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TRI-RAIL ,VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL PREPARED FOR TRI-COUNTY COMMU 'rER RAIL A UTHORITY BY CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA JULY 1992
INTRODUCTION. RIDE SHARING VANPOOLS TRI-RA:IL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL Table of Contents EMPLOYER SPONSORED VANPOOL PROGRAMS PUBLICLY SPONSORED VANPOOL PROGRAMS POTENTIAL FOR A TRI-RAIL SPONSORED VANPOOL PROGRAM TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM F EDERAL FINANCIA L ASSISTANCE STATE ASSISTANCE 0 LOCAL SHARE 1 VANPOOL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION 2. VANPOOL PROGRAM GUI DELINES 3. VANPOOL REPORTING REQUIREMEN T S 4. ADA CON S IDERATIONS .... 5. SECTION 13(c) CONSIDERATIONS .6. ALTERNATIVE FUELS .7. SUMMARY AND IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 10 10 10 11
TRI-RAI L VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL 1. INTRODUCTION Under contract to the Tri-County Commuter Rail Authority ( Tri-Rail), the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) was asked to assist Tri-Rail in evaluating the feasibility of establishing a publicly sponsored vanpool program as a supplemental feeder service. Tri -Rail operates the regional commuter rail system serving Palm Beach, Broward, and Dade counties in South Florida. CUTR was established by the Florida Legislature to assist state and local agencies in solving transportation problems. Feeder bus service is provided to meet every arrival at thirteen (13) of the fifteen (15) stations on the Tri-Rail system. The exceptions are: Hollywood, Golden Glades and Metrorail stations. Hollywood station is served by the Broward County Transit (BCT) Route 7 bus with 10 minute headways at peak hours. Golden Glades stationis located across from a major park and ride facility served by several Metro-Dade Transit Agency (MOTA) Metrobus regular and express routes. The Metrorail station is served by MOTA's Metrorail, the heavy rail line providing connecting service. to downtown Miami and the balance of Dade County. Feeder bus service is a joint responsibility of the three counties and Tri-Rail. The feeder bus service budget is $3 million per year. Tri-Rail provides $1 million of this amount and the counties provide the remaining $2 million. The funds from the three counties represent a portion of their contribution to the total Tri-Rail service. There is no funding source for additional mone y to be allocated for feeder bus service either from Tri-Rail or the three participating counties. Tri-Rai1's Marketing Department regularly receives requests for extensions and/or modifications to existing feeder bus service. Because there are no additional funds available to operate expanded feederbus service, no more feeder bus service has been put into service since the Tri-Rail feeder bus service was begun in 1989. The following report examines the feasibility of establishing a Tri-Rail sponsored vanpool program t o supplement the existing feeder bus service. 2. RIDESHARING Ridesharing is defined as the shared use of a vehicle by two or more people for the purpose of getting to work, school, or other destinations. Ridesharing arrangements range from private automobiles and privately owned vans and buses to publicly owned and operated vans and buses. The points of origin and destinations of riders generally vary, as do the means by which participants arrived at a pick-up/drop-off point. The goal is to share some segment of the trip with other people, either through meeting at CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH l
. TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL park and ride lots or by being picked up and dropped off door-to-door from the home to the work site. Ridesharing by private automobil e occurs on the Tri-Rail system whenever two or more passengers share the r ide to a Tri-Rail station. This arrangement is called a carpool and is the most common form of ridesharing. Carpools generall y develop from informal arrangements among neighbors or coworkers. Carpools usually remain ad hoc and participants in a carpool usually do not carpool each and every day. Carpooling does not require any formal promotion program, although it can be enhanced by a ridesharing promotion program. In the Tri-Rail service area, Gold Coast Commuter Services provides carpool matching services which includes matching Tri-Rail passengers who may want to share the ride to or from a rail station. Gold Coast also provides the public with information on Tri-Rail commuter rail services, in general. 3. VANPOOLS Passenger vans may a lso be utilized in a ridesharing arrangement:, Passenger vans seat from 6 to 15 passengers. Typically vanpools have more formal arrangements than a carpool In most cases,.one or more of the pool members are regular drivers who pick up others at specific points, drop them off at common sites, and return them to pick-up points at the end of the day. Many vanpools are operated by the owners of the van. Owner-operator vanpools typically begin when an individual purchases a passenger van for reasons other than commuting. The owner operator realizes that some of the expenses of operating the van can be recovered from others if the van is used for ridesharing to work. Passengers usually share the operating costs and they may also share in the capital costs. Costs to the vanpool riders are determined by the van owner-operator and vary widely depending on what costs are being recovered by the owner-operator. Another source of vans used in vanpooling is VPSI Inc. VPSI is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Chrysler Corporation. VPSI was begun by Chrysler in 1974 as a response to the first energy crisis to get its own employees to work. Chrysler realized that there was vanpools for commuters, in general, and began marketing vans which included insurance and vehicle maintenance on a monthly lease basis. Other vanpool services companies a lso sprung up during the 1970's, however, VPSI is the onl y firm still in business on a nationwide basis. VPSI has over 2,000 vans in service at this time. Currently, VPSI charges $750 per month to lease a 15 passenger van in most market areas. In addition, there is a $.05 per mile charge for vehicle maintenance. These charges pay for all costs CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH 2
TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL associated with the operation of the van, including the van's capital cost, insurance, vehicl e maintenance, and the f leet administration costs, plus a profit. Assuming a typical commute of 100 miles round-trip per day and 20 working days per month the average monthly vehicle lease is $850.00. A 15 passenger van with air-conditioning running all of the time gets about 10 mi les per gallon of gasoline. Assuming the same 2,000 miles per month for the commute trip and $1.00 a gallon for regular unleaded fuel the cost of gasoline works out to $200 00 per month. The typical cost for acquiring and operating a VPSI is thus at least $1,050 per month for the vanpool group. Assuming that there are 15 persons in the vanpool and that the driver rides for free the cost to the vanpoolers would be $75.00 per month. If there are fewer members of the vanpool, then costs to each member will rise proportionately. VPSI has a Florida office located in Orlando and leases vans for vanpooling across the state. Because of the additional costs associated with providing a vehicl e with larger seating capacity, vanpools are more likely to be sponsored by third parties than carpools. Vanpool programs are currently sponsored by both private companies and public agencies. In both cases the goal of a vanpool program is to make available ridesharing arrangements to more people than are available from mor e traditional modes of public transportation. Both private and public programs usually provide the vans used in the vanpoo1 program at costs below that which an individual could either purchase a van or operate a van, or both. The following two sections will discuss vanpool programs in more detail. 4 EMPLOYER SPONSORED VANPOOL PROGRAMS Because of the potential for moving a large number of emp loyees to t
TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL at company cost which can result in substantial operating cost savings for vanpool groups. Other support can include preferential parking, flexible work hours, and guaranteed rides home for peelers who have to stay for overtime or who must leave work early for emergencies. Some of the more notable employer sponsored vanpool programs have been organized by 3-M in Minneapolis, McDonnel-Douglas in St.Louis, and the Tennessee Valley Authority(TVA). I n Florida, USAA, an insurance company, sponsors a vanpool program for its employees at Corporate Oaks in Tampa. Currently USAA has 27 vanpools in operation for its employees. In Jacksonville, the Prudential Insurance Company sponsors a vanpool program for its employees using a fleet of 15 vans. Both employers also provide preferential parking for vans and flexible work hours. There are no employer sponsored vanpool programs in South Florida. 5. PUBLICLY SPONSORED VANPOOL PROGRAMS Public agencies also sponsor vanpool programs open to all residents of their service areas. Public agencies can provide low interest auto loans to purchase vans, they can purchase and lease. vans to vanpoolers a below marke t market rate lease rates, or th'ey can provide subsidies for vanpool start-ups. In Seattle and. Brevard County, Florida the transit systems purchase vans for vanpooling. The State of Connecticut Department of Transportation provides no-interest loans for individuals to purchase vans for vanpools. All publicly sponsored vanpool programs have rules and regulations to i _nsure that the public interest in the use of the vans are protected. Vanpool rules and regulations will b e discussed in in a later section. Recently both Tri-County Transit which serves the Orlando metropolitan area and the Citrus Connection which serves the Lakeland area have begun publicly sponsored vanpool programs based on Brevard County's program. As an example of the how costs of vanpooling can be reduced by a publicly sponsored program the Brevard County, Florida vanpool program can be used. Brevard County acquires vans with federal, state, and local funds. It does not recover any capital costs from vanpool groups. However, the vanpool groups pay all operating costs of the vanpool program. Currently vans are leased for $375 per month with no mileage charges. Assuming the typical commute used in a previous section of 100 daily miles and 20 working days per month, the total cost, including fuel, for a Brevard vanpool is $575.00 or $41.00 per month per vanpool member. This compares quite favorably to the $1,050 per month or $75 per vanpool member that mus t be charged by for a vanpool with no public support. The potential vanpooling is much greater at a lower.cost. The CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH 4
TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL potential for a Tri-Rail sponsored vanpool program is discussed in the next session. 6. POTENTIAL FOR A TRI-RAIL SPONSORED VANPOOL PROGRAM Vanpoo l s have traditionally served long distance commuting needs. I n this case d istance can either be measured in term s of miles or time of travel. In Brevard County the typical vanpool travels in excess of 50 miles one way, but travel time is usually around 1 hour for the entire trip. This long, but relatively fast commute is required because the destination of mos t Brevard vanpools is the Kennedy Space Center which is located in an area isolated from residential developments. A proposal to use vans as supplemental feeder services for Tri-Rail assumes that the long distance part of the commute wi l l be accomplished on a Tri-Rail train with the vanpool providing a short, but critical final link in the overall commute trip. vanpools are currently avail"able from the private sector, but because of the capital costs of the van they have limited potential as feeders to Tri-Rail. If capital costs for vanpools can be reduced or eliminated for the vanpool groups there may be : potential for vanpool s to be used as Tri-Rail feeders. As described in the Introduction, Tri-Rail and the three counties in its service area do not have funds available for additional feeder bus service. On the destination side large employment sites exist off the current feeder bus routes. For instance, the employees of the Federal Aviation Administration facility in Coral Gables have contacted the Tri-Rail Marketing Department for feeder bus service. Currently there are over 30 employees who would be interested in riding Tri-Rail, i f there was a way to get to their employment site. A vanpool could provide the critical lin k between Tri-Rail's Miami Airport Station and the FAA facility that would allow these employees to use Tri-Rail for commuting t o work. An employer might also sponsor the lease of a van for pooling by its employees, if it was motivated to either attract new employees or retain current employees who could utilize Tri-Rail for commuting. Ano ther variant of thi s would be an office o r industrial park developer who could offer shuttle service to employees of all tenants as part of its amenity package On the origin side there is also some potential for vanpools f rom large residential areas to Tri-Rail stations. For instance a condominium or homeowners association could use a van to shuttle resident s to the nearest Tri-Rail station Another more specialized potential coulq be not-for-profit social service agencies. For instance a job support group could use a van to transport clients to Tri-Rail for access to the job market CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH 5
TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL all over South Florida. A senior citizens center could transport its clients to Tri-Rail for very convenient access. The minimum criteria for use of the vans would be that they must serve Tri-Rail stations, either at the origin or destination of a trip. Additional uses of the vans to transport passengers .-ould be at the discretion of the group leasing the van. Incidental or supplementar y use of the passenger vans could help make a Tri-Rail sponsored vanpool program more attractive to potential vanpool participants. As described above there are several different groups of potential users or sponsors for a vanpool program to feed Tri-Rail commuter rail services. Because there are no existing models for this kind of service anywhere elsewhere, there.is no way that demand for vans can be determined. Most people have never heard of vanpooling, let alone the application of a vanpool as part of a commuter rail feeder system. When Brevard County began its vanpool program initial purchase of six (6) passenger vans. grown from six vans to seventy-five (75) vans twenty-five (25) that have been approved in a grant. It would be reasonable for Tri-Rail to program with 5 vans. 7 TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM in 1984 by making an The program has with an additional:.: recently released begin a vanpool. If the Tri-Rail Board of Directors approves a vanpool program in concept then it is recommended that 5 vans should be purchased to begin the program. One of the 5 vans should be lift-equipped to meet ADA requirements. A more complete discussion of ADA requirements appears in a later section. The five vans should cost no more than $120,000 or $22,000 each for the four standard 15 passenger vans and $30,000 for a lift-equipped v.an. Compared to Tri-Rail's overall capital budget this amount is a very modest commitment to a program that has the potential of bridging a missing link in Tri-Rail's service to South Florida. The following sections discuss the options that Tri-Rail has available to obtai n funding for vanpool program. 8 FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE The first step in establishing a Tri-Rail sponsored vanpool program is to acquire passenger vans. Vanpool programs have been recognized by the Federal Transit Administration as public transit services and thus eligibl e for federal financial support. Funding for the purchase or lease of vans i s available under Sections 3 and 9 of the Federal Transit Act, as amended. Because Tri-Rail should start its vanpool program with only 5 vans i t is CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH 6
TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL recommended that the vans be acquired under its annual Section 9 capital grant. Before vans could be added to the Tri-Rail annual Section 9 grant application the Transportation Improvement Programs(TIPsl in each of the three counties would have to be amended to show a line item for the acquisition of passenger vans. If the vanpool program grows substantially in the future Tri-Rail may want to consider utilizing a Section 3 discretionary capita l grant rather than a Section 9 formula capital grant. Federal regulations allow for either the outright purchase of the vans or lease purchase. Because Tri-Rail would only be acquiring a small number of vans to begin a vanpool program out-right purchase is recommended. In the future, if a larger number of vans are to be purchased each year, then Tri-Rail may want to consider leasing to spread the capital outlay for the vans over a number of years. 9. STATE ASSISTANCE Tri-Rail also has available state funds to finance the purchase of its initial vanpool fleet. The purchase of 5 vans will require less than $120,000 of state capital funds. If Tri-Rail were to use state capital funds appropriated for FY 1992-1993 then it could launch its vanpool program much more quickly than if it. used a federal capital grant. 10. LOCAL SHARE The local share for the start-up of a vanpool program will need to come from Tri-Rail's regular allocation of matching funds. Once the program is up and running for a period of time the need for local share for the capital grants should decline. Federal regulations specify a useful life for a passenger van of 100,000 miles or 4 years service, whichever comes first. After a van has attained either of those mileposts then the federal interest expires, if the fair market value of the van is less than $5,000. As an example, in Brevard County vans are usually retired with between 140,000 and 150,000 accumulated miles and 3 years of service. The fair market value of passenger vans with these accumulated mileages has been less than $5,000. Brevard County has received bids in recent years in the range of $3,500 to $4,500 per van their condition. The funds from sale of vans retired from the program can be used as local share, since there is no federal interest left in the vans if they have attained their useful life and had a fair market value of less than $5,000. 11. VANPOOL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH 7
TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL Tri-Rail has two opt1ons for administration of a vanpool program, either in-house or through a vanpool services company. Because vanpool program administration is a fairly complex undertaking, it i s not recommended that Tri-Rail administer a vanpool program in-house. Especially when starting a program it is very helpful to call on resources that already e x i s t in the marketplace. If the vanpool program grows to the point where it may be feasible to administer in-house then the issue can be reviewed at that time. At the current time there is only one company that provides vanpool services on a nationwide basis, VPSI. However, there is potential from other firms to enter the vanpool business who are in related transportation fields. For instance there are a number of companies that provide turnkey transit and paratransit services that could respond to a request for proposals for a vanpool program. These transportation management companies provide vehicles and management on a nationwide basis. A request for proposals for a vanpool services company should require a complete turn-key operation, including the provision of vans, insurance, maintenance, and administration. The RFP should be structured so that two responses are required. The firs t response should be for the overall vanpool administration. The second response should be bids for the purchase of vans for the vanpool program. If the Tri-Rail Board approves the concept of a vanpool program, then additional technical assistance in obtaining a vanpool services company will be provided by CUTR to Tri-Rail. 12. VANPOOL PROGRAM GUIDELINES Tri-Rail's fundamental interest in a vanpool program is to provide supplemental feeder service for its commuter rail service. Therefore, the first guideline for use of any Tri-Rail sponsored vanpool would be that it would need to be used to feed a Tri-Rail station. In addition, there are other local, state, and federal requirements that must be met by anyone leasing a van under a Tri-Rail sponsored program. Agreements to be used under a Tri-Rail program will need t o contain similar provisions to insure that the vans are used for public transportation purposes. It is to the success of a publicly sponsored vanpool program that the public interest in the vans are identified and protected by the l ease agreements between the public sponsor, the vanpool services company, and the vanpoolers. A publicly sponsored vanpool program provides vans for specific, allowable uses only. 13. VANPOOL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Vanpools are recognized within reporting requirements of Section 15 of the Federal Transit Act as a separate non-rail mode along CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH .. 8
TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL with the following: motor bus (fixed route), demand responsive, and jitneys. As a result the revenue miles operated and passenger miles carried are used i n the formula that the Federal Transit Administration uses to allocate Section 9 funds to the various urbanized areas. A revenue mile is the distance that a vehicle travels with passengers on board. A passenger mile i s the distance one passenger travels. If there are 15 passengers on a vehicle and it moves one mile that is 1 revenue mi l e and 15 passenger miles. During FY 1991 a revenue mile generated approximately $.39 in Section 9 formula funds. The passenger miles component of the formula uses a more complicated factor: passenger miles multiplied by passenger miles multiplied by $.0021066192 and divided by operating expenses. Each vanpool in a publicly sponsored program will be required to keep a detailed log of the number of passengers carried and vehicle miles traveled. The log will be required to be submitted with monthly lease payments. Each year the vanpool service company will be required to submit a report to Tri-Rail consistent with Section 15 reporting guidelines. In addition to federal transit assistance, Florida Department.of Transportation transit b lock grant funds are allocated on the basis of passengers carried and revenue miles operated for all non-rail modes reported i n the federal Section 15 report. FOOT allocated state funds during FY 1991-1992 based on FY 1988-1989 Section 15 reports on the basis of $.09 per revenue mile and $.05 per passenger. Whi l e neither federal or state funds per r .evenue mile, per passenger mile, or per passenger do not seem significant on a unit basis the funds can add up to substantial sums. In FY 1990, the latest available f rom published Section 15 reports, Brevard County reported a vanpool fleet of 55 vans, operated 909,690 revenue miles, and carried 172,627 passengers some 8,947,782 passenger mi les. App lying the allocation factors described above would result in federal assistance for revenue miles alone o f $354,779. State block grant funds from both passengers to be generated woul d amount to $90,503. A word of about applying prior year factors to more data needs to be made here. Each year the amount of federal funds appropriated by Congress and the amount of state funds appropriated by the Florida Legislature varies. In addition, the number of passengers and miles reported by all of the transit systems in the nation and Florida varies. Both of these actions interact to determine from year to year what a passenger or mile will be worth in federal or state assistance. CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH 9
TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL The above was presented in this report only to give an indication that a vanpool program, in the long run, does not take funds away from other activities of the public sponsor. A vanpool program can actually generate new federal and state assistance, based on operating results. 14. ADA CONSIDERATIONS The Americans with Disabilities Act regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation under 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 37 specifically Section 37.31 establishes specific guidelines for vanpool systems. A vanpool system is deemed to be providing equivalent service to individuals with disabilities if a vehicle that an individual can use is made available to and used by a vanpool in which such an individual chooses to participate. As a result it is recommended that one of the 5 vans that Tri-Rail purchased be lift-equipped. This will assure that a van will be available for a disabled individual in the event that such an individual would want to participate in a Tri-Rail sponsored vanpool. Because vanpools fall under the category of demand responsive transportation systems ther e is no requirement that all vans be lift equipped as there is for all vehicles in a fixed route bus system. In the future Tri-Rail should continue to purchase lift equipped vans as its fleet grows. 15. SECTION 13(c) CONSIDERATIONS Every federal transit grant must have the u.s. Secretary of Labor determine that labor protections provided under the Federal Transit Act have been agreed to by both the grantee and any transit emp loyee collective bargaining units that could be affected. In Tri-Rail's case a 13(c) agreement is needed with its own collective bargaining units, as well as those units that represent transit employees in the 3 counties that Tri-Rail serves. Since no existing feeder bus service would be displaced by the introduction of a vanpool program, obtaining 13(c) approval by the Department of Labor should not pose a problem. 16. ALTERNATIVE FUELS Since Tri-Rail will be starting with a small number of vans, it is not recommended that it consider alternative fueled vehicles at thi s time. In the loag run Tri-Rail may want to consider purchasing vans which use alternative fuels. There are already vans available from Chrysler Corporation that come from the factory with compressed natural gas fuel systems. The major obstacle to the use of alternative fuels is the availability of fueling stations for alternative fuels. In the future compressed CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH
TRI-RA I L VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL natural gas fueling stations may become available as large private and public vehicle fleets are converted to compressed natural gas. 17. SUMMARY AND IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE This report was prepared to assist Tri-Rail in evaluating the potential of using a publicly sponsored vanpool program as a supplement to the existing Tri-Rail feeder bus service. The report provides background information on ridesharing as a mode of public transportation. A component of ridesharing is vanpooling. Vanpools can be sponsored by private or public organizations. There is potential for a Tri-Rail sponsored vanpool to provide the critical link between Tri-Rail stations and major employment not currently served by feeder buses. The major constraint to implementing a vanpool program without Tri-Rail's sponsorship is the cost to the vanpool members. A publicly sponsored vanpool program can dramatically lower the cost of a vanpool program by eliminating the capital cost of acquiring vans. Of course, vanpools still recover all operating expenses so there is no impact on Tri-Rail's operating budget. After the initial start-up of a vanpool program it should generate enough additional and state assistance to be self-sustaining and have no continuing impact on Tri-Rail's capital budget. The following are the steps that need to be followed by Tri-Rail to implement a vanpool program utilizing federal funds. If Tri-Rail chooses to use state funds onl y a vanpool program could be started much sooner than outlined below. 1 The Tri-Rail Board at its July, 1992 meeting approves a vanpool program in concept and authorizes staff to prepare amended grant applications and a request for proposals to retain a vanpool services company. 2. The Tri-Rail Board at its September, 1992 meeting approves a capital application or amendment t o a n existing grant to purchase up to 5 vans and approves an RFP which includes a final set of guidelines under which a vanpool program w ill operate. 3. The complete grant application or amendment i s submitted to the Federal Transit Admin i s tration by September 30, 1992. Grant approval can.be expected as part of FTA's grant release cycle by December 3 1 1992. FTA grants received in good order are released by the end of each calendar quarter. 4. Each of the three Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO's) in the the Tri-Rail service area must amend their Transportation Improve ment Programs(TIP's) to include the vans for the vanpool progr am, prior to FTA grant award. CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH 11
TRI-RAIL VANPOOL PROGRAM PROPOSAL 4. The RFP for vanpool services is published and proposals are accepted, evaluated, and an award is made. A minimum of 90 days will be required for this process. This process can go on concurrently with FTA's grant review process. No award can be made for the procurement of the passenger vans until FTA approves the grant and an obligation date is announced. 5 After FTA grant approval the Tri-Rail Board awards the bid for passenger vans to the vanpool services company. Delivery should be accomp lished within 30 days from award. 6. The Tri-Rail vanpool program starts up by March 1, 1993. CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH 12
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Tri-Rail vanpool program proposal /
by Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida.
[Tampa, Fla. :
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research,
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"Prepared for Tri-County Commuter Rail Authority."
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Palm Beach County.
University of South Florida.
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