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Tree fern (Dicksoniaceae and Cyathaceae) Allelopathy in the Monteverde Cloud Forest

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Tree fern (Dicksoniaceae and Cyathaceae) Allelopathy in the Monteverde Cloud Forest
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Marlene ( )
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Heckendom, Katie Saeman, Melody
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Ferns   ( lcsh )
Allelopathy   ( lcsh )
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone--Monteverde   ( lcsh )
Helechos
Marlene
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde--Monteverde
Tropical Ecology Fall 2003
Ecología Tropical Otoño 2003
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The purpose of this experiment was to look at the effects of Allelopathy between six species of tree ferns in the Monteverde Cloud Forest. We analyzed these effects by comparing plant abundances under the tree ferns to controls. We also compared controls to germination of seeds and spores grown with water or leachate made from the tree fern fronds. We found significantly higher plant abundances in controls than under the tree ferns. Also significantly less seed and spore germination than controls was found. There was not a significant difference between species of tree ferns in their inhibition of plants under the tree ferns. We did observe a difference in allelopathic effects on germinating tomato seeds and Dicksonia gigantea spores, though not for Lophosoria quadripinnata spores. These results lead us to conclude that Allelopathy in nature is affected by other factors such as facilitation or competition but different species of tree ferns do show differing levels of Allelopathy. Allelopathy in tree ferns inhibits spores more than seeds indicating that more closely related species inhibit each other more, at least in this case. Also we confirmed previous studies that found Allelopathy in tree ferns.
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Marlene
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Text in English.
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Tree fern (Dicksoniaceae and Cyathaceae) Allelopathy in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Katie Heckendom and Melody Saeman Albertson College of Idaho University of Wisconsin Madison _____________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The purpose of this experiment was to look at the effects of Allelopathy between six species of tree ferns in the Monteverde Cloud Forest. We analyzed these effects by comparing plant abundances under the tree ferns to controls. We also compared controls t o germination of seeds and spores grown with water or leachate made from the tree fern fronds. We found significantly higher plant abundances in controls than under the tree ferns. Also significantly less seed and spore germination than controls was found. There was not a significant difference between species of tree ferns in their inhibition of plants under the tree ferns. We did observe a difference in allelopathic effects on germinating tomato seeds and Dicksonia gigantea spores, though not for Lophosor ia quadripinnata spores. These results lead us to conclude that Allelopathy in nature is affected by other factors such as facilitation or competition but different species of tree ferns do show differing levels of Allelopathy. Allelopathy in tree ferns in hibits spores more than seeds indicating that more closely related species inhibit each other more, at least in this case. Also we confirmed previous studies that found Allelopathy in tree ferns. RESUMEN H propsito de nuestro experimento deba mirar los efectos de allelopathy entre seis especie de helechos arborecentes. En el Bosque de Nube de Monteverde. Analizamos estos efectos comparando planta las abundancias bajo los helechos arborecentes a controles Comparamos tambi n los controles a la germinaci n de semillas y esporas crecidas con agua o leachate hizo de las trundas del helecho de rbol. Encontramos las abundancias apreciablemente ms altas de planta en controles que bajo los helechos arborecentes Tambin apreciablemente menos germinacin de semilla y espora que los controles se encontraron. No haba una diferencia significativa entre la especie de helechos arborecentes en su inhibicin de plantas bajo los helechos arborecentes. Observamos una dif erencia en efectos de allelopathic a germinar las semillas de tomate y esporas de gigantea de Dicksonia, aunque no para esporas de quadripinnata de Lophosoria. Estos resultados nos dirigen a concluir ese allelopathy en la naturaleza es afectado por otros f actores tales como facilitacin o competencia pero la especie diferente de helechos arborecentes muestran difiriendo los niveles de allelopathy. Tambin confirmamos los estudios previos que encontraron allelopathy en helechos arborecentes. INTRODUCTION Tree ferns are some of the world's oldest vascular plants and perhaps have survived for so long due to their allelopathic compounds. Allelopathy is the release of organic chemicals from one plant that causes the inhibition of germination, growth, or metabo lism of a second plant. This form of interference within the plant community is distinct from competition, which acts through the depletion of resources (Del Moral and Gates 1971). However, the outcome of Allelopathy is similar to competitive exclusion in that it allows the plant that is releasing the secondary compounds to access more resources (Taiz and Zeiger 1991). Many studies on the effects of

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Allelopathy have added to our understanding of the mechanisms that create c ommunity structure and thereby alter function and diversity of these plant communities (Callaway and Walker 1958). When a plant in a community influences others by altering the microhabitat and decreases the intrinsic rate of dispersal of other plants the community composition and structure is influenced (Harper 1977). For example Camelina spp. was found to cause a depression in the yield of Linum usitatissimum (Gr mmer and Beyer 1960). Grmmer and Beyer found supporting evidence for this in an experiment i n which L. usitatissimum was grown with its roots intermingled with Camelina. There was no inhibition of L. usitatissimum when the plants were watered from below the leaves, but a strong depression of L. usitatissimum was observed when watering was from ab ove (Grmmer and Beyer 1960). This suggests that toxic chemicals of Camelina may play an integral role in the community composition. The nature of allelopathic processes in tree ferns is somewhat unknown. An experiment by Kelly (2000) in the Monteverde Clo ud Forest on tree ferns m easured the observed effect of a llelopathy and found a significantly lower diversity of plants downhill from tree ferns. This is perhaps a result of growth inhibiting compounds leaching downhill. The presence of allelopathic chemic als in tree ferns has also been supported by a study that found a lower germination rate in tomato seeds treated with a solution of tree fern pinnae, collected from plants of the Alsophila genus, and compared with a control of water (Duffield 1996). Both e xperiments support the existence of allelopathic compounds in tree fern fronds; however, it is still unknown if the degree of a llelopathy differs between species in the strength of their effect. Tree ferns have been found to have higher leaf turn over when they are healthy (Walker and Aplet 1994). If nearby plants are inhibited by fronds in the leaf litter as occurs around bracken ferns (Cooper Driver 1990) there would be a stronger allelopathic effect under trees with a higher leaf turn over because there are more decaying fronds under them. If leaf turnover rate differs between species as local tree fern expert Denis Gomez stated (Personal Comunication 2003), this mechanis m could lead to differences in a llelopathy between tree fern species. Tree ferns could also exhibit autopathy, the intra specific inhibition of plant growth, germination and metabolism through the release of organic compounds. Some studies ha ve been done on the effects of a llelopathy and autopathy of ferns on spores. Davidonis and Ruddat completed a series of studies in 1973 that provided evidence supporting the inhibition of germination on their own and other fern spores by the non tree fern Tehlypteris normalis. The levels of a llelopathy on their own spores were found to be high in T. normalis (Daidonis and Ruddat 1973). This trend is what would be expected according to Lotka Voltera because two species occupying similar niches can co exist if intra specific competition is higher (Harper .1977). W e assume that Allelopathy will function like competition in that it is a way of insuring more resources for one individual. Gomez (1983) is of the opinion that many pteridophytes show intra specific inhibition and even target their own offspring. On the ot her hand, a study by Bell and Klikoff showed that not all fern species exhibit strong allelopathic effects on spore germination. This observation could be caused by secondary compounds acting like hormones which are inhibitors at high levels but at low lev els promote growth (Bell and Klikoff 1976). Allelopathic compounds could also need the combined efforts of the tree fern's ability to compete for space and water to work effectively. It is possible that the conditions created underneath and around a tree f ern create an environment that aids the allelopathic compounds in their inhibition of germination. It has been suggested that the magnitude of allelopathic effects of bracken ferns are amplified under stress conditions (Glass 1976). This observation could be a result of organic compounds acting together with the stressful conditions to create a synergism that inhibits the germination of surrounding plants (Bell and Klikoff 1976). If this is true the levels of

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inhibition observed in a laboratory could be less than what is actually occurring in nature. Here, we study the differences in the strength of autopathic and allelopathic effects of pinnae of different tree ferns species on spores, tomato seeds, and plant growth beneath the tree ferns. We hypothesize that there will be a difference between species in their strength of Allelopathy and their effects on both other tree ferns and plants in general. Based on previously cited observations (Gomez 1983), we predict that there will be high autopathic effects. Further more since closely related species tend to have similar requirements we predict that the more closely related species will have greater inhibition of each other. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study site and subj ect This experiment was conducted in the lower montane w et rainforests behind la Estacin Biol gica de Monteverde along Sendero Principal and Sendero Cariblancos and in the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve along El Camino in Puntaranas, Costa Rica between October 17 and November 19 of 2003. We chose six common species of tree ferns and compared their allelopathic affects. These species were Alsophila erinacea var. erinacea, Alsophila polystichoides, Cyathea caracasana var. meridensis, and Sphaeropteris b runei in the family Cyatheaceae and Dicksonia gigantea, and Lophosoria quadripinnata in the family Dicksoniaceae. Tree ferns are gap specialists (Gomez 1983) so we chose trees near El Camino or in gaps so that light conditions and edge effects were similar We also chose plants that did not have disturbances within a meter of their base, that were short enough that we could collect primary leaflets and that had access to their bases. Leachate production We studied ten individuals from each species taking 18.75 grams of leaf per plant, approximately two primary leaflets. To create leachate we used a similar method from a study done on a llelopathy in Alsophila (Duffield 1996). We mixed the 18.75 grams of frond with 125 mL of distilled water in a blender to make a leachate of 0.15g primary leaflets per mL water. The leachate sat in a sealed container for two days to seep, after which we strained the solution usin g a wire mesh colander. Spore growing experiment We collected the spores from one individual of each tree fern species; these specimens were not necessarily individuals we used in our study. The fern spores were dried between sheets of paper for two days t o allow the sori to open (Foster 1984). Each of the six species of spores was divided between 60 Petri dishes containing filter paper and 2.5 mL of leachate from one of the 60 plants sampled. Each species of tree fern spore also had a control with 2.5 mL o f distilled water. These Petri dishes were then stored stacked in the windowsill where they each got the same amount of light for approximately two weeks. Calculating spore germination Dicksonia gigantea spores germinate after twelve days. We approximated the percent germination using a microscope and counted the percent germination in ten random eye views at ten times magnification. The Lophosoria quadripinnata spores started to germinate after fifteen days. Due to lack of time we had to count these befor e the control had completely germinated so

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all the Petri dishes had less germination than the D. gigantea Petri dishes. Percent germination was approximated by scanning the dish for germination and counting the number of spores in the area surrounding the germinated spore. We always counted at least 100 spores, often more. Admittedly this method overestimated the percent germination, but the overestimation was consistent for all the samples. None of the other spores from the other species we used germinated during the time of our study. Seed growing experiment We also made Petri dishes of 20 tomato seeds, as ev enly spaced as possible, using coffee filters and five mL of leachate for experimental dishes or five mL of distilled water for the control. We stored these in the dark (Duffield 1997) and checked the percent germination after four, five and eight days. Transect abundance counts Finally, we recorded the plant abundances of all ferns and vascular plants large enough to grow above the leaf litter in a one meter square plot (50 cm on either side of the tree fern) directly downhill of the tree fern. We chose this method based on a paper by Kelly (2000), who found that only the downhill versus uphill plots with Alsophila showed a significant difference in the amount of Allelopathy. We used a light meter to measure the amount of light above the plot and then fou nd a control plot nearby with the same light reading, on about the same slope and that was at least three meters from the nearest tree fern. RESULTS Plant abundances The abundance of both non fern plants and total plants was significantly higher in control s than under the tree ferns in many of the species (D. gigantea p = 0.0077 and 0.0069 respectively; C. caracasana p = 0.0051 for both A. polystichoides p = 0.0218 and 0.0128 respectively; A. erinacea p = 0.0499 and 0.0499 respectively. See tables 1, 2, 5 and 6 for the means and standard deviations). L. quadripinnata was only significantly different when total plant densities were used (mean 32.778 +/ 16.513 and controls mean 55.444 +/ 41.503 p = 0.04 38. See table 3), and S. b runei was not significantly different but did show a general trend of having less angiosperms under the tree ferns than controls (mean 34.444 +/ 10.887 and control mean 42.778 +/ 5.449 p = 0.0658. See table 4). None of the speci es of tree ferns showed statistically significant differences between the number of any pteridophyte underneath them and their controls (for means and standard deviations see tables 1 to 6). ANOVA tests revealed no significant differences between the numbe r of plants under different species of tree fern when the tests were run using direct counts or the abundances under tree ferns divided by their controls which we refer to as amount of inhibition, the higher the number the lower the inhibition. There were significantly more plants under S. brunei than under D. gigantea when the numbers of non fern plants and total plants were compared (D. gigantea mean 21.4 plants +/ 7.0; and mean 22.3 plants +/ 6.865 respec tively; S. brunei mean 34.444 +/ 10.887 and 36.222+/ 11.155 respectively; p = 0.0156 and 0.0111 respectively); however, this significance was lost when comparing the inhibition. We did see that D. gigantea had the greatest inhibition of both angiosperms an d total plants (mean 0.642 +/ 0.211 and 0.637 +/ 0.212. See table 1).

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Seed germination The seed samples were counted three times, once after four days, once after five days and once after eight days. We will refer to these hence forth as seed sample one, two or three based on how soon after preparation they were counted. We found that for most species of tree fern the percent germination of seed samples two and three were significantl y less than in controls (D. gigantea p = 0.0284 and 0.0173 respectively; A. polystichoides p = 0.0033 and 0.0074 respectively; A. erinacea p = 0.0437 and 0.0116 respectively. See tables 1,5 and 6 for means and standard deviation). For C. caracasana all three samples were significantly less than controls (mean 0.262 +/ 0.071 and control mean 0.358 +/ 0 p = 0.0117; mean 0.361 +/ 0.057 and control mean 0.579 +/ 0 p = 0.0077; and mean 0.587 +/ 0.095 and control mean 0.790 +/ 0 p = 0.0077, respective ly. See table 2). S. Brunei was significantly different only in samples one and two (mean 0.196 +/ 0.159 and control mean 0.368 +/ 0 p = 0.0247; and mean 0.388 +/ 0.173 and control mean 0.579 +/ 0 p = 0.0116. See table 3). L. quadripinnata did not show significant inhibition of tomato seed germination. There was a significant difference between the species of tree ferns' inhibition of tomato seed germination after samples two and three, inhibition is calculated by dividing each percent germination by th e control, (p = 0.0437 and 0.0116 respectively, see figures 4 and 5. See tables 1 through 6 for means and standard deviations). C. caracasana and A. polystichoides inhibited the tomato seeds the most and A. erinacea and L. quadripinnata inhibited them the least. The control was the same for all individuals at each sample period. Sample one was not significantly different between species of tree fern. Spore germination Nearly all the tree ferns significantly decreased the amount of germination of D. gigantea spores (D. gigantea p = 0.0218, S. Brunei 0.0125, L. quadripinnata p = 0.0051, A. polystichoides p = 0.0164, A. erinacea p = 0.0058. See tables 1 and 3 through 6 for the means and standard deviation). C. caracasana did not show a significant difference fr om the control. D. gigantea spore germination showed statistically significant differences between the six species of tree ferns when we compared inhibition (p < 0.0001 see figure 1. See tables 1 through 6 for means and standard deviations). We see that L. quadripinnata had the most inhibition of D. gigantea spores since it has the lowest mean inhibition number. C. carasana and A. polystichoides had the least amount of inhibition. All tree fern species had lower L. quadripinnata percent germination than c ontrols (D. gigantea p = 0.0051, C. caracasana p = 0.0077,5. brunei p = 0.0051, L. quadripinnata p = 0.0051, A. polystichoides p = 0.0033, A. erinacea p = 0.0033. See figures 1 through 6 for means and standard deviations). There was no significant differen ce between amount of inhibition of L. quadripinnata spore germination between species (p = 0.1068. See figure 2). However, we did observe that D. gigantea leachate inhibited their germination the most (mean 0.115 +/ 0.144. See table 1). A. polystichoides had the least amount of inhibition. For the two species with successful spore experiments we found a trend of autopathy. Both species had strong effects of inhibition on their own spores compared to the other species excluding their effects on each other (See figures 1 and 2). Germination comparisons The inhibition, percent germination of treatment divided by the control, of the sample three seed germination (mean 0.885 +/ 0.185) was significantly lower than the inhibition of

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germination in either spore s pecies (p < 0.0001), Recall that higher numbers represent less inhibition. Also D. gigantea spores (mean 0.579 +/ 0.371) had a significantly lower inhibition than L quadripinnata spores (mean 0.057 +/ 0.093, p < 0.001. See figure 3). DISCUSSION We demons trated a llelopathy in tree fern species through plant abundances versus controls, percent tomato seed germination versus controls and L. quadripinnata and D. gigantea percent spore germination versus controls. This study supports previous findings that tre e ferns in the Monteverde Cloud Fore st exhibit a llelopathy (Duffield 1997, Kelly 2000). Previous studies in the area only looked at tree ferns in the genus Alsophila (Duffield 1997, Kel ly 2000) while we demonstrated a llelopathy in six species in two different families. Angiosperm abundances and to tal plant abundances indicated a llelopathy in tree ferns. This effect was not significantly different between species, which does not support our hypothesis that tree ferns vary in their amount of a llelopathy However, we did find a significant difference between species on their effect on tomato seed and Dicksonia gigantea spore germination, which does support our hypothesis. Together these results could indicate that tree fern specie s do have differing amoun ts of a llelopathy but that the effects of this a llelopathy are complicated by other factors in a natural setting. In Hawaii, Callaway and Walker (1997) found that some species of trees have both positive and negative effects on each other. The invasive Myr ica tree provides nitrogen enrichment and shade for the local tree Metrosideros, however, leaf litter and root competition physically inhibit survival and growth underneath the tree for net negative effect on Metrosideros. Some form of facilitation by tree ferns could decrease the realized effect that allelopathic compounds have on surrounding plants. Lack of significant differences in a llelopathy, observed as plant abundances, between species might also have been caused by less competitive ability in tree fer ns that have higher amounts of a llelopathy. Species of tree fern that spend a lot of energy on making more potent allelopathic compounds would have less energy available for growth of roots, stems or trunks or resource uptake adaptations. Species with m ore energy for growth and uptake of resources could have better competitive ability, but they would also have more plants to compete with because their a llelopathy is less effective. The plants may divide their energy in different ways but the effects in n ature may be equivalent. It is also possible that species with higher leaf turnover have either less allelopathic compounds per frond or have less potent allelopathic compounds because they have to replenish the compounds more frequently. However, since th ese species have more leaf matter under them they could still have a high concentration of compounds in the soil. For example D. gigantea, which can be identified by its skirt of dead fronds, showed the greatest amount of inhibition of angiosperms and all vascular plants, h owever it was average in its effect on germinating tomato seeds. These trends could indicate that D. gigantea amplifies its allelopathic effect by retaining its fronds so that they leach onto the soil for a longer period of time by slowing frond decomposition and keeping the frond in its vicinity. These arguments could explain why we did not see significant differences between the abundances of plants under different species even though we did observe differing amounts of a llelopathy in laboratory settings. Our hypothesis that autopathy was highest was not supported. However, we did find a trend toward high autopathy. This trend could explain the existence of many different species of tree ferns in similar niches. These findings conform with Lotka Voltera's theory that for two species to exist in the same realized niche there needs to be a higher amount of intra specific

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inhibitio n versus inter specific. Since a llelopathy is not competition but a way to decrease competition it is possible that the autopathy is accompanied by intra specific competition. Our finding that autopathy was not higher than a llelopathy could have been due to insignificant differences between the effects of different specie s' leachate on L. quadripinnata spore germination. The lack of a significant difference could be due to slower germination of L. quadripinnata spores so that they did not germinate completely during our study. Another speculation is that autop athy could be a side effect of a llelopathy. Tree fern species could have evolved allelopathic compounds to inhibit related species and inhibited themselves due to the similarities in spore structure and germination patterns. This explanation could explain the observed relationship of inhibition between D. gigantea and L. quadripinnata in that they both exhibited the strongest effects of inhibition on each other's spores. It should be noted that because there was no statistically significant difference between the effect s of different species on L. quadripinnata spores the observation that D. gigantea had the strongest effect could still be questioned. This trend could be a ghost of a llelopathy past The compounds may have evolved in the ancestors of these two Dicksoniaceae to inhibit each other to decrease direct competition. The progeny may have kept these compounds due to lack of pressure to change them. It could be that the autopathy, although potentia lly unintentional, helps the tree ferns by not allowing young tree ferns destined to die in the shade of the parent to steal resources from that parent or other siblings nearby. Furthermore, if allelopathic compounds really do function as hormones as Bell and Klikoff (1976) suggest then these compounds could enhance the survival of progeny that are far enough from the parent plant to not be in competition. The allelopathic compounds would be diluted at this distance from the parent plant so that they would promote germination or growth. This explanation could be tested by looking at the composition of allelopathic compounds and how they differ in relation to phylogenetic trees. Also experiments on how spores are affected by different concentrations of allelo pathic compounds would be needed to prove or disprove their facilitory effects at low concentrations. Also larger spore growing experiments under allelopathic conditions are needed to confirm the trends we reported. We found that there was more inhibition of spore germination compared to tomato seed germination. These differences were determined by dividing the percent germination in treatments by controls. This could be due to a higher need for inhibition of closely related species because they occupy similar niches and have evolved together for long periods of time. It is also important to remember that tomato plants do not grow in proximity of tree ferns. Therefore the allelopathic compounds may not have evolved to target these plants. There was inhibition of the seeds tested suggesting that the compounds have a negative effect on plants in general as has been previously shown (Duffield 1997). We found that generally the seeds were not significantly inhibited until f ive days after the Petri dishes were prepared. T his result could indicate that a llelopathy on the seeds works by permanently inhibiting some seeds rather than by slowing down the growth of most or all seeds. The benefit of this form of a llelopathy to the t ree fern is obvious as it keeps the number of plants around it low by decreasing the number of seeds that can germinate. The one ex ception that we found was that S brunei was only significantly different from controls in the seed germination samples one a nd two. In this species a llelopathy may work by slowing down the germination of some plants. This strategy would make the seeds and seedlings more prone to predation and herbivores before they are able to actually compete with S. Brunei individuals. Allelopathy is a very complicated plant interaction that is involved in the processes

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of facilitation and competition, perhaps more than previously thought. We know that facilitation and competition are two major processes in determining community structur e and composition. Once further information is found on the complex details of how allelopathic compounds affect these processes, the role of a llelopathy in changing community composition can be understood. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thank you to our advisors Allen Masters and Carmen Rojas, La Estaci n de Biol gica and The Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve for the use of their land, Eladio Cruz and Dennis Gomez the local tree fern experts and the entire CIEE staff for all their help. LITERATURE CITED Bell and Kilkoff. 1979. Allelopathic and Autopathic Relationships Among the Ferns Polystich um a crostichoides Polypodium vulgare and Onoclea sensibilis. American Midland Naturalist, 102(1): 168 171 Callaway, R and Walker, L. 1997. Competition and Facilitation: A Synthetic Approach to Interactions in Plant Communities. Ecology, 78(7): 1958 1965 Cooper Driver, G. 1990. Defense Strategies of Bracken, Pteridium aquilinum. Annals of The Missouri Botanical Garden, 77:281 286 Davidonis and Ruddat. 1974. Growth Inhibition in Gametophytes and Oat coleoptiles by Thelypterin A and B re leased from Roots of the Fern Thelypteris norm alis. American Journal of Botany 61(8): 925 930 Del Moral, R and Gates, R. 1971. Allelopathic Potential of the Dominant V egetation of Western W ashington. Ecology, 52(6): 1030 1037. Duffield, S. 1996. Allelopathy in an Alsophila spp. Tree Fern. UCEAP fall 1996: 17 26. Foster, F. G. 1984. Ferns to Know and Grow. Timber Press Inc, Portland: 57 Glass, ADM. 1976. The allelopathic potential of phenolic acids accosating with the rhizosphere of Teridium Aqualinum Canadian Journal of Botany, 54: 2440 2444 Gomez, L D. 1983. Pteridium aquilinum, Costa Rican Natural history. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago: 308 317 Grmmer G and H Beyer. 1960. The influence exerted by species of Camelina on Flax by means of toxic Substances Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press Inc. New York: 373 374 Harper. 1977. Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press Inc. New York: 705 740 Kelly, T. 2000. The Allelopathic Capabilities of Tree Ferns in the Genus Alsophila CIEE Spring 2000: 199 203 Taiz and Zeiger. 1991. Plant physiology. Benjamin/ Cummings Publishing Company, Inc: 331 332 Walker and Aplet. 1994. Growth and Fertilization Responses of Hawaiian Tree Ferns. Biotopica, 26(4): 378 383

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Table 1. Descriptive statistics for Dicksonia gigantean of all parameters. The plant counts are given in direct counts unless it says percent of control, which is the percent germination of the treatment divided by control. Seed and spore data are given in percent germination or inhibition, shown as percent control. Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Count Minimum Maximum Angiosperms under treefern 21.400 7.011 2.217 10 12.000 34.000 Angiosperms in controls 33.700 4.855 1.535 10 22.000 37.000 % control angiosperms .642 .211 .067 10 .333 1.000 Fern under tree fern .900 .876 .277 10 0.000 2.000 Fern in control 2.200 1.751 .554 10 0.000 4.000 Total plants under 22.300 6.865 2.171 10 14.000 36.000 Total plants control 35.900 6.244 1.975 10 22.000 41.000 % total plants control .637 .212 .067 10 .350 1.036 Seed # sample 1 .251 .162 .051 10 .053 .632 Seed control sample 1 .368 0.000 0.000 10 .368 .368 Seed % control sample 1 .682 .440 .139 10 .143 1.714 Seed # sample 2 .429 .155 .049 10 .263 .684 Seed control sample 2 .579 0.000 0.000 10 .579 .579 Seed % control sample 2 .742 .267 .085 10 .455 1.182 Seed # sample 3 .689 .112 .035 10 .526 .842 Seed control sample 3 .790 0.000 0.000 10 .789 .789 Seed % control sample 3 .873 .142 .045 10 .667 1.067 D. gigantea # .461 .393 .124 10 .009 .977 D. gigantea control .911 .035 .011 10 .871 .986 D. gigantean % control .510 .435 .137 10 .009 1.043 L. quadripinnata # 2.900E 4 .001 2.900E 4 10 0.000 .003 L. quadripinnata control .146 .092 .029 10 .039 .218 L. quadripinnata % control .007 .024 .007 10 0.000 .075

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Table 2. Descriptive statistics for Cyathea caracasana showing all the factors we studied. The plant counts are given in direct counts unless it says percent of control, which is the percent germination of the treatment divided by control. Seed and spore d ata are given in percent germination or inhibition, shown as percent control. Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Count Minimum Maximum Angiosperms under treefern 29.600 11.862 3.751 10 5.000 47.000 Angiosperms in controls 43.700 7.832 2.477 10 34.000 58.000 % control angiosperms .660 .214 .068 10 .147 .911 Fern under tree fern 2.500 1.269 .401 10 0.000 4.000 Fern in control 4.300 2.058 .651 10 0.000 6.000 Total plants under 32.100 12.050 3.811 10 7.000 50.000 Total plants control 48.000 8.138 2.573 10 37.000 58.000 % total plants control .654 .197 .062 10 .189 .862 Seed # sample 1 .262 .071 .024 9 .150 .368 Seed control sample 1 .368 0.000 0.000 10 .368 .368 Seed % control sample 1 .712 .193 .064 9 .407 1.000 Seed # sample 2 .361 .057 .019 9 .300 .474 Seed control sample 2 .579 0.000 0.000 10 .579 .579 Seed % control sample 2 .623 .099 .033 9 .518 .818 Seed # sample 3 .587 .095 .032 9 .474 .737 Seed control sample 3 .790 0.000 0.000 10 .789 .789 Seed % control sample 3 .744 .120 .040 9 .600 .933 D. gigantea # .711 .224 .075 9 .258 .930 D. gigantea control .897 .051 .017 9 .871 .986 D. gigantean % control .804 .274 .091 9 .262 1.068 L. quadripinnata # .003 .003 .001 9 0.000 .009 L. quadripinnata control .039 0.000 0.000 9 .039 .039 L. quadripinnata % control .065 .089 .030 9 0.000 .243

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Table 3. Descriptive statistics for Sphaepopteris brunei showing all the factors of this study. The plant counts are given in direct counts unless it says percent of control, which is the percent germination of the treatment divided by control. Seed and spore data are given in percent germination or inhibition, shown as percent control. Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Count Minimum Maximum Angiosperms under treefern 34.444 10.887 3.629 9 18.000 51.000 Angiosperms in controls 42.778 5.449 1.816 9 30.000 46.000 % control angiosperms .825 .329 .110 9 .474 1.500 Fern under tree fern 1.778 1.787 .596 9 0.000 6.000 Fern in control .556 1.333 .444 9 0.000 4.000 Total plants under 36.222 11.155 3.718 9 20.000 52.000 Total plants control 43.333 5.339 1.780 9 31.000 47.000 % total plants control .861 .358 .119 9 .526 1.645 Seed # sample 1 .196 .156 .049 10 0.000 .579 Seed control sample 1 .368 0.000 0.000 10 .368 .368 Seed % control sample 1 .530 .425 .135 10 0.000 1.571 Seed # sample 2 .388 .173 .055 10 0.000 .579 Seed control sample 2 .579 0.000 0.000 10 .579 .579 Seed % control sample 2 .670 .299 .095 10 0.000 1.000 Seed # sample 3 .752 .148 .047 10 .421 1.000 Seed control sample 3 .790 0.000 0.000 10 .789 .789 Seed % control sample 3 .952 .188 .059 10 .533 1.267 D. gigantea # .663 .196 .062 10 .399 .948 D. gigantea control .908 .020 .006 10 .871 .918 D. gigantean % control .730 .218 .069 10 .434 1.033 L. quadripinnata # .018 .024 .008 10 0.000 .064 L. quadripinnata control .182 .075 .024 10 .039 .218 L. quadripinnata % control .082 .112 .035 10 0.000 .292

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Table 4. Descriptive statistics for Lophosoria quadripinnata of all parameters we tested. The plant counts are given in direct counts unless it says percent of control, which is the percent germination of the treatment divided d by control. Seed and spore data are given in percent germination or inhibition, shown a s percent control. Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Count Minimum Maximum Angiosperms under treefern 31.222 15.538 5.179 9 13.000 63.000 Angiosperms in controls 53.556 41.603 13.868 9 17.000 150.000 % control angiosperms .768 .446 .149 9 .327 1.500 Fern under tree fern 1.556 1.667 .556 9 0.000 5.000 Fern in control 1.889 1.616 .539 9 0.000 5.000 Total plants under 32.778 16.513 5.504 9 14.000 68.000 Total plants control 55.444 41.503 13.834 9 20.000 153.000 % total plants control .739 .386 .129 9 .338 1.480 Seed # sample 1 .295 .129 .041 10 .053 .421 Seed control sample 1 .368 0.000 0.000 10 .368 .368 Seed % control sample 1 .800 .351 .111 10 .143 1.143 Seed # sample 2 .484 .168 .053 10 .210 .737 Seed control sample 2 .579 0.000 0.000 10 .579 .579 Seed % control sample 2 .837 .290 .092 10 .364 1.273 Seed # sample 3 .774 .102 .032 10 .632 1.000 Seed control sample 3 .790 0.000 0.000 10 .789 .789 Seed % control sample 3 .980 .130 .041 10 .800 1.267 D. gigantea # .113 .151 .048 10 0.000 .485 D. gigantea control .918 0.000 0.000 10 .918 .918 D. gigantean % control .123 .164 .052 10 0.000 .528 L. quadripinnata # .005 .007 .002 10 0.000 .017 L. quadripinnata control .218 0.000 0.000 10 .218 .218 L. quadripinnata % control .025 0.033 .010 10 0.000 .079

PAGE 13

Table 5. Descriptive statistics for Alsophila polystichoides of all the parameters we examined. The plant counts are given in direct counts unless it says percent of control, which is the percent germination of the treatment divided by control. Seed and spore data are given in percent germination or inhibition, sho wn as percent control. Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Count Minimum Maximum Angiosperms under treefern 31.273 11.577 3.490 11 14.000 58.000 Angiosperms in controls 59.273 34.555 10.419 11 16.000 135.000 % control angiosperms .717 .559 .169 11 .269 2.188 Fern under tree fern 1.091 1.758 .530 11 0.000 5.000 Fern in control 2.364 2.111 .636 11 0.000 6.000 Total plants under 32.364 12.201 3.679 11 14.000 62.000 Total plants control 61.636 34.546 10.416 11 22.000 139.000 % total plants control .658 .402 .121 11 .259 1.591 Seed # sample 1 .245 .211 .064 11 0.000 .763 Seed control sample 1 .368 0.000 0.000 11 .368 .368 Seed % control sample 1 .666 .572 .173 11 0.000 2.072 Seed # sample 2 .333 .139 .042 11 .105 .474 Seed control sample 2 .579 0.000 0.000 11 .579 .579 Seed % control sample 2 .576 .240 .072 11 .182 .818 Seed # sample 3 .624 .142 .043 11 .474 .842 Seed control sample 3 .790 0.000 0.000 11 .789 .789 Seed % control sample 3 .790 .180 .054 11 .600 1.067 D. gigantea # .731 .206 .062 11 .290 .985 D. gigantea control .907 .035 .011 11 .871 .986 D. gigantean % control .804 .218 .066 11 .333 1.073 L. quadripinnata # .010 .010 .003 11 0.000 .033 L. quadripinnata control .136 .093 .028 11 .039 .218 L. quadripinnata % control .115 .144 .046 10 0.000 .408

PAGE 14

Table 6. Descriptive statistics for Alsophila erinacea of all parameters investigated. The plant counts are given in direct counts unless it says percent of control, which is the percent germination of the treatment divided d by control. Seed and spore data are given in percent germination or inhibition, show n as percent control. Mean Std. Dev. Std. Error Count Minimum Maximum Angiosperms under treefern 27.083 10.388 2.999 12 14.000 49.000 Angiosperms in controls 35.417 14.656 4.231 12 14.000 66.000 % control angiosperms .952 .837 .242 12 .273 3.500 Fern under tree fern 2.083 1.676 .484 12 0.000 5.000 Fern in control 1.917 2.778 .802 12 0.000 9.000 Total plants under 28.333 9.159 2.644 12 14.000 42.000 Total plants control 37.333 13.885 4.008 12 23.000 68.000 % total plants control .836 .389 .112 12 .309 1.826 Seed # sample 1 .273 .145 .044 11 .105 .474 Seed control sample 1 .368 .0.000 0.000 12 .368 .368 Seed % control sample 1 .740 .393 .118 11 .286 1.286 Seed # sample 2 .531 .198 .060 11 .263 .842 Seed control sample 2 .579 0.000 0.000 12 .579 .579 Seed % control sample 2 .917 .341 .103 11 .455 1.455 Seed # sample 3 .756 .175 .053 11 .474 .947 Seed control sample 3 .790 0.000 0.000 12 .789 .789 Seed % control sample 3 .958 .222 .067 11 .600 1.200 D. gigantea # .451 .320 .096 11 .062 .936 D. gigantea control .901 .024 .007 11 .871 .918 D. gigantean % control .509 .371 .112 11 .068 1.075 L. quadripinnata # .004 .006 .002 11 0.000 .017 L. quadripinnata control .153 .090 .027 11 .039 .218 L. quadripinnata % control .046 .076 .023 11 0.000 .251


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Heckendom, Katie Saeman, Melody
242
Marlene
245
Tree fern (Dicksoniaceae and Cyathaceae) Allelopathy in the Monteverde Cloud Forest
260
c 2003-12
500
Digitized by MVI
3 520
The purpose of this experiment was to look at the effects of Allelopathy between six species of tree ferns in the
Monteverde Cloud Forest. We analyzed these effects by comparing plant abundances under the tree ferns to controls. We
also compared controls to germination of seeds and spores grown with water or leachate made from the tree fern fronds.
We found significantly higher plant abundances in controls than under the tree ferns. Also significantly less seed and
spore germination than controls was found. There was not a significant difference between species of tree ferns in their
inhibition of plants under the tree ferns. We did observe a difference in allelopathic effects on germinating tomato seeds
and Dicksonia gigantea spores, though not for Lophosoria quadripinnata spores. These results lead us to conclude that
Allelopathy in nature is affected by other factors such as facilitation or competition but different species of tree ferns do
show differing levels of Allelopathy. Allelopathy in tree ferns inhibits spores more than seeds indicating that more closely
related species inhibit each other more, at least in this case. Also we confirmed previous studies that found Allelopathy in
tree ferns.
Marlene
546
Text in English.
650
Ferns
Allelopathy
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Monteverde Zone--Monteverde
4
Helechos
Marlene
Costa Rica--Puntarenas--Zona de Monteverde--Monteverde
653
Tropical Ecology Fall 2003
Ecologa Tropical Otoo 2003
655
Reports
720
MVI
773
t Monteverde Institute : Tropical Ecology
856
u http://digital.lib.usf.edu/?m39.425