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NPTS DEMOGRAPHICS AND TRAVEL BEHAVIOR: A COMPARISON OF FLORIDA AND THE UNITED STATES Prepared by: CUTR Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering Un i versity of South Florida January 1993

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INTRODUCTION NPTS and Travo l S.havlor. A Comparison of Florida and tho States. summarizes selected results of the 1990 NatiOnwide Personal Transportation Study (NPTS). Comparisons are made between Florida and the United Stares to determine how Florida Is similar to and diffflrent from the Unfted States in selected .:ategories The data is the first of a three-book series to be prepared by CVTR. This report focuses on the results of the 1990 NPTS; tM second book will concentrate on summarizing Journey to-Work results of the 1990 Census; and the third book will combine NPTS and Census Journey-to-Work data into a data book of along with approptlato lnte)tpretatfoM and comments. Each of these data books summarizes and travel behavior information that will be useful to planning organlzaUons$ transit systems. decisionmakers, and others throughout the state of Florida. As defined by the Federal Highway Administration, tho NPTS' Is a national SUI'VOY of trips and travel that provides the dtU needed at the Federal level to assess the relative use of various modes of travel and provide information on the chara
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TABLE OF CONTENTS Number of Housoholcls. Household Size 6 Population. Age Distribution 7 Population, Gender Distribution 8 Ethnic Origin 9 Household ln
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z c 3: c:a m ::>:1 0 .... J: 0 c II' m J: 0 .... c II' J: 0 c II' m J: 0 .... c II' -N m 6 NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS 105,000,000 90,000,000 75,00 0 ,000 u---60,000,000 u---, 45,000.000 30,000,000 1$,000,000 oL!:::= HOUSEHOLD SIZE United States 2 person 3 person 4+ person Florida SO% 40 % 30% 20% 10% 0% o% 1 O% 20% JO% 40% 93.3 million households in the United States. 4.7 million households in Florida (5 percent of the United States). 57 pe rcent of households in the United States consist of one or two people 66 pe rcen t of households in F lorida consist of one or two people.

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POPULATION, AGE 5+ YEARS 200.000.000 u---150,000,000 u---100,000,000 50,000 ,000 u---oL!:== AGE DISTRIBUTION United States F l orida 5 -15 years 16-19 years 20.29 yea r s 3()..39 years 4059 years 60.64 years 65+ years 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 10% 2011 221. 1 million persons (age 5 and over) i n the United States. 9.3 million p e rsons (age 5 and over) in Florida (4 percent of the United Stat e s) F lor ida has a large r "age 60 and over" population than the United States (24 percent vs. 17 pe r cent). Florida has a lower percent of working age population (age 20 to 59) than the United States (55 percent v s 60 per cent).

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., 0 ., c 0 z Cl m z c m :a c VI -1 :a Ill! c -1 0 z 8 POPULATION, AGE 5+ YEARS 250 000,000 200 000,000 150.000,000 United St a tes Florida 100,000,000 50 ,000,000 0 GENDER DISTRIBUTION United States Florid a Male, S-15 y eats Ma l e 1 G year'$ FetNie. 5--1 5 yur s F tm.at., 16 years Gender distribut i on of Florida populat i on (47 percent male, 53 per cent female) I s nearly Identi cal to the United States population {48 percent male, 52 percent fema l e). Gender d i stribution among the indicated age categories in Florida (15 per cent age 5, 85 per cent age 16 + ) i s also simi lar to that of the United States (18 percent age 5 82 percent age 16+)

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Other 9!1 UNITED STATES Not Htspank 92% . ETHN I C OR I GIN 0111e< "' m FLORIDA Not Hlspank ,,,. Of the United States population, 80 percent are white, 1 1 percent are AfrlcanAmerlc.an and 9 percent are of other ethnic origins. Of the F l orida population, 82 percent are white, 13 percent are African-American, and 5 percent are of other ethnic origins Those of Hispanic origin comprise 8 p e rcent of the United States population and 9 percent of the Florida population.

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J: 0 c: Ill m :I: 0 ... c -z 8 3: m z c: 3: = m ,., 0 ... < m J: ('\ ... m Ill 10 HOUSEHOLD INCOME United States Florida 2014 1514 1014 Sl4 0" Less tha n SS,OOO $S-S9,999 $10$14,999 $1S-$19.999 $20$24,999 $25$29,999 $30.$39,999 $40.$49,000 $50$59,000 $60,000 or more 0% 5" 10% 15% 20% AVERAGE NUMBER OF VEHICLES BY HOUSEHOLD INCOME United States 3.0 2.5 2.0 1. S 1.0 O.S 0 0 less than $5,000 S S-S9 ,999 S10$U,999 $ 15 $19,99'9 $20$24,999 $25$29,999 $30$39 ,999 $40$49,000 SS<> $59,000 S$0 ,000 01 more F lo rida 0.0 O S 1.0 1 5 2.0 2.5 l O 57 percent of F l orida households have i ncomes less than $30,000, while 51 percent of United States households have incomes below this same level. The average number of household veh i cles incre ases with househo ld income in Florida and the United States. As household income increases the average number of vehicles increases at a slower rate in F lorida than in the United States.

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LICENSED DRIVERS 150,000,000 u--120, 000,000 u---90,000,000 64,000,000 30,000,000 oL!:== LICENSED DRIVERS AS A PERCENT OF AGE GROUP POPULATION Unlttd Stats Floflda DISTRIBUTION OF LICENSED DRIVERS BY AGE ; ... _. __ -. -' :I. l:J::;:, ';{;i', .,,. '"'-' I ,'1 '.I :&::.% :f -:-r::-i, i i 11 I 1. f.:_l;};. 'i :J:)', l_ n'' J __ L_-((l!f;:*, 163.0 million l i censed drivers in the United States. I J 7.1 million licensed drivers in Flori da (4 percent of the United States) 88 percent of the United States population and 89 percent of the Florida population are eligib l e to drive (have a driver's license). 18 percent of Florida drivers and 1 2 percent of United States drivers are age 65 or older.

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z c: s: "' m ::>0 0 ... :: 0 ;lc: m ::>0 Ill G'l '" z c m ::>0 c ::>0 "' s 0 z 12 NUMBER OF WORKERS 104 ,000,000 u-78,000,000 u-52,000,000 26,000 ,000 United States .Fiorl .. GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS United States Female 47" 118.3 million workers in the United States. Florida 4.6 million workers in Florida (4 percent of the United States). The gender distri bution of workers is virtually the same for Florida and the United States The labor force participation rate is 58 percent in Florida and 64 percent in the United States. Male 5""

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HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES 200 000,000 ,r--------...... . . . ... 160,000,000 u---, 20 000,000 u--80,000,000 u--40,000,000 u--0 L!::::::= HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE TRIPS 165.2 million household vehicles in the United States and 7.6 million househo l d vehicles in Florida. Florida comprises nearly 5 percent of total household vehicles in the United States. 158.9 bill ion annual household vehicle trips in the United States and 7.1 billion annual household veh i cle trips i n Florida. F lo rida comprises nearly 5 percent of total household vehicle trips in the United States.

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:I: 0 c VI m :I: 0 rc < m G'l m :I: 0 c VI m :I: 0 rc ..... "II m ::>:1 n > "II ::j > n X l>::>:1 >. !:1 m ::>:1 n VI HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE MILES OF TRAVEL {VMT} 1,600 1.,409.6 billion 1,200 Lr--- u--4GOu---ol.!== AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS AVERAGE PER CAPITA CHARACTERISTICS Unitt1!.1 t 1.96 .. 17.39 9.28 The annual vehicle miles of travel (VMT) is 1,409.6 b illion in the United States and 53. 6 billion in Florida (4 percent of the United States). The average household size is smaller i n Florida (1.99 persons per household) than in the United States (2.38 persons per household). Dally vehicle trips per capita are greater in Florida than i n the United States (2.09 vs. 1.96), but daily VMT per c apita is lower in Florida (15.73 vs. 17 39). Florkfo 7611 4!1!1 0.81 2 .09 15.73 8 24

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TOTAL TRAVEL BY HOUSEHOLD INCOME Households with i ncomes in the range of $15,000 to $39,999 traveled proportionate to their per cent share of the total number of households for both the United States (45 percent of the househo lds made 45 percent of the trips) and Florida (47 percent of the househo l ds made 45 percent of the tri ps). Lower income households (below $ 1 5 000) traveled m u ch less in the United States (23 percent of the households made 12 percent of the trips) and in Flor ida (26 percent of the households made 18 percent of the trips). Higher Income households ($40,000 or more) traveled the most In the United States (32 percent of the househo l ds made 42 percent of the trips) and i n F l orida {27 percent of the households made 38 percent of the trips).

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> z z c: > r :I: 0 c: Ill m :I: 0 5 -1 m r :I: 0 c: Ill m :I: 0 r c Ill -N m < m :I: 1"\ r m Ill > > 1111 r m c: z =i m c m Ill 16 AVERAGE ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD TRAVEL BY H OUSEHOLD SIZE AND VEHICLES AVAILABLE UNITED S TATES ...... ttl:lld tlfpo -dV_A_blo Size. PIMIDUS -Zo10 OM ,....., ,.. Four Totol OM 2e 1,097 1,292 1,464 1,26] lilllof 1116 1,111 12,7)2 2U2Z 16,757 ,....., .r..,. 74 1 ,154 1,JII l,tn 2,076 Milos l83 7,H3 16,903 20,534 26,190 -lot 1.445 Z.ltS 2,654 2.679 -KS 10,7Sf 20,016 2e.ooo 28.031 four tlfpo 1H 1 543 1A11 un )J
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AVERAGE ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD TRAVEL BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE ANDVEHICLES AVAILABLEFLORIDA The average household in Florida makes 1,521 trips annually, traveling 11,418 miles, both of which are significantly lower than average household travel for the United States as a whole Just as in the United States, household travel in Florida significantly increases with the number of vehicles available and the size of the household.

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:!'::: 0 c m VI ., c ,-l -l :>:1 ., ., c: :>:1 ., 0 VI m :::t: 0 c: VI m :::t: 0 rc < m :::t: l"l ,.... m -l :>:1 ., 0 18 DISTRIBUTION OF WORK COMMUTE TRIPS BY USUAL MODE {MODE SPLIT) Walk Other 3% W alk 2% Other 2% SUMMARY OF ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE TRIP DATA BY TRIP PURPOSE The usual mode of transportatio n for the work commute trip i s dominated by the private ly-owned auto I n the United States and Florida (88 percent in the United States, 94 percent i n Florida) Vehicle trip lengths in Florida are shorter than those in the United States for all trip purposes; average trip length for all trip purposes i s 7 5 miles in F lorida and 8.9 mi les for the United States as a whole.

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PERSON TRIPS 300 ,....---------,------, . . ; : : : : ..... : 249.6 biiUon 250u---200u---150u---100 u----50 0 1.!:::== U n ited Slates Flo,lda PERSON MILES OF TRAVEL 2,600 2 ,31 S.3 billion :z,owu----1 ,560 u--1 ,040 520u----0 1.!:::== 249 6 billion person trips in the United States 10 .6 billion person trips In Florida (4 percent of the United States). 2,315.3 billion person miles of travel in the United States. 87.5 billion person miles of travel in Florida (4 percent of the United States).

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< '" % > s p z ZO, AVERAGE VEHICLE OCCUPANCY BY TRIP PURPOSEAUTO, VAN AUTO To/From Wort Shopping S()(la.I/Re
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United Sbtts Florid.a AVERAGE VEHICLE OCCUPANCY BY TRIP PURPOSE -TRUCK. All MODES To/From Wor1< Shopping SoclaljReaeation FamilyjPersonal Total 0.0 To/from Work SodaVRecreatlon Family/Personal Total o.o . . . TRUCK 1.0 2.0 ALL MODES 1.0 3.0 3 0 Average vehicle occupancy for all truck trips is 1 .27 in the United States and 1 .26 In Florida. Average vehide occupancy for all trips is 1 64 in the United States and 1.63 in Florida. In the United States and Florida, average vehicle occupancy for all trip purposes increases as the mode changes from the truck, to the auto, to the van.

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< m ::z:: -n m .... ;1:1 ., VI < m ::z:: n m 3: m VI .... ;1:1 :;; m z ::z:: 21Z AVERAGE DAILY V EHICL E TRIPS, V EHIC L E MILE S, AND TRIP LENGTH BY AGE AND GENDER United S?t.s Florida A .. A verage A-A verage Avenge V.Nclo Trips V MIO$ V oNdo Trip V.hlde Trips V ehkf.e M .. s Vehkle Tr i p .... o.y Longth fe. r Day Longth 0 01 0.07 U1 0.01 0.04 3 .00 0. 0 2 0 13 I.M 0 0 1 0.07 5 .00 4.71 1 5.44 3.11 23. 7 0 7 .61 z.n 2 2.77 7.23 3.08 18.80 6 12 26.45 9.06 3 .32 2 5 .73 7 7 5 1 8.99 6.M 3 .1t 5.51 Vehicle t rips per day are g reater i n F l orida than in the Unite d S tates ( 2 .09 vs 1.96); howeve r v e hi cle m ile s per day a r e lower in F lo r i d a ( 1 5.73 v s 17.39). Ave rage veh i cle trip le ng t h is shorter in F lo rida th a n in the nation a s a who l e ( 7 .5 1 m i l e s v s 8.87 m i les) In F l ori d a and t h e Unit ed States, men take more vehicle trip s per day, trave l mo re ve hi cle m i le s pef day, and t a ke trip s that are long e r than t h ose made by f em ale t ra ve l ers

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AVERAGE DAILY PERSON TRIPS, PERSON MILES, AND TRIP LENGTH BY AGE AND GENDER The numbe r of person trips per day is nearly the same in Florida and the United States (3. 1 1 vs. 3.08) Average person miles per day in F lorida are nearly three miles below that of the United States (25.66 miles vs. 28.56 miles). Average person trip length in Florida is just over one mile shorter in Florida than that of the United States (8.24 miles vs. 9.28 miles)

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Z4 Public transportation i s used most often for the journey to work (4 percent) and for civic/educational trip purposes (4 percent). The school bus mode is used frequently for civic/educational trip purposes (20 percent). Walking is used frequently for civiC/educational (13 percent), social/ recreational (10 percent), and other trip purposes (13 percent).

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PERSON TRIP DISTRIBUTION BY TRIP PURPOSE AND MODE FLORIDA The auto/ van is the dominant mode for each trip purpose in the state of F lori da. Public transportat i on i s used for 2 percent of civic/educat i ona l trips and 1 percent of both work and family/personal trips. Only 1 percent of person trips fo r the journey to work i s by pub lic transportat i on. The school bus mode i s used frequently for civic/educational trip purposes (17 percent) as well as for other miscellaneous pu r poses (7 pe r cent) Wa l k i ng Is used frequently for civic/educational (9 percent), social/ recreational (14 percent), and other trip purposes (30 percent).

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m m ., m ::0 Ill 0 z -t ::0 ., r m z ::1: ., ., c ::0 ., 0 Ill m s: 0 c m c z ::::j m c E m Ill !6 AVERAGE PERSON TRIP LENGTH (MILES) BY TRIP PURPOSE AND MODE-UNITED STATES 10.83 .. 13..11 11.75 8.85 2.04 0.81 8.75 : ,. Fa.,..ly/ O.k/ Sodal,l Eduatlonal Re
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AVERAGE PERSON TRIP LENGTH {MILES) BY TRIP PURPOSE AND MODE FLORIDA Average person trip length in Florida i s greatest for sodalf recreationa l trips (overall average of 10.91 miles for all modes). Excluding airp lanes and "other" modes, the longest person trip length in Florida involves t he use of the truck mode (overall average of 10 .47 miles for all trip purposes). Mos t F l orida person trips are shorter for all trip purposes and all modes than United States person trips.

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> < m "' m "'tl m ::0 "' 0 z -t ::0 "'tl "'tl c ::0 "'tl 0 "' !"' s: 0 c m c z =i m c m "' 28 AVERAGE PERSON TRIP TRAVEL TIME (MINUTES) BY TRIP PURPOSE AND MODE UNITED STATES Ovk/ Edua11onol Other All TriP .... _. 12.96 12.08 20.00 18 .79 1 5 .11 14.00 12.12 1t.91 15.81 1 7 .52 3:1.95. 30.24 2U2 .00.85 34.99 17. 37 20 .t7 35.82 U.77 20.85 110.00 161.14 97.98 165.64 11.09 7.61 14.80 17 .66 8.34 9.75 11.05 15. 79 i6.73 6.27 13.01 14.17 19 61 Excluding the airplane and "other" modes, public transportation had the longest overall average travel time in the United States (34.99 minutes for all t rip purposes). In the United States, overall average travel time is 17.52 minutes fo r trips by t ruck and 15.88 minutes for trips by autosjvans Average person trip travel time to earn a living is 18 66 minutes by autojvan and 40.55 m inutes by public transportation. 13.16 9.80 27.)9 16 .30

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AVERAGE PERSON TRIP TRAVEL TIME (MINUTES) BY TRIP .. PURPOSE AND MODE FLORIDA . : ,. Excluding the airplane and "other" modes, public transportation had the longest overall average t ravel time in Florida (38 .00 minutes for all trip purposes). In Flor i da, overall average travel time is 20.02 minutes for trucks and 14.56 minutes for autosjvans. Average person trip travel time to earn a living is 17 .30 minutes by auto/van and 69.05 minutes by public transportation. Traveling by public transportat i on for the journey to work takes s i gnificant l y longer in Florida (69.05 minutes) than i n the United States {40.55 m i nutes).

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"'0 c ttl r-n -1 "' )> z VI "'0 0 0 z 0 VI > z n m d z m )> "' m VI d "'0 c z =i m 0 E m VI 30 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION AVAILABILITYUNITED STATES 100% 75% <3 blo1 mile 0% 5 9% Yes N o DISTANCE TO NEAREST STOPUNITED STATES 100% Of United States respondents. 59 percent indicated that public transportation is available to their household. 61 percent of United States respondents indicated the nearest stop Is less than 3 b locks from their ho me. 19 percent of United States respondents indicated the nearest stop is between 3 and 6 blocks from their home.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION AVAILABILITYSO% 25% 0% <3 blocks 7 bfod:s > 1 mile 0% FLQRIDA . . . . Yes No DISTANCE TO NEAREST STOPFLORIDA 25% SO% 75% 100% Of Florida respondents, 58 percent indicated that public t r ansportation is available to their household 54 percent of Florida respondents indicated the nearest stop is less than 3 blocks from their home. 25 percent of Florida respondents indicated the nearest stop is between 3 and 6 blocks from their home. The Florida population typically travels further than the United States population to reach the nearest public transportation stop.

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32 SUMMARY The compilation and analysis of NPTS survey resulfs were undertaken to provide an understanding of demographic characteristics and travel behavior in Florida and the United States. This data book summarizes selected results of the 1990 study, with the major objective of comparing the selected characteristics for Florida and the United States. Several interesting facts emerge from analysis of the data: The number of persons per household tends to be smaller in Florida (1.99 vs. 2.38), which in tum contributes to fewer licensed drivers per household (1.51 vs. 1 75), fewer workers per household (0.97 vs. 1.27), fewer vehicles per household (1.63 vs. 1.77), fewer daily vehicle trips per household (4.17 vs. 4.66), and fewer daily vehicle miles of travel per household (31.28 vs. 41.37). More Florida resi dents are licensed drivers (76 percent) than the United States as a whole (74 percent). It follows that there are more vehicles per capita in Florida (0.82) than in the United States (0.75). Daily vehicle trips per capita are greater in Florida than in the United States (2.09 vs. 1.96), but daily VMT per capit
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lower In Florida (15 .73 vs. 17.39). A review of average dally vehicle travel by gender Indicates that men make per day, travel more vehicle miles per day, and take trips that are longer than those made by female travelers. The average person trips per day is nearly the same in Florida and the United States (3 11 vs. 3.08); however, average person miles per day in Florida are nearly three miles below that of the United States (25.66 miles vs. 28.56 miles). As a result the average person trip length In Florida is just over one mile shorter than that of the United States (8.24 miles vs. 9.28 miles). In the United States, average person trip length by trip purpose and mode ranges from a /ow of 0.54 miles to walk for family/personal trips to a high of 835 miles to travel by airplane for work purposes. Florida's average person trip length by trip purpose and mode is similar, ranging from a low of 0.37 miles to walk for family/personal purposes to a high of 1,300 miles to travel by airplane for work purposes. The longest trips by auto/van are for work purposes in Florida (9.19 miles) and for sociaVrecreatlonal purposes in the United States (12.72 miles). Exduding airplanes and "other" modes, the longest person trip length in Florida Involves the truck mode (overall average of 17.32 miles for all trip purposes), while the longest In the United States is for the public transportation mode (overall average of 11.76 miles for all trip purposes). Average person trip travel time by trip purpose and mode in the United States ranges from a low of 7.6 minutes to bicycle for civic/educational purposes to a high of 206 minutes to travel by airplane for work purposes. Florida's average person trip travel time by trip purpose and mode ranges from a low of 5 minutes to walk for family/personal purposes to a high of 450 minutes to travel by airplane for work purposes. The longest trips by auto/van are for work purposes in Florida (17 minutes) and for soda// recreational purposes in the United States (20 minutes). The availability of public transportation is similar in the United States and Florida, as approximately 58 percent of respondents indicated having public transportation available; however, the distance that the Florida population must typically travel to the nearest transit stop is somewhat longer than for the United States population The information presented in this data book was compiled to assist transportation planners and de
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z :!I VI VI 0 c "' 1"'1 m .... -... m VI 34 NPTS SOURCE FILES NI'TS survey data are available on mainframe reel tapes In six major files from the USDOrs Research and Special Programs Administration, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts (617-494-2450 ). Three of the files were used to compile this report including the household file, person file, and travel day file. The file source for each report page is provided below. Pogo6, Howoholdtlo. Pogo7,-ftlo. fago8.-ftlo. P 10, HouSehold and Travel Day flies . Pa9o11,_,.rson fh. Page 12 .' Pwson .fllt. I PA9t 13, Household and Trawl Day ftle$. ancl Trawl day ftlo$. ' ts, Household and Trawl Oayflllts. Page 16 Travel Day fife. Pogo 17,law, l Day"'" Page 18. and Trawl Day fl.s. -, 1 9 r .. ..; IM.. ,..20, Tnwl Day file. Pogo 21, t ..... Day ftlo. Pogo Pafsoi> arid r .. -.1 Day, .... rag. n. Person and Trawl Day fltes.. . Pogo 2, Towl Day fllo. '' f!age 2 5. Trwel oay fl ... Pogo 26. T'"vil Day fl\0. Pogo 27 r .. wl Oay ftlo. . Page 2 1. Ojy fUe. ,.)' < Pogo 29, T .. wl Day ftlo. . P aot )0, HOi.Mhokf fl ... . Pogo31, .Housohold file. f

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ADDITIONAL REFERENCES For addl!lonal sources on demograph ics and travel behavior in the United States and Florida, a selected list of references Is provided belo w

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CUTR Center for Ur11an Transportation Research College of Engin..,ring University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Avenue ENG 118 Tampa, Florida 33620-5350 (813) 974-3120, fax (813) 974-S168 Gary L Brosch, Director CUTR Project Team : William L. Ball, Project Manager Joel R. Rey Patricia A. Henderson Steven E. Polzin The Information contained in this publication is based largely on the analysis of NF'TS survey results as presented in "Analysis and Assessment of the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Study In Relation to Travel Characteristics in the Unrted States and Florida, a Master's thesis by Joel R. Rey {University of South Florida, August 1992 ).