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Annotated bibliography : geographic information systems in public transportation

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Annotated bibliography : geographic information systems in public transportation
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Cotten, Forest
University of South Florida. Center for Urban Transportation Research
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Geographic information systems -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Transportation planning   ( lcsh )
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letter   ( marcgt )

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PREFACE This annotated bibliography was prepared to serve as a reference for organizations and individua ls interested in the use and application of GIS in planning, operations, marketing, and analysis. Nearly 100 blbHographic re fe re nces are provided in this first draft, most of which focus on the speclflc use of GIS In various aspects of public transportation. However, many ofthe refere nces do not relate specifically to transit but are believed to be use ful for any GIS application to transportation in general. References that relate specifically to transit are shaded. The references included in thi s draft were identi fied through several mechansims, including (1) a TRIS search, (2) a Univers ity Ubrary search, (3) a review of recent conference proceedings, and (4) word of mouth. The ftrs t draft of this annotated bibliography is being distributed at the National Conference on GIS in Transit to provide an opportunity for input regarding what additional references should be incl uded in the final document. The final annotated bibliography will be distributed to all participants as part of the conference summary. Additional references should be forwarded to: WiOiam L. Ball Research Associate Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118 Tampa, Florida 33620-5350

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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Geographic Information Systems I n Public Transportation Abdei-Aty, Mohamed A., Ryuichi Kitamura, and Paul P. Jovanls, "Route Choice Models Using GIS BasadAiternative Routes and Hypothetical Travel Time Information Input, Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 950244 (January 1995) This paper utilizes statistical analysis to explain the route choice of commuters. The analysis is based on survey questio nn aires which we re customized using ro u tes generated by a G IS The resu lt s ind ic ate the significance of the follow i ng vari ables on route choice: traveltime trave l time reliability, traffic safety, and roadway characteristics. Abkowitz, Mark, Paul Oer-Ming Cheng, and Mark L epofsky, "Use of Geographic Information Sys tems in Managing Hazardous Materials Ship ments," Transportation Research Record 1261 (1990) Th is paper discusses the relevancy of GIS in providing for improved decision support in managing safetransportofhazardous materials shipments. GIS apptications a re defined fo r hazardous materia l s trans p ort prob l ems, and t h e benefits t ha t ca n be ac hieved t hro ugh the adaptation of GIS to this subject area are demonstrated The following topical areas a r e exam ined: (1) the deci sion environment for managing h azardo .us materials shipments (2) GIS data availabil ity to support analysis needs, (3) app l ica ti on of a first generation G I S model to identify preferred hazardous materia l s shipment rout e s (4) compre hen sive ap pro aches using GIS for emergency preparedness and evacuation p l anning, and (5) problems encountered in using GIS tech n ology for ha zardous ma t erials trans port applications. Anderson, LO., Applying Geographic Informa tion Systems to T r a nsportation Planning," Trans portation Research Record 1305, Finance, Plan ning Programming, Economic Analysis, and Land Development, p p .113 -117(1991). A technology crucial to better coupling of land use and transportation p l anning is Geographic Informa t ion Systems (GIS). Because few documented prac tical applicatio n s o f th i s technology have been devel oped the Plann ing Support Branch ofFHWA's Office of Environment and Planning, with the Transportation Planning D iv i s ion of the Mary la nd-Nationa l Capita l Park and Planning Commission (M-NCPPC) in Mont gom ery County Maryland, conducted a 3-month case study e x a m ini n g M-NCPPC's application of the GIS Spatial Analysis System (SPANS) software to its transportat ion planning activities. This case study comprises one m odul e within FHWA's GISNideo I magery Demonstration P r oject85. SPANS was used to disaggregat e t h e cou n ty's traffic analysis zon es (TAZs} into smaller subzone components to produce fineri)rai ned mode l ing data. The primary goal was to compare curren t and plan ned housing and employ ment with prescribed development ceilin gs. This activity perm its creation of future scenarios based on the amount of remaining l egally developable land, as well as the future demand for transportation by mode (automobile, bus, rail, walking, bicycle, etc.}. The results indicate that us in g GIS-produced dlsaggregate socioeconomic data wit h travel demand modeling tech niqu es improves the planner's abil ity to mode l both trip genera t ion and modal c h oice. Further work by plan -

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Annotated ners and GIS software developers alike willexpandthe application of the GIS well into the future. GIS In Public Baaj, M. Hadi, Suleiman A. Ashur, Miguel Chaparrofarina, and K David Pijawka, "'Design of Routing Networks Using G IS : Applications to Solid and Hazardous Waste Transportation Planning," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the T ransportation Research Board, PaperNo. 950843 (January 1995). Th i s paper util izes two different case studies to illustrate the practical importance of GIS to the field of transportation engineering, specifically, transportation routing The first study exam i nes the design and analys i s of different Arizona statewide waste tire col le ction transport networks corresponding to different percentag es oftota l annua l waste tires collected. The second case cross es national boundaries by present ing EPA-sponsored researc h on the transportation routing and risk of hazardous waste shi pments across the U .S .-Mexico bor der r eg ion Bailey, Marc, and Simon Lewis, ucreating a Municipa l Geographic Information System for Transportation: Case Study of Newton, Massachusetts," Transportation Research Record1364(1992). This paper ut ifi zes a case study approach to ill us trate the merits of u sing a GIS to provide an additionairangeoftransportationfunctionalityforsmaller agencies with 6mited staff and resources Examples

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Annotated oftransportation functionality elements include, but are not limited to, traffic assignment vehicle routing, reap portionment of traffic zones, and location of clinli!is (such as fire sta t ions). The preparation of a GIS-T toolbox approach to planning and analysis is reviewed. Basile, R.E., T TenEyck, and A.J. Pletropola, "GIS i n Pen nsylvania DOT," Proceedings of the 1991 Geographic Information Systems Symposium, Orlando Florida (1991). The Pennsylvania DepartmentofTransportation (PA-DO'T) has undertaken research to develop astra tegic plan for the development of a GIS for Transporta tion. This paper out lines the planning process and the result s of the research to date In addition to PA-DOT management and staff the planning process included other Commonwealth agencies Which would like l y be users a nd/or benefactors of PA..OOrs GIS. The process involved : (1) identifying and prioritizing poten tial transportation GIS applications ; (2) assessing existing computer systems and Identify data &nkage options; (3) developing a modular stra tegic plan which addresses priorities and incrementally enhances PA oors GIS technology. GIS In P u blic T ransportation Bennion, M. Wayne, and Wende A. O'Neill, "Build ing Transportation Analysis Zonas Using GIS," Presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Boar d PaperNo. 940476 (January 1994). This peperdescribesthe development of a model which Is used to aggregate transportation analysis zones using fuzzy set theory and spatial a nalysis too l s found In GIS The purpose ofthis modalis to provide analysts w i th standardi z ed mathematical and comput erized approaches for network design A comparison is madeofapproaches for modeling zonal homogene ity A model for eval uating zone shape is presented. I mplementation of these models is discussed for Arc/ I nfo and Atlas GIS. The focus of the work described here is on aggregating TAZs but the model applies equally well to creating TAZs from smaller units Census blocks. Butler, Jack A "An Enterprise G I S T Design," unpub/lshed(April1995). This paper proposes an enterprise or agency wide design for a GIS serving a state depar1ment of transportation The author bases his approach on two primary strateg i es : (1) the provision of an overall GIS T design proposal and (2) I ncreasing the level of interaction and coope ration between the seve n man agement and monitoring systems being developed in accordance with fede ral regulations. The author at tempts to provide a clear understanding of the in te grated system design dev eloped by the GIS-TIISTEA Pooled-fund Study and state laws governing the Florida Department of Transportation's (FDO'T) investment decisions

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Annotated casavant, Kenneth L., William R. Gillis, and Amy Arnis, "Modeling Washington State Truck Freight Flows Using GIS-T: Data Collection and DeSign," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, PaperNo. 950444 (January 1995). This paper addresses a specific need that State Departments ofTransportation and Metropolitan Plan ning Organizations have which is to include a focus on freight and goods movements as one element oftheir planning process. The paper provides an overview of research procedures utifized in a study conducted by the Washington State Department ofTransportation on statewide freight truck origins and destinations. The authors focus on a particular case study to underscore the practical uses of GIS-T as a means to thorough l y document and assess the characteristics of freight truck movements. Choi, Keechoo, Paul F. Hanley, and Tschangho John Kim, "GIS-Based Traffic Analysis Zone De sign," Presented atthe 1995 Geographic Informa tion Systems for Transportation Symposium, Sparks, Nevada. This paper describes a GIS-based Traffic Analy s i s Zone (TAZ) design method A spatial indexing method is developed to cluster homogeneous spatial units that can serve as traffic analysis zones. The paper explains a two-step procedure using GIS: (1) to provide the topological relationship among basic spatial units. and (2) to integrate databases. The authors ill ustrate how, once the de l ineation Is complete, G I S generates a rev i sed matrix of attribute data for further analysis, such as trip generations GIS In Public Cipolloni, M.J., "Using GIS to Better Manage Existing Transportation Facilities," Compendium iif Technical Papers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 63rd Annual Meeting (1993). Many decades of underspending on mainte nance has left the Infrastructure of many countries in need of repair, especially in the U.S However, the lntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) provides some reUeffortransportation needs. Section 1034 requires that a u 50 states implement six management systems by fiscal year 1996 or face a possible loss of federal funds. These include Highway Pavement, Bridges Highway Safety Traffic Congestion, Public Transportation FaciHties, and lntermodal Tra nsportation Facilities. This paper discusses the many uses of GIS to better manage existing transportation facilities and covers in some detail an example of how New Jersey has employed this technology to manage their traffic control signs. Cooke, Donald, "Updating TIGER The Census Perspective," GIS World, pp. 124-125 (February 1991) This artic le discusses the historical background of the U.S Census Bureau's T IGER, a computerized map of the United States depicting virtually all streets, boundaries, railroads, and water features to serve as the master geographic base for the 1990 census. In addition, the article touc hes upon current issues, like what is being done to keep TIGER updated. Concerns such as lack of cooperation among agencies (public and private) and dupli cation of effort are addressed. Corbin, Lisa, "Maps Gil On-Line,'' Government Executive, pp. 28-34 (March 1993) This art i cle discusses the ever increas ing role being played by GIS in federal government. It dis cusses briefly how GIS works and how itis used to help governmental agencies accomplish their missions (es pecially those agencies which manage nattira l re sources or monrtor env ironmenta l impacts). Finally. the article emphas i zes the importance of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SOTS) which is necessary to e l iminate expensive data-conversion and Increase data sharing activities. Craig, William J "The Rising Tide of GIS," CURA Reporter, Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota (May 1993).

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Annotated This article discusses the rapidly incre as ing lllili of GIS in the State of Minnesota. It emphasizes the need for the academic community to take an active role in assisting governmental agencies harness thetecll nology. It summarizes briefly the various areas in which GIS can be used (i.e., urban issues, environmen tal issues, forest stand management) and discusses the financial aspects of utilizing this technology. GIS In Publlo Dueker, Kenneth J., "Access to Data: National Spatial Data Infrastructure," Presented atthe 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (January 1995). This paper details the significance ofthe National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSOI). It briefly describes the program and e xpl ains its applicability to the trans portation planning profession. It outl ines the unique needs of transportation in the NSDI and specifically discusses which data are sharable in this program. Finally, the paper addresses the linear data transfer problem under the NSDI and identifies weaknesses of the current program that could be strengthened to mak e it more successful.

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Annotated Gallimore, W. Paul, David T Hartgen, and Yuanj u n Li, "Applications of Geographic Information Sys tem-Transportation Analysis Packages in Superregional Transportation Modeling," Trans portation Research Record 1364(1992). This pape r ill ustrate s the merits of using GIS (TransCAD) to conduct a transportation analysis for the Charlotte, North Carolina, area. Th is study was under taken in an attempt to address some of the concerns associated with a proposal fora 150-rrile (or mo re) road around this reg ion call.ed the Carolina Parkway. The software develops a sketch network where traffic can be s im ulated using a doub ly constrained gravity model t echnique. Problems and opportunities presented by superregional model ing also are discussed Gan, ChengTin, "A GIS-Aided Procedure for Con verting Census Data forTransportation Planning," ITE Journal, pp. 34-30 (November 1994). This article presents a GIS-Aided procedure designed to overcome the majo r problems that ex islin GIS In Publlo ihe cilrrentpractice of the census-toTAZdata conver sion process. The three problems that the author addresses are: (1) the manual method of developing equivalency tables by matching census and TAZ hard copy maps, (2) the problem which arises from the unnecessary non-coterminous census and TAZ boundaries, and (3) the use of a sing l e equivalency table which can be extremely inefficie nt. Goodwin, Cecil W. H and Stephen R. Gordan, "Rein t erpreting the Location Referenc ing Problem: A Protocol Solution," Compendium, GIST95 (1995 Geographic Information Systems for Trans portation Symposium, Sparks, Nevada). This paper critiques the assumptions behind the 'common method' approach to location refere ncing and reevaluates its n ece ssity and practicality. A prototype protocol for Intelligent T ransportation Sys tems (ITS) applications t he Location Reference Mes sage Protocol (LRMP), is present ed The paper concludes that the protocol is ftexlble enough to accommodate different location referencing methods and thus to market and product development for ITS and can be extended for use within distributed GIS-T networks . Guo, Bo, and Allen Poling, A GIS/GPS System Design for Network Travel Time Study," Pre sented atthe 74th Annual Meeting ofthe Transpor tation Research Board, Paper No. 950332 (Janu ary 1995).

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Annotated T h is paper is based on a study conducted by the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) for the purposes of examining travel speed and delay in the Metropolitan Phoenix area. Specifically, the paper focuses on a GIS/Database systems approach to processing the data collected by GPS un its and portable computers. A brief d iscussion of travel rout e selection, preparation and comparison of several dif ferent travel time survey techniques using the t est vehicle method is incl uded T he authors emp hasi ze t he effectiveness of GPS technology and its ability to serve as a valuable resour ce in the context of GIS. Hakkert, A.S., A. Peled, and B Haj-Yehia, "A Geographical Information System for Urban Road Safety Management," Presented at the 74th An nual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 950829 (January 1995). This paper describes the implementa tion o f a newly developed Arcll nfo-ba sed road safety analysis (GIS) system in the municipality of Haifa Israel. The software package was tested with accident-data during a three-year period and was adopted as the primary tool f o r road safety analys is and improve ment. The authors argue that the three primary components of road safety (the road system, the human factor, and the vehicle element) form the basis of road safety analysis and improvement when Inter laced through georeferencingtraffic events. Therefore, GIS seems to be the most appropriate me thodology by whic h to analyze different traffic events. GIS In Public Hartgen, David T., and Yuanjun U, "Geographic Information Systems Appfications to Trans porta tion Corridor Planning Transportation Research Record 1429, pp. 57-66. Th is paper describes two case studies in which GIS procedures have been applied to tran sportation corridor planning The two studies are purposefully differentfrom one another in an attemptto demonstrate the wide-range of capabilities and applicability of TransCAD, a t ransporta tion-o rien ted GIS. Th e first case study focuses on display capabir.ties of the GIS process to assist in analyzing a rural multicounty c orridor r ece nt ly upgraded to an I nters tate system corridor. The second concentrates on trave l demand mode 6 ng, us ing the study of a rin g road around a large m etropo l ita n area as an example Henderson, Thomas, "A Comprehens iv e Proposal for the Acquisition, Use, and Maintenance of GeographiC<)IIY Related Information in the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation De partment" (January 1989). T his paper was writt en in response to the 1988 statement made by the National Council on Public .

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Annotated Works Improvement that Amer ica's Infrastructur e, In cluding its transportation systems may be on the verge of crisis. The paper describes the need for state DOTs to adopt an integrated approach for planning, designing, building, and mainlalnlng effective transpor tation systems. It emphasizes the Importance of a common geographical environment as the foundation to acqu ire maintain and use t he locationally related I nformation necessary and recorTmends specific strat egies to achieve the desired outcome. GIS I n Public Innes Judith and David M. Simpson, "lmp.lementing GIS lor Planning," APA Journal, pp. 230236 (Spring 1993), This article provides a fitereture review on the subject oftechno l ogical innovation as It relates to GIS. The aulhora attemptto provide a big picture" perspec tive on the subjec t area and its effects on the planning profession They conclude that planners must unde r sland GIS not only as a dynamic socially constructed technology but also as a t ool that brings with i t a lot of responslblity and a plethora of issues that must be considered before its implementa tion Q.e., legal is sues organiza tiona l I ssues etc.). The article recom mends a strategic approach to the utlization of GIS involving a delicate balance between human and tech nical systems. Iqbal, Muhammed Shahid, Carolyn S. Konheim, and Brian T. Ketcham, "The Development of a Regional GIS-Transportation ITSnVHS Network," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Tran sportation Research Board, PaperNo. 950499 (January 1995). This paper de !ails the development of aGIS-T for an Int elligent Transportation Systems OTS} network for the 23-county region of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. The goa l of the study was to design a regional ITS, which would serve as a Ira me work for an Integrated and multi-modal transportation network The GIS network was used as a tool for 1o .,. ..... identifying clitical transportation corridors within the l.l [Al\Sp __ ,.,....,.. _ ..

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Annotated regional area that could benefit from ITS technologies. In addition, the GIS network could assist decisiO;n makers in defining and prioritizing projects for imple mentation and expansion of ITS in these corridors Johnson, Brad H., and Michael J. Demetsky, "A GIS Decision Support System for Pavement Man agement," Presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 940674 (January 1994) This paper describes the development of an attribute database for pavement management pur poses. The authors consider two primary types of roadway da ta intheirstudy : (1) inventory data describ ing the physical characteristics ofthe traveled way, and (2) pavement management data describing the actual surface condition of the roadway The difficulty inherent in tying two databases together is discussed. The database was applied t o demonstrate how the information can be used to support pavement mainte nance decisions. Johnson, Brad H., and Michael J. Demetsky, "A Geographic Information System Environment for Transportation Management Systems" (Univer sity of VIrginia, Department of Civil Engineering, January 1993). T h i s report, ut ifiz ing a case-study approach, examines the merits of applying GIS technology to the area of transportatio n management systems. These systems include b ridge management i ntermodaltrans portation, pavement management, publ i c transports -GIS In Public tion, safety, and traffic congestion. The authors use Albemarle and Greens Counties in Central Virginia as the f6cus of their research. The report develops a pavement management decision support GIS environ ment The authors demonstrate that GIS is an appro priate tool for the decision-making process and the re fo re it is likely to be applicable to other types of transportation management systems Kinsey, Ken, and UriAvin, GIS in Action," Urban Land, pp.18-21 (March 1992) This article provides three different examples of cost-effective applications of GIS technology Each example presents its own uniq ue problems but they all requirethecoordinationandsynthesisofdiversesources of information The three examples discussed are: (1} producing and coordinating an intricate development plan fora golf course/resort community, (2} deve loping a county wide holding capacity/land condition analysis for long-term utility planning and routing and (3) per forming r egional planni ng analysis for a metropolitan area. Kutz, Scott A., "GIS Inventory Data Preparation: Assigning Spatial Properties to Highway Feature Files Using Independent Data Sources," Presented at the 74th Ann ual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, PaperNo. 950375 (January 1995). The paper addresses the concern that, i n many cases, transportation organizations have great diffi culty in in tegrating infrastructur e data into the GIS

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Annotated environment because data sets developed and main tained over lo ng per iods of time may lack spatial properties which are vtlal to GIS. It discusses the procedures used to assign spatial properties t o one dataset o f highway features using an i ndependent data set as its source. The d iffic ulties of matching between these two sources of data also are discussed. Kwan, Mei-Po, and Reginald G. Golledge, "Inte gration of GIS with Activity-Based Model in A TIS," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, PaporNo. 950419 (January 1995). This paper addresses the methodological weak nesses of Advanced Traveler I nformation Systems (A TIS), a primary component o f Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS). Specifically the authors note the fact that travel is a derived demand and is generated by the decision of individuals to participate in various activities. This concept (known as activity modeling) Is Ignored in the context of A TIS a nd therefore, traveler's choices in response to unexpected traffic delays are largely confined to alternative r outes. The authors argue that a broader perspective built upon the activity-based approach and the activ ity scheduling framework would allow other atternatives to be consid ered. The pape r attempts to address this issue based on the activtly-based approach and the use of GIS. Lebeaux, P., "Helping Area Planners With GIS" (Metropolitan Washington Council of Govern ments, 1993). This paper explains how a GIS will e nable trans portation planners to better analyze travel patterns and travel behavior in the Washington m etropo l itan area. Using the GIS, CouncilofGovernmentsstaffwillbe able to pull together the transportation, land -use and air quality data files necessary for these analyses. The GIS will be used both for Internal analytical projects and to create rep orts and maps that can be Individually tailo red to provide information to policy makers and the public. Eventually loca l planners will be able to call up the system and obtain data on-line in formats deter mined by the user Lepofsky, Mark, Mark Abkowitz, and Paul Cheng; "Transportation Hazard Analysis I n I ntegrated GIS Environment," Journal of Transportation En gineering, pp. 239-254 (March/Apri11993). GIS In Publlo This pape r describes methods employing G IST thatcanprovidethecapabiitytoperformtransportation hazard analysis and incident management. The meth ods discussed are practically appOed in several case studies involving highway operations in California to illustrate their usefulness. The paper concludes with a discussion of h ow the GIS-T approach to incident management may be extended to address dynamic management in an IVHS environment. U, Yuanjun "GIS-Based Spatial Representation and Tri p Pattern Analysis for The 1985 Charlotte Household Travel SuiVey" (The University of North carolina at Charlotte, Center for Interdisciplinary Transportation Studies, 1993). This paper studies the urban ho usehold travel patterns of Cha r lotte, North Carolina, in an Arc/Info GIS environmentin an attempt to mustrate how GIS can be used In the area oftransportation planning in order to assist in activity-based urban transportation planning. The use of G I S and the concept of decision support systems (DSS) f or transportation also are discussed. May, James W. and T eri Kutch, "Automated Mapping and GIS for Smaller Communities," Homer Hoyt Center for Land Economics and Real Estate Florida State University (January 1993). This monograph was designed as a GIS informa tion resource for loca l governments It offers advice

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Annotated lrom differing perspectives on how GIS can be imple mented in a local government setting. This section Is followed by the Inclusion of edited speeches of city and county officials who are active in GIS. Eleven case studies are presentedthatwere written by experienced local government officials who have either implemented or have considered adopting a GIS for their community. The document concludes with suggestions for those considering a GIS for their particular community. Mclellan, J.F., E.J. Krakiwsky, and J.B. Schleppe, "Application of GPS Positioning to Management of Mobile Operation," Journal of Surveying Engi neering, Volume 119, Number 2, pp. 71-83 (1993). This paper addresses the problem of fleet man agement, and the application of global positioning system (GPS) to locate mobile vehicles, thereby assisting fleet managers to perform thei r operations. The special requ irements of this class of users are reviewed, and the NavTrax system currently being developed is described in terms of system compo nents, hardware, and software. It is shown that continuous and economcalpositioning can be achieved by integrating GPS with dead-reckoning devices, and that t his integration Is required in areas of GPS signal blockage. The technology is needed for an array of users including police and fire-fighting operations, as well as mobile GIS appUcations. Trials in Calgary Canada showed that dispatching of police vehicle is significantly enhanced through the use of a GPS based positioning system, NavTrax. Medina, Isabel Canale, and Karen B. Kahl, "GIS Applications to the Heart of Illinois Highway Fea sibility Study," Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 951087 (January 1995). This paper utlrozes a case study approach to illustrate the use of GIS in highway planning and route location studies. It describes how GIS was used to help determine the feasibiHty of alternative corridors being considered for a proposed highway Bnking Chi cago and Peoria Illinois. The study area encom passed a co unty 3,000 square mile area. The use of GIS was critical in the alternatives eval uation and impacts assessment of the proposed corridors. GIS In Public Meyer, Michael D., and Wayne Sarasua, "Geo graphic Information System-Based Transportation Program Management System for County Transportation Agency," Transportation Research Record 1364 (1992). This paper describes a prototype GIS. Tthatwas developed for a suburban countytransportation agency In metropolitan Atlanta. The rationale for developing the prototype was to design a system which would assist the agency In better managing its transportation pro gram. An organizational assessment was conducted and applications that would most benefit the agency were detailed. The paper concludes that GIS-T pro vides a strong decision support capability for agency officials. II also provides a more efficient way of conducting different types of analysis. Moore, Alisoun K., and Martha Stauss, "Cooperative Approach Towards an. Integrated Geographic Information System (GIS) at the Maryland State Highway Administration (MSHA)," Presented at the 1995 Geographic Information Systems for Transportation Symposium, Sparks, Nevada). This paper outlines the approach Maryland is taking In developing its GIS for Transportation. MSHA has adopted a strategic user-based approach to devel opment and imp lementation of GIS. This approach has

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Annotated two majortene1s: (1) development of a coordinated lind stable i n fo rmation architecture and techno logy, and (2) technical support for the development of useful and well -engin eered applications desired by various user groups T he paper also discusses the linkage betw een organizat i onal goals and GIS, specific organizational mechanisms used, information architecture descrip tion and development databas e management ap proach application developmenttechniques and user invo l vement. Newcombe, Tod, G IS: Beyond Pipes and Plats," Governing, pp. 25-26 (December 1 993). This article provides an overview and examples of what GIS technology can do. Sp ec ifica lly it discusses factors like cost, u ser-friendliness, and accessibi l ity which all contribute to a greater use ofthls technology. The article also discusses the beginnings of t h e De fense Departmenfs Global Positio n ing System (G PS} and its important contrib utions to the su c cess of GIS ; GIS In Public O'Neill, Wende A ., and Balakrlshna Akundi, "Automated Conversion of Mile point Data to Intersec tion/link Network Structure: An Application of GIS in Transportation," Transportation Research Record1261 (1990). This paper addresses the need to implemen t effective data restru cturing models in the G I S environ ment. Specifically the autho rs emphasize the impor tance of milepointreferenced data in road inventory files for transportation research. However, to utilize road inv entory data in any ana lysi s model network in forma. tion has to be convert e d from m lle polntto an I ntersec tion /link format. In addition, data conversion are needed to p rodu ce i ntersection/lJnk network represen tations from milepoint data. A microcomputer mode l for data convers ion is deve lope d and application i ssues and model sensit ivities are addressed. O Packi Paul and Eric Sabina, "The Implemen tation and Use of GIS-T Technology In Metropoli tan Planning Organizations," Compendium, GIS T 95 (Geographic I nformation Systems for Trans portation Symposium). This paper examine s organizational technical, and pol iti cal issues invo lved in impl ementing GISTin MPOs draw ing on experience with MPOs of varying s izes. GIS-Ttoo l s and techniques importantto imple mentation in MPOs also a r e reviewed: these include network conflation, dynamic segmentat ion and the

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Annotated use of linear referencing systems (LRSs). The chal lenges associated with upgrading from an existing GIS to a more robust environment With full GIS-T capabiti ties also are reviewed Panchanathan, Sriram, and Ardeshir Faghri, "A Knowledge-Basad Geographic Information Sys tem for Safety Analysis. at RaiUHighway Grade Crossings," Presented atthe 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 950717 (January 1995) This paper discusses the development of an integrated, user-friendly, knowledge-based GIS for evalu ation of safety at rail-highway crossings. The authors underscore the importance of this undertaking by emphasizing that the allocation of federal funding for safety impr ovem ents at public, at-grade crossings is made based on the performance of states with respect to accident reductions. The authors walk the reader through the infor mation management pro cess by describing the conversion of existing rail highway crossings attribute data into a GIS acceptable format, the location referencing of the crossings at trib ute data to their loca tion in the graphic database, interfacing With USDOT model, and interfacing with a knowledge-based expert system for considering the qualitative and heuristic information. Paredes, Miguel, Emmanuel Fernando, and T Scullion, 11Pavement Management Applications of GIS: A Case Study," Transportation Research Record1261 (1990). This paper i llustrate s how GIS technology can be implemented within a MICRO-PES (a suite of computer prog rams developed to assist state district engineers with their network leve l pavement management activi ties) environment to satisfy the need o f the various districts fo r graphics oulput capability. The authors developed a a prototype GIS module that provides the capability for graphically displaying the output from the existing MICRO-PES analysis subsystems. Using a case study approach the authors were able to effec tive ly demonstrate the applicability of GIS as a tool for pavement management. GIS In Public Petzold, R., "Yielding the Benefits of GIS," Ameri can City and County, Volume 109, Issue Number 3, pp. 56-63 (1994). T h is article describes how a GIS permits users to obtain information rela ted directly to the transportation system ina famiflarformat -a map. 'The benefits of GIS aie listed The mostlmportantobjectives for using GIS are map/display and data integration. Agencies must identify potential issues that can be addressed through a GIS application more efficiently and effectively, and more economlcallythanwnh prevailing methods. Fed eral state and loca l agencies are using GIS informa tion to develop transportation policy and planning. The Federal Highway Administration expanded its GIS capability by developing a 1/100,000 highway system of the Nationa l Highway System (NHS). The U S. Department of Transportation is now expanding its GIS by developing the National Transportation System (NTS), which will incorporate in a single database all modes of transportation. This GIS will analyze America s future transportation investment choices, be the basis for communications and obtain input from state and local governments and develop new legislation. The article also describes a GIS-based lntermodal Trans portation Management System (ITMS) being devel oped by the California Department of Transportation. ITMS provides in forma tion for supporting decis ions concerning the priorities of investments in the state's intermodal tra n sport system. The article also consid. ers a wide range of software packages for u se as tools for developing applications. Petzold, Roger G., and Deborah M. Freund, "Po tential for Geographic Information Systems in Transportation Planning and Highway Infrastruc ture Management," Transportation Research Record1261(1990).

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Annotated The efficient use of in f ormatio n throughout an organization becomes not only a po litica l, but an economic Imperative. Geographic Information sys t e m s (GISs) may play a centr a l r o l e In s erving users in e xecutive administrative, t echnica l a nd s upport staff p ositio n s. This paper discus ses the requirement of G I Ss to develop frameworks forth e irow n apptication The auth ors address five specific app&cations o f G I S : (1) the F HWA Geogra phic Roadway Informa tion Display Syst em, (2) FHW A's GIS for polcy analysis, (3) IMsconsi n DOT GIS for pa v ement ( 4 ) N orth C arolina GIS forthe Division of H ighways, and ( 5 ) FHWA/Co l umbia Metropolitan Plan ning Or ganization applica tion of the Bureau of the Cens u s the calty I nt e grated Geographic Encoding a nd Referencing s y s t e m for a metropolitan planning o rganization Pittman Robert H., and Grant t. Thrall Using G e ograph i c Information S y stems in Eeonomic D e v e l o pment : An Introducti o n," Economi c DeveJ. opment Review, pp. 14-21 (F atl1991). This a rticle discusses t he role t ha t G I S can play I n economic development. The pur poseo flhearticle is threefold. thearticledeflnes the d lfferentlevels of G I S (I.e. depth geographical coverage, and geo grap h ica l resolution). Sec ond, It di sc usses several examples ofGISs which a r e c urrently being used or are bein g b uitt by economic orga n izations. Finall y, th e authors provide an introduction to the differently pes o f GIS software, incl u ding features cosls and hardware requiremen ts. GIS In Public Rles Tom Integrating Governments for Trans portation Purposes Using Geospatial Framework, Compendium, G I S T 95 (1995 Geographic Infor mation Systems for Transportation Symposium Sparks Navada) This pap e r provides sugge stions for a ddressing the issu e ofdatas haring for transportation n eeds and corresponding geospatlal framework s. S uggestions Include: (1) d e t er mlningwhatandwher e our n eeds are in the big pic tur e of a transportation fa c ility 's li f e cycle, ( 2 ) defining a n d co mposing what geos p atial fra me wo rks are in terms of this l ife cycle (3) identifying and resolving the conficting views o f spatial data broughton by consumers versus producers and ( 4 ) describing an approac h for how s h a ring can occu r based on appreci a ting v arious b u s ines s requir eme nts and h o w they are inte rr elated. Case s tudy e xamples are use d to support these sugges tions.

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Annotated Slmkowltz, Howard J., "GIS Applications Benefit from Census Transportation Planning Data," GIS World, pp. 38-40 (April1993), This article describes a special tabulation pro duced by the U.S. Census Bureau called the Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP). It describes the direct relevancy of the data set to transportation planning and how GIS will play a central role in its use. The data Included In the CTPP are reported by TAZs GIS technology allows forquickand efficient building of TAZs right on the user's computer screen. The article further explains the significance ofthe TAZ-GIS rela tionship, and then provides more examples of areas in which GIS is useful (i.e apcident analysis, network modeling and logistics, Impact studies, etc.) Simkowitz, Howard J., "GIS Supports Transportation System Planning," 1993 International GIS Sourcebook, pp. 234-236, (1993). This article describes the rel evancy of GIS to the transportation community. It explains the role of spatially integrated data in tra nsportation and uses examples to illustrate how GIS is applicable to this field (i.e., accident analysis, transportation demand model in g, pavement management systems) It discusses the role ofTAZsand TIGER/Line files in GIS, describes how traditional GIS applications can be enhanelld and explains how GIS can seNe as a platform for integrating unrelatedtransportation models. Simkowitz, Howard J "Using Geographic Infor mation System Technology to Enhance the Pave ment Management Process," Transportation Re searchRecord1261(1990). A pavement management system (PMS) should provide for all oflhe impoitantaspects ofthe pavement management process: planning, programming project development, and implementation. GIS technology can be used to expand and enhance each of these PMS components The PMScan be built and operated on a GIS-based platform. This design when put into practice i s designated as a PMS/GIS. This paper disc u sses the importance of a variety of spatially Integrated data to pavement management decisionGIS In Public making. In addition, each component of the PMS process is addresses. This process, in tum, results in tHe identification of a core set of functions required for an effective PMS/GIS. These include : thematic mapp ing flexible data base editing, formula editing, statistics, charting matrix manipulations, network generation, and integrated models and algorithms. Strazewski, Len, "Try GIS Off the Rack: Inexpen sive, Efficient," City & Slate, p. 20 (February 1 S, 1993). This article discusses the recent affordabifity of GIS and how a new category of users have gained access to this technology. The author uses an example of a small municipality having to redistrict itself to ensure minority representation within its community. In this case, GIS allowed the community to redistrict itself on computer (with three alternative plans) and then show those plans at a public hearing before making a final decision. Vonderohe, A P., L. Travis, R.L. Smith, and V Tsai, "Adaptation of Geographic Information Sys tems for Transportation," National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Report 359 (1993) This report addresses the need for GIS In trans portation The primary factors considered are (1) current and future needs for information analysis to support transportation agency missions (2) the need for information systems integration within transporta tion agencies and acrossgovemmentallines, (3) trends in technology and (4) organizational constraints. The report provides a conceptualframeworkand implemen tation plan for GIS-T. Von Essen, lan, Carol Hanchett&, and Gerald Dildine, "Evaluation of GIS Workstation Perfor mance within a Distributed Network Environment," Transportation Research Record 1261 (1990) This paper outlines the methods used to evaluate graphics workstation performance for a statewide trans portation GIS, specifically the Nortlt Carolina Depart ment of Transportation. Workstation products from three vendors were evaluated. ResuHs ofthe evaluatil)n are presented in the context of workstation perfor mance tests network capabilities operating systems, vendor support, and workstation prices. Recommen dations for workstation procurement spec ific to the needs of the North Carolina DOT are made

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Annotated Van Est, J.P. and J.H Bekkers, "GIS as a Toolfor Planning and Management," (Transport and Road Research Laboratory, 1989). There is a growing Interest In geographical data processing. GIS can be considered as a tool for helping answer spatial questions and for physical planning. Discussing such systems implies such questions as "what is a GIS?," "who are the users?," and "what can be done with such a system?" The firstpartofthe paper givesashortlntroductiontoGIS. Thesecondpartoflhe paper discusses lwo examples of GIS apptications in the transportation field: (a) a study of planning bus stops in he city of Oldenburg, using catchment areas; and (b) a d iscu ssio n of the possibilities for analyzing traffic accidents using the traffic accident files of the Dutch Ministry of T ransport and public works. GIS In Publlo

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Annotated Young, J. Jeffrey, Wei-Ning Xlang and Owen J. Furuseth, "Univer-City Partnership Brings People, Technology Together," GIS World, pp. 52-54, (March 1993 ). This a rticl e add resses the need for coopera tion across organiza tions to meet the needs of urban planning i n the 1 990 's. Specifically, the article dis cusses the cooperative effortofthe city ofCo n cord, NC, and the University of North Carollna-Char1otte (UNCC) to ass i st Concord in I ntegra ting G I S into city opera tions The article stre sses th e benefils that can be derived from the sharing of resourc es I n this case, gradua te students gained valu ab l e experience, while Conco rd gained a G I S and learned how to use il Zhang Z.hanmin Terry Dossey, Jose Weissmann, and W. Ronald Hudson, GIS Integrated Pave ment and Infrastructure Management I n Urban GIS In Public Areas," Presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 940781 (January1994). This paper summarizes the efforts to app lyGISto urban ro ad way and infrastructure management. It emphasizes ho w the linkage between a GIS and the effective management of pavement and other Infra structure In the urban area can g r eatly Increase the serv ic e life o f these faa'ities and reduce user costs G IS-U RMS wh ic h Is a use r-friendly a p plication pro gram was I mp le mented and is described in the paper. Zhang, Jllong, Dr. Kyriacos C. Mouskos, and Dr. Joshua Greenfe ld, GIS Based Rides h aring I nformation System," CompiHidium, GIST95(1995 Geographk: Information Systems for Transporta tion Symposium, Sparks, Nevada) A major goal of Intelligent Transportatio n Sys tems OTSJ Is to i n cre ase the average vehicle occu pancy as a means for red u cing conges tion on th e nation's roadw ays Ridesharing is o ne ofthe means t o achieve this goal, where drivers a r e matched w i th passen gers having similar trip charact er istics This paper describes a Ride s harlng Information System (RIS) that ca n function independently or as a module of a Multim odal Advanced Travele r Information System (MATIS) Componen ts ofthe RIS includ e the determi natio n ofusertripprofil es a nd ridesha ri11g pre f erences, passengerldrtver matching, and confirmation/cancella tion procedures. Example applications of the RIS are presented for Union County in New Jersey


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