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Florida five-year transportation disadavantaged plan


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Florida five-year transportation disadavantaged plan final report
Physical Description:
v, 21 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Florida -- Dept. of Transportation
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research
Place of Publication:
Tampa, Fla.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
People with disabilities -- Transportation -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Paratransit services -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Older people -- Transportation -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
Statement of Responsibility:
by the Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
General Note:
"Prepared for Transportation Disadvantaged Commission and the Florida Department of Transportation."
General Note:
"June 1992."

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029814254
oclc - 28968451
usfldc doi - C01-00393
usfldc handle - c1.393
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F l orida FiveYear Transportation Disadvantaged Plan FINAL REPOR T Prepared tor the Transportation Disadvantaged Commission ' \"'-=--_ and the Florida Department of Transportation by the Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South Florida C UTR June1992


Foreword This final report summarizes five technical memoranda produced by the C emer for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) for the Transportation Disad v antaged Commission and the Florida Departmellt ofTransportation. These memoranda, along with this report comprise the Florida Five-Year Transportation Disadvamag e d Plan that is mandated by Chapter 427 013 ( I 4 ), Florida Statures. Technica l Memorandum No. I provides an introduction and historical perspective tO transportati o n disadvan taged services in Florida. Tec hnical Memomndum No 2 reports on statewide operating data on results of a11 atlitudinal and needs survey, and on an evaluation of the existing transponation dis advantaged system in Florida. Tec hnical Memorandum No.3 pres ems demand forecasts for trans portalion disadvantaged transportation se1vices over the n ex t five years. Technical Memorandum No 4 provid es estimares of rhe cost of meeting the d emand and explores the ability of cttrrent fimding resour ces to mee t that cost Technical Memorandum No.5 di scusses poli cy issues and prese nts goals, obje c tives and implementation strategies. Page ii


Executive Summary This reJJQrt summadzes the five technical memoranda of th e Florida FiveYear T nmsportition Disadvantaged Plan. Mandated by Chapter 427.013 (14), FloddaStatutes, this plan covers the years 1992 through 1996. The fiv e year p lan sets forth goa l s, objectives, and an action plan for tbe TransJJQrtation Disadvantaged Com m ission F lotida legislation defines transportation disadvantaged (TD) persons as tl\Ose persons who because of physical or mental disability, income status. or age are unable to l.r'.msport themselves or to purchase transportation. The legislatio n a lso includes children who are h igh-risk" or "at-risk" of deve lo pme n tal disabilities. The Transportation Disadvantaged Commission is the state-level policy setting board that is legislatively charged with tbe responsibil ity of accomplishing tl1e coordination of specialized trans portation services for transportation disadvantaged persons. These services, generally referred to as paratransit or demand-responsiv e services provide origin-to-destination service on d emand using a v111iety of vehic l es, including automobiles, vans mioi-b uses, at!d transit buses Prov i ders of t:hese services include a wide range of public private non profit, and private forprofit organizations In each of Florida's 67 counties an official planning agency has been designated to assist in plan n ing for TD transportation services. The planning agency selects for recommendation to the commis.sion a lo cal community transportation coordinator. T h e local coord i nator is responsible for ensuring that TD trao.sportation serv ices are delivered to the tratlSJJQrtation disadvantaged in each cou n ty A loca l coordinating board also bas been appointed in each county 11 1ese l ocal boards are chaired by an e lected official and are respo n sib l e for overseeing the l ocal coordinator and the delivery of TD transpo rt ation services. The f i ve-year plan that there will be demand for 29 million TD trips in 1996, but that only 17 million trips can be supp lied with forecasted resources 'Ibe five-year plan discusses vari ous dem1111dside and supply-s ide strategies to reduce the unmet demand. An impotta m component of the five-year p lan is goals and measurable objectives for the coor dinated system. The five-year plan also includes an action platl and strategies designed to help the c ommiss ion meet its object i ves. The action plao and the rest of the five -year plan are part of a dynam i c, continuing phmning process for the commiss ion that will include aru10al performance eval uations of the state coordinated TD system, annu al reviews of the commiss ion' s goals and objectives, and continual reviews of the commission's strategies, actio n plan, and work program. Page Ill


Pagelv The preparation of thi s report has been financed in part through a grant f rom the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transi t Administration under the Federa l T ransit Act of 1964, as amended. Phot ographs by Kelly L aDuke Printed on recycled paper.


Table of Contents E s ... xecut!Ve ummary ....... ............ ... ................ ...... ......................... ..... ... ..................................... ........ . m Introduction .................. .......... ........ . . .... . .... . . .... .... . .... . . ..... . .... ........ .......... . .......... . . . . . ......... 1 Descriplion of TD Transportation Services .................................. .. .......... ..... .. ........ ................. . ... 2 Transportation Disadvantaged Commission ... ..... .. .. .. .. .. .... . ..... .. ........ ..... ..... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... 3 Florida TD Legislalion .. .. .. ........ .. ...... .. .. .. .. .. .............................. .. .. ........ .. ..................... ........ 3 N alional TD Legisla t ion ...... .. .. .. ..... .. .. ....... ....................................... .. .... .. .......... ................. ..... 4 Program Organization .. ................................... ..... .. .. .. .. .................. ..... .. .. .. .. .. ..... ..... .............. 5 Historic TD F unding .. ........ .. ..... .. .......... .. .............................. .. .. ..... ................................. ..... .. . 7 Historic Operating Trends .. .. . ............... ..... .. .. .... ................................................................. ............. 8 TD Population .... ........................ ..... ..... .. ............ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....... ............. .... .. . ..... ..... .. .. .. .. 9 TO Trip Demand ......... ................ ..... ... ... ......................................... .. ............. ..... ....................... .... .... 10 TD Trip Supply .......... .... ..... ... .. ... ..... ................................ ..... .... ...... ..... ................ ..... .......... ... ...... .... 1 1 TD Trip Funding . ............. .......... .............................. .......... ........................... ................... ........... ...... 12 Unmet T rip Demand ......... ......... ... ................................ ............................ .... ............................ : ......... 13 Issues ........................ . ....... . .... ........ ............................... ............. ........................... ......................... 13 Goals and Objectives ....... .. . . .. .. .. ...... .. .. ...... ............................................ .. .. ............................... 18 Action Plan ............. ..... ...... .... ........ ................... ............. .. ... ...... .... ............................ . .......... .. .. .... 20 Pagg v




Introduction This five-year plan sets forth the Transportation Disadvan taged Comm i ssion's goals and objectives for the delivery of spe cialized transpo1tation services to transportation d isadvantaged persons in the state. Strategies to meet t h e objectives and achieve the goal s are also pwposed. These s trat egie s form the basis of a five-y ear action pl:m, from whi c h the commission staff will develop its annual work programs. I n addition, five -year plan present s : (1) forecasts of demand for TD tran s portation servic es, (2) the c ost of meeting that demand, (3) f orecasts of future funding for TD transportation se r vices . and ( 4) approaches to ba l ancing the supply and demand for these service s INPUTS Resources -Staff -Funding Expectations -TO Commissi on -Con s t ituents Conditions -D e mograp h i c s -Legislation OUTPUTS I nformation and Analysis Goals, Objectlv and S trategies Action Plan es TO Commission "" Revise Goals, Five-Year Plan Objectives, and Strategies TO Commission Work Program Operations Planning Process Annual Performance .. Evaluation Report , Loca l TO FiveYear P l ans PIIDe 1


F IVE Y E AR PLAN PBQ62 Florida legislation defines transportation disad va ntaged per sons as: ... those persons who because of physical or me mal dis ability, income sraws, or age are unable to tmnspon themselves or to purchase transportation am/ ore, there fore, depend.em upon others to obtain acce ss w health care. employmem, education s h opping, social activities, or otlu:r life-sustaining activities. or c hildren who ore handicapped or hi g h risk or at-risk as in s 4/1. 202." Income and age requirements are not explici t ly stated in legis lat ion or policy, but in practice it appears that anyone who falls below t he federally-defined poverty level meets the income criter i on and anyone who i s over 60 years o f age meets the age criterio n Description of TD Transportation Services Specialized t r ansporta t ion services for transportation disad vantaged persons a re generally referred to as paratransit or demand responsive services. T h ese serv ices provid e origin-to destination service on demand. In some areas, s u bs c ription ser vice can a lso be established. T his is serv ice that is prearr a nged and recurring to meet the travel needs of passengers who s ign up for the service in advance-. TO transpotta t ion services are provided with a variety of vehicles, including automobiles, vans. mini bu se s, and trans it b u ses. In some cases, school buses have been used to transport TO persons when the buse s are not in use t ransporting students A wide range o f public private non profit, and private forprofit agencies provi d e T O transportation services Many of these agencie s ptovide serv ice with only one or two vehicl es, while some have more than a h undred. O p erators of service inc lude associations of retarded citizen s, councils on aging, senior c i tizens groups serv ice organiza t ions affilia ted with various reli gions, public mass transit age n cies, mental h ealth centers. and many others. The types of tl'ips provided by these services i nclude trip s to agency programs and trips to general, or non-program-re l ated, d e s tinat ions. A p r ogram t rip is one made by a clien t of a govern mental or social service age n cy for the purpose of partic i pating in a program of that a gency. Examples of program trips are trips t o congregate dining facilities, shel tered workshops. and job training


facilities. A g en e r a l tr ip is one made by a tra n sportatio n disad v a nt a ged pers o n to a destination of his or her c h oice, not to an agency p rogram. Examples of general trip s are trips to work, gro c ery stores, and recreational facilities Transportation Disadvantaged Commission The Tran sportati o n Disad va ntaged Conunission is an inde pendent agency that serves as the p olicy dev e lop ment and i m p l e ment ing agenc y fo r Flor i da's coo rdina t e d T D system The com m ission has a staff an d dedi c a ted sources of funds that are deposited int o tb e TD Trust F und. Pursuant to Rule 41 2, Florida Administrative Code (the rule adopted to implement the provi sions of C h apter 427 Florida Statutes) trust fund monies may be used for administr a tive and p l anning activ it ies an d t o subsidize trips by transportation disadvantaged persons that are n o t other wise funded F if teen members presently comprise the commission. Six commiss ion members are appointed by the Govemor for four year terms

. Federalp_olicy has loll < pi:OVidtd the bdsis and iihpetus f.or Florida's}ldoption of:. Tifleg!slation. in 1990 and 1992. The 1979 legislation created the Coordinaling Council for the Transportation Disadv:mtaged in the Department of Transportation and gave it responsibility to coordinate TD transportation services throughout the state. In 1989 the Coordinating Council was elevated to an independent commis sion (the Trattsportation Disadvantaged Commission} reporting directly to the Governor and the legislature. The 1989 legislation that created the commission also provided it w i th a dedicated source of funding that is deposited into the TD Tntst Fund. Additional sources of funding for the commission were provided during the 1990 legi s lative session. Included in the 1989 legislation were mandates that substan tially increased the r ole and responsibilities of the commiss i o n and increased the commission's ability to ensure that coordinated TD transportation services are available throughout the state National TO Legislation Fedentl policy has provided the basis and the impetus for Florida's adoption ofTD legislation. Tite main pol icy direction has been f rom the Federal Transi t Adminis t ration (former!) the Urban Mas s Transportation Administration) in the U.S. Department of Tmnsportation. The major pieces of federal legis lat ion and their dates of enac tme nt are: 1964 Federal Transit Act (formerly the Urban Muss Transportution Act)-Provides in Section 16(a } of th e act that a s a matter of national policy eldel'ly and handicapped persons have equal righ t s to use mas s transportation facilities and s e r vices. Section 16(b }(2 } provides for federal capital assistance to pri vate non-profit operators of elderly and handicapped services and encourage s the coordination of such services. Section 1 8 provides for federa l capital and opera t ing assistance to non-urban public transportation systems that serve but are not limited to, the elderly and handicapped. 1973 .Rehabilitation Act, Section 504Prohibits discrimina tion against handicapped persons in any program receiving feder al financia l assistance. Urban transit sys tems mus t provide either s pecial service for the handicapped or make regular service acces s ible. (The accessibility provision h as been modified by the American s with Di s abilities Act.) 1983 Surface Transportation Assistance Act, Section 317(c)-Established minimum criteria for the provision of e l derly and handicapped transp

aid. Criteria involve fares, service coverage, and the amount of advan ce time requ.i.J:ed for reserving a scheduled trip. The act also prohibits recipients of federal assistance from ranking or denying trip requests based on the purpose of the trip 1990 Americans with Disabilities Ac t (ADA) R equires that all fixe droute public transportation systems be fully accessib .le and tha t complementary paratransit service be provided for per sons with disabilities who live within the serv ice area of fixed rou t e trans i t systems Persons eligible for paratransit service include those who have tempor ary or permanent disabilities and a r e unable to make use of a fully-accessible f i xed-ro ute syste m. The paratransit s ervice must be provided between all origins and destinations within a c ertain distance of any fixed route, must operate the same days and hou rs as the t1xed r oute service and must not charge more than twice the fare of the f i xe d route ser vice. 1991 I nt.ermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act Changed Section l6(b )(2) of the Urban Mass Transportation Act so that public organizations, such as transit agencies that coord i nate service for disabled aod elderly person s, could receive fund ing p rov i ded under this secti on. Jn the original legislation, onl y private non profit organizations were elig ib le t o receive these fund s. Program Organization The principal participaJJts in the delivery of TD services i n F lorid a are the commis s i on, government agencies, plan n ing organi zation s local coordinators, transportation op e rators, and purchasers of serv i ce The coord i natio n of these services in F l orida req ui res extensive interaction among these pruticipants The commission is the basic forum for communication a n d coopera tion among the participants. Desat Official Pl a n ning Agency I Purchasers Operators FINAL REPORT Transportation contntcts with Disadvantaged Commission Appolnls Coordinati n g and Staffs Board Recommends to TDC y ov;ees Buy Trips "' Community Trans p ortation Coordinator ContraCI$ with I Provide Tran sportatio n Transponatlon ... Disadv a ntage d Persons T he commission i s the state-level policy setting board that is legislative ly charged with the responsibility of accomplishing coordination. Jn each of Florida's 67 coun ties an official planoing agency has been designated to assist in planning TD trans portation s erv ices. In urban areas the offi I Oirgalni

FIVEYEAR PLAN CTCs are responsible o f TD services in eac h county. Page6 cia! planning agency is the metropolitan planning organization. In non-urban areas, which have no metropolitan pla nning organi zation. the official planning agency is designa ted by t he commission. A local coordinating board is appointed in each county by the ot'ficial planning agency. The primary purpose of th e local coor dinating board is to oversee the provision of TD tra nsporta tion services. The membership representa t ion of the coordinat ing boards is very similar to t hat of the commission and incl ude s rep resentat i ves from several agencies and user groups P ursuan t to Rule 41-2 the chairman of the coordinating board must b e both an elected official and a member of the official planning agency. The planning agency also selects a loca l community t rans portation coordinator for recommendation t o the commission. The local coordinator i s responsible for ensuring that transporta tion services are delivered to the trans porta tion disadv

transportation or to private laxi operators. Other trips are provid ed b y emergency and non-emergency medical-vehi cle opera t ors. O f the non-coordinated !rips, most arc not coordinated for one of three reasons: (1) lhe coord i naled system lacks capa city, (2) lhe trip ca n be more cost effeeti vely provided by a rel tiv c or a friend who receives a mileage reimbu.rse rnent, or (3) the urgency, unpredictability, or nature' of the trip m ake it difficult or inappropriale to arrange the trip through 1he local c oordinator. Th ere are o ther trips, however, that currently are not arran ged through the coordin ated system for so m e r easo n olher !han one of these three. The commi ssio n expects that lhrough improved accountability, lhese Iauer trips eventually will be arranged through the local coordina tors. H i storic TO Funding Funding for 'ID transportation servic e i s provided from federal. slate, and local sources ( i nc lud ing passen ger fare reven u e) Total statewide operating and capital funds ide ntified in tl1eannual budget cstimal es for TO transportation were $62.0 million i n 1989 (the most c ur rent datA avnllabl e at the t ime of this report). Of !bat amounl $34.1 million passed through the coordinated system. The remaining $27.9 million were funds for ser vices that are not part of the coordinated system. Among che various funding agencies there h as been a sigoi(ican t change in lhe amounts and relative co mpo si tion of funds r eceived by the coordinated system berween 1985 an d 1989. Tocal operating fund$ in the coordinated system increased from $7. 1 million in 1985 to $30.7 mil lion in 1989. (Thi s increase was primarily du e .. i mproved and increase d repo rting of TO transp011ation services r at h e r 1l1an to an increas e in the actual dolla rs available.) f1unds provided by l ocal governments and other l oca l sources for I he coordinated system in crease d from 11.8 perce nt of total operating funds in 1985 to 36.6 percent of t o tal operating funds in 1989. Opera ti n g funds from the federa l a nd s late Departments of Transportati o n were 31.6 percenl of toea! funds in 1985. By 1989, funds from these sources accounted for only 7.6 percent of t ola l ""1 FINAi REPORT 96.6')1, - HRSandU.S.HHS FOOT and U.S. OO'T lol Otbt


FIVE YEAR PLAN The 1D .Trust.Funif operating funds (The actual dollar amount of funds received from the DOTs did increase slightly, however.) Historically, t he larges t con t ributors of operating funds for the coordinated system have been the federal Dep3J'lment of Hea lth and Human Services and the state Department of Health and Rehabilitative Serv i ces In 1985 and 1989 these sources provided n ear l y half of the tota l operating funds for the system. began p rov id i n g foih:.ds ..;A f or m s ervice s i n !991. $7.50 $6. 00 $4.50 $3.00 $1.50 $0.00 The proportion of system funds contributed by state l evel sources is expected to increase in the future because of the TO Trus t Fund In 1 991, t he Trus t Fund began providing funds t o the official planning agencies to develop local service p l ans and to provide staff support to t he l ocal coordinating boards The Trust Fund also began providing funds to local coordinators to subsi dize trips that do not currently receive a subsidy from a govern mental or social service agency. H i sto r ic Operating Trends An important component of the five-year plan is an evalua tion of the operating perfonnance of the coordinated system dur ing the last several years This evaluation documents how the system has changed over time and identifies areas in which improvements are needed. It also provides a basis for the devel opment of system goals, objec t ives, and s t rategi es. The per iod from I 985 t o I 989 was one of significant change for the coordinated system. The number of passenger trips pro vided by operators with .in the system increased f rom 1.6 mi Jiion trips in 1985 to 6.2 million trips in 1989 or 40.3 percent per year. As suggested earlier, this increase was primarily due to i mproved and increased reporting ofTD transportation services. The real rate of increase in trips provided can be estimated by looking at the growth rate in trips among a group of25 l ocal coordinators who were part of the coordinated sys tem during the ent ire five yea r period. T hat ra t e was 8 2 percent per year which suggest s that while the reporting of existing t rips has improved great ly, there also have been significant real increases in the number of trips being provided 1985 1 986 1 987 1988 1 989 Two important perfonnance measures for evaluat ing the cos t of service are operating cost per passenger trip and opera t i n g cost per vehicle mile The first mea sure, operaJing c ost per passenger trip indicates how well the service is utilized relative to the resources Operating Cost per Passenger Trip Pa. ae 8


expended. From 1985 to 1 989. operati .ng cost per passenger trip increased from $4.4 3 to $5.39, or 5 0 percent per year Adjusted for inflation, real operating cost per passenger trip in 1989 was $4.68, w hich is equivalc .nt to an annualized increase of 1 .4 percent per year. Operating cost per vehicle mile measures how effi ciently the service is provided. This measure increased $2.00 from $1.04 in 1985 to $1.24-in 191!9, or per y ear. When adjusted for in flation, operating cost per $1.50 vehicle mile was $1. 08 in 1989, which is equivalent to an annualized i ncrease of 0.9 percent per year TD Population 19ss$s Agencies that purchase TO services to transport clients to programs sponsored by the agency typically serve persons who can be c lassified into one or more of three demographic groups: the disabled the elderly, and the low income. These agency programs usually are open to all persons within the specific demographic groups served (subject to a vailable funding), regardless of their need for spec i alized tr(msportation services I n addition to the trips that agencies subsidize for uansporration to programs, agen cies also subsidize general trips Only ten percent of the general trips made, however, are subsidized with agency funds. Most general trips currently made are subsid ized with TO Trust .-----' Fund monies. (The commission refers to the trips that do not receive governmental or social service agency subsi dies as "nonsponsored trips" and the TO Trust Fund monies that are used to subsidize these trips as n on sponsored funds".) The eligibility guidelines co. ntained in Chapter 4 2 7, Florida Statutes.require that.dis.abled. elder!*, and low-ineome persons be ... unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportation . . As a resu l t, some persons who have program or general trips subsi dized with agency funds are not eligible to receive TO Trust Fund monies for general trips under the Chapter 427 guidelines Disabled 1.8 Million Elderly 3.2 Million Low Incom e 1.8 Million Total= 5.3 fVhlhon Because of these differences in eligibility the state's coordinated TO system serves two population groups. The f irst group includes disabled, elderly, and low income persons and children who are "high -risk" or "at risk". These persons are eligible to receive governmental and socia l service agency subsidies for program trips and TD Category I Population, 1992


' general trips ;md are referred to in t his report as the TD Category I population. The second population group is a subset of the .--:....:..----=--..::...:....:..=----, Category I populatio 1 1 and includes only those persons who 1.5 Million s 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 0.0 1992 1993 1994 1 995 are transporta t ion disadvantaged according to the eligibil ity guidelines in Chapter 4 27 (i.e., they are unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportation). These persons are eligible to receiv e the same subsidies as Category I persons plus they are eligible to receive TO Trust Fund monies for non sponsored general t rips. They are referred to as the T D Category 11 popula t ion. (It should be noted, however, that it also is commission policy to provide service, subject to available capacity, to persons who are not eligible for funding as long as those 1996 persons pay for their trips.) TD Category II Population Tite Cat egory I population is forecasted to increas e from 5 3 million persons in 1992 to 5 7 m i H ion in 1996. The Category II population is forecasted to increase from 1.0 million in 1992 to 1.1 million in I 996. Millions 20 1 6 12 8 4 Total Popu l ation ID Categof) I Population Chap ter 4 I I of the Floida Statutes which is refer enced in Chapter 427, defines "highrisk and ''at-risk" children as preschool children at risk of developmental disabilities. T he F l orida Department of Healt h and Rehabilitative Services estimates that approximately 28 percent of Florida's preschool children meet one or more of the thirteen characteristics contained in Chapter 41 I that define "highrisk" or "at-risk" children If the num ber of hioh risk" or "atrisk" children increases at the same rate as the projected growth in t he sta te's popu l ation of preschool children, the si .ze of this group will increase from 253,000 in 1992 to 281 ,000 in 1996. TO Category Jl Population The Category I population figures include nearly all o f the "high-risk" or "at-risk" children because mos t of them are also disab led and/or members of low-income families. 1 992 1 993 1994 1995 1 9 96 Florid a P.,Pulatlons, 1992 to 1996 Page 10 TO Tri p Demand Demand for a good or service is the amount consumers are willing to buy at a given price and under given market conditions Market conditions are affec ted by operating characteristic s of TD transportation service, consumer incom e, consumer awareness of the service, prices of other modes, and eligibility requirements.


FINAL REPORT The total demand for TD tri p s is forecasted to be 26.6 million trips in 1992 and to increase to 28.9 million trips in 1996. This total demand consists of demand for both program trips and general trips. Millions 40 35 (. Conml Trips Prognm Trips J The demand for program trips is dependent upon the existence of the program to which transportation disad vantaged persons are transported. If the re i s no program, program-related transportation is not demanded Assuming that agency programs increase at the same growth rate as the Category I population, program trip demand is forecasted to be 13 I million trips in 1992 and to increase to 14.2 million trips in 1996 Dem

FIVE YEAR PLAN The implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act will a l so be a factor in the supply of trips The act requires that all fixed-route public transit systems be fully accessible to dis abled persons and that complementary paratmnsit service : II be provided by the fi x ed rou te transi t sy s tems for dis -12 10 8 4 Page 12 Trips c t01'ru$t General Trips Fu:ncb) Program Trips lAgtl'lcy 1992 1993 1 994 1 995 1996 Trips Supplied Through the Coordinated System abled person s who are unable to u s e a fully accessible fixed-rou t e sys t em The high lev el of paratmnsit service required under the Americans with Disabilitie s Act will affect TD transportation services in Florida and els e where Although it is unc et1ain how services will be affected. it i s likely that there will be some shifting of trips from the coordinated system to the new ADA s er vices by those eligible for these s ervices. I t i s also lik e ly that these new services will increase the overall supply of transporta tion servi ces for TD persons, w hich will reduce the level of unmet demand for TO tra n sportation. It i s also possible that at the l ocal level there will be some diversion of funds from the curren1 coo rdi nated services t o the ADA pamtmnsit services. The potential outcome. in this case, could be an overall decreas e in the quality and levels of service available to existing users of TD transportation s ervices TO Trip Funding To supply the numbe r of foreca sted trips in the coor dinated system funding from t h e variou s sources is fore casted to increase from $64.5 m i llion in 1992 to $81. 2 m i llion in 1996. (Note that this i s not the s ame as the funding needed to meet demand. See di s c u ssion in next section.) Approximately 10 percent of these funds would be TD Trust Fund monies, and 90 percent would be pro vided by other governmental and social servic e agencies. 1 992 1 993 1 994 1995 1 996 Trips Supplied Outside the Coordinated System T hese forecasts do not include funds presently used to provide T D transportation servic e s outside of the coordinated system Total sta t ewide fun ds for TD transporta tion, including tho se passing through the coor d inated system and those expended outside the coordinated system, must inc r ease from an est i mated $122.3 million in 1992to $152.9 million in 1996 if the supply of trips is to keep pace with the growth in the Ca t egory I population.


Unmet Trip Demand There is a s ignificant gap betw een forecasted trip demand and the forecasted supply o f trips. nus unmet demand for TD transportat ion services i s foreca sted to totall0. 7 million trips in 1992 and 11.9 million trips in 1996. Trip purpose surveys sugges t that in 1 992 this uomet demand is for 3.7 m ill ion medical trips, 2.1 mil lion education and work trips, 1.1 million shopping trips, and 3.7 million social recreational, and other tri p s 20 16 The co st of meeting all o f the unmet demand is sob1 992 1 993 1 994 1995 1996 stantial compared to the s ire o f the current coordinated Unmet Demand for Trips system. Th e c ost of providing additional serv ice to meet this demand would t otal $471.5 milli o n ove r the five-year period, or approximately $94.3 million annually. Of the annual need, $33 0 million would be required to meet all o f the estimated unroet demand for medical trips $18.9 m il lion t o provide educa tion and work trips, $9.4 million to p rovi de shopping tr ips, and $33 0 million to p r ov ide s ocial, recreational and trips. Given the scarcity o f financia l resources the commission obvi ously m u s t also consider ways of regulating the amount of this demand, as well as increasing the supply of trips, if the level of unmet demand is to be reduced substantially. Issues PROBLEM Market Size Re

FIVE YEAR PLAN llnmet demand can be reduced through demand-side and supply-siae strategies. Page 14 decision-making process i n place that explicitly addresses these questions If made by default, these decisions may be contrary t o commission policie s and may hinder the achievement of th e com mission's goals and objectives TI1esc decisions can be explicitly addressed at the local level or at the commission le vel or at some combination of the two, but a number of issues should firs t be considered. Essentially, there are two broad solut ions t o th e problem of unmet demand for TD transpol1ation service: (I) demand can be regulated, or (2) supply of service can be increased. There are a number of ways of accomplishing each of these. Some are beyond the control of the commi s sion but most can be influenced by commission policy decisions or actions. Demand Demand can be changed by: (I) changing the si1.e of t h e market for the good or service, (2) changing the price of the good or serv i ce, and (3) changing the good or service itself. Market Size Reductions. The size of the market for TD transportation services can be affec ted by changing the eligibility criteria for the services (e g., changing the maximum incom e level of persons to whom the services are made available) The eligibility guidelines in Florida are not v ery specific and, as a result, are being interpreted very broadly. Establishing specific criteria and a procedure to det ermine eligibility based on need would regu lat e the use of the services by those who have other suitable transportation options. Several factors would have a long-tenn affec t on TD market size but are beyond the intluence of the commission Chan ges in the methods in which health care is deliver ed, such as an increase in the provision of i n -home nursing care, would reduce the num ber of persons who need transponation to hospita l s or doctor offices. Advances in health care, such as new treatments for per sons with Alzheimer's disease or rheumatoid anhritis could also reduce the number of disabled persons in need of specialized transportation service. Change s in technology may also affect the market size. Improvements in road signage, for exam ple, may extend the driving capabil i ty of elderly persons by several years.


Price Service pricing is an important demand regulating mechanism. A large part of the unmet demand in the coordinated system is related to !he level of trip subsiditation. An increase in passenger fares has the potential both to regulate demand for the service and to increase operating revenue. This strategy, of course, requires that !he ab il ity of TD persons to pay for setv i ces be considered Product Changes. Changing the servic e d esign will also affect TD trip demand. For instance, if trans portati o n service were n ot provided at night or on week e nds, the trip demand would be l ess tha n forecasted in this report Th e amount of time a person must call in advance to reserve a trip also affects trip demand. Currently in the coo rdi n ated system, the minimum amount of time required to reserve a trip is generally 24 hoUJS in advanoe. If this advance reservation time were reduced the demand for discretionary and "spur -of-the-moment trips would increase. Implementing a procedure t o establish priorities among trip purposes woul d not limit demand, but it would ensure that certai n types of trip s, suc h as medical or other life-sustait1in g trips, are served first. A s tr icter alternative would be to implement a proce dure to actua ll y res trict the types of trips provided. This proce dure a l so would h ave an eff ect on market size sinlilar to a c hange in e li g ibility r e quirements. S u p pl y Supply can be changed by: (1) changing the leve l of fi!nding for services, (2) changing the efficiency of services, and (3) reducing the cost of services. Funding Increases. An obvious arrd i mportant means o f increasin g su pply i s obtaining additional funding from existing sources or thro u gh new sources. Implementi ng strntegies to leve r age the maximum f ederal share of funds ava ilab l e under !he vari o u s federal programs is one way to increa se funding from existing so u rces Implementation of the Americans with Disabili ties Act i s lik ely to increase overall funding for TD transportation services. Although it i s presently unclear exactly how the ADA panttransi t services will be funded, there may be some competition for funds at the loca l l evel by fixed rou t e transit operators and local coordinators. FtNAL REPORT


FIVE YEAR PLAN Supply can be increased by imp;roving service attd efficiency. Pttn,. 16 Efficiency Increases. I mprovin g the efficiency of services can lead to an increase in t he supply of services because resources are being used more econom icaUy. E fficiency is a measure of t h e level of output (e.g., vehicle miles or vehicle hours) provided for eacli unit of input (e.g. employees or veh i cles) Impr o ving effi ciency generally means t hat more output (i.e., service) can be pro v ided with the same or les s inputs. Efficiency of TD tran s portation service can be improved in a number of ways. Coordination can improve efficien c y by reduc ing duplication and fragmentation of services and by encouraging the sharing of resources. Im proving system administration and changing the s tructure to eliminate duplicative administrative and planning e fforts also contrib u te tO improved s ervic e eftic ien cy. Implementing a performance evaluat i on pro g ram can l ead to greater efficiency thro u gh early diagno sis of the need for-and implementation of--<: onective action. Planning activities, such as development of local five-yea r TO p lan s, can i mprove efficiency by more c l osely m a tching local service with ar ea s that need service. Providing techn i c a l support to local coor d i nators and operators in areas s uch as driver training, safety scheduling, data reporting, and accounting may also lead to greater service effic ienc y Demand ma nagement can also lead to improved efticiency Often referred to as demand side coordi n a t i on demand manage ment involves coordinating rides rather than vehicles. The goal of d emand management is to increase the grouping of trips and the sharing of ve hicles through modification of passe n ger schedules. This strategy does not result in a decrease in trip demand, but rather a decrease in the demand for vehic le s The additional capacity (or supply) that is made availabl e t hrou g h demand man agement can be used to meet some of the remaining unmet demand. One demand management strategy is for operators to encourage TD per sons to schedule trips with similar purposes or dest i nations during specified times so that the operators can more easily group these trips. Openltors can also encourage service providers (e.g., agencies, doctors, a n d hosp i t a ls) to change sch eduling practices to match transportation service availability. As another demand management strategy, operators may establish specific times for certain types of trave l. For exam ple a shop ping tour service could be established during off-peak hours on


cel'Ulio weekdays. Persons requesting shopping trips wou .ld then be referred to this scheduled sen-ice, resulting in greater vehicle load factors. Marketing and promotional programs to educate the public about TO ttansportalion services and to promote usage during periods of tow utilization are also effective demand management strategies. Efficiency can also be improved over the l ongt erm through changes in lnnduse pattems. Fo r example, if facilities used by TD persons (e.g congreg ate dining sites or-sheltered workshops) are sited close together, these persons would be able to meet mul tipl e trip purposes in one trip. These facilities could also be located near population centers (so that trip length s are reduced) or along ttansit routes (to encourage the use of fiXed-route service rather than TO ttansportatio n service). Although the commission cannot control the siting of these facilities, it can encourage gov ernmental agencies to consider ttansportation costs wben making facility location decisions. The commission can also stress to state and local officials the importance of TD planning during d1e comprehensive planning process. Cost Reduction. For a given budget, a reduction in the cost of service permits an i ncrease in the s u pply of service. While cost reductions in the provision of TD t.r'.msportution services can be achieved throug h the efficien cy impfovements dis cussed above, there are othe r ways in which costs can be reduced. Pooling bulk purchases of such i tems as insurance and equipment can reduce the cost of service. Use of volunteers as drivers, reservationists, or office assistants can also reduce the overall cost of providing service. Diverting TO trips to the state's fixedrou te transit systems is an especially effective way to reduce overall costs. Some lower-income TO persons would usc fixed route transit but cannot afford the regular fare. H these persons were provided with monthly transit. pas ses, a significant number ofTD trips could be divened from paratransit to regular public transit at a very low cost per trip to the TO program. As indicated in the discussion above there are numerous actions that ca n be taken to regulate demand or increase supply. To the extcntlhatt here remains unmet demand, th e supply of ser vice will have to be rationed. How these issues are addressed are policy decisions the commi ssion and other participants in the state coordinated system must make. Pa{1tJ 17


Page 18 Go a ls a nd Obj e ctive s Effective operation of the coordinated TD system. as of any organization, requires planning An im portan t component of the plann i ng process is the development of goals and objectives. Goals are broad conditions that define in general terms. what the organization hopes to achieve. Objectiv es communicate to system participan t s what is expected of them, in quantifiable terms The objectives must be con s istent with the established goals so that achievement of the objective s should result in achi e vement of the system goals The need to develop goals and objectives for the commission was raised in a 1991 review of the coordinated system by the Florida Office of the Aud i tor GeneraL That report contained a recommendation to "Develop measurable objectives and report ing processes that would allow {the commission} to assess Program performance.'' Measurable objectives are especially useful in monitoring progress toward achieving an organiza t ion's goals and in pinpo inting areas in need of corrective action The initial goals and objec t ives proposed for the commission are list ed on the following page. The goals and objectives should be reviewed annually by tl1e commission and modified as ch:mging cond i t ions may warrant. Progress t oward meeting the objectives should be measured and reported on a regular basis during the course of each year Included in Technical Memorandum No. 5 of the five-year plan is a methodology for measuring and eval uating the commis sion's progress in achieving these goals and objectives. This methodology includes quamifiable performance measures for each of the commission's objectives (A methodology for the commission to use to evaluate the performance of the local coor dinators is also i ncluded in that report ) There are nearly I 00 strategies presented in Technical Memorandum No. 5 tha t are des igned to help the commission meet its objectives and achieve its goals. These strategies form the basis of an action plan that the commi ssion should undertake during the next five years


FINAL REPORT Promote the provision of services to meet the demand for non-sponsored trips. Objective 2 Promote the provision of services to meet the demand for sponsored trips. Objective 3 Support establishment and contribution of TO planning and service delivery systems. Objective 4 Improve passenger awareness of TO transportation services. Accomp l ish cost effective service delivery. Objective 2 Ensure effective statewide program administration. Objective 3 Promote optimal utilization of services provided. Objective 4 Promote utilization of the most cost-effective transportation mode. Encourage courteous customer relat ion s and passenger com fort Objective 2 Promote service that minimizes customer travel and wait times. Objective 3 Require the p rov is io n of safe and reli ab le service. Inc rease total TO f unds to meet more of the demand for non -spo nsored trips. Objective 2 Encourage public and private agencies to identify and allo cate sufficient transportation disadvantaged fund s to meet the transportat ion needs of t h eir TO clients. Objective 3 Protect the principle of maintenance of effort in program funding. Adhere to procedures, rules, and regu la tions established by the state of Flo rida. Objective 2 Carry out legislative mandates. Objective 3 Promot e uniform, accurate, and timely submittals of data and contracts. Objective 4 Collect, compile, report, and maintain data necessary for evaluation of statewide TO program. Page 19


FIVEYEAR PLAN Psge20 Action Plan The action plan outlines the specific strategies to be undertak en by th.e commission. It is important to stress that strategies may change as market conditions change and as the commission con t inually evalua tes i t s performance The action plan consists of: (I) ac t ions that are recommended fo1 implementation during the first y ear of the five-year plan, (2) ongoing actions to be undertaken in subsequent years, and (3) actions to be included in the commission's annual work programs as funds and staffing permit. It should be no ted that the action s listed on the following page are selected from the extensive l ist of strategies recommended in Tec hn ical Memorandum No. 5 These particular actions require policy decisions or s ignificant planning and managemen t activities and i llustrate th e recommended focus of commission activi t y over th e next five years. This action plan and the rest of the f iv e year p lan should be viewed as part of a dynamic, c ontin uing planning proce ss. This process should include annual pe1fonnance evalua t ions of th e state s coordi natcd TD s ystem, annual reviews of t he c ommi s sion's goals and objectives and continual review s of the commi s sion s s t rategies and action plan. The state's coordinated TD system has grown significantly since its fonnation and has succes s fully establ.ished a stmewid e ne twork of coordinated TO transpo11a1ion services. It s continued success in meeting the t ransportation needs of the state' s trans porta l ion disadvantaged popula lion will depend on effective p l an n ing and adequate financial support.


FINAL REPORT Develop strategy to reduce unmet demand. review current practices lor implementing Chapter 427 eligibility guidelines recommend procedures for use in local areas to ensure that the most needed trips are programmed for delivery. consider other strategies to regulate demand and increase supply. Develop procedures lor implementing Chapter 427 eligibility guidelines. Collect data needed for local coordinator performance evaluation. Review goals and objectives. Review strategies. Conduct commission and local coordinator performance evaluations. Participate in state comprehensive planning and transportation planning processes. Develop and implement marketing/outreac h programs. Monitor the impacts of ADA implementation by mass transit on demand for TD transportation services. Evaluate cost-effectiveness of different provider network types (e.g., brokered, singleprovider, and multi-provider). Periodically identify u nmet demand. Identify number of trips provided outside of the coordinated system. Implement insurance cost-containment program. Continue to develop marketing programs to encourage voluntee.rism. Check for duplication of effort among state and local planning staff, and reduce duplication where app ropriate. Assist local coordinators in efforts to improve vehicle reservation and scheduling functions Develop standard procedures for handling trip requests t hat consider all modes and relevant costs. Assist in developing local fare structures. Identify training needs and develop appropriate training programs. Page21

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Florida five-year transportation disadavantaged plan :
final report /
by the Center for Urban Transportation Research, College of Engineering, University of South Florida.
[Tampa, Fla.] :
University of South Florida, Center for Urban Transportation Research,
v, 21 p. :
ill. ;
28 cm.
"Prepared for Transportation Disadvantaged Commission and the Florida Department of Transportation."
"June 1992."
Also available online.
People with disabilities
x Transportation
z Florida.
Paratransit services
Older people
1 710
Dept. of Transportation.
University of South Florida.
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
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