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1994 ACT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS C 1!)94, Msod?Jion for _.JL_ CUTR Ctnler for Urban 'franspomllon Researdl Coll 4202 E. Rlwttr MUlot. EHB 118 'hmp>.florid2336W (813) 974-3120 In tMOCialton '1\itb for Commuter Tra:nsportatJon ISIS K Strte1, N.\1!, #SO) Wl.lhlngiOI\ D.C. ZOOOS

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FOREWORD 'ibese proceedlngs summarize me papers and presentalions shared during the 1994 AelaUon for Commuter Transponalion (ACT), dle Federal Administration (FHWo\) and the Center for Urban 'll'ansportalion Rc.<(llrth (CUTR) a1 the of Soulh 11orlda. ltharlk aD of the presenters, and lndMduals who worked to compile this documcnJ. Spedal thanks to Conference CoChairs Bill Mustard of the 11orlda I nstitute for Mari:Ung AltcmaJJve TransportaJion In Thllalussee and llarld Sappenfield of .'11'/Rydcr In Miami. I am also grateful for the asslstan-ed &om Liz Stutts of the 11orida Depariment of Tronsportation, and the and stall' at CUTS, including l'lltricia Henderson, janet IIW
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TABLE OF CONtENTS MEETING THE CHALlENGE: MARKET.aASED APPROACHES TO MULTIMDDAL AND INTERMODAL TRANSPOII17tTION Congostlon Pricint ud hlting CasiHlut: A OVftamlc Duo in fithting Coo111stioo Gary Maring. John Berg and Martin MicDlZi, USOOT-Fedatll Highway Admlnlstrllion, \Yashiii(IIOII. D.C. Coetestiollllallllllt ......... Cllli111Ml t Robey, Wglnia Deplflrnent of Rai and Nli c TransporJ31iQo. John Ma1in and Richard Clawson, Siddall, Matus & Coughte.; Richmond. Virginia Mia mi l1118rmodal Call18r Servando Pa11118t Florida Depenmant of Transportation, District 6, Miami, Florida MAKING YANPOOUNG WORK FOR YOU RIDE-ON lMA's Coasalidltld Fleet Manapmeat Ptoeram Torn Fulks, San Lui s Obispo Ragional Ridesllare Ptogram, Sen luis Obispo, California Trsitiooiog to an Employee-Maoagad Yanpool Program Michael Morris and Gary Simms, Northrop Grumman Aircraft Division, Hawthorne, CIIIWomia Vlrglnio is for Yanpools Din Utz. Rappahannoclt Area Development Commission. Fredericksbt.rg. Virginia. Laureaa Ruest, Potomac and llajlpahannocl: Transportation Commission. Woodbridge. Vrvinia lnd Susan OgJom. Deportment of Rai and l'\iJilc lrllll$pollation, Rictvnond, V"ljl n l a NEW MARKETS FOR TOM Plio Alta ""blic Schools: Marlcot R-arclo of ElemM I IUY onf MiUio School Commute Choices Clifford Cbambl!!$, Crain and Associates. Inc. Menlo Part. A Tlllljl0111tio1 DNIIIMI Malt-Evalultiol ol TN CltUm's COller CIIIW Cart Cintw Christll!lhof l'ar1c. C"""""tar TroR$1l0ftatioo ServO:es, Inc:. for The Warner Center 1'MO. Woocland H ils, California TOM Cunlwlum lor Sclooolchlldron Bob Fervuson, Bremerton. Was!iinQion CREATIYE TIIAN$IT MARKETING l'lrkilt PIS$ DernoMtrlllioe PIOfllll! Providlrlt Urnile. SOY Parlcing to llln$11 PISs Holden Pamela Woo, Department of Melropolitan SorvicO$. Seattle, Washington Opelmlalat Route Specific Marketlnt Strategios to Increase Public Transit ftldersblp Carol A. lewis and Naomi W Ltd6, Center for Transportation Training and Research, Houston, Texas Traoslt: A HlstDry of SUccess ill NVir ... io Robil Sri Area Transportation Association. Allington. Vugjnia 1 IS NA 16 19 33 51 61 68 69 92 133

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INTERNAnONAL TOM Tile Role of Plllllic and Privalll Sectors in TOM Abel Zomonnan. Dutch Ministry of Trand and PUblic Works, Tho Nothollands TOM end ECOtlomlc Development In lila Urban Core: Can Wa lear a Anytlllng from tile Tlllnl Woot4? Bruce Epperson, Miami Urban Area MPO, M iami, Florida A C-rlson Betw-dot Com-er Tranii'Oifatioa Systems of Miami. Florida end IGogstoo, Jamalco Dr. Alex Shalland and Dr. Ron Lemon, Bany Univer1ity, Miami, florida U.S. and Dutc:ll E-*'ce wllfl TOM Polley end Eric Schreffler. Transponation San Diego, CaiWomia PUTTING ECO PLANS INTD ACnON Casillo Your Car: Cashing Dot Employer Sulloidizal l'llting Jeff Wong. Department of Metropolitan Services, Seattle, Washington Maatilg lila Clean Air Act Heaon: Chicago's eo..,rassad Natural Gas Commuter Venpoollnitiativa 204 Deborah Boldt and Mary Buchheid. Department of Environment. Chicago, l lr.nois Using S1n1tagy Scenarios Ill Plan, Benchmort and lmJ)fov. ECO Plannil Effactivaness Jeff Comott, Cornett Information and Enoineorinll Monroe, Connecticut CONSIDERING THE ALTERNATIVES: TELECOMMunNG AND ALTERNAnYE WORK HOURS Balancing tile Eco--.ics of Mollilily Gr041gh Ajlpliad Tec:hnologias Stew Gavora. Univ8t"$ity/Aialaya Cooidor Transportation AsS
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EMI'lOYU COMMUTE OPTIONS: RESPONDING TO lllf MANDATE Nlllaul ECO ,...._.c--ity: Sarwy AMrllailt -laliool lollllleontatioo Rial Blllmmn. TOM Associates Texas, me.. HooS!aO. Texas A F uJ.Scllt Sinllltlaa Ill ECO ill NllltloaU lllillois: Partw.nca A llllysls ond Cooclusioas N ict VPSL Troy, Michigan and Getafd Rawings, CATS, C hlcaoo. l l inols Cowpobo. Broncos .U lllo Toxas Tfi' Rodedioa Etforts AI Giles, Texos NatUfal RNotrtt Conservation Commission, Allstin, Texas THE COSTS OF TOM: WHO PAYS? WHO SAVES? SNrt Ctmmllhlr Progr...: It Pays to Rideshare! John W Clauson end Robert L. Fefllll$011. KiWi1J Transit, Bremerton, Washington Uoivorull'ass Feasibi6ty Studr llld Demonstra11oo Project Usa Paraira, Solllh Netomas TMA. Sacramento. California l-et of Floaoclolloocentives 011 TraASit .., AUhl Use: Results of lllo 1 !194 TraositCboc:lt Sumy larry Filer. Transit Center; New Vorl:. New Yortt TOM PROMOTlONS: ST11ETCHING YOUR TDM MAIIIIE11NG DOUAII$ llftMiivl C:.ootloes of c-wnity l'aiWBIIi!J$: Mat Fiulod ond Willi Hat Plmz Cllharlne Simpson. Fort Worlh Transportation Aulllorlty end lynn Hayes, Nonh Centrll Texas Counci of Govemmtnts, Fort Worth. Texas Non.Work Trips d lllo One Less Cor C.mpaiiJI Kay L Kenyon. City of Belews Transportation Doparlmant and Lynn Taylor. Taylor CortsultinQ. Bellevue, Washington "Fiod Anolller Wll'f" lo Spokaoe Katy Taylor. Spokane Coonty Engineers, Spokane, ffoqloeot c-Pwogram Craig Von ICesstL Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara. TRANSPOIITATION MAIIAGEMEII'T ASSOCIATIONS WORKING TOGETHER Soccessflrl TraiiSjiOflatl Maaat-Ass4c:iations Wtlldy J. Hoyt. The Hoyt Cornparty, Saaamemo, Callomia Nordllrn c.ornil TMAs Joilt Board of DiriCIUIS CollferaMarilyn Boya m Sacramento CeMral City TMA. Sacramomo. C.laornia Ro1111ts of lllo Nllloaal TMA Sun10y Diane Davidson. The TMA Groop, Franklin, Tennessee EARTH. WIND AND WATER rt.rieaoe Andrew Ed Colly, Metro-Dado T ransa AQency, Florida 312 313 335 344 352 NA 367 373 NA 369 395 417 NA

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l.o5An .... tanhlldl
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MAKING lDM TRAINING A CORNERSTONE OF SUCCESS Let's Make TDM Training More Effective Richard Hibner. TOM Associates, Santa An-. Califurnia Tho Rolo of the Employoo TrMsportation Coordinator in Employee Trip Reductio Programs Qitni (Cynthia) Chon, W. Patrict Ph. D., Now Jersey Institute ol Nowart<, New Jersey and Hamou Moghdir, Hackensact Meadowtands Development Commission. Now Jersey New Europe: Mobility C001saltant Training in Austria Susanne Ferril, Austrian Mobility Research, Graz. Austria Evaluati01 of ETC Trainilla Program Brohman, TOM Associates-Texas and Brian Wolfe, Houston-GalvestOOI Area Council, HoustOOI, Texas lDM REGULATIONS AS PIJBUC POLICY: GOOD INTENTIONS GONE ASTRAY7 Trip Reduction RegulalicMos: An Employer's Parspective Katherine L Garwig. Kaiser l'ennananto, Oakland, California Mooting tho Challenge of ECO: Orgoei2ational CHnge i o tllelDM lllustry Peggy HotheriiiQton. MetroPool, Inc .. Stamford. Connecticut Seattle's Approach t o IRStitutionaliring Conrnute Trip Raductioos Bizaboth A. Rankin, City of Soattle Engineering Department, Seattle, Washington EfFECTIVE INTERACTION WITH BOARDS Everything You Always Wantad Ill Know from Yoar Board Members b u t Wera Afraid to Ask Morlone Corew, Bay hea Commuter SeJVices, Inc .. Tampa, Florida Communicating Effectively with Boards Ken Sufi<-. Sull
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SHUTTLES Reduclog VMTs wi111 AutoniH People Movers: N-Tools lor Ma ... ing Eotgo City Traffic Lany Fabi*>, Translt, Bostoo. Massacllusetts En...,.ciftt Connectivity ia Urbao Allies: Assessing dlelmpattol an llltqrat8d Sllltde Bus Syst111 oo Eor.oyU.. of Sillgle Occupancy Vohicla Patrid< B
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SUBURBAN TRANSIT PlANNING Modo Cllolco for Suborbaa Commators Utility Muimiratioo wi111 Giv1111 Distance. Time aad locomo Conslralats Rongfang liu, C1111ter for Urban T,..,sportation Research, Florida Sub..tlan Employtnaot Growth and l'lblic Transit Accessibility: A Comparative Analysis Naomi W. Lad6, Canter for Transportation Training ahd Research, Houston. Texas HmiCIII a Andrew aod lila Deda County TraiiSj)ortltion System Frank Baron. Dade County Metropoliten flaMing Organization, Florida The Mass Madia .. d Tr .. sportatioft: Bulldi1141 Relationships and Selling lila SIOJ'f Lucy Unsworth. Gold Coast Commuter Services, Fort lauderdale. Rorida NA. Not Available I !'mentation only} 722 730 752 753

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CONGESTION PRICING AND PARKING CASH-OUT: A Dynamic Duo in Fighting Congestion By: Gary Maring John Berg Martine Micozzi U.S Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Office of Policy Development Presented at: The National Conference of the Association for Commuter Transportation Miami, Florida September, 1994 01

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CONGESTION PRICING AND PARKING CASH-OUT: A Dynamic Duo in Fighting Congestion lntroductjon The ISTEA and the Clean Air Act are landmark pieces of Federal legislation that have fostered new thinking and innovativ e approaches to meeting transportation and environmental goals. Escalating annual vehicle miles traveled, coupled with mounting costs of traffic congestion estimated at over $40 billion dollars per year in major metropolitan areas present a significant challenge to the search for new solutions to meet our nation's mobility needs without sacrificing environmental integrity. 1 (See Appendices, Graph 1) 1\vo of the most promising market-based s t rategies for reducing SOY travel currently under consideration are congestion pricing and parking "cash-out" This dynamic duo entails changing the structure and pricing of parking, road travel, and transit. Congestion pricing assesses premium charges to m otorists who travel on highways and roads, across bridges, or th rough congested corridors during peak congestion periods. Parking "cash-out" offers commuters the o ption of cas h or transit passes in lieu of a parking subsidy. Although a few congestion pricing projects have been implemented in Europe and Asia, the concept has yet t o be tested in the U.S. market. (See Appendices Table 1) With the passage of ISTEA, Congress provided the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) with $150 million in funding for the promotion, support, and evalu atio n of congestion pricing pilot projects through 1997. USDOT i s working diligently with a number of areas to develop potential congestion pricing projects. In 1992, the state of California enacted parking cash-out legislation (Assembly Bill 2109, Katz) t hat serves as a model for the Federal initiative, contained in the Clinton Administration 's Climate Change Action Plan. Simply stated, the California cash-out bill removes the strong economic stimulus to drive to wo rk alone provided by subsidized parking, and offers commuters options t o convert the value of their parking space into cash and/or transit benefits. California's cash-out legislation affects businesses with 50 or more workers based in areas in non-attainment with the Clean Air Act. The cash-out requirement is restricted to employer-leased parking from a third party, and does no t apply until the lease expires. Exemptions include: comp anies that own their own parking facilities, companies tbat have preexisting long-term parking lea ses, or companies with 1 Schrank, D.,S. Turner and T. Lomax. 1993. Est imate of Urban Roadway Congestion, 1990. Research Report 1131-5. Texas Transportatio n Institu te, College Station, March. 02

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Maring, Berg, Mioozzi 2 contracts for combined office space \lnd parking facilities. The Federal Parking CashOut Initiative would expand the scope of this law to the entire country with a target date of January, 1995. Congestion pricing and parking cash-out are two concepts in transition from conception to reality. This paper will discuss these two market-based strategies, provide a status report on the development of a Federal Parking Cash-Out Program and an update on current and potential congestion pricing projects in the United States. Parkin& Cash-Opt: A Potential Solutjon For A Problem Of Global Proportions The genesis for the Federal Parking Cash-out Initiative can be traced to the 1992 international environmental "Earth Summit" held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One of the key topics was "global warming"; a buildup of greenhouse gases that increases the earth's temperature and damages the planet's ecological and socio economic systems. The United States joined other countries in signing the Framework Convention on Climate Change, an international agreement to address the. danger of global climate change. In demonstration of their commitment to the concerns raised at the conference, President Clinton and Vice-President Gore released the "Qimate Cllange Action Plan" in October, 1993, featuring over fifty different initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The Federal Parking Cash-Out Ini tiative is one component of that plan. The parking cash-out concept was pioneered and developed by UCLA economist and urban planning Professor Donald Shoup, who was a major influence in the design of California's 1992 parking cash-out legislation. The California law defines parking cash out as: "An employer-funded program under which an employer offers to provide a cash allowance to an employee equivalent to the parking subsidy that the employer would otherwise pay to provide the employee with a parking space. "Parking subsidy" means the difference between the out-of-pocket amount paid by an employer on a regular basis in order tO secure the availability of an employee parking space not owned by the employer and the price, if any, charged to an employee for the use of that space." 2 The Federal Parking Cash-Out Initiative basically extends this concept to a nationwide application for all public and private sector employers. 2 p. 186, Curbing Gridlock: Peak-Period to Relieve Traffic Congestion, Volume "Cashing Out Empl oyer-Paid Parking: A Precedent for Congestion Pricing?", Donald C, Shoup, Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of California, Los Angeles, published by the National Research Council. 03

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Maring, Berg, Micozzi 3 The Federal Parking Cash-Out Initiative is a cooperative effort among numerous Federal agencies, including the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Treasury Department. The initiative requires Congressional approval and the proposed implementation date for the Federal Cash-Out Program is January, 1995, contingent both on its timely submission and approval by Congress The Federal Parking Cash-Out Initiative endeavors to transform the tax exemption for employer-provided parking into a powerful incentive for workers to use transit, carpools, vanpools, bicycling, walking, telecommuting or alternative means and modes of transportation to reduce single-occupant vehicle trips. The objectives of the Federal Parking Cash-Out Initiative are to: 111 Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by reducing congestion in urban and high-density suburban areas, encourage carpool and transit use and increase employee commute options; Iii Enhance the efficiency of the work commute decision and '1evel the playing field" among all commuting modes by allowing the employee to choose tbe most viable and economical work commute; Ill Minimize the burden to employers by allowing businesses to deduct the costs of a cash-out program from Federal taxes by allowing an offset of costs for added payroll taxes, while preserving the tax-exemption for qualified transportation fringes (such as employer-provided parking subsidies and transit passes.) If approved by Congress, the Federal Parking Cash-Out Legislation would affect employers that meet all of the following conditions and criteria: liil Employ 25 or more full-time workers; lliJ Currently provide employees with free or subsidized parking that is not company-owned; 111 The value of the leased parking is greater than a "de minimis value", yet to be determined. Employees who presently receive free or panially subsidized parking from their employers could opt to either "cash-out" or retain their parking spaces. The Federal cash-out participation requirements would be phased-in starting January 1995, as third party leases for employee parking spaces expire. The employee options are outlined on the following page: 04

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. Maring, Berg, Micozzi lil Retain the use of the existing parking $pace, with no penalty; If! Relinquish the parking space and receive a taxable cash allowance equal to the lease value of the space minus any amount the employee pays for the space; 4 ljl Relinquish the parking space and receive a tax-free transit pass (up to $60 per month), with any remaining balance of the cash-out allowance issued as taxable income. Cash-Out Issues for Cat:poolsfVanpools The effect of cash-out could be problematic for carpool and vanpool commuters because the decision to retain or relinquish the parking space would likely lie with the parking permit bolder, (the taxable individual). Consequently, should the permit holder decide to cash-out the parking space, s/he would be solely entitled to receive the cash out allowance, effectively leaving the passengers out. of the decision-making loop, and making them ineligible for cash-out benefits. The permit holder's decision to cash-out the parking space could leave the former carpoolfvanpool memb.ers scrambling to find other means of transportation, with a worst cast scenario resulting in the creation of new SOVs. T)le of this scenario could also adversely affect the potential for reductions in traffic congestion and air pollution. One way of addressing this situation is to leave the decision as to whether to include or exclude carpools/vanpools to the employer's discretion (Note: California's implementing guidance for parking cash-out excludes spaces regularly used for carpools or vanpooiJ;). This allows employers flexibility to structure employee commute benefit programs involving parking, transit and ridesharing to best achieve their desired goals. Cash-out L
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Maring, Berg, Micc:izzi the Federal Tax Code, parking cash-out will produce sizeable economic and environmental benefits at a minimal cost, and mark a significant change in influencing commuters' mode choice. Federal Conmlion Pricln Pilot Pmsram 5 Among many of the innovations introduced in the ISTEA, Section 1012(b) provides the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) with the legislative authority and funding to support a series of congestion pricing pilot projects. The U.S. DOT may enter into agreements with up to five State and local governments to develop, implement and evaluate congestion pricing pilot projects. Up to three of the five agreements are permitted to introduce toO c harges on the Interstate Highway system. A maximum of $25 million per year is available over a six year period (1992-1997), and each project may be funded up to a maximum of three years. Qualified applicants include: local, regional and State government agencies as well as public tolling authorities. While a pilot project team may include private tolling sponsors and authorities, the project agreements must be made with public entities. FHW A has been charged with the responsibility for implementing the Congestion Pricing Pilot Program to enable the experimentation and evaluation of a series of tests to translate the concept into practical applications in different parts of the country. A careful exploration, experimentation, and evaluation of congestion pricing pilot projects is crucial. The lessons learned from early experiments can greatly enhance the quality of the debate surrounding congestion pricing, and aim to resolve any conflicts satisfactorily The truly intermodal and interdepartmental nature of congestion pricing is reflected in FHWA's many collaborative efforts with the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy (DOE) and other Federal, State and local government agencies. FHWA has sponsored a number of supportive activities on congestion pricing, including exploratory seminars, symposia and, most recently, a s tudy by the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Sciences Report and Recommendations FHWA and FTA provided funding.to support a two-year comprehensive examination of congestion pricing issues by the National Academy of Sciences. This The Academy organized the Committee for Study on Urban Transportation Congestion Pricing, chaired by UClA Professor Dr. Martin Wachs. The Committee was comprised o f a distinguished group of leading transportation professionals, geographers, political scientists, economists, and other academicians. A Congestion Pricing Symposium was conducted in June of 1993 which assessed and syn thesized available r esearc h and experience on congestion pricing. The Committee's final report was issued in June of 1994. Some of the key conclusions are detailed on the following page: 06

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Maring, Berg, Micozzi Iii With the implementation of congestion pricing, the average motorist in a congested metropolitan city could reduce hls or her commute time by roughly 20 percent; The implementation of congestion pricing in crowded metropolitan areas nationwide cou l d result in net savings of $5 to $10 billion annually; 6 Simulation studies of the Los Angeles region estimate that a daily charge of roughly $3 .00 for travel on all thoroughfares during peak periods would reduce fuel consumption by 9 percent, carbon dioxide by 9 percent, precursors to ozone by 8 percent, and total trips by 4 percent. 3 The National Academy of Sciences report also discussed how market-based pricing has a proven track record in changing behavior in other industries, including telecommunications and utilities. Initial congestion pricing projects in other countries has proven it be an effective tool in changing travel behavior. In the United States, congestion pricing has the potential to significantly reduce travel volumes and alter travel times while enhancing other 1DM measures Benefits include tinie-savings, reduction in air pollution and fuel consumption, and use of revenues to improve ridesharing and alternative transportation options. The report discusses how current technology can facilitate the implementation of congestion pricing projects. Electronic toll collection systems allow motorists to pay and pass through toll areas without ever having to stop, replacing the image of long queues at toll booths Thls technology will facilitate congestion priCing applications while maintaining normilJ. vehicle speeds. While the technology needed for road pricing is currently available, there remain complex social, political and institutional issues associated with congestion pricing. Despite its great potential, it remains to be seen whether congestion pricing Will prove to be politically palatable on a large scale The Committee for Study on Urban Transportation Congestion .Pricing also made a series of recommendations to facilitate experimentation with congestion pricing. A few of the highlights are listed below: Extend the congestion pricing pilot project provisions when ISTEA is re-authorized in 1997; (requires Congressional approval) . ltl Ease the limitation on applying congestion pricing on Interstate routes; (requires Congressional approval) 3 p. 3, Opening Comments of Dr. Martin Wachs, Chairman the Committee for Study on Urban Transportation Cmigestion Pricing, presented at the National Symposium on Congestion Pricing, Washington, D.C., June, 1993. 07

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Maring, Berg, Micozzi 7 1111 Allow pilot projects that would convert HOY lanes not operating at maximum capacity to toll SOYs while allowing HOVs to cominue to travel free of charge; 1M Modify the grant eligibility requirements to allow State and local governments, metropolitan planning organizations and toll authorities to receive grants for congestion pricing pre-project studies. Congestion Pricing Program Implementation FHW A's first solicitation for congestion pricing projects occurred with a November 24, 1992, notice in the Federal Register. Of the 16 proposals submitted, the joint California Department of Transportation/Metropolitan Transportation Commission proposal was awarded a grant for its Oakland-San Francisco Bay Bridge Congestion Pricing Project. This proposal demonstrated the desire and commitment to implement pricing to achieve congestion and air quality goals, provide transit alternatives, and gain wide public and elected official involvement The other proposals submitted did not meet the criteria established for the congestion pricing pilot program. A second project solicitation on June 16, 1993, again found that areas were generally not ready to implement congestion pricing. Based on this experience and the recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences Committee, the FHWA broadened the project eligib ility requirements for congestion pricing. Initially, the project criteria was limited to pricing on regular, mixed-flow highway or bridge Janes. That scope was later expanded in a May 25, 1994, Federal Register notice to include congestion pricing on High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOY) lanes. This notice also expanded the definition of eligible projects to allow new kinds of congestion pricing development and pre-project studies and activities, and extended the project solicitation time-frame indefinitely. The HOY "Buy-in" would allow any motorist to purchase access to the expressway in exchange for a fee. Congestion Pricing on existing HOY lanes requires a delicate balancing act to utilize all highway capacity to its greatest potential while maintaining the integrity of express service. Several potential "Hov Buy-In" projects are in development, and the FHWA intends to carefully monitor these projects to ensure free-flow conditions are maintained on these facilities. Status of Congestion Pricing Pmjects -San Francisco Bay Bridge Congestion Pricing Pilot ProjectThe San Francisco Bay Area's Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) is preparing to implement congestion pricing on the Bay Bridge during peak periods. MTC is conducting a series of focus groups for Bay area citizens representing: business, 08

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Maring, Berg, Micozzi 8 industry, labor and the general public to test tbe concept and application of congestion pricing over the Bay Bridge. One outcome of these sessions will be valuable public input on selecting the appropriate mix of mobility strategies and for creating priorities on spending for various transportation improvements. One role:playing exercise allocates $40 dollars to each focus group member and asks each participant to. allocate this money to various alternate modes of transportation. Different modes have different costs associate d with them, and participants experience the difficult trade-offs and hard choices of how to best utilize limited resources in selecting the appropriate mix. The MTC is conducting a technical analysis to include a demographic component that discerns a profile of the motorists crossing the Bay Area Bridge during peak commute periods. The analysis will include the time of day different markets of motorists cross over the bridge, their respective income levels, and the projected impact an increased toll might have on different travelers. The analysis will also include recommendations for the type and amount of low-income subsidies that would be appropriate. In August, the MTC staff will develop a proposal which will recommend the toll amount, the time(s) of day the increased toll price would be effective, and specify the enhanced transportation services and facilities that would be provided with the resulting increase in revenue. . A final round of focus groups will be conducted in the Fall for feed-back and revisions to the final proposal. The final proposal will then be reviewed by the California Department of Transportation, the MTC and the Bay Area Congestion Pricing Task Force, a diverse group of local government, business, environmental and p,ublic interest organizations. If approved, the MTC staff will begin working with the California legislature to prepare the congestion pricing legislation for the 1995 session. With state legislative approval, the San Francisco Bay Bridge Congestion Pricing Project may well be the first congestion pricing project to be implemented in the United States. -San Diego Congestion Pricing Pilot Project. The San Diego project would allow single occupant motorists to pay a fee to use the two reversible HOY express Janes between State Route 163 and State Route 56 during peak commute periods. Revenues generated from the demonstration project would be used to support transit along the 1-15 corridor. A major concern is the maintenance of free-flow conditions on the HOY facility, and the FHWA will be working closely with the project team to ensure the integrity of this Jane is preserved. The 09

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Maring, Berg, Micozzi project proposal is currently in development and must be approved by FHW A for the p i lot program. -State Route 91 Project9 The State Route 91 project would implement congestion pricing on a privately f i nanced toll facility currently under construction along a segment of the highway between Orange and Riverside counties The project entails dynamic pricing of SOVs on an HOV lane, with HOVs riding free of charge. The cost for SOVs to buy-in to the express lane will vary dependent on their time of travel and the level of congestion. The project is designed to maintain free-flow conditions on the HOV lane through the use of sophisticated automated vehicle identificatio n systems and electronic pricing technology. FHWA, FTA and the California Department of Transportation are funding an evaluati o n to determine the effects of this road pricing project. Initial work on the monitoring study is underway, including collection of "before" study data, designing survey instruments and developing plans for observing traffic operational performance. -Other Potential Congestion Pricing Pilot ProjectsAs other areas grapple for solutions to meet their mobility needs, the lessons learned from San Francisco will be particularly useful. Pre-project activities of a variety of pricing approaches ranging from ''HOV buy-ins" to parking and VMT charges are being considered in a number of areas including Portland, Oregon, Boulder, Houston and Minneapolis. These different approaches will be useful in providing more information about the use of pricing as a transportation demand management tool. Conclusion Congestion pricing and parking cash-out are two concepts in transition from conception to reality. The invaluable lessons learned and the experience gained from the initial pilot projects will allow FHWA to further refine and develop the Congestion Pricing Program for the re-authorization of IS1EA in 1997. For the foreseeable future, it appears that congestion pricing initiatives are much more likely to involve the pricing of individual facilities, or congested points on a network of facilities, than they are to involve more comprehensive areawide pricing. It may simply be easier to promote congestion prici n g as a solution to a localized congestion bottleneck problem, or as a way of financing and controlling the use of a new f acility, than it would be to generate the political support necessary to price all facilities in a given area. Proposals to change the structure of tolls to provide for peak-period pricing on an existing toll road are also likely to !>e much easier to promote as demand management tolls than are proposals to institute peak-period tolls on a previously un tolled road. 1.0

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Maring, Berg, Micozzi 10 Although the initial, limited applications of congestion pricing anticipated to develop first may be easier to implement over the short-term, they suffer several disadvantages over the long term. Pricing a single facility may involve problems of spill over traffic being diverted to adjacent fa c ilities. Local businesses or other groups in areas where pricing is not adopted may mount opposition, perceiving they are disadvantaged, ao,d the benefits of congestion pricing may be serio usly understated if only a single facility is priced. Desp ite their more limite d potential, pieeemeal applications of congestion pricing may provide the basis for gradual expansion into more comprehensive pricing applications. Because both congestion pricing and parking cash-out are in their infancy as possible tools of transportation demand management, much r emains to be learned about their potential consequences in different urban settings. The paucity of real-world evidence of behavioral responses to these market-based measures, and the lack of experience with their distributional effects, make the monitoring and evaluation of these pilot projects of paramount importance. The dynamic duo of congestion pricing and parking cash-out holds great promise in the fight to achieve greater mobility and cleaner air and to meet the global climate change goals. As we further explore, implement and evaluate these two market-based strategies, we aspire to discover their full potential to conquer congestion and combat pollution well into tjle next century. 11

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Trends in Population and Highway Vehicle Miles* 19701991 200 180 I ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' , ... / . , , , , + Populati on I ndex HHighway Veh i cle M iles In dex 160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c:t...:_ : .. : . .0.. . . . 0 140 I . . . . . . . . -120 I ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .11 ' ' ' ' ' 0 0 0 ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' -'-100 ro 11 n N n n 79 oo 81 86 87 88 oo 91 Passenger ca r and tax i, motorcycle. singl e unit truck combination truck commercia l bus, and school bus. Source : U S Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National T ransportation Slalislics Annual Report September 1993, H istorical Compendium 1960-1992, pp. 50,146

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TABLE 1: Sli;\IMARY OF INTERt'iATIONAL CONGESTION PRICING PROJECTS Location Slalus Key Points S in gapore In place since $2.50 per day 40% reductio n Businesses 1975 for from 7:30in peale traffic unaffected, downtown 10:15 a.m. (In pollution area. 1975 dollars) decreased, revenues exceed cOSt. Hong Kong Test of AVI S 1.28 per day :10% reduction Revenues technology studied. in peale traffic projects to only in 1975. projected. costs. No price AVI proves reliable. France Peale p e riod Peale prices are 10% reduction Peak period pricing of 6 25-50% higher in peak traffic; pricing in l ane toll road than normal notable shift in effect on from Lille to distance-based travel time, weekend Paris, since rates, which decrease in afternoons 1992. vary from $2congestion. when traffic is 10. heaviest. Non.ay Peak period $.80 per 6-7% reduction Trondheim pricing on toll Bergen, $1.60 in peak traffic AVI reliable roads in for Oslo, no in Bergen, 5% and revenues Bergen since data available reduction in . exGeed costs. 1986 in Oslo for Trondheim Oslo, 20% since 1990, and reduction in Trondhcim projected for a since 1991. $4 toll. N etherlands Proposed for $1.65 peak, Objective is to. There is Eastern S0.16 off-peak. reduce peale public concern Holland in traffic by 30%. that the 1995. revenues will go to the General Fund. England Proposed for Under Study 30-40% Under study central and reduciion in imler London peak traffic 5 year study projected. Sweden Propmed for $4. 22 per day 20% reduction Agreement to CBD in 1997. in traffic Implement in 1997. U.S.A. Studies $2-3 pe r day 15-30% Concerns conducted in reduction in about adverse Berkeley, San peale traffic lmpaCIS to low Francisco .projected. income groups Berkeley, and Madison and businesses. Honolulu :m eport, .! p.5

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REFERENCES National Research Council, 1994 Curbing GridlockPeakperiod Fees to Relieve Traffic Congestion, Volume 2, published by the Transportation Research Board, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Academy Press, 1994. Shoup, Donald C., 1992, Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking, Report FI'ACA 11-0035-92-1. ITA. U.S Department of Transportation. 14

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Congestion Management Planning by: Charlene T. Robey Transportation Engineering Programs Supervisor V i rginia Department of Rai l and Pub lic Transportation John W. Martin . Senior Vice President Siddall, Matus & Coughter lnc. ABSTRACT In early 1994, major construction work began along 1-66 in northern Virginia to widen the road from two to four lanes in each direction (one conventional and one HOV lane). FHWA requested that the Virginia Department of Rai l and Plib!ic Transportation and the Virginia Department of Transportation design and Implement a congestion management plan to alleviate the expected delays . Success hinged upon moving more people in fewer vehicles on the roadway during peak periods . In order to identify possible solutions, VDRPT "married" the nationa l TOM modeling firm of COMSIS with the national consumer research firm of Gallup. The strategy was to identify current commuting behaviors, identify alternative TOM options, test the likelihood of use of the alternatives, and propose a solut i on that would maintain traffic flow at a pre-construction speeds. VDRPT was able to recommend a plan and attach expected results through the joint research project. Essentially, Gallup determined which of the several traffic mitigation strategies had the greatest appeal to commuters and which strategies would most likely be supported by major employers along the affected corridor. COMSIS, through "s TOM modeling program predicted expected Impact of each alternative TOM strategy as well as combinations of different strategies. VDRPT was able to weigh the costs of each option and itS expected Incremental benefit prior to i mplementation. The recommended solution was geared more towards what commuters would realistically be expected to do. The use of two consultants in a research project is not new, however, the use of a nationally recognized consumer research company and TOM modeling in designing a traffic m i tigation program is : This market-base approach will hopefully avoid the "build it and they will come" mind-set traffic mitigation plan development. 15

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RIDE-ON TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION'S CONSOLIDATED VANPOOL FLEET MANAGEMENT PROGRAM By Tom Fulks, Prog ram Manager San Luis Obispo (Calif.) Regiona l Rideshare Program ABSTRACT The Ride-On TMA of San Luis Obispo, Calif., was founded by the San Luis Obispo Regional Rideshare Program, the California Department of T ransportation and several regional employers to provide real alternatives-van pools, buspools, shutt les and o ther specialized transponation to the drive-alone vehicle. The Ride-On TMA works in close tandem with the Rideshare Program to make sure no services are duplicated. The TMA uses the Rideshare Program for all of its matchlist services as well as employer outreach. The Ride-On TMA is a direct transponation provider and the S L O Regional Rideshare Program refers commuters to th.e TMA for its many tr ansponation services. Both organizations get the most bang for their bucks by relying on each other for vital services neither coul d provide alone. INTRODUCTION San Luis Obispo County is on California's Central Coast and has a population of approximately 210,000. It is the only coastal county in the s t ate south of San Francisco that meets federal air quality standards Thus, there is no mandatory trip reduction regul ation or employee commute options (ECO) rule. At present all TOM programs in the county are voluntary and market driven. The primary incentives for employers to join the TMA are : added employees benefits, added services for customers, improved quality of l if e and maintenance of a healthy environment. The local air district is developing an ECO rule to comply with state air quality regulations. This rule, when adopted in the fall of 1994, will g ive employers trip reduction credit for joining the TMA and using its services. Many TMA members will have already met the 1.35 AVR goal voluntarily by the time the ECO rule is adopted. ORGA.NIZAT. I ON The Ride-On TMA, a private, n on-profit corporation, has a fleet of some 35 passenger vans, two buses and a double-decker trolley It acquires its vehicles by assuming control over single vehicles or entire fleets ofTMA members. The TMA provides drivers, fuel, maintenance, insurance and radi o dispatching. It pays for this by charging flat fees f o r per mile service, or fares from individuals or agencies which use the transponation service. The owners of the vehicles are p aid 25 cents per mile for every mile driven not directly related to that own er's transponation services. The R ide-On TMA is an offshoot of the Ride-On Consolidated Transponation Services Agenc y (CTSA). The original concept of cooperative fleet management and t ransponation services, which the TMA uses to build its fleet and ensure low cost transponation services, came from the CTSA. The CTSA is a cooperative of some 25 private care givers whose clients include seniors and people with disabilities. Before consolidating their transpona t i o n services, each of these agencies was operat ing its own vehicles at its own expense, often transponing three or four passengers in big vans to the same destinations as other care givers. Now that consolidation has occurred, vans are full, expenses have g one down and routes are extremely (continued) 16

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Ride-On TMA efficient. The CTSA operates under the same roof as the TMA and jointly pays for some personnel and all overhead expenses such a s copying, phones, faxes, insurance, legal fees and so on. The same concept of cooperative fleet management and transportation services has been applied to the TMA, which serves the employment sector and general. population, involves the entire county, and cooperates with government agencies and regional programs such as the local air district and regional ridesharing agency. Ride-On TMA members who rum their vehicles over to the TMA are reimbursed 25 cents per mile for every mile driven not related directly to that member' s needs. TMA members are able to use that revenue to replace vehicles or pay for transportation subsidies for their employees. Employers, individuals and doctor's offices may join the TMA. Employers' fees vary by the number of employees they have, while pay $15 per month and individuals pay $15 per year. If a person is employed at a site which is not a TMA member, but that person joins the TMA as an Individual, that person may still enjoy the TMA discount rate for a seat on a commuter vanpool or any other TMA service such as guaranteed ride home or mid-day s huttle. The individual TMA membership is available so that anyone within the TMA service area may enjoy its benefits, regardless if their employer is a TMA member or not. This has resulted in situations in. which employees of a wide varie{y o f employment sites located within a certain employment corridor ride in the same vanpools. It should be noted that all TMA transportation services are available to non-TMA members at a higher fare structure SERVICES The Ride-On TMA, which is licensed to provide public transportation by the CalifOrnia Public Utilities Commission, provides the following services: Emergency/Guaranteed Ride Home Program; Commuter Vanpool Program; Special Event Transportation; Patient Transportation for hospitals and private doCtors' offices; Va. n Driver Training; Wheelchair Ride Transportation; ETC Contract Services; Lunchtime Shuules; Tourism Shuttle Program; Airport/ Amtrak/Greyhound Shuttle Service; Park & Ride Lot Shuttles; Designated Driver Vanpool Program; Evening and Weekend Transportation. EXAMPLE Ride-On TMA provides a patient shuttle program for the French Hospital Medical Center in the city of San Luis Obispo, a community of approximately 50,000. A zip code analysis of patient billings from the hospital indicated that 40 p ercent of the billings went to residents of San Luis Obispo. This meant that approximately 40 percent of the 5 ,000 daily drive-alone vehicle trips to the hospital, which offers both in-patient and out-patient services, were made by patients living within the San L uis Obispo city limits. The s huttle program was designed to reduce the need for patients to make such short trips in their SOVs, free up valuable and limited parking space, and help the hospital avoid the expense of adding new parking spaces. It also added a valuable new service the hospital offers its customers. The Patient Shuttle Program picks up and delivers patients from their homes, offices or schools within the city, which has resulted i n the creation of the equivalent hundreds of new parking spaces for use by patients and customers. In addition to the Patient Shuttle Program, Ride-On TMA, the SLO Regional Rideshare Program and the county Air Pollution Control District developed a parking management program and a voluntary trip (continued)

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RjdeOn TMA reduction program for hospital employees. Fees for lhe Patient Shuttle Program are kept low by parceling out the costs to the hospital, individual doctors' offices and riders. If a rider is employed by a TMA member or is an individual TMA member there is a discount and there are further discounts if the rider is traveling to a TMA member doctor's office. A roundtrip ride for a TMA member patient who visits a TMA member doctor is $2. The cost for a nonTMA member who visits a TMA member doctor is $4. This service is of particular benefit to senior citizens who regularly frequent their doctors but have problems genlng there and back home. Vehicles to operate the patient shunle program from 9 a .m. to 4 p.m. weekdays come from the vanpool fleet of Cal Poly State University and other TMA members. The TMA uses Cal Poly's 12 vans, which formerly had been parked eight hours a day from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., to provide trips for patients at the hospital. Cal Poly makes 25 cents per mile on each van, which in turn is used to pay for subsidized seats in the vanpools and the vehicle replacement fund. Ride..On TMA maintains, fuels and insures Cal Poly's vehicles, and provides drivers for some of the vanpools. In return, vanpool fare revenue goes to Ride..On TMA. One problem that has been encountered is the resistance from some Cal Poly vanpool participants who didn't want to give up "their" vans. This was especially true of the former vanpool drivers, who were able to take the vans home. This has been overcome once the riders understand there is no other funding alternative. The choice has been to either raise vanpool fares to an unacceptable level, have the vanpool program eliminated, or go with the Ride On TMA and enjoy the same level of service (or better) at the same low price. Cal Poly had a financial incentive to turn over its fleet due to budget cuts campus wide which resulted in severe cuts to the employee TDM program. Instead of charging the vanpool riders more money, in the form of eliminating the subsidy they were receiving, or eliminating the vanpool program, Cal Poly kept the vanpool program alive by relieving itself of the burden of paying for insurance, fuel and maintenance. Cal Poly also created a source of revenue from TMArelated uses of its vehicles that goes into a fare subsidy and vehicle replacement fund. CONCLUSIONS The concept of cooperative fleet management and consolidated transportation services can be applied anywhere. Any community which has programs for seniors and people with disabilities which provide independent transportation services can use this approach to streamline delivery of transportation and expand the uses of existing fleets. It is not necessary to start with care giver transportation, but that seems to be a universal need which requires many vehicles in almost every community. Thi s program is inexpensive, easy to maintain and does not require government subsidies nor trip reduction regulations to force people to participate. 1B

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN AIRCRAFT DIVISION Transitioning to an Employee-Managed Vanpool Program Gcuv S imms Northrop GrummanAircraft Dlvtslon CommunlcatlOosRepresentaUve .by -vuly zz. 1994-19 M!clutc!Mot tIs NarthxopGrummanAircraftDlvtslon Manager, Commu ter Setvtces

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ABSTRACT Transitioning to an Employee-Managed Van pool P r o g r a m Northrop GrwrunanAircraftDivision (NGAD) recently completed a two year effort to transition from a company-run and funded 154-van. 1450 -passenger, vanpool program costing the company an estimated $600,000 a year to an emp loyee-run and funded program that currently has 118 vans and some 1100 riders. Northrop Grumman' s cost to maintain the new program is projected at $150,000-$200,000 annually. Rep r esenting a major component of Northrop Grumman's rtdeshare program NGAD's quest to reach and malntaln Its 1.5 average v ehicle ridership (A VRl goal hinges on vanpoo l partic i pation. So, to terminate asuccessful1 0-year program was more than a bit risky. Company soo thsayers called It "sulclde." because Northrop Grumman's vanpool program had become the model of van pooling success with thoroughly satisfied customers. From a company perspectiv e, the benefits to participants were obvious: Newv ehic les; Companylncentives; Nofuss/shortnoticevehicleexchang e, and; Reduced administrative paperwork. But to the affected--the 1450 drivers and passengers riding Northrop Grumman vans --the transition was viewed as a major setback to employer employee relations. Entrenched In what seemed to be a no-win situatio n, Northrop Grumman took a proactive position using focus groups to specifically detennlne the problems/concerns of their employees. Th e Commuter Services office was restructured to facilitate an amiable transition and administrate new services to participant s once transiUoned to the new program. In short. the transition was a success due largely to the attention gJven to addressing the obvious challenges and planning for those obstacles that were harder to anticipate. The Northrop Grumman program Is a model for companies wishing to offer a viable vanpool program that satisfies employee and company objectives Without causing the company to encumber heavy capital outlays. 20

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. The passion that Californians have for their automobiles Is unparalleled. Representing that free-spirited, wind-in-your-face attitude that makes California different from the rest ofthe country, this passion has been formidable as a foe to ridesJ:laring. For years, mass transit was almost non-existent. Even today, there ar'e a mere 2500 public service buses to serve a population that exceeds 13 million . More than 800 miles of concrete make up the maze of freeways that wind through and around Los Angeles. In fact, of the estimated 8.5 million motorists in Los Angeles, seven million trips are made to and from work here each day on eight of the nine busiest freeways in the country. The problem, however, is that most of those commutes are made by individuals who drive alone. Begging the question of how did Northrop Grumman Aircraft Division (NGAD) ever develop such a successful vanpool program in the throes of drive alone utopia is one thing. But a matter that is perhaps more extraordinary is understanding how Northrop Grununan managed to transition this successful program from Its company-run and funded status to one that is run, managed; and funded by employees with peripheral administrative support from the company. Prio r to the days of regul ations that ensured the development and implementation of company-sponsored rideshare programs, Northrop Grumman offered vanpool participation to its employees as a convenient commuting option. Employees living primarily on the fringes of Los Angeles were eager participants. It was 1982 and the aerospace industry bristled with activity. Jobs and opportunities In Southern Ciuifornla were plentiful and as a result. the metropolitan area continued Its exponential outward growth. By necessity, individuals were having to look at alternative means of commuting to work because the residential developments that had become most attractive and affordable were those that existed 50-, 60-, and sometimes as many as 100mllesaway. To accommodate the growing employee base _that was now.working in and around Hawthorne, CA and living in suburbia, Northrop Grumman began Its van pool program.

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Experiencing the expected growing pains of a developing program. Northrop Grumman's vanpool program was Initially managed by the division's Transportation Department. At a glance, it was only natural to place this transportation service in the transportation department; however, vanpoollng represented a different kind of organism that demanded attention not akin to the Northrop Grumman transportation agenda. At Northrop Grumman. the primary responsibility of the transportation department is to transport manufactured products Internally between sites and externally to customers. A secondary function Is to provide shuttle service for employees between many ancillary offices and provide fleet vehicles to employees to facilitate the transaction of company business. So, though a good idea in its inception (having the transportation department manage vanpooling), marketing and administration created responsibilities of a magnitude that quickly engendered "step-child" status for the new program. Inspite of the administrative situation, van pooling was an idea whose time had come. From a participation standpoint, the program prospered. Initially, there were 25 vans and 250 passengers who chose to vanpool primarily for "convenience sake." The rapid acceptance and correlating, but unplanned growth, in addition to the program's shifting managerial direction might have stymied a less noble effort. But by 1992, everything about the Northrop Grumman Aircraft Division van pool program had changed. The program was being managed by a department (Commuter Services) whose job it was to administrate this very successful program. Now boasting 1507 passengers on 155 vans at its peak, vanpooling was entrenched as a fixture and ingrained in the culture of Northrop Grumman employees. Some 400-plus employees awaited placement on vans pending the opening of spots on existing routes, or the establishment of new routes. The Northrop Grumman vanpool fleet was comprised of clean fuel burning (LPG) vehicles and had become recognized as one of the finest examples of van pooling success In California. Although the van pool program rode the tide of success, a downturn in the defense industry prompted Northrop Grumman's managementto scrutinize Its operation. As programs, budgets, personnel, and methods of doing work came under strict observation, services like vanpooling (regardless of their success) were not exempt from scrutiny. 22

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Vanpoollng came under review in the wake of a multi-million dollar van acquisition during a time when the division had begun employing strategies to get lean. To make matters worse, the program' s I:eview created a forum for the program's detractors to complain about the so-called negative impacts that vanpooling had on the division. Vanpool opponents said: Flexible start times were disruptive to production; and Key personnel was often unavailable for afternoon meetings because of their having to honor vanpool time commitments. For months, the program seemed destined for extinction The mood around the division was that while the aerospace industry continued to fight off great assaults that threatened its continued existence, a service like "vanpooling'' would not survive the first round. But when the smoke cleared, vanpoollng and the value of the sei:vice had survived. The program. however. required modifications if it were going to fit the lean agenda that had become Northrqp Grumman's business protocol . It was decided that the new van pool program would be employee-managed and funded and receive minimum administrative support from the division. August of 1993 was selected as the date Northrop Grumman would begin !ts three-year vanpool transition. The stage was set. Challenges abounded. And the complementary platter of confusion, opposition, and opportunity paved the way for what was nothing short of" excitement in an ever changing corporate environment" shaped by management directives and the need for the company to maintain their outstanding corporate citizenship status. 23

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"'"he Challenge In 1993, Northrop Grumman Aircraft DiVision faced a dilemma. How do you sustain one of California's most successful van pool programs in the face of corporate downsizing and shrinking budgetary pools while maintaining agency enforced average vehicle ridership (A VR) totals? The answer seemed easy. Transition from a company-funded and managed vanpool program to one that is run, managed, and funded by employees. Thoughts about how to implement such a transition, however, read like a bad weather forecast--hazy, dreary. and not very pleasant. How do you get more than 1400 participating employees. many of whom had been vanpoolers since the program's inception in 1982, to buy into the new employee-funded vanpool program. From the employees' perspective. the new program represented another Impingement to the already fragile aerospace status quo. Layoffs work stoppage, shortened hours. benefits reduction ... now this .. where does it all end? With so much to overcome, the division's Commuter Services administrators (responsible for Implementing the transition) had their work cut out for them. 24

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'l"h&Proc=O::;&=BS=--------------------The Corrunuter Services Oversight Board convened in September of 1992 to review the vanpool program. Comprised of executive and managerial representatives at the Aircraft Division. the group acknowledged the value of the vanpool program to Northrop Grumman employees and the role played by the program in fostering good corporate citizenship. However, in the midst of downsizing and shrinking budgetary pools, the program would have to undergo modifications. As a result, the decision was made to transition from the division -funded and managed program to one that is funded and managed by employees \vith limited peripheral support from the division. The Commuter Services manager was tasked with the awesome responsibility of developing a viable plan to accomplish the transition. Additionally, the plan would have to maintain program participation at a level that would not adversely affect NGAD's ability to comply with regulations governing ridesharing. Feeling the necessity to involve employees in the process, the Commuter office encouraged and received employee participation from volunteers who participated on one of several teams/ groups (Total Quality Team, Transition Team, Implementation Team, and/or Focus Groups). Their collective job involved formulating and recommending the who, what, when, and how's of the new program. Mter months of exhaustive effort, the recommendation of the employee groups to the Oversight Board as presented by the Commuter Services manager was that Northrop Grumman: Guarantee vanpoolers a ride to or from work in eases of van breakdowns; Co-sign the leases made by employees with the leasing companies; Provide payroll deduction for the collection.of fares: Ensure that fares on leased vans are comparable with the outgoing Northrop Grumman vanpool fare structure: 25

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Subsidize the cost of one empty seat for six months each year; Provide on-site fueling and van washing; Subsidize the holiday shut down period; Provide promotional services (pool matching, waiting lists, and driver safety training) to drivers; Give Northrop Grumman vanpool drivers and passengers the right o1 first refusal regarding the sale/purchase of their Northrop Grumman vans: Allow the new vanpool program to receive the tax credit from the vans and monies from the sale of Northrop Grumman vans to defray the cost of administering the program; Gradually transition out oft he company-owned vanpool program over a three-year period. The employees' recommendation indicat e d their wish to have, In the new program, benefits that mirrored their former program. However, the idea that the corporation would share the economic responsibility by co-signing the lease would not meet the company's objective of terminating its active involvement with vanpooling. From Northrop Grumman's perspective, there were two key Issues in question. First, if Northrop Grumman co-signed the lease agr eement, the company would be responsible for providing workman's compensation insurance for the employees (as was done under the fanner program) And secondly, according to Internal Revenue Service guidelines, if Northrop Grumman co-signed the lease, the program would continue to be recognized a s an employer-sponsored van pool program and nullify the employee's ability to receive the state tax credit. So while the Northrop Grumman Commuter Services Oversight Board sustained their earlier decision to fully transition, the employee recommendation became useful i n another capacity. It perfectly represented the Issues that were important to the Northrop Grumman vanpoo lers As facilitators of the negotiation process that would soon begin, the Commuter Services office was able to create a solid "Statement of Work" with the survey data to provide an impartial 26

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reference from which the competing van leasing companies could fashion their respective offerings By January of 1993, the pace had become fast and furious requiring the full-time commitment of:the Commuter' Services manager, two Commuter Services administrators. and a communications representative to carry forth the ever evolving transition plan. While the upcoming employee/van leasing company meetings were being planned, the Commuter Services department underwent infrastructure adjustments to accommodate the new demands created by the transition. Commuter Services administrators identified and met with van leasing companies. Focus groups were organized Te lephone surveys were conducted. And a handful of naysayers continued their 111fated predictions. C O MMUNICATIONS Northrop Grumman is a large multi-divisionalnational corporation with (then) some 27,000 employees in Southern California. The frenzied atmosphere brought on by the inevitability of the. transition p r ovided the perfect breeding ground for the many rumors that surfaced In the days prior to implementation . However, the Commuter Services office recognized that two immutable facts represented major hurdles that could possibly hurt the e ffort if handled carelessly . The company's B-2 Division was unwavering about Its deci sion to continue its divisionsponsored van pool program; and The corporate office had begun a nationwide image building campaign using television spots that featured Northrop Grumman's large van pooling presence in California as a reflection of the company s good corporate citizenship. Having planned ahead, the Aircraft Division managed through the maze of chal l enges by implementing a proactive communications plan that sought to establish the Commuter Services office as a reliable customer service oriented resource center that provided prompt service and accurate information. Z?

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The Corrunuter Services restzucturing effort greatly aided in the accomplishment this goal. The establishment of systems and the appropriate utlllzation of personnel who could best represent the heightened sensitivity to customer satisfaction was a boon to the department' s productivity and Image. Additionally, telephone lines ringing into the department were programmed to provide a directory of references in cases where the voice mall system was engaged A new and helpful tool made Its debut on the Inter-DMsional computer network At a glance. employees using the network could view a directory of services to facilitate thelr rideshare involvement: Presentations were developed to appraise management of progr ess. Memos were written to the general employee population to explain the services provided by the Commuter Services organization. News articles and features were published in division and corporate newsletters to promote the department's services and shape the perceptions of the general employee population regarding ridesharlng. And a newsletter was created for and d i stributed to Northrop Grumman vanpoolers to provide them with the "latest, greatest" information available. With infrastzucture, reputation, and image in place by March 1993, management determined that the fli'st phase of transition (which included 49 vans and approximately 490 passengers) should commence (on schedule) in August of 1993. Focus group and survey information Indicated thatinsplte the growing acceptance of the transition by the affected employees, apprehension still existed about the potential personal financial consequences of this transition Reallzing that this apprehension might cause many of these transltion!ng employees to take the "wait and see" attitude and sorelyaffectrideshare participation, the Corrunuter Services office acted quickly to determine the key incentives required by these employees to make the transition a done deal. 28

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INCENTIVE$ The Commuter Services office avoided the penis of assumption by going directly to vanpoolers and asking a very direct question. "What incentives would cause you to sign up for the new program?" After careful review of the responses, it was determined that an incentive package that included the handling of fares through payroll deduction, an empty seat subsidy, and granting van routes the option of purchasing their respective Northrop Grumman vans would facilitate a smooth implementation process. Without hesitation" the Commuter Services office sought and received immediate management approval to include the Incentives outlined by vanpoolers in the Northrop Grumman incentive package. The payroll deduction service component of the package represented a landslide victory for the vanpoolers. Because of the complexity of providing this service, it had been originally declined for inclusion in the package. Other incentives include: -An Emergency Ride Program to accommodate vanpoolers needing rides outside of the ride provided for on their respective van because of an emergency or as a result of unscheduled overtime. -A $480 state tax credit for vanpoolers participating in the noncompany-sponsored program. -Assistance In promoting established van pools. Preferred parking. -Cash incentives for drtvers

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IMPLEMENTATION The Commuter Services office set a retirement schedule for the first 49 vans and sent out memos to the drivers of those vans. The memo explained that their van would be retired and that the driver or passengers could either purchase that van or speak with representatives from the van leasing companies at times and locations arranged by the Commuter Services office By late May of 1993. the first negotiation meetings were conducted at Northrop Grumman facilities during employee lunch breaks and Included VPSI and independent Ford dealers who had signed up for the Ford Motor Company van leasing program. After months of deliberation, meetings, and negotiations, implementation of the first phase of the van pool transition officially commenced from August-October of 1993 . The fierce competition between companies produced excellent deals for transltionlng vanpoolers. Many were able to get their brand new vehicles without having to pay anything for up to 30-days. Some vanpoolers choose to exercise thetr requested option and purchased their respective Northrop Grumman vans. Implementation seemingly went along without a glitch. Northrop Grumman vans were being retired on schedule. Regularly conducted interviews with transltioned drivers and passengers Indicated a high satisfaction level with the new arrangement. Continuing their efforts to service the transitioning vanpoolers, the Commuter Services office maintained their newfound status as an organization committed to customer service excellence. On the heels of such success, management decided to shorten the full transition from three years to two, scheduling the second and final transition phase for February-April of 1994. To facilitate the process oftransltioning 1 OOvans over an eight-week time frame, the Commuter Services office solicited the help of several happily transitioned phase-onevanpoolers and asked them to answer questions from the prospective phase-two group in several informal meetings. The strategy was perfect and made the second phase more manageable--even though it involved twice as many vans and employees. 30

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SUCCESS FACTORS From a IJlanagerial perspective, aggressiveness was the most important attribute to success AGGRESSIVE VENDOR INTERFACING The Commuter Services office Insisted that the van leasing companies provide sel;Vice that was equivalent to or better than what Northrop Grumman employees had received in the past. The van leasing companies final offers to Northrop Grumman employees included exceptional insurance, maintenance, service, emergency response, and sign-up packages. The Commuter Services office either negotiated or Influenced those offers. AGGRESSIVE CUSTOMER RELATIONS Through telephone interviews, meetings, focus groups, and surveys, the Commuter Services office sought customer Input. Maintaining honesty about the capabilities of the office In infl uencing policy, Commuter Services personnel followed through on every single customer contact by delivering honest answers. AGGRESSIVEADMINISTRATIVESUPPORT The Commuter Services office successfully communicated their role and position to their customers. From the beginning, the Commuter Services office operated as a partner with the vanpoolers. 31

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TRANSITION RESULT$ As a result of careful orchestration, and strict attention to identifying and overcoming the challenges of change, Northrop Grumman Aircraft Division was successfulin transltloning their company funded and managed van pool program to one that is now funded and managed by employees with peripheral administrative support from the Division Although the multi-faceted endeavor perhaps gave the impression of a threeringed circus at times, this transition Is an example of how everyone can win. even under the most difficult of circumstances, if focus Is affixed on clearly defined objectiv es. In this case, It was never the objective to abandon the employees by terminating a program that had successfully provided a valuable service to them for years. From the company's view, the goal was to become more competitive in manufacturing aircraft products by formally removing a financial expenditure from Its budget and shifting it to those who benefited from and ultimately paid for the program. Northrop Grumman Aircraf t Division employees simply wanted assurance that the new program would not jeopardize their personal finances and leave them having to accept a fraction of the service they had grown accustomed to over the years. In summation, the numbers tell the story rather well. Of the 1450 vanpoolers participating in the old program, 1080 transitioned to the newvanpool program riding on 118 vans. The remaining 370 employees transltioned to carpools. The maintenance cost of the program was reduced from $600,000 annually (includ ing depreciation and insurance costs) to between $150,000-$200,000 per annum (Including incentives and accounting services). Additionally, Northrop Grumman has reduced their risk exposure because employees are now covered by the van leasing companies' insurance programs and state disability policies as opposed to the company-provided workman's compensation coverage Northrop Grumman Aircraft Division employ ees are happy with their new situation. They ride to work in new vehicles: receive company Incentives; have reduced administrative paperwork; use vehicles during personal hours without question; and on short notice and without a fuss, can exchange their vehicles for newer. bigger, or smaller ones. The Northrop Grumman Aircraft Division vanpool program is a model for companies wishing to implement a via b le vanpool program that satisfies employee and company objectives in an era of corporate downsizing and shrinking budgetary pools. 32

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SUBMITTED BY: VIRGINIA IS FOR VANPOOLS Privately owned and operated Vanpooling In Virginia Still Unique, Still Effective Lauretta Ruest, Potomac and Rappahannock Transportation commission Diana Utz, Rappahannock Area Development commission susan ograrn, Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation. ABSTRACT The citizens of Virginia have been vanpooling to work for over twenty years now, largely in vanpools that are owned and by thernsel ves not employers. These vanpools provide commuting options to local residents where transit is Private vanpooling in Virginia started.in the 1970's, as operated flexible limited. a result of the lack of public transportation, the model Ridesharing Law, HOV lanes and two energy crises: During this time privately owned and operated vanpools were de-regulated inorder to provide the private citizen the means to develop a transit alternative to congestion and the energy crises. As a result, private vanpooling was born and remains today a fast, effective and inexpensive way for commuters to get to work. Potomac and Rappahannock Transportation Commission (PRTC) COMMUTBRIDE and the Rappahannock Area Development commission, RADCO Rideshare are two ridesharing agencies. whose service areas are located along the I 95 corridor in Virginia. These two agencies have the largest number of privately owned and operated vanpools in the State. PRTC has at least 300 vanpools corning from their service area travailing north on I-95 and east on I-66 into the District of Columbia and surrounding areas. RADCO Rideshare has over 250 vanpools coming from a further distance out along the I-95 corridor, travelling to the same centralized work sites. Both agencies will present their own unique ways of meeting the needs of 33

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these vanpools keeping them on the road, forming new vanpools, providing incentives and services for the vanpools and staying on top of all of the issues that may affect these private transi t providers . Each agency will center their presentations on vanpooling from their respective geographic locations. PRTC and RADCO Rideshare will set the stage by describing their geographic areas, their commuters and their commute towork, why commuters form vanpools and why commuters ride vanpools. Most of the presentation will focus on the incentives and services these agencies provide to vanpools in their areas and how other agencies around the country can do the same. Another dimension to the presentation will be provided by Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation (VDRPT) VDRPT will present their new programs that and support vanpools. VDRPT will also demonstrate ways thei r agency works as a partner with PRTC, RADCO and ridesharing agencies across the state in supporting private vanpools. 3 4

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INTRODUCTION The citizens of Virginia have been vanpooling to work for over twenty years now, largely in vanpools that are owned and operated by themselves not employers. These vanpools provide flexible commuting op .tions to local residents where transit is limited. Private vanpooling in Virginia started during the 1970's as a result of the lack of public transportation, the model Ridesharing law, HOV lanes and two energy orises. During this time privately owned and operated vanpools were de-regulated in order to provide the private citizen the means to develop a transit alternative to congestion and the energy crises As a result, private vanpooling was born and remains today a fast, effective and inexpensive way for commuters to get to work. Potomac and Rappahannock Transportation Commission or PRTC COMMuTERIDE an d the Rappahannock Area Development Commission or RADCO Rideshare are two ridesharing agencies in the State that have the largest number of privately owned and operated vanpools. PRTC and RADCO Rideshare will outline in this paper their respective ways. of me.eting the needs of these vanpools along with the various services and incentives they provide. The Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation will outline their new programs that encourage and support vanpools and the agencies that work so closely with them. POTOMAC AND RAPPAHANNOCK TRANSPORTATION COMMISSION PRTC COMMUTERIDB PREAMBLE: As a result of a new commuter rail, the Potomac and Rappahannock Transportation commission (PRTC) absorbed the Ridesharing Program . previously located with Prince William County, where many of the initiatives began. 35

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DEMOGRAPHICS AND DYNAMICS OF RIDESHARING IN PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTY, A HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE: In 1973, a number of issues merged to encourage the unique phenomenon of private vanpooling in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Along with the energy crises in both the early and late 1970's, the following contributed to the growth of the private operations of vanpooling. 1. The location of Prince William county approximately 35 miles south of two major employers: the federal government and the military force in metropolitan washington, D.C.; 2. The two employers being major forces in the employer environment because of their sizes and locations; 3. Prince William County as a very attractive bedroom community because of the lower cost homes; 4. The majority of employees traveling from Prince William County to the centralized employment area; 5. The notable lack of reliable, public transportation in Prince William County, VA, for commuters traveling to those major employers daily; 6. A dedicated HOV lane on I-95 with an occupancy rate of four per vehicle and 7. virginia's Model Ridesharing Law passed July 1981, deregulating commuter driven, privately owned and operated vanpools of 16 passengers or less. As a result of efforts by a group of private citizens in addressing the two energy crises in the 1970's, the Virginia 36

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Vanpool Association, "WPA", "as deve loped. VVPA served as a support group and also provided manual ridematching services for commuters who were interested in being.passengers. It was the effort on the part of these public service oriented citizens that provided the springboard for: Prince William County to become the jurisdiction with the .greatest number of privately owned and operated vanpools in the nation. In 1991, this figure reached itspeak at 360. At present, the number .of total vanpools has declined to 300 and includes both mini-vans as well as maxivans. This decline can be attributed to: 1. a new, state of the art county subsidized commuter bus system serving the employer sites "here there previously had been no transit; 2. the recently introduced commuter rail, (1992), also serving these employer sites; 3 the political decision to reduce the occupancy rate on HOV lanes on I-95 from 4 to 3 and on I-66 from 3 to 2; 4. the decline in the federal and military work force; 5. the introduction. of the compressed work week, not conducive to vanpool schedules; 6. the problems in finding and keeping drivers. and back-up drivers and 7. the phenomenon of casual carpooling. LOCAL.XNCENTXVESt In number 1980.in attempts to address the phenomenon of the of privately owned vanpools, Prince William growing county

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Government initiated a number of incentives. These consisted of: 1. a grant funded Ridesharing Program providing regional, free, timely ridernatching services to assist vanpool operators obtain and retain passengers and provide a community based marketing service to assist in promoting and advertising ridesharing; 2. an interest-free start-up loan of $1,000 to private citizens to purchase new vans. One of the c'?mponents of the grant funded program is the rnatchingelernent. Since it is critical for applicants to receive timely and current match lists, PRTC mails out match lists the day the applicant calls. Time frames and both horne and work locations are personalized as a result of the skill of the data-entry staff and her knowledge of the market. A "soft" purge is incorporated in the regional program which provides all applicants with a letter asking if they want to remain in the data base or if they have made ridesharing arrangements. PRTC stresses regular communications with vanpool owners and operators, as well as applicants asking them to call back if they experience any problems. Staff attempts to calls carpoolers with lengthy lists to introduce new van incentives as a means of encouraging new vanpool start-ups. Vanpool drivers receive notices to return their lists with comments for staff to follow-up. They then return their match lists with comments in order to have outdated applicants deleted. In the near future, a new, easier to use regional software will upgrade the match lists, as well as the process of matching. It should provide faster and more accurate matching capabilities, since it is based on the Geographic Information system and will provide a directional search instead of a radius search. 38

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INCENTIVES: To reverse the trend in the reduction of vanpools in the early 1990's, Prince William County Government instituted Personal Property Tax Relief for not-for-profit ridesharing maxi vans. (Note: As a result of the Model Ridesharing Law, all costs, including capital equipment, can be integrated into expenses of a vanpool while still operating on a not-for-profit basis.) Personal Property Tax Relief consists of a 91% reduction in tax rates for vanpools operated on a share-the-ride, share-the-cost basis or notfor-profit. Instead of being charged the normal rate of $3.70 per $100 evaluation on the vehicle, the approved van is charged $.35 per $100 of .its value. This incentive was initiated atthe Ridesharing Office, then submitted to the Board of county supervisors for approval. Thereafter, in cooperation with members of the Virginia Vanpool Association, the Ridesharing Coordinator lobbiEld the state representative for legislation to obtain this incentive. since Virginia is a "Dillon Rule" state, all changes in the law require new legislation. The state approved the legislatio n on the basis of incentives for a "shared-ridetaxi" and the County's membership in a transportation commission, i.e., PRTC. once the law was passed, the local County Board executed it. As a result, for the past six years, approximately 170 vanpool owners and operators functioning on a not-for-profit basis have enjoyed this savings on their vanpool personal property tax bill. This incentive helps to keep operating costs down and level:s the playing field with other forms of subsidized transit options, especially since one of vanpooling1s appeal is its low cost. PRTC'S MOST RECENT LOCAL INCENTIVES ARE: 1. Broker efforts for competitive short-term leasing options 2. Gasoline discounts 3. Tire & maintenance discounts 4. Lobbying efforts

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5. Communication with the vanpool population via a newsletter. 6. Guaranteed Ride Home 7. Administration of VAN START and VAN SAVE. The first incentive, "Short throughout the state. A number of term leasing" regionally and is provided locally owned private companies provide short-term leasing services. Two of the larger companies in the state are VPSI, a subsidiary of Chrysler, and Ford. In addition, local private businessmen have been successful in developing vanpool operations. They own from two to over so. Lew Pratsch, an activ e member of ACT and a charter member of the VVPA, is a private citizen who owns a fleet of vanpools, as do some retired residents and working employees. These entrepreneurs provide short-term leasing opportunities of mini, 12 and 15 passenger vans. Usually rates are based on mileage. A complete package includes maintenance, insurance, etc. for a 30 day lease. Recently, a number of gas stations were solicited successfully for gasoline discounts. Different stations provide assorted discounts on gasoline grades throughout the county. In addition, two major tire suppliers in the area now provide tire and maintenance discounts for the privately owned fleet of vanpools registered with PRTC. As a means of communicating with vanpool operators, a newsletter was developed to inform them of latest occurrences. Included are items such as current information about HOV lanes, upcoming seminars on New Van Starts" or "Insurance Seminars", etc. The Ridesharing Coordinator is actively involved in local, regional, state and national legislation. National issues such as lobbying for the inclusion of privately owned vanpools in the Metro Chek Program resulted in success. Parking problems in the Washington Metropolitan area and increases in occupancy rates on 4 0

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HOV lanes have been recent concerns, as well as continued CMAQ funding for Ridesharing Programs. A Guaranteed Ride Home is being developed for vanpool passengers as a means of increasing vanpool ridership. function is a result of expanded CMAQ funding for FY 95. This The Ridesharing Program also administers the VAN-START and VAN-SAVE Programs, which were recently initiated by the State. RAPPAHANNOCK AREA DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION RADCO RIDBSBARE RADCO Ridesha.re is a service of the Rappahannock Area Development .commission, one of Virginia's Planning District Commissions. Rideshares service area includes the counties of Spotsylvania, caroline, King George, Stafford and the city of Fredericksburg. This. service area is located approximately 55 miles south of Washington, D.C. and 60 miles north of The city of Richmond, the capitol of Virginia. Between 1980 and 1990 this area had the highest growth rate of any Planning District area in the State. According to the 1990 Census, the total population of this area was 170,410. The census. indicated that of the 87, 984 residents who reported a place of work, 65.2% reported work destinations outside of their county of residence. This areas' increase in residents is due to our proximity to employment opportunities in the washington, D.c.-Maryland-Virginia markets and also to'lower housing'prices and high quality of labor life. The I-95 corridor cuts directly through RADCO's service area and is the main arter. y used for commuters travelling to the Northern Vir<;jiniaj Washington, D.c. work area. The average commute time for our area residents to the Northern Virginia area is anywhere from one and one-half to two or more hours each way. The RADCO area is served by the Virginia Railway Express Train, private bus companies, vanpools and carpools . Other than the train there is no other type of mass transit in -the service area. Since the

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train is on a fixed route and does not serve a great deal of the work area, vanpools remain a popular commuting choice. RAOCO Rideshare has over two hundred and fifty privately operated vanpools listed in their matching database. The agency feels that there are more unlisted vanpools operating in the area as well. RAOCO Rideshare operates a matching service for the residents of Planning District 16 where the vanpools are listed. Residents contact Rideshare for commuting information and receive a match letter with existing car, van and bus pool information. Since vanpooling provides such an important service to the residents of this area and to the rest of the State as well, Rideshare tries t o offer services and incentive programs that are tailored to specifically meet the needs of the vanpools. It takes a service that is totally aware of the needs of the individual vanpools to keep them continually operating and on the road. Constant conununication between the supporting agency and the pools are essential to provide the services needed. Described below are the services and incentives that RADCO Rideshare offers their area vanpools. 1. customized Rideshare Matching Program The matching program matches commuters from commuter parking lots to various employment sites in the Washington, o.c.-MarylandVirginia Metropolitan Area as well as Metropolitan Richmond and Dahlgren. Rideshare conducts the matching process as follows: When an applicant contacts Rideshare, the staff person fills out a rideshare application over the telephone. Information from the application is fed into the database and a match letter is produced. The match letter contains a list of existing car, van and bus pool information going to the applicant' s work destination at their work times. The rideshare staff consults with each applicant and provides them with all of the information necessary to commute to their work place. The staff tracks vanpool vacancies and informs applicants of immediate openings.

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New and existing vanpools request match letters that contain applicants that are seeking rides. Newly formed vanpools and those whose ridership is down receive weekly match letters with additional support. Match letters and other.pertinent information are mailed or faxed the same day that it is requested. Ten days after match letters are sent out to applicants and vanpools, each applicant is surveyed. to see if they were successful in obtaining a ride or riders or if they need additional assistance from our staff. 2. Transit Commute Benefit Program On January 26, 1993, RADCO Rideshare contracted with the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority to participate in their Metropool Metrochek program. Since March 1993, Rideshare has been accepting metrochek vouchers from area wide vanpools and redeeming them for the operators. vanpool operators bring their metrocheks to RADCO's office where they are processed. A check is then issued for the proper amount. Rideshare returns the vouchers to METRO for reimbursement. All vanpools that participate in the program must be listed in RADCO's database in order to establish a record of that van. This program offers vanpool operators an easy way to participate in this program. 3. Informal Joint Use Parking Lots Due to the overcrowding of existing Virginia Department of Transportation Commuter Parking Lots, Rideshare tries to establish and track informal joint use lots. Area vanpools have been utilizing commercial parking lots for pick-ing up their riders. RADCO Rideshare monitors these lots and tries to establish new lots for lianpooling. 4 Call Back Program Rideshare utilizes the Call Back program for all applicants .43

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and pools that use the service. After a person contacts the Rideshare office for a ride or riders that person is contacted either by telephone or by mail to find out if they were successful. The survey is used to track applicant placement and vanpool vacancies and is also used for updating the database and for soliciting additional co:mments the applicants may have. The "Call Back" program is also used as a customer service tool to let the applicants know of the interest in them and the willingness to assist them in any way possible. 5. Vanpool surveys Surveys are issued to all vanpools listed in RADCO's database twice a year. Each vanpool receives a addressed stamped envelope to return survey along with a self-the survey. The survey assists in keeping the database as clean as possible and to speed up applicant placement, thus filling the vanpools quickly. The survey asks for updated information on the vanpools and for comments and suggestions on how to improve service or vanpooling in general. The comment portion of the survey is the most valuable aspect, because it allows for communication between the program and the operators. It lets then know that the Rideshare office is working for them and is eager to hear their point of view. Both parties have benefitted greatly form this exchange of information. 6. Advertising and Promotional Each year RADCO Rideshare writes an annual marketing plan for the Rideshare program. currently RADCO utilizes weekly newspaper advertisements, brochures, highway signs, radio interviews and informational bags distributed to real estate agencies, Chamber of Commerce and Tourist Information Centers to advertise the Ridesharing program. 7. Van Start and Van Save Program 44

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Since the. program began in December, 1993, Rideshare has been able to subsidize seven newly formed vanpools through the Virginia VAN START program and has subsidized five existing vanpools through the Virginia van Save program. This has proved to be a truly valuaDle program in support of vanpooling. The subsidy money allows for new vanpools to start up more easily and for existing vanpools in trouble to continue operating. RADCO Rideshare, through the Virginia Department of Rail and Public Tra.nsportation, has distributed $ 6,767.00 dollars to these vanpools. B. Annual "Sunbuster" campaign Each spring, Rideshare staff distributes customized windshield sunscreens to all newly formed vanpools in their region. These "sunbusters" display the Rideshare logo along with the phrase, "Come Ride With Us, Call 373-POOL". These "sunbusters" are used as part of RADCO's marketing plan and command attention. when they are displayed in the windshields of the vans. The "sunbusters" are hand delivered to the vanpool operators as a thank-you gift for providing such a valuable service to the community. this as just another method of .outreach to community. 9, Regional Coo rdination Rideshare uses the vanpooling RADCO Rideshare coordinates with other Ridesharing agencies throughout the State of Virginia. The emphasis of coordination insures that the full benefits of ridesharing are achieved on a statewide basis. VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF RAIL AND PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Virginia.vanpool Assistance Program In 1989 the state of Virginia .implemented a program to assist in the formation of new vans and to keep existing vanpools 45

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operating. The program was called the 4-3-2-1 vanpool Incentive Program, as it provided funding for up to four seats the first month of eligibility, 3 seats the second month and so forth. The program was limited to vanpools which were leased from Vanpool Services, Inc (VPSI) and had at least 9 passengers participating at the time of application to the program. The local rideshare coordinators worked with VPSI and the state to promote the program to vanpool operators. The 4-3-2-1 Vanpool Incentive Program was crucial in keeping vans operating and continued until funds were no longer available in 1992. In FY 1994 State Experimental funds were programmed to reinstate the Incentive Program. A committee of state and local rideshare coordinators as well as representatives from VPSI met to revise the eligibility requirements of the program. The new program, call the Virginia Vanpool Assistance Program, administered by the Virginia Department of Rail & Public Transportation consists of two segments: 1. The Van start Program for new vanpools and 2. Tbe Van save Program for existing vanpools. The Van start Program is for newly formed vanpools. A vanpool in considered new for three months from it's start up date. The Van Start Program is designed to provide impetus for new vanpool formations by temporarily funding empty seats during the critical start-up phase. The program is open to all owner/operators of new vanpools who register for assistance with a local Rideshare Program. Assistance is granted at the discretion of the local organization based on the applicant's demonstrated aggressiveness in recruiting passengers. Vanpool owner/operators provide documentation to the Ridesharing Program Manager demonstrating the practices hefshe has pursued in their effort to start a new vanpool. The Van Save ProqrUl is for existing vanpools that are 46

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experiencing emergency problems in their passenger level. Personally owned or leased vehicles are eligible for these programs. An eligible vanpool owner/operator may apply for assistance for a maximum of once every 12 months per van. The program is administered through local Rideshare Programs. Assistance is granted at the discr4;1tion of the loc.al Rideshare Program based on knowledge of the vanpool operation, situation, and eligibility. The state-fundedRideshare Program Managers receive and process applications and make direct payments to applicants. The Rideshare Program Manger may also process funds for other agencies as a pass-through operation so that organizations, such as TMAs/TMOs may participate in the program. Rideshare Program Managers are responsible .. for maintaining documentation consistent with auditing requirements and submit monthly invoices to the Virginia Department of' & Public Transportation (VDRPT) for reimbursement. The Ridesharing Program Manger also submits a year-end report to the State for the purpose of evaluating the program and recommending modifications. The Ridesharing Program Manger is responsible for disseminating information concerning changes in'the Vanpool Assistance Program to TMAs and other organizations with whom they have made agreements for pass-through funding. are eligibility requirements for the vanpool Assistance Program. 1. The vanpool must register with a state recognized rideshare database. 2 The van must have Pool Vehicle or PV plates (or a copy of the application must be attached). and must be properly registered with the local jurisdiction. plates are special registration plates which indicate the vehicle is used as a vanpool. 47

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3. The vanpool must be a nonprofit operation. 4. The owner/operator must certify that the van is appropriately insured under a Commercial Auto Policy or a Vanpool Policy, an insurance category different from a personal or famil y auto policy. 5. The ownerjoperator must demonstrate continuous aggressive recruiting for new passengers. Additional recruiting assistance will be provided by the Rideshare Program. 6. Additional eligibility, monitoring, or guidelines may be set by the administering Rideshare program based on: a Knowledge of the applicant's history as a vanpool operator or passenger; b. Market factors; c. Funding limitations; d. Collective experience of the vanpools in the region; e. Origin and destination of the vanpool; f. The vanpool's realistic potential for operating at capacity. 7. A vanpool owner/operator may not apply for assistance if 50% or more of the total ridership of the van has been in another vanpool which received State financial vanpool assistance in the past 12 months. For example, on a 15 passenger van, no more than 7 passengers may have been in a vanpool which received State financial vanpool assistance in the past 12 months. The following requirements are specific to the Van Start Program. 1. The vanpool must be in its first three (3) months of operation. 48

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2. The owner/operator must demonstrate that at least 50% of the passenger capacity is full by supplying to the Rideshare Manager the names and telephone numbers (both Work and home numbers) of existing passengers for verification. The following requirements are specific'to the van save Program. 1. The vanpool must be registered with a state recognized rideshare database for a minimum of 30 days prior to application for assistance. 2. The vanpool must be in operation for a minimum of six months and may not have received any state assistance funds for 12 months. 3. The van must have lost at least 25% of its paying passengers for more than 30 days. The following chart shows the maximum allowable cash assistance: Total seat Assistance Seat Assistance seat Assistance seat Assistance Passenger Month #1 Month #2 Month #4 Month #5 15 4 3 2 1 12 3 2 1 0 9 2 2 1 0 7 2 1 1 0 The amount per passenger seat is determined by the Rideshare Manaqer in the jurisdiction from which the vanpool oriqinates. The assistance is based on the averaqe cost per passenqer seat, excludinq the driver, for all vanpools registered in the database operatinq within comparable distance and market parameters. Financial assistance is granted once per new vanpool. The eligible

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vanpool owner/;operator must submit to the Ridesharing Program a monthly passenger list, with an authorized signature, to attest to the number of vacant seats. Since funds for this program are limited, the local rideshare programs have been asked to request funding for the Assistance Program in their individual annual rideshare grant application based on their anticipated need. so

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PALO ALTO PUBLIC SCHOOL (CALIFORNIA) MARKET RESEARCH OF ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL COMMUTE CHOICES BY THE TRAFFIC TASK FORCE ( AD HOC COMMITTEE ) Clifford Chambers, Parent and Survey Analyst I PRELIMINARY RESULTS ONLY July 22 1994 NOTE: Final report will b e available at the 1994 ACT C.onference 51

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ABSTRACT The City of Palo Alto (CA) Unified School District, like many elementary and middle school districts nationwide has experienced increased congestion at the beginning and end of the school day. The congestion is perceived as a potential risk to students entering and leaving school due to ever-increasing auto/pedestrian/bicycle conflicts. The physical sites were built in an era of neighborhood schools and predominantly single worker families. Little considera tion was given to auto access and circulation patterns; students walked or biked to school. An Ad Hoc Task Force of parents was formed to a dd ress the problem from a systems approach. A traffic engineering firm was hired to study and recommend physical improvements to four school sites. A census of student travel behavior was undertaken. Finally, a random survey of 362 parents was undertaken to explore attitudes and perceptions of alternatives to driving their child to school. This paper repeats the preliminary results of the student survey. At the time of the ACT paper deadline the parent survey was complete and tabulated but not analyzed. A full report of all survey results and the traffic engineer's report and specific TDM recommendations will be ready by the 1994 ACT conference in September. INTRODUCTION A survey of students and parents of students in Grades K through 8 grew out of the ongoing effort of the Palo Alto (CA) City/School Traffic Safety Committee to address the pattern of traffic safety issues among the school age population from a systems point of view. The traffic safety committee had concluded that school commute patterns and safety issues needed to b e viewed as a whole--in a context which included geography, physical facilities, behavior of parents and students population demographics, and other external influences lik e changes in state laws. Therefore, rather than heap more solut i ons on a not well understood problem, an intent was established to gather data that would help properly define the systems context and, thereby, better define the problem. The surveys were limited to K-8 students because the student driver variable at the high school le vel requires a different survey focus. The Problem The underlying issue addressed in the ongoing work of the City/School Traffic Safety Committee was the need to improve the safety of the school commute for public school students in the City of Palo Alto. Specific work has focused on addressing congestion during pick-up and drop -off at the school sites, helmet use by bicycle riders, traffic safety along school commute routes, and reducing auto trips to the school. A pattern of problems with congestion at many 52

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school sites has become increasingly vi sible during the last two years. This congestion is perceived as a potential risk to students entering and leaving school grounds. Defining the Problem Rather than attacking this problem in traditional, piecemeal ways, a decision was made to gather data which would help properly define the problem. An ad hoc committee was formed at the initiative of and under the leadership of three concerned parents, including the author and the property manager of the Palo Alto Unified School District. With help from huge numbers of volunteer hours from many othe r activist parents from the schools, surveys were designed and administered to a population of 4,262 students (during classroom hours) and 362 parents (by telephone) representing every elementary and middle public school in the city. The purpose of these surveys was to gather data that would clearly define the problem, provide specifz,c insight on how the problem might be mitigated, and create a baseline against which the efficacy of various experimental solutions could be measured. Status The survey of the 4,262 students is complete and attached. The mo r e lengthy and detailed phone survey of 400 parents has been tabulated. At the deadline of the ACT paper submittal; the Task Force had not completed the analysis of the parent survey nor finalized its recommendations. The full report will be available at the 1994 ACT conference. Response Rate The student survey was designed and conducted so that a large response could be obtained from the school age population. Out of this population of 5,866 students, responses were obtained from 4,262, as shown in Table 1. W hile the response rate varied somewhat from site to site, it was sufficiently large at all sites to ensure its statistical validity based on sample size. A statistically valid sample of parents was selected at random. At the 95% confiden ce interval, the margin of error was +15%. Summary of K-8 Student Survey Results The student survey addressed four basic questions or issues: 1. How will you get to school today? 2. Do you plan to leave the school grounds immediately after school is over? 53

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3. How do you plan to get home after school today? 4. Do you feel that you live close enough so you could get yourself to and from school by walking, skating, or riding a bike? Question 1 (Tables 2 and 4) 37.29% of the students surveyed walked, rode their bikes, or skated to school. Busing of various types accounts for the commute of 8.61% of the students in the morning. 54.09% of the students are driven to school with 17% of those driven in the morning arriving in carpools. Question 2 (Table 3) Only 59.56% of students responding to this question indicated they planned to leave school immediately after dismissal. Question 3 (Table 5) The number of students walking, biking, or skating home goes up slightly, to 38.86%, for the return home after school. Question 4 (Table 6 and Figure 1) Overall, 61% of all K-8 students report living close enough to walk/bike! skate to school. Only 37% actually use one of these modes. The difference is most pronounced at the neighborhood elementary level, where 62% of the students perceive they live close enough to walk or bike but only 34% actually do so. At the middle schools, the gap is much less, with 72% stating that they live close enough, and 57% actually walk or bike to school in the morning. In the afternoon, middle school numbers of walkers and bikers jump to 63%. The correlation between bicycling and grade and the inverse correlation between household drop off and grade is noticeable. Although one would expect such a correlation, the strength of the relationship stands out. The jump in bike usage from 5th to 6th grade is dramatic. This raises a question about the greater potential for bicycle usage among 4th and 5th graders. 54

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Response Rate TABLE 1 ANALYSIS OF STUDENT SURVEY DATA SURVEY OF SCHOOL COMMUTE CHOICES MARCH 1994

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1. How did you get to school today? (TABLE 2) School Day Care Public Household Res pond Walk Bike Skate Bus Grade Bus Bus Drop-on Carpool Tota l Kindergarten 547 t7. 73% 5.1 2% 0.73% 7 .31% 0 73% 0 18% 62 52% 5 .67% 100 00% 1 569 14.06"/o 7.38"/o 0.3 5% 10 19% 0 35% 0 00% 56 06% 11.60% 100 .00% 2 448 20 .98% 9 .15% 0 00% 9 38% 0 22% 0.22% 51.56% 8.46% 100 00% 3 489 20.86% 12. 07% 2 25% 5.52% 1.02% 0 00% 45 .81% 12 47 % 100 00% 4 625 19.20% 13.12"/o 2 7 2% 9 28% 0 32% 0 16% 43.0<1% 12 16. 100.00% 5 496 21.17% 17.54% 3.63% 5 65% 0.40% 0.20% 41.73% 9.68% 100.00% 6 306 12.42% 37.25% 1 96% 8.50% 0.00% t.63% 29.74% 8 .50% 100 .00% 7 348 14.08% 41.38% 3.16% 5.46% 0 29% 2 30% 26 .72% 6.61% 100.00% 8 317 13.56% 42.90% 5.05% 7.57% 0.00% 0 32% 24 92% 5.68% 100.00% f otai/A verag e 4145 17.56% 1 7.68% 2.05% 7. 77% 0.4 1% 0.43% 44 .75% 9.34% 100 .00% How may of you plan to leave the school grounds alter dismissal today? (TABLE 3) 17) Grade Number Percent Kindergarten 345 62.39% I 284 48 97% 2 272 62 39% 3 327 63.99% 4 42 5 63.53% 5 299 57.39% 6 168 54.37% 7 192 52.46% 8 146 44 38% Total/ Average 2458 57.51%

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. 01. How Old You Get To School Today? (TABLE 4) Household Wall
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3. How are you planning to leave schoolloday? (TABLE 5) School Day Care Grade Respond. Walk Bike Skalo Bus Bus Kindergarten 553 14.47% 4.70% 1.27% 10.85% 6.87% 1 580 13 79% 7.24% 0 52% 8.79% 4 48% 2 436 19 .2 7% 8.94% 0 46% 8.49% 3.21% 3 511 22.11% 10 76% 3 .33% 5.09% 2.35% 4 669 21.08 % 12.41% 2 .69% 7.77% 2.69% 5 521 25.14% 1651 % 3 84% 6 14% 3 07% 6 309 18.n% 34 95% 2.59% 7.12% 1.94% 7 366 2o.n"!. 38 .52% 2.73 % 5.19% 0 00% 8 329 24.92% 39.21% 6.69% 5.17"/. 0.00% Total/ Average 4,274 19.77% 16.59% 2.50% 7.39% 3.04% 4. How many of you live close enough to walk/bike to school? (TABLE 6) IZ Grade Number Kindergarten 1 289 2 281 3 253 4 263 5 429 6 330 7 212 8 247 Total 2,304 Percent 52.26% 48.45% 51.47% 64.13% 63.34% 68 .61% 67.49% 72 04% 53. 91% Public Household Bus Pick-Up Carpool Olhor 0 1 6% 58.41% 3.25% 0.00% 0.00% 54.14% 1 0.52% 0.52% 0.00% 50.69% 8.72% 0.23% 0 59% 43 25% 10 .96% 1 57% 0 00% 41.41% 10.91% 1.05% 0.58% 36.85% 7.49% 0.38% 5.18% 25.89% 3 .24% 0 32% 3.01% 23.50% 6.01% 0.27"4 2.13% 18.84% 2.74% 0 .30% 0 .96% 41.55% 7 63% 0.56%

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NEIGHBORHOOD ELEMENTARY ALTERNATIVE ELEMENTARY Chione Hoover MIDDLE ScaooL Jordan n.s 0 20 '40 60 80

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Phil Tumer, Mimi Wolf, and Rosema ri e Bed nar have all been ac t iv ely involved with the Traffic Task F orc e They have all contributed to this paper and are actively working on the final report which is due by the end of August 1994. 60

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A TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT EVALUATION OF Tim CHILDREN'S CORNER CHILD CARE CENTER April1994 Prepared by: Commuter Services, Inc. Prepared for: Warner Center Transportation Management Organization 61.

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WARNER CENTER TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ORGANJZATION A TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT EVALUATION OF THE CHUJ>REN'S CORNER CHll..D CARE CENTER Background Child care responsibilities are often cited as the reason why many commuters must choose to drive alone to work. Not only is relatively. unconstrained travel required to transport children to and from day care or school, but parents must be free to travel from work to care for their children wherever they may be for any reason. Commuting via any multiple occupant mode is therefore ruled out because some dependency on other people or vehicle is involved. Child care centers located at or near the work site or transit station have been proposed as potential solutions to this problem, at least for parents of children under five years old To test the efficacy of this potential solution, the Warner Center Transportation Management Organization (l'MO) received a grant from the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMT A) to study the potential transportation demand management benefits of a child care facility on the site of a large business center. Could the presence of a child care center at or near the work site allow parents to use a multiple occupancy vehicle commute mode, and, at the very least, could a significant savings of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) be realized by omitting the trip to an off-site child care center'? The Warner Center Transportation Management Association worked closely with a special committee made up of representatives from Cal State Northridge, local and regional government representatives and corporate contributors to design a marketing strategy to assist parents with their commuting needs as they enrolled their children at the center. A number of existing TMO services held promise to be attractive to working parents, including computerized carpool matching, a Guaranteed Ride Home service for parents without cars who may need transportation to attend to their child, and the free midday shuttle which allowed parents to visit their child at lunchtime. To promote these services, the TMO and childcare center staff educated parents of their commute options via one-on-one meetings, direct letters, newsletters and bulletin board posters. The center also infol'l)led parents that enrollment preference would be given to parents who rideshare if there was a waiting list. As it turned out, the center had room available for all interested enrollees at the time the center opened. Nevertheless, parents were aware of the preferential rideshare enrollment possibility, and this knowledge may have influenced the before/after mode choices Now that the center has opened, when enrollment demand exceeds availability, preference will be given to those who rideshare. In addition, the TMO bas recently been awarded a grant by LACMTA to coordinate a tuition 62

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rebate program to encourage more ridesharing. Parents who lpcrease their ridesharing behavior will be able to receive up to 30 percent off their monthly tuition costs for a three month period. The rebate program will be launched later in the year. In order to monitor the initial transportation demand managment impacts of the program, a baseline evaluation of the transportation demand management impact of the program was conducted by Commuter Transportation Services, Inc., the regional rideshare agency, which bas assisted the Warner Center TMO in past program evaluations. Thi s report summarizes the results of the evaluation. Objectives The objectives of the baseline evaluation from the initial group of Children's Comer enrollees were to: 1. Measure the change in commute mode shares among parents enrolled in the new Children's Comer child care center before and soon after the opening. . 2. Estimate the number of vehicle trips reduced daily as a result of the new child care center. 3. Estimate the savings in vehicle miles traveled daily as a result of the work center location of the child care center. Method Two self-administered surveys were used to eollect data on commute betiavior before and after the opening of the child care center. First, upon acceptance to the center, but before actual starting day, parents of the children enrolled were required lo complete a survey on commute behavior and work schedule. Completed surveys were received from all 102 enrollees. Second, after the center opened, parents were asked to complete another survey concerning current (new) commute behavior. Because of the more voluntary nature of the survey, only 51 responses (representing 50 percent of enrollees) were received . Copies of both surveys appear at the back of this report. CTS tabulated and analyzed the data and prepared this summary of the results of the surveys. Principal Findings l. Some parents were able to switch from driving alone to carpooling and vanpooling as a result of enrolling their children in the center. The drive alone share of commuting

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decreased from 78 percent to 74 percent, carpooling increased from 22 percent to 25 percent and one parent staned vanpooling (a I percent share). See Table I. After enrolling their children in the Children's Comer, parents are able to ride s hare at rates that are somewhat closer to commuters at TMO memb_er work sites and much higher than commuters in the region overall. See Table 2. 2. Average Vehicle Ridership (AVR) for the parent group was 1.14 before and increased to 1.20 after the facility opened. This may be a modest increase, but over a longer period of time, after parents have had a chance to make necessary adjustments, rideshare rates may increase. 3. Using this short-term shift to multiple occupant modes, and assuming an enrollment level of 102 commuters, it is estimated that 6 one-way vehicle trips have been reduced daily as a result of the on-site facility. The vehicle trips reduced were 22 miles on average, and, therefore, the mode shift resulted in a daily reduction of 132 vehicle miles traveled. 4. Perhaps more significantly, vehicle miles traveled have been further reduced by virtue of the fact that parents who have enrolled would have had to drive miles out of the way of their final commute destination to drop off children at child care centers. Looking at only those who prior to enrolling in the Children's Comer were taking their children to an arrangement out of the home, it is estimated that on average they traveled 8.5 extra mile s each way (see Table 3) Assigning this average additional vehicle miles traveled (17 miles round trip) to the 102 parents with children in the center equates to a total of I, 740 reduced vehicle miles traveled daily. Still, some parents and their spouses must travel additional miles to pick up and drop off their children, and, therefore, to estimate the VMT reduction accurately, we must subtract 40 8 miles ( 4 average post-opening "out -ofthe way" distance x 102) from the savings previously estimated. In sum, net VMT reduced daily is 1,698 (reduced out -ofthe-way distance from off-site childcare) and 132 (mode shift) for a total VMT reduction of 1,830. 64

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Drive Alone carpool Vanpool TABLE 1 WAIUIEII. CBN'l'Ell. TMO PREVS. POST-CHILDREN'S CORNER OPENING COMMUTE BEHAVIOR MODE SHARES Pre % 78 22 65 Post % 74 25 1

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Drive Alone Carpool Vanpool Other Distance TABLE 2 CHILDREN'S CORNER KODB SHARES COMPARED TO WARNER CENTER TKO TOTAL AND REGIONAL TOTAL warner canter TKO* Children Corner Total ' l'ost .I!U .. .. .. 71 78 74 21 22 25 4 1 4 12.8 21.6 (not including stops) From TMO member employer AVR surveys 1992 "State of the Commute" CTS 66 Region :total .. 79 15 1 5 14.8

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BASE: TABLE 3 MILBS ADDED TO COMMMUTE TO GET TO PREVIOUS CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENT BNROLLEBS WHO PREVIOUSLY USED OU'l' OP HOME CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENT No. of Miles One-way 1 2 3 4 5 15 .! 44.5 22.1 5.7 22.1 5 7 Average 8.5 miles one-way 67

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TOM Curriculum for School Children "Smart Tripper" Program Alms for "Multlmodal Citizens" by : Bob Ferguson Kitsap Transit Bremerton, Washington ABSTRACT Kitsap Transit began providing an innovative "Smart Tripper" school cu rriculum in the Spring of 1994 to educate Kitsap County six graders on being "multimodal citizens" who understand the cost of and alternatives to driving a single occupant vehicle. The idea started with a series of transit yard tours for 6th graders in Spring 1993 Students were brought to the service yard to see how buses operate and how they are serviced. Some six-grade "Super -students amazed their friends by lift ing mull-ton buses on hydrau lic lifts Despite the tours success, Kitsap Transit soon realized they could not provide a tour for all the sixth graders in Kitsap County that wanted to come, and they decided to do more. A comprehensive curriculum was created, using a visual and entertaining format, to show students how to be responsible transportation users. In lesson 1, sixth graders are introduced to the concepts of ridesharing (carpooling, vanpooling, and the bus); congestion (rush hour, SOV counting while on the road) air po llu tion (hydrocarbons, nitrogen gases, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, a sock test over the teacher's tailpipe) ; and energy consumption (fossil fuel facts). Les son 1 uses stimulating colors and graphics and ends by questioning students "What can YOU do to help reduce traffic congestion. air pollution and energy consumption? (like asking adults to carpool to work!). The first exercise is a fun quiz that helps reinforce the concepts. Lesson 2 (riding a bus can be easy) teaches students about bus fares, student I.D cards, transfers (or beam me to the next bus). bus rou1es, schedu les and taking the fool ferry. Exe rcise 2 encourages students to use actual bus schedules that are prov ided in each st udent guide, to plan a trip to the local mall. Lesson 3 teaches the rules and courtesy for riding the bus. Exercise three is an amusing true and false test that helps reinforce the rules for safe bus riding One of the questions asks: true or false, "It's OK to eat french fries on a Kitsap Transit bus as long as you share them with everyone." To complete the course Kitsap Transit brings a bus and driver to the school and offers students an opportunity to purchase a reduced fare student bus pass. The first 3,000 student guide books were distributed free to six grade classes in all four Kitsap County school districts in Spring 1994. Kitsap Transit is working with teachers in Kitsap County to make the program even better. They look forward to providing more course materials to schools next year. 68

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PARKING PASS DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM Providing Limited SOV Parking to Transit Pass Holders Author: Pamela M. Woo Transit Planner Department of Metropolitan Services (Metro) Metropolitan King County Seattle, Washington 98104 69

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PARKING PASS PROGRAM ( Umlted SOV Parking for Transit Pass Holders ) ABSTRACT The Parking Pass demonstration was conducted by the Department of Metropolitan Services (Metro) with five major employers in downtown Seattle and a private parking operator. The goal was to test the effectiveness of offering four free or discount ($3) parking days per month to employees who purchase bus passes, and to evaluate the effectiveness of increasing bus pass use Current demographic trends make it difficult for workers to commit to using an HOV mode 100% of the time. Work schedules, family commitments, and unanticipated emergencies complicate trips to and from work. Providing a limited number of SOV parking days for bus commuters provides insurance that they can drive if occasional errands come up. This makes the choice of whether to buy a bus pass more feasible for this type of commuter. The 1990 City of Seattle Employee Transportation Survey indicated approXimately 16% of SOV commuters in the Seattle CBD have infrequent need to use their car. This group was the major target of the demonstration. This is also the hardest group to shift to HOV use. There was high interest .in having the insurance of flexible parking days as indicated by significant shifts in commute: 9% of participants drove alone before the program and shifted to bus pass use; 27% of participants had a mixed commute before the program and shifted to bus pass use, 15% of existing blis riders paid their fare using cash or tickets and switched to bus passes during the program. E m ployees were very interested in this incentive as indicated by the number of participants, number of new bus pass holders, and employee feedback. It is an effective tool for encouraging HOV use particularly in areas where there is a charge for parking. 70

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INTRODUCTION AND OBJECl'lVES DESCRIPTION The Parking Pass demonstration was conducted by the Department of Metropolitan services (Metro). The goal was to test the effectiveness of offering four free or discount ($3) parking days per month to employees who purchase bus passes, and to evaluate the effectiveness of increasing bus pass use. Several lo cal companies currently offer similar parking incentives but research on effectiveness of increasing.HOV use is not monitored by these companies. Many employees drive alone to work for flexibllity in running errands or responding to emergencies. Providing a limited number of parking days for bus commuters provides insurance that they can drive if occasional errands come up which make buying a bus pass more feasible for this type of commuter. The 1990 Seattle Central Business District SUrvey indicated approximately 16% of SOV commuters. in the Seattle CBD have infrequent need to use their car. This group of commuters was the major target of the demonstration. The demonstration was conducted from Aprill992 to June 1993 at five employer sites in downtown Seattle, Washington. Companies that participated were Bogle & Gates (law), Westin Corporate Offices (administration), Hilton Hotel (hospitality), Callison Partnership (architecture) and Bank of California (finance). At four sites employees buying bus passes received four parking coupons good for a discounted $3 parking eost each day. At one site, employees receiVed folir free parking coupons each month. Metro contracted with Ampco System Parking to provide spaces at four gl!fages located near company sites. OBJECI'IVES The objectives of this program were to: 1. Evaluate interest in the incentive . 2. Compare results .of offering four discount parking days and offering four free days per month. 3. Compare expected uses participants have before the program with actual usage. 4. Test program procedures for efficiency to the users and administrators. 5. Conduct a joint public and private program with Metro, employers and parking operators. 71

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PROGRAM DESIGN METIIODOLOGY Research was conducted from several data sources. Employees requesting parking passes were asked to complete initial registration forms which included questions about current commute mode, parking price and location, typical bus fare medium, trip length, age, and occupation. In addition to registration forms, each company provided Metro with lists of monthty bus pass sales and parking pass distributions. AMPCO returned to Metro ti)e parking coupons that were used each month. A distribution and usage database was developed at Metro to track data on all coupons distributed and coupons actually redeemed. To assess tbe efficiency of administering the program, personal interviews with company program administrators and the garage contractor were conducted. EMPLOYER PARTICIPATION The five companies that participated were Bogle & Gates, Westin Corporate Offices, Hilton Hotel, Callison Partnership and the Bank of California. All are located in downtown Seattle. The companies were selected based on the following criteria: located close to parking garages 100 or more employees . subsidized Metro bus passes did not offer many free or subsidized parking spaces to employees did not have significantly higher than average HOV rates compared to the Seattle Central Business District average GARAGE PARTICIPATION Metro contracted with AMPCO System Parking to provide the following services: provide parking management services and meet daily parking space needs at specific garages accept and verify coupons, and collect remaining parking fees make reasonable efforts to accommodate participants on days they park comply with monthly accounting requirements work with Metro to troubleshoot various problems that occur Spaces were provided at the following garages: One Union/Two Union Square Puget Sound Plaza Park Place Hilton Hotel '72

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All the garages were located within a 4 block vicinity of participating companies. ADMINISTRATION Initial Program RegistrationParticipants were asked to fill out an initial registration form by the Program AdministratOr at each site. The form included questions about usual commute mode, parking location and price, average trip length, age and occupation (See Attachment A). Coupon Distributions Metro sent parking passes to each company on a monthly basis. Employees purchasing bus passes were eligible to sign up for the parking passes. The ETC verified the employee was a pass holder and distributed four passes valid for the month to each participant (See Attachment B). A list was maintained by the Program Administrator of parking pass. recipients, parking pass numbers, and type of bus pass bought. Unused parking passes and monthly sign-up lists were returned to Metro eacb month. Redeemed Coupons AMPCO sent Metro the actual coupons redeemed each month with a iota! tally by garage and a list of busy garage days to help monitor the parking services contracted. Garage Reimbursements -The daily parking rate o.f spaces contracted to Metro was based on a $5 per day early bird rate. Metro paid AMPCO $2 for each discount coupon used and $5 for eacb free coupon used. MARKETING Promotional efforts were coordinated between the project manager, program administrator at each site and Metro promotion staff. A variety of promotional strategies were used (See Attachment C) including: descriptive flyers sent to all employees at the beginning of the program info rmation posters posted at work sites newsletter" articles flyers included in paycheck/ direct mail endorsements by upper management or ETC's through letter and/or electronic mail kick-off meetings Metro provided the following resources: promotional materials including posters; flyers, paycheck and direct mail flyers, newsletter information and electronic mail information program procedures and registration forms transportation assistance program presentations to employee groups 73

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OVERALL FINDINGS PROGRAM PARTICIPATION A total of 432 people registered for the program. Participation at each site was consistent with number of employees, the estimated market of potential new bus pass holders, and number of existing bus pass holders Nearly half of all registrants were employees of Bogle & Gates. In Summary: 45% of the total number of employees at all sites participated Nearly all existing bus pass holders participated 17% (or 60 participants) of the poten tial market of new bus pass buyers participated Table 1 Company I nformation FTDay Average Potential Program Employees Existing Market New Participants Pas5es/Mo Pass Buyers Bogle & Gat es 418 (43%) 155 141 212 (49%) Westin 146 (15%) 59 37 51 (11%) Corporate Hilton Hotel 82 (9%) 29 48 25 (12%) calli son 201 (21%) 80 91 94 (22%) Bank of CA. 117 (12%) 39 39 48 ( 6%) TOTAL 964 362 356 432 The potential market of new bus pass holders was est imated by deducting number of existing bus riders and employees with free parking from total employees at each site. ATTRACTION OF NEW BUS PASS BUYERS Before the progr am, participants commuted usi n g the following modes: 7 4

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Table 2 Typical Commute Before Participating In Parking Pass bus 58% drive alone 9% carpool 5%. other 1% mixed commutes 27% Nine percent of participants drove alone before participating in the program and switched to bus pass use after the program. This group was a major target of the program. There was also a major shift in number of employees who used mixed commute modes prior to participating (27%) and bought a bus pass during the program. Employees who commute by mixed modes are those who travel by different modes different days of the week. The parking pass addresses the need potential bus pass users niay have to occasionally use their car for errands Determining whether existing bus riders that paid cash or ticket fares would switch to a bus pass was another objective of this program. Among existing riders, 85% paid using a pass and 15% paid cash or ticket fares and : switched to a bus pass during the program The majority were employees working at the Hilton Among Hilton employees, about half of the existing bus riders formerly paid their fare using cash or tjckets. Feedback from the Hilton indicated many employees prefer to pay their bus fare using cash or tickets instead of allocating a large monthly outlay of money for a pass. Some possible reasons for this include: the hotel is Pt of the service industry which employs many seasonal or part-time employees, many employees have variable work shifts, many use daily tips to pay bus fare, and many are paid hourly. Another possible reasi>n given was that many cash and ticket fare riders switched to a bus pass because the addition of flexible parking days made the value of a pass more worthwhile to them. 14% of program participants were identified as being new bus pass buyers. These bus pass holders previously commuted using the following modes: Table 3 Typical Commute of New Bus Pass Holders Before Program drove alone 38% carpool 18% other 2% mixed 20% unknown 22% 75

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REASONS FOR BUYING A BUS PASS (New Pass Buyers Versus Previous Pass Buyers) New bus pass buyers were more likely than existing bus riders to have bought a bus pass because of the parking pass program. Table 4 Reasons for Bu}-ing a Bus Pass New Bus Pass Buyers Previous Bus Riders convenience parking pass i n centive other cost savings bus pass subsidy DISTRIBUTION AND USAGE Overall Program Statistics: 31% 27% 31% 11% number of coupons distributed number of coupons redeemed coupon use as percent of total distributed Monthly Statistics: average use per m ontb of all coupons average use per month with discount parking average use per month with free parking 76 60% 7% 27% 6% 1% 11,300 6,616 59% 23 days 2.6 days 1.3 days

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Coupon Use Jzy Coinpanjl: Tab le 5 A v erage Parking Use Per Month B&G Westin H ilton Callison Bank of CA. Average Use By 2.6 1 3 2.3 2.0 1.2 R e gistrant Per Month Coupon Use As 64% 32% 57% 49% 29% Percent of Total Distributed .Coupons Redeemed 3936 497 535 1115 127 . free parking offered Coupon use varied widely by company Bogle & Gate s had the highest participation rates and highest average use per participant. Garage location appeared to be a key fac tor in determining parking use. Companies such as Bogle & Gates, Callison Partnership and Hilton Hotel had the highest use and were located in the same buildihgs as the AMPCO garages. Companies l ocated farthest from these garages bad the lowest use such as Bank of California and Westin Corporate Offices which are both located 4 b l ocks from nearest garages. Despite the fact that Westin Corporate Offices was the one company offering employees f ree parking pas s es; usage was lower tha n the other four companies which offered employees $3 parking passes I n addition to garage location, many other factors may have influenced usage including: general garage conditions, employees peroeived value that receiving something at a $3 cost is worth more tha n receiving something at a fre e cost, the availability of discount or free parking nearby, etc: During most mont hs 1,1bout one quar t e r of participants did not use any of the four parki n g c o upons. On the other hand, about 40% o f participa n ts used all f our o f their parking coupons eac h month. At the tinie employees registered for the program, they were asked to indicate how many of the 4 coupons they expec ted to use. The majority of participants felt they would use the maximum days given Actual use was lower, at 2.3 days a month. Employers considering the cost of offering this incentive can estimate that actual use Will be lower than the maximum possible.

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Tab l e 6 Number of Coupons Used Per Registrant Per Month Actual 0 coupons 22% 1 coupon 13 9% 2 coupons 1 2 20% 3 coupons 13 14% 4 coupons 39 57% New bus pass buyers attracted by this demonstration were more likely than existing bus riders to expect to use all four parking coupons each month. four or more three two one Table 7 Expected Use of Parking Passes (new bus pass buyers compared to previous bus pass buyers) New Pass Buyers Previous Pass Beyers 81% 4 9 6 53% 81 21 10 These data support comments received from Program Admini s trators that employees like having the insurance of pllrking passes each month even if they do not actually use all the parking passes provided. This incentive eliminates one barrier to committing to a bus pass in that many employees think they need to drive to wor k in case an errand or emergency comes up. When BmplQyees Registered Most employees registered for this program in the first two months the program was available at their company. Compared to other companies, H ilton had a large percent of employees registering in mid to later months Many new bus pass buyers attracted during this demonstration also registered in later months, particularly Hilton employees D u ring the last q uaner of the program 30% of the new bus pass buyers registered compared to 12% of existing bus riders registering during that time. (See Attachment D) 7 8

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REGISTRANT CHARACI'ERISTICS Participants were asked to complete a registration form before beginning the program. Data shown below summarize participant characteristics. 1. Commute distance, home to work: Jess than 5 miles 15% 5 to 9 miles 30 10 to 14 miles 22 15 to 19 miles 14 20 or more miles 20 miles one way = 11.7 miles 2. Frequency of varying work hours: daily weekly monthly occasionally never 23% 7 1 53 17 Most respondents have work hours that vary occasionally or daily 3. Occupation professional/technical 41% secretary/ clerical 34 manager/administrative 9 personal services 4 other 11 Most respondents work in professional/technical or secretary/clerical ocrupations. 4. Age less than 20 years 1% 20 to 29 years 37 30 to 39 years 38 40 to 49 years 19 50 to 59 years 4 60 years or more 1 Average age of respondents. was 33.6 years. 79.

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DIFFERENCES IN'CHARACI'ERISTICS OF EXISTING BUS PASS BUYERS There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, commute distance, or location where they parked their car when they drove downtown. There were differences in the following areas: Work Schedule: New bus pass buyers were more likely to frequently vary their work hours. 40 percent of new pass buyers vary their hours at least every week, compared to 29 percent of existing pass holders. Occupation: New pass buyers were somewhat more likely than existing pass holders to work in "other" positions (25% versus 9%), and less likely to work in secretary/clerical positions (23% versus 36% ). Month of Program Registration: Many of the ne w bus pass buyers who were attracted in this demonstration registered for the program in the later months. From February 1993 through April 1993, 30 percent of new bus pass buyers registered for the program. In comparison, only 12 percent of previous bus pass holders registered in these months. Company: About 14 percent of registrants were new bus pass buyers. The proportion of new bus pass buyers among Hilton employees was significantly higher than at the other companies. Among all Hilton employees who registered for the program, 31 percent were new bus pass buyers. (See company feedback for more information) EFFICIENCY OF PROGRAM PROCEDURES Parkin& Coupon Distribution In discussions with Metro about the demonstration, Program Administrators at each site said the program was very easy to administer and took minimal time. The procedures used in this demonstration were established to complement the existing process companies used for distributing transit passes. Parking passes were distributed at the same time as bus passes for ease of administration. .The Program Administrator had the following additional responsibilities: making sure participants filled out an initial registration form, verifying the employee was a bus pass buyer, recording and distributing parking coupons on a monthly basis, and returning parking passes back to Metro each month. Because this was a demonstration program, some troubleshooting occurred to resolve the following issues: high volume of parking passes to monitor some instances where company distribution records were not readable coupons used during wrong month

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participants passing coupons to other employees to use Garaee Procedures AMPCO garage personnel were responsible for collecting and dating parking coupons and verifying that coupons were signed and not expired. AMPCO submitted the used coupons to Metro on a month l y basis. In discussions with Metro, AMPCO personne l said the program was fairly easy to administer because it was consistent with their daily procedures for collecting coupons. They did feel that the monthly summary tracking of coupons was labor because of the volume of coupons EMPLOYEE FEEDBACK Most companies gave that employees appreciated the incentive because it provided insurance for days when they need to drive. During the program, Metro bus pass costs increased and a few Callison employees decided to buy an annual pass instead of monthly passes. Before they bought the annual pass they checked with the Program Administrator to verify that they would still receive parking coupons each month because they did not want to lose the flexible parking days. Employees also said the parking enabled them to save time because they could run errands after work. Some employees at the Bank of California suggested that closer garages be used. They felt that the 4 block walk to participating garages was faT and inconvenient. Each company that participated had different employee make-ups and occupations which Program Administrators felt had some affect on program use At the Bank of California office, they had a higher proportion of management officers and department heads than at their other worksites At Bogle & Gates there was a mixe d proportion of partners, attorneys and professional/administrative staff. At Callison Partnership the majority of employees are architects and designers, and the rest professional/administrative. Many .of the architects/designers travel frequently which would affect use. At the Hilton Hotel, the majority of employees are hourly service industry employees who have varying work shifts For the most part, most employees that participated were in the professional/administrative category with the exception of the Hilton. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Interest in the program A total of 432 employees registered for the program which is 45% of the total number o f employees at all s i tes 81

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17% of the estimated potential market of new bus pass holders participated in the program. Nearly 100% of existing bus pass buyers registered for the program. Prior Commute Characteristics Nine percent of participants drove alone before the program and shifted to bus pass use during the program. 27% of participants bad a mixed commute before the program and shifted to bus pass use during the program. This is consistent with other research indicating commuters often travel by different commute modes throughout the week. 15% of existing bus riders before the program paid their fare using cash or tickets and switched to bus passes during the program. Promm Use On average, program participants used 2.3 o f the 4 parking coupons provided each month. Average use with diseount parking was 2.6 days per month, and average use with free parking was 1.3 days per month. Usage varied widely by company. Garage location appears to be the key factor affecting usage as companies with the highest coupon use were located in the same building as participating garages (Bogle & Gates, Callison Partnership, Hilton Hotel) Bogle & Gates had the highest use per registrant. Despite the fact that Westin Corporate Offices was the only company offering free parking, usage was lower than the other four companies offering discount parking coupons. In addition to garage location, other factors may have influenced usage such as: garage conditions such as security, employees perceptions that receiving something at a $3 cost is worth a higher value than receiving something free, availability of other parking nearby and specific characteristics of Westin employees. 27% of new bus pass buyers said they bought a bus pass because of the parking pass incentive. In contrast, most existing bus pass buyers said convenience was the reason they bought a bus pass.

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CONCLUSIONS USE OF TilE PARKING PASS PROGRAM There was high interest in having the insurance of flexible parking days in case of errands or emergencies as indicated by the number of participants, number of new bus pass holders, and employee feedback. During this demonstration there were key increases in: SOV users that switched to bus passes mixed mode commuters that switched to bus passes bus riders who formerly paid cash or ticket fares and switched to bus passes The major target of the program were drive alone commuters in which nine percent of program participaQts switched from driving alone to bus use. This is significant because these employees have started a commitment to HOV use. This is also the hardest commute mode to shift to HOV us-e. Over one quarter of program participants (27%) switched from mixed commute modes to bus use. The parking pass addresses the needs of employees wlio do not take the same commute mode consistently throughout the week, by offering f!exiole parking every month for occasional needs to drive. This eliminates one barrier that potential bus pass users have to committing to a pass. Also, providing a limi ted number of parking days can help retain existing bus pass buyers, and encourage cash or ticket transit riders to commit to a bus pass. . On average, participants used 2.3 parking passes per month, which is less than the maximum 4 days given. Employers who consider offering this incentive can estimate that actual use will be lower tl)an the maximum possible. In addition to employee benefits, employers benefit because the incentive: is easy to administer provides an incentive for potential HOV users can improve employee morale can free up SOV parking spaces thereby reducing parking costs and freeing up spaces for clien t use RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Limited SOV parking is an incentive which can be used to encourage transit use. This incentive can be expanded to include all HOV users. 2. Providing limited SOV parking is an effective tool for encouraging HOV use when the following criteria apply: offered in areas where there is a charge for parking 83

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offered at sites with low HOV rates to receive the highest number of new bus pass or HOV users. If offered at sites with already high HOV use, the program mainly subsidizes parking for people who are already taking transit. parking spaces to accommodate users are available from spaces provided by employers or in private garages nearby. 3. This is most effective when offered as part of a larger, more com pre hens i v e transportation program. Linking multiple benefits, such as subsidized transit passes and SOV parking fees enhances overall increase in HOV use. 4. The parking pass incentive addresses commute flexibility issues. Results indicated that over one quarter of program participants (27%) switched from mixed commute modes to bus use. The parking pass addresses the needs of employees who do not take the same commute mode consistently throughout. 5. Involve private parking operators in developing parking strategies which encourage HOV use. The public and private sectors should work together on more joint strategies to encourage HOV use. 6. In addition to employers offering this incentive, private parking operators and building owners can develop programs which offer this incentive. Parking can be provided from employers using their own spaces, through building parking, or contracted with a garage operator. FUI'URE DIRECTIONS Metro is currently researching a number of possible options for developing the Parking Pass program. These include: 1. Offer limited SOV parking days to HOV users in combination with a Parking Cash Out program. 2. Include limited SOV parking as part of Metro's FlexPass agreements 'vith employers. 3. Conduct a similar demonstration in an area where there is no market value for parking (free parking) to determine effectiveness in non-CBD areas. 4. Research possibilities for offering this incentive through retail bus pass sales outlets. There are several local companies such as Puget Power, Skyline Tower Building and the University of Washington which currently offer various forms of limited parking days. (See Findings From Other Companies) 84

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to acknowledge and thank the following persons for their contributions and support of this demonstration project. Laurie Elder, Metro Geo. rge Allen, Metro Paul Royba l Metro Mike Beck, Metro Mary Barker, Metro Brad Parrish, Ampco System Parking Karen Markus, Bank of California Shelley Davis, Callison Partnership Katie Grabow, Callison Partnership Bruce Kendall, Bogle & Gates Susan Pierson, Bogle & Gates Joe Clossin, Hilton Hotel Ken Co ar, Westin Corporate Tina Wissmar, Westin Corporate Offices

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REFERENCES City of Seattle Engineering Department (1990). 1990 City of Seattle Employee T r ansportation Survey." Seattle Engineering Department, Transportation Services Division, City of Seattle, Seattle, WA Blumenthal, Cathy (1993). Former Director of the Bellevue Transportation Management Association. Williams, Mike (1993). Manager of Transportation Systems, University of Wa shington Transportation Office. Parrish, Brad ( 1 993). Branch Manager and Marketing Director, AMPCO System Parking.

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FINDINGS FROM OTHER COMPANIES Skyline Tower Building Bellevue, Washington The Skyline Tower Building offers 3 free parking days a month to any employee of the building that is registered as an HOV user (transit, carpool, vanpool). Parking rates in the building normally costs $6 per day. Participation and Usage Rates: (Based on data from May 1993 June 1993) Average Participants Per Month 140 Average Free Days Used Per Month Participation as Percent of Total Eligible 1.2 days or (40% of maximum) University of Washington (UW) Seattle, Washington The UW offers a transportation program called the U-Pass to any students or faculty that sign up. For any facUlty or staff U-Pass holders that also commute using non-SOV modes, up to 25 commuter parking tickets each quarter can be purchased at $1.25 per ticket paid up -front. They are purchased in books of 10 or 25 tickets. The tickets can be used for on campus parking when U-Pass holders occasionally need to drive to school. The number of staff and faculty that were eligible (had a U-Pass and commuted using non-SOV modes) between January 1992July 1992 was 7,699. Tbe University does not have usage information or numbers of eligible U Pass holders which requested parking tickets at this time but is in the process of tabulating this information. However, there is information on the total number of parking tickets bought each month. Based on this information the following participation and usage is expected: Average participants each month range between 368 919 faculty and staff Approximately 5% 12% of the eligible 7,699 U-Pass holders participated Average use per month spread across each eligible U-Pass Holder was 1.2 days per month Based on the fact that tickets must be pre-paid up front at $1.25 each, the majority of tickets requested were probably used. The major reason usage per participant is higher at the UW is because parking tickets are paid for up-front receiving them. At Skyline Tower the average use per participant is lower at 1.2 days per month. Even thought the parking is free at Skyline Tower actual use per participant is probably lower because there is no up front payment. 87

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/ ATIACHMENT A BoGLE & GATES REGISTRATION FoRM Name: 1. Before participating in t.hia program, bow many days per week did you use the following meana to travel to and from work? ___ Drive alone __ Carpool (2 or more people) __ Other (plea&e specify) 2. H you drove last month, where did you uaually park your veWele? __ Parking garage at building ___ On street parking in downtown Seattle How much do you pers.onally pay to park whe.n you drive in to work? $ Per day or $ Per month It you rode the bus last month. how did you pay your fare? ___ Bus pass Cash :. Why did you decide to buy a bua this month? __ Work tchedule Parking pa .. __ Take the hua ___ Vanpool ___ Parking gsrage or lot nearby ___ Out> ide of downtown Seattle __ Ticket> ___ Convenience __ No one to carpool/van pool w;th Other (please specify) -------------. ). How many days per roonth do you expect to ua.e your parking pus? ___ Daya per month r. What is the estimated distance from your home to your work place ? __ Miles (one way) 3. How often do your work hour.& vary? __ Daily ___ OccasionaUy is your occupation? ___ Personal a.ervic:u worker __ Sales __ Weekly ___ Never ___ Profe.aaional or technical ___ Manager or admi.ni.atrator __ Other(pleasepecify) ;.. ------------!O.Howoldreyou? ______________________________ ___ ,---Monthly ___ Secretary or clerical 88

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. .. . . . .. A'ITACHMENT B . . ,; :.. . : t. .. : ;: . :;_. .: :,_ ....... --.: :. .. ::. : . "r."-.:. . . ... . . : --... " -: .... .. . .... : . . .. .. . ; l .. . /$3 . PARKING S IGNATUR5: 4 2 6 .. : ,;. ; ,::-. ;J nfliNo Union Souata-i'1h &.Union Fuge! Sclund P!aza-oltll' & Union Pan< Flili:8 6111 & Seneca Hillon liQ!el-6th & Univmay I soaQ; is unavailable ;!'your chaice locrt!on, see aitendant lor assrstanca, or the other garages maybe used. 89 This pass can be LtSed ooly a lhslis:id cil1 nan-Mfday Entsr g;rage before g a.m. No rn-and-out privileges )'Ill en payinq tipcn exillii,Q gar.ge gi:e a oo.rl
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IUY A ,Ass . ND i!ET A .. / ATIACHMENT C / .. That's right-a. parking lot. With Metro's ne;. Parking Pass program, Bogle & Gates e.rpployees will get to park in a nearby parking lot four days a month for just S3 a day when you buy a Metro bus pass. After all, we realize there are those days when you need your car. Your bus pass and parking pass, give you the perfect combination of convenience and cost savings. You can enjoy a relaxing commute on the bus and have your car when you need it. And, you can take advantage of your $15 a month bus pass discount. For instance, if you currently '?.ommute 20 miles round. trip a day and you pay fo.r parking, you could . . save $241 a month with the Parking Pass progra ,:n: < --:: : . : : : .: .:. . . . Parking Costs Commuting Costs . ; $130 .. : : ; . $155* . Drive alone and park all month Take the bus;d;.d use your parking pas ses . ... $12 . ... ; : $32** . :.::: . . . :: .. ....... : . : . .... .... : :' :... .. -::. ... ... _: Getting iii.n. is easy: J u$t ask Closs in; in H u,;.an Resources, for your parking passes each ;:,.onih w[.en "you pick UP.YC?Ur M.etro bus p ass : To begin buying a . : . monthly bus about one : .,jjeek be/ore the!cist #iof the month: For more info..:nw iic1n on. parking passes or monthly bus passes, give Leslie . Clossin a call at x3200. 9() Parking Pas.s is a test program conduct e d by Mell'o. Program ia to run through April1993. *Source: A.meriean Automobile Association, Your Drivi.a3 Costs, 199 1 edition. E stimated with a mid -s ized car at S.37 a nille, ineluding gas malntenaanee a ad ins urance costa. u As$umt$ a two zone peak montbly pau. There is an even greater savings for a or thne month p.us.

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ATIACHMENT D ; Month or Program Registr:)tion B&Q "WESTIN HILTON CALLISON BA.i'{KC.-\.L May92 44% 91% Jun 92 10 2 30% Jul92 s 4 15 46% 68% Aug92 5 0 10 7 18 Sep 9 2 6 0 0 3 0 O c t 92 9 0 3 6 5 Nov92 1 2 23 0 s Dec 92 0 0 3 10 0 Jan 93 3 0 0 0 0 Feb 93 0 0 8 9 0 Mar93 2 0 0 11 0 Apr 93 11 0 10 6 5 May 93 0 2 0 Jun 93 0 0 0 n = 2 10 68 ?? -40 46

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OPTIMIZING ROUTE-SPECIFIC MARKETING STRATEGIES TO INCREASE PUBLIC TRANSIT RIDERSHIP Carol A. Lewis, Assistant Professor Director of Transportation Research Center for Transportation Training and Research Texas Southern University, Houston Texas Naomi W. Lede, Professor Executive Director Center for Transportation Training and Research Texas Southern University Houston Texas 92

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ABSTRACT Increasing the number and retention of new riders is a primary goal of public transit agencies. As consumers become more accustomed to the influence of advanced technology in their work and home environments, the question can be raised of the kind of transit marketing that will appeal to this contemporary audience. Most transit properties indicate that route specific marketing is more effective than system focused efforts. Yet, agencies spend a large amount on system wide techniques. This study examines system wide and route oriented marketing strategies to enhance and improve potential patron response in public transit. The study also conducts a demonstration project to test the efficacy of selected marketing strategies for optimizing public transit patronage. Several phases of the research were performed . concurrently utilizing a comprehensive and two-stage research design. The test cases and surveys were conducted on the campus of a University in a large urban area. Phase I involved a survey of the travel modes and attitudes of a portion of the faculty, staff and students. Phase II was a focus group which was queried on various marketing techniques. The study found that both system wide and route specific marketing can be attractive to non-transit users depending on the message conveyed. 93

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PROJECT TITLE: Optimizing Route-Specific Marketing Strategies to In crease Public Transi t Ri dership INTRODUCTION The decline in transit ridership in recent years, combined with higher operating costs and reduced federal subsidies, have induced the public transit industry to investigate an increasingly broad range of marketing strategies. These marketing effons have been system focused, as well as directed to th e individua l route. The focus of th is study is to examine marketing techniques targe t ed at the route level that have the potential for successfully attracting individuals to public transit. Because of cost issues and a desire for widespread coverage, public transit agencies tend to concentrate their marketing effons at system wide audiences, rather than at the local markets. These system wide effons generally extol travel time savings, energy savings and overall convenience, in order to attract patrons. Details regarding system u t ilization and route specific information cannot be provided in the system wide approach. This study selected the Texas Southern University campus as the field site for the examinat i on of the relative effectiveness of route specific as opposed to system wide techniques for attrac ting patrons. The university, with a popu la tion of approximately 12, 500 (students, faculty, staff and administrators) occupies a compact tract of one hundred twenty-eight acres in the highly-dense Third Ward community immediately southeast of downtown Houston. A second purpose of this study is to establish a basis by which to encourage use of Houston METRO se rvice to the Texas Southern University campus by students, faculty and s t aff. The university environment was selected for several reasons: (I.) there is a very high utilization of personal automobiles (greater than 76%) as the 94

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primary mode of transportation for university students and employees; (2.) the high density of automobiles within the campus environment contributes t O traffic and public safety hazards; (3.) the university, as employer, is among the ft.rst scheduled to meet an EPA mandate to reduce !he number of employee trips by a utomobile; and (4.) the peak demand on the current supply of parking spaces creates overcrowding, illegal parking and encroachment on the surrounding neighborhood. . This project examines the marketing strategies utilized by selected public transit agencies in urban areas in the United States. Previous re$earch has indicated that many transit properties encounter difficulties in addressing changing marketing conditions ('TRB, 1984:47). Some studies suggest that this d ifficulty stems not only from the physica l configuration of public transit systems but also from fundamental resistance to change. Thi s appears to be true when change may result' in additional requirements for labor and training, major. scheduling changes, and new equipment needs. These factors coupled with dispersed travel patterns typical of suburban and exurban markets pose difficult challenges to public t ransit service providers Appropriate marketing strategies for restructuring transit service and for i dentifying techniques for exploiting new market opportunities may assist transit managers in increasing the level of patronage on specific routes. The ouicoroes of this study, because of its unique setting and population, have implications for addressing increased public transit use by employee groups and student populations faced with changes in transportation habits mandated by policy or public conscience. 95

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PROJECT BACKGROU N D A variety of transit marketing demonstration projects and research efforts have been sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (now Federal Transit Administration) and individual transit properties. UMTA disseminated a Transit Marketing MaiUlgement Handbook in November, 1975. The document was based on a study by Lesko Associates in collaboration with Smith and L ocke Associates. Over 100 transit systems were asked to participate in the project. The study concluded that marketing has a "basic functional responsibility within transit systems .. .if transit systems are to be responsive to the public's needs.'' The document further noted that "it is important to identify, compare, and assess the marketing function and alterna tive approaches to decision processes and formal organizational s tructures" (USDOT, 1975:1). Hatfield, Bovey and Guseman (1976) developed a marketing handbook for public transportation f o r purposes of familiarizing individuals interested in the basic components of a marketing program for use in transit and to provide specific examples of p romotional tools and campaign ideas The report recommended three allemative marketing strategies: undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, and concentrated marketing. LeM and Cooper (1983) completed a multi-phase project which was designed to increase the level of public transit patronage among special user groups through strategic marketing and promotional strategies. The speci al user groups included the elderly, young, handicapped and poor. Findings of the study were used to develop a marketing pla n to increase public transit patronage among school children. Gibbs (1983) conducted an evaluation o f the extent to which transit properties cons idered minorities in marketing activities. The study analyzed specific marketing activities conduct ed by a sample of transit properties to determine their effects upon minorities. 96

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The findings suggested thllt there were limited special efforts to include minorities in increased transit awareness. Blacks, in particular, appeared to be most interested in routes, scheduling and fares. It should be pointed out that the results were not generalizable across the public transit industry. However, the findings suggest the need for a more controlled, in-depth analysis of marketing effectiveness on specific routes. Other studies have examined a variety of issues. Smerk (1977) argued that effective marketing and overall beuer management are the most important means of increasing productivity in a publicly-owned transit system. On the other hand, Morris (1978) asserted that good transit marketing means doing everYthing needed to get riders to use transit instead of their cars. Mundy (1974), like Smerk, attributed the lack of effective marketing from a consumer-oriented perspective to interl)al management problems. During the earlier periods of debate about the value of marketing, USDOT and the American Public Transit Association sponsored a conference on the issues. The objective of the conference was to foster the : transit industry's awareness, acceptance, understanding and successful application of marketing techniques. Issues discussed included marketing's applicability to public transit and a "how-to" focus on marketing for transit From these deliberations sprang a series of publications on transit marketing management. Caruso (1988) compiled a state-of-the-art report on consumer research as it applies to the specific problems of transit marketers. The report emphasizes basic marketing principles rather than detailed techniques; it is problem-oriented not technique-oriented as were earlier studies. A series of USDOT/UMTA sponsored studies and others by highway departments in various states have emerged during the past two decades. These documents are cited in the Bibliography. For the most part, 97

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these studies are more c losely aligned wi t h "marketing plans for action" o r implementation. Few of these stud ies present evidence of effec tiv eness as it pertains to increased ridership and system performance. There is literature on marke ting function, which encompasses marketing research, service development, pricing, promotion, consumer aids, and a few on evaluation Fleishman (1985) and others evaluated route-specific marketing strategies u tilized by the Metropolitan Transit Commission (MTC) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. The demonstratio n was funded under the Service and Methods Demonstration (SDM) program of the Urban Mass Transportat io n Administration (UMTA). The approach involved route-specific demonstrations rather than system wide Pre-tests and post-tests were included as part of the methodology. The findings indicated that awareness among the target co rridor residents increased but the level of patronage remained the same (Fleishman, 1985: ix-xiv). In 1988, the American Public Transit Administration conducted a survey of its members to ascertain the relative funding levels and techniques utilized for marketing activities As part of the survey, the members rated the effectiveness of the various methods. The ratings designated high, medium, and low effectiveness levels. Those market ing activities that provided route level information received the h i ghest effective ness ratings. The individual route and timetables. the telephone information and customer service stores were rated high by more than 75% of respondents. Those methods that tend to focus systemwide had effectiveness ratings in the 40-50% range. The percentages of the total marketing budgets applied to the individual methods was highest on the telephone infonnation (23% ). followed by the route and t i m etab les (10%). The survey showed that small budget percentages are distributed among a variety of marketing methods. It was not possible from the information presented to ascertain the funding distribution between the system wide and local efforts. 98

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PROBLEM STATEMENT Increasing the number and retention of new riders is a primary goal of public transit agencies. As consumers become more accustomed to the influence of advanced technology in their work and home environments, the question can be raised regarding the kinds of transit marketing strategies and techniques that will appealiO this contemporary a udience. !n times past, some public transit properties did not see the need to advertise and some even thought tha t advertising dollars were an unwise public investment. However, most public transit agencies now recognize the importance of marketing as a strategy to attract riders and designate a portion of their annual budgets to information dissemination in various forms. As outlined in the project background, most transit marketers indicate that route specific s tra t egies are more effective than system wide strategies. The issues to be examined in this research are as follows: 1). the rationale for mode selection and the travel characteristics of Texas Southern University faculty, students and staff and 2). the responses of a focus group to route specific and system wide marketing approaches. METHODOLOGY The study involved two phases of research. The first phase was a survey of the Texas Southern University population distributed in the Spring of 1993. Two versions of the survey were dissemi nated; one for faculty/staff and another for students. The survey was distributed in payroll checks 10 1,155 full and part time employees. The response rate of return for faculty/staff surveys was 9.5% (110 surveys) The student sample was drawn 10 be reflective of the distribution of students by class rank. Texas Southern University's student enrollment in 1992/93 was 10,500. 99

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Approximately 20% percent of the student population was targeted for survey distribution. The codeable surveys returned were 489 or 4 .8% of the student body (Jess doctoral students). Doctoral students were not included because of the potential overlap with the faculty/staff area. Further, the majority of doctoral classes are offered at night when the level of bus service and opportunity to utilize that service decreases significantly. In order to not overrepresent any one class, the students receiving surveys did not exceed the following numerical distribution: Freshmen 800 Sophomores 300 Juniors Seniors Masters Law 200 300 300 (included unspecified post-baccalaureate) 100 The second phase of the study was a focus group assessment of various marketing techniques, including print, video and audio. There were five regular automobile drivers that comprised the seven members of each focus group. The focus groups were given a pre-test to determine their attitudes regarding public transit and their response to various advertising strategies. Each group member then rode METRO to campus or to their place of employment and back for one day. The project provided the tokens to cover the cost of the ride. After the ride, the focus group members were given a post-test and were asked to rate another set of. marketing strategies. (See appendixes for survey instrument and array of print marketing techniques). The results reported in the text and shown in the figures may not add to 100% due to rounding. 100

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The literature was utili :redto confirm marketing concepts and to serve as a base to assess the strategies and techniques underway in several transit properties throughout the nation. MAJOR FINDINGS Phase 1: Campils-wide Survey The survey was designed to ascertain the travel patterns and characteristics of the Texas Southern University employee and student p opu lations. The survey shows that almost half (48.2%) of the employees arrive on campus prior to 8 :00a.m. wh. ich corresponds to the normal peak hour. This is an impressive percentage considering the number of professors that have non-traditional schedules. Another 42.7% arrive between 8:00a.m. and 10:00 a.m. (figure 1). Approximately 5% of the respondents indicated that.tl:ley have a Monday, Wednesday, Friday schedule while 93% work all 'ri!e majority of Texas Southern University employees drive to work (86.4%): recond highest category of travel mode is transit with 6.4% of employees currently using ME1RO. Approximately 3.6% of the employees carpool and 2% walk (figure 2). The transit mode split (percent bus of total trips) for campus employees compares favora b l y with that of other employment centers outside of downtown (Texas Medical Center roughly 9% and Uptown/Galleria roughly 3% ). 101.

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Figure 1 TIME OF ARRIVAL When do you normally come to the campus? 80.0% "T""--------------------.. 60.0% + ....,...--40.0%+--20.0% Be:rorcB:OO&.m. '-IO..m. IO.DOOO Arrival Times Soxi01t II Emptor gun MODE OF TRAVEL What Is your normal means of transportation? 1.4% 9.2o/o 6.6% Student Employee 76.6% Pusonal AU!Q 1!1 C"'J)OOI M
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Flgure3 Reasons fo( not using METRO routinely Bus is u nreliable Fales 100 bigb Afraid I'll get Use car for Qlher pw'JlO'.es Personlil safety concem' No convenient bus line 0.0% 30.0% 40.0% Percentages When questioned about their knowledge of METRO service, 58% of the respondents did not know which bus routes service Texas Southern University. The primary reason given as to why more employees currently do not ride the bus is due to other responsibilities (36%). Respondents also indicated lack of convenient bus service (17.3%) and excessive travel times (10.7%) as reasons for not ut!Uzln.g METRO (.figure 3). . . ,. \ ' As part of Clean Air Act Amendment, ires employees that work at . . : ,... ' companies w ith more than 100 employees will have to redMe vehicle m il es traveled to ,the work place. One survey question queried the respondents as to the mode of travel they woul d chose if they could no longer drive to work alone. Almost thirty -two percent indicated that they would take the bus, 24% would carpool and roughly 14% would walk. A large percentage (24.4%) said that they would be absent from work under the condition that driving was prohibited (figure 4). 103

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29.8% 5.4% Figure 4 DESIRED MODE IF CAR NOT UTILIZED II you could drive your car four days a week, which transportation mode would you use on !he other days? 5.4% 21.6% Stud tnt 37. 8% 24.4% Employ .. 31.7% Tabbus II CaJpoOI I! Wallc BicycJe 0 BeAbsent Employee survey respondents were comprised of 37.3% faculty members This is roughly reflective of the distribution of the population as 31.6% of the employees are faculty. The survey response rate was 9.5% (II 0 surveys of I, !55 facul t y/staff). The faculty and student surveys were identical in the questions raised. The und e rgraduate students are 80% of the s t udent body. Graduate student responses mirrored their ponion of the student body, accounting for 20% of the surveys return ed (95 of 483) The survey responses shown in figures 1 4 and in the appendix reflect combined undergraduate and graduate level responses However, some of the data presented bel ow are discussed by levels for comparison purposes. The survey respo nses show that fewer than 20% of undergraduate and graduate student respondents arrive o n campus before 8:00 a.m. Thus, most students arrive during off peak hours. Approximate l y 62% arrive on campus by 10 a.m. (figure 1). T he d ays that the students are on campus is somewhat varied by the acad emic leve l. 104

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Eighty -one of the undergraduate students are on campus all five weekdays, while 70% of graduate students are present on five days. Twenty eight percent of graduate students attend classes on the Monday, Wednesday, Friday schedule compared to 14% of undergraduates who have this schedule. Transit is most effective in serving the home to worlc trip. Previous research has showed that per sons who must make intermediate stops or those who have varying a m and p.m. travel patterns are more difficult to serve with traditional transit seryice Almost 5% of Texas Southern University s students arrive at campus from work. From campus, 21% of students go to work. Further, 40% of students leave off-peak, between noon and 3 p .m. (figure 5). These students may or may not be viable candidates to utilize transit service depending on the work location's relationship to home and school, and required work times. Over percent (76.6 %) of the students drive alone, 9% ride the bus and. 6.6% carpool (figure 2). 0 .. t&ure TIME LEAVING CAMPUS When do yon no..-mally l eave the campus ? 80.0% ....------=-----=------..:_ ___, 60.0%-i---_.:... _________ 40.0%-1-----------0 u :. 20 .0% +--------Before 10a.m. lOnoon aooa-3p.m. 3 -Sp .m. Alter Sp.m. Departuu T imts Employee The primary. reason stude n ts gave for not using the bus Is that buses are unreliable (31.3%) . Seventeen percent .claimed that there is no convenient bus line and 10% cite

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personal safety concerns. Interestingly. despite the previously mentioned percentage of students that work, only 1.5% indicate that they do not utilize the bus because their other responsibilities require the use of a car (figure 3). When asked what choice they would make if they could no longer drive their car to campus, only 2.7% of students would select the bus as an alternative. Approximately 18% of both students and employees indicated that they would carpool (figure 4). Phase Z: Focus Groups The focus group began by responding to a pre-test which queried the respondents on their opinions and perspectives regarding various aspects of METRO service The group provided opinions on service issues, operator courtesy and system utilization. Four of the questions coul d be categorized as operational, two as safety and three as image. The pre-test and post-test showed that the perception of bus riding is often more negative than the reality panicipants found after riding the bus. Qperatjonal Aspects: From an operational perspective, some participant s opinion did improve after riding the bus. More of them thought the service was dependable after riding (57% to 86%) and those who indicated that there was no bus line to meet their needs decreased from 43% to 29%. However, 14% had no opinion regarding transit's ability to meet their travel needs after riding. A necessary component of transit riding in most large urban areas is the requirement for the patron to transfer to complete a trip. Focus group panicipants were queried about their perceptions of the transfer. The panicipant's impression of the transfer did not improve after riding. Before riding, 29% of the respondents strongly felt that the transfer would not be problematic. None retained that opinion after riding. The 106

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respondents indicating no difficulty with the transfer remained unchanged after the bus ride (57%). Twenty-nin e per cent did not have an opinion about the transfer after riding. It is likely that these individuals did not transfer on their trip (figure 8 ). Figure-6 Public transit does not op erate on time and Is not dependable PteTest Po.st-Test NoOpinion [J Disagree l!ll Strongly Disagree 107 86%

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Figure 10 SAFETY CONCERNS I was concerned for my safety. PreTest P ost-Test 14% 43% 14% g Agree No Opinion rJ Disagree Ill! Strongly Disagree igurc 11 OTHER RIDERS People who ride the bus are drunken, smelly, and low-class. Pre-Test 14% Poot-Test 29% mJ Strongly Disagree 43% Personal Three questions examined image related areas of bus riding. When presented with the statement, "Buses are always dirty", twenty-nine (29%) of pretest respondents disagreed. That figure swelled to 86% after the ride. While those who strongly disagreed With the statement also shrank, so did those with no opinion. Regarding the statement, "Riding the bus is bad for my image", only 14% disagreed 110

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before riding, but 71% after riding. It should be noted that beside the large percentage that determined the bus is not bad for their image, 14% indicated that riding the bus was bad for their image. This was after no respondents agreed in the pre-test. It was not within the scope of this study to delve into this response in depth. It may be of interest to later research efforts to assess the rationale for the negative image and determine what transit authority response might be. The respondent's perceptions of bus operators improved after riding the bus. Overall, ail respondents disagreed with the statement," Bus drivers are rude, crude and extremely discourteous", after riding. (figures 12, 13 and 14). Flaure u Buses are always dirty Pre-Test PostTest 14% 14% 57% 29% 86% . . . No Oplllloa Ill StroDgly 111

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-.. ::i Q "" .!:1 g. .... .. c til ... c ... o2 .. .l! Q :::"' f '" "' ... 1Q '"'!!:: _g c -Q, 0 "' = ... = -:,; :1 li!'"" 112

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43% 14 Bus drivers are rude, crude, and extremely discourteous Pre-Test Post-Test 43% NoOpi nion 1:<1 Disagree lim Strongly Disagree 71% Selected responses from the pre-test and post-test are summarized in Table I. Overall . the respondents indicated that the METRO service and experience of transit riding . was more positive than they had anticipated. The principle exceptions were in the area of the bus to bus transfer and in the overall travel lime required. Importantly, the respondents did learn that bus service is available to meet their travel needs. Focus Groups Response To Marketing Tech niques The pre-test and post-test responses set the basis for examining the perspectives of the focus group participants regarding the sample marketing techniques. Sample materials were selected from severill public transit agencies and adapted from popular song lyrics. Also original poster designs were developed by Center for Transportation Training and Research staff. METRO marketing personnel prepared the selected poster design for use at Texas Southern University's Fall 1993 registration. This poster was modified from the design utilized in the focus group session. Each . . marketing example is described in.the following section along with its rating by the :11.3

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... ... ... FO<:us Group Pre-Test, Post-Test Compar isons on Selected Statements StatcmcnuPublk TrC!Slt doos not ope: rate 011 fhnt aftcl Lf not r cUable. ( .. ) I havt to gd up too u.rl7 ttl ust t il e bus I 13 r-qularlr for triiD$p(lrtl:lJOI'l.. I Mrtripwoold t abtoo\ongonthtbus.J 2.9 RidiA&lM bll t woultl be bH for m 1 I mar tct kstlr I have to lnuuter. 1:1 no bus 11M that uo adcquald7 len'CI m1 transport.aUoa. nttdt ( .. ) I 29 I 14 K.tc:: ,.,...TC111M I'NCTHI otreqltot'4 ... c.rondlllc 4) lmUJ!I .. 6 ,,.) '"' 1 .. l liWfB I .. 14 "' ... .. 2t I I ( .. ) S1 u 14 1:1.9 ., I .. 7l 57 57 14 ..

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participants. The pos t ers are displayed i n appendix C. For each marketing technique, t h e question asked was "Would this medium attract you from your car?". The respondents noted their response on a five point scale from "strongly agree to strongly disagree". The responses to posters and videos are reflected in table 2 and table 3. Po.
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seven percent (57%) agreed that !his poster was effective, while 14% had no opinion and 28% disagreed. Poster D: Poster D presented paragraph discussions on money and power. The accompanying illustcations displayed a pig bank and a waiter. Only 29% cited this poster as being effective with !he remaining responses distributed berween no opinion and disagreement. Poster E: The caption on Poster E read "We got your number, make sure you got ours" and displayed a mobster. Forty-three percent of !he respondents agreed that the advert i sement woul d attcact them from their car, fourteen, 14% had no opinion and !he remainder disagreed. PosJe[ F: The Poster F asked the reader "Where do you want your money? In your wallet? or Down the drain? The illustcations supported the caption by showing a delighted man and one falling. Forty -three percent (43%) of the focus group participams agreed that this technique would attract them from their car; 14 % had no opinion and the rema. inder disagreed. Poster G : Poster G was a hang tag intended to go on the residential door of potential patrons. The hang tag displayed information on !he nearest route to the residence and explained the various destinations !hat were accessible via this route. This method was deemed the most effective by the participants with 72% agreeing with the ability of the hang tag to attract them from their automobile Fourteen percent of the respondents bad no opinion and 14% disagreed. 116

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Y.ideo T a b l e 2 Focus Group R esponses (Transparen ci es) Statemen t: This poster woul d attract me from m y car. Strongly Ag r ee No D isag r ee Strongly P oster A gree Opinion D i sagree A 71% 29% B 29% 71% * c 5 7 % 14% 14% D 29% 29% 29% 14% E 43% 14% 29% 1 4 % F 1 4 % 2 9 % 1 4 % 43% G 29% 43% 14 % 14% Note: Slrongty Agtte I and Strongl y Dlsa'/ Agree were oggregnUd in the text for dio;.cussion purpose&. *No RespOnse$ T he responde n ts we re presented ten v i deo s egments tha t have been uti li zed in mar keti ng projects b y sel e cted transit agencies. The respondents were asked to rate I each a d v ertisement as to its p otential persuasiveness relative to attr a cting them from their automobile. Tbe respon d ents indicated on a five point scale whethe r they a greed; disagreed or had n o opinion when asked, "This advertisemen t wou ld attract m e from my au t omobil e." A summary of each video segment and i t s ra tin g by the f ocus group are described below. u7

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Vjdeo A: This vid eo shows extreme traffic congestion. The appeal is in the viewer's desire to be removed from the traffic. Forty percent (40%) of the focus group agreed that lhis video was effective, while 60% had no opinion. Vjdeo B: Th is video focuses on the vast amount of land required to accommodate an increasing number of automobiles The basic concept is to appeal to the viewer's sense of considering space as a valuatile resource. Sixty percent (60%) of the focus group rated this strategy as effective, while 40% had no opinion. Video C: This video shows a polluted skyline and indicates that 60% of pollution come s from automobiles. It appeals to the environmental consciousness of the viewer All respondents indicated that this approach is effective with 40% strongly supporting this viewpoint Video D ; The second pollution video explains that47 cars can be removed from the roadway when a bus is filled. The air quality benefits are stressed, thereafler. Eighty percent (80%) o f the respondents thought this would be effective, while 20% disagre ed. Video E: Var iou s makes and mode l s of automobiles are flashed in rapid success i on. The last vehicle was a bus. The benefits of riding were highlighted. Twenty percen t (20%) of respondents found this advertisement to be effec tiv e, 20% found the advertisement ineffective and 60% had no opinion. Vjdeo F : The viewer saw dollars disappearing down a pit and was focused on the cost of single occupant traveling versus bus riding. Respondents were equally divided regarding the advertisement s effectiveness with 40% agreeing and disagreeing that 1.18

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they could be drawn from their automobile by this video. Twenty percent ((20%} had no opinion. Yideo Q; This video showed how individuals are always on the move and encouraged the viewer to diminish single occupant traveling. Eighty percent of the focus group members determined that this approach is effective, wit11 20% having no opinion. Audio Table3 Focus Group Responses (VIdeo) Statement: This Video would attract me from my car. Video Strongly Agree No Disagree Strongly Agree Opinion Disagree A 40% 60% B 20% 40% 40% c 40% 60% * D 80% 20% E 20% 60% 20% F 40% 20% 40% G 80% 20% Note: Strongly Agroe/ Agree And Slrongly Disagree/ Agree were a.ggregoted 1a. the text tor dlseuWon purpose:s. No responses * * * A tape was played for the foeus group that had a lyric with an upbeat tune. The words were to downrate the traffic jam and conveyed to singer's hating to be late. The focus group reaction was mbred with SO% agreeing that the tape would be effec.tive and 50% suggesting that it would not be effective. U9

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Assessment Of The System Wide And Route Specific Techniques Three of the posters (A. B and G) had the highest ratings with minimum to moderate disagreement. Posters A and G offered route s p ecific information as part o f the text. All other posters were system focused and reflected 57% or fewer positives responses. None of the videos showed route specific information. This is not surprising since the cost of video production i s relatively high and is generally developed for wide spread market appeal. Nonetheless, several of the videos garnered a 80% or higher response in potential to attract the viewer from the automobile. It is interesting that these videos focus on civic mindedness. highlighting e it h e r air pollution or single occupant driving. The videos that discussed congestion and travel time reduction were Jess effective with the group. Metro Booth At Fall Registration METRO personnel set up an information display at the Fa!J, 1993 Texas Sou thern University registration. One of the promotional pieces utilized to attract students was the Poster A described above. METRO was available during the entire registration period and distr i buted specific bus route information for those routes serving the campus. Over 225 students were provided information during the registration week. METRO is currently conducting a follow-up assessment to determine the levels of ridership that resulted from thi s activity. A subsequent repon will detail the findings from the survey. Funher METRO is embarking on a study to determine the potential for designing student oriented programs in a joint effort between Texas Southern University and METRO. 120

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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY This study' s purpose was to determine the current level of transit ridership of Texas Southern University students and faculty/staff and explore the kinds of marketing Slrategies thar could attract typical automobile riders to buses. Many in the university community arrive at work during the same general morning peak as the general population (19% of students and 48% of faculty). The departing times, h owever, are unlike the general work force as they tend to be more highly distributed. This indicates that while the more frequent pe.ak hO\lf bus schedules might be for arrivals to campus, many afternoon trips would be subject to the less frequent scheduling of non-peak hours. The upcoming Clean Air Act Amendment which mandates the reduction of employee trip making will affect Texas Southern University faculty and staff. A large percentage of the employees indicated that they would take a tius under restricted driving conditions. However, 58% have no knowledge of existing bus routes or schedules. An information effort to advise the faculty and staff of the available bus routes would be advantageous to METRO and the Texas SOuthern University community. The largest portion of the student body does not arrive on campus during the typical morning peak hour. Combined with the atypical and elongated departure times, this student group may be somewhat difficult to serve It is most important in this type of . circumstance to gain the students as riders when they first arrive on campus, as freshman. In that way class schedules, job schedules and locations and residential decisions can be based on bus schedules. 121.

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The implications for other commuler oriented universities are that scheduling classes to begin and end during peak hours will allow grealer flexibility in transit options and more frequent service opportunities than non-peak oriented schedules. Further, effons should be focused on attracting students at the beginning of the educational process so that they develop patterns of transit utilization. METRO is in the process of conducting a survey of those persons who visited the booth at the Fall, 1993 registration. The objective is to document the ridership levels of those persons who obtained infonnation. Elements that will be evaluated include the relative imponance of the material distributed, the availability of trip planning and the presence of a person to respond to inquiries. It will be important to determine whether short tenn or long term ridership patterns developed. Thus, the findings from this study will be periodically monitored to ascertain longer term impacts. From the focus group perspective, information that provided route specific infonnation was highly rated. System wide marketing efforts with an operational or congestion related appeal were not highly rated by the participants. However, the system wide strategies that concentrated on the environment and on clean air objectives (those we termed conscious provoking) were deemed to have the best potential for attracting the focus group participants from their automobiles. It is interesting to note that the current daily mode split to campus is comparable to that of the Uptown/Galleria area. Only downtown and the Texas Medical Center are known to have higher mode splits. As the Clean Air Act requirements come into effect, this percentage may increase. However, the current METRO service design would require many employees to transfer. Only four local routes serve the campus directly, the 77 Martin Luther King from southeast Houston, 28 Southmore from

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southeast Houston, 80 Dowling inner southeast Houston and 68 Brays Bayou from southwest Houston (See appendix D). There is no express service to the campus. It was not the purpose of this study to examine tripmaking for the campus nor determine if. another route structure would serve a larger number of employees directly. However, the findings of the focus group regarding the unattractiveness of the bus transfer, combined with the current bus utilization levels and the employees who indicated they would ride under restricted drivingmandates indicates METRO should explore options to increase the direct service levels to campus. If suitable options do not exist, METRO should provide improved waiting conditions at more on the street locations Future research possibili ties may exist in determining whether or not the bus transfer is more favorably received at the transit centers as opposed to on the street. There were several unsolicited comments from the focus group. One was that current marketing strategies should take advantage of the innovations in technology and provide the customer with interesting, artimated and colorful approaches. I t was also suggested that METRO provide an information channel on the radio. Lastly, participants suggested that more routing information be available on the buses. A summary of key findings and recommendations from the surveys and the focus group is provided in Table 4. While the respondents represent a portion of the Texas Southern University community and a smaller portion of citizenry, regionwide, their preconceptions, attitudes, and knowledge base about existing lr!lfiSit service, represent an important information source for transportation professionals. The findings can be pursued and expanded to form the basis for increased transit and other multi occupancy use in metropolitan areas. It is important to recognize that the issues that are important to transportation professionals, such as reduced congestion and

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management of transportation resources, may not be the issues that appeal to the general pub l ic. Lastly, though obvious, it is worth stating lhat lhe public must know what specific service is available and must not feel substantial inconvenience by switching from automobile to public transit. 124

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Tabl e 4 Summary of Findings and Recommendatio ns Findings Recomm e ndation s Over half employees are un aware of METRO service options Transit Authority should provide specific route information at multip le location s .. Tr'.msit authority should explore lesseniog the Transfers are considered onerous ineonvertience of the transfer. I mprove waiting condition.< Direct servlces tons many locations as possible Door hangers and otber route specific approaches -.e r e rated higbl7 Transit authority sbould condu ct ns much marketing ns reasonable oriented to llle route level System wide marke tin g focused on congestion More system wide advertisements should focus on management was n ot highly rated; environmental and improved quality of life issues environmentally focused advertisements were rated more bigbl7 Students have atypical and non-peak Att rac t students as' Incoming freshmen, so future I decisions can be made in light of tran sit I n forma tion oriented schdules I Journey b y bus was too long for complete satisfoclion Strive to compete with car; reduce bus traveltime

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In addition to the effons of the primary editors, several Center for Transponation Training and Research staff members made major contributions to this document. Holly Hogrobrooks developed the posters and assisted with cond ucting the focus group sessions. Ron Goodwin contributed to the formulation of the focus groups. did the trip planning for the bus rides and provided graphic suppon. Ting Chen assisted with the graphics and Gail Chanpong and Mitch Hansel provided comments on the final draft. Also, funding for the initial tasks were provided by the Texas Depanment of Energy from the Texas Oil Overcharge Funds. 126

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REFERENCES American Public Trans i t Association (APTA), 1988 Survey of Transit Marketing Melbods and Marketing Expenditures, !988. Caner, Goble and Roberts, Inc. South Carolina Transportation Marketing Manual. Soulb Carolina: Office of the Governor, Division of Economic Development and Transportation, 1980. The Swdy was funded, in part, by a grant from the Utban Mass TranSportation Administration through the Office of the Governor and the Federal Highway Administration. Cervcro, Robert, "Experiences with Time-of-Day Transit Pricing in th<> United States", TRB Repon 1039,198.5. DaskJn, MarkS., Joseph L. Shofer and Ali E. Haghani. Ao Optimizing Model for Transit Fare Policy Design and Evaluation", TRB Repon 1039, 1985. Evereu,. Peter B. Public Transponatign Evaluation Manual< Wri.sh.ington, D. C.: Office of Service and Management Demonstration, UMTA, 198S. Gigante, Lisa, et.al. Marketing Public Transic Ao Evaluation, Lansing, Michigan: Michigan Department of Transportation, February, 1985 Hatfield, Nancy and Patricia K. Guseman. Basic Market Research Techniques 1'lll: Transit sys"ms, Texas: Texas Transportation Institute Research Repon Prepared for Ute State Department of Highways and Public Transportation, 1976. Hatfiel d Nancy, Seth Bovey and Patricia K. Guseman. l'!gmo t j n g T!ansjt: A.MarkelingHani!bool< Research Repon 1052-3, Texas Transponation lnstirute, 1976. lode, Naomi W. and Larry C Cooper. Development of a Maiiceting Plan to Increase Public Transit Patron Among School Children, Presen ted at the Ninth National Conference on Specialized Transportation, Sarasota, Florida, October 10-12,1983. lede, Naomi W. and Larry C. Cooper. "Workshop on How to Market Public Transportation ". A Workshop Sponsored by Ute Center for Transportation Training and Research, Texas Soulbem University, Jul y 161 8,1985. The Workshop was funded in by a grant from Ute Urban !>lass Transponation Administrntio n, Washington, D. C. Lesko, Associates. eLal. Tramdt Marketins Management Handbook: Marketing Organization. Washington D C.: Deparunent of Transportation, UMTA, 1975. Lovelock, Christopher H. Consumer Odemed Aaproaches mMarketing Urban Tra nsit, Stanford: Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, 1973. Morris, Ben. "Marketing", February, 1978. Mundy, Ray. Marketing l!!Jllllll\!Ws T!aosjt-1913, University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University, 1974. 1.27

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National Transit Marketina Conference Proce<;dinas. (June 9-11, 1975, StouffciS National Center Inn, Arlington, Vitginia), Washington D C.: U S. Deparunent of Transportation. UMT A. National Urban League, Inc., Mark Battles and Associates. Marketing Techniques a.ru1 Mm TrnnsiL Svs1em: A Handbook, New York: 1975. Peter MullerMunk Associates. Transit Marketing in Pennsylvania: A Handbook Qf Effectjve Transit Matlflhe-An" TRB Repon 1039,1985.

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Appe ndix Se l ecte d Posters froM Focus Group i29

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NO MATTER WHIRl YOU YOUR TRIP* .. GITS YOU THERE FROM HI AI CAll 6)5-4000 FOR 1\o\lTi AND sdnl:iuU INFO'nMATti:>H 'OJ COURU. WITIIIH Till MITROPOli. TAH TRAHUT AUTIIORITY OJ liAR hiS COUHfY SlhVICIARIA 130 8 aE"tw oE"k bf lf oldl LBog)

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z a : P e ople who don't want to be broke, hauled and forever frustrated. a a a a Q a u u g n a J u ,, ' promises you cheap, hassle-free, relaxing transpmtnllonl Por route and schedule information, call 635-4000 I I J

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du ..,.,.. .... ll'1 yota. 635-4000 fot Ml:tno and lnfutmatlon.

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RETAILING TRANSIT: A HISTORY OF SUCCESS IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA Submitted by The Ballston-Rosslyn Area Transportation Association September, 1994 f33

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The Ballston-Rosslyn Transportation Association was incorporated in 1989 as one of the first transportation management associations in the Washington, D.C. region The TMA evo l ved from the Transportatio n Committee of the Ballston Partnership, a public-private partnership of the business, government and residential communities in Arlington, Virginia. The TMA initially served its constituents located within the Ballston community adjacent to the Ballston Metro rail Station, part of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authorities Orange Line operating in Northern Virginia. In 1993 the boundaries extended to the Rosslyn Metrorail Station to include three additional rail stations (Rosslyn, Clarendon, and Courthouse). The TMAisunique in that it continues to support the efforts of the Ballston Partnership by marketing the commercial and residential community as a commuter efficient real estate marketplace. Partofitsmajorsuccessin attracting Fortune 500 businesses, federal government agencies and associations has been the corporate outreach effort of the TMA. Included in this outreach has been the creation, development, management and operation of the Ballston and Rosslyn Transit Stores. In January of I 989 the Northern Virginia Transportation Commission submitted grant applications to the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) a n d the Urban Mass Transit Association (currently the Federal Transportation Administration) for the establishment of an innovative transit store to be located at Ballston in Arlington County, Virginia: midway between the Ballston Metrorail Statio n and the Ballston Common regional shopping Mall. The Ballston Transit Store is the fust retail outlet in the Commonwealth of Virginia dedicated to the sale of transit fare media and dispensing personalized, computerized transit and ridesharing information in cooperation with the private sector. The results of its progress and accomplishments set the model for other stores in Arlington County including the Crystal City Commuter Center and the Rossyln Transit Store (both adjacent to Metrorail Stations). The transit stores serve many functions. Above all else, they are retail outlets specializing in the promotion of commute alternatives and offering for sale of Metrorail and Metro bus fare media; an information clearinghousedisseminating information about public and private transit operations; and, a community resource center-bringing together diverse segments of the population, inabarrierfreeenvironment, toassesscommutinghabits, patterns, and needs, provide input into the formulation of region-wide policies and procedure, and develop a profile of the Ballston-Rosslyn commuter. Goals of the transit store operations include: Supporting the regional trans i t authority (WMATA) in rendering sales and promotions to potential patrons easily available; 134

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Retail Transit Northern Virginia September 1994 Page Two Demonstrate to WMATA that an aggressive outreach effort will generate new riders; Encourage the private sector to meet its obligations to control auto traffic, through an active outreach program promoting employer and employee usage of public transit; Increase transit and ridesharing u se to h e lp relieve traffic congestion; and P r ovide access to transit services for disabled persons through coordinated inform ation about the many diverse public and private sector transportation service. Sales and visitor statistics of the transit stores confum it's utility in meeting the transportation needs of commuters from throughout Virginia, Maryland and the District of Colwnbia. (See attached sates chart from 1993 Annual Report). There has been a steady increase in sales since the stores began operation and weekly transactions continue to demonstrate a healthy upward trend from the opening of the store in 1989 to the most recent report findings. In Ja nuary of 1990, the Ballsto n Transit Store started two new programs: mail and telephone order . Orders also began by using credit card transactions. The stores prove Its value in b r inging urban transit directly to the commuters in the Arlington Virginia neighborhoods. Elements that have led to the of the store's community outreach programs include: Telephone and face-to-face interaction; Store hours; Products: array of product line and availability; Amount of floorspace; OffiCe equipment; and Staffmg requirements, and percentage of staff time spent on mail and telephone orders, personal contact with t ransit store clientele, and bookkeeping and administra tive issues The retail transit stores sell a full range of transit products including flashpasses, farecards and bus tokens. Customers can choose to make their purchases by cast, check credit card or voucher. As an added convenienCe, the stores files orders by mail, telephone and on consignment (sales having increased three-fold since 1992). ThestoresalsoredeemMetrochek vouchers. In addition, the Stores personnel courteously answer a wide variety of shared-ride 135

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Retail Transit Northern Virginia September, 1994 Page Three and transit related inquiries each day and conveniently display Metrobus route and rare information Staff of the retail outlets have received various awards for their ability to address the diverse bi-lingual commu nity in Arlington. For their ability to work with Hispanic customers, tbey havereceivedawardsfrom tbe Northern Virginia Transportation Commission and the Chesapeake Chapter of the Association for Commuter Transportation. The stores provide timely assistance to those seeking either to join or form carpools or vanpools by processing rideshare applications through the regional ridematching service, RideFinders administered by the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. Again, The Ballston Transit Store began operation in I 989 when the Transportation Committee of the Ballston Partnership created the TMA. The transit store became the first project of the TMA. The store was initially housed in the offices of the Ballston Part nership Subsequently, it has been relocated to the Ballston Common Mall which is adjacent to the Ballston Metrorail Station. Its major success has lead to the extension of tile TMA boundarieS and the opening of a second transit store at the Rosslyn Metrorail Station. The st ores are located at either end of the TMAs geographic boundaries. Sales in the store support the Metrorail Orange line commuters, as well as commuters travelling via the Virginia Railway Express Commuter Rail line and servioes operating in the District of Columbia and Maryland. Staff for both stores are involved in assisting the corporate community i n creating in house transportation programs. The residential community, which is largely Hispanic at the Ballston Station, benefits from bi-lingual staff and literat ure written in Spanish. The large senior populous derives benefit from presentation that are conducted at senior centers throughout the TMAs service area. The stores are each staffed with a full time manager and assistant. A general manager oversees the operation of both retail loca tions. A corporate outreach person addresses the needs of the business community. The management and development of the program is conducted by a private transportation consulting flflll. 2.36

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1993 Att'LU,AL R e;eQ!JT 1000 1000 !000 000 0 30433,151 A-----. -4:,842 7 ,. ,: : :---2, 800 2,369 2 5?8 ( ; 2,370 2,392 2,329 f ; . . ., .: I .-. 2,140 ,.... 2 064 -q t ; tlfl+:' . r :; f ..... : : > .-. : -,l t . . . ' I ' : f f ; I .:. : : T : -: ; r 1 ... _j .... i_ -b.: L -. b. d __:L. J Jut Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May J u n Ballston Transit Store Customers Fiscal Year 1993 Source: Arlington County DPW 13'1

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The < lilll111ay RIBS DASH The Bus Ride-On CUE Bus 'IY,S9DS Shuttle .Faltf&l':Connector ,. 140

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THE ROLE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE IN 1DM ABEL ZOMERMAN PROJECT MANAGER 1DM DUTCH MlNISTRY OF TRANSPORT AND PUBLIC WORKS Abstract: After a few years of experimenting we now are going in the Netherlands to a more structural approach of company focussed TDM programs. For the next years TDM will be on a voluntary base. How did we get the organisations of employers and unions involved and how did we came to a recently. started network of greater employers and what do we expect from it. The network will have a major role in interesting other company's for implementing TDM. The government (and government from the Netherlands has scale and scope that's more similar to a State than to Federal USA), is working on making the TDM concept more clear (now there is a wide, sometimes confusing range of TDM approaches), and is helping developing TDM concepts for specific groups of. company's (moving company's, companfs.in health care, schools and university's) and is developping evaluation (monitoring) systems. At last the role of public transport is changing. Public transport will be privatised in Holland and new modes for the involvement of government have to be found Introduction: The Netherlands is a small country (kingdom with queen Beatrix) with the size of Massachusets with about 16 million inhabitants. A lot of people.on a small surface, especially because there is a concentration of people (and work) in the central area (called RANDSTAD). The Netherlands is doing a lot in trading and distribution. Germany, a much bigger country is our main "hinterland". Amsterdam Airport is our main airport and fourth in Europe for passengers and freight. Rotterdam Harbour is still, with Singapore close behind, the biggest barbour all over the world. The transportation policy from the government is written down and accepted by parliament in what we call a transportation structure plan. The transportation policy is not only focussed on the transportation needs but also urban and rural development and environmental quality are integral part of these plans. One of the major aims is to reduce the predicted traffic growth; the prediction is 70% increase until 2010 and. the aim is to reduce this to 35%. Growpercentages are much higher in the Netherlands than in the USA, because until now the number of cars is rather low (5.5 m1n cars on 16 min inhabitants). Also we don't have the situation like the USA that nearly everybody has his own car; One car in a family is more normal. The aims could be achieved with more attention to TDM,. parking,, peak-and road prizing systems, higher gas prices (now already 4 $ a gallon) and by develloping alternativ.e transportation modes like public transport and biking. Part of these plans are typically governmental tasks. But TOM and especially the company focussed TOM measures can only be introduced when business is involved and in a certain way will be leading. We are working with a two lines approach that will be worked out in the next paragraph's. But first I will start with a more general overview of the position of. TDM now. 141

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TDM in the Netherlands TDM is rather new in the Netherlands. It did start in 1990/1991, a lot of. the inspiration came from the USA. We started with a projectplan with three elements: Pilotprojects. One pilotproject in 7 areas, where cenual and local government together with major company's started a TMA, with fmancial help from govemment(50%) for two years. Another pilotproject with 40 single company's. The company's made and introduced TOM plans for their company with financial support from the Ministry Instruments To help TOM plans instruments were developed. Software based on postal codes. Handbooks for the approach. Study's for financial/economic aspects. lnventarisations on total number of company's (and company is defmed as a location from a company or an institution with more than 50 employees in one location). Structural approach We didn't wait with a structural approach until results of the pilots project are all known. In that way we did see the pilotprojects as a kind of pre-starters from witch parts of the first experience's immediatly could be used for other projects. To get practise started we gave (and still do) money to the regional agency's from the Ministry to use and spend in TOM stimulating efforts. For spending there are only a few guidelines especially for administrive reasons. Otherwise we are working to get company's more involved in TDM. And also we took our conclusions from the pilots and made up the lines for the next two years and wrote this down in a note to parliament. The most essential conclusion is that we will continue the voluntary approach for the next two years and will make up a new state and a new decission over a mandatory TDM over two years. The "two Uoes approach" The l1rst Une The strcutural approach bas the aim to get (much) more company's involved in TDM. As mentioned above we are working at this by a tw line approach. One line, with witch we started first when we introduced TDM in the Netherlands, is the line of governmental agency's that are visiting, guiding and helping company's to devellop and introduce company based TDM strategy's. The governmental agency's are the regional parts of the ministry with responsibility's for a geografic area. We have about ten of that agency's. They have a responsibility for building and maintenance of highway's, waterway's, dikes bu t also have a task in supervising the local authority's, public transport and so on. Guiding and helping company's is a rather new task for them. Mostly young, ethousiastic people are doing this work (some of them have been for an apprentice period in the U.S.A.), but often it's difficult to get these approaches high enough on the management agenda of the regional agency's. Most of our managers like to build "hard"infrastructure and pay sometimes less attention to demand management, even though the ministry's transportation policy's says that a great part of the solution of problems (accessibility and environmental quality) has to be solved by TOM measures. Still we are reaching good results with TOM especially in more dense region's where ihe problems are great. In practise the regional agency's get assistence from consultants. For consultants TDM is 142

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also a new job and they are forced to be less "research" and more "operational" fo.cussed. The approach by governmental agency's is already a more classic one. It works, but it also asks a lot of effort and one of the disadventages is that TOM is to much governmental and that implements that company's are to Jess involved and that TDM stops when governmental help stops. For this reason and also to achieve a situation where government involvement is less needed then now, we started a second approach. The "two Jines approach" The second line The other line we are foliowing to get company's make and introduce TOM measures is that we did make a start with a kind of network for company's for TDM introduction. We made a stan with eight major company's ip the Netherlands. They made together with the Ministry and helped by a consultant a program for introduction TDM on a greater scale. How did we stan the Network. Honor to the U.S.A.-TOM workers wo showed us their several approaches, an ACT organisation, organisations like RIDES, CTS, and several others. We got a lot of inspiration and information about that. : We made a plan to create a Network and hired a consultant to achieve this. We made a stan with a few round table conference's with business people that we and especially the consultant has found (the consultant has had his education on "the one lind only" business shoo! in the Netherlands). Most people who were on the meetings are people from on a (very)high management level of big company's. We st;lrled with the meetings at the end of the day with diner included. We arranged a good setting in one of the top 10 restaurants of the Netherlands. The fmt meeting with ten business people; two from the Ministry (one directly reporting to the Minister and myself) and the consultant. The consultant had arranged easels and paint and after five minutes introduction everyone was painting down his thoughts about traffic. It appeared to be a marvelous idea to open discussion with people who did not all knew each other and I!' focus the discussion on traffic and tranponation. . After the first !lleetings we found a group of enthousiastic business people who wer:e most involved and were willing to participate in the further development of a more business like approach. So we continue(j with a bit smaller group and after a few months an agreement with eight company's and the Minister was made. The company's declared that facing the problems of accesibility, economics and environmental quality they intended 10 work together in getting more company's involved in the TDM approach. After a more official setting together with the Minister they went on work. The second line; after the start The installed commission, helped by the consultant and governmental people first made a strategic note". That tells what they want to do and how. They have given themself two years 10 achieve the goals. In that two year there has to be realised a situation that can continue in a more structural way, or what nobody hopes, we have to conclude that this approach was perhaps wonh 10 work on, but is oot really goiog to work as wished. The major items where tbe commission works on is creating a network of company's involved. For that purpose a "business meeting" for all major company's is 10 be hold in september. We have chosen a perfect location, very close near a famous traffic 143

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bottleneck, known by everyone. We are placing accomodation there (a kind of shelters/ maybe the same that are used when Mitterand from France and Queen Elisabeth from the UK, were opening the chunnel between France and the UK) People get an offic i al announcement, but are also phoned by the commission members for as far as they know them personally. It will also be a meeting at the end of the day with diner sponsered by KLM-Royal Airlines. On this way we will reach the situation for the Network from 8 to 1001150. Further on there are plans for more regional round tables To ensure that company's who join the actions a kind of facilitating organisation is the second major item the commis s ion is working on. We are doing that in a way that there are the neccesary facility s immediatly after tell business meeting but because it's an expensive effort also on a way that it can be a grow model. In this proces it's remarkable how willing the business people are to put effort in these activity's. When we started most members said that they didn t want more than 3 meetings a year We started in april and they have already planned 5 meetings until begin of august this year; also are several members involved with special projects as the communication effort, a business plan for a facilitator and others. Of course is this especially in this period and when all is settled and the businees meeting is hold we hope there will be a kind af stabilisation on a little bit lower level. Conclusions. Results until now Most results until now are achieved by developping the first line, thar's because this approach is the oldest one and is practised during a four years period. In total about 1,500 single company's with more than 50 employees are practising TDM programs. That's a figure we reported in march this year to parliament. Thats about 10% from a total of 15,000 company's with 50 or more employees on one location that are existing in the Netherlands. Introducing TOM plans within this company's did result in a milliage reduction of about 10%. In one way the first company's are the most easy way to get, they are willing on several reasons (image, parking problems, building plans) I n another way it s also difficult to ge t the first one's. Thats a problem we also did see when we started the second line. For the first meetings it was no problem to get company's but for signing the intention declaration some company's did have some fear, but until now we are on our way! 144

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Abstract TDM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE URBAN CORE: CAN WE LEARN ANYTHING FROM THE THIRD WORLD? Bruce Epperson Senior Transportation Planner Miami Urban Area MPO 111 NW 1st Street Miami, Fl33021 (voice) (305) 375 (fax) (305) 375-4950 The advent of Transportation Demand Managment has been a reaction to the inability of large-scale infrastructure projects to solve this country's transportation problems. This technological disillusionment has seen. a parallel in the Third World, where the establishment of effective urban transportation systems has been impared because of the indiscriminate importation of Western methods and technologies. The unique needs of the Third World has required an end to a reliance on high technology solutions and the use of a loeally-established "development31 approach" to transportation planning and implementation. This approach relies on low cost sketch planning methods and emphasizes planning on a corridor or district basis instead of planning for an entire urban area. Equally important, this approach explicitly incorporates the distributional effects of policy alternatives and recognizes the importance of "informal" transport sectors, including non-motonzed modes as well as jitneys, shared taxis, and other forms of irregular (and often illegal) transit services: Can these tools--to ols developed in the Third Worldbe imported into thi s country to address the need of its ailing urban cores? After all, our inner cities share many of the same interrelated and self-generating set of problems as Third World urban areas, and several of the same conceptual and technical shortcomings that inhibited use of high -technology transportation tools in nonindustrialized nations are resulting in similar problems when applied in our own inner cities. In many regards, these tools look l ike mainstream' TOM activities, but in other respects (particularly the interaction of transportation and economic development goals) the developmental approach is a unique invention with great promise in areas afflicted with both transportation and community development problems. Introduction In the last decade, several planning scholars and practitioners have argued that the establishment of effective urban transportation systems in many Lesser Developed Countries (LDCs) has been impaired because of the indiscriminate importat ion of Western methods and technologies. In particular, the application of sophisticated four step computer models and a reliance on formal cost-benefit analyses have been criticized as predetermining the selection of highly capital inte n s ive transport systems. The resulting construction of subways, heavy rail lines and elevated expressways have frequently proven socially and economically destructive, while offering l i ttle long term relief from congestion or mobility problems. (Wright, 1992) 2.45

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These critics have argued that the unique needs of LDCs requires an end to the wholesale importation of Western technologies and the establishment of a locally supervised "developmental approach" to transportation planning and implementation. (Dimitriou and Safier. 1982) The developmental approach relies on lower cost sketch planning methods and emphasizes planning on a corridor or district basis instead of planning for an entire urban area simultaneous ly. Equally importa nt. this approach explicitly incorporates co nsidera t ion of the distribut i onal effects of policy and recognizes the importance of "informal" transport sectors. including non-motorized transport modes and jitneys, shared taxis. and other forms of irreg ular (and often illegal) transit. Where applied. this approach has created s igni ficant cost savings. a more equitable distribution of project cos!s and benefits. and an improved mesh between transportation and social development goa ls. (World Bank. 1990 ) This paper seeks to examine the issue from the other s ide to ask: Can these tools be imported into industrialized nations t o address the needs of their ailing urban cores? After all. these areas often share many of the same i nterre lated and self-generating set of problems as third world cities. and several of the same conceptual and technical shortcomings that inhibited the use of Western transportation systems in non industrialized nations are also resu l t ing in an ineffect ive ness when applied in their own inner c i ties. The conclusion is drawn not only t hese methods can be used, but that they should be appl ied The Rise and Fall of the Megamodel: Western Transportation Development Methods and t h e Third World, 1945-1990. The use of large scale computer models to plan and and program transportation projects began in t he Uni ted States i n the early 1950 s with t he development of regional mode ls for Chicago and Detroit. (Wiener 1 992) Creating these models from scratch proved to be an ambitious task: the Chicago Area Transportation Study requ ired over 500,000 man-h ours of work before it was ready to yield results. The basic system architecture which resulted from these studies came to be known as the Urban Transpo rtation Planning Process (UTPP or UTP process). The UTPP model became more widely applied after t he custom-made models of the early 1950's were replaced w i th relat iv e ly affordable "off the shelf" packages. At the same time, the Federal government created the Highway Trust Fund to underwrite the costs of constructing and ma i ntain ing the I nterstate H i ghway System. Wh ile the Fund paid for up to 90 percent of the costs of building the interstates. the actual planning and construction of t hese projects was still the responsibility of state highway departments. To insure that candidate projects were the best use o f available funds. the Federal government came to rely more and more on the use of UTPP outputs, particularly in combination with formalized cost-benefit analysis procedures. Following the lead of t heir client base. consultants and model developers refined their tools to hone in on the question of evaluating alternative freeway proposals, rendering the models less capable of exploring basic transporta tio n policy questions. However, by the mid 19 70's t he UTPP was encountering sign i f i cant opposition. Its reliance on quantifiable effects tended to discount such hard to measure im pacts as deteri ora t i on of air and water quality, neigh bor hoo d disr upt ion. and an unequal 146

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distribution of costs and benems to different social and economic groups. The conversion of costs and benetns to a common monetari unit masked what amounted to significant value judgements under the guise of objectivity. Almost always, the analysts and engineers in charge of these projects were unaware Of the implic it "value loading" they were introducing as they converted raw data into a form useable in their models. In the United States, this concern resulted in the creation of a parallel "shadow planning" process of mandated environmental impact statements and required community participation formats. I n add "ion, a reassessment of the UTP process has taken place within the transportation profession, including a reluc tance to us ing the LfTPP model as a single monolithic tool for planning and justifying regional tra nsportation strategies. Increasingly, individual modules have been used to evaluate specific transportation questions in a less deterministic planning process. As the us e of UTPP megamodels became less popular in the West, their practitioners began to market t hese proqucts to Third World governments. A UTPP study was undertaken in Bombay in 1955 and in San Jose Puerto Rico in 1959. By 1975, the UTPP model had been applied to atleast 17 major LDC cit ies by American, British, Japanese, and German f irms (Rimmer, 1976) In the next ten years a dozen more projects had been completed in the T hi rd World. (Dimitriou, 1990a) Shortcomings In the Use of Western Transportation Methods In LDCs. . If anything, the crisis of confidence in the UTPP-based transportation planning and development process has been even more sudden and pronounced in Lesser Developed Countries. There are several reasons for this: . Inapprop riate Representation of Consumer Behavior Traditional planning models are predicated on the assumption that Individuals seek to maximize their welfare by minimizing the time and costs of travel. This behavioral assumption may not work well when applied to societies with very different cultural alti tudes towards the value of time than is typical of the Industrialized world. In this case, the development of highly capital i ntensive transport systems may prove to be a poor choice because large sectors of the economy are unwilling to pay for travel time savings that are little valued. (Pendakur and Guaraschelli, 1988) Such problems are compounded by the widespread poverty prevalent in many Third ... World cities. The emphasis on personal choice which forms the basis of the trip distribution and mode split modules of the UTP model breaks down when a significant proportion of the population have extremely limited economic options, o r as is all too often the case, no options at all. I n this instance, the advantages of a new transport sys tem may well be appreciated, but will remain unaffordable to many. (Khisty, 1993) 147

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In either of these two cases, Western models tends to overes t imate both the usage and benefits accruing from the development of f ast but expensive, transportation i nnovations. I nability to Deal Wj t h Modal Diversity As a resu l t of their greater resource constraints LDC societies have tended to retain a wider range of transport technologies. part icularly those which serve distances between 5 km and 20 km. In general, these modes can be grouped into two types : 1) Non-motorized Transport (NMT); inc luding walking. bicycling, handcarts, pedalcarts, and animal-driven carts and wagons. These modes are frequently called on to serve distances of up to 10 km. or to address the conveyance of heavy or bulky loads over pedestrian distances. (Rao and Sharma. 1990) 2} Various intermediate-technology transit vehicles. grouped together in this paper under the label irregular transit. Examples inc lude rickshaws and pedalcabs, motorcycle-based autorickshaws, jeepneys, jitneys, shared taxis. and minibuses. More than forming a unique class of technologies, irregular transit systems represent an attempt to overcome the inherent tec hnological shortcomings of a mode through ad hoc i nnovation and flexible small-scale entrepreneurial management pract i ces. Many of these practices rep res ent flex ible methods of cost sharing between owners operators, and users. (White 1990) UTPP models have t roubl e dealing w i th modal divers ity because their cost and complexity increase geometrically w i th each add i tional transport mode considered. As a result, UT P-based t ransport planning tends to be a process confined to the consideration of those few modes included i n the model. Further compounding t he problem is the tendency tor the infrastructure supporting various transport modes to be progressively l ess tolerant of modal diversity as the level of technology increases. T he flow of a collector or minor arterial street may not be significantly affected by the add it ion of a few bicycles or h andcarts, but the level of service of an expressway will quickly degrade if only a few slow mov in g vehicles are introduced. Entrenched Social Strat i ficat io n and the Distri bution of Costs and Benefits Many Third World nations tend to experience such extremes of wealth and poverty that they can be characterized as having a dual economy. One serves t h e needs o f the affluent and features modern technologies. formal (i.e. t axed and regulated) markets and much of the outward appea ranc e of Western countries. The other serves disadvantaged groups and is marked by t radi t io nal technologies, info rma l markets and moderate to severe levels of economic and polit i cal depravation. (D i mitriou, 1990b) In these circumstances, Western planning techniques, which assume that the benefits of social investment are spread more or less equally among all members of a community, must be treated as highly suspect. Based on classical economic theory, this assumpt i on has been incorporated in t he concept of Pare to optima li ty, which states that if one or more individuals gain from an Investment while no one loses, a net gain in soc i al welfare has occured. An even more relaxed version of this concept is 148

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embodied in the Kaldor-Hicks criterion, which posits t hat a social gain has occured if the gainers could compensate all los ers and still realize a benefit, even If the compensation does not, in fact, occur. The Kaldor-Hicks criterion forms the t heor etical basis for the cost-benefit analysis methodology. As Khlsty (1988) observed: The implicat ions of the Kaldor-Hicks criterion for potential Pa reto improvem ents is highly questionable and is of special importance when socioeconomic standards of a community are so distinct that t rans portation improvements frequently benefit particular groups of society systematically at the expense of others." The Establishment of a Deve lopmen ta l App roach to Transportation The concept of a developmental approach to transportation planning and Implementation was first outlined by Dimitriou and Safier in 1982 and in iti ally applied in a study done for the government of Indo nesia on the island of Java. (TDC, SA. 1988) Other similar case studies have been reported for Madras. India; Tehra n I ran; and Katmandu, Nepal. (Proudlove and turner, 1990) All stressed: ... measures aimed at improving the prod uctiv e potentials of cities, the distribution of urban opportunities, and the improvement of social life and the physic a l environment by aiming to : 1) Maintain/increase the creation of growth of real resources per capita. 2) Decrease poverty and deprivation 3) Promote increased accessibility to, and responsiveness of, public sector administration in urban a ffairs 4) Promote adaptable physical and spatial arrangements to accommodate needs as well as cultural/social identity" (Dimitriou, 1993) .. In practice. this has meant a high ly decentralized strategy focusing on the corridor or neighbo r hood level. Within a corridor, the competing demands of motorists, cyc lists pedestrians, adjacent shopkeepers and residents, and even itinerant street vendors are considered For example, sidewalk obstructions such as power transformers, controller boxes and utility poles can be burled or moved to private property and the space gained allocated to non motorized traffic and to providing economi c opportunities for the urban poor by reserving designated areas of the sidewalk for street vending activities. In Tehran ; management of the street area entailed management of the djubes, or streetside drainage and sewage di tches . Some djubes were realigned to reallocate right-of-way width between road and walk, which are separated by the ditches. Ot her djubes were narrowed and lined with cement. All were bridged at specified locat ions to channelize pedestrian flows, thus minimizing vehicle/pedestrian conflicts and improving pedestrian accessibility. At th e same time. an imp rovement of the sanitary and olfactory environment of t he district resulted. A comparison of the alternatives examined in one program demonstrate the ability of this strategy to generate employment and foster economic development. In Patna, Ind ia i t was found t hat the eq uiva lent of a $12 ,000 (U.S.) investment i n l i ne-haul buses generated two new jobs, while a similar investment in autorickshaws generated :149

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six jobs and pedal rickshaws, 75. (Replogle, 1991) These benefits are in addit ion to the enhancement of mobility lor the poo r : because of the relatively high fares, buses in I n d i a (and much of the Third World) are considered a viable transport medium onl y for emergencies, while autorickshaws and pedal r i ckshaws are much more effect ive in providing useable transportation services fo r the poorest one-third of urban dwellers. A Developmental Approach for American Inner Cities. Like many Lesser Developed Countries, the central cities of America's urban areas have developed a dual economy marked by extremes of wealth and deprivation. Gleaming downtown towers of glass and chrome throw shadows over ghettos marked by incidences of d i sease and mortality that often exceed those of all but the poorest of Third World cities. In some of these areas, families must trace back four generatio n s before they can recall a head of household that has experienced long-term employment. (Lehmann, 1991) Although there is disagreement about the causes of this bifurcat i on, three significant trends stand out: 1) A massive reduction in the nation's manufacturing sector and its promise of good wages fo r low-skilled but hard working emp l oyees. The shift to a service-or i ented economy has resulted in a split between lowskillnowwage jobs and h igh wage i nformation-management jobs requiring years o f specia l ized tra i n i ng or education. 2) A fundamental shift in urban form to one based around increased mobi l ity both fo r peop l e and informa ti on. The most obvious exam p le of this is the automobile, but no l ess important are the te l evisio n the telephone and the compu ter netwo r k Genera ll y these transport systems utilize infrastructure that has been developed with pub li c subsidies that has allowed t h eir use to be priced bel ow its true market cost. But access to these networks requires the user to acquire an access device s u ch as a car, telepho n e hook-up or personal computer, which is itself not subsidized. If an individual i s abl e to pay this f ixed cost then t h e var i able costs of actually using the network is quite l ow. I n the case of the automobi l e, i t is virtually f ree. 3) A shift in emp l oyment opportun i ties away from the centra l city towards the s u burbs. This is the result of shift in g manufacturing processes, wh ich now are best h oused in wide, low structures, and the sh i ft to service sector firms, which require proximity to both customer and employee Of all types of serv i ce sector empl oyers, only the high skill highwage industries of government, f i nance, and law appear to have cons i stently chosen to remain in central business areas. The resu l t of these three trends i s that the poor are concent r ated into urban cores while jobs migrate t o t h e suburbs Unable to pay the up-front costs of access to transport and Information networks, they remain trapped a n d dependent. The c h a ll enge, therefore, Is twofold: to provide in creased mobility to inner city residents an d t o reestablish a new new i n d i genous eco nomy in the i nner c i ty that both serv ices and employs i t s residents 150

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Jocreasjng Mobility: From the Inner City to the Suburb Mass transit is the transportation lifeline in inner areas. According to the 1983 National Personal Transportation Study, 17.7 percent of all trips made by center city residents are made by transit, as compared to only 3.8 percent of all trips made by suburban dwellers. For black inner city residents, over one in four trips are made by transit. (Gordon et at, 1989) Nationwide, two out of three transit riders are Black or Hispanic. In spite of this, transit agencies have spent the last two decades constructing express bus and rapid-rail systems serving the needs of suburbanites traveling into downtown, often using increased local bus fares or decreased service to pay part of the bill. Pucher (1982) labels this practice "price discrimination": "When they were privately owned, most transit systems designed their services and fare structures to maximize profits or minimize losses. In the current era of overwhelmingly public ownership, the goal appears to have Shifted to the maximization of total transit patronage. Economic theory Indicates that, with respect to either of these goals, the optimal strategy for the transit system would qe to offer the best service and most discounted fares to those customers with the most eiaslic demand and, conversely, to provide the inelastic submarket with the lower quality of service at premium fares." One often proposed solution to this "reverse commute" problem is the use of vans or minibuses operating on timed reverse-commute routes or on a demand rE:1sponsive (dial-a-ride) system. Both versions are expensive to operate, however In the past, the price difference has been made up by employers needing low-wage workers. But frequently, such programs have had a cyclical li fespan, as employers withdraw their participation during slack economic times when there is little or 'no shortage of willing workers. (Lemov, 1993) In a study of reverse-commute paratransit services over a 2Q-year period, Rosenbloom (1992) found that the only successful non-pro fit operations were those connecting high-wage workers to commuter rail stations. . On the other hand, Rosenbloom did find one thriving sector of the paratransit market: irregula r private transit services, including shared taxis and jitneys The term jitney refers to a broad variety of. cost-sharing techn iques, ranging from employees exchanging rides for gas money as t hey make t heir way to or from work, to mobile tradesmen who use their van or station wagon as a shared taxi during slack days, to large firms that rent out modified vans to individual operator-entrepreneurs for the day or week Up to 2500 jitneys are estimated to work the streets of New York, and about 300 operate in Miami. (Machaiaba, 1991) Jitneys are usually heavily regulated and traditlonal transit operators, who claim that the jitneys engage in cream skimming on their best routes, have pressed for vigorous enforcement of these rules. Several researchers who have examined these claims have found they contain little merit. (Cervera, 1988 ; Pickerell, 1988) Because few, if any municipal bus routes show a true profit, ttiere is no cream to skim. Instead, jitneys should be considered deficit skimmers: by reducing the need for federally-subsidized municipal service on high-volume routes, jitneys free up transit resou rces which can then be applied to less-used routes which would not be profitable for private operators. While certain regulations, such as those dealing with equipment safety and insurance 151

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are reasonable, many rules, particularly those which mandate the use of a fixed route or schedule and prevent route diversions to allow for door-to-door service, seem designed to impose on private operators the same leve l of user-unf riendliness that has made municipal transit the transportation mode of last resort. I n addition i t appears that some municipal operators have had a policy of li cens ing j i tneys on certain routes, only to revoke the lice nse and take over service once a riders hip base has been established. (Urban Mobility Corporation, 1992) Government transit operators would better serve their inner city constituents by using available resou rc es to foster this flexible and adaptable transportation service. I nsura nce for single-vehicle commercial operators is often prohibitively expensive: municipal transit agencies could require t heir i nsurance carriers to extend insurance to t hese ent r epreneurs at a reaso nable price as a precondition for doing business with the agency. Transit operators could provide driver instruc tion and field offices for i ssuing commercial driver's licenses or chauffeurs permits. Transit garages could be used to provide low-cost vehicle safety inspections and minor safety-related maintenance at an affordable price. This would both promote jitney safety and bring in ancillary reve nue Transit operators sometimes appear to be obsessed with labor cost, constantly seeking to reduce employment to its lowest possible level. Since transit agencies are often the source of significant employment opportunities for inner city reside n ts, municipal operators would better serve their constituencies if they could seek new revenue enhancement opportun i t ies that rely on the u t ilization of employees instead of their replacement. Another method of overcoming the inhe rent inc ompat ibi l ity of low-density ur ban areas with trans i t is to combine modes. Although t r ansit operators have made good use of park-and-r ide lots for many years these facilities are designed to service a middle c l ass, car-owning suburban cliente le. What is needed in the inner city is a similar method of increasing the accessibility of line-haul transit rou tes, but for a no n-car owning cons t i tuency. One promising low-cost alternative i s the combining bicycles with buses or trains. A Phoenix "Bike-on -B us" (B-oB) demonstration project in the Spr i ng of 1991 proved so successful that Phoenix Transit elected to inst a ll the front mounted two-bicycle carrying racks on all 350 of i ts buses. A detailed survey of the users of the service during t h e three-month demonstration revealed that: 90% were commuting to or from work or schoo l. The median age was 31 (The median age for all bus users is 35) 9 1 % were male. Most reported t hemse lves as belonging to skilled trades blue collar occupations Half of the use rs did not have a car available for the tr i p being made at the time the survey was taken. Almost two-thirds reported that they would have e i t her taken the bus or ridden their bike as a solo mode had the service not been available. The mean average self -r eported tota l tr i p time was 58 minutes with an average to-bus ride of 9.2 minutes and an average from-bus time of 7.5 minutes. Thus, the i n-bus travel t i me was over 42 m inu tes, indica tin g that service users were taki ng relative ly long tr i ps. (Phoenix T ransit System, 1 991) .152

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From the available data, two composite user profi les em erge. Both are young adult males undertaking their daily commute. The f i rst is a blue collar tradesman with no car or with limited access to a car--probably shaling a single vehicle with a roommate or spouse Wlthout the B-o-B service, he would have walked to and from the bus--around thirty minutes each way. The second user is a college or university student who may have at least some access to an auto, but leaves it at home because parking is scarce and expensive, or because he uses his bike to get around campus during the day. Wlthout BoB, he would ride the bike in good weather and take the bus when it was bad out. Phoenix Transit counted 1404 users in th!'! last month of the demonstration project. Based on per-bus utilization figures, this would suggest a use rate of near l y 10,000 users per month after the racks are installed system-wide. The transit system plans to augment the Bikes-on-Bus service with a program to install permanently anchored bike racks and enclosed bicycle lockers at bus transfer locations and transit terminals. The success of the Phoenix program demonstrates that multi-modal projects can greatly expand the reach and efficiency of t ra nsit system 's. The user profile which emerged shows that while transit use continues to be highly dependent on economic and demographic factors such as auto availability, income, and the supply and price of parking at employment centers, relatively inexpens ive and easily im plemented measures can help transit overcome the prob lem s posed by newer urban forms to reach out and assist their traditional client groups. Transportation as an Employment I ndustry : From the Suburb to the Central Citv. In October, 1993, a group of American transit operators and experts attending a reverse commute workshop was shocked to hear new Federal Transit Administrator Gordon Linton call the entire concept of reverse commute programs "wrong". While Linton said that he did not object to the provision of services targeted at the reverse commuter, such programs should be viewed as a temporary holding action while industry and government addressed the fundamental problem of America s drift towards a two-class society marked by suburban affluence and central city poverty. (Dougherty, 1993) For many large cities, the provision of transit services provides one of the largest sources of skilled and semi-skilled trades employment opportunities, a powerful weapon In the war on urban poverty Turning transit into an effective anti-poverty tool first and foremost means endilig the transit industry's near-obsession w i th with labor force reductions, particularly by rep lacing employees with high-technology, h ighcost technologies. In the last twenty-five years, labor cost reduction has become the holy grail of American public transit, providing the justification for a score of staggeringly expensive rail systems that have failed to meet either financial or engineering goals. As researchers have since discovered, the alle ged cost benefits of replacing employees with technology were based on evaluative methodologies so poorly developed that their results are Indistinguishable f rom outright fraud. (Kain, 1990; Pickerell, 1992) Rather than seeking to displace employees, transit ope rato rs shou l d work to secure new opportunities to utilize their talents The use of maintenance 1.53

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facilities to support entrepreneurial paratransit ventures outlined in the previous section is but one example of this The expansion of non-motorized transport can also be a powerfu l employment generator. Both Ch ina and Cuba have recently taken steps to deregulate the entry of bicycle mechanics into the economy, both as a means of fostering bicycle travel and as a way of encouraging young men and women to enter the mechanical trades in a semi-entrepreneurial manner. Requir ing a relatively small investment In tools and training, many bicycle mechanics in the Lesser Developed Countries later transition into the repair of motorcycles and transit vehicles In America, bicycle repair operations are usually a part of larger establishments that sell bicycles and other sporting goods. Th i s means that mechanics are usually lo cated i n the suburbs (to service a high-end, recreational client group) in businesses that require a high capital outlays for a sales inventory. Few inner city cyclists have ever been inside a bicycle store and almost none of their bicycles have ever been worked on by an experienced mechanic Operat i ng out of a small storefront with a minimum ini tial Investment In tools and spare parts, an inner city bicycle repair opera t ion could both provide employment and prov ide convenient, inexpensive service to core area cyclists. greatly increasing the efficiency and safety of their bicycles Transit operators could promote these businesses by using them as a way of providing secure, wea t her protected bicycle day storage near trans i t terminals and stations. One serious hand i cap facing the development of core-area NMT is the lack of involvement of traditional cycling-oriented non-gove rnmental organizations (NGOs). Most American cyc lin g NGOs have typically been targeted at either sporting cyclists or envioronmental activists. Both of these interest groups have historically exhibited an anti-urban, middle-class bias. (Epperson 1994) One significant exception is the New York based I nstitute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP). For mor e than a decade ITDP has deve loped innovat ive manufacturing, financing and support programs centered around bicyc le s and other appropriate-technology transport modes to promote both mobility and economic development. Through its efforts, this NGO has trained hundreds of economically, physically and socially disadvantaged individuals to repair and manufacture bicyc l es, wheelchairs an d carts, and has put thousands of these vehicles into the hands of workers and entrepreneurs. However, to date, IDTP has focused i ts efforts in LCDs in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As a mode l for fostering mobility and economic development in America's inner c ities, ITDP offers a far more promising model than has this co untry 's own NMT -oriented organizations Foste ring NMT also often .requires retrofitting older neighborhoods w ith sidewalks bicycle facilities, and devices to control motor vehic l e speeds and flows Public works projects of this type offe r greater opportunities to train and employ nei ghborhood reside nts than do the development of large high-techno logy transport systems, which usually require the importat i on of a an expensive spec ialized wo rk force. When completed, neighborhood projects promote a renewed vitality within communities instead of drawing economic opportunity and community development efforts into a few selected corr idors or around a few targeted station sites 154.

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Traditionally, such programs has suffered from a lack of funding due to a Federal t r ansportation-funding structure that has ignored the economic development aspect of the transportation infrastructure development process. Much of this changed in 199 1 with the passage of the lntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, or ISTEA. While several states and urban areas have taken advantage of ISTEA's flexible funding structure to promote air quality and transportation alternatives, few loca l agencies have recognized either the allowed in the legis la tion to effect meaningful socieoeconomic changes or integrate explicit social or economic justice co n siderations into their t ransportat ion development policies or procedures. Conclusion The concept that Western planners can learn from the experience of their Third World colleagues may prove to be a bitter pill to swallow. After all, such a confession requires admitting both that Western nations have allowed their inner city areas to deteriorate to the point where traditional solutions do not work, and that tec hnology Itself Is not capable of so l ving all problems for all people in all circumstances. However, it is a pill we must le arn to swallow. Our sin g le-minded devotion to ever more sophisticated forms of technology as the answer to urban i lls is destroying our cities and turning hundreds of thousands of our residents into either depen dent chattel or criminals. I do not intend for this paper to be a blanket indictment of technology or techno logically sophisticated transport tools. I do, however. indict the concept that technology is always the answer. and that H a problem, area or population group is not benefitted (or i s even harmed) by a new technology it is their fault and they deserve what they get. We, in the West, must acknowledge the diversity of our citizens and communities, as well as the diversity o( their needs We must also acknowledge that in some ways, we are not so very different from the Thi rd World, and that innov ation must be judged on its own merits and not on the basis of where it came f rom or who it was intended for. The continued price of technological chauvinism is too high : It can no longer be afforded either in terms of wasted money, wasted neighborhoods, or wasted lives. The pill may be bitter, but what is it compared to the disease? 1.55

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Bibliography Cervero, Robert. 1990. "Profil i ng P ro f i tab le Bus Routes" Transportation Quarterly 44, 2:183-201 April1990. Dimitriou Harry T and M. S. Safier 1982. A Deve l opmenta l Approach to Urban Transportat io n Planning Proceedings of Universities Transport Study Group Seminar at University College, L ondon. April 1982 Dimitriou Harry T., 1990a "The Urban Transportation Planning Proc ess : Its Evolution and Application to Thi rd World Cities" in Transportation Planning in Third World Cities (Harry Oimitriou and George Banjo eds.) L ondon: Routledge. Dimitriou HarryT .. 1990b "Transport and Third World City Development" in Transportation Planning in Third World Cities (Harry Dimitriou and George Banjo, eds ) London: Routledge. Dimitriou, Harry T 1993. Policy-Making and Planning for Non-Motor i zed Urban Transportation Systems: A Developmen ta l Approach." Paper presented to the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington. D C., Jan. 1993. Dougherty Joe. 1993. "Transit Providers Look at Challenges o f Serving Reve rse Commute Riders." Passenger Transport 51.41: 1-3 October 18, 1993 Epperson. Bruce. 1994. Bicycle Pla nn ing : Growing Up or Grow ing O ld ? Bicycle Forum 35. January, 1994 Gordon, Peter, Ajay Kumar and Harry W. Richardson "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Some New Evidence" Urban Studies 26: 315-326 Kain, John F. 1990. "Deception in Dallas: Strategic Misrepresentation i n Rail Transit Promotion and Evalu at io n ." Journal of the American Planning Association 56, 2: 163179 Spring, 1990 Kisty, C. Jolin, 1993. "Transportation in Deve loping Countries: Obvious Probems, Possible Solutions" Paper presented to the 72nd Annual Meeting of t h e Transportation Research Board Washington D C., Jan 1993. Lehmann Nicholas 1991. The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How it Changed America. New York: Alfred Knopf. Lemov, P enelope. t 993 ''The Impossi ble Commute" Governing 6, 9 : 32-35. June 1993 Machabala Dan ie l. 1991. "Opportu nist ic Vans Are Running C ircles Around City Buses" Wa ll Street Journa l July 24, 1991 1.56

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Pendakur, Setty V. and Marco Guarnaschelli. 1991. "Mo torized and Nonmoto rlzed Transport In Katmandu, Nepal: Where do the Pedestrians Fit?" Transportation Research Record 1294. Washington: Transportation Research Board. P hoenix Transit Administration. 199 1.8ike on Bus Demonstration Program: Evaluation Report. Unpublished manuscript. September, 1991. Pickerell, Don. 1986 Is There Any Cream to Skim? An Analysis of Urban Transit Costs and Revenues by Type of Service. Cambridge: Center lor Transportation Studies Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Pickerell, Don 1992. "A Desire Named Streetcar: Fantasy and Fact in Rail Transit Planning." Journal of the American Planning Association 58, 2: 158-176. Spring, 1992 Proudlove, Alan and Alan Turner. 1991. "Street Management" in Transportation Planning in Third World Cities (Harry Dimitr iou and George Banjo, eds.) London, Routledge. Pucher, John. 1982 "Discrimination hi Mass Transit" Journal of the American Planning Association 48 3: 315-326. Summer, 1982. Rao, M.S.V. and A K. Sharma 1990. "The Role of Non-Motorized Urban Travel" in Transportation Planning in Th ird World Cities (HarTy Dimltrlou and George Banjo, eds.) London: Routledge . Replogle, Michael A., 1991 Sustainable T ransporta t ion Strategies for Third-World Development". Transportation Research Record 1294. Washington: Transportation Research Board. Rimmer, P.J., 1986. "Look East: The Relevance of Japanese Urban Transport Planning and Technology to Southeast Asian Cities" Transportation Planning and Technology, Volume 11. London: Gordon and Breach. Rosenbloom, Sandra. 1992. Reverse Commute Transportation: Emerging Provider Roles. Tuscan, AZ: The Drachman lns1itute. TDC, SA. ( Trai ning and Development Consultants, SA.). 1988 IUIDP Policy, Planning and Design Guidelines for Urban Transport: Final report to the Government of Indonesia and UNCHSIUNDP. Jakarta and Nairobi: 1988. Urban Mobility Co rporat ion. 1992. The Miami Jitneys. Washington: Office of Private Sector In itiat ives, Federa l Transit Administration. Augus11992. Weiner, Edward, 1992. History of Urban Transportation Planning" in Public Transportation (George Gray and Lester Heel, eds.) Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Second Edition. 1.57

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A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE COMMUTER TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS OF MIAMI, FLORIDA AND KINGSTON, JAMAICA Dr. Ron Lennon, Associate Dean for Graduate Programs and Associate Professor of Barry University, Miami, F lorida and Dr A lex Sharland, Assistant Professor of International Marketing, Barry University, Miami, Florida Presente d at the Association for Commuter Transportation International Conference September, 1994 Hiami, Florida :158

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ABSTRACT: This paper evaluates and compares the historical significance of the commuter transportation system in Miami, Florida in comparison to the commuter transportation system in Kingston, Jamaica. Miami and Kingston have the l argest population base of any city in Florida and Jamaica., respectively. Consequently, the largest commuter transportation systems in each area. The historical diversity of the t"o systems i s perspectives, including but not limited psychographic and cultural per9pectives. traced from various to: demographic, Each mode importance history of of o f the commuter transportation is "ith each mode at various points in t ime during tv1o systems also a part of this review . the the The current commuter transportation systems of Miami and Kingston are analyzed in light of the history of both systems. From this analysis, recommendations for future growth and diversity are suggested. The overall thrust of this paper is in relation to how to make both commuter transportation systems more effective and efficient based on the historical perspectives of the diverse systems. 159

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INTRODUCTION: This paper will focus on the commuter transporcation systems of Miami Florida and Kingston, Jamaica. Both systems v;ill be reviev;ed in terms of their structure, O\onership, available modes of transit and other related factors. H i am i and Kingston v;ere chosen because they are cities of similar size populations, are located adjacent to a large body of water, and are very different i n thei r orienta tion tov;ards commuter transit. In order to understand the major commuter transportation differences between these t\ J O markets of comparable size, \;e '" i l l start by looking at t h e m ission statements of both Miami and Kingston. Miami, Florida: Miami's commuter transportation system i s run by the Metro-Dade Transit Authority (MOTA) The goal of MOT A reflects i t s fundamental role o f being a mobility agent providing the customer with appropriate t ransit service. The MDTA is committed t o the following mission statement: To meet the mobility needs of our customers for high quality transit services which take them where and when they v;ant to go, consistent with prudent business practices. Kingston, Jamaica The primary objective of the Jama ican Gov ernment's stated policy of ground transportation is: The efficient movement of passengers and goods throughout the region at m>n>mum cost, consistent v;ith a satisfactory service, in terms o f reliabi l ity, passenger comfort, safety and convenience ... provided by the private sector. As can b e seen, is a public sector base d system that i s concerned about business practices and not losing money for the local government. Kingston, on t h e other hand, i s more concerned about operating it's transportation system as a private entity. The mission statements immediately show us some of the major differences between the t\o systems. Miami identifies transit as an essential component of economic development, where Kingston does not. As you will see throughout this paper, it appears that Kingston shoul d be more av;are of the impact of transit on the economy than Hiami. The foll01i n g section identifies several other points of comparison betv;een Miami and Kingston. To develop the analysis fully, eac h transit system i s described in brief. Once the major features have been established, similarities and differences are examined. 1.60

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A COMPARISON OF TWO TRANSIT SYSTEMS The Miami System Prior to 1962, the mass transit system was privatel y o 1ned Hov1ever, for the past 32 years, the mass transit system in the greater M iami area has been ovmed by the local government, and operated by the Metro Dade Transit Authority (MOTA), a l ocal government' agency. As the city of Miami has grown, so has the .role of the MOTA. In terms of diversity, the service offered is dominated by two modes; bus and raiL Even though Hiami borders on substantial tracts of '"ater, no viater-bound transit systems (e.g. ferries) exist. The bus and rail .systems feed off each other (especially buses channelling traffic to the rail stations), and are each in the process of developing an independent capability. For instance, plans exist to extend both the bus and the rail systems southv1ard into Homestead, to provide improved. service to the area' s passengers. Metrorai1:. This system provides service to 21 stations on a 21 mile line. The system offers regular service between 5:30a.m. and 12:45 a.m.. In addition to Metrorail, there i s a Metromover service, o ffering a 'dovmtown loop' between the hours of 5:30 a.m. and 12:30 a.m. T'ne Metromover facilities have recently been extended with t\o nev1 stations serving the Herald area and the Brickel l Avenue area. Future plans include rail extensions into neighboring cities; for example, Miami Beach and Homestead. A recent (1989) addition to the rail system is a link v1ith the Tri-Rail system which runs between Palm Beach and the northern part of greater Miami. This link provides access to transit systems in cities north of Miami. Metrorail has rolling stock of 136 cars and 2 1 stations. Metromover has rolling stock of 1 2 cars and 9 stations. During the reporting year 1992-93, some 14.9 million trips v1ere made on the Hetrorail system, and 2 7 million trips on the Metromover. However, each system was designed to carry passenger numbers far in excess of these figures. Therefore, the r e .is excess capacity available in both rail services. Metrobus: This system provides service from 4:30a.m. to 2:30a.m. TUesday to Friday, and 24 hours per day Saturday to Monday. The bus routes generally foll01o north-south or east-west routes, which provide passengers v1ith a relatively simple task of choosing an appropriate route to take. 16:1

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MDTA has invested heavily in buses to maintain the equipment in good condition. Some 5 74 un its are available to service the route system, of which 548 are directl y b y All equipment is serviced on a regular basis (and repairs made) in HDTA-o;;ned garage facilities. Each bus route is evaluated in terms of a number of performance measures (load factors, revenue miles, direct operating costs) and those routes that do not meet pre-set standards, are examined in greater detail. In this way, keeps track of consumer demand for specific services. and can s"'itch resources to new/other routes quickly. Metrobus has established a transfer system '"ith Brov1ard County Transit (BCT) which operates to the north of Miami. Certain services from both BCT and Metrobus, venture into each other's territory, and several malls act a s border-crossing points. This system gives passengers access to other bus transit systems. The Special Transportation services (STS), i s a shared ride, curbto-curb transportation service for the disabled and mobilityimpaired riders. Service is provided by sedans and lift -equipped vehicles, seven days a week, from 6:00 a.m to midnight. The Kingston System Compared with some other developing countries, Jamaica has had a relatively well develope d transportation net'"ork. The transportation network set up in order for the public in Jamaica to maintain some form of economic viability by having the ability to get to and from work, school and other activities. It was expected that this in turn would help the economy of the country, and the country would prosper based on the level of employment and accessibility of employmen t for the country's relatively poor. The transit system in Kingston (and throughout Jama ica) is no"' privately owned and operated, but regulated by a quasi-government authority. In terms of diversity, there are in f act two modes; buses (often referred to as minibuses) and a ferry. Th e ferry plies between Port Roya l and Kingston, but is not really a main component of the transit system (there are onl y approximately 288 000 passengers carried per year on two ferries) The rail system had little impact on passenger transit, and closed in 1992. The early transit system (Jamaican Omnibus System: JOS) was owned by British companies and regulated by the Public Passenger Transport Board (PPTB) until 1974. The JOS had continuall y sought fare increases to cover the increased cost of operating the system, and the PPTB consistently refused to allo"' such increases. In 1974 (just after Independence), the Jamaican government bought out the British owners of JOS and ran the system as a nationalized industry. 162

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Unfortunately, this period (1974 1980) was a time of sustained increases in oil prices, which raised the cost of operating JOS well beyond the revenue capacity of the customers/passengers. Consequently, in 1982, the Jamaican government withdrew from the mass transit arena, and established a franchise route scheme. Essentially, routes are 'packaged' together and sold to package holders. These people then unbundle the routes and sell them to operators. The operators can then either run the buses themselves or sub-contract (for fees, of course) to other drivers. Dwcing 199 3 the system had 826 buses with a capacity of 24,109 seats : an average of 29.2 seats per minibus. Some package holders have oversold' the routes (that is, sel l ing right s to more buses than is economically feasible) the point where operators find it difficult to make a profit. Often, operators cover their potential loss by charging drivers more to run the route. The drivers are forced to engage in many dangerous and illegal practices to eke out an existence in the industry. To overcome the high cost of operating a route, buses must carry more passengers. Each has a driver and conductor. The conductors job is t o drum up business (rather like a salesman) and get bodies on the bus. The more the better (though not the merrier) for cost/revenue reas.ons. The system is often chaotic and close to breaking doNn for several reasons. These can be clustered into three main categories; costs, competition, and regulation. Costs: a ) b) c) d) Jamaica maintains high tariff barriers for imported goods, especially motor vehicles. Therefore, many operators/drivers cannot afford to buy new vehicles and thus often drive very old (unsafe) equipment. Maintenance and repair costs are high because spare parts are subject to the same high tariffs as motor vehicles. Insurance costs are very high because i) the poor road conditions often lead to breakdO\ms, and i1) there is substantial insurance fraud when a ccidents occur. This issue is examined in greater detail below. Passengers often only pay (ca.sh fares only) as they disembark. This means the collection of proper amounts due is very costly and difficult, and adds to the difficulty of keeping a constant revenue stream. competition: e ) When package holders oversell routes, operators find that revenues fall and losses rise. Consequently, more operators try to either get more of their own buses on their route, or cut costs by failing to maintain equipment. 1();)"

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f) Conductors drum up business very aggressively, often manhandling passengers onto hot, stationary buses. g) In order to get to bus stops further down the route before competing buses do, drivers take ino rdinate risks, especially considering the road conditions. These risks threaten the lives of passengers and pedestrians. Regulation: h) Inspectors working for the Transportation Authority (the regulatory agency) are too few to cover the route system effectively. i ) Inspectors are often.ignored, or harangued, and one was stabbed by a recalcitrant driver (although it appears that this was a relatively isolated incident). j) Tickets are often only dispensed when inspectors are spotted. This is a major breach o f the regulations governing the system. When accidents occur, many 1ho Vlere not on the bus at the time, can c laim compensation (see insurance costs above) provided someone Vlill confirm their presence at the scene of the mishap. There are many other probl ems that can be included in this section, the above gives a rough description of the situation. Essentially, there are few incentives in the transit system that w ill lead to improvements. Fares are controlled by government fiat, so revenue g r o1oth can only be achieved by increasing passenger numbers or trips. Conversely, costs can increase rapidly from a number of sources including maintenance, repairs, breakdowns, and import tariffs. Package holders, are not all01oed to, but frequently do, oversell routes. This puts cost pressure on operators, drivers, and conductors. There is also a tendency for licensed buses to abandon their assigned routes during slack periods and to "pirate" other routes which offer more business. Points of Comparison Both Hiami and Kingston are water bordering cities that are constrained in the hinterland by geographic or topographi c obstructions: mountains in Kingston, swamps in H iami. Despite the existence of large areas of neither city includes transport in the transit scheme; although Kingston does have a small (almost negligible in terms of easing commuter problems) ferry operation between Port Royal and Kingston. In contrast, other cities in the world (e.g. Amsterdam and Hong Kong) have found that ferries offer a lo1o cost mode o f transportation that can move large numbers of people throughout the community. Kingston has considered adding ferry services, but no private investment in this area is currently available (the current ferry service is by the Government) The MDTA in Miami seems to prefer to extend the rail system across the water to Miami Beach rather than develop a coordinated ferry service. 164

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Miami considers services as part of infrastructure development; Kingston considers construction projects as infra structure, and transit services as profit-oriented exercises. This is, perhaps a simplification of the Jamaican situation, but there is little evidence to contradict this interpretation. In terms of economic development, unskilled labor must be the most mobile, because it must seek out job opportunities throughout the 'area. However, unskilled labor i s a lso 'the poorest labor, and cannot afford private transportation. Therefore, if the city planners are to an environment conducive to economic development, making the labor force mobile has to be one of the main elements of planning. The M iami model seems to be more efficient i n this regard. l4iami funds all transit development out o f the public purse. Since 1982, Kingston has funded transit development out of the private sector Neitne r system is perfect As a rul e bureaucracies are less efficient at distributing resource. s t han are profit-oriented groups. Some criticism has been l'evelled at M OTA for developing a tr.ansit plan for the future that 'requires a massive (and very expensive) infrastructure program. However, the failings of the system are minor in comparis.on to the problems facing the privately funded Kingston system. Both Miam i and Kingston share one feature in common'; the presence of quasi -legal minibus carriers. In l4iami these are called Jitneys, and some are legally in operation (although mai\y are not). In Kingston these services are called robots. Essentially, the Jitneys/robots are "filling in the gaps left by the 'official transit system. Given that there are no regular timetables for these operators they have no insurance, and can be stopped by the la11 at any time, 11hy would anyone ride on these buses? The ans11er must be that they provide service (either in terms of flexibility or capacity) for the passengers that is not provided by the transit system. If either MOTA or the Transport Authority are look'ing for clues as to what consumers perhaps t h e best place to. look is at the service provided by Jitney/robots. If.there '1as no demand for these services, these operators '1ou l d not exist. They must be doing something right The final point of comparison concerns the complexity of the transit systems. Complexity is assessed here in terms of two perspectives: the comp lexity of putting the transi t system together, and t h e complexity of use for the consumer. The MOTA system is very complex in terms o f preparation. The bureaucracy required to develop timetables, route systems, fare schedules, inspection, repairs and, mai n tenance and strategic planning is substantial ; as evidenced by the MOTA offices in downto'm Miami. HO\ITever, on the consume r side, the system is easy to use (i.e. not :165

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complex). Passengers have access to timetables, fare schedules, transfer points, and can pass bet1"een bus and rail services with relative ease. In the event of an accident, one knows who is responsible and to whom one should present one's case. In contrast. the Kingston transit system is easy to prepare. As private operators are required to provide the service, the level of bureaucracy is minimal, especially as the inspection system is under-resourced. For the consumer it is a different story. Given the absence of timetables, the somewhat complex fare regulations, and the inherently difficult task of finding a safe and swift ride to the official destination, .the Kingston system is muc h more complex f o r the consumer, yet 60% of the Kingston population ride public transit. In Kingston, there is no formal system for disabled or mobilityimpaired individuals. In fact, they are discriminated against in being picked up, as these passengers pay a lowe r fare than the rest of the traveling public in Kingston (students also pay a lower fare and are not picked up by the buses). In 1992, The Gleaner reported that "Unless something drastic happens in the near future, such as a massive increase in bus fares or some form of subsidy for bus operators, possibly as a result of a cooperative, the bus system as it is today, will certainly fall apart." RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FUTURE Kingston, Jamaica 1. Maintain private transit entities instead of public, after all, inexpensive transit is a fundamental need for economic development, which is needed more in Kingston than in Miami. 2. Reduce the number of package holders from ten to five, include less profitable routes with each of the five package holders 3. Give special consideration to school children, the e lderly and the handicapped, both in fares, as well as services. 4. Define performance and safety standards in terms of vehicle condition, quality of service, and the conduct of operators. 5. Improve the procedures for setting fares. 6. Package holders should be made to be more responsible of the operation of buses. 7. Establish and enforce vehicle standards, as well as routine data collection. 1.66

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Miami, Florida 1 Investigate the possibilit y of using ferry service bet,.een major commuting point s in t h e Dade county area. 2. Transit s hould not compete with Single Occupancy Vehicles for shopping and leisure trips. Transit in Miami should focus on Commuter transportation. 3. Greater cohesion on a regional basis should be obtained; this should include perhaps a Fort Lauderdal e to M i ami express joint project. REFERENCES: Jamaica's public transportation running downhill"; The Gleaner, Kingston, Jamaica, August 2, 1992, pages 1,3. Minibus Ride: A Jogrney Through the informal Sector of Kingston's Mass Transport System. A report on a study conducted by the Institute of Social and Economic Research Minibus Study Team. Published by the Planning Institute of Jamaica, Novembe r 1985. Metro-Dade Transit Agency, Strategic Management Plan Executive summary. Published by Ernst and Young, January, 1 991 Metro-Dade Transit Age.ncy, Transit Development Program, 1993 : Prepared by MetroDade Transi t Agency, July, 1 993 Presentation by the Minister of Construction, The Honorable O.D. Ramtallie, .in the 199 4 Sectoral Debate in the House of Representatives, May 24, 1994. 167

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U S . Dutch Experience with TOM Abstract U.S DUTCH EXPERIENCE WITH TOM POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION Eric N. Schreffler Transportation Consultant 9390 Stargaze Avenue San Diego, CA 92119 (619) 538-9430 Eric N Schreffler Many U .S. transportation planners point to the European experience with land use planning and transit systems as positive examples of effective urban form However, recent trends in Europe, including suburbanization and growth in automobile travel, are bringing familiar problems to many European counties and cities. In the late 1980's, the Dutch government developed the "Second Structure Scheme for Traffic and Transport (SW-2), a national policy to address trave l growth and concomitant impacts between now and 2010. The Dutch desire a sustainable future and environment, while maintaining mobility. Key aspects of the Dutch policy include the goal of reducing half of the projected growth in VKT (Vehicle Ki lome ters Traveled), partially through an increase of auto occupancy from 1.2 to 1.6 by 2010. An interim TOM objective has been established of a 20% reduction in commute VKT by 2000. To date, some 1 500 companies have developed and implemented TOM programs with an average 10% reduction in VKT. This pape r describes the Dutch policy, its emphasis on transit, land use and TOM and enumerates some current experiments wit h TOM planning and implemen tation in the Netherlands especia ll y as it pertains to employer-based programs. It also makes some key comparisons to U.S. transportation and TOM policy and to U.S. experience with TO M planning and implementation. The paper points to other similarities and differences and draws some important conclusions on the role of a strong federal policy and programs and the need to provide self-interest and incentives to participants, both emp loye rs and employees. This paper is based on a conference session at the 1993 International Inst i tute of Transportation Eng ineers Conference, in the Netherlands, by the same title and the presentations of three Dutch transportation profess ionals and a U.S. moderator. 168

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U.S. Dutch Experience TOM E r i c N. Schreffle r Introduction U.S. transportation planners often point to European experience with land use planning and transit systems as positive examples of how to effectively address transportation needs. However, recent trends in Europe, including the suburbanization of jobs and housing and the growth in aUtlJm.Obile travel, are bringing familiar problems to many Europea n counties and cities. Issues such as traffic congestion, worsening air quality and energy crises have brought a change in the U.S. to accept, if not embrace, tra nsportation demand management (TOM) as a means to address these Issues. TOM has been a part of the U.S. urban transport scheme since the early 1970's when federal p olicies and funding were created to address two oil crises. Another country to embrace TOM, although more recently, is the Netherlands. In the la te 1980's, the Dutch government developed the "Second Structure Scheme for Traffic and Transport (SW-2), a national policy to address travel growth and concomitant impacts between 1990 and 2010. The Dutch desire a sustainable future and environment, while maintainiflg mobility However, it is an uphill battle Not unlike U.S. forecasts, licensed drivers, auto ownership, and travel will increase dramatically. Automobile usage, as measured in vehicle kilometers traveled or VKT, is projected to increase by 70% from 1986 to 2010. I ndeed, U.S. and Dutch growth in auto travel was about 3% in 1992 While transit us e in Holland is very high, it also has the highest auto densitY In the world, with 240 cars persquare mile Changes in the economy and demographics have led to dramatic increases in car ownership and one-third of the projected growth in VKT is attributable to the growth in car ownership. National TOM Policy Dutch Second Structure Scheme for Traffic and Transport T he Second Structure Scheme for Traffic and Transport (SW-2) was developed from 1988-1990 to address many Issues, including the growth in travel mentioned above However, mobility for Dutch travelers Is only one concern. The Netherlands prides itself as a "gateway for commerce, via ports of entry at Rotterdam and Schipol Airport. The road and rail network must serve growing commercial needs, especially during the establishment o f the European Common Market. Key aspects of the Dutch policy include the goal of limiting the projected growth in VKT to only 35% (half of that forecasted) The SW-2 contains innovative i.69

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U S -Dutch Experience with TOM Eric N. Schreffler measures related to infrastructure, transit, land use and TOM. Some of the key measures and policies related to the first three issues are: Infrastructu re priorities are set for roadway improvements with maintenance first; and efficiency measures second (refered to as "exploitation" by the Dutch) inc ludin g : carpoo l, bus and truck lanes, ramp metering, information and signage, and IVHS-type improvements ; and construction last, with an emphasis on the completion of "missing links." Transita major program for upgrading the national rail netwo rk maintaining subsidies (which are as high as 70%) and enhancing the f eeder network (buses, trams, taxis) is underway and an indication of Dutch priorit ies can be seen in the inve stment in transit -113 billion guiders (about $US 60 billion)are to be spent in the planning period on public transport as compared to 35 bi llion guiders (about $US 19 billion) for the trunk road network. L and Use-while land use is under local control, as in the U.S., national policy dictates that residential, commerical and industrial locations should be sited near appropria te transportat ion -meaning that most large employers will need to locate near rail stations and only firins with distribution needs can loca te near highways. Several other interrelated elements are worth mentioning. First, the Dutch have set a perfo r mance objective for transit that most trips by transit should be no longer than 1.5 times that for the automobile This is more than an idle planning object iv e as rail and road funding decisions are based on reaching this target. Second, the Dutch parliment enacted a Municipal Parking Levies Act, allowing localities to impose surcharges on parking to regulate traffic. Another measure allows locali ties to limit the number of park ing spaces at employment sites to encourage transit use (similar to the shift in some U.S. cities fro m parking minimums to maximums). Finally, a key componen t of the SW-2, which has not bee n implemented due to opposition not unlike that in the U.S. is road pricing to charge premiums based on time of day, route occupancy and type of vehicle. One D u tch transport official terms the po licy a fami liar combination of carrots and sticks: the sticks being parking policy, road pricing and auto taxes and the carrots being imp roved alternatives to driving alone, such as transit, carpooling and b icycling. The Dutch have also embraced TOM as part of the SW-2. The primary goal is an increase of auto occupancy from 1.2 to 1 .6 by 2010. An inter im TOM objective has been established of a 20 % reduction i n commute VKT by 2000. Much of t he Dutch TOM effort has been centered on employerbased t rip 170

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U.S. Dutch Experience with TOM Eric N. Schreffler reduction programs, which are discussed ir,J the next section. Additionally, the first HOV lane, open to carpools as well as buses, opened in Holland In September 1993. It is 10 kilometers in length and serves commutes to the east of Amsterdam It operates as an HOV lane dur ing the in-bound a.m. peak period and as a mixed flow lane during the afternoon peak. Not unlike early U.S. experience with HOV lanes, many Dutch were highly sceptical prior to the opening of the facility U .S, IDM eglicy i n ISIEAtCAAA Era As a brief contrast to the Dutch policy experience, TOM has played a longer running role in urban transportation in the U.S, but perhaps a more schizophrenic one. Prior to the lnteimodal Suiiace Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) and the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), TOM was looked at as a short-term, stop-gap set of strategies to respond to energy crises, localized congestion, and episodic air qua lity "events. TOM has never had a dedicated source of funding, a strong constituency, nor a common set of practices and standards as is the case with highways and transit. critically, however, TOM WiiS never integrated into most national state, regional or local policies and plans. It was often s impl y a stop-gap measure or was included as a policy initiative -a good thing to do." . Whether ISTEA and the Clean Air Act Amendments of the early 19gos can change this tenuous role, the stage has clearly been set. While TDM has not been g iven a dedicated role or funds, the flexibility of ISTEA still points to TOM and various demand management and efficiency measures as the preferred Mure. Highway widenings cannot now be considered before first determining whether the added capacity could be avoided via demand management. The Clean Air Act Amendments place considerab l e emphasis on mobile sources" and various control measures, including employer-based trip reduction requirements, improved transit, alternative work schedules and arrangements, congestion pricing and HOV lanes, to name a few Howe'ver, without clear targets (at least on the ISTEA side), funding signals, policy d i rection or political fortitude TDM may fall prey to the very flexibi lity that was to be its godsend. Efforts are already underway to repeal the employer requirements f rom the CAAA in favor of "more flexible options" and key ISTEA funds are being disallowed for use on rideshare operations because they only serve to "maintain" carpoo l and vanpool shares. TOM is not being seen for its l arger influence on economic variables, but is being perceived as a set of ineffective regulations. Finally, ISTEA and the CAAA represent the first attempt to coordinate key national po licies. The coordination of transportation, environmental, energy and land use policies in the U.S. Is v irtually non-existent. :17 1

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U.S. -Dutch Experienc e with TOM Eric N Schreffler Experience with Employer-based TOM Dutch Experience with Employer-based TOM As an integral part of the Dutch SW-2 policy, reduc in g the growing use of the automobile for commuting i s desired through the implementation of TOM strategies, particu larly employer based programs. In the area of employer -b ased TOM, the Dutch have been implementing a voluntary program to test whether the interim TDM objectives can be reached without mandating employer programs. The Ministry of Transport, Publ ic Works and Water Management, the Dutch agency that initiated TDM, reports that not a single employer TOM program existed in 1990. Since then, some 1,500 companies have partic ipa ted in the government supported program and another 1,500 have shown in terest. Th i s r epresents 20% of the 15,0 00 firms with 50 or more employees targeted by the program. Many of these firms are located in the "randstad," the central area of Holland that includes the business centers of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht and the Hague. The Ministry targeted the largest firms first, those with 5,000 employees or more, with the intent to have TDM plans in place at some 100 firms by 1992. The Dutch made a early decision to initiate the TDM program as a partnership w ith business. They did not want the program p erceived as a government imposit i on. As one officia l characterized it, the traditional t hem and us' situation wastes energy and is non-productive in the long run." During the start up phase, government and b.usiness worked together t o develop the programm including a step -bystep manual, ridematching software and communication tools The centra l message was "TDM serves your own interersts To assist companies, the Ministry established reg io nal TOM offices that serve i n a similar function to TMAs; working directly with firms to deve lop TOM plans and implement resulting programs. The government provides financial inducements to firms to reward them for key steps in the process: registering surveying employees, preparing a plan, and im plementing a program. Afte r three years the experiment has indicated that a 1 0% reduction in travel is possible w ith employer programs and a 7% reduction is possible with broade r areawide programs. Some employers such as the nat i onal Ministry of Health, have even achieved a 40% reduction with all ministries achieving a 2 0% reductio n Concerning the marketing aspects of TOM, the Dutch feel that mass communication techniques, common in the U.S. wou l d not be effective. One Dutch professional sa id that the Dutch focus on TOM "metho ds" and the U .S. 172

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U.S. Dutch Experience with TOM Eric N Schreffle r focuses on" people" aspects of TOM A Dutch consultant said that the Dutch are too sober for mas s communication appeals to "try tidesharing One key similarity observed between the U.S and Dutch experience with TOM concerns what might be. termed "TOM Schools of Thought. There seems io be two dist inct camps among Dutch TOM planners at the Ministry and its consultants. One group seems to embrace the softer side of TOM, that marketing is the key to its success. Another group embraees the harder side of TOM that its success will be determined by the measures implemented. Another way to convey this difference_is characterizing the soft-side as i t s more important how you do things than what you do" and the hard-side as "it's more. important what you do than how you do it." The TOM initiative Is b eing implemented as a voluntary program with maximum flexib ility for employers and assistance from the Ministry in customizing a plan. Other Dutch planners subscribe to the notion that it will take major parking and roadway pricing init iatives before the employer-based programs can realized its broadest and most effective resuHs. The Dutch also plan to ini tiate an organization, similar to ACT; to foster professional development and build a constituency for TOM policy and programs. Over the past three years, the Ministry has sen t staff to the U.S. to' attend ACT conferences and inter'liiew key TOM professionals, including ACT officers, U .S. DOT officials, and staff from TMAs, r ideshare organizations, consultants and other planning, regulatory and implementation entities The consultant hired to explore a national TOM professional organization related that such an assoc ia te was intended to convince parliment and others that TOM has been in tegra ted into the business world. Interestingly, one U.S. state offic ial responsible for TMA funding characterized the rational for HJIA subsidies in the same l ight -that it could convince elected officials that business is invo lved in solving transportation problems. Finally, a targe t has been set of 1995 to decide if the TOM experiment should rem ain voluntary or should be mandatory. Most observers to date view the demonstration period as a success and perceive the U.S. experience as negative feeling that regulations constrict employer and employee "choices. U,S. Ex(2erience with Em(21oyer-based IDM Experience with employer-based TOM programs, often called Employee Commute Option (ECO) programs, in the U.S. is becoming well-documented. A few observations are provided here to establish some similarities and contrasts with the Dutch experience. 173-

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U .S. Dutch Experience with TOM Eric N. Sc h reffler Ridesharing in the U.S. received government suppo(l and endorsement in response to immediate and real crises, not as part of any future plan or policy Employer-based ridesharing pro grams were required at war production facilities during World War II. During the oil embargo of 1973, the fe dera l government passed emergency legisla tion allowing highway funds to be used in the establishment of local ridesharing programs. Th is funding arrangement was not repealed and during the 1979 gas crisis, regional ridesharing programs shifted their focus from area-wide marketing to employer-based programs. The results of these early, area-wide efforts were a modest 1.0 or less reduction in commute VMT. In the 1980s, several loca l trip reduction ordinances {TROs) were enacted, often in response to traffic concerns related to new development. At the same time this regulatory pressure began voluntary efforts, such as Transportation Management Associations grew in popularity, often as an attempt to avoid regula tion. The results of these early ordinances and collaborative efforts is not well documented, but the limited evaluations point to modest (at best) trip re duct ion for TROs (although several TROs were s uccessful in shifting commuters to non -peak travel periods). Finally, in response to growing air quality concerns California, ana later the U S government, embraced employer-based trip reduction (ECO) programs as a means to reduce mobile source emissions th rough demand management. The f irs t of these programs, in southern California, instit u ted an occupancy target for employees at worksites with 100 or more workers. Early results showed a modest increase in occupancy and a reduction of vehicle trips o f about 6%, largely through increased carpooling. Subsequent results are more encouraging, but most firms have not re ached the target. Fede ral studies of TOM effectiveness, however cited programs that achieved average vehicle trip reductions of over 20%, many as high as 40-50%. The difference between the early results in southern California and these programs was less the mandatory environment or type of finn and more explained by the TOM measures being employed. Those finns that offered financial incentives, restricted or charged for parking, and supported carpool arrangements had the highest trip reduction levels. Most programs prompted by the regu lat ions were minimal and based on infonnation and promot ion, given that the requirements were oriented toard meeting a target rather than emphasizing certain TOM strategies There is a growing backlash in the U.S. that employer-based trip reduction req ui rements are ineffective, and many are interpreting this to mean that TOM is largely ineffective Unfortunately, it is more the nature of the programs being implemented than the nature of the regulation that is contr i buting to less than 174

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U.S.Dutch Experience with TOM Erie N. Schreffler anticipated results. Dutch observers in the U.S. have concluded that the regulatory approach should be avoided, given the perceived results in the U.S. . Key Similarities and Differences The discussion of TOM policy and implementation experience in the U.S. and the Netherlands has pointed to several similarities and differences. A few of the key observations include: Similarnies Both governments see TOM as a means to more efficiently manage existing resources by reducing demand rather than increasing capacity (supply). TOM was implemented on a voluntary basis with considerable assistance from government agencies and based on the principle that it was in businesses self-interest to institute TOM programs. Some in government view TOM as a means to bring the private sector into urban transportation and in so doing, bring a powerful constituency to bear on traffic and environmental issues. Many agree that pricing will be key to realizing significant reductions in travel and TOM will provide needed alternatives to driving alone. Employer-based TOM programs are capable of reducing travel by 10-20% and the measures employed ara
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U .S. Dutch Experience TOM Er i c N. Schreffle r The U.S. is embracing a mandatory approach (command and control) to employer-based TOM and the Dutch have used a voluntary approach direct subsidies (incentive) from government to employers for impleme nting programs. The Dutch have realized an average 1 0% re d uction in VKT from their TOM program, which appears to be substantia lly higher than most TOM programs in the U S., either voluntary or mandatory. Most shifts that occur in 'the U.S. are to carpooling, while in the Netherlands, transit and bicycling contribute the most to travel reduction Conclusions Thus, the Dutch have achieved results that are as positive as the mandatory programs in the U S., but have done so with strong national policies through a voluntary partnership between government and bus iness that includes significant public sector support. Perhaps one key difference i s the availability of trans i t for most tr ips, given the densities inherent in a small country with over 15 million inhabitants The average commute distance is only 3.3 miles in th e Netherlands, as compared to almost five time that distance in most U.S. It might be said that t he Dutch are env ious of the carpoo l share in the U .S. and the U .S is envious of the D u tch transit share. However historic development patterns, long -term transportation investment policies and some cultural differences contribute more to this difference than do current government programs C learly, several misperceptions exist from both countries One Dutch observer noted that TOM is largely successful because carpooling and vanpooling fits the U S. culture and the regulations are backed up by government inves tment in HOV lanes and other supportin g programs. Many U .S. observers would no t agree that U.S. inve stment in TOM has been adequate to maintainin g or in c re asing ridesharing l evels. Surely, as the U.S. learns more about the Dutch experience with TOM, our fascination with their quick success may be te mpered with stories of waning support among companies as the program matures U .S. experience certainly points to the need for constant attention and innovation. Additional r esearch into the U.S. Dutch experience with TOM could revea l some very u seful results. It would be of interest to compare the measures implemented by employers in both situations and determine the cost 176

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U.S. Dutch Experience wilh TOM Er i c N Schreffler effectiveness of employer-based programs i n each country, especially as it compares to investment in transit and highway infrastructure and subs i dies. While not all Dutch planne r s ag ree on the transferability of the U.S. exper i ence, the results seem to bear out some similarities and both countr i es agree that managing demand is necessary to maintain mobility. The U.S. could learn a valuable lesson from the Dutch on the concept of a sustainab le environment. The U.S seems fiXed on assuring mobility for today and the Dutch are striving to insure mobility and livability tomorrow. Acl
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CASH IN YOUR CAR .... Cashing Out Employer Subsidized Parking Demonstration Program Conducted By Department of Metropolitan SeJ."Vices (Metro) Metropolitan King County Seattle, WA May 1_992 -April 1994 Evaluation Report Prepared By Jeff Wong, Transit Planner Department of Metropolitan Services (Metro) Metropolitan King County Seattle, WA June 1994 178

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CASH IN YOUR CAR DEMONSTRATION ABSTRACT Cash In Your Car (CIYC) was a demonstration program conducted by the Department of Metropolitan Services (Metro) and three private employers in King County, Washington. The go:il was to test the effectiveness of offering the monthly cash value of a subsidized parking space to employees as an inducement to commute by a non-single occupant vehicle(SOV) mode. In return for receiving the cash, employees agreed to forgo using the parking spaces. The program objectives were to: I. Evaluate whether offering the cash value of subsidized parking is effective in causing employees to change their commute mode away from single occupant vehicles. 2. Evaluate whether employees were willing to forgo use of their employer subsidized parking space for an extended period of time (12 months). 3. Compare perceptions and expectations participants had before the program with actual experiences during the program. 4. Identify any systematic or structural barriers which prevented employers and employees from participating in the program. S. Identify any possible changes or improvements to the basic program structure as implemented in this demonstration. The results of the demonstration are mixed. A total of 26 employees accepted the parking cash-out option. The switch from a single-occupant vehicle mode to an alternative, non-SOY mode was nearly 100 percent among all the participants. However, very few employers and employees took part in the program. The recommendations below attempt primarily to overcome the significant barriers t o voluntary participation in a cash out program: I. Include building owners or lessors in future parking cash out programs. 2. Implement more equitable tax incentives regarding innovative alternatives to drive-alone commuting. 3 Develop and implement supportive commercial development and parking policies. 4. Promote and increase awareness of current Metro safety programs. 5. Offer parking cash-out incentives as part of larger, more comprehensive alternative transportation benefits programs. 6. Provide emergency or discretionary parking days each month for cash-out participants. 7. Provide equitable alternative benefits to employees who do not receive free or subsidized parking. 1.79

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Introduction and Objectives P rogram Description Objectives . Design Employer Selection Screening Criteria Administration . Calculating Payment Amount Program Registration Metro Payments to Employers Employer Payments to Employees Employee Tracking Marketing. Overall Findings Employer Participation . Bamers to Participation Other Possibl e Factors Empl oyee Participation . Changes in Commute Mode . Reasons Why Employees Left the Program Reasons Why Employees Did Not Participate Employee Suggestions for Improving the Program C o nclusions . R ecommendations Acknowledgments References Attachments A: Cash In Your Car Marketing Materials B : Employee Registration Form C: Summary of Focus Group at Ernst Corporation List Of Tables Table 1 : Difference Between Gross and Net Subsidy Table 2: Empl oyee Participation Rates by Employer Table 3: Change in Employee Commute Mode by Employer Table 4: Reasons Why Employees Left the Program. 1 8 0 fan i 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 7 7 8 8 9 1 0 11 12 13 19 21 3 6 7 8

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INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Cash In Your Car (CIYC) was a demonstration program conducted by the Department of Metropolitan Services (Metro) and three privat e employers in King County. The goal was to test the effectiveness of offering the monthly cash value of a subsidized parking space to employees as an inducement to commute by a non-single occupant vehicle(SOV) mode In other words, "cashing-out" the parking space. In return for receiving the cash value of the parking space, employees agreed to forgo using their parking spaces for three-month periods that could be continued through twelve months. In addition, the program was theoretically cost neutral for employers. Since employers are already paying for the parking spaces, employers should not incur any additional costs by transferring payments to employees under Cash In Your Car In practice, there may have been some administrative expenses associated with the program. Employer subsidized parking is thought to be one of the leading factors influencing whether a person commutes to work by driving alone. A number of t ransportation researchers have theorized that offering the cash value of a parking space could possibly induce upwards of 20 percent of single occupant vehicle commuters to switch to a non-drive alone mode'. In addition, employers and emp loyees have not always been fully aware of the inequity of subs idized parking. Often, the true c ost of subsidizing an employee parking space is not readily apparent or available, due to bundling the lease for parking spaces with floor space. Thus, emp loye r s and employees do not realize the size and value of a subsidized parking space, which can be several times the amount of a more traditional high occupancy vehicle subsidy The demonstration began in May 1992 with Ernst Corporation s corporate headquarters office in Seattle's Central Business District Two additional employers joined the program, Digital Equipment Corporation located in Bellevue's Central Business District in October 1992, and Minor & James Medical located in Seattle's F irst Hill district in March 1993. 1 Shoup, D. and Wilson. R. (1991). "Employer-Paid Parking: The Problem and Proposed Solutions. Revised draft of re.
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PROGRAM OBJECTIVES The objectives of the demonstration program were to: l. Evaluate whether offering the cash value o(subsidized parking is effective in causing employees to change their commute mode away from single occupant vehicles. 2. Evaluate whether employees were willing to forgo use of their employer subsidized parking space for an extended period of time (12 months). 3. Compare perceptions and expectations participants had before the program with actual experiences during the program. 4. Identify any systematic or structural barriers which prevented employers and employees from participating in the program. 5. Identify any possible changes or improvements to the basic program structure as implemented in this demonstration. PROGRAM DESIGN EMPLOYER SELECTION Three employers participated in the demonstration: I) Digital Equipment Corporation ln Bellevue's Central Business District; 2) Ernst Home Centers Corporate Office in Seattle's Central Business District; and 3) Minor & James Medical in Seattle's First Hill district. Screening The following criteria were used to screen potential qualified employers: Provided free or subsidized parking to some or all of their employees. Located in an area where parking hid at least a $30 per month cash value. Able to return leased, but unused, parking spaces back to the lessor on a month-by-month basis. Using the criteria listed above, Market Development staff coordinated with Metro Corporate Transportation Representatives (MCfRs) and Bellevue Transi>ortation Management Association (TMA) staff to compile an initial list of' potential participants. Nine employers were identified and contacted for participation in the demonstration. Of these employers, three agreed and six declined to participate in the demonstration program. AD:MINISTRATION Calculating Payment Amount: Participating employers had to determine whether the subsidy amount to the employee was to be pre or post-taxes (see Tatile 1 below). Federal tax officials recommended withholding 20 percent for-income tax and 7.65 percent for FICA tax purposes. Thus, the total tax liability of any subsidy payment was 27.65 percent. If an employer decided to pay a participating employee a gross subsidy, the employee would receive the subsidy iess 27.65 percent. If an employer decided to pay the employee an after-tax net subsidy, then the amount would have to be grossed-up" to determine the employer's actual cash-out cost. The calculation would be to divide the after ;tax amount by I -0.2765 or divide by 0. 7235. 182

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Table 1 Difference Between Gross an et ubsidv ( 1 0 subsidv). dN S S 0 Amount Employer Amount of Federal Amount Employee Method Pavs Out($) Tax Withheld ($) Receives ($) Gross 100. 27.65 72.35 Net 138.22 38.22 100. Program Registration: Employees were informed at registration that, if they accepted the offer, they would forgo the use of their parking space for at least three months. Funhermore, employees were told the program was available for 12 months. At the time of sign-up, panicipants completed a registration form which included questions about their tit les or positions commute modes prior to joining the program intended commute modes while in the program, and reasons for panicipating for the next three months (see Attachment B). Metro Payments to Employers: The funds tha t Metro supplied f or payments w ere made available through a federal transponation grant. Payments to participating employers were made on a quanerly basis A Request for Purchasing Authority (RPA) was completed by Metro's program manager and submitted to the Purchasing Department for approval. Upon approval, a Material Receipt/Voucher was issued granting the program manager authority to request payment to employers. Metro made two payments to employers to cover the first and second three month periods of an employee's panicipation in the program. The employer was responsible for paying the second six months of an employee's participation. Employer Payments to Emplgy"s: Payments made by employers to panicipating employees were made through regular payroll channels. Employers issued separate checks for t he cash out payment. An alternative method was to directly credit an employee's paycheck the amount of the payment through an employer's computerize d payroll system. None of the participating employers elected to use this method during the demonstration. Employee Tracking: Employers were res p onsible for returning an employee's completed registration form t o Metro every three months. Information from the forms was recorded in a database which tracked length of employee's participation, subsidy payment dates, commute mode prior to and after each three month period, and reason(s) for program panicipation. MARKETING Program promotion was coordinated among Metro's Cash In Your Car program manager, the employer's program administrator or employee transponation coordinator, and Metro's Corporate Transponation Representative. A variety of p romotional strategies were used (see Attachment A), including: kick-off meetings, information posters and flyers, anicles in employee newsletters and company e-mail systems, and endorsement s by participating employees, program administrators and management. 183

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Metro provided the following resources: design and printing of flyers and posters, program procedures and registration forms, gifts for kick-off meetings, lunches for focus group participants. OVERALL FINDINGS EMPLOYER PARTICIPATION Three employers, Digital Equipment Corporation, Ernst Home Centers and Minor & James Medical too)f. part in the demonstration. The number of participating employers was somewhat less than originally desired for the demonstration. Due to only three employers taking part in the demonstration, the quantity of data which could be collected on the program was limited. This may result in data, from one of the employers. undu ly influencing the overall results i n a particular category. As mentioned in the Program Design section, the employer selection pro<;ess defined three primary screening criteria to employer participation. Nine employers were originally selected and contacted for participation, with the three listed aboye eventually accepting the invitation to participate. A number of both anticipated and unantic ipat ed, resulted in the majority of employers either being screened out at the outset or causing them to decline the invitation tq participate in the demonstration. Barriers to Participation A number of significant barriers that prevented employers from participating in the program were identified during the initial employer screening and invitation phases. These barriers included: 1. Employer did not currently subsidize employee parking. 2. Employer is located in an area where the market value of parking was quite low (below $30 per space per month). 3. Employer had a long-term building and parking space lease, on the order of five to 1 5 years. 4. Employer's lease bundled parking spaces together with floor space. 5. Employer used subsidized parking as a perk and reward for employees. The first two barriers were very difficult, if not impossible, for an employer to overcome. It would have been unfeasible and unreasonable for an employer to begin charging its employees for parking just to qualify for this type of cash-out program. In addition, market rates for parking are usually determined by market forces well beyond a single employer's influence. 184

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The third and fourth reasons, having to do with leasing arrangements, could possibly be overcome if extensive time and effort were applied in that direction. This would have required direct involvement in the demonstration by a third party the building's owner or property manager (the lessor). The additional involvement was beyond the scope of the demonstration. Bundling parking in a lease made it ext remely difficult to identify the actual cost of a leased parking space and to return the space, on a month-by-month basis, to the lessor for credit. The fifth reason, using subsidized parking as a perk and benefit, is widely practiced throughout metropolitan areas. This is particularly noticeable once an employee has attained a certain level or position within a company. Once again, addressing the issue and testing different strategies to overcome the barrier was beyond the scope of this demonstration Other .Possible FacJOrs Two other factors may have indirectly contributed to low employer participation in the program. The factors were: Favorable tax code impacts associated with providing subsidized employee parking. Adverse tax code impacts associated with cashing-out employee parking. Until January 1, 1993, the Federal tax code strongly favored employer subsidized parking over alternative transportation benefi ts. For example, subsidized parking incurred no federal tax liability regardless of its value, whereas subsidized mass transit passes were taxed i f their value exceeded $21 per month per employee. This has made it a smart economic move for employers to provide subsidized parking over other types of transportation benefits to their employees. Recent tax code changes, taking effec t on January I 1993, have begun to reduce the inequity. Employer subsidized parking is now taxed if its value exceeds $155. per month per employee. The tax threshold for certain alternative transportation benefits has been raised to $60 per month per employee from $21 per month. Still, a large tax inequity continues to exist between subsidized parking and other employer provided transportation benefits. EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION The number of employees receiving subsidized parking was substantially fewer than the total number of employees at all three of the companies. Furthermore, a notable number of employees were required to have their car on site and available for work purwses at two of the companies, Digital Equipment Corporation and Ernst Corporation (see Table 2 below). Employee participation rates in the demonstration were defined in two ways: I) Percent of all employees at a site, and 2) percent of eligible employees at a site. Because not all the employees at a company were defined as being eligible to participate in the demonstration, the participation rate is the same or higher for method /12 than method Ill at each company (see Table 2) . 1.85

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All Employees and Eligible Employees at a worksite were defined in the following manner: I. All EmployeesAny full-time or part -time employee who commuted to the worksite by any means at least once a day. 2. Eligible EmployeesAll employees, as defined above, who also received free parking and were not required to have the ir personal vehicle at the worksite for work-related purposes. For example, Digital Equipment Corporation employed a sizable number of sales people a t the Bellevue worksite. The saies people were required to use their personal vehicles to carry out their sales duties. An assumption was also made these employees could not maintain regular carpool schedules due to the highly variable nature of their work hours and the occurrence of commuting directly to a customer's worksite from their homes. Thus these employees were no longer eligible for the demonstration and were eliminated from the pool of eligible employees . Tab l e 2 Eml Prti t" Rtesb Eml BPIOYee a cJPa ton a DY Dl>IOYer. All Number %of All Eligible Number % of Eligible Com Employees Participating Participating Employees Participating Participating Digital EQuipment 245 20 8.2% 130 20 15.4% Ernst Corn. 270 4 1.5% 62 4 6.5% Minor& James 183 2 1.1% 85 2 2.4% Digital Equipment Corporation and Ernst Corporation had notably higher participation rates among eligible employees than all employees. A higher participation rate for eligible employees versus all employees is not necessarily a desirable goal in a parking cash-out program. If participation rates are decidedly different, as in Digital's and Ernst's cases, this almost. certainly indicates a large portion of the employees are being excluded from a cash-out benefit. This calls into question the suitabili ty, equit y and economic effectiveness of a cash out benefit. Offering an alternative transportation benefit which is more widely and equitably available to its employees may be a better strategy for an employer. In Minor & James Medical's case, the company had recently made a big drive to convert its workforCe to nonSOV commute options. Thus the remaining eligible employees for the demonstration were commuting by single occupant vehicles either by necessity or by a strong desire to do so. Therefore, they may have been an especially difficult group to convert to a cash-out program. The nature of an employer's business activities may strongly influence the number of employees who can realistically participate in a parking cash-out program. In Digital's case, the need for its sales people to use their personal vehicles for work was a decisive factor in how these employees commuted to work. An employer's core activities should be carefully considered when examining the cash-out strategy as a possible inducement to reducing SOV rates among their employees. 1.86

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CHANGES IN COMMUTE MODE Table 3 below displays the changes in commute mode by number of employees who participated in the program. Table 3 Change in Employee Commute Mode by Employer. Digital E<: ulpment E nstC r I o pornt on Minor & James Mode Before After Before After Before After sov 14 0.5 35 0 2 0 Carooo1 3* 6 0 0 0 0 Bus 3* 12.5 0.5 4 0 2 Vanoool 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other 0 1 0 0 0 0 Total 20 20 4 4 2 2 . Part1al mode dunng the week. Also drove alo n e durmg the week. At each company, participating employees shifted from driving alone to either caiJlooling, riding the bus or some other mode. The data suggests the effectiveness of a parking cash-out incentive to be very high. However, when examining the entire employee population of each company (all employees) in this study, the effect of a parking cash-out incentive is less dramatic. Only a relatively small percentage, between 2 percent and 15 percent of eligible employees, or 1 percent to 8 percent of all employees, actually accepted such an option. Therefore, the overall effectiveness of the parking cash-out incentive was greatly diluted and less than the 20 percent mode change theorized by transportation researchers, such as Shoup, Wilson and Surber. As mentioned previously, a significant number of employees at two of the employment sites were required to have their personal vehic. le available for work-related purposes. Additional reasons why employees chose not to participate in Cash In Your Car are detailed in the section titled Reasons Why Employees Did Nor Panicipate. REASONS WHY EMPLOYEES LEFf THE PROGRAM A total of ten employees, in two companies, who began the program left before completing 12 months in the program. Two primary reasons for leaving the program were: No longer working for the employer. Change in previous commute arrangements. Six of the ten employees who prematurely left the program did so because they no longer worked for that employer. Table 4 below list s the reasons why and the number of employees who left before completing 12 months in the program. 187

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Table 4 Reasons Why Employees Left the Program. Number R t Lea. fErn I easons or vmg 0 nplovees No longer working for the company 5 Change in commute arran11:ements 2 Extended sick or maternity leave I Other Unspecified 2 Total leaving the program 10 REASONS WHY EMPLOYEES DID NOT PARTICIPATE During the demonstration, a number of reasons surfaced as to why employees did not wish to participate in the Cash In Your Car program. Similar reasons were given by employees at all three companies. In addition, a focus group of eight Ernst employees who did not participate was conducted on July.lO, 1992. A copy of the focus group's executive summary can be found in Attachment C. Most frequently cited reasons for not accepting the o ffer of cash for their parking space are: Driving alone gives an employee the freedom of leaving home andlor work when they please. Driving alone .takes substantially less time than commuting by bus. 'Time is money." The amount of money offered is too low. There is no meaningful financial gain because a bus pass or other parking would have to be purchased. Mixed message was received from management concerning free parking and employee status. An issue of safety and desirability exists when riding the bus, parti cularly downtown at night. . The first two and last reasons closely parallel previous data collected by Metro as to why people do not ride the bus . Even so, this does not fully explain why employees do not use modes such as carpooling aildyanpooling . EMPLOYEE SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE PROGRAM Several suggestions were put forth by employees at each company concerning ways to increase the attractiveness of a parking cash-out program: Increase the amount of the cash incentive. Make available several days a month where an employee could drive to work alone and park for free. Offer a free or discounted transit pass in addition to the cash.

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Provide vehicle maintenance, such as oil changes, or other cost offset incentives for carpoolers. Provide a clearer, more consistent message from management about not driving alone to work. Provide additional vacation days for participating in the program. The first suggestion may or may not be feasible for a specific employer to carry out. Each employer will need to examine their resources and financial budget available for a cash-out program. Employees putting forth the last suggestion, additional vacation days, readily admit it is probably not possible for most employers to .offer such a program benefit. Suggestions regarding transit passes, free parking days and carpool service benefits can be part of a larger comprehensive employee transportation program. CONCLUSIONS Cashing out an employer-subsidized parking space has the potential to achieve a high conversion from an SOV commute mode to an HOV or non-motorized commute mode among participants. A high level of mode conversion was clearly evidenced in the demonstration. Countering the mode change success is the issue of low participation among employers and employees. Actual and perceived benefits are currently too low to overcqme the convenience, safety and economic benefits derived from driving a lone and utilizing a subsidized parking space for the vast majority of employees. Therefore, when prog ram benefits are measured against only those who participated, the successes seem great. Yet, when measured against an entire site or region the impacts and successes of the program are relatively small, though not insignificant. When designing future programs util izing the technique of cashing out an employer subsidized parking space, careful planning and consideration must be given to the issue of low participation by employers and employees. If some or all of the previously mentioned barriers can be overcome, cash-out programs can potentially resul t in higher levels of participation among emp l oyers. Participation by employees may be more difficult to address. Conven ience and safety factors are very difficult to quantify among individuals who drive alone to work. For some, no amount of cash will be sufficient for them to trade the convenience and safety of their personal vehicle. For others, the amount of cash necessary for a change may be so high as to make a cash-out program economically infeasible for their employer. 1.89

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RECOMMENDATIONS The first set of recommendations primarily attempt to overcome the barriers to voluntary participation by employers in a cash-out program:. 1. Include building owners or lessors in any future parking cash-out program. A tenant employer must be able to unlease individual parking spaces on a month-by-month basis. 2. Promote reform of current tax laws to equalize deductions between single-occupant vehicle and high-occupant vehicle or non-vehicle commute incentives. 3. Develop and implement HOV supportive commercial development and parking policies. For exaniple, lowering minimum parking standards will likely increase the desire of tenan t employers to investigate and offer alternatives to dtive-alone commuting. 4 Continually educate employers and jurisdictions to the long-term benefits of reducing SOV commuting: Changing .commute habits is a continual, long-term process. The next set of recommendations attempt to address issues and concerns stated by employees as reasons for not participating in a cash-out program: I. Promote existing Metro safety programs for different HOV modes, such as prescreening ridematch partners, monitored park and ride lots and additional security teams on buses. 2. Offer parking cash-out incentives as part of larger, more comprehensive alternative transportation programs. Linking multiple benefits, such as subsidized transit passes and parking cash-{)ut, greatly enhances the desirability of a parking cash-o.ut option. 3. Provide emergency or discretionary parking days each month in conjunction with parking cash-out. Even though employees may relinquish their subsidized parking privileges, they still have an occasional need to drive their vehic1e to work. 4. Provide an equitable alternative benefit to employees who currently do not received free or subsidized parking. Employers must be aware of and sensitive to the issue of equitable employee transportation benefits. FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN PARKING CASH-OUT PROGRAMS BY METRO Metro is currently examining a number of possible options and strategies to make more effective the parking cash-out incentive. These include: I. Offer parking cash-out incentives in combination with a Park Free Days program. 2. Offer parking cash-out incentives in combination 'vith Metro's Home Free Guarantee program. 3. Include parking cash-out incentives as part of Metro's FlexPass agreements with employers. 4. Facilitate negot iations between parking space lessors and lessees to help employers unlease parking spaces on a month-by-month basis. 5. Shorten the time period an employee must commit to a cash-out program, perhaps to a month-by-month basis. :190

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ACKNOWLEDGl\'lEI\'TS The author would like to acknowl edge and thank the following persons for their cont ributions and support of this demonstration project. Allen, George. Metro Corporate Transportation Representative, Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle. Conway Lynne Bellevue TMA Representative, Bellevue Transportation Management Association. Honeyman, Joyce H. Administration Specialist, Digital Equipment Corporation. Lufkin, Donna. Employee Transportation Coordinator Ernst Corporation. Scratchley, David. Employee Transportation Coordinator, Ernst Corporation. Strauss, Jessie. Transportation Planner Intern, Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle. Ward, Anne. Metro Corporate Transportation Representative Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle. Wray JoAnn. Assistant Administrator!Personnel Director Minor & James Medical. 1.9 1

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REFERENCES Badgett, S. L. (1993). "Transportation Demand Management: Case Studies of Medium .Sized Employers." Innovations Unit, Washington State Transportation Commission, Olympia, W A Research and Market Strategy (1992). "1991 Rider/Nonrider Survey." Transit Department, Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle, Seattle, W A. Research and Market Strategy (1990). "1990 Voter Transportation Issues Survey." Transit Department, Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle, Seattle, W A Shoup, D, and Willson, R. (1991). "Employer-Paid Parking: The Problem and Proposed Solutions. Revised draft of research paper presented to Metro, Seattle W A in Dec. 1990. Surber, M., Shoup, D., and Wachs, M. (1984). "Effects of Ending Employer -Paid Parking for Solo Drivers." Transportation Res.earch Record 957, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. 192

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. . CASH. IN YOUR CAR Would you like to reduce your stress level, increase your productivity and at the same time protect the environment? Metro has a plan that will actually pay you cash to enhance the quality of your life! See attached sheets for details. :193

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CASH IN YOUR CAR Metro is offering the Cash In Your Car program to encourage you to get to work by some means other than driving your car. Ernst Corporate Office is the very first company in the nation to test this one-year demonstration program. The program Is partially supported through Metro by a federal grant. In a sense !! employees for whom Ernst has been paying parking costs are participants in the demonstration project. Metro will be looking for a significant amount of feedback. This feedback will involve interviews, surveys, and focus groups conducted at the beginning and end of the program. Participants in the evaluation will include people who sign up for the program as well as people who select to continue parking. How program works You will receive a $100 check each month on the first of the month if you agree to give up your parking space for a test period of three months. After the first three months, you will have the opportunity to sign up for another three-month period followed by a final six-month period. Ernst has already paid the taxes for you so that the $100 is net takechome pay. If you participate for the entire period you will have received $1200 after taxes. How to sign up To receive your first $100 bonus on May first, return the registration form (attached) jto David Scratchiey in the Human Resources Office by April 24th. You may begin participating any time between now and February 1993. In May and June you will receive a reminder that you are still eligible. After July, contact David Scfatchle"Y, 621-3677, prior to the month you want to start participating. 194

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For your wealth Sharing the ride can be a rewarding c;Xperience. Digital Metro will pay you as much as $225 to leave your car at home and uy public transportation! All you need to do is give up your parlcing space for three months. buy a bus pass, carpool or vanpool and pocket the rest. So, take the money and ride. For your environment Our area has the fourth wor:sr uaffic congestion problem in the n ation. Motor vehicles generate more than 40% of a ll air pollution in the state of WashingtOn. Please come to one of these Metro presentations and !Cam all about this exciting. innovative new prognDL CASH IN YOUR CAR Without a personal commitment to public uansporration, single occupancy could deposit over 1,000,000 toru of carbon monoxide in King County alone by the year 2000. For your health Take your hands off the wheel and relieve yourself from tailgating in a cloud of noxious exhaust fumes. Lower your blood TuESDAY SEPTEMBER 15 9:00 A.M. OR 2:00 P.M. Quinault Room pressure by relaxing on a Metro bus or vanpool Concenaare on more productive, meaningful things than the vanity plate on the car ahead. Read, lap-top compute, or simply plan a project. Maybe you could walk or bike to work. For your company Help Digital seek and implement crc:3cive.programs that will meet the requirements of the new state Commute Trip Reduction law. All major employer:s will be directed by law to reduce their employees' drive-alone commutes. If you c:aiulot attend and would like to learn more about how you can Cash In Your Car, please call Joyee Honeyman ar 637-4075. PRIZES e REFRESHMENTS (' 195

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Questions and Answers How do I find out about commute benefits, or how to join a carpool or get to work by bus? Lynne Conway at the Bellevue TMA can help yciu get Into a carpool or provide you with information on which bus to take, where to catch the bus, and how to get a free bus pass the third and sixth months that you ride. Lynne's phone number Is 453-0644. Am I promi$/ng to never drive my car to worlc? No. 1f you find you must have your car for errands on certain days, you may drive to work. The Koll Building provides three free parking days per month for employees who hold transit passes or carpool legular.Jy, and who have registered for the free parking days program. The 'Free Parking Days" flyer in your packet describes the program. What if I have to work late, and I m iss my ride or bus? Or what If I have an emergency? If you find an emergency makes it impossible to return home by your usual commute mode, you may use the Guaranteed Ride Home provided by the Bellevue TMA. May I quit the program at any time? After you sign up for a three-month test period you will not be able to get your parking space /Jack until the end of that period. You will be able to get your parking space back at the end of that period If ypu choose to discont/JJue the In Your Car program. The same conditions apply for the second three-month period and the final six-month phase. Are there restrictions on how I can spend my money? You may spend yourmoney in any way you wish A new stereo? A vacation? You may spend a portion of it on a bus pass or rldeshartng expenses. Actually, you will find you save a great deal in addition to the cash bonus you receive. Total costs for the average auto commuter are $7.81 per day. 1 Do I have other responsibilities beside not parking? . M etro .will be conducting a complete evatuaiion of the cash In Your Car program. We will be Interested In knOWing what does or does not work for you.-. You may be asked to participate In a focus group, an interview andjor a survey; We will also be Including those who do not select the program In the evaluation What Is going to happen at the end of the twetve-ritonth demonstration program? Digital and Metro are testing this program to see how effectively it works tor you and the company. Metro will evaluate the program, and Digital will decide whether to continue, modify, or. discontinue the Cash fn Your Car option. 1 Based upon 20-mile round-trip Includes gas, maintenance, depredation, and Insurance. . 1.96

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(Or, "CASH IN YOUR CAR" -the program } : "I give It a four-star rating%" JoAnn Wray, Transponation C oordiilato r 3 Nordstrom Gift Certificates 19?' ers for 2 at MetropoUtan Grlll and McCormick's $25 Bon Marche Glft Certlflcate

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Cash In Your 'car Digital Registration Form Metro wiq be evaluating the cash In Your Car" program at Digital. Your input wm provide valuable background information for your company's transportation program decisions. Name--------------'Job 1. Prior to receiving the "Cash in Your Car" offer, many days per week did you typically use the f.ollowing means of travel to and frOFJl work? Drive a l one Take the bus Carpool. (two or more people) Vanpool Bike or walk Other (please specify) ------_ days per week days per week -=-da-js per week days per week days per week days per week 2. No;., that you have agreed to "Cash In Your Car", which of the following modes do you intend to use most often to travel to and fro in work?. A. Drive alone D. Vanpool B. Take the bus E Bike or walk C. Carpool (two or more people) F. Other--------3. What is the estimated distance from your home to your office? . I agree'to give up my free p8rking space for the next three months in return for $75 per nionth. I understand that I will receive a separate $75 check (less taxes and withholding) . for. each of the next three months. I understand that I can still drive to work when I really need my carfor work or personal matters, and that when I drive I will use one of my free parking days or pay for my own parking. Name Date .1.98

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Background "Cash In Your Car" Focus Group EXECUTIVE SUMMARY August 11, 1992 The Cash in Your Car demonstration Program is o ffered by Metro to encourage employees to shift from driving alone to work to using a high occupancy vehicle mode. Ernst Corporate Office, In downtown Seattle, is the first company nationwide to test !Dis one-year demonstration. Eligible employees can receive a$100 cheCk each month if they agree to give up th. eir free parking space, init ia lly lor three months. After the three months, employees may sign up lor another threemon th period followed by a final six-month period. Any employees who do not wish to continue can resume the free parklng they had. The program kicked off in May 1992 with 65 management employees, who received free parking and were offered the cash option. Two employees initi ally participa ted, Increasing to four in August. Description of Research On Friday, July 10, 1992 a locus group discussion was conducted with Ernst employees who were offered Cash in Your Car and chose not to participate. The purpose was to learn why non-participants did not take advantage of it, and to obtain input to determine what changes could be made in the program to encourage participation. A group of eight Ernst employees met in a conference room at the Ernst Corporate Offices. Conclusion;; & Recommendations 1) Ernst employees receive a mixed message from management. Free par king is tied to status and work performance which promotes d riv ing alone to work. This conflicts with the corporate message of protecting the environment. Employees with free parklng are mainly mid to upper management level. The participants appeared to be very informed .about Ernst's transportation program and association with the environment. Though they were informed, participants did not acknowledge any direct relations h ip between driving their own car and impacts to the environment To change this thinking, Ernst needs to alter the association employees make with status and parking. The group suggested more promotions focused on impacts to the environment and traffic when you drive alone. Promotions which :199

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include higher management would furthe r support this. 2) Though reducing the parking supply may be the most effective strategy for discouraging driving alone, the group felt it would effect morale and disliked the idea Participants consider parking a benefit to them but if the benefit was taken away, they would still pay to park and would not quit their jobs. A change in behavior could be achieved with in c rem ental steps towards reducing free parklng Including: emp loy ees paying part of the month ly parking cost raising the grade level at which employ!leS automatically receive free parklng assessing which positions need parking 3) "llme is more valuable than money was strongly expressed by participants. They felt that using the bus or other HOV modes takes more time than driving a car. A few participants also felt the $100 cash option would be an additional tax burden on them. To encourage HOV use, participants suggested the follo'(ling: Offer a few free or discount parking days a month in conjunction with the cash option. This gives employees the flexibility of parking only when they have to, and adds additional assurance in case employees feel they occasionally need their cars and cannot comp lete ly give up parklng privileges. . Provide a free bus pass in conjunction with the cash option. The group felt the $100 cash incentive was a "wash" to them because they would have to use this money to buy a bus pass or pay to park somewhere else. Reward carpoolers by providing free lube and oil changes or other cost offsets. Park and Ride lo t Improvements such as: 1) providing closer park and ride lots to park, then employees could complete their trip utilizing frequent shuttle buses, 2) providing services at park and ride lots such as laundromats, child care, espresso, etc., Creation of bus service for "professional riders" that would include: frequent buses bus service after 5:30 p.m. fewer stops (not every two blocks} to increase trip speed more HOV lanes to increase trip speed Offer participants days off from work each month altho ugh participants admitted they probably could not afford to do so. Provide a list of poteritial carpool partners. which includes all Ernst employees. 200

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RESULTS Current Travel Behavior All of the eight participants drive to work. Five drive alone and the other three carpool, taking advantage of their free parking. The carpoolers said that the carpool lanes were very helpful to them because it shortens their travel time. Three participants used to ride the bus, but started driving their car to work after being promoted and receiving free parking. About half the participants considered riding the bus but do not because it takes two to thre'e times longer than driving. Some living In the suburbs said the buses 'stop running after 5:30 or 6:00 p.m.'. Some felt the other bus passengers and people waiting for a bus (especially on 2nd Avenue), as one person said, "are not my kind of people'. The major reason given for needing their car is that they "do not work regular hours". At least one of the participants said they have to get to the office early. All agreed that they regu l arly stay at least 45 minutes after the office closes. The independence of travelling by car was very important to these people. Ernst's Employee Transportation Program For the most part, when participants were asked to explain what was offered in Ernst's transportation program they described free parking for a certain level of employees and a subsidized bus pass for others. A few added the Cash in Your Car Program. Participants voiced that Ernst provides these benefrts because 'it is hard to get people to come downtown and because the company cares about the environment". One participant felt that because of a recent law "the government or King County' may be motivating Ernst to encourage employees not to drive alone to work. What's offered In cash In Your Car"? When asked to describe the Cash In Your Car Program, participants gave a tun range of answers from nothing ("don't remember"), "first time heard of the program' to detailed elements of the program {$100 a month for three months, then another three months, up to a full year, transit and carpool information, and. guaranteed ride home). Most of the participants strongly agreed that the $100 a month was 'a wash' since the employee has to find and pay for another parking space somewhere else, or spend $50 to buy a bus pass. As one employee said, 'You're giving up too much for what you're getting'. 201

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"Time is money" and "time is a lot more important than money" were strongly ex pressed in reference to giving up driving and taking the bus; which many felt takes much longer than commuting by car. Another Incentive suggested as more appealing is giving emp l oyees a bus pass and tickets for several days of free parking a month. They felt this would enable employees to drive only when it was absolutely necessary instead of every day. Opinions of Presentation Materjals Four of the participants attended a "Cash In Your Car" presentation sessions. They genefally liked the presentation and materials distributed. One participant was not interested in attending a presentation after reading the materials received beforehand. Participants focused on the list of potential carpool partners they received. Most did not find the computer printout useful. They thought It covered too broad of a geographic area The group agreed that the printout would be more useful if It Included all Erilst employees, not confined to employees with free parking. One participant said she was very Interested in carpooling if she could find another employee living near her. Participants Reasons tor Not partjcjpat!ng Following are the main reaso n s given by the group for not taking part in the program: Commuting by car gives them independence to leave home and leave work when they please. Travelling by automobile is faster than using a bus Time is money The $100 a month incentive does not profit them because they have to use the money for parking somewhere else or to buy a bus pass They would feel uncomfortable and unsafe using a bus because of the kind of people who wait and ride the buses downtown, especially late at night. Participants Suggestions to Make Progrnm Attractive Giving employees $100 a month or more is not a strong inducement for this level of employees to give up their free parking space. When asked how much money they would accept to give up their space, individuals commented: 1) $3,000 tax credit, 2) $500 a month 3) "if you got enough money to pay for parking somewhere else and money left over". When emp loyees were asked how they felt if they had to pay an or halt of the parking

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cost they said it would cause discontentment among employees, but if they had to pay for parking they would. All said they would continue to dr ive to work even if they had to pay. The majority of the group felt this would be an erosion of their beneirts which were offered when tak ing their position, and they wondered what would be reduced next. At the same time, they also admitted that none of their benefits were exempt from changes and they would not quit their jobs if they lost free parking. Suggested program changes include: Offer 4 fr ee parking days a month in conjunction with the cash option Offer a bus pass in conjunction with cash opti on to reduce the "wash" of having to use the money to buy your own pass Extra days off for participating in place of or in addition to cash though they said taking tim e off may not be reasonable for them to do. Reward carpoolers by giving a lube and oil change, or other cost offset. Two suggestions not directly tied to program: One i dea that received a fair amount of discuss ion was establishing closer park and ride lots to park at, then completing trips on frequent shuttle buses. Creation of bus service for professional riders" th a t would include: frequent buses bus service after 5:30 p.m. fewer stops (not very two blocks) to increase trip speed more HOV lanes to increase trip speed One participant added that Metro must decide who they're going to market bus service to: the "professionals" or 'others". 203

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Meeting the Clean Air Act Bead-On: Chicago's CNG eommuter Yanoool Initiative Authors: Deborah Boldt, Mobile Source Prognims and Mary Bucbbeid, TDM Manager City of Chicago, Department of Environment Abstract The City of Chicago has found a creative way to tackle the solo commuter problem while address ing the need to bum cleaner fuel: utilizing vanpools that bum natural gas. The City developed this initiative in response to the Trip Reduction and Clean Fuel Fleet ordinances of tbe 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments which.require public and pri v ate sector organizations to implement programs to encourage the use of clean fuels as well as to reduce singl e -occupancy commuting. The vanpool program was designed to demonstrate the economic aild environmental benefits qf employing alternative fuel vehicles in a trip reduction program. The program is funded by a Congestion Mitigation Air Quality grant from the Federal Transi t Administration and a grant from the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force to provide a user-subsidy o f approxi m ately 30% to encourage vanpool formation. As a major employer located in a severe ozone non-attainment area, the City of Chicago i $ mand ated to implement an Employee Commute Options (ECO) program. The City has designed a program which encourages employees to rideshare, bicycle or use public transit to commute to work. Based on the positive experience and low implementation costs of the vanp ool program, the Chicago Department of Environment has developed and is administering a City wide transportation demand management program for over 12,000 employees. The ability of muni c i palities to effectively form alliances with private-sector organizations who can assist an employer in reducing worktrips is critical to a city's ability to successfull y remain an attracti v e site for business growth and to retain its existing job base. Successful placement of cl ean fuel commuter vanpools enables Chicago employers to reach their trip reduction targets with less difficulty and at l ess expense. The succe-Ss of these trip reduction programs helps prepare for the ECO implementation and provides tried and tested incentives to motivate people to leave their cars at home. 204

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Introduction Chicago's Employee Commute Options Demonstration Project How we get to and from work has never been a top priority of employers until now. New federal and state laws make employee commuting habits a top priority. With a 1995 deadline, over 6,000 Chicago-area employers will have to file a trip reduction plan with the State of Dlinois. In order to get a head start, the City of Chicago Department of Environment developed a model ECO program. The demonstration project provided an opportunity for the City to get involved early and develop the best possible solutions for reducing vehicle travel before compliance plans are due. The purpose of the demonstration project was to develop a model in which innovative and realistic strategies to reduce Single Occupancy Vehicle (SOY) commuting could be defined, demonstrated, and shared with other City departments and municipalities as well as private employers to help comply with the new Clean Air Act regulations. The eighteen month City of Chicago Employee Commute Options Demonstration Program (ECO) model program was administered by the Chicago Area Transportation Study (CATS). It was conducted from August 1992 -December 1993 at two worksites, one located in the central business district and one located in a remote industrial area. Trip reduction efforts were concentrated at the outlying site where access to transit was limited. Methods were tested that encouraged employees to use public transportation, bicycle or to rideshare, rather than driving to work alone. The City was used as an urban laboratory, to test a variety of incentives to increase vehicle occupancy City employees participated in several focus groups, providing additional information to the initial survey. The focus group findings enabled the incentives to be custom-designed to the needs of employees. Analysis of the survey data and focus groups responses revealed that the outlying site had a rideshare-compatible environment versus being transit-user friendly. Consequently, the van pool program was developed for employees and it became the most successful auto reduction activity used during the ECO demo program. The dual-fuel vans, provided by VPSI Commuter Services, Inc., were able to run on either compressed natural gas or gasoline. 205

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Commuter Vanpool Subsidized Program Vanpools are an efficient way to ir)crease the APO in an area where transit is not a convenient option. The vanpools work because they use a transportation method that employees are already familiar with driving and turn it into an energy efficient commute option. They, life also a safe way to commute in inclement weather, which make them a good year-round option. The vanp.ool program was the most widely accepted trip reduction strate&y in the Chicago's ECO demonstration project On the fmal ECO survey, twenty-five vanpool participants commented that the service was a comfortable and economical ride to and from work. The Chicago Area Transportation Study (CATS) reported the current results of the demonstration project as having a 17% increase in ridesbaring activities, such as carpooling and vanpooling. was the primary incentive promoted at t!te outlying site during the demonstration, including both carpooling and vanpooling. AI one outlying site, five vanpools and eighteen carpools were formed during a three month period in 1993, removing forty-three cars daily. How it Works The City of Chicago contracted with a vanpool service provider, VPSI, a subsidiary of the Chrysler Corporation. VPSrprovided a turn-key operation including the dual-fuel equipment, maintenance and insurance. The program features dual-fuel vans operating on gasoline or compressed natural gas. The fuel capacity of the 9 and 15 passenger dual-fuel. van is 1,562 cubic feet of gas which equals 12.5 gallons of gasoline, or a range of approximately 150 miles. The vanpool program iS available to employers located within the City of Chicago who are affeeted by the Employee Commute Options Ordinance of the Clean Air Act. Worksites are targeted that are not conveniently serviced by public transit. . A two-year Congestion MitigatiOf\. and Air Quality Grant (CMAQ) from the Federal Transit Administration provides a 35% user-side subsidy (approximately $300/vanpoolper month) to offset the cost of participation. The Urban Consortium Energy Task F orce also awarded a project grant to Chicago for the development of technology transfer tools as previously mentioned. The City administers tbe request for subsidy submitted by the private vanpool service provider, VPSI Commuter SerVices, Inc. The monthly billing shows the subsidy payments credited to each vanpool group for the prior month's operation. Vanpool group rates are set by VPSI to recover the vehicle operating costs (fuel, oil, maif!tenance., tires, repairs, etc.), the vehicle's capital costs, and the costs for administration and marketing of the program. The responsibility for the day-to-day operation lie with VPSI and the volunteer vanpool drivers. Passenger service charges are collected through the volunteer varipool drivers and then submitted to VPSI cor:Porate headquarters. 206

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Van Pool Formation and Strategic Planning: Strategies have been developed to enroll participants and identify home-end target areas for focused work-end commute trips. VPSI has developed synchronized schedules and van routes based on employee commute patterns and profiles and w ill hold formation meetings for employees to funher explore interest in participating in the City's vanpool subsidy program. Both the City of Chicago and VPSI representatives have established the following strategic plan for this project: +Selection of participants through direct mail promotions to major Chicago employers with (100+ employees) informing them of the availability of dual-fuel commuter vanpools and available incentive subsidies. Assemble lists of prospective passengers and drivers. +Formation of vanpool groups at specific sites based on the employee responses from the mailings surveys and promotionalfoutreach events. Conduct survey of interest among employees through payroll mechanism or other distribution means. Hold formation meetings for employees to funher explore interest in participating as a passenger or as a driver. +Formation of vanpool groups Hold formation meetings for employees to explore interest in participating as a passenger and recruit those interested in being drivers. Assemble lists of prospective passengers and drivers. Enroll participants through a volunteer driver agreement. All drivers and back-up drivers are required to hav e a good driving record and credit history in order to be enrolled in the program. VPSI uses the local Metropolitan Planning Organization rideshare matching system to recruit passengers and interested drivers. +Development of vanpool routes and schedules based on the home-end target areas and work-end commute patterns as well as zip code ranges. Provide a vanpool roster of passengers to driver and the City. +Identification of home-end target areas for focused work-end commute trips and peak travel periods and work shifts. Development of vanpool routes and schedules based on target areas and work schedules. MarketingfPromotion: + PromotlonaVrnarketing strategies were devised to raise employee awareness and educate those participating in the program. Customized materials and promotional items were developed and along with informational material for employers and employees in order to communicate the program benefits. +Promotional materials have and will be distributed at ECO affected employment sites and at promotional events and activities throughout the duration of the program. 207

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Promotional Items include: brochures, posters, and other informational materials Utilization of a contact database software for contacts, mailings and distribution of program materials. Training and Education: A complete employee education and training program is offered as part of the vanpool initiative VPSI holds passenger orientation meetings and conducts driver briefing courses. Driver record checks are conducted initially and .periodically throughout the duration of the vanpool operation. Driver briefing and passenger orientation workshops include information on benefits, insurance liability issues, costs, responsibilities, vehicle options, rate scheduling and adoption of vanpool rules which will have to be agreed upon by all parties, (passengers and drivers). Driver record checks are conducted initially and periodically, as well as credit checks on potential drivers. Drivers sign contracts. A safety video, entitled, "The Vanpool Difference" focuses on driver safety while operating a VPSI van. Each driver, upon program acceptance, is issued a safety videQ and is required to view it. Equipment Procurement: VPSI develops a system of procuring and acquiring vehicles for drivers. Standard policies and agreements of acceptance are available for drivers and passengers participating in the program. Program Monitoring and Evaluation: The objective of the program monitoring is to provide a means to moni tor and evaluate the ongoing results of the program once implementation of the vanpools has begun. Functions to be supported are: education, marketing and management. The program does this through focusing on the data base, participation levels, attrition and incentives. The installation of a monitoring program requires three procedures: 1 ) establishing the site specification and baseline participation, 2) developing policies and procedures for program operation and 3) continuing education and enrollment of the employee population. Records are kept by vanpool drivers of their fuel consumption by type of fuel (CNG or gasoline), their ridership, and estimates of emission reductions tabulated. The administrative costs, subsidy costs and any administrative obstacles encountered and overcome are doc!lfllented to evaluate the efficacy of this public/private partnership strategy to comply with CAAA employee commute opt1ons requirements. Amoco Corporation is also developing a system to monitor and track the CNG fuel use for this initiative Thi s data will be used to evaluate emissions reduction benefits. 208

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Evaluation of tbe driver and passenger satisfaction. Continue to recruit drivers and riders and the worksites quarterly based on participation levels. Provide a feedback mechanism and evaluate the comparative efficiency of the program. A system was established to monitor the success of incentives and participation levels. Subsidy per Vanpool FTA capital assistance is permitted to be paid for capital consumed in the provision of vanpool services. Consistent FT A policy on the capital Cost of Contracting, "consumption would be measured by the capital depreciation charge included in the monthly vanpool service charge extended to vanpool groups. To be consistent with the FT A policy, VPSI proposed the subsidy be valued at $312.50 per month. This value should provide a smooth funding transition after the first year of the initiative. Market Riders Subsidized Rate/Month per Van Rate/Month $121 9 $86 109 10 78 99 11 71 91 12 65 84 13 60 78 14 56 This comparison is drawn for an average Chicago VPSI Commuter Vanpool that has a Daily Roundtrip Commute Mileage of 73 miles. Rates vary with mileage as well as the number of passengers in the van on a monthly basis. Chicago has a minimum 38 DRTM, Chicago maximum 120 DRTM. The noted rate estimates do not include fuel costs. Procram Administration: The City of Chicago Department of Environment administers the program and coordinates all activities and events in conjunction with VPSI Commuter Vanpools. The City also administers requests for payments and disburse funds based on ridership and fuel consumption information to both passengers and drivers. Transferable Elements Records are kept by vanpool drivers of their fuel consumption by iype of fuel (CNG or gasoline), and their ridership Estimates of emission reductions will be tabulated by VPSI. The administrative costs, subsidy costs and any administrative obstacles encountered and overcome will be documented t o evaluate the efficacy of this public/private partnership strategy. The 209

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' following list includes project results which will serve as a model/sample for other employers that need to develop programs to reduce drive alone commutes and programs that increase th. e use of alternative fuels. Dual Fuel Fleet Growth The success or failure of the initiative can be evaluated (in part) by the growth of the dual-fuel vanpool fleet. The program must be attractive to the consumer for commuting to woi"k. The attractiveness is reflected in the growth of vanpooling. Ridership-Vanpool occupancy counts and surveys of prior commute modes will provide the diversion rate to be used to calculate the cost per vehicle mile of travel reduced, and the cost per ton of emission reduction achieved. Fuel -Fuel (CNG and gasoline) purchase logs and odometer readings will provide the information necessary to determine the emission reductions With this information i n hand, cost-benefit analysis can be done and comparisons drawn between other initiatives and transportation programs. Job CreationThe U S. automotiv e industry creates an estimated 15 jobs for every 100 vehicles produced. In those terms, this project would create between 5 and 10 new jobs in the auto industry, as most vanpool commuters do not sell their old commute vehicle (they typically use it only for recreational purposes). Job Retention The City of Chicago and other urban areas impacted by the Clean A i r Act Amendments are concerned about their "competitiveness" and their ability to retain their job base. This project is designed to provide incentives to major Chicago emp l oyers to participate in vanpooling (especially alternative fuel vanpooling) as a viable, cost-effective way to meet the employee trip reduction requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments. During year two 1994-1995, the vanpool program will include a research component to determine the feasibility of applying for Federal Transit Administration Section 9 funds as an on-going revenue generator to continue the vanpool subsidy program in future years. The project will explore the potential for this program to become a recipient of federal assistance under the FTA Section 15 Reporting system, to enable the program to become self sustaining The Section 9 Formula Program makes Federal grants available to urbanized areas for the operation, costs of facilities and associated capital costs used in mass transportation service. Vanpool services which are located in urbanized areas with a population of over 200,000 are eligible for funding from Section 9 funds. The FTA Section 9 Fiscal Year 1994 Formula Grant Apportionments provides revenue for each vehicle mile travelled (.036181747/mile) and an additional incentive tier apportionment for each mile travelled (.00345797/mile) to the vanpool service in receipt of the Section 9 grant apportionment. Approximately 70 vans in operation could generate over $80K in additional revenue. Z:10

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Dual-Fu el Application Introduction of dual-fuel commuter vans will encourage acceptance of CNG as a viable alternative fuel, and will increase the practical range of the daily commute. If a dual fuel van travels out of a range of a natural gas refueling station, the vehicle can run on gasoline until it r eturns. As a part of this program, an investigation into the use of fuel-makers (slow fill compressors) will be done to determine fueling capabilities at the worksite and at home. While Amoco Corporation has been responsive to the need to install CNG refueling, the CNG fuel distribution network is not developed to the point where it is practical for the retail consumer to purchase a solely CNG vehicle. This situation will change over time, but in the interim steps, need to be taken to I) familiarize the consumer with CNG as a viable fuel, and 2) to create retail demand for an expanded supply of C NG retail distribution points. The option of CNG fuel or regular unleaded gasoline is at the discretion of the vanpool participants. CNG fuel emits less pollutants and is less expensive than the regular unleaded gasoline used by millions of Americans. Although air quality improvement I trip reduction credit s are not defmed for Chicago at this time, the Los Angeles experience can be looked to for guidance. There, vanpools provide employers with a 10 to I trip reduction cred i L Dedicated CNG vanpools provide a 16 to I credit. It is reasonable to expect that a dual fue l vanpool would be afforded a rating of between IQ-16 to I for employers in the Chicago region. Placement of dual fuel commuter vanpools would assist Chicago employers to reaching their trip reduction targets. In the near future, Americans will be able to purchase this type of cleaner burning fuel for their vehicles at gas stations throughout the Chicago land area. Conclusion The continuation and expansion of the project will provide the Chicago ozone non -attainment area with a model alternative fuel vanpool program that will encourage employers to get a head start on ECO compliance activities, as well as to incorporate a self-sustaining funding mechanism The success or failure of the project will be determined by the acceptance of vanpools as a VMT and emission reduction technique 211

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APPROXIMATE MONTHLY COST ANALYSIS DRTM* CAR 4IN CA R 20mi $37.60 25mi $47.00 30mi $56.40 35mi $65.80 40mi $75.20 45mi $84.6 0 50mi $94.00 55mi $103.40 60mi $112 .80 65mi $122 .20 70mi $131.60 VPSI, INC,. COST PER PASSENGER SM VAN 7JN VAN $42.07 $47.50 $49.36 $51.11 $53.07 $57.79 $59.64 $61.50 $63.36 $69.50 $71.36 MED VAN 9IN VAN $32,72 $36 .94 $38.39 $39.83 $41.28 $44.94 $46 .39 $47 .83 $49.28 $54.06 $55.50 LG VAN 12 IN VAN $48.29 $49.38 $50.46 $51.54 $52.63 $56.21 $57.29 $58.38 $59.46 $65 54 $66.63 LG VAN 15 IN VA N $38.63 $39.50 $40.37 $41.23 $42 10 $44.97 $45.83 $46.70 $47.57 $52.43 $53.30 DRIVE ALONE VS COST .';; $150.40 ....... $263.20 $300.80 '"'' ... $376.00 . . . !" .-r . $413.60 ,: .,..... $488.80 15mi $141.00 $73 .21 $56.94 $67.71 $54 17 i:J $564.00 ... -Based on PSI, Inc. and AAA cost work
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Using Strategy Scenarios to Plan Benchmark. a nd Improve ECOP Effectiveness Abstract Jeffrey L. Co r nett V P & Partne r C ornett Inform a ti o n E n gineering 213 Mea d ows E n d R oa d M on r oe, CT 06468 Phone: 203 9556 FAX: 203-452-0764 Strategy scenarios are often used by business planners to evaluate ahemative financial, marketing and SD'ategic plans. This management science technique can also apply to Employee Commute Options Planning (ECOP). Ramer than propose one single ECO plan for management approval, suggest several alternative scenarios for management to consider. Scenarios help management make better informed and more creative decisions about expense levels, program options, and performance objectives. Multipl e scenarios also spare you the risk !hat your sing l e recommended proposal would get rejected b y management. M ethods for conceiving and documenting strategy scenarios range from the classical "back of an envelope" approach to elaborate computerized profiles. Various conceptual models can help you brainstorm a range of scenario alternatives. These models include the peiformance leverage rrwdel, the market elasticity pricing model, and the st rategy triangle. Published resean:h studies, allhough scarce, shed additional insight into the cost side of your proposal. Better yet, local benchmarlcing studies can yield insight into those actual ECO practioes used in your geographic area. Each benchmark plan represents another potential scenario for how your company might operate its own program. Funher insight can be gained by examining case studies where strat egy scenarios were actually used by management to plan their ECO programs. Three case studies are cited that include companies with radically different environments, and therefore a diverse range of sttategy scenario options. In each company, multiple scenarios were used to illusrrate strategy options, decid e the budget, and compro m ise t oward the most cost effective ECOP ap proach. Cornett Infotrn>lion Engineering (2038-9556) 01{25/94 213

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Introduction We have all heard horror stories about employee transportation coordinators (ETC's) who have had a series OfECO Plan proposals rejected by management. In the end, the final approv< plan hardly resembles the original proposal. Typically, the original proposal is a very competitive, quality proposal with a "reasonable" budget-a very professional effon by industry standards. Unfonunately, management has trouble understanding why anything has to be done, much less spend a lot' of money, or worse yet, try to change established policies and practices in ways 'that potentially threaten employee productivity and morale. In this new and evolving field of transponation demand management (TOM), nearly everyone is going through a learning curve. The ETC .must learn to master a combination of transportation, behavioral, and decision sciences. You can learn transportation science (commute options and support services) along with regulatory requirements in various training workshops. The behavioral science side of ECOP is part of tlte "art" of human resources management-mostly common sense but with consideration to local policies and management practices. The decision sciences have hardly been applied to the TDJ\o{ field, but will increasingly be used as commuter trip reduction gets taken more seriously' by business and regulatory agencies. . The fact is that employee commuting behavior can be changed through a combination of barrier removal, meaningful incentives and psychological pressure (marketing). However, in most cases, there is very little perceived business value to be gained by managing the commute. Therefore, how do you persuade management to adopt the kind of progra m that results in meaningful change? More fundamentally, is it really in the best interests of business to adopt more radical commute management approaches? Part of your job as ETC is to help educate management on t he range of op tions available to them. Your senior management has not and probably never will attend ECOP class. They usually have an excellent grasp of what it takes to actually change peoples' behavior, but often lack an understanding of why that makes sense from a business perspective. When you propose alternative scenarios, it helps to educate management on the range of options available to them and their consequences. It is also a means t o bring management into the decision-making process. If they feel as if it is their proposal, they will suppon it better. They may also come up with more creative approaches than you would have dared propose in a single recommendation to management. Definition What is a "scenario"? Webster's Dictionary defines scenario as a "synopsis of a projected course of action." You propose the course of actiQn, and summarize its consequences. It is a mini-plan, along with a summary of how well you expect it to work. The key is to keep it brief, so that you can present simultaneous alternatives to consider. Also, make it wen organized so that the variations can be eaSily identified. Fmally, make it comprehensive in scope so that it covers the full range of cause and effect reasoning. Comeu Information En&ineering (203-268-9556) 07fl.5/94 214

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Components of an ECO Plan Include in each scenario all of the major components of a plan, plus your interpretation of its effectiveness. The "leve rage model"' diagram in Exhibit l is one way to illustrate the components of an ECO Plan. This leverage model is based on the metaphor that you have a heavy weight to lift You must get people to change their commute behavior. Depending on your environment this is usually a very difficult taSk. You must also get regulatory approval for your plan (unless you are working in a non-regulated worksite). Depending on review standards, regulatory approval may be relatively easy or d ifficult. Finally, you must devise an ECO Plan that is acceptable to the business. The business requires that your program be at a reasonable cost while not damaging to business productivity or employee morale. If managemem concludes that the required behavioral change will require excessive business sacrifice, then your planning process may degenerate into simply how much will i t take to get regulatory approval. In this case, the tone of your planning effort becomes "how little can you get away with doing" rather than "how much can you do" to promote this program. Listen to others i n your company and in other benchmark companies. Which question are they asking: "How !"ttl "H h "? e . or owmuc .... Continuing the leverage metaphor, you must create a force to lift the above weightS. This can consist of financial incentives. In theory, financial incentives alone, could accomplish your objective. Everyone has their price. In practic e, most businesses can not or will not spend what it would take to change commute behavior through financial incentives alone. Skillfully done, marketing strategies can be more cost effective than financial incentives. A coordinated set of financial and marketing strategies may create a synergistic force for change. How much weight needs to be lifted and how much force is required depends on your environment. The most favorable environment would be one where a wide range of commute alternatives are practical, where the organizational environment does not conflict but rather supports employee commute flexibility, and where the composition of the workforce is favorable (lower wage sca l es and home addresses that match the best commute alternatives). Other favorable environmental factors include the degree of enthusiasm by each of the various stakeholders in this process (employees, management, ETCs, and government support agencies), plus the skill that management possess es to influence their workplace culture. Often, when you have an unfavorable environment, your most cost effective strategy is to improve your environment through improved commuter services and organizational policies, rather than throw money into roore generous incentives and more extensive marketing. Your proposed scenarios should include all of these cause and effect considerations. When you compare one scenario with another, do so while explaining the embedded if-then else reasoning. There are always tradeoffs to consider in achieving the right "balance for your business between ECOP investmentS and the expected performance for your environment. Cornett Informa tion Engineering_(203-9556) 21S. 07/25/94"

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. \ Your Success Depends On Dollars and Strategy ECOP Decision Making: E xhibit 1 Bu s i n es s Productivity Propose 3 Alternative Scenarios Ex h i bit 2 Highest Reasonable Cost Lowest Possible .._ ____ ....,; Cost Most creative Alternative Comeu Informati o n Engineering (203-268-9556) 07{15/94 21.6

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Varieties of Scenarios For commute options planning, it is usually sufficient to paint three alternative scenarios -a high cost, a low cost and a most creative alternative. See Exhibit 2. The Highest Reasonable Cost scenario should be based on competitive benchmarks appropriate to your environment (industry and geographic location). Make your best recommendation based on your concept of a reasonable spending level. This should be the highest amount that seems justified by competitive benchmarks and which still has a chance of receiving management approval. This high cost proposal might not be sufficient to allow you to be completely confident that your program will work at the desired level of effectiveness. However, it should be high enough in cost to enable you to construct a program that is above average in quality, and therefore, carries a high degree confidence that it would result in regulatory approval. This is your model, textbook plan. The Lowest Possible Cost scenario is something management always asks to see. The low cost scenario is your absolute bare bones proposal. II relies on publicly funded services, modest policy changes, basic marketing steps, and other low cost, easily administered program features. It is the least you could possibly do and still have some chance of regulatory approval. Unless you are operating in an extremely favordble environment, your low cost scenario is unlikely to achieve the desired performance change, but still has a remote chance of success. It sati$fies one interpretation of the "convincingly demonstrate" test -your regulatory reviewer may not be able to convincingly demonstrate that your program will fail (although they may have serious doubts). Don't wait for management to ask for the lowest cost approach to ECOP. Propose it on your own initiative. This is your chance to demonstrate your appreciation for the cost-conscious business perspective. It shows you are flexible and have an open mind. It also transfers the accountability for the decision to management! When you compare the performance expectations and risks of the high and low cost proposals, you are educating management, involving them in strategy selection, and enabling them to assume responsibility for the risks of underachieving. The good news is that when you involve management and enable them to make an informed decision, they will rarely choose the lowest cost option. They may start low, but a compromise between your highest and lowest cost scenarios is usually the result. Therefore, propose your highest high and your lowest low, and work towards an intelligent compromise. If worst comes to worst, and management chooses the lowest cost route, be supportive. Yet, make sure everyone understands the risks and potential consequences of this decision. It's now up to the regulatory agencies to do their job and judge your plan to be within or outside their approval standards. Depending on which scenario gets approved internally, ETC's sometimes find themselves hoping the regulatOry agency rejectS their plan. This enables the ETC to go back and ask management to reconsider a higher cost plan that the ETC may have really preferred. If the regulatory agency does not reject a weak plan, then by definition, management was right in choosing such a plan, and you were right in trusting management's business instincts! Cornell Information Engineering (203 -268-9556) 07{25/94' 21.7

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Pricing Models: Exhi bit Does Money Motivate? 3 PriceVolume Elasticity Curve "' Con\Jtr a.lto:.l*'l; "3 if .. -.. AwrDt ;. = .,< _., MMII cc.bi"'tSWilth . (/)g . . . . &3 . . . """"". . .....,.: _..,. -. . : 0 . . ...... . . . "' / : ,....; : ... ....... : -. 0 1 7 .. I nce ntive Price Per Day Price-Volume Elasticity Models: The New Jersey Study* Exhibit 4 $0.00 $ 1,00 $2.00 $3.00 Daily Rldesllare Subsidy $3.00 $2.00 -rl
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ECO planning could be as simple as negotiating the right budget level and submitting your best corresponding proposal based on your prioritized list of program features. However, it can be a lot more interesting than that. Propose a third scenario that is your most creative alternative. In your creative alternative, you are trying to find some other sttategy than one based on dollars and incremental program features. Creative alternatives often are based on inno vative policies--such as compressed work weeks, telecommuting, and new ways of scheduling flextime or ovenime. They may also include innovative, high profile marketing approaches. The tradeoff is not so much financial cost, but may involve risk to disrupting the workplace, or risk by trying something new and untested in your environment. Often, the .creative scenarios are designed based on taking advantage of unique aspects of your organizational environment. (See case studies.) By adding t his creativity dimension to your decision space (the aiangle in Exhibit 2), you may be able to reach agreemen t on a plan that has a greater chance of success and/or a lower net cost. This is your goal. lf your creative alternative costs you more to achieve the same results, then by definition it is not creative! Try again. When management is confronted with choosing or compromising berween the high and low cost scenarios. they may be very interested in considering creative alternatives. This is part of the educational process that scenarios can offer. A creative proposal in the absence of the two other scenarios may look too radical of a proposal. When compared to your high and low cost scenarios, the creative alternative may seem like an excellent compromi se over just spending more money. In summary, choose three scenario options that define those extremes worth management consideration. Expect to reach a compromise somewhere in the middle. However, be prepared management ju st might choose one of your extreme scenarios. Never propose a scenario that you could not endorse based on some reasonable blend of business and environmental priorities. Budget Guidance Two of your scenarios should test the extremes of your ECO spending limitS, but what are these limits? What is the right amount t o spend? What is the incremental effect of spending a linle more or a little less? The body of literature is still very limited on the t opic of "how much bang for the buck." For those that are considering direct financial incentives, one anicle worth reading i s by Beaton, Meghdir, and Carragher!. A few years ago, they surveyed a corporate headquarters worksite in New Jersey using a "stated preference" survey and some advanced statistical analysis. Without getting into the details of their approach, their research findi ngs support two common sense insights. First, their survey suggests that employees will respond to i ncentives according to the principles of marketing sc i ence Employee commute choice can be planned based upon the concept of a price -volume elasticity curve See Exhibit 3 f or a theoretical illustration (not real data). In other Cornell Information Engineering (203-268-9556) 21.9

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How much will thi s co s t? Exhibi t s Survey Results: $Per Employee Source : Kenne t h Tl'l!DaRQtll!U.QD July 1993 LOW AVERAGE IDG H $ 12 $ 7 0 $ 86 $25 $ 105 $ 7 50 $237 $106 $ 304 $ 382 . Varies Dep e nding on : Accounting Met hods; Sca le; & s t rat eg y Accounting Methods: Exhibit 6 Budgeted vs. Actual Cost So how much can $ 1.00 / day co st? 260 d a ys x $ 1.00 x 5 0 % = $ 130 /year/e mplo y ee 260 day s x $1.00 x 10 % = $26 / year / emplo yee Cornett Information Enginoering @l:l-268 9556) CJT/25/94 220

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words, greater financial incentiv e s can lead to a great er percentage of emp l oyees choosing a commute alternative. Secondly, the size of the incentive required to motivate a significant percentage change within the workforce is likely to be well above the typical $1.00 per day subsidy level. In the absence of parking fees, a daily rides bare subsidy of $3.00 per employee would lead in this worksite to an increase in APO of 13.7%. If the environment were modified to include a guaranteed ride home program, the $3.00 subsidy would result in a 19.3% increase. Exhibit4 shows a graph cross referencing the effects of different combinations of parking fees and rideshare subsidies. Of course, your environment will be different The e l asticity of your workforce would need to be surveyed separately to create your own curves panicular to your environment In any case, it is likely that "oivial" subsidies will have little impact in any given workforce, but extremely lucrative subsidies combined with heavy parking fees coul d l ead to nearly any level of change desired assuming you can afford the cost (both financial and employee relations). Another anicle of note is by C Kenneth Orski 2 in which he cites several research studies on typical ECOP spending levels in California. Some highlights are summarized in Exhibit 5. These studies and results vary widely, but the "magic number" that seems to be the most realistic is an average spending level of $105 per employee. For the average company, a high cost scenario should be at this level or above. A low cost scenario should be below this level. Economy of scale will also have a very great effect on what is a reasonable high or low cost benchmark for your worksite. When considering benchmark costs, be very sensitive to the differences between budgete d costs and expected actua l costs. The regu l atory process requires you to forecast success with your program, regardless of what you actually expect to happen. Therefore, if you offer a subs idy, your forecasted budget may be much higher than what will actually happen if your program is not successful. The difference can be very extreme (as illustrated in Exhibit 6). For a typical suburban worksite, a dollar per day program may require you to budget $130 per employee per year just for thi s subsidy (forecasted to be paid to half your employees each day). More realistically, if your subsidy proves ineffective and only 10% of your employees use it, your actual cost will be only $26 per employee per year. With a subsidy type incentive, you create a very substantial business incentive for your program to fail. In this examp le, if your ECO Program fails miserably, the business will save $104 per employee per year in commute subsidies. Documenting Scenarios The advantages of using scenarios are not dependent on any single format for documenting your scenarios. However, be consistent so that each scenario adheres to the same layout. Try to be concise in format (no more than one page per scenario) but comprehensive in the variety of data. You might use the design of the leverage model for guidance in selecting the items to include in your scenario format. See Exhibit 7 Cornett Information Engineering (203-268-9556) 07/25/94" 221

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What to Include In ECOP Scenarios Exhibit 7 STRATEGY & PROGRAM FEATURES INVESTMENTS IN TIME AND DOLLARS EXPECTED PERFORMANCE: 1. SUCCESS 2. APPROVAL 3. SIDE EFFECTS ENVIRONMENTAL STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES Strategic Balance Sheettm Exhibit 8 INVESTMENT PROGRAM QUAlnY =a ... == . ... e!!! -== iii:= !!! !!! --s: --!!! !!! EiiiiE OrlJIM a= ..... Ei5i // E E5 S& ...... =a ...... FT6' StRATEGY s= ... STA.TEME.NT -!.2. !55 lllllfSIJIIont Mil liW.,._MUI kt.n Gl'lp h ..... For-ttGn p}ll Orapll / / // / Cornett Information Engineering (203-9556) 07/25/94 222

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The format I use is a single page spreadsheet that groups t he data into four columns corresponding to Investments, Program Quality, Pe.rformance and Environment. See Exhibit 8 for the general layout design. Costs are separated intO dollar costs and the cost of staff time. I also include graphs of key data items on this single page Strategic Balance Sheet format. The layout also includes a one paragraph (50 word) strategy statement that s ummarizes the overall approach and distinguishing characteristics of the scenario. Besides scenario documentation, this format is also very useful as a benchmarking format for comparing one company's program with another It encourages a comparison of data pauems, environmental influences, and overall strategy, not just a comparison of individual fields. For similar reasons, this layout is useful for comparing and forecasting the evolution of your program over time -panicularly, if there have been significant changes in strategy from one planning cycle to the next. As a monitoring tool, this format shows not only where you are today, but helps to illuscrate why. It encourages you to continually re-evaluate your program scrategy. Three Case Studies The above approach is best illustrated by describing three recent actual case studies. These are real sce narios used by real companies that had to comply with mandatory ECOP regulations. However, for the sake of confidentiality, the employer names are not given. Each of these companies has now received regulatory approval for their plan based upon their chosen scenario. Impl ementatio n will take place over the next couple years. Case 1.) The first example is from a company tha t previously operated under a four day work week. They enjoyed this schedule. It seemed to work well for their business. A few years ago they were acquired by a new par ent company. Their compressed work week policy now conflicted with corporate policy. They were conven ed onto a normal five day per week work schedule. Not surprisingly, this company displayed an above average enthusiasm for the new mandatory Employee Commute Options Program. Exhibit 9 illustrates the three scenarios they developed. Scenario A was their first preference. It's success was based largely u pon returning to a four day work week. This would achieve most of the required trip reductions. It would be combined with various other low cost program services and marl
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Case # 1: Company Bought out Exh ibi t Previously Had Comp Work Week .__!1__. High B Cost ..,..,...""" Low Cost Cre tive Alternative Case# 2: Hig h APO & Ex h ibit 10 Total Quality Management Culture.______. High Cost low Cost B ..__-lA 1--...-1 C Creative Alternative Cornett l nf onnation Engin eering ( 203 268 9556) 0 7/25/9 4 224

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cost approach. They would only pursue an expensive Scenario B type approach if !he regulatOry agency required this level of effort. This "low cost" scenario was not as cheap as the compressed work week scenario, but a lot less expensive than !he high cost scenario. It contained many basic program features, but lacked strong financial subsidies or incentives. The low cost plan had only a remote chance of success. It was judged to have an adequate chance of regulatory approval. As it turned out, management reached a compromise with their parent company to go wilh a 9/80 compressed work week (9 days per two weeks). To achieve the additional trip reductions needed, they included the program services and marketing features from their low cost scenario. The agreed upon plan (Scenario X in Exhibit?> was a compromise. They started with a creative scenario, but compromised between the high cost and creative scheduling extremes. Case 2.) The second example is from a company that had one of the highest starting APO's in their region. Everything in !heir environment seemed to be working in their favor. They recruit mostly from the local community, pay modest but locally competitive wages, and work fairly regular hours. When they have a job opening, they go out on the shop floor and ask !heir employees who they know who might want a job. This results in hiring many friends, relatives and neighbors --all prime candidates for carpooling. The company had previously experimented with compressed work weeks, but discovered that the longer hours had an adverse effect on quality. Many of !heir jobs involve repetitive tasks, and a t en hour day is too difficult to perform welL As a manufacruring plant, telecommuting did not seem feasible -although some of their sales staff were piloting a new telecommuting option. When their survey was done nearly half their employees were alr eady shown to be active carpoolers. However, relying primarily on small carpools, an employer would need roughly two thirds of their people to be regular carpoolers to meet the regulatory target. This company felt as if it was within reach of the targe t but knew it would take effective marketing to close the gap. They are a fairly small business with a very StrOng quality management orientation. Their lobby displays many quality awards given to them by their customers. A small committee met to decide which scenarios to present for their President to consider. Very quickly, !hey decided that all of their scenarios would include a strong marketing theme based on !he quality principle of 100% participation. They would market ECOP as a quality standard with the goal to have every employee participate to the maximum extent possible. Their low cost and high cost scenarios showed a range of service variations and funding levels. The costs for both of these scenarios compared favorably with financial benchmarks. Because of strong marketing and a high APO, they should be able to bold spending down. The creative scenario would extend compressed work weeks and telecommuting to their salaried staff only. See Exhibit!O. When they met with !heir President (for about a 20 minute meeting), he immediately gravitated to the low cost scenario. An expensive program would weaken their profit sharing opportunity. Comeu Information Engineering (203-268-9556) 07!25/94 225

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Case # 3: Low APO Tough Env. Exhibit 11 & Process Re-Engineerlng Culture High .A Cost B c Low X Creative Cost l- . Dual Purpose Incentives: Using Exhibit 12 ECOP to Add Value to the Busines"'-----' Business Productivity Business Product ivlty Comcu Information &&ineerjng ('203-26&9556) IJ7/2S/94 246'

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Therefore, it was in everyone's interest to hold down program costs. However, when he considered the program features of the higher cost scenario, there were severa l servic es that he thought were essential to add into the low cost scenario These additions included a more comprehensive emergency ride home program and moderate funding for employee performance awards. These additional features were needed to maintain a reasonable standard of quality for this progmm. Finally, the committee talked him into extending the telecommuting pilot into other salaried positions besides sales staff. l.ntimately, the program chosen combined some aspects of each of the three scenarios while based on a very strong 100 percent participation marketing thrust. Case 3.) The third example is from a large company with a very unfavorable ECO environment. It had a low staning APO well below average for the region. In this environment, wages are very good; traffic congestion is minimal; there is very little public transit; work hours vary widely due to flextime and ovenime; and their industry is experiencing rapid change. This change demands the attention of management and employees while detracting from the focus needed to make ECOP s u ccessful. It has led to a "process re-engineering" culture with rapid changes occwring in many business areas. With such a difficult environment, it was obvious to everhone that success would require a very comprehensive program with well-funded incentives. See Exhibit 11. Each of their scenarios would have to be expensive. Each would require meaningful incentives, many policy changes, extensive marketing, and a complete range of suppon services. Their low cost Scenario B would differ from their high cost Scenario A by not offering daily rideshare subsidies. Such subsidies would be expensive (if they worked) and were not likely to be effective in their environment. However, the regulatory reviewer might require them Their creative alternative (Scenario C) relied on expanding telecommuting and compressed work week options into more partS of their organization. However, the use o f these scheduli ng options would be limited. Therefore, Scenario C also had to contain a broad range of program services and incentives (but without introducing rideshare subsidies). In comparing and discussing these three scenarios, management recognized that each of these proposals would be expensive, but none had a very high chance of success. They concluded that they needed an even more creative approach that somehow provided for much better incentives than they could reasonably afford for this program alone. They decided to go with a founh option, Scenario X. Scenario X is based upon introducing "dual purpose" incentives that simultaneously promote alternative commuting and s erve a business purpose as well. They took an existing discretionary award program and created a separ ate additional budget. Eligibility would be available only to those who use an alternative commute. Rewards would be for the same kinds of business purposes as the original discretionary award program. The money that would have funded a rideshare subsidy was now budgeted for this dual purpose i n c entive program. However, because Comeu lnfonnation Engineering (203-268-9556) 2Z? 07!25/94

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these incentives also encourage improvements in quality, prOductivity and process re-engineerlng, there is no theoretical limit to the magnitude of the incentive awards that could be earned! By creating a dual purpose program, they changed the positioning of business productivity from an obstacle to ECOP success to a source of str ength. See Exhibit 12. They aligned their ECO Program with their business objectives. It remains to be seen how well this program will work over the next two years, but Scenario X is judged to have the highest chance of success in achieving the target APO while having the lowest net cost. Conclusions The field of Employee Commute Options Planning lends itself better than most business planning processes to the use of multiple scenarios. The goal is difficult and requires creative thinking. The program involves a high degree of visibility to employees and to senior management Reasonable people will disagree on the degree of commitment required for this program. Multiple objectives need to accomplished-behavioral change, regula tory approval, and maintaining business productivity. Most employers have little experience with this program. They do not yet know what might work in their business env.ironment. In conclusion, here are some closing suggestions: o Do propose multiple scenarios Don't get caught with only one ECO Proposal -at least until you have management approval. o Research competitive spending le vels and benchmark other ECO programs. When benchmarking, don't just compare single statistics across multiple employers. Try to compare a complete profile of factors for each single employer-preferably in the same format as you use for internal scenario comparison. o Seek ways to bring your ECO Plans in alignment with business objectives. If successful, your biggest source of resistance could become your strongest force for change! References I. W. Patrick Beaton, Hamou Meghdir, and F. Joseph Carragher. Assessing the Effectiveness ofTransponation Control Measures: Use of Stated Preference Models To Project Mode Split for Work Trips. Transportation Research Record# 1346, pp. 44-51. 2. C. Kenneth Orski. Employee Trip Reduction Programs -An Evaluation. Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 47 No.3, July 1993, pp. 327-341. Comculnformation Engineering (203-268-9556) 07/25/94 Z28

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BALANCING TRB BCOHOMICS OP MOBILITY THROUGH APPLIBD TBCHROLOGIBS University/Alafaya Steve Gavora Director Corridor Transportation Association UACTA ZZ9

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INTRODUCTION It goes without saying that mobility, or rather, the lack thereof, is an increasing problem in todays soc1ety. The ability to get from "point A to point B" is becoming more and more difficult as our society sprawls to massive proportions. Commuting to a remote destination has quickly become an everyday part of 'life. Whether that destination be a place of work, shopping, school or some form of recreational facility, people have developed a of tremendous dependency on automobiles. The increases in automobile us'age by individual drivers (Single Occupancy Vehicles (SOV)) has transformed the United States into a veritable sea of asphalt. While an extensive infrastructure is imperative to the success of a thriving economy, it is naive to believe that "layin<] asphalt" is the only alternative available. With this in mLnd, it is important to identify and focus on those alternatives or options which can offer some relief to this mounting concern. The goal of people in the Transportation Demand Management (TDM) field 1s to look for alternatives to the SOV. Transit, carpooling, vanpooling; and flexible work schedules are some of the most predominant strategies-promoted by TDM professionals. These types of strategies, when applied Ln an area with growing traffic congestion, can generate tremendous impacts on the number of vehicles actually removed from roadways. All of these alternatives or TDM strategies, inclusive oftransit1 can be offered as commuting alternatives to drivLng alone. In the case of the aforementioned strategies, the occupant of the vehicle is placed in some other mode of transportation for the same trip or, in the case of flex-time, the existing automobile is placed on the roadway at a time other than peak hour. These basic strategiei!;provide the foundation for the "Supply and Demand of Mobility" concept. THE CONCEPT Basic economics teaches us the theories of supply and demand and, as we all know, the concept of supply and demand forms the basis for our entire United States economy. While normally used onl in reference to a buyer and a seller, this basic economic prLncipal can be applied to mobility as well. When a transit authority, Transportation Management Association (TMA), Transportation Mana9ement Organization (TMO) or other commuter assistance entLty offers transit, carpool/vanpool matching or other TDM strategy, they are offering to supply commuters with another mode of transportation. In most cases one or more of the automobiles are removed from the roadway, at least temporarily, but the need or demand for the trip still remains. 230

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To make progressive s trides in removing commuters from roadways, the demand for the trips must be addressed. While there are numerous methods of addressing trip demand"' 1 the implementation of these strategies tends to be more difficult. More often than not, these demand-side strategies tend to be technology-based. Webster defines the term "telecommunication" as, "communications at a distance. This definition is the basis for a concept of using technology initiatives as demand-side traffic reduction strategies. If efficiently and effectively, there is both a cost and time savings by offering technology programs which remove the demand for a commute. Not only are these options growing more and more palatable in today's advancing society, but these technology strategies can also have a greater impact on decreasin9 the number trips generated versus providing which supply alternative means of travel, such as ridesharing programs or transit. By implementing technology-based TDM strategies, we are effectivelx creating what many communications experts are calling Transportation". In simple terms, people are making their commutes through data links (telephone, modem, video-link, etc.) rather than physically moving to a different location. For instance, the most noted and accepted "trip demand strategy in our society is Telecommutinr. In todays workplace, jobs which have a or "open collar" component are becoming more and more Savings from both the employee and employer have increased tremendously in recent rears. Although Telecommuting has been promoted, but implemented through the years as a commute alternative, Telecommuting is becoming more widely accepted as a part of everyday employment. This growing acceptance of Telecommuting is due mainly to the enormous technological advances and cost reductions in the hardware needed to work at home. Many of these tools are the fundamental building blocks of our growin9 "Information Super-Highway" Each Telecommutin9 node quickly becoming an "on-ramp" to this "autobahn of As Telecommuting has been proven to be an effective means of reducing the need for employees to commute to an office. new technologx comes on-line, Telecommuting is quickly becoming a maJor factor in aiding management in the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) In the November 19, 1993 issue of the Orlando Journal, Danialle Weaver stated that, "On average, 7.6 million adult part-or full-time workers -about 6.1 percent of the American work force work from home at least one day a week." 231

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Oddly enough, manr experts believe that the term "Teleco1111nuting" w 11 no longer be used in the near future. The theory is that working at home or at a remote site will be such an intricate and ubiquitous part of everyday life that it will not need to be defined. Another program which is acceptance as a factor in reducing traffic and congestion is Distance Learning or Distance Training. The super-set of these concepts could be described as "virtual education". Similar to Telecommuting, the implementation of Distance Learning and Distance Training programs can be an effective means of reducing capital and administrative costs. By examining the delivery of classes or other educational programs or services through technoloqy initiatives at multiple sites, using only a single or few instructors, the savings become obvious. Additionally, this type of program can also facilitate the development of new educational or training markets. Oddly enough, Distance Learning has been around for many years in forms without people giving it much thought. A l':'rge segment of chilcp!ood educat.ion takes place through exposure to Programs such as Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers Neighborhood have been employing Distance Learning techniques for ears. it is true that these. shows use only one way to their respective messages, the shows have played a valuable part of the educational process and have been instrumental in filling the "educational gap" which has formed in many households have either two (2) working or a single parent whom have limited time to spend thei! children. While normally used in educational or, most commonly, university environments, Distance Learning, in some form or another has become a staple in offerings. Programs of this nature have taken education beyond the confines of available classroom space, thus decreasing the constraints of limited facility funding. Distance Training, on the other hand, refers to employee or professional continuing education. An of this type of instructional techn1que can be seen in simulation and training programs. Connecting multiple simulators together through a network to create a "virtual battlefield" is commonplace in today's society. like Telecommuting, Distance Learning or Distance Training can assume numerous forms. While offering educational classes via "non-interactive television is probabl the most common today, the use of interactive video and aud1o as teaching instruments is becoming even more prevalent. Additionally, as we move into the 21st Century, interactive video and the "virtual office" are becoming more common in employee training then ever before. The decrease 232

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in need for the mobility of a training force can have tremendous positive impacts on the corporate bottom line and governmental training By using these types of trainin9 technique in conJunction with new developments in technology, we create a strong cornerstone to develop training programs in non-military governmental areas and private industry. With this information we are able to form the strong premise that developing technology is an extremely useful tool for decreasing trip demand. As the Clinton administration and future administrations pursue the expansion and implementation of technology resources, it is to consider the fact that many of these technolog1cal initiatives can be applied to mobility, or rather, decreasing the need for mobility. TERMS Virtual Battlefield Virtual Education Virtual Office -Connecting simulated warfare devices, via a network, for mutual, real-t1me interaction. -Teaching tasks or concept material remotely through the use of applied technologies. -Performing ones job through the use of technological devices rather than commuting to a specific location. Virtual Transportation -Creating presence without physically moving oneself to another location. CONTRIBUTIONS Mr. Stan Thompson Market Manager -Telecommuting BellSouth Business Systems Ms. Danialle Weaver Staff Writer Orlando Business Journal 233

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TELECOMMUTING: LEVERAGING RESOURCES THROUGH PARTNERSHIP Sandy Post Transportation Energy Specialist Oregon Department of Energy 625 Marion Street NE Salem, Oregon 97310 (503) 378-4390 FAX: 503-378-4390 AB$TRACT The three state energy offices in Oregon, Washington, and Arizona are combini ng resources to develop a comprehensive telecommuting program. T he shared goal is to encourage public and private sector employers to use telecommuting to help reduce ,vehicle miles traveled, save energy, decrease traffic congestion, and improve air quality. By combining expertise, funding, and program materials, each energy office can promote, market, and provide training and technical assistance to employers in its own state. The outcome of this partnership is a comprehensive package of resources to facilitate the implementation of successful t e lecommuting programs. The materials are being used in Oregon, Washington, and Arizona, and will also be available to other states interested in implementing telecommuting programs. In these times oflimi ted funds and an emphasis on "working smarter," the benefits o f partnering with other states for program development would be of interest and value to other states and organizations. Many creative ideas have come out of working together. With varied backgrounds and experience in the energy profession and in telecommuting, with knowledge of different funding sources, and with access to resources in three states, the quality of this telecommuting program package is substantially greater tban it would have been with one state going it alone. Te l ecommuting continues to be of interest to employers and as a TDM strategy. The LA earthquake, rural economic development initiatives, and more cities implementing tr'ip reduction rules, make telec'ommuting an important subject. If telecommuting is to become a successful transportation option, employers must change they way manage their workforce. Making more information available on how to implement successful telecommuting programs will help them make this cultural shift. PRESENTATION OVERVIEW o Identify audience activity and interest level in telecommuting. o Describe the three state partnership. o Show telecommuting video o Closing remarks o Questions and answers 234

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TELECOMMU TING: LEVERAGING RESOURCES THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS INTRODUCTION ln a few years, 70 percent of the work force will be generating and manipulating information Public and private employers throughout the country are faced with the need to use resources efficiently while increasing productivity. Because it's oft en more productiv e and less expensive to move information instead of peop l e, emp l oyers see telecommuting as a way for th eir employees to "work smarter." Telecommuting is using telephones and often computers to work off site-at home or at a satellite office near home -usually one to three days a week. ln addition to its environmental benefits, empl oyers with telecommuting programs report improved job performance, higher worker mora l e, and better recruitment and retention of valued employees. Tel ecommuters gain flexibility and greater control of their work schedu l es and their lives. The res ults are often more creative, productive employees who feel better about themselves and their jobs It is es ti mated that more than 6 percent of the adult civilian work force in the U.S. are telecommuting now, with that number p r ojected to rise to 10 percent by th e year 2000 American businesses have done informal telecommuting for years. Today, however, many employers across the country are implementing formal telecommuting programs as an alternative wor k option. Charged with implementing telecommuting, the states of Oregon, Washington, and Arizona have combined resources to develop a comprehensive telecommuting program. The shared goal is to encourage public and private sector employers to use telecommuting to help reduce vehicle miles traveled, save energy, decrease traffic congestio n and improve air quality. By combining expertise and funding, the partnership has devel oped a package of telecommuting materials to provide step-by -st ep resources for employers impleme nting telecommuting programs Partnerships are an effectiv e way to share expertise and resources to create high quality programs. Partnering for Telecommuting is an excellent example of how leveraging resources can work. The three states have created a compr e hensive t elecommuting program that is already receiving national recognition and awards 235

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P ARTNERSHil' PROJECT I. Benefits of Partnering . A. Share Each state offered expertise in different areas. Both Arizona and Washington had rese arched telecommuting and worked with employers to implement programs. Oregon had a strong marketing background and a good network with employers in the state. Each state stood to learn from each other's suecesses and "challenges." B. Combine funding and other resources . All three states had funding and/or resource s dedicated to telecommuting. By working togethe r these assets yielded greater benefits. Oregon was able to target funds for materials that with Arizona and Washington's materials created a complete package. II. How To Establish A Partnering Program A. Select Partners Oregon. Washington. and Arizona Energy Offices had common goals for telecommuting. Each agency was able to back their interest with resources. Key players worked well together and were highly motivated. J, Identify goals/objectives. 2. Identify other organizations/states with common goals/objectives. 3. Choose organizations with funding and staff resources. 4. C hoose organizations you can work with. III. Make Yol!r Partnering Project Official A. Develop a Memorandum of Understanding The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) developed by Oregon, Washington and Arizona serves as a contract. It identifies goals, responsibilities, agency contributions and exjlected outcomes . 236

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1. Purpose and Goal Purpose: "Encourage public and private sector employers to use telecommuting to help reduce vehi cle miles traveled, save energy, decrease traffic congestion, and improve air quality." Goal: "Combine resources and expertise to develop a package of comprehensive program materials and a marketing plan to promote and support telecommuting programs." Work together to find funding to market program nationally 2. Responsibilities of Project Coordinators a. E ach states assigned a project coordinator. b. Conference call meetings were held monthly or as needed to accomplish goals and objectives. 3. Project Work Objectives a Integrate Washington, Arizona, and Oregon videos handbooks, workbooks and program materials b. Produce a news le tter profiling successful programs, available materials, and contacts. c Act as a clearinghouse to employers for materials. d. Execute a marketing plan to promote telecommuting to decision makers in the public and private sector 4. Agencies Contributions a. Washington Four years experience in telecommuting conducting research, developing resources, and providing technical assistance to employers and governments worldwide. Telecommuting Resources: Implementation and Training Guidebook "Telecommuting: An Alternate Route To Work" Washington State Energy Office Puget Sound Telecommuting Demonstration: Executive Summary, Focus Group Report, Telework Center Report, Case Studies 237

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b. Oregon -Nine years experience marketing energy conservation programs to public and private sector. Experience in implementing and evaluating targeted efforts and producing promotional materials and public service campaigns Resources: Telecommuting handbook Promotional video for upper management. c Arizona Four years experience in telecommuting implementing programs, conducting research, developing program materials, and providing technical assistance to employers and government agencies worldwide. Resources: AT&T, State of Arizona Telecommuting Pilot: Executive Summary The State of Arizona Telecommuting Program Coordinator Handbook The Telecommuting Handbook' T elecommuting: A Practical Guide for Working at Home" "The T elecommuting Zone", a telecommuter/supervisor training video and companion workbook 5 Expected Outcomes a Comprehensive package of telecommuting resources. This is complete and available upon request to businesses and interested parties. b National and regional TACS promote telecommuting resourc.es. This is in progress and on -going: c Employers in Arizona, Oregon and Washington have resources t o implement telecommuting This is completed. d. Other state energy offices have resources to promote telecommuting in their state. This is in progress.

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6. Duration of the Agreement The duration of the agreement was for one year with the stipulation that it could be renewed by agreement of all parties. 7 Termination and Modiftcations a. The MOU was extended through June 30, 1995. b. No modification was made to the workplan. B. Develop an Evaluation Plan Objective: Evaluate the partnerships' success in encouraging employe rs to use telecommuting. The full package of telecommuting resource materials was completed in J un e All three states will evaluate the effectiveness of the materials and the te l ecomm uting programs that will be implemented. I, Tracking of lnfonnation/Materials Requests 2. Service Surveys 3. Followu p Surveys IV. Products from Partneriog for Telecommuting A. New Tools Produced by Partners I. "Telecommuting: Management tool for the 90s" Video (14 min.). 2. "Telecommuting: Management Tool for the 90s" Brochure 3. "Telecommuting: Who, Wha t When, Where, Why?" Brochure 4. "The Keys To Telecommuting Success" Video (20 min.) S. "The Keys To Telecommuting Success" Training Workbook V. Secrets to Success A Commitment to team process/partnering. All partners must be committed to goals of the project. Working together, but being separated geographically presented new and different challenges. Each partner must be willing to take on the challenge of teamwork and partnerships that might be magnified by the distance from each other. 239

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B. Have responsibility and authority to make decisions for your organization. Partners must be in a position to take initiative and make professional decisions regarding the telecommuting products. Administrators and fiscal staff may be invo l ved for budget planning and contract approval C. Be flexible Be open to new ideas, schedule changes, review processes, and changes in material content and design. The desired outcome is to have high quality products. D. Plan more time than you think you'll need. Projects such as video production often are more time-consuming than anticipated AlsO, communicating with partners in other states and p l anning for representation by all three states in materials can take more time than originally planned. So, in deve l oping partnership project timelines, remember to add on additional time for completion of steps. CONCLUSJONS This unique partnership of Oregon, Washington, and Arizona state governments to develop a comprehensive package of telecommuting materials has been successful and may serve as the springboard to future efforts Synergy is the concept that best describes this partnership. The tota l effect of this effort is greater than tbe sum of its parts. The expertise and input of the three project coordinators resulted in the expected outcomes. But, much more than a list of outcomes was realized Working in partnership with government agencies in other states may be a strategy for state governments to deal with fiscal cutbacks. Sharing in development and in credit for the / products diminishes turf battles and makes for good will. All three project coordinators from each other about telecommuting, marketing, designing informational and training / materials, video production, and how to work as a long distance team. Research was completed prior to the partnership because Washington and Arizona had already started telecommuting programs This eliminated the need for Oregon to spend funds on research 240

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Materials were contributed by aU three states. BL-cause Washington and Arizona already had completed some telecommuting brochures and training packages, the partnership was able to focus on a composite of the best from each state for the final product. Staff time was efficiently used. Rather than in-person meetings, conference calls were the main form of communication. Drawing on the expertise of the three coordinators and the advertising company meant that most of the information needed was at hand. Funding was from the Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE) and the Washington State Energy Office (WSEO). Through an agreement with the Oregon Department of Transportation and ISTEA funds, ODOE was charged with developing and implementing a telecommuting program. WSEO used Oil Settlement and private funds for their contribution. By using existing materials from Washington and Arizona, and using Oregon funds to complete the parts of the package still needed, each state experienced far greater benefits in the form of the total package. Dissemination of this comprehensive telecommuting package is off to a great start by being available in three states. Each state Washington, Oregon, and Arizona benefits by learning how the different states have delivered products i n the past. By making the materials generic, they can be used in the three partner states, as well as in other parts of the country. The June issue of Telecommuting Review; The Gordon Report T hese three agencies deserve a big round of tete-applause for their decision to pool their efforts and resources to develop these m aterials. This is the latest (and one of the greate st) examples of the power oflocal telecommuting initiatives." ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Telecommuting Project Coordinators: Dee Christiansen Washington State Energy Office John Corbett Arizona Department of Administration Kathy King Oregon Department of Energy Advertising Company: Genesis, Inc. John Michele! 241

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...... . \ ) ,, ., ; ':'+ .. ... .. . ,:: .. : . ........ : : , . . . . ... . . J I ,. .. TUCSON E L ECTRIC POWE R COMPANY .WORK WEEK EVALUATION : ,_ .. : .. . ... ' .. i. : . . .. . .. . . TUcson; Arizona 242 .. . .. .. . . ..... :. ... .. \ J' : t= ; . . ,. .. .,.. .. '/ ". . . .

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents . ............ ........ ... . .... ..... .. ...... ....... ... ... ... ........... i Executive Summary ... .... ....... ............ . ...... ............ ...... .. ........ 11 I ntroduction ............ ....... .... .... . ...... ..... .......... ................ ..... ............. 1 Organizationa l Backgrou nd ..... .. . .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 Report Def in i tions ... ....... ..................... .......... .. .... .... ........... ............ 2 Research Objectives ....... ..... ............. ... .... ........ ..... .... ........ . 3 Exploratory Research ...... ......... ...... ......... ....... ..... ... ..... .... .... ... 4 Interviews ..... .... .......... ..... ...... : ....... .... ......... .. ... .. ... .......... ......... ... 4 Secondary Data .... ....... ......... ...... ....... ...... ...... ...... ..... ............... 6 References .. ... ..... ........ ............ .. ...... ...... ........... ............. ........ ........ 7 Focus Groups .... ..... ..... .... ........... ...... ............... ..... ................. 8 Descriptive Research ............. ....... .... ... ..... .. .... ............ .. ......... 9 Sampling Method ............ ............. ......... ..... ........... .... ............. ... :. 9 Survey Design ...... ..... ....... ............ ......... ........ ...... .. .. ... ...... .... ... 9 Sampling and Non-sampl i ng Error ...... ... ...................... ...... .... 1 0 Response Rate ..... .... ........... ....... ..... ........... ....... ............... ...... .. 1 0 Summary of Significant Test Findings ... ................ ...... ................ 11 Analysis of Test Results ................................................... ... ........ 11 Recommendations .................... ... ............... ......... . ........................ 26 Company Specific .... ........ .......... ..... ...................... .... .... ...... .......... 26 Employee Specific .... . .... .............. ........ ..... .......... .......................... 27 Conclusion . ............................ ..... ... ....... ...... .................... .............. 28 Appendices A Interview Agenda B Focus Groups Discuss i on Guide Summaries C Cover Letter Employee Survey D Glossary of Variables SPSS Program Cod i ng Form Raw Data E Frequencies, spreadsheet format Frequencies, Total Sample Frequencies, Non-CWW Employees Frequencies, CWW Employees F Statistical Tests Hypotheses, SPSS Pr i ntouts 243

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Uni versity of Arizona Marketing Research Team conducted a . research project fo r Tucson Electric Power Company (TEP). The project focused on evaluatipn of TEP's compressed work week program which was implemented in March of 1992. Specifically, the first objective of the project was . to measure employee satisfaction with respect to the compressed work week. Thi s evaluation encompassed those emp loyees participating and not participat i ng i n the program The second objective was to evaluate transportation effects caused by the compressed work week. . The research methodology consisted of t hree phases: Exploratory Phase, . Descriptive Phase, and Conclusive Phase. The marke ting research team met with Cathie Bryan, Transportation Coordinator and Oessie Casey, Senior Administrator of Labor Relations to formulate objectives for the project. The . team then rese arched in house compressed work week reports and article databases. Focus groups were conducted to fu rthe r define research prioritles. A survey, the key tool for feedback, was developed and sent to every TEP employee. Statistical analyses were conducted on the compiled data generated by the survey Several significant results were found. CWW participants believe that their travel has been reduced as a result of the CWW program. In Addition, t h eir travel during peak periods has decreased. Overall, the CWW prog ram i ncreased employee and company morale. However, 20% of TEP's employees are not on their preferred schedule. Lastly, the implementation of the CWW prog ram has negatively impacted inter-office communications. Recommendations for TEP's CWW program can be grouped i nto two categories: company specific and employee specific Company specific 244

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recommendations include: 1) implement a public relations program that explains how CWW benefits employees at the individual, as well as, corporate level; 2) for m a task force to address CWW challenges such as clarifying whether or not non-CWW employees are in fact burdened with extra work ; 3) consider offering the 9/80 work week to more employees. Employee specific recomme ndations inc lude; 1 ) hold department meeting on Tuesdays and/or Thursdays; 2) improve i nter-office communication by posting employee work schedules at work stations and stating employee work schedu l es on voice mail; and 3) further analyze the travel reduction effort by having employees maintain a travel log fo r an extended period of time. TEP originally implemented the CWW program as a response to employee requests. Now it is apparent that the CWW prog ram benefits the company, and the community as well as the employees. As with any youthful program, there are challenges to overcome This report provides a basis for discovering and addressing the CWW program challenges. 245

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INTRODUCTION In March of 1992, Tucson Electric Power (TEP) implemented a compressed work week program for its employees. The two main work schedules in this program are four, ten hour days per week ( 4/1 0) and 3 twelve hour days per week (3/12). A small number of unclassified employees are working a compressed work week known as 9/SO. That is, they work eighty hours in nine week days and are off the tenth day. TEP needs research information to evaluate the effect of the compressed work week (CWW) program i n a variety of areas : productivity, efficiency, quality of employee l ife and management opinion versus the opinion of non management as to the program's value. In partnership with the University of Arizona, a marketing research team was assigned to explore and evaluate stated issues. This report contains the findings of the marketing research team's compressed work week study ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND Tucson Electric Power Company is an investor-owned electric utility engaged in the generation purchase, transmission, d i stri bution and sale of electric energy to retail and wholesale customers. It serves a population of approximately 750,000 people who are primarily in the Tucson metropolitan area. Tucson Electric Light and Power Company incorporated in 1892, and purchased the Tucson Gas Company four years later to become The Tucson Gas & Electric Light & Power Company. T.G.E.L. & P. Co.'s common stock was first offered to the public in 1946. Later known as Tucson Gas and E lectric Co. 246.

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the uti lity sold its gas d i vision in 1979 and became today s Tucson Electric Power Company In March of 1992 Tucson Electric Power Company implemented a compressed work week program for i ts employees. The two mai n d r iving forces behind this "employee ben ef i t" are to provide flex i b l e alternative work schedu l es for i ts 900 ,class i fied employees and adhere to increasing pollution control guide l ines. REPORT DEFINITIONS The follow ing abbreviations are utilized throughout th i s report and its appe n d i ces: TEP = TUCSON ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY cww = COMPRESSED WORK WEEK 3/12 = WORK 12 HOURS PER DAY, 3 DAYS PER WEEK 4/10 = WORK 1 0 HOURS PER DAY 4 DAYS PER WEEK 9180 = WORK 80 HOURS IN 9 DAYS {E.G EVERY OTHER FRI. OFF) NON -CWW = NON-COMPRESSED WORK WEEK {I.E. WORK A TRADITIONAL 5/8 SCHEDULE) 5/8 = WORK 8 HOURS PER DAY 5 DAYS PER WEEK DESIGNATED DAY OFF = DAY OFF PER COMPRESSED WORK WEEK SCHEDULE CLASSIFIED = EMPLOYEES COVERED BY UNION CONTRACT UNCLASSIFIED = EMPLOYEES NOT COVERED BY UNION CONTRACT 247

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The objectives of this project are to : 1. measure the employee satisfaction with respect to the compressed work week program at Tucson Electric Power Company, 2. evaluate transportation effects caused by the compressed work week program. 248

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EXPLORATORY RESEARCH The marketing research team's first step on this project was to gain an unders tandin g of the issues regarding a compressed work week program t hrough various exploratory research techniques Several met hods were utilized to collect this information In earl February, the research team interviewed Cathie Bryan, Transportation Coordinator, and Oessie Casey, Senior Administrator of .Labor Relations. They provided general knowledge about TEP 's CWW program, and perso na l observations and opinions. They also provided us some guidelines for developing our focus groups, which was our second exploratory method utilized The research team conducted a total of th ree focus groups with employees of TEP. The University of Arizona's main library and t he Business Information Center in McClelland Hall were also valuable sources of information in obtaining secondary data used i n the research. A more in depth analysis of these research efforts follows. INTERVIE WS The first meeting with Cathie Bryan, the lia ison to TEP, was on February 2 1994. Also attending the meeting was Oessie Casey, the labor relat i ons department representative. The goal for the meeting was to introduce the resea c h team members and generate an informa tive discussion on the compressed work week issue. An informal agenda was followed to gain more i nformation regarding the purpose of the project {see appendix), as well as addressing any concerns of Cathie or Oessie. The initial discussion centered around how the CWW program originated at TEP. The CWW. program was originally an employee sponsored request. Although the program took time to implemeni. there was overwhelming support 249

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within the company. Ironically, the biggest obstacle to implementation was the unio n Since the previous schedu le waS' a policy voted upon by the union, there was an enormous amount of "red tape" to wade through. Concerns such as work breaks, lunch hours ; and holidays had to be thought out clearly to ensure fairness to all employees. Once those issues were settled the compressed work week was instituted. Since imp lementation, there has been no analysis on the effects of having a compressed work week. Dessie mentioned that she had personal notes on the program, but no official records were kept. The only information related to the CWW program that has been kept is travel/commute statistics Approximately the same time that the CWW was implemented, regulations for pollution control were being enacted. Essentially companies were being requested to show some reduction ir1 pollution emissions via their employees commuting habits. TEP was able to show that an effort was being made to adhere to the travel reduction requirements through implementation of the CWW .. program Some forms of the CWW program had employees traveling less days to work, which translated to a direct benefit to the pollution control regulations. A portion of the resear ch teams efforts were to be directed t oward t ransportati on issues. The team wanted to learn whether or not time beh ind the wheel for TEP employees was actually decreasing, or if it was just being transferred to an employee's personal time. Other key infonnation revealed about the CWW during the interview included: Implementatio n of CWW is contingent upon department vote Flextime is available to employees on CWW for CWW employees are created by department hence "designated" days off fluctuate 250

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Schedules can be changed on s i x month i ntervals All TEP facilit ies are to partici pate in th e r esearch pro ject Although the i nterview sess ion gave the team an excellent reference point from wh i ch to conduct the focus group process the team continued to search for other information sources. SECONDARY DATA The primary sources of secondary datal examined were TEP's interna l repo rts and data base literature searches The data advocated the follow in g poin ts House hol d compos i tio n i s a cruci a l factor in determ i ning an employee's choice o f work schedu l e C hild care responsib iliti es have a sig nifi cant impac t on the li ke lihood of choosing comp r essed work schedu l es among both marr i ed em ployees with an employed spouse and single employees Marita l status a nd child care responsibilities have a greater impact on the choice of work schedul es of female employees compared to male emp l oyees Workers' commitment to an organization is tied closely to support i ve management and family-friendly policies. Workers place a high value on sup port ive supervisors and coworkers Progressive programs are essentia l in recruiting and r e t a i nin g highly qualifie d workers Superv i sors in dicated positive changes with respect to productivity and job sat i sfact ion. Experts say t hat a company can uplift employee morale by helping people mainta i n a bala nce between their personal lives and work This increased morale, in turn i s suspected to inCI'ease employee productivity. However, increased employee productivity is under scrutiny Some organizations actually say that employee productivity has deCI'eased This is one of the concerns that has made a CWW program controversia l. Other 251

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, unresolved issues include difficulty in scheduling meetings, locat ing peop le and decreased customer service. As CWW relates to transportation issues, results showed that employees actually made more trips on their compressed work week designated day off than they did on any other day. However, employees made fewer t ri ps per week and traveled fewe r miles than when working a traditional 5/8 schedule. The Ho and Stewart study conc lu ded t h at a 411 0 compressed work week program can reduce t he average number of vehicle m i les traveled (VMT) and thus, can reduce l evels of mobile source pollutants entering the atmosp h ere TEP s Trave l Reduction Survey suggests that an employee cou l d save 19.4 miles per day off. REFERENCES . Denver Federal Employee Compressed Work Week Experiment, Evaluation of Transportation Related Impacts. Prepared by Cambridge Systematics I nc. Cambridge, Mass., September 1980. . The Effects of Variable Work Hour Programs on Ridesharing and Organizational Effectiveness A Case Study: The County of Ventura. Prepared by Commute r Tra nsportation Services Inc., August 1 1990 Ho, Amy and Jakki Stewart, Impact of the 4140 Compressed Work Week Program on Trif? Reduction A Case Study: The Los Ange l es County Department of Public Works. Prepared by Commuter Transpo rta tion Services, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, February 4, 1992. Silverstein, Stuart, Survey: Good News for Working Parents, Los Angeles T i mes September 16 1993: pg.'1. 252

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Wichner, David, Kids, Jobs Can Mix: 'Friendly' Employers Show Gains in Loyalty, Productivity, The Phoenix Gazette September 3, 1993: pg. 1 This secondary data along with input from TEP's representatives, helped to develop the next step conducting focus groups. FOCUS GROUPS Three diffe rent focus group sessions served as the second exploratory method They were divided into classified and non-classified employees. This division was made to decrease the amount of interference with impartial responses which cou l d occur from having both employees and supervisors in the same group. The fo cus group sizes were varied, but a minimum number of participants were sought to ensure active participation Each of the groups occurred simultaneously and concluded in approximately one hour. Since no feedback had been requested from employees since the CWW's inception, a number of employees were eager to have their opinions heard This circumstance along with other incent ives boosted attendance in the groups. Exact numbers and summaries of each group are provided in Appendix B. Z53

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DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Using the exploratory research variables of interest were identified and preliminary hypo theses were developed for use in descriptive research techniques. Direct communication with a survey was. the descriptive method chosen. First the subjects of interest were targeted through the sampling procedure. Then the questionnaire was designed and assessed for potential non-sampling errors. Finally, the survey was distributed along with a cover le tter to the entire employee population at TEP. SAMPLING METHOD The population of study anc;l the sampling frame were the same. We defined the population of interest be all of TEP's employees. Since the . population of interest was finite and within access, we targeted the whole population as the sample in order to increase the accuracy rate of the research results. Inter-office mailing was the method used to reach each of the respondents. Once Cathie Bryan provided the resea rch team with 1,400 mailing labels, finished surveys were provided for distribution to all fou r company locations. The primary sample was further segregated into sub-samples: employees working a compressed work week, and employees not working a compressed work week, This allowed for comparisons between groups. SURVEY DESIGN A survey was developed for the purpose of collecting data. The survey was pre-tested by five TEP employees and Dr. Susan Heckler, Associate Marketing P rofessor at the University of Arizona. In order to maximize the response rate, TEP offered three cash awards. Since the subjects name was Z54

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on the cover sheet, i t was separated from the questionna ire by the research team in order to maintain respondent's anonymity. Each question was evaluate d for its relevance, wording, sequence, and phys i cal appearance. The format of the question depended on its content. Primary format types inc l uded dichotomous multiple choice, and scaled re spo nses. The Like rt Scale was chosen for its flexibility. It must be acknow ledged that the subjects responded according to their perceptions. No objective meas ures were used in order to evaluate actual miles driven or actual product i vity changes. The last thr ee of the 47 questions were open-ended. The surveys were distributed and collected the fourth week of March 1994. SAMPLING AND NON-SAMPLING ERROR Poss ib le sampl in g frame discrepancies may i nclude omitting new employees that were not inc l ud ed in the mailing l ist, and mailing surveys to employees that had already left the company. A few of the questions were too vague or l imi ted. For example, Question #10 was too lim i ted Many respondents ran errands both during the week and on weekends Question #17 asked the respondent about their supervisor's perception of their productivity. Some respo ndents simply noted, I don't know RESPONSE RATE Out of the 1,400 surveys that were distributed, 855 employees responded. Thus a 61% response rate was achieved. 255

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SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICAtH TEST FINDINGS The following are the most signif icant findings derived from the statistical ana l ysis: Trave l t i me to and from work was reduced for CWW participants. Time spent in rush l)our traffic was reduced for CWW partic i pants. The overall number of mile.s driven per week was reduced for CWW participants . The number of miles driven to and from work i s more than the number of mi les driven on the designated day off. CWW participants rate each CWW eva l uation measure s i gnif icantly more positive than do non -CWW participants. Managers/supervisors rate most CWW eva l uation measures more negative l y than do other employees As the emp l oyee's age and or le n gth of employment increases their desire to be on a CWW schedule decreases. Approx i mately 20% of TEP employees are n ot on their preferred work schedule. ANALYS I S OF T E ST RE S ULTS One of the original purposes of the Compressed Work Week study at TEP was to determine if the CWW program had affected vari ous t r ave l related topics. This section will discuss the travel related questions whic h the st udy was desig n ed to answer, and the concepts and assumptions which were used to formula t e the questions. The travel related questions (Exhibits F-1 to F-7) were appl ied only to CWW participants to find any changes due to the i mplementation of the C o mpressed.Work Weef:< schedule. The remaining test questions Z56

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(Exhibits F-8 to F-24) address various other issues relat ing to the Compressed WorkWeek. Did travel time to and from work decrease for CWW participants? Since CWW participants generally work ten hours per day, i t was assumed that they would usually drive to work before traffic became too heavy in the morning, and returned home after the heaviest traffic period i n th e afternoon By avoiding driving during those heavy traffic periods, cww participants should be able to spend less time driving to and from work compared to th e t ravel time before t hey were on a Cww schedule. Exhibit F-1 details the test used for this question. The test compares the mean response of the Cww participants to the number 4.0, which represents "no change." The univa ria te t-test results show that traveltime did change significantly. Examination of the means and frequencies imply that the Cww participants believe that their traveltime to and from work has indeed decreased as a result of being on the Cww schedule. Did the time spent in rush hour traffic decrease for CWW participants? Similar to the previous question, it was assumed that CWW participants would be driving to and from work during mostly non-rush hour periods. Therefore, CWW participants would spend less time in rush hour traffic compared to before being on a CWW schedule. This would not only benefit the CWW participant, but would also reduce the overall number of vehicles on the road during rush hour periods. Exhibit F-2 includes the test used to evaluate this question. The results imply that CWW participants believe that they do spend less time in rush hou r traffic as a result of being on a CWW 257

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Did the number of alternative transportation options for CWW participants decrease? S i nce CWW partic i pants generally leave for work earlier than most people, a concern arose that CWW participants ll)ay have had fewer transportation opt i ons available as a result of the CWW schedule For example CWW part i cipants may no longer have had the opt ion to ride the bus, join a car pool, or be i n a van pool. Exhibit F-3 includes the test used to examine the question T he results show that there is not a statistically signif i cant difference in the number of transportatio n options availab l e for CWW participants as a result of the CWW schedule. Did the number of miles driven per by cww participants decrease as a result of being on a CWW schedule? CWW participants typically drive to work one day less per week compared to tradit i onal 5/8 employees It was assumed that the overall number of miles dri ven per week would decrease as a result of the CWW program. Exhibit F-4 displays this question. The test results imply that CWW participants believe that they do drive fewer miles per week as a result of the CWW schedule Is the number of miles driven to and from work more than the number of miles driven on the designated day off? Driving to work one day less per week allows the CWW participants one more day per week to drive for personal reasons A question a r ose concerning if CWW participants drive the i r personal cars more miles on the i r day off than the number of m i les to and from work.

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Exhibit F -5 l ists th i s question and the test information. A Wilcoxon rank sum test was u sed to compare the median num ber of miles driven to and from work with the number of miles driven on the designated day off. The test resu l t i mplies that CWW participants believe that the number of miles they drive t o and fro m work i s more than the number of miles dri ven on the i r designated day o ff It shou l d be pointed out however, that the test considers median values. and not mean values. Also, the quest ions compare a r elat i vely well known value (miles t o work) and an estimated, typical numbe r of miles driven on the day off. Did the most frequent mode of transportation to and from work change for CWW participants? The po int was ra i sed concerning the mode of transportat io n u sed to get t o and from work If CWW participants must go to work earlier than most other people, will they have to change the way they ge t to work due to the implementation of the CWW program Thus, i ndicating that emp l oyees are n ot i nconvenienced by the schedule. Exhibit F-6 l ists this quest i on. The tests results show that there is not a stat i stically significant difference betwee n the most frequent mode of t ransportation before and after the CWW program was implemented. Did the travel patterns, with respect to errands, of CWW participants change? The survey included questions concerning the respondent's travel patterns with respect to errands They were asked if they ran most of their errands on weekdays after work, on weekends or days off, or other. Exhib i t F-7 discusses the question of i f trave l patterns have changed due to the CWW program. Comparing responses f o r before and after CWW

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i mp l ementatio n the test resu l ts show that there is not a statistically significant difference in travel patterns for CWW participants. Do CWW participants rate the various CWW evaluation measures higher thari the non-CWW participants? It was assumed that CWW participants would generally rate most of the CWW evaluation measures (Questions 11-27 of the survey) more .. positiyely than non-CWW participants. Exhibit F-8 highlights this question. The test results Imply that CWW participants rate each and every evaluation measure significantly higher (more beneficial or more positive rating) than do non-CWW participants. (Note that survey Questions 11, 12, 19, and 23 were receded forthe all tests, so that means above 4.00 imply a decrease, and means below 4.00 imply an increase for these questions.) This test implies that CWW participants consider t hemselve s to have less mental and physical fatigue, higher morale and productivity, and higher quality of work and personal life than do non-CWW . participants. CWW participants also rate their supervisors' morale higher. the company's overall productivity higher, and the companies overall morale higher than do non-CWW participants.

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I =-: ---,i MJN-CWW I cww 6 5 / / 4 : ..... z 3 ;---: ;-1 : ; : ; i ill : i I oil 1 i ln1n i I I I I 1 1 I N M m --------OIESIION# n n ilrtnn ' I I i I ; I I I ; I I I Do managers/supervisors rate the various CWW evaluation measures lower than do other employees? The focus group conducted with managers and supervisors brought out the point that they are generally not as happy with the CWW program as non managers/supervisors. This test compares the ratings of the various CWW evaluation measures by managers/supervisors to the rat ings of non managers/supervisors Exhibit F-9 lis ts the details of this question. The test results imply that there is a statistically significant difference in the ratings between managers/supervisors and other employees for most of the measures, but not all. The managers/supervisors did, in fact, rate each evaluation measure lower than other employees except for the questions regarding physical fatigue department's morale and the number of miles driven per week These three measures were not rated significantly different between managers/supervisors and other employees. 261

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Do classified employees rate the various CWW evaluation measures higher than unclassified employees rate the various CWW evaluation measures? A point was raised concerning if classified emp loyees feel generally the same about the CWW program as do unclassified employees. It was assumed that classified employees may rate the various CWW measures somewhat h i gher than unclass i fied employees rate those measures. Exhibit F-1 0 explains this question The test results imply that classif i ed emp loyees rate the following measures significantly higher than do unclassif ied emp loyees: productiv i ty, supervisor's perception of productivity, qua lity of work, less overall amount of overt i me required, eff i ciency of inter-office commun i cation quality of personaVfamily life, quality of interna l customer service quality of externa l customer service,and the company's overall productivity Note that these results do not necessarily mean that the average rating of each measure has increased or improved, but only that the actual class i fied emp loyees ratings of the measures are higher than the ratings given by unclassified employees. The other eva l uation measures are not significantly different between classif ied and unclassified employees. Do employees who categorize their jobs as mostly clerical rate the various CWW evaluation measures higher than the employees who categorize their jobs as mostly physical labor? The question was raised concerning if employees who perform mostly physical labor l i ke the CWW program more than the employees who perform mostly clerical work. Exhibit F-11 add r esses this question. The test results imp l y that the emp l oyees in the mostly clerical category rated the following evaluation 262

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m ea sure s s i g n i ficantly l owe r than d i d the mo slly ph ys ical labor catego ry : m enta l f at i gue mor a l e s upervi sor's mo r a le produc ti v i ty superv i sor's per cept ion of produ cti v i ty qual ity of work, qual i ty of personal/family life, number of m il es dri ven per we ek qual ity of interna l c ustomer service, qua lity of external c ust o mer serv ice, and the company's overall productivity The other evaluat ion measures not men tioned above are not s ig ni ficantly d i fferent between the mostly c l erical w ork category and the mostly physical labor ca tegory Do female employees rate the various C WW evaluation measures lower than male employees rate the various C WW evaluation measures? A question wa s rai sed conce rni ng if m e n a n d wom e n feel differently about the C\NVV program Issues such as ch il d care transport at ion and spo use' s e mp l oyment could affect each gender's ratings of the various eval uation meas ures Exhibit F-12 lists the details of this q u est ion The test results imply that w o men rate their supervisor's morale s i gnificanlly lower than do men, and that w omen rate th e numbe r of miles driven per week sign i ficantly higher tha n d o men All o ther eva luat ion m easures a r e n ot s i g ni ficantl y d i fferent betwee n the w om en a n d me n at TEP I s the number of years an employee has worked for TEP related to any of the CWW evaluation measures? Since people, in general are re lu ctan t to ch ange it was assumed that the lo n ger a n e mployee worked for TEP, the more comfortable they were w i th t h e trad i tiona l schedules It followed then that they would be t ess likely to accept 263

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the CWW program Therefore, it was believed that these employees would give the CWW evaluation measures lower ratings. The survey results suggest that the longer an employee has worked for TEP, the less likely they are to have a positive impress ion of the CWW program and the impact it has had on TEP. Exhibit F-13 contains the statistical tests that s upport this conclusion. Examining the test results carefully, however, shows that few of the negative correlations are actually substantive. Company morale and work life quality are the only variables that appear to be substantively related. CORRELATION STRENGTH BETWEEN LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT AND EVALUATION MEASURES : flfl COII'ORAI ; ==----------------------------0.3 -0.2 0 .15 -0.1 -0.05 264. 0 i i !1m COPROO tlliiNTSI:RV 8 MILEORIV I PfRLOUAl I i WRKI.QUAI. I ll!l EFfCOM.'.I I ilil OTREQ I 'liD \\lliiKQUAl I !!! SPERPROD I \ 0

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Is the age of a TEP employee related to any of the CWW evaluation measures? Sim ilar to the reasoning followed i n the length of employment question, it was assumed that the o lder an employee was, the less likely it was that they wou l d rate the CWW program positively. Although the statistical test contained i n Exhibit F -14 demonstrates that some of the CWW evaluation measures are negat ivel y correl ated with the age of the employee none of these correlations are substantive enough to draw sol i d conclusions CORRELATION STRENGTH BETWEEN AGE AND EVALUATION MEASURES 111111 111 1 :II ;111 1 11111:11 1 1 I ll; II '11,11,111111'11 1 ; 111111 ,11.11111111!11! I l l ;il' l l l llllf,llllll :II' Ill :Ill ill'llllll ;Ill iilllll,l l l lllllllill i l l i ll!llll llllllllll i l l i ---------- , ,._ "'1,"'.'.'/ ']', p:n H ,,:-.,, ' 0 0 0 '0 0 .(1.18 .(1.14 .(1.12 .(1.1 .(1.08 .(1.08 Z6S I COPROD I II Mll.EDAN !Ill PRLQIJAL i llli v.IIKLOUAL ; ' : i!l! O TREQ I l : 0 IWRKQUAL i I ' j 0 SPERPHOO i Ill DMORALE C MENIFAT I 0 i II PH'ISFAT

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Does the age of a TEP employee affect the preferred work schedule? It was assumed that older employees would prefer the traditional 5/8 work schedule because i t was what they were accustomed to and it was what they had structured their life around for so many years. The test results shown in Exh ib i t F-15 demonstrate that this assumption was accurate. Examining the crosstab tables and the frequencies shows a tendency that as age increases the preference for a CWW schedule decreases. AGE VS. PREFERRED SCHEDULE 266 IIIIBBt NW l 0 ONI I

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Does the age of a TEP employee affect preferred work schedule (combining the ages into two categories: < or= 35 and> 35)? As is stated i n the above question, it was assumed that older employees wou ld prefer the traditional work schedule. A second test (Exhibit F-16) was co nduct ed to confirm these results. The emp lo yees were divided into two age gro up categories, less than or equal to 35 years o ld and greater than 35 years old. This tests confirmed the results of the previous test: there exists a tende ncy that as age increases, the preference for a CWW schedule decreases Does gender affect the preferred work schedule? A test was conducted to determine whether or not gender affects which schedule an employee prefers. The test shows (Exh ib i t F-17) that the r e is no statistical d i fference between the schedules women prefer and the schedules men prefer. In f act, the percentages of the schedules preferred by women were almost ident i cal to those preferred by men 69.3% of the women preferred a CWW schedule and 30 7% preferred a non-CWW schedu l e For the men, 69.6% preferred a CWW schedule and 30.4% preferred a non-CWW schedu le. Does being a manager/supervisor affect the preferred work schedule? The information obtained during the focus groups and personal interviews indicated that a difference may exist between the manager/supervisor's preferred schedule and the non-manager/non-supervisor's preferred schedule. The discuss i on in the focus group was that managers find it difficult lo superv ise the CWW participants The managers/supervisors, t herefore, may prefer the tr aditional 5/8 schedule. The test results (Exhibit F-18) do not support this reasoning. Although, a slightly larger percentage (abou t 5%) of managers do prefer the non-CWW schedule, it is not a significant difference. Furthermore, it 267

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can not be concluded that the percentage difference is entirely a tt ributable to th e "management role." Since managers tend to have been employed by TEP longer the difference could also be a factor of age and l ength of employment. Does an employee's classification affect the preferred work schedule? When the CWW program was first introduced, t he union d id not support the program This raised the question : is there a difference between th e work schedule preferred by classified employees and that preferred by non-classified . employees? As shown in Exhibit F-19, a statistical difference does not exist between their preferences. Do the living arrangements (i.e. living alone or with someone) of a TEP employee affect their preferred work schedule? It was reasoned tha t an ind iv idual's living arrangement would impac t their preferred schedule. For example, an employee living with a may have more responsibilities at home, and therefore may find a CWW schedule to be . more beneficial. The statistical ta st (Exhibit F-20), however, shows that this reasoning does not prove to be true .. Does an employee's length of employment at TEP affect their preferred work schedule? According to the test in Exhibit F-13, there exists some negative correlations between length of employment at TEP and the CWW evaluation measures. To follow up on these correlations, it was then questioned whether leng th of employment impac ted which schedule an employee preferred. The test displayed in Exhibit F-21 shows that a tendency exists that as the length of employment increases, the preference for CWW schedules decreases. 268

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LENGTH OF EMPLOYMENT VS. PREFERRED SCHEDULE .,. .. ,.worh4At1EP Are CWW participants working their preferred work schedule? I eJ PREF. NC\WI I 0PAF .CW'H i \ The CWW option is not available to all employeesdue to indiv i dual department policy. In addition, several of the comments by survey respondents indicated that many employees who do not have the 9/80 option are i nterested i n it and would like for it to be available to all employees The test i n Exhibit F-22 was conducted to see if employees are in fact working their preferred work schedule. After examining the test results one can conclude that approx i mately 20% of TEP's employees are not on thei r preferred work schedule. The majori t y of t hese employees are currently working the traditio nal 5/8 schedule and wou l d prefer to work a CWW schedule 2

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CURRENT SCHEDULE VS. PREFERRED SCHEDULE I ...... NCWN I I o ...... """ Do the current living arrangements of a TEP employee affect their current work schedule? The questi on tested in Exhibit F-23 was whether or not the employee's current living arrangements impacted their current choice of a work schedule The test results indicate that living arrangements do not impact an employee's current work schedule. Is the median number of dependents for CWW employees the same as the median number of dependents for non-CWW employees? The number of children and dependents one has often detennines an employee's schedule and lifestyle. A test was conducted to determine if a difference exists between a CWW's number of dependents and a non-CWW's number of dependents. The test shown in Exhibit F-24 concludes that there is not a significant difference 470

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RECOMMENDA TIQNS The CWW program impacted TEP in many ways This evaluation and study demonstrates that steps can now be taken to improve the CWW program and its effects on TEP and the employees. Several recommendationsweni developed which can be grouped i nto two different categories. The first category in cludes suggestions that the company itself can i mplement. The second category includes measures aimed direc tl y at the employees. COMPANY SPECIFIC TEP offers the compressed worl< week as an alternative work schedu l e for its employees. This is not an industry wide p r actice and it sh.ould be classified as a "perk" or employee benefit. As with any employee benefit, the characteristics of such can change over time and should be managed accordingly TEP needs to actively participate in the evolution of t hi s CWW in orde r fo r its success to continue. The follow i ng l i st of r ecommendatio n s are des igned to meet this end: Ensure that human resources promotes CWW as a special benefit to prospective employees Open 9/80 option to more employees ; several respondents expressed i nterest. 21% of non-CWW participants preferred a 9/80 schedule Promote the CWW program especially towards younger employees to help in meeting travel reduction regulations Fo rm task force to help supervisors and non-supervisors address CWW challenges. 471.

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Clarify issue of whether or not non-CWW employees are in fac t burdened with extra work due to their participation in CWW by conducting another study. Offer those departments not able to participate in CWW a substitute non monetary employee benefit in order to subdue resentful sentiments of "feeling cheated." Survey this group to determine what would be a desired substitute. Develop a progr am to explain to all of TEP's employees how the company benefits as a whole by complying with travel reduction regulations Non-. participating employees need to feet that they too are benefit i ng in some way. EMPLOYEE SPECIFI C Similar to the concept that the company should attempt to maximize the benefits of the CWW program, ttie benefit receivers (the employees) need to play an active role in assuring that they are utilizing the benefit i n the fullest capacity The following r ecommendations are designed to meat this end: . Hold department and multi-department meetings on Tuesdays and/or Thursdays since a majority of the employees are available on these days. No respondents ind icated Tuesday as a day off, and only one respondent indicated Thursday as a day off. Communicate indiv idual schedules more effectively: 1. Post printed schedule at employee's workstation. 2. State schedule on voice mail. Request employees to log their travel miles for further analysis regarding transportation issues.

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CONCLUSION TEP implemented the CINW program as a response to employee requests. Since implementation, however, i t i s apparent that the employees are not the only ones to benefi t from the program. The company, the customers, and the community also benefit from TEP's CWW program. The i ni tial goal of the CWW program was to provide a benefit to TEP employees. The CWW program, with some l imita tions, allows employees to select the work schedule that best suits their needs and lifestyles The flexib i l i ty in work schedules increased employee morale, as 50% of the survey respondents ind ica ted. Increased employee morale benefits both the employee a nd the company TEP receives a second benefit f rom the CWW program, that is increased productivity and improved work quality. Since implemen tation of the program the respondents bel ieve that the productivity and quality of wort< imp roved (over 370 respondents indicated that their productivity increased and over 300 responden ts indicated that thei r quality of wort< improved) TEP's customers also benefit from the CWW program Now that some empl oyees wo rk the 4/10 shifts TEP has expanded the hours it provides cus tomer service. Service to customers can be scheduled beyond the traditional 5/8 hours. The additional times are often more convenient for the customers. Travel reduction is a s ign ificant benefit TEP recei ves from the CWW program. The program enables the company to meet the requ irements for the travel reduction ordinance adopted by the Pima Association of Governments. The 1996 deadline for meeting the requirements of the Congressional Clean Air Act is approaching. Thus, travel reduction and air pollution will remain a priority topic. TEP's CWW program demonstrates that it is already taking steps to maintain and improve the air quality in the TL!cson, Arizona community ..

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The community also benefits from th e trave l reduction by the CWW part i c i pants Fewer cars on the road, less travel dur i ng rush hour traffic and "errand running" during off peak hours all are a resu l t of the CWW program. These factors contribute to maintaining and improving the air quality in the Tucson vicin ity. Whil e the CWW program produced many benefits they have not come without costs The survey indicated, for example, th at employees believe the efficiency and qua lity of inter-office communications has suffered from the implementation of the CWW program. In addition, the survey indicates that the employees who participate in the CWW program bel ieve that the program has had primar i l y positive effects on TEP while the non-CWW employees do not always agree with this positive analysis. These split opin i ons could create many management challenges Some unanswered questions still exists regarding the actual travel reduction that is a res ult of the CWW program. Has travel really been reduced? CWW emp l oyees ind icated that they believe they travel less on the i r des ignated day off than they do on a work day. This a perception and does not include their weekend travel. It is poss i ble that overall travel was not reduced even though the designated day off travel is believed to be reduced In o rder to continue to meet the in it ial goals of the CWW program and to contin u e to receive the additional TEP needs to periodically evaluate and change the program. Thi s study provides a basis for that process 274

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Dear T.E .P. Employee: The University of Arizona, Karl Eller Graduate School of Management & Tucson Electric Power Company The University of Arizona, Karl Eller Graduate School of Management is working with Tucson Electric Power Company to gather information on the effects of the Compresse d Work Week (CWW) on T.E.P employees. This is your opportunity to provide feedback on the program which was implemented by T E.P. two years ago. Your complete honesty and candid opinions are necessary to make our research successful. To assure your anonymity we ask that you refrain from putting your name or any o t her identifying marks on the survey itself In consideration for your time and effort we are giving away one $50 and two $25 cas h awards. The random drawings for the awards will be held one week after the survey due d ate The three wiMers will be contacted by phone. T o be e l ig ib l e for the drawing, please return this cover letter and the completed survey through interoffice m ail to Cathie Bryan, Transportation by March 23, 1994. Members of the University of Arizona Marketing Research group will separate the surveys and cover letters. Only cover letters accompanying completed surveys will be entered into the drawing. Thank you in advance for taking the time to fill out this survey 275

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Compressed Work Week (CWW) Questionnaire for TEP Directions: Please check the appropriate box to the questions in order, skipping ahead when asked to do so. The entire questionnaire should take about five to ten minutes to complete. All questionnaires will be kept strictly anonymous, and cannot be traced back to the respondent, so be sure to give your honest opinions. I. What is your current work schedule? Cl3/ 1 2 (12 hours per day, 3 days per week) Cl4/10 (10 hours per day, 4 days per .week) ClS/8 ( 8 hours per day, 5 days per week) Cl9/80 (80 hours in 9 days; e.g. every other Friday oft) ClOther: ____ 2 How long have you worked this schedule? ClLess than 6 months Cl6 months-! year Cll-2 years DOver 2 years 3. Which one schedule would you prefer? Cl3112 Cl4/10 ClS/8 Cl9/80 OOther: -----4 Which location is your principle working facility? O!rvington ClDowntown ClWest Ina ClSpringerville ClOther: _____ 5. Which of the following categories best describes your job? ClMostly clerical work ClAbout equal clerical work and physical labor ClMostly physical labor 6. If you are not on a CWW now, have you ever worked a CWW? ClYes ClNo ClNot applicable 7. If you replied yes to question 6, why did you go back to your previous schedule? ClFamily Related Reasons ClTransportation problems ClPersonal Reasons (other than family) OOther : ...,..-,..,-------ClCWW work day too long ClNot applicable ClOther work Related Reasons 8. How many miles is it from your home to work (one way)? Cl0-5 Cl6-10 Clll-15 016-20 Cl21-40 OMore than 40 9. How many days a week do you drive your car to do errands after work? ao m 02 m Cl4 as 10. What is your current travel pattern with respect to errands? ClSeveral trips during the week ClOne trip on the weekend/designated day off ClOther _:.., _______ _______

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Please chec k the box that b es t descr i bes h ow the following have changed due to the implementation of the CWW s c hedule whether or not vou are a CWW. Greatly Not Greatly Decreased Changed Increase d I I. Your level of physical fatigue? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 Your mental fatigue? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13. Your mora l e? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 Your department's morale? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 Yo u r s u pervisor's morale? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 Your product i vity? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17. Your s uperv isor's perception of your productivity? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18. Your quality of work? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19. The overall amount of overtime required? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20. The efficiency of inter-office communi c ation? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21. The quality of y our wor k life? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 The qual ity of your personal/family life? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23. The number of miles you drive per week? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24. The quality of internal customer service? 0 0 0 0 0 0 25. The quality of external customer service? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 26. The company's overall prod uct ivity? 0 0 0 0 0 0 27 The comp a ny's overall morale? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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28 Are you now working a CWW schedule? OY es (Please g o to question #29) ONo ( P lease go to question #39) 29 Which is/a r e your designated day(s) off under the CWW schedule? OMonday OTuesday OWednesday OThursday OFriday OOther 30 Which method should be u sed t o allocate your designated day off due to the CWW? 0 Seniority 0 Need Based (special personal ci r cumstances) 0 Rotation 0 Random 0 Other:---------31. On average, how many miles do you drive on a designated day oft'? 00-10 011-20 021-4 0 041-60 06!-80 OMore than 80 32. What is your most frequent mode of t ransportation to and fro m work? OPersona l vehicle OBu s OBicycle OCar Poo l OVan Pool OOther: ______ 33. Prior to working a CWW schedule what was your most frequent mode of transportation to work' OPersonal veh i cle OBus OBicycle OCar Pool OVan Pool OOther:. ______ 34 Prior to working a CWW schedule whe n did you usually run personal errands? OWeekends OWeekdays after work OOther: --'-----35. How often (average time s per mon t h) do you do the following on your designated day oft'? Leave town: 0 0 0 I 02 0 3 04 Run errands: 0 0 Cit 02 03 04 Stay at home: Cl 0 0 I 02 03 0 4 Other .:_-----------P l ease check the box that best descri bes how your CWW schedu l e has affected the foUowing: Greatly Not Greatly Decreased Chang e d Increased 36 Your travel time to and from work? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 The amount oftime you spend in rush hour traffic (7 -9 am; 4 6 pm)? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38. Your a l ternative transportation choices (van pool, bus. car pool, etc.)? D 0 0 0 0 0 0 278

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39. Which employee classification are you? OCiassified (covered b y union conuact) OUnclassified (not covered by union contract) 40. Aie you a manager/supervisor? DYes ONo 41. How many dependents live with you? 00 01 02 04 05 or more 42. Please indicate which of the following apply t o you: OLive with spouse/partner OLive alone OOther 43. How long have you been employed at TEP? OLess t han I year 06-10 years 01-5 years Oll-IS years a 16-20 years DOver 20 years 44. What is your age? OLess than 25 025-35 years 45. Aie you : OFemale 036-45 years 046-55 years OMale 0 56-65 years OMore than 65 years 4 6 What is the most important advantage of the CWW program? 47. What is the most importan t disadvantage of the CWW program? 48. What one sugges t ion would you offer to improve the CWW program? Thank you for taking the time to fill out this survey. Please return this survey and the cover letter through interoffice mail to Cathie Bryan, Transportation, by March 23, 1994 to be eligible for one of three cash awards 279

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TITLE: AUTHOR: INTRODUCTION: Wheels on Wheels: WOW! Promoting Bicycle Commuting through Public /Private PartMrships Barba.ra A. Bray, Program Administrator Riverside Bicycle Commuter Coalition In 1992, the Riverside Bicycle Commuter Coalition (RBCC), a private nonprofit volunteer group, applied for Assembly Bill 2766 funding from South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to install bicycle racks in Riverside Transit Agency's (RTA) fleet of full-size buses. Originally, it was proposed that interior racks be designed as no exterior racks existed on the market and RT A had concerns that exterior racks might damage the bus wash. Conversely, there was concern that designing interior bicycle racks would reduce passenger seating and the visibility of the program would be undercut by racks that couldn't be seen by the public. BODY: The RBCC had a dream of increasing bicycle commuting in western Riverside County through the installation of bicycle racks on RTA 's fleet of73 coaches. RTA did not have the funding for the racks, but were interested in the concept because of the opportunity to capture the sizable commuter population who lived or worked too far from a bus stop, but who could use transit, courtesy of tbe bicycle racks for buses. RBCC and RT A formed an alliance and p3.1"1Dered in the proposal to AQMD for innovative project funding designed to improve air quality and reduce ttaffic congestion. WOW! Products SCAQMD awarded funds in the amount of$184,111 for the project which included: a) a design contest st to manufacture the racks from among local engineering firms and colleges and universities b) the design of a database for potential bicycle commuters c) the creation of several surveys designed to test WOW! program awareness rate the functionality of the bicycle racks from a bus operator and a bicycle commuter point of view elicit information from major employers about their employee bicycling programs WOW! Specifications When the RBCC commenced work on the project in 1994, several manufacturers of exterior bicycle racks for buses had emerged on the market. Selecting a manufacturer was accomplished through a formal Request for Proposal. Vendors were invited to an interview where their proposed racks were demonstrated. A selection committee comprised of RTA staff, RBCC boardmembers and consultant staff ensured that: the rack would withstand the bus wash and not damage the bus or the bus wash installation and repair to the racks would be minimal without costly or obscure components the users of the rack would not require the assistance of the bus operator the use of the rack would not adversely impact the route schedule of the bus operator the rack would be aesthetically pleasing --=-=--.a. WOW! Wheels on Wheels Riverside Bicycle Commuter Coalition Promoting Bicycle Commuting tllrough Public/Private Partnerships

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the rack would not impair the vision of the driver when in use or when not in u5e the bicycle racks accommodate bicycles safely without damage to the bicycle the bicycle racks would hold the bicycle securely when driving over bumpy roads, at a high rate of speed or when coming to a sudden stop the rack was simple to use and the rack hardware was durable and of high quality parts The vendor selected was located within the city of Riverside. The vendor worked with the RBCC and RT A to deliver a final prototype which woul d accommodate the needs of the bicyclists and the transit agency. The Project Team working group, comprised ofRBCC boardmernbers, RT A staff, the local transportation commission, Riverside County Transportation Commission (RCTC), the local rideshare agency ,Commuter Transportation Services (CTS) and consultant staff represented a pooling of public administration, marketing and technical resources which proved to be ideal in working through the implementation of the program. The Project Team christened the project WOW! for Wheels on Wheels and designed a logo of a bicycle superimposed over the transit wheel of a bus. Marketing Strategies The Project Team developed a marketing strategy to introduce WOW! to the public. Three events were scheduled with the target audiences of: the general public the major employer market the local political and business dignitary core of the community To implement the WOW! public event, the Project Team partnered with the TARGET corporation to produce "WOW! A Clean Air Extravaganza" which was held in May, 1994 at the Riverside TARGET location and was the official kickoff for the program where commuters could apply for the permits to commute by bus and use the bicycle racks. The traditional ridesharing themed booths were available, as were a number of community vehicles Participants included Metrolink commuter rail with bicycle permit applications, CTS Commuter Exchange mobile unit which produced ridesharing match lists, the Police Department which distributed finger printing kits, the Fire Department who registered bicycles into a l oca l computer database, the Riverside Bicycle Club with a publication of recreational ride information, the TRIP and TAP programs which provide senior and disabled transportation, American Bicycle Security with bicycle lockers, the RCTC Commuter Assistance Program which offers $2/day incentives for three months, the American Lung Association and the Automobile Club of Southern Califomia which produced spare keys for commuters and RBCC with displays of their accomplishments. TARGET underwrote the cost of the event, including carriage rides, face painting, games and a Bounce House for the children, $3 off TARGET merchandise coupons, free refreshments, a stunt bicycle demonstration, Ballet Polklorico dancers and a deejay to provide music. TARGET also sponsored a bicycle sale at greatly reduced prices A formal ribbon cutting ceremony was held with represematives from RTA, RBCC and RCTC. An event hel d for major employers was held in conjunction with theCTS monthly network lunch meeting and a relay race was held among Employee Transportation Coordinators for the best comparative times in strapping on a bicycle helmet, loading a briefcase or backpaclc,loading the bicycle on the bus and then WOW! Wheels on W h eels Riverside B icycle C o mmuter Coalition Promoting Bicycle Commuting through Public/Private Partnerships

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. reversing the process. ETC's marveled at the speed and ease in using the rack and all were invited to practice the rack so that they would be knowledgeable when promoting WOW! to their employees. All participants received special WOW! certificates. The fmal kickoff event was a formal WOW! commencement and was held at Fleetwood Enterprises, Inc. as a prelude to their "A Clean Air Affaire" for their 500+ employees. Dignitaries from RT A, RCTC, RBCC and the SCAQMD and the board of supervisors spoke regarding the project and what the different partnership efforts mean to the community as a whole. Other outreach efforts included distributing press releases about the project to local planning and public works officials and notifying them of the WOW! activities. A common RBCC and RTA goal is to promote transit and bicycle friendly development within western Riverside county and the bicycle racks for buses represented a crucial step in utilizing two modes of alternative transportation which are more accommodating of the community at large. CONCLUSIONS: T h e b icycle racks will be completely installed on RTA 's fleet in mid-September, 1994. Now the data gathering and marketing outreach continues. The challenge will be to educate the general public as to the ease and convenience of this new opponunity in alternative transportation and to continue the great strides made with organizations who are sep arate, both public and private, and who are unified in their desire to improve air quality, reduce traffic congestion and increase bicycle/transit commuting. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: WOW! Project Team Robetta L. Holden, Riverside Bicycle Commuter Coalition Eleanor Lippman, Riverside Bicycle Commuter Coalition Cathy Bechtel, Riverside County Transportation Commission Mick O'Donnell, Riverside Bicycle Commuter Coalition Anne Palatino, Commuter Transportation Services Susan LeDuc, Commuter Transportation Services Joan Danfifer, Riverside Transit Agency Scon Richardson, Riverside Transit Agency Consultant Starr . William C. McCaughey, Program Manager, Inland Transportation Services Barbara A. Bray, Program Administrator, Inland Transportation Services REFERENCES: Cities in the BalaJtce: the Transii-Friendly Environment San Diego Metropolitan Transit Development Board, 1993 (Video and Manual) WOW! Wheels on Wheels Riverside Bicycle Commuter Coalition : Promoting Bicycle Commuting through Public /Private Partnerships 282

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1JJM A Practical Approach: Case Study TDM -A PRACTICAL APPROACH: CASE STUDY By: Raj Shanmugam P.E. Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc. Abstract The Dade County MPO, in cooperation with other Dade CountY Agencies and the RcgionaJ Commuter Program of the Florida Department of Transportation, facilitated the cxeation of the Cen.ltr TranspoFWiQn MatUJgtmentOrgani:JJliiJn (CCTMO). Containing almost 35,000 employees, the CCTMO incorporates hospitals, colleges, and judicial facilities clustered around NW 1 2th Avenue and NW 16th Street in the City of Miami. The type, use and intensity of businesses in the area is prime for improving pedestrian facilities and thereby encoutaging transit us.age. In July 1993, as part of the Dade County's Continuing Congestion Mitigation Program, the Cl>ic O:n/Jir PedtstrianAm#nilies and SaflJ Swd] was initiated. This study took a very practical approach in identifying problems and solutions to pedestrian amenities and safety in the Civic Cente r area. Reeommended solutions included both short term and long term improvements. Most of the short term solutions are, however, low cost and could be implemented quickly. Due to this reportS pract.ic31 natwe, it received widespread acceptauee and interest from the local agencies as well as public agenci ... The intent of this paper is to highlight some of the major areas of the repon and summarize the Civic Center Pedestrian Amenities and Safery Study recommended solutions. Introduction To aid in the implementation of TOM Strategies i n Dade County, in 1991, tbe Metro Dade Metropolitan Planning Organization with the aid of Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc. developed the Transportation Demand Management and CimgestiQn Mitigation Sflltly. The purpose of this study was to investigate a wide range of TOM alternatives available to the County and to develop the best way in which the County could implement state-of-the-art TOM techniques. This study which was adopted by the MPO governing board identified specific actions for adoption and imp lementation by the Metropolitan Dade County. The Plan provided a program of short-range and long-range measures to reduce the need for single occupant vehicles on Dade County's roadways. The focus of this Civic Pedestrian Amenities and Safety Study is to inventory and identify low cost measures to Banon-Aschman Associates, Inc.

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TDMA fractical Csc Studv improv e the pedestria n facili ties by which the transit usage can be encouraged in the Civic Center in Dade County. Study Location The Dade County MPO, in cooperation with o ther Dade County Agencies and t h e Regio nal Commuter Assis t ance Program of the Florida Department of Transportation, facilitate d the creation of the Civic Center Transportation Management Organizatio n (CCT MO). The CCTMO boundaries are defin e d by the Dolphin Expressway to t he south, N.W. 20th Street to th e north, N.W. 7th Avenu e to the east and N.W 17th Avenue to the :west. Within this area, there are almost 35,000 em ployees, the CCTMO incorporated hospitals, colleges, and judicial faciliti es clustered around N.W. 12th Avenue and N.W. 16th Stree t in the City of Miami. Because of the high levels of transit usage generated by these institutions, improvements to the pedestrian facilities should increase transit usage. Major Pedestrian Corridors Through an initial field reconnaissa nce and data c oll ection activity, sixteen major pedestrian corridors were identified within the Civic Center Study area They are: 1) Fred Mall Corrido r 2) N. \V. 17th Saeot Conidor 3) N W. 14th Ternce/NW lith Avenue Conidor 4) N.W. 18th SttuVN.W. 8th Avenue/N.W. 19th Street Corrido r S) N.W. 15th Strut (U of M Hosp ital tid Clinlcl) Corrido r 6) N.W. 15th Sueet (JMH :rowen) Corridor 7) N.W. 16111 Sueet QMHJU of M) Colrldor 8) N. W 16th Sttut (y A Hos p ital) Conidor 9) N.W. 14th Sueet Conidor 10) N.W. 13th Avenue Corridor 11) N.W 13th Court Conidor 12) N.W. 13th Strut Corridor 13) N.W. 12th S treet Conidor 14) Bob Hope Road Corridor 15) N.W. 20th Stteet Conidor 16) N.W. 12th Ave11.ue Conidor Barron-.Aschman A.sso
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: i _j! j f?fFi N. T. S """' ............ ....... -= i.lll!C.I DADE COUNTY I CONTINUING DE'S. OPMENT OF lMA' s I I I CMC CENTER PEDESTRIAN AMENffi E S A N D SAFETY SlUDY Q) FAU> OOWEL t.W.I. (y "" 17tH S T (LOUIS UeCVLLER WAY) "" 14tn 1ER./"" 1 1t AVE. 18th ST./NW 8U\ AV(./r-M Ull.h ST NW ST. (U.N. HOS PITAL AND CUH I CS) NW 15th ST. (JACICSON UEOIOL lOWER) 0 NW 10th ST. (U. N./J. U.H.) N W 16th S T (VETERANS H OSPITAl,) HW 14th ST. @ NW 13th AVE. 908 HOPE RO. 8 ww tJth cr. NW 13th ST. 3 NW 20th ST @ N\'1 I Z t h ST. mt 1 2 t tt AVE. COUNT L OCAT IONS o. N W 12th AVE. e 1#11 16th ST. b N W 12th AVE.. e NW ST. o NW 1211'1 AVE 0 NW 14th ST. d. NW 12th AVE. 0 NW 20th Sf. c. HW 12th AVE. 0 S of S.R. 8J.e f HW 12tH AVE. 0 N of S.R. 836 g tlW 14th ST. e NW 13th AVE. h NW' 14th ST. e HW 13th CT. I. mt 12th ST. e HW Uth AVE. J. HW 1 2th ST. e NW 13th CT. k NW 12th ST. e C OURT HOUSE WJJN EN'T'RANCE I, NW 20th ST NW 7th AVE. ,..., 908 HOP( RO. 0 N\ff 17th AV( n. 908 HOPE RD. 0 CROSSW.ALK 1 5 M 17th ST. o. 906 HOP E RO. 0 NW 20\h ST. LIICUIMOI --ST1.0Y SOUNC.\AAY Q? MAJOR Pf0STR IA.N CORROOR Oo PO f$1'RWII COUNt' LOCATIONS

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TDM A PracticalAI!PrOJJch: Case Srudv Recommendations a. L9w Cost Short Term Improvements Each of these sixteen pedestrian corridors were further evaluated in the field and pedestrian counts were taken at strategic locations to identify deficiencies that could be improved to encourage pedestrian usage. The deficiencies ranged from i m proper pavement markings to inadequate street lighting and lack of sidewalk space. The majority of the improvements could be implemented by local maintaining agencies. In addition to a detail corridor by corridor evaluation of deficiencies and possible solutions, a list of the deficiencies was prepared identifying the local agency responsible for correcting tl:te deficiency and where the deficiency exists. Example: N.W. 16th Street (JMH/U of M) Corridor This is a major pedestrian corridor in the Civic Center area. The existing pedestrian amenities such as covered walkways, benches, and open walkways, are conducive to pedestrian circulation. There are a few deficiencies In order of importance and ease of implementation, they are: (l) Pedesuian/Vehicular oonfiict at the parking garage enttance/exit. InstaU yiekl and stop signs to regulate vehM:ular movement. . (ii) Vehicles parked in front of sigJ>s: Enforce curb..s.ide parking cootro1. (iii) Ramp not niatching the crosswalk: Restripe the crosswall<. (iv) Speeding vehicles: Currently conttoDe9 by speed bumps. An alternative would be to inataD pedesuian priority tteatment, such as non-slip tfles at heavy pcdesuian activity areas. b. High Cost L2ng-Term Improvements There are a number of high-cost, long-term improvements whlch should be implemented in the Civic Center Study area to make it more attractive to pedestrian usage. Following is a summary both general as well as specific improvements and the future needs for the Civic Center Study Area. Barttm-Aschman Inc. ;."86

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1\) uw .__ 1 """"' 00($ HOJ' w.utH 'l. OOW1JCr$ Al PNIICWIQ: CAIW:E .tO:XSS. J. rNOfD tf lfl0til1 01 TOW-.A.WAY $ON. SPUD BUill'S tO SlOW voea.a.. ..,.. o). COOO HIQ-ft"ruf( UCH'I\"NC. ), CAT'l'WAY """-NOT AT M CHTIIWCC IS <:000, SHOUl.O K fXIDCl(l) 10 lH[ fttiT tW nc: CQitfti OOft OR AT lDST R t.Oc:o\MHS SUCN AS JlH)IfT fW T1of( PNIIOHC CWWX: NliO 1'K CRCL TO c:N PfiOAITY. c). A \Q'I' COOO P(O(S'1"R\AH c;ofAOA WITH 1"RU SHAQIHG: AHO ocwtttt0 w.trONIIA.'f. d), TOO WoN't PNti([O 'vt:KICUS IN 1HC NIQO' e ) ()(JIItlt(O WIO
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TDM A PracticalAf!J!r<>ach' Case Study Pedestrian Amenities Covered walkways provide protection against inclement weather. From the limited data collected, follmving is a list of corridors identified as candidate for covered walkways: a. N.W. 12th Aven ue corridors (east and west sides) from N.W. 16th Stteetto N.W. 14th Street b. N.W. 1 6th Street corridors (east and west) on th e north side c Pedestrian corridors around the judicial facilities. Priorities for covering these walkways should be based on actual pedestrian counts. Due to the high volume of pedestrians certain corridors must provide priority treatment to pedestrians. Some of' the locations and pedestrian corridors that are candidates for priority treatment are: a. N .W. 12 t h Avenue at N.W. 16th StJ:eet b. N.W. 12th Avenue at N.W. 1 5th Stteet c N.W. 16th Street conidors east and west d. N .W. 15th Street (West corridor) Due to the large number of buildings within the Civic Center Study Area, it is easy to become disoriented Building directional signs to orient pedestrians should be located at strategic locations. These signs should be mounted at pedestrian eye-level, near the pedestrian corridors but clear from the walking The CGrMO could undertake many activities io promote pedestrian and transit usage in the Civic Center Are11. Public participation is one such activity. Visitors and employees to the Civic Center Area could be encouraged to fill out suggestion cards and deposit them at properly-located Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc. 288

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00 CD ......... S dty Sc< .. rtty Tr.rric Tr l t ill ._ ...... .,.,., DEF I CIENCY LIS T B Y ATIRIB UTES C ORRIDO R S AND RESPONSWLE EN111Y PCDES'T'IUAH OOittiDO JfO. a.tSI'OitSIILC rtrn1'Y 1 ' .. tl n .. .... ....., 1><0 CITY TMO OTY TMO aTY 1><0 CIY CIY crrv em em CIY CTY eo..tlict X X X X X X laM ...... Sla'l X ...... .,. .. ,._.,. X Pollt.t ..,. 'llltllfdt.a ,...,..,. .... IJitldl a X X X X 'T,.mc $4Jw X X X CotNu.ilt '"n .aftk S.JIU X X X 1-.propcli&K t ot pae1Ma l tt'lllllp X X X X Alit ...... X X X u ........ lllc4 u.m.: llfa X )( Dftl,-n,.. I t tJsu..liz e d ..... n .. lt uop f a cllitk t X X ka SlleMet V u 411iz:ecl PM. tu1..-101 t..abli .. .,.IMIIJ X X X X X ---X X X X X X ........ ta .............. X X X CIOIIWIUI.IoOl 1ipt4 W ll np X X X X X X X X h rltcf tJIICitt con.Ricdl'l& w ll pc4b. X X X X ti:kwal: s-paoct x """"- X X X X X X X au""-X X X X LAI41UpM J X ______ X X X Jj .. CIY FOOT X X X X X X X X X X X X X ' X X X X X X X X X

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TDMA Practical Auwach: Case Smdy suggestion Also, the CCTMO members could be influenced to encourage employees to carpool, vanpool, and use flextime to reduce the single occupant vehicle trips in the Civic Center Area. The CCTMO could also discourage the construction of new and expansion of existing parking garages to discourage motor vehicle usage. They could also increase parking fees and provide subsidies to employees for using the transit. Pedestrian corridors will be utilized more frequently if they have meaningful beginning and ending points as well as traverses pedestrian origins and sinks. The Northwest 15th Street (west corridor) is a good candidate for such improvements. It should be further extended towards the west to connect to N.W. 14th Avenue where an additional pedestrian crossover corridor could be established between N .W. 12th Avenue and N.W 14th Avenue. This corridor should be supplemented by pedestrian priority treatments. Improving pedestrian corridor attractiveness is a way to create the proper environment to encourage pedestrian usage. Soothing and non-threatening colors along pedestrian corridors is one way to achieve this. The area near the Civic Enter Metrorail Station should be landscaped and maintained regularly to create an attractive and safe environment. The corridor attraCtiveness can be improved by painting. Many walls (the Metrorail structure, for example) could be painted with colors that are attractive and which create a sense of a secure environment. Pedestrian Safety Pedestrian safety begins with facilitating motor vehicle traffic while integrating pedestrians and pedestrian facilities into the system. It is apparent from the crash data review that roadway improvements are needed at selected locations along N.W. 12th Avenue and N.W. 7th Avenue to improve motor vehicle access and to improve pedestrian safety. The following intersections should be further studied for engineering improvements as well as to improve safety and accessibility: Barton-Aschman Ass(J(Uztcs, Inr.

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TDM. A J>ractkal Approach : Case as t he three educational establishments in t he Civic Center areas are ideal locations for providing bicycle facilities. Further studies are needed to identify a networ k of bikeways and paths within the Civic Center Area ADA Compliance The ADA does no t require existing facilities to meet the standards set forth to accommodate handicapped users. The number of institutions in the Civic Center area sbows the need to imp rove tbe existing conditions to accommodate handicapped users. The CCTMO shou ld set up a systematic and prioritized program to upgrad e the existing conditions to meet such needs Bibliography 1) "Pedestrian and Traffic Control Me>sures": NCHRP Report #139; Washington, D.C., No,.ember 1998 2) 'The Ttalr.c Safety Tool Box': A Primer on TrafiiC Safety; Institute of Transportation EngineeiS, 1993. 3) "PI.lnning and I mplementing Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban and Developing Rural Areas : Research NCHRP Report #294A; Washington, D.C., June 1987 4) '"Tra(fic Planning and Other Considerations for Pedestrian Malls": An Information Report by the Institute of Traffic Engineers; January 1975 5) B.:utOnASehman Associates, lac..: "Cunent Efforts in Transporlatio.n, Demand Management, and Tools for Its Implementation in Dade March 1992. 6) B:utonAschman AssOciates !no. Final Report: 'Transportation Demand Management & Congestlon Mitigatlon Study"; March 1993. 7) Trnsponation Res-ch Board: capacity Manual (Special Report 209)"; O.C.1 1985. S) "De,.eloping Student Safe Walking Routes: A Procedures Guide,"; Federic R. Harris for FDOT, District IV; Augnst 1989. BartonAS(i:man A!Jociatcs, Inc.

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TPM 4 Practical A..,;..w.: ea.. Srutlo a N.W. 12th A<>enue @ N.W 20th Sttcct b. N.W. 12th Avenue@ N.W. 16th Stteet e. N.W. 12th Avenue @ N.W. 15th Street d. N.W. 12th Avenue @ N.W. 14th Stteet e. N.W. 7th A<'enue @ N.W. Wth 'street f. N.W. 7 t h Avenue @ N W. 17th S treet Pedestrlo.11 Securizy In a pedestrian's mind, tbe per"jltjon of security plays a more decisive role in utiliz.ing the facility than does the reality of security. The p,:esence of security personal and ample lighting gives a pedestrian sense of security. The three Metrorail stations are prime targets for such improvements. The Culmer Station should be given special attention. In addition to improving security and lighting around the Culmer Station, proper maintenance of vegetation, cleanliness, and code enforcement could further improve the usage of this Metrorail station. Near the bus stops, there should always be street lighting. The bus stops should be free of any overgrown vegetation that could heighten the sense of insecurity among transit users. Transit Usage In addition to improving pedestrian amenities and safety, steps should be taken t o encourage transit usage. Specifically, the non standard peak times caused by the unique Civic Center shift times among the institutions should be taken into consideration for providing transit service to the Civic Center area. Metrobus and Metrorail peak time headways should be sensitive to these unique shift times. At locations where thex;e is only bus stop, signs, bus shelters and benches should be added. All transit stops must be v.-ell lit and portray a sense of security to the users. All transit stops must be routinely maintained for cleanliness. The Metrorail stations must always have security personnel present viSible to the public. BU:ycle Facilities The Civic Center Area has little or no bicycle facilities. In addition to providing bike ways and paths, secure bicycle lockers, stands and showering facilities should be provided to ep.courage bicycle usage. The N.W. 12th Avenue/N.W. 16th Street interse ction as well . Bartcm ..Ascltman A.&:rociates, Inc.

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"CYCLOCQMMUTING" Stephen L Koval, Independent Travel Reduction Consultant and ACT National Alternative Commute Options Committee Member Abstract: Being creatures of habit we find it very hard to change our method of commuting. When we consider all the pros and cons of our present commute mode and contrast them with the pros and cons of another commute mode we are often left on our own to follow through with trying something other than driving to work alone. The success rate for a commute mode conversion is greatly increased when our peers and the company we work for support our effort to improve the environment we live in. To be sure, the benefits from converting to a cleaner way of commuting are not all the individual's. Many companies in today's business climate find it very beneficial to support their employee's efforts to clean the air. Adding a third party to help the efforts of employee and employer makes it even easier for everyone to achieve their own goals. So what once seemed l i ke a daunting task to change the norm becomes very achievable. Each player in the process is a key element to the success story and subtracting the efforts of any one element can undennine the efforts of the other two. It's all about teamwork! l!ltr
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"Companies that have promoted cyclocommuting have experienced positive results, including increased productivity, decreased absenteeism and fewer on-the-job injuries." (4) Ten percent of the employees who recently tilled out a travel reduction survey in the Pikes Peak'Region would cyclocommute if their car were not available to them. So, !he potential for an increase in the number of cyclocommuters in Colorado Springs is very real. My guess is that if the same survey were taken in other cities around the U S the res ponse would be about the same. What follows is a general approach I've used with various companies in Colorado Springs to encourage cyclocommuting. ADVICE FOR EMPLOYEES: Start cyclocommuting with a sound, dependable bike. "No matter how safely you ride, an unsafe bike puts you at risk." (3) Bike shops are usually very happy to help you with the correct size and style bike. Then add accessories for safe, secure, and enjoyable cyclocommuting. Equipping yourself; like your bike, is an important factor in increasing the odds that your cyclocommuting experiment will be enjoyable. A helmet is always a good decision. Eye protection and cycling gloves also prove to be a wise investment. Dress for the weather and for high visibility. A reflective vest his another good investment.. Then pick a tentative route using a bike/trail map from your local bike shop. You should test your route on a weekend and allow p lenty of time for your weekday commute. Remember to ride on the right-with traffic, obey all traffic laws and be aware of traffic around you. In Colorado, a bicycle is considered a vehicle by law The cyclocommuting public haye rules to abide by as do the other vehicles on the road. One of the best ways to conv'ert a drive alone commuter is to model good traffic .sense while on yout bike The key is for motorist to observe more cyclocommuters obeying the traffic laws than to be breaking them. In other words, lead by example. "The most important factor in how you ride your bike is how you feel about it. Ifyoo find bicycling enjoyable and reasonably safe, then you'll want to cover greater distances and go more places. But to do s o, you usually have to ride in the company of cars--and sharing the road with cars calls for an attitude of security and confidence. Once you have that attitude you can safely and enjoyably take on a commute to work in city traffic or a long day's tour on almost any kind of road Almost anyone can become a confident, streetrwise cyclocommuter." (I) ' Many of us have tried to cyclocommute in the past and have met with mixed results. As with many new changes to our lifestyle we need to prepare well and give it time. "If you're already a seasoned cyclocommuter, help your peers who are interested in getting started. The benefits of group involvement far out-weigh going it alone. "There are a lot of reasons to drive your car to work. But there are equally good reasons not to. Reduce stress Save money I Conserve our valuable energy sources! No more searching for a parking space! Clean up the air!" (5) Find a bike buddy to ride to work with and the commute will seem like only half the distance "Grabbing your bicycle instead of the car keys wiU soon become second nature Be patient with yourself and don't give (2) ADVICE FOR COMPANIES: "A business that promotes cyclocommuting demonstrates a concern for clean air, a healthier environtnent, reduced energy consumption and traffic congestion, and improving the overall quality of life in the community. Such companies are seen as progressive, environmentally responsible and concerned about their employees' health and well being." ( 4)

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The benefits for corporate involvement don't stop there There's more: -Lower parking costs -Lower health insurance rates/expenses -Healthier employees -Enhanced employee benefit package -More productive employees -Higher morale So, it really is in the employer's best interest to encourage employees to cyclocommute. Ways that employers can encourage and motivate their employees are as follows: -Locker and shower facilities on-site o r rented from a nearby facility -High visibility p lacement of bike racks and lockers; for example inside storage areas or a bike cage in the parking ga r age -Company maintained bike tool area -Commute fiiendly hours (Arrive just before/after other vehicles and leave in the same manner) -Dress down days -Company owned bikes for loan -Guaranteed Ride Home Program for emergencies and unexpected changes in the weather -Company support of an employee bike club that: -has t-shirts with the company logo -sponsors bike workshops (there's hundreds of tips for the cyclocommuter) -promotes bike buddies -sponsors social rides -provides a route planning service -handles incentive program administration -arranges for safety inspections -coordinated bike registration services A local lead agency is an extremely valuable asset and can help in many ways to coordinate your overall program. They can do this and not take control of your program or l eave you feeling like you could have accomplished the same thing in less time. Their knowledge of other groups with many of the same goals can really smooth out the process for you and save you time. Use them wisely. Conclusions: -It takes teamwork to achieve and maintain a successful cyclocommuting program. -It' s easier to achieve a team effort when everyone's goals are achieved through the process. -There are no "silver bullets". Each player has an equally important role to the overall success of the program. -While many of the people who already enjoy cyclocommuting generally have strong traits of independence, they really do appreciate the efforts of others. Lead agencies who work closely with the many different players involved in helping to make a cyclocommuting strategy work for a corporate partner are a more valuable asset than most companies realize. I value very highly the voluntary approach to corporate travel reduction here in Colorado Springs and would strongly encourage other communities to take similar action.

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Acknowledgments: This paper was written to blend together the thoughts and approaches of several cycle friendly communities and so I have purposely used quotes to give credit where credit is due. I encourage you to contact individuals and organizations listed in the references. References; I. Allen, JohnS. Street Smarts. Bh;ycling's Traffic Survival Guide. Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale Press, Inc., 1991 2. Colorado Bicycling Advisory Board. A Colorado Guide to Everyday Bicycle Tranaportatjon. Denver: Colorado Department of Transportation, 1993 3 Colorado Bicycle Program. B icycling In Colorado. The Colorado Bicycle Manual. Denver: Colorado Bicycling Advisory Board, Colorado Department of Transportation; Colorado Department of Administration Design Center; and the Colorado State 1993 4 Denver Regional Council of Governments. The Businei!S ofBicycling. Denver: Colorado Department of Transportation, city of Arvada, and GO Boulder, 1993 5 Regional Ridesharing. Are You Suffering From Commuter Stress? Phoenix: Regional Public Transportation Authority, 1991

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter J am es Mackay 7/28/94 Word Count= 4484 About the Author: James Mackay is the Denve r Bicycle and Pedestrian Planner. P r eviously, he was the Bicycle Facilities Engineer for the North Carolina Department of Transportation. He has served on the boards of the Chicagoland Bicycle Federation, the Dlinois Prairie Path, and started North Carolina Rail Trails and the Illinois State Chapter of the Rails to Trails Conservancy. James is a member of the Colorado B icycling Advisory Board and t h e American Society of Civil Engineers Human Powered Transportation Committee. The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting -An Everyday Primer for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter Definition: Bicycle Commuting Seeing other people spend more money to have less fun than you are! Introduction -A Summary of Twenty Years of Bicycle Commuting Bicycle commut ing really is not as daunting as it might seem Human p o wered transportation can be quite liberating and doesn't necessarily have to be a hardship or penance. According to U.S. Census information, ove r half of all work commutes are less than fi ve miles ideal for bicycle commuting. Some of the bicycle commuters that I have recrui ted and coache d have decided to make a lifetime commitment to it after a couple of weeks. I t means a lo t to me to hear freshly -minte d bike commuters complain how much t h ey miss their ride o n a day when they must drive their cars. There are many personal benefits from bicycle commuting A tangible one is the reduced cost of automobil e operations, maintenance and insurance prem i ums. Bicycle commuters are also likelier to be closer to their appropriate weights and not need three cups of coffee in the m orning. Bicycle commuting means that you don't have to drive to a health club to keep trim and vital, plus you get to smell the fl o wers along the way. I have consistently found that being able to "blow off 297

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay steam" while riding h ome after an exasperating day puts me in a much better mood for "quality time" when I arrive home. W ith America's present focus on environmental issues, let's provide recognition to the individuals who choose to lessen our reliance on fossil fuels and reduce air pollution, urban noise, congestion, and the blight of freeway construction; they are in the front lines in providing quality of life for future generations. The Human Mind: The Final Frontier Most people could probably guess the benefits of bicycle commuting. The challenge is to get people to view bicycling as the "mode of choice for their personal transportation needs (with transit and carpooling as fallback alternatives.) While some people will never give serious consideration t o bicycle usage, there are many people who would if their very common concerns could be resolved. For people who live 4 5 miles from work, bicycling has tremendous potential (with a minimal increase in commute time.) S i nce 1973, there have been three major gas crises in the U.S. Bicycles outsold automobiles in 1974 and 1975, only to hang from garage rafters as cheap gas became abundant again. During this time few bike friendly facilities and programs emerged to support this transportation modal choice. In the United States, bicycling is something you grow out of", or simply a recreational activity. In other cultures, it is not ie. the Netherlands, where 29% of all trips are by bicycle Even forward -thinking transportation staff who would like to provide bicycle solutions wind up having to defend themselves to their peers. The favored bicycle provision that typically remains is "do nothing" (or construct fragments where it is cheap and convenient to do so.) The three major reasons that people will not bike-commute are: 1) Too far/too difficult/too sweaty/too weird;

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay 2) No safe routelheauy traffic/no off-street facility {rom their back door all the way to work; 3) No showers/clothing lockers/secure bicycle parking at work because bicycle commuting is not part of the "corporate culture." ("Nice car, boss!") Ideally, an aspiring bicycle commuter can link up with an experienced bicycle commuter who presently travels the same route. The experienced commuter will have probably determined the safest/most direct route comprised of on-and off-street route links, neighborhood street bypasses, "cross-country" links across shopping centers, office parks, etc. Local bike club members and bike shop staffs probably know of viable alternative route connections and map resources. Professional bicycle couriers can be very knowledgeable about downtown connections and condit i ons. Living in an area with a grid system offers much greater potential than where there are no paralleling, interconnected side streets. Land development patterns where only the arterial streets connect, and all adjoining developments are disconnected from each other (without even off-street perimeter connections such as creekside greenways with bridges and neighborhood accesses) can present a challenge for even the most stalwart bicycle commuter. If you can't find those resources, you can still create a good route by determining weekday traffic conditions on the automobile commute route, then spending a Saturday on the bike exploring potential alternatives. This lets you determine the most appropriate bicycle version of this route, ready for a timed test run! Potential cyclists need to be educated on how to remain cool and comfortable while riding a suitable bike along a "bicycle friendly" route. They need to be confident that provisions for bicyclists are in place at their destinations, where bicycle usage is considered normal. Much remains to be done if people's first thought prior to any trip is to become "Do I need 3000# of polluting steel along for the ride?"

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle ColJIDluter James Mackay In order for more people to make the choice that "bicycle commuting is for me", there needs to be quality facilities, education, and encouragement. Some European cowitries have 30% of their workers commuting by bicycle; bicycle transportation is part of their culture. Equipment and knowledge needed for safe, reliable, and comfortable commuting Beyond the growth of the sales of bicycles, there .has been tremendous growth in the availability of bicycle accessories in the past twenty years. Some catalogs now have logos identifying products that specifically support bicycle commuting. For the casual cyclist, accustomed to the neighborhood bicycle lawnmower repair shop, determining the proper equipment and finding-the be'!t values ...,m take some learning. Ideally an experienced b icycle commuter or club will be available to point out the most appropriate product solutions, so that provisioning will not become a hit-or-miss proposition. Choosing a Bike for the 1990's! Today's bicycles are characterized by alloy wheels which accelerate and brake easily, providing nimble responses to steering, with high-pressure tires that roll smoothly. Avoid chrome-plated steel wheels, as they are notoriously poor for braking when wet! The mountain bicycle has eclipsed th:e conventional road bike in sales nationally, and has provided a reintroduction to bicycling for adults who have not ridden bicycles since childhood. With its beefy construction, upright riding position (with enhanced visibility .in traffic), and gearing range, a mountain bike can offer a good compromise solution for all around bicycling. Drawbacks of mountain bikes include knobby tires with high rolling of pavement (consider "slicks" for smoother on-street riding), lower gearing, and a less aerodynamic riding position. For people who live less than six miles ti:om work, a mountain bike could provide the likeliest commuting solution. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, half of all U.S. people live within five miles of work. a co

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay The conventional road bike remains more efficient for longer, on-street riding, with more nimble acceleration and handling, smoother high pressure tires with low rolling-resistance and a more aerodynamic riding position which distributes more of the rider's weight onto the handlebars. While lighter and faster than mountain bikes, road bikes are much less forgiving on bad pavement, patches of gravel, etc. The thinner, narrow tires are more susceptible to flats, and road bikes do not offer quite the visibility of mountain bikes. (Consider that while mountain bikes will allow you to ride through potholes and over curbs, road bikes will require that both you and the bike had best swerve.) The efficiency of road bikes will save you time if your commute is more than ten miles. "Hybrid" bikes offer intermediate compromises between road and mountain bike styles and equipment. Similar to mountain bikes, they provide a more upright position with knobby tires; however l ike road bikes, they have higher gearing and lighter wheels A hybrid bike can offer a likely sol u tion for on-and off -road riding needs. Any bike chosen should be well-fitted to the dimensions and riding style of the person riding it; many people ride bikes with seat and handlebar posit i ons which are both uncomfortable and inefficient. There are a few items that can greatly increase rider comfort and safety. If your commute takes more than 15 20 minutes, you will find that gloves, water bottles, a tool kit, and a rack which allow items to be carried in packs on the bike (instead of on your back) are essentials. When travelling a longer distance a quality seat and a pair of cycling shorts will do wonders for rider comfort; consider a gel -type saddle. You'll find that eye protection is preferable to bugs and grit. Lightweight touring style bicycling shoes can be worthwhile investments Given that 75% of all bike fatalities are due to head injuries, a comfortable, well ventilated helmet represents a great value for people who consider their brains worth $35. A rearview mirror, mounted either on the bike or on the cyclist's helmet or glasses, can really help 301

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay alert the rider to passing traffic vital for riding through potholes and past parked cars. No matter what kind o f bike you get, i t will probably have a handy quick release front hub. Be sure to learn how to use quick-release hubs correctly . Correct usage of the "QR" mechanism does not cost a penny extra, and can the wheel from popping out Incorrect usage of . quick release hubs has resulted in injuries. On the Ride Novices tend to not change gears often enough; and remain in a high gear when inappropriate. Keep in a gear that you can comfortably "spin" in, shifting gears as needed in order to match riding conditions while you maintain a comfortable cadence of about 75 100 RPM. It's a myth that pushing higher gears all the time gives you a better workout It may just tear up your knees spin ning gives you much better b l ood circulation. Toe clips or SPD pedals can greatly increase your pedal ling efficiency, while providing more control of the bike too! Always ride your bicycle defensively, communicate your intentions to others with hand signals in traffic, and be visible with bright colors by day and reflective materials at night. Obeying traffic laws may save your life; don't take stupid r isks and have a major accident that can b e shown to be your fault. "Wrong Way" riding is just that -contributing to a significant number of crashes with cars because motorists aren't looking fur wrong-way bicyclists at intersections. Bicyclists can be liable fur accidents for which they are responsible. Automobile insurance policies typically do not cover bicycling, although some homeowner or renters insurance policies -do (check -with your insurance agent). Packing what you need for the ride If your commute is short, you can easily ride to work in your work . clothes, arriving in the cool of the morning Allow yourself enough time to "ride cool", so your ride is a comtbrtable jaunt. If your ride takes half an hour, having the right items along fur the ride can keep life 302

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay pleasant. Water, snacks, sunscreen, lip balm, rain gear, spare change, tools for minor adjustments and flats, small air pump, etc. will keep your ride fun and reliable. A quality lock will k eep your bike available for your use! If you have a longer commute, or if you will be changing into other clothes at work, you may need to develop a commute r wardrobe. You will find that lightweight clothes in summer will keep you cool and comfortable. In cooler weather, use layers of clothes and a shell garment so you can adjust your warmth along the ride. Knees are temperature sensitive and can be damaged if you ride too hard when they are not warmed up consider full-length tights if most of your ride will be below 60*F (15*C) Booties over your shoes will help keep your lower body warm as you pedal. Always spin to warm yourself up in cool weather if you r ide too fast initially, you can lose heat faster than you create it. Pack your work clothes by rolling them to avoid wrinkles. Place them inside packs carried on the bike via racks. Carrying items in a back pack is less comfortable for longer rides, can make you sweatier, and can affect your balance. Plastic bags can keep the important things (including documents, tape recorder, camera, etc.) completely dry. Keep your tools, bike parts, etc. in a separate compartment; individual tools will be easier to find, and your important items will not get rub marks when you hit bumps. Check how an experienced commuter uses a packing system, so any item has a logical place, thus helping to find things quickly and in good condition. Spare bulbs or batteries for your lights can do wonders for your peace of mind. In traffic, a lou d electric horn can be useful, but a bell or horn is more appropriate for an off-street bikeway. Pedestrians always appreciate it when they know in ad,vance that you will be passing them. To avoid confusion, call out "passing" when overtaking pedestrians. (Saying "passing on your left" can actually create problems because some people will simply move over to the left without looking!) By calling out "Passing" or ringing a bell, pedestrians will know to "hold their line", allowing you to pass safely. Other trail users will actually thank bicyclists who are courteous to them. 303

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay Expect to spend about $600 $700 for a good bike, helmet, rack, packs, tools, pump, bike clothes, lights water bottles, lock, etc. Annual costs may be about $200 for tires, maintenance, batteries, some transit trips, etc. This compares favorably with automobiles cost ing $15,000 with annual costs of approximately $3500. Onee you arrive at your workplace Slow down on your final mile to work, so you don't arrive in a huff. This will keep you cool and let you arrive with grace Take your helmet and g l oves off immediately. Running cool water over your hands in a sink works surprisingly well for cooling off Having a small fan available to use when you stop can really help you adapt to not being able to keep making your own breeze. Having a handy and secure place to keep your bike at work is vital. Ideally, you can bring your bike into your office, your workspace, employee bike room, or leave it opposite someone who can watch i t all day. Otherwise, bike lockers, or an "inverted u" type rack which allows to lock both the frame and front wheel would be great. You will probably only get a rack in the open -at least be sure that it has a fair amount of walk by traffic and good visibility from the building. There are people who carry the tools to dismantle just the parts that they want from your bike. Placing a bike rack out in the back in the dumpster area can allow rogues and ruffians to work uninterrupted for hours. Once inside your building, you will have already provided yourself with everything you need to pass as someone who drove. Having a spot to store a supply of dress clothing, shoes, personal care items, etc. means that you will just need to bring in your undies and lunch in the morning, and then pack out laundry at the end of the day. Clothing lockers placed in bathrooms with shower facilities are great when your employer provides them, or there may be a health club nearby. If you really are that sweaty after the ride, you may need to build up your stamina with more practice and training rides first. A diet with 304

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay plenty of carbohydrates and lots of water is best for cyclists. (Skeptics can ride a test run on a weekend morning, confirming their arrival freshness.) How employers can support bicycle commuting There are probably some employees at every worksite who would like to ride to work, or ride on lunch break, if the employer or site manager ensured that bicycle usage was convenient. Employers can provide and maintain a fleet of company bikes for employees to check out for use on business trips, or for lunchtime errands, as a way to stimulate bicycle awareness. Secure on-site parking with ramp access, bike maps on a bulletin board, free lunchtime workshops with the local bike shop or bike club, bike tools and a "tube bank" for on-site repairs are all ways that any employer can foster bicycle commuting. Inverted-U type racks are the best, and look very graceful outside the front door confirming to clients and employees that they are entering a "bicycle-friendly" company. (Installed costs for lnverted-U racks is approximately $40 per bike, with enclosed bicycle storage lockers starting at approximately $400 a bike.) However, surveys consistently show that the lack of on-site shower and clothes changing areas at work are a primary deterrent to employees who would otherwise choose to bicycle commute (particularly in the case of women). Sometimes, an adjacent health club can offer reduced rates for morning users when the club facilities are idle, or unused space can be remodelled for a bike commuter support area, complete with clothes storage. Some transit agencies have teamed up with cab companies to offer a "Guaranteed Ride Home" program. This type of program is becoming more available to employers. In the event that an alternative mode user needs to leave work to pick up a sick child, tend to an emergency, work late, etc., the worker can have their supervisor authorize cab service, with the bill charged against a pool account that the employer pays into. Having a program where bicycle commuters can have a :m.o;

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay company van come pick them up if they experience a mechanical breakdown can also encourage the mechanically timid. Some companies offer bikes for free use by the employee, with the employee being given the bike if it is ridden to work an agreed upon number of times. Employers who build, provide and maintain free parking lots for their employees may find net savings via such a program when employee wellness and health care considerations are factored in. Additional incentives that an employer can provide include: * * * * Reimbursing employees for bicycle mileage on company trips Profiling present bicycle commuters and highlighting upcoming bicycle events in the company newsletter Offering bicycle commuters first choice for hours and clothing lockers Designating "Casual Dress Days" Sponsoring a "Bike to Work Day" or "Find Another Way Day", promoting all alternative modes with free breakfasts, relaxed work and prizes for participants Inviting the local transportation, parks, or public health agencies to participate as part of on-site bicycling or alternative transportation promotions Pl.'Oviding 15 minutes of vacation time for each bicycle commuting day Having monthly drawings far prizes or coupons with entries based on alternative mode use, or weekly poker games with players being given a playing card for each day that they participate 306

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay Paying employees their hourly rate as they bicycle commute. Providi ng recognition and a sense of community with other alternative mode users will create a work environment that is supportive of bicycle commuting. (This will also link cyclists with car poolers, transit riders, and telecommuters, so they will consider these modes during inclement weather.) Bicycle Maintenance: Any bike should be made reliable with quality parts and maintenance. Flat tires are people's number one concern, and can be easily avoided with tire liners which impede glass and thorns from puncturing the tubes, as well as self-sealing gel placed inside the tubes which will plug small holes. Learn how to change !i flat tube with a new one, or at least carry the needed equipment to make it easy for someone to help you. (Having the knowledge and tools to fix a flat has an effect similar to carrying an umbrella to keep it from raining!) Since underinflated tires can also cause flats, learn to check your tire pressure weekly air is free! Operating costs on a quality bike can prove to be minimal if you make sure that the vital parts never run dry on oil and grease. A good bike shop can provide needed maintenance, or sell you the tools and lubricants you will need. An experienced cyclist can show you how easy bike maintenance can be, and help you determine what tasks you may choose to rely upon a shop for. A well-maintained bike is very smooth and virtually silent. A bike that wobbles, makes noise when pedalling, or squeals when braking is not well-maintained and is no fun to ride on. Lights at Night -Not just a Good Idea, It's the Law! Plan ahead reflectors and lights really are required by law! While the U.S. has made great strides in bicycle helmet usage, most bike fatalities take place at night. Even if you can see the road, motorists may not see you! Sooner or later, you will be out after dusk on your bike. Bicycle light usage in the U.S. is an absurdly low 10%! Many European 307

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay countries have required lights on every new bike for years. Battery and generator-powered lights have become very efficient now, with halogen light bulbs offering tremendous improvements fi.om before. Some headlights mount directly on your helmet so you can look around corners, and are very conspicuous for oncoming traffic. Rechargeable gel batteries provide hours of high-intensity lighting between charges. Generator lights provide light whenever you are moving, freeing you from battery considerations. Rear blinker lights with bright LEDs are very popular now. Although very eyecatching, they are harder for motorists to estimate for distance. Other lights may be strapped onto 'your legs or arms. Reflectors are required by national law on every new bike, but many bike shops fail to install them. Be sure to demand front and rear reflectors, pedal reflectors, and wheel reflectors you paid for. It's a smart idea to wear a reflective safety vest, or other reflective clothing as well. Quality Bicycle Facilities It is no secret that the transportation system in place in the U.S. was specifically not designed with safe and convenient bicycle use in mind. Narrow lane widths, pavement defects abrupt pavement dropoft's in lieu of paved shoulders, skewed or rough railroad grade crossmgs, drainage grates, etc. pose particular problems for "balanced wheel" transportation. Traffic actuated signals ft-equently do not detect bicycles. Quadrupole loops cut into the pavement are the best detection method, but few local traffic engineers choose to actually use them. Rampant highway construction in urban areas has typically cut off low volume neighborhood streets, leaving cyclists to stand at.the end of o.ne street stub and look across lanes of traffic at the other street stub, or to contend with the traffic on the major arterial routes which actually 308

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay cross the highway (or railroad, river, etc.) I While off-street, grade-separated bicycle expressways are quite desirable and can be constructed in river channel corridors, along rail corridors, etc., opportunities for an interconnected network of this kind of bikeway are rare. Thus, to day's bicycle commuter has to explore route opportunities that can be created from low-volume streets paralleling busier routes, in order to avoid competing with rush-hour traffic for space in narrow lanes, negotiating major intersections, etc. There is a cause and effect relationship between the mentalities resulting in sprawling land use patterns and lack of human-powered transportation rou tes, and the transportation/congestion/fossil fuel pollution problems facing our country The worst part is that these national-level problems have been accelerating daily. While funding for bicycle facilities is increasing, bicyclists historically have had little impact for most of this century. Nowhere is this more apparent than the limited bicycle-friendly crossings of our expressways in urban areas. Low-volume, neighborhood streets were severed in the 50's and 60's, requiring that cyclists e ither use the arterial streets connecting across major interchanges, or remain landlocked I ndiv idual cyclists need to present a unified agenda for provisions supporting bicycling, so that meaningful facilities and policies can be provided. Due to the individual focus of bicycling (versus activities requiring teams), bicyclists have not historically reached the ears of policy-makers, since they don't band together and gain the necessary clout that other organizations already have as major players on the political landscape. 1 Public sentiment is that "bikes don't pay their own way." This view completely overlooks the (approximately) 50% annual subsidies given to cars. The prevailing wisdom that gas taxes pay for the true costs of automobile usage is a cultural myth that few realize. Bicyclists' physical wear and tear to our transportation infrastructure borders on the incalculably small and, since many of them do own cars, they have paid their wa:v alreadv. 309

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay The crux of the matter is a Catch-22 situation that we must somehow overcome, because bicycle usage will remain low until transportation facilities support bicycle use. Sadly, however, policy makers will not think in terms of providing "bicycle-friendly" transportation facilities until there are more bicyclists using the system and advocating further system enhancements. The challenge i s to "instituti onalize" bicycling so that facility provisions are made as a matter of course. With the successful passage and progr!lmmed implementation of the "Americans with Disabilit ies Act" (ADA), a corresponding "Americans with Bicycles Act" should be considered. Summary Bicycle commuting can provide benefits to both t h e user and to society. It can provide a sense of one's own personal space in a hectic world. While novice bicycle commuters will need to learn some new skills and purchase additional items, the lifestyle rewards of discovering bicycle commuting can be tremendous. This publication was intended to provide the ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter. There are other letters of the bicycle-commuting alphabet that you will need to learn from other people from other publications, from bike shops and from bike clubs. Much of your learning can come from your personal experiences along the way. Be sure to get well-acquainted enough with these topics before you set out, so that all of your personal learning experiences are positive ones. After a week of bicycle commuting, you will start to gain a sense of empowerment in being able to propel yourself to work and back. As your riding and route selection skills evolve, rush hour automobile traffic may no longer be a part of your life. Soon, you may be able to e n courage and mentor another aspiring bicycling commuter with the savvy you have acquired. You may be surprised at how meaningful the concept of humai\ powered transportation can become for you in the not-too-distan t :3t.O

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The ABC's of Bicycle Commuting for the Aspiring Bicycle Commuter James Mackay future. Buying a bicycle is a better choice than attending a "Rescuing Your Inner Child" seminar: give your inner child a chance to smell the roses on your way to work.

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National ECO Regulated Community: Survey Addressing Regulation Implementation Prospectus: 6aclsgroyod: Purpose: by: Rita Brohman 4903 Oak Shadows Houston, TX 77091 (713)'688-9141 ABSTRACT This paper and presentation will present the survey results from a national survey to ECO regulated community addressing all aspects of regulation implementation in any area falling under the ECO regula tion. Members of the TOM Journal Editorial Board have been working on this survey and results for 6 month now w\changing and varying regulations for each area. The ECO Guidelines offered only minimal guidance and all ECO areas differ in their interpretation and imp lementation. What happens in this environment could shape the future of TOM and how it's evaluated on a national level by other agencies (e.g. DOT. EPA, APTA, etc ... ) The answers to this survey regarding training TMA's parts in the regulatory process of these areas, who is using ISTEA-CMAQ funds and for what are just some of the items analyzed and presented. To evaluate where we are in TOM Where the future may take us. To take a good look at the regulatory process How it shapes and develops industry while it is growing and, to look at the many elements of implementation in comparing "Can We Shape the Future?" 312

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Salutations A Full Scale Simulation ofECO In Northeast Jlllnols; Perfonnance &!!8b'sis and Conclusions Nick Ramfos; VPSI, Troy, Ml Gerald Rawling: CATS, Chicago, IL There are many people not represented here wbo contributed to this presentation. Jennifer Dillard, Carl Mikyska, Kevin Taylor, Ellzabdh Lahey were the account executives who were in constant contact with the participating companies; Mary Jennings has managed production of a cost report; Jack Henneman (now with COMSIS) and Mike Lipke (in the private sector somewhere) were involved throughout In analytical procedures and software-writing. Andy Plummer, and more recently Dave Zavaltero provided management oversighL And none of us would have bad anything to say were it not for the employees orthe 17 companies who took part in the project. To them we express our appreciation We want to start with 30 seconds to nash a couple of pictures from the Chicago Historical Society to show that there once was a time when congestion and air pollution were considered an index of prosperity. Few self-respecting companies would Issue a stock certllkate that didn't show a row of smoking chimneys. Anybody from Pittsburgh? But we risk preaching to the choir to remind you that times have changed, and so bas the culprit (because the old culprits are worn out?). The current situation b summarised in the following cartoon. [Inserts] The CAAA '90 put northeast Illinois in the severe ozone non-attainment category whlcb quallfted it for the controversial ECO provision. The numbers are subject to connnnation .:'1.3

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after the mailing ofnotices (9200 pre-notices went out on July 14) but an order or magnitude estimate made in mz indicates that approximately 5400 employers, 7000 worksites and Z.05 million employees will be atrected. If anything bureaucratic can be said to move fast it was events between July 1991 and the present, during which the region went from the creation or a Task Force to study the issue, through alternative legislative drafts, to a final biD passed Man:b 1993, rules and regulations, creation of an advisory committee required by the law, continuing exchanges with USEP A. At tbe outset of the ECO Demonstration project (hereinafter "the Demo') there was some gnesswork but tbe standard elements of an ECO compliance program were fairly evident and fonned tbe basis of the milestones. One job orthe Task Force was the accumulation of knowledge and example, as follows: [I) In northeast Illinois there Is a weD-developed transit system and we have a steep APO gradleat, though It wasn't called that then. There would be a Jlllllor Issue or zoning and another or "blended' or combined APO calculations. This was the reason one participant, Continental Bank, soon left the projecL With site-specific APOs ranging rrom :z.os to 19.54, the bank appeared to be at a trading advantage until the law as passed llmlted trading to within a company or related companies. [II) In northeast Illinois there was one example of a company with a contraded TDM program: Sears Roebuck. As part of Its relocation to Hotrman Estates, beginning In 1991, Sears agreed to a clause In its annexation agreement to limit parking avallablllly to 80% of employment (whic:b Is equivalent to an APO = t.lS). By adhering to this contract, plus 317

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Introducing an extensive program of commute alternatives, especially the use of subscription buses and shuttles to Nil lines, sears has a current APO between 2.0 and 2.1. [iii] there were several examples or companies with unique commute alternatives programs. Allstate lnsuJ:'Bnce has long been known for Its vanpool program which, together with a carpool program, gives Allstate an APO of approximately .1.10 for its 4300 employees workforce. Most of the companies with such programs were motivated less by any anticipation or ECO than by such issues as employee retention and satisfaction. [lv] data from the U.S. Census, the llllnols Department of Transportation and the regional planning commission all Indicate that ECO Is a case or trying to 'put the back in. the bOttle' a decade In which VMI' has up every year Without a break, rldeshare (and transit) has lost market share, and the developed area for the bas grown by 40% compared to a 4% population growth. The import and export or job-related trips has increased in five or six metropolitan counties. First Staee Pruarations Firstly, CATS repositioned Its Rldeshare Office by expanding its responsibilities and retltUng It the CommuteGroup. At the. time the CATS CommuteGroup set out to Invite participation, there were the beginnings of some research into ECO efl'ectlveness and the first evidence of only modest results. The Southern Cslifomia experience was beginning to achieve notoriety for its 3% (under?) achievement ratel; other research was reporting the lack of a eonduclve environment, especially the lack of a policy milieu 2 contradictory land use and 318

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development forces 3 and the general resistance, or at least indilferenc:e, of management". There were several compendia of papers available, such as by Cambridge Systematics for the USEPA omce of Mobile Sources Schremer & KuzmyaJt' ; ITE's "Toolbox' COMSIS ec al for ACTS. These contained several examples some common to more than one compendium, of Individual companies' successful use of commute alternatives. Examples were drawn from the Bellevue, }VA. TMA; Maryland case studies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ; Connecticut examples, e.g. Travellers Insurance Co.; several best cases from Southern CaUforu.ia, e.g. ARCO Estimates of costs ranged widely from $10 $180 per employee, from $600 $2300 per vehicle removed from tramc. Independent analysis by CATS staflindlcated that the ranae per employee could be as wide as $100. $600, and that $2300 per vehicle eliminated was very plausible fhis analysis was conducted by 'forcing' the elements of seven plans througll a standardised set of compliance steps; the work was a rorennner or a similar analysis conducted by Ernst & Young for the SCAQMD 10, Among other observations, the Ernst & Young study reported an impact ratio or 3.4% ( one In 29 employees left their cars to lake alternative transportation ), and annual costs per employee ranging from $3.00 to $714.00 with an average of $105.00. CATS studies also benefitted from overlooking a consultant's monthly reports to company managers and observing companies spending $1000 $2000/month for no visible results, but still Jess than the cost or a fine for failure to make a good faith effort. The combination or these findings was a prime reason for undertaking a research project specific to the northeast Illinois experience. :319

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DefininR the Project To test ECO compliance procedures and responses or participants CATS deflned a series of -en phases as follows: L recruitment of participants ii. assessment of starting conditions baseline APO aitd site evaluation Ill. initial ECO plan preparation iv. monitoring and evaluation v. 18-month recalculation of APO; summary and conclusions. vi. (still in progress) testing of compliance plan tonus, procedures, trial plans, component values In the "Value-Added" plan selection vii (still in progress) cost summary report The object (as declared In tbe abstract) was to simulate each step or anticipated step of ECO compliance as required by the evolving law. Mllestoaes were established and a Milestone R11J1ort was produced tor the second 1 fourth 13 and fifthl4 stages Recru.ltlnR Participants The CATS CommuteGroup staff Introduced the project with a letter or solicited interest asking tor volunteers from several sources, Including .ECO Task Force members .businesses with whom CATS had worked because of the early presence of active ETCs and/or the existence otTDM programs .chambers or commerce and Industrial associations .TMAs Employers who were referred to CATS or generated their own expressioa otinterest were added to the list or prospective participants and also sent letters. The introductory letter 320

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included a statement of purpose and background on the USEPA ECO (or ETR as it was then) Guidelines. II olfered help from the CATS CommuteGroup and eventually the oll'er of demonstration teams. The letter emphasised that volunteer companies were expected to commit enough time, stair, services and funds to make the project feasible. In order to verilY the volunteers' levels or commitment the introductory letters requested a letter or commitment be sent to CommuteGroup stalf. Forty six such letters were received. A general questionnaire was also sent to employers, which asked ror information on tile workplace, the makeup or tbe workforce, residential distribution, work schedules, types of work undertaken at each site. The CommuteGroup stall' reviewed all responses to determine If they were suitable candidates for the Demo. In cases or employers with no previous TDM experience, tbe CommuteGroup, together with IIHnols EPA starr, Interviewed company representatives at their place of business. II was a goal of the Demo to compare participants with prior TDM experience to those without. CATS and IEPA determined tbat an ell'ort should be made to Include in the Demo at least one representative from each orthe following broad employer types: .a government facility .a stand-alone (I.e. physically Isolated) site near tbe outer llmlt or the ozone non-attainment area .a company with multiple sites in the region .a school or college .a Loop employer .a site with multiple tenants .a shift work site (I.e. factory and/or hospital) .a reverse commute site (I.e. a site with employees who commute against the now of local traflk: congestion) .a TMA or business conidor site. 3Z1

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The CommuteGroup staff and IEPA staff combined the interviews and questloDJIJilres with demographic characteristics of volunteers to choose 17 CORE Denio ( cf: SUPPLEMENTAL Demo) program partidpants li:'om tbe available pool or 46. The selection relied on a weighted score procedure that valued the company's declared commitment to completion of the project and to making the necessary resources available as well as satisl)'ing the criteria on the foregoing list. Profiles of participating companies can be found in a CATS Operations Review article 15. One particular case study involved the choice of three unrelated businesses wlthla a two mile radius in order to test some hypotheses about the feaslbiUty of joint strategies or even joint plans. The location of the sites chosen is shOWII In Map 1. The baseline APO for each site is shown on this map. Where two numbers are shown, as In 2.17 /1.78, the latter number is a revised APO that treats survey non-respondents as drift alones. It Is readily appareat * * * * * * * Stamne In order to provide adequate support to the project CATS recruited three additional account oecutifts, each of whom was assigned specific territory and a share of the project sites. In tbe upli:'ont ac:kRowledgements we reported on staft' accountabilities. The authors orthls paper were project manager and research manager respectively 3Z2

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. .. ....... . . .. ... .. .... ........ .. .. . ...... ....... .. ............ ... . McHenry .......... .. . . 1. t t * 1.20 K a n e . . . p u p . La k ; .... ... ................... ...... ; .. ..... ........ .... .. . .. ,., ; . . . . . \ : ; ., . .. ... .. : ... . .... *' '' II + w Chi
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Timetable and Milestones 'The four prindple phases of the project were as followl: .Phase One Survey Phase. Completed 0 199l .Phase. Two CompUance Plan Phase. Compleled April 1993 .J'hase TJiree Monlloring and Evaluation Phase. Completed November 1993 .Phase Foiu' Re-Suney .t. Final E'f&luallon Phase. Completed Febnaa17 1,. AI tbe time ohritinc a QW. Ralort is being written. This wiD he lllllde uailable at tbe Acr Annual mectiq. Prolect Support Adtxlt!es Periodic focus poup meednp u.d training sesslou were beld for both tbe Ptop"am administralors and tbe ETC's in order to monitor and record prog,ess and ed11cate each slle on the various componeuts or eac:h phase of the project. Focus groups held covered the following areas: Survey Admlnlstratlon/Loglst!c:s/ APO Soft'ware .survey results and reac:tlona .Compliance plan loglst!c:s Complianc:e plaa preparation and implementllllon Compliance plan monlloriDg and evaluatloa .Ongoing monllorlug Re-suney loglstlc:a and fbull ealuatloa cit the projects An employee transportatloa coordinator run day tralnlDg aession was beld as well as a mollltoring and evalualloll session and experts In the safety ud liabillt:J area as well as behavioral research were bro.t ia to speak to the prop11m administrators and/or ETC& 324

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Additionally, the Metropolitan Transponation Association (MTA) was hired by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency to record and follow-up on all ot the steps whlcla the core program participants went through during Phases One and Two. The MTA scheduled rollowup and In-depth lnten1ews with each or the program administrators and/or ETCs and submitted a written repol1 to CATS staff on informatioa gleaned from the intemews16. MTA staff also monitored and recorded all information from each or the focus group sessioas lleld during the course or the project. The MTA and the llllaol Depanment of Transponatlon are negotiating an extension or the contract to cover aspects or Phases Three and Four. A pilot Guaranteed Ride Home program supponed by a grant from tile llllllola Depanment ofTransponatlon was Introduced during the second phase (October 199Z) and completed on December 31, 1993. The results were as upected: a very low usage rate was recorded, oat of the 10 companies who Included GRH as a compliance plan element only two submitted oae payment voucher each. The total amount of reimbursement from CATS was $89.05. The result is consistent with the observed experience In slmUar programs where GRH provides a desirable option to suppol1 commute alternatives. Demonstnt!QJI Teams Once the core program participants completed data entry of the survey BDCI had an opportullity to review the APO at their respective sites, together with responses to an attitudinal survey and employees' requests for information, CommateGroup staff asked the program administrator and/or ETC to page the level of Interest witlllntemal management as to whlcll types or strategies and tier level or Incentives they would be willing to Integrate Into those strategies which would fulftll compliance plan requirements. 325

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After Internal management consensus was reached, the program administrator and/or ETC submitted a "wish list of strategies and Incentives that enabled CoinmuteGroup staft'to recruit a demonstration team for each site. Each strategy was oO'ered in graduations, or tiers, where the higher the tier level the more complete the incentive(s). Tier 1, lntroductocy level, was generally considered to consist of distribution or bask: information; tier 4 to consist of direct organizationa l Involvement by the company and frequently u Incentive ot Investment. For example, tier 1 for vanpoollng consists of holding a transportation day and soliciting interest; tier 4 consists of van formation meetings, GRH program, preferential parking, some llnanclal commitment by the company either in the provision of vans or In subsidizing users. There is a discussion or the tiering principle and the definitions of tiers in the second Mllestone report (Aprll1993) 17 Demo Team members were selected based on the site:s wish list and were comprised from one or more of the following agencies or groups: .Bicycling planning experts Customized Transit specialists .GRH experts .Land use planning experts .Pedestrian program planners .Rideshare marketing staO' .PubUc transit research and marketing stall' Telecommuting experts Vanpool providers .Variable Work Hours experts Initial consultation meetings were held at each or the sites and included the assigned CommuteGroup Account Executive and the assigned demo team members 326

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Supplemental Proeram A group of fifteen additional volunteer employers was plaeed In a supplemental program and each was encouraged to follow the steps or the core program participants. Tbe experiences and results from the core program were transferred to the supplemental group through semlna.rs and workshops after completion of each of the milestone phases. Without the discipline ofthe Milestones and Reporting requirements, the supplemental project has been of limited utility. A decision was recently taken to use the supplemental participants for a controlled test ofthe current set of Value Added compHance forms. The Value Added (or Flexible Minimum Sec) proeedures are one or three basic compliance vehicles belne ofl'ered by the Illinois Department of Transportation. The other two are (a) the Initial two year prepackaged plans (choice of 14) and (b) the employer specific compliance plan (discretionary alternative) ComDlementm Activities Several activities were conducted In parallel with the Demo. The Regional Transportation Authority produced an ECO Handbook which bas been taken under advisement by a consultant to IDOT In the preparation of a Guidance ManuaL Several joint educational procrams were put on by CATS in coojunctlon with Chambers of Commerce and the ACT Illinois (now Lake Michigan) chapter. Se-reral CMAQ demonstration projects were ftlnded by CATS, In Its eapadty as MPO, Including a city of Chicago van pool start-up In cooperation with VPSI; two TMAbased . 327

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reverse commute projects ; a TMA telecommuting center project In the first year CMAQ program (FY '!n) a slgDlficant allocation of funds was made to Paee, the region's suburban bus operator, for the expansloa or Its vanpool program. A TCM study conducted jointly by CATS and the Illinois EPA concluded that the ECO program (not the Demo) could be expected to contribute In the order of 1% or the regioaal emissions reduction target. The core project lasted 21 months. FourteeD. companies completed stages one through five; the others did not complete an the stages. Performance Analysi s The Demo achieved all of its objectives. The results were mixed. Of the 16 sites (from the original 22) for which both baseline and resurvey APOs were available, 11 experienced .an Improvement in APO, 5 experienced a decline (see Table 1). The level of "inve!lllllent" (stair; funds; management Involvement; plan preparations) was over a wide spectrum and there Is not any real evidence that performance generally Is related to any ofthe Investment vlirlables. In fact it becomes clear that a minimalist plan can appear to produce among the least expensive measures or positive performance. AI the same time, it also becomes clear that reductions in employment levels can have an etrect, by reducing the target vehicle reduction. The reverse etrect can alsobe observed. .

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NU MBER OF SURVEY ACTUAL R E S P O NSE ORIGINAL CURRENT E MPLOYEES TAFIGET T ARGET RATE APO APO H.P. 344 309 312 90% 1.02 1 .06 t ENVIRODYN E 141 127 141 100% 3.86 3 39 SHURE BROTHERS 467 426 91% 1.24 1.2 1 METRO WATER OISTAJCT 193 174 193 100% 1.16 1.18 t FEL-PRO 1 ,777 1 599 1,656 93% 1.23 1 .19 I.O.O.T. 439 395 429 98% 1. 1 0 1 00 + VILLAGE OF 253 228 228 90% 1.13 1.31 t ARLINGTON HEIGHTS BAXTER 972 875 812 84% 1.04 1 05 t TRUSTMAAK 1,119 1,007 1,11 9 100% 1.18 1 19 t EJBRACH 1.900 1,710 1,737 9 1 % 1.23 1 .26 t PRECISION lWIST 1 PRECISION PL 193 173 174 90% 1.11 1.13 t 301 INDUSTRIAL OR 697 627 663 95% 1 24 t MAAJANJOY 558 557 90% 1.04 1.05 t G.) "" CITY OF CHICAGO co 1685 N THROOP 257 231 231 90% 1.20 1.37 t 320 N CLARK 159 143 145 9 1 % 3.52 3.76 t W.M. X 1,1n 1 ,059 491 42% 1.03 Inval id Survey NEIU 789 710 729 92% 1.51 1.45 DEVRY 1 46 N/A N/A N/A 1 04 N/A FINAL ECO D EMO P!tOJECI SU!IVIY JMCI(ING CHARI

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Conclusions & Recommendations Firstly, there are no conclusions on the sc:ale that :would lead to reeommendallons, except to say that the two participants who had a clearly articulated incentive program (paid time otT In the case or Arlington Heights; an assortment or awards up .to a maximum or SZS.OO value in the case of the city or Chicago) and strong upper level managemenl commitment experienced the highest level s or APO improvement. These weft both government units, which draws a question or whether that in Itself is significant? . The ETC for the VIllage of Arlington Heights made one very telling comment at a focus gi'Oup to the eiTect that a successful approach requires a policy position that transc:eods any and all strategies, incentives etc. A policy position that says, "this company Intends to make a concerted eiTort to comply (with tru! ECO law) ... sets a tone, as does a position that says, "there's this (ECO) law that we disagree with and regard as an imposition, but ... . A clear, affimrative, policy position validates the ETC Overall, the experience appears to have been not at all unlike the California experience, with some clear parallels in that the working environment in the region changed progressively from the Fall or tm, when It could be characterized as one or the confusion and passive resistance, until early Spring of 1994 when it was more clearly hostile and there weft clear movements under way to either abolish the ECO requirement . .. in the CAAA'90 or to have the region reclassified into a lower order of non-attainment Blld thereby render ECO moot. The following general conclusions C8ll be reached: [I) geography is influential sites farther from the center of Chicago started with lower APOs and finished with comparatively lower APOs. 330

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[U) there Is an association between geography and transit availability. This Is common sense. But the evidence of a relationship between transit availability and change In APO is harder to establish and, in truth, the results fl"om one consulting company close to Chicago s Loop confounds the hypothesis. [iii] the most common plan element chosen was carpooling, with or without supporting Incentives. For the most parttbe element appears to have been Ineffectual, and, In truth, the experience of one suburban participant suggests that carpooling can compromise other elements such as shuttles and speclallzecl tnmsiL [iv] none of the participants showed a willingness to address the issue of parking cost directly, conJinlng themselves to modest eestures In the area of parking management (preferential spaces). [v) media coverage was fair. The demo got good press overall, but the media followed closely the growth of con s iderable opposition to ECO over the life ottheDemo. [vi] the jury is still out on the beneJits ofthe CMAQ projects. A proposed reverse shuttle service to the TMA or Lake-Cook service area Is progressing nicely; the telecolllDiutlng project failed to ftnd a markeL [vii] outside assistance produced mixed results. The TMAs were either lnclltrerent or counterproductive: [viii) workshops, focus groups and consultant presentations were weD-received If not noticeably l1111ueatlal, as were the Acr chaptersponsored breakfast seminars. [b) no benellts were derived from attempting to fuse the ell'orts of three closely-situated companies. Que to dlll'erent policies ud procedures It was not possible to create any joint Incentive or strategy 331

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[x ] the cost Issue was a subject of controversy throughout. There will be a cost report available by the lime of the Miami conferenci [:d.] compliance plan forms, specifically the forms for the Value-Added plan alternative, are still in the course of refinement. Wrap-Up The question remains, 'did the Demo experience materially Influence the evolution of the Ill i nois ECO prop-am? The answer I s inconclus i ve, but the Demo had real value In keeping the process flnnly In focus, finessing many questions dnrlng the crafting of legislation and rule-making. Possibly the closest thiilg to an answer is that it was clear that participants need a substBDtial amount of time to create the cOmpany culture for ECO to be received favorably. The recent Introduction by the IDOT of a two:-year 'breaking-In' period In which it is projected that the common response will be to embrace one or 14 pre-approved starter packages", after whk:h the Value-Added program will be a requisite if attainment is not reached, is tacit recognition that ECO is still some way from universal acceptance in northeast Illlnols Our parting gesture is a short collection of pertinant cartoons. July 19, 1994 332

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t.-:-----. Jatwl Norm <-..:.) UJ e1 Pta would go to any length to U88 the car pooling lane. 333

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BIBLIOGRAPHY L Chdluo, c-leooe, Jteltla H...,.. II: MudD Wadllo MladatoaDm Jhd!!Cl!oplo Soptbm! CpUfom!a; flat Yar Rmhs. Juuary JJ92, 1 Vallc, Peler J &: Slepllule J, Fredmcli: 'lllc BtaiiiJ ofMa!dl 'Dip Jhdpc:t!og l'YJIB. TMS IDUDICI'Ipt. May 199%. 3. Vallc, Peler J Shwt Alldenoa: Maldnz mM All latcm! ran or . 4. Valk I< ftederidc, D11 s:it5. Camllrillle '""' et al: Tmupprtlllgo Cpptnj! MeanmWmmttpa Doe!lm!!Jits, Prepancl for USEPA Ollkle ofMoiiUe Sources, March 1m. 6. Sehnlller, Eric N. &: Rkhull KUZIII)'alu Tr!D Bldpct!o Eft'ectbTMU pi Eaip!QJU= B111d TC:Md Bey!n glh!p!r!oal fladlag lAd Aga!Jtlca! TooJJue tf!IL 7 laslblc tw'l'nllporUdoa haJaMrS: ATlloQmFptAI!crildpiTraf!k (:qp ....... Wu!..,... DC, Jm, L COMSIS et U.. IJUkm!!!!l lft1IDM PrQJ!onL AI IT FODDCio lloG/ACl' Sonlav, Pasodeaa CA. Octollor199Z. t. RawiU.,. r. Cerald, upabl!obod resurdl, CA'l"S, Jm.-3, tO. Enast 8< YOUDr, Jlaplot!on XY Cost ll!nn,r (for SPath Couc Air Qall!y M.........,.t Dlltrlct ) ADpat tm; ud roJJowoup Nomaber 1m. tL Plwo 1 Mllalolle Repom imP'om Cpmmptc <>#lot! sum PI! Bcpqrt. CATS ColunlleCroap, Oc:!obor m1 11 Plaase :Z Ml&eltoDe Repom f.mplqyec Cpamptc Opt1ppL Qnppllncr P1 Pit l!cgo!t. CATS CoauallleGroap, April 1m. 13. Plwo 3 MllesloDe Roport 1 Emplom Com!!IJite Opt!gDL MpaltQriAII I< lyalaaticm Bcgort, CATS CoauauleCroup. No'NIIIber tf!l3. 14. Plwe4 RepomEglglgm C.mpi!Opdq !mmr &flpeJ Bn!pe!lqa Plu!p Bcaort. CATS Co c._ follnu7 m4. 1S. Rt.a. NktrU.t w BmDkzztt Tria Rn'PfCiea nmoer!retlma Pn+:rt 17. Opentlus Reoiow, VoL 9 #1, pp 15-n (FaD ttn) Metropolllall TruipCMta!loa Alsoclatloa: Rmmmc Qmnp!!l& OJJtknM DcgJonstrat!op PmJoct ya!gadop: flnt !gicrtn Report Qpmpany O!mlm ud &umJ PJ:oc:eiL 1993. Plaasc l MllesloM Ropott, op cU. 334

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COWPOKES, BRONCOS, AND THE TEXAS TRIP REDUCTION EFFORTS AI Giles Manager, Transportation Section T exas Natural Resource Conservation Commission June 30, 1994 335

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I. Backgr ound In 1990, Congress amended the Federal Clean Air Act (FCAA) in an effort to reduce air pollution in some of this country's most polluted regions. The FCAA Amendments mandate a number of pollution reduction measures, including Employer Trip Reduction (ETR), referred to outside of the Nation of Texas as the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program. Acccrding to section 182(d)(l)(b) o f the FCAA [emphasis added]: ... the State shall submit a revision requiring employers in such areas to implement prograti!S to reduce work-related !rill and mUes traveled by employees .. [and] shall, at a minimum, require that each employer of 100 or more persons in such area i,ncre;!se average passenger occupancy per vehicl e in commuting trips between home and the workplace during peak travel periods by not less than 25 percent. . The goal of. ETR is to volatile organic compounds .(VOCs) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emitted by vehicles travellmg during peak traffic periods in areas designated by the EPA as severe or extreme nonattainment for ozone. In the presence of suolight, NOx reacts with VOCs to produce harmful ground -level ozone.. By reducing vehicle trips to the worksite, emission levels are reduced, thus decreasing groundlevel ozone. II. The Texas Pro gram As described in the FCAA, ETR requires severe and extreme ozone nonattainment areas to reduce the number of vehicle trips made. to worksites with 100 or more employees. Currently, the eight county Houston-Galveston nonattainment area is the ooly. region of Texas classified as severe nonattainrnent for ozone. As the State's environmental regulatory agency, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) is responsible for ensQring the compliance of this nonattainment area with ETR and all other FCAA requirements. The ETR State Implementation Plan (SIP) and program rules were adopted by the TNRCC's predecessor agency in October 1992. . The Texas ETR program currently includes approximately 1100 employers, 1800 worksites, and 700,000 employees. All ETR-affected employers must register with the TNRCC by no later than September of each year. Approximately 5 ,000 employers were notified of the law in writing, received an information packet, and were requested to register with the TNRCC by September 1993. Depending on the size of the workforce, registered employers must submit an E T R p lan to the agency between September and November 1994. In contrast to California, Texas has elected to focus on performance and on a significantly oondensed ETR plan. To be approvable, plans must be submitted on TNRCC forms and must include all of the following required information: 336

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the name of the organization's Employee Transponation Coordinator (ETC) with verification of State-approved training; the location and type of business located at the site covered by the plan; the results of the initial employee survey; the initial Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) at the site; the target APO for the site; a description of measures and incentives to be used to reach the target APO; the mechanisms to assure proper tracking and evaluation of the plan program, its measures and incentives; a signed document by the highest ranking official (HRO) with direct management responsibility for the worksite, attesting to the completeness and accuracy of the plan, confirming the measures and incentives are designed to ensure compliance with the target APO by the deadline date, and verifying the organization's commitment to implement the provisions of the plan. To provide employers with maximum flexibility, they have the option of several trip reduction tools, including commute strategies affecting how employees get to work, l ike carpooling public transit, vanpooting, bicycling and walking. Other strategies, like the compressed work week and telecommuting, affect where and how employees work. Employers are encouraged to implement measures that address the particular needs of the specific workforce. The TNRCC is not concerned with how employers achieve the target APO, as long as the target is met. Because of differences in population density and transit availability, two target APOs were designated in the SIP for specified geographic subareas within the ozone nonattainment area, such that the weighted average of all target APOs will achieve an overall APO of at least 25 percent greater than the Average Vehicle Occupancy for the entire ozone nonattainment area. The target APO for Area I is 1.47 This area encompasses all of Harris County (which includes the Houston central business district), plus adjacent urbanized areas of economic imponance. The target APO for Area II is 1.41. This area includes all of Brazoria, Chambers, Fort Bend, Galveston, Liberty, Montgomery, and Waller counties not contained in Area I. 337

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Achievement of the target APO is one of several measures of compliance under the Texas ETR program. Registration, designation of a trained ETC, surveying of the workforce, periodic reporting, plan submittal, plan implementation, and record maintenance are the other measure s of ETR compliance. A company's failure to comply could result in either administrative or civil penalties. The TNRCC may assess an administrative penalty of $10,000 per day for each violation. If the agency chooses, it may refer violations to the Texas Attorney General's Office, which can charge up to S25, 000 per day for each violation. Although failure to comply may result in fines, the Texas program contains a provision for good faith effort, which was added at the request of the regulated community. The good faith effort i s intentionally not defmed, givil1g TNRCC staff maximum flexibility. This flexibility can work to the benefit of the employer if they fail to achieve the target APO althoug h a "good faith effort" has been made to comply. IU. Building Support Texas has always done things a little differently and ETR is no exception. While California and Illinois faced opposition in implementing ETR, the TNRCC carefully developed the Texas ETR program with the input and involvement of the regulated couimunity and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) every step o(the way. The importance of this point cannot be emphasized enough. In late 1992, in coordination with other government agencies, and public and private o rganizations, the TNRCC formed an ETR working group ln the Houston-Galveston area with a number of subgroups to assist with the development of the Texas ETR p rogram. These groups addressed issues such as training, community outreach, foi'Ols and procedures, a pilot project, incentives, information systems, and resources and funding. The ETR Working Group reviewed the work of the other groups, as well as introduced new items for discussion, provided a monthly public forum to interested p arties, and served as the primary vehicle for policy recommeodations to the TNRCC. These groups were representative of the diverse interests and employers in the Houston-Galveston regulated community. Through these volunteer efforts, the agency achieved several things. First, the groups served to educate the regulated community regarding the FCAA requirements and the TNRCC rules related to ETR. M ost Texans, including TNRCC staff, had never beard of ETR prior to 1992. Second, the was able to establish a partnersb:ip with the regulated community that served to foster dialogue and cooperation . Previously, the regulated community often viewed the TNRCC as having a command and control mentality and thus as "the bad guy. By providing a forum for discussion and recommendations on policy issues, the relationship between regulator and employers improved considerably Third, agency staff felt that by including the regulated community during the development stage, rather than during implementation only, compliance was more likely. If an employer knows tha, t their concerns were addressed during the development of the program, they are more likely to make an 3:!8

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effort at compliance. If an employer wants to comply, they are also more likely to reach target goals. The resulting program is one that emphasizes flexibility. minimal plan submission requirements, performance, and consideration of good faith efforts. What this means for the regulated community is the freedom to develop a workable plan within its own unique situation and financial constraints, while meeting the intent of the law. This flexible approach has resulted in minimal controversy to date and preceded the recently expressed expanded flexibility by EPA. One notable exception is the Independent School Districts. To date, the TNRCC has received requests for waivers from the ETR program from nine Houston-Galveston area school districts. The EPA does not recognize waivers under any circumstances. However, there is one ETR exemption allowed a de minimis exemption. This exemption applies to any employer of 100 or more employees where fewer than 33 employees report to a worksite between 6:00 and 10:00 a.m., Monday through Friday. To date, only 238 Texas worksites have claimed a de minimis exemption, only one of which is a school district. Despite EPA's position, Houston-Galveston area school districts have raised a number of issues that deserve attention. Many of the issues are applicable to the remaining ETR affected employers in the area. The following paragraphs address the relevant points presented by the school districts: Some employees work seasonal schedules. The ETR program has no way of providing credit in the APO calculation for the days that employees are not commuting to the worl
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ETR is expensive and funding is not available. The TNRCC recognizes that some employers have serious financial difficulties and may not be able to fund extensive incentive programs. ETC in these organizations can be creative in devising marketing programs and incentives that will convince employees of the need to do as much as they can to reduce vehicle trips. The ETC training courses help ETCs in this respect, as wilf the assistance of the many ETC networking organizations in the Houston-Galveston area. Transportation Management Organizations (TMOs) are being encouraged and developed in the area. ETR need not be viewed as a fmancial burden. Employers should recognize and publicize the beneflts.that ETR offers to employees. Reduced fue l consumption, maintenance savings, and lower insurance premiums are just a few Consulting fees would have a negative impact on many emp l oyers. Most employers will not need to hire consultants to help them operate their ETR programs. Thus consultant costs should only be in relation to training. ETC training, required for all affected employers, is being offered in Texas for as little as $75 per person. In addition, the TNRCC is offering support to area employers in the form of workshops, marketing materials, and software packages at little or no charge The Houston-Galveston Area Council bas also funded rwo Trip Reduction Assistance Centers (TRACs) and is coinmitted to start 10 more in the area in 19 95 rRACs provide materials and other assistance to ETR affected employers at no or little cost. While the TNRCC has received written requests from nine districts seeking waivers from the program, the school districts as a group are in fact making significant p rogress. Students at Laporte High School, having been asked by the school s Employee Transportation Coordinator to create an ETR plan for the school, embraced the task and have written the TNRCC expressing concern about the action of those school districts seeking waivers from ETR. . The Independent School District Cooperative (Co-Op), which includes 41 of the 46 regulated independent school districts as members, has formed an ETR steering committee to address the special needs of the districts. The ftrst initiative of its kind in the country, the Co-Op helps districts to develop and implement individual ETR programs and significantly reduce costs by pooling information and resources. The Co-Op offers the least expensive ETC training in Texas ($75) and has developed excellent marketing materials. The Chairman of the Co-Op recently wrote in an article to be published in TNRCC's BTR newsletter, rt is exciting to see school districts working together toward the common goal of making Houston's air cleaner for oilr children. Despite the opposition of a few school districts, many are working hard to implement ETR. The same can be said for most of the area employers. 340

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IV. Lessons Learned Cooperate Cooperation with the regulated community is essential. The TNRCC not only ensured that the program would be feasible for employers to implement, but that ETR would also face less opposition if the regulated community participated in program development. Employer input has facilitated a more successful program. Be inclusive Include all sectors in the process. The ETR working groups involved representatives from most of the major sectors of the regulated community. However, staff inadvertently neglected to involve school districts during the initial meetings. Of course, the only major opposition to ETR implementation came from this sector. This representation is now a fact. Make the most of resources The success of ETR does not depend on the size of a state's budget. Texas is one of the only states in the country that does not impose fees on ETR affected employers and, yet, it is the first state to receive tentative approvable from the EPA. The TNRCC chose instead to privatize where possible. For example, the agency contracted with the private sector to offer ETC training, saving the agency time, money, and manpower. Build on success Despite a successful first year, the agency is exploring ways to improve the program. Credits for alternatively fueled vehicles and vehicle miles travelled, employee averaging, and credit banking and trading are some of the issues under discussion. The TNRCC is also assisting other nonattainment and near nonattainment areas in taking proactive measures by developing voluntary ETR programs. V. Voluntary Efforts In hopes of avoiding the Houston-Galveston area's fate, leaders in Dallas-Fort Worth and the four near nonattainrnent areas of Austin, Corpus Christi, Longview-Marshall, and San Antonio are working with TNRCC staff to implement various measures aimed at reducing vehicle emissions now. Voluntary Trip Reduction, known as V-Trip, is one such measure. V-Trip operates on the same principle as the mandatory ETR program in the Houston Galveston area. However, with V-Trip, local employers can choose when and how they want to develop and implement ETR. Without the cooperation and dedication of business, government and area activists, these programs would not exist. Dallas-Fort Worth Classified as moderate nonattainrnent for ozone, Dallas Fort Worth has a mobile source pollution contribution of over 60% and faces a great challenge in attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) by 1996. To address the problem, the Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce, the Greater Dallas Chamber of Commerce, the North Central Texas Council of Governments, the North Texas Commission, the Dallas Area Rapid Transit Authority, and the Fort Worth Transit Authority have formed 341.

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the North Texas Clean Air Coalition (NTCAC). NTCAC is implementing a series of voluntary measures designed to help Dallas-Fort Worth regain attainment status. An Ozone Advisory program, including V-Trip, was launched in May and is the first of several efforts. Austin Local business, government, and environmentalleailers announced in April the formation of the Austin AIR Force This unique coalition will supervise the area's Ozone Advisory program, as well as assist employers with V Trip and other pollution prevention strategies. The AIR Force is also coordinating a pilot V-Trip project in 1994. Members include the City of Austin, Southwestern Bell Telephone; Travis County, IBM, the Texas Department of Transportation, and the TNRCC. Corpus Christi For citizens in the Co1pus Christi area, nonattainment status is nothing new. Fr o m 1978 until 1985, the area failed to meet minimum air quality standards for ozone. Unlike Dallas-Fort Worth and Austin, industrial sources account for the majority pollution in the Co1pus Christi area. The TNRCC bas recommended that the area implement a program to include vanpooling, and the use of alternative vehicle fuels, all VTrip strategies. TNRCC staff niet with area leaders in May of this year to discuss the development and implementation of a for Co1pus Cbtisti. Longview-Marshall The North East Texas Air Care program was launched in April of this year. In the span of three months, Air Care bas formed several special issue committees, distributed educational materials throughout the region, implemented an Ozone Advisory program, and co-sponsored an environmental law seminar. San Antonio The Alamo Council of Governments bas formed a special subcommittee made up of representatives from state and local government, as well as area business and industry leaders to address the issue of near nonattainment status. The group hopes to develop programs aimed at lowering NOx and VOC levels in the area, improving, as well as maintaining, air quality. VI. Conclusion In Texas, the TNRCC has taken a difficult and relatively unpopular program and has made a significant, positive effort that emphasizes performance and flexibility. While there are small emission reductions and large costs associated with the ETR program, Texas bas made every effort to stress that the ETR program represents one of the first national efforts to provide a new direction which reduces single occupancy vehicles, the number of commute trips, and vehicle miles travelled and improves traffic congestion and employee productivity. 342

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ABSTRACT Texas has always done things a little differently and ETR is no exception. The TNRCC has carefully developed the Texas ETR program with the input and involvement of the regulated community and the EPA every step of the way. This was a major factor in the Texas program being the first recommended for EPA approval. In late 1992, the TNRCC formed an ETR working group in the Houston-Galveston area with a number of subgroups representative of the diverse interests and employers in the regulated community to assist with the development of the Texas ETR program. Through these volunteer efforts, the agency educated the regulated community regarding the FCAA requirements and the TNRCC rules related to ETR, established a partnership with the regulated community that served to foster dialogue and cooperation, and included the employers during the development stage, rather than during implementation only, in an effort to encourage compliance. Texas has elected to focus on performance and on a significantly condensed ETR plan. To provide employers with maximum flexibility, they have the option of numerous trip reduction tools, including commute strategies affecting how employees get to work and those affecting where and how employees work. Employers are encouraged to implement measures that address the particular needs of the specific workforce. The TNRCC is not concerned with how employers achieve the target APO, as long as the target is met. The resulting program is one that emphasizes flexibility. minimal plan submission requirements, performance, and consideration of good faith efforts. What this means for the regulated community is the freedom to develop a workable plan within its own unique siruation and financial constraints, while meeting the intent of the law. 343

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Smart Commuter Program IT PAYS TO RJDESiiARE! ABSTRACT Jobn W. Clauson' Robert L. Ferguson2 > The SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM is a simple and effective rideshare incentive program. Participating employers identify preferential parking spaces at their worksites and permanently label these spaces as "regi stered Carpool-only parking. Only employee carpools, registered with Kitsap Transit, may park in these spaces. Kitsap Transit provides each carpool member with a wallet size discount card, identifying the member as a nsmart Commuter". Participating businesses offer all registered Smart Commuters discounts on products and/or services. In return, Kitsap Transit encourages these Smart Commuters to patronize these businesses. Local newspapers further recognize these merchants by listing them in periodic ads, identifying them as businesses that are doing something to help reduce air pollution and traffic congestion. INTRODUCTION > Do you like to bowl? Axe yo11 shopping for a major appliance or furniture? Do you like espresso drinks? How about Chinese food? Would you like to buy a dozen red roses and some chocolates to go along with them? What do these questions have to do with rid esbaring ? In Kitsap County, Washington, if you rideshare to work and are registered with Kitsap Transit, the local public transportation agency, you receive a "Smart Commuter" discount card. With this card you can receive substantial discounts Service Development Manager, Kitsap Transit Transportation !>8mand Management Planner, Kltsap Transit 344

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on a variety of merchandise and services from over one-hundred local merchants This program has provided an opponunity for local employers, employees businesses newspapers, and transit to work together to decrease a ir pollut ion and traffic congestion It' s an incentive program where all panicipants win! BACKGROUND: The Commute Trip Reduction Law :>-To help reduce automobile related air pollution and traffic congestion, the Washington State Legislature passed the Commute Trip Reduction ( CTR) Law, in 1991. This law is a Transponation Demand Management (TDM) measure that requires the State's largest counties, and cities within those counties, to develop and adopt CTR Plans by ordinances. These plans require major (affected) employers, those w ith over one-hundred employees, to implement programs to reduce the number of single-occupant vehicle commute trips made by their employees. > Kitsap County, one of Washington's most populous counties, and four cities within the county, adopted by ordinance a common CTR Plan i n 1992. Kitsap T ransit, a public transponation provider, was charged by the county and cities with administering their CTR Plans > These CTR Plans set single-occupant vehicle commute trip reduction goals that all affected employers must attempt to meet. To assist affected employers i n their efforts to meet these goals, Kitsap Transit developed the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM, which offers employees additional incentives to rideshare Thi s program involves the active panicipation of five players: employers, employees, local businesses, local newspapers and Kitsap Transit. 345

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EMPLOYERS' ROLE I Prior to the passage of the CTR law, most employers in Kitsap County bad no experience implementing Transportation Demand Management measures There were no parking management programs aimed primari l y at encouraging ridesharing Generally, parking spaces were available to all employees on a first-come basis Witb plenty of free parking at nearly all worksites, encouraging employees to leave their cars at home was a difficult task for employers whose budget did not include financial incentives to rideshare None oftbe major employers affected by the CTR law wanted to institute parking fees to reduce the number of single-occupant vehicle commute trips. .The first step in Kitsap Transits SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM was to encourage employers to adopt a parking management program. Employers were asked to identify preferential parking spac es at their worksites to be used for rideshare vehicle (carpool & vanpool) parking only Generally, these spaces were located near the employee entrance to the building These parking spaces needed to be spaces where employees, given a choice, would wan t to park their vehicles. :'!Next, these preferential parking spaces were posted with signs that read "KITSAP TRANSIT . Registered Carpool Only 1-800-501-RIDE." Kitsap Transit provides as many of these two-color aluminum signs as needed, at no cost to the employer. Van pool signs af\l also available The employer provides the post, if necessary, and the installation. It is suggested 346 I
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that there be at least one extra CaipOOI space available at all times, since this empty space seems to entice the formation of new CaipOOis. EMPLOYEES' ROLE ;,.. Employees wishing to park in these preferential parking spaces must first form a carpool (or vanpool) and register it (at no cost) with Kitsap Transit. A carpool. as defined in this program, is a motor vehicle occupied by at least two adults traveling together for their commute trip to work at least three times a week. There are registration applications at all affected work sites. Employees may also call the 800 number to request an application. The 800 number printed on the signs is answered by Kitsap Customer Service Office personnel. Each carpool must designate a caipOOl manager. All correspondence to the carpool members goes through the carpool manager KITSAP TRANSIT'S ROLE > Kitsap Transit's role in the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM is primarily administrative. Customer Service personnel process the applications and enter the names of the carpool members into a data base. They send a letter to the applicant's employer, notifying the employer that the applicant has registered in the program. This letter not only helps prevent abuse, but also assists the employer in determining how many carpool spaces are needed. A letter is also sent to the carpool manager, thanking the carpool members for ridesharing and helping to reduce air pollution and traffic congestion. ;,.. Each carpool manager also receives a 4"x5" plastic carpool pass with a registration number and six month permit sticker attached. In an attempt to reduce abuse, carpools 11111$ re-register and new permit stickers are issued evety six months. 347

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;... The carpool manager also Smart Commuter D iscou n t Card receives a wallet size Sman Commuter discount card for every member in the carpool. This card enables the user to receive discounts off a variety of merchandise and servi ces Unli. ke many coupons that are limited to a one-time EXPIRES 08/31/94 purchase, this discount card can be used every day. LOCAL BUSINESSES' (MERCHANTS? ROLE )!The SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM provides two substantial incentives to carpool members: preferential parking, and discoWtts on a variety of products and services. The employer provides the preferential parking and the local merchants provide the discounts. To demonstrate the diversity of businesses and the vaii.ety of discounts, the following are just a few of the businesses listed on "The List tbat Saves Xog Money" (a list of participating businesses and their discounts), given to each participating carpool member: Auto Pro Tune & Lube--15% off tune-ups and oil changes. South Park Village Cleaning Center-20% off al! dry cleaning service. First Interstate Bank of Washington N.A.--1 year free rental on a safe deposit box. Noah's Ark Restaurant--buy 1 sandwich, fries and drink, get 2nd sandwich free. Soo Hoy Restaurant--buy l entree, get one of equal value or less .for half price. Carter's Nursery-10% off all purchases. All about Pets-10% off all purchases. All Star Lanes--! free game of bowling anytime lanes are available. Total Video--rent I movie at regular price, get I free, Monday through Thursday. 348

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-For providing these discounts, merchants receive: a Certificate of Leadership for "making positive steps toward decreasing air pollution and traffic congestion" by supporting ridesharing, a window decal identifYing them as a participant in the program, recognition in the local newspapers, identifYing them as a business that cares about the e nvironm ent, and We proudly accept Kltsap T ronsit Smart Commuter Discount Cards. Thls business supports rldeshoringl ( Fell rn::tt dollliOioli.col HD)-60l::E. ) free advertising by having their name and discount included on a list that is sent to all participating mem.bers. ,_ Kitsap Transit hired a temporary staff person for a two month period to solicit merchant participation in the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM. With the above listed benefits offered to each business, it was relatively easy to enlist over I 00 businesses. LOCAL NEWSPAPERS' ROLE > Like other businesses, the local newspapers want to be seen by the community as leaders, doing something to improve the environment. These newspapers become partners in the program by agreeing to absorb the costs of one ad per quarter, listing all the businesses that are participating in the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM. The 349

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newspapers run this ad with their logo included recognizing themselves as a partne r in the program . CONCLUSION :-.Although the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM is only six months old, there appear to be early indications that it will succeed in increasing rideshare participation For example, the year prior to the implementation of the SMART COMMUTER . PROGRAM, all CTR affected employers were required to survey their employees to determine the single-occupant vehicle (SOV) commute rate at each work site. The survey form was provided by the State of Washington. The survey not only revealed the SOV rate but also the number of carpoolers at each work site. Based upon the number of carpool members some of the major employers had before the implementation of the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM, and the number they have now the change is . 1mpresswe. > Prior to the implementation of the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM, the U.S. Navy Trident Refit Facility (TRF), a major employer in Kitsap County with 1050 employees, had approximately 140 employees carpooling to work Within six months of implementing the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM, they had over 400 employees carpooling to work. This represents a 186% increase. > Submarine Base Bangor, another major employer, is also reporting a tremendous change in their employees commuting habits. Since the beginning of the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM, the number of employees carpooling to work has increased from 92 to 268, an increase of 191%.

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Both TRF and Submarine Base Bangor have plenty of free employee parking available, yet, by providing preferential parking "fit for an Admiral" and discounts off merchandise, these two major employers were able to entice many of their employees to leave their veh i cles at home and rideshare to work. Combining preferential parking with discounts appears to be a winning combination. :.Kitsap Transit plans to do an extensive evaluation of the program after one year Through surveys, Kitsap Transit will detennine the perceived effectiveness of the program from the perspective of all fiye players. To date, the usage of the discount card has not been evaluated. The typeS of businesses and degree of discounts might have to be changed once these surveys are completed. .... Within six months of implementing the SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM, over 1500 car and vanpool members have registered with Kitsap Transit. In September, 1994, Kitsap Transit will expand the program to include walkers, bicyclist and bus riders. By working together, all the participants in Kitsap Transit 's SMART COMMUTER PROGRAM will be making a positive impact toward decreasing Kitsap County's air pollution and traffic congestion. For more infonnation about the program and/or material samples, please call John Clauson or Bob Ferguson at (206) 479-6962 It really does pay to RIDE$HARE! 351

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Lisa Pereira Executive Director South Natomas Transportation Management Association 2485 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 290 Sacramento, CA 95833 Phon e : (916) 646-0928 Fax: (916) 646-3245 Presenter(s): Lisa Pe reira and/or Wendy Hoyt UNI VERSAL PASS FEASIBILITY STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT In an effort to increase mobility to and within the community, the South Natomas TMA bas been working towards the implementation of a clean fuel shuttle system. The shuttle system would provide commuter service linking South Natamas to light rail and transit in the CBo during the morning and afternoon commutes and provide circulator service in the South Natomas Community during the mid-day. In an effort to maximize the impact of the shuttle, the South Natomas TMA felt that the concept of a "universal pass" would provide for the greatest results in marketing the use o f the shuttle both in the mid-day and during the commute. This concept is modeled after the Eco Pass in Denver and the U-pass in Seattle. The South Natomas TMA applied for grant funding from Caltrans to study the feasibility of implementing a "universal pass" program (phase l) and to implement an 18 month demonstration project (phase 2). The phase 1 feasibility study was completed in December of 1993 by the Hoyt: Company. Their findings showed that a pilot project including the following elements: merchant discounts, transit fares, shuttle service, guaranteed ride home, and others t:o be determined, would be a viable program to implement in the South Natomas Area. Actual program implementation should take place in the fall of 1994. Currently, we are working on contract negotiations with the local transit district, and will continue with contract negotiations with local merchants, housing complexes, cab companies, and roadside service this summer. also anticipate the beginning of the marketing campaign to TMA members to begin in August/September. we like to share our exper*ences in undertaking the feasibility study, contract negotiations and marketing efforts leading up to the start of program implementation. 352

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BACKGROUND -SOUTH NATOMAS TMA The South Natomas TMA is a not-for-profit mutual benefit corporation comprised of employer and developer members in the Sacramento suburb of South Natomas. While located only 5 minutes form the central business district of Sacramento, South Nat omas i s separated from the downtown by the American River. The community of South Natomas is also split into two by Interstate 5. Since the inception of the TMA in December of 1989, a primary goal has been to implement a shuttle service to provide more convenient access to and within South Natomas. To meet this goal, a shuttle was envisioned to provide connector service to exist.ing transit and light rail in the downtown during the morning and evening commutes, and to provide a circulator service within South Natomas during lunchtime. THE SHUTTLE PROJECT With two primary goals of providing access to transit during commute and circulator service within the community at lunchtime defined, the SNTMA began searching for funding sources. The lengthy process of applying for federal, local and private funding along with the development of a long term financial plan took a great deal of time and effort. for the financial plan opportunities. Once a level of comfort was reached energy turned towards marketing 353

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UNIVERSAL PASS CONCEPT Although the membership strongly supports the concept of a shuttle, the Board o f Directors fully realizes that the "build it and they will come" theory will not ensure a well utilized successful shuttle program. The implementation of a strong marketing program in tandem with the start of service will be imperative. Particularly for the mid-day service it was felt that there was a great opportunity to tie in with local merchants for promotions and incentives to ride the shuttle and not drive their cars. Through research of other shuttle programs and transit marketing efforts, this concept of universal transit coverage and local merchant tie-ins evolved further when during the research effort the Washington Universal Pass and the Denver ECO Pass programs were studied. Although the South Natomas Community is different than either of these locations, the concept seemed applicable. To fully evaluate this concepts appropriateness for the South Natomas community a grant was secured t o conduct a feasibility study. A Request For Proposq.l "as issued to conduct a feasibility study to determine the viability and program elements of a universal pass for the South Natomas community. Through a competitive process the Hoyt Company was selected as the contractor to complete this study. The feasibility study was to determine if this type of program 354

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would be a viable option for South Natomas. requirements of the grant required the study In addition, to look at the potential impact on traffic congestion and air quality as '"ell as transferability to other jurisdictions. The feasibility study focussed on three main elements. o Researching other similar Universal Pass Programs. Also researching transit pass agreements with organizations. (i.e. Universities which have agreements with transit agencies t o include free transit ridership as part of student ID cards) The study was to determined the following: program elements, effectiveness, impact on traffic congestion and air quality, marketing and costs. o Evaluating the current conditions in South Natomas. Determining what types of programs should be considered for inclusion in a universal pass program. Types of programs that were asked to be considered included but were not l imited to: mid-da y taxi service for business appointments, transit fare, shuttle fare, guaranteed ride home program, roadside service, merchant discounts, etc. The contractor was asked to explore potential service providers for these elements and determine cost guidelines for these services. o Program evaluation and final report. The evaluation was 355

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asked to include program recom mendations including implementation guidelines and mar keting recommendations. RESEARCH OF EXISTING PASS PROGRAMS Twenty four people and/or programs were contacited regarding information on existing pass programs. The following information provides a summarv of some of these programs. SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Sonoma State University distributes "merchant directories" along with "merchant discount cards" to approximately 7, ooo students each semester. Production costs are kept at minimum. Initially, costs for producing the directories were absorbed by the University. To help offset costs1 the University began selHng advertisements in addition to offering a free merchant listing in the directories. Initially 125 merchants offered various discounts. Today, approximately 350 merchants are offering various discounts. The Sonoma State University discount pass program now enjoys a small profit. The merchants view this program as a positive, inexpensive way of promoting their products and services. Restaurants and fast food establishments are the most commonly used discounts. The University provides merchants with a plaque signifying their involvement in the discount pass program. Students present.their 356

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pass card to merchants to receive any discounts. CALIFORNiA STATE UNIVERSITY, CHICO, CITY OF CHICO Chico State students are required to purchase a student identification card that entitles them to various services on campus. With the identification card, students can ride the Chico Area Transit System (CATS) at no charge. Local merchants offer special incentives at their own discretion. There is no formal marketing effort by CSUC to recruit additional merchants. CSUC reimburses CATS based on student/faculty ridership numbers. In 1992 CATS provided approximately 180,000 passenger trips to students and faculty that totaled $95,000 in expenses. SACRAMENTO REGIONAL TRANSIT/CSUS ASSOCIATED STUDENTS CSUS students show their student identification card, with a valid semester sticker to ride Regional Transit (RT) buses and light rail. Sacramento State contracts service with Regional Transit to provide 275 stops, Monday through Friday on six routes, at the campus. CSUS pays $125,000 each semester for this service. In 1993 RT provided approximately 280,000 student trips annually (based on 40 weeks per school year, five days per week, 1,400 student daily). This service is paid for, in part, by a $5 charge to CSUS students through registration fees. The contract expired in June of 1994. The terms of the contract were renegotiated to 357

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include an increased cost to the csus students (the increase reflected actual costs to Regional Transit) This increase was approved by a vote of the student body and the program will continue. REGIONAL TRANSIT DISTRICT (RTD), DENVER The ECO Pass program is available to a l l business in the Denver area. RTD schedules appointments with employers to photograph employees for an annual identification pass. As an extra incentive to employers, GO BOULDER (a program developedby the city in 1989, designed to encourage people to use alternative modes of transportation) reimburses up to 25 percent of the cost each year. Employers are charged for the transit service based on the number of e mployers and the number of bus trips available per peak hour. At the time of the survey (fall of 1993), the costs range from $35 to $180 per year per employee. The ECO Pass program pays f o r itself in terms of capital costs . associated with the pass, and administrative costs from the rates charged to employers. Initially, RTD was hesitant to implement the program until significant fiscal analysis was completed, and the City of Boulder had heavil y subsidized it. Now.RTD is very happy with the program. During the first 10 months of the program 350 businesses, employing over 18,000 people signed up. As of the fall of 1993, over 550 3!:-8

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employers and 22,000 employees were enrolled in the program RTD has realized a 14% increase in ridership figures as a direct result of this program. They have found that whenever a company joins the ECO Pass program there i s an immediate 100% increase in transit ridership within the company. When the ECO Pass program w a s instituted in the city of Boulder, a long with a University of Colorado pass program r idership increased 42% in one year. This program provides benefits t o both the employer and the employee in terms o f tax benefits, convenience, t i me, etc. Their Guaranteed Ride Ho me program is an extra charge. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Approximately 40% of costs incurred by the University of Wash ing U-Pass program are covered by pass sales. Student pay $20 per quarter and faculty and staff pay $27 per quarter. The pass enti tles a person t o the following programs: o Metro and Community Transit o Free carpool parking o Free vanpool fares o Night Ride shuttle o R idematching o Bicycle facilities o Merchant discounts o Reimbursed Ride Ho m e

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o Discount daily parking passes Seattl e Metro reported that the University of Nashington's I ridership, including staff, faculty, and students had increased 35 percent system-wide since the start of the U-Pass. Because of this increase in ridership, both Metro and Community Transit increased their operation hours to accommodate the additional riders. The pass cost can go up each year as a direct reflection of actual ridership. revenue to RTD may also increase each year again, as reflection of actual ridership. SOUTH NATOMAS STUDY The Hoyt Company 1as given the directive to investigate the potential for a pass program that incorporated a multitude of elements. This program would become the center piece for the marketing campaign for the ne1 shuttle service. The pass would allow free shuttle fare for TMA members, and while the possibility of including free Regional Transit ridership into the program was to be investigated, the development of the program as a whole was not be based on that. TRANSPORTATION SERVICES As part of the study, the consultant looked at various

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transportation services availabl e in the area that coul d be incorporated into the program. This included roadside service, taxi service and existing transit service. Both taxi companies and roadside service companies were interested in becoming involved with this program and wi lling to provide discounts to pass holders. Existing transit service is minimal. Approximately 1.5% of the TMA emp loyees currently use transit for commute purposes. There are no p lans in the near future for the local transit agency to increase service to the South Natomas community. MERCHANT/HOUSING COMPLEXES The Consultant prepared and distributed a merchant/retailer/housing survey. This survey was designed in two forms, one targeted at businesses along the shuttle route the other at businesses within the community but beyond the shuttle route. With follow up phone calls a 12% response rate was achieved. The survey was designed to query interest of local merchants and housing complexes to provide discounts to pass holders. While the actual responses were positive, clearly a large amount of effort and time will need to be dedicated to this portion of the project. It will be necessary to thoroughly explain both the program and the potential benefit to the participant. (Subsequent conversations w ith local merchants have resulted in an increased interest to 361

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\ participate in the program) Of particular interest, six housing complexes most of which are located along the shuttle route expressed interest in participating in the program. Their potential proposed discounts ranged from free cable television to one months free rent! It is felt that this could be a high impact portion of the progra m Currently 16% of member employees live within 3 miles of their work location. Increasing this number could impact the number of people who simply take the shuttle, walk, or bike to work. REGIONAL TRANSIT SERVICE From the onset of the study it was desirous to include RT service in the South Natomas TMA shuttle and merchant pass program. Due to limited service in the area, RT ridership in South Natomas is very low and the shuttle and a multi-use pass program provide excellent opportunities to increase ridership. One of the goals of the shuttle program is to provide connection to RT via the shuttle (in affect extending R T's service levels) and one of the goals of the pass program is to provide universal RT coverage for a low cost per unit or rider. The South Natomas TMA proposed an 18 month pilot multi-use pass program to Regional Transit. Through a series of meetings the concept of a multi-use pass program was sold t o RT based on a nonet loss in revenue for RT during the duration of the pilot.

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Initially, ridership revenue would be based on existing TI-IA data and RT boarding counts. Approximately 1.5% of TMA members currently use transit for commute purposes. Intermittent on board counts and the TMA annual survey will determine increased transit ridership. Total cost to the TMA will be adjusted based on the actual counts. Employees will be issued phot o id cards that will be coded with magnetic strips. These id cards will allow TMA members to ride the RT system anytime for free. Employee cards will be confiscated if an employee leaves the member company or transfers outside of the South Natomas area. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on their research of existing multi-use pass programs and the local business/housing complex survey responses, the Hoyt Company recommended that the South Natomas TMA pursue the development of a multi-use pass program. Their research showed that multi-use pass programs are very successful. The Denver ECO Pass and Seattle U Pass provide excellent examples of successful programs. The key to a successful program is to keep it simple. complicated programs will not generate ridership and merchant participation and the program will fail. It is essential that a high level of marketing for the pass program be carried out. PHASE TWO 363

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l.Zith a strong recommendation by the consultant to move forward this program, the SNTMA applied to Caltran s for funding of an 18 mon t h demonstration project. A $75, 000 grant was a>arded to fund phase two. This g rant wil l allow for the u niversal pass demonstration to include a multitude of elements including universal transit coverage for Tr-IA members for free for the project period. Nith a target implementation date o f November 1994, the TMA and the consultant have continued w i t h the development of the flex-pass program. Details are being worked out >ith the Regional Transit system. Photo IDs are scheduled to be taken during the month of October. During t h e summ e r months the development and design o f a merchant discount coupon book >ill take place. The goal is to create a 6 m oi) t h coupon book w ith the intention to publish two additional books. A minimum of 1 00 coupons are being sought Our goal is for 70% of the coupons to be along the lunchtime shuttle route, wit h a t least 15% of the coupons coming from businesses other than restaurants. The coupon book is scheduled for completion by October 1. The overall marketing of the shuttle program wil l feature the universal pass as the center piece. Marketing of the coupons '"ill coincide wit h the distribution of the photo IDs. An entire packet >ill be given.out with photo I Ds This packet >ill include in

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addition to the coupon book, shuttle schedules, Regional Transi t information including light rail schedules, and rideshare applications. SUMMARY The universal pass concept is an exciting opportunity to maximize the marketing of the SNTMA shuttle for a number of reasons. F i rst, the SNTMA strongly believes that if you ask your employees to get to work without thei r own car, you need to provide a way for them to get to lunch o r be able to do errands during the mid-day. The merchant discount portion of this program provides the incentive for employees to try the mid-day service. Secondly, by providing housing discounts as part of the coupon book, we will be providing an incentive for employees to locate closer to their place of employment, thus increasing their options for commuting to include using the shuttle, walking and biking. Finally, the universal coverage on the local transit system in conjunction '"ith the shuttle connection to light rail and transit during the morning and evening commutes wil l provide an incentive for more people to use transit. We anticipate an increase of full and part-time transit riders, and we hope that the exposure to the transit system will increase ridership during non commute times as well. Realizing that transit is not going to provide a silver bullet solution to our air quality and traffic congestion problems, it was ;l65

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imperative to' design both a shuttle system and a universal pass that incorporates elements that will also encourage all alternative transportation modes. We feel that the mid-d_ay service. 10ill. be important to all ridesharers. The roadside service discounts help carpoolers, the housing discounts will encourage additional walkers, bikers and the universal. coverage will encourage additional transit riders. This ne program combined with an existing guaranteed ride home program and ridematching program will increase the effectiveness of the SNTMA. 366

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COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS WHAT FIZZLED AND WHAT HAD PIZZAZZ? You bethejudgel Catherine Simpson, Rideshare/Employer Services Fort Worth Transportation Authority Lynn Hayes, Senior Transportation PlannerNorth Central Texas Council of Govern m ents ABSTRACT This presentation will examine step-by-step efforts in a nonattainment reg i on to stimulate and educate the public concerning the status of ridesharing and air quality i n the Dallas Fort Worth nonattainment area. INTRODUCTION It is vitally important, especially in a nonattainment air quality area, to in volve and educate both public and private sectors in a region. Community outreach began in 1988 when the local Metropolitan P l anning Organization The North Central Texas Council of Governments establ ished a temporary Travel Demand Management (TOM) Task Force. The outreach began in 1989 with a letter-writing campaign sent to 2 ,30 0 major employers in the area The l etter asked for a response survey to be returned concerning alternative commute options. An updated survey and a letter signed by the areas' Chambers of Commerce was sent in 1 992, after the area was classified as a moderate nonattainment area. The two local transit authorities were asked to follow-up with information as requested. Out of the total 1,200 sent, 123 employers returned the survey A shortage of staff the l ack of print materials, and minimal interest from emp loy ers prohibited this campaign from be in g effective After this campa ign other methods were tried. These are described individually in the following sections. 367

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LET GO OF THE WHEEL CAMPAIGN In 1991, members of toe TDM task force hired a consultant to develop a regional air quality campaign designed to promote interest in alternative commute options The target audience was the general pub lic. Approximately 90% of the task force members represented public agencies. . A regional campaign was needed because in 1990 the Environmental Protection Agency class ifi ed Dallas, Tarrant, Denton and Collin counties as nonattainment for the ozone standard The campaign was titled "Let Go of the Wheel". The message of th is campaign was to take the stress from your commute and try another commute option, such as transit, car or vanpooling. Various media was used Includ ing billboards, radio and television public service announcements, as well as, purchased television time A telephone number was given for the two transportation authorities for persons to call to receive more information. Unfortu11ately, this campaign registered litt le response from t he general public. OZONE ALERT PROGRAM As the 1990 Federal Clean Air Act deadline for attainment got closer a nd closer this community . continued to keep their head in the sand until Alliance Development Company, a Fort W orth b ased company, experienced a major disappointment in 1991, due to the nonattainment stats of the region. It all really hit home when in 1991 McDonnell Douglas Corp., which was considering building a facility at Alliance Centre, asked about air quality standards and the region's compliance status. It was one of the company's top criteria. "It woke us up as a development company," Manning said. Even though McDonnell Do uglas scrapped the project altogether, the thought of losing a maj o r deve l opment such as that to another city because of air quality standards made this company realize the economic impact of the Issue.

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A Coalition was formed in March 1993 specifically target ing efforts to invo lve private employers The Coalition members inc l ude the F o rth Worth and the Dallas Chambers, the North Texas Commission and the North Central Texas Council of Governments. Within three months it was introduced to the public with the Forth Worth Transportat ion Authorities' (the T) agreement to provide free fares on Ozone Alert days A task force was then created using these same members and adding representatives from the local transportat ion authorities, governmental agencies, school districts and private industry. This task force immed iate ly began producing materials and hosting CEO breakfasts Commitments were solicited at these events and new members were sought to join the volunteer ranks. Media coverage intensified This program is now in second year. It has increased public awareness, educated both children and aduHs. The program also now includes the display of the ozone alert message on the Department of Transportation's freeway changeable message signs, mowing delays ozone alert signs in businesses, detailed company plans and most of all increased public awareness Currently 900 major employers receive a notification fax the day previous to an Ozone Alert, allowing employees the o pportunity to alter their commuting behavior CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER (CEO) VIDEO After limited success with interest from major employers concerning alternative commute options, the decision to develop a new tool", a video, was made. After many discussions, targeting the CEO was deemed imp e rative to get companies to establish voluntary trip reduction programs. A consu ltant was hired to produce the video. The video uses top managers with existing programs 369

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to discuss the benefits of voluntary trip reduction programs. Also, implementors of programs discuss their in-house ridesharing, telecommuting, flex-hours or preferential parking programs. VIDEO FOR RES IDENTS As a companion to the air quality video designed for CEO's a video for res idents was developed. The twelve minute video explains the requirements of the Clean Air Act and shows the steps being taken to improve air quality in the region. The Ozone Alert program is highlighted. The m essage tor residents is: It will take all of us making reasonable changes in our behavior to improve air quality. ANNUAL DON'T DRIVE ALONE DAY CAMPAIGNS Beginning in 1991 the T, Fort Worth's l ocal transportation autho r ity in iti ated a n inexpensive rideshare day mimick ing the concept of California's weekly campaign. Using unusual press k its and a slogan of "Help Stop the Gas Hog ; radio listeners were requested to call in to p ledg e to n ot ride alone one day. A trip was given away in a drawing and 658 pledges were received before the phone system bogged down and quit due to overtoaded lines. The tota l cost of the promotion was less than $2,000. Companies were sent pledge cards but at that time contacts had not been made in companies in the form of Employee Transportation Coordinators (ETCs) and the numbers returned were small. In 1992, a n ew strategy was devised using the newly appoin ted ETCs, focusing on school aged children. In 1993 when the slogan "Highway Robbery was adopted. Pledges were once again sought but this t ime acquiring free media coverage was a goal. Through ou t the city, on Don't Drive Alone Day, Key Stone cops were dispensed to "ticket" SOV (Single Occupancy Vehicles) and to reward those not riding alone Radio ads and other expenses cost close to $4,000. 370

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' The year 1994 held new dimensions of this campaign as the slogan "Join the Clean Air Force was created. Using ETC's that had become even more active the following year helped increase numbers of pledges to 1,489 with 34 companies participating. This campaign cost close to $7,000 as a public relations agency was hired to help facilitate details. SCHOOLPOOL Starting in 1991, a partnership between the T and the local school district resulted in a carpool matching program for students. The first year 39 schools participated with 1 ,553 students returning filled out surveys. During the 93-94 school year, this program had 69 participating schools that turned in 10,436 student surveys and 150 parent worl<-commute surveys. CONCLUSION This non-mandated nonattainment area has tried many different avenues to reach the public regarding air quality issues Public agencies attempted various campaigns on their own with limited success. It wasn't until a priv ate partnership was established that the public began to share in not only the problem but the solution as well. This fact, leads to the conclusion that Private-Public Partnerships are not only preferable, but a necessary component for success in ridesha re programs. Private-Public Partnerships increase awareness and add the necessary manpower needed to communicate inexpensively and effectively. Setting a goal for a private sector mentor is a good first step for all cities and agencies to adopt. After this step, programs will follow. Cumulative efforts contribute to the success of these programs After all, air quality problems affect everyone, we created the problem, and it will take everyone's participation to make a difference. :.!71

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Fo rt Worth Chamber of CommerceDonna Parker, Netty Matthews Dallas Chamber of Commerce Re i d Rector Shannon Ray North Texas CommissionSally Campbell Alliance Development Company-Isaac Manning Fort Worth Transportation Authority John Bartosiewicz General Manager Dall as Area Rapid Transit-Roger Snoble General Manager North Centra l Texas Council o f GovernmentsMichael Morris Director of Transportation REFERENCES Texas Environmental News, July 1994 issue, Vol. 4, No. 1 Catherine Co l e V i deo ProducersStaats, Falkenberg, & Partners & Pavlik and Associa tes 372

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NON-WORK TRIPS and the ONE LESS CAR CAMPAIGN Kay L. Kenyon, City of Bellevue Transportation Department Lynn Taylor, Taylor/Consulting ABSTRACT In response to a pressing need to increase market share for TOM modes, the City of Bellevue, Washington has begun a campaign to increasing ridesharing and driving less for the non-work trip. The campaign, called one Less car, is described, along with a discussion of the importance of the non-work trip as a market. The One Less Car campaign uses four pilot programs to test the waters in this uncharted region of TOM marketing. The pilot programs are: 1) ridesharing to youth sports activities; 2) alternative mode use for large special events in the city; 3) an intensive neighborhood promotion; and 4) a middle school curriculum element on auto use and the alternatives. A general awareness campaign is also included. The positioning of the campaign message in relation to drive-alone behavior and community attitudes is discussed. After the first year, campaign staff report consistent positive public reception and grassroots support. The authors conclude that the initial success of the campaign shows promise for non-work trips as a transportation demand management market. INTRODUCTION In 1993 the City of Bellevue, Washington launched a trip-reduction campaign to address an important yet ignored segment of the market: the non-work trip. Called one Less car, the campaign entered these untested waters with a series of pilot programs addressing specific home-end markets. Despite the dearth of information on non-work, home-end TOM marketing, the city felt that the sheer number of nonwork trips made the effort worth undertaking, and that the pilot programs would garner valuable lessons for future programs. This paper describes this marketing initiative and its lessons. BACKGROUND: The community, the traffic, the TOM At 100,000 population, the City of Bellevue is the fourth largest city in Washington State. It is located across Lake Washington from seattle in the middle of King County's rapidly growing "eastside." Formerly known as a predominantly white, affluent, suburban enclave, Bellevue in the last decade has become more ethnically, culturally and economically diverse. Rather than a bedroom community to Seattle, the city is now an employment center in its own right, and a net importer of jobs. It has, in the view of many, grown up to be a real city. As Bellevue has grown, its citizens have worked hard to maintain a 373

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2 balance of healthy neighborhoods schools, a strong job market, and urban amenities such as cultural activities and an increasingly pedestrian-oriented downtown. It has also struggled -and in many ways succeeded -in managing traffic, that often unwelcome cousin of prosperity. As any long-time resident of Bellevue can testify, traffic in the city is on the rise. And no wonder. Since 1970, the city's employment has grown from 23,000 to 100,000 (including some annexations). Regional growth also has added to the traffic stream as the eastside experienced a 40 percent employment increase and a 22 percent population increase since 1980. At the same time, travel in the region is increasing at a faster rate than either population or employment. we are driving more, and longer distances. And, we are driving alone: Largely as a result of these factors, average weekday traffic on arterials in Bellevue has been growing 2. 2 percent per year for a decade, and 6n local freeways volumes have been increasing.6 percent per.year. surprisingly, Bellevue has held her own with traffic congestion on arterials during this period. Despite the perception of some residents that current levels of congestion are serious, from an engineering viewpoint at least, traffic in Bellevue is not all that bad. Only 9 city intersections have degraded to level of service E and F in the past ten years, for a total of 25 out of 130. Bellevue's success in fending off gridlock stems from a number of strategies -among them an aggressive capital improvement program in which the city invests approximately $15 to $20 million a year on new road construction.' Despite the reasonable state of city streets, however, future growth may well swamp the most generous building program that money can buy, or taxpayers tolerate. Employment in downtown Bellevue is expected to increase 23 percent between 1993 and 1999 and 54 percent by 2005. Eastside employment and population are forecast to increase 100 and 65 percent, respectively between 1985 and the year 2000. If trends in VMT continue, we will need our entire arsenal -not merely new roads -to hold the fort. In this environment of growth and accelerating auto use, Bellevue was among the first jurisdictions in the nation to emphasize transportation demand management. And Bellevue has stayed the course. Whether through tried and true staples in the. TOM menu, such as requirements for new development, or pioneering initiatives such as fleet ridesharing or parking charges in the suburbs, the city bas relied on TOM as pa.rt of the traffic solution. After fifteen years of experience, city policy makers understand that no single TOM strategy can reduce trips at the city or regional 1evel. If a "magic bullet" exists -such as market-rate parking charges or transit-friendly land use .it will take a concerted political will over the long haul to win public acceptance. The lesson, as most of us in the TOM field now realize, is that in TOM, we need to do 374

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3 it all. In this context, the City of Bellevue has begun to look at TOM as it relates to the non-work trip. It is, after all, the missing piece of the complex puzzle of trip reduction. NON-WORK TRIPS: ARE THEY WORTH OUR EFFORTS? Non-work trips are the silent majority of todays travel behaviors. Not only are they the majority; they are the overwhelming majority of weekday trips, according to the Nationwide Personal Transportation Study (NPTS.) According to the 1990 survey, about three out of every four weekday trips are non-work trips. This is true even in the peak periods or travel. And yet TOM literature -and much of transportation planning literature as well is strangely silent on the non-work trip. Why is transportation demand management turning a blind eye to the non-work trip, while lavishing attention on the work trip? The answer, quite simply, is that most of us see non-work trips as a poor market. Among the major justifications for this conclusion are: 1. We see the non-work trip as random, while considering the work trip as an established routine, ripe for ridesharing and taking the bus. 2. Non-work trips are highly dispersed, while work trips tend to be concentrated in commercial hubs, making them easier to serve with transit. 3. Home-end marketing presents almost insurmountable obstacles compared with employer marketing. Like most entrenched misconceptions, there is just enough truth in the above statements to keep them alive. However, on closer inspection, we find that some of these ideas suffer from a fairly weak pulse. First, many non-work trips are not random. Despite outward appearances, people's lives -and travel behaviors -are seldom random. we travel to satisfy needs, and many of these needs are recurrent (e.g, grocery shopping, school activities, recreational sports, standing appointments and many errands). So while non-work trips as a whole are not nearly as regular as work trips as a whole, some non-work trips are very regular or predictable indeed, and thus lend themselves to TOM strategies. Furthermore, even spur-of-the moment trips may present a promising market for transit use, walking and bicycling, as we will see in the One Less Car approach. Nor does concentration of trips entirely distinguish the work from 375

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4 the non-work trip. After all, both work and non-work trips are becoming more dispersed. As exasperating as it may be to admit (and plan for transportation services) the suburb-to-suburb commute is actually the best description of work trip patterns today. As mainstream TOM marketing increasingly turns its attention to these dispersed suburban work trips, the non-work trip will become harder to dismiss as a completely marginal market. TUrning to the assertion that the home-end presents a formidable marketing challenge -this idea, like the others, deserves a closer look. Home-end marketing, after all, need not be limited to expensive direct mail and news media approaches. The non-work trip message can also be delivered at little league meetings, summer activity programs, major special events, schools, and other community forums, as we will see in reviewing the One Less Car campaign. Notwithstanding these home-end opportunities, it must be admitted that the biggest challenge in addressing non-work trip reduction is appropriately targeting the markets and devising new strategies to reach them. As challenging as the non-work, home-end market may be, if we consider the sheer number of non-work trips, it becomes easier to argue that the TDM envelope needs pushing beyond the old commuteronly frontiers. For example, fully 75 percent of weekday trips in this country are non-work trips according to the Nationwide Personal Transportation Study. Even in the traditional peak periods (6-9 a.m. and 4 -7 p.m.) non-work trips are predominant over work trips. And in the p.m. peak period, non-work trips account for least twice the number of work trips.2 The findings of the NPTS are confirmed by the Bellevue transportation model for travel within the city. Nor are non-work trips much shorter than work trips -frequently the difference is less than a mile in length or five minutes in time3 It must also give us pause to consider the even smaller share of trips represented by our supposedly best work trip market, major employers. In washington State's King county, companies that have 100 or more employees and are therefore affected by the Commute Trip Reduction Act, represent only about 18 percent of the county's employment. And according to the first large scale evaluation of the impact of Regulation XV in Southern California, major employment sites (those affected by the regulation) account for roughly so percent of total work-related travel. The authors conclude that Regulation XV can affect only 12.5 percent of daily trips'. Is the non work trip worth our marketing efforts? Based upon a closer review of some of our marketing assumptions and the sheer size of the non-work market, the authors believe that it is in fact time for a new look at the silent majority of everyday travel behavior. This is what the City of Bellevue concluded in 1991, embarking on the design of a marketing program to capture a portion 376

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5 of the non-work trip market. DESIGNING A MARKETING CAMPAIGN FOR THE NON-WORK TRIP From the beginning it was clear that Bellevue's campaign couldn't reach all residents. The city determined that with the lilnited funds available-a budget of approximately $100,000/year for the first two years specific target markets should be identified, and market strategies developed for each one. (The city-funded budget was later augmented with $54,000 in ISTEA funds, used primarily for evaluation purposes. ) Moreover, in recognition of the experimental nature of the campaign, it seemed prudent to begin the campaign with a series of pilot programs, with changes made as the field tests yielded their results. Another preliminary issue was the marketing message. To be heard amid the dominant commuter promotions, it seemed that the non-work TOM message should be positioned as distinctive from the work trip. In addition, the campaign team was wary of simply assuming that non-work travel behaviors were subject to the same marketing appeals as the work trip. For this reason, while available TOM literature was reviewed, Bellevue decided to undertake some specific non-work research. This began with focus group discussions with residents, and interviews with prominent community members, business leaders and local agencies. In addition the city conducted a telephone survey of Bellevue residents. The telephone survey, in addition to yielding information on potential marketing approaches, would also serve as a baseline survey against which future success of the project, such as ridership and awareness, could be measured. (This follow-up survey has not been undertaken yet.) Some of the most interesting community attitudes and facts, gleaned from both secondary and primary research were: Bellevue residents have a pressing concern about traffic congestion, yet are strongly resistant to new roadway building. Adults strongly feel the TOM message needs to be heard by youth. Youth surveyed are strongly receptive to transit and ridesharing, especially before they get their drivers' licenses. Residents lack adequate information about how to take the bus or carpool. The highest potential transit users in Bellevue live in multi-family dwellings. While community members feel personal responsibility for shaping our quality of life, most people need to be convinced of the personal benefit of ridesharing or, at the least, how their individual action can count. J77

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6 And, from the baseline telephone survey of 400 households: 56 percent strongly agree with the statement: "We are going to have to change our attitudes about how we use our cars." Another 32 percent somewhat agree. 46 percent strongly.agree with. the statement, "Because of my concerns for the environment, I have changed some of my ways of doing things." Another 33 percent somewhat agree. (This question probed for the viability of envirorunental appeals.) 70 percent of Bellevue residents believe that traffic congestion has worsened on weekdays in the past year. Sizeable markets of people are attracted by information and incentives: -Priority parking would definitely encourage 48 percent to reduce sov use. The idea of better bus information would definitely encourage 27 percent. Special gifts and coupons would definitely encourage 21 percent. 23 percent of bike owners are willing to make some non-recreational trips by bike. 32 percent of residents indicated they already "combine trips. 11 Another 23 percent identified trips they could combine, make less often or eliminate. After synthesizing the collected information, the Bellevue non-work trip reduction campaign began to cohere around the following principles: 1. Because the non-work trip is an untested market, (and because the budget would be modest) Bellevue should start small. Two-year pilots programs should be created to test viability. 2. Effectiveness should be measured through formal and informal evaluation measures. 3. To focus efforts, the campaign should address small, specific markets. An except-ion to this would be a low-cost, general awareness effort to gain press coverage and simple community support. 4. The market segments should overlap where possible to the message through repetition. s. The marketing message should emphasize that small changes in our auto habits will add up. In other words, we should not use heavy-handed appeals or ask too much. 6. The campaign should strive for long-term education as well as immediate ridership gains. 7 The campaign should emphasize grassroots community activities to foster community ownership and sharpen the marketing impact. In keeping with these principles and the community sentiments, ,..,8 .;,

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7 four target markets were identified, along with strategies to reach them. These were: 1. Environmental-TOM class unit (youth 12-14); 2. Ridesharing to youth sports activities (youth 12-14); 3. A neighborhood campaign (residents in multi-family dwellings) ; 4. Ridesharingjwalkingjbiking to special events (adults and youth targeted by the event itself). The marketing message would focus on asking Bellevue residents to help solve Bellevue's traffic problems by making small changes in their, and their children's, transportation lifestyles. It would also emphasize incentives and good information on the alternatives. The slogan selected was, One Less Car It Adds Up, reflecting the principle that small changes by many create a sizable collective result. The campaign used other mathematical plays on words, such as, Multiply Your options and subtract a car Trip. The campaign team' spent the fall of 1992 designing the specific marketing strategies and materials and making key community contacts. In 1993, One Less Car hit the road. THE 1993 PILOT PROGRAMS City-wide "umbrella" campaign The four pilot programs were conducted under the umbrella of a city-wide campaign aimed at all Bellevue residents. The goals of the broader campaign were to introduce the One Less Car concept throughout the city and reinforce Bellevue's commitment to alternative transportation solutions. The city-wide campaign used several promotional features: a program brochure, a flyer mailed to all homes with utility bills, a kickoff press release, articles in general purpose city publications, a campaign kick-off at a local shopping center and campaign balloons, buttons and one Less Car tee shirts. The message of the brochure was short and simple: "All of us who live in Bellevue have experienced the delays and frustrations of traffic jams at all hours. Growth helps cause this problem. But so do you and I--by driving more often than ever before. Improving our streets will help some. But to really make an impact on traffic, each of us needs to help." To illustrate the collective effect people can make with small changes in transportation lifestyles, the brochure noted that: "If each Bellevue family tried combining several errands into one, or carpooling, or taking the bus just once each week; we'd subtract enough cars from Bellevue streets to fill the parking garage at Bellevue Square (a major local mall) 15 times!" The brochures were mailed to citizens on city mailing lists and to groups and organizations. 379

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8 They were distributed at all Metro Transit kiosks in the city and were handed out at the kickoff event and at all city office locations. . A promotional utility bill flyer reached every city resident during a two-month billing cycle. Similar in design (but in a complementary color) the flyer was much briefer, while still introducing the campaign and its pilot programs and indicating how people could learn more or get involved. . The campaign kick-off occurred at a fair at the crossroads Shopping Center, in the middle of a key target market. This decision highlights the intent to take advantage of every opportunity to overlap markets and work with community-based organizations to help make One Less Car their own, rather than just a city, program. The campaign staffed a booth at the fair, featuring balloons and buttons for the kids, with representatives from Metro Transit in attendance with bus information and timetables. Youth Activities Ridesharinq P ilot The youth sports activities component of One Less car aimed to help young people (and their parents) arrange rides to city-wide activities such as sports practices and games. While some ridesharing to youth activities occur.s spontaneously, an untapped market exists within activities of city-wide .scope where participants {and their parents) do not know each other when they first come together. The selected target group for the pilot program was the Bellevue Pony League, composed of approximately 130 baseball players in 11 teams. Their ages, 13 and 14, allowed us to target young people before they receive their drivers licenses -an age when they may be more receptive to TDM principles than after they begin to drive. The goals of the pilot program were to: 1. Raise parent and youth awareness and support for the one Less Car campaign' s messages and benefits; 2. Give parents and kids "do-it-yourself" assistance in how to form carpools easily within new groups; 3. Use incentives to reward teams for forming carpools and continuing to use them for practices and games. An initial mailing from Bellevue' s mayor went to. all team parents explaining the program andasking for their help and cooperation. One Less car staff then attended the introductory parent/playerjcoach meeting to explain the program and hand out a "do-it-yourself rideshare kit" to each team. This kit included an information flyer explaining the program and step-by-step

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9 directions on what to do, including selection of a one less Car "booster" for each team. The main element of each kit was an 11" x 17" colored map of Bellevue with a set of sticky dots and a team roster, with names, addresses and phone numbers. Team boosters were asked to place a dot at each player's home address, number the dots to correspond with the player roster and mail the map to the One Less Car program in a pre-addressed, stamped envelope. Teams who completed this first task received coupons for a local batting cage. one Less car then made color copies of the map and mailed them to each player on the team with information about how to form a carpool and keep it active. As the baseball season progressed, "spotters" from a local burger restaurant chain, costumed as its recognizable bird mascot, dropped in randomly at the beginning of games and practices, handing out "Bird Bucks" to carpools including two or more players. To further encourage continued ridesharing, a mid-season mailing was sent to all parents and players urging them to "keep up the good work." All the coupons used as incentives for the Pony League pilot were donated by local businesses. After the playoffs a final mailing went to all families thanking them for participating in the pilot, asking them to complete and return a questionnaire evaluating how the program worked (or didn't) and how it might be improved for future years. As an incentive, the campaign promised that those returning the evaluation would receive a final prize, a coupon from a local video rental store. Special Events Demand Management Pilot Each year the City of Bellevue sponsors or issues permits for several major events (those typically attracting more than 1,000 participants). Regardless of where these events are held in the city, the traffic associated with them can cause problems. The One Less Car campaign conducted two special event rideshare programs, structured to offer incentives for Bellevue residents attending such events to use ridesharing (or biking, busing, walking) to the event rather than driving alone. The goals of the pilot were to: 1. Reinforce the City of Bellevue's commitment to seeking innovative transportation solutions; 2. Help alleviate neighborhood traffic congestion associated with special events; 3. Encourage a change of attitude toward unrestricted auto use. 381

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10 The event targeted in initial planning was the city-sponsored Jazz Festival, held at a local community college. Among the publicity efforts were a press release announcing the One Less Car incentives, public service announcements given to jazz-oriented radio stations, and a flyer announcing the rewards for carpooling and biking to the festival which was handed out at pre-festival jazz concerts around the area. The day of the event, carpoolers and bicyclists received a "Thanks for carpooling and biking flyer when they .entered the college, then followed signs directing them to their One Less Car priority parking spaces (for carpools of four or more) and a supervised bike corral, directly adjacent to the main stage. The flyer also included a brief questionnaire to help measure the program's success,.which could be completed and exchanged for a $1.00 coupon at the festival's espresso vendor. . Because a rainy July day dampened attendance at the Jazz Festival (especially for bicycling), a second pilot (the Eastside community Street Fair) was added. For this even1;., priority parking for carpools was a=anged just across from the fairgrounds. The supervised bike corral was located in the baseball diamond on the far edge of the fairgrounds. one Less car information appeared in street. fair flyers, and a one Less Car release was included in the press packet which was distributed at the pre-fair press conference. To help assure visibility for the One Less Car message, a display ad ("Fair Rewards for Traveling Right") was placed in the special fair section in the local daily newspape.r and four weekly papers. The ad explained the incentives and included a map showing locations of the carpool lots and the bike corral. People arriving at either location (bike corral or carpool parking) received a "Collect Your Fair Rewards flyer with a brief questionnaire. The flyer directed them to pick up their coupon good for $1 off an espresso d:dnk by turning in the completed questionnaire (half of the coupon's value was covered by the espresso vendor). NeighbOrhOod Campaign Pilot The Crossroads Neighborhood Campaign was an intensive residential rideshare and transit promotion developed to raise awareness of non-SOV options for personal trips. The crossroads area was chosen for several reasons: its large number of multi-family dwellings, moderate household incomes, neighborhood community centers (including the Crossroads Shopping Center), and relatively good bus service. The program's goals were to: ,, 382

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11 1. Reinforce the city of Bellevue's commitment to seeking innovative transportation solutions and carry that message to Crossroads residents; 2. Affect residents attitudes about the negative effects of driving alone; 3. Raise awareness of options to the SOV, including specific knowledge of crossroads bus routes; 4. Motivate residents to make changes in their transportation behavior via the promotion. All crossroads households (approximately 4000) received a Crossroads Transportation Guide with enclosed transit map, as did community centers, libraries and all apartment building managers (for posting near mailboxes and in laundry rooms). The guide included a summary of the One Less Car message and specific information on bus, biking, carpooling and walking as options to driving alone. Tucked inside the guide 1 s flap were two Metro transit free ride tickets and a colorful illustrated map showing twelve bus routes serving the area. on the back of the guide was general information about the frequency of the area bus routes. In addition, Crossroads residents were encouraged. to bus, bike, carpool or walk to a weekend event held at the crossroads Shopping Center. Called CUltural Crossroads, the event was chosen because it normally generated heavy car traffic and parking problems. During the CUltural crossroads weekend, One Less Car provided incentives to people who chose to travel to the event by alternatives to the SOV. Four-plus carpools parked in close-in priority stalls set aside in the Crossroads Shopping Center parking lot, bicyclists stored their bikes in a supervised area, and bus riders received a ticket for a free ride home. In addition, those using alternative modes received a voucher for a free food item from one of four participating merchants in the shopping center. They also received an entry form to win one of several valuable prizes (most donated and all related thematically to One Less Car, such as a bike, walking shoes, and running suit). To advertise these incentives, the campaign sent postcards announcing the promotion ("Ride and You're a Winner!") to all neighborhood households. A press release was sent to all media outlets, and public service announcements ran on a local radio station specially targeting Bellevue-area listeners. Finally, a One Less car information booth displayed promotional materials, contest prizes, and collages produced in a related pilot program at Tillicum Middle School (see below). School curriculum Pilot 383

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12 One important theme of the One Less Car program is to affect the attitudes and transportation behaviors of youth. The middle school age group was chosen to target young people just before they get their driver's licenses and to overlap the target age groups of the youth sports activities program. The curriculum was designed to be an activ-ity-based awareness program about alternatives to drive-alone auto use. The goals were for students to: II Gain better understa.nding of the romance of the car" ;tnd how they and their families use the automobile; Learn about the environmental impacts of auto use; Develop awareness and positive attitudes about alternatives to driving alone; 11 Experience practical applications of this awareness, such as learning how to travel around the cityby bus. PUrely educational goals included: a Providing opportunities for students to practice teamwork and collaborative project development; m Understanding the long-term relationship between self and environment: a Understanding the effect collective actions can have on improving their environment; Experience in turning awareness into action. The curriculum was designed (collaboratively with a team of three teachers) to be used with mixed . groups of sixth through eighth graders in "Primetime", a 25 -minute enrichment session three mornings each week. Six hundred students at Tillicum Middle School in Bellevue participated in the pilot. Several training sessions were held for all teachers, to enhance familiarity with the subject matter, the resource materials and the lesson plans. Three one Less car Resource Guides per classroom were provided, including one Teacher's Edition' with all lesson plans and supplementary materials. The School Districtsmedia production technician was made available to film classroom sessions for inclusion in a documentary video chronicling the unit from start to finish. The unit began with a section. on the "romance of the car", investigating how we have come to value and view the automobile as a result of advertising. On the first day, students arrived at their Prime Time classrooms listening to Beach Boys car songs over the public address system. They watched videotapes of automobil e advertisements over classroom televisions, and discussed the themes used by advertisers to sell cars, then formed in teams to search through magazines for advertisements illustrating these themes. Each classroom created a collage of ads, which were posted in the 384

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13 school hallways. Also in the "romance of the car" section were activities to help students understand how they and their families presently use the car (and alternative transportation modes). Family travel logs became class graphs, which illustrated high drive alone auto use in all cases. The second curriculum section focused on the environmental impacts of automobile use. Activities included conducting a "sock exhaust" experiment on several teachers cars to learn about pollution impacts. The dirty socks were then posted in a large and very popular hall exhibit. Also in this section, students practiced math and word games illustrating automobile pollution impacts. The final curriculum section covered alternatives to driving alone. Students viewed a video on bicycling, mapped out potential carpool groups and destinations by charting where each classmate lived, and learned to read Metro bus schedules and prepare simple itineraries. In addition to the classroom curriculum, students chose action projects around the One Less car theme from an extensive list in the Resource Guide. Final projects included creation of a video to encourage ridesharing, one Less car crossword puzzles and games, a play, several essays, and a chart of SOV use at one Bellevue intersection. Rather than using traditional grades for the unit, teachers used a point system based on active participation in classroom activities and successful completion of action projects of varying degrees of difficulty. Each classroom displayed a One Less car "points earned" chart so that students could keep track of their progress week by week. The 90 students with the most points participated in an extremely popular bus road rally in November. Groups of approximately five students, each with a teacher or parent team leader, met in the morning to receive their "bus trip challenges". Each team was to travel from Tillicum Middle School by bus to a final location (and lunch) at a distant park location through two or three interim destinations. Their challenge was to determine which routes would take them and at what times, using full sets of bus timetables. A local pizza chain provided lunch for all the hungry travelers once they arrived at their final destination. CAMPAIGN RESULTS Lessons Learned OVerall, the campaign achieved strong coJDJDunity acceptance, and began to reach residents with information about alternatives to the drive-alone lifestyle. In both the youth sports activities and special events pilot programs, more than so percent of returned 38S

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14 surveys indicatecl that program materials and incentives were usefUl and that city-sponsored programs like these were supported. The middle school program was strongly supported by district administrators and teachers. The bus road rally was a favorite of the students, and generated strong word-of-mouth support for a repeat version the following year. Although significant shifts in travel behavior was not a goal of One Less Car's first year, there were signs of willingness to change. As stated previously, the city-wide survey showed that 48 percent believed that priority carpool parkingat events is an effective incentive, and 27 percent said they would definitely be encouraged to use transit if they had an easy-to-understand map (like the one piloted in the Crossroads Neighborhood pilot program). Some aspects of One Less car could benefit from changes in future years, according to the first year results. For instance, some of the programs (especially special events demand management and youth sports activities) required extensive staff involvement which would not be cost-effective for expanded efforts. At the Cultural Crossroads weekend promotion, the focus on increased carpooling to shopping did not seem productive. And the importance of emphasizing safety whenever encouraging bicycling became apparent; 68 percent of survey respondents believe that bicycling is dangerous in the city today. Significant business support for the campaign was another indicator of success. More than fifteen businesses partnered with one Less car during the first year, providing such assistance as free cellular phones for the bus road rally, and batting cage coupons as rideshare incentives to young baseball players. In this era of increasing environmental awareness, more and more companies will be seeking ways to a:!ign themselves with "green" causes, and programs like One Less Car can benefit. For example, plans for 1995 (being tested on a small-scale during the fall of 1994) include a citywide partnership with auto-related businesses (oil change shops, auto parts, auto detailers, etc.) to urge residents to use their cars wisely. Other encouraging indicators were the local and national attention this attempt to deal with non-work demand management received, including competing successfully for over $200,000 in federal grants and winning a prestigious local Oil Smart award. And finally, after only six months of operation on a relatively limited budget, nearly one-fourth of all Bellevue residents said they were familiar with the one Less car program. Refinements for the 1994 campaign 386

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15 Based on field experience with the first year campaign and community feedback, the 1994 campaign was slightly modified. For instance, the youth sports activities program is targeting other sports activities (soccer and basketball) and is reaching out to many more teams and leagues. At the same time, staff assistance in completing and returning maps was reduced; instead a stronger incentive (free pizza party) is being offered. In 1994 the special events demand management effort became part of the city' s overall set of policies governing special events. A detailed do-it-yourself kit was prepared to give all event planners the tools to include one Less car publicity and services into their event, with only minimal assistance from the One Less Car team. While using the special map one more time, the crossroads Neighborhood Campaign was restructured to focus more heavily on multi-family units and promotinq bus routes adjacent to each location. The promotional part of the program was designed to be carried out in partnership with local auto-related businesses, who will join with One Less Car in urging neighborhood residents to "Use it [the car] Wisely." The middle school curriculum will be integrated into the language arts and math curricula in the fall of 1994. It will be expanded to a second middle school, and plans are underway for a two-school competitive bus road rally. A new campaign information piece was produced for 1994 featuring people who were part of one Less car' s first year, "telling the story" for us in their own words. They included the principal and a student from the middle school where the curriculum was piloted, the ESL instructor from the community center in crossroads commenting on the multi-lingual materials produced by One Less Car, the Pony Leaque team registrar, and one of the private-sector sponsors who were so important during year one. The overall campaign also added a community recognition element in 1994: the One Less Car Star program. This program, advertised in flyers included in every resident's utility bill and in the city's newsletter, seeks nominations of people or groups who are making a difference in fightinq traffic congestion through their individual efforts. Honorinq the recipients in the media and before the City council also helps others see tanqible examples of how small individual efforts to change transportation lifestyles can, indeed, add up. CONCLUSIONS In a community where 88 percent of residents agree (somewhat or strongly) that "we are going to have to change our attitudes about how we use our cars," the one Less Car campaign has made a positive

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16 beginning in helping that community understand how to change its transportation lifestyle. The difficulty of identifying the market and reaching that market still remains a challenge, but the Bellevue pilot programs have made some inroads. In particular, positive community acceptance of the one Less car campaign and ease of forming partnerships show promise not only for Bellevue's program but for similar non-work trip reduction efforts elsewhere. While Bellevue's program remains in the experimental stage, its first year successes should sound a wake up call for TDM professionals seeking to extend the message of demand management to the silent majority of automobile trips. REFERENCES 1 This figure includes costs for rightofway and some sidewalk construction. 2 H.11. Richardson and P. Gordon. "Non-work Trips: The Missing Link in Transportation, Land Use, and Urban Policy. In Urban Land, 1989, p. 8. 3 Ibid, p. 9. It C. Giuliano, K. Hwang and M. Wachs, "Mandatory Trip Reduction in Southern California: First Year Results," University of Southern California/ University of California, Los Angeles, 1992. 5 Lynn Taylor, Taylor/Consulting, lead consultant, with asSistance from llob Prowda, Ilium Associates, Inc. and Alice Hanson. Kay L Kenyon, Senior Management Assistant city of Bellevue Transportation Department 301 ll6th Avenue SE, Ste. 150, Bellevue, Washington 98009 (206) 462-4077 and Lynn Taylor, President Taylor/Consulting 2 Brook Bay, Mercer Island, Washington 98040 (206) 232-7690 388

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Frequent Commuter Program by: Craig Van Kessel Tran sportation Coordinator Applied Materials ABSTRACT Applied Materials Frequent Commuter Program was established to reward its employees for using alternative means of transportation to get to work. All AMAT employees are eligible for the program and only have to join the Commute Alternatives Program to begin to receive its benefits. FCP is fairly simple. Once an employee joins the program they receive a Frequent Commuter Program calendar. At the end of each month, they s i mply fill in the number of times they used alternative means of transportation to get to work. They are awarded 15 points for each one of those days. In late summer/early fall AMAT holds i ts transportation/Beat the Backup Fair. At this time, an auction is held for the Frequent Commuter Program participants only. They use the points they have accumulated all year long and bid on i tems ranging from radio headsets and T.V.'s to luggage and mountain bikes. It enables the program members to be recognized for their participation and at the same time they can receive quality items at no cost to them. Tlie good thing about this program is that it is quite well received and costs very little to operate. For as little as $500 00, an ETC can purchase several great items from companies that specialize in incentive products The calendar and registrat ion forms can be printed in house at a cost that is minimal.

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SUCCESSFUL TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATIONS Wendy J. Hoyt President The Hoyt Company 801 K Street, 23rd Floor Sacramento, CA 95814 (916) 448-2440 (916) 448-5305 fax Employers, developers, and government agencies wrestling with how to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution as well as how to improve circulation may find Transportation Management Associations (TMAs), or TMOs as they are sometimes called, to be a viable option. Communities which have some form of a trip reduction ordinance (TRO) have found TMAs to be an economically efficient way to promote alternative modes of transportation and to comply with local TRO. Transportation Management Associations are membership organizations formed to provide a forum for employers, developers, building owners, local government representatives and others to work together to collectively establish policies, programs and services to address loca l transportation issues. TMAs address transportation problems by providing services directly to members and by providing a vehicle for organized private sector involvement in public sector planning, decision making and projects. The key to the success of TMAs lies in the synergism of multiple businesses banding together to address and accomplish more than any one employer, building operator or developer could alone. Currently, there are over 150 TMAs throughout the United States, with more forming every year. The serv ices they provide are based upon the needs of their specific community. As a result, each TMA is as unique as the community it serves. Perhaps one of the key elements in the success of TMAs is their incredible diversity The mission of a local TMA depends on a number of factors: Location: rural, suburban, central business district Predominant Industry Type: office, retail, industrial, residential, recreational, university or mixed use Growth Rate of Community Relationship to Surrounding Communities Board Make-Up Because of the variety of TMAs and their missi!)ns, there is a corresponding diversity among th e services they offer. The following is a list of some of the services TMAs are currently providing in the United States, The list is certainly not inclusive.

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Telecommuting/Teleconferencing Centers Shuttles for either employees, customers or both Advocacy on local transit, roadway, bicycle, land use, and air quality issues Parking management programs Guaranteed or emergency ride home programs Transit pass subsidy or voucher programs Employer Transportation Coordinator (ETC) training Enhanced bicycle facilities Assistance and training for employers and developers having to comply with trip reduction ordinances Commuter discounts or universal pass programs for transit or shuttles Public forms for conflict resolution or education on local transportation issues Incentives for ridesharing Promotional and marketing programs for alternative modes Carpool and vanpool matching and program development Childcare programs Traffic direction at special events or during seasonal peaks Member newsletters TMAs are generally private business associations typically staffed either solely by an Executive Director I or a small staff, and overseen by a volunteer Board of Directors. TMAs are often started by Chambers of Commerce, business associations, developers or simply a few interested businesses with the common goal of reducing vehicle trips and vehicle emissions in an effort to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. Most TMAs are incorporated, non-profit organizations and as such are able to apply for grant money that an individual business would not be eligible for otherwise According to a 1993 survey2, a typical TMA has between 20-80 members. Impressively, the survey found an average member turnover rate of only 6%. A TMA' s annual budget will be driven by the services it offers and the size of the membership. While the average annual budget for TMA start-up can range from $80,000 to $150,000, a small number of TMAs have successfully begun operations for less than $70,000 annually. Some mature TMAs have developed an annual budget of over $1 million to support their program efforts. While this is not a nominal amount, it is considerably less than the amount required for roadway improvements, parking expansions, and other more traditional approaches. I Urban Transportation Monitor, November 1989 National Survey 2 ACT TMA Council Policy and Procedures Survey, CTS, Inc. December 1993

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While some TMAs have been self funded from inception, most TMAs acquire grant money to assist in their development. There is likely some public funding available to help establish a new local TMA. However, on going operating funds would need to come from membership fees and grants. Membership fees can be based on a business' square footage, number of employees or on a flat fee. The key is to determine a formula which is equitable and can support the financial needs of the organization. There are numerous advantages to businesses and the community in supporting a TMA. The community will benefit from the reduction of traffic congestion and parking problems which can result from the TMA's successful imp lementation of transportation systems management (TSM) or transpor tation demand management (TDM) measures. The business and residential community can benefit from gaining local control of solutions to transportation problems and the formation of a strong transportation advocacy group resulting from the TMA's combined representation. Local stakeholders can save money by providing TSM programs through one efficient entity. Finally, everyone can benefit from the improved economic vitality and enhanced quality of life of the community resulting from the reduction of traffic congestion and air pollution derived as a result of the TMA's efforts. A TMA is an effective vehicle for businesses to become involved in transportation issues and recommend and institute programs that will help businesses to effectively solve their current and future transportation problems. Keys to the Success of a TMA There are a number of factors which can determine the success or failure of a TMA. In our experience the following are among the important factors for success: 1.) Clearly Defined Geographic Area This can be as small as a development/ office complex or as large as a bl-<:ounty or corridor TMA. While some TMAs with large geographic coverage have been successful, the potential risk is being too diverse an area to meet everyone's needs. 2.) Common Identity This goes hand in hand with determining your geographic boundaries. The community or area you intend to service must have some common identity in terms of the transportation/air quality problems they are facing and the potential solutions. This will allow the TMA to stay focussed and ultimately to be successful. 3.) Clear Mission The mission and goals and objectives of a TMA must be clearly defined and h ave the support of the Board of Directors and staff. One way to accomplish this is to develop the mission statement and goals and objectives at an annual board retreat where the proper attention can be given. Goals and objective should be measurable such as, to increase alternative 392

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mode usage by 25%. Consideration should be given to developing a Strategic Plan for the TMA. 4.) Board of Directors -A Board of Directors should be established with officers and committee chairs. The terms of office, rotation of leadership, and operational by-laws need to be established and followed. Diversity on the Board in terms of industry type, size and location will provide balanced leadership and one that reflects the interest of the members. 5.) Realistic Expectations This relates to the goals and objectives of a TMA. We recommend that a TMA focus. on no more than 1-3 primary objectives, especially in the early start up years. This wlll prevent the TMA resources, financial and personnel, from being spread too thin. If you can accomplish 13 clearly defined objectives, then you can measure your success and use that success in developing membership and credibility within the community. 6.) Financial Stability Prior to TMA start up, the founding members need to have an action plan to secure initial start up funds as well as on-going funding. We recommend a multi-faceted funding program. Being solely dependant on one source of funds puts the TMA at risk should the source dry up unexpectedly Viable revenue sources for a multi-faceted funding program include: membership dues, sponsoring members, federal and state grants, local city I county I council of government or air district grants, developer contributions, revenues from programs and services, and advertising (for example on shuttle vehicles). 7.) Membership Development Part of financial stability is a targeted membership development program. Unfortunately some TMAs have focused exclusively on advocacy or program development issues only to find themselves without funding and have ended up going out of business. The truly successful TMAs, which are committed to staying in existence for the long term, have balanced the needs to provide member services and programs with the need to do on-going membership development. Active participation by the Board of Directors in membership development is critical. 8.) Monitoring and Evaluation One of the most frequently neglected areas in the transportation systems management/transportation demand management field is measuring quantificable results of programs and services. TMAs must establish baseline data and then monitor and evaluate their success on a regular, periodic basis such as annually. Developing the baseline depends on the nature of the transportation issues. However a membership survey of employee modal split, parking lot utilization studies, vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and the resulting air pollution are all excellent ways of establishing a baseline and measuring the success of a TMA. This measurement of success is important in evaluating your performance against your objectives, providing tangible benefit for membership development, and 393

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in helping other TMAs or ETCs determine whether or not a particular program maybe of value to them. 9.) Cooperation with Other TMAs and Rldeshare The task of changing the way we look at traveling is a long term process. There are limited fiscal and human resources that can be devoted to reducing single occupancy vehicle (SOV) trips, VMT, air pollution, traffic congestion and parking demand and supply issues. It Is imperative that those of us who work in the field, including TMAs, willingly share information, and support each others efforts. 394

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Northern California TMA Joint Board of Directors Conference Conference Proceedings March 4, 1994 Author: Marilyn Bryant, Sacramento Central City TMA Abstract On March 4, 60 Board members and Executive Directors from 1 3 Northern California TMAs met in Sacramento for a Regional TMA Board of Directors Conference. The goal of the conference was to identify issues common to all TMAs and develop a framework f or intera c tion between the TMAs I n a pre-conference survey, the board members established the agenda of the conference. T hey indicated they wanted to define the role of TMAs, identify common problems, share their experiences and develop partnerships for better coordination among TMAs. The prog r am began with a panel discussion of the benefits of TMAs to businesses, government and commercial real estate developers. The panelists were TMA board members, each s haring experiences from their industry's perspective. As they related their successes and challenges, the panelists stressed that collaboration between the public and private sector is essential in solving the problems they have had to address. All agreed that TMAs h elp to facilitate these partnerships The opening session focused the rest of conference on the theme of public/private partnerships. During the morning, the conference broke into four small groups to identify common problems and issues. When the groups reported back to the main assembly, each group had recognized that TMAs are in unique situations and there are issues that each TMA must solve within its own area, but there are many concerns that transcend TMA boundaries and provide opportunities for partne rships. The following common concerns were repeated by each group: the need for TMAs t o coordinate and work together; to work regionally on problems that !Tanscend TMA boundaries, to identify stable funding sources for programs, to define TMA benefits, and to market the TMA to small employers and those who don't perceive a problem. Several groups also reported the need to define the roles and responsibilities of Board members. The luncheon speaker continued the theme of public-private partnerships by suggesting ways business and: government can work together more effectively to address issues of concern to TMA members. TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07/22/94 395

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In the afternoon breakout sessions conference participants discussed solutions to the issues raised in the morning session. Solutions included examples of programs TMAs have developed in partnerships to solve regional !ransportation problems, examples where TMAs have served as a lia i son to express the problems of both the public and private sector, and suggestions for ways TMAs can be a cata l yst for developing and implementing solutions Spec ific ideas included establishing regular networking forums for Boord members, directors and governm ents, c l early d efini n g the customer base and focusing on customers' needs; defining mission and roles, developing tangible products and advertising achievements. In the concluding session of the conferenc e, the at1endees recognized how well the Northern Ca lif ornia TMAs currently work together and identified new opp01tunities for future cooperation. In a post-conference evaluation, the board members overwhelmingly expressed enthusiasm for the valuable conference and expressed the desire to meet again annually or semi annually. Introduction Lori Diggins, from the transportation consulting firm of COM SIS, opened the conference. She com mended all who were attending for devoting a day to the conference and stated that the Northern California TMAs, and thi. s retreat specifically, are setting a trend for the state. Lori then introduced the other facilitators, thanked the TMAs for organizing the conference the s taff of Caltrans Sacramento Rideshare for taking notes of each session, and Separovich & Domlch . for providing the conference facility. Opeoloa sessjon; "Where do TMAs fit into Bu s ine ss, Gover nment and Development?" The opening session began with a definition ofTMAs from a 1985 Newsweek article: "Transportation Management Associations (TMAs) are partne111hips formed among businesses. business parks developers and government, crea ted to help solve local transportation problems associated with urban and suburban growth. TMAs give the business community a voice i n local uansportation decision-making, financing and implementation. The organization s are important in the fight against traffic congestion, in inct'easing commuting options and cleaning up the air. . Transportation Management Associations attempt to fill an institutional void that often pervades fast-growing areas. Entrepreneurial i n nature and unhampe(ed by bureaucratic TMA Joint Board Vmioo (11122194

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constraints, TMAs could mature into for self-governance well-suited to the r ealities of contemporary employment centers." Panel members: Jan Emerson, Roseville Hospital, (South Placer TMA) Dan Landon, Nevada County Transportation Commission, (Truckee/North Tahoe TMA and Western Nevada County TMA) Scott Kuklish, KCS Properties, (Sout h Natomas TMA) Jan Emerson has had several years ofTMA involvement that began while working for Hewlett Packard. Jan presented the following points: TMAs bring business and government together to look at all kinds of alternative transportation. Most importantly, TMAs create a collaborative effort between businesses, non-profit organizations and government that breaks down barriers TMAs provide the opportunity to brainstorm ideas and bring them to reality TMAs are in the early and exciting stage of alternative transportation. The South Placer TMA created an opportunity to deal with transportation in the area, especially mass transit in Roseville. The South Placer TMA has become a wellrespected organization that the community looks to for advice on alternative transporta tion. The TMA benefits the community as a whole. Dan Landon started working with development of a TMA in Butte County in 1989. He was involved with the beginning of the Chico TMA, as well as with the Tru ckee/North Tahoe TMA and Western Nevada County TMA. Dan presented the following points: Because of his past employment experiences in the private sector, in advertising and real estate development, Dan appreciates a proactive approach and dislikes unnecessary government regulation. Government needs to work with the private sector; they need to understand each other's point of view. Dan quoted Will Rogers who said the solution to traffic congestion is easy, have government build the cars and private industry build the roads! However, don't throw everything out or there will be chaos. We need to make the system work and find out how to get things done within the system. Government and private industry need to understand each other' s roles to create a team. TMA Joint Board Conference Version 00/22194 397

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.t TMAs cross county lines so there needs to be cooperation between TMAs. This cooperation will enlarge the area of influence Scott Kuklish was involved with the fonnation of the South Natomas TMA. He recently attended a national conference on commercial property lllanagement and noted that the issues of air quality and transportation are crucial nationwide and that mandated employer trip reduction requirements are new to the rest of the country. California has taken the lead in addressing the issues, and there was a great deal of interest in this state's trip reduction requirements. Scott added the following points from his perspective as a real estate developer: TMAs provide a public/private partnership: the development of the business park in South Natomas could not have been accomplished without the assistance of the public sector. TMAs pool talents and strengths. The TMA creates value and a win/win situation. The TMA has improved the air quality, infrastructure, management and quality of life iri South Natomas. P e ople believe that the TMA does make a difference .. The lease process in the business park mandates membership in the South Natomas TMA. The TMA has created the opportunity to involve tenants and reach their employees. Jt addresses employer requirements as well as developer requirements. The TMA helps its members develop and implement trip reduction plans. Questions of panelists: Q: How do you build the kind of credibility so TMAs are asked for their opinion on transportation issues? A: (Jan Emerson). The TMA Executive director has built the TMA's reputation. She has become very visible; has become a leader in the business and political arena. The TMA also had a window of opportunity because t he area's transportation issues were verj vaguely defined. Now people seek the TMA whenever transportation is brought up The TMA has become a leader on the issue. Q: How did you obtain support from city leaders as you developed }'Our business park? . A: (Scott Kuklish). The City of Sacramento was very supportive and Sacramento Rideshare also assisted. The challenge was to establish credibility. We had ideas of what we wanted and had to jump through the hoops. We needed to prove our ideas. It was important to meet transportation management plans but the City of Sacramento was wonderful in assisting us to meet those plans. TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07/22/94 ....... :J

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Q: Developers typically balk at i11corporati11g alremarive transportati011 illlo tlzeir plarL<. How did you get lmsiucsses 10 br" in? A: (Scou Kuklish). It is important to conside r the investment objective. Who are your stake holders? Our focus was on the long term goal and investment, a 20 year goal. We made a commitment to tenants as well as residents. We were concerned with long-term solutions. We proved to be sincere in our intent to accomplish certain goals t hat flowed over to other developers who hadn't had the same goals in the past. We auracted tenants who are more sophisticated, are more aware of their requirements and are more responsible. Th ey are conscientious business people who are concerned about the environment. Q: What issues are unique to TMAs that focus on rural areas? A : (Dan Landon). Rural areas have their own type of congestion problems. We have rush minutes instead of rush hours. In Truckee/North Tahoe, traffic problems form on weekends and holidays, rather than weekday commute hours, because of visitors and tourists. Businesses have to address how to handle what the recreational traffic is doing to the local economy. In Western Nevada county, the lifestyle is wonderful. A lot of residents moved to the area to escape the big city life Businesses want to avoid severe mandates. The emphasis is on mainta ining quality of life Q: What do yo" think government arrd private indt4Stry can do to understand each other? A: (Dan Landon). Private industry is afraid of getting severe regulations Local government doesn't have to put a Regulation 15 (Los Angeles) in place. Businesses should be convinced that there could be a regulation, but that government would rather avoid it. Q: Do yo" see the public sector becoming more involved with using and supporting TMAs to achieve their goals? A: (Dan Landon). Yes, in fact the upcoming Nevada County General Plan will specifically mention support of the Western Nevada County TMA. Q: What advi ce do you have for newl y forming TMAs who are in the early stages of membership recruitment and Board of Directors recruitmem? A: (Jan Emerson). The key is getting a few people on Board who have a vision and who can really go out and talk with people. For the Board, get a wide variety of backgrounds Look for people who understand the global picture, the political process, and have management experience. For membership, look for leaders of the community. E s tablish credible support that will create a "domino effect." TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07122194

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A: (Scott Kuklish) Don' t reinvent the wheel. Communicatewith the people who have gone through the process. Don't isolate yourself. The South Natomas TMA kept the Board small through the first three of four years. New TMAs face a Jot of decisions and you can't be bogged down in bureaucracy. In recruiting a Board, pick decision-makers in the organization . who can make a decision and a commitment to planning and building financial reserve for security. Fiscal planning is essential. Identify your market. The Board must also be willing to sell the TMA to others. A: (Dan Landon). Don't have preconceived !deas of what the solution may be. Put yourself in the other person's shoes. Look at the issues at hand. Every TMA is different and has different needs. There is diversity among TMAs; no two arc exactly alike. Identify the problem in your community. Morning Breakout Session: "Identifying Common Challenges" Group A: Spokesperson, Sandra Ribble, central City TMA President. Group A identified 18 issues that affect TMAs. I. Important to work together when an issue involves more than one TMA and they are working on joint activities. 2. Long-term funding (public and private). 3. Public awareness, education and information. 4. Credibility within the community, with both business and government. 5. Accountability. 6. Quantification tracking results. 7. Misc?nceptions of government agencies in terms of their participation in the solution. 8 Processes that are different between the public and the private sector. 9. Reasons to exist. I 0. Recognition that a TMA must be run as a business. II. Needs within a TMA (representation). 12. Need to resolve and clarify similarities and differences between urban & rural TMAs. . 13. Clarification of Board and staff responsibilities. 14. Board representatives. 15. Avoiding burnout; maintaining enthusiasm and focus. 16. How to break down the barriers if there is competition between TMAs. TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07122194 400

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17. Limitations of tlie TMA. 18. Commuter's rights and freedoms and the pressure on the public to change behavior. Group A also ide-ntified four solutjons to the jssues. 1. Define the positive aspects of the transportation demand management field. Individuals working in the field are committed to healthy environment and a higher quality of life. 2. Continue to strive to define the role ofTMAs in the field of transportation. 3. Highlight the positive rum-around or change of a non-believer of clean air to become strong advocate. 4. Seek input Group J!; Spokesperson, John Hayes, Chico TMA. Group B identified I 0 issues that affect TMAs. Then the group focused on issues in common and how to establish credibility. I. It is d ifficul t to get employers to buy in to alternative transportation. There is a general lack of interest and involvement. "What's in it for employers? How can employers benefit from it?" TMAs need to define benefits to make membership compelling. An employer's need or problem (such as parking problems) stimulates membership. We have to find a hook'' I t is a challenge in non-downtown areas and low density areas. 2. We rely on big e.mployers for membership. How do we approach small employers? How can we get small employers involved? What services can we offer small employers? We need to bring small employers together and figure out the best ways to commute. 3. It is difficult to promote alternative transportation when alternatives aren't r eadily available. We attempt behavior modification, but where do we put them after modification? For some TMAs, Jack of transit is a barrier and concern. Suburban areas and business parks don't have a wealth of options when there is inadequate public transit. 4. We need to coordinate and work together. There is some question regarding which TMA should be responsibl e for what. TMAs can be very innovativ e, yet infringe on other TMAs. There are no boundaries set up. Although the issues are not limited to its borders, it is important to limit t he TMA's services to its borders. If TMAs go beyond their bonders, they may lose credibility. Do we serve the people that work in our area, or the people that live in our area? Sometimes it is a matter of trying to get someone else to do it. This is an opportunity to partner with other TMAs. TMA Join< Boaro Conference Versio n 07/22194 401

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5. We have to work regionally to work on local problems. TMAs should have a more regional focus. The goal is to get people out of their cars What does it maner which TMA should be responsible for what? 6. Due to priorities and lack of funding, there is a l ac k of consistency of services offered by various TMAs TMAs should seek regional involvemeni with other TMAs from a political standpoint. This in turn will help with funding local projects TMAs could standardize programs. 7. Employers are asking "Whi ch TMA do I join? Companies are confused. What does an employer do i f it has mul t iple sites? How about the idea of s hared member ship? What if l ocal members get one fee and multiple s i tes ge t another fee? 8. Our rol e is stepping in where the public sector can't or won't Should TMA s focus on children to teach them about tr a nsportation and air quality? We could provide alternative modes to seniors. We cou l d u s e AB2766 dolla rs, through the air quality management dis t ricts. Most commuters are the suburo-to-suburb commuter. Transit can only serve a few people. 9. Is t he goal t o get people out of their cars, or is it to improve air quality and traffic c ongest i on? 10. In a de n s ely populated area, there is a lack of coordination be tween transit agencies. No one is conne cting. TMAs can help facilitat e this communication. Group B : Issues ih C'..ommon, I. F inancial s tability. 2 Credibility 3. Educa tion and advocacy. We need to do more educat ion. We should be teaching our children transportation education, instead of driver education. 4. There must be a balance of local and regional issues. Do members join due to local or regional concerns? TMAs must have an understanding of regional i s sues but focus on l ocal issues. We need to track and measure the effectiveness of what TMAs are doing 6. TMAs can become an advocate for solving regional transportation problems in partnershi p with the p ublic structure. 7 T here i s a need for standardized TMA programs. 8 Air pollution t ransports. TMA Joint Board C o nference Version 117/22194 402

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Group B: How to Establish Credibility. I. Arrange mentors for the TMA director. 2. Arrange mentors for Board members. 3. Have Board members go to Association for Commuter Transportation (ACT) conferences. 4. Set professional standards and credentials. Group C; Spokesperson, Art Smith, Executive Director, Greater Folsom Area TMA. Group C identified three priority issues that affect TMAs. I. Define what a TMA is and why they are important. 2. Define the role of Board members. 3. How do TMAs get funds for the long term, after the Caltrans seed money is expended? Group C: Detail on the issues. I. Define what a TMA is and why they are important. What is the added value to being a member of a TMA? What exactly do you get? Why join? Especially what is the value for small employers? Small vs. large employers. Why is there a need for a TMA? What are TMAs about? What is the involv ement from both the public and private sector? What is the importance of the TMA and why did it stan? What are the obligations of employers to join one TMA? Specific to employers that arc in several TMA jurisdictions: Which TMA should the company join? Many employers are upset that they are being held responsible for the regulations imposed by federal agencies. This is a major concern for small employers. 2. Define the role of Board members. For som e this may be their first experience as a Board member and they aren't familiar with their role. They don' t know what to do when they aren't familiar with the structure. Will they assume the various necessary functions? Board members need to commit and take on certain responsibilities They need to get involved with marketing and selling the TMA. TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07f22/94 403

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Make-up of the Board of Directors. Should elected officials be on Boards? Do they play a positive or a negative role? 3. Funding Stability. How do we identify funding sources, find the public sector budget to request? Funding issues through Caltrans restrictions and requirements . It is important to the stability of the TMA to become self-sustained, self-sufficient. Group C: Additional issues. I. Identification of the TMA s role in coordination w ith other TMAs and government. Advocacy Role. Lobbying and how to clarify that position Example: Legal tax structure and how to accommodate members. SOI(c)(3) non-profit corporation status and advocacy with the government. Dealing with outside agencies and clarifying roles. Coordination among TMAs. We all impact commuters, so what do we do when they transcend borders? They get into one database system but not all . This creates confusion. Coordination with transit companies and connecting services and transfers. 2. Membership recruitment. Hiring staff to recruit members and to provide services for them. videos and other recruitment tools. 3. Non-traditional trips. How do you get residents involved: the non-work trip, seniors, students, others? How do you get people to care? Group D; Spokesperson, Sten Doyle, President, Greater Folsom Area TMA. The three most important common i ssues Group D identified were: I. Building partnerships. Examples included working together with public agencies and private corporations to produce a service such as TransitChek, to solve a problem such as traffic delay during the . I-5 bridge closure, or to set up telework centers. 2. The need for communication and coordination among TMAs in addnessing issues. 1MA Joint Board Conference Version 07n2194 404

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A regional approach was identified as a need by TMA members, which is why this conference was developed. Beyond that, a central council was perceived as a way to talk across borders to avoid a ripple effect when a decision in one area is made that can change the way people do things in another area. Eventually. TMA i nteraction may need to be fonnalized ; maybe the TMA Roundtable should expand into a region wide Alliance. 3. The lack of a perceived problem and the low priority of air quality and transportation issues. From these issues, Group D discussed other needs: 1. Maintaining a focus and your goals is important. New need to figure out how to get the TMA on track and se t realistic goals. 2 Making TMAs a driving force in making policy. 3. How do you motivate members 4. Need to find new marketing ideas 5. Lack of uniformity in TMA fees, products and services. 6. Concerns with lack of transit. 7. From a vacation-area TMA: Seasonal variation and dealing with the logistics of non commute traffic congestion from visitors and tourists. 8. Maintaining positive visibility and reputation of TMAs Building credib ility is always an issue, plus TMAs must walk a fine line and not offend public or private entities. 9. Addressing regulations. I 0. TMA management. Lunch Session: "How can TMAs Form Effective Public/Private Partnerships?" Christi Black, a partner with the Deen & Black Public Relations finn, shared some of her experiences in making partnerships work, and her thoughts on the realities of building public/private partnerships. Social Realities TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07n2/94 .,05

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It used to be that we'were talking to the educated professional white audience about "the right thing to do." Now you can't make that assumption about whom you are trying to reach. We aren' t just talking to the white male over 50 anymore. We tend to think about things in the way we understand them, not the way others understand them. Not everyone watches the news. You can't assume that just because you got your message on the news that everyone knows about it ... that you have improved awareness. The remote control and cable TV have encouraged people to change channels frequently, so people will probably miss your message. Only a third of Sacramento residents subscribe to the Sacramento Bee, so don't assume that everyone sees the in the newspaper. There used to be some obligation by radio and TV to do some public service announcements ... to cover government and social issues. Now, that general public affairs coverage has all but disappeared, stations focus on the causes they choose to support. The public tends to resist things that are regulated or forced by the government They don't trust bureaucracy. They don'ttrust that you are doing the right thing. The public wants to know, "What's in it for me?" You can't force people make radical change by regulation. People are subjected to clutter. Everyone wants a piece of them from every direction. Their reaction is, "You can't tell me how to commute." You need to think li ke a retailer. Make it easy for them. Break through the "I haven't tried it" barrier. Make i t so i t is hard to resist doing il Thinking creatively means getting out of your ruts. Think about our reality. Think about how we live our lives. People don't care about numbers or lingo. For instance, some people don' t like to talk in the morning. People who ride transit understand thal .. They get that "Don't talk to me" look and keep to themselves. People are afraid someone will talk to them in a carpool in the morning. Find a creative solution. Issue a button that means "Don't talk to me this morning." To encourage change, create one or 1\vo positive experiences to open the door. Forming Partnership_ s It helps to recognize that you are all on the same playing field. The first rule is to set aside persolJal agendas and the things that you can't compromise on . As a partnership, you need to define common goals and objectives. Write down common goals and commitments. Everyone has a different set of issues an. d goals. You need to find where the commonalties are. TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07122194 406

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We all have an issue that we collectively feel strongly about. Identify and agree on that one thing. Then try to agree on another thing. Agree to disagree on external issues. Stay on the topics you can all agree upon. A good example of a partnership was the 1-5 Bridge Lane Closure Chevron Bucks Program. Chevron had the position that they support good driving programs, as long as they weren't telling people to get out of their cars. When they realized that carpools and van pools were still buying their product. they were willing to create an alliance. They agreed to provide Chevron Bucks to carpoolers during the bridge repair. Build coalitions for non-traditional reasons: forget the people involved. It doesn' t always plug into a computer It has to make sense to the bottom line. When you put your alliance together, remember what's in it for them. Business and government must consider each other's positions. Business has to think about social realities. The public sector has to think as a business and throw away government shackles. Government expects that the private sector will have something to donate: money, technical advice, in-kind services, so be prepared. Get people that can say "Yes (decision-makers) to participate. Assign "homework" or the meetings can fall apart because nothing gets done. Thinking creatively i s important. You can't say "You can 't," just because it has never bee n done before. That won't work. Target Audience We have already convinced the people who are "green," the people who are easy to convince and would do it anyway. Now we have people that we really have to sell to. Face it, we have a weak case. The majority of people don't care about air quality and won't buy in unless it means something to them. The number one source people listen to for changing behavior is friends. Reach friends through their employers, churches, health clubs, wives and kids. People want maximum efficiency. Make it easier to use allemative transportation. Mak e it practical for people. Involve families. Accommodate children. People don't like having their privacy violated. We are concerned about personal safety. Try starting an escort system or a buddy system to get people to try something new. ThiA Joint Board Conference Version 07122194 407

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Ask the question, "Are we having fun yet?" If it isn't interesting to you, the public surely won't respond to it. Your success may not be measured in monumental amounts. Remember that you are trying to change social behavior, so set reasonable goals. Afternoon Breakout Session and Report Back: "Denloping Solutions" Group A: Spokesperson, Sandra Ribble, CentralCity TMA. The group looked at the issues identified during the morning session and prioritized the two most important issues for TMAs: I. TMA credibility in the community. 2. Functioning as a business. Factors in establishing cre!libili!y. I Set realistic goals and deliver what you said you would do. Listen to what is needed. 2. Become a clearinghouse of information. Become the community's connection to transportation information and resources. One TMA created a niche by providing road improvement schedules and maps. 3. Produce tangible products (TransitChel<, Guaranteed Ride Home Program). Businesses need to get back their investment, not just contribute for the good of the general coll!munity. Do your homework. 4. Stage your events and advertise your achievements. 5. Get the right people on your Board; members with commitment to your goals Represent a good diversity of businesses. Bring all sides t o the table. Serve as a forum, so you don't have oppo sition after the fact. 6. Form a TMA Council to address issues with a united voice. Factors in functioning as a business. l Develop a Strategic Plan. Have a budget and review its status on a regular basis. Know where the money comes from. Have a mission statement and a vision. TMA Joint Board Conference Version fJI/22194

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Have long and short-term goals and objectives. Identify the customer and his needs. Evaluate plans and programs frequently. Group A: facto[s jn fuoctjonici as a busjoes. continued. 2. Establish how you define and measure your success. Success is not necessarily money. Define the TMA s goal. What are we trying to achieve? Is it measurable? People deal beuer with measurable goals. Review these measures regularly. Do we have problems? Do we need to make changes? 3. Obtain professional participation and consultation, perhaps through the board members Legal Financial Accounting Planning Marketing 4 Create business partnerships. Collaborate on efforts, combine resources and products 5. Create an organizational structure. An Executive Director can only have so many areas of expertise and do so much. It is difficult for the Executive Director to do the work lllll1 report back to keep the Board informed. Identify assignments and delegate responsibilities to board members. Delegation and dispersion of duties will keep the Board involved and aware and create teamwork. Create committees to achieve consensus. Committees avoid putting the responsibilit y for success on one person. Consider having fund raising membership recruitment as two separate committees. Then the same people won't be approaching potentia l members as potential money. Possible committees include: Accounting /Financial. Marketing. Membership. Board development and recruitment. Funding TMA Joint Soard C onference Version 07/22194 409

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Special projects ETC networking. Human resources. 6. Funding for non-profit organizations is always a challenge. TMAs need to be creative with funding. Use membership funds f o r financial stability; use grant funds for special projects. D i s t inguish between ongoing oper a tions and s p ec i a l project s Group B : S pokes p erson, John H ayes, Chico TMA. Group B identified five co mmon issues and proposed solutions to these concems : Issu e 1. N eed for strategi c plann in g. Solu tions: Have consistent planning Follow through with information in writing because not everyone can go to the meetings. B ring everyone up to speed. Brin g in outside resources, perhaps consultants ref erred by other TMAs. Co nduct an annual retreat Define your market and p otent ial market. Who are the TMA s t a k e h o l ders and w h at are their n eeds? Products need t o be driven by needs Define the products th e TMA needs to offer. Survey employe rs; "How did it go last year?" Be realistic with your numbers and scope of work. Know governmental restraints and how you can participate in government plans. Invite the public sector to participate. Brainstorm. Translate the plan into a work plan and a bud g e t Translate the p lan int o actions and then follow through. Communic a t e and coordinate with other TMAs. Marshall the reso urces. Share the planning and expertise. I ss u e 2. Nee d to d eve l o p a well-defi ned ho o k for membe r shi p : "Create val u e." Soluti ons TMA Joint Board Conference Vmion rnn2194 4 1.0

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Define TMA services Target the market. Be certain who and why. Answer "What's in it for my company?" I n itiate and coordinate activitie s Share resources with other TMAs, air districts transportation providers employers and the public sector. Improve the rides hare product or service. Issue 3. Need to establish credibility quantify results. Solutions. Document the TMA s role and establish effectiveness Do you have specific measures of evaluation? Go back to your strategic plan. Determine what you have completed, what you have not completed, and why. Look at quantitative and qualitative goals annually These annual goals must be realistic Define your results to meet the expectations of your stakeho l ders Documern accomplishments for members, city planners, developers. Government (Caltrans) provides seed money to TMAs and expects them to identify and solve local transportation needs. Developers perceive their permits will be accepted One TMA uses this as a marketing tool. Another TMA worked with a planning department to put together a wish list of transportation management improvements to pass developer permits. This list is now formalized and used by developers. Issue 4. Need to establish financial stability. Solution. Identify grants and plan for when the Caltrans seed money is expended. Issue 5. Need to provide targeted education. Solutions. Address internal education Provide newsletters. Share information addressed at meetings. Invite other TMAs to meetings. Involve all people on the Board in activities. TMA J oint Board Conference Version 07/22194 41.1

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Address external education. Use the media. Work through the schools, (I+ 1=2 but it also equals a carpool). To effectively modify behavior, obtain a diverse collection of businesses on the Board of Diiectors. The more companies represented on the Board, the more market penetration. The Board has to know what the membership wants and be responsive to its membership. This is where strategic planning comes in. To make it convenient and inexpensive to rideshare, address child care issues, dry cleaning and other errands. Group C: Spokesperson, Maura Odenhal, South Placer TMA. Group C prioritized their of concern to three main issues and proposed solutions: Issue 1. What is a TMA and why join a TMA? Solutions: Educate members. Identify their needs and develop services accordingly. (Remember the basic idea is to get employees out of their vehicles.) Become a broker of services. Identify seryices that are already available tha t you can use and expand. Hold regular meetings for ETCs: Have a coordinator for the meet ings. Market and enhance the visibility of the TMA. Develop pub!ic awareness. TMAs are helpful because employers can refer transportation issu es to the TMA. Creates a mech anis m for employers to develop strategies and comply with 9rdinances. Membership provides coordination among TMAs for marketing enhancement, (public service announcements). Membership provides synergy between public and private and government. Membership provides possiliility of coordinated requests for funding for programs. Clarify role: "Coordinator of coordinators." Issue 2. Role of Board Members defllling goals and issues. Solutions: 4:12 TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07122/94

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Hold a strategic planning retreat early on. Set the level of expectations of the Board of Directors and of the Executive Director. What are the Executive Director's expectations of the Board members? Before the Board member accepts the position, provide information on exactly what will be expected of them. Develop training packets for new board members. Create a mentor program. A mentor should provide assistance the first one or two years. Set a calendar of events and assign responsibilities Develop packets that Jist TMAs and the programs they have developed. Recruit ac tive Board members. People that will say "Yes!" Board members need to educate themselves. Take the initiative to Jearn about issues. Bring the information back to the Board. D efine the Board's expectations of the Executive Director. Provide direction to the Executive Director. Executive Director does tasks and repons back to Board, Board then makes the decision. The Board can't expect the Executive Director to do everything. Members can form a committee and take responsibility. Let the Board know up front that you have to work together Spread the work to have more collective time, abilities and resources Individual involvement. Combine efforts of Executive Directors among TMAs. Issue 3. Funding stability. Solutions: Identify funding sources and go after them. Find out how to write grant requests. The Non-Profit Resource Center has classes on identifying funds and writing grants. Work with other organizations for funding. Network with other organizations that seek funds. Share information. Collaborate. Share your ideas with other Executive Directors. Look for stable, permanent funding. Incorporate this search as pan of your strategic plan. Work with air districts and other government entities. Have clear understanding of why you are applying for the money. Do you have the time to make the program happen? TMA Joint Board Conference Version 00122194 41.3 .

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Plan on having no funds from day one, so develop programs t hat enable you to be self-sustaining. If you lose funds, how do you remain stable? Membership dues, products or se rvic es, charges for special programs and services. Price your services competitively You are competing with outside consultants. In-kind services. Charge non-members for services provided Provide training for Employee Transportation Coordinators, members and non-members, for a fee. Help your members comply with trip reduction ordinances. Schedule regular str ategic planning sessions. The TMA needs to have a clear mission statement. Identify the direction o f ihe TMA and its partners. Many TMAs are at similar stages, but no one knows what that next stage is. F or funding from corporations, find out if you go to the top of a major corporation or start with the local field offices? Group C suggested the following speclal needs: I. Communication. All TMA Executive Directors and Board of Directors should be on each other's mailing lists for newsletters and regional publications. Develop an electronic bulletin board with e-mail. Share i nformation with TMA and board members. 2. E!wutive Directors nwetings. Share "best practices," develop a "Skill s Bank" of what each TMA has done and what they can provide. . 3. Resoywe Quide --Who's Who and What's What 4 Collective efforts. Share programs and special activities . 5. Attention to ctianjpng needs. Provide direction in different siagcs of development. Group C discussed additional ideas: 1. Dealing with developers that have to account for small worksiles (employers) in one area. 2. Identifying services and programs that benefit employer groups. 3. Show business owners the benefits to the business and potential increase in profits. 4. Provide advertising for the retailers or businesses. 5. Suggestion of discOunt cards for m embers of the TMA. Using the cards could potentially increase the customer base. Group D: Spokesperson, Steven Qoyle, Greate r Folsom Area TMA. TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07/22194 4i.4

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Group D focused on non-traditional solutions that cut across borders. The group discussed membership development and retention, partnerships, and consistency of services. I. fartnershiQs For this, the TMA Roundtable is a viable resource. Build on the momentum of the TMA Roundtable that exists. It could be expanded and differently to meet different sub group needs (demographics, geography). Other ideas expressed on partnerships were: Development of a directory of TMAs, with names, numbers and what is available, for networking Ad hoc groups could be created for some topics that aren' t applicable to all. Meetings to deal with the topic of seasona l demand. Rotate meeting places. Try to hold them in a central location. Through information exchange we can expand TMA marketing opportunities Share brochures as well as programs so we aren't all reinventing the wheel. Develop a general brochure to help expand membership. Show major accomplishments. Establish credibili t y in numbers. Exchange newsletters among TMAs, send to rideshare agencies and air quality management districts. Broadens scope of knowledge on issues. Leverages documents and resources. The TMA group could have political aspects, could work together and take positions. (For example: public hearings, development of trip reduction ordinances.) If advocacy (lobbying) is a sensitive issue, TMAs can supply reliable, factual information without taking a political advocacy role. The South Placer TMA backs a policy of local control and regional cooperation Develop a speakers bureau with representatives from member firms. 2. Consistency of Serxices. TMAs are market driven. Each is a little different in I he variely and range of products and services it offers. The group's conclusion was that TMAs are not competing but rather are addressing the needs of businesses in their area. 3. Membership developmem and retention. This comes down to awareness building. I It is important to market the value of membership, especially to small businesses. List TMA services. Let management at member organizations know what you are doing for them. Keep marketing the TMA even after they are members. 2 A needs assessment is initially important to maintain membership. Resurvey and reevaluate what you are doing. Maintain contact with your members. Longevity will provide a kind of credibility to keep it going. TMA Joint Board Conrcrcnce Version 07/22194 415

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3. TMAs should focus on education for recruiting and retaining membership. Provide newsletters and fact sheets. These could be tools for introducing related programs. 4. Demonstrate tangible value (guaranteed ride home, real-time rideshare). 5. Some TMAs offer service to non-members for a fee. This many bring new members in time. It can also help bring in funds. Each TMA will approach this idea in a different way, depending on its market. 6. The group believed that by working together, TMAs can increase business education on the problem, membership recruitment and the overall perception of TMAs . Closing Remarks by Facilitator. J,orl Diggins Solutions we heard today. You need to advertise your achievements. You need to share information among TMAs. Let other TMAs know what you have done. Filter information within you r TMA and among otherTMAs. Obtain professional assistance. Create partnerships that can bring something to the TMA and you can give something back to. Establish responsibilities and define your roles. Designate lead TMAs on a joint issue. Delegate among yourselves so everyone can benefit Work with the government to understand their agendas. Recognize that there are constraints and opportunities, locally and globally. Mentoring for new board members is a great idea. Form TMA partnerships where new information can be shared for new board members. In this area, TMAs work together so well to pool collective efforts. The TMAs work very cooperatively which fosters those efforts. . Creating a directory of TMAs is another great idea. Pool resources. Maybe even list the services board members can provide. Sharing information and expertise is the most important thing. If you don't, you're losing resources. Maybe have a joint board training session. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------The March 1994 Regional TMA Board Conference was organized by directors from nine TMAs representing Chico, Davis, Greater F olsom Area, Rancho Cordova, Sacramento Central City, South Natomas, South Placer County, Truc kee North Tahoe, and Western Nevada County. TMA Joint Board Conference Version 07/22/94 41.6

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RESUL1S OF 1HE NATIONAL 1MA SURVEY Diane Davidson The 1MA Group Franklin, Tennessee This session will review and discuss the results of the survey of transportation management associations conducted in 1993. The survey was conducted to help answer many of the questions commonly asked about TMA organizational structure, membership services, personnel policies and financial structure. 417

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Unique Commuting Patterns of Airport Employees: Case Study of Boston logan International Airport by: Diane M. Ricard Assistant Director of Economic Analysis Massachusetts Port Authority ABSTRACT Boston Logan International Airport, a major trip generator, contributes to and is impacted by traffic congestion in the greater Boston area. Located about two miles from downtown Boston, Logan is the 5th largest airport in the United States in terms of origin-destination air passengers. Logan origin-destination passengers begin or end their air travel in the Boston region, and impact the Boston regional transportation system. Because air passenger growth must be accommodated within the existing airport boundaries and regional roadways, restrictions imposed by the Logan Airport Parking Freeze, and a responsibility to participate in reducing regional environmental impacts, it has become increasingly important to find feasible ways to reduce the vehicl e trip generation rates of the various Logan Airport user groups. This paper characterizes the commuting patterns of the 16,000 Logan employees, who account for about 20 percent of average annual weekday traffic. Data presented in the paper is based on the results of an airport employee survey conducted in 1990. The paper highlights commute profiles of both flight crews (who exhibit travel characteristics similar to air passengers), and non flight crew employees. Since the airport is staffed 24-hours a day with various worker types, feasible solutions to reduce airport employee trips will be different than measures tailored to influence commute habits of the traditional office worker. The paper discusses available alternatives to the single occupant private automobile, and assesses their effectiveness relative to employee demand. It shows there is a small employee market for most alternatives currently available, as each service was developed primarily for air passengers or downtown commuters. Finally, the paper summarizes the initiatives that the Ma$sachusetts Port Authority (owner and operator of Logan International Airport) has taken in the past and is considering in the future to encourage employees to use higher occupancy commute modes. 41.8

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INIBODUCIIQN Boston logan International Airport, owned and operated by the Massachusetts Port A uthority (Massport) is a maj or trip generator. logan contributes to, and is impacted by, traffic congestion in the greater Boston area. located about two m iles from downtown Boston, logan is the 5th largest airpor t in the United States in terms of origindestination air passengers. logan origin-destination passengers begin or end their air travel in the Boston region, and impact the Boston regional transportation system. Reducing air passenger and employee vehicle trips is important to Massport from an air quality perspective and from an airport management perspective. On an average weekday, about 86,000 vehicle trips are generated by Logan Airport. About 60 percent of the trips are made by a i r passengers, and another 25 percent are made by Logan Employees. For a number of years, Massport has been successfully promoting, maintaining, and improving an aggressive air passenger ground access program a imed a t reducing the number of vehicle trips per air passenger. The nature of the logan working environmen t has made it much more difficult to provide a comparable access program for employees. Within the existing menu of transportation services available to air passengers and downtown commuters, Massport offers some incentives for employees who are seeking alternatives to the drive alon e commute. However, many logan employees do not take advantage of these services because they were developed for customers with d i fferent travel requirements. This paper presents the challenges Massport faces in developing a successful, cost-effective employee access program, by describing the access characteristics of logan, and the Logan work environment. It characterizes the commuting patterns of i ts employees, describes available commute options, and discusses initiatives Massport c urrently offers, and is considering in the future, to encourage commuting i n higher occupancy modes. ACCESS CHARACIERISIICS OF LQGAN AIBPQRI1 A number of characteristics of the Boston regional ground transportation system, the p lacement and size of the airport, and the airport's proximity to neighborhoods make access to Logan difficult during certain times of the day and week, and present significant operations management challenges for Massport. The characteristics may be categorized as follows: 1This section is adapted from "Ground Acces s Strategies and Alternatives at Boston Logan international Airport", by E\'elyn Addantc -and Diane Rkard, wriHen for t h e 22nd European Transport Forum. September. 1994. 419

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. 1} The greater Boston area and the New. England region is a principal destination for both business and pleasure travelers, and is located on orre of the most-traveled air corridors in the U.S. (Boston, New York, Washington DC). Ninety percent of these passengers are using the Boston local transportation infrastructure (rather than flying in and out of Logan on their way to another destination}. 2} The airport is served by a limited number of access routes (namely, two crossharbor tunnels and one bridge} which do not have the capacity to easily handle the volume of traffic using the system during periods of high demand, 3) of Logan's proximity to downtown Boston, the regional highway and subway and bus system is. focused on Boston in a series of radial routes converging on the central business district. Airport traffic mixes. with regional vehicular traffic, and use of the subway imd bus system requires transfers in. downtown Boston to reach the airport. The length of time required to reach the airport and the inconvenience of the transfers makes public transportation a difficult choice for frequent airport users, such as employees. 4) Due to the restricted availability of land for airport development and Massport's commitments to the neighborhoods around the airport, the size of Logan Airpqrt is fiXed at its present area. Massport is committed to accommodating airport growth within the existing airport boundaries. 5} Responding to environmental and community responsibilities, Massport has committed to a moratorium on the number of airport parking spaces, and to limiting traffic accessing the airport by way of local neighborhood streets. As part of this moratorium, Massport has committed to relocating about 30 percent of on-airport employee parking spaces to off-airport locations. THE LOGAIII WORK ENVIROIIIMENT The Logan work environment. presents a challenge for developi!)g a responsive and cost effective employee commute program. Due to non-traditi.onal work schedules, standard transportation demand management options, such as flextime, vanpooling, or carpooling on a regular basis, are an option for only a small prppcirtion of the population. Logan Airport operates 365 days a year, 24 hours a day. Holidays and popular vacation periods, when many businesses slow down, are some of the busiest times at an airport. Because the almost 16,000 Logan employees are staffed at Logan to maintain its continuous operation, the concentration of employees commuting during standard business hours is sparser than in other industries. On an average weekday, only 60 percent of all el)1ployees commute to Logan, and only 25 percent arrive between six a.m. and ten a.m. Between 30 percent and 40 percent of employees staff the airport on Saturdays and Sundays. . 4.20

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Massport employs about 4 percent of Logan employees. There are 140 employers at Logan. The seven major airlines are responsible for about 55 percent of employees. Many employee work schedules are related to air passenger demand and flight operations. Many Logan employees are subject to either scheduled or non scheduled overtime, and do not have flexibility in their work schedule. Non-scheduled overtime is tied to flight delays and cancellations, events which are very difficult to predict and plan for. The numerous airport-wide shifts, which vary by company, make it difficult to develop commute options around particular shifts. Many Logan employees have benefits packages that are based on contractual obligations or national company policies. Groups of workers at Logan belong to various unions. A collective bargaining agreement may limit the incentives or disincentives in an employee commute program. Airline wide employee policies may limit what a local airline station manager may provide employees as alternative commute incentives, especially at a time when airlines are trying to cut costs or face financial ruin. LQGAN EMPLOYEES The following i s a brief profile of Logan Airport employees, and is presented to show the uniqueness and complexity of an employee population at a major airport. Most of the information is based on an employee commute survey administered in the Spring of 1990, and answered by 15 percent of employees. Since the Logan work environment, and available commute options have not changed since 1990, Massport believes that the survey continues to explain overall commuting behavior. Commute Modes On an average weekday about 88 percent of Logan employees commute to Logan by auto. Most of them are commuting alone. Another ten percent commute by subway, and the remainder walk, take a bus or use other means to get to Logan. By comparison, the transit share of employees commuting to Boston proper is 44%2 As at most U.S. airports, the majority of Logan employees enjoy oil-airport parking, fully subsidized by their respective employers. Most also reported that their employer does not subsidize public transportation. From most towns, depending on the time of day, the commute time by auto offers the employee a noticeable time savings over scheduled high occupancy vehicle services. This will be discussed further under Employee Alternatives to the Automobile. 'Provided by lhe Central Transportation Planning Staff, based on lhe 1990 Census. 421

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Geograohic Concenirations The ten towns with the largest concentrations of Logan employees are all in the immediate vicinity of the airport. For the 40 percent of Logan employees residing i n these towns; Logan is a quick trip by auto. For many, the extra time involved in carpooling or using public transportation is viewed as an unnecessary inconvenience. Twenty-five percent of Logan employees are traditional office workers, another 25 percent hold sales or service related positions, and 25 percent are flight crew members. The remainder hold a variety of positions, including maintenance, and ramp service. Only 20 percent of employees have more than 15 minutes of flexibility in their work schedules. This indicates that most employees with positions that are not firmly fixed to a schedule are empowered to take advantage of flextime. Flextime increases the number of carpool and high occupancy vebicle alternatives potentially available to an individual employee. Massport, through survey analysis, has found no significant differences in commute patterns of employees by job classification, with the exception of flight crew members. Flight Crew Members Flight crews are the pilots and flight attendants who are based in Boston, and travel to Logan to begin their flight assignment (called a tour of duty). A tour of duty will begin and end at Logan Airport, but often it lasts for several days. The average tour of duty for Boston-based flight crew members is three days, meaning the egress trip from Logaa is taken tWo days after the access trip. Due to employee flying time restrictions3 a flight crew member does not generate many commute trips per month. The irregularity of commu.te hours and days make it difficult for a flight crew members to participate in a cafpool or vanpool. For most flight crew members, a private auto is used to commute to Logan, is parked at Logan for the duration of the trip, and is available for use at the end of the tour of duty. It is difficult for a flight crew member to plan on using alternatives to the single occupant auto for the trip from Logan to home, since the timing is dependent on the arrival time of a scheduled flight, which may experience delays: flex-time is not a consideration for a flight crew member, as wor.k assignments are scheduled around specific flights. Pilots tend to live further away from Logan compared to other Logan employees because of higher than average incomes! .and infrequent trips to Logan. The sparser 3For instance, Federal Aviation Re-gulations prohibJt pilots from worklng more than 75 hours per month, and they cannot fly for more than 30 hours in any 7-day period. 422

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geographic concentrations further accentuate the difficulty in developing reasonable options for this employee group. As mentioned above, about 55 percent of employees work for the seven major airlines at Logan. Because about 45 percent of this group are flight crew members, all airline employees are not necessarily an easy target for trip reduction, and a good deal of them do not present a problem during peak commuting hours. Flight crews are only responsible for about ten percent of average weekday commute trips. Non-flight Crew Members Non-flight crew employees are responsible for the continuous operation of Logan Airport. On an average weekday, 90 percent of commute trips are made by this catch all group of employees. A nonflight crew member generally has a work day that is between eight and ten hours. Individual work schedules take on a variety of forms ranging from standard business hours, to fixed shifts, to varying hours by day, by quarter, or other time increments. Some are not required to be at the airport at particular fixed hours, others have scheduled overtime, and others are subject to non scheduled overtime. Logan Employee Potential for Traditional Carpooling The variety of work schedules, and inflexibility of work hours limit the pool of employees that can take advantage of carpools or vanpools as an alternative to the drive alone commute. Flight crew members have an uncertainty in timing of the egress trip that may be better served by regularly scheduled, frequent service, or an ondemand service. This is also the case for non-flight crew employees subject to unscheduled overtime. The next section describes services currently available, and their ability to accommodate Logan employees. EMPLOYEE ALTEBti8TIVES IO THE 8UIOMOBILE A variety of high occupancy modes serve the airport, including subway, ferry, limousine and p ublicly and privately operated scheduled bus service. All of the services were developed primarily for air passengers or downtown commuters. Keeping in mind that the majority of Logan employees have access to a subsidized parking space at Logan, for one or several of the following reasons, the high occupancy services do not compete very well with the auto, and collectively attract only about ten percent of Logan employees. Reasons the Automobile Is More Attractive Than High Occupancy Alternatives Geography: The concentration of employee origins is very different from the concentration of air passenger origins; more than .50 percent of employees originate from the corridor immediately north of Logan Airport, compared to ten percent of air passengers. About 45 percent of air passengers start their trip to the airport either 423

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from Boston or the corridor west of Boston, compared to ten percent of employees. Scheduled bus and limousines routes serving Logan were developed based on air passenger concentrations, and do not serve a large employee market. Hours of Operation: Since many Logan employees have at least one trip end outside of normal business hours, schedules developed around air passenger or commuter peaks often do not offer the frequency of service or hours of operation necessary to provide a reasonable commute. Multiple Stops and Layovers: The primary market for most of the privately operated bus routes is the downtown commuter. Offering the additional two mile trip to Logan is a low cost method of filling otherwise empty seats. As such, travel times are minimized for commuters, and airport passengers experience longer travel times. On the way to Logan, commuters are first discharged at one or two locations i n downtown Boston. Because of the uncertainty of tlie travel time between Logan and downtown4 and the necessity to meet the evening schedule for commuters, the layover in Boston may be as long as an hour for an airport user. On the way into Boston a private bus route may stop in several towns to pick up passengers. Multiplli\ stops and potentially long layovers in downtown Boston may be acceptable to the occasional air traveler, but are not acceptable service for Logan employees. . Transfers: The subway system (MBTA) in the greater Boston area offers frequent, convenient service to downtown travelers. It connects to a network of bus routes, and commuter rail lines. The routes are primarily geared to radial travel into downtown Boston, and becomes less convenient for travel between points outside of downtown Boston, including Logan . There is only one direct subway line to Logan. The. airport MBTA station is located on the edge of Logan Airport, about one mile from the air passenger ierminals. Mas sport offers free bus service between the station and the air passenger terminals. Although the bus headways are consistent with the subway schedule, this presents an additional transfer for subway users. Total transfers vary between one and three for the airport subway user. The more transfers a person is faced with, the less likely they are to use a service. The fares of many of the private high occupancy vehicle services are too high for airport employees who commute on a regular basis. Generally the monthly commuting expense for the privately operated bus and limousine routes to Logan is. considerably higher than the equivalent cost of services operated by the regional transit authoritys. on traffic levels, travel from Logan to downtown Boston can take from ten minutes to an hour. sGenerally public transport service .from equivalent distances is by bus or commuter rail, into downtown Boston. The airport user is then faced with a subway trip. resulting in a minimum of three transfers to get to Logan. 424

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High Occupancy Vehicle Usage Among Logan Emoloyees Logan employee utilization is fairly high on services that are reliable, cost effective, and convenient for employees. An example is the MBTA subway system. Another example of service with high employee utilization, sponsored by Massport, will be discussed in the next section. The MBTA offers low cost, frequent subway service. As mentioned above, about ten percent of Logan employees commute by subway on an average weekday. Although the MBTA does not accommodate all airport employee hours, it attracts 28 percent of employees who commute during subway operating hours, and reside in towns with at least one subway station. This demonstrates that the employees for which commuting by subway is a viable option are using it. EMPLOYEE H I GH OCCUPANCY VEHICLE INCENTIVES Massport has been responsible for successful initiatives which have influenced employee choices of alternatives to the private automobile. The following are the initial elements our employee commute options program. Incentives for Authority Employees Massachusetts Port Authority employees are subsidized for 50 percent of the monthly cost of commuting by subway, bus, commuter rai l and vanpool s The employee share of transit passes may be paid for through payroll deduction. Incentives for All Airport Employees Logan Express is a direct, nonstop bus service operated by Massport. The three routes operate from remote locations, one to the west of the airport about 20 miles away, one to the south about 12 miles from the airport, and one about 15 miles to the north of the airport. The services are operated daily, with weekday service at 30-minute intervals from 5:30 in the morning until abou t midnight. Massport offers a discounted monthly Logan Express pass for all Logan Airport employees. The pass is priced slightly lower than the monthl y rate for employee parking and is equivalent to between eight and twelve one-way tr ips on the Logan Express. Ten-ride discount booklets are available for Logan Airport employees who don't find the pass to be economical. Employees using the service may park free of charge in the Logan Express parking lots. Taking advantage of the price incentive, employees of one a irline convinced their employer to subsidize their Logan Express pass in exchange for their parking privileges. Massport hopes that more employees will take advantage of the pass. 425

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The r idership numbers for employees on Logan Express services compare favorably to the concentration of employees in each of the market areas. On each of the three services, employees account for between five and eleven percent of ridership. The Airport Water Shuttle, a ferry service between Boston and Logan, offer s a 60 percent discount for -all Logan employees, when tickets are purchased in ten-ride booklets. Some of the private high occupancy vehicle services offer slight discoun ts to regular users or L ogan employees. With the exception o.f a coupl e of private operators, the discounts are not deep enough to influence employee travel behavior. As part of an effort to reduce employee vehi c l e tr ips through local neighborhoods, comply with a federal a o d state regulation to reduce employee parking, and to increase a ir passenger parking, i n August 1994, Massport relocated about 1,500 employee parking spaces to a new parking garage one town west of the a irport. A bus servic e is transporting employees between the airport and the garage. Massport is estimating that some employees will switch to alternative modes of access rather than experiencing the inconvenience of driving to the remote garage to be bused to the airport. The garage is loca ted a town that has a high c oncentration of Logan employees. Since it is within walking distance of some residential areas, it is anticipated that employees may also use the b u s as primary transportation to Logan. fUTUR E fROGBAM ELEMENTS Recognizing that employee work hours and geographic considerations likely limi t the .potential for capturing large concentrations of employees in scheduled services6 carpooling may be a more realistic alternative for many airport employees. Massport is consider ing a computerized ridematching program that enables employees to enter personal commute information directly into a data base by telephone,. for temporary or part-time matching, or to become a permanent member of a carpool o r vanpool. The program does not require personnel to assist in the matching, and it can also provide employees with information o n high occupancy vehicle alternatives. This would enable an employee w ith a .varying schedule to participate in flexible carpooling; ie; as a parttime member of several carpools. Massport is also considering forming a transportation management association (TMAJ among Logan employers. Employers would be encouraged t o de.iermine individual employee needs, and initiatives c9uld be developed among employers, or through the TMA. A TMA would facilitate communication, demonstrat e support by employers, and enable an exchange of ideas, including the insights of national companies who are dealing w ith employee commute issues in cities across the country. A TMA would be an appropriate forum for Massport to encourage employer 6Massport conducted a survey of employees residing in one of the towns with a very high concentration of employees. Because the town doe s not have conven.ient access to public transportation, Mas.sport considered initiating a shuttl e bus similar to a sehool bus network. Survey results indicated that. due to dispersed empl oyee hours and residences, such a service would not be financially feasible. 4Z6

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subsidization of alternatives to single occupant driving, and to encourage flex-time for employees when possible. Through a TMA, a guaranteed-ride-home program could be considered for commuters using alternatives to the single occupant auto. Additional potential elements of the program requiring further study include: adding trips to the Logan Express to better accommodate employee schedules, and perhaps working with some of the private carriers to offer a limited amount of direct trips7 ; encouraging private carriers to offer discounts8 ; and adding links to existing services. Massport is also considering on-airport priority parking for those who choose ridesharing over single occupant automobile access. Massport is planning some additional air passenger services that will also attract some employees. Studies are underway for another Logan Express service, and service options for communities, with a high air passenger density, whose needs will not be met by a traditional scheduled bus service. Massport is also considering operating a bus link between the airport and a downtown intermodal facility. The bus link will eliminate two transfers for subway passengers, and three transfers for commuter rail passengers. CONCLUSION Major airports like. Logan are large traffic generators, and are viewed by many as an easy target for trip reduction. But the trip reduction strategies that may influence airport employees are different than what we think of for typical commuters. Airport employees are not as easily influenced by trip reduction strategies as typical commuters may be because of their special scheduling needs, the availability of fully subsidized, on-airport or near-airport parking, and other considerations. Because the highest employee origin densities in the greater Boston area are not in towns with a high density of air passengers, travel mode choices available to air passengers are not usually viable options for employees. Because employee work hours are dispersed over the course of a day and over a work week, it is not cost effective for Massport to develop dedicated employee services, even from towns with a high density of employees. A successful airport employee program will offer a variety of options to meet employee commuting needs. Flexible carpools may be a realistic alternative for many employees. Lower cost initiatives that may accommodate some employees, such as 7Direct trips may also improve air passenger market penetration. 8Work with the private carriers on direct trips and fare reductions is more likely to be successful through a TMA, sinoe operators have been skeptical of employee demand when approached by Massport about potential fare reductions. 4Z7

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flextime where applicable, and a guaranteed rid e home program, will make carpooling or vanpooling more attractive to employees. Where feasible, making availabl e modes more employee-frie n dly may be accomplished by adding trips, offering reduced fares, or adding a limited amount of direct service on select routes. 8cknow!edgements The author expresses her gratitude to John Passaro for his editi n g assistance. 1. Evelyn Addante and Diane Ricard,.'Ground Access Strategies and A lternatives at B oston Logan International Airport", written for the 22nd European Transport Forum, University of WarWick, September, 1994. 2. Central Transportation Planning Staff, Boston, Massachusetts. Employee Transit Mode Share t o Boston Proper based on analysis from the 1990 U.S. Census Data. 428

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Hospital TDMITSM Programs by: Wendy J Hoyt, President The Hoyt Company 801 K Street, 23rd Floor Sacramento, California 95814 (916) 448-2440 (916) 448-5305 fax ABSTRACT As healthcare services become increasingly outpatient in nature, the need for TDMITSM programs for hospitals has never been greater. Over the past five years, the Hoyt Company has worked throughout California with four (4) major hospital campuses; two (2) suburban intermediate size hospitals; numerous medical office buildings, chemical dependency facilities, and outpatient surgery centers. We have assessed their parking supply demand, and developed a variety of successful TOM and TSM programs. This paper/presentation will discuss the unique nature of hospita l employee work schedules (i.e. rotating shifts, irregular hours, etc ) and how to develop a TDMITSM program to accommodate their needs. Modal split data from various medical facilities, healthcare costs associated with mobile sources of air pollution, and strategies to secure upper management support for TDM/TSM will be discussed. The paper will compare the cost of providing parking (surface and structured) to the costs of providing ridesharing incentives Paid parking as an option will also be included in the presentation. Based on factual real life experience (rather that strictly academic research), the paper/presentation will provide specific solutions and TDM/TSM programs tailored to a hospital or medical campus. 4Z9

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THE TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT PLAN OF THE MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT, PUBLIC WORKS & WATER MANAGEMENT, THE HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS By Marien, G Bakker, Project Manager, Directorate-General for Transport Abstract. Our Ministry's. policy is to encourage employers to imp lement TOM Plans to reduce the use of priva t e cars for commuting. The best way to do this is to set a good example. We wilf present the planning, implementation, organisation, and evaluation of our own TOM Plan for 2,000 employees, giving the results, factors for success or failure, and the costs of our Plan. Interestingly, we have Increased our A VR from 2 8 to 3.9, and our overall result has been a 26% reduction in vehicle kilometres. 180 employees now leave their cars at home and commute by other means of transport. Our most successful strategy has been to encourage the use of public transport by introducing reduced-cost season tickets. Our Bicycle Plan has also been very successful: employees can now choose between using an employer-provided bicycle and rece i ving an allowance for using their own possibly in combination with public transport. AVT94 430

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1 Introduction Dutch government policy aims to halve the expected growth in car use by 2010; at t he current rate, there will be 70% more cars in 2010 than In 1986. Our Second Transport Structure Scheme (SVV II) contains strate g ies such as a more intensive use of public transport, improved facilities for cyclists, a more intensive parking and location policy, and a reduction in car use by commuters. The Transport Ministry encourages employers to draw up "Transport Plans" to help reduce the growth in car use. In the Netherlands, we use the term "transport management" to mean employer involvement in how employees travel to a nd from work. To demonstrate how seriously the Ministry takes transport management, we have conducted a Transport Plan among our own employees This article will describe how our Transport Plan came Into being, the strategies we have deployed, their implementation, and some of our experiences and results We first hired a firm of consultants to conduct a feasibility study for a Transport Plan at three Transport Ministry sites in and around The Hague, employing a total of 2,000 people. On the basis of a preliminary written survey among employees, which received a 50% response, the study estimated how great a reduction in vehicle kilometres was possible at the sites concerned and by what combination of measures such a reduct ion could be achieved. The preliminary study showed that Transport Ministry employees in The Hague were commuting five million kilometres per year by car. 31 % of them were using only the car. This was low compared to the natio nal average, and might be explained by t he fact that, for as long as anyone could remember, the Ministry sites concerned had been in the same area: residential, urban, and with a compact public transport network. Many employees l ived within cycling AVT94 431

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distance of their work. The study also showed that, of those who were commu t in g on their own by car ("lone drivers"), 27% were willing to change their means of transport. On this basis, a 20% r e du ction in ve h icle kilometres seemed ach i evable. The Transport Ministry set its sigl)ts h igher aiming at 30%. The Minist r y takes its role as a model very seriously. Since the very start, we have attached paramount Impo rtance to achieving the very best result possible. At the formulatio n stage, we did our best to incorporate all the strategies at our disposal, from "carrot" measu res to "stick" solutions (a restrictive parking policy, for exampl e, can have a major impact on the employee's chosen means of transport). AVT94 432

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2. The transport planning process Launching a Transport Plan at any place of employment invo lves a number of essential steps known collecti ve l y as the transport planning process. F irst of all, a feasibil ity study is necessa ry to convince the management of the usefulness of a Transport Plan. This study should normally l ead to a positive decision, followed by the formulation of strategies for its implementation. In the Introduct io n above, I referred to the feasibility study conducted in 1990 . Once it was complete, we integrated its results into three documents: a Memorandum on Policy Princip l es, followed by a P la n of Action containing 23 strategies and a Plan for Behavioural Change We submitted these documents to the Transport Ministry's Management Board, which approved them on 30 Octobe r 1991 and made t he necessary funds ava il able. The Memorandum on Policy Principles bases its objectives on the mainspring of the Transpo r t Plan: t he Second Transport Structure Scheme (SVV II) and in particular on its stated aim of introducing "transport management in com panies and commercial areas by promoting i nhouse Transport Plans". To achieve this aim, companies and other organisations need to regard their employees' transport to and from work as a management co nce rn, facilitating their own accessibility at the same t ime as hel ping reduce the environmental damage caused by ca r use. This corresponds closely to the notion of corporate environmenta l care system. In pursuit of the SVV ll's stated aim, on 1 July 1991 the Dutch government ins tructed all of its ministries to draw up Transport Plans to. reduce commuter and other work-re l ated t ravel by civil servants, especially by car. It makes sense that government in t h is case the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management should set a good example in the implementation of policy It would be unthinkable for m ini stries to be sta nd ing AVT94 433

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still where the business community Is req u i red to act. Our Ministry's Transport Plan has served not only as a model, but also as an experiment, revealing the obstacles that employers face i n implementing Transport Plans. The result should be a more targeted approach to the problem. The Plan of Action contains 23 strategies f or attaining the Memorandum's stated aim. They include general strategies (1-3), strategies to encourage and reinforce existing positive behaviour among commuters (4-7), and strategies to reward non-car use (8 -12). In addition, they Include one strategy to deter car use (16), a support strategy (17}, and a number of strategies to make the use of private cars on business trips less attractive. For each s t rategy, the Plan of Action states Its specific a i!l', the cost of implementing it, methods of imp leme ntation, and the t imeframe within which it should be implemented. The Plan for Behavioural Change clusters the strategies contained in the Plan of Action according to the chronological stage at which each should be implemented. The Transport Plan strives to create permanent change in commuter behaviour, above a ll among lone drivers. We distinguished four stages of behavioural change: Stage 1. Stirring up i nterest Using a particular means of transport is a matter of habit. To change people's habits, you need to stir them up. Moving your place of employment Is one way of doing this. Other ways include telephone surveys, "weeks of action, and a good example on the part of management. The emp loyer must also monitor the pace of change. Stage 2. Arousing_ cyrjositv Once people are open to change, they need to be made curious about potential alternative means of transport. At this stage, the employer might produce a brochure listing alternatives for new employees or an easily accessible service centre. AVT94 434

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Stage 3. Experimentation Once people have chosen an alternative means of transport, they must be g iven the chance to experiment with it for a certain period. To do this, the employer might provide, say, free weekly tickets for public transport or weekend public transport passes. They might also organise such events as cycling weeks and voluntary carpooling months. Stage 4. Establishment/Formalisation Once an alternative means of transport has proved popular and employees are prepared to continue using it, I t will become another aspect of habitual behaviour. The employer might then reinforce this change in behaviour by, say, building bicycle shelters and carpooling centres, provid ing reduced-cost annual season tickets for public transport, and otherwise rewarding positive behaviour. Once the Ministry's Management Board and Works Council had approved our Transport Plan, work could begin on Implementing the strategies contained in the Pla n of Action. I will describe how this unfolded In the next chapter AVT94 435

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3. The Plan of Action The strategies contained in the Plan of Action implemented in stages acco r ding to their chrono l ogical place in the process of behavioural change This chapter will deta i l these stages and their accompanying strategies, explaining the speci fic aim of each one. In implementing the Plan of Action, we have had to take account of the heterogeneity of our target group Some employees have not yet reached Stage 1 in the process of behavioural change, whereas others are already at Stage 4. We have therefore been implementing our strategies in keeping with a philosophy of "hanging on to what you've got and growing from that position": or in other words, first ensuring t hat employees who display positive behaviour continue to do so and then striving to expand part ic ipation in the Transport Plan. Stage 1, Stirring up i nterest, includes the implementation of strategies such as: engaging "real" traffic coord i nators to monitor the process of behavioural change; opening service/information centres at the three sites, and giving the transport coordinators continuing training: appointing a project team with members from the three sites in The Hague to boost interest throughout the Ministry. mailing a publicity brochure -Reis Wijzer ("Travel Smarter") to all employees, giving them detailed information on the various alternative means of transport; conducting a telep hone poll of all employees to determine their modal split and make them think about t hei r current commuting behaviour. Stage 2, Arousing curiosity, inc l udes str ategies such as: a ceremony to p r esent a reduced-cost public transport season ticket to the thousandth employee to sign the Ministry's collective contract with Dutch Railways; AVT94 436

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modernising cycle she lters. open i ng service/in formati on centres and carpooling centres. and a ceremony to present the first bicycle lent by the Ministry in part exchange all w i th a view to raising employees' consciousness of the a l ternatives; iss u ing a general information brochure describing alternative means of transport. Stage 3, Experimentation, includes the following strategies: persuading employees to use bicycles provided by the ANWB (the Dutch equivalent of the AAA) for one month; this will allow diehard drivers to use bicycles in optimum conditions; getting the transport coord i nators to expand existing carpooling teams and create new ones. allowing employees to try out carpooling for a month's trial period; providing a week's free public transport to encourage lone drivers to try out new bus or t ram lines; from the car to public transport is a big step; such a strategy may lower the thresho ld. Stage 4, Establishment/Formalisation by means of strategies. Includes such strategies as: giving all employees an allowance for using public transport in return for a commitment to leave their cars at hom e; providing well-equipped, secure bicycle shelters with changing and showering facilities at the three sites; providing bicycle repair centres along with tools and a bicycle pump, and possibly later, a bicycle repalrperson; providing special parking spaces for carpoolers, saving them time and giving them comfort; improving local public transport provision in cooperation with public transport operators; providing bicycles for employees {including access to a shelter, repair, and insurance); AVT94 437

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joining a carpooier matching agency; implementing support strategies, such as a communications plan, research, and the monitoring and supervision of the process of behavioura l change. Stage 4, Establishment/Forrilalisatlon by means of rewards, Includes the following strategies: providing employees with public tra nsport season tickets; for those living within a 25-kilometre radius of their work, this could even be free: they would of course have to promise to cease commuting by car; providing cyclists with vouchers for bicycle repair and spare parts plus public transport season tickets to use in bad weather: compensating carpoolers at the rate of 13 Dutch cents per carpooler per kilometre; introducing parking measures, i nclud i ng charges, thereby deploying parking as an element in influencing commuter behaviour. 3.1 Deljy'ery In view of the heterogeneity of the target group and the philosophy of "hanging on to what you've got .. :", we chose first to deliver Stages 1 and 4: Stirring up interest and Establishment/Formalisation. In brief, the following took place: Once we had engaged the transport coordinators, appointed the project team, equipped the service centres, and provided the transport coordinators with preliminary training, we were able to start carrying out the various strategies described above. The in itial impetus to behavioural change came with a telephone survey of all 2,000 employees, asking them to think about their means of transport to and from work. In D ecember 1991, 120 Ministry employees In The Hague participated In an experimental cycling project with bicycles made available by the AVT94 4:?8

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ANWB (the Dutch AAA). In February 1992, Ministry employees in The Hague were given the first public transport season tickets. We drew up Transport Plan regulations. In 1992 and 1993, we adapted facilities in and around our buildings. S in ce then, we have provided a service centre for the transport coordinator, bicycle racks and bicycle shelters, special parking spaces for carpoolers, and barriers to curb other parking. Employees can call a special telephone number for public transport informat ion. In April 1992, we sent t he f irst issue of the publicity brochure Reis Wijzer to all our employees. Published periodically, Reis Wijzer carries all the latest news on the T ransport Plan. In November 1992, we launc hed the Bicycle P lan This consisted of the employer providing employees with bicycles, cycle repair vouchers, and pub l ic transport season tickets for use in bad weather. At the same time, we unveiled our inhouse bicycle sales d riv e, enabling employees to take out three-year interest-free loans to buy bicycles. Employees were also involved in the study. We asked all part icipa nts in the T ransport Plan to s ign a declaration that they would no longer use t hei r cars to travel between home and work, unless carpooling. This binds employees to the Transport Plan. Research shows that 82% of Transport Ministry employees in The Hague are in favour o f the Transport Plan, with only 8% against it. AVT94 439

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4. Conclusions We have measured the Transport Plan's results by means of four telephone surveys, conducted by the Advisory Group on Transport In December 1991, October 1992, December 1992, and July 1993. The surveys lncl.uded questions on both means of transport used and employees' experiences of various parts of the Transport Plan. In July 1993, a firm of consultants conducted an assessment of the Transport Plan's impact and that of its underlying aims among the various target groups. It studied both the Transport Plan's main Impact and its side-effects by means of indepth Interviews and group discussions. Outline of results The number of lone drivers, i ncluding motorcyclists, among Ministry employees in The Hague has fallen by an average 30%, mainly t hanks to Transport Plan strategies. In summer, this figure was as high as 35%. The number of vehicle kilometres (including those of carpoolers) dropped by an average 26%. On an annual basis, this means a reduction of 1.4 million vehicle kilometres In commuter traffic (from 5.2 to 3.8 million vehicle kilometres): in other words, every day there are 200 fewer cars on the road. This decrease in car use is mainly due to an increase in the use of public transport. 27% of lone drivers transferred to public transport, with only 6% choosing the bicycle. On the other hand, there was a rise in the number of lone drivers, accompanied by a fall In carpooling (3%). The sharp increase in the use of public transport -an average 34% occurred mainly within the city (especially by tram) and the surrounding areas, thanks to the provision of public transport season tickets. This rise also led to a fall in the number of carpoolers and cyclists. An interim poll even showed a halving of the AVT94 440

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number of carpoo l ers. However, the launch of the Bicycle Plan in November 1992 brought the n umber of cyc l ists back up again, and carpooling also rega ined some po pu lar i ty. The fall in car use was especially noticeably among employees travelling dista nces less tha n 10 kilometres (from 34 to 19%) and greater than 30 k i lome tres. Before Lone drivers Car pool ing Public transport Bicycle /moped After Winter 91 Winter 92 Summer 93 W i nter 93 Average 31 27 21 23 22 20 10 5 8 15 34 46 43 48 45 40 25 22 28 21 25 25 Table: Development of modal split at Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, The Hague Results of spe s;ifi pul;!lic strategies A collective contract between the Transport Ministry and the public transport operators allows our Ministry's employees to ob ta in a public transport season ticket practically free of charge. For commuting distances of up to 25 kilometres, the ticket is free; for greater distances the employee has to make a contribution. 91% of em p loyees using public transport take advantage of the AVT94 44.1

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contract. In 1993, this amounted to 965 employees, 40% of whom obtained a citywide publ i c transport season ticket, that is for use within the city boundary. Before the launch of t h e Bicycle P l an, this last figure was 52%. Of those emp l oyees using public transport for the first time {230 in total), three quarters were peop l e who had previously used only the car, 20% were cyclists, and 5% former carpoolers. Bus/tram use increased especially for distances between 2.5 and 15 kilometres. Train use grew noticeably for distances between 15 and 20 kilometres and those above 35 kilometres The assessment also showed that just less t han 10% of public transport season ticket holders still regularly commuted by car. This temptation was especially great among those with a citywide season ticket, for w)lom the figure was 16%. Around 2% of the participants (20-25 persons) stated that they even commuted by car every day, thereby reneging on their promise to cease doing so. Bicycle use is also popular among holders of citywide season tickets. However, even since the introduction of the Bicycle Plan, around 120 of them have preferred to keep their season ticket for use in winter and for travel not related to worl<. Public transport season tickets are also popular for business trips {25%) and private purposes (52%) Many participants use the train in combination with other means of transport. 59% of Ministry employees use a b i cycle for the first leg of their journey to work, and 21% use one for the last leg. 77% of train users take the tram for the last leg of their journey. Improvemen t s to the public transport system, such as the introduction of rush hour buses, have not yet yielded any noticeable benefits. There has been collaboration with neighbouring companies such as Shell and the ANWB as part of the Benoordenhout Neighbourhood Traffic Project, but The Hague's public AVT94 442

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transport company lac ks t he funds and po litical support to achieve structura l improvements in the short term. Th ese are necessa ry, becaus e : as is generally agreed among Ministry employees in The Hague you need stamina to use public transport. Results of specific bicycle strategies As a result of the Transport Plan strategies, the total number of cyclists has remained the same as about 520 employees (25%1. Among them, there have been certain shifts. For example, 9% of cyclists eventually decided to use public transport after all. This loss was largely offset by drivers who transferred to the b icyc le and a small number of carpoolers. The growth in b i cycle use has been especially noticeable at distances of between five and ten kilometres. There was a fall following the introduction of citywide season tickets, especially among employees travelling five kilometres or less. The Bicycle Plan provides employees with a bicycle or a bicycle package consisting of a pass for use of the rai lway station bicycle she lter, bicycle repair vouchers, and/or public transport season tickets for use in bad weather. Employees also have a chance to participate In an in house bicycle sales drive, whereby they can pay for their new bicycle in instalments. In total, 170 Ministry employees had the use of Ministry bicycles, 130 preferred the cycle package, and 100 employees bought bicycles as part of the sales drive. 60% of cyclists cycle all the way to work, and 40% cycle in combination with public transport. Of those employees current l y cycling the entire journey between work and home, only 52% take advantage of the Bicycle Plan This relatively low number shows once again that many cyclists prefer the citywide season ticket in order to be able to use It in winter and in bad weather. Employees can use t he various parts of the Bicycle Plan in combination with public transport. 16% of train users (three-quarters of those using a bicycle for AVT94 443

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the last leg of the i r journey to work) take advantage of it. Of the participants i n . the Bicycle Plan, 165 had changed over from using their car, 29"% travelled a nd still travel by train, and 4% use d public transpo rt . A round 50% were already commuting by b icycle We have started imp roving facilities for cyclists in and around the buildings. Both the bicycle shelters and bicycle r ack s have been modernised and expand ed. But, according to the assessment, too little attention has been paid to deta i ls, such as the location of the bicycle she lter s and the number of facilities. More showers are also needed. Quite a lot of criticism has been d i rected at t he cycle paths to and from the . three Transport Ministry sites. The Ministry, along with a numbe r of businesses i n Benoordenhout (a neighbourhood In The Hague with a large number of offices}, hav e informed the municipal authorities, but money and priorities have proved a p rob lem. Since t he public t ransport company a nd municipal au t horities have failed t o respond to requests from companies in the Benoordenhout neighbourhood, cooperation in neighbourhood transport projects has been on hold. Results of specific carpooling strategies The Transport Plan's strategies have resulted in a 20% reduction in the total . numbe r of carpoolers: from 205 to 165 employees (8%). Of these, 7% have started using public transport, 3% have started cycling, and 1 Oo/o have become lone drivers (when co -passengers started us ing other means of transport, only the drivers were left). This reduction has also been partly due to a reorganisation of the Ministry, whereby many emp loyees had to move sites. We have considered a compensation scheme for carpoolers, but this has not been implemen ted fo r lega l and fiscal reasons. We have also given thought to participating In a carpooler matching system, which would solve the problem of AVT94 444

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checking whether employees are really carpooling. However, this Idea has not gone through because it would involve an extra financial contribution from the M in istry but only a very small fin ancial advantage for the employees. Carpooling strategies have focu sed mainly on facilities, such as special parking spaces for carpoolers at t he three sites. The transport coordinators have brought prospective carpoolers together by means of an enrolment form. The Ministry has rewarded enrolment with a 25-guilder gift vouche r. Around 75 employees have take advantage of this option. However, the special parking spaces have had very little impact because parkin g is not really a problem at the sites concerne d. And even s in ce the introduction of parking charges nea r one of the sites, there have not been many enrolments for special parking spaces At the M inistry's own free car park, there is still room early in the morning. In total, around 1 65 employees carpool; of these, around one-third are offici ally enrolled. AVT94 445

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5. Side-effects The assessment of the Transport Plan also examined t he Plan's impact on non commuter car use, the personal circumstances of t he employees, the workings of the Ministry, a nd the implementation of policy: The results described below should be regarded as more quaiitative than quantitative, g iven the assessment's heavy reliance on i nd epth inte rviews and group discussion Impact on non-commuter car use In general, travell ing by public t ran sport takes more time, and sometimes considerab l y more time, than using the car, but this time can be used more efficiently. The Transport Plan has helped persuade a handful of employees to get rid of their cars. There has also been a reduction in car use for pu rposes other than commuting. Employees make more frequent use of their public transport season tickets, espec ially for social and recreational journeys, and their use of the car is based more frequently on conscious decisions. They also cycle more often on short journeys. Other family members make more frequent use of the car left at home. However, this is a l imited effect. An analysis of the work-related vehicle ki lometres travelled by Ministry employees has failed to show whether the T r ansport Plan has a ffected the number of vehicle kilometres. h:noact on the personal circumstances of employees The Transport Plan has benefited a large number of the employees financially. The general opinion is that the trair, is more restful and more relaxing than the car, especially on long commuting journeys. AVT94 446

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Impact on t he worki ng$ Qf the Ministry Th e perso n nel and financi a l department s see no pra c t i c a l problems i n deliveri n g t he provisions of the Transport Plan. They do not regard the extra time needed as signi f icant. This Is partly due to the presence o f the two t r ansport coordinators, who a re both very cooperative. However, if the Plan goes a head, i t must be built into existing established structu res With regard to the employees' p roductivity, the Transport Plan has had neither a favou r able nor unfavourable impact. Telecommuting and working on location are however expected t o have a favourable impact on p roducti v ity. AVT94 447

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6. The costs and benefits of the Transoort Plan In 1991, t h e Transport Ministry's Ml!nagement Board make NLG 2. 1 million available fo r a two-year Transport Plan pilot scheme. 70% of this money was inves ted in prelim i nary necessities such as the acquisition of public transport season tickets; 20% was spent on facilities such as barriers, Ministry bicycles, and b i cyc l e shelters; and 10% went on communications and research. To be implemented, the Plan also requires a structural labour force of two person years. Of those persons who transf erred f rom lone driving to cyc l ing, carpooling, or public transport (30%), 80% chose public transport and 20 o/o a bicycle. A driver in the train saves more vehicle kilometres than one on a bicycle; even though the latter saves proportionately more in terms of pollution since his/her jo u rney will norma lly be shorter. The absolute costs (excluding labour costs and income gained) incurred by the Transport Plan amount to around 70 Dutch cents per vehicle kilometre saved per year, or NLG 500 per employee, or NLG 5,000 for each car removed from the road. On average, every public transport user costs an extra NLG 740 per year, and every cyclist an extra NLG 275. These are relatively high amounts. As well as costs, there are of course great benefits for the Ministry, which are not always easy to express in financi al terms. There have however been tangible savings In the gradual selling off of the parking places let in a nearby parking garag e But for t he Transport Plan, they would have cost an annual NLG 180,000. At other Transport M in istry sites, too, the number of parking spaces has been reduced without putting more pressure on parking in the area. The T ransport Plan plays a major role as both a model and a learning instrument. There is no better way of uncovering obstacles in the delivery of policy. The analysis of side-effects also shows a favourable impact on car use, awareness AVT94 448

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of the p r ob l ems of mobi lity, and car use in soc i a l a n d recreat i onal traffic. AVT94 449

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7. Acknowledgements A. The success of the Ministry's Transport Plan i n The Hague can partly be attributed to the Ministry Management Board's decision to make the necessary funding available. This created a basis of support in the Ministry, espec i ally among the higher echelons of management. However, the assessment also shows that l ine managers do not regard transport management as part of their task: they are not prepared to broach the subject with their employees -which Is a lost opportunity. B. Success is a lso dependent on the enthusiasm, expertise, a n d stamina of the persons Involved. The right person in the right place. The role of the Transport Coordinators is a very important one. Unless they are highly motivated, there will be little behavioural change among the employees They are expected both to provide support and set a good example, They are the Transport Plan's main driving force. C. The Transport Plan has la rgely aimed to Improve alternative means of transport by means of financial incentives: "carrot measures". Thanks to its strategies, the propo rtion of employees at the three sites who commute by car has dropped to around 21 %. Before the implementation of the Transport Plan this figure was between 26% and 36%. We can therefore draw the concfusion that carrot solutions can produce very gooed results (a reduction of 20% to 40%). Since the Plan has not met with any opposition among the employees, they are also prepared to develop a more conscious approach to car use in their private lives. If we are to reduce car use even further, we will have to apply more "stick" i ncentives such as a more stringent parking policy or lowering or abolishing travel expenses for fast lo ne drivers. The hostility will be limited to a small hard core of diehard lone drivers. AVT94 450

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D. The order in which strategies are introduced partly determines their success. For example, bicycles and public transport should be offered to employees in the form of an integrated strategy. If we introduce a new publ ic transport scheme without doing anything for cyclists, then cyclists will be put at a d isadvantage It costs a great deal of money and effort to regain lost territory in promoting cycling. It Is therefore advisable to Introduce them both at the same time or In reverse order. E. New employees are a highly receptive group for transport management. Influencing them to use alternatives to the car has a high chance of success. G. Communications and the care with which they are deployed are also a major factor for success. The publicity surrounding the Bicycle Plan is an example of this: 98% of employees are aware of it. H. Pay attention to details in the implementation of policy. i. Reduce the occasional use of the car for commuting by introducing an enrolment system for the use of parking spaces. AVT94 451

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PROGRAM AND CONSTITUENCY DEVELOPMENT The Process Used to Create the Commuter Challenge Recognition Program Presenters: Cathy Cole, Commuter Challenge Program Manager Elizabeth Rankin, Program Manager, City of Seattle Commuter Services 452-

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ABSTRACT King County, Washington employers affected by the state Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) Law will be publicly acknowledged for their commute trip reduction efforts by the Commuter Challenge, a program of The Economic Development Council of Seattle & King County. The recognition program will be funded by Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) grants. A marketing/ communications consultant has been retained to develop and implement the program. A collaborative, year-long planning effort (1993-94) coordinated by the Commuter Challenge has resulted in a three-year recognition plan. Highlights of the plan include: The objective is to motivate employers to implement successful programs. Recognition during the three-year period will be tied to program review. 1994 recognition will be for employers' program elements. 1995-96 recognition will be for goal achievement. Non-CTR affected employers will be recognized for voluntary efforts. Recognition will consist of media, public relations, advertising, and an awards ceremony. Amount of recognition will correspond to employer commibnents (1994) and goal achievement (1995-96). An evaluation will be made of the effectiveness of the program. Recognition planning was done by several committees whose members represented jurisdictions, the transportation service provider, the business community, and the Washington State Energy Office (lead agency for the state CTR Law). Thirty-four entities were represented in the process. 453

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INIRODUC]JQN The Commuter Challenge is a five-year-old public/private partnership in King County, Washington. The program is funded by The Economic Development Council of Seattle & King County (The EDC), the City of Seattle, King County, Metro, the Washington State Energy Office, and the Washington State Department. of Transportation. . The Commuter Challenge is housed .in the offices of The EDC, a non-profit membership organization. The EDC's board of dlreclx>rs consists of CEOs and high level management from most of the top businesses In the region. The EDC has long been involved in transpol,'tation issues, stating In Its mission that a healthy infrastructure is important tQ a sound economy. Because membership in the organization also consists of government agencies, it is traditional for The EDC to be a neutral place for business and government to on issues of mutual interest. The EDC is a natural home for a public/private partnership, such as.the Commuter: Challenge. The Commuter Challenge began in 1989 to publicly recognize .King County employers for their voluntary employee transportation programs. Businesses which initiated an employee transportation program qr improved an existing one fulfilled the, program's criteria IX> become a ''Pacesetter." The number of Pacesetters quickly grew IX> 107, representing 220,000 .King County commuters. Pacesetters received recognition In the form of full-page advertisements in local and regional press, media coverage, and through opportunities to showcase their programs on local and state-wide panels and workshops. . On-going research showed that businesses valued this acknowledgment of their efforts because they were portrayed as good citizens in front of their peers, their employees, and their customers. Interestingly, research showed that when lists of Pacesetter employers appeared In the local press, organizations looked first for the names of thelr competitors. In 1991 a Commute Trip Reduction Law was passed by the Washington State legislature to address traffic congestion, air pollution, and fuel consumption ijl the eight most populous counties. Employers with 100 or more employees arriving at a work site between 6 and 9 a.m. are considered to be affected by the law. 454

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Program and Constituency Development Commuter Challenge Recognition Program Page Two Within King County, there are 454 affected work sites affected (representing 316 employers). Employers are required to reduce single occupant vehicle commutes and vehicle miles traveled to each affected work site by 15% in 1995,25% by 1997, and 35% by 1999. The process to develop the CTR legislation and the subsequent guidelines was a collaborative cooperative effort between government and business. This theme of "collaboration and cooperation" became known as the Spirit of the Law. Authors of the l egislation wanted CTR developed and implemented with both government and business at the table. There was frequent reference to the "carrot" or "stick" approach to CTR, and the clear preference in the State of Washington was for the "carrot." Because of its affiliation with The EDC, Commuter Challenge was able to play a key role in bringing King County businesses to the discussion table as the guidelines were formed, providing timely and important input to the state Task Force which drafted the document. By the time the ordinances were in place and implementation had begun, the Commuter Challenge had a reputation with business as a respected and effective player in commute trip reduction issues. The program also was identified by business in an additional positive light because of its employer recognition activities PHASE I; D EVELOPING THE PARAMETERS In early 1993 the City of Seattle requested the Commuter Challenge be the vehicle to recognize the City's employers that demonstrated commitment to and success with the trip reduction regulation The city felt the program could build on earlier successful efforts, but the criteria for being recognized would need to be changed to parallel the new commute trip reduction law. 455

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Program and Constituency Development Commuter Challenge Recognition Program Page Three The City has the majority of the em affected wprk sites within King Cotmty (52%). But Seattle staff suggested that in developing the basic parameters for the new recognition effort, a model be aeated that could be adopted county wide. Staff knew that because some of the city's affected businesses also had affected sites in other jurisdictions, equity and consistency would be important to the business community. In response, Commuter Challenge staff pulled together a work team composed of representatives from the program sponsors, jurisdictions and the business community. The business were from a variety of industries with both large and small employment bases, All were affected by the CTR Law, and two of them had additional smaller sites which were not affected. This work team was charged to develop parameters of a recognition plan that would satisfy the expectations of both government and business. Working over a period of several months, the work team made the following recommendations: The Commuter Challenge be the entity to recognize employers' commute trip reduction efforts in a county-wide recognition program. . The program recognize both those businesses affected by the law and those that voluntarily worked to reduce commute trips . The puq)ose of the recognition be to rewlfrd "model" programs in 1994 and from 1995 on to recognize for goal achievement. The recognition be created to work as peer pressure and encourage other less successful employers to improve their efforts. Recognition be tied to program review. 456

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Program and Constituency Development Commuter Challenge Recognition Program Page Four 1994 recognition opportunities be based on three levels of commitment: Minimum: Employers that meet the basic requirements of the law. Good Faith: Emp loy ers that go beyond the basic requirements of the law. Outstanding: Employers that demonstrate a high level of commitment to reducing employee commute trips {only 12 15 employers would be acknowledged at this level). These recommendations were then taken to a broader group of stakeholders: all jurisdictions within the county and additional businesses which participated in a research focus group. Feedback was positive, and ultimately, the recommendatio ns of the work team were accepted by all the jurisdictions in King County with CTR affected employers and approved by the Commuter Challenge Steering Committee. PHASE II: SECURING THE FUNDING The program steering committee identified the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act {ISTEA) as a possible funding source. Two of the program's sponsoring organizations -Metro (the local service provider) and King County government agreed to be the vehicles for the ISTEA grant applications. Program staff worked with staff from Metro and the Washington State Department of Transportation {also a sponsor) to draft the applications which ultimately resulted in the award of $280,000 in grant monies over a three year period (1994-96). Subsequently the program Steering Committee elected to allocate $210,000 of the funds to employer recognition, from 1994 to 1996. PHASE III: DEVELOPINQ THE RSCOQNITION CRITERIA FOR 1994 The next step was to define the criteria which would be used to determine the amount of recognition employers would receive in 1994. A second work team, composed of jurisdiction representatives, Metro, WSDOT, and program staff, was appointed to develop the criteria. 457

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Program and ConstiiUency Development Commuter Challenge Roo>gnition Program Page Five Members were faced with the challenge of designing criteria which were fair but tough enough to .have value, yet not so tough to be discouraging to employers. The criteria also needed to acknowledge some CTR program elements .are more difficult and/ or costly than others for the business community to implement. Working within the parameters established by the earlier work team, the second group formulated the following recommendations: Criteria for 1994 recognition would be based on Information submitte4 in employer programs filed with tJ:Ie local jurisdictions Points would be assigned to the elements within each program. (An element was defined as an employer initiated action.) Points would be weighted to address degrees of difficulty. Points would also be given for 1995, 1997, and 1999 goal achievement. Points would be totaled for each employer, and, based on individual totals, employers would be assigned to the appropriate recognition level. The point system be entered into and maintained as part of the affected employer data base managed by Metro. Each county subarea be allocated a prorated number of employers in the top recognition level, based on the total number of affected employers in the subarea . 458

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Program and Constituency Development Commuter Challenge Rl!cognition Program Page Six The very top scoring programs in each county subarea be !!)
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Program and Constitue:ru:y Development Commuter Challenge Recognition Program Page Eight PHASE IV: THE ANNOUNCEMENT A direct mail approach to CEO's and Employee Transportation Coordinators (ETC) was deemed to be the best method to announce the recognition opportunity to the business community. The Commuter Challenge knew that the piece would need to be eye-catching, have impact, and direct the reader to action. The Meet the Challenge recognition packet which resulted was the economical but elegant product. The packet was mailed to the CEOs and ETCs of the 316 affected employers. It was also sent to existing Pacesetters not affected by the CTR Law. Tailored cover letters were included, signed by the president of The EDC The recipients were directed to call the Commuter Challenge if they wanted more Information about recognition opportunities Thirteen percent of the employers responded, questioning what they needed to do. CTR affected respondents were told adding program elements would might increase their opportunities for recognition but no promis es were made. They were directed to their program reviewers to discuss what elements they might be add. Unaffected employers were directed to submit detailed information about their programs in writing to the program manager. Employers had a six week window from the time they received the packet until the deadline for filing program changes or submitting information. In the end six affected employers either improved their CTR programs by adding elements or revealed more about the elements within their programs. Eight unaffected employers submitted information about the their voluntary employee transportation programs In order to be considered for recognition. 461

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Program and Constituency Development Commuter Challenge Recognition Program Page Nine PHASE Y: DJE RESlJLTS I Once the updated employer program information was entered into the data base, Metro produced a print out of all affected employers' scores. The criteria work team reconvened to make final determinations on level assignments. This proved to be a f01-irly s4"aight forward, as scoring patterns emerged and range cluster!ngs occurred naturally. As per the original plan, the work group closely examined about 30 employer programs that fell initially into the "Outstanding Level, sought input from the local jurisdictions and the Metro emplc;>yer outreach staff, and made final selection of 14 organizations to receive the top award. The final breakdown for 1994 employer recognition was: .. p oyer ecogntt on 1994 Em 1 R 'ti Minimum Level: 211sites Good Faith Level: 221 sites Outstanding Level: 14 employers . . The employers in the Outstanding Level are a mixed ranged of industry types county-wide and include one unaffected employer. Each has clearly demonstrated management commitment to reducing commute trips, and most have made the commitment for what they express as "good business reasons." They will be compelling models for the busine5s community. All of the unaffected employers that submitted information were "judged to have good programs One of them achieved the "Outstanding Level." 462

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Program and Constituency Development Commuter Challenge Recognition Program Page Ten PUASE YI: HIRING A CONSULTANT King County is one of the most sophisticated media markets in the country. From previous experience with employer public recognition efforts, the Commuter Challenge sponsors knew the new program would need to be top quality in order to even be noticed in a very competitive advertising/ public relations arena. And although the program had more money than previously for such efforts, the funds would have to be managed carefully to get the biggest bang for the buck. A final concern was that the recognition effort not appear to be wasteful of public funds. While several of those involved in the Commuter Challenge program have backgrounds in marketing, advertising, and public relations early on it was decided the program should retain an independent marketing/communications consultant who could focus time, energy, and talent to the task and produce a high quality result. The role of the Commuter Challenge Steering Committee would be to oversee the effort. The program advertised for Statements of Qualifications, and 19 firms attended a bidder's conference. Nine eventually submitted RFQs. Five were interviewed by the committee. The consultant selected was given clear direction to develop a program which would include: Visibility spread over a several month period. Paid advertising A media/public relations program to showcase the top 14 success stories. An awards program for top achievers. A primary target to CEOs and other top management. A secondary target to employees, customers, and vendors. In addition the consultant was told to use the recognition effort to inform and educate the business community as a whole about commute trip reduction .. 463

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Program and Constituency Development Commuter Challenge Recognition Program Page Eleven CONCLUSION The next steps in this evolving program will be to implement the 1994 recognition activities. Shortly after the first of the new year, process for planning the 1995 program will be initiated. It Is fully anticipated all the stakeholders who participated in the first round will be involved again. The process used to design the Commuter Challenge recognition program fulfilled the Spirit of the Commute Trip Reduction Law -collaboration and cooperation between business and government. The 1994 recognition emphasizes that business commitment to CTR Is necessary for success. The public nature of the recognition will apply peer pressure by example to other businesses to make that same commitment. Subsequent years (1995 1996) will recognize employers for goal achievement and encourage again through peer pressure the non-achievers to do better. The messages will continue to be targeted at employers' management. An annual evaluation of the recognition efforts will be done to measure its effectiveness in motivating the business community to do better. The Commuter Challenge employer recognition effort is one of many activities directed at King County employers to provide them with assistance and encouragement in their implementation of the state Commuter Trip Reduction Law. However, it will be the most visible effort, the biggest slice in the "carrot." 464

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Program and Constituency Development Commuter Challenge Recognition ProgTam Page Twelve ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Commuter Challenge program wishes to thank the following for participating in the design of the employer recognition program: The jurisdictions: Auburn Bellevue Bothell Des Moines Issaquah Kent King County Kirkland Mercer Island Redmond Renton SeaTac Seattle Tukwila Local Service Provider Metro State Agencies: The Washington State Energy Office The Washington State Department of Transportation Private Associated Grocers Boeing Employees Credit Union Perkins Coie The Economic Development Council of Seattle & King County UNIVAR And 12 other private organizations which participated in a research focus group and were promised anonymity. The project was co-chaired by Carol Hunter of the WSDOT and Elizabeth Rankin of the City Seattle. l.he effort was staffed by Cathy Cole, program manager, and Rose Marie Eades and Jennifer Johnston, program assistants. 465

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CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA NEW RESIDENT INCENTIVE CAMPAIGN EVALUATION REPORT Submitted by: Clifford Chambers, Author Crain & Associates, Inc. July 25, 1994 466

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ABSTRACT Research has shown that people are most willing to consider changes in their behavior, such as shifting transporta t ion modes, at times when their normal habits of daily life have been disrupted, such as a change in residence or employment The Caltrans District 4 1992 93 New Resident Incentive Campaign included a direct mail campaign targeted at new residents in two selected corridors. The direct mail incentive program promoted commute alternatives to new residents by offering trial transit tickets, ridesharing matchlists, and free gasoline scrip for joining a carpool or vanpool at a time when the new resident is making major lifestyle changes. This period of transition is an opportune time to influence commute choices by capturing new riders and reinforcing previous ridership behavior The direct mail campa i gn consisted of three cycles including an initial mailing and a repeat mailing to new residents who did not respond to the first mailing between November 1992 and May 1993. Each mailing was targeted to people that had changed their residence during the previous mo n th. Respondents to the mailings could choose among three offers: Two complimentary r ound trip train tickets on either BAR'r or CalTra i n (up to $20 value); or $2 per day, up to $20 worth of coupons, for riding the bus to work or school; or $2 per day, up to $20 worth of Unocal gasoline scrip, for carpooling or vanpooling to work or school. A telephone survey of 1,426 new r esident incentive recipients found that 61% of the respondents used the 9,671 transit and carpool incentives provided. The evaluation results show a pos i tive shift to a commute alternative After their move to their current residences, about 50% of the new r esidents drove alone to work About 60 days after receiving the incentive, the percentage dropped to 43%. For carpool respondents, carpool rates increased from 42.9% just after move to 47.9% after receiving a matchlist and a gasoline scrip incentive Significant shift occurred in the target market of drive alone commuters. Overall, there were approximately 1,550 participants in the new resident incentive program who are new regular users of the tar geted transit systems. These new users will generate 465,082 annual trips and new transit revenues of $697,624. For each incentive dollar invested, $6.02 of new transit revenue was generated. 467

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INTRODUCTION The California Department of Transpo rtation (Calt r ans) District 4 1992-93 New Resident Campaign targeted residents along the 101/ 280 corridor from San Jose to San Francisco and along the 880 corridor from Fremont to Oakland. The.direct mail incentive program promoted commute a l ternatives to n ew residents by offering trial transit tickets, ridesharing matchlists, and f1ee gasoline scrip for joining a carpool or vanpool at a time when the new resident is makin g major lifestyle changes. A total of 160,077 direct mail pieces w e re sent to 86,693 households between November 1992 and May 1993 The campaign consi ste d of three cycles including an initial mailing and a repeat mailing for each cycle. Each cycle was targeted to people that had changed the i r residence during the pre v ious month. The new resident direct mail progra m resulted fr om a shift in focus at Cilltrans from campaigns that work toward raising awareness about "ridesharing" to testing direct marketing methods for creating mode s h i f t. Cal trans' ultimate goal is to reduce vehicle miles traveled by meeting trip demand with a s few vehicles as possible, within existing 1i.ght-of-way and with positive air quality and energy conservation impacts. Therefore, the key objective was to r e fine and test the effectiveness of a direct mail incentive program to new residents along specific corridors and measure the effect on carpooling and transit ridership increases. NEW RESIDENT INCENTIVE CAMPAIGN FEATURES The new resident incentive campaign had the following pitches: "We'll Bet Twenty Bucks There's A Better Way for You to Go To Work. "We'll Pay Up To. $20 For Trial Rides on .... Carpool Bus or Train" (graphic portrayals of each). The direct mail pieces were designed to provide a menll of commuting choices includin g bus, rail, or ridesharing for commute trips to school or work. The campaign concept was to provide: 1) trial ride s on the commute alternatives as an incentive; 2) information the responden t could use immediately to make a decision; and 3) a guide to using the mode they selected. Respondents to the mailings could choose among thre e offers: Two complimentary round-trip train tickets on either BART or C a !Train (up to $20 value); or $2 per day ; up to $20 worth of coupons, for riding the bus to work o r school; or 468

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$2 per day, up to $20 worth of Unocal gasoline scrip, for carpooling or vanpooling to work or school. The fulfillment process utilized several experimental features to determine which approaches would be most effective for subsequent new resident direct mail campaigns in FY 1993-94 The following alternative approaches were utilized: Self-mailer versus a traditional mailer. Respondents were categorized as either high or low prospects. High prospects drove alone, commuted a long distance, and were near good transit alternatives. These high prospects were randomly assigned to receive either "high" or "low" incentive values. Personalized follow-up versus no follow-up. The fulfillment design is illustrated in Figure 1. FULFILLMENT RESULTS For the three cycles, a total of 11,574 fulfillment coupons were returned a 14.7% response rate. A few other transit districts throughout the United States have utilized similar campaigns with response rates ranging between 6% and 30%. The two areas with higher response rates, Portland and Denver, had the advan tage of targeting more limited geographical areas with high levels of transit ridership. The Caltrans new resident campaign included significantly broader areas with many areas having low levels of transit ridership. Of 11,574 coupons that were processed, a total of 9,671 individuals were actually sent incentive items. A total of 9,461 respondents were sent transit incentive items and 210 were sent carpool gasoline scrip. Respondents who were not sent incentive items included carpool respondents who did not return carpool verification letters, ineligible respondents who were not regular commuters to work or school, and respondents whose coupons were incomplete and could not be fulfilled. A computerized database system was deve loped to efficiently fulfill respondent incentive requests. A customized database program was created. The program has built into it a database of distances and transit carriers between common pairs of Bay Area cities eligible for the project. A series of "rules" were developed that allow the computer to "decide" what steps to take and which incen tives to mail to a commuter based on the information the commuter provided on the returned coupon. 1'he operator intervened and made decisions on the incentive items to be sent when, for example, a commuter requested rail incentives when rail was not available for their trip from home to work or school. 469

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No Offer A: $2/Day Scrip Up to S20 Figure 1 FULFILLMENT PROCESS Maildrop ---------, 'fl Carpoo l P r ospect FuHiil ment Coupons Relurned Crlterla: Curren!1y Drive Alone )ool'-1 Commute Distance > 10 mi. OfferS: S2/Dov_ UpToS40; Trip P l anning Commutes 6-9:30 a.m. OfferC: Commuter Checks: Planning Non-Response Follow-Up Mailer Transit Prospect OfferD: 2 Round Tiip Rail Tickets Otter Letter wnh Certificalion Form OfferC1 1 Commuter Check Offer C2 2Commuter Checks Yes Send Incentives OfferE: 2 RoundTrip Bus T i ckets No I ncentive 50% Receiv ed PersonariZed Follo wUp 50% Old Not Receive Personal ized FoDow-Up 470

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For respondents asking for transit incentives, 7,051 received transit tickets good for two round-trip tickets for their commut e trip to work or school. The incentive was increased for those individuals appearing to have greater chance or opportunity to use transit. Individuals who drove alone, commuted ten or more miles, and arrived to work or school during the peak rooming period were provided either a $20 or $40 Commuter Check (Bay Area's transit voucher) with the hope that these "high" prospects would purchase and make trial use of a monthly transit pass for their commute. Two thousand four hundred and ten high" prospects received one or two Commuter Checks. All respondents rece i ved a personalized cover letter and a transit map and frequency schedule for transit service that serves their new residence. "High" prospect respondents also received trip planning, with personalized instructions noted on transit maps/schedules on how to use transit for their commute. The response to the p e rsonalized trip planning was great. Many r etum letters were recei ved thanking Caltrans for their efforts. Each Commuter Check recipient received the appropriate map(s) that covered their commute with appropriate routes pointed out. For respondents asking for carpool incentives, all respondents received a verification asking for a listing of their carpool partners and phone numbers and a trip diary that verified the actual days they participated in a carpool or vanpool. A total of 740 respondents were sent the verification Jetter, and 210 respondents were sent the gasoline scrip. One of three re s pondents r eceived a phone call verifying the information on the carpoo l form A total of 2,325 respondents also received ridesharing matchlists, including both transit and carpool incentive respondents. Personalized follow-up calls were made by RIDES for Bay Area Commuters staff to 1,500 households requesting ridesharing information or incentives. The intent of the calls was to determine if the matchlist information provid ed was helpful in forming a carpool. If not, further assistance was offered. EVALUATION CONCLUSIONS A telephone survey of 1 ,426 new resident direct mail respondents was conducted from Crain & Associates' Menlo Park office. Approximately one half of the sample was from the 1011280 corridor and the other half from the 880 corridor For the entire survey sample, at a 95% confidence level, the maximum margin of error is +1-2.5%. The numbers included in the evaluation are derived from the responses of the telephone survey and weighted to include all fulfillment coupon respondents. Approximately 61% of respondents have used the transit and carpool incentives. Of the 5, 771 respondents who used the transit incentives, the average person used the full complement of the two complimentary round trips on transit, with the mean and the median both approximat ing four trips. Not surprisingly, the average user of the higher incentive value Commuter Check utilized the incentive at a higher rate, with the mean being approximately 12 trips.

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A significantly higher proportion of transit respondents in the 880 corridor (70.8%) utilized the incentives than those in the 101/280 corridor (51.1%). For those resJl
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Figure 2 MODE SPLIT CHANGE BY TYPE OF INCENTIVE REQUESTED TRANSIT INCENIJVE 1 Na1158l BEFORE MOVE CARPOOL INCENTIVE (N:205l IMMEDIATELY AFTER MOVE A FTER RECEIVING INCENTIVES (Sample Wednesday) Olher 6 .8% Carpool 8 7% Olher 4.2% Carpool 5 .7% Other 3 .8% Carpool 8 .5% Train 1 5 % Bus 1.4 % 473 Olher 3 .4% O t her 3 .7% Carpool 4 2.9% Drive Alone 47.3% Other 1.9% Carpool 47.9%

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TABLE 1 CURRENT MODE .OF DRIVE ALONE COMMUTERS WHO CHANGED MODE AFTER RECEIVING INCENTIVES AND INFORMATION Former Drive Alone Respondents Using Alternative Mode* Received Received Carpool Transit Verification New Mode Incentive Letter Total Carpoo l 349 138 487 Vanpool 8 0 8 BART 438 0 438 C al Train 136 0 136 AC Transit 109 0 109 SamTrans 100 0 100 County Transit 69 8 77 Bicycle 78 8 86 Walk 85 0 85 Motorcycle 8 0 8 Other 8 0 8 TOTAL 1 ,388 154 1,542 Weighted from the e v a luation survey to the total number of new resident incentive coupons received, 11 ,574. ,..,.4

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For respondents driving alone, the p r ogram re s ults show that a respondent's propens ity to use a commute alternative in creased as the v alue of the incentive off e r increased. The evaluation survey found that rail usage in particular became significantly higher as incentive value increased as shown in Table 2 Of the new re s idents who drove alone when returning the fulfillment coupon and who received $40 in Commuter Checks, 20 .9% utilized BART or Ca!Train on a sample Wednesday compared to 6.7% who received only two round trip tickets worth $4$12. INCENTIVE VAlUE $4. $19 $20 Commuler Ched< or Gasoline Scrip $40 Commuter C heck or Gasoline Scrip TOTAL TABLE 2 I MPACT OF IN CENTIVE VALUE ON DRIVE ALONE COMMUTE BEHAVIOR COMMUTE MODE AFTER RECEIVING INCENTIVE (Clive Alooe Coupon Respondenls Onl y)' Drive Alone Carpool T rain Bus Oltler 2,241 (n.<%1 259 (7.9%) 219 (6.7%) 203 (6.2%) 356 891 130 (10.2%) 130 1 1 0 .2%) 65 [S.O%) 65 [S.O%) 729 (64,a%j 97 ( 8 .6%) 235 4 1 (3.611) 24 (2.1%) 3.865 (70.6%) Total 3273 1281 1 1 26 Overall, there were approx im ately 1,550 participants in the new resident incentive program who are new regula r users of the targe t ed transit systems These new users will generate 465,082 annual t rips and new transit re venues of $697,624 For each incentive dollar invested, $6.02 of new transit revenue was generated, as shown in Table 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Crain & Associates, Inc. was the fulfillment and evaluation subcontractor to MetroDynamics for the new resident direct mail program described here. Gary E d son was the Project Manager and provided excellent guidance and support throughout the project. Ben Chuck of Cal trans District 4 was the client and enabled the consulting team to construct the experimental design features of the program. The program success has led to a second year of new resident mailing in addition to a new and similar incentive program at the work site. 475

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Househol d Mailings 1n Corridor Hous.eholds Oelivared Tont oommuto1 checks Total Households lnc91ltives sent Who..,_, incenlive icl
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MEMPHIS AREA COMMUTER CLUB: A CREATIVE APPROACH TO FOSTERING INTEREST AND PARTICIPATION IN AREAWIDE RIDESHARE PROGRAMS By Alan Gray, Manager, and Dana Brandon, Special Programs Coordinator Memphis Area Rideshare FEBRUARY 1, 1994 ABSTRACT: Areawide rideshare programs have received renewed impetous with revisions to the Clean Air Act and passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. However, the commuter ridesharing promotional approaches of the 1970s and early 1980s are proving to be less than in the 1990s. Staff with Memphis Area Rideshare elected to seek fresh approaches to the promotion and delivery of ridesharing services. Taking a cue from total quality management (TQM) concepts, the staff (1) took time out to listen to customers and potential customers; (2) then moved to recast the overall program, revamp services, and to develop new ones more responsive to identified needs and interests in the community; and (3) creatively implemented new outreach and service delivery approaches more suited. to the realities of contemporary urban area travel markets. Among other improvements1 the reconfiguration and repositioning of Memphis Area Rideshare led to development of the Memphis Area Commuter Club. With the advent of the Commuter Club, commuters are no longer asked to fill out survey forms for ""rideshare matching""; instead, they are offered the opportunity to "join a free club" with tangible membership privileges and benefits. Launched in July 1993, the Commuter Club offera a variety of advantages over earlier approaches to promoting shared-ride alternatives and is proving to be an effective venue for building up new multidimensional and multilevel constituencies for helping to sustain and overall rideshare program efforts.

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MEMPHIS AREA COMMUTER CLUB: A CREATIVE APPROACH, TO FOSTERING INTEREST AliD PARtiCIPAtiON IN AREAWIDE RIDESHARE PROGRAMS By Alan Gray, Manager, and Dana Brandon, Special Programs Coordinator Memphis Area Rideshare FEBRUARY 1, 1994 lUIRODUCIION/PROBbEM STATEMENT: Areawide rideshare programs have received renewed impetous with revisions to the Clean Air Act and passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. These Federal laws encourage (and to an extent, also mandate) promotion of carpooling, vanpooling, paratransit, and public transportation commuting alternatives to r e duc e "mobile source" air pollution and to help achieve transportation system management goals such as "congestion mitigation." It is obvious that in orde r to make any noticeable impact, rideshsring efforts must somehow be able to reach out and involve significant numbers of people. In the "energy crisis" and "stagflation" of the mid-l,970s to early 1980s, when commuting costs were rapidly escalating and when the availability and cost of gasoline were real concerns in the minds of many p eople, this was generally readily accomplished. Typically, rideshare programs worked through major employers to survey and match as many employees as possible for shared-ride commuting arrangements. In those days, when the majority of ongoing formal rideshsring programs were first launched, it was .often possible to quicl
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In a handful of areas with especially severe air pollution problems, o r in selected urban corridors with pronounced traffic congestion, local officials may be able to mandate that employers implemtnt employee rideshare programs. They may also be able to program supportive measures such as parking supply restrictions, toll roads, or high occupancy vehicle lanes to at least partially counter the powerful incentives that now encourage single occupant commuting. these approaches are generally not politically acceptable in many (if not most) urban areas at this time. So, the problem has become this: how can local officials desirous of pursuing Federal clean air and transportation system management mandates through the implementation of strategies which include ridesharing motivate significant numbers of commuters to become a part of such efforts? Or stated another way, give n the array of powerful incentives which encourage drivealone commuting, and a bsent a prominent motivating factor such as an henergy crisis", how can local officials get most people to even consider ridesharing options? THE SOLUTION: Staff with Memphis Area Rideshare housed in the MemphisShelby County Office of Economic and Resource Development. frustrated in recent years with the growing lack of interest on the part of employers and commuters, elected to seek new and fresh approaches to the promotion and delivery of ridesharing services. Taking a cue from total quaHty management (TQM) concepts and using some plain, old-fashioned entrepreneurial common sense, a decision was made to bring about radical changes in previous ways of "doing business" with such changea to be guided by insights gained by "listening to customers" (real people who live and work in the community). A continuing commitment was made to develop and deliver creative services more responsive to real mobility needs. The process included making a deliberate move to downplay former notions that ridesharing is an energy conservation or air quality program and to instead view the program as primarily a community and regional trtnsportation program which should offer high quality, tangible services that are responsive to the identified needs and interests of real people. In this context, transportation (which consumes l8+X of household fncome) is rightfully seen as a critical h\llllan n eed and lifestyle concern. alongside shelter, health care, job opportunities. etc. In essence, and with considerable improvisation along the way, the Memphis Area Rideshare staff went through a three phase process. In response to growing lack of interest in traditional ridesharing services and marketing tactics, and in the face of resultant increasingly mediocre program results, the staff (1) took time out to listen to customers and potential customers; (2) then moved to recast the overall program, revamp ex.istina services, and to develop new ones more responsive to identified needs and interests in the community; and (3) creatively designed and implemented new outreach and service delivery approaches more suited to the realities of contemporary urban area travel markets. The assessment and repositioning of Memphis Area Rideshare (with the support and indulgence of key program funding agencies and partners such as the Federal Highway Administration Division Office, Tennessee Department of Transportation, the University of Tennessee and the Tennessee Vans program, and the Metropo litan Planning Organization) led to the rapid development and implementation of a range of new service offerings. So far, these have included more flexible third party commuter vanpooling options for a wider variety of clients, a new "no downpayment, pay as you go" vehicle acquisition 479

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program for non-profit agencies and community organizations, and an entrepreneurial services program (ESP) targeted to nurture the success of existing and new for-profit commuter transportation providers in the with a special emphasis on those interested in serving the mobility needs of disabled individuals. But one especially creative new program offering which we want to highlight in this paper is the Memphis Area Commuter Club. With advent of the Commuter Club, commuters are no longer asked to fill out a survey form for "rideshare matching" (something most are dubious of or are just not very interested in); instead, they are offered the opportunity to "join a free club" with tangible membership privileges and benefits. MORE ABOUI THE COMMUTER CLUB: Anyone residing in the urban area is welcome to join the Memphis Area Commuter Club. Io sign-up for a free, no obligation, twelve month membership, all a person has to do is fill out a short and simple application card, or they can join over the phone by calling the Memphis Area Commuter Club "Hotline" at 576-RIDE. Commuter Club members receive a range of benefits, including free emergency ride home privileges via taxi or rental ear, discounts at over 130 area businesses sponsors, a quarterly newsletter, free personalized information on shared-ride transportation alternatives (including various carpool, vanpool, paratransit, and public transportation options), free vanpool trial rides and discounts, free "Dollars and Cents Reports" which help people calculate the .cost of owning and operating their personal vehicle (or help them in making informed when purchasing a new or used car), a membership kit and ID card, and. other 11good1ea." SELECTED RESULtS AHD BEHEFITS: The Commuter Club was launched in July 1993 via a targeted direct mail campaign and news releases. Publicity was not a problem. It was anticipated that, by virtue of its uniqueness, the Commuter Club would quickly capture the attention of the local media, and this was indeed the case. The Commuter Club made front page news in The Commercial Appeal twice in the first week aione, received plenty of coverage in other print media, and six area radio stations volunteered (unsolicited) to run PSAs. Initially, Memphis "'rea Rideshare staff were almost ov erwhelmed with requests to appear on TV and radio talk shows. Since the July 1993 launch, the Commuter ClUb membership base has grown weekly and,. at this writing, numbers in the thousands. And, as the Club size increases, so does business sponsorship interest. The Commuter Club. concept offers a variety of advantages over earlier approaches to promoting shared-ride alternatives. Besides helping to overcome the lack of interest/motivation of many commuters to "register" with a rideshare program by providing tangible incentives such as guaranteed emer gency rides, discounts, and other membership benefits, the Commuter Club is an excellent vehicle for "personalization" of outreach efforts. Vis the newsletter and other regular communications to membership, the Commuter Club creates new and rich opportunities for "relationship marketing" (to keep current c.arpoolers and vanpoolers 11in the fold.") and. "aftermarketing" (to periodically follow-up and incrementally win over new ridesharing "converts"). It should also be emphasized that the Commuter Club provides a means to reach out and involve people from all walks of life, no matter whether they 480

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are employed or unemployed, students or retire d people, young or old, male or female, rich or poor, black or white, or central city or suburban Because of this, the Commuter Club provides a vehicle to penetrate a wide variety of urban area trave l markets (it should be noted that work trips--the traditional target of conventional ridesharing promotions--comprise only about 20% of urban area travel and this percentage has been declining). Even hard core drive-alones who would probably otherwise never even consider becoming involved in any way with a rideshare effort (and who in the past may have been alienated and .. turned -off" by illconc eived marketill8 messages which often tended to depict single occupant commuters as wasteful, illogical, or environmentally insensitive people, not unlike the way smokers have lately been depicted in antismoking advertising campaigns) can be readily involve d in the Commuter Club. By involving all types of people, and by sending no one away empty handed (even if they cannot currently be match e d" for ridesharing, they still r eceive Commuter Club benefits), and by involving area buaineaaea as "sponsors and "supporters", the Commuter Club has quickly become a highly effective venue for rapidly building up n e v multidimensional and multilevel constituencies for sustaining the overall rideshare program. Growing numbers of people and levels of p articipation conaequently are helping to boost the ability of the urban area to demonstrate compliance with EPA/DOT transportation-air quality mandates and are helping to leverage the support of area political leaders and key funding agencies--so important when budget time comes around. With regard to quantitative benefits, an assessment of the Commute r Club database has do c umented the following annualized and related mobility impacts: 28,378,306 miles of vehicle travel reduced, 517,336 kilograms of carbon monoxide air polution emissions eliminated, and 56,189 kilograms of hydrocarbon air pollution emissions eliminated. These benefits are expected togrow as the Commuter C l ub membership base expands. Some other benefits the Commuter Club approach generates include the following: overall rideshare program database maintenance is facilitated because the continuous and often grueling process of keeping an adequate number of fresh names on the computer maaterfile now comes down to simply renewing memberships in the Commuter Club and access to the membership benefits gives people a real incentive to enaure that the rideahare program has their current home and work addresses, phone numbers, etc.; Commuter Club efforts are quickly building up a rich and unique database for use in all kinds of transportation planning efforts; for local covernments considering implementing an areawide emergency ride home program, the Commuter Club approach offers a way to control access and facilitate monitoring of such programs; in addition, the eme rgency ride home component of the Commuter Club is helping to draw taxi and rental car providers in as rideahare program supporters and may ultimately lead to creative ways to utilize these transportation resources as important elements of the community-wide mobility system; and, though it involves a considerable amount of vork, implementing the CoDDuter Club approach is interesting (even "fun") work for previously frustrated rideshare pro&ram staff and, by ita very nature, encouraaea professional growth by increasing staff networking among buaineas leaders and increases the frequency of staff communication with the entire spectrum of real people who live and work in the community. 481

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. PROGRAM COST: The Commuter Club effort has been eost effective because it has not really required Memphis Area Rideshare to add new staff or expenditures, except for some minimal funding for the emergency ride home program. The emergency ride home service was planned to be implemented anyway and, based on experience to date, is only expected to cost about six or seven thousand dollars a year (only a small percentage of Commuter Club members actually use the emergency ride home benefits). The Commuter Club effort basically has just involved doing ongoing ridesharing awareness and marketing work in a new and different way. Therefore, we believe that the approach is readily transferable to other jurisdictions and, in most eases, would not significantly increase operating costs for already established rideshare programs. Just for the record, it is estimated that Memphis Area Rideshare has spent approximately $78,000 in staff time, printing marketing collateral, postage, etc., in planning and launChing the Commuter Club. Funding was programmed through a USDOT Congestion Mitigation Air Quality grant. Additional resources have been committed to continue the Commuter Club at least through 1997. All the work (except printing) has been done in-house with existing Memphis Area Rideshare staff. fUTURE PLANS: Given a metro area population of a million and a multitude. of venues (worksites, churches, schools, organizations, clubs, etc.) available for outreach and promotion, there is every expectation that the Commuter Clnb membership ean be expanded alllost without limit. And, as membership expands, it should become increasingly easier to bring in more area business sponsors. Besides continuing to expand the membership and sponsor bases, plans eall for incrementally and creatively enhancing membership benefits and testing the possibility of generating program revenue by selling advertising in the Club membership kit, newsletter, and other promotional materials. It is also conceivable thst at some point it may become feasible to dues for membership in.the Commuter Club. Given a large_ and expanding membership base, even a token membership fee could generate a meaningful new revenue stream for supporting sustained rideshare program activities. For additional information on the Memphis Area Commuter Cl'llb, contact: MBMPHIS AREA RlDESHARE CITY HALL, 125 NORTH MAIN STREET MBMPBIS, TN. 38103 (901) 576-7433 482

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Baby, You Can Drive My Car: How We Were Sold on Automobiles/Marketing the Alternatives by: Kathryn Hughes City of Oakland Hot Links Employee Commute Options ABSTRACT This slide show presentation begins with the assumption that we often try to "fix" things before we have a good understanding of their complexity. Changing commute behavior is not as simple as fixing potholes in the road. Before we try to "fix" this behavior, we might want to spend a lillie more time coming to grips with our cultural habits and lifestyles how these lifestyles developed and particularly how they have been marketed to us over the course of many years. A close look at how cars and driving have been marketed reveals not only a variety of deep subliminal messages and cultural mythologies, but also some interest ing possib l e strategies for unmarketing cars and promoting the alternatives. Our culture's preoccupation with mobility and control, as reflected in our language "life in the fast lane," "spinning your wheels," "being in the driver's seat," "pulling the brakes on a relationship," "cruising the InterNet," to name a few popular exp ressions -reveals some of the subliminal associations we make with driving our cars. The audience may be asked to come up with a few of their own. The slide show takes the audience on a colorful excursion through the his tory of car marketing to show the long and complex process by which Americans have come to identify with their cars It shows how it was as difficult to get people into cars (late 1800s into the 1920s) as it is now to get them out of them, target market ing to women as early as the 1920s, the transition from the open to the closed car and the social impl ica tions the marketing of the family car from the 20s to the 40s, the marketing of sexual identity, status and freer lifestyles in the 50s and 60s, more diversified marketing to inc lude ethnic groups, retirees, professional women, etc., in the 70s and 80s, impact of the oil crisis, and finally, interior comforts, the myth of the open road, and personal anonymity promoted in current car marketing -and the reflection of something ominous in current advertising that may hold special importance for counter-marketing Own conclusions. May ask audience for theirs. It has taken a century to comp lete our personal identification with cars. It may take as long to change our ingrained habits and associations. A history of car marketing also shows that new equipment and transportation inf rastructure improvements developed hand in hand with intense marketing efforts to develop a clientele to take advantage of them. 483

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. Recent tv and magazine ads unconsciously reflect that cars may have brought us to a dead end Early photos of the late 1800s and early 1900s bring back to us a time of more social cohesion, shared va l ues and a sense of community Current advert i sement reflects social i so l ation and fragmentation a loss of community and a yearning for wide open spaces that are no longer eas ily accessible Expressions is our langu age li ke "Getting away from It all" arid "the wide open spaces : reflect cultural mythology about limitless space t o be explored (o n this planet at least) and ignore the realities of compacted space brought about by urban sprawl and congested roads and freeways. Countermarketing must more effectively explore new images of freedom. By ridesharing, for Instance, you have more stressfree downtime, s it ting back, relaxing and reading a book ou. tslde your van or carpool the traffic rages, and stop and go traffic stalls irritated drivers, who curse each other for Joss of their right to the long since-disapp eared "open road To market commute alternatives we may be wise to promote the alternatives as safe, simple to use, sexy, and chic as cars themselves were marketed. I have seen a great B i ke to Work Day E-Mai l notice for a bike b uddy that parodied a s ingl es ad: "Me, single veteran biker; you novice, but willing to Jearn ... le t s meet at the corner of Moss and VIne for an e x hilarati ng ride ... The notice made b i cycling seem hiP. and sexy neverm in d that i t s a nonpollu t ing commute alternat ive. A more sophisticated marketing approach will require making the supposed advantage of the modern car --it s tendency to Isolate and protect the driver from his or surroundings -as part of the problem rather than the solution. . To take on the media and advertising ima ges that put a pos i t ive spin on tr aveling In an enclosed space bubble between work and home, perhaps we can make the social aspects of traveling together look more attractive. For instance, _overcoming social isolation by making ridematches based on shared interests. Downtown zip c
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CTR Trock by : Katy Taylor TOM Coordinator Spokane County Engineers 10 26 W Broadway Spokane, WA 99260 Phone: (509)456-3600 Fax: (509) 324 3487 ABSTRACT CTR Track i s a n innovative software program developed by Spokan e County The program was created to meet our affected employers desire to ttack the panlclpation of their employees in commute tnp reduc t ion (C TR) efforts. Employers wanted a tool to assess the effectiveness of their CTR programs and to have yea r-ro und documentation of participation By hav ing monthly and cumulative reports employ ers will have the opportunity to compare survey with actual data Spokane County's Intent was to develop a program In Windows to monijor participation mode usage for all motorized and non-motorized modes including telecommuting and compressed wor1< weeks and cost per emp l oyee for i n centives and subsid ies at participating worksltes. The scope of the program has grown considerably however. and it now also offers the following : Bar Code technology to streamline the entry of monthly employee participation information to reduce staff time; Monitoring of other t ransportation rel ated activities, for example, guaranteed ride home usage, number of employees using preferential parking, and participation in promctional events Consistent reports can also be generated for use by employers juris dictions, and the state. and Ad hoc reporting capabilities are built into the program provid i ng a flexible means to query the databases Additionally. a variety of formulas were used to Identify the effectiveness of our CTR efforts in meet i ng air qualijy standards and traffic congestion reduction Each month participating employees complete a participation record sheet provided by the County which may be customized at the WOI1
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Dade CQunl! TM4]Jt{1/ustl<>n Mcth(!dDIDgr DADE COUNTY TDM EVALUATION METIIODQLOGY By: Raj Sbanmugam P.E. Barton-Ascbma n Associates Inc. William E. Gaut ATE Man agement & Services Co., Inc. Andy Mundew ATE Management & Services Co., Inc. Abstract There are many methodologies ex.ist to e9alu.ate and monitor a 'JMA' s performance. In the state ofFlorJda the manual 'Evalua1lon and Monitoring ofTMA Pedotmance", developed by the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR), is used as the guide t o s the criteria, it docs not adequately define data collection and summary Tl.te Dade County MPO with the help of ol)ter agencies have initiated tile formation of TMAs and TMOs around Dade County. To evaluate these TMAs, in July 1993, a study was undenaken to d.-.elop speclflc quantitative evaluation methodologies to supplement the CUTR manual. The study consisted of three major tasl c) Dev e lop specifoc quantitative Evaluation Metllodology to supplement CUTR manual The CUTR manual defines a broad spectrum of evaluation factors. There are two factors specllically oriented towards measuring the efforts upon traffic conges1lon, air pollution, or fuel consumption. They are average vehicle occupancy (AVO) and vehi
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Dade Cnunty TMA Euluati
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Dode Counlf TMA EvalualiAn Methodology 1 Methodologx A telephone survey was conducted of 15 TransponationManagement Associations ae., Inc. 488

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Dade C()unn TMA. Ero/uotinn Mcthndnlney Public/press 3 City 2 EVALUATION PROGRAMS A. VEHICLE OCCUPANCY RATE Vehicle occupancy rate is a ratio of total peJ:Sons to total vehicles. An increase in vehicl.e occupancy r.:nes indicate a conversion from single drivers to another mode. There are two primal)' definitions of vehicle occupancy rate. The first is the ratio of all pe!$ons working in a specific location to the number of vehicles used by those persons. This de-finition is not a true vehicle occupant.')' rate as it includes persons w..tlk.ing or bicycling to Vi'Ork. This occupancy rate is more accurately refeued to as an Average Vehicle Employee Occupancy {A VEO). A more widely accepted rate is that used by traffic engineers which is a ratio of persons traversing to work in a {motor) vehicle to the number of vehicles used by those persons. This ratio is referred to as average vehicle occupancy {AVO). Although not a direct measure of congestiOI\, this ratio is relatively easy to develop and is a good measure of mode changes. Therefore, it is selected as a criterion of evaluating the effectiveness of TMAs. B TRIP REDUCTION Vehicle trip reduction is a direct measure of traffic congestion Reducing the total number of vehicles in a given time period will reduce the traffic congestion in that period. Total vehicles to a specified locatjon a .re relatively easy lo measure and is selected as an evaluation criterion. C. LEVEL OF SERVICE Level of Service is another measure utillled by transportation engineers to measure traffic congestion Service levels arc a measure of traffic volumes versus the capacity of a facility. Capacities are computed as a function of the characteristics of the vehicle traffic and the configura lion and type of roadway facility. The development of specificlevels of service usually requires the expertise of a uamc engineer. For a roadway system which remains relatively co n sta n t, the level of service is direcUy related to total vehicles. Transportation demand strategies do not typicaUy involve modifying roadway capacities. Therefore for purposes ofTMAevaluations, total vehicles as opposed to level of service, is a sufficient measure of traffic congestion. D. VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED Vehicle miles traveled {VMT) is a general measure of traffic congestion. Reductions in VMT will r esult in tess overall traffic and consequenlly less congestion. The most effective methOd for developingaceurate estimates ofVMT are of commuters VMT is also the primary variabl.e in calculating air pollutants and fuel consumption. lt is therefore selected as an evaluation criterion. E. MODE SHARE /MODE CHANGE Mode shate is a measure of the percentage of persons traveling to a site who do not drive alone. This is a similar ratio to a v erage vehicle occupancy. however, is not as widely accepted Selecting it as a criterion would be redundant to the more accepted average vehicle occupancy. lkzrtonA.schmon .A.uociaJcs, Inc./ATE Management & Scrrias Co., Inc. 489

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Dad6 Co11nty TM1. Mcthodoloa F VEHICLE HOURS TRAVELED Vehicle hOurs traveled is related to vehicle miles traveled. VMT is a more common measure used t o estimate pollutants a n d fuel consumption. G TRANSPORTATION SERVICE SUPPLY Clif\NOES Transportation service supply changes measure Changes in supply (ie., transit) for specific strategies. The measure is not generic enough for inclusion as a criterion. H. PERSON TRIPS Person trips is related to vehicle trips. Vehicle trips are more directly relat e d to congestion. I PARTICIPATIONRATE Participation r ate ,is-similar to m ode share. Average vehicle occupancy isa more accepted criterion. J. VEHICLES PER EMPLOYEE Vehicles per employee is a vehicle generation ra t e It normalizes the vehicle criteria by accounting for increases or decreases in employees for a given location from one year to the next To account for these employee changes, an employee variable should b<; incJ.uded in the measurement criteria. VEHICLES P ER SQUARE FOOT Vehicles per square foot is a vehicl e generat i on rate similar to vehicles per employee. The number of employees is a better mea sure of trip changes than the number of square feet. EVALUATION CRITERIA Three eva l uation criteria have been selected for evaluating the effectiveness ofTMA strategies as they relate t o traffic congestion. These a re: Total vehicles Average vehicles occupancy Vehicles miles of traveL To ta l daily vehicles measures the effect of mode choice changes These include Change from drive alone to car pool, bicycle, walk or telecommute. Average vehicle occupancy is an indicato r of effectiveness of mode changes Vehicle miles is a general measure of congestion and Is ntllized to develop air pollution and fue l consumpl!on changes. The distribu1i on of lraffic throughout the day has a significant effect upon traffic congestion. Often the highest level of congestion occurs during the morning and evening peak or roshhours. TMAstrategies can be oriented toward modifying employee arrival and departlj.re times so that do not occur during the peak hours. Therefo r e, to accommodate these strategies, a t ota l peak hour vehicle criteria should b e lnclu'ded as a TMA effecliveness measure A cow;iderationin determining levels of change in travel beltaviorresulting form TMAstrategies is the number of employees affected both before and after the implementation. A significant decrease in the total vehicle trips r esulting from a TMA strategy cannot necessarily be expected if the number of employees in<:reases twofold. conversely a decrease in employees can create a decrease in vehicle trips which is unr elated to the TMA strategy. J1.ar(()1J../Uchman Ass.ociaru, Inc./ATE Management & Se,.,ID!& Co., Inc. . '490

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Dqde Cnuna TMA EqluaJihn Mcthpdp(!!n To account for v.uiations in the number of employees, measures should be based upon rates per employee. Therefore total vehicles sbould be total vehicles per employee. Similarly, the measure for vehicle miles should be total vehicle miles per employee. Since average vehicle occupancy is' a rate, it is not affeC1ed by the number of employee.. Compressed workweeks are another consideration in establishing criteria. F o r example, i(a company changed from a five day to a four day work week, a survey on any given day would result in a ii any, changes in trip rates per employee However, in ae1uality the number of trips per week will have been decreased by about 20 perc:ent. To reflect this time management strategy, tile criteria shoul
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Dade Cnuntr TMA EvtJ/uaJifln McthndtJ!ngy M EASURE1'<1ENT METHODS M ea surement methods for TMAs must be able to establish the differe n ce in the criteria ove r a period of time. For example, assume that in 1993 before the implementation of transportation demand measures, a gi\en company has 100 employee vehicle trips per day. Furt her, assume tha t in 1994 following the imp l eme ntat ion of a carpool program, the same emp l oye r has 90 emp loyee vehicle trips per day Ass u ming n o other trip m aking changes t he t tip reduction, or difference, is 1 0 t rips or 10 peroent. U sing the same example, assume the 100 employee vehicle trips carried a total of 120 employees This would yield a n Average Ve hicle Occupancy (AVO ) of 1.20. AISume the 90 employoe vehicle trips carried the same 120 employee trips for an AVO of1.33. I n the example lbe AVO increases by 11 percent. Lastly as sume that the original100 e mployee vehicles trips travelled an average of 20.0 miles or a total of 2,000 vehicles miles per day. Assume that !he 90 employee vehicl e trips average 18.0 miles or a total of 1,620 ve hicl e miles per d ay The vehicle mile red uctio n would be 380 miles or 19 These examples illustrate meas u rements of improvement caused by TMAstrategies. However, t he derivati on of the infonn a tion (I.e., vehicle trips, AVO and vehicle miles) to make thes e comp a risons can involve significant effo rt. There are two basic methods for determining the number of vehicle t rips a n d the average vehicle occupancy. The first of these involves condul'(ing a sur ve y of the employees affected by the TMA stra tegy. The seco n d method entails conducting a field sur
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tJau t..nunrr J MA Methndolna effective. However, as wil h any sur\'cy, poor management and control of the survey can crea1e inaccurate results. The design or the survey is aL
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.c-i .... .._ -........ l--'1-"-' T""< lll l -o-.w.rw.. .... I ------1 r tliiNM ,..._ .... ,.. ... _, ..,.. R-X HIAlT 1 EMPLOYER TRA'IB. SURIIEY ,., ... ,. tt. "-ACe AM X .. 'DE IICnJJ YOU WID 10 OIT lO WOMIOAIA04 OAYO!Il'H SUIWEVWISK ,.,..,...,.,.... .............. .,.....,... ,.,.....,...,..a-a.,. .... --. -11\ACi AN lC wt 'ntE MeTHOD 'YOU I,IIID TO 01r' 1'1110111 """"" .._,.., M IIH( OM X In ch OII(IIWWIJ .,.,.IIMfiOd. til nmll. .. .,. ..... ,. ol ....... CIIIIIIIM. -"""_ ... 3 'I. ..... -:::::.-0....,_ ,... ........ _9__. DrivoCarpool v T,.,..-III.c TriNii-Aol Bfc)oc -TlleOOmmuee Vocation -o;o Not Wartc Oflor T""" E XHt8 1T 2 SAMPLE E MPLOYER TRAVEL SURVEY SUMMAR) T otal Numbtr ot Perlol'l$ Mon ... da Thorutav fflttav 1 00 17 95 102 e T 12 10 5 2 s 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 2 , 1 1 2 0 3 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 125 125 125 125 3 12 1 0 1 1 0 3 0 125 Avaoe No .afhople tnv.hidt 2 , 30'

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Dtuk Cnuntr TMA E.-cdualinn Mcth(ld(llnf' In the event the employee carpools, vanpools or t akes lfansil for any work lfip during the week, the employee should enter the average number or people in the vehicl e in the appropri a t e box in the (ar right oolumn. Typically carpool s and vanpoolS carry the same number or people each day or a week If riding a lfansit bus, the employee shou l d enter an estimate of the number of persons on the bus. This assists i n the eventual computa tion of total bus trips requi red by the employees. AI the bottom of the sun.-ey, the employee should enter the work arrival and depanure times for each day of the week If the employee did not tra\>el 10 the place o r work, the oells for that day should be left blank. Lastly, lhc employee should e n te r the distance from home to th e place or work in m iles d Survey Assistance A person should be designated tO assist employees w ith questions regarding the survey. This person should generally be availab l e to all survey participantS Ideally lhe survey forms should be disseminated to the emp l oyees dur ing the week prior 10 t he survey week. At this time t he purpose-and importance O( the survey, as weU as SUJ:'\ey instruction, sbould be explained to the participants. ArrangementS should be made to collect the survey on the Monday after the su rvey week Prompt collections emphasizes the importance of the survey. After collectio n the surveys shou l d be reviev.-ed visually to ensure proper completion. Any obvious errors sh.ould be corrected or the survey should be discarded as invalid. h is desirable t o comp u te percentages or valid responses by department. For those departmentS with low percentages, the depamnent head or respon sible pany should be given additional tr-&ining to ensure proper participation of the next survey. Survey p r ocessing can be done through manual tabulations, a computer sprea4sheet or a compu ter program. The processing should be oriented toward calculating the defined traffic congestion criteria Following is a description of manual tabulation methods w hich can be used to develop a -Spreadsheet or a computer program a Compute Total Weekly Veh icles Per Employee Exhibit2 illustrates sample survey resultS for an employer of125 employees Each of the cells for Monday through F riday is an accumulation of the 125 survey responses. The values for average number or people in vehicle for the pooling and bus transi t oells are a verages or the respondentS. For example, for bus transit, 7 people responded. The average number or people in lhe vehicle responses were: Response Number Number of People 1 35 2 33 3 25 4 21 5 24 6 35 7 37 Total 210 BartonAschman As.sociaiU, Inc./ATE Management & Scrvius Co., Inc. 4 9 5

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Dgde Cnuo& '[J'O,f4 Pvalualian Mctl10dnlngy Dividing 210 by 7 yields a n average of 30. Vanpooling and ca rp ooling averages are computed similarly. It is recognized that these values are n ot p r ecise Howe\'f:f. they are of suffiCient precision to meet th e goals of evaluating T.MAS. Using these sampl e values, Exhibit 3 illustrates the actual computation of total weekly vehicles per employee. Firstly, total weekly persons are com pu ted by s u mming the \'alues o ( eaeb r ow for the fiVe days These values are t han ( otaled yielding 625. Total weekly vehicles are then computed for each row by diving th e t ota l wee kl y by the following values: I I Drive Alone 1 i car pool 2 I Va npool 11 I Trans it bus 30 AU Others 0 These values are then totaled yielding 505.8. Tota l weekly vehicles per employee is then computed by dividing t otal '"hi cl es (505 .8) by total employees {125) yielding 4 05. Computations for the trip from work to home would be completed in the same manner b Compute Total Peak Hour Vehicles Per Week P e r E!llp l o yee The computations fo r total peak hour vehicles pe r week per employee are the s a me as those for total weekly whicles per emp l oyee with one exception The accumulated oeU values shown in Exhibit 2 reflect peak hour volumes r athe r than tota l daily v olumes. rn order to establish the peak pour volumes, it is necessary to first define the morning and evening peak ho u rs in the geographical area of the employer. The city traffiC engineering depart m ent or local m e tropolitan p l anning o r ganization are u.
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.......... c.,. ... v..., ... Ttamit-8w Tramll Ft.ll llt:)'CII -TeiKOIM'IIAI -.... Did NcJt Wotk """' '"" """'_,. c.pooo v.,... ... T,.,...-But ,,......_IW 8lcjdo w Tv..-Sick adHotWOttt 00. T .... EXHIBIT 3 SAMPLE EMPLOYER TRAVEL SURVEY SUMMARY .,. .. No. ot Ptcplt Tu.MIIY -""'""' '""' 11'1 V.llicll ... ., .. 102 .. sl 7 2 11 10 12 2 .. 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 '2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 "' 12$ 12$ 125 12$ 505.1 T.a WMir:ly Vl\lcttl ... ._ 501.1112$ or 4.05 Total h Vhiat. .... Ave,.,. v ..... ...... EXHIBIT t .. UOJIOS.Iot 1.17 '""" ... ,. .. 1 7 0 ,. SAMPLE EMPLOYER TRAVEL SURVEY SUMMARY lObi! of No.ofPtoplt Mon T 'i'Md 1hur Frl In V tidl .. 100 "" .. 102 .. 7 2 11 12 10 11 12 11 2 $ 30 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 125 125 12$ 125 12$ To&ll WMIIty VtHclet TCiblw.ot,VIIhi:ies ..... VtNcle ....... ... ... .. so 5.1 .. 0.7 0 1 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 02!1 ..... T""' ....... .... 491$ ... 712 .. .. 0 0 0 0 0 0230 ... 5.1 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 ..... 4915 103 6S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51st

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c. Com p ute Averag e Vehi cle O<:cupancy Per Week Ave r age vehi cle occupancy is defmed as total persons in vehicles divided by the total number of vehicles. Referring to Exhibit 3 the total number of wee kl y pe r sons in 625 and the tOtal numb e r o f weekly vehicles is 505 8 The total n u mber of persons in vehi cl es, however, is the sum of drive alon e, car poo l van pool, and transit or in this example 590 persons. The avera ge vehicle occupancy the n is 59 0 per sons d ivided by 505.8 vehicles or 1.1 7. d Comp ute T o ta l Weekly Veh icle Miles Per Emp l oyee Exhibit 4 Ulusna t e.' total person miles for eac h row for the sample data. The actu a l comp u tation of each of these row totals is n o t shown. The derivation of the va l ues is simp ly the accumulati o n of the person mil e s for each survey is the row As a n example, the data for the walking mode is as follows: Sample Number Sample Day Distance 1 Monday 9.4 2 Monday 1.3 3 Tuesday 0 9 4 Wednesday 1.1 5 Wednes d ay 0.7 6 Titursday ].] 1 Friday 0.5 Total Person Miles 6 0 The vehicle m iles in eaeh r ow are computed b y dividing by the average n u mbe r of people in the vehi cle for each row. For those cat ego r ies w ith vehicles involved, the vehicle miles is zero. The tot a l vehicle mile s is the summation of the row t otals equaling 5,169. The total w eekly vehicl e miles per employee is 5,169 divided by the total emp l oyees, 125 or 41.4. 4. Develo p O ther Criteria The two criteria which are related t o vehic l e miles are t ons o f air pollu t ants and g a llons of fuel consumed. a Compute air pollutants The thtee prevalent air poll utants from mobile so urces a r e car bon monoxide (CO), h ydrocarbons (HC) and ninous oxides (NOX). Ave rage a mazon rates for a s p ecified a rea can o f ten be obtained from the Metropolitan Planning O rganization (MPO). In the absence of tha t data, the follo w ing can be used. BartorvAscbman Assocla14S, Jnc./AIE Management & Se,.,is Co. Inc. 4 9 8

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Dade Cbuntr TMA Era/uatinn Mct/1()(/n/ngr Po ll utant No n -Transit ve.hicJe. T ran sit co 24 grams per mile 80 grams per mile HC 5 grams per mile 7 grams per mile NOX 2 grams per mile 40 grams per mile Applying th es e rates to the sample toull ''ehicle miles illustrated in Exhibit 4 yields the following results. N on-transit vehicle miles t
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Dade Countr TMA Evaluation Mgt!wdplru:y SUMMARY Perlormance evaluation of TMAs is recognized as a need or requirement in both the literature search and by the TMAs themselves, as surveyed. In t he case of TMAs in Florida, evaluations are r equirea of those organizations which recei<'e start-up or other funding from the Florida Deparrment of Transportation The CUTR proce ss is followed, but it is not applied consistently. Some TMAs are not required to use the evaluation. and no t all measures are used by each Th1A. Otherwise, there is-no consistent or standardized procedure by which to evaluate the performance of TMAs. This situation.exists, in part, due to the relative; newness of the TMAs thcmscl'r'cs. Most of t he Tl\-1As are still in a mode and among their major goals are to attract in addition to promoting transpo.nation programs. Most TM:As repon to their boards, which are composed primarily of members. These are typically companies wb.icb ate called upon to carry out many of the transponation programs, often involving reductions in trips and increases in occupancy. In addition, the TlvlA concept is relatively new and flexible. This is demonstrated by the array of different service areas covered by TMAs. Issues and targets which TMAs are established to deal with are localized and specialized. While 1'MAs have some common goals, actual objectives and targets may not be so clearly identified Without clear objecti\oes and targets any performance evaluation program is difficult to conduct. There is some consistency in the evaluation programs available to TM.As. Most center around quantitative measures such as Vehicle O
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BIBL I OGRAPHY 501 IW10n, W. l"::trid: j.brnov l#ld F JOloQh CMn.;hu. AJ$CJ.lin a tile UIOC1ivcfiC;U or Coouol Mcuures; 05e of Modell 10 Prcljt Mode Spiji fi&&:ins, Lori W &'ic N Schrefflu. 'SilNS Repon on Auoei&1ioft Oevdopmcnt In C.&Jifomla. TttWj1()114ti()ll kSNI'Clt Rtcotd No. JJ46, D.C. : Nalton&l AcadM'IJ Prc:u (1992), S3-61. Dowli.'IC, Rk.tlvd, F"d\1\tM, &Ad W'iWtm Wycto. "FKION 1'nn.sporution Dtll'lllld Pl\'llralll a1 S\1 fnnci$0 Neclia! TI1Nportltion Record No. ll21, 1<. of. J./41'141"/NIIl (Tf)Jd} NUWIU I() CMgesrioll;. SiJ'CJ Sprint, Matyb.l'ld, COM$1$ Cofpan.DM, 1990. Fuul0tl, Erik, Catherine Rop and Michad Mt1U. "TNUpoi'QQon MllllCtmefiC lmpleMefltaOoll. Uld Evdllllion. Tr.wponatiM ktd lh. /J44. D C.: h'2cional Academy Pft:sl, (199'2), )6.4). W. Rou and Mk.llad in lht Uft:i!Cd Siild, (May 1992}, U.S. [)qlutmcnl oiCom.mc:n::e, J.JS8 Glw:r, l.aW'f'O'IOC lcue&tld Cn.lll & 'Mc:uwa ofEiftivenw for T nmpcnuico Dc:nww:l Mll\alt!Mtll. R.eM41dt IJic4fd (11Nl A.A1fiJIIjJ Jletm., )lllfiiM1 1991, D.C.) Paper No. 921144 1 Hiqi.ns, lhonw J 'MoNtMin& atld Evaluadnc Elllp)oyu Buod De.aftd Proc.111m.. Ra.e4n:Jt hctN'd Nt:J. 1121, 113-1%1. Ho. Alft'J and hkkS "Cia Study co ltnpll:l of 4140 Com.pa:ucd Workwcet J"roC::ruul 01\ Trip Jtcduclion. lcsurdt Nrt. IJI6, D.C.: Nrliotu.l Preu. (1992), 25. Jacbon, Ronald J .. Dlflid T. Meycn. &lid 8N.n $ Boclwt. curTenc Effa:livti'ICSS Md Fullll't Poltllli&J otn..A Proer&rlU. (/991 AIWilll M-ttrilcl C/JfytNJiMm o{TtdlttiCQ/ ,.,,, A cf .. ttida M Tnwprotf41ioft (19t3) Ku:myali:, J. R.ich atd md Eric H. Scl\tefflu. *EYllualion of lbe Etfecd.WfttU ol Tnw.l DetNnd (ISI!JOMid Y.r Cbtt{trrMe 11/Ttdt..MdM Delfi4MI MQ!f410MN (1993), 11. Onkl. C Kennedl, EYllualina ltle Eff'octi:'1CSS ol Tmd Defll&lld 1991 fiB )(NrM/. Pl. lMI). _. of _.nido.,. DeJMIII4 JIONI.teJftCI'IJ (199)), 93. Onl:i, C Kcttnclh. "'EvallaDOil ol Employu Trip RcdUC!ieo f'rOC1UnJ 8ucd
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EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF TMA!fMO PERFORMANCE IN FLORIDA: FIRST YEAR EXPERIENCES Submitted by: Daniel Rudge Research Associate C e nter for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering University of South F l orida Tampa, FL 33620-5350 502

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EV ALUA.f!ON AND MONITORING OF TMAffMO PERFO!Uv1ANCE IN FLORIDA: FIRST YEAR EXPERIENCES I n t roductiQn In October 1992, t h e Florida Department of Transportation (FOOT) adop t ed the Eval uati o n and Monitoring of TMA Performance criteria t h at were prepared for the Comm uter Assistance P royam (CAP) by t h e Center for U r ban T ransportation Research (CUTR). At the t ime o f adoption, FOOT's Cen tr al Office man d a te d tha t a ll Florida TMAs receiving state seed funding must undergo an annual evaluation at the conclusion of ea c h fiscal year All eva l uations would be conducted i n ternal ly by each TMAffMO and the co m p let ed evaluations given to the TMA Clearinghouse (housed at CUT R) f or review. The TMA Clearinghouse is required t o c o mpile ev a l uations and final results A tota l o f fifteen i ndivid ual factors plus a separate factor for overall, were developed for use by the TMAsffMOs. T hese factors are: I) Level of private sector membership 2) Extent of co rp orate involvement i n activities 3) Mixture of r evenue sour c es 4) Adequacy of tinanc ial and management systems 5) Suitability of goals and planned activit ies 6 ) Degree of exte rna l visibility 7) Level of interaction with lo ca l transportation service providers or govenunent 8) Suitability of implemented programs for serv i ce area 9) Cost effectiveness o f proyarn s 10 ) Effectiveness of pr o gram s i n i mprovi n g Average Vehic le Occupancy II) Effecth eness of prog r ams i n re ducing congestion 12) Measure of TMA member satisfaction 1 3) Ext e n t of activities to fiscally sustain organization 14) Extent of activities to sustain and expand participation 15) Support of local transportation improvement efforts Thes e factors were developed to document the progr ess ea c h TMA was making in becoming a self-sustaining and viab l e organization Because of the amo un t of time required to comp l ete the eval u ation, all a n alysis would take place on data the TMAs w ere ro u tinely collecting or on documents r e q u ired by F OOT t o receive fund ing (i.e a work plan). As a result, most of the fact ors and the evaluation measures for each are activity-based rather than resultsba sed. There i s a cri ti ca l distinction between data and results. Data are usually oumerica l r epresenta tions of activity. Results require data to demonstrate performance and progress For e xam p l e, a TMO conducts 20 transportat ion days during a year. This is docume nta t ion of activity and serves as data a bou t the approach. The TMO reports that 300 persons registered for ridematch lists during the transportat ion day s actually formed pools, is docum entat ion o f re su lts. Because each TMAffMO is a unique entity not all factors will be appropriate fo r every TMA Therefore, each TMAffMO is req u ired to select a series of criteria tha t most accurately reflect their org a nizational structure and work plan includi n g goals and objectiv es The s elect i on process i s outlined in the met hodolo gy section below 503

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Each factor requires that the TMA provide specific support documents such as their financial audit, and complete a factor evaluation worksheet. This evaluation worksheet includes documentation of activities and, in some case s requires that calculations be completed to develop percentages or reduction quotients. After completion of these two steps, the TMAITMO reviews the information and determines into which of five ratings, (superior, notable adequate, passab l e, and poor) the results fall. The intention of the rating system is to identify areas where the TMA needs to focus future efforts to improve performance and thus improve their chance of becoming a viable and self-sustaining organization. For example, if a TMO receives a passable rating on one criteria and notable or above on the rest, then an area of focus for the coming year is on improving the score on the one passable criteria. The first evaluations, conducted during 1993, also were used as a test of the applicability of the criteria. A test was necessary since no baseline data or industry standard existed for the TMAs. In addition relative fairness of the rating system also needed to be tested. If all the TMAs did poorly on a factor, then the ratings would be adjusted to provide a fairer test of performance. Likewise if the criteria all were very high, then the factors would be adjusted to more stringently rate Florida's TMAsffMOs. The Tampa Bay area was selected as the first test site for the criteria and evaluations of the Westshore TMO and Downtown Tampa TMO were scheduled for the summer of 1993. In addition, the University Alafaya Corridor Transportation Association (UACT A), located in Orlando, also requested to be part of the test. Methodology At the request ofFDOT, the evaluation process was begun in late August/early September of 1993. A meeting ofTampa Bay Area TDM professionals, including the TMArrMO Directors, TMA Clearinghouse staff, the Executive Director of Bay Area Commuter Services, lnc.,and the FDOT District Seven Commuter Programs Manager, was called to select which criteria would be u se d to conduct the evaluations. TMA Clearinghouse staff, after examining the programs and organizational structure of each TMArrMO, recommended specific criteria for each of the organizations. Each of the Directors agreed with the recommendations as put forth by TMA Clearinghouse staff. The criteria selected for the Downtown T ampa TMO (see Table One) focus on activities that are crucial to the success of the Downtown Tampa TMO, public awareness, organizational structure, and member participation. The criteria for the Westshore TMO (see Table One) were selected after reviewing Westshore T MAs new organizational structure and goals and objectives. Because the TMA is also at the end o f the three year seed funding cycle, examination of fmancial structure also important. In the case of the University Alafaya Corridor Transportation in Orlando, a series of telephone conversations were held to determine the appropriateness of each of the criteria. The criteria selected (see Table One) were based on UACTA's position at the end of their three year funding cycle, and focused on self-sufficiency and program impacts. The evaluations were conducted in-house by each of the organizations. Given the extensive time requirements associated with compiling, and evaluating the information, each organization was given one month to complete the evaluation. During the evaluation process, TMA Clearinghouse staff were available to answer questions and assist in interpreting some of the results. Completed evaluations were received in early October and reviewed by Clearinghouse staff in October and November. 504'

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Table One EVAL UATION AND MONITORING OF TMA!fMO PERFORMANCE IN FLORIDA : FIRS T YEAR EXPERIENCES < .; >' ;Florida TMAs .. .. .. . < > lndiyidual faclf!N developed (or use Downtown Westsbore UACTA > bftlie TMAS/TMO Tampa TMA (Orlando) ... TMO Leve l of private sector membership X X X Extent of corporate involvement in activ i t ie s X X Mixture of reve nu e sources X Adequacy o f financial an d management systems X X Suitability of goals and pl anne d activities X X X Degree of external visibility X X X Level of interaction with local transportation service providers or government X X X Suitability of implemented programs for service area Cost-effectiv e ness of programs X E ffectiveness of programs in improving Average Vehicle Occupancy X Effectiven e ss of progr ams in r e ducing congestion Mea su re of TIVIA member s atisfac tio n Extent of activities t o fiscally sustain organization X Extent of activ iti es to sus tain and expand participation X X Support of loc al transportation improvement e fforts X X 505

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Results The three test TMAs showed strong non -financial private secto r support and a willingness to work and promote transportation alternatives. However, each TMA had some difficulty collecting and organizing the appropriate materials. In additi on, when questions arose about applicability o f some activities, TMAsiTMOs were asked to decide on their own if it should be counted and then document why it should be inc l uded. For example, does attendance at an MPO meeting count towards interaction with local government? If the TMA decided it did, they counted it in their total and documented that they interpreted an MPO a s a local government agency. Therefore, some ratings may be slightly higher than anticipated. Because the criteria are designed to monitor performance over time, it was anticipated that several of the criteria ratings each TMAffMO received would be lower than they actually were. This suggests that the criteria themselves need to be modified to be more stringent and critical. A key will be to collect and analyze the information over time to collectively show 'the impacts of each TMA. L astly, it should be remembered that the first year testing of these criteria was experimental. Long term decisions and potential impacts on TMAs should be tempered with caution until more data is collected and analyzed. Both adjustments to the criteria and improvement of TMA performance should take place in the corning year. Much of these adjustments will be to relate how the activities the TMAs have undertaken directly relate to overall performance (i.e. VMT reduction). In Flo rida, since the inten tion was to get the TMAs organized, the ratings system is being dropped in favor of tracking performance over time. The new criteria will require the TMAs to list the results from the previous years worksheet in one column, and the current years results in an adjacent column. As subsequent years are added, an historical record of activities can be compiled and tracked over time. Florida s TMA evaluation criteria must also take into account commuter behavior patterns. For example, po tential users of alternative modes go through six phases before they become "dedicated" TDM advocates. Those six phases and potential TOM agency response are: I) Inform me about my options Increase awareness 2) What's in it for me Fo ste r interest 3) How do I start? Facilitate arrangements 4) Encourage me Promote trial use of mode 5) Reinforce my decision Make follow-up contacts 6) I am sold on it Turn customers into goodwill ambassadors Initial TMA Evaluation criteria were developed without consideration to these phases. However, many of the components of the criteria measure some of the commuters movements through these phases While much emphasis is placed on diweloping results based cr iteria to measure TMA effectiveness, it appears that the role TMAs are playing in emphasizing activities that encourage commute alternatives is a vital one. As a result, the TMA criteria i n Florida will continue to examine how TMA activities relate to organizational goals, how they put ele ments of their strategic plan into action, and how the strategies, programs and activities lead to desired results. That linkage of activities to results is perhaps the most important poin t. TMA directors need to unde.rsl>lnd that li nkage and bow to show that their activities indeed help achieve the results that funders are looking for. 506

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Recommendations for Other TDM Organizations The following recommendations outline how TOM organizations in other parts of the coun t ry can begin to develop their own evaluation program. Additional comments and consideratio ns usually from the funders perspective are i ncluded to provide a slightly different viewpoint. I. Ex amine what services your organization offers to help customers in each of the six phases listed above. Ask how your organization can set up monitoring programs to collect information that shows your customers moving through each phase 2. While each TOM agency is unique all of them should have a miss ion statement, goals and objectives, and a work plan. Examine your agencies goals and objectives and ask yourself how you can measure how effective you are in meeting them. If you don't have any goals and objectives that set targets or performance guidelines, now is the time to start. Having 50,000 name s in your ridematching database may impress some, bu t its what you do, in terms of pool formation, that proves how effective you are. 3. Remember that others are observing and in many cases funding, your TOM agency. What information do you need to collect t o show them in their terms, that you are being effective for example, if you claim that your organizations programs reduce VMT, you better be able to back up with numbers, the amount of VMT you have reduced through your programs. If MPOs are beginning to require that TOM agencies calculate po ll ution reductions, can other funders be far behind in asking you to prove yourself. More of the results-based criteria remain elusive. One problem continues to be a lack of industry standards on performance and how the s e results can be compared to other types of transportation projects. Given the wide array of services TMAs are asked to perform, it may be difficult for them to appear effective if results based criteria are used. It is therefore imperative that TMAs work together to develop some industry-wide standards that can fairly illuminate the depth and breadth of TMA invo l vement in the transportation industry. 507

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E lo er Tr" >n rorams: How Cos I ? Wh P s? by Waldo Lopez Aqueres, Ph. Transport.ation Analyst. South Coast Air Quality Management District. 21865 Copley Drive, P.O. Box 4933 Diamond Bar, California. ABSTRACT Employer-sponsored trip reduction programs have become a widely used transportation demand management strategy to reduce air pollution and traffic congestion in m ajor urban areas across the United States. Federal and state regulations require urban areas failing to meet air quality and mobility standards to imp lement employee ridesharing plans to reduce venicle trips and vehicle miles traveled Despite their widespread use, information on the cost of these programs is rather limited and subject to serious bias. This paper uses the literature on the cost of trip reduction programs 10 show liow existing methodological shortcomings affect the validity and reliability of cost estimates currently being used for program evaluation, resource allocation, and policy decisions. In a ddition, the paper explores the issue of cost shifting under different market conditions or demand and supply assumptions. INTRODUCTION Employer trip reduction programs have gained acceptance among workers, p_lan.ners, policymakers. As a result their number and :variety have stgmficantly m the last IS years. Fede ral and state atr quahty and congesuon management legislation has helped accelerate the growth of these programs in large metropolitan areas across the country. For example, the 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments require employers with 100 or more employees to implement trip reduction plans in severe and extreme ozoneand serious carbon monoxide (CO) nonattainment meas. Employer trip reduction prorams are also identified as a viable trip reduction measure in the 1991 lntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (FHA, "1993). In additi
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-2estimates currently being used for program evaluation, resource allocation, and policy decisions. In addi t ion, the paper also exp lores the issue of cost shifting under different market condi t ions or demand an d supply assump t i ons. It is hoped that by ide nti f ying exis t ing inadequacie s in the litera t ure, future res earch will improve and become more useful to pu bli c policy REVIEW OF EXISTING STUDIES To this author s k nowledge only four s t udies have been organized and conducted with the sole purpose of assessing the cost of employer trip reduction programs. Two add it ional works are reviewed in this paper because t hex provide data on program costs; however t hese works were not designed spec1fically t o collect cost mformation. Table I summarizes some of t he methodo l ogical characteristics and t he cost es t imates obtained f rom the se s t udies (I) COMSIS's Cost Ef fecti veness of Trave l Demand Management Program s is based on 22 e mp l oyers chosen from cities l ocated in the states of Maryland, Washington Conne ct icut and California. Ten employers provided information on direct and indirect costs, and on savings resulting from program implement:Hion. Savings were imputed as the cost required t o provide parking for vehicles removed by the program. This component is absent from t he other studies discussed. Net costs were calculated by adding direct pro gram costs and savings. (2) Since the number o f employees was included in the report, this author computed d irect :mnual costs per employee to make t he data more comparable with t he mher s t udies reviewed. Thus, d irect annual cost compuled from $0 1_o $242per empl oyee. Average and median costs were $108 and $) 7. resp ecuvely. Further, ann u al savmgs per employee ranged from $0 t o $552; average savings were $95. Annual net cost per employee (i.e the combination of program costs and savings) varied from a savmg of $526 to a cost of $148. Net a nnual cost per employee was only $13. Ernst & Young s Regulation (,V Survey (Ernst & Young, 1992b) appears to h e t he most common source of cost dat a referenced in the literature, including t echnical papers (ITE, n.d.; S te wart, 1 993) and business magazines such as Forhes (Lane, 199:\). It relies on a survey mailed to all (5,763) work sites subjec1 tn Rule 1501 of the South Coast Air Quality Management D i strict. The sites are located in Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside and San Bernardino counties in Southern California About I9% ( 1 ,094) of the sites responded by compl e ting a selfadministered questionnaire. The estimated average annual cost of imp l ementing the program regionw ide ranged from less than $25 to more than $750 per regulated employee. The average annua l cost per regulated employee was $105 and the median was $88. Whe n a ll employees were considered, average annual cost was $81 per employee. While not shown in Table I, costs per employee also varied s i gnificantly by indu stry SC9

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Cll Q TABLE 1 EMPLOYER TRIP f'IEDUCT I O N PROGRAMS: SUMMARY OF COST STUDIES Annual Annual Cos1 Por Cost Per Cost Range Sites Sites Response Rogul ated Employee Pet Study Location Populatioo M o t hod C011tact0d Responding Rate Emplovee (All) Median Em p l oyee COMSIS (1990) VariOus N.A. cas. 22 10 45 .. N A $108 $57 SOto$242 Ernst & You ng (1992b) SCAB All sites San Sitel Case 40 7 N.A. (1) N A $31 $19 $10 to SSS Wachs & Giuliano (1991) SCAB All sites Surve y 241 176 73% N.A. $40 N A N A (1) Tho UMT A (1989) study contains no lnlormatiOo regard ing the number 01 wort sites thai tOJ>O
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(3) (4) 4 Ernst & Young's Rule J5111 Cost Survey of (Ernst & Young 19'13) builds on a survey of 4'16 educational work sites required to comply with Rule 1501. One hundred and six (106) responses were received, representing 21i2 (52.8%) of all sites contac ted. Cost per regula te d employee ranged from $20 to $579 Average and median costs among regulated employees were $95 and SX5, respectively. When estimated for all employees. t h e average cost dropped to $78. Average ou t -of-pocket costs, or money spent by employers. were also estimated and found to be 38% of total costs. Stewart and Young's What P.ric'e estimated program expendi t ures required by employers to reach a high average v ehicle ridership. Of a potential list of 769 wor k sites subj ect to Rule' ISO!, cost surveys were mailed to 65 sites with t he highest A VR, and 57% (37) responded. Estimated annual cost per employee ranged from $6 to $450. Average and median costs per employee were $57 and $32, respectively. UMTA ( and Wachs and Giuliano ( 1992) collec ted program expenditure data as well but the main focus of their research was other t han cost re l ated. (5) (6) 1l1e UMTA s t udy reviewed 40 cases, but due to data limitations, it o nly reported costs for 7 employers located in different suburban cities in Northern California. Based on this author's own computations of reported data, annual cost per emp loyee from $10 to $55. Average annual cost per employee $31 and the med tan was $19. Wachs and Giuliano used" sample of241 employee transportation coordinators (ETCs). Telephone interviews were conducted with 182 respondents. W h ile the purpose of Wachs and Giuliano's research was to obtain information prim a rily on ETCs, one of the questions included in the survey asked how much was alloca te d t o Rule 1501 per year. One hundred and seventy-six ( 176) responded to this question. Since there were approximately 204,635 employees in t he 176 surveyed work sites, this author estimated the average annual cost to be about $40 per employee. No other cost data were collected to compute o t her types of costs. Since this study was conducted during the early phase of Rule 150 1 and large employers were the first group required to comply with the Regulation, the sample over represents large work pl:tces (i.e., sites with SOO or more employees) and under -re presents work places with 100 t o 500 employees (Wachs and Giuliano 1'192). A study conducted by Applied Development Economics (1992) estimated tbe cost of implementing an employer trip reduction program in the Bay Area. The estimation procedure used did not rely on actual implementation costs, but on a prospective method of estimation Thus. t he study results are excluded from Table I because the methodology is not stric tly comparable with the approaches used in the research discussed above. In this prospective method, the trip reduction measures used by a "typical" employer were identified. Assump t ions were made about the cours e of 511

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. .. action t hat employers would follow to implement each measure and about the travel response expected from affected commlllers. Based on case study data, program expenditures associated with each measure were then calculated. For the "typical" employer, the 1992 :tverage annual cost was estimated to be $232 per employee. Nevertheless, as noted in the evaluation research literature (Rossi, Howard, and Wright, 1979), findings from prospective studies are very limited because program data are not based on actual Implementation experience but are largely determined by key assumptions influenced by the researcher's own judgment and by case study data used to approximate some of the values applied to the computation of estimates. Thus, results based on s tudies could differ substantially from estimates that would he obtained 1f data were to be gathered from a program that has been fully operational for a reasonable length of time. SHORTCOMINGS OF EXISTING COST DATA The first shortcoming found when reviewing the literature is the limi ted number of geographic specific s tud ie s that have been conducted to estimate the cost of employer trip reduction programs. For example, t he research conducted among employers l ocated in the South Coast Air Basin (Ernst & Young, 1992b, 1993) lias litt l e applicability to ot he r urban areas with higher population densities and well developed mass transit systems Extrapolation of these numbers to othe r loca tions is 9ues tio nable on validity grounds. In addition, as shown in Table I the cost estimates obtained d ispla y wide variability among l ocations. c?st per employee ranges from a low of $31 to a h1gh of $108. The m ed1an, wh.1ch IS a measure of central tendency not influenced by extreme values also shows a rather variation, ranging from $19 to $88. A large cost variation is also typical within a g1ven geographic area such as the South Coast Air Basin. COMSIS ( 1 990), UMTA's ( 19ll9), and Stewart and Young's (1991) works are based on case st ud y methodology. Case studies are particularly useful as background information for planning and conducting major research investigations. They provide useful anecdotes to illustntte more generalized statistical fmdings. They are also economical. However, because they focus on a small number of units, case studies do not allow valid generalizations of fin dings to the population from which they came (I saac and M i chael, 1975) Case studies are also susceptible to subjective bias The case may be selected for its specia l rather than its typical charactenstics (Isaac and Michael 1975). For example, Stewart & Young ( 1991} chose their 37 work sites for their high performance, as by average vehicle ridership (A VR). To the extent that the researcher's judgment determines which cases to select, subjective interpretation will affect the study results. Thus, when used to approximate implementation costs for a particular i ndus try, city, or reg i on, cost predictions based on case study data may be seriously flaw ed. Another problem found in the literature is the lack of random samples. Survey research con ducted to date has failed to use random samples of employers or work sites to estimate implementation costs. A random selection process is necessary to 512

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h obtain a represen tat ive esti m ate of t h e costs experienced by the to tality of wor k sites in a area o r ind u stry. Further. the random selection of work site s makes posstble the calculmion of sampling errors or the quantifi ca t i on of the degree of accuracy or reliabi lity of the cost est i mates. For example due to t he absence of random sampling procedu r es the :tccuracy of t he cost estimates derived from t he two Erns t & Young (1992b. 11J93) surveys canno t be properly ascertained. Thus, f ro m a sta t is t ica l standpoint, i t is not known how depen dable t hese numbers really are. A fourth limitat ion found in t he literat ure is th e low response rate attained in most of the survey s conducted. In its two studies, Erns t & Young (1992, 1993) attempted a c e nsus by mailing questionnaires to all work si tes but l ow returns in both survey s (especially the 19% rate achieved in the 1992 study) co uld hav e introduced a large selection bias, since tiHlse who respo n d to m ail surveys may have different characteristics from those who do not (Kerlinger 1973) For example most of the responses could have come from employers most or least impacted by the cost of Rule 150 I or from those la rgely n 1>posed to m andatory t rip reduction programs or government re gulation in general. Thus, mail surv e ys with resp onse rate s of l ess t han 80% are q ue st i on: thle since their resp ons e s may no t b e tr ul y represen t ative of the population being studied (Boyd, Westfall and Stasch, 1977; Ker h nger, 1 97 3 ) Accord ing to s urvey research ex p erts t he mag n itud e of t he no n respon s e bias r_espons e r:ues should be identified and its impact care fully assessed (Ksh, I )(\) ). Strict reliance on self-reported data could also introduce significant error in t h e st udy results T he inc ome a man reports to the Interna l Revenue Service a n d what he reports t o h i s girl friend a re usually different! Thus . i n some cases, there may be a d ehherate attempt tn provide evas i ve o r inco rrect answers because it is a dva nt ag eou s to the respo nden t or. simply, it is a way t ( l support his own val u es (Morgens t ern, 1 970). In ad dit ion the respond e nt may not necessarily keep accurate reco r d o f program costs a n d hi:ts the reported data with crude approx i m at ions or mere guesse s be:tring little s i milarity to t he correct figures (Morgenstern, 1970). Bias can be introduced when designing the questionnaire as well To the extent that some ques tions are am bi gu ou s, they may not be well u nderstood by t h e respondent and may lead to vague inco rre ct or different answers. S tewart (1993) discusses other dif f icult ie s present in t he measurement of imple ment ation c osts When the extent of b ias created by low response rates and self-reported data is believed to be mther lmge the v:11idity of t h e cost estimates i s seriously affected and easil y challenged Validat io n st udies can help iden t ify the possible bias, but they are seldom conducted because of the expense involved With th e excep t ion of Ernst & Young's (1992a) v:lidation study conducted sho rtly after the survey of 1,094 work s ites no valid:ttion s tu d ies were attempted as part of the cost research rev iewed in this paper. Due to the l o w response mte obtained and because the cost per employee varied widely from le ss t han $25 to more t han $750, Erns t & Young (1992a) conducted a limited study to evalu:tte t h e quality of the cost data gathered. Twenty-nine (29) w o rk sites were contac t ed and on-site in t erviews were conducted at 17 of them. Eleven of th e w o rk s ites were at th e up p e r end of t he cos t range (annual cost per 513

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-7-employee ranged from $417 to $714); three were at the middle ($104-$105); and three at the lower end of the range ($4-$6). The results showed one work site underestimated its cost and six work sites did not show any discrepancy. Of the 11 work sites in the upper cost range ($417-$714), 9 overstated their annual cost employee. by an average of $253 or 83.2% 2). Two work sites overestu : nated the1r cost at least by 350%. The overest1matwn of average annual cost per employee was attributed to ( 1) the inclusion of costs for all employees (i.e employees mside and outside the 6:0ll to 10:()() a.m. window); and (2) incorrect and in complete information. Thus, the results of this small verification study illustrate the large bias that may be present in cost surveys based on self-reported data. WHO PAYS? The question of who for the cost of Rule 1501 is important from an equity standpoint. The popular idea is that employers are financing the entire cost of this regulatery program (L1ne, 1993). While the incidence of program implementation costs appears to fall on the employer, economic theory suggests that the cost burden may be shifted forward to consumers. Who pays for Rule 1501 depends on various factors affecting the markets in which employers sell their goods and services. In this paper, the question is only addressed in a simplified theoretical context and under restrictive In general, who pays for the implementation costs of Rule 1501 depends on the price elasticity of demand for the item or service produced by regulated employers within a given industry. Price elasticity of demand measures how responsive or sensitive is the quantity demanded of a given product or service to changes in its price. This measure can give us a very good idea of bow consumers would alter their purchases of a good or service as a result of industry wide price changes. Thus, the concept has important implications for regulatory policies, such as R ufe 1501, which may induce changes in the cost of doing business and, ultimately, on _prices.1 The burden of the regulatory-induced cost increase is borne primarily by businesses if demand is highly elastic. Conversely, consumers bear most of the regulatory burden if demand is highly inelas tic. When the elasticity of demand does not fall into these two. extreme cases, the burden will be shared in some degree by businesses and consumers.2 Demand tends to be more elastic (i.e., more responsive to price increases), the greater the availability of substitute goods or services. If a commodity or service hns substitutes, when there is an increase in its price, consumers will shift to the substitutes. By the same token, demand tends to be more inelastic (i.e., less responsive 10 price increases), the lower the availability of substitute commodities.3 For example. the demand for gasoline is very inelastic, at least in the short run. Thus when the price of gasoline rises, consumers cannot reduce gasoline consumption to avoid paying htgher prices because of the lack of l ower-priced substitutes. Since the overwhelming majority of motor vehicles are not designed to mn on fuels other than gasoline, the chances to use other lower-priced fuels are nil. ln reality, however, some substitution is possible even in the short run. For instance, consumers can avoid paying some of the price hik e in gasoline by shifting from driving their cars to other transportation options, such as public transit or carpooling. 5:14

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-8TABLE2 ERNST & YOUNG'S RESULTS OF VALIDITY STUDY (Annual Cost Per Emp l oyee) Reported Adj u sted Absolute Relative Cost Cost Error Error $417 $200 $217 108.5% $6 4 3 $140 $503 359.3% $714 $508 $206 40.6% $428 $3 1 4 $114 36.3% $535 $2 4 4 $ 29 1 119 3% $456 $ 352 $104 29.5% $509 $ 2 57 $252 98.1% $638 $583 $55 9.4% $6 8 1 $14 2 $539 379.6% $558 $304 $253 83.2% Average o f col umn values mi.amil.wk 5:15

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. 9. Thus, what happens when employers are required to finance triJ.> reduction programs for t heir employees? If demand for their product is h1ghly elastic, employers will not be able to pass most of the program costs on to buyers in the form of higher prices. Consumers can avoid the price increase simply by diverting their purcfiasing power to similar but lower-priced alternatives. As a result, employers will hav e to absorb most of the cost increase. On t be other hand, if the quantity demanded for a given product or service is i nelas tic (i.e., not very s ensitive to price increases); employers be able to pass most of the program costs on to buyers Thus, consumers are likely to continue to buy the higher-priced product due to the lack of lower-priced substitutes. When demand is moderately elastic, or moderately inelastic, the program will.he finan ced by the employers and their product (or service) buyers. While o verly simplified, the analysis presented above indicates that Impl ementation costs of Rule ISO I may have different effects on industries if price elasticity of demands are different. Including other factors in the analysis and relaxing some assumptions may lead to different results. It is impor tant to keep in mind that while the concept of price elasticity has useful im plicatio ns for regulatory policies, it is not always easy to mei1sure in practice. Economists can use staiistical techniques to estimate elasticity values, but data on industry prices and quantities sold must be collected and analyzed. This type of research is often plagued with technical and logical dif fic ulties thut can affect the reliability of elasticity measures. Conducting various separate is sometimes necessary to validate the elasticity numbers and to increase their accuracy. In general, the closer these values are to each other, the greater the confidence one can pla ce on their policy implications. CONCLUSIONS Estimates of the costs of employer trip reduction programs appear to be limited, geographic specific, and subject to wiile variability. Reliance on case study methods and f aulty survey research raises serious qu estions regarding the validity of cost statistics and how credihle they are to make informed public policy decisions. A major lesson learned from reviewing existing cost data is that survey research bas to be more carefully planned and conducted to reduce the bias introduced by lack of random samples, low response rates, and exclusive dependence on self-reported data. This can be accomplis hed by drawing small random samples of employers and by verifying the data reported as much as possible. The modest theoretical discussion on the question of who pays for the cost of employer trip reduction programs indicates that the costs of these programs are borne by employers only under certain market conditions. Variation of these conditions may allow employers to shift the cost burden imposed by the program on to consumers and escape part, or most, .of the regulatory cost. 51.&

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-10-NOTES I. This analysis assumes that regulation increases costs of production by a fixed amount per unit. Thi s amount reflects the increase in cost imposed by government regulation. To simplify the discussion, the effect of supply elasticity on product price is assumed t o he negligent. 2. A geometric and mathematical. proof of these cases can be found in any intermediate price theory or managerial economics textbook. See, for example, Gisser ( 1969) and Pappas, Brigham, and Hirschey (1983). 3. Other determinants of price elasticity are: (1) th e extent to which the good is considered to be a necessity essential food items such as bread, milk, and salt); (2) the proportion of mcome consumers spend on the product (i.e. the larger the proportion of income spent on an item, the more elastic demand is); (3) time, i.e., demand tends to be more responsive to price changes ove r a longer period of time because consumers have t h e opportunity to make adjustments and look for other alternatives. 517

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II REFERENCES Applied Development Economics. I 992 Socioeco nomi c Analysis of Proposed Regulation 13: Rule I Trip Reduction Requirements for Ernplove.rs. Sacramento, California. Boyd, Westfall, and Stasch J977. Marketing Homewood, Illinois: Richard. D I rwin, Inc . CARB (California Air Resource Board). 1990. Californ i a Air Pollution Control Laws. Health and Safety Code Sec .tiOJ. l 40920(a)(2). Sacramento, California, p.78. COM SIS 1990 Cost-Effectiveness of Travel Demand Programs. Prepared for Maryland-National Capital Parks & Planning Commission. Silver Spnng, Md. Ernst & Young. J 993. Rule ISO l Cost Survey of Los Angeles Ernst and Young. 1992a. AOMD Survey Follow-Up. Los Angeles. Ernst & Young 1992b XV C'AJst Survey Los Angeles. (FHA) Federal Hig hway Administration. 1993. Clean Air Challenging in Meeting National Air Quality Standards. Washington, D. : U.S. Department of Transportation and Environmental Protection Agency. Gisser, M. 1969. Introduction to Price Scranton, Pennsylvania: International Textbook Company. Isaac, S. and W. Michael. 1975. Handhook in Research and Evaluation. San Diego, Californ ia : Edits Publishers. lTE (Institute for Transportati_on Engineers. (No dated). Employee Trip Reduction ProgramAn Evaluation: An Inf ormational Report. Washington, D.C. Kerlinger, F. 1973. Fpunda(jons of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. }(jsb, L. Lane, R. 1993. The Commuter Police Forbes, December 20, 1993, pp. 239-240. Morgenstern, 0. 1970. Sources and Errors of Economic Statistics. In Edwin Mansfield (ed.) E l ement;u;y StatiHics for Economics and Business; Selected New York: W.W. Norton and Company. Pappas, J . E. Brigham. and M. Hirschey. 1983. Managerial Economics. New York: The Dryden Press. Rossi, P . F. Howard, and F. Wright. 1979. Evaluation: A Systematic Approach. Beverly Hills, California: Sage Publications. 51.8

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-12Stewart, J. 1993. Currem Prohlems in Accurate Cost-Benefit Evaluations of EmJ)lover-Based Trip Reduction Prorams. Paper presented at t he 73rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Researc Board. Washington, D.C., January 9-13 1994. Stewart, J and R. Young. 1992. What Pri ce Succ e ss? Los Angeles: Commuter T r ansportatio n Services UMTA (Urban Mass Transportation Administration). 1989. An Assessment of Travel Demand Appro;1ches m Suburban Aftivity Centers Final Report. U S. Departme n t ofTr;msp<>rtmion, Office of Technical and Safety Wachs, M. and G. Giuliano. 1992. Ernployee Transportation Coordinators: A New Profes s ion in Sou th ern California Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 46, No.3, pp 411-27. Wachs, M. and G. Giuliano. 199 I. Unpublished data submitted to the South Coast Air Quality Management District in a personal communication with John Re i mers, September 20. MlAMil. O OG J u l y 7, 1()9.& 51.9

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"LET'S MAKE TDM TRAINING MORE EFFECTIVE" Richard H. Ribner TOM Associates 2010 North Mabu ry Street Santa Ana, CA 92701 714558 8348 520

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ABSTRACT This paper reviews how business uses adult training concepts, and the lSD process to create effective and efficient training that produces results. It then examines their application to ETC training to improve the outcomes of ECO training programs. Background ECO requirements have proliferated while state and local congestion management and air quality efforts are also escalating. This combination of new requirements has resulted In an increased focus on TOM measures. Because TOM typically enlists or empowers non transportation professionals to accomplish TOM objectives, training of these facilitators, frequently called ETC's, is required. Business and Training Training for business Is a means to an end. Training sets speciHc objectives and designs solutions which produce measurable results. Business and Industry spend between 1. 4% to 3.2% of payroll dollars each year on training. Since training Is a an expense, business goes to great lengths to create efficient training with quandHable results. The model used for accomplishing this Is Instructional Systems Design (ISO). lSD Is a concept developed by the US Army during the war to quickly and efHciendy train conscripts In the various skills and procedures required to fight the war. Adult Training Concepts The concepts of adult training (lSD concepts) are not well known outside the training departments of business and industry. They are not practiced at our universities although many of us probably wish they were. Therefore, when ECO training is requested the ISO model Is not requested or expected. Designing effective and efHclent training cost more than just ginning out a slick presentation. Public agencies are faced with the need to train for successful ECO compliance with insufHcient budgets and low bid requirements. As a result, few if any of the existing curricula use ISO in the design, development and implementation of ECO/TDM training. The Problem The lack of effecdve/efficient training is a detriment to TOM and the very goals we seek to achieve. A good program design creates training solutions from which learners emerge ,....,1 -"'

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mastering the training objectives and feeling good about the training experience. Unfortunately, the opposite Is true of poorly designed training. Learners may be overwhelmed, confused and frustrated. Too much lnfonnation, lack of a link between ETC responsibilities and the learning, the wrong type of infonnation, all can contribute to an unsatisfied feeling and a deficiency in knowledge or skill to fulfill the ETC role. When the potential ETC returns to the worksite s/he may be further hampered by non training impediments to performance. Frustrated and/or unable to perform the tasks s/he was trained for, ETC's become disenchanted, and looses thei r motivation to perform. This will reflect poorly on the public agencies charged with the task of implementing the measures. The Conclusion Designing good training is only the beginning. Usio g the ISO model we can design effective tra ining. However, many of our ETC's are returning to environments that severely hinder the accomplishment of the TOM goals we seek to achieve. Maybe this calls for a new set of training and non training strategies to get our moneys worth out of the existing training being done.

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"LET'S MAKE TOM TRAINING MORE EFFECTIVE" WHY DO I CARE? Employee Commute Options requirements have proliferated while state and local congestion management and air quality efforts are also escalating. This combination of new requirements has resulted in an Increased focus on TDM measures. Because TOM typically enlists or empowers non transportation professionals to accomplish TOM objectives, training of these facilitators, frequently called Employee Transportation Coordinators or ETC's, Is required. I f you're reading this you're probably someone In the Transportation Demand Management (TOM) Industry who thinks they may have a problem training can solve. Perhaps your agency is contemplating or has conducted some ETC training and you want to insure improved results. The purpose of this paper Is to help you detennlne if you have a training need and i f so how best to design a solution. This paper presents a systematic approach to designing training and then establishes the link between performance and other non training constraints one needs to consider to maximize your training impact. Although there are many areas of TOM that could benefit from more effective training, this paper focusses on the Employee Transportation Coordinator (ETC), his or her manager, and the environment I n which they work. sza .

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So what's in It for the manager responsible for Implementation of a TOM program? Performance! That's what training Is all about. With !;CO a .nd other Trip Reduction Plan/Program (TRP) requirements comes a need for non TOM/transportation professionals to perform tasks that they are generally not doing now. So we train them. But we may not be sure If we're doing it right. We'd like our training to provide workers with the job relevant skills they need to write a TRP and implement it successfully increasing Average Passenger Occupancy (APO). We also want to accomplish this i n the shortest amount of . . time (because the new performance needs to be brought about quickly) while minimizing the cost. Minimizing the time employees are off the job completing training is also Important. If we can do It with 1/2 day of training that Is preferable to a whole day. A two day seminar is preferred over three days. But training isn't always called for and if . we can eliminate training altogether we're a hero WHEN IS TRAINING APPROPRIATE? Training Is germane when two conditions are present; there is something that one or more people don' t know how to do and they need to be able to do it. Training is only a means to an end. The end training strives for is performance! performance allows the organization to accomplish its goals and objectives. Therefore our training efforts should smooth the way toward the ability to perform and achieve results. Training is indispensable when people need to know things they don't know at the time. However, performance requires more than skill. It also requires self confidence, opportunity to 524

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perronn and a supportive environment. Let's take a look at the first two training performance requirements; skill and selr confidence. KNOW WERE YOU'RE GOING If you tell your trainer you want ETC's to be effective, you haven't defined the behavior you expect from them. lr you don't specify what they would have to do to merit the label errectlve" you abdicate to them the power to decide what you mean. Thousands or words are used i n discussing human performance, but most are abstractions that are open to many interpretations. When you know how to dissect abstractions into specific performances that say what you mean, you will gain another powerful tool ror getting training results. GOAL ANALYSIS We conduct something called goal analysis when there is an Important outcome to accomplish that seems only to be described in abstract terms. Suppose you are training first time ETC's and your goals are ror learners to be able to Design an ECO Plan, use an ECO Reference Guidebook and complete an ECO Plan Form. To carry out goal analysis you need to specify what ETC's would have to do, say, and/or accomplish ror you to be willing to say these outcomes have been achieved. szs

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Thl!Se goals need to be expressed In demonstrable performances that say what we mean. If we were to make a list of all the sped ftc outcomes an ETC would have to accomp lish to prove that IIley had mastered the three goals, the list might look like the next table. 546

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SPECIFIC OUTCOMES FOR ETC TRAINING ETC's will be able to; 1 Identify the role of Federal State, and local legislation has played In creating the ECO Program. 2. Explain the goals, obJectives, and benefits of ECO programs for empl oyees, employers, and the community at large. 3. Define AVO standards and APO targets. 4. Identify what actions are required of employees and how the ECO regulation will be administered. 5. Describe the role and responsibilities of the ETC. 6. Develop methods for gaining employees input and management support. 7. Develop an ECO plan. 8. Identify various types of APO survey designs and techniques for maximum survey response rate. 9. Tabulate results and calculate APO at the work site. 10. Analyze opportunities and barriers present at the work site. 1 1 Identify various commute options available locally and regionally. 12. Identify the types of employers who are most likely to make use of various commute options. I 3. Identify the various categories of trip reduction strategies and how they are used to increase APO. 14. Link APO survey results and other work site data to identify the best commute options and trip reduction strategies for a specific work site. 5;;;.7

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If you want your training to Include Implementation, make sure you add statements about the desired outcomes to your list of the components that are important to you. SOLVING PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS Problems occur when things don't happen to your satisfaction. Foe example, your ETC was trained and satisfactorily achieved each of the 14 statements in our list, but 6 months after training can't calculate the worksite APO. The problem is that there is a gap between what is actually happening and what you expect to happen. You have a performance discrepancy. Performance analysis is .the tool for matching solutions to problems in human performance. It begins by identifying the differences between the actual performance (Inability to calculate APO) and the desired performance (ability to calculate APO), then identifies the causes ofthe discrepancy and finally suggests courses of action to address those causes. The analysis is carried out by asking a series of questions that need only take a few minutes. The following checklist outlines the steps.

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS CHECKLIST I Whose perfonnance Is at issue? 2. What Is the performance discrepancy? a. W hat Is actually happen i ng? b. What should be happening? 3. What is the approximate cost of the discrepancy? ( What would happen If you Ignored the problem?) 4 Is the discrepancy a skill deficiency (Are they unable to do It ?) 5. Yes It Is a skill deficiency: a. Can the Job be simplified? b. Are the taSks perfonned often? c. Will othe r factors Impede performance? 6. No . it is not a skill deficiency: a. Are the perfonners being punished for doing It rlghL b. Are the perfonners bei n g r e w arded for doing It wrong ? c. Are there no consequences at all to the performer for perfonnlng, either right or wrong? d. Are there obst.1cles to performing as expected? 7. List the causes of the discrepancy. 8. Describe the solutions. 9. Estima t e the cost of eac h sol utio n I 0. Select the cost effective solutions that can be Implemented (those that are practical to be Implemented). I I Implement the solutions

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Although the list seems to have many steps it wlU not take long to complete. As an example, lets take a look at our ETC who is unable to calculate APO 6 months after training. I Whose performance is at issue? Answer: THE ETC's of course. 2. What is the performance discrepancy? Answer: The ETC is unable to calculate APO and should be able to do so. 3 What Is the cost of the discrepancy? Answer: We could be fined up to the prescribed maximum if we calculate incorrectly, or perhaps an incremental fine if the lack of a correct calculation delays our filing. We will have no Idea what our progress is and might be exposing ourselves to further jeopardy If we don't attain our target APO by the prescribed dates. 4. Is the discrepancy a skill deficiency? Answer: It most certainly isl 5. Yes It Is a skill deficiency! Answer: We can simplify the job by creating a spreadsheet or purchasing software to calculate APO for us. The task has not been performed since the ETC returned from training six months ago. 530

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Perhaps calculating the APO monthly as practice would help the ETC master the skill. 6. No It ts not a skill deficiency: Answer: The manager screams at the ETC every time she shows him the current APO and demands to know why she hasn't been able to reach the target already. Or the manager complements the ETC at the end of the month because she doesn't bring him the APO reports that the previous ETC did. Or the manager ignores the monthly report that the ETC sends regarding th e program. Or the claim forms that are supposed to be submitted by the 5th of the month straggle in through the I 5th and management refuses to enforce the program submittal deadlines. This makes it impossible for the ETC to complete the monthly report in a timely fashion. 7. List the causes of the discrepancy Answer: The ETC has not had any practice In the use of the skill and has forgotten how to calculate APO. 8. Describe solutions Answer: #I Lets send the ETC to remedial training on the APO calculation only. 531.

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Following their return from the training have the ETC practice on tfie previous two months data. After practicing on the previous two months data, have the ETC calculate the current months APO and review It with the manager. Answer: #2 Lets purchase the software and begin using it. 9. Estimate the cost of each solution. Answer. #I The ETC training was free to begin with. The local agency is more than willing to let our ETC sit In again. The cost Is 1/2 a day of productivity for the ETC and travel costs to the training center. Answer: #2 The software costs $850 and requires the revision of our claim form. Revising the form will take 1/2 day and require our ETC to retrain commuters to correctly complete them. I 0. Select the cost effective solution that is practical to Implement. Answer: Solution #I is clearly the lowest cost as well as the quickest solution. Give the ETC the training schedule and the registration phone number. Instruct the ETC to allocate time in the next two weeks to attend the part of the session on APO calculation. II. Implement the solution(s) 532

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Answer: Make sure the ETC attends trai ning by tactfully following up on when s/he has scheduled to attend the APO calculation class. The performance problem solu tion checklist which follows provides a list of prob lems and additional possible solutions. 533

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PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS SOLUTION CHECKI,.IST PROB_I..EMS They c.m 't do it, and . the skill is used often: the skill is used rarely: They can do it, but ... doing it right leads to punishment! doing it wrong Is more satisfying: nobody notices whe they do It right: there are obstacles to performing as desired SOLUTIONS Provide feedback. simplify the task. Provide job aids to prompt desired performance. Simplify the job. Provide periodic practice. ( Training will be required If the above remedies are Inadequate.) Remove the sources of punishment. Remove the rewards for incorrect performance. Apply consequences to the performer for doing it right. Remove the obstacles (or help people work around them).

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DESIGNING INSTRUCTION Having verified and analyzed problem, and determined that a training solution is n&essary you are faced with the task of developing the training. As you might Imagine, there i s a systematic approach to doing so. Let's take a look at the 1 0 steps to delivery of the instruction. We've a lready established that we have a performance problem . that training can eliminate. Let's begin our systematic process by developing obJectives. KEY STEPS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTION DESIGNED TO ACCOMPLISH JOB DERIVED OBJECTIVES Before lnltlatlng Training Development Verify the training need. Decide on a course of actlon. When Training Development Is Indicated Develop the objectives (expected outcomes). Describe the training audience. Draft skill hierarchies. Review existing resources. Determine the scope of Instruction. Draft skill checks. Select the delivery system (media mix). Draft the instructional units. Conduct tryouts. Deliver the instruction. Improve as required. 535

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DEVELOP OBJECTIVES We can't begin to develop training until we know. what we want to accomplish. A clear > picture of the expected outcomes of training is essential. Trainers engage in an analysis to determine what Important outcomes are to be achieved. Sometimes that analysis can be done in their offices but in other instances they will want to actually observe competent ETC's at work and ask them questions about what they are doing. This Is called job/task analysis and Is a critically I mportant step if the training design Is to accomplish our three goals The I 4 statements we derived in the task analysis become part of the objectives for our ETC training course. These ob Jectives may seem to be missing some statements that m i ght be on your list. In fact my original list had over 30 outcome statements on it. When the lessons were prepared some of the I 6 additional outcomes were subsumed as "enabling" or supporting obJectives to the I 4 listed outcome statements. These enabling objectives are often not specifically listed in the course outcomes but are fleshed out In the process of developing the course content. DESCRIBE TRAINING AUDIENCE With our I 4 objectives in hand, it is now time to develop a description of the target audi ence. This makes it possible to tailor the InstrUction to the audi ence for whom it is intended. The audience analysis will influence the choice of language and examples, and the level at which the material Is prepared. As TOM trainers, one of our significant challenges is the diverse natu r e of our potential audience. This audience often runs the 536

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gamut from an executive secretary to the human resource manager. Our audience diversity challenges us, as developers, to design training that allows learners of differing skill levels to advance at their own pace. To avoid boredom for more advanced learners we must consider this fact in our process of lesson design. As you review our list of statements that describe accomplishment of the goals please note that there are no objectives about Implementation. This is not because we don't expect ETC's to implement ECO programs. It reflects the fact that when green ETC trainees present themselves for training, all they can absorb in two days of training are the basics. If we had a third day we would likely add some of those implementation statements. However, an audience analysis will undoubtedly show that our trainees will not be ready to consider implementation Issues until after they have developed a plan that their management has approved. DRAFT SKILL HIERARCHY After describing the audience, we must determine the order in which skills are needed for learning to occur. This process called skill hierarch design shows which skills are independent (can be learned in any order) of one another and those that are dependent (must be leaned In a specitlc order). It is important to see these relationships when designing instruction because It provides Information about where the Instruction should begin, how the lessons should be sequenced and how to make use of scarce instructional resources. In our ETC training, for example, ECO goals and objectives must be 537

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.. understood before APO targets are presented. In tum, APO calculation must be mastered before forecasting trip reduction can be attempted. REVIEW EXISTING RESOURCES With the objectives and audience description In hand it Is possible to compare them to existing courses, or pieces of courses currently being offered In or outside of your organization. If the needed Instruction already exists and It looks as though it will do the fob, use it. Not only would it be a waste of money to develop what already exists, It would take longer to get your ETC trained. DETERMINE SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION At this point a decision will be made regarding which of our original 30 objectives to Include In the Instruction. It should be noted that some of the 30 outcome statements were not included In the 14 final objectives. Considerations that enter Into this decision include; what the trainees already know and can do, the amount of time available( for training) and the lead time available for development. DRAFT SKILL CHECKS Although it may seem out of sequence, before the development process begins, the course developer will draft the means by which the success of the training will be measured. This needs to be developed before the training Is developed to prevent measuring what was

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taught rather than whether the objectives were accomplished. These performance tests or skill checks allow trainers to guarantee that trainees will be able to perform as desired. DERIVE COURSE CONTENT With objectives and performance tests completed developers will derive the content of the instruction. Content is procured by reviewing the objectives and the target population description and answering the key question "why aren't they ready to perform the objective now?" If trainees already know everything they need to know, and only need practice to accomplish the objective, then the lesson will contain only practice and feedback. Our example of the ETC that couldn't calculate APO six months after training may be an example where the training intervention may only require practice and feedback. If on the other hand, trainees don't know what a commute option or strategy is they can't be expected to select appropriate options and strategies until they know about each. There may also be common mistakes that are made when performing the objective. In that case instruction should illustrate the pitfalls and how to avoid them. For example, if our ETC is calculating APO and forecasting trip reduction we must a lert them to the fact that they both use the same base data for calculations but one uses weekly trips while the other uses dally trips.

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SELECT DELIVERY SYSTEM Selection of a delivery system decides If the course will be classroom training, on the job training, a video course, self study or computer based instruction. Often we will use a combination of media for delivery. The decision on media mix Is Influenced by the objectives to be the trainees, the Importance of the training outcomes and other factors including cost. Here's a checklist to help you decide on the appropriate delivery system for you training. il'i' ASK THESE QUESTIONS TO ESTABLISH DELIVERY SYSTEM Will the delivery system (combination of proposed media) give trainees practice In doing what the objectives say they should be able to do? Is It the cheapest delivery system that will meet that goal? Is it readily available? Is it the alternative that will be least likely to break down? Can it be used In all of the places where instruction will be de .livered (remote locations, field offices, and so on) If live Instructors are included in the delivery system, will they be available and properly trained? 540

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DRAFT INSTRUCTION Once these steps are completed, the course developer Is ready to start drafting the instruction. I like to start by drafting the practice and feedback portion of the lesson first. Starting at the end and working forward. This ensures that the critical practice competent will always be included and helps exclude irrelevant content. There are many things that would be nice to for an ETC to know, but what does the ETC need to know In order to perform his or her tasks? To draft the lesson, developers may need information from one or more subject matter experts. Be prepared to provide access to information either in print form or via Interviews with the managers at the workslte (or others external to the organization) who are familiar with the performances desired. CONDUCT TRYOUT All trainers should test Instruction to make sure It works before putting It on line. Ideally tryouts and revisions continue until only cosmetic changes remain. However, In the real world we rarely have this luxury because those for whom training Is being developed are usually anxious to Implement it. In these instances, the developers will ask that the client . consider the first onllne offering as the dress rehearsal. It's best then not to print too large quantities of materials until there's reason to believe that no further substantial changes will be needed. 541.

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DELIVER INSTRUCTION Although it Is a challenge to deliver Instruction to suit the Individual, It should be our goal. By tailoring the Instruction to Individuals we make it possible (through the way the materials are developed and the rules of delivering instruction) to have trainees study only those components not yet mastered. FRAMEWORKING Having laid out this elaborate model I'm sure your asking yourself, How long will this take? Probably longer than most who want the training want to wait. Then, you as the reader might ask, haven't you wasted my time by bringing me this far? NO! Because most trainers can provide useful services to help solve training problems with short lead times. Using a technique called "frameworking" we add as many critical pieces of the model as possible In the time allowed. No matter how short the time, trainers can determine if the problem merits a training solution. If more time exists a task analysis can be done. If still more time Is available objectives can be derived and skill checks designed to measure instructional success. If more time is obtainable, Instructional lessons can be developed. Using the Key Steps table on page 20 follow the order of to be added to the development framework. You can see that by asking "what can you do for me In the time available?" you will get a far different answer than asking "How long will it take?" 542

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NON-TRAINING CONSTRAINTS If people don't know how to do it, they can't do it! If they didn't know how to do it and need to be able to do i t, then someone will need to teach them to do it. However, skills are not developed by listening to someone talk about how to perform. Skills are developed and strengthened through practice in actually doing the work tasks. Let's take a look at the main distinctions between the traditional content based course vs a systematically designed performance based course. 543

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COMPARING lWO APPROACHES TO TRAINING This chan highlights the main distinctions between the fearures of a systematically designed performance-based course and a conventional content :based course. I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Performance -Based Course ContentBased Course Objectives are der1ved from analysis of 1. real wor1d needs and describe Intended results. Content of the lnstrucdon ll derived 2. from the objectives to be accomplished. Trainees study only what they do not 3. yet know. Each trainee Is given an opportunity to 4. practice each objec1lve. Instruction Includes only what I s 5. needed to accomplish the objectives. The primary Instructor role Is that of 6. coaching. Tests (skill checks) are used for 7. diagnosing difficulties, confirming mastery, and as opponunity to make trainees feel good about their progress. Trainees study and practice until they 8. have reached mastery of the objectives. On reaching mastery, trainees receive a 9. Certificate of Achievement. Objectives typically are absent or used to describe the content to be covered. Content of the instruction Is usually determined by a subject matter e xpert. All trainees study the same content. Trainees are given few opportunities to practice the enti re objec1lve. Instruction may Include content Irrelevant to the need The primary instructor role Is that of presenting. When used at all, testS, are used m ainly as a basil for grading; that Is, as a basis for determining how well each student performed in comparison with other course attendees. Trainees study until the fixed course time has ended. At course completion, trainees receive a Certificate of attendance. 544

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PRACTICE If trainees aren't required to practice calculating APO, selecting commute options, and strategies, forecasting trip reductions or developing marketing plans for implementation, the chance is slim that they will be able to apply the procedures when the need arises. Skills are developed mainly through practice and through the immediate receipt of information (feedback) about the quality of the practice. SELF CONFIDENCE When people don't believe they can do something, they may not even try. Self confidence is built through the conditions and consequence that accompany the practice of the skills to be learned. If there is no practice there is little chance that a belief in the ability to perform those skills will be developed. But practice Is not enough. The practice must lead to positive consequences, such as a series of successes, or comments intended to praise the performance. The instructional environment must provide opportunities for the trainees to Judge their own level of competence. Training must be orchestrated so that trainees learn to accredit their success to their own performance rather than the influence of others or to chance. OPPORTUNITY Without opportunity to perform, there will be no performance! Opportunity means being provided with the authority to perform, Information about expectations, tools and 545

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equipment necessary to perform, a place lri which to perform and the dme to perform. But there's more. Because opportunity to perform isn't enough either. One must actually use the new skills learned or they will disappear quickly. SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT A supportive environment Is one that encourages desired performance and discourages undesired performance. It Is an environment In which ETC's are given reasons (incentives) to perform In a desired manner, a clear description of the results to be obtained and the standards to be met. It is an environment where an ETC feels good when the job Is done right and not so good when It Is done Incorrectly. In an organization, where the consequences are upside down, meting out punishment for doing it right and rewards for doing It wrong--desired performance will be difficult If not Impossible to sustain. Although trainers can guarantee skill, only managers can be held accountable for on the jobperformance AlTERNATIVES TO TRAINING One of the most common reasons why people don' t do what Is expected of them Is that they don't know what's expected of them. They may not know they have the authority to do something or they may not know for certain what they are supposed to do. Or they may not know what accomplishments they are expected to achieve. How many ETC's do you know who have been told "Our objective Is to achieve 20% Increase i n APO this 546

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year". This is a clear statement of objective. However, most ETC's have to guess at what they are expected to do. Often the real, but unspoken objective, is to use as little company resource as possible to accomplish the objectives (complying with local TRP regulations). Even when we do try to communicate clearly by indicating that our objective is to improve our APO this year, it does not tell the ETC how to recognize success when it has been achieved. This Is why developing clear objectives Is critical to the systematic design of performance based training. DOCUMENTATION Another tool for promoting desired performance is documentation. This Is Information that is better stored in notebooks, guidebooks, reference manuals or on computer disks than In an ETC's head. When these things exist, are readily available, and well prepared they can make job performance a lot easier and smoother. Unfortunately It Is still common to write a user document that is a repository for Information and not designed to get information out quickly. Because poorly designed documentation is a universal problem, you should always suspect that job related documentation will provide a rich opportunity for performance Improvement. FEEDBACK Another powerful tool for Improving performance Is feedback. When people learn how well they're doing, or not doing, they have reason to do better. People who don't receive 547

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feedback-infonnadon--regarding the quality of their performance won't Improve. JOB AIDS Job aids (or performance aids) are a tool in the arsenal of those who would maximize desired performance. job aids are items that cue people to do their jobs correctly. They are used to remind people how to do things they already know how to do or have learned in training. Checklists, reminder lists, or other job aids are all around us. I've used several in this paper as guidelines for the steps or key questions in a task. To grease the way toward peak per(on:nance see If one or more iob aids won't make the work go more smoothly and reliably. THE WORKPLACE A well designed workplace Is another avenue through which performance can be facilitated. When an ETC's workplace has been thoughtlessly put together or not considered at all it can be an obstacle to performance. A hastily assembled or non existent commute management center to focus employee attention on the company efforts, or the lack of a private area to talk one on one with employees about commute issues or problems, can be a significant Impediments to an ETC's perfonnance. In our curriculum at California State University at Fullerton I ask ETC's about the organizational placement of the TOM function. Often we hear that the organizational 548

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positioning or the organization Itself Is an Impediment to their performance. Take a look at your organiz.1tlon. Is the ETC and the TDM program arranged to minimize internal impediments and maximize ETC and program performance. I f not you may have an organizational Impediment to resolve. PERMISSION It may seem odd but It Is not uncommon for people to be expected to do things they haven't been given permission to do. If people have been given responsibility to increase APO but not permission to do the things needed to get these results, performing will be difficult, if not Impossible. Do we set our ETC's up for a fallure by training them and then failing to provide them with permission to do what it takes to perform? CONSEQUENCES The consequences of doing something right or wrong have a great deal to do with what people will do In the future. When their acts are followed by events that they consider unfavorable, they will be less likely to repeat those acts in the future. When we think a training solution is called for, we want to try to assure ourselves that people aren't failing to perform because there Is something upside down about the way the rewards and punishments are being dispensed. Look at your organiz.1tlon or department. Take a consequences reading. Assess your companys' approach to the TDM program. Are they rewarding success (Increases In participation and APO) and punishing lack of performance 549

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(failure to hold the monthly promotional event) : 'if performance Is punished It can defeat the best training and the best ETC's. ETC's will repeat what Is rewarded and avoid what . is punished. In the past, training usually consisted of classroom lectures given by an old hand who stood up in a classroom and overwhelmed a group of people with information. Little or no practice was given in the key skills to be learned, because telling believed to be . teaching. Because of the unsystematic way in which training was selected, developed, and delivered, managers learned to expect little in the way of results. But that has changed drastically. Trainers can now guarantee that their training works. That Is, everything they do in the classroom will have demonstrable value on the job. Trainers know how to measure the Important effects of training and .they know how to match training to the needs of the Individual tralnee . at the least cost. GET YOUR MONEY'S WORTH OUT OF TRAINING Now that our trainee ETC's are returning to their respective places of employment it would be great if our job was done. However, as we have said successful job performance depends on 4 things; sklll, self-confidence, opportunity to perform and a supportive environment. If the training is well designed it wm take care of the skills and confidence to apply those skills on the job. But only the manager responsible for the program can supply the opportunity to perform and the supportive environment . 550

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So we have a critical role to be played by someone we may or may not be able to influence. To get our money's worth out of here are a few things we will have to do. Ask yourself these questions about the workplace/manager they are returning to: QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT THE WORKPLACE Does the workplace manager know exactly what accomplishments their ETC will be expected to accomplish? Will the new ETC have a chance, (within a week or two of returning) to exercise their new skills? Will the ETC have the tools, authority, place and time to use the skills they just learned? Will the manager In charge check to see that the new skills are being applied at the standard specified? Does the manager in charge know how to respond favorably when people perform competently? If they do, will they take the time to do so for a mandated TDM program. HOW TO INCREASE THE IMPACT OF TRAINING To make learning stick you need to have the skills used. Referring to the skills learned in 551

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training there is an adage "use it or lose It". Let's look at our ETC for a moment. Fresh from training they go back to the workplace to lind that work from their primary job has piled up while at training. Shortly after arriving back at work on the first day following training, the boss asks our ETC for a fiVe minute summary of what the training was all about. At the end of this brief conversation s/he hands our ETC another new assignment. Our ETC is not given the opportunity to perform nor one of the critical tools to perform, the time. It's no wonder that 60 days later our ETC is burning the midnight oil racking his/her brains and wading through the nottoouserfrlendly training manual to complete their plan or figure out how to Implement the strategies outlined by his predecessor . before the auditors show up. I f this is what an ETC returns to, we are kidding ourselves if we think our training can have any more than a transitory impact. So what are we to do? How do we respond? Is there a way to help provide the opportunity, tools, authority, place, time and feedback to our fledgling ETC's I think there Is ... and It starts with the awareness of the principles of adult learning and the conditions under which performance flourishes. Realistically examining what Is possible in the world of ETC's will lead us to a new series of TOM efforts that focus on educating management and making the work environment a reinforcing place for ETC activity. Although many of my colleagues agree that the ETC is often the difference between a 552

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successful and unsuccessful program. I believe that upon closer examination we will find that the successful ETC works in an environment that encourages and rewards positive TOM outcomes. However to understand these changes in the work environment new studies are needed to document non training components and their Impact on ETC performance. 5 5 3

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The Role of the Employee Transportation Coordinator in Employee Trip Reduction Programs by Qiuzi (Cynthia) Chen W. Patrick Beaton, Ph.D H. Meghdir Q. Chen, G r aduate Stud e nt, I nstitut e for Transportation, New Jersey Institute of Techno l ogy, Newark NJ, 07102, (Voice 201-596-2949), (FAX 201-596 6454), (e-mail qxc2252@hertz.njit.edu), P. Beaton, P1ofessor Institut e for Transportation, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, (Voice 201-596-2949), (FAX 201-596-6454), (email beaton@hertz.njit.edu). H. Meghdir Transportation Planner, Hackensack Meadowlands Development Commission Lyndhurst, NJ 07071 (Voice 201-460-1700), (FAX 201-460-1722). 554

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Abstract Employee Transportation Coordinators represent a new l eve l of governance mandated by government regulation and maintained by public and private corporations and businesses. They represent the shared burden that employment sites are being asked to support in order to improve air quality and reduce traffic congestion. Their success depends upon stro n g interpersonal skills, organiza tional insight a n d the ability to influence departments not under their control. The ETC must design, organize and implement employee commute options While it is st!U ear ly in the program, only 54 percent feel that their sites will meet their commuting mandates within the appropriate time frame. Opportunities and barriers to the program abound within the sites. Our preliminary findings show that ETCs are placed in departments which on average are perceived as powerful. Howev er, ETCs have negativ e attitudes toward proposing parking charges and rideshare benefits strat e gies to meet th e mandated com m uting targets. Furthermore, ETCs believe that the act of proposing tough policies will harm thei r careers. Most ETCs have strongly negative attitudes toward the act of telling top management that their site has failed to meet the commuting mandates by November 15, 1994. W itho ut strengthening the ETC's positio n with respect to top management and their supervisors attainment of the commuting mandates will occur in few ca
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Communication with employ e es requires ETCs work "'ith departm e nts as well as union bargaining units V\lhat constraints and opportunities do face when they struggle to get supports from the top management and employees in the process of implementation? This study examines the human side of the implementation process. It i s tru e that real resources will need to be brought to bear on the proble,;... However, mobilizing the resources for use in ETRP requires llrms to reallocate existing budgets. E TCs and their departments will be required to negotiate with other departments and motivate top management to accept the program. Ultimately, successful implementation amounts to the use of organizational influence or power to change commuting behavior among employees of all subunits at a site I t is the purpose of this report to address these questions. We b e gin study by briefly describing the current situation experienced by ETCs. This Is followed by an examination of the theor e ti cal basis for the study design and it is concluded with an analysis of the perceived organizational opportunities and constraints as r e ported by ETCs. Who are the ETCs The Employee Transportation Coordinator is not yet a fully d e fined job classification. In all cases surveyed employee transportation coordination is a set of duties added onto the existing duties of a current employee located a t the work site. The ETC has been placed in a wide range of subunits. The subunits can b e roughly categorized into six categories: human resources, security, external affairs, facilit y management and others. Table 1 displays the percent distribution of the respondents by departmental category. Table 1. P e rcent Distribution of Employ.,;., Transportation Coordinators by Departmental Category. Departmental Category Percent Distribution Hum an Resources 30.4 Security 24.2 External Affairs 21.2 Facility Management 12.1 Administration 6.1 Finance 3.0 Other 3.0 Total 1 00.0 556

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Most ETCs belong to a human resources department, which Is responsible for all matters related with employees such as recruiting employees and employ e e relations. The second most common placement for the ETC is security. The security department deals with safety, fire protection, emergency case, and parking management. The third ranking location for the ETC is external affairs. The external affairs category brings together a dispa,rate set of departments such as thos e that deal with new governmental regulations and community affairs. ETCs whose previously reported jobs were project coordin ator, engineer, and shipping manager a r e categorized into the facility management department. Finally, a high school teacher is placed in the Other category. The ETCs surveyed come from a wide variety of situations and firms Table 2 shows that the employment sites represented range in size from 122 employees to 4100 employees Thirty percent of the sites have unions. Forty percent of the ETCs ar e the heads of their departments and 9 percent also supervise other ETCs outside their sites Over ninety percent of the E TCs indicated that their previous job required a high degree of interaction with other departments. Therefore, pre vious experience in the art of interaction and negotiation appears to be an important preconditions for the ETC assignment. Table 2. Descriptive Statistics for the E TC and the ETC's site.' Sire range of site ETC is a Department Head ETC Supervises oth e r ETCs Average time serving as ETC Percent work time serving as ETC Experienced interacting with other departments Sites with unions 'Sample size Low: 122 employees High : 4100 employees 39% 9% 6.5 Months 20% 90% 30% 33 Formal organizational structure can influence the strategies taken by an ETC in implementing ETRP across departments at a sit e. Table 3 organizes the departments in which the ETC are located into one of two categories : F lat and HierarchicaL The Hierarchical category is further partitioned into high, middle and low depending upon the response of the ETC to questions asking if there are other departments in their 557

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organization that are lower or higher in the stru c tur e of the organization than their department. The table shows that 33 percent of the ETC reside in firms with flat organizational structures. The hierarchically organized firms placed the ETC high in the hierarchy I n 40 percent of the cases It is unclear what precis e role organizational structure will play in the ultimate success of the ETRP program. However, ETCs responding to a question e valuating their site's chances of successfully making their target APO in 1996 indicate that formal structure may make a difference. Overall, 54 percent of the ETCs feel that th eir sit e will meet the APO target. The formal organizational structure of the firm has often been considered a factor affecting a subunit s power. Structure is identified in the study as firms that have either a flat or a hierarchical form of organization. Operationally a flat organizational structure occurs when the ETC's department has no departments, other than the top management team, above or below it. Hierarchically org anized firms fmd ETC's d e partments above all other departments, in-between other departments or below all other departments. Table 3 below shows that ETC l ocated in departments that are either in the middle or high In a hierarchically organiz e d firm are more l ikely to feel that they will meet the 1996 APO target than other ETCs. This is Table 3. Organizational Structure of E TC's Depart ment and location of ETC's Department with a hierarchical organizational type and percent in each organizational type who feel t h at their site w!U meet the target APO by November 15, 1996 .. Organizational Type All Sites Flat Hi erarchical High Middle Low P ercent ETCs 100% 33.3% 66.7 39 9 12 .1 15.2 Percent ETCs who forecast meeting the Targ etAPO 54% 45% 58% 69% .100% 20% ETCs were asked to indicate the likelihood of their site's target APO by November 15, 1996. Those who indicated a greater than even chance to meet the/ goal were counted as forecasting its achievement. The percentages are based upon organizational type. 558.

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reasonable in that placement in a low ranking department places the ETC at an exireme disadvantage when attempting to negotiate and oonvince other department heads and th eir employees of the importance of the ETRP program. The rather mixed results found in Flat organizational structures suggests that ambiguity exists as to th e ability of the ETC's department to exercise inlluence over other departments. Models of human behavior suggest that not only the formal elements of organizational structure affect behavior but also the attitudes and beliefs individual decision makers have regarding their actions as well as organizational power derived from non structural sources affect behavior. Two theoretical models are used to explore these concepts : the theory of reasoned action and the theory of intraorganiza tio nal power. Theoretical Models The theory of r easoned action and the theory of intraorganizational power un derlie the analysis of ETC opportunities and constraints. The theory of r ea soned action points both to the attitudes of the ETC towards each tas k needed to imp lement ETRP as well as to the ETC's perception of their immediate supervisor's attitudes towards the ETC performing each task. According to this theory, both classes of attitudes determine the decision to perform the activities needed to implement ETRP (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1 980 ) To work successfully within an organization, ETCs must perform a s e ries of tasks. The tasks include the notification of management, employee motivation, training, the design of workable programs, holding informational programs, etc. Each of these tasks requires that the ETC act creatively and efficiently to achieve their objective The theory of reasoned action suggests that ETCs who believe that th e outcome of performing essential tasks will support their career will be more likely to perform these tasks. Similarly, where the E TC's supervisor is viewed by the ET C as supportiv e of the efforts t o implement the ECO program, the incentive to act creatively and efficiently on the program will be stronger than in the case where the supervisor is viewed as an obstacle The strategic theory of intraorgani7.ational power suggests that the ETC s department will hav e more power over the other departments as the ETC's departmen t shares important beliefs with the top management and as that department reduces the uncertainty faced by the organi zation arising from external or internal contingencies (Enz, 1988 ) The range of values iden ti fied by Enz as contributing to an index of departmental power include professionalism, ethics, aggressiveness in the market, profits, employee mo ral e, and reaction to employee failur e. ETRP r eg ulat ions 559

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and penalt ies are external contingencies faced by firms. Con trol of t hese and other external and internal contingencies requires that the contingencies be defined properly and that appropriate levels of resources be mobilized to deal with the contingency. In summalj', E TC's attitude.< and perception of supervisors' attitudes can be ei ther barriers or motivations for actions 'In: meeting target APO. A.< motivational factors, they are necessary conditions for a successful program. However, they are not sufficient. For a target APO to be achieved, the ETC must find the power or influence necessary to change commuting behavior or work schedules. Thus, both an examination of the ETC as decision maker as well as intraorganizational influence or power is needed to forecast ETC success. . Research Design The research completed for this report is exploratory The research seeks to both describe the conditions in which ETCs operate as well as to develop indicators that predict their effectiveness in meeting the target APO. The data gathered to meet these objectives has been derived from survey research performed in New Jersey Theories of Reasoned Action and Intraorganizational Power were used to design the survey instruments The draft instruments were pilot tested on ETCs and staff members of a Transporta tion Management Associa tion. The reviews concluded that successful administration requires that the survey be anonymous. The final questionnaire is 1 8 pages long, printed on a laser printer requiring 25 minutes on average to complete. A copy of the questionnaire .can be obtained from the authors. Questionnaires The questionnaires are divided into three parts. The first part is descriptive. Information is requested on the leng t h of time ETCs have been on duty, the activities they perform, and characteristics of their departments and llrms. The second part is an att itud i nal study' motivated by the work of :Ajzen and Fishbein (1980 ) The study examines the attitudes held by the ETCs toward impl e menting ETRP and performing preliminary actions. In addition, the same set of questions are asked to examine the perceptions held by ETCs regarding their sup e rvisors' attitudes toward performing the actions. Questions in the third part of the survey focus on the relationship between perceived values and power assigned to the E TC's department. These qu e stions w ere derived from the theory of intraorganizational power. Questions on perceived values explore s the extent of shared values between the E TC's department and the top management in the running of th e organization and in complying with the ETRP 560

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program. Questions on power examine the intensity of perceived general power and ETRP related power held by ETCs. Sample The target population for the study is ETC s who have been assigned to perform employee transportation coordination duties. Ideally, a sampling l ist could be obtained and randomly sampled. The sample could then be sent a copy of the survey with a return addressed envelope to improve response rates. This procedure was rejected for several reasons. First, the ETC list is currently being compiled by the state department of transportation and is incomplete. Second, the individual ETCs have little time and incentive at their office to comp l e t e a lengthy survey form. Alternativel y, a set of ETC networking sessions and training secessions held by Transpo rtation Management Associations were used to administer the sutvey. The data collection period started in 1 June, 1994 and will terminate by 15 November 1994. At present fifty-eight questionnaires have been distributed. Thirty three questionnaires have been returned and analyzed for this report. The response rate is 57%. Empirical Findings By November 15, 1994, ETCs must have performed a set of procedural tasks or activities that will provide their site with a certified Compliance Plan. For it to be successful, the ETC should have the organizational motivation and support to implement it. They are not required to demonstrate substantive changes in APO until 1996. The activities undertaken in the i nterim period will determine the plan's success. Based upon interviews held with directors of Transportation Management Associations and Employee Transportation Coordinators who have been active for the past year, a series of activities was identified and incorporated in the ETC survey. ETCs were asked to check the activities they have already performed as well as the degree of importance for performing these activities on a scale of 1 Extremely unimportant" to 7 Extreme ly important with 4 being neutral. In addition, the ETCs were asked to rate their supervisor's view of the importance of performing each activity. Table 4 displays the survey's results

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Table 4 Completion rates and importance ratings for a set of activities perceived to be important to the successful imp lementation of.Em plo yee Trip Reduction Programs. Task Description Percent of ETCs Completing the Activity 1. Meet with site's top management team to inform them of the site's target APO 2. Meet wit h site's top management team to brief them on the potential strategies that may be needed to meet the site's 1996 target APO. 3. Prepare fliers to promote the ETRP program 73% 52% 48% 4. Meet with department heads and 48% request their cooperation. 5. Held focus group meetings to 24 % promote ETRP progr.un. 6. Prepare newsletters to promote 24 % the ETRP program 1 liave member of site's top managemen t 21 % team address all employees and r equest their cooperation and encouragement in the ETRP program 8. Have member of s ite' s top management 15% team address all department heads and request their cooperation and encouragement in the ETRP program 9. Prepare the initial program plan that 12% will offer commuter prizes to promote ETRP 562 ETC Rating 5.8 6.0 5.6 6.1 5.4 5.4 5.9 6.0 4.1 Supervisor Rating 5.0 5.3 5.0 5.1 4.8 4.8 5.0 5.0 3.7

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Table 4 (Continued) Task Description Percent of ETCs Completing the Activity 10. Construct a rideshare matching list 9% 11. Have received a written approval by a 6.0 % member of the site's top management team for that person to address at a future date all department heads and request th eir cooperation and encouragement in the ETRP program ETC Rating 5.4 5.5 Ra.ting scores range from 1 "'extremely unimportant ... to 7 "extremely important ... "Su"ey was held during the month of June, 1994. Supervisor Rating 4.8 4.7 Table 4 shows the 11 activities rank ordered by the percent of ETC who have already or are performing the activity From the point of view of intraorganizational power, the clear focus of attention by the ETCs has been the site's top management team. Seventy three percent say they have informed the Top Management Team (H.IT) of the site s target APO, and 52 percent have briefed them on the set of strategies they feel necessary to meet the target APO. Slightly less than half of the ETCs have met with departmental heads while fewer than a quarter have begun the effort to meet with employee groups. When evaluating the importance of each activity, ETCs rate all activities with an importanc e greater than neutral. The highest ratings in volve activities that in form or request support from the top management team or departmental heads. ETCs report that their supervisors uniformly rate each activity as less important than do the ETCs themselves. This clearly shows the existence of potential barriers to the successful implementation of ETRP. I n general, the supervisor acts as a gatekeeper who c ontrols the outreach efforts and creativity of the ETC. Beliefs or values regarding the importanc e of the actions taken are viewed as the basis for many of the attitudes decision makers hold regarding their activities. ETflP programs are being required by government in order to advance clean air and reduce congestion. To the extent that this belief is held by ETCs and their supervisors, the more likely that strong ETRP programs will be submitted to top management and sold en thusiastically to department heads and employees. Table 5 displays the 563

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responses ETCs made to statements of four beliefs that can determine their intention to perform necessary ETRP related Table 5. Percent" distribution of ETC responses to four statements regarding beliefs in cor:nplying with ETRP program. Belief Sta t ement 1. ETRP is essential because rapidly increasing numbers of SOV drivers .will damage the air we breathe and increase traffic congestion 2. We will do what the state requires us to meet the target APO within two years 3. We will do what the state requires us to meet the regulatory requirements of the state's ETR P program 4. We do not care much about the ETRP program because we believe it will disappear before the date we are required to meet the target APO Columns subject to rounding error. Percent ETCs Choosing Belief statement 29% 29% 36% 3% Percent Supervisors Perceived by ETC to 1109ept belief statement 6% 22% 59% .. Table 5 shows that ETCs' bel iefs toward complying with ETRP are more strongly associated with the social goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments than are their supervisors Fully 29 percent of the ETCs see clean air and congestion relief as the basis for their activities; on the other hand, only 6 percent of their supervisors are perceived by ETC as accepting these same values. By far the broadest held belief underlying ETRP activities is the inherent need to meet the stat e 's regulatory requirements. Therefore, the activities that most supervisors will encourage E TC to perform will be those that meet the formal or paper-work requirements of the law 564

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The importanc e o f ETCs' attitudes and their perception of the attitud e s of sup e rvisors and top management team members can be seen at the level of s pecific ETRP ac ti vities or procedura l tasks. Here, attitude means how the E T C likes or d islikes activity or bundle of activities that can result in the s ite s meeti n g the target A PO. Tabl e 6 Ave rage rank value reported b y ETCs for a s e t of attitud e s r e lating to ETRP activiti es. The average val u e is placed on top of a range of numbers separating two adjectiv e s r epre senting two e xtrem e attitudes with 4 being intermediate or neutral. I. My attit ud e or feelings toward proposing to the lop management team parking charg e s of $1.00 per day for employees who drive alone work to at my sit e or fir m is: bad 1 2.63 2 ..,. 3 4 good 5 6 7 2 My attitude o r feelings toward proposing to my Immediate supenisor parking charg e s of $1.00 per day for employees who drive alone to work is : bad 1 2.78 2 1'3 4 goo d 5 6 7 3 My att i t ude or feelings toward proposing to the site or firm s top management team a r ides har e b e n e fit for all employees who rideshar e or take public transit of $3.00 a day is: bad 1 2 3.56 3 ..,. 4 good 5 6 7 4. My attitude or feelings toward proposing to my immediate supervisor a rides hare b e nefit for all e mployees who rid e share or take public transit of $3.00 a day is : bad 1 2 3.75 3 1'4 565 good 5 6 7

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Table 6 (Continued} 5. My attitude or f'1"lings toward inv iting employees who live to one another, to meet in a company Conference room for the purpose of promoting rideshare t e ams is: bad 1 2 3 4 5.81 5 "' 6 good 7 6. Thinking ahead two years, my attitude or feelings toward inform in g the site or firm's top management team that the site will fail to meet its November 15 1996 APO target is: bad 1 2 3.3 8 31' 4 good 5 6 7 7. I feel that my proposing a parking charge of $1.00 per day to address the ETRP issue will cause me to gain support and confidence in the eyes of the site's or firm's top management team. like l y 6.13 unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 61f' 7 8. I feel that my proposing a rideshare benefit of $3.00/day for each employee to address the ETRP iss4e will cause me to gain support and confidence in tile eyes of the site's or flrm's t op management team. like l y 1 2 3 4 5.8 1 5 "' 6 unlikely 7 9. Empl oyees in departments other than mine depend more upon their departmenta l managers for guidance on company policy than on statements from top management. agree 4.09 disagree 1 2 3 "' 5 6 7 Table 6 shows that the act of proposing programs that will impose costs eithe r on empl oyees or upon the firm are viewed as bad for the ETC. Parking charges proposed either to the top management team or to the ETCs supervisor is on ave r age the closest thing to absolute bad. Proposing a t ransporta ti on benefit for t ransit or quaUfied van pool users is ranked on the negative side of neutral. On the other hand, Questio n 5 566

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shows that the act of inviting employees to live close to one another to meet and discuss ridesharing is seen as relatively good. Question 6 looks ahead two years to the possibility that the site does not meet the APO target. In general the attitude by ETCs toward notifYing the top management team of a program failure is slightly negative. If it were to come to a choice between proposing a difficult program such as parking charges and failing to meet the APO target, ETCs will probably choose to fail to meet the APO targe t Questions 7 and 8 relate to the beliefs ETC have toward the long run outcomes for their careers when proposing parking charges or rideshare benefit programs. Parking charges is viewed as strongly unlikely to enhance the ETC's career; while, proposing the rideshare benefit is somewhat less unlikely to enhance their career. Clearly, both views are strongly negative in terms of the personal cost of acting in the best interests of the ETRP program. Lastly, question 9 is designed to explore the impact of intraorganizational power structures on ETRP implementation. On average, ETCs feel that the importanc e of departmental managers and the top management team i n guiding policy is relatively equal. Ultimately, ETCs must use influence or power to change attitudes toward the use of Employee Commute Options. Five questions were asked ET