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Commute alternatives systems handbook


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Commute alternatives systems handbook
Cover title:
Managing our way through congestion : Florida's commute alternatives system handbook
Physical Description:
viii, 112 p. : charts ; 28 cm.
Florida -- Public Transit Office
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
Floridiana Collection
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Commuting -- Handbooks, manuals, etc -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Local transit -- Planning -- Handbooks,manuals,etc -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Traffic congestion -- Prevention -- Handbooks,manuals,etc -- Florida   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
handbook   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (p. 103-105).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
General Note:
"Managing our way through congestion : Florida's commute alternatives system handbook"--Cover.
General Note:
"Prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, Public Transit Office."
General Note:
"May 1996."
General Note:
Includes glossary.

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University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 026967224
oclc - 34948941
usfldc doi - C01-00391
usfldc handle - c1.391
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Commute alternatives systems handbook /
prepared by Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
1 4 246
Managing our way through congestion : Florida's commute alternatives system handbook
[Tampa] :
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research,
viii, 112 p. :
charts ;
28 cm.
"Managing our way through congestion : Florida's commute alternatives system handbook"--Cover.
"Prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, Public Transit Office."
"May 1996."
Includes glossary.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 103-105).
Also available online.
z Florida
v Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Local transit
x Planning
Traffic congestion
Public Transit Office.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
Floridiana Collection.
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].


Commute Alternatives Systems Handbook CUTR Prepa r ed for: The Florida Department af Transportation Public Transit OHice Tallahassee, Florida Prepared by: The Center for Urban Transportation Research College af Engineering University af South Florida Mayl996


ii Commute Alternatives Systems Handbook


vii OVERVIEW OF THE MANUAL 9 SECTION I: WHAT IS TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT? I 0 What i s De m a n d M a nagem en t I I TOM Measures I I F lorida's C ommuter Assistance Program 15 SECTION 2: TOM AND PUBLIC POLICY 16 GROWTH MANAGEMENT I 7 LO'Jel of Sei'Jice and Concurrency 19 E L M S-Ill : A Changing Policy Context I 9 The DRI Program 2 0 Transportatio n Con c u rrency 2 0 Transportati o n P l a n s 2 0 State Comprehensive Plan 2 I Regional Planni n g Council s 22 TRANSP ORTATION P OUCY 22 ln termodal S urface Transportation Efficiency l'v::t ( ISTEA) 23 New Plaming Requirements 2 4 Energy Poky 2 4 FOOT's New Interstate Policy 25 AJRQUAUlY 25 The Clean />dr /'v::t Amen d ments of 1 990 26 Requireme nts for Nonattain m ent Areas 2 7 Transportation and Air Quality i n F lorida 2 9 Nonattainmen t Areas i n Florid a 31 SECTION 3: TOM TECHNIQUES 32 RIDESHARI N G PROGRAMS 32 Carpools 32 Vanpools Commute Alternatives Systems Hand:xxlk Ill


35 B uspools 3 7 Guarantee

60 61 6 3 63 63 Do C heck The Importance ofCuswmer Setvice Assess the Program Asses s Financial Performance 6 3 Assess IMlri< Etwira1ment 64 Act 64 TRANSPORTATION MANAGE MENT ORGANIZATIONS 65 F lorida T MOs 6 7 Form i n g a TMO 7 0 TRIP REDUCTION ORDI NANC E S 7 I Develo p i n g A Trip Reductioo Ondinance 73 TDM I N THE AGE OF DIVERSilY 7 4 Wo men 7 4 Organized Labor 7 5 Transportation D isadvantage d 7 8 /.ON Income 1 -lcusehdds 78 Persons with DisabifiVes 79 SECTION 5: FUNDING AND TECHNICAl ASSISTANCE 80 STAT E PROGRAMS 8 0 F l or ida Departmen t o f Transportatio n 8 I F l or i d a Department o f Com m u n i ty Affairs 8 I Departmen t of Environm e n t a l Protection 82 F l orid a Co m missi o n for the Transportation Disadvantaged 82 F l or i d a Department of Com merce 8 3 FEDERAL PROGRAMS 83 U nited States Department of Transportation 84 Federal Transit .A.dministratioo 84 Federal Highway .A.dministration (FI-fWA) 85 E nviron m e ntal Protectio n l>f,ency (EP A) 85 T M O FEE-BASED SERVICES 87 ENDNOTES 91 GlOSSARY 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY Commute Alternatives System s Hand b ook v


Tables and Figures 10 Tabl e I T y pes o f T D M Strategies 12 F'&ure I Effectiveness of TDM Programs 18 Tabl e 2 Levels o f Service f or Roadway Segments 22 Figur e 2 U.S. Passen ger Miles o f Travel by Mod e 23 Fig u r e 3 Transportation Costs i n P erspective 26 Figure 4 U S Air Pollution by Sou rce 33 F i g ure 5 Effectiveness ol Carpool ing 34 F i g ure 6 Effectiveness or Van poo l i n g 36 Figure 7 Effectiveness of 3 9 F igureS Effectiveness o f Flexible Work H o urs 4 1 F igure 9 Effectivenes s or T elecommuting 6 1 Table 4 Customer Needs and the Rol e of the Transit o r TDM Agency 62 f igure 1 0 T h e P lanDo C heck-Act Cycle vi Commute Alternatives Systems H andbook


Overview of the Manual T h i s manual was developed to i n form developers, p lanners, employers, and others a b out TOM and how it can enhance the quali ty of lif e i n Florida. The manual i s divide d into eight sedioi'IS: Section 1: What is TDM? Provides a gen eral overview of TO M and the F lorida Commuter Assis1ance Program Section 2: TDM and Public Policy Focuses on trai'ISportation and gro wth manageme n t problems that have increased the need for TDM and on state and federal legislation t hat require the use o f T DM strateg ies. These include F l or ida's growth management requirem ents, the federal l nterm odal S urface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) o f 1991, and the Clean Air Act Amend m ents (CMA) of 1 990. Section 3: TDM Techniques Examines the various T D M strategies, including ridesharing pools, wor k h ours, t e lecomm uting, parking management, H OV lanes, pedestrian and bicycle alternatives, trip r e ducti on o r d inances, and ITS appl icat ions. Section 4: Preparing and Implementing a TDM Plan Expl a ins ho w to p repare a TDM plan and develop a TDM p rog r a m o r transportation mana g e m en t organization, and how to carry out TDM strategies through trip reduction ordinances. I t inclu des a n overview o f Total Quality Manageme nt practices and sensitivity a n d diversity issues as they relate to TDM programs. Section 5: Funding and Technical Assistance Describes state, federal and other organi2ations and programs that p rovide funding and techn ical assistance t o TDM programs. Glossary A collection of T D M and r e lated terms. Bibliography Alist of TDM publicati o ns. Commute A lternatives Systems Handbook vii


viii Commute Alternat i v e s Syste m s Ha ndbook


Digitization Note: Pagination Scheme changes, pages 1-9 are NOT missing. What is What is transportation demand management (TDM)? How can TDM reduce traffic congestion? What are some TDM strategies? What is the focus of Florida's TDM efforts?


WHAT IS TUNSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT (TDM)? Transportation demand management (TDM) reduces traffic congestio n and p ol l utio n b y influencing changes i n travel behavior. Rather than b u ilding or wide n ing roads or improvin g signal timing, TOM increases the passenger capacity ol t h e transportation system by reducing the n u m b e r of vehicles on the roadway d uring peak travel t imes. T his is accomplished t h r oug h a variety of strategies aim e d at influencing mode choice, frequency of trips, trip l e ngth, a n d route travelled. Convenience. cost, and timing of alternative modes o f travel are among t h e issues addressed i n a TOM program. TD M reduces traflk congestion in several ways. Carpool s van pools, or b uses move more people in fewer vehicles. B kyclin g and walking e l i m inat e vehicle trips completely. Changing the tim ing o f the t rip t o a less congested period through flextime or staggered work h ours r e duces the number of vehicles arriving or departing at the same time. Lin k ing t r i p p urposes, such as s h opp ing on t h e way h ome from work red uces the number o f trip s Work-at-ho m e arrangements also reduce t h e need to commute. TDM was introduced i n the 1 970s in response to fuel s hortages a n d air q u a lity requi rements ol t h e U.S. Clean A i r Act. Auto mo b ile emiss i ons are amon g the major pollution sources targeted by t h e Act. The U.S. E n v ironmental Protection Agency (EPA) requ ires metropolitan areas to prepare "transportation contro l plans to address this issue, and many transportation planners are t urning to T O M as o n e way of ach i evin g nati onal air quality standards. The role of TDM i n transportation p lanning has gradually increased since the 1 9 7 0s and today an integral part of the transportatio n plann i n g process. Mode Ti m e Convenience Regulation Route Cost Table I TYPES OF TDM STRATEGIES Carp ool s vanpoo l s transit, bike, wa l k F lextime staggered work hours com pressed work weeks, h i gh occupancy vehicle lanes l ink e d t rial use o r modes HOY lanes, land use P referential fo r Emp loyee commute opt ions, t ri p red u ction ordinances (TROs) develop ments of I Contest ion p ricing, intelligent transportation Parking pric ing, congesti o n pr i c ing, transit s ubs i dies 10 Com mute Alternatives Systems Handbook


TDM MEASURES Many people associate TOM pri'narily will <:arpOOiing programs. Howe\lel; it is much more comprehensive and draws upon a variety of str3tegies. These Car, van, and bus pooling Programs that assist two or more persons who live and work dose together to comm ut e t o and from work in one vehicle. These involve ridesharing and matching seNioes and a guaranteed ride home pnogram for e mergency situations. Al ternative work hours \lar iations i n the typical 8:00am t o 5:00 pm, Monday th r o ugh Friday work schedule. This may include programs to stagger arrival and departure ti mes, flextime, o r a compressed work week. Telecommuting -Allows employees the option of woricing at home or at a work <:enter near thei r . residence on a lui tine or part lime basis. Parking management Strategies that target the c:ost. availabolity. and COfflellience of parking as a means of encouraging ridesharing or use of j)lbli<: transportation and disrouraging the driille-alone com mute High vehicle ( HOY) lanes Specially designated h ighway lanes reseNed for vehicles with . more than one occupant : By li miting the l a nes to high occupancy veh icles, congestio n o n t hose lanes i s reduced and travel times for those' rideshare are faster than fo r drive-al one commuters. Pedestrian and bicycle alternatives Planning and promotiona l strategies that increase opportunities for people to walk or bike, rather than drive, and promo t e better Jinkages to service for pedestri-, ans and bicy<:lists. Trip reduction ordinances (TROs) Reg\Aalory mandates that reqlire to reduce the number of automobile lf1ls during peak commute hours through TOM strategies marl

.-, 0 ._, = 0 "C u "" .. ... c f-... ..c .. > -.. z figure I EFFECTIVENESS OF TDM PROGRAMS j 1: $. .l! .;; 'I! e t: Employer a n d technical on TOM. Products and services offere d t h rough the program include t h i s m a nual : a Program O inector' s Manu al: trai n i n g woricshops: and t h e T O M Clearinghouse, established a t the fo r Urba n Transportati on Research at the Universi1y of South F lorida, which p rovides i n formation and technical assistance. TOM strategies emphasized by Florida's Commut e r Program include carpooing. vanpooling. bicycling, and the use of publk Commuters can obtain assistance from a variety of T O M organizations including regional com muter service corporations, local commuter assistance programs, and transportatio n management organ izations. Transportation Management Organizations, ( TMOs or TMAs) are publ ic/private partnerships for med to address mobility p roblems within defined geographic areas through the use of TOM TMOs typically focus on employer based initiatives. but are their scope to address areawide needs. The Florida Commuter Assistance Program encourages formation of TMOs and the TOM ae.vinghouse was created to assist areas in estabishing TMOs Regi onal C ommuter Services are p u b l ic/private organizations funded i n part b y the State and established to prov ide basic s u pport for transportati on m anagement organizatio n s i n Florida. Regional co m mu ter assistance 12 Comllll.(e Mema!Nes Systems Handbook


program s (CAPs) p rovide an array o f services wh ich may i nclude computerized trip match ing f o r ridesh are a p p licants, marketing service s for TMOs Nitl1i n thei r service area, T MO support, coo rdination of transit i n forma tion, TD M plann ing, a n d coordination betwee n TMOs a n d local growth management program s local Co m m uter Assistance Programs are public agencies that are usually fully funded by the FOOT Co m m uter Assistance Program. These agencies provide a variety o l services i nd u d ing computerized trip matchi ng, employee transportat ion p l a n n i ng, s u p port for transportat i o n disadvantaged coordi nator s s u p port for TMOs, and technical assistance to l ocal governm e nts in applying TOM strategies as part o f a g r owth manageme n t i n i t iative. The Flo r i d a Com muter Assi stance Program is design e d n o t only t o a d d ress congestion on state roadways, b u t also to a i d commu n i t ies, devel opers. and oth ers i n comp l y ing w ith Florida' s g r owt h managemen t requirements and with new federal transportation and a i r q uali ty requirem e nts. ,. A var iety of activities a n d projects h a v e been undertaken across the state t o e n l ist the sup port of employers and t o expl o r e low-cost altematives t o roadb u i lding. Mobility conferences h ave been held i n F l o r i d a's major metropol i tan areas. TMOs have been for med i n Tallahassee, Orlan do, Tampa, Gainesville Ft. lauderdale, and Miami Beach and are being establ i s hed i n M i a mi, jacksonvill e and West Palm Beach The FDO T and the florida E n e rgy Office ( fE O ) have sponsored works hops throughout tl1e state to i nform t h e publi c and private sectors about t h e benefits of T DM. The Florida D epartment o f Com m unity Affairs ( OCA) requ ires local g o v ernments in m e tr o po l itan a reas to incl ude TDM strategies i n t h e i r transportation p lans. TOM strategies a lso are requ ir e d for local governments t hat pursue flexble a l ternatives to transportation concurrency unde r F lorida' s E LMS-Ill legislation. \ Commute Alternatives Systems Handbook 13


14 Commute Alt ernatives Systems H andboo k


TDM Pu How do Florida's growth management regulations impact TDM program development? How do the metropolitan planning organizations and departments of transportation work together to meet the goals of the lntermodal Surface "Transportation Efficiency (IS TEA) Act and the Clean Air Act Amendents? What are the specific needs and regulations for nonattainment areas?


Betwee n 1 970 and 1990. F l or i da's p o p ulatio n nearly doub led. I n 1993, t h e estimated population was 1 3 8 m i ll i on C urr e n t demograph i c p r o jections put F l or ida' s popu lation at just u n d e r 19 m illi on by t h e year 20 10.' To date. th i s growth has been c haracterized by more peop l e ent e r i n g t h e workforce (particularly w omen). an i ncrease i n a u t o m obile ow nership, and a continuing shi ft o f jobs and resi d e nces i nto s u b urban areas. Also, between 1980 a n d 1 990, tourism i n F l orida increased from 2 0 m illio n to nearly SO m illi on vi s itors annu ally All o f th i s g r owth has p ut a tremendous strain o n the transportatio n n etwork The trend toward sprawl i n g low density land use patterns and enforced separation of resi d e ntial area s fr om jo b s and service s has increased d epen dence o n the automob ile. M o r e peopl e own an a u tomobi l e today t h a n ever b e f or e and fewer workers now carpool, ride o r wal k to work.3 Accordi n g to the Federal Highway Admi nistration these trends could i n a 300 perce n t increase i n freeway congestion in major metro politan areas between 1985 and 2005 The rapi d i ncrease i n transportation dema n d has no t been matched b y expa nsion of capacity. Development of u r ban f reeways th r o ugh the 1 960s and 1 9 70s s l owe d to a trickle by t h e late 1980s as the Interstate Highway Syste m n eared comp l etion I ncre ased citiz e n o pposition t o u rban h ighway pro jects, com b i ned wit h escalat ing costs o f acqu iring urban land brough t n ew h ighway c onstruction to a v i rt u a l halt i n many areas. Ove r the past decade, vehicl e m i les traveled on F l o rida' s highways i n c reas e d by 55 p ercent. w h i l e lane m i l e s on t h e s tat e highway syste m increased b y o nly 1 4 p erc e nt.' Th e resu l t h a s been slow e r traffic. longer c o m m u tes, i ncreased air p ol l utio n and fr ustrated travelers. Reducing the n u mber of vehicles on the roa d was recogni zed as the on l y reason a b l e short -t erm sol ution to t h e probl e m T h e reali7.ation that road fun d i n g cann o t keep pace w ith demand-th a t Florida cann ot buil d i t s way o u t of traffic c ongestion-has i n a g rowing emphasi s on t ransportation demand manag e m ent i n transportatio n plann ing and growth managemen t policy. GROWTH MANAGEMENT In t h e earl y 1980s F lorida experie nced rapi d g r owt h along the coastline and with i n major m e tropolitan areas. I n the fac e of i nte nsive growth development approvals o ften were p u s hed t h ro u g h wi t h l itt l e r egard f or lo ng-t erm p l a n n ing considerations. Many communi t ies relied on 'pay later growt h plans to prov i d e the n e c essary p u b l i c services and facilities. T h e comb i nation o f l o w taxes. rapi d devel o p m e n t and inadequate planning and regulation resu l t e d i n h aphazard growth and grow i n g concerns abou t Florida' s f ut u re I n 1 985 the S tate o f Flo r i d a r e s po n d e d t o thi s crisis by adopting the landmark Local G o v e rnment Comprehen sive Planning a n d Land D evel opm e n t Regulation Act ('GrovJth Managemen t Act ) The Act bec a m e k n o'.vn as F l o r i da's "pay as you grow l aw because it required l ocal comprehensive p lans to be financially feasi ble. The legislature mandated Stat e review of loc a l comp r ehensive p l ans f o r consistency w ith State growt h managem ent po l icy and adopted a State p lan to provide the po licy con text for local and regi o nal planning ( Chapt e r 1 8 7 F.S.) T h e Department of Comm u nity Affairs adopt e d ru l e 9)-5. FAC. to set minimum cri teria f o r com p l iance review of local comprehensive plans. 16 Commute Alternatives Systems Hand book


Level of Service and Concurrency The foundation o f the G r owth Management Act is a mandate called concu rrency. Th e concurrency m andate requ ires local gover n m e nts to e n sure that transportati on ar1d ot h e r p u b l i c facil(lies ar"e i n p lace concurrent with, the impacts o f devel opment 163.3177[ I OJ [h)). Local governments a r e restricted from p e r m itt ing a development project if it woul d overload available on the affected roadway system. Capacity is mea sur e d in terms o f t h e desired level of service (LOS) q u a litative indicator o f prefer red travel condi tions. LOS standards are established by the lo c a l government on roadway l i nks and at i n tersections and form the basi s for conwrrency d eter m i nations. TDM i s valu able i n t his context because is a much less c ostly method of improvi n g roadway level of service t h a n road w idening and other capital projects. TDM reduces deman d for peakh our travel o n th e road system by encouraging rideshari n g flexible work hours, parking controls, a n d a variety o f other strategies. Local govern m ents may provide fo r TDM as a method of meeting the concurrency requ ir e m ent o n c o nstrained or backlogged c orri d ors. Yet. to d o so, they m ust have som e way o f eval uatin g th e effectiveness of T D M in maintain i n g local LOS standards. Unfort u nately, l itt l e reliable data ane available f o r measuring the effe ct of T D M strategies on roadway LOS. M eva l uatio n o f TDM program s conducted for the Federal Highway Administration found that Miami's Level of Service (LOS) Evaluation Florida requires that local governments provide adequate transportation facilities, concurrent with the impact of development The city of Miami evaluates the level of service of their transportation (aci litil!$ by oggregofing the to to/ service capacities of parallel highway and transit facilities that ore locate d within the sam e trove/ corridor. HoY

Table 2 LEVELS OF SERVICE FOR ROADWAY SEGMENTS TECHNICAL DESCRIPTIONS LEVEL OF SERVICE Flow Operating Delay Service Conditions Speed Rating A Free 55+ None Good tr.lffic flow, low\'Oiumesand densities. Little or n o restriction I on maneuverability or speed. B Stable tJaffic flow, speed so None Good becoming s lightly restricted. low restriction on maneuverability. Stable tr.lffic flow, but less 45 Adequate r Minimal freedom to select speed, change lanes or pass. Density "' increasing. D Approoching unstable flow. 40 Adequate Speeds tolerable b ut subject to M i n imal sudden and considerable variation. Less manueuve

some areawide programs have r e d uced peak hour trips by about 20 perce nt and some individual employment sites have achieved more than a 40 percent reduction.' These results reveal the potential ofTDM for expanding roadway capacity Yet such results have not been the norm. in part because many programs neglect factors such as free par1ased out by 1997 in all but rural counties and smal cities where the program wil remain optional. In ils place. local governments are required to adopt a revised intergovernmental coordination element for their comprehensive plan. This plan element must deme t>ow the convnlrity wil address the inpacts of large scale development projects. Thnesholds definif1g when a project is s

Concerns that develo pment was being p ushed o ut o f central d ties where roads we r e co ngested, to outly ing areas with excess capacity resu lted i n adoption of flexi ble alternatives to transp ortatio n wncurre ncy. including the follo w ing (see Rule 9] -5 .0055 F.A.C}: T r anspor t a tion Concu rrency Except ion Areas Transportation Concurrency Exception Areas allow l ocal governme nts to exempt devel opment fro m conc urrency i n areas specified i n th e comp r e h ensive p lan for urban i nfill and redevelopment. A concur rency excepti o n a l s o was p rov ided for p r o jects t h at p r omote publi c transportation In exchange. local governments must adopt p rograms and s trategies for addressing transportation deman d. such as parking con trol and pricing p ol ides, TOM programs, and ava i lability of p u b lic transportation. Tra n spo rtation Concurrency Ma n agement A reas (TCMAs) TCMAs allow local governm e nts to establish more flexib l e areawide level o f service standards i n central cit ies o r other activity centers. I n exchange. t h ey must promo t e mo des o f travel and demon s trat e how services and programs, such as TDM, will improve mobility. TrDnsptlrltllitNt PIDns Local governme nts within the p l a n n ing area boundaries o f a p l a n n ing organization (MPO} a re now required to prepare a new transportation element for the i r comp rehensive p lans. The new element must i ntegrat e p lans and analysi s f o r traffic c irculation, transit, p orts, and aviati o n and identify transportati o n manage m e nt p rogram s necessary to p rom o t e and support p ublic transportation systems. T h e p lan also m ust contai n p oli de s f o r establishing TDM progr a m s t o modify peak h o u r demand and r educe the n u m b e r of vehicle miles travelled per w i t h i n the comm unity and region (9j5 0 1 9[4][c][6)) These r e q uire m e nts w i ll push local governments to vi ew transportati on as an integrated system rathe r than considering each componen t i n isolat i on. Stille (tlmpreltellsive P/Dn Th e E LMSIll Act requi red revision of the State Comprehensive P l a n to provide more strategic d ir ect i o n to local governments i n carry ing o u t their compre hensive plans. P reviously, th e p l a n was to be i m p lemented t hrough t hree separate agency plans: the Florida Transportat i on Plan. the Stat e Lan d De v e lopment Plan, and the State Water Use Plan. T h e separate stat e agency plans now m ust be combined i n to a s ingle Strategic Grov.1h and Devel opment Plan. The new strategic plan will integra t e land, water, a n d transp ortation plann ing and p rovide guide l i nes for w h e r e future urban growth would be appropria t e and wher e state h i ghw a y and publ i c transporta tion corri d ors shoul d be located. 20 Commute Alternat ives Systems Ha ndbook


City of Orlando T he City of Orlando is l ooking into factoring projected veh icle t ri p redu cti on i nto concurrency dete rmination s u nde r certain and has re q uire d TDM strate-gies as a condition for DRI approval. Orlando's transportatio n plan also calls for TDM and strategies to increase system capacity including ridesharing programs, i mprovements increased AVO and redu ced transit headways. One large Orlando area emp l oyer, F l ori d a Hospital has hired a f ull time TDM professional as a result of a DRI development order. Florida Hospital cu rre ntly o p erates a carpoo l ing p rogram used by I 0 pe rcent work force and a vanpooling p D ue t o its continuous growth, the hospital is a lways searchi ng for new and i nnovative solu t ions aimed at meeting concurrency. A t th e p resent t i me it is a lso t rying to develop telecommuti n g a nd ffexible wor k hours programs. Source: Hondshuh, Brion. I n terview. Florida Hospital. Costro, Gus. I nterview. Otyof Orlando. RegiDnfll Pl11nning Regional Plann ing Councils ( RPCs) have been given a new role under th e ELMSIll legislation. The RPCs' role in transportatio n p lann ing was defined as coordinatin g l and devel opment and transportation policies i n a man ner that fosters regional transportation systems and identifying and hel p ing to resolve inconsistencies betwee n locab government plans and those of transportat ion authorities and MPOs 'RPCs also were encouraged t o recommend minimum density guidelines f or development a long designated public transportati o n corridors. TRANSPORTATION POLICY The 1990s are a decade for major s hifts i n federal and state transportation policy. Wi t h urban travel increasing and fewer oppo rt u nities f or h i g hway expansion, new solution s must be found. The need for a f resh approach t o traffic congestion and mobility problem s has culminated i n t h e first comprehensive po l icy statement t o come out o f th e U.S. Departmen t o f Transportat i o n i n more than a decade. This Statement o f Na t ional Transportation Policy became t h e foundation for a n ew transportation law-the lntermodal S urface Tr.ansportation Efficiency Act (IST EA}--which was adopted by Congress i n 1991 The is a mU<:h mor e comprehensive approach to tr.ansportation planning that takes into account the relationships beiJeen land use a n d all transportation modes. Also, state and local governments now have much more flexib ility i n setting transportation pr i or i ties Commute Altematives Systems Ha nd book 21


lntermodal Surface Transportation EHiciency Act (ISTEA) The lnterrnodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 set a new d irection for federal transportation policy. Unlike the h ighway-onl y era of the Federal-Aid H i g hway program, I S TEA embraces a broad range o f transporta t ion a n d p ushes f o r a "total transportation sol utio n to url:>an mobility prol:>l e m s.' The goal o f ISTEA is to d evelop a national intermodal transportation system that i s economically efficien t and environmentally sound and will move peopl e and goods i n an energy-efficient m anner. Toward t his end, the k.t provides mor e funding for transit a n d broader pro ject selection c r iteri a that address soci al, energy, economi c and envi ronmental effects in weighin g highways against transit. Title Ill of ISTEA {the Federal Transit Act Amendments) a lso i ncreased the federal matching share for f r o m 7 5 percent to 80 percen t e q u a l t o most h igh;vay program s and thus a neutral factor i n project selection. The elevated ro l e of transit i n national p o l icy can b e seen i n the modal breakout of federal funds p rovided l:>y ISTEA. Nearly 20 percent of t h e funds authorized in ISTEA over the s i x year period ending i n 1996 are for trans it. The S urface Transportatio n Program pnovides flexible fun d i n g t h a t may be applied t o a variety of p rojects, such as transit capital projects; carpool, paricing, bicycle. and pedestrian facili t ies; highways; or transportati o n control measures (TCMs) f o r reducing traffic congestion and improving a i r quality. TCMs are fun ded under the Congestion Mitiga tion and A i r Qua l ity Improvement Program or CMAQ ( "see-mac"), which was established under the S urface Transportati o n Progra m for transportation projects in nonattai nment areas t hat enhance air quality Figure 2 U.S. PASSENGER MILES OF TRAVEL BY MODE 100 I P ercentofTo tal PMT 20 0 u ;> o::l -Travel Mode 22 Commute Altern a tive s Systems Han d book


New Pltmnl ng Requireme nts ISTEA e mphasi