USF Libraries
USF Digital Collections

Commute alternatives systems handbook


Material Information

Commute alternatives systems handbook
Physical Description:
92 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Florida -- Dept. of Transportation
Florida -- Dept. of Community Affairs
Florida Department of Transportation
Florida Department of Community Affairs
Florida Energy Office
Florida's Commuter Assistance Program
Florida Department of Transportation
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, FL
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Commuting -- Planning -- Handbooks,manuals,etc -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Urban transportation -- Handbooks,manuals,etc -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Transportation -- Planning -- Handbooks,manuals,etc -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Transportation and state -- Handbooks,manuals,etc -- Florida   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references and index.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
Statement of Responsibility:
written and produced by Center for Urban Transportation Research

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 028942704
oclc - 25611545
usfldc doi - C01-00396
usfldc handle - c1.396
System ID:

This item is only available as the following downloads:

Full Text


_.__ .--, ,., - Q:;;. ''= ... : l.: . "=" '\.' Florida's Commuter Assistance Program


COMMUTE ALTERNATIVES SYSTEMS HANDBOOK @ 1992 F l orida Deparuncnt ofTransportatlon Published by F lorida Departme n t ofTransportation Florida Department of Community Affairs Florida Energy Office Florida's Commuter Assistance Program CUTR Written and produced by Center for Urban 'fransportation Research


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This manual was prepared with the assistance of the following. Their efforts and conrributions are gratefrslly acknowledged Tara. Bartee, Wayne Berma.n. Ritll Broluna.JJ, Calvin Burney. Candice Carlson. F. joseph CArragher, Prentis Clayton, Vince Coyner. Diane Davidson, Dan Deanda, Lori Diggins Tom Gagnon, St eve Gavora, Martin Guuenp/an Renee Hawkes. john Holland er, Walter Kulyk, Ed Nlacie, Eric Marx. Perry Maull, Nan J\lfoore. Hal :\1organ., Terri Oates Christopher Park, Paul Pezzotta Nancy Podezswa, judy Rapp Harry Reed, Dan Reichard. Judith Schleicher, Eric Schreffler, Sandra Spence, Ben Starrett, Melllin Stith, Joel Rey, Connie Ruth Patty Turner, Ed W allace Michael Yates. COMMUTE ALTERNATIVES SYSTEMS HANDBOOK STEERING COMMITTEE Lorenzo Alexander District 2 Florida Depar tmelll of Transportation Dan Burden, Pat Pierarre State Bicycle P r og r am, Florida Department ofTransportation Envi r onmental Office. Florida Department of Transportation Howard Glt ssman, Sally Dowlen Rod Wenzel Office of Policy, Florida Deparcmelll ofTransportaticn uoGoff UACTA Transportation Management Association Marcus Hepburn Florida. Departmen t of Community Affairs jo Aml Hutchinson. Floyd Webb Transporrarion Disadvantaged Commission. llic/rard McElveen Florida Department of Environmental Regulation jose-Luis J'\Jfesa, Frank Baron MetroDade Metropolitan Planning Organization Bill Mustard Florida Department ofTransportatioll Jan Rickey Florida Energy Office, DCA '"fary R obinson. West Florida Regional Planning Council David sa,Jpenfteld ATE Ryder/Gold Coast Commurer Services Bill Steele, Dave DeFreitas Bay Area Commut e r Services


TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page 1 WHAT IS TRANSPORTATION DEMAND 1\IIANAGEMENT? 5 2 WHYISTHEREANEBDFORTDM? 11 Growth Management and 14 Air Quality 16 3 WHAT ACfMTIESARE INCLUDED INTDM? 23 Rldesbaring Pools 26 EmployerBased TDM Measures 30 Parldng Management 35 HOVLanes 39 Non-Motorized and Developer-Based TranspoltationAmenities 43 4 HOW ARE TOM MEASURES IMPLEMENTED? 49 TOM Plans 51 Trip Reduction Ordinances 57 Transpo1tation Management Associations 61 5 WHO CAN HELP IMPLE!\>tENTTDM? 67 State Programs 69 Federal Programs 74 6 GLOSSARY, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND DIRECTORY 79 Glossary 81 Bibliography 85 Directory 88


Alternritives Sys tems Handbook


SECTION I "--. "= ts


this page IS blank


IS TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT (TDM)Y Florida is a high growth stale, with the majority of growth occurdng in low density areas. This has resulted in a rote of l and u r b anization that far outstrips t h e stat e 's population growth. Growth in transportation demand with in the state is panicularly dramatic with l arge in-migration s accelerating t r a v e l demand beyond the national experience. Exacerbating this condition is Flor i da's toudst -based economy, which attracts 40 million tourists each y ear who use the state's roads and other Pain s transportation systems. At. Florida co n tinues to grow, state and municipal governments increasingly recognize the inability of existing infrastructure to keep up with the demands of an Increasing and active population. 11e greatest p r ob lem associated with growt h has been deve l op m ent of a roadway network adequ ate to handle the increased traffic volurncs. Given current budget constraints at all levels of government, design and construction of new roads has become a formidable and. in some cases, nearly impossible t8SL 800 The state now has in place a new gm"'1h management Initiative, whereby local governments are required to abide by a state policy known as concurrency. Conc urren cy Is intended to ensure that new development does not occur unless adequate bl.frastructure is in place to support growth. As a result, the development comm unity and local government are lncrea shlgly faced with issues such as the provision o f adequate public faciliti e s the Imposition o f i m p a ct fees, and the Implementation oftranspor tatlo n demand management measures. Transport ation demand management {TDM) is a transportation planning process alme d at relieving congestion on highways. TOM actions can be classified into three categories: Actions that promote alternatives to the automobile Actions that encourage more efficient use of alternative transport systems. and Actions that discourage automobile use. 'J'DM is not a new concept. Around the nation, major TDM lnltiativcs were introduced In the 1970s in response to requirem ents of the U.S Clean Air Act. Recognizing that there were pervasive air quality problems in numerous major clUes, t h e U S Environmental Protect ion Agency (IJPA) man y areas to prepare transport a ti o n contro l plans, w h ich examined a broad range of action s to bring an area mto compliance with the N ationa l Ambient Area Quality Standards (NMQS) These plans typically included vehicular emission control programs, transportation operation improvements. and TDM strategies. T o not only accommodate growth in the state, reliev e conge s tion on our roadways conserve energy, and comply with air quality standards but to meet our future transportation needs as well, the Florida Department of Transponati 0 n (FDOTI has emba r ked upon a major initiative to educate the public and private sectors about the benefits ofTDM and to generate enthuslasm for implementing TDM measures. Entitled "Integration of Co mmute Altemotivcs into the Growth Managemen t Process, this initiative is designed to provide employers, deve l opers, and local and stat e decisionmak ers with informa t i o n that will enable them to apply low-cost, qulc.kly-imp l emented solutions to mobility and related prob lems. The project includes publication of this manual and an accom p anyi n g Program Director's Manual and presentation of a series of workshops. The anticipated results of the project will be the widespread applicatio n ofTDM measures on a statewide basis CommuUAIWIIIJll lJt$ S ystems Handbook7


TDM MEASURES Because morning and afternoon trips between home and the workplace contribute significantly to highway congeslion, a number of TDM strategies have been developed to reduce congestion during these peak commuting periods. Th ese measures include: Car, van, and bus pooling-Program s that encourage and assist two or more persons who live and work close together to commute to and from work in one vehicle (rldcsharingl. Carpools generally consist or two to four persons. wl1ile vanpools allow up to 15 people to share a ride and buspools involve I S or more people. U S COMMUTING TRENDS "'Mt0011 BY MODE 100 80 60 40 20 0 CT.o..,.._... ... Employer-based TOM programs-Programs sponsored by an employer using various TOM measures aimed at reducing traffic during peak periods and providing employees \\1th incentives to rideshare. Such measures may include dissemination of in f ormation on ridesharing and transit, parking managemen t (such as prefecmial parking for carpools and van pools), shuttl e syst ems, work hour adjustments (such as Oextlmel and alternativ e work arra ngements (such ns t e lecommu ting). High occupancy velticle (HOV) lanes-Speciall y designated l anes on highways which are reserved for veh i cles \\ith more than one occupant. By limiting the lanes to high owupancy vehicles traffic congestion on those Janes i s reduced thus avoidi ng bumperto -bumper and stopped traffic conditions which impede Dow In th e regular lanes. Nonmotorized transportation programs-Strategies that provide the necessary facilitlC$ tO encourage individuals to use transportation modes which do not require a motorized vehicle ( bicycling and walking). Tri p reductio n ordinances-Governmem mandates which require employe r s to r educe the number of auto trip s during peak commute hours. Ge nerally majo r employ ers an d developers are required to implement the strn t cgl"s to achieve t h e goal s specified in the ordinance. Transporta tion management associations (TMAs)-A group of bus i nesses companies, and othe r int e rested part les who jo i n together to address transpo rtation i ssues within a defined geographic area. Generally, the TtviA encourages employers to institute various TOM strategies at the work si te. Because TMAs are made up of employers. their TOM strategies usually focus on employer-based transportation initiatives FLORIDA'S CoMMUTER AssiSTANCE PROGRAM Through the activities of transportation management associations, com muter assistance programs, and other privot c and public initiati ves, TOM measures are being impl e m en t ed at a rapid rate across th e state. T he Florida Department of1\ansporta t ion lhrough Its Office of Public Transportatio n, has esta blish ed the Florida Commu ter Ass i stance Program to encourage th e formation of and support TOM prog ram s in an effort to address congesti on, growth manageme n t, en ergy, and air quality. The Commuter Assistance Program focuses on the following acth i tles: Coordinating tra nsportation imprO\'ements and services "ith local governments, Encouraging effective use of existing facil i ties and corridors tO promote integrated planning and urban infill Promoting and enhancing Florida s environment Promoting integrated and ac c essible transportation systems. and Encouraging i ncre ased energy efficiency of flori d a's transponation systems. The TOM stra teg ie s emphasiz ed by t h e Com muter Assistance Progra m to reduce the number of peak-ho ur sing l e occupant vehicles include carpooling vanpooling, bi c y cling, a nd the use of pu blic transit th rough public/private partnerships. T h ese Jl&rtners hips include regi onal commu ter service s corporation s, small urban and rural commuter assis t ance programs, and transportation management assoC-iation s. 8 Com mutt Hmldbook


Regional Commuter Services are public/private organizations which are funded in part by the state and are established to provide basic support for Florida TMAs. A regional commuter assistance pn)gram ( CAP) provides an array of services which may include computerized trip matching for rideshare applicants, marketing services for 1MAs within the CliP's d efined sel'\llce area, 'IMA support, coordination of transit Information, TDM planning, and coordination between T!v!As and local growth maoagemen t strategies Small Urban and Rural Commuter Assistance Programs are public agencies which are usually fully funded by the FDOT Commuter Assistance Program. These agencies provide a variety of se rvices including compute rized trip match log. employee transportation planning, support for transporta!lon disadvantaged coordinators, support for 1'MAs, and technical assistance to local government in implementation of TDM strateg ie s as part of growth management Initiatives. The formation of transportation management associations i s encouraged by FOOT through U s Commuter Assistance Program and the TMA Clearinghouse at the Universit y of South Florida's Center for Urban Transportation Research The se public/private partnerships are formed to address specific mobility p rob lems within a defined area through the use ofTDM measures. OvERVIEW OF THE MANUAL This manual was developed to inform developers, planners, employers, and others about TDM and how it can enhance the quality ofllfe in Florida. The manual is divided into eight sections: Section J: What Is TDM? provides a general introduction ro TDM and the alternatives it includes. Section II: Why Is There A Need for IDM ? focuses on recent developments in F lorida and around the country which have led to the increased interest in TDM applications. These include Florida's growth management laws, concurrency requirements, and the 1990 Amendments to the U.S. Clean N.r Act. Section Jll: What ActMties are Included in TDM? examines tlte various TDM strategies, including car and van pooling, employer-based 1DM programs. parking management, HOY lanes, and non-motorized transportation programs. Section IV: How Are TDM Measures Impl emented? explains bow TDM programs are organized and how they ca n be imp lemen ted to Improve traffi c conditions in an area, including adoption of trip reduction ordinances and formation of transportation management associations Section V: \ Vho Can Help Implement TDM? provides details about various state and federal programs that are available to assist in the development ofTD M programs and about the TMA C learinghouse. Also included in this manual are a glossary ofTDM and related terms a bibliography ofTDM publications and a dir ectory o f government agencies and private organizations associated with TOM. It is anticipated that this manual will provide the information necessary to develop enthusiasm for and encourage implementation of TDM measures th at will benefit all of Florida's citizens. Commute Alrernativcs Systems Handbook. 9


this page IS blank


-"iii SECTION2 a


this page IS blank


INTRODUCTION Between 1970 and 1990 Fl

GROWTH MANAGEMENT AND CONCURRENCY In th e early 1980s, it became apparent that rapid growth withi n the coastal regions of Florida and around the major metropolitan area s was occurring without following comprehensive planning guidelines. Many areas, faced with development pressures, approved large-s cale developments without considering whether adequate and appropria t e in frastru ctu re and public s ervi ces were in place As a result haphazard dev elopment overburdened p ublic facilities, threatened environmentally sensitive areas, and contributed to a decline in air quality. The state has responded to this growing probl e m t hrough the passage of the landmark local Government Co mprehensiv e Pla nning and Land Deve lopment Regulation Act of 1985 (Gro \\1b Management Act)Horida's "pay as you grow" law. The planning process requires that all comprehensive plans, whether stat e, re giona l. or local be consistent with the s tate comprehensive p lan and t h at local comprehensiv e plans be consistent with regional pol icy plans. The Act also reqttires that local compre hensiv e plans and la n d development r egulations ensure that adeq u ate public facilities are available "concurrent with the impacts o f development" (Section 163 3177 (IO)(h), Florida Statutes) Adequacy is defined by level ofservice standards adopted by local governments as part of their comprehens i ve plans. N o development order or permit may be issued if projected l ev els of service fall below adopted s tandards To implement the Growth Management A ct, the Florida Departmen t of Cotnmunity Affairs adopted Ru.le 9) 5, F.A.C. which describes the minimum criteria for review of local government comprehensive plans. While well intentioned, concurrency has been cri t i cized by some as undermining the state's efforts to discourage urban sprawl and encourage downtown revitaliz.ation and infiU deve lopm e nts Cr itics claim developmem will be pushed out of cenuaJ cities . where roads are congested, tO outlying areas, w h e r e e x cess capacity exists. Critics also claim 14 OJmmute Alte rnatives Syste ms Handbook that by slowing growth, concurrency will reduce revenues (particularly impact fees) available for road improvements. Among all public facilities subject to concurrency ments, roads represent the infrastructure element with the largest funding shortfall relative to needs The problem is so severe in some areas that various localities throughout the stat e have con s id ered imposi ng growth moratoriums to curb further deve lopmen t. TDM measures are valuable in this context because they help io improve roadway service levels without costing millions of dollars.


TDM strategies serve to reduce the number of vehicles on the road, thereby improving the level of service by recapturing existing road capacity. This, in turn, may allow new developmellt to occur without having to build new roads to meet sen1ce demands. In June 1989, a specially appointed Task Force on Urban Growth Patterns released its fmal report, finding that while state a.o.d local governments should continue to improve existing roadway infrastructure. basic mobility needs should also be addressed through support for JDM. Since the need for and appropriateness of any particular TDM measure will vary among communities and depe n d to some extent on l ocal objectives, the Task Force conclu ded that i t would be inappropria te for the state to mandate specific actions. The role of the state shou ld instead be one of support for the overall concept of TD M, leaving the selection of specific TDM p r ograms to lo cal areas. TDM is more than a mechanism to permit growth. When properly applied, TDM measures can help officials and transportatio n p l a nners to better utilize existing roadw ay infrastructure. Wh i le i t is ttue that a s i ngle TDM strategy will not resolve all the traffic congestion prob lems I n an area, a combinatio n of measures ca n often provide optimal solutions for a partic u lar locale. RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GOVERNOR'S TASK FORCE ON URBAN GROWTH PATTERNS (RELATED TO TOM} Nfetropolitan Planujng Organizations (MPOs) should incorporate transportation demand management into their transportation-planning process. MPO' s should designate TDM coordinators on tltelr professional staffs to coordinate partlctpat/Q11 in local TDM activiries TDM measures should /Je required as part of every Develnpment of Regional Impact (DRT), and sum statutes should be amended to require that TDM measures be part of applications for developme11tal approvaL SUite should be amended to require that the transp or tati on sy stem element of local compreh e nsive platls include a tra nsporta titnJ sys te m management subelement, a .nd tha t TDM measures be Identified and Jrnpacts estimated. Tile state siJoztld designate a clearingho u se for infomlation and technical suppo rt of TDM activities and TMAs. The state sho!lld provide, through FDOT. seed money for a portion of start-up costs of TMAs and should comfn.ue to fund commu.rer assisumce and park-andrlde programs. T.Mil$ $1Jould be g lven authority through state statute ro operate sluatle systems within areas a nd to purchase transportation serv ices from other transportation providers. ]udlclal principles restricting use of Impact fees to capital projects sl>ould be altered to allow their use for operating cosr.s associated with 1'/JM progr(lms, ihcluditJg the funding of1'MAs The development and ftmding ofTDM measures including nv!A.s should be aUowable as a credit to Impact fees collected from developers and landowners. FDOT should give greater emphasis to planning and developing lllgll occupancy vehicle lanes on limited access hi g hways. CommuteAltematiV!S S ystems Harulbook -15


The U.S. Clean Air Act. tlrst enac ted in 1970 and most recently amended in 1990, was developed by the U.S. Congress to address air q uality concerns across the United States. The Act establ ishes maximum acceptable leve l s of major air pollutants, requires tha t states and localities develop mitigation techniques to address the problem. and sets goals and standards to achieve beuer air quality. There are two major sources of ai r pollution: (a ) stationary sources, s uc h as factories and power plants; and (b) mobile sources. such as cars. trucks and buses. Of major concern are surface ozone, carbon rnonoxidc, lead, ni trogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and acid deposition. S u rface ozone, c ommonly known as smog, is formed when hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides combine in warm sunlight unde r stable atmospheric conditions. Ozone affects the human respiratory system and causes irritation to the eyes, nose and throat. Excessive carbon monoxide reduce s the body's ability to absorb oxygen. produces dizzines s, headaches . and lethargy. Lead affects the nervous system and may cause headaches, malaise, and irritability. Nitrogen ox idcs and sulfur dioxide irritate the lung s and increase susceptibility to tespi.ratory ailments. PanicJes in the air, even those smaller than 10 micrometers in diameter, can penetrate the lungs, interfering with respiration or even causing death.' The private automobile is the single largest producer of hydrocarbon emiss i o n s. In most urban areas, the automobile is also the largest generator of nitrogen oxide s. Over 75% of F lo rida s air pollution is caused by the automobile, contributing 50% of the hydrocarbon s and over 90% ofthc carbon monoxide. Federal clean air standards. known as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NMQS), were established in the Clea n Air Act. Failure to maintain the NMQS can result in a locale being identified as a "non-attainment" area. For thjs and a variety of other reasons, it is important for states and communities to develop programs aimed at reducing motor vehicle emissions. AIR QUALITY IN FLORIDA As florida' s population continues to increase, so too will both vehicle trips and vehicle miles driven, which in turn wiU produce more pollutant emissions and a decline in air qual ity Alchough there are problem areas throughout the state. a ir quality problems tend to be concentrated in and around large cities. Sources: WOrJdwatch lnstirut9 ba-sed 01'1 Mary C. HoJcomb elsl. "T((msportatiOn Enci!JY Oatlt Book: EditiOfl !Y Ridge, T61ln.: ()(lk Ridge NMionall..abotatory, 1987): Vukan R VChiC, 'Vtbah PIJbNc TfQ.nsponarlon Systems and TechnOlOgy (EI){)feWOOd Cliffs, N .J.: PrcnticcHa, 1981), The roost widespread and persistent urban air pollution problem in Florida is surface ozone. Hydrocarbons (unburned gasoline vapors) are released into the atmosphere at various stages of automobile use: during refueling, through evaporation from the fuel system and engine, and in exhaust gases. To date cleaner running engines hav e significantly contributed to improved air quality. However. because automobile emissions have improved up to 90% over the past 10 years it is unlikely that further significant reductions in air pollution from cleaner cars wlll be realized in the future. As Florida continues ro absorb an estimated 1,000 new residents per day and to experience a 5% annual increase in vehicle miles traveled, air quality improvements resulting from cleaner running engines may 16-CQmmute AlteriUltives Systems Handbook


1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 o o Pollution Em i tted from Typical Commutes actually be lost. There are two so l utions to the problem: reduce the number of vehiCle miles traveled, or Increase the use of clean fuel alternatives such as electricity methanoL ethanol, or compressed natural gas While the Protection Agency

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 emphasized locally developed transponation plans and the coordination of ai r q uality planning with the continuing, coopera tiv e and comprehe nsive (known as t he federal3 C ) transportation planning process o f the U S Depanment of Transportation (USDOT) Plans developed with federal funding were required to b e in conformity with air qual ity standards. The 1990 amendments t o the Act address TCMs even more stringently. Major emphasis i s p laced on reducing vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The Act specifically requires that those states "in which all or part of a Sev ere Area i s located" s ubmit, by November 1992, a revised SIP which adopts specific TCMs. One measure mandated in the Act is development and implem enration of a plao which requires empl oyers loca ted in "severe areas" a n d who e -mploy 100 or more people t o in crease veh icle occupancy by 25% d u ring commute trips.' Title II (Prov isions llelating to Mobile Sources) of the Act establishes more stringent pollution standards through reduction of tailpipe emis s i o ns and requiring auto manufacturers to develop an apparatus for collecting evaporate emis s ions normally released during refue l ing Title II also addresses standard s for reformulated gasoline, establ.ishes a clean fuel pilot program in California, and limits emissions from centrally fueled fleets in the 26 worst air pollution urban areas. Other Titles of the Act dev elop guidelines or set standards for other pollutants as well. R E QUIREMENTS FOR NoN-ATTAINMENT AREAS For those areas that do not meet t h e NMQS, the F l orida Department of Environmenta l Hegulation (DEll) must su bmit as part of the SIP a detailed description of how state and affec ted local agencies plan to attain and maintain safe air quality l eve ls. The SIP must addrc. ss each region s approach to air quality confo r m i ty and maintenance and outline the strategies (such as TOM) that will be used t o satisfy the needs of each area. The inclus i .on of TDM measures in the SIP requires that all transportation improvement plans and programs ensure implementatio n of these measures. Penalties fo r noncompliance with the SIP can be severe and may in clude withholding federal transportation funding for local p rojects 1\>targinal areas such as T ampa Bay must comp let e a se r ies of require-d actions intended lO reduce l evels. Moderate areas m u st meet all requirements for marginal areas, as well as additional, more stringent requirements Beyond the moderate classification. areas may also be identified as serious (examples include Atlanta and Washington D.C.) s evere ( Baltimore and Chicago ), o r extreme ( Los Angeles). As the severity of the air q u ality problem increases, all re quirements of prior leve ls apply in addition to more rigorous corrective actions. These range fro m the adoption of specific enforc eable transportation control strategies and TCMs aimed at offsetting growth in emissions up to restricted use of high polluting vehicles or heavy-duty vehicle s. In the case of Los Angeles, legislation known as Regulation XV has been e nacted which requires. in part, that employers o f 100 or more persons at any worksite develop and implement trip reduction plans to reduce work rel a ted trips in single occupancy vehic.les. SUMMARY The impact of the entire Clean Air Act Amendments ofl990 will be f elt by \1rtually everyone in the na tion In non attainment areas, automobile owners are likely to find increased emission testing programs or may find they are fo rce d to change their driving habits. In areas where pollution is more severe, the role of TO M measures becomes vital1y important. T ranspor tation planners in these non-attainment areas will be required to develop TO M s trategies to reduce emissions and improve air q u al i !y. Without s uc h programs, the major provisions of the Act cannot be achieved 18-Commute Alternatives Systems Hmulboo k


By statute, the J.1orida Depat'tment of Environmental Regulation is the state's conservation agency DER has developed a mobile source control program to deal with air pollution from moto r vehicles The program is aimed at improving air quality by reducing the amount of exhaust emissions from cars and light-duty trucks. In addition, Florida Metropolitan Planning Or)lanizations and FDOT must determine that the State Transportation Plan conforms to t .he SIP For urban areas, the Tr a11$portation Improvement Programs (TIPs) must implement TCl'vls from the SIP and incorporate all federally-assisted transportation projects which improve air quality and which are included in the SIP. Transitional (D uval County) and marginal ( Tampa Bay) areas must achieve the NAAQS within three years (1993) of the Act. The Southeast Florida moderate area must achieve the standards within six years ( 1996). If those areas fail to achieve the stan dards on schedule, increasingly more stringent requirements wm automatically be implemented and the area will be r eclassified to the next higher non-attainment category. Therefore, TDM measures are essential to the success of the Act and the implementatio n of area transportation p l a n s. CommweA/ternatlllt$ Systems Handrook


2 0 C ommute S y stem s Ha n dbook


Endnotes F l orida Depa rtment of Environmental Regulation, Florida: S tate of th. e Environment (fallahas see, FL: F lorida Department of E nvironmental Regulation, 1990) pp. 50-52. 1 U.S. Environmental Protectio n Agency, Clean Air. It's Up to Yo u 1'oo (Washington DC: U.S. Environ mental Prote<:tlon Agency), p. I. Association for Commuter Tran sportation, ctean Alr Update, ACT Fact Sheets (Washi. ngtoo, DC: Association for Commuter Transpo rtation, 1991). Commwe Altematiue> Systems Handbook 21


this page IS blank




this page IS blank


INTRODUCTION T h e Florida Depattment (FDOT) has em bark e d upon a major initiativ e t o ed u c ate the public and private sectors on the b e n e fit s of transportation demand management through acti vities such as th e impl e mentation of transportation manageme nt assoclali o n s a nd area commu ter assistance programs. These age nCies are providing a d e di cate d partnership among all l e v el s of gove rnment and rhe privat e sector ro meet current tr ansportation n eeds and e nh ance the quali ty of life in u r b a n areas of our state With assis tance from a variety o f state agencies, tra n sportation m anag e men t as soci a tions and a rea commu ter assis t ance programs, FDOT has un d ert ak en a massive p rogram design ed to genera te enthusias m for IDM measures through the creati on of public/ private partner s hips t o meet the stat e's transponation needs. TRANSPORTATION MANAGllMBNT AssoCIATION S (TMAs) T hrough a variety of activities, !'DOT is enco uragin g th e Corron lion ofT IMAs. These organi za tion s are formed so th a t th e public and .priv ate secto r members w ho govern th e o rg anization c an collectively es t a blish policies and TDM p rograms to its m e mbe r s In addition to t r adi tion al ridesh.aring, TMAs pro m o t e pedestrian improve m ents tllrougbout th.e TMA service area shuttl e services conn ecti n g e m pl o yment ce nters with sho p ping/resta urant are as, pari:iog management p rograms carpool/van poo l matching. and estabUshiJ_lent o f high occupancy vehicle lanes. as well as a variety o f other transportation demand management Stra tegies CoMMUI'ER AssiSTANCE PROGRAMS (CAPS) FDOT also e nco urages t he formation of commuter assi stance programs These region al p r o grams are being c r ea ted under the auspices of t h e f'DOT Office of P u blic Tr a n s portation to work with area TMAs to provide rld es hare matc h ing services and m a rketing service; to develop TDM actions such as van p o oling carpooling, and p e destrian and bicycle improvem e nts; and to implement oth er TOM s trategies. Presentl y there are two CAPs in Florida: Gold Coast Commu t er Services, which se rv es th e Miami F t Lauderdale and West Palm B e a c h areas and B a y Area Commuter S ervi ces a regional servi ce formed to serve Hillsborough. Pinel l a s Pasco, and Hernand o countJes in the Tampa Bay area. Through the effons o f CAPs and TMAs a variety of TDM actions an d strat egies are b eing im plemen t ed throughout F lo rida. T h e f ollowing provides an overview of s p ecific actions that can be cnnle d out by TMAs, CAPs, emp loyers, and o th ers a s part of a IDM program.


RIDESHARING POOLS A ridesharing pool involves th e shared use of a v eh i c l e by two or more people for the purpose of gening to or from work. school, or other locations. Rldesharing applications range from private automobiles and privately-owned and operated vans and buses to publicly-owned and operated vans and buses. The poims of origin and final destinations of riders generally vary as do the means by which participan t s arrive at a pool pickup/drop off point. T h e goal Is to share some segment of the trip with other peop l e either through m eeti ng at park-and ride lots or by b e ing picked up and dropped off door -to door from the home to the work site. Car pools. va npools buspool s. and mher forms of ridesh aring arc widely recognized as means of redu cing energy cons umption traffic congestion. and air pollu tion. lmplemematlon o f ridesha ring programs has been a mainstay ofiDM strategies CARPOOLS The most common form of rides h a ring is the use of a private vehicle by two or more passengers. generally for tr ansport ation to and from work. The passengers may use one vehicle and share expenses, or rotate vehicles with no additiona l costs to passenger s. Carpool s may develop from informal arrangements among neighbors or or through more inte nsive efforts, such as carpool promoti ona l and ridematching services provided by local tran s it providers, employers. instltulions and others. Other faetors. such a.s opportunities to soclaliz.e, simila r work schedules and locations, and reduced parking cos t s,' also contribute to the decision to participate In ridesharing programs While rideshare arrangements are generally made through personal contaCts, promolional efforts and encouragemem on the parr of both th e public and pri\'ate sectors can influence ridesharing .' T h e role of the employer ma) range from rhat of facilit a to r. such as providing bulletin board space to ad\'ertise and solicit carpoole r s, to that of benefactor, s uch as providin g various ridesharing in centives Inc luding free. disco um, or preferential parking or flexible work schedules and t ime allowances for pickup and drop off. Larger e mpl oyers, particularly those with personnel or human resource departments. ma y assume a broader role, including the identification and matching of pool participants and the production and distribution of a ridesharing/commuter newslette r. Such activities may be performed by personnel staff or by a designated employee transportation coordinator ( ETC). Public secto r support of carpooling may take the form of (al trip reduction or zoning ordinances which may require developers or employers to provide preferential parking for ridesharer s ; (b) consideration of HOV lanes when planning new or expanded highway capacity; and (c) reductions in the amount of free or on stree t parking in the central business district

VANPQOLS Six or more passengers who share a ride in a pre arranged group are considered a va npool. In most cases, one or more of the pool members are regular drivers who pick up others at specific points, drop the m off at common s i tes, and return them to pickup points at the end of the day Van pools are sometimes used to .prov ide so-called reverse commute" transPortation f rom the to suburban job site s The same factors contributing to caqlool participation also connibute to \an pool participat ion; however, the l arger number of participants often req uires more fonnalized and elaborate ridematchlng services Willie some portion of van owne r ship and operating costs i s generally shared by the riders. the costs associated witb providing vehicles with larger seating capacity often require nonrider support. This may include sponsorship, subsidization, ownership, and/or operation of van pool programs by employers, employee cooperatives, credit unions, public transit authorities, labor uni o n s, or another third party BUSPOOLS A group of 15 or more passengers sharing an exp r ess ride between predetermined origin and destination points with guaranteed seats and advance ticket pur chase is the most common form of buspool While this type of service is often admi nistered by an employer, riders may also initiate and administer club, custom, or subscription buspools. As with vanpools, a more coordinated and comprehensive effort is required to optimize veh i cle use ; however, the increased capacity of a bus expands the range of applications. In additio n to the operatiOn of buspoo l s buses operate as express service and inner city and suburban circulators Although express service and circulators are generally associated with public transp.ortation, both may be provided by a private carrier. These services differ from traditional fixed route service in that they generally serve fewer points While bo t h express service and circulators are usually confined to specific routes, circulators most often operate within high density areas such as the central business distlict, around suburban deve l opments, and in employment centers or regional malls. Unlike carpools, ownership and operation of a buspool or vanpool is more conducive to various contracting and leasing agreements. Entrepreneurs in many areas have developed "work trippers" or for-profit vanpool operations which cater to commuters, and it is becoming common practice for t r ans i t authorities to have mixed fieets of buses and vans. The buses may be used for trad i tional fixed route services, subscliption o r club serv i ces, buspools, and park-and-ride shuttles. The vans may be leased to individuals or to public or private employers for poo l programs or operated by the authority and used as Inner-city or suburban circula t ors. Ccm.mrue Alternatives Systems Hand})()()k27 .


POOL INCENTIVES In Florida, state support for ridesharing is part of FOOT's Com muter Assistance Program Funding and technical assistance for ridesharing programs are available as pan of regional commuter assistance programs or local rransporration management associations. Rides haring ean be a significant factor in achi evi ng acceptable levels of service in an area's comprehcnsi\e plans as required under the Growth Management Aet. LOcal public support for ridesharlng is generally found in the form of polic ies that discourage single occupant vehicle (S0\1) travel, such as requiring large emp loyer s or develop ers to se t aside a percentage of pnrklng spaces for rides harlng vehicles, increasing parking rates, lim il ing parkin g within new developm ents, nnd decreasing municipal parking. and support for regional commuter assistance programs. Local governm ent membership and financia l participatio n help assure coordination berween ridesharing and ot her TOM measures. There is ample opportunity for the private sector to participate in rides hari ng programs in severrd capacities, from facilitator to actual provider to Involvement in public /private rideshare enterpri5e$, such as the leasing of vehicles by public entities to private companies or individuals. The private sector can s upport ridesharing initiatives by instituting programs to match prospective poolers providing preferential public parking for poolers, supporting preferential highway l anes for high occupancy vehicle s, and tapping into federrd aid or grants-in -aid for pool acquisitions planning, and op erations. Employers and developers may incorporate facili ties and conveniences inro the employment site such as day care facilities and pedestrian walkways. Parti cipatio n In ridesbaring program s can provide substantial benefits to an employer or developer in the form of reduced parking expense, decreased traffic congestion, a broader labor market, a more productive work force, reduced absenteeism and tardiness, and an enhan ced com munity image'. It may be appropr iate for an employer tO conside r membership In a 'I'MA or appoint a n employee transportation coordinator within the company to examine the many ways to support ridesharing and other TOM programs. SuMMARY The benefits of ridesharing as a TOM strategy are well documented. The federal government views ridcsharlng as a relatively low cost means to maximize us c of existing capacity as a n effective means of reducing energy consumption, and as a vital transportacion con trol measure. Federal grantsin aid and technical assistance support numerous rideshare projects. Florida promotes ridesharlng as pan of the FOOT Commuter Assistance Program and other srate agencies promote ridesharing as a means of complying with federal mandates and state policies on growth management. Rldesharing or pool vehicle applications range from the use of privately-owned automobiles to schedul e d and customized bus service and are offered through a variet y of private, puhlic, and public/private r ideshare program s across the country In addlllon. ridesharlng is easily integrated with other modes of transportation and wllh other TOM measures 28 Commute Alternatives SystemJ Hatulboo k


By incorporating various co n veniences such as day care facilities and pedestrian wa lkways into mixed-use developments, employers a n d develo p ers c reate conditions that encourage ridesbaring Communi t ies and deve l opers can also deter solo commuting by reducing the availability and in cr ea s ing t h e cos t o f parki ng. Ridesba r i n g can gene r ate substantial be n efits to all co n cerned Individuals, employer$ and communities. Comm!4teA/ternatives Sy$tems Handbook 29


EMPLOYER-BASED TDM MEASURES A variety of employer-ba sed TOM s trategies, r anging from Information dissemination to private shuttle systems. has been developed over the years to addr ess traffic c ongcslion problems i n urban arcns. The most common empl oyer-based lDM strategies include: Information Dissemination on Transit and Ridesharing Opportunities Alternative Transportation Assistance V an pool Formation Shuttle Systems Wor k Hour Adjustments S taggered Work Hours Co mpresse d Work Schedules F l extime Alrernative Work Sites Sate llite Offices Telecommuting Pa rldng Management Employee Transportation Coord i nators Determining the most appropriate TOM strategies for a parti cu lar employer depends on a number of facto r s, such as cost. ease or implementation. and the impact on productivity and normal business operation s. Success in implementing any TOM s trategy requires an effort on the part of both the employer and the employ ees to d eve lop a prog ram that is mutually beneficial and cost-effectiv e. INFORMATION DISSEMINATION An e mployer can serve a s an imponant information source, particularly with regard to transit s ervice and ridesharing op tions At a minimum, an employer can assemble and make available information on exis ting transit route s schedules, and rates. Most tran sit services will provide suc h lnforma!ion free of charge Similarly. employers 3Q-Commute Altti?Ultil!e$ SysteiTI$ Handbook often provide free inrormatton on how employees may participate in carpool o r vanpool programs a n d sup p l y application form s to facilitate mat c hing employ ees to prospect i ve pool s


Depending on the size of the employer's organization, information dissemination may be managed by an employee transportation coordinator (ETC) or information may be assembled and made available at a designated and easily-accessible area within the work site. AtTERNA'fMl TIIANS:PORTA1'10N AsSIS1J\NCB Most alternathe transportation assistance is also focused on transit services and ridesharing. Depending on an employer's financial resources a.nd commitment, the amount and type of a ssistance may vary from onsite sale of transit passes to transit subsidies to the provision of employee shuttle services. Tl:ansit passes allow patrons to usc transit services for a specified period of time. Employer transit subsidies are generally payments to employees to defray the costs of and promote the use of mass tr ansit. Employer-sponsored shuttle systems link the work slte(s) witlt other locations frequemed by employees, such as a shopping center or transit bub. Again depending on leve l of commitment and available funds, an employer may provide assistance to employees in the formation of carpools and vanpools. Four successive levels of rideshare ass istance may be pro vided by an employer: At the information l eve l, an emp loy er makes employees aware of rldesha r ing services, generally by "advertising" that such services are available to i nterested employees. At the collection level, an employer assembles pertinent in fo rmation on potential ridesharing participants, such as home address, smoking preferepce, work hours, etc. At the matchi ng lev el, an employer compiles the information into a database, matches employees by location, schedule. etc., and notifies ind.i\ridual employees of potential matches. Attheforrnation level, an employer actually assis ts in the formation of van or bus pools and helps employees secure vehicles and/ or service As a complement to a ridesharing program employers may also imp le ment a "guaranteed ride home" program, which guarantees ridesharing participants transportation home in case of an eme rgency or i n the event that working late causes the emplo')'ee to miss his/her pool ride Such a program may invo l ve various financial arrangements (vou chers, co payments, etc.) between employers rideshare participants, taxi companies. WORK HOUR ADJUSTMENTS By allowing employees to adjust the ir work hours, employers also suppo rt TDM. While work hour adjustments may not always reduce the number of single occupant vehicles, they can help reduce congestion in a reas with well defined peak periods oflrafflc. The three most common rypes of work hour adjustments are: Staggered work hours, in which work day arrival and departure times are staggered by the employer according to a predetermined formula. Staggered work hours are popular with companies in which ingress and egress to the work site are d ifficult or in certain downtown districts and office parks where the vast majority of commuters try to enter or leave the area at about the same time. These sched u les are usually designed so groups of employees arrive or depart from work at !5-mlnute or up to two-hour intervals. There are three primary ways in which staggered work hours can be structured: Commu.teAltertUllives Systems Handbook 31


Departmental Employers assign different starting times for individual departments or units lndividua l Employer s assign starting times to individual empl oyees. RedUCOIJ Modal Starting and ending times are determined according to transportation ... arrangements. T h is is generally used In conjunction with other TOM measures, such as ridesharing, mass transit, and so on. Compressed work schedules, whereby an employee works the usual number o f hours 80 100 % b:t COIJ'II*IIM S.:.rmotQ,.Itt() 120 each week or pay period, but does so in fewer days. Compressed work schedules are popular with firms that have a fairly well -defined peak traffic congestion t ime and are often u tilized in office parks and other high dcnsiry areas. Many employees perceive a compressed work schedule as a benefit, since his/tter abiliry to work more t h a n eight hours during a work day can result in a "day off' or a reduced work day during t h e week. There are three ways in which work schedules are normally compressed: Four/Forty (4/40) Schedule-Employees work a 40 -hour week in four !0-hourd ays Nine/Eighty (9/80) Schedule Employees work 80 hours in nine days. Five/Fou r /Ni ne Schedule Employees work more than eight hours on four days of the week and wor k a shortened schedul e on the fifth day While this practice may reduce peak -hour traffic. it has little or no impact on energy conservation or air quality improvement effo rts. l'lexible work hours or flextime, whereby an empl oyee can stagger arrivalideparrure times within an eight hour d ay/five day work week to best su it personal schedules on a d aily basis.' Most flextime schedules include a core period during the work day when all employees are p r esent. Four wmmon flextime schedules arc: Gliding Schedule A basic arrangement in which an employee's start t ime determines his/her ending time. The start of the morni n g pe r iod may range from 6:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. The work day ends as an employee completes his/her usual number of work hours. This may range from 3:00 p.m. to 6:0Q p.m. Modified G liding Schedule-Under this schedule, an employer se l ects hours during which coverage must be maintained Flexitour This option allows an employee to select a starting time, for example between 6:00a.m. and 9:00a.m., whidl then remains his/her starting time u ntil the option to change is extended Maxlflex This option allows an employee to earn hours by working any number of hours within a 24-hour period. The hour s are "banked" and then used to shorren future work days or work wee ks.' ALTERNATIVE WoRK SITES While alternative wo rk sites may not reduce the number of single occupant vehic les on the road they have proven effective in relieving congestion in high traffic areas. With this strategy, employers seek to decentrali?..e their workfo r ce by shi fting workers to s atellite offices or permitting sel ected emp loyees to telecommute or work a t horne. Satellite offices are smaller off i ces generally scattered around a metropolitan area, usually in outlying suburban communities or at the edge of city boundaries. T h e obj ective is to bring the office closer to those employees Jiving in suburban areas. A company must caref ully analyze how to loca t e satellite offices and bO\v to assign employees to those locatio n s. 32 CommuteAJtematlves Systtm$ Handbook


Telecommuting is an arrangement whereby an employee can work at borne or in a sina.ll, nearby office and link -up with the company via telephone or computer modem . Such arrangements may be appropriate for employees who are engaged l n work which may require extensive reading, telephone communication, writing, or other tasks which do not require daily presence in the office. PARI

the ETC then monitors and mar k ets the program and periodically assesses how well TOM m easures have been embraced by employees. This may be accomplished through periodic surveys to measure the number of employees participating in TOM progtams and to identitY which i nitiatives are most or least successful and which rna) warrant r evision The sttney ma )' also be used to determine why some employees do not take advantage of a company's incentives for ridesha ring. SUMMARY For TDM programs to effectively address mobility issues within a communi!)' the cooperation and commitment of employers is required. While employers may initia lly be fearful of disruptions caused by implementation of TOM measures. a number of advantages can be realized beyond the socie t al benefits of reduced tra f fic and pollution. Depending on the TDM strat egies employed, employers often find that TDM programs result in a more productive and content workforce. Disadvantages are largely administrative in nature, since a progra m may require a n employer to (a ) designa te or hir e an ETC. who devo t es up to 20 hours per week to the p rogram; (b) coordinate and become comfortable with flextime and staggered work schedules which may cause some initial d isruption in normal work routines; and (c) i nvest in and administer transit pass or t r ansit subsidy plans, for which the employer may have to bear front end costs. Employer-based TDM measures are among the most common and most effective programs in use i n the U.S. The first step an employer must generally take is to designate an ETC, whose responsibility is to investigare, develop, and encourage participation in TOM programs. It musr be recognized rhar not every program discussed herein is app r opriate or required for every employer or company. Effective employer-based TDM programs are those that consider both the needs of the company a nd irs employees and that provide appropriate alternatives based on those needs. 34-CommuteAltcmatives ,',)'stems Handbook


PARKING MANAGEMENT Parking issues have a significant impact on the transportatio n environment. The decision of a commuter to drive alone or utilize alternative transport ation such as a carpool or vanpool or public transit depends to a large extent on the cost, accessibility, and availability of parking Because many employers provide free or subsidized parking. comm u ters tend t o travel in their own vehicles. Free employee parking, especially in suburban office buildings.' is considered among the most sacred of employee benefits . Many commuters see free parking as a rl!lht, not a privilege and many employ ers are reluctant to use parki n g controls as a TOM tool. I n downtown areas, empl oye r s oft e n use parking subsidies to lure employees to their fir ms The fed eral government compounds the p r ob l e m by treating vanpool an d carpool subsidies and a portion of transit subsidies as taxable income, whereas employer-provided park ing Is a tax-free benefit. Employee parking subsidies are exempt from income tax, while other t r ansp ortat i on subsi dies, such as trans it fees, are taxa b le afte r a certain threshold is reac hed. The provision of s u bsidie s implie s preferential treatment of single occupant vehicle commuters and, in effect, penalizes those employees who choose alternative, shared ride transportation modes Parking management is a te rm used to describe any activ ity associated with the design, construction, management, or o p eration of a parking fac i li t y Parking programs are imp l ememed by the public or private sectors for the purpose of maximizing the use of exis ting facilities, achieving environmental and energy conservation objectives, diverting peak period commuter trip s to the off peak pe riods, p reventin g spill over, improving access to or mobility within to a parking area, and maximizing re venue. The primary objectives of most parking management programs are to improve the environmen t al qualiry in urban areas and to encourage a shifr from the private automobile to alternative modes of transportation. While often regarded as a means to suppl)' available spaces in urban areas, parking management programs also involve parking restrictions, placement of parking facilities, regulatory measures and pricing mechanisms to discourage use of the single occupant vehicle Several issues related to parking and pa rking manageme nt affect a commuter's decision to drive alone, each of which is discussed here. CoST OF PARKIN G Both employers and employees perceive free parking as an employee benefit. Empl oyers otfer free park i ng as an enticement in the recruitment process and as a component of at! overall emp loyee benefits package Unfortunate ly, free parking enco u rages the drive-alone comm ute and discourages use of p ublic transit or part i cipation i n O:mwu.ue Altemali:ves Syst-ems Handbook 35


rideshariog programs. "Free parking is by far the biggest deterrent to ridesharing and transit use today ' Often, employer expense associated with parking is hidden within a commercial lease and an employer may be unaware of how much parking actually cos t s. Even when the ac t ual cos t s are known, they can generally be written off for tax purposes as a cost of doing business. E mployers spend a considerab l e amount of money on parking programs, particularly as compared to the amount spent on rideshare programs. AVAILABlLfrY O F P ARKING Commuter decisions are also di re ctly affected b y the avai l ability of parking. The Jack of adequate parking at park -and-ride lots and transit s tops encour ages empl oyees to drive their vehicles to the worksite Time delays and added costs can also be deterrents to the usc of mass transportation and alternati ve modes. Transit riders may experience daily time delays as they search for parking and may pay f ines for parking violations. The end resu l t is increased reliance on the single occupant vehic le, which exacerbates overall mobility and air quaiiry problems. FOOt administers a Park-andRide Program through its Commuter Assistance Program, which works with F l orida TMAs, regional commuter assistance programs state highway construction, and transit operations in the development of parking facilities. Currently, there are over 130 park and ride lots, providing in excess of20,000 spaces. P ARKING CONVENIENCE DID YOU KNOW THESE PARKING FACTS? Nine out of ten American comm uter s w h o dr i ve to work park f ree. More than half o f the office workers who drive t o downtown Los Ange les receive subsidized park ing ( h alf of those par k f ree). Employer -pai d parking Increased the n u mbe r o f car s drive n to work by 37% at five si tes stud i ed i n Ca t nomia. Employer-s ubsi dized park i n g has a value of at least $1,000 per yea r tax free. The n umber o f d r ive-alone employees has been shown to dec line by at least 20% when emp l oyers charge a ma r ket r a t e lo r parking Seven out of the 11 best performing TOM programs evaluated by FHWA included employee parking charges Impos i ng an $8 per day parking charge can reduce demand from 2. 45 spaces per 1 000 g ross square feet of office space to 1 .74. A 1986 Urban Land Institute study f ound t hat parking spaces at most business parks we r e on l y 47% occupied, even when the parks wer e well leased. II the value of parking wer e included as a taxable emp l oyee benefit, it is estima ted it would generate $5 billion i n tax revenue. Parking convenience a ls o i116uences commuter travel beha vior and Is freque n tly associated with tbe location and number of available parking spaces. Parking is o ften viewed as a starus symbol, with the best spaces allocated to mattagers and the most valued ( highest paid) employees. Where parking is scarce or less convenient, employees rna}' have to a rrive early at the worksite to secure a parking spac.e. Programs that provide preferential parking spaces or r educed parking rates for carpools and vanpools are effective in promoting carpool participation and thereby increasing average vehicle occupancy, particularly in h i gh density employment centers where the supply of parking is limited Pricing srructures and parking restrict ions can b e effec t ive tools for empl oyers who want to encourage participation in rides h are programs. P ARKING AND PUBLIC POLICY The 197374 energy crisis forced the federal govemmem to encourage ridesharlng programs and promote measures aimed at making the U.S. less dependent on forei gn oil suppliers In January 1974 Congress passed the E mergency Highway Energy Conserva t ion Act, which authorized the use of regularly apportioned fund s for ridesharing demonstraEiOn projeCtS. including COJlS(TUCtion Of publiclyOwned parking facili t ieS for pre f erential u se 36 Commute Systems Handbook


by car and van pools. Public policy can influence a number of parking management strategies through increased meter rates, reduced time limits for on .. street parking, increased public parking charges, amenities at park-and-ride lots residential parking permits, enforcement of parking regulations changes in tax laws and enforcement of public regulations. Public sector practice s regarding parking for public employees can also have an impact. Current federal tax policy favors the si.l)gle occupant automobile commuter because it pro'Oides economic i ncentives for employer-paid parking and discourages util ization of transit or other rideshare alternatives. Federal tax policy allows subsidized or employer paid park ing as a tax-free benefit to employees, the value of which is unlim ited. While the federal tax code allows a maximum of$21 pcr.month for employer-pro 1ded tax-free benefits, thls provision contains a cliff pro,1sion whereby an employee receivmg more than $21 per month in transit benefits must include the entire amount as gross income on his/her federal tax return. EMPLOYER/DEVELOPER STRATEGIES Pour common parking management incentives or strategies have been shown t o have a positive impact on transportation demand. These include: Parking Pricing: Parking pricing applies CQst and subsidies a.s tools to change the way a commuter chooses to travel to the worksite. Because It h as a direct effect on the employee's wallet, parkillg pricing plays an effective role in influencing commuter behavior. Pa rking pricing policy is generally Oexible and is used to meet a number of employer objectives. Employers might increase the parking charges for drive-alon e commuters or reduce parking charges for carpoolers and vanpoolers. Parking fee proceeds can then be used to enhance and offset the cost of the company's TDM program, including costs associated with program promotion and marketing, the cost of employing an employee transportation coordinator implementation of a subscription bus program, or development of other TDM measures. Preferential Parking: VanpooJ and carpool vehicles may be assigned exclusive use of the most desirable parking spaces, such as those closest to the building entrances. I n addition, parking charges may be eliminated or partially reduced for pool vehicles, which may also be exempt from any hourly parking limits. Employee Transportation Allow ances: Employers can provide financial assistance to employees for their round-trip commute to and fro m the work site. This i!lvolves employer distribution of a predeterm ined dollar amouot to subsidize all or part of the employees' commuting costs, based on the rype of transportation used. If employers regard the drive-alone commute as a Jess desirable choice and reflect this in .the level of subsidy, employees are more like ly to consider other transportation alternatives. In addition, local governmems may institute parking reduction ordinances, which involve regulations allowing a reduction of zoning requirements for parking in return for developer-sponsored transportation management efforts or contributions to a TDM trust fund. Employers and developers might also be encouraged to provide parking for bicycles. CommuttAlterna.tiues Syttems Handbook37


SUMMARY Parking management measures been implemented in a variety of seUings throughout the U.S., often as components of an overall comm01e management program and In conjunction with other unnsponation alternatives. The potential impa ct of parking management strategies on mode choice varies, depending on the balance of park ing sup p l y and d emand. An empiO)'Cr must assess the c harac t eris t ics oft he work she to ens ure th a t appropriate a n d effectiv e p arking strategies a r e a dopted. 88 4 Commute "ltematives Systems Handbook


OVLANES High occupancy ''ehicle (liOV) lanes are highway lanes intended for use by vehicles carrying more than one passenger. In some areas consideration is also given to the maximum capacity of the vehicle. HOV lanes are also referred to as diamond lanes, commuter lanes, and authorized vcb .iclc lanes.' The first HOY lanes were developed in the late 1950s. Since that tbne, HOV lanes have emerged in sev e ral large metropolitan areas, primarily as a response to severe traffic congestion problems. \o\'hen proper l y planned developed, and enforced, HOV Janes are an effective incentive to rideshare beca use traffic flows more freely on IiOV Jane s than on adjacent freeway lanes. TYPES OF HOV LANES Determining the appropriate type of HOV Lan e facility for a given area depends on the resources ava i lable to implement and enforce HOV lanes, the physical constraints ofthe right-of -way, and the specific goals outlined in an overall TOM plan. While each type of HOV lane is dev elo ped to serve a unique purpose, there are fou r basic types o fHOV lanes currentl) in operation: Separated HOV Janes are physically separated from other travel lanes, usually by concrete barriers, median strips, or guard rails and can be developed within existing roadway rights -ofway Generally, thes e l anes are used as inbound l anes in the morning and outbound lanes i n the afternoon, with accompanying signs and barriers switched to identify the direction of flow. Concurrent flow lanes are high occupancy vehicle lanes adjacent to existing travel lanes and are not separated from the general traffic lanes by a physical HOV l anes are closest to the median and are separated from the general purpose t ravel lanes by a wide solid white line. Opposing flow or contrallow l anes are characterized by one lane of opposite trafllc flow being marked off by cones or other easily-removable barriers. Generally these lanes are closest to the median and Comm. uteAJtematives Systems Handbook 89


are operated only dur ing peak periods. For example, duriJtg peak periods, the outbound lan e closest to the median is marked off by a series of pylons attached by poles to holes drilled i n the road surface. T he l anes are then used for HOV veh i cles. Exclusive HOV roadways require their own rights-o f way and can be used only by HOV vehicles Because of the high costs involved, exclusive HOV roadways are impl emented Jess frequently and are usually developed by local transit authorities for the exclusive use of buses. HOV LANE UTiliZATION While no nnal hours of operation for HOV lanes vaty from roadway to roadway, they are d etermined prima rill by three variab l es: traffi c congestion, type of facili ty, and directional traffic distribution. Generally off-peak volumes that vary little from peak-hour volumes require that HOV restrictions remain in effect for longer periods of the day, sometimes as much as 24 hours. In addition, the more physically separated the HOV lane, the longer it tends to be operated as a HOV-only lane. The three most commonly used hours of operation for HOY lanes are: 24-hour operation, in which the designated lane(s) functions i n an HOV capacity with vehicles traveling i n the same direction for the entire day, "Peak period onlY' operation, in which the HOV facilities operate only durjng morning and af t ernoon peak periods, and "Morning -in, afternoon -out" operation, whereby during morning hours (usually starting at 6:00 a.m. ) the lanes are reserved for HOVs heading inbound to an area such as downtown During the noon hour the l anes are reversed, and from t he time the switch is completed until some hour in the evening (usually 7:00 p.m.) the lane s are reserved for t raffic ombound from dowmoMl. Depending on the restrictions imposed by loca l government agencies, HOV lanes can be utilized by three types of vehicles: Buses transport the largest number of peopl e in one trip are the most efficient form of HOV transportation, and are therefore given acc ess to all HOY lanes. Vanpool s can also access most HOV facili t ie s (with the exception of those road s developed exclusively for buses) Vanpools can carry up to 15 individuals along majo r thoroug h fares a n d a re an efficient mode of transportation Miles of Operating HOV Lanes 350 A4:1prol4male mnes ol OPf!(Siina HOV I MC$ 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 198:3 1985 1987 1 989 oata Sl'lown a1e tor ope."Silng HOV lanes tocaled either on i r eewa')'S or In sep.atale ROW 1.'1 N Ame.1ca SOvtCO: USOOT A Vehicle Facilllies'" 40Commute Alternatives S)'Stems Handbook YEAR Carpools can also access HOY facilities. T he required number of o ccupants in each car varies and is usually dependent on Haffic conditions in both general purpose and HOY lanes. An HOY 2+ designation refers to vehicles carrying two or more persons while an 1-JOV 3+ requirement refers to vehicles w ith three or more persons.


HOV 1AN:B DEVELOPMENT The initiative for developing HOV lanes varies according to the type of roadway to be used and is based on the jurisdictional responsibilities for a particu l ar roadway. Regardles s of the road type, the developing agency may be respon sible for all phases of HO V lane planning and implementation. For example the development of an HOY lane on 1 -2.75 in Tampa would be administered by FDOT, whic h would conduct all planning activi ties, design the l a n es, construct and maintain them, and, if necessa ry. operate the lanes (i.e. switch directional gates or change messages on HOV signs). The only activity not carried out by the responsible agency may be the enforcemen t of the HOV provisions governing the lane. HOV LANE E NFORCEMENT HOV lane enforcement is. generally carried out by the jurisdictional enforcement agency responsib le for facilities of that type. T hree types of enforcement techniques exist : Ded i cated enforcement is a technique whereby pattols are dispatched whose sole tesponsibility i s to enforce HOV lane regulatio ns. Inclusive enforcement is a stnt.tegy w hereb y pat rols enforce HOV l ane provisions while carrying o u t other regular duties. Often. HOY lane enforcement is a lower priority. Video monitoring enforcement utilize s video cameras mounted over the NOV lane (usualiy at a bridge underpass) to obtain front, side, and rea r views of each veh icle Th e video o utput is relayed to either a nearby mo bile van whose crew wat c hes the display for lane violators or a monitoring station whe re the information i s recorded on videotape BENEFITS OF HOV LANES IAihile HOV lanes have been shown to be an effective incentive for ridesharing in many areas, their effectiveness increases when they are part of broader TOM programs To justify the high cost of J iOV lanes, a dditional TDM strategi es, such as park-andride lots, prefere n tial parkin g, and rideshare matching servi ces, must also be implemen ted. The cost of HOV lane construction is high and their usc is ineffective if not adequ ately enforced. Ensu ring adequate enforcement of HOV lanes is also expensive; however, the benefi t s that accrue from HOV lanes are numerous. lfHOV applications involve adding l anes to existing roadways, capacity is increased. HOY lanes also improve express bus service, re duce air pollution, and encourage ridesbaring Therefore, the high costs associated with HOVl ane construction and enforcement may be somewhat offset by these benefits CommuteAltemanves Systems Handbook41


SUMMARY Localities interested in de\eloping HOV lanes are faced with a variety of decisions. There must be a determination as to what typ e of facilit) is most appropriate to meet local needs, given local cost and land constraints. Decisions must a l so be. made as to how and when the lanes will operate. what vehicle restrictions will apply, and what lane enforcement s trategies will be used Underlying the entire process is the question of funding since HOV lane construction costs can be significant When implemented in conjunction with other TOM strategies HOY lanes have been shown to be effective in increasing rideshare activities and therefore can improve roadway capacity and level of sen'ice. ln short, while the expense and time spent to develop HOV lanes can be high, the benefits are li kely to justify the investment 42 Commute Alternatives Syst4?ms Hmtdbook


NON-MOTORIZED AND DEVELOPER BASED TRANSPORTATION AMENITIES During the last 25 years pedestrian and bicycle travel have re emerged as legitimate modes of personal transportation in the U.S. Bicycle sales have outnumbered auto sales for 20 years. This recognition of alternative modes of transportation parallels interest in environmental issues". Other concerns, such as air quality fitness, and congestion, have aJso contributed to the increasing acceptance of non-motorized forms of transportation. Some programs include pedestrian and bi cycl e components, which accommodate up t o 75% oflunch hour trips and from 25% to 35% of commuter hour trips. These percentages can be increased with effect ive land use and transit combinations. Often non mo torize d and o the r alternative transportation amenities getlerate a higher return on Investment to the investor (i.e., the municipality or developer) than do other facilities or operational programs. Considering the true costs to the developer of parking ($700 to $1,000 per year per space), charges for adding turn and traffic lanes, d r ainage, lost retail space, .and environmental impacts, the reduced space needs of many alternati ve transportation modes may save initial and l ong-term maintenance or op erating expenses Research has shown that when empl oyees get regular daily exercise through activi t ies such as walking or bicycling to work, employers a lso benefit through: Increased productivity. Employees arrive at work fully energized and with less accumulated stress. Dec rea sed absenteeism. Employees tend to have fewer b ealth related pwblem s. Reduced health care claims. Impwved morale and a lower rate of empl oyee turnover." Thi s i s particularly evident when and bicycling are part of an overall employee wcllness program. While walking and bicycling can contribute to effective transit and park-and-ride programs, it should be realized that these modes comprise a very small percentage of total trave l in the United States. Preliminary results from the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Study (NPTS) i ndicate that bicycling accounted for 0.7 percen t of all person trips in 1990 and walking accounted for 7 7 percent of all person trips. In addition, trend data since 1977 indicate that bicycle usage rates have remained relatively flat, while walldng trips decl i ned by 2.6 percent. This is not to suggest however, that these modes should be excluded from TOM strategies. In fact, low rates of bicycling and walking in the United States can be partially attributed to the sprawl-type development associated with the automobile TOM strategies promoting pedestrian/bicycle facilities can contribute to increased use of these modes Commute Alternative. Handbook48


ADDRESSING THE NEEDS O f THE TRANSPOJ!TATJON DISADVANTAGED Whil e the developm ent of pedestrian and b i cycl e facil it ies can ben efi t some persons consi dered to be transportation disa dvan tage d ( TD), these persons in most cases requ i re more extens ive assistance in meeting mobility needs. Transportation disadvantaged persons are defined in Chapter 427 of the Florida Statutes as: .. those persons who because of physical or menta l disab ility income status, or age or who for other reasons are unable to transport themselves or to purchase transportation and are therefore, dependent upon others to obtain access to health care, employment, education, shopping, social activities or other life s u s t aining activities, or childre n who are handicapped or highrisk or a t -risk as defined in s. 411.202. T his definition covers a broad cat eg ory of persons I n 1990. an estimated 5.3 million persons statewide were elderly handic apped, or low-income. This potential TO p opulation. however, include s p er sons whose mobility needs and abilities vary widely, with a smaller core group requiring more extens ivc mobility assistance. That is, non disabled e ld erly and low income persons could make greater use of Imp r oved pedestrian facilities than could severely handicapped p er so n s Im provements benefitin g TO persons include the installation of sidewal k s curb cu ts pedestrian crossing s i gna l s at c:rosswalks with adequate time c ycles to allow slower moving persons to cross th e street and shelt ers at transit boarding points. Such imp r ovements would probab l y benefit T O persons more by providing access to o t he r trip modes such as transit, than by increasing walking as a mode for more than short trips Thi s i s because TD persons are i n some cases frail, cannot walk unassisted. or in extreme instances are severely mobility4irnpaired. Th e lrnplementation o f the Americans with Disabili ties Act !ADA), enacted in 990 will h ave a significam impact on access i ble facilities T h e Act is a majo r piece of civil rights legislation that requires the provi sio n of equal access to facilities and activ i t ies by the disab l ed. and i ncludes mandates affecting transportation. Beginning in early 1992, pub li c transit operato r s m ust provide the same l evel of service to d i sab l ed per sons as t o the general riding public by making transit fleets and facilit ies acce ss i b l e and by prov i ding paratransit service to those who cannot use accessible transit. Other p rovi sions of the Act beyond transportation include the removal of a r chitectural barri e rs t o allow access by the disabled. Compliance with the Act "111 have significant fina ncial impact on local governments transit authorities, and developers. 44 CommuteA/umuuivts Systems Handbook


T h e mobility needs of T O perso n s are addressed at the state l e vel by the Trans p ortatio n Disad vantaged Commissi on, comprised of representatives o f several stare agencies. The TD Commiulon contracts with Commu nity Transportation Coordinators (CTCs) at the county leve l to provide complete, cost e ff ective, and efficient transpo rta tion service$ for TO persons P EDESTRIAN PROGRAMS AND INCENTIVES A local ordinance r equiring that certain amenllies b e offered to pedestrians when construction or r eco n s truction occurs i s one m e th o d of addressing pedestrian co n ce rns. Such an ordinan ce ca n r e quire offi ce and Indus trial parks to have nears ld e pede s trian or bicycle a ccess t o dty cleaners, banks. dru g o r co nv e nience stores, day car e centers and other frequent e d sto res a n d s erv i ces. Side w a lks should be place d a long bo th s ides of the roadways to e n sure pedestrian safety, acces s and mob ility. Other t.reatments, such as croMings, overp asses or underpasses, and aails that Unk residenti al a.reas office buildings, and retail centers should also be considered in these o r dinances. Studies have shown that office parks having high levels of wo rke r amen!Ues, including ret ail, food and service courts, h ave higher occupancy rates, can charge highe r rental rates, a n d therefore, can enhance the tax b ase of the city Other evidence shows that the inst al l ation of q u ality pede s trian and b i cycle f a cilities and suppor ti v e land use enhance th e v a lu e o f nearby real estat e. Another method of encou ragi n g non-motorized tran s portatio n "'' is thr o u gh requi re ment s mandat ed in the gui d e lines for the developm ent o f the s ite plan. The same ped estdan amenities can b e addresse d in this manner. Other concems, such as sec u r ity, co nv e nience, and attracUv e n ess, s h o uld also be addressed. Unobs tru cted lines of sight, si d ew alks curb cu t s, landscaping, or pla:tas are all examples of accommodati o ns that coul d be in cl uded in site p l ans to encourage pedestrian travel. Bonus zoning, the practice of provi d ing additional rights to a dev el oper in exchange for desired pedestrian amenities, has also been used effective l y. This may consist of adding footage to a buildin g a r e a i n exc hange for an added entrance o r an Increase in Ooor area rat ios in exchang e for a proporUon a t e area o f a pedestrian mall." BICYCLB PROGRAMS AND INCENTIVES The same methods ci t ed for pedestria n programs-site plan requirement s and zoning-also apply to bicycle programs. Bicycle facUlties should be incorporated into plans for reconstructio n o r impr ovement, and consideration should be g i ven t o bicycle programs. The cyclist environment is broader than that of the pedestrian : s pecial equipment is used a v e rage distance trav e l e d Is grea ter, and there Is mor e Int e ra c tion with other vehi c l es T h ese e lements give rise t o iss ues such as the need to flo w with traffic and the suitabl e w id th and exc lusivity of lanes on certai n roadways Bicycle a n d ped estrian programs should h owever, be compl e m e ntary. The interrelation of the modes p r ovides some assurance of accessiblllty and mobility for the elderly, the disabled, and pedestrians who travel \vith small children. Zoning o r dinances sit e plan require m ents, ot bonus zoning can a ll be use d t o encourage developers to partic ipate in l ocal bicycl e programs. Again, as with pedestrian p rogr ams there are other e lements that work to Im p ro v e the effectivenes s of bi cycl e programs F ortunate ly most a r e low cost, and employ ees may volunteer time a n d support to make the pro g r a m s s u c cessful Essentials in c lud e s howers and lockers at t h e w orl< place, s ecure b i cyc l e, and convenient acc e s s. I f employer s are to excee d 3 % to 5% bicyc l e commuter rates, other successfu l i ncenUves sho u ld be exp l o r e d including: CcmmuroAlternallws SysTems Handbook 45


"Buddy system for route planning and early rider training bicycle courses, and Company sponsored bicycle or fitness clubs. It is possible for employers to get even greater participation through annual bonuses to those empl oyees who do not use the single-occupant automobile for daily commuting. Bonuses could include, for example, a remrn of $3.00 to $5.00 per day of non auto use or an extra 15 minutes' vacation or wellness time to those who choose to make fitness a pan of their commute mode decision. FEDERAL AND STATE AssiSTANCE No specific authorization of federal funding for bicycle and pedestrian p ro jects and programs cur rently exists; however federal aid is usually provided through existing programs or iniriatives, such as the Regional Mobility Program and federal aid hig hway funds. B i cycle projects to be Implemented within u rban areas must be i ncluded in the Transportation Improvement Plans (TIPs) prepared by the local Metropolitan Planning Organizations tMPOs )." Federal aid highway funds have been used to provide pedestrian and bicycle faci li t i e s either in conjunction with normal highway construction or improvement or as lndependem projects. However, since these funds are competitive with all federal-aid highway projects, many states have been reluctant to set aside money for bicycle and pedestrian projec t s Funding for pedestrian and bicycle projects has also been provided in conjunction with federal tran sir programs, including funds for bicycle parking and stora ge facilities (part icularly those i n conjunction with passenger she lter s or kiosks) and the inclusion of pedestrian and bicycle amenities in and around transit malls. A number of these malls are viewed a s "pedest ria n" malls which promote mass transit Abandoned railroad rights ofway have also been convened to bike and pedestrian ways, which are sometimes useful for urban t r i ps. State funding suppon of non -motori zed TOM projects is provided through matching funds for federal aid and state facilities and through commuter assistance programs Technical assis tanc e and guidance is available through the FOOT Public Transit Office, the Pedestrian/Bicycle Program, and the district offices' Multi Modal Programs. The FOOT Pedestrian/Bicycle Program Office provides guidance to MPOs on the deve l opmen t of Compre hen sive Bicycle Plans. This office also panicipates in plan and program activities as well as provides guidance to local areas. The FOOT Public Transit Office also maintains a staff to help estab l ish bicycle commuter centers. Camera-ready marketing materials, bicycle commuter handbooks, architectural plans for affordable, modu lar shower and locker centers, planning documents, marketing studies, and other technical documents \viii soon be available. Many metropolitan a reas in F l o rid a have full-time pedestrian/bicycle coordinators.' These coordinat o rs are responsible for the development oflocal or regional pedestrian and bicycle transportation plans the integration of pedestrian and bicycle programs into all comprehensive land use and transponation plans, the development of bicycle training programs, motorist awa r e ne ss programs, and the integration of pedestrian and bicycle facilities into all new highway construc t ion, reconstruction, and resurfacing p r ojects Developers are encouraged to work \vith these coordinators for technical and planning assistance. DEVELOPER-BASED AMENITIES Closely associated with the support of non-motorized modes of transponation are private sector or developer based initiatives which facilitate the use of alternative modes of transportation in general. or are deterrents to singleoccupant automobile use. Developers may also make vo luntary contributions or proffers to local go vern men ts as a condition of granting development approvals. As a re sult of the Ame ricans with Disabilities Act passed in 1990, considerable attention is being given to access and mobility for the disabled. These considerations provide excellent opportunities to remove architectural barriers. As mentioned earlie r special concerns should be addressed when planning pedestrian and bicycle programs This consideration must be extended to other al t e rnative modes of transportation to enco urage t h eir use. The goal is to provide an environment compatible with 46. O>mmuJe Alternatives System!! Handbook


TDM Strdtegies by incorporating various means of mobilil) and access into development plans. The Florida Quality Development Program CFQD) is an incentive to developers to consider non-motorized transportation amenities and mixed u sed design of developments. Aside from a more expeditious review process of completed applications, the FQD process has the potential to promote a more cooperative relationship between the developer and reviewing agencies. A provision is made for substantial increases in deviation thresholds. Projects that receive the FQD designation may use the certification mark for promotional purposes, which may increase the marl

Endnotes 'William F. Stevens, Improving the Effectiveness of Ridesharing Programs Transportation Quarrer ly, October 1990, pp. 573 574. Moges Ayele and foon Byun, Personlll, Social. Psychological and Other Factors in JlidesharingPrograms. DOT l -85 34, pp. 4.04 3. Michael). Breen, Metropool: A Public/Private Partner ship Tha t Works (Stamford, CT: Metropool, Inc. January, 1982), p 6. 'Commuter Transportation Services. Inc., 'fhe ETC Handbook: A Commute Management Guide for Employee Tmnsportation Coordinators DOT-T-90-21 (August 1990) Chapt erV, pp. 2 3 Ibid. Commuter Transportation Services Inc .. TDM Series: Parking as a Transportation Demand Management Tool (Los Angeles, CA: CfS 1988) p 7 . Ibid., p. 9. Kathleen Turnbull and James Hanks. A Description of High -O ccupa!Jcy Velticle Fa.c:llities in North America (Washington. DC: U.S Department ofTransportation, 1990), p. 5 'Ibid .. p 15. "Barry Sanford Tindall, "Public Policy and Support for Bikeways and Pedestrian l'acilities: Some Perspectives on tbe United States, of Seminar Workshop 011 Pla11ni1zg, Desigll arullmplementmion of Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities (New York: MAUDEP, n.d. ), p 11. National Personal Transportation Study (NPTS), Early Results (August 1991). "Dan Burden. Pedestrian/Bicycle Program FOOT. John J Fruin, Ph. D .. Pedestrum: Planning and DesigT4 rev. ed. (Mobile AL: Elevator World Inc. 198 7 ) p 144. Bicycle Federation, Development Manual for Comprehensive Regional Bicycle Plans (Kim ley -Horn and A..sociate$, Inc., January 1985), pp. I -3. "Charle$ W. L u s tig. "State Street Pedestrian/Transit Mall : Chicago Illinois, Proceedings of Seminar Workshop on Planning. Design and lmplemelllmion ofBiqcle and Pedestrian Facilities (New York: I\.1AUDEP, n.d. ) p. 154. "Florida Statutes. p. 1121. 48 CommuteAlrematJves Systems Handbook


SECTION4 :d j I ', ..l.:i. -:;.".; '"= .. .;.o .. "'== .':"!.= . 7 -. _, ;:::: ....


this page IS blank


The TDM measures explored in the previous section represent the initiatives that have proven successful throughout the United States However, the success stories that have been discussed have come about through a carefully considered planning process which, if forsaken. can lead to reduced success of TOM initiatives or the inability of the measures to have an impact on congestion levels. One way to avoid this prob lem is to follow the IDM planning process outlined in this section. This eight-step process involves a thorough investigation of t h e reasons for loca l traffic congestion and then recommends appropriate TDM strategies to mitigate the problem. In this way, the IDM initiative directly addresses the problem at band and removes the guesswork that often goes into some IDM approaches. While TOM planning helps to ensure that the right measures are selected to mitigate problems, it is the implementation of these measures that leads to improved traffic conditions. Two of the more common implementation strategies are the adoption of trip reduction ordinances and the formation of transportation management associations, both of which are discussed in the following sections. THE TDM PLANNING PROCESS As Florida's communities grapple with traffic congestion, the need to imple ment transportation demand management strategies also grows. Before the appropriate strategies can be selected and implemented, however, a eoncerted effort to identify the caus es of congestion is needed. The identification of the causes and the strate gies recommended to mitigate problems a re all part of the TOM planning process. This process is a coordinated approach that includes specific step s related to: problem definition issue formulation data collection issue analysis setting of goals and objectives plan development inlplementatlon, and plan monitoring and evaluation By following these steps, a community, employer, or 1'MA can develop a successful TDM program such as those utilized in other areas of the country. Commute Alternatives Systems Handbook-51


STEP 1 PROBLEM D EFINIT ION Although it may seem obvious to many, the first step in the planning process focuses on actually determining that a problem exists. The process is sta r ted by defining the mobility problem on a very general level. such as traffic congestion in a downtown area. Once the basic problem is defined, the p lan ning process i s set i nto motion. Background re sea r ch and a schedule should be developed that will address the problem in a timel) manner. An advisory or s te ering committee can be formed to guide the entire planning process; however. ro assure s u ccess, it is important that an individual be charged with directing the planning process In the case of an employer, that person may be the transportation coordinator; in a community it may be a transportatio n planner; in a TMA it may be the exec u t iv e director or the chairman of that organization's Board of Directors. 2ISSUE FORMULATION In this step, it is imp ortant to better define the key issues so the remaining steps of the process are directed to the best solullon. With the initial p ro blem defined, it becomes necessary to clearl) identify major issues so data collection can be focused on t hose issues. It may also be necessary to re\iew relevant leg islation organi zatiooal charters, bylaws, or contracts to ensure that formal and informal organizational requirements are met. If an advisory or steering committee has been formed to guide the process, it may be appropriate to form subcommittees to address specific issues. Each subcomminec would concern itself with a patticular aspect of the p rob le m or a certain phase of the process Subcommittee o rganizat i on and related tasks and goals will vary according to the needs of each problem being addressed. STEP 3 -DATA CoLLECTION With the problem better defined and major issues identified, a t horough examination o f information relevant to the problem is required. This info r mation should incJude dara on currem transportarion conditions commuter travel patterns and behavior and general characteristics about the worksite or s e nice area. The assessment consists of several aspects: A site or service area analysis, which provides a description of the physical characteristics of the worksite or service a rea in relation to transportation, including geogra phic location; proximity to other worksites, communi\ies, activity centers, or transportation facilities; dimensions of the si t e or service area : types and availability of parking (free, metered preferential . and bicycle); and location of pedestrian walkways, enrranceways, bikeways. and bus stops or routes The site analysis shou l d also consider factors such as freeway or surface street access current transit services. and access to parking structures Various source mat erials and tools, such as census tracts, zip codes, or source receptor areas, may be used in this analysi. s Establishment of baseline data on rravel patterns. As part of a TDM plan, baseline data for average vehicle ridership lA VR) or vehicle occupancy ra t es (VOR) will need to be established. The formula for calcu lating the A VR is: AVR = #of EMPLOYEES arriving at worksite between 6 and 10 a .m. #of VEHICLES arriv ing at worksite between 6 and 10 a.m. These data are generally gathered through an employer t r ansportation survey, which may be conduc[ed by mail, telephone, or i n person . or b} conducting a driveway survey

Employee categories, such as professional, clerical, full-time vs. pan time Emp l oyee lesidential zipcode information N u mber of employees reporting to wor k between 6 and 10 a.m Commute modes and patterns D ata on the number of one way miles empl oyees drive from home to work. as well as infonnation on l ife sty le and driving patterns, can be gathered by means of the employee transportation survey and then used to calculate vehicle miles of travel (VM"l). These rypes of analyses help to identify c ri tical mobility issues and congestion p oints and should be performed on an least an annual basis. The perio dic employee transportation survey can be a valuab le resource in fulfi.lling other data collection needs. Other uses of the emplo yee transportation survey are : Cu r rent employee commute patterns, including commuting distance (\'Ml), actual mode splits (proportional breakdown ofrype of vehicle used to get to work) and trave l time Employee attitudes and needs, including those that favor driving alone E mployee 11\>;Jlingness to change from driving alone to use o f alternative modes of transportation Emp l oyee attitu d es tow ards variable work hours and telecommuting proglams An analysis of comm u ting distance, travel time, mode split, and attitudes towards ridesharing and other TOM measures helps to identify target markets and strategies and define how a program can be designed to meet goals. The results of employer and empl oyee surveys and various data analyses aid in developing and refi n ing objectives and p rogram strategies. A description o f potential strategies. for increasing mobility, such as appointment of transportation coordinators and promotion of carpools and van pools, club buses, prefere n tial parking, and transit passes. I dentifying and understanding the IDM measwes that may potentially assist in mitigating the mobility problem is e s sential in devising the proper strategy Without a working knowledge of the many options that are available and how they are b est used, IDM plans may not be as effec t ive as possible In addition to these data collection needs, an additional set of components should be investiga ted when a 1'0M p lan is being developed for a community, an alea of a comm1mity and, in some cases, for TMA service areas. The following is an outline of data collection needs for communities and TMAs d rafting TOM plans: Peak h o u r investigations Pea k hour is that 60 m inute segment of the day during which the highest number of vehicles tr avel along a road segment Peak hours are usually subdivided into 15 minute intervals for ease in determining at which point in the day the heaviest traffic loads occurred Peak hour studies are useful in TOM p lanning because they help determine when congested cond i tions are at thei r worst. If TOM measures alleviate congestion at the peak hou r, they shoul d help relieve congestion th roughout the day Peak hour studies are a lso u sefu l in determining whicll TOM measures will be most useful. For example, if traffic volumes remain at the same level between 8 and 9 a.m., flextime and staggered work hours would serve vety little purpose. Identification of congested areas-Often, an entire downtown area can suffer congested conditions because of the traffic problems associa ted with a two or three block area If such a s itu ation exists targeting more agglessive TOM strateg ie s to this area can alleviate much of the congestion that occurs in the rest of the downtown Level-of-service determination Leve l'of-s ervice is a qualitative measure describing operating condi tions on a roadwa y or at an intersection These conditions are generally described in terms of s p eed and trave l time, freedom to maneu ver, comfort and convenience of the vehicle opera t or, and safety. Bach road segment o r inter s ection receives a l evel-ofs ervice (LOS) grade ranging from A (free-flowing traffic) to F (approaching gridlock) based on these c o nditions. WS informatio n i s Commute Alternative< Systems Handbook-58


useful because it gives a good indication of which road segments in t he a r ea are pr e senting the most mobility problems Thus these areas can become targets for TDM m easures Demograp hic trends-Demographic trends w i thin t he defined a r ea a r e important because they can be u sed to target pmemial problem a rea s that need f urthet researc h. They can al s o be u seful i n developing TDM s t rategies beca use they help det ermine what kinds of p eople w ill be served and i dentify potential areas where future gro\ l.rth may ta ke p l ace. LEVELS OF SERVICE FOR ROADWAY SEGMENTS LEVEL TECHNICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF Flow Operating Conditions Highest qual ity oi service. F r ee traffic ftow l ow v o l umes densities. Util e o r no restriction on maneuver a bility speed. traffic flow, speed be sl(ghtl y restricted. L ow oo maneuverability. traffic flow, but less freedom to sel e c t speed, l anes o r pass. unstable now. but subject to and consJderable Less maneuverability d r iver comfon. Unstabt e traffic f l o w wit h rapidl y speeds and flow tat e s S hort headways. row I and low driver Focced t raffic now. Speed al\d flOw may dro p to zero with densities J STEP 4 -ISSUE ANALYSIS Speed 55 + 50 45 40 35 Less Than 20 Delay None N o ne Minimal M inimal S ignificant Service Good Good Poor Poor .. Onc.e the necessary data ar e collected, the next ste p in th e p rocess i s to a n a l yze the infor m a tion to get a better understanding of t he problem and how mitigation measures may be devised. When this step is comp l ete, two item s should h ave been d e v e loped. The first of these is a lis t of findin g s. This l ist will gui d e the TDM planner as t h e goals and objectives, plan eleme nts, an d implementation s t r at egies a re developed T his list can a lso be u sed for public information pur p oses as well. Because th e list is a synopsi s of existi ng conditions based on quantita tiv e mea sures. pe r s ons intere st ed in develop ing TDM measu r es will have the support docum ent neces s ary to justify such programs The secon d item to be developed at this stage i s a detailed analysis of the data and ho w they relate to th e ma j or i ss u es. While the list serves as a review ofthe dat a collected, t he analysis process att empts to clarify and fully define the pro blem so that the remaining steps of the p lanning process are foc us e d o n sol ving th e problem. 54 C..Om mute Alw rnatives S_vstems Handbook


S TEP 5 -GoALS AND OBJECTIVES While some professionals m ight argue that the setting of goals and objectives should take pla c e very early in the planning process, waiting until after data collection and analysis makes seuse for several reasons. First, very specific goals td objectives can be formulated to address the prob l ems identified. Goals developed very early in the process are usually fairly general and are based on percep tio ns rath er actual problems. Seco n d, goals and objectives developed at very early stages of the p r ocess often have to be revised after the data analysis has been completed. Goals formulated after the data has been analyzed s hould not require modification early goals and objectives tend to f ocus data efforts on proVing that the early assumptions about the problem were correct. By walling to de velop goals and objectives, the problem helps to actually define bow we will deve lop solutions. 6PLAN DEVEWPMENT Once mitigation techniques have been focused on spec_ ific problems, it is necessary to develop a more detailed plan for each te chnique Generally, the plan examines each goal and, using the objectives as a guide, deve l ops mitigation techniques tailored to achieving the goal. In addition to the conceptual plan, it may be necessary to develop policy a n d organizational recommendations to ensure that the plan elements are achieved This could take on the form of a transportation management association or the continued existence of the adviso1y committee. In any event, the plan should specify re,iew mechanisms that guarantee the plan being updated at specillcd times or when major changes in land use or the local economy takes place E!:J STEP 7 IMPLEMENTATION Implementation focuses on de,,eloping specific strategies for achieving the plan's recommendations. This is generally done by specifying who will out each compon ent of the plan or by detailing the specific action that will need to take place i n order for the plan co.,mponent to occur. For example, a transportation management associ a tion may be developed to market the availability of transit serVices i n the congested area to each major employer to inform them about specific routes and schedules At t his step of the process, appropriate guidelines should also be ps as a Resun o f TOM Programs (Program) Downtown Bellevue WA Bishop Ranch, CA Minn Free Parking, MN 1-394 HOV Lane, MN Hacienda Bus Park, CA Downtown Hartford, CT 0 5 1 0 15 (Porcontago RoducliOn) 20 developed to ensure that all strategies are implemented in a timely manner The guideline s may also focus on deve l oping criteria for the make -up of any suggested advisory boards or new steering committees Finally. the implementation strategy may also focus on developing components such as a trip reduction ordinance, a commuter assistance agency, or a transpo rtation management agency These components can be developed as part of the plan or can be developed by other groups or agencies provided that they follow the goals, plan recommendations, and implementation guidelines that have been detailed through the planning process. Commmeltlterna.tlves Syste-ntt Handbook 55


8 -PLAN MONITORING AND EVALUATION At a minimum, all steps of the planning process should be reviewed on an annual basis. Elements of the p l an, particularly the employee and employer assessments, may need to be updated to determ ine changes a nd to ensure that as congest io n i s re li eved in one area it i s not simp l y being displaced to another. As new issues emerg e or displacemems o ccu r it may be necessary to redefine or modify program goals and objectives. In the case ofTMAs, a mechani s m should be in place to allow a formal adoption of changes to the goals and objectives. SUMMARY It is important to note that the process is one of taking a broad vi ew of a particular problem and then systematically refining and addressing the Issue u n til it is resolved. By building on the work already completed in the prev i ous step. the project stays focused and i s m ore eas il y managed. In this way, the mitigation of traffic problems has been addressed through a professional and thorough methodology and has a better cha nce of achieving its goal. 56 Commme Alrema.rivcs Systems Handbook


TRIP REDUCTION ORDINANCES TOM measures are a n effective way for local to red uc e traffic cong est i on and imp r ove mobility. How e v e r, while local go ve rn mems m ay have the desir e t o red u ce tr affic vol umes or Im prove roadway levels of service, the success o f s uch programs depends o n p rivate sector Prior to t h e 198 0s, local governme nts relied o n the voluntary coo peration of the private secto r f o r the succe s s ofTDM initiatives. In are as where traffic co nge s tion was an easily-pe r c ei v e d problem, voluntary cooperation was achieved at a fairl y saUsfactocy level. In areas where traffic problems were not as readily apparent it was difficult to generate voluntary cooperation, and the success ofmM measures was marginal. In the 1980s, the climate foriDM changed. Localities identified Increased demand f o r new roadways. Ho,.,-ever, econo mic co nstrain ts o ften left localities unable to fund additional infrastructure; as a result, they began to exp l ore a lternative ways to manage demand, such as the Imp l e mentation of trip re du c t ion ord inances (1R0s). Trip reduction ordin a n ces are go vernment mandates which requir e that traffi c co n gestion be reduced in certain areas through im pl ementation of a series of TO M measures. Generally a TRO will require a certain group o r individual, usually a major employer or a developer of a large business complex. to devise and implement measures a imed at reducing t h e n umber of single occupant v e h i c l e trips generated to a n d from a given location In 1984, the first two TROs appeared in California -<> n e in Los A n geles and the o ther in Pleasa nton. While only t h e P l easanton ordinan ce remains, It was the initial s u c cess of these two i nitiatives that brought T ROs into the trans portation limelight. Today, over 50 TROs are in effect across the country. Most were developed to address traffic in municipalities; however, county-wide and regional ordinances have also been deve l oped. Calif ornia and New J e rsey are tw o sta tes that have drafted l egislation whi c h allow s o r requires local govern ments to enac t TROs. Californi a h as adopt e d the m ost stringent sta t e codes to a d dress traffic co ngestion, with legis l ati on requi ring t hat all counties \\1th 50,000 or more inhabitant s to d e vel o p and impl ement a co ngestion management plan. I n New Jersey legislation req uires the state DOT to dev elop a traffic manageme n t p rogram which applies to employers of 100 or more and counties designated as having highly congested roadway conditions. In Florida, the City of Orlando has developed an ordinance that uses a zoning overlay district to mitigate traffic congestion in its downtown area. TROs c a n be an eff ective way for l ocal and regi onal governme n ts t o i m p l ement trip reduction measur es, b u t they may not be appropri a t e in all a r e as. Most TROs i n effect toda y are in high g r o w th areas where serious conges tion and ai r quality pr ob l ems exis t. If a TRO is bein g conside red for a community, h o w e v er, s ev e r al points should be considered in its deve l opment. O>mmur,e Altsmali..,. Systmu Handbook 5 7


DEVEWPING A TRI P REDUCTIO N ORDINANCE TROs are usually developed in one of two ways: (a) they may be one of several strategies developed as a part of the TOM planning process, or (b) t hey may be developed through the political process as the r es ult of a lo cal or state legisl ative mandate. If the ordinance is deve loped through the political process, there mus t be assu r ance tha t the ordinance addresses the problem at hand. Regardless of the reasons for drafting a TRO basic decisions are required prior to developing an effective mandale. These include: Jnltiat.ion aJld DeV"elopme-nt of the Ordinance-A community should nor develop an ordinance CALIFORN I A WASHINGTON CONN ECTICUT N EW JERSEY ( Numbet) 0 10 20 30 40 50 -Active Propooed without soliciting input from business leaders or develope rs The most effective TROs are generally those which involve business leaders and developers in the development process, since they are often the ones expected to implement the ordinance. Dete r mining the optimal organizationa l f r amework for a given area depends on the unique circumstances w i thin the area, and care must be taken to ensure aU affected groups have an oppommity to provide input du1ing the development phase With out such input it may be difficult to achieve acceptance of the ordinance. both from a political and operational s t andpoinL Ordinance Coverage and Affected Parties-Most THOs are developed to mitigate t raffi c congestion for a defined geographic area. As part of the initial decisionmaking process, it is necessary t o delineate the specific geographic area to be encompassed by the ordinance. In some cases the ordinance covers the central business districr, \'lthile i n others i t may be a mile wide strip a long a major urban corr i dor. Generally, the TRO covers only those a reas suffering from traffic congestion; however. it may also include areas ln which sigttlficant new developmem is expec ted to occur. Major employers and developers are the groups most often asked to implement TI)M measures ; however. the decision regarding w hich groups "111 be subject to the ordinance i s determined in part by the objective of the ordinance. Participation Hequiremen ts-Participation in TnOs generally takes one of three forms: (1) Volrmrary programs ask. major employers and/or developers to participate in and/or im p lemen t TDM measures. No requirements arc set forth to ensure complianc e; rather it is assumed each party in the affected area will make a good faith effort to imp lement specific strateg ies. W it h this approach deve l opers or employers are offered incentives t o bring them into complia nce; (2.1 Mandatory programs require an employer or developer to comply with the requirement s of the ordinance. When the mandatory appl'oach i s used. ir is a fairly common pra ct ice for the jurisdiction requiring compJiance to provide some form of technical assistance regarding TOM measures; and (3) Volumarylmandatory parlicipaJion programs are a combin atio n of the first two approaches in which the TRO set s a particular standard to be achieved on a voluntary basis b y the affected parties If the slandard is not met within a specjfied time f rame participation in the requirements of the ordinance becomes mandatory Ordinance Goa ls-TROs are developed to reduce uaffic congestion and the goal s of the ordinance are usually stated in of a spec ific target strategy. GoaJ s can be general or specific but shou l d be set so 58Commute Alumuuives S)lstems Handbook


as to reduce traffic congestion by targeting a particular standard which can be quantllied through a fairly simple visual or written survey techni que. Leng t h of Time Needed to Ach i eve Compliance-Although most TRO s require each employer or deve loper to meet the program gui delines wlrhln the first year and then maintain that le v el fo r t h e duration of the ordinnnr.e, other TROs phase guidelines so the final standard is achieved after a period of time In developing a TRO, the need for phasing is dependent on the severity of the reduction goal. Ordinance Requirement&-Each TRO requires that an employer and/or developer take certain actions in order to help mitigate traflic congestion. While lhe mandated actions vary from ordinance to ordinance, most require one or more of the following four components: (I) the designation of a transportation coordinator to assist commuters in selectlng altern ati ve transportation modes; (2) the di s seminatio n or information in which employc_ rs arc req uired to make alternntJvc transport ation information available to their employees or arc required to distribute such Information; (3) the collection of data, In which the empl oyer i s r equired to maintain inf o r mation on how employees a r e getting to work; and (4) the implementation of TOM measures, In which employers must develop specific programs such as prefere ntial parking. Ordinance Management-TROs can be managed in two ways: through a public/private task force made up of municipal representatives and representatives of major employers and developers or through jurisdictional responsibiliry. Management involves development or technical support ptograms, r eview and npptaval ofTDM plans, monitoring of compliance, serving as advisor on ordinance revision to municipal boards, and training ofliTCs Ordinance Ftm

S UMMARY A TRO can be an effective way for local and regional governments to implement trip reduction measures. It shoul d be carefully de1 eloped with the input of the business community Proper p l an n ing, f u nding, management, and ettforcement of a TRO can lead to s u ccessful implementatio n ofTDM measures to reduce traflic congcsti .on. 60-C.ommute Alrenmtives Systems Handbook


TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATIONS Across !he nation, a m aj o r new approach to addressing transportatio n need s has emerged In the form of transportation management associations ('fMAs), grassroots organizatio ns formed to address mobility needs in local high activity centers. TMAs are formed to provide a foru m by which b uildin g owners. local merchants, developers, l oca l policymakers, and publi c sector agencies can collectively implement poli c ies and programs to improve mobility within an area. Many TMAs hav e formed in California, spurred on by rnos, and olhers are emergJng in N e w Jersey suburban Washington, D.C., an d rece ntly in the state of Florida. There are now more than 100 T!v!As nationwid e serving as a vital resource to address energ y, growtil management, air quality and congestion problem s chroug h implementation of a variety of T O M s t rategies. T!v!As allow their public and private sector members Ule opportunity to form a partnership to establish program s, poli cies and services to reso l v e local and regional transportation problems. The need for TMAs stems from the realization tha t the business community can have an important Influence on the impl ementation ofTDM solutions. Employers have a vested interest in assisting employees with programs that improve o r enhance commuting needs. The public sector has the ability to supply solutions and pass regulations that require or encourage the busi ness community to change employee commuce habits. The involvement and support of the private sector is an lmponant component to ensure the Implementation o f a successful TDM program The sqccess of the T!viA Is ultimately the responsibility of th e private and public sector members who govern the organization. t h e r e have been a number of articles and books written by Tt.>IA practitioners and members of the tran sportatio n profession o n the developm ent of a T!v!A. However, there are no precise blueprin ts fur a T!v!A; the funding mechanisms, purpose, membership and size of eac h Tli>IA must be tailored to l ocal need s FOOT is e ncouraging TMA f ormation by providin g three year seed funding for developm ent. Several have been formed o r are developing in Orlando Ft. Lauderdale, Ta mpa. Winter Haven Maitland/Altamonte Spr ings Jacksonville, and l';!iarni. Florid a TMAs are emerging as a vital resource for the implementation of a variety ofTD M strategies, such as the promotion and implementation of carpooling, vanpooling. and buspooling; employer subscription bus servic e; transit shuttles; guaranteed ride home programs ; alternative work hours; parking management; assistance to TMA member orga nlzadons In the development of TDM p l ans; and other measures almed at employers and commuters within the TMA service area. FWRlDATMAs The following are b r i ef description s ofT!v!As which have been developed or are being developed In f lorida Westshore TMA: The Tampa Bay area is the site of one of F l orida's five TMAs. Incorporated In Oc tober 1989, the Westshorc T!v!A officially began operations In January 1990 in a hig h l y co ncen trated urban area comprising over 70,000 employees. Presently, there are limited opportunities for expanding existing roadways In the Westshore area; as a result, lo cal businesses working WESTSHORE TRANSPOIID\TION MANAGEMEN'l' ASSOCIATION lhrougb the Westshore T!v!A have recognized the need to optimize us e of existing lransportation infrastructure. ln a ddition to traditional ridesbaring. the TMA is p romoting pedestrian Improvements throughout the area, a noon-time shuttle service connecting employment centers with CommuteAltmrati..,. Systtms Ha11dbook 61


shopping/restaurant areas, and designated preferential parking for carpools and vanpools. The TMA staff works closely with the City of Tampa to identify traffic signalization geometric imp r ovements for Westshore intersections. Recently, the TMA instituted a Guaranteed Ride Home program for membe r employees which has been a big success Univers i ty Activity C e nter Transportation Association (UACTA): UACTA was formed in September 1989 to address traffic concerns in the area surrounding the University of Central Florida. The University has an enrollment of 2.5, 000+ students. of which 24,000 are considered commuter students. In addition. the Central Florida Research P ark, a major office park development which is adjacent to the campus employs approximately 12,000 workers The office park development tOOk the lead role in the formation of the TMA, with the Research Park Manager serving as Chairman of the TMA. The TMA has enjoyed enormous success and has convinced University officials to stagger class sched u les to help alleviate congestion on surrounding highways In addition. TMA -staff assisted in t h e implementation of a shuttle system which transports commuters to and from the Uni\'ersity of Central F l o r ida campus. U.A.CT.A. Downtown Orlando Transportation Management Association: The Downtown Orlando TMA was for med in October 1990 in response to a DRI recommendation. The Greater Orlando Chamber of Commerce and the community redevelopmcm agency came together to discuss ways of preventing transportation in the downtown area from becoming a problem. The TMA takes a pro active stand on all transportation issues in the down t own Orlando area. Unlike many major downtown areas, Orlando does not have parking problems. There is an abundance of parking in the downtown area, wit h over 80% of the businesses downtown offering free parking TMA staff promotes vanpooling, ridesharing, alternative work hours, and transportation allowances. First year efforts have included a survey of downtown employers to encoura ge ridesharing modes and strengthen the downtown trolley system. A challenge facing the TMA is the large percentage of government wor kers in the downtown work force. Downtown TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT AssociATION The Capita l City Transportation Management Association: FDOT and the F lorida Energy Office (FEO) contracted with the Center for U rban Transportation Research (CUTRl in the planning and implementation of a TMA for the Capital Center a rea of Tallahassee CUTR joined forces 'vitb Florida State University < F SU) to implement this TMA based on recommendations contained in the comprehensive plan for the City of Tallahassee. The evolution of this TMA was based on the steering committee approach, which originated with the New Jersey DOT during the initial formation of the Cross County Connection TMA in Southern New Jersey To initiate the TMA, a oneday conference was held which featured presentations by TMA experts from throughout the country. Attendees included develope r s, area business owners legislative representatives. government officials, and neighborhood associat i ons. The purpose of the conference was to expose t11e public and private sectors in Tallahassee to the benefits of a TMA and solicit their support for the TMA concept. The conference generated a substantial amount of enthusiasm and resulted in the formation of a grassroots steering committee comprised of conference auendees Operating under the guidance of FSU and CUTR, the TMA Board and steering commiuee have designed an organizational framework, a marketing 62. Commute Alternatives Systems Handbook


program, and a work plan for the TMA. FSU provides staff supp ort to the Board and to encourage suppon from members for the start-up of TOM strategies and programs. TMA DEVBLOPMENT Th1As are formed for a variety of reasons, which tend to fall into three categories: (a) to mitigate traffic in a particular area; (b ) to encourage the private and public sectors to wo rk together to form poUcles and programs aimed at Improving the mobility ..,;thin a given area; and ( c ) to respond to an existing ordinance and /or air quaUty problem. There are many factors and situations that warrant the development of a TMA, including: A co ncentration of employment within a well-defined geographical area with a large number of employers that allows for a substantial base for a rldcshare matching system; Pro jections t hat existing or anticipated traffic congesti on Is t'lr will be into l erable; A member of the p rivate sector or business community who leads the effort for t he formation of the TMA and can convince fellow area employers to participate; A group of individuals, which may Include legislators, businessmen merchants, devel opers, and private citizens, who perceive there may be direct benefit from participa tion in a TDM program; A regulatory environment that requires or rewards participation in a TDM program. TMA DEVBWPMENTAL ACTIVITIES Developmental activitiC$ refe r to the steps necessary to take a TMA from Inception to opera tions. Patience, conmlltment, and motivation are necessary virtues of all parties involved in the development process. Experience indicates the formation p r ocess may take anywhere from six months to two years or more. If the public sector takes the lead In the formation oftlie TMA. much of the start-up process involves educating and obtaining commitments from the private sector. If the private sector inlllates the process, the start-up process involves obtaining commitments from public sector representatives and securing funding commitments from the public and private sectors. It is essential that the public and private sectors not only accept the c o ncept of a TMA but also get involved In the formulation and development of TMA goals and objectives and mission statement. It Is essential for the key players to be fully aware of the role the TMA will have within the comm unity and to understand the local transportation situation and alternatives wWch could help to Improve the situation. The following outllnes the spedfic actions to be taken and issues to be in the of a TMA.


Firs t Year Work Plan: A TMA work plan outlines t h e goals and objectives for the TMA and serves as a guide for the activities o f the organization. Preparation of the TMA work plan is the key component or the development phase and in establishing an operational framewor k work plans wiD differ from subsequent years and should Include: Miss i o n Statement: The mission statement should be concise, dearly stating the rea son for the TMA's exis t enc e and outlining the general goals otthe organization Goals and Objectives: This s hould focus on overall object i ves and specific target s or goa l s for first-yea r opemtions. There a lso s hould be reference to Florid a growt h management laws, air quality, and TDM. Marketing Plan: The marketing plan should create an Identity for the Tl\.fA and o u tline th e means for promoting the TMA to tho commuting public. II should describe activi ties to be undertaken by the Tl\.fA In the areas of advertising and promotion Detailed B u d get: The budget wiD outline potencial sources and uses of funds necessary to accompUsh the goals and objectives for first -year operations. Tite budget should clearly idenrify publi c and private funding including in-kind services. TMA Services: This 'viii outli n e and describe the services to be offered by the TMA, Including services s uch as rideshare matching. vanpool sen'ices, guaranteed ride home, assistance In development of TDM programs, etc. Monitoring/Evalu allo n : Performance measures must be establi shed during the first year to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the TMA's programs. Legal Status: TMAs often evolve out of ad hoc groups which decide to formalize efforts and create a public private partnership. The legal status of the TMA determines '"hcthcr it is able to solic it non taxable contributions and undertak e lobbying activitie s The provisions of the IRS Code relative to nonprofit corporations designate three typeS of organizations which are applicable to TM As:501(c )3 501(c )4, and 501(c)6 Board of Directors: TMAs arc usually governe d u nder the auspice s of a Board of Directors comprised of public and private sector members. I n c luding d evelopers, land owners, building managers, neighborhood assoclntlons, and others Board responsibilities include setting policy and programs for the The Board oft e n employs an Executive Director, who repor ts directly to the IJoard, to implement poli cies and programs outlined by the Board. In addition to the TMA Executive Director, the TMA may employ staff who function under the direction of the Executive Director 64 Commute AltenuUW.. Sysrems /landbook


Membership: T!v!As are usually membership organizations designed to assist the members in implementing a commute management program. Members no r mally pay an annual fee, which entitles tl>em to outlined by the Board. TMAs may include a wide variety of members, some of whom fund the association and otheiS who are merely interested or influential parties ln some instances, those funding the TMA are the only ones given voting repres entation. Others, such as inOuential public sector agencies, may sit on the Board but are likely to serve in an ex officio nonvoting capacity. Funding: Funding for th e TMA may come from a variety of sources. As a public/private sector partnership, the public and private sectors generally will proVide both monetary and i n -kin d contributions such as supplies, office furniture, and office space to sustain TMA operations While membership fees generate revenue additional sources of funds are available to TMAs. As noted earlier, FDOT admio isters a TMA grant program to assist in _the development of TMAs. In addition, the U.S. Department of Transportation, through t h e Federal Transit Adminis t ration (PTA), offers T!vli\ grants through the Suburban Mobility Initiatives Program. Public seed funding is a lso an important catalyst to TMA development. Additional funding may also be availa b le through various corporate endowments and foundations Although this t)'Pe of assistance is ava i lab l e, self sufficiency through contr:ibutions and funding from the private sector should be a goal ofmostTMAs SUMMARY TDM is the way of the future. Tlvli\s are one of the me c hanisms for achieving meaning ful TOM activities. Because of their unique ability to inlplemeot traffic management programs in their specific geographic areas, Florida Tlvli\. s have been success ful i n educating the citizens of Florida on the benefits ofTDM techn ique s, growth managemen t legislation and air quality. CQmmute Alternatives Systems Hantlbook 65


this page IS blank


SECTIONS . r i =.


this page lS blank


STATE PROGRAMS INTRODUCTION The enactmen t of the Grov.

ORis have been s ubject to a comprehensive review of regional impact prior to local government approval. Developers mus t fully analyze the impacts of their project s on public facilities and se";ces and must then o utlin e measures necessary to mitigate any adverse impacts. This Includes forecasting traffic impacts on regionally significant roadways and identi fying necessary road improvements to n>ain tai n roadway level -o f-service standards. Where i mpacts of a project are both significant and advel$e, developers become responsible for financing a ponion or road lmprovemems. Gu i delines for OR I Applications states that d evelo p ers. where applkable, shall ident ify transpona t lon system management (TSMJ a lt e rnatives that will be used to mitigat e impacts. Developers must indkate what provisions will be made for "sidewalks. bicycle paths internal shunles. rid esharin g. and public transit ... for the movement of people by means other than the private automobile ." Armed with these guidelines. regional planning coun cils are recommending that developers include TOM measures in their projects or at leas t j u stify levels of ridcsharlng or trans i t us e assumed in their travel forecasts. Man)' l ocal governments are responding b y i ncorporating TOM requirement,' into t h ei r DR! Developm ent Orders. Florida Quallry Develop m e n ts Development s that would otherwise be clas sified a s ORis may qualify for the florida Quality Deve lopment Program (FQD). The FQD Program offers an expedited review o f projects. In return, developers must meet certain requirements t hat do not apply to ORis. includin g the incorporation of qua tiry design features into their projects. To qualifY as an FQO, a project must accumulate a set number of points with individual d esign features each assigned a number of points. One qualiry design feature is TSM, defined by Rule 9)-28 of the Florida s tatutes to include: ... mass transit, access management, TOM and the facilitation of pedestrian movement or the non automotive bi\Sed con,-eyance of people between land uses. Local Comprehensive P lans With the passage of the Local Government Compre hen sive Planning Act of 1975. local Florida governm e nts were required for the first time t o adopt local comprehens ive plans (LCPs) outlining how they wante d their communities to grow. W h ile ground b reaking. this A c t was perceived as ineffective because i t contained no enforc e ment mechanism. The enforcemen t mechanism was created "1t h the pass age of the l.o c a l Government Comprehen s iv e Planning and Land Deve lopment R egu l atio n Act (the Growth Management Act) of 1905, th e store's landmark growth management law. DCA was given the powe r to revie w local comprehensive plans for compliance with all provisio n s of state law. and JocaJ government s whose p l ans were found not in compHancc could l ose their allocation s of stat e revenue sharing funds. The 1 985 law introduced two n ovel requirements that have become the p illars of growth management consis tency and concurrency. Both have implications for TOM As required by the Growth Man agement Act local comprehensive plans must provide for adequate i nfrastructure concurrent with the impacts of developments. a requirement known as concurrency. Adequacy is defined by level-of-service standar d s, adopted by local governments as pan of their LCPs. No development o rder o r permit may be issued if levels of service w111 be degraded below adopted level ofser\'ice standards. Since TOM measures can moderate peak hour traffi c. they could h elp l ocalities mee t concurre ncy requirements at a r e lativ e ly l ow c ost In congested, fiscall y S!rapped urban areas implementation ofTDM may emerge as the only mean s of avo iding development moratoria F lorida E n ergy Office (FEO) The Florida Energy Office. forme r l y named the Gover nor' s Energy Office, operate s under the auspices of the Florida Department of Community Affairs The Florida Energy Office is working with other stat e and local agencies to realize its objectives of reduced energy consumption and effic ient utilization of energy resources i n our state. FEO curremly funds a number of TOM projects including the Capital 7()-Commute Alttmatfws Systems Handbook .... FLORIDA ENERGY OFFICE


City TMA In Ta llahassee; Bay Area Commuter Services, a commuter assistance program serving the Tampa Bay area; the Florida TMA Clearinghouse; the "Integration of Commute Alternatlve s Into the Growth Management" {CASH) project; and a number of other TDM projects conducted in cooperation with the Florida Department ofTr:ans p ortatio n FLoRIDA DEPARTMENT O F TRANSPORTAT ION As a result of significant population growth and development, our state transportation system I s c hallenged by suburban development t rends, central city revitalization and infill concurrency requirements, and fumre energy and environ mental i mpacts.' In order to provide for the star e transportati on sys t e m within liu l framework of the Growth Ma .nagement Act, FOOT plans and administer s numerous programs that include TDM measur es as integral components. FDO'l' Is charged by statute to construct improve, maintain, and operat e the state transport a tio n syste m and to assist local government transportation system s. FOOT's Office of Public Transportation admini s ters sev e ra l programs designed to addres s commuter assistance and growth management in Florida It coordinates these programs and assists in the implementation of other TOM strategies with vatious state agencies, local government, and the private sector. Specific programs administ ered by the FOOT Office of Public Transportation include : Regional Commute r Services: FOOT funds the creation of regional commuter assistance pi'Ogl'&ros {CAPs), including Bay Area Commuter Services (BACS) in the Tampa Bay area and Gold Coast Commuter Services in southeast Florida. Plans are under way for the establishment of CAPs in the Orlando/Melbourne / Daytona Beach area and ln Jacksonvil le These organi2ations will form the nucleus of the F l orid a Commut er Assistance Program . Small Urban and Rural Commuter Services: These programs operate as a vital link between state and local governments, especially in rural areas wh e r e th ey provide an Important service that not only b enefits the general popul ation but can also entice new industry to th e area. FOOT curren tly funds the oper ation of the following Small Urban and Rural Commuter Serv ices: Suwanee Valley C ommuter Assistan ce, serv i ng Liv e Oak Tay lor/Madison Co unty Commuter Assistance Progra m, sen>ing P erry and Madison counties W est fllorida Commuter Services, serving the Pan handle area Plans are under way for develop ing a program In Sarasota. Transportation ManagernentAssoclallons ITMAs): PDOT provides start -up funds for the establishment of area TMAs through the TMA Grant Program, whlch Is administered by FOOT District Public Transportation managers. This Is an on-go ing program identified within the FOOT fiveyear work program and provides stan-up funds to eUglble TMAs on a yeai-to year basis for a maximum of three years. Ped estrian/Bicycle Programs: Through FOOT's Pedestrian / Bicycle Program, fund s are provided to promote these alternative modes of transportation Bicycle and pedestrian ame nities are usuall y provided \vithln normal h ighway rights-of-way, but specialized treatments such as cross-walks, sidewalks wide-curb l anes, and bic ycle lanes have also been p r ovided, where appropriate. These modes are being promoted as critical features of empl oyment and acth>ity ce n t er development In addition, the Florida Department of Transportation contracte d w ith Florida S tate University for the establi shme n t of th e F lorida Bicycle Commuter Center, which will work ""th Int erested employers and developers statewide to d eve l op ame nities for tlte bicycle and ped estrian commute. Park-nn d Ride Lot Programs: In 198 2, FOOT initi ated a Park-and -R ide Program to provid e organized aod s afe parking for vehic les Initially the lots were const.ructed on publicl)-ov,;ned land such as rights -ofway, park lands, and other parcels. Today this program provides for the constructio n of park-and-ride lots. Funds are also set aside for park -and-ride pro motion and program monitoring. Park and-ride facilities are coordinated in cooperallon with CAPs. TMAs, and transit operators.


Tran s it Corridor Program: FOOT provides demonstration project funding to reduce traffic congcslion along specific urban corridors. with special priority given to those identified in the Florida Transportation Plan. The Transit Corridor program permits the purchase of rolling stock. rights-of-way for transit and traffic Improvements, and marketing and operating costs. Florida TMA Clearinghouse: FOOT established the Florida TMA Clearinghouse through a contract with the Center for Urban Transportation ltesearch (CUTRI at the U n iversity of South Florida. The program began In July 1991 t o promote and assist in the development of area TMAs and C APs U1roughout th e s tate of Flo rida. Currently funded by the Florida Energy Office and the florida Department of Transportation, the Clearinghouse produces a quarterly, nationally distributed newsletter in cooperation with the Association for Commuter Transportation. a national organization for TOM professionals The aearingbouse also houses an information center at CUTR A that includes a computerized bibliography ofTOM/TMA materials Evaluation and monitoring criteria for Florida TMAs are being developed under this program. Other Programs: In addition to Commuter Assistance Program s, the FOOT Office of Public Transportation administers state projects that suppon urban and rural b u s or publi c trans it systems, fixed guid e way systems, and para transit syste m s Public transit can be an effic ien t TO M strategy when combined with appwprlatc land us e and other measures. Fixed guideway systems, such as light rail, heavy rail and automated guideways. are a lso effective measures In high density population or employment areas. Paratransl! systems, vans, small buses, or taxi services are also practical conveyances for TOM measures. FOOT also parlicipates in the coordination of intermodal transit planning as well as In the process used for the development of local government and regional comprehensive plans. REU\TilD PROGRAMS, AGENCIES, AND DEPARTMENT S Transportation Disadvantaged Commission: The Transportation Disadvantaged ('I'D) Commission was established In 1989 "to implement an expanded program for tho provision of coordinated and specialized transportation services to the elderly, handicapped and economically disadvantage d cl!izens of Florida."' The TO Commission works with the FOOT Office of Public Transportation. metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), Designated Official Planning Agencies, and Community Transportation Coordinators to proide transportation services through the use of individual vehicles, vans. small buses. and taxi services. These services are included in the comprehensive planning process The Family Support Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act significantly impact the TO Commission and the implementation ofTDM strategies In general, in that they direct an Increase in the demand for transportation services. This increase makes it important that TO services and TOM stra tegies are carefully coordinated. Highway Program: FOOT's Highway Program is required by stat e statute to "reduce congestioll on the s tate transportation system, the generation of polluta nts and fuel consumption .... "' FOOT works in conjunction with the Department of Community Affairs to develop and adopt coordinated rules for leve l of service and concurrency management and to implement an integrated land use and transportation process to improve mobility. Rallnntermod:ol Program: In developing alternatives to automobile use. consideration must be given to all modes of t:ransporta tion. The use of rail for intra-state t:ravel is rising. Including commuter applications and local high speed applications. These initiatives arc products of local governments and/or the private sector. The state coordinates these proje cts through Ute plannin g process, including coordination of public and private rail planning and the local comprehen sive planning process. Dense development a long rail corridors w hich enhance the value of r ail and other public transportation modes i s encouraged. T h e stat e also look s to the purchase o f abandoned railroad righ ts-of -way for future transportation use. Stat e fundin g Is provided to support the development of commuter and interc i ty rail passenger services. 72 Committe Altematives sysums Handbook


Aviation Linkages: Hapid population growth impacts airport capacity as well as congestion on roads that access airports. Airports can also be large empl oymen t centers or be l ocated nea r such centers further contributing to conge<>'tion. The state considers transportation projects that support intermodallinkages to the state's larger and busier airport$ to be of high priority Surface access and air capacity needs are included in the planning process. Department of Commerce: A priority issue of the Department of Commerce is ro be a full partner in Flo r ida's growth management effort The Department, through tb.e DMsio n of Economic Development directs a variety of programs aimed at enhancing Florida's economic base through diversification, improved employment opportunities, and retention and expansion of existing businesses. Tourism, the lar gest generator of sales tax revenues, is the state's most Important industry. Annually, Florida is host to over 40 million visitors. Tourists utilize a number of alternative transportation modes in many of the state's vacation and recreation areas. 'fD!'vf strategies such as shuttles, buspools and vanpools can be combined with private development and public access to decrease congestion and enhance accessibility to these areas. Department of Environmental Regulation (DER): The key issues identified by DER that most directly involve TOM measures are environmental education, alr quality, global warming. and ozone depletion. DER place major emphasis on prevention of environmental damage and promotes environmental education programs as a means of pollution prevention. The Clean Air Act of 1990 increased the agency's responsibilities with regard to air quality by specifically mandating sizeable reductions in vehicle miles traveled (VMT). DER has developed a mobile source control program that deals with air pollution from motor vehicles The goal of this program is to improve air quality by reducing the amount of exhaust emissions from cars and trucks. In addition, the 1990 Cle311 Air Act requires that states adopt "1tbin their State Implementation Plans (SlPs) transportation control measures (TCMsl to improve air quality. This is another task of DllR, and a number ofTCM measures are synonymous with TOM strategies. SUI\'I.MARY The state of Florida administers a variety of p rogram s that support commute alternatives and TDM measures. A number of these programs are mandated by federal initiatives in the areas of transportation, accessibility, air quality, energy, mobility, and environmental issues. Efforts have emerged among state agencies to combat our rapid populat ion growth, the effects of past land use and planning decisions, and the desire to maintain the unique and fragile e n vironment of ou r state. Through a cooperative effort among state agencies. local governments, and the private sector Florida will continue to attempt to manage gtowth and ensure tbe mobility of citizens and visitors . CommuteAIU!matives SysU!ms HandbQQk73


Federal Programs I NTRODUCTION The United States Department of Transporta tion (USDOT) is authorized by its enabling legislation to "provide general l eadership in identi fying and sol ving transportation prob l e ms.'' The extent of federallm eres t has varied over time and administrations. Historically, numerous fed e ral programs have been dedicated t o enhancing rransponation supply, especiall y freeways and buses Through various pif!()es of federal legislation and policies and U .S. Department of Transportation national and international events, TOM measures have become pan of several federal programs as means of accomplishing such seemingly varied tasks as reducing traffic congestion and improving physi cal fitness. Current federal transportation policy centers around the U.S. National Transportation Policy and the lntcrrnodal Surface Transportation EfOciency Act of 1991. Goa l s of the National Transportation Policy are to maintain and expand the Nation's transportation system; foster a sound financial base for transportation; keep the transportation industry strong and competitive; ensure that the transportation system supports public safety and national secu rity; protect rhe environment and quality of life: and advance U.S transportation technology and expertise for the 21st centuty."' The lntcrmodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 provides legislation that strengthens the goals and objec tiv es of the National Tran sporta tion Policy. The Act was signed into law by President Bush In Decembe r 1991 and reaut horizes rhe feder a laid highway and transit program through fiscal year 1997. It establishes a new vision for su rface transportation in the United S tates. As directed in the National Transportation Polley, th e Act is clearly defined to "develop a Natlonallntennodal Transportation System that is economically efficient environmentally sound, provides the foundation for the nation to compete in the global economy, and will move people and goods in an energy efficient manner. The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program of the AC1 directs funds towards transportation project$ in C lean Air non-anainmcnt areas for ozone and carbon monoxide. Projects will contribute to meeting the attainment of national air quality standards. The Act provides state and local governments nexibility in d etermining transport ation solutions (such as transit or highways) and the tools to enable the public secto r to choose the b est overall choice. The United Sta tes Departmen t of Transpor tation and other departments of the federal government are supportive of the unique condition s afforded by TOM for enhanced int e rgovernmental relation s and increased private sector participation, while attempting to meet the goals of improved mobility and reduced energy consumption The lntermodal Surface Transport ation Efficiency A c t will provide increased Dexlbllity in federal programs and impro'oe the mobility and safety of rhe traveling public USDOT's ROLE IN TRANSPORTATION DEMAND USOOT provides a ss i stance for TOM through various mechani sms This assistance fall s within the broad categoty of "Transportation Syst ems Management (TSM) S t rategy ."' This strategy incl udes demand management measur es as well as projects that may be co nsidered construction or technology stra t egies. There arc rwo points of contact within US DOT: the Federal Transit Admi nist ration (FTA) and th e Federa l Higlnvay Administration (FHWA]. 74 Commut4 Altunalit

FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION The primary responsibility of FTA (formerly Urban Mass Transportation Administration, UMTA) is to administer federal transit programs. Tilese grant -Ina id programs are intende d to increase mobility thr ough public and private transit services. Transit can provide additional transportation capac i ty and, consequently reduce congestion However, the growth of auto travel has often offset such reduction in the past. Trans it can be better used as an effective long -term measure in reducing congestion when comb ined with otherTDM s tr a tegies. The major types of assistance available for transportation systems are discretionary program funds and formula program funds TDM measures can be funded through either. FfA also provides planning funds to satisfy the joint FTA. and FHWA regulations which require each urban area to have a continuing, coope r ative and comprehensive (3-C) transportation p l anning process. TSM strategies are requ i red to be a part ofthis process and funding to support TDM planning measures may be providell through metropolitan planning organizations, the state, o r discretionary study funds. In 1988 FfA implemented the Suburban Mobility Initiatives (SMI) Program to help the nation's suburbs solve growing traffic congestion problems."" Program elements have included shortterm planning grants strat egic p l anning grants, organizational arrangement dem onstration grants, employers and developer supported demonstration grants, and contractor support FTA's Regional Mobility Program (RMP) is an expansion of the Program. Through this p rogram PTA has expressed interest in and funded TOM projects that involve parking managem e nt measures, ri desharing, alterna,tive work schedules, telecommuting, and HOV f acilities, or combination s of these measures. The R egio nal Mobili ty Program which focuses primarily on problems o f congesti o n and mobility, is administered by the Office of Technical Assistance and Safety, Office of Mobility Enhanceme nt. Inform ation may be obtained about the program directly from the Office of Mobility Enhancement In Washington DC, the FTA Region IV Office, or through the FOOT District Office FEDERAL HIGHWAY .ADMJNISTRATION The FHWA administers the federala i d highway "'""'"""" to'l:c'IOCII:t'IOI'> R e g ional Mobil ity Program program s that distribute federal funds to states to c o nstru ct and reconstmc t Int erstate, urban, and rural highway systems The state s have conside r able di scret ion i n sel ection, plann ing, design, and construction. The definition of constmction activities for which federal funds are eligible includes constn 1 ction, reconstruction, and TSM. FH:WA program funds are used for inlprovements that increase capacity TDM measures that may be funded include HOV lanes, fringe (park-and-ride) parking, computerized traffic signals, surveillance and control systems, computerized rideshare m atching progtams, pedestrian walkways bicy cle facilities, motorist aid sys tems, automobile res tricted zones. carpool fac ilities, and van pool acquisition s TDM planning financed by FHWA funds is authorized for comprehensive metropolitan planning activities FHWA also provides states with t e chnical assistance, training. and information on research new products, and i nnovations through technology transfer actMties. Informati o n on FHWA programs can be obtained from the FHWA divis i on oillces or thro u gh the FDOT District Office Multi-M odal Program-Commute Alrernativcs Sysrems Handbook75


COORDINATION WITH 0rliER FEDERAL DEPARTMENfS OR AGENCIES Because several issues give rise to TOM measures, the goals of many federal agencies to resolve these issues are often complementary. The Department of Energy (DOE) views TDM as a means of improving urban mobility, with the underlying assumption that by so doing an adequate energy supply can be maintained. The quality of urban air and improved l and use patterns are concerns ofthe Environmental Protection Agency The Clean Air Act of 1990 places furthe r requirements on areas to improve air qualiry. There are howeer, inequities in the federal program that present challenges to the applicatio n of some TDM measures Fe deral p rograms, at times. have been more supportive of particular modes of t ransportation than others. This impedes a fair evaluation of alternative transportation modes. For example. there is generally little contro l of private parking offered by employers If this parking is provided free of charge or is subsidized, the costs are allowable business expenses. The question of congestion in and around airports has sparked interest in TDM measures by the Federal Aviation Administration In some areas, industrial development around an airport i tself can be a major contributor to congestion. Efforts have been made to facilitate public or private shuttle sel'Vice to key regional worksites and retail areas in many communities Thes e shuttle s are used to bring employees to work at the airport and to assist in re ducing the demand for parking spaces b y air travelers. SUMMARY US DOT is the lead federal agency supportive of TDM strategies. Within USDOT, the Federal Highway Adminislration (FHWA) and the Federal Transit Administration (rrA) provide funding for vari ous TDM projects This funding can be provided directly to local entities, such as municipalities and transit authorities. It is recommended that local entities "1th li ttle or no experience with federal contract procedures contact their FOOT District Office and their MPO. Othe r federal agenci e s such as the Department of Energy (DOE), the E nvironmental Protection Agency (J)PA), and the Department of Health and Human Sel'Vices (DHHS) have funded various TOM projects consistent with the various goals of thes e agencies. These funds may be provided thro ugh a joint federal agreeme n t or through the state. For federal purposes, TDM measures tall within the Transportation S)'Stems Management Stra tegy, which is very loosely defined. A number of agencies support this strategy and provide grants-in-aid technical assistance, and other resources which support TDM measures. The passage of the 1991 Intennodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act will provide a challenge for fede.ral, state, and l ocal governments to ensure imple mentation o f the bill provisions. It is certain that the future will offer increased flexibiliry in fede ral programs and that t11ere "111 be changes within federal agency grants and programs that will provide increased interest in and funding for TDM meas u res. 76 Commute Alternatives Systems Handbook


Endnotes 'Wllllam E. Sadowski and L. Benjamin Starrett, :'G rowth Management in the 1990's: Issues and Considerations, Growth Management Summer School (Tallahassee, Fl:Florida Chamber, 1991) p. 643 'Growing Smarter (Tallahassee: State of Florida, 1991}. 'Sadowski and Starrett, pp. 643 FDOT, op.cit., p. 50 Florida Statutes, Volume 2, 22d ed. (Ta llahassee, FL: StateofFlorida, 1989), pp. 943-44. 'U.S Department of Transportation, Moving America: New New Opportunities, Volume Two. A Statemel!t of Nat ional Transportation PoUcy Strategies for Ac tion ( Wash i ngton, DC: USDOT February, 1990}, p. 2 'U.S. General Accounting Office, Tmjfic Congestion-Federal Efforts to Improve Mobility, GAO/PERMD-90-2 (Washington, DC: December 1969) p 36 U.S. Department of Transportation, A Summary: I11termodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (Washington, DC: USDOT December 1991), p. 5. Douglas Lee, "A Glimpse Behind the National Transportation Policy Statement: The Division' s Vision of Transportation, Vol. XVII, No.2 (September 5 1990), p.1. 10 Carol L. Schweiger, A National PersiJL>ctlue on Regional Mobility (Woburn, MA: EG&G Dynatrend, Inc. 1991), p 2. ll Ibid., p 2. u R. Krzyckowski et a!., Joint Strategies for Urban Transportation, Air Quality and Energy Conversation, Volume 1: Joint Action Programs, INTERPI..Al'l Report 7346 R (Springfield, VA: NTIS, !974}. ---------------CommuU!Aiternatlues Systems Handbook 77


this page IS blank




this page IS blank


GLOSSARY Activity Center A major concentration of employment and commerclal activity, which may be found in suburban areas as well as i n the downtown area. Air Pollution The undesirable addition to the atmosphere of substances (gases, liquids, and solid particles) which are foreign to the "oanual atmosphere or which occur in quantities exceedingtheu natoral concentrations and interfere eithen,1th one's health, safety, or comfort or with full use and enjoyment of one's property. Alternative Work Schedules Scheduling policies such as fle>rlble and staggered work hours and compressed work wee.ks which allow employees to avoid commuting during peak traffic periods; also called variable work hour policies or flextime. Arterial A transportation route with intersections which carries a main flow of traffic through an area. Average Vehicle Ridership (AVR) A numerical value calculated by dividing ti>e number of employees scheduled to start work during specified peak hours Into the number of vehicles arriving at the work site during those same hours Bus Lane A l ane on a street or highway reserved primarily for buses, either all day or during specified periods. Other traffic, typically taxis, carpools, o.r motorcycles, may be allowed "1thout restrictions, and automobiles may be given limited access, s u ch as making left or right turns. Duspool An express bus service, usually administered by an employer with limited origin and destination points and wilb guaranteed seats and advanoed ticket purchase. Club buses and bus pools may also be administered by the riders. carbon Dioxide A colorless gas which enters t.hc atmosphere as the result of combustion processes; a nonnal component of ambient air. Carpool A group of two or more passengers sharing a ride in an employee's private vehicle to and from work. either using one car and sharing expen ses or rotating vehicles so no additional expense is incurred Catalytic Converter A control device which reduces emis.ions in the exhaust stream by changing them into less polluting or non-polluting compounds through chemical reactions. Catalytic converters are used on both mobile sources and stationary sources. Central Business District (CDD) An area ofhigh l and valuation characterized by a high concentration of retail and businesses, offices, botels. and theaters, as well as by a high traffic flow. Traditionally applies to the primary downtown core of a metropolitan area. Clean Air Act TI1e federal pollution clean air law. CorrunuteAitemathes Term which refers to carpooling. vaopooling, transit, bicycling, and walking as well as alternative work hour programs which result in the use of any mode of transportation for commuting outside of the peak periods. Commuter Assistance Pwgrams Services such as ridesham1g. U'arlsit, and parking policies which help work ers in commuting to work or in making midday trips. Compressed Work Week A scheduling program which consists of condeo sing standard number of working hours into fewer than five. days per week or fewer tbanlO days per two week period. Concurrency Florida's growth management law which prohibits local governments throughout the state from permiltlng new developments unless adequate infrastructure is in place to sop port growth. Employee Transportation Coordinator (ETC) A person selected by a company to develop, i mp l ement, and/ or administer an employee transportation program. Duties generally include registering employees for a ride-match p r ogram coordinating the formation of car van, and buspoo ls, promoting the use of public transit, and monitoring or tracking employee participation in the program Flexible Work Hours (Flextime) A scheduling policy which gives employees the option ofva}1ng U1eir starting and stopping times each work day, allm,1ng them greater flexibility to adjust work hours to meet individual time and commuting schedules. Fringe Parking (Peripheral Parking) A parking facility located immediately outside the central business district where personal ve hicles may be parked and travelers may continue their trips to tile downtown area via transit ca r pool or van pool. CommutcAlremat:ivcs Systems Handbook. 81


High OccupancyVeh l cleA ny passenger vehicle which carries two or more pas.

Regulation XV A law developed and enforced by Galifomia's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) which requires employers with 100 or more employees to develop and implem ent a trip reduction plan for employees who rep01t to work between 6:00a.m. a.nd I 0:00a.m. Trip reduction plans must include an inventory of current measures used by the employer to increa.

Van poo l A group of six o r more p assengers s haring a ride in a prearr a ng ed group. Usually o n e or two of !.he members ar e regular drivers who pick up olher riders at specific points and take th em to common or nearby emp l oymen t sit es, then return them to the pickup polnt(s) at the end of the worlc day. Usual l y some portion ofvrul ownership and operati n g costs are paid for by th e riders on a monlhly basis Van pools may be employer-sponsored. with the company owning and maintaining the vehicles. or they may be provided through a third-pany leasing company. Variab l e Work Hou rs See Alternativ e Work Schedules Vehicle M il es Travel ed (VMT) The total distance traveled in miles by all motor vehicles of a specific group in a given area in a given time p eriod. V e hicl e Occup ancy T he nu m b er of peop l e rid ing in a veh i c l e at a given time Veh ic l e Tri p Movement by a vehicle from a n origin a tin g point to a destination po in t us ual l y from home to worlc. V i s i bility The distance which atmospheri c conditions permit a per son to sec at a given time and locati on. The visibility reduction from air pollution Is due to sulfates, nitrates, and parti cula t e matter. 84 CommuteAiten&atives Systems HtmdbooJ:


BIBUOGRAPHY America n Planning Ass ociation. Polley on Transportation Planning W ashin gton, D C : American Plannin g Associ atio n October 1 990 Assoc iation for Commuter Transportation, "Cl ean Air Upd ate." ACT Fact Sheet 1 991. Ayele, Moge s a n d J o o n 13yun Pei'$Onal, Soc ial Psyc!rologt<;al and Oth er FactO/'$ in R ldesharlng Programs. DOT+ 85. W a sh ington. DC: U.S. Departme n t o f T ransportation Bicycle Federation. Develop!Mnt Manud [or Comprehensiue Regi

Florida Depanment ofTransponation. The 1990 Florida Transportation Pltm. Tallahassee. Fl..: F l o rida Oepanment ofTransportation, 1990. FloritlaStatutes. Volume 2. 22d ed. Tallahassee. Fl..: State of florida. 1989. Flynn, Caro lyn P .. and Lawrence Uesse) Glazer, Crain and Associates, In c. Ten Cities' A.pproaclt to Transpo rta tion Demand Management. Transportation Research Board 68th Annu a l Meerlng, Wsshington, DC. January I 989. Freas. Alyssa M., and Stuart M. Anderson. Tlte Effects of Variable Work H014f Programs on Rides/taring and Organizational Effectiveness: A Case StudyTil e Cou/llyofVentura. 910291. Transportation llcsenrch Board 7 0th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, january 1991. Frederick.. Stephenie )., and Kay L. Kenyon. T11e Difficulty with EasyRide: Obsrac les to Voluntary /Udesharing in the Suburbs. 910290. Transportation R esearch Board 70th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, january 199 1. Fruin, John J., PILD. Pedestrian: Planning and Design (revised edition) M obile, AI..: Elevator World, Inc., 1987. Geraghry, Anne. California Initiatives and the Clea n Air Act. Transportation Resea rch Board 70th Annua l Meeting, Washingt on, DC January 1991. Hi ggi ns. Thomas J. Monitoring and Evaluating E m11loyer Based Demand Manttgement Program s 9 I 0 I 68 Trans portation Resear c h Board 70th Annual Mcc llng. Was hi ngton, DC, January 1991. Hodes, Debra L., ct al. Implememing Tran sportatio n Demand Management Programs: Tile Florida Experience. ASCEIIT E Conference. Seca u cus, Nj, May 1991. Jacobson L e slie N. et al. PubiU:Anirude Totmrt/17re Startle Area HOV System and Effectiwness of tire Hero Hotline Program. 910402. Transportation Research Board 70th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, january 1991. Kocni ,g./ohn. Down to the Wire in Florida: Planning. October 1990. R. et al Joint Srra.tL-gies for Urban Transp ortation Air Quality and Energy Conservatioll, Volume I: Jolm /let ion Progrtmr s, INTERPLAN Report 734611. Springfie ld, VA: NTIS, 1974. Lee. Douglas. "A Glimpse Uehlnd the N ational Transportation Policy S tatemem: The Divis ion' s VIsion of Transportation. Transportal/on Plannin g, September 5, 1990 Lowe. M arcia D. Altematiues to the Automobile : TratiSport for Livable Cities Worldwatch Paper 98. Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute October 1990. Lustig, Charles W. "St at e Stree t Pedestrian /Transit MaU: Chicag o, IUinols. Proceedings o[Seminar Workslwp 011 Plan11ing, Design and Implementation of Bicycle and Pedestrian Facili ties. New York: MAUDEP, 19 73 McKeever, C hristoph er, ct a l. Market Based Strategies for Increasing til e Use of Alternative Commwe Modes. Dece mber 1 990. Metropolitan Planning Orga nization for the Mi ami Urbanized Area 111e Dade County Comprehensive Bicycle Plan. Miami, Fl..: October 1 986. Miel2ejewski, Edw ard A. Transportation Demand Management for Quality Dewlhpment. ASCE Specialiry Conference, Orlando, FL. March 1990. Mok.hrarian Patri cia Lyon Defining Telecommllling 910662. Transponation Research Board 70th Annual Meeting, Wash i n g ton, DC, January 1991. Muni ci pality ofMetropo llran Sea nle, Washington. G1111rnnt<>ed Rill e Home Evaluation Seattl e, WA: M unicipality of Metropolitan Seattl e june I 990. Mustard. William A., and Harry Reed. Florida's Commuter Assistance Progra m Tallahassee, FL.: Department of Transpo rtation, Aprill991. New )erseyOepanmcnt ofTransponation. Managl11g Transportation In Your Community. Washington DC: U.S Depanment of Transportat ion, January 1989 Nichols, Kathleen. and Eric Schre ftler. "Four Guides t o TOM Plann ing. PTI Joumal, 1988. Opa t z, Joseph P., Ph.D Health Promotion Evaluation. National Well n ess lnsritute, 1987. OrskJ, C Kenneth. "Can Management of Transportation Demand Help S olve Our Growing Traffi c C onges t ion and Pollution Prob l ems?" Tr aiiSporr.ation Quarterly. October 1990. pp. 483 498. Rice Cente r Suburban Moblliry in Houston ." UMTA Suburban Mobility Seminar, Hou s ton TX, May 1988. Rivkin, Malcolm D can Transportation Management Reduce Traffic in the Suburbs?" TR NeUIS, March April 1989. pp. 9. Sadowski, William E .. and I. Benjamin Starrett. "Growt h Management for the 1990' s : Issues and Conside rations ." Gro1vth Management Summer Sc/rool, T allaha ssee, Fl. July 1991, pp. 643-647. 86 .. CommuteAltematives Systems Hant/J)()Qk


Schweiger, Carol L, Dynarrend, Inc A National Perspective on Regwnal Mobility U.S. Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, May 1991. Smallwood, Do nna M A Review ofNatiotull Experience with implications for Boston The Boston Commuter Mobility Program. Aprill989. Sou t h Coas t Air Quality Management Distt i c t. RegulatinTl XV. LosAngeles, CA: Commuter Services, Inc., December 1987. South Coast Air Quality Management Di. strict "/'rip Reduction/Indirect Source Regulation XV. Los Angeles, CA: Commuter T ransportation Services Inc. December 1987. Stevens, William F. "Improving the E ffectiveness of Rides h aring P r ograms. Transportation Quarterly, October 1990, pp. 563-578. Tindall Ba r ry Sanford. "Public Policy and Suppo r t fo r Bikeways and Ped.$trian Facilities: Some Perspectives on the United States Proceedings of Seminar Workshop on Planning, Design and Implementation of Bicycle and Pedestriall Facilities. New York: lVIAUDEP, 1973. Trans i t Depart ment, Municipality of Seattle, Washington. Transportation Demand Management Program Evaluation: A Seattle Area Case Study. Transportation Research Board 68th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, january 1989 Turnbull, Kathleen and James H anks. 11 Description of High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities in North America. Washingto n D.C.: U.S Department ofTransport ation, 1990. University Acti vi ty Center Transportation Associat i on. Public/Private Partnerships: A Road to Mobility Orlando, FL: UACTA, J uly 1990. U.S. DepartmentofTransponation. Clean Air Program. Washington, DC: USDOT, January, 1 991. USDOT. A Summary: Intermodal Surface Transportmlon Efficiency Act of I99I. Washington, DC, 1991. USDO T Moving Ameri ca: N ew Directions New Opportztnllies, Volume Two, A Statement of National Transportatwn Polley Strategies for Action Washington, DC: February 1990. USDOT Rideshare and Save: A Cost Comparison. Washington, DC: February, 1 985. USDOT. Traffic Mitigation and Demand Management. Washington, DC: Ju l y 1987. U.S. Protection Agency Clean, Atr .ll' s Up to You. Washington DC: U.S. Bnvironmemal Protect ion Agency. U.S. General Accounting Office. Traffic Congestion: Federal Effor t s to Improve Mobility. GAO/PEMD-90-2. Wash i ngton, DC: December 1989 Weaver, Ronald L., and Claire Bailey Carraway "Growth Management and Gridlock," Growth Managemen t Summer School, Marco Island FL, 1991. CommuteAltemativtS Systems Handbook 87


IRECTORY FEDERAL AGENCIES Feder a l Hig hway Admini stratio n U .S. Department ofTransporration 400 Seventh St., S.W. (HT0-32) Wa shing ton, DC 20590 Auentlon: Wayne Berman (202) 366 Office of Mobility Enhancement Office of Tech nical Ass istance and Safe t y Federal Transit Administration U.S. Department ofTr ansportation 400 Sevent h S t., S.W. Room 643 1 Washington, DC 20590 Attention: Walter Kulyk. Director (202 ) 366499 I Federal Transit Administration U.S. Department o f Transportation 1120 Peachtree Road. N.w . Sui t e 400 Adanta, GA 30309 Attention: Peter N. Sroi ,-eU, Director. S.E. Area (404) 347-3948 Public/Private Transportati o n Network (PPTN ) 8727 Co lesville Road, S uite IIOOA Silver Spring. MD 2 0 9 10 3921 (800 ) 522-778 6 NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS American Publi c Transit Association (APT A) 1201 New Yor k Avenue N.W .. Suite 400 Washington. DC 20005 (202) 898 Association for Commuter Transportation (ACD 808 17th S treet N.W., S u ite 200 Wa s h i n gton, DC 200 06 (202) 223 96 69 Community Transportation Asso c iation of America 725 1 5th Street N .W., S uite 900 Washington. DC 20005 (800) 527-8279 STATE AGENCIES Department or Commerce 107 W Gaines Street The Colli n s Ouilding, Suite 536 Tall a h assee Fl. 32399 2000 ( 904) 468 -3 104 Suncom 278 3104 88 .. Commute Altertunives Sytrems Handbook Oepanmenr of Community Aff a ir s (DCA) 274 0 Cente1view Drive Tallahnssec. f'l, 32399-2 1 00 (904 ) 488-8466 Suncom 278-8466 l)eparunent of Environmental Regul ation (DEll) 2600 Blairs t one Road Tall a hassee. FL3Z399 2 400 (904) 488-4805 Suncom 278-4805 Department of Labor 2012 Capital Circ le S.E., Room 303 Tallahas.see .FL 3239 9 2152 ( 904) 468 4398 Suncom 278-4398 Pedest rian/Bicycle Program State Saf e ty Oftke D epartment o f Transportation 605 Suwannee Street, MS 82 Tallahassee, FL32399-0450 (904)487t 200 Commuter Programs Manager Office of Public Transportation Department ofTransportation 605 Suwannee Stree t MS 26 Tallahassee FL3239 9 -0 450 ( 904) 4887774 Suncom 278 7774 FDOT DISTRICT OFFICES FOOT Distric t I Dis t rict Public Transportation Manager 80 I N. Broadway P .O. Box 1249 Ban ow, Fl. 33630 (813) 5336 1 6 1 FOOT Oistrict2 Distri c t Public Transportation Manage r 1 901 $.Marion P.O Box 1069 Lake C ity, Fl. 320 55 (904) 752-33 00 FOOT D i s trict 3 D istrict Public Transportation Manager u.s. 90 East Chi p ley, FL32428 -9990 (904) 638-0250 Suncom 767 1356 FO OT D i s trict 4 Distric t Public T ransportation Manager 780 S.W. 24t h Street Ft. Lauderdal e, FL33315 2696 (3 0 5 ) 797 -8 500 Suncom 423-1750


FOOT District 5 District Publi c Transportation Manager 5151 Adanson Orlando, FL32804 (407) 623-108 5 Suocom 3341085 FOOT District 6 Disrrict Publi c Transportation Manager 602S. Miami Avenue Miami, FL33130 (305) 377-5904 Suncom 452-5910 F DOT District 7 District Publi c Transportation Manage r 4950 w Kemtedy Boulevard,l/5 00 Tampa, FL33609 (813 ) 871-7220 DER DISTRICT AIR PROGRAM OFFICES Cent ral District 331 9 Maguire Bo ulevard, Suite 232 Orlando, FL 32803 (407) 894-7555 Suncom325-l011 Northeast District 782 6 Baymcadows Way, Suite 2008 Jacksonville, FL32256 7577 (904) 798-4 200 Suncom 880-432 0 N orthwest Distric t 160 Government Center Pensacola, FL 32501 ( 904 ) 436-8300 Suncom 695 748 -6975 S outh Distri c t 226 9 Bay Street Ft. M yers FL 3390 I (813) 332-2287 Suncom 743-6975 Southeast District 1900 South Congress Avenu e West Pahn Beach, FL 33406 ( 4 0 7) 433-2650 Suncom 232-2650 Southwest District 7 01 Highway301 North Tampa, FLS3610 (8 13) 623-5561 Suncom552-761 2 STATE O F FLORIDA DESIGNATED PLANNING AGENCffiS (BY COUNTY) Gainesville Ml'O North Centtal RPC 235 s. Main Street, Sujte 205 Gainesville, PL 3260 1 (00 4) 3362200 (Alachua, Bradford, Columbia Dixie, Hamilton, Lafayette Madiso n, Suwannee, Taylor, Un ion ) Northeast F lorida RPC 9142 Phillips High""-ay Sui!e 350 Jacksonville, FL32256 (90 4 ) 363-635 0 Suncom 874 -6350 ( Bak er, C lay, Flagler, Nassau, Putnam, St. Johns) Pan ama City MPO P.O.Ilox486 Pensacola. FL32593-0486 (904) 444-8910 (Bay) BrevardMPO 2725 S t. Johns Street Jluild l n g A, Room 252 Melbourne, FL 3294 0 (407) 633-2085 (Brevard) BrownrdMPO 115 South Andrews Avenue, Room 329 Ft. Lauderdale FL 33301 (305) 3576641 ( Browardl Apalachee RPC 314 East Central Avenue, Room 119 Blountstown, FL 32424 (904 ) 67 4-4571 (Calhoun, Franklin, Gadsden, G u lf, Jackson, Jefferson, Liberty Waku lla ) Charlotte County Board or County Commissioners 512 East Grace Street Punta Gorda, FL 33950 (813) 639-1561

FL Walton MPO Pensacola MPO West Flo r ida RP C P.O. Box486 Pensacola, FL 32593-0486 (904) 444-8910. (813) 994-4 282 (Escambia, Holmes. Okaloosa. Santa Ros a Walton, Washington) Lee county MPO Southwest Florida RPC P.O. Box 3455 Nonh Ft. Myers, FL33918 (Glades. Hendry, Lee) Hernando County Board of County Commissioners Levy Counry Board of COunty Commissioners 1241 S .W.JOthStreet Ocala. FL 32674-2798 ( 904) 732-1315 (Hernando, Levy) Tampa Urban Area MPO 201 East Kennedy Boulevard, Suite 600 Tampa, FL33601 (813) 272-$940 (Hillsborough) Indian !Uver Board of County Commissioners 1840 25th Stree t Vero Beach, FL 32960 (407) 5678000. ext. 2.43 (India n River) Lake COunty Board of County Commissioners 315 West Main Street Tavares FL 32778 (904) 3439652 (Lake) Tallahassee-Leon MPO Cit y Hall Tallahassee, FL 323 0 I (904) 599-8600 (Leon) Sarasota/Manatee MPO P.O Box 8 Sarasota, FL 34230 (813) 9515090 (Manatee Sarasota) Ocala/Marion COunty MPO P.O. Box 1270 Ocal a FL 32678 ( 904 ) 6298529 (Marton) Martin Cotml) Board of COunty COmmissioners 240 I S.E. Monterey Road Stuart, FL34996 (407) 288-5494 (Martin) 90 -Commute Altemarives Systems Ha11dbook City of Key West Port & Transit Authority P.O. Box 1078 Key West, FL 33040 (305) 292-8161 (Monroe) Orlando Area MPO lOll Wymore Road, Suite 105 Winte r Park. FL32789 (407) 623 1075 (Orange. Osceola, Seminole) Palm Beach Counry MPO P.O. Box 2429 West Palm Beach, FL33402-2429 ( 4 0 7) 684 4170 (Palm Beach) Pasco COunry MPO 7432 Linle Road, Sterling Building New Port Hichcy, FL34654 (813) 847-8132 (Pascol Pinellas County MPO 3!5 Court Street Clearwater, FL 34616 (813) 4624751 (Pine llas) Lakeland/Winter Haven MPO P.O. Box 1969 Bartow. FL 33830 (813) 53 4-6486 (Polk) St. Lucie M PO 2300 Virginia Avenue, Room 203 Ft. Pierce, FL 3 4982 5652 (407) 468-1576 {St. Lucie) Vo l usia County MPO 250 Nonh Beach Street, Room 102 Daytona Beach, FL32Jl4 (904) 254 (Volusial P EDESTRIAN/BICYCL E COORDINATORS District I Coordinator. FOOT 4040 Evan Av enue, 11204 Ft. Myers. FL 33906-6116 (813) 278-7120 Suncom 729 -7120 Disrrict 2 Coordinator. FOOT South Mario Street Lake City, FL 32056 -1089 (904) 752 Suncom 88J.l683 Disrrict3 Coordinator, FOOT u.s. 90 East Chipl ey, FL 32428 -9990 ( 904 ) 638 -0250 Suncom 7671356


District 4 Coordinator, !'DOT 780 S.W. 24th Street Ft. Lauderdale FL33315-2696 (305) 797-1750 Suncom 423-1750 Olstrlct 5 Coordinator, !'DOT 611 Wymore Road, #204 Winter Park, FL 327 89 (407)623 -1085 Suncom334 -1 085 Ditrict 6 Coordinator, PDOT 602 S. Miami Avenue Miami, l'l 33130 (305) 377 -5910 Suncom452 District 7 Coordinator, FOOT 4950W. Kennedy Boulevard, 1500 Tampa, I'L 33609 (813) 871 Local Coordinators Polk County Schoollloard P.O: Box 391 Barto w, PL 33830 (613) 531-2469 Pedestrian/Bicycle Coordinator 330 W. Church Street P.O. Box 1969 Bartow, PL3383D-1969 (813) 534-6486 Suncom 519n Pinellas County tv!PO 140 Court Street Clearwater, FL 34616 (813 ) 462-4751 Suncom 445 4507 Broward County Bicycle Coordinator 115 S. Andrews Avenue, #329 PL Lauderdale, FL33301 (305) 357-6661,6646 Pedestrian/Bicycle Coordinator 250 N. Beach Street Daytona Beach, FL32114 (904) 254-4676 Suncom 377 Lee County Asst. Bicy cle Coordinator. 20221iendry Street P.O. Box398 F t Myers, FL 33902 (813) 335-2 220 Trafll.c Engineering DeparLment 305 N.B. Sixth Avenue, 11305 Gainesville, FL32002 (904) 374-2107 Suncom 929-2130 Bicycle Coordinator Jacksonville MPO 128 E. Forsyth, Suite 700 JacksonvUie, F L 32202 (904) 630-1903 ext. 6917 Pedestrian/Bicycle Coordinator Ill N.W. Firs t SL, Room 9 1 0 Mlaml, FL 33128 (305) 375-4507, Suncom 445 llnglnecrlng Department. Building A 2725 St. Johns Sueet Melbourne, FL 39240 (407) 633-2085, ext. 2767 W est Florida RPC 3435 N. 12th Aven u e P.O. Bo x 4.86 Pensacola, FL32593 0486 (904) 444910 Suncom 693 Planning Oepanment 18500 Murdock Circle Pon Charlotte, FL 33948 (813) 743-1229 Pedestrian/Bicycle Coordinator Transportation Department 1301 Cattleman Road Sarasota, FL 34232 (813) 3 76 6160 Suncom 522 Pedestrian/Bicycle Coordinator 110 N. PoncedeLeon St. Augustine, FL 32084 (904) 825-5097 Suncom 865 Bicycle Coordinator City Hall Tallahassee, Fl32301 (904) 5 99 8261 lllcycle Coordi nator 2 0 1 E. Kennedy Boulevard, #600 Tampa, FL 3360 I (913) 272-5940 Suncom 543-5940 Lake County Pedestrian/Bicycle Coordinator 123 N. Sinclair Avenue Tavares, FL 32778 {904) 343 Suncom 859 Bicycle/Pedestrian Coordinator 6202 Dewdrop Way Temple Terrace, Fl33617 ( 613) 867-2265 Pedestrian/Bi cycle Coordinator 160 Australian Avenue #20 P.O. Box 2429 West Palm Beach, FL33406 (407) 684-4 1 70 Suncom 2744 000 Pedestrian/Bicycle Coordinator lOll Wymore Road, 6105 Winter Pa rk, FL 32789 (407) 623 75 Suncom 334.-1075 Sy$1MU Handbook 91

xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
record xmlns http:www.loc.govMARC21slim xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.loc.govstandardsmarcxmlschemaMARC21slim.xsd
leader nam 2200277Ia 4500
controlfield tag 001 028942704
005 20110909151758.0
008 920408s1992 flua s000|0 eng d
datafield ind1 8 ind2 024
subfield code a C01-00396
b .C6 1992
0 245
Commute alternatives systems handbook /
written and produced by Center for Urban Transportation Research
Tallahassee, FL :
Florida Department of Transportation,
92 p. :
ill. ;
28 cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Also available online.
z Florida
x Planning
v Handbooks,manuals,etc.
Urban transportation
Transportation and state
1 710
Dept. of Transportation.
Dept. of Community Affairs.
Florida Department of Transportation.
Florida Department of Community Affairs.
Florida Energy Office.
Florida's Commuter Assistance Program.
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
4 856