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State Transportation Policy Initiative executive summary


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State Transportation Policy Initiative executive summary
Running title:
State Transportation Policy Initiative
Physical Description:
vi, 26 p. : ill. ; 29 cm.
Williams, Kristine
Williams, Kristine
State Transportation Policy Initiative (Fla.)
University of South Florida -- Center for Urban Transportation Research
USF Faculty and University Publications
Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida
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Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Traffic congestion -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Local transit -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Transportation -- Planning -- Florida   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form:
Also available online.
Statement of Responsibility:
Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida.
General Note:
"June 1995."
General Note:
"Principal Author: Kristine Williams"--P. 26.

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University of South Florida Library
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University of South Florida
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aleph - 023009229
oclc - 34106312
usfldc doi - C01-00429
usfldc handle - c1.429
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State Transportation Policy Initiative executive summary /
Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida.
7 246
State Transportation Policy Initiative
Tampa :
Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida
vi, 26 p. :
ill. ;
29 cm.
"June 1995."
5 FU
"Principal Author: Kristine Williams"--P. 26.
Includes bibliographical references.
Also available online.
Traffic congestion
z Florida
x Planning.
Local transit
Williams, Kristine.
2 710
State Transportation Policy Initiative (Fla.)
University of South Florida
Center for Urban Transportation Research.
USF Faculty and University Publications.
t Center for Urban Transportation Research Publications [USF].
4 856


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CBJJtsr fur Urban Transportation Rssean:h UniVIII'Blty al Sautb Florida 1995 Center far Urban Transportation Research Jana 199 5 STAll 'IIIAHSJIII\TA1101f I'OIJCY Dm1A11VI




Preface STAn! DAHWORTA110'N POUCY Dft11ATIVI R ecent legi s lation and fiscal trends i n F l odda and nationwide h a v e created a unique co mbination of constraints and opportunities, prov iding an i mpetus for examining the way F lorida cOnducts transponation planning. In r esponse to these challenges, t h e Florida Legislature and the Governor's Office d irected the Cent e r for Utban Transportation Research (CUTR) t o undertake the S tate Transportat ion Policy Initiative (STPI). The p urpose of this multi -phase study is to exam i n e curren t planni1)g... g rowth managemen t and tran sportation fund in g practices in Florida and to devel op rec omm endations that can be the bases of future legislative initiatives, agency rules, and better planning practice. Efforts undertaken as part SfPI include: a comprehensin review of local and regional planning in Florida in the context of State growth manasement requirements and fi:derallepslation an evaluation of the impact of community design on transportation needs 1 review of the lit erature on the transportation cosu of urban sprawl an evaluatio n of comprehensive tramportation planning for state purpose-s an exa mination o f the relat ionship between air quali ty and transportation p lanning, as pra c ti ced in F l orid a an eva l uation of tren ds and forecasts of F lorid a's population and tra ns p ortatio n ch aracte-ristics a study of transit, transporta t ion demand management level of service-, and concurrency i ssues and of congestio n management an d urban mobility planning prcpration of a future state bnd use map a study of statewide transportation needs and funding recommendations for a new sttategic planning process for Ror1da that recog nizes uncertainty a review of consistency between planning policy and regulatory practice a study of sustainable community de sign and transportation. Thi s report is a summary of the reports produced as part of the State Transportation Policy Initiative. S tate Tr a n s p rrtation Policy Initiative Proje<:t Manager : Edward A Mierzejewski, P.E Ce nter for Urban Transportatio n Research w


iv Sf AT! TRAHSPURTAnON POJJCY lHlTJATIVB The assistance o f the following is gratefully a ck now l edged for their guidance 3nd expcrcisc on this pro ject STPI Steering Committ

STATII TRAHSPORTAnDH POJJCY lNITIA 1lVI Contents INTRODUCTION .......................... ,_,, ....... -........ ......... -........ -.................... ................................ _,,,......... 1 CHALLEN'GES .......................... ............ ................... .............. -... ........... .................. ........... .. 3 Rising Transportation Dem.and --.. ----.. 3 Brawth Managem.ent Complications --..... ........... ............................. -............... 3 A Sprawling Magalapolis ....... ......... ......... -----4 Eroding RBV1D\ues ......... -............ ........... ...-.................... ............................ _,,, . _,,...... 5 Growing Transportation Needs ........ -......... ........... .......... .......... ......... ......... -. ...... -........ -...... 5 OPPORTUNITIES ...... -........ -......... -......... -.......... ......... ......... ............. ......... ........ -............................ 9 New Polley Directiona ............ -......... -.......................... -........... _.. ......... -....... ...... -....... _................... 9 Stronger Planning Requi.reme:nts _. ........... .............. ................................... -........ -........ ....... -............ 9 Strategic Approaches ta Transportation Planning_, ........ ........................ -....... ........ -. ............... -.... 9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................... -......... ................. -............. 11 Transportation N eeds .... -......... .......... ........................................ .......... ........ ........... -................... ..... 1 1 Transpartatia:n. Funding Options ........... -.......... ......... ..... ... .................... -........ ......... -...... -....... 12 Transportation Polley ....... ._ ........... ._ ......................... -............................................... ......................... 13 Transportation and Growth M anagement ... --........... ................................... _,, ................ -.................. 1& Community Design ud Transportation ...... -.......... ......... ................................... -.......................... -.. 19 Coordination and Consistency ....... ......... ............ -.......... ._. ............................. ... ... .. _. ................ -... 21 APPENDIX A: State Transpartatian Polley Initiative Repol'lll ........... .. -.. --.. -.. 23 B.ucuHve Summary v


vi STATE TltAHSPORTAnON POJJCY tHmA11VE xecrrtiV'I Snmrury


Introduction Florida is at the crossroads of a new era in transportation. Tl)e federal lntermodal Surf:ace Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and t he F lorida "ElMS III" legisla tion in 1993 have redefined the policy framework for transportatiov and develop ment planning. It is a period of reform that holds great promise; i t also poses significant challenges. W h at is require d is a more integrated approach to transporta tion, water, and land use decis ions, g reater attention to commun i ty design, and a more strategic a pproach to defining and funding transportation needs. To accomplish these goals, some key policy questions must be resolved. Wha t are Florida's transpor t ation needs? What will it cost to those needs? How can we make more strategic use of transportati6n dollars? What can b e done to strengthen coordination of transportation, water management, and land development decisions? ln 1992, the Florida Legislature and the Governor's Office directed the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) at the University of South Florida to under take the State Transportation Policy lniti ,ati:ve to evaluate these and other transportation policy issues facing the state. A multi-

2 Sf AT! TRAHSPORTATnf POJ.Jl:Y IHITIA TlVE p orta t ion po l i c ymakers p lanners, and developers. Recom men dation s call for change s in leg isl-ation. a d min i s t rative rule, and p l an n ing pract ic e. Because roles and respons i bilities h istorically have been fragmen t ed, new rela ti onship s mus t also be forged a cross govern ment agencies, professional disci pl ines and between the p ublic and private s e ctor. An d prov i d i n g adeq ua t e fun di ng to maintain and i mprove our t ranspomtion system wiJJ b e an i ncreasing ly pressing i ssue in the yc::1rs to come .Exoculin SwnmiU)'


Challenges Rising Transportation Demand Florida's population has c:xploded in the past few decades, and with i t so has de mand for land, transpo rta tion, and public services. Consider these statistics: In 1950, d1c population of Florida was j ust under three m illio n. By 1990, F lo rida's popu la tion had reached nearly 13 mill io n with about 39 million tourists visiting t he state annually Based on the latest demograph i c projections Florida is e x pected to reach a p o pulation of nearly 19 million by the year 2010. Indicators of growth in transportation demand are e.ven more st a r tling. Th.ree times as many vehicles were registered i n Florida in 1990 as in 1970 By 1980, th e number ofvehicles actually began to exceed the number of people in the s t ate. Annu a l veh icle miles of travel (VMT) i n Florida i ncrease d by 163 between 1970 and 1990, c ompared to a nationa l growt h rate of 9 4 p ercent. Not only are more p eople t r aveling, but people are a1so t raveling xnor e. Nationwide. Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) data reveal that F l oridians now travel an average of about 26 miles per day and, accor ding to Census d ata a g r e ater proportion o f the labor forc e is commut ing to work in a county other than their cO\Int)' of .residence. Fortunately the e xplosive r a t e of growth in private transportation demand is expected t o subs i de somewhat, the reby slowing pressure on the already-strained state highway syst em Reasons in clude th e aging of the popu l ation, l eveling out of the f emale labor force participat io n rate) and other trends. such as proje ct e d decline i n real p er capita incorne. However, improve d fuel economy will l ead to reduced fuel purchases and less Executive Summary growth i n motor fuel tax revenues-the primary source o f funding: in Florida for construction and maintenance of roads and bridge s This conclusion is cause for conce rn A demand forecast conducted for this study suggested that vehicle miles traveled will grow at twice the rate of revenues that go into the State Transpo rta tion Tr u st Fund Growth Management Coxnplicationa A l though a decade has passed s i nce Florida adopted its lan dmark growth management legislation, progress has been slow and uneven. Many local governments are still strugg ling to overcome a legacy of h apha z ard gco wth and "pay later" growth pl ans Other problems include uncertainty regard ing the legal limits o f land develop ment regulati on. perceptions of gtowth management as "anti-development," reactive rather than policy"riven dec ision making. and Jack o f a coordinated app r oadl to land use a n d transportatio n. Ironically, state planning require.menfs have been criticized by local planning officials as a constraint to eff ective planning. Inadequ a t e funding and th e short time frame for p r e parat ion resul ted in a cookbook ap-POPULATION GROWTH RATE: FLORIDA AND U NITED STA TES (1960-1990) 200% 160 % 1m Florida UnHed States 161% 120% 80% 40% 1960-70 1970-80 1980-90 1960.$0 3


STATE TRAHSPORTATIDH ... POLICY OOTIATJVE proach t o loca l planning aimed more at achieving comp lianc e than establishing a long range vision. The burden of demon strating compliance w ith vague or over l y prescriptive planning requiremen t s some times discouraged i nnovation. 4 A c r ucia l li nk in the process-one that cannot be legislativ ely prescribed-is a vision of the des ir ed future. Vision is essential to achieving consistency between land use and transportation. Without it, there is no plan. Some communi t ies have i.t and achieve great things w i th th eir planning and r egulatory program. Others are characterized by reac ti ve decision maki ng and lack of dire cti on. Yet even visionary pl ans are often impeded by the po l itics o f land development. T he push and pull of co m pet ing inte rests has made it difficult t o mJ i otain a consist enc policy direct ion i n the lnd use planning program In Oldd itioo, few communities adequate l y ta i lor their regu l atory program to st imulate desired changes in develop ment pract ices Innovative projects that advance plan ning pol icy rnay precipi t ate a more cumbersome revie w process. especia lly where design concep t s depart from rcgu1atory conventtons. Tension be tween the need to s im plify and st reamline regul ation ;md the desire to maximize disc r et ion i n d evelopment decisions i s not easil) reso l ved What is clear. however, is that much ca n be done to i mprove t he clarity of regulatory Estimated Projected Florida Population (2010) Scenario low Densi t y BvitdOu t Mediu m De nsity Buikt-Out Hig h Density Build.Out Projected 26,000.000 $4,000, 000 85, 000 000 BEBR" 16, 000 000 t a 20.000.000 streamline t he review proces.s> ''fast track" quality proposals, and prov i de more mean i ngful i n centives for desired develop ment out comes. A Sprawling Megalapol!a Alth 0 ugh flexibil i ty is essential for develop ment planning, allocating too much l and fo r V3rious u ses encourages hap hazard growth and can distort reasonable proj ec tions o f f uture facility needs For th i s reason the F l orida Department of Commu nity Affairs ( DCA) monitcrs local future land usc plans for consistency with state population forecasts. Local governments are allowed to plan for 125 p ercent of their projec te d popula t io n over the plann i ng horizo n for flexibilit y in a ccom modat i ng market d em and. Despite such requi rem ents some local governments have des i gnat e d far more land than necessary for residenda l d evelopment, given reason ab l e estimates of p o pula tion growth. At buildo ut, the combined future l and u se maps of Florida's l oc a l government plans compris e eno ugh r e siden ti al land to accommodate a conser vative e stim ate of more than 26 million people by the year 2010. Compare this with stat e forecasts, which range from a l ow of 1 6 million to a h igh of 2 0 million people over the same period These populat ion estimate:;. require so me exp l anation. T he totals arc derived from a statewide map compiled for th is study from the future land use pl ans cf Florida's 457 loca l governments. CJearly, any land use. analysis at the statewide level is subject to ina cc uracies. A variety of w iiJ preclu de maximum buildout under scenarios in cl uding right4of-way needs. variations of zoning mnkct absorption, and environmental const r a i nts However it must be emphasized that 26 million people is a constrvaJive e sti .:-natc. The land arc-.1. planne d for future residential develop ment could potentially accommodate more than twi ce this number.


The compiled map reveals a not her f un damental prob lem. Many loca l governm ents continue t o allocate lo w r e siden t i a l densi tie s across large expanses of r ural land rather than fo"using more residen tial growth in and around a lready urbanized areas. In addition. some local co mprehensive plans reviewed f o r this study failed to accoun t for the available capacity in vested residential plats or projects when evaluating residen tial land usc needs. The resul t h a s been the haphazard conversion of rura l lands for urban use, growing d emand fo r extension o f urban services into outlying areas. and a cont inuou s cycle of sprawl. The larger challenge of managing growt h cannot be met solely b y addressin g the amount of land allocated The land usc mix must a l s o be addressed. H igher densiti e s accommodating a mix of uses are n ecessary t O susta in alternativ e m ode s of tra nsportation and achieve c o m pact urba n form. U nfo r tunately, much o f the growth that accompanied F lorida s p opulat i on boom has been segregated into l a rge sing lela nd-u s e distr icts at relatively low d ensities Much o f Florida w i ll b e transf orm e d into sprawli n g reside ntial subdivisi ons and office parks served by intensively deve l oped commercial corridors. T r affic conges tjon will c onti n u e t o r ise and safety will deterio rat e as high speed arte r ials are transformed into stop and go commercial strips. Eroding Revenues Find in g funding to maintain and improve Floridas transportat ion i n frastruc ture will remai n an ongoing challenge. With few excepti ons F l orida's transportat io o revenue base cannot keep pace w ith th e impact of contiJtued growth i n popula tion and commerce, o r even moderate inflation in the costs of transportation facilities a nd services. A l so at issue is F l orida's continued status as a donor state to the Federal H ighway T r u st Fund. Federal revenues, c o nsistin g primari ly of fuel taxes, are levied an d a ppor tione d Bucativa Summary nationally. Apportionments are calculated b ased on .1980 Census data, which clearl y penalizes gro'l\1b state s such as F lo rida This has r e s u lte d in a n ongoin g disparity between federal taxes collected and federal funds disbursed to th e

'STATE 1'RAH:SPOR.TAnDH PIIIJCY IHitiATIVE s years. This trend i s descr ib ed below as it relates to the var ious modes of transportation in the state. Rosds and Brldps A comparison of FOOT's standards and projected roadway condi tion,s reveals deficiencies in three areas: pavement condition, congest ion level. and safety. Each area is of cr i tical importance to the functioning of the transportation system. Deteriorating pavement cond iti ons have t\VO serious consequences First, degrada tion of pavement surface conditions accele rates after reach i ng a critica l point If de layed beyond this point, maintenance costs will i ncrease by 400 to 500 percent. Second, poor pavement condition can cause sizable increases i n vehicle opera ti ng costs Thus, deferre d ma i menance results in a chr o n ic cycle of paying more money for worse roads Breaking this cycle will require i ncreased expenditures for preserva tion in the ear l y stages. Given the project ed future condition ofFlCirida's roadway pavement and current fur.ding levels, the average servicea b ility rating will dete-ri orate over the 20-year period for both rural and urban roads De(etiorating cond it ions are--also eviden t in the System performance nu:asure of roa d way conges-tio n and de l ay \Vith no change i n curren t fund ing, peak hour congestion will escala t e i n the forecast period T his will underm ine t he reliability of the roadway system, causing increased deh.1ys, loss of p r oductivity, higher incidence of accidents, higher operating costs, an d incrn. And with r evenues lagging b e hind nsi ng costs it wiiJ become i n c reasi ngly d i fficult to make the investments nece-ssary for roadway safety. TI'BJIS!t and Rail Sta t e and federal trans port ation policy envision s an increased ro l e tOr transit to enhance mob i l ity, reduce congestion, a.nd i m p rove urban air quality. In addition, PAVEMENT CONDITION GIVEN CURRENT FUNDING Percen tage of Pavement in Poor Condition Percentage of Pavement i n Poor Condition O 1992 Pavement Condrtio n 2012 Pavement Condition aBased on h i ghway i ndustry s t a nda rds. Urban


transit ridership in some of Florida's metropolitan areas is increasing Miami and Orlando have experienced significant grO\vth in ridership over t he past five years, a reflection of local demand and publi c support for transi t However, Florida lags behind other r apid growth states in providing transit service. If transit is to assume an increased r ole in F lorida's transportation future additional funding will be required. C urrent funding will not be sufficient for the transit and rail modes to e x pand capacity. New p roposals by FDOT to attract potential franc hisees to develop high speed intercity trains in th e Tampa/Orlando and Or l ando/Miami co r ridors also will require significant longterm funding commitments. PIU8transit Paratransi t refers to demand8re-sponsive transpoitition service (e.g., d i a l-a-ride) that does not operate on fixed routes or fixe d schedules. In FY 1992-93, there was an estimated demand for 33.5 million paratra ns it trips. The supply of trips t o taled an estimated 19.9 million, l eaving unmet demand for 13.6 million trips. State financial support for paratransi t services increased beginning in FY 1994-95 due to ao add i tiona l dollar collected on each vehicle registration. However, this additional revenue is not expected t o be sufficient to keep pace with increases i n demand for s etvice. PEAK HOUR CONGESTION GIVEN CURRENT FUNDING Percentage of Peak Hour Travel in Congested Condition Rural 60% -tf -------------40% -M o0 ......... - -------Percentage of Peak Hour Travel in Congested Condition 800!. 60% 400!. I 1992 Peak Hour Congestion B 2012 Peak Hour Congestion Urban Note: Congested travel has a volume to service ftow ratio greate r than 0 .90. STATE TllAHSPOR.TA11DN POLICY llm1A11VE 7


8 SrAlE TRAHSPOJlTA'nOH PQJJI:Y DlmAT!VE Aizports Ajrports 3re assuming pivotal role in the world economy due: t o major c hanges i n how the world doc.s bus iness, in clud ing internatio n a l sourcing, j ust-in t ime" delivery proce sses that drastically cut production and delivery cycles and grow ing demand for rapid air shipment. Avia tion also i s crucial to tourism Approxi mately half of all visitors to Flori d a come by air. Florida airports tend to b e origin and destination airports, th a t is, the majority of pas sengers either begin or end the i r t rip h ere, rathe r than co n necting through AJI of this poi m s to an even greater burden i n terms of the amount of surface t r anspor tation that airports will generate in the future. An integrated system for collect in g and distrib ut i n g goods and people f rom these facilities will be crucial t o supporting tourism aod o ther industries in Florida. Airport congestion is also reaching crisis p r oportions. The Boei ng Comm e r c ial Airplane Group is predicting a 240 percent increase in d omestic traffic nationwide by 2010 and on l y a 20 percent increase in flight capa city a t th e top 50 U.S. airports. Florida is no exception. The Florida Aviation System P l an notes that nearly 60 p ercent of F lorida air p orts are approach i ng critical capacity Aircraft traffic delays, due to airspace congestion nd limited airport capacity, cost Florida S 124 m illion per year W ithout aviatio n system improvements, this wiU grow to over $473 million pe r year over the next 10 years. Airspace col\gestion threatens the growcl1 and srability of two o f Flor ida's lar gest indus trie s: intema t ional t r ad e and touris m Sfiplll'IB S ea ports are gateways for interna t ional commerce and mus t have 1 hc capacity to move: freight efficie n tly to take advantage o f trade opportunl ties. F l orida's ports are a lready braci ng themse l ves for the opening of ove rs eas ma r kets and the promi se o f fut ure trade with Cuba. are also capturing a growing share of the touri s m market as cruiselines incre: t se in popularit y Capacity imp_ roveroents and modernizatio n of eq uipment are essentia l if ports are to maintain a compe t itive: edge in the world marketplace As F lorida's .Seaporc portat ion and Economic Development Council explains ports are "economic eng ine s whose continued functioning depends on th eir bility t o grow in re sponse to m a rket 3nd technologi cal c hang es." Strong competition from state subs i dized seaports outside of Flor ida threa tens to pull freight and passenger b usiness out of the state and reduce the. eco nomic contrib ution of sea pores to the state ec o nomy.


Opportunities New Policy Directions The lnte rmodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 or ISTEA ("lceTea") has marked a new directio n for federa l trans portation policy. With i t came opportunities fo.r a stronger, more strategic approach to transportation The policy t h r u st of ISTEA evolved in the 1980s as the National interstate and Defens e Highway Program was winding down I t was then that policymak ers began attending to a new concern. Alth ough the Interstate: program i n many ways 3 h uge success, i t had no t solved t r affic conges t io n in areas With urban tr ave l grow ing and fewer opportu nities for highway expansion new solutioJls had to b e found. U ltimately, Congress settled on a package of authorizations tha t afford con s id e rable flexibili t y to sta t e a n d local officials in selecting the appropr iate pro ject mix. ISTilA author ized a grant progra m provid in g greater stat e and J ocal flexibility in s etting transport a tion prior i t ies. T hese flexible funds may be applied to roa dway constr u ction, b r idge pro j ects on public roads, or transi t c ap i tal pro ject s Other eligible projects include carpool, par king, bicycle, and pedestrian facilit i e s ; safety improvemen ts ; traffi c moni to ri ng manage ment and control; wetland mitigation; and uansportatlon control ni.easures for re duc ing traffic congestion and i mprovi ng air quality. Bot h Congress and the USDOT a r e now considering additional changes in federal tran s portation po l icy and fund in g While i t is impossibl e to pred i ct the outcome, both seem to be moving towards even more state an d l ocal flexib il itY i n th. e area of federal funds. Stronger P l ann ing Requinmumts Although the use of f u nds has become more flexi ble, planning r equiJ:en :u:.nts have become more s t rin gent including the first federa l man d ate for statewide tran sporta tion p lanning and a s trong emphasis on a l tern a tive modes and inte r moda l tions in reducing t ransportatio n prob lems State and me t ropolitan tran$pottation improveme n t prog r ams are also financially constrained-that is, they may include pro j e cts o r phases of projects on ly i f full funding can reasonably be anticipated to be ava ilabl e for the proj ects within the time period cont emplated for comp letion. Requi rements for pu bli c parti cipation in transporta t ion p lanning and programming wer e expanded at both the state and metro politan l evels, making t h e pro c ess much more visibl e th an ever before Metropolitan Planning Organizati ons (MPOs), the agencies t hat devel op long rang e trans p orta tion plans and improve ment programs for metropo li tan areas, have a central r o l e in this new framework. Large metropolitan areas of more than 200,0 00 person s are desig nated as Transpor t at i on Management Areas. ISTEA trans fer red authority over transpor t a tio n priorities in the se from state DOTs to MPOs and required each to ado pt a cong e stio n managemen t system. Strategic Approachll s to Transp ortation Planning The balance between regiona l mob i lity and loca l control is becom i n g incr easin g l y d iffic ult as Flor id a becomes more ur ba n ized To address this issu e con t empora.ry tran sporta

Conclusions and Recommendations + Trauplll'talilm Needs The study of Statewide Transportation Needs and Funding was conducted using a forecasting mode l to define and evaluat e Florida's transpo rtation needs for the 20year period 1992 to 2012, in relation to four alternative scenarios. Under each scenario. needs were evalua(ed against current and potential capacity to raise revenue for transportation i mprovements. SC81181'1Ds al Transpm1alian Ntlfld Maint.ttin Funding-usumes no change in existing revenue sources or tax an d fee rates. To ta l nee d s are assumed to be equal to currently available revenue. Maintain Conditions (with Maximum Lane Policy).-assumes completion of improvements neede d to maintain current physical condition and levels of service and includes a policy limit on the maximum number of lanes for various roadway classifications This limit is based on the Florida Departm ent ofTransportation's maximum lane p olicy for Interstat e high ways and pr o posed lan e standards for other state highways. T his scenario a ls(! assumes that savings in roadway expenditures due to this po licy would be tra nsferred to tra nsit and rail, inc-re.asi ng the emphasis on those modes. (A variation of thi s sc enario l ooks at needs in the absence of a maximum lane policy.) Improve Conditions assum e s that all current deficiencies i n physical cond iti on and levels of service would be corrected over the 20-year planning period. In the case of highways and bridges, for instance, this scenario provides the funds needed to meet basi c engineering standards. This scenario does not i nclude the maximum lane policy, but does assume a substa ntial Summary increase in the emphasis on tunsi t an d rail modes. E stimat e d tota l needs for all transportation modes under th e diffe rent scenarios range from $84 billion to $147 billion for the 20year forecast period. The total needs under each scenario and the revenue available under current ta x and fee rates to fund those needs arc shown in the following table. In each scenario, total needs f or transit, paratransi t, and rail include s system revenue (e.g., farobox and advertising). Because system revenue increases as the level of service increases, the total available reve nue also increases across scenarios. The revenue s h or tfalls are 527 billion to main tain curren t conditions and $58 billion to jmprove conditions. All oumbers are in 1992 dollars and, thus, do not i nclude future impacts of infla tion. (The poten t ial impacts of inflation are di s cussed in the full report.) STATB TltAMSPOltT AnON POIJCY INITIATIVE 11


SrATB TRAHSPORTATIOH PQJJCY IHlnATIVB + TransportatiJm Funding Options A broad spec trum of opti ons exist for funding Flori da's transportation needs an d state transportoltion r evenue shortfalls can b e met using different combination of these options For example, one approach would b e to use toll financing for new highways and bridges to the s ame extent a s used in th e past (i.e., insticute tolls on new facilities suffi ciently to keep tol1 revenues at 17 percent of total revenues) and to finance the remainder of the shortfa ll by increasing existing taxes and fi:es by an equal percentage. Using that approach, the state could rea liz e the revenue needed co mai n t ain condi tions through a 45 percent increase in each state transportation tax a nd fee. lmpr O\'ing condi t ions would requ ire a 95 percent increase i n state taxes and fees. The corresponding unit increase s are shown in the table below In t urn, local shortfalls to maintain cond i tions could be overcome through a 39 percent increase in the loca l motor fuels ta x an d in other local transportation fees and taxes. Improving condit:ons would require i ncrease s of 81 pe rcent (State and loca l percentages differ becau se of differing needs) If, instead, the sta t e rdied entirely on the motor fuels tax t o make up the 20 year shortfalls. an increase of 9 2 cents per gaHon would be req uired to maimain condit ions and an increase of 19 2 cents would be required to improve condit ions. For aviation, an increase in the av iation fuel ta x of 3.8 cents pe r 1;allon would be required for each sccnarb. Local govern. ments coul d mai n t ain ccnditions with either a 5.1 or 6.2 cenc s per g;1llon incre.1se in the local motor fuels 1 ax, and improve conditions with either a 1.3 or 1 3.9 cents per gallon increase The higher numbers would be for counties with transit systems. Operating Cast Sav1ngs The model used to assess roadway needs is also capable of anal yzing the impact of roadway i n vestments on o p erating spee d operouing costs, fuel cont-umption, vehicle maintenance, and safecy. Roadway i nvest ments b enefi t the public by increasing 1994 Typical Cba,.... Halnta.Ja Improve operating speeds, thus reducing driving time. In addition, these investmems lead to better fuel economy, l ower veh icle mainte nance costs and f ewer accidents Th e economic b enefits of high way a re measured by Malor f'taels (por gal) 0 0126 Aviatiofl FtMI Tax (per gat) 0 .069 Motot Ve.hide License Fee 35. 1 lnltial fltvigii'8HOil tOO Fltme.l Ca7 Surcharge (p1r de,y) 2 l:ncte1M1tt:at T'i!le Fee 24 o t Variabl1 'WJ!h lllni"mwn lant po&y "17-Js muwide t"Mllp wW vary among cow:eies. 12 Cottditlou Cottdlf/ott 0 0.057 0.11 9 0 0.038 0 .038 0 1S.8 7 33.28 0 45 21 94.82 0 9 0 1.90 0 10.85 22.76 0 0 039" o.oat 0 81% .. ass igning dollat val ues co reduc tions in driving time, fuel con sumption, vehicle maintenance, and accident costs". This analysis reve-als that maintotining current conditions (with maximum lane policy) will save th e public $47 billion over 20 years relative w the Maintai n Funding scenario. Improving conditions will save the public over twice as n:uchS95 billion. Benefit s associ:tted with produc tivhy gains an C economic im .. Bxer:ufin Summary


pacts o f improvements in the other modes were not ca lcu lated in iliis study, b u t are l ikely to be substantial. Other potentia l b enefits not repre sented in this estimate include improvements in air quali ty from reduced emissions. + Increas e p-u!Jlic ttwdreness of the consetfuences

,STATE TRAHSPORTATWM POIJCY lllmATIVE 14 t hereb y c osts a nd disrupt ion to p r i v ate property. In moderate to h i g h growth areas, th e 20-ycar des i g n forecast will al most certainly show t hat a m ajor roa d must be widened-often to six or eight lanes System managem ent alternatives, s uch as access management, will inevita bl y be found deficient when evaluat e d against 20 years of traffie gro wth. Long range transportation modc:ls w e r e intended to infOrm not override, publi c policy decisions It is essential to address th e trad<-<:>ffs and honestly cons ide r ahernatives What -are th e desired l im i t s t o system g rowth? A new corridor may in iti ally relieve congest i on, but what effect will i t have o n grow t h i l\ the met ropolitan fr inge> M odels may i nd i cate the need for six laning an a r t erial b u t wha t if this run s contrary to an important community o bjective s u c h as pre,servin g a canopy road or i nvest i n g in improved transi t service? Although b u il ding new r o ad s o r ad d ing more lane,s are e,ss entia l to an efficient t rans p o rtat ion s yst em. these strategi e s alone are not sufficient Every community faces limi t s to r o ad -based soluti ons. In some neighborhoods, rights-of-wa y will not be available without destroying many home s and b usinesses There ar e times when a new or wide r road pose s an unacceptable impact on comm unit}' character or the environmen t. And every government faces financial l imit s as to what it is able to provide and mai n t a in in terms of roads or bridges. A strategic approach to transporta t ion planning recognizes that capit

accus problems early in the subdivision review proceu and participate in design solution!. + Tht Floritfa Department ofTranspt>rta tion 1b011ld activtly promou tkvelopment of bttlreily p11blic transportati()n as a travel alternative to the automobile. The fcdcrallntentate Highway program required highway soluti ons to transportation needs. With passage of ISTEA, state and lo cai governments al'e encouraged to explore a greater r ange of alternatives in meeting their r egional mobility needs. Thi s presents an opportun ity for FDOT to actively transit altematives to intercicy travel-in the phased development of frequent intercity bus and passenger rail wvice between major metropolitan areas. This will hdp facilitate an evtntual high speed rail system betwttn major met ropolitan areas. + A coordinatld package of strategi es u n .. ded to 1hif/ d emand away from single v 1 hicle traveL Congestion manage m e nt requires a coordinated age of strategies to increase mode cho tec, con n ecdons between modes, and conve nience of a lternative modes of travel. These include tr anspo rtation demand mana.gement, improved transit service. and mixed use activity centers Travel needs and behavior are heavily influenced by develop ment patttrru Land use planning and regulation should provide for the appropn ate density, mix. and proximity of uses nocessary to faeilitate transit and walking o r bicycling. Transit depends upon pedestrian environment at the beginnrng and e nd of the trip, a nd key destinat ions should be within walking distance of transit stop s and accessible via sidewalk. Pedestrian sy

16 higher density nodu Rr01111tl fTIInsil staJions. Providing for transit, pedestrian, and bicycle transpor12rion is essential t o a balanced tnnsponation system But land usc d:cisions have constrained transit alternatives in some arras It will bt cost p rohibitive to serve communities with fast and convenie n t pu blic tran$pOrtation without 3hO addressing l and use and develo pmen t patte rns Chaptlcms nd solu dons, and to a more positive attitude toward tr.ansit altern:uives + Transportation and Growth Management TYPICAL LAYOUT OF A TRANSIT ORI E NTED DEVE LOPMENT Transport :'ltion and land usc probl ems are interde p endent and r equ ir e coordi na : cd so lut io ns. There fore, govern mentS in required : o tr.lnslate public goals >nd poli cies into a coordin;a'td growth maoagcrrent progrJm A primary nbjcctivc of growth rr. anagcment is to balance new dm:lopmcnt with the :wailabl e capacity of road s. sewer, wuer, and other puhlrc facilitining on the urban fringe. Large land 21reas are set a,side


for development, with few meehanisms t o e nsure a b alanced t ransporta tion s ystem t o accommodate that gro wth. Maj or development projects accommodating t housands of residents and workers are bui lt along arterials o fte n wit h only one way i n or out. Without a connected network of side str eets and i nterna l roads to prO\ride alternative routes a growing n um ber o f t r lps are funne led onto a few arter ials Thes e same arterials ar e ofte n or g radually rezoned for commercial u se. As deve l opment i n t ensifies, the growing number of cu(b cuts and turnin g move ments conflict with the intended function of arter ials-to move people and goods safely, quickly, and efficiently. Poorly coordinate d acc ess systems force more t r i ps onto the arterial troffic c onflicts multiply and congestion increases. As t he level of service declines, expensive i mp r ov e m ents are needed to maint a i n corridor safety and capacity for regional traffic. Even tually, t h e corridor is transformed into an unsightly jumble o f signs, c urb cuts, utilit y lines and asphalt. It is a count e r productive cycle th a t magnifies transpo rta tio n d emand and improvement needs. and damages the fragile qualities of commu n ity character. It is no surprise, the r efore that publi c reaction t o growth has been ingly negative. These ar e no t inev itabl e result s o f develop men t and growth. Rather, they relate to problems in current planning and regulato ry practice. W hat is needed i s a better balance between planned futur e develop m ent and the network of arterials and c o llectors necessary to serve that develop ment Also required i s a program for managing access to major thoroughfares and reservi ng righ ts-of-way for future roadways. Local planning policy can i nfl uence growth pa tt erns, bu t i t must be reinforced th rough infrnstructure inves t ment decisions, land use planning. and strong regula tory meaB:Jclc:utive Stunmary sures. T his wouid help contain tr

18 STA'm 'J'JWISPORT A TIOH POLitY INITIATIVE impact on land development in the sur rounding area. If this growth is not proper !y managed, it can crea t e safety hazards an d cause trnffic congestion in the i nterchange area. An access management plan wou l d identify the appropriate access system around the interchange in accordance with state standards and l ocally desired develop ment This should be required in the documentation for Interchange Justifica tion Reports + Local governments should large single-use land areas and establish limill and alternatives to strip commercial uming along major arterials. Many Florida communities are char acte r ized by sprawling subdivisions s e rved by commer cial strips. This increases individual reliance on the automobile and contributes t o traffic conges tion by putting more l ocal trips on the regional arteria l system. P l-ans and zoning should provide for a mix of land uses th;tt are functionally related tO each other. Commercial uses should b e focused into activity centers, rather than strips, at strategic points along arterials and collectors. Side streets and continuous sidewalks should be provided that connect to surrounding residential are. as thereby providing multiple, a lt ernative route-s for access to shops and services. +Local governmtnts and MPOs should place higher priority on improving infra structure and public services within already urbanized areas. The location of public infrascructure and services is a powerfu l determinant of growth patterns and is among the-most e-ffecti\e economic development and growth management tools available to local governments. Local governmentS should focus scarce public dollars on improving infrastructure and services with i n alrc ady urbanized areas. They should avoid premature extension of services into undeve l oped areas and the corresponding burden on ta xpayers caused by subsidizing such development. In this way. local governments <:an encour-age infill, redevelopment, and higher q u a l i ty growth in urbanized areas whil e preserv ing the characte-r of areas int: .nded for rura l or scmiruul li ving + IAcal governments shl)u/d map buildout, as prescribed iu uming. and use this as a springboard for developing alternative future land use scenarios. Future land use arc often so gene-ral that they fai l tO reveal th : ac t ual develop ment potencia l of a region. It may be unclear to the public or t:ven t o l ocal officials what the commt.nity coul d look li ke at buildout. This gr<:atly complicates the ability to plan a regicnal transportation system. To address this problem, Chapter 163 was amended by the ELMS.Illlegisla tion to encourage-loca l a7ld regional visioning init iatives. On! method of e-ncouraging vision in tht p lanning proce-ss is by mapping buildout, ts currently prescribed in zoning. Thi s along with an analysis of land division trends, will re-\e-al where the region is heading base-d on the current regulatory program and w il1 help uncover potential proble : ns. Local govern ments should .1lso do vis Jal preference suJVeys to identifY what typ e of develop ment and transportation system that citizens prefer This should be done in the context of a broad-based pub l ic i nvolvement program, to harnes; public opinion and build political suppcrt for desired land use and transportation alteroatlves + Local governments sh4uld streamline their development revie'll' process to facilitate desired transportation and development outcom-es Many of the transportation solutions :iescribed in this report require changes in conventional regulation and developm::o:nt practices. A streamlined review procc :;s is among the more me.aningful inccntives for promoting such changes. Development proposals that advance tr.lnsportation growth ment pol icy should be rewarded with easie r approval, as well as other incentives. Unfortunately, projects 6at transcend


conventional practice to achieve be tter site design are: often discouraged by an even more cumbersome review process. Local governments in Florida are requi r ed by statute to compile zoni ng, subdivision controls, and other development regu la tions into a unified land develo pment code This has encouraged l o cal governments to begin codifying the i r regulatory standards and procedures Yet more can be done to elim i nate outdated regulations, improve the clar ity of regulatory language, streamline review procedures, and fast trnck quality proposals. In addition, because develop ment planning and review functions are departmenta l ized within local bureaucra cies, streamlining de1lelopment review typical ly requires some Ch;mgcs in sta .ff responsibilities and organizational structure. + Chapter 16.1 should be amemled to require a sta.uLtrdiud land use classifica lion system for local land use planning. Loca l land u se classification systems vary widely, making it difficult to interpret future land usc plans or to predict futu r e tr;Jnsporta tion needs. Geographic: tion systems (GIS} arc opening up new possibilities in land use and transportation planning, but requ ire greater consistency i n information and classification systems. Among other bcnefit5, a standardized classification system woul d simplify communication on development planning issues and offer opportunities for com para t ive planning st\1dies or systematic research into regional urbaniz ation trends Local governments could still retain c bssifica tions in the ir current future land use p lan by simply aggregating various classificati ons fro m the standardized system. Althoug h some minor plan amendments may be required to standardize existing classifica tions, these would relate more to no menda ture than the substance of the plan. +Regional cou11cils should be designated as regional GIS clearinghouses ani! be required to maitz .fgional GIS clearinghouse. RPCs should be required to aggregate data from other sources such as water management d is tricts, and maintain complete land use and l and cover dat a bases for use in local planning. Funding for this purpose should be provi ded from DCA, thr ough its legislative budget request + Community Desi1111 and Transportation Transportation networks determine com ... munity design, j ust as the size. scale and organization of a communit)' influences the '\l'a :riety of ttansportation alternatives. ltnportan t components of community d esign include a defined and funct ional center that is well connected to the sur rounding area, and the availability of a l ternative modes of transportat io n. Streets ;ue an essential determinan t of what makes commu nities functional, vibrant, and be au tiful. Mass transit enhances the more desirabl e aspects of community life: proximity, diversity, and compac t scale. U nfortunately, community design consider ations are frequendy missing from the t ransportation and development pl annin g process. Zoning has reduced proximity and integration by rigorously separa t ing land uses Yet alternative modes operate more efficiently in communities with a finer mix of land uses. Street sections have gradually gotten widcrJ resulting in los s of any sense of street, whereas smaUer stree t sections foster a sense of place. Heavily trav ele d STATB 11lAHSPOJI.TAnDN POJJCY 00t1A TIVE 19


STATE t"JWCSPQRTAnDN POLICY IHlTIATM 20 arterials separate rather than integrate-a regional arter i al cannot serve as Main Street. Following are addi tiona l design considera tions i n tra nsportat ion and d evelopment planning. Recvmmandalians + Recogtzize that external and inttrmzl modu II.[ tramportation have different re'luirements The d ist inction between distribution systems 3nd circuJation systems must be carefully c onsidered in the design of any form of communi ty. Mixed use proj ects are key aspects of today s development patterns; however internal organization is often better worked out tha(l e xternal connectiv i ty. + Communities should encourage smalltr blocks and a more balanced, com1-ected network of The organ i zation of street systems ha s t ended to wards decreas ing connectivity. increased formal random ness and greater reliance on a f unc ti onal hierarchy as oppose d to 3 network of s treets Streets win d more, have fewer connections or intersections and tend to aggregate traffic differen tly: instead of 3 network, the systems today work as 3 l in ked chain, where any prob le m w i th a single link can bri ng down the effectiveness of the enti re system Reduction in rhe numbe-r of roads and street int ersections and the dramatic increase i n road w idths and traffic volumes all stem from and enhance the monof unctjonal statu s of todays roadways Older communities in Flori da, such as Coral Gabl es or Winter Park, are ch aracter ized by a greate r number of roadways, much sma ller block sizes, and enhanced -access and mobility + Rtcogniu tbatthefiner the mix of/and uses, the more efficient/.) fr(;[mportation modes seem to operate In Floridas oldest communities, the mix o f u ses occurs at a small scale and fine grain. Residen tial blocks abut commercial streets; offices are mixed in w ith stores, shops and h otels; and different classes and types of residences can b e fou nd adjacent to ea c h other. Thi s organization promo tes walking and allows the traveler to accomplis h a greater variety of tasks in fewer automo bi le trips Howev er, newer mixed use tend to be characterized by segre1;at ed monof unctional districts with resid>!ntial, ret ail, and office distinct from each other and d i ffer ent types or class es of ho u sing isolated into separate often gated neighborhoods Pedestrian systems and b i cycle paths t end to be designed primarily for exercise or recreation, and do litt le enhance pedes. t r i an access to shops and services. + Every community a defined, functional "nter that is !Jtry well linked to other parts of the community. Such "town centers" work well as mixed-use developments, designed t.;> enable all internal c irc u la tion to take place on foot. Despite the emphasis on pede-Strian access. cars an d b i cycles shoul d h e incl u de d as transponation options w : th in t he righH>f way of the center and all three modes should be integrated throughout the commu nity. This comb:tts the gradual dis i n t egration of the trad t ion a right-of way that has taken place: :-:ince World War II. Many newer developments include t rails for pedest rians, paths for bicycles, and road s for cars, but t hese t!nd to be i solated b o t h phys i cally and functionally Develop ment densities have also !;Otten steadi l y lov.(er O\l'er rhe past 100 y<: ars, and the lower limits o ft en fall be l ow th<: necessary densi ties fo r an effective sense o f containment and community. +Communities should discourage t xces sivelj1 wide street section:i. Over the past cent ury, typical street s e ctions have gotten dra.mat ical1y wider creating a loss of containment and a genen lly inhospi t able stre:etsc.ape. In stree t desi;;n, the rat io of the width of the street to t h e height of the surrounding buildings gotten steadily greater A typieal street in the Back Bay section of Bos ton has a 2: I width -t o-he ight


ratio; in Coral Gables it is around 3:1 o r 4:1. Within these limits, the street func tions as an "outdoor room" that is contained by the buildings at its edges, as well as plantings: and exterior design clements. This sense, found on traditional Main Streets, is aJl too often lost in post>-\Var developments with their emphasis on car movement. At certain pojnts of Dale Mabry Highway in Tampa, the w idth-to height ratio i s as high as 20:1, creating an a rterial that sharp l y divides the surrounding community rather than acting as a seam ) as with the traditional Main Street. +Recognize that urban stNJice areas/ urban gr(Jwth bound.aries can be used as either a tkJign tool or a fiscal tool; the stance will produce dramatically diff

,STATE TJI.AHSl"'R.TAnDH -POUCY llfi11AnvB RecommandatiDJlB 22 +Government should lead by example. Too o f ten the actjons of government agencies run counter t o p ublic pol icy, even as the s e pol icie s and regulatory conditio n s are impose d on priva t e develo p ment. This sends out .a mixed message to citizens and de v elopers about the level o f g o vernment commitment t o public pol icy issues T h e site design and location o f p ublic bu ildings should b e consistent with and advance transportation and grow t h management pol i cy. In ad d ition government is a primary employer in many areas and shoul d lead t he way in establishin g transportation demand management programs for commuters, such as flex time ride sha r ing, telecommuting, or transit subs i dies. +Agency jurisdictional boundaries should be reevaluated to reduce .fragmen tation of service a reas. The Advisory on Intergovernmental Re l atio n s should be charg e d w i th developin g b ound ary rev i sions to coord inate servi c e areas an d reduce f r agm entation among Flor id a Department of Transportation D i s t r i c ts, Metropoli tan Planning OrganiZJtions, Regional P lanni ng Council s, and Wat er Management Districts. + Greater consistency is needed in the method of monitoring eoncurrenc; across metropolitan areas. local governments vary w id ely i n t he o f colle c t ing an d eva luat m g tran sportation d ata for concurrency management This makes it i mpossible to monitor ktd of servic e a nd concurrency on a rcg iond ba sis and docs l ittle to reflect t h e relat ionshi p between reg i onal developm ent trends and the movement of traffic M etropolitan pla n nin g organizations shou B be req u i r e d co coordinate concurrency management systems among member local governmcms, and w it h o t her MPOs in metropoli t an r egio n s w i th more t han < ne MPO. In addi tion loca l governme n ts should be required to address t he e :fect of d ev d op men t d e cis ions along ma ior t horou g hf-ares on the l evel o f service of n eighboring jurisd icti ons. + strong regional approach to transpor tatton planning is essential in metropoli tan areas. Trans p ortatio n is dearly a regional i ssue Roads do not end at j urisdict.i onal boundaries and a g rowi ng proportton o f the l a bor r o r ce is commuti ng lo ca l boundarie s c n the journey to work. T h e refor e, t r a ns p o r tation p lanning in metropo l itan areas must addre s s the overall safety and e fficie nc y of the entire regional transportation r e t work This coul d be accomplish e d et ther through strong and effective j oin1 coordina ting committee s or through r : g i onal metropoli tan planning organizations.


Appendix A State Transportation Policy Initiative Final Reports MIWig-t! All!lo ...... """ _,... -"''"""' ........ lflo>-..__,. _ --_ .. __ Trends aud Forecast of Florida s Transportatiou Needs This report describes trends in private transpor t ation in Florida over the past 20 years using a mode l of motor fuel usage and vehicle miles driven. The model was used t o forecast motor fuel demand and vehicle miles driven to the year 2010 and tQ forecast potential impacts on revenues in the State Transportation Trust Fund. (0cl4htr 1993) The Role '!.f'Leml (I{ Service Standards in Florida:, Gro111fb 1Hanagement Goa[, TI>is study reviews le vel of service (LOS) standaxds and measures developed in r esponse to Flor!da's concurrency mandate. including a detailed summary of innovative approaches to measuring LOS in fiv e local governments in Flori da. (OcJber 1993) Impact '!f Design on Transportation T his report contains 18 case stu di e s o f development types, eva l uated in relation to their context, d imension, function form, and development process. The emphasis is on the interaction of each development type w ith its surroundings. The report concludes with general fi ndings on the relationsh ip of transportation and community design (NIYI;tmber 1993) Tnwsportatimz Costs (1/ Urlnm Sprawl: A Rwiew of the Litcmturc This study reviews findings and theo retical under pinnings of the various studies conducted betwee n 1965 and 1990 on the costs of urban sprawl (includes annotated bibliography). (November 1993) STATE TRAMSPOJ\TAnDN POLICY IH1T1A nvE 23


STATE TRAHSI'ORTAn{)JI .. POLICY OOTIATJVE 24 A Review oflvlo!li!e Soura Air Qzwlil} Practius i11 Floridil Thi s study describes the air quality ana l ysis practi ces for mobile sources and transporta tion planning i n Florida and evaluates the status of current prac tice. It condudc:s w ith recommen dations for strengthe n ing the efJectiveness of air quality p ractice-s in t he state (Deamber /993) Trtm.

' Ana/pi> o(lhr Statewide Fulttr t Lwd Uu Map This study evaluates the implications of a statewide future land use map compiled using the adopte d future hmd use maps of Florida's 457 local governments (includes map). (Febmar;)' 1995) Statewide Trtltt

26 STAT! T!WfSPORTAnDH POt.rcr INITIA11VE nSTPI Executive Summary Principal Author: Kristine Williams, CUTR CUTR Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering U niv e rsity of South Flo r ida 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENS 118 Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (813) 974-3120, fax (813) 974-5168 emai l : brosch@cn g.usf.cdu Gary L Brouh; Direelor Dtiflnall!f Ptllritid Hrr.Jmrm, CUTR ----. Hncutive Summary