pi ng modu les that will expan d the capabilities of vehicle l ocation and dispatch syst ems t o provide data for other agency f u ncti ons such p assenger tr ansfer management. Because a large portion o f SCAT passengers use intra-agency transfers, these components would be very usef u l. Technology Descri ption CAD fixed;oute software falls into four primary categories, which are described in detail be low: )> Transfer connection protection software; )> Expert systems for service restoration; )> Itinerary planni ng syst ems; and > applicat i ons 50


Transfer Connection Protection TCP softw a re allows bus operators to i nform onboa rd p assengers whether they will be able to make a tr ansfer to a connecting bus given c ur re n t schedule a d he rence. Th e softw a re reduces dispatchers' workload because connect ion pro tection software r el ies on data ra t h er than voice communicat i on. T he r efore the dispat c hers no l onger have to be d irectly involved in t he transfer dec i sio n -making proces s and rad i o syste m capacity is freed up. Altho ug h connection pro t ection is still rel at ively new and the few real i n s tallations are for a single agency, the next logical s tep appears to be in teragency and inte r m od a l connect i on protecti o n. T h i s wou ld especially be usef ul t o connect t o the Manatee County A r ea Transi t { MCAT J and late a rrivi ng t r ansit buses at SCAT transf er poi nts. Expert Syste ms for Service Restoration E x pert syst ems are com puter p rograms that process h ist orica l operat ing data and b usiness r u les t o assist decisio n -make r s i n address ing operat ing proble ms. Whil e expe r t systems and rela t ed software tools are already i n use in other busi n ess environm e nts, t hey are jus t beginning to be devel oped and deployed in the transit industry. E x pe r t systems fo r SCAT can be used to resolve service dis r uptions i nclud ing: J> Dispatchers' real -world knowledge of bus ope r at i ons; J> Existi ng operating r u le s and procedu res; J> A histor ical data base of responses to service d isrup tions; and J> Realtime bus status in f o rmat ion from an AVUCAD system Itinerary Planning Systems I ti nerary pl anning systems are a n other t r e n d in t r a nsit softw are dev e l opment. The funct ion of an iti nera r y p l an ning system i s t o determine the best way for a transit customer to trave l from an origi n to a d estination. Itine rary plann i n g syst ems are ind ire ctly l i nked to CAD systems because th ey depend on th e same static route schedule data. T he first au t oma t ed iti n e r ar y plann ing systems ran o n mai n fr ame computers. Systems are now designed to r un on networked PC ser ve r s and workstatio n s t hat i ntegrate i t ine r ary planning, GIS, and off-the-shelf database sof tware products. Access to many i ti ner a r y planning systems i s ava ilabl e now on t he In t ernet. These web applicat i o n s have graphical user i n terfaces that allow customers to plan tr ips and tailo r ind i vidual p r eferences themselves. T h e g r aph i cal nature of t he web and t he G I S softwa r e platforms used in i tinerary p la n ning software allow t hese systems t o provide both t ext based d ir ections and detailed maps The maps may show an ove r all transi t i tine rary directi ons fo r makin g k ey transfers, and directions on how t o a ccess t he transit system by walking from their origin. Some of the new itinerary pla n n in g applications integrate the schedules of mult i ple tra nsit agencies, making the program m i ng o f such software extre mely com p le x. Contributing t o the 51


complexity of development i s that different agencies often use different schedul i ng programs. Further, different agencies change t heir schedules at different frequencies {e.g one agency may change its sc h edules every thre e months, while another agency every s i x months). T he next phase in t he development of itinerary plann i ng syst e m appears to be t he incorporat i on of real-t ime information from AVUCAD systems a n d i ncid ent reporting and mana gemen t systems. Service Planning Applica tions Service p l anning app l ications are used to analyze the eff i ciency of fixed-rou t e opera t ion s using da t a f ro m AVLJCAD syst ems. Service planning app l ications can perform the following funct ions: J> Provide an average of running time between time points to determine which route segments are not performing to schedule, by how much, and why; J> calculate measures of headway and run n ing time variab i lity to de term i ne where service and scheduling should be adjusted f or efficiency and as a measure of customer service; J> Develop new performance measures on an as-needed basis; and J> Map the analysis fo r visual eva luati o n based on geographical referencing. A key feature of all CAD systems is th e ir abi lity to manage communications in concer t with MDT, with some processing and co ntrol f u nctions distributed to t he MDT. T h e capabil ity to maximize available radio frequency bandwidth is especially i mportan t considering that SCAT still faces limited wireless capacity. State-of-t he-Art For the las t five years the use of transi t operatio n s software has on increasing ser vice reliability, i mproving customer service, i mproving safet y, and increasing operationa l eff i ciency To a la rge degree agencies are st ill learn i ng how to fully ut i l ize these techno l ogies and their capab ilities. SCA T could use AVlfCAD to monitor on-t ime status of buses and track their actual location. Exception reporti ng, programmed into AV UCAD syst ems, helps streamline this process. Dispatchers are able to more quickly spot operating problems and in i tiate service restoration. However, limi tat ion s still exist i n how effectively dispatchers use these new sources of information. For examp le, even with good i nformation, i t is a d i ff i cu l t task to institute some service re storation strategies that involve more t han a few buses or rou1es. An i mportant advance in CAD is the advent of fixed-rou t e deviation software which allows b uses to deviate up to 3/4 mile away from the standard route This scheduling and d ispatch ing application schedules route-deviation service from pr e-defined patterns to accommoda t e passenger requests. How much a trip can deviate fr om its schedu l e is controlled by slack ru nning t i me added at bus stops and by a defined perimeter of t h e service area. 52


SCAT could find better u s es of AVLJCAD data in expert systems, itinerary planning software, and other systems that can effectively use rea l -time or histor i ca l i nformation about operations. Challenges to SCAT Deployment The technical challenges related to software implementation include: Because SCAT is currently deploying Trapeze transit operations software package, retrofitting future upgrades to Trapeze woul d need to be carefully considered. T he data structures of an AVLJCAO server can be incompatib l e with that of SCAT agency scheduling system. This makes it d i fficult to match the protocols and f ormats of the two systems, a necessary precursor fo r CAD software to use schedu l e data in its adherence calculations ';> SCAT agency schedule files may not contain certain pieces of informat ion that are needed to integrate w i th CAD software This can require SCAT to provide a dditi onal data to allow the software to function correctly T he additi ona l i nformation may concern such data poi nts as the schedu l e details of deadhead tr i ps, pullins, pull-outs, layovers times, or layover points. > Vehi cl e l ocat ion algorithms can be too sensitive. For examp l e, a vehicle might be noted as off. route by merely pulling i nto a cu rbside bus bay to pick up passengers at a valid stop. l> Some agencies have experienced difficu lties in determining schedule adherence a nomalies at terminals that have different arrival and departure locations, and the ends or beginnings of routes. ELECTRONIC fAR E PAYMENT SYSTEMS E ach type of fare payment, e l ectronic o r not, ha s its advantages and disadvantages. Compar iso n of the advantages and disadvantages of magne ti c stripe cards smart cards, as well as other fare media common l y used by transit agencies, i s shown i n the table below (8). Table 13: Fare Media Advantages and Disadvanta2es Advanta2es Disadvanta2es Cash and tokens Cash and tokens )> Simplest form of payment );. Mos t expensive form of payment to process )> Most widely used );. Highly suscept i ble to theft )> Most widely available to );. High exposure to fraud customers )> State-of-the-art cash and token collection equipment is comp lex 53 = ============


Advantages Disa d va n tages Paeer passes and tickets Paeer passes and ticket s : > Inexpensive to purchase stock > Susceptible to f r aud )> Easil y combined w i th othe r )> Labor intensive pay m ent tec h nology, s uch as )> Pre-printed stock needs to be treated l ike a currency mag n e ti c s tripe and o pti ca l coat i ng Magnetic str i ee car d s Magnetic stripe cards )> P r ove n t echnology )> Require comp lex equipment )> Inexpens i ve me d ia )> Mai ntenance i n tensive )> Can be combined with printing )> Susceptible to acci d e n tal erasure )> Support a high numbe r of uses )> Have a large var i ance i n re liabili ty )> More suscept i ble t o f ra u d than smart cards Smart cards Smart cards )> Secure data transfer )> Cost-prohibi ts use for single ride )> Reduces passenger board ing )> Unavailability to lowincome custome r s t i me a nd improves t r ansit sch edule a d herence )> N o physica l con nection r equired for contact less app l ications )> L arger memory capacity )> Can pe r form complex security vali d ation cal cu l ations (mi croprocessor card) )> High r e l iab i l ity )> High r esistance to fraud SCAT is continuously l ooking fo r ways to lower the operat i onal costs o f their f a r e collectio n systems. And also interested in increasing revenue and customer convenience With these goals in m ind, SCAT can cap italize on the increased auto m at ion, security an d data ca pabilities offered by new fare and data technologies tha t can be in t egrated into existing f a r e collection systems The s e systems combi n e f are media, such as magnetic stripe ca r d s o r smar t cards, with e l ectron i c com m u n i cations systems, data proces sing computers, and data storage systems to more eff i ciently collect fares and may a l so i ncrease revenue by increas ing ridership. f wet n: tt? ttsc M ,. o tnt"' Y: 54 tzt'r g'nz 75, , :mrrtp= ttw-' g es:fi


a e 1nanc1a van ReO ecrontc are oa T bl 14 Fi I Ad I f El I F Mecf I ncreased Revenue Decreased Costs )> Shorter and more convenient fare )> Use of electronic fare media decreases payment processes may result in cash/coin handling. Increased ridership. )> cash/coin collected for fare payment )> I ntegration with other mode s or (i. e., at fare box or fare gate) decreased operato r s may enable mor e customer or eliminated. dis c ounts and loyalty s chemes resulting )> Higher value ticket/fare sales in increase ridersh i p and revenue transactions, resulting in fewer tra nsactions l> Increased transaction data permit s l> Automation of fare collection processes equ itabl e distribution of shared decreases labor costs. revenues, and aud i t trai l to prot ect aa.ains t employee theft. l> I n creased customer information permits l> Use of products without mechanical or optimi zation of fares, schedules, and moving parts ( e.g. ticket \Tanspor ts) tr a n sit services. increases equipment reliabil i ty reducing maintenance )> Increased media security decrease s fra ud l e v e ls. Today fare collect ion systems are being updat e d from tradit i onal cash, co in, token, and magn e tically -based syste m s employing labor int e nsive processes and limited data collect ion capabilities, to soph i sticated smar t card based systems. Smart cards have the pote n tial to redu ce costs thr o ugh in creased automation while enhancing c u s tomer convenience. Because of all the adva n tages of a Smart Card, it is st r ongly recommended that SCAT deploy Smart Card techn o logy Because SCAT is i nterested in the ability t o offer inn o vative customer service provision s t o thei r r ide r s s u c h as card balance protection and auto load features, the audit trail created by smart card systems provides this ability to track the valu e of eac h card in t he system. This also permits SCAT to offer bal a n ce protection serv ices to customer s who r egister their cards Balance protection services also r equi r e a card to be reg i stered tying the card number to e ith e r the customer's n ame or to a persona l identificatio n number is sued to the c u s tom e r The flexibility offered by the use of smart card s y s tems, permits opera tor s to more easily impl ement c hange s in fare policy by uploading fare changes and multiple fare structures electron ically to th e system payment and sales devices. Additionall y, this flex i b ility allows operators t o promote 55


different products as well as incen tive s and loyalty d iscounts (fo r instance, 12 rides for 11, free transfers) based upon usage. For transaction processing systems, smart cards offer a benefit over magnetic stripe tickets in t erm s of security, flexibil ity and data capacity, but at a higher cost. For SCAT to m igrate from the current magnetically based system to a smart card system would re q uire a redesign of some of the ir ex ist ing fare payment processes. Some of the changes may include: > Automating certain clearinghouse and sett lement fun ctions to a private sector part ner. )> Overlaying of the new, more expensive technology onto the ex isting fare system without making any of these changes may add costs that may be difficult to offset with anticipated benefits. > The major cost/benefits w ill be realized by taking the opportunity afforded by integrating the advanced techno l ogy to optimize fare payme n t and collection processes. Smart cards, which are much more difficult to counterfeit than paper, coin, or magnetic stri pe tickets, will help r educe incide nts of f r aud Smart card security is achieved by combining the followi ng three basic elements: > Encryption: the transformation of data that is only readable through the use of a secret key; )> Authentication: t he process of ensuring the message received is the message sent; and )> Non-repudiation: guarantees t h at the message sender cannot deny having sent it. In addition to enhanced security, maintenance costs with a smart card system should be less. Especially, since the current magnetic stripe system i s not operating fully and jams f requently. This mai ntenance process is labor intensive and costly to SCAT. The use of contactless smart cards decreases the number of mechan ical and moving pa rts req u ired in the turnstiles, fareboxes and distribution devices. Additionally, eliminating or reducing the use of other system components such as bill acceptors and coin re A fare payment system the infrastructure used to receive value from the fare payment media and/or check the validity of t he media for the current t ra nsi t trip > A fare distribution system the infrastructure used for the distribution of the payment media, as well as the distribution of the value that is loaded onto the fare me d ia )> Clearinghouse and back office processing systems infras tructu re used to capture and process transaction data generated by the fare payment and d ist ribution systems. 56


Within th e last te n years, smart card developers a n d chip manufacturers have developed new card technol ogy and faster chips. Smart card s have different process ing capabilities than trad i tional paym en t syst ems. These capabilities i nclu de: )> Memor y onlysimp l e memory cards sto re limited amounts of d a t a in preprogrammed formats and offer little or n o security. )> Memory with security logic-secur ity l ogic typically uses some form of access code (as large as 64 bytes) to s ecu re card data. )> Memory with microprocessor -mic roproc essor is capable of process ing data, inc reased security, with the ability to implement cryptog raphic algo rit h ms The following are non-e xdusive examples of popu la r smart cards i n use: l> C ontact less card )> Hybr id card l> Dua l interface cards l> MultiApplica tio n cards Contact less Cards Electronic p a ymen t systems employing sm art card technology ha v e two types of communicat i on i n t e r faces. Contact cards require p hysical contact between t he chip on the card and the corresponding c ontact in the card reader. Contactless cards use radio frequency t o communicate with the card reader device and requires no contact between t he card and reade r The reader activates the chip by e lectromag ne tic signa l as t he reader passes the card. The car d can b e passive or active. Passive cards are powered by rad i o fre quency generated from the r eader. An active card i s powered from a battery imbedded in th e card. Hybri d C a r ds W i thin the in dustry the term "hybrid card" is used to define either a card t hat contains both smart card and m agne tic stripe e lements or a card th a t contains two chips, one, which communicates through contact typ e i nte r fac e and one w h ich communicates t hroug h the co nta ctless inter face. Applications using two different interfaces d o not sha r e operating syst e m s or data Since the two inte rfaces do not communicate with each oth e r, a terminal is requ i red to move data f r om one interface to the other, t here by limiting the fl exi bility and use of hybr id car d techno logy. Dua l Interface Card s Dual i nterface card techn ology is sometimes referred to as combi-card" t echno l ogy and provides the physical platform fo r multi-application card systems involving entities with different fun ctiona l r equirements. For exa mple, tr ansit operators prefer contactless cards for fare pa ym e n t transaction speeds unde r 0.3 seconds. financia l ins titutions typically require a contact in t erface that provides the ca p a bility to process complex e ncrypt i on processes associated with fi nancia l applications Dual 57


interface combi

:::: :::: 5.2 SHORT TERM NEEDS Techno l ogies identified in the previous chapter based on SCAT short term needs are outlined below. This section outlines their proven capabilities, state-of-the-art, and cha l lenges t o SCAT deployment for each of the pri o ritized tech nologies. AUTOMATIC PASSENGER COUNTERS As the name suggests, Aut omatic Passenger Counters (APCJ a r e devices for counting passengers automat i cally as they board and as they a light buses at each stop along a route. Studies have suggested equipping 10 percent of the vehicles in the fleet. The bene fits of APCs: 'i> Reduced cost to collect ridership inf ormation 'I> I ncrease in the amount and quality of the information gat he r ed. 'i> Reduce or elimi nate the need for manual checkers. 'i> Around 10 percent of the trips can be sampl ed in a given year whi ch is a much greater number than any agency samples with manual checkers 'i> Automatic equipment i s less likely to miscount passengers at busy stops. History APC systems have been i n operation for about 20 years. APCs re l y on lo cation information to maximize their benef i ts. The first systems came into use when AVL systems were rare, s o nearly all of the o l der systems needed their own location technology: probab l y either s i gnpost and odometer, or dead-reckoning. S i nce computer technology was f a r less advanced all of the first systems used removable med i a and manual downloading. Th ese factors made the pioneering systems relatively expens ive (between $4,000 and $12,000 per vehicle) to buy, install operate, and main tai n both because of the need fo r some form of AVL, and because of the manual downloading required. The older storage media and down loading techn iques a l so were less rel iabl e and mo r e prone t o data loss. Technology D escription APCs typically use one of two counting technologies, either tread le mats or i nfrared beams. Treadle mats, placed on the steps of the bus, register passengers as they step on a mat, and infr ared beams (moun t ed either hor izontally o r vertically) dire<.'ted across the path of boarding and a l ighting passengers, register riders when they break the beam. Typically, two mat s or two beams are put i n succession, so that a boardi n g passenger triggers them in a different order than does an alighting one, allowing the APC to distinguish between boardings and alighti ngs. Other count in g technologies are being developed, such as those employi ng comp u ter imaging. An e l ectronic record is created at each bus stop, typically includ ing the followin g i nformation: 'I> Stop location 'I> Date and t i me of bus stopping 59


:l> Time of doors open ing an d closing l> Number of passengers boarding; and numbe r of passenger s alighti ng These records are grouped by tr i p, an d usually he ld i n storage on the vehicle fo r a time, until t h ey are downloaded to a cen t ral faci lity for fur th er processing and use. Location typ i cally is determined using one of the technologie s desc r ibed i n Section 2.1 Automatic Vehicle Location Systems. Eit her the APC syst em is link ed to an ope r ationa l AVL system employed by the same agency, or the APC sy ste m has its own l ocation equipment. The means of storing A P C data on board the bus varies. Older A P C installat i ons ten d to depend on floppy disks or even cassette tapes. Newer system s make use of the cneaper, faster, and higher capacity compute r memory chips. S imil arly, o ld er APC i nstallations might rely on physically transfer ring the d i s k ette or tape t o transfer the data. Newer systems will e i ther download the data once a day via short-ra n ge microwave link when t he vehicle comes back t o the garage or in real t i me over dedicated radio frequencies. State-of-the-Art An APC system procured now is frequently purchased as an add-en to an AVL system Further, the sto r age media used has mor e ca p acity than it had several years ago, and the down load in g is au tomatic These factors can bring the cost of APCs down to around $1,000 $1, 200 per bus (1 ) Since onl y a subset of t h e veh i cles need to be eq u ipped with APCs, it could cos t as little as $6,000 to equ i p ten percent of the SCAT fixed route flee t, or less th an t he cost of one human counter for a sing l e year the purcnase o f hand-held co unters, and ente.-ing the manually collected data i nto a database These economics make APCs a very attractive option Challenges to SCAT Deployment In the past, the cost of APC units was a deterrent to procurement and ins t allation. With the cost now in the neighborhoOd of $1,000 to $1,200 per bus i f i ncluded in an AVL i n stallation, t his is less of an obstacle. The cost of an APC without an AVL system will be h i ghe r and may s till be an imped i ment. Some agencies perceive that the accuracy of APCs is less t han desired SCAT may not feel they need APCs since r egistering f areboxes will give them r i dership in f ormation. The vast amounts of data APCs produce may exceed SCAT's capabil i ties to use effectively. APCs elimina t e the need for manual checkers, but SCAT rnay not be able to eliminate these posit i ons or reassign the personne l to other duties Some of these i m p edimen t s rernain l egitimate co n cerns Howeve r ind ications are that APCs are more accurate than manual counts. Additionally regi s teri n g fa r eboxes will not provide boardings and al ight ings by stop, information t h at SCAT could use i n their planning and sche d u ling of bus routes. 'ftfrt' M "Nh.. Mt? } !o I ('Q' ttl 'X 0 60


ONBO ARD SAFETY COM P O NENT S The FTA's Safety and Security Program goal is to achieve t h e h i ghest p r act ical level of safety and secur ity fo r all modes of transit. In order to prot ect passengers, employees, r evenues, and p r operty all transit systems are enco uraged to develop and impl ement a proactive system secur ity plan FTA s uppor ts these efforts by developi n g g u ideli nes, best p r actices, p r ov i ding train i ng and by conducting voluntary aud its of i nd i vid u a l agen cies' security p r og r ams (9). Security is a concern for many agen cies a n d bus drivers, because there is littl e protection for the dri ver or his passenger s along the route A g reat featur e of an AVl system is i t s ability to i nco rpor ate a silent ala r m. The d r ive r is prov i ded w i th a switch in a discrete locat i on and needs only to press it if he or s h e i s i n da n ger. Activating the swi t c h init iates a numbe r of activitie s Cent r a l control i s notified v i a the comm u n i cation link t ha t there is an emergency and tha t the police should be called. All communicat i o n s to the bus is cut off, so the assaila n t is not made aware an alarm ha s bee n act ivated Central co n trol can h ear everyth in g occurr ing on t he bus a n d t hi s can fu r ther assess the sit u a tion o r discount it as a false a l arm. Another important componen t of on-board saf ety features is closed circ ui t t e l evis i on (CCTV). S tate o f t he Art If silent ala rms are incl u ded as part of the AV L package, a tran smitte r is activated on the bus, much like i n stole n cars, g r eatly f acili t ati n g the poli ce' s efforts to locate the bus, e s pecially if it is off r oute. T he l atest i n CCTV s i s an integrated digita l video time laps/event r eco r d ing CCTV sy s tem It i s ab l e to monito r up to f our camera s and prov ides a f ourin-{)ne soluti on, which combines i ntell i gen t d igita l video tech n ology with motion det ect i o n mult i p l e x ing with te x t in sertion, plus remot e access so you can view and analyze info rmat ion i n any way o r t ime or loca t ion tha t the transi t agency chooses (12). Fur the r more, p r opr i e t ary image a u then ti cation e n s ures that images ha v e n o t been tampe r ed. Unlik e ana l ogue systems it eliminates the t ime-consuming task o f sear ching v i deotape t o f i nd specific events. Th i s d i gital v i deo can instan tly search t hrough digi tal t ext Also, it has the capabil ity to easily navigate ons creen to select video rep orts and set a l arm co nditi ons, including motion detection and v i deo signa l loss. Challe n ges t o SCAT Deploym e n t The p r imary challenge t o on boar d s a f ety comp onents i s the cost. Also, the commun icati on system should be upgrade d to incl u de vo ice a n d data be f ore the s e are d e pl oyed 61


ADVANCED COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Effective and efficient operation of SCAT rei ies on a system comprised of a good telecommun i cations infrastr ucture and vehicle-based communications technolog ies. The system will be used to transm i t voice and data between vehicles and operations centers, and to transmit commands between operators and technologies (8) T h e Sarasota County 800 Mg H z two-way voice rad i o system used for fl ee t management and vehicle d is patching remains at the heart of SCAT transit operations. I t is a Motorola Astro D ig ital 3.01MBE system, which is designed for voice only. Sarasota County policy is not to inclu de voice and data on the same channel. T he r e are no futur e plans for upgrading the current capacity of the system. Also, different geographic areas within the County have different capacities for example Englewood has no more capacity for add i tional voice channels. In summary, even though the capacity of t he system is there the resources or the technology i s not in place to implement additiona l voi c e or hig h speed data communications. Because there are no immed iat e p la ns on th e horizon for expan s i on of current communication system and because other com m unication technologies are needed for implementing t he new technologies such as the AVL system and short range data link s for traffic signal priority i t is recommended that SCAT get a separate (from the County's 800 MgHz. system) state o f t he art data communicatio n system. Deployment of the s uggested APTS technolog ies i n thi s memo ra ndum is a key, contributing factor to communications capacity constraints at SCAT. The most notable impact com e s from AVL systems because they would regularly transmi t location and sch ed u le status information to dispatch centers. Technical and non-technica l developments in the tel ecommunications industry are creati ng both opportunities and challenges for SCAT. Whereas decisions to deploy the previously described APT S fleet management technologies are more primarily based on benefits and costs to SCAT and its fleet system, other factors exte rna l to th e technologies themselves influence the deployme n t of APTS communications systems and techno l ogies. Four significant factors are: )> The rapid technological advances in communications systems, most specif i cally the trend toward digital transmission; J> The availability of radio spec/mm/freq.ency; )> The Federal Communications Commission's frequency rejanni11g policy; and )> T he availability and use of services Sltpplied by private jinns. Before examining the various APTS communications s ystems available to SCAT, these external factors are. discussed. Following this discussion, the specific APTS communications systems and technologies are addressed. =''H**'"b6S' !JCS:sqg 'd' 62


Rapid T echnolog ical Adva n ces The widely reported trend toward digita l vo i ce and data communications, and away from analog, continues i n all parts of t h e tel ecommun i cat i ons industry, especi ally in the m obile sector. D i gita l wireless communications systems have been p r oven to extract more capacity from existing bandwid t h, includ i ng more effi cient radio channel u t i l iza t ion t hrough mixing of voice and data; to create new ser v ices and prov ide i ncreased funct i onality; to improve privacy and security; and t o reduce radio f requency i nterference. However the advantages of digita l technology have not resul ted in widespread replacement of anal og radio systems commonly used in transit agencies. Often, t r ansit agencies maki n g major communication system upgrades are retaining their anal og technology albeit with mo r e sophisticated equ i pment that sometimes includes a digital messaging component. The Public Safety Wireless Advisory Committee (PSWAC), in its 1996 final report to the F edera l Communications Commission (FCC) and the National Tele c ommun i cations and I nformation Admin i s t rat i on (NT I A), suggested t hat digi tal techno l ogy is essenti al for da t a transmission. Howeve r th i s has not yet proven enough to create wide-scale change in the transit indust ry. Advances in channel access/loading techno l ogies, such as new modulat i on and encoding techniques digi tal and analog compression algorithms multiplexing, and trunking are importan t develop ments that app l y to the entire mobile tel ecommu n ications i nd ustry. Whil e many of these improvements have focused on digita l systems, some have also proven applicable to improving the capacity of ana l og radio syst ems Cellular d i gital packet data (CDPD) has become an importa n t data commun i cations t echnology for t r ansit It i s used fo r transm i tting data on cellu l a r phone frequenc ies using bandwidt h that is not used by voice calls. Som e of the r easons CDPD is so popu l ar for wireless data transmiss i on include: J> Relatively h i gh data transfer rates (of up to 1 9.2 Kbps) can be supported by CDPD; );-I nternet Protocol mu l t i cast (onet o-many) service, mean ing t h at a base station can broadcas t a message to many rec i pients simultaneously; and J> Utilizes 'unused' space on existing cellula r networks CDPD is a lso cost-eff ect i ve for certai n app l ications. Spect r um/F r eque ncy Iss ues The availab ility of radio spectrum for use by transit agencies continues to be a s ig n ificant issue. Adva nces i n signal processi ng and other technolog ies, which make more efficient use o f exist ing frequencies and make the use of ever higher radio frequencies feasible, have not proven to be a suff i cient expansion of the rad i o spectrum The FCC's reliance on allocating availab l e spectrum 63


through c o mpe ti tive auctions makes it d i fficu l t for transit operators and other public agencies to compete f or available b andwid th s The lack of availab l e spectrum is most sever e in dense met ro politan areas. T here are is sues surrounding t he use o f h i gher f re quencies. I n t h e early 1990s t h e FCC began to aggressivel y open up markets for services i n the 800 a n d 900 M Hz bands. Although m any continue to s uccessf ully operate t he ir l ower band rad i o fre q uency systems, s o me transit agencies ha v e moved i n to these higher ban ds for apparently h igher performance. T he l ower r ad i o ba n ds do have certai n c h aracteris tics t h a t are not ide a l in a crowde d rad i o spectrum with increasing demand f o r data trans mission H owever systems based on these f r eque n cies still work, and techno l ogy is improving t h eir pe rfor m ance. Most tran sit systems still use them. An alternative to using ded icated spectrum for transi t communications is t o partic i pate as a partner or customer i n a shared commun i cations system with a public a gency a publ i c safety user, or a comme rcia l cust ome r. Some tra nsit agencies are c h oosing th i s option. Another optio n i s to operate in one of the three un licensed FCC ban ds (that do not requ i re approval fro m the Government). Fr eq uenc y Refarmi ng The F CC's June 19 95 r ules r e quir i ng frequency refarming cou l d have a n umber of effects o n transi t agencies even thou g h th e FCC's rules are being implemented thro ugh equipment man u factu r e r s (and do not app l y d irectly to r adio f requency system operators ). For example, t ransit agencies m i ght need to purchase t echnica lly more com pl ex and p ote ntially mo re expensive ra dio equipment. Exist ing equ ipmen t cou ld become obsole te more quickl y if th e afte rmarket supp l y o f parts an d service was mainly concerned with supporting more modern equipment and systems. Thu s far, however t h e impact of refarm ing on the trans i t indust ry a p pea r s to be m inor a l though tha t does not mean that futur e FCC actions might no t have an impact. O ne solution be i ng empl oyed by severa l t r ansit agencies that cou ld help protect them from refarmi n g is to purchase s oftwar e programmable rad i o equipment when upgrading Since a comp l e t e d i scussion of refarming and its potent i a l i mpact on transi t i s b eyond th e scope o f t his r e port r eaders are referred t o a st u dy that cov e r e d these issues in considerable detail. Data Communication Systems Th e deployment o f an AV L system f or SCAT network woul d result in the need for i ncreased capac ity t o t h e commun i cations systems. Mobi le voice and data communicat ion system s for SCAT woul d need to include t h e use of a nalog, digital, and CD P D. These commu n i cation systems are used f or routine act ivi tie s suc h as talking to d i spatch, a l igning transfers from o n e bus to anoth er or for emergency situat i o n s such as bus breakdowns 64


Technology Description Mobile transit com muni cations s ystems involve the broadcast of information over Radio Frequency (RF) waves from a t r ansmi tter to receiver. The technology a nd methods used to perform th is function, whi ch includes both voice and data transmissions vary widely from trad iti onal two-way rad ios to person a l commun i cat i on system (PCS) dev ices. State-of-the-Art As mentioned above in the description on Rapid Technological Advances, the widely reported tr end toward digita l co mmunication s has not aff ected transit as much as expected In general, transit agencies have been ab l e to address their RF capacity needs by selectiv e l y using the latest generation in tel ecommunications technology and services. Agencies have upgraded their two-way voice systems to increase capaci ty, functionality, and/or in co rp orate data transmission. I n some cases, this has been done working w i th an existing frequency allocation i n a lower band (i.e. less than 800 MHzJ and i n other cases using the 800 and 900 MHz bands. Challenges to SCAT Deployment As the telecommunications industry cont i nues to grow and change ra pidly in both the business and the persona l communications markets, the imp o rtanc e of r obust telecommun ications for transit agencies i ncreases as well. This fast-paced evolution makes it challenging for SCAT to mainta i n, enhance, and plan for their w i reles s com munication needs. Representing such a small shar e of this multi-billion dollar per year industry, transit has not typically had a strong voice in its direction. While many of the emerg ing services could benefit transit, it is unclear whether transit agencies will take adv antag e of them. BUS SIGNAL PRIORITY Bus Signal Priority (SSP) i s a strategy by which a particu la r set of veh icles is given preference at traffic signa l s either anytime they arrive at t h e intersection o r only under certain condit i ons (e.g., on -t ime status, amount of traffic at opposing approaches). Although a transit vehicle does nor warrant the same urgency as emergency vehicles, whi ch always have priority there are benefits to giving a bu s priority at a traffic sign al under the right conditio ns. The overall goal shou ld be max im i zing the number of people per hour t hrough t h e intersection, rather t han maximi zing the number of vehicles Givin g buses preference at traffic s ign als wou l d help achieve t hat goal (8). 65


Techno logy Description To activate BSP for buses, a sig n al (via a sonic or optical pulse) is transmitted from the bus to t he traffic signal controller. Depending upon the phase the traffic signa l is in, the controller will either extend the current green phase or advance the timing of the next green phase. T his allows the bus to pass through the interse<.tion with minimum delay. State-of-the-Art Transit vehicles have been given priority at traffic signals for a l ong time. In th e early systems, th e bus transmitted a request directly to the traffic signal, and pr iority was given. The req uest was e i ther automatic or, in some cases, totally at t h e discret ion of the driver. There was no way to control th e granting of pr iority based on transit concern s such as the vehicle's on-time status or its occupancy leve l withou t relying on the drive r However, if inductive loo p detectors (available since the mid1960s) were pl aced at the intersection, the granting of transit vehicle priority co ul d be modified in respons e to traffic concerns, such as the number of cars waiting at t he othe r approaches. Modern BSP systems take advantage of othe r APTS tech n ologies, such as AVL and CAD. With AVL and CAD, a vehicle's on-time status is easily and quickly determined. Using wireless communications, this re quest can be transmitted directly from vehicle to traffic signal, or f ro m veh icle to dispatch to t raffic oontrol to traffic sig nal. F urther, if real-time APC data are used, then the reques t for priority also could be accepted or rejected based on the number of passengers on the bus Challenges to SCAT Deployment There are challenges to implementin g BSP, which almost always requires cooperation between the transit authority and th e governmental agency i n charge of traffic. This means coordinating two potentially different philosophies, one of which m ight hold to the principle of max i mizing vehicle throug hpu t rather than people throughput. Another issue is whether Or not to grant p ri o rity to an approach ing bus. I f a bus is running early, i t does not make sense to expedite its travel through the in tersection. However, gra n ting priority to every approaching bus would shorte n route trave l times, thereby allowing the agency to cha ng e schedules and perhaps red uce the n u mber s of buses requ ired to provide service. T he c ha llenge is to achieve this reduced runn ing ti me withou t serious l y impacting the f low of other traffic. ADVANCED TRAVELER INFORMAT ION SYSTEMS (A TIS) Traveler informat ion systems fall under the following broad catego ries (8). )> Pre-Trip Transit )> I n Te rmi na l /Wayside Transit Information Systems; and )> I n-Veh i cle Transi t Information Systems. 66


::: Pre-Trip Transit Pre-trip travele r i n f ormation syst ems will help SCAT passengers make deci sions about t he choice of t ransportation mode, route, and departure time b efore they begin their trip. There are four main types of pre-tri p i n fo rm a tion: ")> Gene ral Service lnfo rmatio11 ;;. Itin erary P l ann ing. -,. RealTime I nformation, ")> Mul ti modal T rave l e r I n f ormation. W ith Ge n eral S e r v ice ln f o rm atio11, trave l ers can fi nd route, sched u le, and f are i n f ormation by phoning t h e transit cen ter or by transit maps and schedules l o c ated on veh i cles, by the ways ide, or at transit centers Thi s i s the traditional fo r m of trave l e r i nformation In Itinerary P l a n n i ng t ransit users requ est an iti nera ry based on suc h var i ables as least travel t ime minimal walking distance, lowest cost, l east numbe r o f tra nsf ers, moda l p referenc e (bus or rai l), a n d pa r atransit. It in eraries are g i ven tha t can i ncl ude walki ng directions from the origin to the transit stop, from one stop t o anot h er en rou te and from the fina l transit stop to the final destination This was discussed in de t ai l e d in T ra nsit Operat i ons Software s ection. RealT i me Information is generated by AVL-eq u ipped vehicles and can be acce s s ed b y t rave ler s t hrough k iosks, Web sites, a n d interactive voice re spons e (IVR) telephone systems. T her e are two app r oaches t o p resen ti ng transit user s with real-time information One is to d isplay the actual location of transit vehi cles enr oute The second approach i s to provide t he estimated a r rival ti me for incoming vehicles at a s elected stop or s tat i on. Th i s require s supple mentary software that uses th e c urr ent l o cat i o n of buses t ogether with current traffic conditions to calcula t e t he expected time of a rrival. Multimodal Tr aveler Informati o n S y stems deliver traffic and transit in format ion to the traveler T hese systems combine real -t i me and static data from o ne or more transit services. Agencies hav e developed multi moda l t rav e l e r i n f ormat ion systems to promot e t ra n sit and other commuting alterna tives s uch as car poo l i ng in order to r educe the number of tr i ps by automobile in regions not in compliance with t he air quality requi r ements of the C lean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Som e agencies have deve l oped publ i c-p ri vate part n ershi p s t o p r ov ide traffi c services. Most o f these partn erships are i n urban reg i o n s w h ere transi t controls a sign i ficant share of the commute r trave l er in f ormation market. As with freeway Inte lligent Trans porta tion Systems, the availa b ility of qual ity rea l time informat i on from t h e public secto r drives the collabo r ation with the p r ivate sector i n distributing travel er i n formation 67


Recent improvements to pre-trip transit and multimodal traveler information systems fall into three gener al areas: )> I nteract i ve voice response (IVR) tel ephone information; J> Kiosks J> The Internet (Website De s ign) I nteractive voice response tel ephone information systems allow customers to call a s i ngle p h one number and navigate a menu for needed information. Previously, transit customer service operations relied on agents to provide various types of information ove r the tel ephone For many years, automated telephone information systems assisted agents in answer ing routine quest ions. These new systems eliminate the need for agent involvement in many information requests. This is a micJ.term need for SCAT. Kiosks are being deployed in some locations. T ransportat ion agencies have placed kiosks at public sites to provide transi t information to travelers who might not be aware of transit alternatives Public-private partnerships are being formed to exp lore the commercial viability of kiosk networks. Advertising on the exteriors of kiosks i s one approach. The ea rli est kiosks did not commun icate in real time and sometimes resulted in outdated information. For the siz e of Sarasota County and because of the demographics of SCAT passengers, kiosks are not a cost effective option at this point in time T he Internet offers an alternative to kiosks for SCAT for increasing public awareness of transit services and providing transit informat i on. There are severa l advantages to using the Interne t f or transit information. )> The Internet prov ides a more suitable browsing environment for itinerary p lan ning. J> Second, the Internet is a lso a cost effect i ve alternative to kiosks, which have high capi tal, maintenance, and operating costs. )> Third the Internet p r ovides transit users with information 24 hours a day, seven days a week. In contrast, some kiosks have restr i cted access, such as those located in shopping areas. )> Add i tionally, there are normally o nly a few kiosks available in a transit service area. Challenges to SCAT Deployment I nteractive voioe response systems do not always have good voice recognition. However, there have been recent improvements i n speech recognition technology. Another difficulty i s that some systems incorporate automated distribution features for information that would be too t ime consuming to provide over the telephone In these cases, info rm ation c.1n be sent via fax or e-mail. 68


The Internet i s not always the mos t accessi ble means of providing t r ansit info r mation since many of SCAT passengers might not have access to t h e Internet. In all these cases, d is playing th e real -t ime pos ition of the vehicle en route or e sti mating the time o f vehicle a rrival can be prob lemat i c. First, real-time estimates can be subject to revision. The accu r acy of estimation techniques and th e need for o n go ing calibration will be i mportant issues for SCAT as real -ti m e i n f o rm ation is deployed In-Terminal/Wayside Transit I n formation Syst ems By providing e stimated arr i val ti mes at stops and stations to waiting SCAT passengers, anxiety about w h en or wheth er the vehicle will arrive can be elimi nated Techno logy Descript ion Agencies with AVL systems are able to provide rea ltime i n-terminal or ways i de t ransit i nformation. I n som e cases the system provides what cou ld be con s i dered both pre-tr i p and en;oute in formation. There are several commu n ica tions devices t hat p rov ide t r ave l er in f ormation. T he primary dev ice s for in term in al and ways i de systems are: J> Video monito r s J> Variabl e message s ign s (VMS) Variable message s ig ns may be supplement e d with a udio announcements of the displayed informat ion. The d i splay may include service announcements or advertising. I t is re commended t hat SCAT looks into public -priva te partnerships for offsett i ng t he cost by advertising on the disp lays. Realtime in-terminal and wayside information systems r equire a commu n icatio n s l ink to a centra l com pu ter system that provides the information about upcom ing arr i vals. T he need f o r a powe rfu l and good comm u nications infrastru ctu r e at w idel y distributed l ocat i ons a r e an important economic issu e for SCAT, because it has severa l l arge transit trans fer stations a nd close to 3,000 bus stops. Video M onitors Video monitors are used often where a large amount of i nforma t ion needs to be displayed and w h ere flexibili t y i n using grap h ics, fo nts, and color is needed. A v i deo mon i tor providing real-time arrival updat E.s would be less suited for SCAT hence it is not r ecommended. Challenges to SCAT Deployment T he challe n ge to imple menting v id eo monitors or variable message signs re mains the issue o f getting informat ion to the device. Wirel i ne placement can be dif ficult a n d cosdy. Wireless transm is sion o f in f ormation has not yet proven to be consisten t enough t o hand l e l arger amount s of data. 69


In-Vehicle Transit Information Systems In-vehicle transit in form atio n systems provide useful en route i n f ormation to SCAT passengers about their transit tr i ps As well, t hey comply with the Americans with Disabiliti e s Act (ADA), which req uires that vehicle stops at all train stations and key bus stops be announced. SCAT d river s cited these announceme nts as one of their main challenge. Automated annunciation systems relieve the vehicle operator of t hat respons ibility by an nou ncin g stops, transfer possibilities, and points of interes t automatically based on the vehicle's location, route, and direction of travel. In some ins tances this information is also provided to passengers via variable message signs placed at one or more locations in the bus. Although, pri marily mot ivated by sup port for the disabled it is a lso helpful for those unfamiliar with the route when the bus is crowded, and when it is difficult to see outside the vehicle. Technology Description Automated announcements are made via the bus publ i c address system. Visual messages are prov ided through VMS. Route specific software provides the information to be dispensed The precise information to be announced and displayed at a particu l ar time would be determined by SCAT's AVL system. State-of-the-Art Automated in-vehicle information has been i nst alled by a few agencies. While these information systems need AVL, not all agencies with AVL have i nclud ed them. Of those that h ave more have in stalled annunciators t han have installed VMS. However, incorporating advertising, as some agencies are contemplating, could help to defray the cos t of the i n vehicle systems. Challenges to SCAT Deployment The primar y challenge t o in-vehicle transit information systems is the cost. This has resulted in few transit a gencies deploying these systems. TRANSIT ACCESSIBILITY SYSTEMS This section is also in cluded in portions of the A TIS section detailed above. The costs associated with this section are calculated in the A TIS spreadsheet. Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) specif ies accessibility guidelines for tra nsit vehicles. This section outlines how technology can be used to comply with m i nimum guidelines and requirement s for accessibility standards. F or mobility and accessibility it is reco mmended SCAT prov ide controls (wheel chair ra mps) that are inte r locked with the vehicle brakes, tran s mission. This ensures that the transit vehicle cannot be moved when the accessibility system is engaged. Also the fixed route service of SCAT should be Mi'i , ,:", s#is''b afttr" tbPS'ttn 70


::' ,. equipped with a re<:orded o r digitized human spee<:h messages (annunciators), to announce stops and provide other passenge r information within the vehicle. To make the fixed route service more appealing for passengers with disabilities, all fixed route transit vehicles should have an automatic stop r equest button adjacent to som e seats. Thi s can be used for request ing stops and which alerts the driver that a mobility aid user wishes to d isembark. Such a system should provide a u d i tory and visual indication s that the request has been made. Variable message signs are suggested for destinati on and ro ute signs. The signs should have both auditory and visual capabilities. 5.3 MID-TERM NEEDS T echnologies i den ti fied in the previous ch ap ter based on SCAT mid-term needs are outlined below. This section outl ines their proven c apabilities state-o f-the-art, and challenges to SCAT deployment for each of the priorit ized techn o logies. VEHICLE COMPONENT MONITORING Vehicle component mon itor ing systems assist in the early detect ion of problems with vehicle components (e.g. engine, exhaust system) to avoid component failur e while vehicle is in use. This can be part of the AVL pac kage. The commun ication system, in addition to reporting vehicle location can r eport the condition of the vehicle. Many aspects of vehicle performance and condition are already mon itored and displayed to the driver, and many more are available to a mechanic who needs simply to plug the engine in to a diagnostic computer. These aspects, or some relevant subset, can be measured and reported to th e dispatcher who can remove the transit vehicle from service before it breaks down or at least have a bus ready to replace it. State of the Art In addition to genera l location, the dispatcher also receives i nfo rmation about transit vehicle condition. T he r e are three me<:hanical alarms, which may sound: Low Air (Brakes), Engine Temperature, or Oil Pressure. If any of these alarm s sound, the d i spatc h er knows that there is a problem and can immediately send a rep lac ement bus and a mechanic with information abou t the condition of the bus. This saves time and helps reduce deviations from schedu le. This allows for problems to be addressed before they become serious. Also, this el i minates th e need for gauges that drivers normally monitor. However, the commercial drivers' license re qui res that driver s monitor air pressure. Challenges to SCAT Deployment Cost is the most challenging aspect of imp l ementing security features for SCAT vehicles. 71


TRANSPOR TATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT Tr anspo rtatio n Dema nd Management (TOM) is a term applied to a broad range of strategies that are i ntended to change tr aveler behavior for the purpose of reducing or r eshaping use of the transportation system (8). The paramount objective of TOM str a t e g ies is t o reduce the amount o f automobi l e trave l on the roadways by more efficient l y utilizing existing transportation resources and infrastructu re TOM strategies employ ITS techno l ogies to: > Facilitate and increase the use of publi c transportation, including carpooling, vanpooling, walking, bicycling, and telecommuting > Compress work weeks > Apply congestion pricing programs > Manage parking and apply demand pricing. TOM strategies frequently combine innovative approaches and advanced technologies in order to create a more integrated approach to managing t he various problems withi n a regio nal transpor tation system. T he following TOM strategies utilize I T S technologies: Dynamic R i desharing Also called re al-time rideshar in g, is a form of carpoo l ing that provides r ides for sin g le one-way trips rather than for trips made on a regular basis. Dynamic ridesharing can be either a program organized and run by an officia l agency, or a system informal l y operated by participants. This latter setup is called casual c.arpooling. In organized dynamic ridesharing programs, individua l s su bm i t requests for a r id e to an operations center (SCAD or central database, eithe r by tel ephone e-mail, or direct input to a system residi ng on the Internet. A requ e st may be made for any destination or time of day, but matche s are more l ike l y to be found for trave l in peak periods and in principal commute d i rections Requests for ride matches can be made well i n advance or close to the time when the ride is desired A return tr i p would be a separate trip request and could be matched with a different driver. The database of trips that have been offered by registered drivers is searched by the ride matching software to see i f any match the approximate time and d estination of the trip request. 72


T ec h nology Descr iption The ITS element in d ynamic ridesharing is the automat ion of the trip request matching and arrangemen t process, which allows tr i p s to be arranged on s h ort notice. Th i s can be done b y eithe r t he traveler using the I nternet o r by a custo m e r ser v i ce representat i ve at a t ransi t agen cy call cent er. The t ec h nology invo l ved is r ide s hare software and pos sibl y the Internet. Sta t eof-the-Art The FT A ha s fun ded several ridesharing acti vities. However, concerted e f forts t o devel o p o r ganized p r ograms generally h ave e i ther been te r minated (Bellevue, Wash ingt on; Sacram en t o, California; and Los Angeles, Cal ifornia) or never i mple m e n ted (Ontario, Cali f ornia a n d Houston Texas). Onl y t h e Seattl e Smart Traveler rema ins in existence and only in a lim i ted ma n ner. In c o ntras t t o the low u tilization o f o rganized d ynamic r i deshar ing programs, casual car pooli n g has received heavy u t ilization in two l o c ations I n Oakland, Cal ifornia, whe r e d r ive r s p i c k up passenger s by the roadside in order t o use t h e HOV lane to cross the San Franc i sco-Oakland Bay Bridge i n t o San Francisco, and i n N ort h ern V ir ginia, where d r ivers pick u p passenger s in o r der t o use t h e HOV lane s o n the Shi rley Memoria l H ighway into and out of the Distr ict of Columbia Dai l y users at the two casual carpooling sites ave rage i n the thousands. In 1993, RIDES f or Bay Area Co m muters estimated 8 ,000 d aily casua l carpoolers c rossed the Bay B r idge. C hallenges t o SCAT D eployment There a re man y pote n tia l r easons for low dyn amic r ides haring. Possib l e rea sons inclu d e a lac k o f awa reness o f the programs, a deficiency in the numbe r of driver pa r t i cipan t s an d offered r i des, i nsuff i cien t ince n tives to r i desha re, a con cern abo u t sharing ri des wit h stranger s t he t ime f actor t o rece i ve a matc h l ist and conta ct possi bl e trip provi d ers and, i n m any insta nces, the need to obta i n a match fo r a return trip. Som e r ece n t r i deshare programs t hat have been i ns t alled o n the In t e rn et have t he capability t o overcome the t i me d e l ay f acto r in o bt aining a mat c h list but many of t h e other imp e d i ments descri bed above remain. Also, the lack of HOV lanes i n Sarasot a County an d other p r ior i ties are causes f or the l ac k of fully successful; ridesha r e programs. AUTOMATED SERVICE COORDINATION This can be d efined as multi ple tra nsporta ti o n ope r ators in a region t hat p rovid e coo r dinated servi ce with t h e o f APTS technologies (8). By coo rd inating the service s o f mu lti p l e transpor t ation operato r s in a re g ion the connectivity of public tra n spo rt at i o n s e r v ices can be greatly i mp rove d f or pe rsons who woul d have to travel on m ore than o n e transportatio n agen,y s veh i cles T hi s will produce the o p por tunity for attracti n g more trips t o p ublic transportation. 73


Technology Description Several ITS techno l ogies a r e emp loyed to f acilitate automated s erv ice coordinat ion The mos t prevalent tec hnol ogy applications are: central and remot e scheduling and dispatching; automatic vehicle location; advanced communications (pa rticu larly data communications ); and automated fare payme n t. For exam ple, the coordinating agency may p rovid e scheduli ng and dispat c hing services for other l ocal service prov id er s us i ng an automated scheduling syst em. Likewise, the coordi na t i ng agency ma y outfit loca l service providers' ve hicle s with AVL equipment in order to monitor all vehicles within the region. Further, they may prov i de custome r s with an automated f a r e paymen t d evice that can be used seamlessly o n all reg ion al service prov i ders. State-of-the-Art There are two signif i cant trends in automated ser v ice coordinat ion program d eployment. F irst, mor e agencies are jointly procuring technolog ies in order t o save reso urces. One example of this is the Greater AttleboroTaunton Regional Transit Authority, wh ich i s jointly p ur ch a sing mo bile data terminals with the Cape Cod Regional Tr ansit Authority. Second, there is a growing trend toward implementing service coordination with technology, r ather than d eve lop i ng a coordinated service without techno l ogy and adding it l ater A n example i s t h e L ord Fairfax Planning District in Virginia which i s develop in g a coor d inated service w i th technology. The Virtua l T r ansit Enterprise (VTEJ in South Carolina is another example o f incorpo r at ing tec hnology to facilitate information s haring and service coordination. Challenges to SCAT Deployment ITS technol o gies have the potential to greatly improve the coordination of transit service s i n terms of operat i onal e ffici e ncy and customer service (1 ) However, the r e are several c ha llenges to the i mpl ementation of its to facilitate coo rdinati o n o f s ervice. The challenges are both institutional and tech n ical. T here are two major i nstitutional challenges First, the issue o f coo rdinating service has been discussed v ig orously over the past 25 years. T h ere are many reasons why coordinating s ervice among pub I i c transit agencies and health and human service agencies is a challenge. These reasons i nclude the fact that a large number of these agencies are not highly computeri z ed, a n d s i nce t heir respective scheduling may be done by hand, it is diffi c ult to coordinate service manually The advent of t echnology i s just beginning to facilitate service integration and coordination T he procurement aspect of coordi n ation, where multipl e agencies i n a r egion co ord i na t e to purchase the sam e ITS equipment and s oftware, can be very useful. Not only does this type of coordination r educe the per-unit cost of ITS items (and thus the cost to transit agencies ) but i t ensures that agencies can share infor mation and potent ially coo rd in at e s e rvice much easier than if all involved agencies have different equipment and softwa r e. === = 74 .


Second, due to the typica l size of agencies t hat wish to coordinate, t hey often do not have personnel who have the technical expertise to procure and deploy ITS technologies. Or, if they do have the tec hn ical experti se, they do not have t he time to spend on these activities. This lack of ti me or technical expertise can result in an IT S procurement or deployment taking long er to accomp lish or in ITS not being considered at all. There are two major technical challenges First, while data collection and management is rou tine in large transit agencies, i t i s often a challenge i n smalle r agenc ies that would be coordinating. T his i s often due to minimal labo r and computer resources that are necessar y to collect and manage data. Further, dat a used by automated tools (e.g. GIS) must be constantly updated and maintained, which requires resources that smaller agencies do not often have. Considering that ITS technologies can generate large quantities of data th i s is an impor tant issue. Second, the automation of certain functions within coordinating agencies may improve operations and customer service, bu t the automation o f cert ai n customer service related functions might actually confuse and alienate certain customers. For example, an automated reservations system that requires t he customer to use a touch-tone keypad to enter information may be difficult for an elderly person or someone with specific disabilities to use. TRANSIT INTE L LIGENT VEHICLE INITIATIVE Federal Transit Administration (FT A) r anks safety as t he number one priority goal as approximately eight billion annual passenger trips rely on transit, t hus maki ng the transit lVI program a a i tical component of the FTA's overall agenda 170). A safer vehicle will minim ize accident and inciden t rates, as well as their related costs. FT A is respons i ble for t he transit element of the lVI program and works closely with the ITS j o in t Prog,am Office to define transit lVI research in i tiatives. The current focus of transit lVI is on bus and paratransit vehicles; rail veh icles will b e cons ide re d in the future. The first and highest priority cand i dates for bus lVI applications are crash scenarios that present the greatest severity and ri s k to human lives. U s i ng safety as the guiding f acto r in deciding what lVI teclhnologies should be considered, th e FT A c ommiss ione d a report, FT A lVI Needs Assessment, to dete rmine these needs. The results from thi s resear ch show th at the five most frequent crash types inv o lving a bus in o rd e r are: ;;. Lane changes and merges > Rear end coli isions )> Intersection collisions > B acking up collisions > Buses running into parked cars 75


Altogether, five crash categories comprise approximately 87 percent of crashes involving buses within the United States between 1994 and 1996. Of these crashes, the most frequent type is l ane changes which (36 percent of all crashes); rear end collisions (22 percent); and intersection collisi ons (16 percent). lVI technologies that address these crash types are the highest level priority for thefT A lV I P rogra m The second leve l prior ity for transit lVI technologies are those that help reduce the accidents that carry a medium range of risk and severity. T hey include other crash types such as runni n g into parked cars (9 percent) and back ing up coli isi ons (3 percent). Finally the t ransit lVI platform provides an opportunity f or evaluation of other types of techno logies that improve the eff i ciency of the fleet and prov id e even more leve l s of safety. F or i nstance, these techno logies might include: Tight maneuvering/precise docking: T i ght maneuvering/prec ise docking technologies, using precision contro l and automated guidance technologies, allow the d r i ver to handle the bus mor e effect i vely in close quarters (terminals and tunnels). It a l s o permits safer boarding and alighting. Precision control and auto mat ed guidance: Longitudinal and late ral vehicle contro l for driver assistance on transit buses Obstacle/pedestrian detect i on: Obstacle/pe destrian detection technologies will warn drivers of app r oach i ng activity in sufficient time to avoid an accident. F ully automated overnight maintenance: Automation of bus movements through the service areas in b u s maintenance garages is another potentia l lVI application that is of int erest to transit operators. Technology Description The F TA has identified four transit applicatio n s as immediate areas for lVI investment. T hese four f ocus part i c u larly on the safety of the dri ver (and indirectly both passengers and pedestrians) and the vehicle. Us i ng systems that enable drivers to process information, make better decisions, and operate vehicles more safel y are the strong points of the following four priorities. T ight Maneuver i ng/Precise Docking-T his application positions the bus very precisely re l ative to the curb or loading p la tfor m The driver can maneuver the bus into the loading area and then turn i t over to automation. Sensors continually determine the lat era l d i stance to the curb, front and rear, and the longit u d i na l distance to the end of the bus loading area. The dri ver will be ab l e to ove r ride the system at any time by operating brakes or steering, and will be expected to monitor t h e 76 a '' .,.,p, tr --------


situation and take emergency actio n if necessary (for example, if a pedestrian steps i n front of the bus). When the bus is properly doc ked, it will stop, open the doors and revert to manu al control. Safer boarding and egress fo r the handicapped, the elderly and children, are important considerations in developing these systems. Lane Change and Merge Collision AvoidanceThese systems provide various l evels of suppo rt for detect ing and warning the driver of vehicles and objects in adjacent lanes (e.g., blind spot warning for early implementation). Later systems would introduce capabilities that will pro vide merge advice and/o r warnings of vehicles in adjacent lanes whose posit i on and relat ive velocity make the planned la ne change unsafe. T hose capabilities could i nc l ude speed and steering contro l inte rve nt ion for en h anced collision avoidance. Forward Collision AvoidanceThis featu r e senses the presence and speed of vehicles and objects i n the vehicle's lane of travel and will provide warnings and l im i t ed control of t he vehicle speed (coasting o r downshifting) to minimize risk of collisions with vehicles and objects in f r ont of the equ ipped vehicle. Rear I mpact Collision Mitigation T he two basi c concepts proposed for this application are the following: transit bus-based systems to warn following driver(s) of potential coll ision (e.g., visual warn i ng d isplay on rear of bus); and impact i njury and damage mitig a tion. There are few actual Uni t ed States examples of currently operational lVI projects i n transit. Most of the current work focuses on design ing performance specificat i ons and testing technologies in partnership with transit agencies, private corporation s and loca l univers ities. In 1997 in Houston, Texa s the first operationa l test of lVI was done to te st coli i s i on avo i dance technologies and demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of automate d vehicles for transit. These test and performance specifications projects are related in more detail in t he Application Examples section below. Challenges to SCAT Deployment In a d dition to research on the use of available technologies there are some key non-technical issues current l y under s t udy by o t her U.S. DOT-funded partnerships. The N ationa l Highway Traff i c Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Parsons Brinkerhoff are conducting a review of societa l and institutional factors for lVI (1). The t r ansportat i on commun ity has raised concer n s ove r the impacts of lVI services on society and potential barriers to deployment, inclu ding t he general areas of product l iabi lity a nd the institutional challenges of enhanc ing the roadway infrastructure to better support i ntelligen t ve hicles. T his study will seek to evaluate those deployment issues. A second 77


project that has implications for lVI deployment is a benefits assessment of i n tell igent vehicles that will be conducted at the Volpe N ational Transportation Systems Center i n Cambridge, Massachusetts, spon sored by the NHTSA and the U.S. DOT/Research and Special Programs Administration. This project will work on the development of proper m e thodologies and tools for estimating the effectiveness and potential be ne fits of lVI systems. It is i mportant that any "lessons learned' from these projects be made avai labl e to the transit industry at large. As many prev ious high technology studies have indicated, the transit in dus try is re luc tan t to incorporate untried untested technologies into its basic fleet operation. The very relevant concerns abo u t cost and credibility require t hat transit be as informed as possi ble on all applications that m igh t be useful i n their operations, while best utilizing taxpayer resource s across t h e transportation field. 5.4 COSTS FOR RECOMMENDED PROJECTS Based on the dis<:ussion in the previous section the following technologies are recommended for SCAT. Tables 15 through 22 tabulate costs for immediate, short-term and m i dterm needs of SCAT )> GPS/DGPS AVL System in conjunction with a communication upgrade to voice and data l> Electronic F are P ayment System )> Smart Card Te c hnology l> Automatic Passenger Counters for 10% of the fleet l> On Board Safety Components o Silent Alarms as part of an upgrade to the AVL system o CCTVs (at least one on each bus) )> Bus Signal Priority o For 100 of the busiest intersections l> Advanced Traveler Information Systems o Real time Information Systems through VMS and Annunciators on buses o Itine rary P lanning Systems as an upgrade to T rapeze and tie in with A TIS. o Website )> Vehicle Component Monitoring as part of an upgrade to the AVL system l> Tran sit Accessibility Systems as part of an upgrade to the A TIS system l> IVR -Telephone System as part of an upgrade to the A TIS system w k:r nM d,o s e Sii mnnfw -?? 78


Table 15: Cost for Automatic Vehicle Location System System Descr i ption Capital Investment' O&M Annual Costs'&2 AVL-GPS for Veh i cles $228.00 $18.20 GUI Interface $100.00 $8.00 Software and Integrat ion $880.00 $70.40 Develop Database $8.00 $0.60 Servers' $30.00 $2.40 Testing and Acceptance $8.0 Communicat ion CDPD' $228.00 $148.20 Training' $74.10 -Enginee rin g $342.34 Total $1,824.34 $229.64 Notes 1. All costs are in $Hl00 2. Operating and Mai ntenance costs are 8% of cap i ta l costs 3. Assumes on server and o n e s par e 4. Data communication i nf rastructur e would need to be deployed for AVL implementati on. 5. T raini ng is assumed to be 5% of capi t a l costs 6 Engineer i ng includes design deplo yment and support. ASsumes 22% of capital costs Table 16: Cost for Electron ic Fare Payment System System Descript ion Capital Investment' O&M Annual Costs'02 On-boar d R ide rsh i p Sensor' $29.30 $2.30 On-b oard Fare System $23.40 $1.90 COTS Software $200.00 $16.00 Custo m ize EFP Softwa r e $100.00 $8.00 Develop Database $6.00 $0.60 Hardware a t Center' $54.00 $4.30 Testing and Acceptance $8.0 Communicat ion Hig h CDPD' $87.80 Train ing' $23.47 -Engineering' $108.44 Total $577.89 $122.33 Notes: 1 All cost s are in $1000 2. Operating and Maintenance costs are 8% of capital costs. 3 Dep l oyed on all fixed route flee t 4. Dat a communicatio n infrastructur e is anticipated t o b e in stalled during the AVL system deployment These are just O&M CO$!$. S. Training i$ assumed to be 5% of capita l costs 6 Engineer i ng includes design, deployment and support. ASsumes 22% of capita l costs. 79


Tabl e 17: Cost for Automatic Passenger Counters : ..... . .-, .. O&M Annual cosis1&' ': .. ' On-board APC3 $5.00 $0.40 Software $10.00 $0.80 Develop Database $8.00 $0.60 Hardware at Center' $1.20 $4.30 Testing and Acceptance $5. 0 -Communication low CDPD' $1.30 Traini ng' $1.46 Engineering" $6.75 Total $35.95 $2.84 Notes 1. All costs are in $1000 2. Ope r at ing and Maintenance costs are 8% of capital costs. 3. Dep l oyed o n 10% or fixed ro u te f l eet 4. Data commun i cat ion infrastructure is ant ic ipated to be installed dur in g the AVL wstem deployment. These are just O&M costs. 5. Training i s assumed to be 5% of capita l costs 6. Engineering includes desig n dep loyment and support. Assu mes 22% of capi t al costs. Table 18: Costs for On-board Safety Features ... . . Gipital.lnvestment' : : . : . On-board SafelY Sensor' $9.00 $0.70 On-board CCTV' $225.00 $18.00 COTS Software $100.00 $8.00 Develop Database $8.00 $0.60 Hardware at Faci I ity $4.10 $0.30 Testing and Acceptance $8. 0 -Communication High CDPD' $135.00 $87.80 Training' $24.46 Engineering" $1 1 2.98 Total $602.08 $114.72 Not es: 1. All costs are i n $1000 2 Operat i ng and Main te nance costs a re 8% of capital costs. 3 Deployed on all fixed route f leet. 4. Data communication infrastructure upgrade and O&M costs. 5. Training i s assumed to be 5% o f capital costs 6. Engineer i ng i nclud es design, deployment and support Assumes 22% of capital costs.


Table 19: Cost for Bus Signal Priority System Description Capital Investment O&M Annual Costs&> On-board Processor $29.30 $2.30 Cell-ba sed radio system $14.90 $1 20 Signal Software' $200.00 $16.00 Signal Hardware' $200.00 $16.00 Testing and Acceptanc e $8.0 -Communication Low CDPD' $ 1 1.70 Training' $22.6 1 Enginee r i ng' $104.44 Total $556.54 $43.70 Notes: 1. All costs are in $1000 2. Operating and Maintenance costs are 8% of capital cos t s. 3. Deployed on all fixed route fleet. 4 Assumes at 100 intersections 5. Data comm unicat ion infrastructure is ant icipated to be installed dur i ng other projects These are just O&M cost s. 6. Training is assumed to be 5% of <;apital costs 7. Engineerin g includes desi gn, and support. Assumes 22% of capital costs. 81


Table 20: Cost for Advanced Travele r Info rmation Systems (VMS and Annunciators) : svsiem oeicription : . Capital Inves tment' . . ... .O&M '' . . '., On-board Annunciators' $270 .00 $ 21.60 On-board VMS Small' $90.00 $ 7.2 0 VMS Large (15 in County) $60.00 $4.80 VMS Small (1 00 i n County)' $200.00 $16.00 COTS Software' $200.00 $16.00 Deve l op GUI7 $100.00 $8.00 Custom iz e Software $ 2 00.00 $16.00 Develop D atabase for Vehicles $ 8.00 $0.60 Server s at Main F acility $4 5.00 $3.60 ' Testing and Acce ptan ce $8 .00 Commu nication Hig h CDPD' $228.20 $148.20 Training" $70.45 $325.48 To tal $1,734 .48 $ 1 76.44 N otes: 1. All costs a re in $1000 2 Ope rating and Maintenance costs are 8 % o f capital costs. 3 D eployed on all fixed route fleet. 4. 4-Line D isplay 5 2 -Line Display 6. Data communi cation infrastructure w ould need t o be deployed for A TIS implementation. 7. Training i s assumed t o be 5% of capital costs 8 Engineerin g includes design, deployment and support. Assumes 22% of capital costs. Table 21: Cost for Advanced T r aveler Information System (Website) svstem .oescrip tion . ... : ' : . ... , : : r ,, :..:o&M Animiii Costs'' . Design of Website $10 0 .00 $8.00 Customize Software $100.00 $8.00 Develop Database $8.00 $0.60 Testing and Acceptance $8.0 Training' $10.60 Engi neerin!t $4 9.90 Tota l $265.90 $8.64 Notes: 1. All costs are in $1000 2 Operating and Maintenance cost$ are a1o of capital costs. 3. Training is assumed to be 5% of capital costs 4. Engineerin g i ncludes design, deplo yment and support. Assumes 22% of capital costs. a 51 nest atntt"tt n ?r 'Z' nnttWt 82


Table 22: Cost for Advanced Traveler Informa tion System (IVR) System Description Capital Investment O&M Annual Costs'"' COTS Software $200.00 $16.00 Develop IV R $100.00 $8.00 Develop Database $8.00 $0.60 Testing an d Acceptance $8.0 Tr aining' $15.80 Engineering $73 .00 Total $389.00 $8.64 Notes: 5 All costs are in $1000 6. Operating a nd Maintenance costs are 8% of capita l costs. 7. Tr ain in g is assumed to be 5k o( capita l costs 8. E ngineering in cludes design, deployment a nd suppo rt. Assumes 22% of capital costs. 5.5 CHARACTERISTIC TRANSIT AGENCY COMMENTS For confi dentiality reasons, the transit agency and/or staff have not been mentioned in t his repo rt. The comments s tated in this sect ion were gathered via telephone i n terv i ews. Most transit agency staff have suggested to : :.. Do a compet i tive bid process )> Back load payments )> Language of contract should be carefully worded to indicate all expectations fro m ve ndor l> H uge chunk of payment (20%) a f ter delivery and acceptance. (This language should b e in contract) :.. Terms of acceptance of product should be carefully outlined in contract );. The bids shou ld be evaluated based both o n costs a nd technical expertise l> Tra in i ng s taff before system is ins talled is very import ant r Prepare dispatchers for the new system and get them on-board for expectations for system SAMPLE guEST IONS TO TRANSIT AGENCIES 1. What type of system do you have for your transit d i vision? 2. Did you have any problems with installa tion? 3. How well is the system operating? Do you have any operating problems? 4. What if any are there current p roblem s with the system? 5. What were your installation cos t s ? 6. What are your capital costs? 7. What are your an nu al operating costs? 83


8. What are your annual m aintenance costs? 9 How much staff i s re q u ired to operate t h e system? 10. How i s the support from the vendo r ? AVUCAD Trapeze )> It work ed flawless l y. N o problems. U p a n d runn i n g on tim e )> Trapeze d oesn't handle pa ratra nsit ver y well bu t n o program can really ha n d l e four tra n s fer centers (this t r ansit agency had a system that i ncluded 4 trans f e r centers in a small city with six z ones ). > Historically Trapeze support has been a wea kness. Trapeze insists they have taken steps to correct that. )> I nstalling AVL/GPS Kiosks a nd dedi ca ted telep h o ne system (IVR Mentor Enginee r i ng) installed. Tra peze is going to i n t egra t e the d i fferen t com pon ents into overall syste m. Trapeze is doi ng a lot of cus tom sofnvare for t hi s particu l ar t ra nsi t agency )> Giro (H astus ) and T ra pe z e hav e bulk o f the market share. Hastus )> T r an sit agencies who have Hastus are ver y hap p y with i t. A n ticipate installation probl ems, but su pport is very good. Orbital (Hardware and Softwa re) )> System works well, CPS tracks well. O r b i tal offered partners h i p to d eve lo p with this particular t r ansit agency (since Orbital was just getting into AVL tr ansit) > Get reports when buses are offschedu l e/route. Easy to see. Had some bugs > Communication was a problem. Only have one r adio. One for data one f or voice would be better. When tal king with jus t one, don't have data Proce s s fro m switch i ng frequencies i s weak l ink i n their s y stem. Cou l d b e f i xed with more money. Wouldn't hav e p roblem with two separate ra d i os. )> Oibita l software h as module written by Teler id e. Not same as cur r ent produ c t it i s fir st version by Orbital. Very ha ppy wit h system. > No majo r glrtches. They are l ayering other systems on top. TSP will be installed soon )> P rovi des realtime i nf ormat ion. > Orb ital collects a lo t of da t a. Very h appy with lt. )> O pe rat ing for three years but now i s when benefit is really being see n Data collection is b igg est benef it of system )> Syste m i s i ncomplete. They put out an RFP. O r bital put up best proposa l. They are now beh ind schedu l e o n lmplementa ijon. Wt' & ot &h n nnc't?S neva : 84


l>-Orbital overestimated what they could do in proposal and how fast they could ASAS system: Automatic Sign Announcement System. Used through GPS to identify and call out station stops with audio and visual sign s Approx. $ 1015000 per bus. Requires a lot of up front work to establish routes and stops. Plotting longitude and latitude to program bus route to be announced. That 's the biggest area needed. Need to put route profiles in and stops to be announced. Did this to help ADA community in addition to just passenger information Systems allows visually or hearing imp aired people to obtain information. Helpful to out of town visitors too Hope for more open platforms, more common equipment so it can be expanded easily. Teleride l> Schedu ling in place by T eleride. l> Since first to really install it, there were lots of bugs and changes. l> Installation in 1994. Still have some problems but solutions are implemented. One proble m is bus power fluctuat ion problems to cause equipment to lock up. > "Be caut i ous of Teleride. Conversations he has had not been pleasant. No personal experience thoug h Trimble l> I nstall ed in 1991. Overall positive. Implementation was supposed to take 18 months took 4 1-2 years. But they we re one of the first to do it. Had issues with Trimb l e on transit contro l head (needed to read data messages). Readout was not good Needed to r e-do whic h T rimble d id Generally reliable. > Benefits incl ude on-time performance improveme nt. Improved by 40% i n off-schedule right away. Went to mid 90% on-time. > Response time to security incidents is major improvement. l> Know where bus is for emergencies for silent alarms. l> Parameters are set up, onre operator goes outside parameter, message can be sent to operator to remind t hem to get back on schedu l e T hese functions, once done on street, now more efficient in dispatch center. AUTOMATIC PASSENGER COUNTERS IN APC, t he ha r dware is not as important as software. There are a number of issues with unbalanced loads a nd errors. Counters count operators getting on and off, people carrying babies, peo ple rid i ng through end of loop and so forth Those are issues for software to handle, not hardware. Overhead optical is a newer option. Needs more than one censor to avoid double count. 85


APC vendors measure accuracy by counting the people on and off. If that number is t h e same the system is said to be 100% accurate. However if 100 peop l e boar d and 100 get o f f -yet the system says 10 peopl e got on an d 10 peop l e got off lhat is hardly 1 00% accurate Urban T ransporta tion Associates l> They have used it s i nce 84 System is accurate The infr ared b eams do go out of alignment. Maintenance is important. l> Accuracy i s i n the 9 0th percenti l e. l> System does take a l ong time to process raw data to bring up to usab le form l> Does not have user-friendly software, h owever they haven' t u pgraded since 1995. S i nce t hen there is new software ava i I able. I NIT l> Wan ted bus an d ra i l. Only bid fo r both was fr om I N IT l> Seen some good, some bad. Bad is primarily due to m iscom m unication as a result o f I NIT's base being i n Ge rm any. There is nobody on-site to address issues. l> Accuracy is very impr essive (96% o r better accu r acy rati ngs) but they have done no full blown test. System works but not up and running fully yet Very happy with the way IN IT work s l> I NIT is competitively priced. > They tal ked with LA transit agency that had tested seven different firms. T hey fou nd IN IT t o be best. }> I NIT uses IRIS overhead passive infrared sensor. Super ior to all other types, apart from i n certa i n l ight con d i tions it won't coun t right. Hard to p r e dict errors, but erro r s a r e le s s overall. UTA l> U T A uses side mounted aC1ive infra r ed. This is use ful i n sing l e door buses, but not i n doub l e. Good syst em, but w i th a large load with people stand i ng i n f ront of senso r i n a crush l oad" of the bus it won' t work anymore. Therefore it may be best in small t r ansit areas withou t crowded buses. )> UTA had l owes t price for a "turnkey. They also know requirements for US Some foreignbased vendors do not understand the way U S agenc ies want to use APC. J> T he fluC1uations in powe r on US buses also caused problems for European companies. 86 m ct&ett .. #M w 3 tr' M


Wardrop and Microt ronix i> Wardrop does s oftware. M iaotr onix does ha r dware. They use treadle mats. Thi s system can' t w o r k with low floor bus es because you need steps. In additional, the cost of a dapti ng the w h eelchair lifts is a concern i> Also, you can't t ake th e system out and use on a new bus as it is desig ned for on e bu s and i nstalled Thi s type is rare l y used now. BUS ANNUNCIATORS DR I l> I n addition t o the ta lking bu s : they now have an add-on for AVL. In t erne t based system t hat ca n assimilate t o phones This system i s availab l e to public. U nlike traditi onal A VL, cost l y rad i os a r en t n eeded. Radi os can also hit a bandwidth limi t, b u t th i s system cannot Used in King County System includes ability to set reminders when a b u s is near an d you can follow eac h bus and see arr iva l times online. l> Said they were connected to GPS. Very few maintenance problems Drivers love it, no need to ma k e ADA announcements Works v ery well no proble ms. l> Has been benef i cial. Drive r s a r e not ne ar l y as distracted because of announcemen t compliance virtually 100%. Made their jobs easier. No problems w i th i ns t allat i o n and have opera t ed for seven years with no sig n ificant problems l> B iggest problem i s gening drivers to use the system. Every bus automated, very few drivers use i t because they claim i t s disrupting a n d peopl e don't want to hear it. May be related to size of system as bigger cities m i ght have ha d announcements on buses before but this is a new concept. System i s very reliable few maintenance problems. When used the system does the job ve r y well. Any new buses will have the system b uilt in. i> System i s currently on 585 buses. I t i s ADA com p liant and very effective for visi t o r s O v e rall it is a very system. Have n't had many p roble ms other than main te nance that are most l y m i nor issues. Plan t o a dd to t he rest of t he fleet soon to make all buses ADA com pl iant. In current s ystem, driver s must put rou t e in which f o rces drivers to use t h e system I n beg inning some drivers didn' t want to use but now most use it. B US SIGNAL P RIORITY Opticom );. Opticom equipped 100 b uses Will use 25-30 for the t est. See the outcome and then decide if t hey are going t o ex pand the tec h nology in the f uture. 1 0 i ntersectio n s for the t es t. 3M response h as not been the greatest. 3M was preem pti ng s i gna l s instead of g i ving pr i ority. T est is costi n g $40,000 just for software changes and signal tim ing changes. Inf o System software. l> Und er construction. 1 1 0 i ntersections, both buses a n d emergency vehicle. They just have e m i ners and each i ntersection is programm ed with controlle d software. $2.8 m illi on 87


ant i cipated costs for 110 inte r sections. Approx imately 160 buses will b e equ i pped Local representative in N orthwest is ve ry respo n s ive. Some pro b lems have come up with phase selectors but they have b een ab l e to work i t all out with the help o f 3M. =========== 88 Wt!T t t2 s "nl' 5 's' '-8' m 1tit'fitr


6.0 PEER SYSTEM EXPERIENCES The following example s of peer-system experiences were c h osen based on the need e d APTS tech n o l ogies i n table 1 1. These exam ples are mea n t to g i ve SCAT an idea o f how vario u s APTS techno l ogies are being implemented i n diffe r e n t counties i n t he United States. They were d erived from FTA publ icat i o ns, conversa ti ons with tra nsit agencies and the publicatio n (8). AVL i n C OLT S ( County o f Laka wan n a T ransit Syst em) AVL technology is n o t mere l y limited to l arge agencies. COLTS (County of Lakawanna T ransit System, a 32 b us system location i n Scra n ton, Wilkes-Ba r re), whi c h i s similar i n s i ze to SCAT, has had an Auto T rac CPS-based system in o p e r ation s i nce Octobe r 1994 They r ecent l y impl emented an AVL system desi gned b y AutoTrac, I nc. The "Fieetse r v i ce system include s d iffe r en ti al CPS, next-stop enunciat i on, o nti m e sch edule m onito ri ng, multi ple ma p ping stations cont r olled by a n a r ea network, and a re p lay feat ure. The agency repo rts a sizeable i ncrease in o ntime p erforma n ce; while the enu n ciators h elp w i th ADA co mpli a nce, an d the AVL assists record keep i ng T h e 32vehi cl e system was i nstalled i n only 9 months A VL i n Den ver a nd Baltimore The R egional Transportation Dist rict (RTD) has h a d an ope r ational AVL syste m on all of its 900 buses since the end of 1995 Although RTD is a m u c h la r ger transi t syst em than SCAT, beca use the AVL system can be applied to each bus it can assi st SCAT in the s ame ways on a smaller scale. AVL d atd are used to post rea l -time departur e i n f o r mati on on signs at the two downtown Mall stat i ons. T he s y s tem, which cos t a b o u t $11 million, i nclu des an extensive CAD system. RTD feels that the AVL system g ives them be tt er cont r ol o f the f l eet, while f r ee i ng a number of on-street supervisors fo r ot he r import a n t dutie s Schedu l e adherence has improv ed s i nce t he installation of AVL. Disabled b uses can be lo cated and ser v i ced m uch more quick l y. Also, o n e f ewer p e r s on i s necessary a t t h e downtown Mall s t a ti ons where m any of their routes te r m i na t e The agency also believe s that AVL greatly h e i g htens passenger safety. P olice are now mu c h more w illing an d able t o respo n d to eme r ge n c i e s o n b u s e s beca use the b u s can now be loca t e d to within a few f eet. Pri o r t o the implemen t at ion of AVL it cou ld ta k e a long ti m e to locate the bus if it were off-r o u t e In one s i tuation, AVL greatly assisted R T D and the pol i ce in re-uniti n g a m othe r wit h her child, which she had l eft beh i nd on a bus (8). The Maryl and Transit Admi ni s t ration (MTA) has taken a p hased app r oach to i mplemen ting its AVL system Th e agency has p urchased a D G P S system f r om O r b i tal alon g with a new radio system at an esti mated cost of $15,000 per bus i ncluding the rad i o a n d related ba s e s tat ion equip m e nt. Among t h e agency's 868-vehicle fleet, 380 are AVL-equip p ed. The agency plans to equip the rest of t h e fleet by incl u d i ng AVl on all new vehicles it pu rchases. In December 1 999, the agency was due to accept 65 new AVL -equipped vehicles at a cost of $8 millio n A VL data w ill 9 5 I a ( $-cease nnw s fMK , I 89 ; 0 e : 5 lwetri:zm 2 n 2 , .,.. w 9


be used in a rea l -tim e passenger informat i on system that i s unde r development. Current plans are for pre-trip information to be available ove r the phone (and perhaps la t e r the Internet) and for more limited en route informat i on at ways ide electronic signs. When the system is fully on-line, MTA expects service prov i s i on to be more effi cient by reducing the numbe r o f buses needed, while ma i nta i n ing the curren t level of service Although t hese savings a r e not expected until the fourth to sixt h year of operat i on M T A expects AVL to save $2 to 3 m i llion per year by purchasing, ope r a t ing and ma i ntain i ng fewer vehicles. MTA also expects customers to notice i m proved ser v ice reliabi l ity, whi ch t hey h ope will result in increased r ider ship. Based on these expectations AVL systems not onl y save t ransit agencies money, but could also improve ride r ship, w h ich cou l d be very ben eficial fo r SCAT (8). Rea l -Time Traffic Info rma t i o n i n S an Fran cisco NextBus Information Systems Inc., a San Franci s co Bay area company s t arted thr ee years ago, p r ov ides realt ime traffic info r mat i on to passengers. Utilizi ng N extBus on 20 buses, DART First State (Rehoboth Beach, Delaware) experienced a ridership i nc rease o f abou t 12 percent. The F airfax CU E (City of Fairfax, Vir g i n ia) a lso uses Nex tBus t o prov i de arrival t imes on the I nterne t a n d on e l ectro nic boards at major b u s stops. T he c ity pa i d $13 333 f or a g l obal positi o n ing un i t pe r bus. Based on the success of the system, Arlington County is p r eparing to install the system on a Metrob u s route I n G l enda le, Calif the NextBus system i s used f or detection as part o f a BSP system. S i nce SCAT a l ready has a funct ioning webs i te, this system woul d be convenient for SCAT r i ders as they wou l d be ab l e to access timing inf ormation f rom the website. As can be seen increased passen ger information conven i ence can lead t o increased ridersh ip. A TIS i n Ora n ge Cou n ty, New York City and M i ami T he Califo r n i a DOT (Caltrans) and the FHWA are imp l emen t ing a com p rehens ive trave l er i nformat i on syst em in Orange County, with two main compo n ents: Transi t Probe and Trave l TIP. T he Trans i t P robe pro j ect is a $3 million multi j u risdictional transit demonstration project that will i ntegrate tran s i t and traff i c management with A T I S to benefit transit agency operat ions an d f oster partnersh ips with tra f f i c management agencies It will provide t he p u blic transit r i der wit h real time tran s i t info rmati on fr o m wh i ch better i nformed trave l p lans can be made. Transit P r obe calls for CPS-equipped fixed-rou t e buses travel i ng on their r o utes within Orange County to act as probes and provide highly accurate bus location, speed and t im e data to a central dispatche r. SCAT would be ab l e to implement th i s program by using any buses they have that are already equipped with GPS. Informat i on such as arterial street and freeway traffic flow, incident data and t ransi t i n f ormat i on w ill be der i ved from GPS data. The genera l public will access the info rm atio n via s tr ategically located k iosks thr oughout Orange County This p r ogram will allow SCAT the opportun ity to communicate better with their passengers, by prov idin g t h em with up to date transit info r mation and o n s i te customer service They will also be able to use a tr i p i ti nerary fearur e at the k iosk s to find t h e best transi t route to their d estination (8). 90


TRANSCOM is jointly fun d ed and operated by a consortium of highway and transit agencies thro u ghou t the greater New York City region The consortium p rovides a focal poi nt for the collection, fusi on and distribution o f real t ime traveler i nformat i on. Much of TRA N SCOM's early efforts focused on creat i ng a regiona l system arc hi tecture to p r ovide all the participating agencies with time l y access to important inf orma tion A recent T RANSCOM initiative is t h e Service Area Travele r Informa ti on Network (SATIN ) project. To make traveler in f ormation more accessi ble to the genera l public, 20 informat i on k iosks are being deployed in various public locat ions to p r ovide information on traffic, roadway r out i ng, service areas, t ransit schedules, weathe r eme r gency ser v ices, tou r ism information, and park and r id e cond i tions. Real t ime traffic i nformation i s collected by TRANSCOM from the various operat i ng agencies SATIN k iosks prov ide access t o info r matio n from all the transit agencies in the reg i on relati n g to schedu les, fares and repo rted delays. Gol den Screens Interactive Techno l ogies are prov i d i ng the kios k s and t he information distribu t ion system. The ove r all development cost for t he in i t i al 2Q-kiosk system is roug hly $1.3 milli on, with the cost d i vided between T RANSCOM and Golden Screens under a public private partnership arrangement. Golden Screens p lans to access private sector financing t o expan d the k i osk netvvork, usi n g the initial kiosks to demonstrate the economic v i abil i ty based on advertising revenues Informa t ion displaye d on the kiosk screen includes an advertising ba n ne r a crit i ca l ingredient i n Golden Screen's bus iness case. Ins t allation and one year o f ope r ations a n d maintenance support for each a d d i tiona l kiosk w ill cost between $20,000 and $30,000. Site sel ect i on cr i ter i a include pedest rian t r affic of at least one milli on p e rsons per year. A tr i p itine r ary plann ing capability is in the process of being added. There is a lso inte r est in pre s enting more deta i led real t ime t ransit information, but the indiv i dual t r ansit agencies must deve l op t he capabilities to provide such information to TRANSCOM. Golden Screens is proposi n g t o use the Inter n et f or present in g transi t informat i on. Tri-Rail ope rates 28 trips a day over a 72-mile corr id o r f rom Palm Beach to Miami, with 18 stations. Tri-Rai l also operates shuttle buses for feeder service to and f r o m several stat ions. Since the trips are r e l atively i nfrequent (rough l y one p e r hour i n each direction), many transi t users arriving at the station alr eady know the scheduled arriva l t ime of the tra i n they are p la nning to take. The diffi culty for T r i-Rail is that it operates on on l y a single t r ack shared with both Amtrak and fre i ght services. TriRail trains are sometimes shunted to a siding, d i srupt i ng the scheduled arr i val times. Tri Rail impleme n ted the T rainTrac trai n /bus ope r at i on track i ng and passenger information system during 1997 to provide t r ansit users w i th station arrival times. Tra i nTrac was deve l oped by Geofocus an d prov ides on-tra i n and in bus computers using CPS receivers to monitor location and speed. Trai n T rac freque ntly sends th i s i nformat i on to the centra l dispatc h syst em using 900 MHz radio f requency communications. Tra i nTrac uses the Environmental Syst e m s Research Insti t ute, Inc. (ESRI) GIS p l atform t o estimate station ar r ival times. Transit use r s access this in f ormation before they arr i ve at t he station by calling a toll f ree num b e r Customer service agents use the CIS-based app l ication to address questions An Interactive Voi ce Response (IVR) system addresses the more S)att tc 'tfWtnn'Cr ; ........ 91 H R'-nn?' us 9 ,..,. == $' , .:;..


routine que s tions a b ou t tra i n o r b u s arriva l t i m e s t atus. Transit user s at the station view train arriva l informat i on on electro nic message board s ( l igh t e m i tti ng d iode d isplays with fully var i able cha r acte rs) i nstalled o n st a t i o n p l atfo r ms Message boa rds disp l ay scroll i ng text messages (w i th an accompany i ng mul tili ngua l audi o vers i o n ) i n d i cati ng t h e est imate d a rr ival t ime f or t h e next train i nte rspersed with p u b lic inf ormation Futur e p lans i n clude n ew d i stribution channels and a Web s i te ve r s i on T here is a l s o t he p o t e nt i a l for d istr i b uti n g t h e me ssage b oard display s t h r ough an a l pha n umeric pager ser vice Thi s system i s a great way f o r passengers, especiall y th e v i s ually i mpaire d passengers, to access transit arriva l in f or m atio n It can be especiall y beneficial in th e tra nsportat i on-d isadvantaged d i vision of SCAT (8) APC's in St L ou is, LA County and Oreg o n APC i s c u rrently a shor t -t e rm need for SCAT It ofte n comes packaged in w i th s ome o t her large r AVL systems, so a s eparate ven d or may n o t b e neede d I n t e rm s o f APC t echno l ogy, I NIT i s a frequently used ven dor, although its European base of operati o n s causes s o m e pr oblems. T h e B iStat e Deve lopm ent Age ncy (BSD A) of St. Louis, MO acqu ired APC f o r n i n e buses, one r ail. Accuracy i s very i m pr e s s i ve 96% o r bette r accuracy rat ings in in i tia l test ing L A County Metr o Transit Autho rity tested a var i ety o f systems and found I NIT to be the most r e li able, whil e also being c ompetitively p riced I NIT u s e s I R I S over head passiv e i n frared sensor Superi or t o all o ther typ e s apar t f r om i n cer t ain light condit i o n s it won' t cou nt r i ght. Hard to p redict error s bu t errors a r e less ove r all. U TA the one US-based vendor u s e s s ide mounted act i ve infr a red. Thi s is u s eful in sin gle d oor b u s es, but not i n double. Good system but with a large load wit h p e op l e stand i ng in f ron t of sensor i n a "cr u s h load' o f the bus, i t won t w ork as effect i vely. U TA had l owe st pr ice for a turn k ey system. M icrot r on i x a lso does APC hard wa r e T hey use tread l e m a t s that can't w ork with l o w floor b uses because you need steps. In additio n al, th e cost of adapting t he wheelch air lifts i s a concern. A lso, you can t ta ke the system ou t a n d use on a n ew bus a s it is d esigned f o r o ne bus a n d i nstalled. In APC, the ha r dware i s no t a s i m p o rtan t a s software T her e are a num ber o f issues with unba l anced loads and erro rs. Counters c oun t ope r ators getting o n a n d off, peo p le c arry i ng bab i e s people ridi ng t h rough end of loop a n d so fo r th. Those are issues f o r sof tware to h a nd l e not h a rdwa re. Wardrop, a w id ely used softwa r e ven do r, is currently un dergoin g a d emo n stration project with the LAMTA. Lane Tran sit D i str ict (LT D ) i n E ugene Orego n h a s been oper a t ing an MVT Automatic Passenger Count in g system since 1 989. T h e o n-boar d APC equipment uses tread l e swi t c hes. U nde r t h e contract awarded in November 1997 MVT wi ll s u p pl y new equip m e n t and upgrad e s for recently 92


acquired buses. This system upgrade will eventually expand the numbe r of APC-equipped buses to 22. A CUTR study of 1998 revealed approximately 93 percent of the transit systems w i th Aile experience a r e satisfied with the system's overall reliability and passenger information. A vast majority achieved accuracy l evels of 90 per cent and above, regardless of the APC counting techno log y employed. APCs in Portland Tri-Met's system became operational in 1982 and cost $4,500 per APC. location was determined by combining time with knowledge of schedule and layover points. Plans call fo r expanding the number of APCs to 20 percent of the fleet (cur r en tl y on 80 of Tri-Met's 635 buses). Today, the new counters a r e much cheaper, costing only about $1,000 per bus. T he APC system has been I inked to Tri-Met's AVL system, which pr ov ides more accurate location information than did the old method. Finally, t h ere also have been advances in retrieving the data from the bus. Now, they are transmitted along with the A VI. data over the reserved radio frequencies, although the data are still not used in real t i me For m erly, data was retrieved by special units, which collected the data automatically from each APCequipped bus via an infrared link when the bus returned to the garage. Tri-Met states that the APCs provide easier and quicke r access to passenger data and are less expensive than manual counting. Although APC i s not an immediate need for SCAT, it is very useful in providing transit information, also with improved techno l ogy, and reduced costs it is now easily accessible to transit agencies (8). Traffic Signal Prioritization in Montgomery County and Seattle Traffic signal priority treatment fo r Ride-O n buses is a key transit component of the Montgomery County, Maryland TMC. The Ride-On transi t system includes 3,000 miles of roadways and 200 miles of critica l traffic links. Unlike some signal priority schemes that involve direct communications between a bus' MDT and the traffic controller, the Montgomery County TMC receives location and on-time status information from vehicles, processes it and s ends d i rections to the signal controller that : 1 ) priority is not necessary because the signa l is already in or about to c h ange to a green phase; 21 grant priority by extending the green phase, or; 3) deny priority based on a combination of signal phasing, ve hicl e schedule adherence, impact on traffic in the vicinity or known spec i al events. The TMC has the capability to deny all priority requests based on traffic incid ents such as specia l events, weather conditions, etc When implemented, the County is considering integra t ing APC data into the signal priority algori thm so that an extended green cycle would only be granted if the transit vehicle were carrying a mini mum load. The Wash i ngton State DOT uses King County Metro's AVL data to implement traffic signal priority treatment. In addition to using bus location information to help determ i ne when to g r ant priority,


: : : the agency uses the buses as probes to determine t he effect of priority on traffic flow. Because the signal priority a rr a ngem ent is so new, the agency is planning to hire a staff person to coordinate with l ocal transit service providers to deve l op protocols, procedures and standards for signal prior i ty. A primary concern of the Washington State DOT is the impact signal priority m i ght have o n the regular traffic flow (8). CAD Systems in Milwaukee T he Mil waukee Department o f Public Works' Tran sit D ivi s i on has been operating a CAD system s i nce 1992, when it began ins tallation of a GPS AVL system on its entire vehicle f l eet of buses and service vehicles. The CAD software performs schedule adherence, route adherence, manual schedule rest oration and covert emergency messaging/microphone activation. This would be very use fu l in SCAT paratransit division because it would make sending messages in cases of e m ergency easier. A significant improv ement i n the system's original capabilities was a softwa re upgrade that i ncl uded route termini as time points, and allowing the CAD system and dispatchers to mo n itor layovers and departures. The schedule adherence component signals both dri vers and dispatchers when a b u s is runn ing two minutes ahead or three minutes behind schedule. In the majority of instances, the i nformation provided on the transit control head is sufficient to get the driver back on schedu l e (8). Tran sfer Connection Protection in Chicago I n janua ry 1999, the Regional Tr ansportation Authority (RTA) began Phase I of a study to d e fin e functional requ irem ents and s pecificat ions for a transfe r connection protection system for all Chicago r egiona l transit providers Participating agencies include the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA -city tra nsit bus and rail), Pace ( s ubur b an transit bus), Metra (commuter rail) and the Ill inois Department of Transportation. The CTA and Pace are investigat ing transfer connection protection systems as compo nents of their transit management systems. The RTA would like to determi ne the feasibi lity of using these developments as the f oundation for creating i nter-agency protection of transfer connections, including the Metra commuter rail ser v i ce The potential benefits of the R T A's transfer connection protection project i nclude reducing transfer wait time for riders and imp r oving t he consistency of inte r -car rier co nnection s The actual implementation of transfer connection protection by R T A is contingent upon implementation of AVL and necessary support systems at CT A, Pace and Metra (8). GIS in P ortland and Corpus Chris t i An extensive survey and data collection program was rec ently undertaken in the Portland metropolitan district to obtain source data for a sophisticated travel demand modeling effort. By app l ying demographic data to a GIS representation of the land, residences and exi sting transportation systems, the Portland, O r egon Metropolitan Service District (Metro) is better ab l e to recommend and he l p coo rdinate lan d use and transpo r tation p l anning 94


A very specialized form of GIS is being evaluated i n Corpus Christi, Texas for scheduling paratransi t pick-ups. This system, called Autonomous Dial A-Ride Transit (ADART), is not what one usually thinks of as GIS because there i s no visible map from which a user makes decisions. In this case, the map is internal and the compute r system its elf makes the decisions. With t he assistance of GIS, the network of computers in the vehicles selects the veh icle that can most efficiently hand le each trip reque s t and displays driving directions to each pick-up locatio n to the selected vehicle's operato r. This system can be applied to SCAT's paratransit division It would increase efficiency, since the computer will make decisions based on individual tr i p-requests (8). Smart Card Fare Integrati on in Seattle and San Francisco Seattle's Central Puget Sound Regional Fare Coordination Project's contract was awarded i n February 2000. It is estimated that approximately 500,000 to 1 million commuters (out of 1 5 million ) will use the planned dual in terface cards on buses, electric trolleys, commuter rail trains and ferry ter mina l s at full deployment. T he betat est is scheduled for m id-200 1 and full system deployment is scheduled for early 2002. The scope of the proj ect is based upon corporate and university campus programs participating. Planned deployment includes 2,300 card readers (fare transacti o n processors), 40 automatic re-value kiosks and 22 customer service termina ls. The contractor will be respo nsib le for providing additiona l card re-value me thods under a H}year service contract. San Francisco's Translink Project is in the demonstration phase Phase I includes the issue of 20,000 cards. Full use o f approximately 750,000 cards was expected in October 2001. T ranslink has the potential to a ffect 1.5 million transit users in the Bay Area that utilize multiple modes i nclud i ng buses, light rail vehicles the Bay Area Rapid Tra nsit (BART) metro system, commute.r rail a n d some ferries. The plan is t o eventually deploy 550 add-value machines and 4,000 proximity card readers, and to have 400 point-of-sale locations, 50 operator pass sales offices and 500 handheld card readers for fare i nspect i on. The current plan is to utilize the dual -interface card technology (8). TMCs in Houston and Phoenix TMC's for SCAT use are recommended to be operational within five to ten years. Although t he application of TMC in Huston was done on a large scale, they can also b e applied successfully on a smaller scale. Houston TranStar is a joint project of the City of Houston, the Metropolitan Transit Authority of Har r is County, the Texas Department of Transportation and Harris County. These agencies recognized the importanoe of develop i ng a multi-mo dal, cross-jurisdictional facility to effectively manage growing traffic congestion i n this rapidly expanding regio n Operated out of a 52,000 square-foot facility that was officially opened in Apri I 1996, TranStar was designed to i ntegrate all of the metropolitan Houston's transporta tion-related agencies at a single site. TranStar is responsible for the planning, design, operations and maintenance of transportation operations 95 tN 2 a tp dS$M'b)@=$'t#W't'S$


and emergency manage ment operations within the Greater Houston Area. The service area encompasses 5,436 square miles with a population of four million Metro b us dispatchers and Metro police use their fleet management consoles alongside the traffic operations staff. Th is setup provides Metro staff with direct visual access to the wall-mounted d isplays mapp in g traffic speeds and incidents, and moni t o r s showing closed-circuit television feeds from 90 l ocations. Metro staff i s able to use this real -t ime information to assist in managing its fleet, in add ition to using data from the future AVL system i t i s plann ing. T his breadth of in format ion is augmented by the ability to communicate directly with traffi c operations staff. TranStar staff anticipates t hat having Metro dispatchers relay in c ident r epo rt s from bus drivers throughout the transit service area, adding over 1 ,000 human sensors to the traffic surveilla nce system, will enhance overall i ncident detection. Incident response affecting all modes of transportation should be improved i n the process. TranStar collects its t raffic cond i tion data primarily via tag reader s mounted along freeways t hat pick up signals fro m the approximately 200,000 e lectronic tag-equip p ed vehicles ( the tags are typically installed i n v eh i cles for use at a number of automatic toll facilities t hroughout the area). As part of the USOOT PriO

communications The system will i n creasi ngly prov i de deta i l ed tra ffic data on arte rial streets on w h ich publ i c transit operates. The RCRS network w ill provide P h oen i x Transit w i th mor e close d circuit television (CCTV) camera images for use i n mon i tor ing spec i fic i n cide nts. It is als o des i gne d to distribute in formation a bout i n cidents/acc idents, road closures, lan e restrict ions and road maintenance (8) Automated Ridematching in Redmond/Seattle The Greater Redmond T ran sportat i o n Management Assoc iati on (GRTMA) has instituted an automated ridematching service for carpools and vanpools o n the I nternet that can also be used b y i ndividuals seeki ng a sing l e ride. I t is an em pl oyer and map-based system Anyone in King, Snohomish, P ier ce, Kitsap and Island coun ties can register for the Indiv i dua ls r e g ister themselves, p roviding an e-mail address, password and t heir home address or a n earby intersection. A map appea r s with the location i ndicated f or verif i cati on by the reg i strant. The registrant s trip schedu l e is entered and the user has the ability t o indicate preferences such as whether they wis h t o drive or ride, r ide with smoker s or non -smokers or ride with employees of specific companies (on l y for em ployees of GRTMA member companies) A ma p showing the requestor's location and the location of pot e n tia l matches are displayed on the screen together with their names and methods of con t acting them. E-mails can be automatically sent t o any of th e persons on the l ist. Individuals can c ha nge their information at any time o r r emove themselves from the syst em i f they have found s atisfactory ridesharing arra n gements, moved, changed j o bs, etc. E very three mon ths, e-mails are automa ti cally sent to all regis trants asking for their con tinued interest in part i cipat i on Nonresponde nts are automatically removed a l ong with those r esponding i n the negati ve. The system was essenti ally designed by t he e n d user s (compa n y e mployees) who i ndicated t he features they wan ted in a rideshare pr ogram. Map Objects i s t h e GIS. T h e database is accessed by SQL Server. Cost to date has been $278 000. GRTMA own s t h e system and has l icens ed Puget Sound Systems Group to sell the system to other agencies. It i s ant i cipated that the purchase pri ce will be about $50,000 to $100,000. With the syst em residing on the Internet, the GRTMA has no involvement in day-to-day operations and v ir tually no system mai n tenance is required. A GRTMA staff person spends a small amount of tim e mon itori n g th e Web site. The hos t computer (a PC serve r with a W i ndows N T operating system) is located at City of Red mond o ffices. GRTMA gets a system-generated report on utiliz ation once a week. GRTMA is looking to add feature s such as bus schedules and fares (8). : f a 1 t en ... nfn:t nSt, sen ''MJEdb-FJ s! 97 =======

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7.0 APTS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SCAT Based on the review of te chno logies and an assessment of challenges to SCAT deployment the following technologies are recommended for SCAT: Immediate Needs (1-2 Years) )> GPS/DGPS AVL System l> Communication upgrade to voice and data in conjunct i on with the AVL System l> Electronic Fare Payment System l> Smart Card Technology Short-term Needs (1 Years) l> Automatic Passenger Counters for 1 0% of the fleet )> On Board Safety Components o Silent Alarms as part of an upgrade to t he AVL system o CCTVs (at le ast on e on each bus) )> Bus Signal Priority o For 100 of t he busiest intersections )> Advanced Traveler Information Systems o Real time I n formation Systems through VMS and Annuncia tors on buses o Itinerary P la nning Systems as an upgrade to Trapeze and tie in with A TIS. o Website )> Another communication system upgrade with A TIS and Safety Components project. Mid-term Needs (5-10 Years}: )> Vehicle Component Monitoring as part of an upgrade to the AVL system l> Transit Accessibi lity Systems as part of an upgr ade to the A TIS system )> IVR Te lepho ne System as part of an upgrade to t he A TIS system Even though the following tech nologies were outlined as possibilities in the Needs Assessment Memorandum, t hey are not recommended for deployment by SCAT. Transportation Demand Management technologies require multiple agency coordination and agreements with many service providers. Because of the i ntricate nature of deploying both TOM and Transit lVI techno logies Countywide, and because of the current ridership trends, the following technologies might not be a cost effective option fo r SCAT to implement. ======= 98

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l> Transportat i o n Demand Management o Automated Service Coordination o Parki n g Management l> T ransit Intell igent Vehicle Ini t iative Costs and staffing requ irement s wer e calculated for immediate and short t e r m needs projeas o n ly Since technol ogy is changing rapid l y and costs fluauate grea t ly, planning level cos ts for m id term needs will not accur a tely reflea what the s ituation m i gh t be t e n years from today. Table 23 summarizes costs for immed i ate and short-term needs p r o jects. Fo r detailed costs s p readshee t refer to Appendix A. Tabl e 23: Su mmar y o f Costs Techn o lo2V Capital I n vestment' I O&M A nnual Co sts' Imm e dia t e Needs AVL Svstem $ 1 ,824.34 $229.60 EFP Svstem $577.89 $122.33 Staffing' $380.00 Total 2,402.23 $731 .97 Shortlerm Needs APCs $35.95 $2.84 O nboard Safetv Fea t ures $602.08 $11 4.72 Bus Signa l P r io r itv $556.54 $ 4 3 .70 A TIS VMS and A nnuncia tors $ 1,734.48 $176.44 A TIS Website $265.90 $8.64 A TIS IVR $389.00 $8.64 Staffina' $640.00 Total $3,583.9 5 $994.98 Not es : 1. All costs are i n $Hl00 2. Recommen ded one manager a t S 120,000/year (loaded r ate), one assistant at $80,000/yea r ( l oaded r ate), one electro !lie r epair tec h nician at $50,000/ year {loaded rate), one d ispatcher wit h strong computer skiUs a t $50,000/year (loaded rate! and one plan n er to a n a l yze data at $80 000/year ( l oade d rate) for the SCAT Transit ITS Program. 3 Recommended one man age r at $120,000/year ( l oaded rate), two assistants at $80,000/yea r (loaded r ate), 1.\vo e l ectro nic repa ir tec hni c i ans at $50,000/yea r ( l oaded rate}, two dispatc h ers w i t h strong computer skills a t $50,000/ye a r ( l oaded r ate) a n d two planners to analy2e data at $80,000/year ( loaded r ate ) for t h e SCAT Transit ITS Program. 99

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REFE R E NCES 1 Federal Transit Admi n i s trat i on website, Transit Intellige n t Tran s portation Systems, i m #Documents N ovembe r 2001 2. Strategic P lan for Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems in t h e United States Report N o : I VH5-AMER 92 3 Prepared by IVHS AMERICA May 20, 1992 3 Center for Urban Transportation (CUTR). sarasota Transportat i on Enhancement P lan (STEP). Fina l Report. December 1999. 4. SCAT Websi t e http://www .co.sarasota. i c works scat/scat.asp january 2002. 5 Information prov i ded v i a hardcopy via mail by t he Transit Administrative Manager of SCAT in March 2002. 6 In f orma t ion p r ovided d u r i n g Inter v i ew w i th SCAT in October 2001 7. Jaffe Engin eer ing Website. http://www d a/De f aul t htm J anuary 2002 8. Fed eral Transit Adm i n i stration website, Tr ansit I ntelligent Tr anspo rtati on Systems, http://www.fta r chlfleet/i t s/ i t s .h tm#Documents N ovember 200 1 9 US De p artment of Transportat ion I n telligent Transportatio n Systems webs i te http://www.itsdocs.fhwa dot.g ov//JPODOCS/REPTS TEI/13583 pdf, May 200 2 1 0 Federal Trans i t Administ r ation's offk:e of safety a n d security website. http://transit rity .asp May 2002 11. hup: // i tlhtml/vguide.h t m 100 ' e-r W .. 'A'f:nYU!'t7' """""

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TABLE A 1 Automatic Vehicle Location (A VL) System for SCAT Notecos ts are shown In thousands of dollars u nit cost quantities AVL-GPS Incl. Communication Hardwar
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TABLE A.2 Electronic Fare Payment (EF P ) System for SCAT Note costs ,.,. shown in thous.nds of dollars unit cost quantities On-board Ridershi p Sensor Syslem $0.65 $45 00 Onboard Fare System Processor $0 52 $45 00 On-board Farebox and Smart Card Reader $1.04 $45. 00 COTS SoftWare $200.00 $1. 00 Customize EFP app lication softwllre $100 .00 $1.00 Develop database for vehicles $8 .00 $1. 00 Hardware at Facility $1.20 $4 5 .00 Deployment Engineer ing & Support (2%) Total ex te nsion $23.40 $0 04 $46.8 $0 .08 $16.00 $8.00 $0 .64 $0.10

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TABLE A.3 Automatic P as senger C o un te rs ( APCs ) for S CAT Note. c o s t s are shown I n thous ands of d ollars On-board APC (10 percent of fteet) Softwa re Develop database for vehicles Hardware a t F acitny unit cost quantities extension $1.00 $5.00 $10.00 $1.00 $8. 00 $1.00 $1.2 0 unit cost extens i o n $0.08 $0.80 $0.64 $0.10 ...

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TABLE A.4 On-board Safety Features for SCAT Note costs are shown In thousands of dollars unit cost On-boa r d Safety Sensor Processor $0.20 On-board CCTV $5.00 COTS Software $100.00 Develop database for vehicles $6.00 Hardware at Facility $4.10 and Communicatio n s (10%) Deployment Engineer i ng & Support (2%) quantities extension unit cost $45 .00 $9 .00 $0.02 $45.00 $225.00 $0.40 $1.00 $100.00 $6.00 $1.00 $6. $0.64 $ 1 .00 $4 .10 $0.33

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TABLE A .5 Bus Signal Priority ( B S P ) f o r S CA T N ote cos t s a re shown in th o u s ands of dollars On board Process or and DB Cell B asad Rad i o System & Data Receiver Signal Software Signal Hardware' C DPD D e ployment Engineering & Support (2%) Notes: assume s 1 00 Int e rsections uni t cost $0 .65 $0.33 $200 .00 $2 .00 quantities $45 .00 $4 5 .00 $1.00 $100 .00 Subtotal Total exte n s i o n uni t cost $0.05 $0.03 $16.00 $0.16 Costs extension ,.

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TABL E A.6 Ad vanc ed Traveler Informatio n Systems {VMS and Annunciators) Note costs .,. shown in thousands of dollars Field Syatema unit cost quantities extension On-board Annunciators $6.00 $45.00 $270.00 On-board VMS Small $2.00 $45.00 $90 .00 VMS Large (15 in whol e County) $4 .00 $15.00 $60 0 V M S Small (100 in whole County) $2 .00 $100 .00 $200. Cen ter Syatems COTS Software $200.00 $1.00 $200 Develop GUf with Client $100.00 $1.00 Customize A TIS applica tio n software $200 .00 $1.00 Deve lop database for vehicles $8.00 $1.00 Hardwar e at Facility $15.00 $3 .00 _ Design (10%) Deploym en t Engineer in g & Support (2%) Dep l oyment i n Subtotal Total Notes: assumes GUllo nun on wor1
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TABLE A.7 Advanced Trav ele r I nformati o n Systems ( W ebsi te) Note costs are shown in thou sands of dollars Website unit cost $100 00 quantities extension Design of W ebsit e Cus tomize software for websit e D e velop database for vehicles T estioJ!.and $100 00 $8.00 Total $1.00 $1.00 $1.00 . uni t cost extensi o n $8. 00 $8.00 $0.64

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TABLE A.S Advanced Traveler Information Systems (IVR) Note -costs are shown In thouunds of dollars C.nter Systems COTS Software Develop Voice Response System with Client Develop database ror vehicles Design Deployment Engineering & Support (2%) unit cost $200 .00 $100 .00 $8.00 quantities $1 00 $1.00 $1.00 Total extension unit cost $16 .00 $8. 00 $0.64 extension

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