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History of Orange County, Florida

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Title:
History of Orange County, Florida narrative and biographical
Physical Description:
217 p. : ills., ports. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Blackman, William Fremont, 1855-1932
Publisher:
Mickler House
Place of Publication:
Chuluota, Fla
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Orange County (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
letter   ( marcgt )

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Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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usfldc doi - C54-00003
usfldc handle - c54.3
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SFS0036419:00001


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History o f ORANGE COUNTY FLORIDA NARRATIVE AND BIOGRAPHICAL ....... -" . By WILLIAM FREMONT BLACKMAN, Ph.D., LL. D .. . .,... Formerly P r ofessor in Yale University 011d President of Rollif'II" .. C.OUtg,:: .. Author of Molti,g of Hctt'Oii; A Study in Sociol _. :' .. : .. : . . /;/. ; :.. .. : ] :: ... : ': ;-.' ,.. v _...: . ,.., . . -. THE E. 0. PAINTER PRINTIN/l W. DELAND, fl,()RTDA 11127 . . . .. -. .

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COl"ilUUH'l', 1027 by WILLTAl FREMONT 111. ,\CTOIAN URJ:.ANDO, FLORmA

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Histor y of OratJge CoutJty, Florida ii-!ANAGING EDITOR ARTHUR H. CAw!
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TO !.I!CY WORTHINGTON OL.4CKJI.411'0 Lo11e, wlwt hu-wrs toere thi ne aml mint' l11 lands of palm aud ora11gc blossom, Of orcmge, aloe, maize and 1.1i1u. -Tennyson: "The Uaisy."

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ltbe )9oribfan's (tteeb anb (tovenant lDe{)tcate{) to tbe tiort{)a of Wlomen's ctlube IN FLORIDA, of the a>ui fathomless sk), of lambent stars, of moll>&tainou,s opalescent douds, nf .toft benigucurt ai1s. of summer . of uu.stittted ar1d tlivifyillg srmslrillf', tMif.oe and fe, rmd soil. I BELIEVE I.V FLORIDA, laved on cv(ry hand-cookd and and cleansed and feel and the a.rmre a11d 1cemit1g ti.laters of tropic seas, and by o 1mtlcss Mid sparkliug lakes and streams. 1 BELIEVE IN FLORIDA, land of wide-stretching and of>C11 woods, of limitless yrcen prairies and glades, of dtmse cuui vin.c hung hammocks, of bays (lnd swa.mps, oil in their fonns lovely and fnlitftll, tht> land of f>iile m1d mourniii.Q cyf>ress. of mossdraped oak, of 'llJO.XCtl magnolia, of comely paltn, of regal {>oincia11a, of flamin;t{ t>itt<.', atui of shy muf brilliant orchid I BELIEVE IN FLORJ.DA, land of the orange and pomelo a11d spicy kumquat, of peach and pear cmd persimmcm a11d loq11at, of Pineapple mid g11pva. and and avocado; of corn a11d cotton and cane a11d cattle, oud of whatever else i.< rni)"Wiure borne of trers or by the soil of the earth. I RELIEVE IN FLORIDA, flame of creatures strange. curious and saurian motzster, the gliding f'eptile, the darting dainty lizard, the aquatic manatee, the ef{ret in .mowy nuptial aff'a.y, the roseate spoon-bill, the exuberant mocking-bird, the fla.melik e, flute-like cardinal, the wood-pecker wit/, ivory bill and the humnling-bird with ruby th,.oat. the painted butterfly sipping nectar in winter days. I BELIEVE IN FLORIDA, land of romantic lrgtnd and adhistory, of towns the tMst m&eient and the neweit, of

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.r.s.ijtly-grtrrd11y cities, of
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Table of Cont e nts FOREWORD -CHAPTER 1.-THF:: 13ACKGROlil'l) -CHAPTER II.-THE CouNTY-EARLY SETTLERS UoARD OF CouN T Y CoMMISSIO:NI'RS TnE PuBLIC ScHOOLS -CHAMBER OF COMMERC E Tl!E NEWSPAPER PRF..SS -BANKING INSTITUTIONS FouR CovN'T\' CHAPTER, AME RJCM.: Hc.n CHAPTER III-ORLANDOE AR L Y SETTLERS --- T uY. TowN CoUNCil. TnE ENGJ.ISH Cor.oN ll --THE CHAMBER 01' CoMMERCE, CLuns WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS THE ALBERTSON PuBLIC LIBRARY THE ---AssoCIAT ED -T H E 0RA!I.Y.E GENERAl, IIOSI'l'TAl. STRF.ET!'. L AKF.'>. TREES -GREENWOOD CEMETERY CHAPTE R IV.-W!N'fER PAKK -CHAPTER V.-ROLLI NS COLLEGE CHAPTER VI.-MAITLANV ------------11 17 23 35 47 58 (>I 70 74 79 --83 93 124 129 131 135 150 158 161 -162 -162 167 189 197 0AKLAl'l> C HAPTER VII.-WINT.b:K GARDJ::N. OcoE. CHAPTER VIII.-APOPK .o\ ---CHAPTER IX.-Smt SMALLER Cmou:NITIEs------202 213 GOTiiA -------217 ZELLWOOD -------220 TANGERINE --.. -... ... .. 223 W INDERMER 22 7 TAn --.. .. --228 F ORT CHRISTMAS ----229. BITHLO -----229 B IOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES-PART II -1 -208

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History of Orange Coutlly, Florida FOREWORD I first saw Orange County forty-one years ago, and like most other ''i$ilors fell in love with it promptly and permanently. J soon after planted my first orange gro,e, in what was then Orange County, but is now Lake. For many years thereafter 1 was an almost annual visitor to this re gion, and a $Indent of its conditions and problems: a 11uarter of a century ago, I made my home in Orange County. As college president and bank president. and then, when health failed, as rancher and ianner. of the florida Livestock :\ssociation and member of the Florida Livestock Sanitary Board and numerous other state wide organizations, I have been rather intimately acquainted with the edu cational, financial. agricultural, social and religious life of Florida, and in particular of this portion of the state. I mention these facts as explaining why I have undertaken to write the History of Orange County. This book should perhaps be called a Story rather than a History. There are two schools of historical writers; the first, like Freeman, are interested t:hiefly in facts and dates, which they set down with meticulous accuracy and often in dull and style: the second, like Macaulay and Green. are interested primarily in people. their character, their motives, their way of making a living, and their influence on their contemporaries and descend ants. The first are chroniclers, the second are poets, interpreters; the first tnke photographs, the second paint Both are useful, but the first are read only by a few scholars, while the second, because they make the past times live again, appeal to a wider range of readers. I like the second sort of historical writings better than the first; and so, while I have tried to set down facts and dates accurately and in due order, I have tried also to portray the men and women who have peopled Orange County and made it what it is, so far as I could do so, "in their habit as they lived." And I have sought to make it of such $Ort that plain people and school children will find pleasure and profit In reading it. How far this effort has been successful, others may judge and time will tell. I have read old letters, faded diaries, huge scrapbooks. stained news paper files, and dusty official records, and have spent many days talking over the old times with the few who still live of the early settlers. And .. 11

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12 HISTORY OF ORAXGE COUNTY for all this labor, T have been abundantly rewarded; 1 have gained a vivid sense of the vast debt we owe to those who pioneered. mostly in poverty, isolation. and manifold difficulties and but with brave hearts, in this region now so rich and "They rest from their and their works do follow them. 1f the h istory of Winter Park is re ci ted in fuller and more intimate detail than that of other communities, this is only because the early settlers there were wise enough to set down their doings from day to day in diari e s and scrap-books, which a later generation has prcservetl with pious care. It is obvious that a detailed history of Orange County from its crea tion until now. would require a volume many times as large as this ; it has heen necessary to set arbitrary limits When did the Past When did the Present hegin? An d so, what is Historic and what is Contemporaneous? It is ha r d to say but 1 have chosen t o make th is history end wit h the close of the nineteent h c e ntury. and to call t he last twenty -se ven "Now." f have written a s fully 1 coul d of the 1880's. much l ess fully of the IH90's, and very sketchil y indeed of the early twentieth century, with whi ch many of m\' reade rs are liS familiar as I. I ha, e a ss umed that it is the story oi . the early days which would be most interesting, and which ought tu be told before it is too late: other hands will carry the record on. But in my last (:hapter, ne, erthele ss. I haYe sought to portray Orange County as it i s to day, the consummati on of all that has gone be fore, and the starting point for what is to fol low. A word as to lhe biog raphical sketches and portrait< which constitute Part Two of this wor k In the main. these include the men and women who have e vinced their interest in the undertaking by subscribing for the hook, and I thank them fnr their co-operation. wi thout which I could not have accomplished the costly task. But a few others have heen included who, because they are no longer living or for other reasons, could not me in this way; some of them ha\'e given me valu able help as men1bers of the Board of Advisers: sotne have rendere d generous assistance by gathering materials for my story; and some have read t he proofs of sections. These a re uf necessity brief lind mager. un account of the limitations of s pace and they do not include to any considerable eu logies and however deserved. Though printed in a separate sec tion of the work, I regard these biographie s as an part of the Story of Orange County, as they contain a multitude of intimate and personal details which could not well be included in the Narrative portion of the book. Among thos e who have helped me in my work, 1 must make mention of my wife, whose varied. capable patient and sympathetic assistance during a prolonged period o i llness has made it possible for me to complete the task.

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13 *"' -. ------i\lv work now labor oi lme and joy-ancl 1 am happ y to add as the final word of prefatory note, that as l have reviewed the lives. and estimated th e characters of the men and women l i ving and
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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY FLORIDA Part/ NARRATIVE

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History of Orange County, Florida CHAPTER I THE BACKGIOVND THE background of this story of Orange County and its people must be sought elsewhere than in this vo lume This background, centuries deep, is geological, geographical, ethnological and political ; it is pre historic, traditional and historic; it is partly clear partly dim and con fused. largely tragic, ami altogether colorful and romantic. It will suffice for our purpose to remind the reader that when this re gion was first brought to the attention of Europe, it was occupied, as it no doubt had been occupied from immemorial times, by various tribes of Indians--Muskogans, Tomokans, Caloosas, Creeks, Seminoles and otherswho supported themselves chiefly by hunting and fishing. They roamed the coasts and the interior, nearly naked; they fought with one another fiercely, with spears, bows and arrows, tomahawks and clubs; they cultivated a few vegetables, com, squash, beans and tobacco; they engaged in athletic sports and contests; they worshipped the Great Spirit and held festivals for the sun and moon. Where the new county court house now stands Seminole may have dispensed justice after their crude and cruel fashion, and where St. Luke's Cathedral gathers Christian worshippers, these redskins may have celebrated the rites and ceren1onies of their primith-e faith stretch ing their hands in the morning toward the r ising sun and in the evening toward the setting sun. The scene was the same as now, the same sweet climate, the same oaks and pines and cypresses, the same sparkling lakes, the same singing birds, and the same sandspurs and m osquitoes and alli gators, but the people, and their mode and quality of life, how eli fferent! And then came the i n quisitive voyagers, warriors and priests from over seas searching for new lands and treasure First came the Spanish ex plorers, DeLeon, DeNarvaez, DeSoto; then the French colonists, massacred and expelled by the Spaniards; then followed the first Spanish supremacy, of nearly two centuries duration; then the English supremacy for some twenty years; then the second Spanish supremacy, from 1780 to 1821; then the supremacy of the United States, from 1821 until Florida seceded from the Union in 1861 ; and finally, the admission of the state again to the Union, in 1868. Florida was organized as a Territory March 3, 1822, with a Governor and a Legislative Council-thirteen of t he "mos t fit and discreet persons of lf

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18 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY the Territory,"-and it was admitted to the Union as a state on March 3, 1845 During the various l :nropean occupations the history of .Florida "was more tragedy than a song Here brave knights, soldiers of for tune, lured by the siren wng of wealth ami the hope of glory SLtffercd ami Llied and the world knew them no more. Here were armies sacrificed to the vengeance of Eurovean monarchs, massacred by savage redskins or other vengeful with every refinement of cruelty that an in genious mind could conceive or an experienced hand execute. Here SpGnish and French and t::nglish contributec.l something to the horror-laden history of colonial conquest * Anny after army buried itseli in these swamps and forests 4 bound by the thralluum of stupid tradi tions, they pursued the fateful errand of death and failure; no city of gold was their reward no treasure-mine offered remuneration; only misery and death and the im munities of a forgotten grave.' At last, after these b l oody r enturics, came, in 1821, the cession of Flor ic.la by Spain to the United States, and a peace which was thenceforward broken only twice, by the two Seminole \Vars and by the withdrawal of the state from the Union and four years more of strife ancl hlootlshed this time between brothers Finally, in 1868, Florida returned to the fc>lcl, hav ing adopted a new cons t itution and fulfilled the impo:
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PART I-NARRATIVE 19 On December 29, 1824, the Legislative Council created from St. Johns County the County of Mosquito, embracing all the country southward from near St. Augustine to Monroe County, which was created by the same Act, and westward to Alachua County This vast region contained some 700 residents In 1843 the county seat of Mosquito County was moved to En terprise, now Benson Springs. But the name Mosquito does not seem to have pleased the people, and no wonder!-for on January 30, 1845, two months after Florida was ad mitted to the Union as a state, an Act was approved, "that from and after the passage of this Act. the nan1e of Mosquito County in this Territory, be changed, and that said county from henceforth be called and designated as Orange County." The accompanying map shows the size and boundaries of the county in 1846. This map is taken from the excellent History of Vo lusia County, by courtesy of its author, Mr. Daniel Pleasant Gold. Mr. Gold writes that when on an auto trip through CinciMati last year, he was so fortunate as to pick up in a second hand book store of that city a map, about three by four feet in size, compiled by the Bureau of Topographical Engineers, showing all the counties of Florida He had the portion cover ing Orange County photographed, and used it in his book, which says "The southern boundary of Orange was a straight line beginning at a point on the Atlantic Ocean a little south of the present town of Melbourne, running west to about where the town of Bartow is at present located, thence the boundary extended in a straight line across Lake Apopka to the northern central part of Lake George, where it turned in a northeasterly direction, running in a straight line to the mouth of Haw Creek on Dunn's Lake, now a part of Crescent Lake, and followed Haw Creek's northern branch to its head, continuing thence in a straight line northeast to the Atlantic Ocean at a point a few miles south of Matanzas Inlet." This map shows that there were ten "Forts" in the Orange County of 1846, nan1ely, Ft. Butler, near the south end of Lake George, Fort Kings bury, at the northeast end of Lake George, Ft. Mellon, on the south bank of Lake Monroe, Ft. Lane, on the west side of Lake Harney, Ft. Maitland, Ft. Gatlin, Ft. Christmas, Ft. Taylor, to the west of Lake Winder, Ft. Me Neal, some distance west of Lake Poinsett, and Ft. Ann, on the Halifax River. The location of these "forts"-which were doubtless for most part mere stockades, made of logs thrust perpendicularly into the ground would indicate that attacks by Indians were apprehended along the course of the St. Johns River, rather than on the coast, the river being a thoroughfare for their canoes. Orange County, as we now know it and as it will be dealt with in this work is a remnant. It is not necessary to detail here the long process by

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20 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY :\tap of Ora.;,.. County In 1846, lnoluding tbo torritor_r or Voluah, tloe year llftor the D&JDt, l!ooqwt<> t:c.llllt7, wu t<> Or...,..

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PART I-NARRATIVE 21 which the various counties lying to the north, east, south and were .:aneu from the territory of Orange, ending with Osceola, Lake and Sem "'O'": it will to AAY that the vast unorg-.Uiizecl territory of thf' orig inal county gradually reduced, and its boundaries readjusted hy proetS$ ,,f give and take, until it reached prcs<.'llt proportions, portrayed in the <>M the following-page. For this ltlaJ>, which was drawn expressly for this work, the author is indebt ed to Major Charles A. Hrown .. "ngineer of Orange Cnunty.

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22 HISTORY O F COt.STY ---- II)\

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CHAPTER II ORANGE UlliNTY HAVIXG glanced at t he background of Orange County, we will now approach its history by the route which most of the early themselves namely, the St. Johns River, and the Indian and military trails southwar d through the county from Lake Monroe. The follow ing letter to the author by that jovi al and picturesque figure, Captai n T W. Lund of the Clyde Steams hip Company, tells someth ing of the early days on the river: "In the year 18 73 June 6, I came to Flo rida to visit my parents: my f:uher operating a stcaml.ooat l.octwccn Jacksonville and Salt Lake. the l atte r the nearest point to Titusville uy water. I was a ooy fourteen years of age. We had competition the first year our was in commis sion by two other s teamers, but as there was not enough business for three boats, the Silver Springs and the Lollie Boy left the business for the Vol usia, my father's boat. "In addition to connecting with teams at Salt Lake for Titus ville. Sand Point and the fJICiian River countrv, we also connec.:ted . with team s at Tuscawilla, a landing on I .ake Jesup, where M r G. C. Brantley, a former state senator from Orange County, operated a large store and warehouse from which teams from Maitland and Orlando hauled freight "At that time the leading merchants o( Orlando were W. A. Patrick, J. R. Montague, J. DeLaney W. G. White and Nat Poyntz, and perhaps others whom I never knew ''There was strong talk of a railroad being bt1ilt from Ttlsca willa to the points above mentioned In fact, Mr. Brantley visited New York to purchase iron for said road T t was and he contracted cold terminating in pneumonia, and he died t here. His death put an end to the project. "Capt. Jacob Brock operated two steamers to Mellonville f r om Jacksonville, leaving the latter place at 10 a. m. daily except Sunday, stopping over night at Palatka until 4 a. m the following morning, arriving at Mellonville and Enterprise at abou t 4 to 6 o'clock in t he afternoon "Later there was also another boat called the Starlight whi c h was owned by Capt. Coxetter, but this only ran during the w inter months for tourists; it afterwards caught fire and burned at Sanford.

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24 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY "In December, 1874 my father built a boat to explore the Wckiwa Rive r. On the 23rd of of that year we entered the little stream, but it so blocked with fallen trees and a water plant known as lettuce that we found it a difficul t matter to make much headway. \Ve
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PART I-NARRATIVE 25 The fulluwing-m ornin g, Mr. Lewis generou sly proposed to take him back to Sanford for the reduced sum of eight dollars; but had the !'apahle p.1ir of legs which have served him so faithfully ever sime. and none tuv much money, and so he se t out on foot, after the wagon had left, plodcling through ankle-deep san d. the wagon at T .ongwoocl. and rc.1chcd San ford some h01m hcfore Mr Lewis drove in. That was fi yt:trs agu If anyone wishes to get a vivid sense of the changes which a half century has hrought. lt't him keep this story in mind while he drives his antomobitoe over the hard-surfaced roads between Orlando and San ford or at the window of a Pullman car and takes note of the two thriving and beautiful cities. the attractive town s through which he passes, the handsome dwellings that line the highway, surruunded with shrubbery and flower the anti schools and filling and the orange groves and truck farms. Two years after Mr. !o'ries' journey, Mr. E. W. Henck of Longwood. made the same trip, in part This is hi s of the journey and of othe r in teresting matters written for this work : "When the writer arrived in Mellonville in NO\emher. 187.1, that town consisted of two general stores, a so-called hotel, a saloon and two cottages This was the main landing-place for all coming to what then called South Florida. Sanford, of a mile west of Mellonville, had one general store, one dwelling. a small board church (Episcopal), and one .-!rug sto re the proprietor of which al:;o kept on sale caskets in which to ship his victims North Mcllonville was the distributing point for Fort Reed Maitland, Orlando and Apopka, and was the head of navigatiun on the S t Johns River, although small boats plied between that point Lakes Jesup and Harney. "At that time the mail arrived at Sanford by boat three time! a week and was distributed throughout the county by a route from San ford to Apopka Maitland and Orlando, carried in saddle bags by a man on horseback three time s a week ; the entire mail for all these points could have been put into an or d inary coat pocket. "Two days after arrival, the writer located a homestead upon which the town of Longwood is now situated. As there were few horses in the country-none for hire-this trip was made on foot, the party arriving back in Sanford at midnight after a thirty -mite walk In the spri ng of 1874 the writer had the above mail route discontinued and a route established direct from Sanford to Orlando -.oia Longwood and Maitland. The malls were still carried in saddle bags for some t im e each postmaster as the mail arrived at hi! post office sorting out his few letters and sending the rest on. Sooo,

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26 HISTORY O F ORANGE COUNTY however, the cotmtry was settled up, and a stage lin e was operated tri-weekly between Sanford ancl Orlando by Mr. Joseph Bumby. The writer named Longw ood a he:mtiftl s uhurb <>f Boston of the same name which he, a young engineer, had helped t o lay out. At that time there wer e no other inhabitants in what now the corporation of Longwood, but on the at Fa i r y Lake there lived a family named Har tley of whi c h there arc now many descendents still in residence Homes tea d settler s arrived rdpidly and most of the vacant land was entered by 1876. In the sp r ing of 1874 the writer made a reconnaissance on horseback looking t oward the const n tction of a railroad from Sanfo r d to the Gulf. Orlando, which was a mere trad ing post. grew conside r ably in the succeeding five and in 1879 the nted or transportation had jtrown l'O grea tl y that the w r iter belie, ed the time hac! come for c.onstrnrtion, and with two friends he incorporatccl the South Florida H ai !roar! Co mpany, floating the bonds in 13oston, and the actual construction was begun in the fall of 1879 The nffkfr s nf the road at that time were, E. W. Ilenck, pre.i
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PART I-NARRATIVE and ll1e opposition of pessimists among the citizens of Oran{\"e County." 27 Another pioneer to make the same trip in the ltmt' way was Mr. Mabton Ciore. who at a meeting of old settlers held in 1908, told of his advent to Or lando in 1880 : "I walked over from Sanford. taking two days to make the trip. The was deep and the last end of the road stretched out unaccountably l ong. At about the of Magnolia Avenue and Street, was a litt l e house owned and occu pied hy a clergyman named Beveridge pastor of the Presbyterian church. .'\nd a block to the east, disce r nible through the trees. was another. the home of F.. W. Spie r No other buildings were in sigh t but meeting a man on hor!leback l inquired how far it was to Orlando; the man on horseback looked me over for several seconds, sized me up for a tenderfoot. and then replied. '\\'hy you d fool you re in Orlando now.' There were jnt two in sight. I had come fourteen hundred miles to get to Orlanclo; I wanted to go home right then. Rut another quaner o f a mile brought me in sight of the litllc wooden court house and a cluster of ahout a dozen buildings." So m11Ch for the route by which. in the m:tin. Orange < : ounty wa s re.ached and peoplecl from the world outside in the early days. anci thco a N pect and state of development of the country northwarcl from Orlamlo to T.akc Mon toe. But there were pioneer!\ who came by othe r paths. and to other de!\ti nations than Orlando. West Orange was then, as it is now, a particularly attractive region, its soil fertile, its surface undulating and well-drained, its climate healthful and already in the fifties it was attracting settlers, mainly f r om the southern states, some of them coming in caravans of ox-cans and mule teams and with their slaves, a sturdy stock Clearing land about beau tiful Lake Apopka where the fine towns of Winter Garden Ocoee anci Oak land now stand, they dcvott
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28 HISTORY OF ORAXGE COL"XTY The history oi Orangc.County will he found in detail in the chapte r s of this work w hi ch are devoted to the several and communi ties of the county; only certain outstanding facts to tlxarea ;111d population of the county, it!! political organization and its development a s a whole will be set down in plao:. The map on page 22 s hows the limits of the county, its divisions into districts. and its hard-surfaced roads, completed or projted, in the year !9Zi. The county has a maximum length. north anti south, t>f thirty miles. and a maximum width of about forty-eight miles; it ha& an a rea, according t o the Soil Survey of the federal Department of in 1922 of 899 square miles, or 575,J60 acres. rOPU LATIOX The following table, compi led from the decennial reports of the f e deral census and the quinqu ennial reporh of the state census. show the growth of the population from 1850 to 1 925 : Year 1850 1860 1870 1880 1885 IA90 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1927 Populat ion 466 987 2,195 6,618 14,400 12,582 12,459 11,374 13,591 19,107 15,397 19,890 38,325 42,000 (est.) I t should be remembered in examining the foregoing table, that V !usia anc\ Brevard Counties were organized and withdrawn from the ter rito r y of Orange County during the decade 1850-60, with a combi ned pop ulation of 1 404 that Osceola and Lake Counties were organized in the 80's with a combined population of 11 1 67, and that Seminole County was

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PART 29 organi7.ecl in 191 J with a populat i on of 9 .483 The JOint population of Or.mg-e. Volusia, B re vard, llllcl Seminole Countits, all in clu ded in Orange Cmmly in !!;SO 4(>6 at that time, a s compared w ith a pnpnlation of all sc\cral in 11):.!5. of tl:i.67b ancl of Orange Coun ty alone, uf .1R,32!i. The iacts to br especially noted r eg11rding the movement of t he pop ula t ion are, 1 i t s growth after the Ci,il War, during the 60's and 70's; its s. lt is, the pub l ishers proudly say. ' the first County Direc tory ever p ublished in th e ::itate oi Fl o rida .. This GaZ(:ttcr includes a d irectory which purports t o g ive a full list of the residents of all the towm and in th e county, and also a list oi all business conrems, classi lied by towns. The hi s torian will not \'Ou c h for the a(curacy oi all the inionuation given in thi s book hut it htlps to measure t h e c hange> up and down -and up---whi(h twu years have wrunght. h gives the population of Orlando as 4 ,55 (,; "within iour years Or lando has thril>led her then po pulatio n," it affirn1s. The population of S an ford, then in Orange L'ounty, is not given, b u t one gathe r s irom t h e d i rtctnry rha t it may ha\'e been abo ut 900. then alc;o i n Orange C:ounty h:IC1 ahout 500 resid ents. The popu lation o( Apopka i s given a s !.147; this iigure have heen very gratifying to the peovl e of A popka, at that time, but it perhaps less gratifying n o w, when one re<.'lllls that ac cording to the state of 1925, the populat i on of Apopka was 1,005, a gain of fifty-eight in forty years! The publishers gratefully and rhetor ic all y say that they "have experienced n owhere in the C{)unty of Orange a mor e l ibera l support and patronage, o r a more hearty welcome, than Apopka lias ext end ed and sh11wn which illu.,trates t o our satisfacti o n the merited worth and deserving success i t has attained ... Perhap s their gratitude for th is wann welcome may have lead them to make a generous guess at t he size of A popka s populati on. which ''bid s fair to become a railr oa d cen ter of great importance," is credited with a population of 697, and Winter Pllrk with 613. T.
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30 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY wonders how much territory was included within the limits of these several towns, and how the count was made. The business directory is interesting and jnstructive. It lists only real estate agents in the territory now covered by Orange, Osce ola, Lake and Seminole Counties, as against approximately 2,600 in Orange County alone in 1926. According to this directory, these four counties had only one horseshoer, G E Macy of Orlando; two one in Orlando and one in Winter Park; two music teachers, both in Orlando, one being F. N. Boardman; three news dealers, two of them in Orlando; sixteen newspapers, three of these in Orlando, the Daily Record, the South Florida Sentinel and the Sou t hern Progress. There were fifteen lawyers in Orlando, and eleven physicians and surgeons Winter Park, a small and healthy place, is netlited with seven physicians and surgeons. There was only one steno grapher in the county he or she being in Orlando. Of saloons there were eleven. four of these iu Orlando, and two pool rooms, one in Orlando and cne in Winter Park. Orlando is credited with 21 hotels and with about 120 o f the 1.000 fruit and vegetable growers of the whole territory. Among these are such living or wellrem e mbered citizens as W. R. Atmo, A. G. llranham, F N. Boardman, C. A. Boone J oseph Bumby, Janres DeLaney, W. H. Holden, J. P. Hughey, W. B. Hull, the Rev. W. Keigwin, Presby terian pastor G E. Macy, N. L. Miller, J B. Parramore, E. W. Spier (post master), the Standard Oil Company, J. Summerlin and H. Sweetapple. The public affairs of the county, as d i stinguished from the several com nmnities, are by four organiJtations, tire Board of County Com missioners lhe County School Board, the Courts and the County Chamber of Commerce ; and to these may be added, as having a semi public character, the newspaper press and the banking l'OI.ITICAJ. ORGANIZATION The Constitution of Florida, as amended at the general election of 1900. contains this clause: "Immediately upon tbe ratification of this Amendment the County Commissioners of the several counties of the State shall divide the respective counties into five commissioners' districts, to be numbered respectively from 1 to 5 inclusive, and each district shall be as nearly as possible equal in proportion to population, and thereafter there shall be in each of such districts a County Com missioner, who shall be elected by the qualified electors of said county, at the time and place of voting for other county officers and shall hold his office for two years

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PART I-NARRATIVE 31 The Constitution pr01ides for the election of the following county oiYicers, a clerk of Circuit Court, a sheriff, cO!stables, an of taxes, a tax collector, :1 superintendent of public instruction, and a county suncyor. In aC4'M
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32 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY stationed, and persuaded a number of them to be here on that day, assuring them of a good picnic dinner. Before the noon hour the soldiers were on hand and after enjoying the lov ely dinner, that they might vote here, which they did, t hereby swelling the vote su ff icient ly for a victory."* Whatever may bt thought of the ethics of this tran sactio n it is interesting to remember that it "'-olS Judge Speer who not only gave i ts name to the settlement bu t also made it the cou nty seal A very interesting record which was not destroyed by the fire i s that of a warranty deed g iven to the Board of County Commissioners on Oct. 5, 1R57, by Mr. jame s G. Speer, acting under power of attorney for Mr. Ben jamin f. Caldwell of Talladega County :\labam a, which conveys a tract of land . . "lx:tte r known as the Town Plot of the village of Orlando, as the county silo: o f O r :mge County, containing four acres more or less," the being d ollars. This ins trument was witn essed by Thomas H Harris and Joh n k. Wo rt hing t on. Mr. Cald well, an early store-keeper. a ppears to have owned eighty acres embracing the site of the present court house. As has already been stated, the first court house, a two-story hewn-log affair, was burned in 1868. It was conjectured at the time that the fire was of incendiary origin the intention being to destroy inconvenient, and perhaps in crimina t ing rec o rds. It ha s been generally understood that all books belonging to the cou nty w er e destroyed by this fire, except one which had been carried to his home the Frrvi<>ns nigh t hy the clerk of the Court ; this was Deed Book D However, in rummaging through the she lves in the court house, the author f<>und one book of an earlier date which must also have been saved somehow, somewhere, and by someone; this is the Minutes of the Circuit Court for the F.astem Circuit, which then included Orange and St. Lucie Counties. The first entry in this book is dated April 20, 1847, more than t'ighty years ago; the record continued to November 18, 1863, with si x blank pages, begins again in 1866 and continues thr ough the Special Term of J u l y, 1!169. This is the first entry: This being the day appointed by law fo r the holding of the Spring Term of the Circuit Court for the countie s of Orange and St. Lucie in the Eastern Circuit of Florida, Peter G. Hyrne C lerk and John Simpson, Sheriff of said County, attended at the court house in Mellon ville in said county and the Judge thereof (Thos Douglas) not being in at tendance the court w as adjourned pursuant to the Statute to 12m t omo rrow." This Judge Do u gla s had been elected Judge of the Eastern Circuit in 1845 ; the yea. r in which Flor ida was admitted to the Union and Orange County con-xro. S. 8. (lrl6la, Ia paper reacl beforo s-11, Jwae 18, 1128.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 33 stituted, and was afterward the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He I believe, a Connecticut Yankee, had been in in the territory of Ind ia na, and settled in St. Augustine in 1829. In the Fall Term, Gregory Yale (elsewhere spelled Yeall) felix Livings ton, and C:reorge R. Fairbanks were "aclmittect and enrolled as Counsellors of Ia w and solici t o r s in cha ncellery of the Circuit court of O range and St. L ucie Cou nties they having con formed to the nde of this Court. Two other names were added April 4 1854, those of James B Dawkin$ and Geo W. Hawkins. It seems likely that this Geo. R. Fairbanks was the distinguished schola r and publicist of that name who was born in N e w York in 1820, lived in St. Au gustine and Fernandi na served in the Confederate A rmy, and w rot e the His tory of Florida which i s still a standard work At the April Term o f 1849 Judge Douglas makes the following elaborate and handsome apol ogy and causes it to be in the Minute s : "To all wh o m i t may concern be it kno wn that I Thos. Douglas Judge of said Coun took passage in the S teamboat Sarah Spaulding which left Jack sonv ille on Monday m orning the 16th iMt., for this place, that said Boat is the only one which plies between the said places and affords the only opportunity o f getting up to M ello nvill e the seat of Justice where said court i s required to be holden f o r the Counties aforewd, that I took passage in time to have arrived in sea son to have opened the Coun on the 1st day of the present term had n o t said boat been detained, tha t said Boat wa s detained waiting for the mail at P alatka & by a fog betwee n Palatka and this so that it was impossible for me to arrive here in time to bold the court on Tuesday the 1st day of the tenn but is was holden on Wednesday the second day of the term and the busines s trans acted, and it is further ordered that the same be recorded on the Minutes of said coun." Similar explanations and apologies are made by Judge Douglas at the Fall Term 1849-which, by the way, was opened by prayer by Judge Douglas, a commendable examp le-and again in the Spr ing Term of 1851 Mani festly, transportation o n the St. Johns river was at that time irregular and un certain On April 18, 1849, the Grand Jury presented to the coun the following minutes: "We, the Grand Jury of Orange and St. Lucie Counties beg leave to offer to the Hon. Thos. Douglas, Judge in our counties, our cordial thanks for his services as Presiding Judge, also the same to our solicitor and off icers of the Court in General, and further we fee l our selves thankful that having no further business before us we retire fro m this Court trusting that we s hall continue to see the laws o f our state and of ou r country continue i n the peaceable stand that we at present boast of."

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34 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY At the close of the Fall Term of 1849, the Grand jury submitted the fol lowing statement: "That inhabitating one of the most exposed and defenseless frontier they were among th e first to feel the of the di:;astrous circumstances which have occmred in conscd hy the highest vir tue of humanity ancl patriotism so:nl forward inr our vrotecl ion a force of Volunteers aided by whose presence we have been cnnhled to save our property and L"Ontinue our avocations. "That we carutot too gratefully approve the pmmpt action of our Executive and we do earnestly in this public manner request our and Representatives in Congress to urge upon the justice and humanity of tbat body the speedy payment by the Government of the volunteers so called into service. "That the Seminoles now remaining in Florida were permitted to remain in the state against the wishes of our people and that we have increasingly desired these dangerous neighbors to lk' re moved from our borders, that the neglect to do so hitherto h
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PART I-NARRATIVE 35 point of health, Having enjoyed unprecendented health in the length and breadth of our County. \\o'hile we have plenty of the good things of life, yet we are constrained to confess that om public morals are not so good as we could desire to see, still as good as is generally to be found in most .. count1es. These were ''the good old times:" tht Judge leads in prayer, and the Grand Jury bas the spirit of the moralist, the censor and the prophet. Never theless the county seems to have been something less than a Paradise; human nature and the vexatious problems of community life seem to be much the same always. Another interesting iact, however, which et.-cnrred in this period may be set down here; when on January 10, 1861, the secession convention which had been called by Governor Perry vloltecl that all political connection be tween Florida and the government of the U nited States "ought to he, and the same is hereby annulled, and said union of states dissolved," the repre sentative of Orange County, Hon. William W. Woodruff. voted Nay, with six other courageous delegates, out of a total vote of 69. Mr. Woodruff was the father of Mr. Seth Woodn1ff of Orlando, (see biographical sketch in Part Two of this work.) THE BOARD OF COUNTY The records of the Board of County Commissioners begin with the year U!70, ancl are continued without break to the present time. They are embodied in ten ponderous volumes, well-preserved, but the ink in places poor and faded, the handwriting difficult to decipher, and the language and grammar often unique. These records have been diligently. searched for the purposes of this study. The first volume of these records begins with a list of the qualified voters of the county, mostly registered during the year 1870, and a few during the two preceding years. The whole number of registered voters at that time is given as 494, which seems astonishingly small in relation to the immense territory then covered by the county, and population. But the r.egroes, though counted in the census, were not enrolled as electors, the days of women's suffrage had not yet arrived, and it is likely that a considerable number of men of voting age did not take the trouble to qualify as voters. The minutes of the first meeting are dated September 24, 1869. There were present, David Mizell, president of the Board, A. H. Stockton, clerk, Hugh S. Partin, John Tanner, and M. M Mizell, sheriff. Fixing the date of the burning of the old court house, and indicating the real estate values of the time, it was voted to pay $10 per month rent for the house occuj)ied by the clerk and Judge of Probate, pending the completion of the new court

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HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY house, and it was ordered-perhaps in the hope of rendering another fire less likely-that the doors of the court house "be kept locked all the time and used ior public meetings, holding courts and preaching, and for no other purpose." On January 15, 1870, it was voted that the clerk "be paid the sum of seventy one dollars and nine cents for services rendered as Clerk of the Boanl and CJther services as per hill filed for the years 1868 and 1869'"-truly, a salary. On Febn1ary 4, 1871, an account is noted of twenty dollars paid for "rent of house for the use of the Circuit and other courts of the county, and for horse-hire and a hand furnished for the use of the court at the fall term." The amount due the county for taxes on the rolls for the year 1870 is given as $1,662.57, and the back taxes due as $729.97. a total avail able fl>r expenses. provided it was all of $2,382.54. It was voted that the "Election Precinct be removed from the Lodge t now Apopka) and the said Precinct be established at Oay Springs in Orange County; .. also, that election precincts be established in the store of l. F. I. Mit<-hell at Lake Jesup, and in the home of Henry H. Hodges in the vicinity of Lake Taylor. At a meeting held July 26, 1870, the following action was taken: "1t is hereby ordered by the Board that the Road Commis sioners on the publick road leading from Orlando ancl Mellonville be required to sununon all the hands as herein directed Mess. M. J Doyle and David Hartly be required to summon all the hands in and around Mellonville, Mess. M. M. Mizell and James P. Hughey be required to summon. all the hands to the west of said road from Soldier Creek bridge to Orlando and south of Orlando that are subject to road duty, and they are required to instruct their over seers to summon said hands and notify them of what kind of a tool to bring to work with. Both parties on each end of the road will meet at Soldier Creek bridge on Thursday the eighteenth day of August and build a good and substantial bridge across said creek and then work on each end of the road." On March 4, 1871, it was ordered that "a public road be opened from Orlando to Ft. ChrisUnas by the nearest and most practicable route," and Messrs. Wilson R. Simmons and John R. II.. Tucker were appointed com missioners to attend. to the matter. On February 7, 1872, James G. Speer was elected chairman of the Board and J. P. Hughey clerk; Judge Speer resigned. however, in the fol lowing November.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 37 In June, 1872, James G. Speer was elected chairman of the Board. The financial condition of the county is set forth thus; "Cotmty Ta.-c for 11171, $4.9o3.02; uncollected, $1,800; County debt exceeds $4,000." It was voted to paint the court hou:;e "for a sum not to exceed one hundred and twenty fhe dollars to be paid in scrip bearing 8% interest, but nN receivable until the present indebtedness of the county shall have been paid ... In 1872, a jail was built at a cost of $1,650 on a lot which cost fifty dollars; later, a house for the jailer and a wall about the two buildings were erected for $475. The new court house bee seems to have buzzed in those early days. as in later times The first court house was burned in 1868 and the second one was "received" from the contractor on September 25, 1869, and "thirty dollars allowed him for extra work." This structure is said to have cost $1,250 The need of a new court house was being agitated .\ highly interesting episode which is not mentioned in the records, may he referred to here. There was issued in Orlando in 1906 for a short time only a newspaper called the Democrat, J. Holland Starbuck, editor and publisher. In Vol. I, number 22, of this paper which Mrs. J. H. Davet has preserved, was printed an article entitled, "Echoes of Dead Days," which gives an account of a struggle between General Sanford and Jacob Summerlin to secure the pro posed court house for the thriving town of Sanford or the straggling and struggling settlement of Orlando Some extracts from this interesting story are quoted here : "At the time of which we write, Orlando was duly, by the se lection of proper authorities, the seat of county government and the Ia wful location of the court house, yet it was scarcely more a town and had prospects probably less bright to the ordinary eye. than have of the country pootoffices of the county today which are lo cated far from the nearest railroad and have absolutely no apparent prospects of noticeable growth, yet to the eyes of Mr. Jacob Summer lin the town had the brightest of prospects. "It was at this time that General Sanford, former American Consul to the Court of .l:lelgium, and a very pompous northern gentleman, followed the 1.:outse of the St. Johns river from Jacksonville to Mellonville . . In 1875, he looked upon his work and saw that it was good, for he had built a town that in days was a model for the section in which it was located, and then he dreamed his dream. and saw a city beside the blue waters of Lake Monroe, a city as Cltange County had never known, and in his dreams, that city which bore his name was the county seat, the home

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38 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY of county officials, th e business center of affair6 I le dreamed his dream ancl laid his plans to make the vision The county scat must be moved irom Orlan d o, that little backwuoc.ls lo cated among t he pine forests. blue lakes, aud low rolling hills some twenty-two miles tn the south. and located at Sanford. so certai n to become the great city of southern Florida. "So the matter stood when the lloarcl of County mel in Orlando to make their final decision. "General Sanford to the county scat to be present at the meeting and to personally make his offer to the Board. He came o f success, certai n of victory. When he arrived in the little town he went at onL"e to the Summerlin Hotel, which stoocl near where i t stands toc.lay. Mr. Summerlin sat on the porch. smok inj::' a corncob pi11e, clrcssed in rough clothing, a blue flannel shirt, ooarse ancl heavy 'l'h c General gave him one glanrc as he the porch and the office, swinging a heavy gold head ed cane Ht was a pompous man, dressed in the most corr ect styles of the day. with a high silk hRt and spotless linen. :\t the desk in the office sat i\Ir. A. N. Harrington, clerk of the hotel, and it was to him that General Sanford addressee! his first words. 'Where can I f ind this gentleman, this Mr. jacob Summerlin. who I am inform ed, dares to oppose me in my efforts to locate the county scat of Orange County in the town of Sanford? I. Si r, am General San fore!,' all of which wa s spoken in a voice plainly audible to Mr. Sum merlin. Mr. Harrington took the General to the porch and intro duced the two The surprise of the general was apparen t but his words were spoken in a most cordial manner. He asked what objection Mr. Summerlin could lK"lSsibly raise to the change in ques tion He pointed out the which lle really believed would be derived from t!tc movement ; he argued, he explained, he grew eloquent, as he drew a verb."\1 picture of the wonderful growth which would surely come to Sanford within a few short years. and through it all Mr. Summerlin sat, an attentive listener, a courteous kindly yet a man with a minci of his own. who had pondered the matter and who had d rawn his own conclusions. and who would stand by them to the very end. "Next day, the Commissioners met in Orlando and before them appeared General Sanford and Mr. Jacob Summerlin. When the subject came up, General Sanford rose and addressee! the C omntis sioners, every one of. whom he had met and with personally previous to the meeting. I !e explained his proposition, he stated the case, he was eloquent, he was forceful, he was generous, he of fered land and money-money, the scarcest article of the land..-nd

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PART 1-NAKl{:\TlVF. 39 ---------wlwn lw took his it is said that there was not one member of the 1-.cly not ready to ac<:ept offer It was then that Mr. Summerlin for the first time during the meet iug First, he asked if GenSanionl had iinishcd his offer. if he had anything further to say. '" "hkh .-ame the General's reply that he had finished, 'then.' said .\lr. Summerlin, 'I will make my offer. The County has its land for the court here in Orlando; leave this point the county scat :uttl 1 will huild a $10.000 court house, and if the county is ever able to pay me fur it, all right, and if not, 1 won't ask to he repaid.' "It is to say that the offer was accepted. The $10,000 repaid, hut not for ten long years. :\ml nnw. to recur to the minutes of the H<>ard of County Commission us. .\.lcssrs. Foster. 'vV. R. Brown and John Dobb were appointed a conuuillcc tv "draw 11lans and specifications for a court house. The buildin!{ is to he of \Vood and to contain Seven Offices and a Court Room; the Court Room to be sufficiently large to seat five hundred persons, a Brick Vault to be bu i lt in the Clerk s Offict> for containing the Safe." Mr. VI. R. Brown's plans and spcci iications were accepted, for which he received twcnty iiv(' dollars. St-nled were invitecl through the South Florida Journal and the Weekly Union, and on December 8 the contract was awarded to Mr _\, l\1. Hyer for $7,!\00 in Orange County Court House Number two was sold at "public outcry" in February of 1875. to Mr C. C. Beasley for $1i "h> ht removt>cl from site at om::e, and to he used by County until compkti<:>n of n<.'w Court llouse now under C'.Ontrac:t." The uuikliug vi the new court house seems to have been a linge ring achievement. By t>f 1875, a few of the offices were being used and a watchman w a s tmployed to guard the build i ng, at fifty dollars a month. It was not until February 7, 1876, that the building was "accepted" and rooms assigned to various officers and judges, the "S. W. Room for the Grand Jury and Rooms in the Attic for the l'etit Jury. 1\n item in the minutes for October. 1877. the fact that the old court house had not been paid for, and it :;old hy the county for $500 to Jacob Swnmerlin. The Church' was givm permission to hold public in the court ronm, ancl the Dramatic Association of Orange County" to erect a stage for a performance; later, the Good Templal"!; and other organizations also met in the cour t house A good deal is said about paupers and criminals in the records of the 70's. Paupers were boarded with those who would take them the county pay ing from twenty to forty dollars a month for their care. The County Judge is asked to investigate the conditions of certain persons soliciting help, and he "is hereby requestetl to punish such of said persons as are vagrants and bind

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40 HISTORY OF OR.-\XG.!::. Cm .. ;-qy r:mt oi ;'II( :\lention is made of the (otmty paying $300 for the amputation of a leg and the $ubse4ue nt care of one oi these deptnden!s, in the home oi Dr. \\ .. -\. ShelLy Re"ards of from fift,. to two hunrlrerl dollars for the apprehen s ion of murrlercrs and aro: frequ ent In 1871'1. it ,,.,.s onkre r l that the sheriff sh ould be permitL<:d to:1 U!(C the county convich for munty work, ami that "he be to hire out s:.icl Convicts M :?5 cts. per and their Board, first taking g oo d and sufficient sectrity for their KccpinJ<." The jail was constantly needing repair. and there were irequent addition;; nf cells, with much complaint of the sort of housekeeping whidt rhe (JUarters recei, ed. Road-making wa s eve n at the carlie ; t recorded time the chie i of Orange Coilnty Each oi the eleven districts intt; which tht" c ou111y was dh, ided had it;; road cvmmi;;.;;ioncr whn;;e duty it not only t o keep the public highways in goo d repair. but whv must lvcate anrl pa5s upon the opening of new mads. [t senral t i me s rtcorderl that these s ioner;; were Mtificcl to put the roads iu repair at cnc.t'. or the y will he reported to th<' States :\ltorney ior prosecution according lv Law.'' Hundreds vf petition s ior the opening of vuhlic and the takin){ over of vri\'ate roads L y th e county are on record anrl one wondtr$ why a cvm rnunity so scant ir1 population needed such a oi publicly sup ported roads when travel the piney woods was so easy and so pleasant Each petition to open a road aroused long and bitter opposition and often obstructions were built by the protestant s and the Ia w had to be called in to the \'exed questi o n. Openinga new road meant the cutting down of the trees and the filling up of holes by throwing in sand from the sides. As late as 1896, after the road;; had been worked by contract, the "specifica t io ns for work on Public Roads" read a" follows: to bt "Kept clear palnuotto and other roou, trees, Lushes. etc . for a width of eight feet T.ow places to be poles 11) ft long. well co,ered with clirt Sand kept off bridges: The contracts wer e let at prices ranging from $300 to $750 a year. depending on the length of the road. Inm1merab!e were built. repaired and re built. It was not until 1890, that the o rder was passed that "all timber used for bridges be creosotcd as a measure of economy and safety.'" Ferries tht. \'Vekiwa anrl St. Johns rivers and the Econloclchatchee creek were chartered and lk.en!;Cd to various peuons: the were about the same generally as for that o the Wcldwa ferry at Ml)fltgomery'$ craing in 1877. which were as follows:

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PART 1-N:\RRATIVE 41 Four horses or oxen and team .... ......... .... . ........ . . $ 1.00 Three horses o oxen and team ... ........ ..... ..... .. 1.00 Two or oxl'n :tncl 1<'1111\ . .. ........... .75 One horse or ox ami leam ......... . ............................ .40 Saddle horse and rider .............................. ............ .2S Foo ) f p:t!<. of $11.000. Jn 1885, a northern visitor who owned one hundred and fifty acres of land un Lake Concord, sent an elaborate address to the commissioners, re hearsing the beauties of Orlando and its promising future. but regretting that the court house should be located in a congested part of the town and with no park about it. Confident that he owned the ground which in the near future would be the center of a new and finer Orlando. he offertd the county a large plot upon which to erect a court house, with financial help in and loans; a municipal building was also to be in this place. The Board, in declining the offer, said that the titles to that part of the orig inal tract which had been sold were valid only as long as the court house stood on some part of this plc:tt; if it were moved away. the entire prop!rty would revert to the heirs of the donor. Whether this contention was correct or not,

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42 HISTORY OF COL'::\TY -----does not appear from any records which have been con;ulted: at any rate, it was effective. Four years experience with saloons brought a dcmaud fur an election in September of 1887, ''to determ i ne whether or not Spi rituous. or :\fait Liquors should be sold in the County of Orange: Wt> may wr.ll lit once of tllis much-voted upon question b y present inK the iullo" inK ta!Jlc which shows the comings and goings of the saloon in O range County. Year For Selling Against 1887 1,196 1,4\16 1889 1 ,171 718 1898 517 5.51 1900 ? 6 328 1902 624 437 1907 589 5Y:l 1911 1,1W 1.231 Anticipating, probab l y, an exciting e,-ent which occurred a s a tarewelt to the 1880"s, the commissioners went on record in Scptcmlx:r of 1889. in favor of erecting a h rir.k coun house thus ghing notice to what was in s tore f o r the town whic h should win in the ag;tation then in prfl!.{re"-' f o r a c han.: e o f the county seat from O r lando to Sanford. The elect io n occur red December 18. 1889. and resu lted in 1.90 7 \ "Ote s fo r Orlando, 724 for Sanford. and a few scatte red votes fur favorite home towns. In April of 1890. advertisements were published in the ;\lanu facturcrs Records of Baltimore and several other paper s inviting designs ior a brick court house for the co unty. Fourt een plans wer e subm itted from eight d i ffe ren t sta tes and the first choi c e was given t o the plan submitted by :\lr A S. ne r of WiUiamsport, Pennsylv a nia. It was not until the ioliow ing Fehru:try. that bids for build ing the court house were invi te d ; a ll the fi rst were re Jected, and a second advertisement was published. O n August 5. 1891. the bid of the vV. C. Green Company o f C hi cago. for $54.93 7. \\as The \"ault was to cost $522 c.-ctra, and the architect received $1.648.11. plu5 his expenses to Orlando which amounted to $93.20 :\bout $6,000 went into the furniture. and the Board co ntributed $300 toward the clock fflr the !:>ell t h e City Council and private making up full $\1m. The o l d court ho\l.se was sold to Mr. J. L Bryan for $600, and was t o be m ov ed to another site. The offices were m oved t o the Armory B uilding. the county paying $400 for the use of the building "if the Court H o use is finished by January, 1893." The City Council agreed to give to the county

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PART I-NARRATIVE 43 that part of \Vall Street ''lying :--/orth of the Court House except not less than twenty feet on the north side." A previous act of the Board had given per mission to the property owners to ,;dose that part of Court Strc:et north of Oak and portion of Oak east of Main on the original plan of the town of Orlando, so far as the county has any right oi way thereo ver by rea$Oll of its ownership of the Court House property. On February 7, a committee appointed to consider the feasibility nf establishing a poor farm reported in a remarkable document, partly ser mon, partly exhortation, largely sentimental, concerning the duty of the com munity towar d its poor and unfortunate. The committee recommended that l"ighty of Janel, to the town, be secured by gift or purchase for a "puur ar111: ami that a house. a hospital, ancl two cottages for white and cnlnre
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44 HISTORY OF ORANGE COU!\TY The Good Roach Movement was launched in the Spring of 1896. and is heralded in a resolution presented on J
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PART I-NARRATIVE 45 The commiss i oners an to the people in the summer of 1910 r eviewing the road-building operations of tht' otmt y fur the previou s fifteen years. clur ing which roads hac! been mnstructcd from material iound in the county. clay and marl. The bes t of these materials had been usee! up, and the ruad s were so unsatisfartory as to anwunt to a waste of m<.>ney. The :tskecl for :1 heme! ir of IJomling the county fur $600.(l00-$500.000 f c ,r hrick. anti $100.000 for clay ro:uk .\ second mass-meeting in the interest of a bond issnt. hdd in the court room June 5, 1921, l'lllhusiastically endorsewn Bishop stead from the Endowment Fund Corporation of the Diocese of South Flori
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46 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY Millab'C for 1927-2K (.;eneral revenue fund ... ..... ..... . ....... .... .................... . . Fine anrl forfeiture ... .. .. .......... ..... ...... ....... ... ......... .... . J'ublicity fund ... ... . ... .... ...... ................. ............ ......... . First bond issue ....... ... ...... ...... ....... ..... ....... .... ... .... .... Second bond issue .... . ... ........ ............. ... ..... .... ..... .... . Third bond issue . ..... .... ................. ...... ... .... ... ...... ... ... . Court House issue ............... .... ... ......... . .. ... .... .......... Schools .......... e ........................................ .................... . Mills I I I,V. 4 7]1 5 10 ---Total 4.2 mills and County taxe s ........................ ... ......... ...... .... .. 7 0 Gratld Total mills In addition to the foregoing. the Specia l Tax School District taxes 1 ange from three to seventeen Ill ills. The following have served as chairmen ot the Board of County Com missioners during the period under review: David !\1izell, 1869-72; james G. Speer, 1872-73; William I:l. Holden, 1873-76; John R. Mizell, 1876-77; james G. Speer, 1877-78; JameJ; M. Owens, 1878-81; Dr. King Wylley, 1881-85; Clinton Johnson, 1885-87; n. [:_ Whitner. 1887-90; C. E. Smith, 189093; 'A. C. Martin, 1893-94; J. A. McDowell, 1894-95; J. N. Whitner, 1895-97; H. H Dickson, 1897-1908; J. H. Lee, 1908-11 ; M. 0. Overstreet, 1911-20; Arthur Schultz. 1920-25 and L. L. Payne, 1925-27. The present county officials are as follows : Roard of County Commissioners: :\fessrs. L. L. Payne, Orlando, chair man; S. S. Sadler, Tangerine: W. T Chapman, Winter Garden; Col. R. M. Shearer, Pinccastle: C. E. Barber, Fort Christmas: Captain B. M Robinson, clerk. Bond Trustees: Messrs. Vv. H. Re)'llolds, Orlando, chairman; Mayor J B. Steinmetz, Wekiwa Springs; Mr. J H. Sadler, Oakland. Circuit Court : F. A. Smith, judge ; Captain Fl. M. Rob inson, clerk. Criminal Court of Record: W. L. Tilden, judge; Mr. W. DeLaney Way, clerk. County Court: Victor Hutchins, judge; Mr. W. DeLancy Way. clerk. Juvenile Court: D. A. Cheney, judge. Sheriff's organization: Mr. Frank Karel, sheriff and deputies; Mr. E. A. Taylor, chief of traffic department, with five traffic officers.

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r--------_ ,_,_ -------------------, . --.. :":---........ . . . --..;.;_=-:::...,:-------... ... --..-.;,.--r . . . rhmos. b.> Robinson Orlando, AmHtorimn, A. C. t .. L<;,il"' ay :-ltation Cuuut) Court Huusc

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PART I-NARRATIVE Tax :\$SCSsorMr Arthur Dut t. Tax Collector-:.\Ir W .M. Martin. County Enginccr :\'lajor C. E Browne C ounty Survc yor--Mr E E. White C ountv Home-Mr ) uhn F Harr is, su perintendent. -. 47 County Parenta l Jlome--:VIr . \1. ]. llardy, superintendent ; with a B oard o i Governors ; connect e d with the Juvenile Court. County Physician-Dr. C. V. Christ County :\gent -Mr. K. C. Moore County llome Demo nstration ;>,gent-Mrs. Nellie \V. Taylor THE P U BLIC S CHOOL S The history o f Orange County, like the history of all other Ameri can communities and of the nation, is in la rge part the history of its common schools. Next to the family, the and especially the free public school as it exists in this country, is the most vital and formative factor in developing the life of the people. Here all the children and youth of both sexes, at the i mpressionable age, g;nher from homes, native and i mmigrant. Christi11u and J ewisb and infidel r i ch and poor, and not only e ceiv e i Mtrncti o n an d a cquire the knowledge which is power, but are als o mingled intimately togethe r as companions in study and sport, and arc p l aye d np o n hy a si ngle set of creative and compelling intellec t u al and soci al fortes which ten.l to blen
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48 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY and to see that the rents were applied to the common schools. most of the had no residents whatever, and there was little, if any, opportunity to rent lands in the or any other section, this provision had little meaning. Various changes in the school law of the Territory were made from time to time. At one time it was the duty of the sheriff 'to attend to the education of the children of the poor, and later. in 1845, the county judges of probate were given charge of the school in terests. . Up to this time there was little interest in public education, but Congress now authorized the sale of school lands, and the register of public lands was made ex-officio superintend ent of common schools. . Public schools had been re garded theretofore as 'pauper schools'. The people of the betclass considered thcmsehes disgraced if their children at tended the public school, and the less enlightened cla$s cared nothing for the opportunities. . In 1853, there were re ported 16,573 white children of school age in the state and an appropriation oi $5,031.07 of public funds for their education-thirty cents per capita. The constitutional convention of 1865 gave the subject little tecogni'tion, but in 1868 another comention was held, and the resulting constitution provi ded lib erally for a system of public education. It declared that the state should provide for the education of all children of school age, established a uniform system of county schools, provided for state and county superintendence of public instruction, and es tablished a state school fund. ''In 188S, a new constitution was adopted which not only preserved all the desirable features of the educational article in the constitution of 1868, but made several important steps for ward, among them being the provision that any community may levy a special district tax, and that every county must levy a school tax of not less than three mills and not more than five mills." Later, laws were enacted permitting a county tax of seven mills, and 1hen of ten mills. The history of public instruction in Orange County is told in part in the chapters of this work which are devoted to the several cities and of the county; here it must suffice to trace this history in outline it is found in the records of the County Board of Public Instruction. Unfortunately, these records, as all other official records prior to the year 1869, were destroyed by the fire which burned down the first courthouse; we begin with the minutes of the Board meeting of this year.

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' .. . .: :(,.'h .. ..... .. ,. ... . . ... .._

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PART I-NARRATIVE 49 The Board oi Public Instruction met at the courthouse, December 11, 1:::69, ;for the purpose of organizing said board.'' Mr. W. C. Roper was chairman, Mr. A C. Caldwell and Mr. Z H Mason were the ht>r memhers present, and Mr. W. A. Lovell was elected county super intendent and secretary of the Board. The one item of business trans acted was the passing of a resolution that ;,each member of the Board he constituted an examining committee in his neighborhood to ex;. mine the of teachers and to grant certificates of compe tency.'' The Board did not meet again until May 27, 1871, when, in addition to }lr. Roper and Mr. Caldwell, there were present Mr. M. W. Prince anct Mr. James 1'. Hughey. Mr. Hughey was elected treasurer of the Board aud "ordered to make requisition upon the Comptroller for the now due for the scholastic years of 1869-'70-'71." The schools in the county at this time were: Me lionville, with fifty pupils; Orlando, with thirty pupils; the Lodge, with twenty-five pupils; Blackwater, with fifteen pupils; Lake Jesup, with fifteen pupils; and Cross Prairie, with fif teen pupils, a total of one hundred and fifty pupils The Board voted to ' lc,y a tax of one-tenth of one per cent on all taxable property" for sd10ol purposes The teachers recei, ed one dollar a month for each pupil, and the term was three months long. this term being taught at any time during the year, at the convenience of the teacher and trustees. It is evident that there were many private schools in the county,
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50 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY accused of keeping a larl{er cum mission than the law allowed. Later. an was tn the :\ ttorncy General ior a decision as to whether tlw lax collcclu r had the right to keep any of the school money as a sion; whtn the decision was gin:n that the commission shoulcl he paicl out of the county fund an
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PART Sl larger salary for the supe ri ntendent, and in June the grand jury ordered the $300 again, in of the fact that the school term was to be only three months. The Board ignored the ruling of the grand jury, and on July 16, a public meeting wa!l held and a resolution adopted denouncing the action uf the Board all
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si HISTORY OF ORANG E <:OCXTY < 1rgani:r.e a Institutt. His recunls n r c quite remarkable, writ ten in a plain, hand, the lang uage clnhorate and oratorical. Tile complaints or p atrons and and tcada:rs are faithfully reconlcd. and the m anne r i n whi!'h the Board sought to a!)l}Case thos e holrling a grie1 ancc who ap peared before it is told with pain s t aking One gathcrs from t h ese cad y r ecor ds t h a t th e members of t ho: Boards well earned the s t ipend gi 1en I h e m Their time was spent in seating and unseating trustees, examining teachers for certificates, and with the ever -annoying financial shortage, and with the proh lem of establishing school s in new communities. Tn 1880, the superinl'endclll's ''salary" was agai n under fire ; it wns argued that $600 was wn much, and the county commissioners wanted it reduced by half. Thc noarcl repl ie d tlull the salary was p aicl i n ''county scrip." whiC'h w a s w orth o n l y f iity cents o n t h e dollar, a nd there fore the $600 ought t o s t a nd; the matter b y p ayi n g the s uperintendent $300 in l.' nit ed Stat cs currency. :\n event of interest to the county in :\la r ch. 1885. was the meeting of the County Teachers' which was held in Orlando. and was attended hy forty-three teachers: state superintendent, .'\ J. Russell, and Prof. John A. l.raham of the Nashvill<-:'\onnal College wer e the leading speakers. The first Arbor Day was celebrated on February 10 1886. I n t he year 1887, Lake and Osceola C ount i e s were sepa r ated f rom O range. the former rece i v ing$521.98 as share o f the schoo l f unds, : tnd the latter $229.59 The Board bought an Edison mimeograph for the use of the super intendent, and the numerous works of art pre!lervecl in his records, drawn by the versatile superintendent himself, attest the pleasure he took in this gift; there are teachers' certificates notifications of appointment. cards of invitation, poster announcements, all done in sepia, w ith and garlands of oak and palm, and with utis t i c lettering, in addition to the real busines s for which t h e machine was intended. A t this t ime the B oard ordered "that w e introduce some good music books for the public schools. and that the teachers be re(Juired to use them each day from 15 to 30 minutes." The superintendent wa!l gi\'en $15 "to defray his expenses to the Superintendent's Congress anrl State Teachers' Institute at DeFuniak Sprin l(s :" a later cmry shows that there were four hundred in attendance at meeting, eleven from Ornnge County. This the year when the school books were sent to Florida bv way of Macon, si nce 'Jacks onville is now infested w ith yellow fever." The superintendent' s annual1'eport for 1887-88, gave the number of schools in the county as seventy-five, eleven of them colored, the number

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53 of vupils 2,49-l-, 6.>5 of them culur.,d. and the assessed value of property in the county real and personal, as $4,652,Si3. The amount raised for from all sources was $li,294.i4; the value of school and grounds was $23,605.00; the paid to $19,400.99; and the superintendent's salary was $1.512.60. There is space here to mention only a few of the interesting enmh of the decade 1890-1900, during which period the school$ grew in size and system, and buildings were erected in a number of the towns. The schools had a great Christmas celebration in 1890, when "each pupil in the public schools regardless of age or condition'' who were en rolled on the 24th day of December, received a "beautiful chromo" from the Board. accompanied by a very attractive Christmas card and greet ing, the work of Superintendent Becks and his mimeograph. On January 8, 1892, the cornerstone of the court house was laid. :tnd there was deposited in it a history of the public schools from 1869 to 1892, prepared by Mr. Becks, and marked "To an unknown friend in future age. When this package is opened we hope to be occupying :. finer structure with the school board, teachers, pupils (graduated) and this people across the river of life; a building not made with hands. Continue the goo
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54 HISTORY OF CO!,;XTY introduced (1902), and grew rapidly in favor. New school houses were built and high schools were started in Sanford, Apopka 'Winter ( iardcu and Winter Park. Professor Lynch died in 1911 (see hiograph ical in !'art Tw,., of this work), and was succeeded in office by Rev Dr. J F McKinnon. The budget for school expenses at this time was about $50.000 ; salaries ranged from $225 a month for the Orlando and Sanfonl princi pals, to $3 0 per month fo r the teachers of one-room country schools. A constitutional amendment in 1912 gave the special school-tax district power to issue bonds fo r scho ol houses and e4uipment. and minutes of the Hoard for the fifteen years since that time arc largely the recortl s of bond issue s fur school purposes in every district in th e county. In 1913, Seminole County was formed, and Orange County was rc as follows: District No. Winter l'ark Pi n ecastlc, Conway ami Taft. District No. 2-Ft. Christmas, Pickett and Fish. District No. 3 Maitland, Lockhart, Apopka, Bay Ridge, Zellwood, Clarcona, Ocoee, Winter Garden, Oakland, Orange Center and Gotha. In 1915, the trustees of the Apopka district asked permis sion of the Doard to transport children in antomohiles, instead of wagons. The same year the home work was introclucecl in the county supported jointly by the state, the county commissioners and the Board of Public Instruction. and Miss Harriet Layton was employed as agent Three years later, :Mrs. Ora D. Lay t on ba-a me the first county social service worker, and Mrs. Nellie Taylor was appointed as home demonstration agent. In 1918, one canning club girl was sent for the short course to the Florida College for Women at Tallahassee, and given $15 toward her ex penses; in l9Zi, Mrs. Taylor took twenty-five girl s to Tallahassee for the short course in demonstration work. Mr. A. B. Johnson bec.'lme county superintendent in 1917, and the ten years during which he has ser ved may well be called the buildin g era for Orange County's schools. The commodious and handsome buildinga which have been erected do not tell the whole story of the wontlerful progress made by the schools during the past decade, hut are only an in dication of the gro wth in efficiency and _modem methods which characterizes the school system of Orange County today, under Mr. Johnson's direction.

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PART 1 .NARl{ATJVE Sj During t h e last ten years, the following bond issues for p u r poses ha v c been v oted, a lmost without opposition in every case: District Year Amount Orlando 1917 $ 40,000.00 Oakland -Winter Garden 1917 30,000.00 Apopka 1918 16,000.00 Orlando 1920 1 5 0,000.00 Gotha-\Vindermere 1920 2,000.00 Orland o 1921 300,000.00 Ocoee 1921 40,000 00 F airvilla 1 922 5 000.00 winter Park 1 922 25,000. 00 ;\-laitlancl 1 922 10.000 00 Orlando 1923 150,000. 00 Pin ecas t l e 1923 20,000 .00 B eulah 1924 3.000. 00 Oakland -Winter Gar d e n 1924 35,000.00 Apopka 1924 25.000. 00 Orl and o 192S 300.000 0 0 Orlando 1926 1 ,000, 000 00 Winter Park 1 9 2 6 200,000.00 Ocoee 1926 105,000.00 Oakland -Winter Gar den 1926 190,000.0 0 Total $2,446 000 00 The value of school property in the county for the year ending June 30, 1926, was $2,597,025. The budget for 1 927-28, as presented by Suv <'rintendent J o hnson is $344,530, which inclu des $291,105 for salaries. $10,000 for the s o cial s e rvice and health departm e n t $21.425 for trans portation, $5 300 for the superintendent's salary and expenses, $5,500 fo r attendance officers and expens e s and $1,000 for the canning club age nt. The f ollowing have served as Chairmen of the Board from 1869 to the present tim e : Mr. W C. Roper, 1869-1873. Mr. W. F R u ssell, 1 8 7 3-1875. Mr. S. M Tucker, 1 87 5 -187 6 Dr. 0 P. Preston, 1876-1877. Dr. W W. Kilm er, 1877-1885. Col E. C. Morgan, 1885-1889 Co!. George S. Foote, 1889-1895.

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56 HISTOHY OF ORA:-.:<.a COLJXTY ----Mr. James DeLancy, 1895-1897. Rev. R. W. Lawton, 1897-1909, (Mr. Lawton diecl 111 uiTice ). i\1r. Sidney E. I ves, 1909-1913. Mr. James A. Knox, 1913-1927. The following have served as county superintendents: Mr. W. A. Lovell, 1869-1873. Mr. W. C. Roper, 1873-1877 Mr. J. M. Burrall, 1877-1879. Mr. I. T. Becks, 1879-1897. Mayor W. B. Lynch 18971911, Lynch die l)L-ginnin;; the work of teaching at that date. Fuur years later it hecame a lx .anlin;: school for girls which it contimttd to be until 1913, when owing to the i11-creased number of day pupils, boarder:< could no longer be al.-commoclated, and the dormi t ories were turned into class-rooms. For th e first t w enty-nine years of its existence, St. Joseph's :\cadcmy was m erely a grammar !\Chool but in the year 1917 the first class of graduates went f o rth, and since that time other classes have been graduated. At prerent the tcachin!{ staff consists of seven Siste rs. The sehoul is filled to capadty, which is a little more than two hundred pupils. The curric\llum is complete in all respects and its graduates tntcr l.'OIIege with no difficulty. The school has a music department and extra-curriculum activities in cluding for and The School for girls was fO\tnded in 1900 loy the la te Bishop William Crane Gray, at tim e head of the Episcopal Church in South Florida Having been presented with a new official r esidence, he det ermined to devote the handsome hume he formerly OC'-"'lpied to the establishment o i a school for girls a purpo se he had long cherished. The vision uf the founder has been abundantly realized, and the school has long since attained a posi tion of self support and popular esteem. 'From the beginning, the aim been to combine in the sc hool-life the three-fold idea of sound learning, ap proved manners, and practical religion. Though intended primarily for Florida girls, its patronage has extended to many northern states, the advantages of its happy home life and educational benefits making an appeal to th ose who would enjoy the land of sunshine and f l owers.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 57 The Cathedral School is beautifully situated on the shores of Lake Eol a, near the heart of the city yet s ufficientl y reti red for the o( study. nreo five huilrlings devoted t o sc h ool usc, including audit orium, hall. recreation hall, classrooms, music-rooms dining-room and rlormito ri es. The mur>es of in struction are com p lete and comprehensive, covering the college and courses and t he school is a Florida ac crcdit'ed institution. While unde r the control of t h e Episcopal Church, the is not sectarian, and has a l way s numbered among its teache rs and pupils members of variou s Chris t i an denom ina ti ons. The first principal of the school the l ate Deaconess Harriet Rand olph Parkhill, in whose honor 1nc of the school buildi ngs is named. R e v Roderick 1'. Cobb served in that capacity ior a period o f ten years, and the present principal is Clara Bur ton. Bishop Cameron Mann is president of the Board of Trustees, and J(e,-. A. E. Johnson is chaplain. The Rohert H. Hungerfor d Normal and Industrial School js located at Eatonville a negro town adjoining .Maitland on the west. This school was founded b y Professor and Mrs. Russell C. Ca lh oun in 1897 These tw o capable and devoted teachers had been students at the Tuskeegee T n stitute, of hicl t the husband was a graduate. In the Spring of 1898, Mr .E. C. Hun ge rford of Chester, Connecticu t, who had a winter home in Maitland, gave the together with several relatives and friends. 160 acres of land adjoining Eatonville, now included with i n the corporate l i mits of the town, as a campus and f arm. The first cash donation was made by M i ss liary Brown of Winter Park. t o whom 1cl erent-e is made in Cha pter Four of this work; the second gift of $400 came through Dooker T. Washi ngton of Tuskcegee. Additional land was bought from time to time, and the corne r stone of Booker T. Washington Hall was l aid in 1899: it was fini s hed and dedi cated the following year. Later, :Mr. George B. Cluett the manu facture r of Troy .l\cw York, g-ave $8,000 for the erection of a second building and $4,000 toward the pur of an orange grove near the campu s. C l uett Hal l was burned in 1922 and was replaced b y a structu re bearing the same name, a year and a half later. Mr. Ouctt also gaYe a conside r able sum to fin ish th e d ining-hall. whic h he insisted should be named Calhoun Hall, and he contributed $500 an n u ally for current ex penses for a n u mbe r of years. Professor Calhoun died November 10, 1 910, and Mrs. served for twelve years as principal of the school. She was followed by Elija h Chis holm, S. Baker a nd J. T. Jordan, the present principal Mrs. Kingrnill -Marrs of Boston and Maitland left the institution $5 ,000 by will at her death. The school has u pwards of a hundred boarding pupils and a number of day scholars; i t also carries on a night school for adults. An industria i building for girls is n ow in process of construction

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58 HISTORY OF OR.\XGE COC:\TY The Orang-e County Chamber of Cr>mmercc organi7.d June 19.2.2. The officers were: President William Edwards: vice-prc:sidc:nts, .:\lr. J. ;\, T reat, Winter P ark. ancl J G Stm7.ier Wiuter Garden : ::ccrctary Mr. E Tl. Morrcy. A popka: treasurer :llr. S. S Sadler Tangerint'. In 1922, M r. Karl Lehmann was employed as secretary on a half time basis. In Octobe r of that yc.-ar he began work as full tim e sct:retar y One: of the first things done hy the organixation was t' suhmit the people a vote on the IJUcstion e l f a pub licity t ax t o llE' levier( by the CrJtmty Commissioners and expended under thrir rlin : t t imt hy County Cha mber of Commerce in the work of the organir.ation. This election carri ed by a vote of more than iour to one, and the bill aut horizing this tax levied fo r two years was enacted hy the Leg-islature in 19.23. In 1925 the Le<,:islature pas.f Commerce are : president Mr. \Villiam Edwards, Zellwood: vic e-president J .. \ Treat. Winter Park; vice-president Mr. S fl. Hull. Oakland: Mr. S. S. Sadler. Tangerine; auditor Dr. J. C. McMichael Wi n dermere : secretary l>r. Karl Lehmann, Orlando ; assistant secretary Mr. Crawfo r d T Bickford; and office MSistant, Mr. Francis Smathers hoth of Orhmdo. The member$ of the Hoard of Director s are as follows: :\popka, Mr. J. G. Rithlo, Mr. S S. Philb rick : Clarcona. E. J. Hobson: Conway. Dr. W. J. McDurney; Edgewood, Col.. R. M $hearer ; Fort Christma.q, Mr. L L. Rarely ; Gotha, Mr E S Lawrence : Lockhart, Mr. G. R Long; Maitland, Mr. J. H. Hill; North Orlando, Dr. J _\. Pines: Ocoee. Mr. T. C. Hawthorne: Orlando, Mr. N. P. Yowell: Pinecast l e, !lfr. P. ?rl. Shanibargcr: Plymouth :Mr. J. G. Grossenb acher: Taft,.l\1r. C. R B rickley ; Vineland, Mr. W L Shuck: West Side Improvement League. Orlando, Mr . A.. M Crittenden ; W i nter Garden, Mr.]. L. Dillard The Orange County Chamber of Commerce. with a membership o 4,000 is the largest county Chamber of Commerce in the south. Some idea of the scope and act ivit y of this organization is seen in the fa cts in this year's annual report, as follows in part: "We have conducted a national adverti s ing campaign in publications with a combined circulation of nearly 600,000 copies. "We have carefully bulletined tO the Chambers of Commerce. real estate men in the county banks and newspaper$ more than 3,000 names of prosp.'t ive se ttler s who have written us as a re su l t of our nationa l adverti sing.

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!'ART 1-X.\RRATIVE 'Havr more than 600 columns of publicity OrCounty in the press of the country. If laid end Lo end this puh licitv would stretch one-fifth of a mile ''The secretary has participated in 7.000 personal intcnie\\'s with prospective settlers and others interested in Orange County. "The secretary has delivered .100 addrct
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60 HISTORY OF COUXTY "We handled the publicity incident to the trip of a large party of Orange County girls to the course at Tallahassee This trip was made under the direction oi !\ Irs. \V. Taylor, ''"'I was one of the most effective of publicity for Orange County this year. . "We tm t the oi the OrJ.ngc County Chamber of Commerce heartily into the making of the state the county enumerator in possible way, with the result that a most complete census was secured. . "We made addressograph plates ancl handled the cxtensilc follov.rup on the 1.200 names secured by the Orlando Realty Borganizations in sending .Major Charles A. llrowne to Washington P. C. to tht> conference called by Secretary Herbert HoO\cr. dealing with important matters: also participated in sending Major Browne to !\iorganton. !'ol. C. and Spartanburg. S. C.. to important highway meetings. "\\'c sent our secretary to the convention of the National ciation o f Commercial Secretaries at Washington, D. C. Partici pated in the l:lettcr I tomes Campaign for Orange County, and helped entertain the party of Texas citrus !:'rowers who \'isitcd this county. OL'toher 25-28. "We arranged for representation at the meeting of the Dixie Highway Assoc iation at Rome. Ga. and were responsible for securing at that meeting the designation of the Cheney Highway as the connecting link hetween the East and West Dixie I Jighway in Flor ida. . "We se nt our secretary to Washinb"ton to imervie\\' repre scntativcs of thc Bureau of Public Roads, ancl con ducte d an ex tensive correspondence and telegraphic communication \\'hich finally the recognition of State Road No. 2 as a part of the system of united States Highways. . "We arranged for the making of a motion picture fil(ll re<:ording two important events of the year, the dedication of the Cheney Highway and bridge, and the movement of a solid trainload of range cattle from this county when the 'no-fence' law went into effect. . "\Ve have written and mailed 24,248 letters and sent out 176,895 pieces of printed matter on Orange County including 64,000

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ropics nf 'Orange Echoes:' this mail has gone to practically ever y >ection oi tht world.'' 61 The rather remarkable spirit of harmo ny and cooper-.1tion which exists illll\1111{ the SC\'t:ral Cllnttllllllitie s o)f Coun ty is no doubt due in large vart to the work of the County C hamber
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62 HISTORY OF OlUNCE COC'li:TY in 1896; Mr. Ferris in tum wid the paper to the Reporter-SI.ar Publishing Company. headed at that time by W. R. O'Neal, president, :\1. 0. Overstreet, vice-president, N. P. Yowell, secretary and treasurer; they with T. P. War low and W. D. Yowell composing the Board of Directors. About 1912 the Reporter-Star into the hands of G. H. \\'alton of Richmon
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PART 1-:-\ .\1{1{:\ TIVE 1)3 of puhlirntinn f fi nancial anu cconoanic.:al dep ression reaclaing a climax during the panic of 1893, fu llowcd by a disastrous freelc which ruined the tred of Florida. In this period, rival f orgot and to each other's assistance In the case both of the Reporter and the South Florida Sentinel many publication dates were missed, and it during this period that the two Orlando papers l'OU!I
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64 HISTOl{Y ORANG E COUl\TY The Orange County Chamber of Commerce issu es Ornnge monthly, at twen ty-five cents a year. 11te Orange County Citizen, a weekly paper, was originally published in :\popk:t, by Dr. Geiger, a Baptist preacher, who lived in that town and was held in high esteem throughout Florida. As a weekly publi cation it ranked with the of the stale for the moral tone of its editorial policy. Dr. Geigtr was appointed to a traveling missionary position by his church, and found that he must dispose of the paper much to his reg ret. Hon. A. B. :1\ewton of Winter Garden, representative in the state Legis lature, bought the paper and removed it to Winte r Ga r den. Mr. Newt on, who previcms to coming to Florida had IJeen a county superintendent of in his native state, continue d the high-grade policy of the Citi1.en, l111t ns his business and legi s lative dutie$ increased, he found it difficult to gi\'e the attention nccd<'d to the pape r and, after several talks with !Mr C. K lloward, who at that t illlc was editor of the Reporter-Star in Orlando, agreed to sell him, stating that he did so only beeau.o;e of his acquaintance aud agreem e nt with Mr. Howard's policies: the paper was thereafter pub lished in O rlando. These policies, under which the paper flourished from first t o last, were democratic prohibition and absolutely independent, in character, three traits that distinguished its editorial policy; and as the paper was of the old-fash ioned type of weekly, largely edi torial in its sphere, it continued positive. rather than negative on the questions of the day. After seven years of service, largely in the prohibition cause, the object of its puhlir.ation having been attained, Mr. Howard, having many other duties, sold the paper to Arthur lvey, a young reporter on the Sentinel, who after a time discontinued publication. The Democrat was established in 1906, ]. H Holland Star buck, editor and pttblisher; its life appears to have been brief There are many copies of the Orlando papers of the early days and the :.uthor of this historical sketch has perused a number of them b rought to the office and treasured by various people. The Florida Record is very interesting. On Page 1 appear these words, "Title of this paperThe Orlando Daily Record." Then there appears a li.ne, "March 6 1893." It was of seven
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PART I-NARRATIVE 65 masthead reads Mahlon Gore, editor, and S. R Hudson, publisher." With the volume number and the serial muuber, the first publication of the Or ange County Reporter would seem to have occurred sometime in the year 1878. On the eclitorial page appears this line "one copy ouc year, $2.00." In volume 13. page 9. whole numi.Jer 633 published May IS 1890, Mahlon Gore's name appears as editor. Oue of the early publications was the Orlando Star, a tri -weekly Volume 1, number 33, loaned to the author. was published Thursday, September 3, IH96. The price was three cents. On the left dog-ear of page 1 appears "for President W. J. Bryan of Nebraska," and on the right car "for Vice president Arthur Sewall of :Maine The Star was published Tuesday Thurs day and Saturday; the subscription rate was one year $2.00. ln the paper dated Thursday, October 15, 1896, the names of W H. Jewell appear as editor and \V. F. Barnes as business manager. Two days later, October 17, the name of C. A. \Veimer as city editor was added to the above. Perusing the Orange County Reporter for May 15, 1890, we discover a paper of large clumsy and difficult to handle, being 5 Y. inches longer and five inches wider than the standardized paper of today, which measures 23 by 17,V.inches. The Reporter of that day was of nine columns, ems to. a column. ln the thirty-sev en year old paper. we find a schedule of the De Bary Line on the St. Johns River, leaving Jacksonville at 3:30 p. m. and ar riving at Sanford at eight o'clock the next morning, also a schedule of the South' Florida Railroad, with north-bound trains leaving at 6 : 35 p. m 11 :55 a. m and 2:00 p. m. except Sunday, and at 11 :40 p m. daily; south bound trains at 10 :40 a. m., 3 :18 p. m., 5 :45 p. m., and 6:13 p m. Also the "Tropical Trunk Line," the Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West System, only 5)4 hours between Orlando and Jacksonville; also the schedule of the Tavares, Orlando and Atlantic Railroad Company, with a schedule between Orlando and Tavares by way of Wekiwa, Apopka and Zellwood, trains leaving Orlando at 5 :SS p. m and 5:40 a. m., arriving at Tavares at 8 : 15 p m., and 7 :10 a. m. respectively, and leaving Tavares at 6 :45 p. m. and 6:40 a. m., arriving at Orlando at 8 :20 p. m. and 9 :00 a m. In addition a time-table of the Orlando and Winter Park Railroad ap pears, the intermediate stations being Lakemont Park, Winter Park, Bonnie Burn and Rowena. The interesting information is epnveyed that trains will !top on signal only at Arcade, Concord Street, Orange ,Avenue, Fair Oak, Highland, Rowena, Rose Hill, Lake Mable, Bonnie Burn. Rollins College and Lakemont Park. Advertising appears by the Orlando Novelty Works, the South Florida Foundry and Machine Company, Curtis and O'Neal, and the First National Bank of Orlando, all firms being in business in Orlando at the present time. There was considerable rea l estate activity in the early days. A large advertisement on the front page by the Sinclair Land Agency offers "high pine land in healthy locality, from $2.00 to $100 per acre," and

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66 HISTORY OF COUNTY another by M:ahlon Gore exhorts the reader to "get a home on the install ment plan," and offers "homes for actual settlers, ten acre tracts, $20.00 to per acre, according to situation and 'tuality," concluding with the words, "now is the time. The winter of 1889 and 1890 will see these lands all taken by actual settlers. Come and make selections early ; '' "let no man make a purchase until he has carefully examined the situation; buy only good land, make only good improvemenh, and you will always be in the lead \V. F. Barnes & Company offer special bargains, but no prices appear. There were no hypocrites in those days, for one finds fine ad vertised for sale by Rogers and Martyn who evidently conducted a cos mopolit:m saloon in Orlando, with a line which stands out prominently to tho: thirsty hypocrite of today. "\Ve pay special attention to the jug trade," it says alluringly; "we import our wines and liquors direct from Europe where we have a special agent. \Ve huy in large quantities for cash, there fore we can sell in any quantity. large or small, as cheaply as any firm in the country and guarantee the quality to be as represented. Agents for several good brands of champagne, Scotch and Irish whiskey and direct importation of choice C'.eylon tea. Why send away for your liquors when we can do as well for you here and you know who you are dealing with." The advertise ment was marked "599Y ;" we do not know what this means, but we take it to mean that 5 stands for May the month of publication and the 99 means for the remainder of the year. ln the early days of 1890, phospl1ate was coming into its own in the southern part of Florida, and on the editorial page of the Recorder appears an analysis of phosphatic rock by Thos. R. Baker, professor emeritus in Rollins College who recently celebrated his ninetieth birthday. Interesting items such as these punctuate the journal under survey. "Sudden gust of wind blew down the file of the Citizens National Bank, and some pedestrians pa'lSing along at the time narrowly escaped injury as the file fell crashing to the sidewalk;" "excursion tomorrow. An excursion train will go through direct to Clay Springs without change." "A hail storm visited Apopka. Some of the were said to have been as large as hen's eggs." "Governor Fleming will deliver the annual address to Rollins College ; trains over 'the Orlando and Winter Park Railroad will be run in such a way as to accommodate all who wish to go from here to attend the Commencement Exercises at Rollins College ;" "truck ers at Clermont are shipping tomatoes at from $4 to $8 per standard crate;'' "from all accounts Cedar Key must be in a deplorable condition under the domination of a besotted and desperate mayor." "Thos. A. Johnston shot and killed Wm. Lee of Oakland in front of the First National Bani,:.'' Here comes the exciting part of the evidence collected by the reporter. "Lee said, 'G-d-y, I've got you now,' and when Lee got within several feet of Johns ton he rushed his horse up and struck at Johnston with his hand. Johnston

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PART I NARRATIVE 67 then drew his pis tol and as his horse fell, shot Lee in the right side, then turned his horse about and both were running he shot a second t ime and Lee soon fell from the sadd l e. Johnston checked up his horse, came by B ill Johnston s house and told him h e had shot Wm. Lee and then surre n dered himself to the sheriff." The names of Major M. R. Marks is given as mayor; John n. Broome as Judge of the Circuit Court; C. G Butt as Judge of the Criminal Court; and J. L Bryan as judge of the County Court. W M. Poage was pastor of the Methodist Church South, J. G. Patten of the Presbyterian Church, C. S Farriss of the Baptist Church, J. Chris Williams of the Congregational Church, S. B Carpenter of the Protestant Episcopal Church, F M. C. Eads of the Methodist Church ami J. J. Creed of St. James Catholic Church. J W. Anderson was president of the Y. M. C. A.; James M L1ne was Wor shipful Master of t h e Orlando Lodge number 69; C. 0. Myers was High Priest, Eureka Royal Arch Chapter, number 7; Wm H. Jewell was Eminent Commander of the Olivet Commandery, number 4; A. ] .Mosteler, Odd Fel lows and Carl Warfield, C. C Knights of Pythias. Buggies were selling from $SO to $ 150; saddles from $3 to $20 and bridles from $1 to $5. Rough pine lumber was quoted a t $11 per thousand feet. Good buggy horses were $125 to $200. Irish potatoes 35 cents per peck. Chickens 30 to soy. cents per pound, eggs 20 to 55 cents per dozen, cow peas 10 oents per quart and strawberries from 10 to SO cents per quart. Papers from which clippings were taken and mentioned in the Recorder were as fol lows: The Leesburger, the Floridian of Tallahassee, the Jacksonville Metro polis, the Pensacola News, the Fort White Boomer, the St. Andrews Mes the Belleview Blade, the Fernandina News, the Dade City Democrat, the DeLand Reco.-d, the DeLand Agriculturist, the Sumterville Times, the Key West Equator, the Sumterville County Times, the Volusia County Record, the Madison Record, the Florida Times-Union, the Mandarin News the Palatka Times, the Ocala Banner, the Ocala Capitol the St. Augustine News and the Leesburg Commercial. Just recently there came into our hands the first three volumes of Lochmede, a publication printed by J B. Henck, Jr. at Longwood. The first number was issued July 1, 1887, and the last June 28, 1889. It was more in the form of a magaz ine, being three colums wide, containing editorials, news items and advertising, all type hand-set. The main attention of the publica tion was devoted to Winter Park and Rollins College. There no indication who was editor other than information under the which advised that communications by mail should be addressed to Mr. Henck at Longwood, and that an office was maintained at Winter Park, with Charles J. Ladd in charge. The publication was entered at the postoffice at Winter Park as mail matter.

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HISTORY OF ORANGF.: COUNTY The Winter Park Poot by A. Ellison during Mr. Adams service in the Worl d War, the w:&s issued b y Mrs. Hiram Powers and Emly It was by Mr. ]. H. Wendler, who changed its name to the Florida Post. and whose ambitious efforts to 1nake it the organ of the state resulted disastwusly to himself, the stockhol!lers and the paper Winter Park Herald was then eNtablished by Mr. E. li. Mendsen and Dr. R F. Hotard. On May 1, 1925, the Herald was purchased by Mr. William .M. Traer of Jacksomille, who incorporated the Orange Press the following AugtlSt. In April, 1926 ::\fr. Traer e r ected a fine building in West Morse Boulc\ard, and enlarged the paper t o seven columus. Mr. Traer owns all the in the Orange Press, lnc.; the paper now has more than three times the paid circulation that it had when he bought it. The students of Rollins have for many years issued a week ly pub lication known as the Sand5pur; the college also publishes Bulletins at frequent hut irregular intervals. Apopka has a long and interesting newspaper history, but it comes down to us in fragmentary condition, due to the fact that the were not pre for this reason it has heen difficult to get the record of the early pub lications. The first paper published in Apopka was established b y the Rev. Dr. Hughes, a Baptist clergyman from North Carolina who came here in the early 70 s, w ith his brother-in-law, the Hon. J. J. Combs. This paper had a brief though it gave evidence of conside r able ability hehind it. Then came Rev Willis M Russell and his sou, Rev. A. M. C. Russell, Methodists, who founde d the South Florida Citi1.en. The Florida Conference transferred Rev. i{ussell t o another town and the paper passed into the hands of Rev. Frank A. Taylor, another Methodist clergyman, who lopped off the words ''South 1orida" from name, the paper being known as the Apopka Citi zen. Mr. Taylor sold the paper in a couple of years and the plant was moved to another town. At a later period, George Eugene Bryson established a paper here, but it did not long; then came Walter S. Russell, now of Jacksonville, who for nearly four years published the Apopka City Union. Mr. Russell later established the Jacksonville .Metropolis which was highly successful; he sold the paper at a good price and it became the present Jack!lOilVille Journal The next venture in Apopka was made by Fred II. Perry, who established the Apopka Advertiser which for a time was regarded as one <.f the best weekly newspaper s in Florida. In spite of this fact, the paper had a hard road to travel; it was moved about, and was edited for a time by Mr. ,F. S. Witherby, the well-knowp Apopka merchant of today. There were other ventures here, among them the Apopka News, of which Mr. Witherby was business manager.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 69 Next came the splendid Apopka Chief of today, established in 1923 by Major Albert M Hall. an experienced newspaper man who came here from Maryland, but who for nearly forty years had labored in the daily newspaper field in New York state. The Chief has been a success from its first issue. It is a clean and attracthe paper. edited with great care and ability and is IIUOtcd far and wide. A short time after its establishment, Mr. Hall or ganized the Apopka Printing Company, Incorporated and an up-to-date building was erected in the business district and equipped with a linotype and modern machinery throughout. It was soon turning out high-class commer cial work, including color and process work. Today its business is running $50,000 a year. T n "ddition to the Chief the company issues several other regular publications, weekly and monthly, including a high-class magazine. Mr. Hall is president of the company, Mr. William Edwards vice-president, .\h. D. F. Hall, secretary, and Mr. C Ellwood Kalbach general manager. The Chief is independent in politic.s and holcls to a high standard on all moral questions It boasts that it goes into every home in Apopka and sur rounding communities. Hon. A. 13. Newton established and edited the first newspaper in Winter Garden in the early 90's, under the sprightly name, the Ricocltet. This was followed by various other ventures among them the Orange County Citizen, which moved irom Apopka to Winter Garden by Mr. Newton, and later sold by him to Mr. C. Howard of Orlando where it was published for several years.' At present, the \Vinter Garden field is ably OCCltpied by the Journal, which is owned by Mr. Howard Parker. During the past three years the Eithlo Tribune Company has published :t weekly paper. printed in St. Ooud, devoted to the interests of Bithlo and castem Orange County; it is edited by Claud F. Johnson, and the subscription price is two dollars a year. Two papers devot ed to the interests of the negro population, and edited by a capable and right-minded man of that race, were published for a number of years in Orange County, the Winter Park .'\dvocate, which was carried on for some twe lve years, and the Florida Christian Recorder, which was pub lished for about fifteen years in Orlando. The editor and proprietor of both papers was G. C. Henderson, who died some ten years ago and whose widow is a teacher in the Orlando colored high school. The latest paper to be established in Orange County is the Florida Re l'ublican, issued on the fifteenth day of each month in Orlando by the Repub lican Publishing Company, and edited by Mr. W. C. Lawson. The first number of Volume One is dated August 15, 1927.

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70 HISTORY OF ORA:\GE There wen no org-anize d hanks in Uran;:-c Ltu111y pritor tsc. were remitted hy )Jr. \\'hitc to Jack sonville and Xcw Y ork merchants in payment o f \\'hich he credit hcing given to the parties who owned it very larg-ely in t>xrh; tn;;e i0r merchandise There wa s little need of exchange in the community at that time as such real estate a s wa$ paid ior in gold ancl the ca..J>t>rateIr. :\loses Lyman as president, Mr. Fay S. cashie r and :\Ir. Frank This hank was re-organ ized :-luvembcr 1. as the Fir$! National nank, with ?.lr. Frederick H. Rand Mr. F. W. L yman o f \"'inter Park, vice-president and F ran k P Forst e r ca1;hier. This institution has con tinued to serve the people of Sa n ford in a very sati;.factory and effective way until the present time M r Ran d co n tinuing as p r esiden t until 1 918, when he wa s succeeded by Mr. Forster, the re heing but two pre sidents of the hank in the fort y years o f it!' life In 1 925, the bank erected a new home on the opposite corne r om that on which it hega n business, and has kept the same relativ e loca tion throug h its entire history The B ank nf Orland o an unch art ered bank. was loc.'ltecl in the tory f r ame huikling iltfj oinin g the Summerlin Hotel. on the comer of Central .. and Street. Orlando. This bank be.ga. n busi ness somt time in the l atter part of 1883 witb M r Charles Joy a s p r es ident, and Mr. :-.iat Poyntz as cashier. The records of the state of Florida d o not s how that thi s was a chartered bank. On February 24, 1 886, the Bank of Orl a n do was re-organi:tcd and chart ered as the First National Bank, with a capital of $50 000 Mr. Charles Joy. president, and l\lr J. H. Vivian. cashier The direct o r s were 11Ies$rS. Nat Poynt7., John (;. Sinclair Wm. J. Copeland. T. J. Shine. E. Pringle H yer ancl C harles joy. A brick bu ildi n g "For t hiA atoOUDt o f tho banklnlf inmmtiuna or COWlty, il authof l o ia
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PAin' I-NARRATIVE il was erected on the northeast corner of Pine Street and Orange Avenue by Andrew Johnson and the bank was IO<:ated in building when completed. This bank at once took a prom i nent place in the financial affairs of South Florida and was the outstanding bank in all the territory south of Palatka and Ocala. It increased its business very r.1pidly, enjoying the conficlenre and support of depositors and bankers throughout !:ionth Flor i da. lt consolidate d w i th the Citizens Bank on March 22, 1!!93. The Citir.ens ;.iational Bank was organized August 25, 1887, with a c-.1.pital of $50.000 and with the following officers: Mr. L. 0. Garrett, pres ident, and !\h. H. G. Garrett. cashier; the directors were, Messrs L. 0. Garrett, H. G. Garrett Cecil G. Butt, W. A rnolcl, Henry S. Kedney. Charles E. Pierce and Allen S. Apgar. The hank was located on the northwest corner of Central and Orange Avenues, in the comer room of the San Juan Hotel. 1t was moved to the two-story brick building on the northwest cnmer of Pine and Court Streets and re-organized with Mr. \V. L. Palmer as president and Mr. James L. as cashier. On March 22. 1893. the Citizens Bank was voluntarily liquidated and consolidated with the First 1\'ational Uank of Orlantlo with the following officers: Mr. Nat Poyntz, president; Mr. W. L. Palmer, and Mr. James L. Giles, cashier; its capital was increased to $150,000. The panic of 1893 throughout the United States seemed not to have been expected in Florida and least of all as in any way affecting the consolidated bank, therefore no provision was made for additional reserves. When the panic became acute. the correspond ent banks either could not or would not extend aid, withdrawall\ affected the bank as they llicl all other financial institutions, and a receiver was asked for on August 14. The bank restored to solvency May 21, 1894, with Mr. W. 13. Jackson as president and Mr. I. W. C. Parker as cashier. The re-opened bank received the confidence of the community, was increas ing its deposits, money came out of hiding places and the bank was doing a satisfactory business. ln 1895, the freeze which affected all South Florida left little available money in the community and as there seemed no immediate possibility of borrowers being able to r epay the amounts borrowed, the directors voluntarily closed the bank November 29, 1895, refused to re ceive further deposits and notified all those having money in the bank to withdraw. In November, 1893, after the dosing of the First National Bank, the Merchants' Bank was chartered by the state with a capital of $25,000, and opened for business in the old banking room of the First National Bank, with Mr. W. H. Reynolds as pre$idcnt, and Mr. B H. Kuhl as cashier On the re-opening of the First National Bank an attempt was made to con rolidate the Merchants and the First National. and a charter was issued as a national bank, but the consolidation was never perfected and the assets of the Merchants Bank were sold to Messrs. Joseph L. Guernsey and Carl

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72 HISTORY OJ! ORAXGE COUNTY Warfield, who conducted a banking business under the name of (;uernsey & This business was later merged with the State llank o i Orlando. the Men:hants Bank being liquidated The State Bank of Orlando was Ofb'outheast corner of Pine Street anc l Orange :\venue, and was converted to a Bank & Trust Company, October 21, 191 9. Through all the vicissitudes and chang-es and growth of the community the State Bank has continued to func tion and do a safe and conservative banking business under the same man agement as when originally organized, and it today has the largest amount c.n deposit of any hank between Jacksonville and Tampa. The Orlancln flank ancl Trust Company was organized .\pri1 17. IXl(>. w i th Judge J. D P.eggs as president, .\ 1 r. M. M. Smith, vice president and Mr. Thomas Hopkins, cash ier. On the death of Judge B e ggs, he was suc ceeded bv Mr. M. M. Smith. who in turn was succeeded bv Mr. H L. Ike. . man This bank was located in the old First Dank room on the southwest corner of Orange .'\.venue and Pine Street, continuing in business there until its removal to the south side of East Pine Street for the pllrJ>Osc of erect i ng a n"'w hnilcling. whi<:h was begun in January, 1923, and occupied :\fay, 1924 is a ten-story huilding and complete in every particular. The present are: Mr. H. L Beeman, president: Messrs. W. M. Davis, R L. Hyer and T H. Evans, vice-presidents; Mr. Fred C . Allen, cashier, ancl Mr. J. W. McLendon, assistant cashier. This bank has grown steadily since the day of itt; organi?.ation and has filled a large place in the community. The Peoples National I.lank was organized AuJ.,"'lst I, 1911, located on the south side of Pine Street in the Magruder Arcade, with the following officers: Mr. J. C. Patterson, president; Mr. C A. Campbell and Mr. C. E. Johnson vil-e-presidents and Mr. W G. Talton, cashier, and continued in that location until October 15. 1913. when it was removed to the west side of South .'\ venuP between Church and Pine President l'atters
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PART 73 The llanl' of Orange & Trust Company was organized October 21, 1919 as a bank and trust company, lmt was a conve rsion of the Bank of which was organized Septe mber 25, 1 916, with a caJlital of $50,000. This l>ank located on the north side of Central :\venue, bet ween Orange and Court Streets with the following officers : Mr. 1: G. S taton. pres ident, Mr. J. F. Angc, vice president, and Mr. J. H. Tucker. cashier. This bank later remo\cd to the room on the northeast comer of Orange and Wall Street in the Angcbilt Hotel and continued in business until March 21, 1927, when is was YOiuntarily liquidattd and from its assets was organi1.td the Orlando Commercial Bank with the follo,,;ng officers: Mr. E. E. :\lcGill, pres ident, .\h. W. E .\fartin, Mr. V. B. New ton, vice-president, and :\lr. \V. 1.. jackson, cashier; it opened for husiness May 2.t 1927, con tinuing the location in the same place as the Rank of Orange & Trust Com pany. The Chnrd1 Street Bank, located on the comer of West 01urch Street and llughey Street, was o rganized in May of 1923 with .\lr. E. P. Hyer, Mr. S. Kendrick Guernsey, vice-pres i dent, and Mr. A. :\1. C ri ttenden, cashier. This bank was organized particularly for convenience of the residents and business men of West Orlando, and has successfully met this need, the same continuing since its organization. The North Orlando State Bank opened for business August 16. 19211, with $50.000 capital, Mr. L. C. Massey as president. Mr. C DeWitt Miller Mr. J. P. Holbrook, cashier, and Mr. Z. V. Raulerson. assistant cashier. l\lr. Holbrook later resigned as cashier. and .Mr. Miller, \'icc president, is cashier until one is aptK1inte1l. The Bank of .Winter Park was opened Oct., 10, 1911, with Dr. W. F. Blackman as president and Mr. C. D. Powell as cashier. As the needs of the growing town of Winter Park had been strong and insistent, it was a gala day for t he town and was made a very auspicious occasion, merchant s advertising 20% discount on each dollar's worth purchased. M evidence of support and appreciation. the sum of $20,000 was deposited o n the first day. The banking house first occupied bas been enlarged twice, with increase of capital. The pre.o;ent officers are: Mr. E. B. Mendsen, president Mr. Frank W. Cady, vice president. Mr. H. A. Ward, viee-president, and Mr. C. L. Sutliff, cashier. This bank has filled a very important place in the community, and has in creased its deposits far beyond that which the population would seem to indi cate. The Union State Bank in Winter Park was organized in 1917 with a capital of $30,000. Dr. C D. Christ was elected pre!\ident, Mr. Thoma., M. Henkle, vice-president, and Mr. Ed. F. Keezel, cashier. The bank has enjoyed a steady normal growth, increasing its capital in 192 1 to $50.000 The present officers are: Mr. Irving Bacheller, Chairman of the Board Mr. D. K. Dickinson, president, and Mr. Paul E Davis, cashier.

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74 HISTORY OF ORAXGE COCXTY The Dank of Winter Garden was organized in 1908, with ;llr. D. :.\lc Kinnon as presidem. :.\1r. 1:1. T. Boyd vice-president and :.\ 1 r. G. T. Smith as cashier. Mr. McKinnon resigned in 1910 and was by Uoyd, who served in that capacity until his death in 1924, when Mr. G. T. Smith was elected president and continues to serve. The capital is now $25.000. The First National Bank of Winter Garden was in 1919, with a capital of $25,000, Mr. J. D . McMillan as president, ami :.\ir. B. :'\e\\ion, < : ashier. The present officers arc: Mr. J. l\1. Sullivan, president. :V(r. A. S. Ficqueue, vice-president, Mr.]. S. Fairchil d vice-president, 1\'lr. i\1. V. Pil cher, cashier, and :.\1rs. M. Biggers, assistant cashier. The llank of Oakland was organized December 12, 1912, with Mr. J. H. Sadler president, Mr. C. H. Tilden, vice-presid ent, a11Ortant place in the com nmnity in which it is located. The llank of Ocoee was organi7.cd Dec. 20. 1919. Mr. f. II. ;\laguirc. president, ami Dr. l\L N. Jen:;en, cashier, with a capital u $25.000. The banking house was the first brick b11siness building in Ocoee. The present officers arc. Mr. D. l\. Minor, president, l\-ir. IJ. E vice-presid ent, :\Ir. D. S. Wurst, cashier. The State Bank of Apopka was in 1887, with Messrs. Joseph L. Guernsey. E. R., 0 W. and A. P. Prince. as directors Mr. K R rrince served as pres ident and Mr. Joseph L. Guernsey as cashier. This was an unincorporated bank and closed in 1892. The State Bank of Apopka was organi?.ed February 12, 1912, with :iVlr. C. P. McCall president, Mr .. '\. C. Starbird, and Mr. W. < ;, Talt<>n, cashier. President McCall retiring in 1913, Mr. W. R. O'Neal was elected president, scn;ng until 1912 at which t ime Mr. William Edwards was elected to succeed him. The deposits in this bank are now more than 01 half -million dollars. which is e1idence of the esteem and appreciation which the community holds for the bank. The total detK>sits in the thirteen banks of Orange County, on June 30. 1927, to $17, 590,000.91. FOV R IJISAST t:I!S Four disasters have befallen Orange County, in common with all Florida, during the period under review, three of them caused by the blind and irrestib1e forces of nature, and the fourth by the cupidity of man. These disasters were the great storm of 1871, the "big freeze'' of 1894-95, the protracted drought of 1906-07, and the so-called "boom" of 1925-26 . In August of 1871. an unprecented storm of wjnd and rain occurred. For forty-eight hours, the 'tempest raged without intermission; then fol-

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PART T-NARRAT TVE 75 lowed a week of calm weather; and then for another forty -eight hours, "the rain descended. and the floods came, and the winds blew ." 'Mr. A. J. l.ovell, of Apopka, reports that a flou r barrel standing on end was filled and O\'crflowed by the rain, that the \'V e kiwa River was a mile wide, that the Yoweli-Drew corner was four feet or more under w ater tha t the ground in the flatwoods was saturat ed t o such a depth that horses co uld not be driven over it, that thousands of cattle were bogged down and drowned on the prairies, and that countless numbers of pine trees were prostratell. Fortunately, most of the houses of that time were built of heavy logs, and so withstood the onset, hut the property loss was great. No r eference is mari e here to the hurrican e which in September, 1926, devastated the lower East Coast of the state inasmuch as thi s did not reach to Orange County. The second disaster was the reve rse of the firs t in character-there was too littl e water rather than too much. In 1906-07 occurred a s e v ere and protracted drought. For more than a year, scarcely any rain fell. Crops of fruit, grain, and vegetables were destroyed : citrus and ornamen tal trees and shrubbe ry were injure(]; water courses and lakes were dried up, live stock sufferell for want of both water and grass; and from ten to fifty per cent of the pine trees of the state were killed excep t on. the lower and moister lands, and many other varieties of forest trees were injured or destroyed. Naval store opera tors, lumber men and owners of timber la n lls suffered great loss. The third d isaster was the ''big freeze of 1 894-95. At this time, the state was mainly dependent on citrus fruits for its money income. Di versified farming, the growing of vegetabl e s for the market, had not yet been developed, or hardly thought of. Many thousands of people from the North and \\'est had made their homes in Florida and invest ed all their scanty means in orange groves, which yielded them a com fortable support. And then, ''as a thief in the night," crept across the land the northwest wind, bringin g freezing temperatures. The following inte r esting affidav i t may be found in the miscell aneous record s of Orange County: "On this 8th day of February, A D 1896, personally appeared Benjamin M. Robinson, who being first duly sworn, depo ses and says: "That on the n ight of December 29th 1894 a freeze occurred in Florida, by reason of which the entire c r o p of oranges and other fruits i n the County of Orange and other counties was ruined and l os t ; "That afterwards, to-wit, on the night o f the 7th of Fehruary, A. D 1895, a still greater freez e occurred, in fact, the greatest ever known

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i6 HISTORY OF ORAXGE COUXTY in the history of the state, the thermometer reaching as low as 18 degrees above zero, by reason of which second freeze, almost all of the orange trees in Orange and other counties were killed to the ground. "That this affidavit is made and asked to he recorded for the information of future generations," BENJAMIN :\. Sworn to and subscribed before me this 8th clav of Fehruarv, ,\, D. 18%. J. X. IINAI>SH.\W, Clerk of the Circuit Court. The first had denuded the trees of their leaves; in the warm an.J moist interval which followed, the camhimn layer of the bark had been deluged with sap. and new growth had been put on. in the dcs per:
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PART I-NARRATIVE 77 No attempt will be made here to analyze thoroughly the causes of this "boom." It was no ,Joul>t brought about largely loy the traits of human nature, and the same economic forces and conditions, which have similar periodically, in other parts of the country. And the mental unrest, and relative abundance of money which followed the \\'orld \\'ar, prohahly hacl an influence on the course of events. Also, the unique attracti,encss of the Florida climate, the peculiar magic which the orange and its culture had long exercised on men's minds, the crowds of tourists who came to the state every winter and succumbed to its charms, the rapid, though normal, growth of many of its cities and town$, the abundance of cheap lands which were a,ailahle for exploita tion, and the advantages which all these conditions provided for public ity and advertising made, :1ll together, a strong appeal to rpeculators in land, and subdivision promoters. And so they came in increasing throngs from all parts of the coun try, many of them shrewd and experienced in the business of land ex ploitation, and set about the task of "selling'' the country. No doubt many of these were honest, both in intent and in methods of operation, and their work has been of permanent and inestimable value to the state: but not a few were adventurers, intent only on making a quick "kill,'' of "skimming the cream.'' Numberless were laid out ad joining the cities anu lind extending far out into the country: ''imprmements" were made, sometimes substantial and sometimes scanty; alluring promises of further improvements were given; more or less attractive hut often flimsy stucco gates were built, opening upon these developments; wide-stretching areas were laid off in lots and marked with white stakes like a cemetery; streets and walks were laid down: and lots were sold to eager purchasers at inOated prices, relatively small initial payments frequently being made, and obligations incurred which later turned out to be difficult or impossible of fulfillment. And in the wake of these speculators, and a result of their publicity campaigns, hundreds of thousands of men and woiJien poured into Florida by train or automobile, from every state in the Union, most of them with no purpose to become permanent citizens but eager to secure a share of the "easy money" which they believed awaited them here. They bought and sol
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i8 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUNTY an obsession. Bank clerks, store clerks, teachers, stenographers, nurses, hif:!"h school pupils launched themselves in the real estate business, some in newly-opened offices, some as peripatetic salesmen on the streets and from bouse to house. It is estimated that from three to thouRantt realty operators. of high and low degree, came and went in Orange County during this period. Ambitious building programs were entered tlpon: frt>ight followed: the postal service the prices of lots and houses and rents were advanced by leaps and bounds ; living e:q>enses were increased; there was only one topic of conversation on the streets: the passer-by heard only talk of lots, and of thousands and millions of dollars: some banks and loan companies extended credits un duly. though the financial houses of Orange County followed a more .:onservative policy than was the case in many other cities: debts were ("Ontracted on :1 large scale; bond issues were floated by counties and municipalities for street and road paving and the building of school houses, perhaps hllger an
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PART I-NARRATIVE 79 roads and commodious and beautiful school houses which were built, re mained to sen e the uses of the people and enrich their lil es. In Orange County perhaps a dozen were laid out, around the of its entrancing lakes, which are veritable dreams of beauty, and which will infallibly attract purchasers and \Vhat was premature will become mature with the passing of time; the community will "catch up with itsell" and be all the better off at length for the passing flurry. ON. \ Xta' l":Ol i CIT Al'1't.:R 01' 'flU: UU::JUC.\X iti.:O CKOSS Tht Orang-e County Chapter of the American l{cd Cross organized as the Orlando Hranch of the American Red Cruss at a mass meeting bdd in the Grand Theatre on ; \pl"il 19, 1917. :I.Jrs. A. B Whitman servecl as chairman and M.iss Eloise lr. M. B. Swift, Mrs. G. H. Edwards and Mr. H H. Dickson. One hundred and forty members were enrolled at this meeting ami the following officers elected; Mr. N. P. 'l."owell, chairman; ?.Irs. \V .. R. O'Neal, vice-chairman: Miss Elizal>eth Rand, and Mr. S. Waters Howe, treasurer. :\ Irs. H. 1.. Beeman, Mrs.!\. B. Whitman ancl :1-lr. 0. Overstreet were elected to serve with the officers on the e..-.:eeutive co mmittee .-\nother meeting was held in the Grand Theatre on April 24, when the offer of th e club house as for the Red Cross was gladly accepted The chairman announced the following committees: pub licity; Messrs. C. E. Howard, J. H. Reese and W. l\"1. (>lenn; chairman of finance, Mr. S. A. Johnson ; of membership, Mrs. Edna Fuller; of work at headquart ers, Mrs. KG. Hauselt ; purchasing, G H. Ed\lfards; cutting, Mrs. J. W. Simmons; distri buting, M rs. S. E. lvcs, Sr.; inspection, Mrs. Seth Woodruff; surgical and hospital supplies, Mrs. J. S. McEwan. Beginning with May 1, headquarters at Rosalind club house wero opened daily for work from 9 A .M. to 5 P. M. Sewing machines and work tables replaced other fumiture, and from that time till the close of the war, vast quantities of garments and surgical dressings were made and packed there, besides the very large amount of similar work done by the Red Cross auxiliar-ie s and units throughou t Orange County, whose members received material {rom the Rosalind headquarters and returned the finished articles for shipment. Hundreds of sweaters, socks, scarfs and ca1is were knitted; a report made in August, 1917, gave the numher of articles shipped as 4.460, with value of materials used .as $760. To meet the constant C..'Cpen:te oi these materials, voluntary gifts were made beyond the membership fee IJ!any individuals and dubs. making a monthly contribution for this work.

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80 HISTORY OF At this time $tate he;uhjuartcrs for Reel Cross were J,)cated in Jackson ville, called the Nonh Flnricla with hramhes and auxiliaries throug-h out the s tate. instead of the 5cparate cuumy chapters as arrang-ed a few utnnths later. ?.i iss Ruth Rich, director of of the North Florida C hapter, gave an interesting :ul < lress on the Red Cros-' at a hdd in the l'reshy tcrian lecture r oom on May I. n,e chairman announced that e \ enin g that Mrs. 0'!-.real would be unable to serve as vice-chairman. and \irs. W G. Me Lean was unanimously elected to that office During that first month. large were formed in first aid tmclcr Dr. :McEwan, and in elementary hygiene and home nursin g under :\fiss Davids, a Red Cross nurse, and plans were made to,i:ard forming rhe Junior Red Cross. The Iauer work was started by :\Irs T. E. F. Hoskins. athl was l'arried forward under the chairmanship of ?. Irs. Francis Lmghlin. whose e ffident labor iound a most coo pera! i<>n from the children uf County, with excellent restllts in !{ifts and A report of the Nort h Florida Chapter in the Times-Union for May 27, 1917, gave Orlando as second in memhership of the twenty-six branches and and added this mention: "Orlando branch, when le;s than a month old, had enrolled 378 members a large proportion of these being subscribing memberR, while several life members have been enrolled. It is probable that Orlando bas the largest proportion of life :\nd subscribing members of any of the branches." Late in September, 1917, the reorgani1.ation of Red Crus. branches into one chapter for each county was advised by southern divisio n head quarters, and a committee to consider such a step was appointed, the members being Mesdan1es McEwan, Edwards, Heltlen, Reams. Fuller and Dean Glass and J udgc: Warlow. At a special Red Cross meeting on October 11, 19li, the Orlando branch was reorganized as the Orange County Chapter, American Red Cross. The same officers were continued, and the following directors elected: Dean Glass, and Mesdames Whitman, Helt1.en, Giles, Abherger and Pedrick. The execu t ive board appointed the following chairmen: J.1'inance, .Miss Maggie Hart: publicity, Mrs. Edna Fuller; purclJaSing, Mrs. G, H. Edwards; Mrs. 'E. G. Hauselt; surgical Mrs. W. 0. Reams; membership, Mrs. H. Bourne; classes iii surgical dressing s, Mrs. T. P. Warlow Sub-com mittee chairmen were Mrs. Abberger, cutting; Mrs. Heltzen, distributing; Mrs. Woodruff, inspection; and Mrs. Edwards, packing. A committee appointed to draw up a set of rules consisted of Dean Glass, Mrs. Hausclt and Miss Elizabeth Rand. Later the report of this committee was accepted with slight alterations: The resignation of Mr. S. Waters Howe as treasure r was accepted with regret, and Mr. Harry M. Voorhis was ap pointed to this office. A committee on civilian relief with Mr. James M. Knox as chairman, was appointed in December ; 1917, this starting the work which later became the home service section.

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PART I-NARRATIVE 81 The annual Red C ross Roll Call was held just uefore 19li, with :\lr. S. Y. Way us chairman . \
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82 HISTORY OF ORANGE COUXTY Since the war. tht> Orang-e County has filled frequent rec1uests from national he:ulqnarters for hospital garmenB anrl also makinga large llllantity of kimonos for dtildrcn in jap.1n "iter the earthquake loss there. For the past five ye:1rs. chapter hags for men in at foreign stations. :111r Fnr the eleventh annml roll-call. in :'l:'o\'ctllhcr of 19 :?7, maine :vtc(.;rath is chairman. :vt r :'\ P Yowell sen eel most efficiently as chair111a11 i ro111 tht org wa> the speedy response, that this quota was d oubled within one week, and further gifts gave a $9,000 total through this Red Cross Chapter.

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. .. .. .... ' ; l .. 4 l l f .4! : ., . q .. .. f; : .! f '''*'" ; : .. . : ,. .. . :1 1 ; I \' .. : 1'.? ';\ .f. . :., 'r \.;-:. ,. ';f\', .... t' t ..1 '!, ;. ,. i, .. : ,,, \. .. .. .J ; .1 .... h:;, .... 4 <')l: :!. l ... :,:: i-';; : I h i I ' I r;. : :.: .. ... ... : a l ' ; . : ' ... . i ') . .. . ;; e ., .., "" "' c "' :: E -.. --" (.!) t: /? .: .... .... 0 -0 --.. ... -'B Q

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CHAPTER III ORLANDO L ONG before Orlando had a "local habitation and a name," Ft. Gatlin was established by the Federal Government, some two miles southeast of the present city, one of the chain of several forts along the Indian trail leading from Lake Monroe to Tampa; these forts were built during the first Seminole War. Ft. Gatlin was established in 1838 There is a tradition that a council of representatives of the government and Indians met here under a huge live oak tree, and this oak, now no longer existing was long known as the "Council Oak. Whether Ft. Gatlin was named for the lake, or the lake for the fort, is not known. However in a recent letter to the author, Genera l Lutz \Vahl, Ad jutant General o f the army, says: Reierring to your inquiry, nothing is found in the official records here to show for whom Ft. Gatlin, Florida, was named. It is highly J)robable, however. that i t wa.< named in honor of Dr. John S. Gatlin, assistant surgeon United States army, who was killed in the Dade massacre in the present Smuter County, Florida. December 28, 1835, at which time nearly 100 soldiers were killed by Indians. That officer was born in North Carolina, and was appointed from that state. Fort Gatlin was es tablished November 9, 1838 and was abandoned November 22, 1849." On March 27, 1914, the Orlando Chapter of the D aughters of the American Revolution unveiled a granite marker near the site of the fort, on what is now known as Gatlin AventM:, with impressive ceremonies, at which Miss Frances E. Gregory, regent, presided, and Mrs. W. C. McLean made an in teresting historical address The tablet on this marker carries the following inscription : Erected By The ORLANDO CHA'PTER D. A. R March 27, 1924 Marking the Site of Fori Gatlin, 1838, MILITARY OUTPOST Pinecastle and the Conway region received a number of settlers before Orlando was more than a name, a trading point in a small way, and the site of the cotmty government. \Viii Wallace Harney, pioneer, journalist, essayist poet orange grower, settled in what is now Pinecastle in 1869 (see Biographical Sketch in Part Two of this work) Leonard Tyner and Charles Sweet came in the seventies, and about the same time the father of Mr. George E. Macy built a home in Pinecastle whue he lived until his death; he was a blacksmith and surveyot'. 1!1

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HISTORY OF ORAl\GE C OL"?\TY .Mr. William Benjamin Hull came to Orange County from Georgia in 1855, and lived during most of the remainder of his life in Conway. (See Biographical Sketch in Part Two of this work) Mr. Joseph A. Barber was a nat ive of Orange County, aml was born near Lake Conway Dcc cmiJCr 1 8 18(..0. H c w a s the f ather of elc, en c hildren the f am i l y being pio netr $ i n the c arrie, cott o n and c itru s industry. Mr. Andrew J Barber son of \\'illiam came to the county in 1855; he S<-necl in the Seminole War, and afterwarcl engaged in stock raising and iarming in what is now Osceola County. In 18i2, Messrs. Greenup Arnold, L. J. Griffin, Charles Sweet, and T. ;\L Carpenter came to the Conway district from Gadsden County, with their families, a party of twenty-one. Mr. Arnold homesteaded in Conway, and Mr. Sweet in the heart of what is now Pinecastle; Carpenter settled it Conway ancllater moved to l'inecastle W i th Mr Arnold came his two sons, the elcler of whom took up a homestead in the Conway district, where his widow now the younger son, J. H Arnold, is still living in Conway. He does not recall another person now residing in or about Orlando who was here when he came. A son of Mr. Griffin, Hon. S. S. Griffin, lives in Orlando, and has long been an active factor in the business and political life of the county ; an account of his life may be found in the Biographical Section of tllis work Part Two, and in the story of Windennere, Chapter IX. Hon. George W. Crawford came to Conway from Tennessee in 1873, :tnd engngecl in the g r owing of and the cattle industry H e was thrice elected a member of the lower of the state Legislature and at the :tge of years of the Sen:.te. He: was conncl.icd with the Mizell family, having marriecl Sarah, daughter of David Mizell; she still lives in Orlando. For an account of Senator Crawford's highly successful and useful life. see the Biographical Sketch in Part Two of this work. Mr. John R Worthington seems to have arrived in 1859; he was a prom inent man in the community, but little can now be learned of his character and He built a small "hotel" on the lot where the new court house now s t ands, and this was conducted by Mr. and Mrs. William B. Hull; Mr. Hull was the first mail carrier !Jet ween Mellonville and Orlando. A of his li fe may be found in Part Two of this work. Mr. James P. Hughey, born in Georgia, came to Orange County in 1855, bringing his family and household effects in a two-wheeled cart, and unload ing them on the west bank of Lake Lucerne, near the site of the present home of lion. James L. Giles. He then enlisted in the Seminole War, and on his return took up 160 acres of land under the armed occupation act, lying between T.uceme and the present railroad tracts. During the Civil \Var, he made the journey by mule team twice each month to Gainesville then the nearest supply station and postoffice, and brought back provisions, clothing an,d other

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PART 1-XARRATIVE 85 necessities for the families of his neighhurs. During the early days of the the i'lanters were greatly annoyed ami harrasscd by gophers, that fairly over the land anti dt"stroyt'. ThPn nnre c)r twice: a week, when he had a lJCn full of the creat ures, he would load up his cart with them, and un his way to Sanford, for he was at the time oJTicial mail carrier between the two i\'1 r. llughey would ford the :.\laitland branch, anti un the further liberate the four footed pests in the wild land "here they would be shut off from the settlement by the water barrier ."* Mr. Hughey served as clerk of the Circuit Court for about a Sl"orc of years, and as clerk of the Town Council for a ccmsiderable period. His name is worthily perpetuated in that of an important thmoug-hfare of the cit.y. Captain .\aron Jernigan, a veteran of the Seminole \Var, and a citizen of substance. lived on what was later called Lake J !olden. afl<:r :\1r \\'. I f. Holden hac! purchased the property from Captain Jernigan on which he built his home on the north side of the lake. There were four Patricks, three brothers and a cousin, William A. James J., Goffe and "Dink": 'William owned property to the southwe.'t of the community center, and was a partner of Mr. C. A. Boone i n the mercantile busi ness. He later moved to Kissimmee, where he built the first hotel in that town and died. Captain John W. Wofford came front Georgia to Marion County, and then in 1859 to Orlando. He had been a captain in the Mexican War and a lieutenant in the Seminole War; he served later also in the Civil \V ar. His three surviving sons now live in Lockhart. Mr. W. Jackson Brack, a cattleman from south Florida, was the first mayor of Orlando, when the town was incorporated in 1875; he returned later to south Florida and was found dead in the woods, setting on the ground and leaning against a tree, gun in hand. Mr. L Purvis, a farmer. lived some two miles east of Orlando. and Mr. Isaac Winegord a little further out. Mr. Winegord was later sheriff of the county. Messrs. Isaac Powell and Len. Tyler lived to the southward. Mr. Tyler' s widow lived for a year in Ft. Gatlin, as a refugee from hostile attacks by the Indians. Mr. Nat Poyntz appears to have homesteaded in Pinecastle, in the 70's; he later moved to Orlando. and was engaged with his brothers in banking, of which business some account may be found in a later section of this chapter Mr. Poyntz is still living in Boston. .-\ recent issue of a Doston "Ji'rom ao article IJ2 Uoe W
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86 HISTORY OF COC'\TY newspaper contains a portrait of :\I r l'oyntr., ;nul says: :'\at l'uyntr., 79. < c >lc su r vivor of the Con federate army in :\las.qchusetts, the last soldier of the L'on fecleracy to lx: mus t ered out of the l S. arnty service, in :\la y. 19.?6, ;mel said t o i>e the ulclest member of the A111erican Legion, will spend clay q uietly with frienrls in ll oston He had been invited by the U n ite d Daughters of Coniedcrac y o f Boston, of which his daughter with whom he makes his home, :\Irs \\'alter H .Fletche r of 51 1\orton Street Oorche.tcr is a member, to decorate the grave o f a Conf ede rate soldier at Deer Island, who died while a prisoner during t h e C i vil War He was the la.t soldier of the Confede racy i n the li. S Mr. Joseph Bumb y came t o Orland o in 1873 and was t he f irst r a ilroa d agent in t he p lace; he lived a h alfmile north of the entrance t o Gree nwood cem etery (see Biographical sketch in Part Two of this w o rk ) M r J. ]. Davis, county smveyor also lived near the cemetery in the ea r ly 70's. P r of. B Gould, Orlando's second schoo l teacher, came i n 1875. T wo (;ivens brothers, bachelors, lived west of Park Lake at this t ime. Mr. E. W Spier, postmaster for a decade, built and occupied the residence $ince known as the David Lockhart place, probably the oldest house still stand ing in Orlando. A Dr. Shelby lived east of Lake Eola, and a Mrs Terry o wned the forty acre tract on which Admiral Jouett's "Anchorage'" afterwards s tood Mr. J. W. serverl as the first marshal of the town, and was by a de puty sheriff; the recnrds of the BOCird of County Commissioners mention a r eward offe red fo r the capture o f his s layer but the reward appear s n eve r to have been claimed Mr. J ohn Ivey seems to have come in 1858; h e lived southwest of the court house Five Hodges Henry Elias, Samuel, William and John, lived to the eastward, and Mr. Vincen t Lee, a farmer and cattleman, settled to the fiouthward. Mr. L. P. Westcott came to Orl ando from Detroit, Dec 4, 1875 and en gaged in the citrus and nursery business; his nursery occupied an entire square between Central A venue and Church Street, on the cast side of Lake F.ola. He built what said to have been the fi rs t plastered house south of Palatka jus t north of the brick court h ouse, takin g down the rooming house erected by Mr. Worthington, and lived there unti1 1886 when he buil t a house where the uew court house now stands. This house h e sold to Mrs. PeU o f New York and built on Oear Lake, west of the town, later erecting a in Orange Avenue acr0$S the street from the The Diocese of South Florida acquired the Pell property as an E p iscopa l residence, called Bishopsgate, and

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PART I XARRATIVE 87 this sold to the county as the site of the court house. Mr. Westcott s son Mr. W L. \Vestcott, lives in O r lando. Two physicians live!! W<.'M of the Drs. Hackney and It appears to have been after the close of the war that Mr. Nathan Beas ley ami his son Hiram settled to the west o Orlando; the latter was janitor of rhe court house for many years. About this time, l\tr. Alex. Powers operated as a lmtcher. selling meats to the settlers from a two-wheeled cart; he lived two or three miles east of the ttnter. Mr. David Mizell came to Orange C ounty with his family in 1858, and huilt the f i rst house, a log cabin, in what is now Winter Park. (See Chapter IV of thi s w ork) He afterward lived with a son in Conway and purchased a home from the \\idow of this son ln the Conway cemetery is a headstone the i nscription, "David M i zell born February 23. 1804 died January 1 6, 1884. Mr. :\ 1izcll was a member of the state Legislature at the breaking out o f the Civil War. His name appears as chairman of the Board of Count}" Commissioners in the earliest records which have survived. for the year 1869. He had sons, John R., Joshua, Thomas, Morgan and David 1\1., who was of the county and who was killed in the discharge of his duty, his death le.'\ding to a bitter and bloody feud between two factions. A son-in-law of David Mizell was William Harrison Holden, a conspic uous pioneer of Orange County. Mr. Holden came to Florida in 1848. He settled first on the Indian River, where he was employed as an army scout, and carried the mail to the southern part of the state. He later moved to Ente rpri!;t now Benson Springs, importing fine blooded breeding stock for the cattle b u siness which he carried on at that point ; when the U nion army entered the state, Mr Holden's entire stock of cattle was confiscated ; he then moved to Orlando, where he bought from Captain Aaron Jernigan a t r act on the lake which later took his name. This land, together with that pur chased from the United States government, comprised an estate of about twelve hundred and it was Mr. Holden's intention to establish here a fine farm: however, the natives bu r ned his fences, Rtole and butchered hill cattle, and thus force d him to pasture his stock on the open range in the south ern part of the state. He eventually gave up the cattle business on a large scale. keeping only a small herd on his home place. The tract which he bought from Captain Jernigan had on it an old house built of hand-hewn logs, which had been used as an Indian stockade ; the old Tampa trail ran along the sec tion line of this property. Later on Mr . Hol den began his agricultural and horticultural experi ments and developments He planted out a large grove in a variety of citrus trees ; he had a large sugar plantation ; he followed general fanning and stock raising on a small scale, and he seems to have been the first to raise veg.:tables for the market in Orlando.

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88 IIJSTORY OF 01{:\);GE COt:XTY Mr. Holden married Nancy Mizell in 1860; his daughter, Mrs. Lagen llllch, who still lives on the old home place, on beautiful Lake Holden, recalls that Orlando comprised in her childhood a :;mall log postoffice, a small frame store, a rude little court house and a few St.-attered dwellings, all surrounded by unbrok..-n forests, and with mw trails for streets. :\t the front of the single store, one could buy JlCg shoes ancl calico, and in the rear whiskey and other "necessities of life." The first school house which Mrs. remembers was a uneroum shack of unplaned lumber, with a plank floor and wide cracks, a combination school house and church; as all the ra?.or-hack hogs in the c.:ommunity used the sand underneath the floor as a rendezvous, the school children-and nn doubt the worshipers also->were kept wide awake. Mr. Holden died in May, 1913. Mr. William A. Lovell came from South Carolina in ltl54. first to Xig gtrtown near Ocala, then to Mellonville, then to Orlando, then to Hawkins ville on t11e St. Johns river, and then to Apopka. During the JK!riod of his residence in Orlanclo, Mr. T.ove11 was very active and influential in it affairs. He purchased a steam sawmill, grist mill and cotton gin in what is now Volusia County, and moved them to the northwest of Lake Eola; later, this mill was sold and moved to ,\popka, where it occupied successively several sites, being moved from place to place by six or eight yoke of oxen. Mr. Lovell conducted a store in Orlando, and also owned a hotel which was managed by ;\1r. C. A. Boone. Mr. Boone came to Orlando in February, 1872, some three years before the town was incorporated; during the two previons years he had resided on the Blackwater, where he had taught the first public school in Orange County; he was also the first teacher in the Orlando schools. Boone was one of the earliest store keepers in the settlement, in partnership with Mr. W. A. Patrick. He served for six years in the office of the county clerk, and then established a hardware business on the site now occupied by the Wool worth Company. Mr. Boone was an active member of the Town Council for many years, and mayor in 1883. He conducted a dairy and nursery riess for some fifteen years, and originated the Boone's Early Orange. which is still a standard variety ; he afterward served as city clerk, tax assessor and tax collector. Mr. George W. Macy came to Orlando October 25. 1875, and set up a blacksmith shop; his chief was making branding-irons for the cattle men of the region, but he also repaired guns and later wagons and buckboards, and did the work for the sawmills of the countryside. In 1880 he began the manufacturing of wagons-the Macy Wagon Works-and built up a large business. He made many thousands of wagons, sixteen different sorts of one-horse wagons, and employed some forty workmen; he received

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. -----... .... . -------T op -F;:uly Orl:uu.Jo, Town \V Early Orlando, Thirtl Conuty Courl U ousc Butlum-E.arly Orlando C(Jrncr ,J( Orange :'\ \ cuue and Courl Street E11iscopal Clourch, Right; Catholic Cllllrch, Couter

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PART T-XARR.-\TTVF. 89 pay for wagons and work mostly in Spanish doubloons, chickens, hogs and other products. Mr. :\lacy is living in Orlando. Mr. anti James DeLaney from Covington, Georgia, in 18iS, purchased a forty acre tract, extending from Lake Lucerne to J Cherokee, and built on it a three-room house. This house was erected in what was a pine thicket. partially cleared for the purpose, and has since been enlarged; per haps :\-Irs. DeLaney is the only resident of Orlando who has lived continuously for more than half a century in one place. From her front door in the first days, she could see the lights of only four or five buildings, stores and dwell ings. The streets were only trails, winding among the trees, tra,erscd by two-wheel carts drawn by oxen or cow ponies, the man of the family riding the ;mimal and the cart full of womenfolk and children. Gazing in pop-eyed won der at the first window glass he had ever seen, one of these "cracker" team sters overturned his cart against a stump and spilled his human cargo on the ground. Montague and kept a store in Main Street, and Mr. DeLaney also built a store soon after their arrival. Mrs. DeLaney does not recall a person now living in Orlando who was here when she came. The De Laney name is perpetuated in that of one of Orlando's most attractive resi dence streets, and school buildings. Another woman of distinction who l'ame to Orlando the same year with Mrs. DeLaney, 1875, was Mrs. Mary Kerr Duke, then Mrs. Henry Gore Fernandez. Mrs. Duke taught school at Ft. Reed and later in Orlando. For many years she presided over Duke Hall, in which multitudes found a pleas ant home, meantime taking an active part in various civic, educational and charitable organizations and movements. Duke Hall, now conducted by her daughter, Miss Hallie G. Fernandez, keeps alive in Orlando the name of a woman greatly esteemed and beloved. Mr. Elgar A. Richards came to Florida from New Boston, New Hamp in 1868, first to Waldo, then Mellonville, and then Orlando. In 1879, he built a residence and blacksmith shop on the land now occupied by the horne of Hon. M. 0. Overstreet, which Mr. Richards had purchased from Mr. Jacob Summerlin. clearing and grubbing ten acres for Mr. Summerlin and receiv ing the five acres on which he built as compensation for this work. In 1880, Richards opened the first undertaking establishment in the county, in Court Street. He was active in civic and fraternal affairs, and was a highly useful citizen. His son, Mr. F. E. Richards, tells of fishing as a boy in a pond in Main Street, in front of Mrs. James DeLaney's house, and in another J10nd between the Yowell and Drew building aqd the State Bank Building; he thinks that the David Lockhart house, built by Mr. E. W. Speir, postmas ter for ten years, just east of the Magnolia school. is the oldest house still standing in Orlando; another landmark is the house in Garland Street built by Professor B. Gould, the second teacher in the Orlando schools.

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90 HISTORY OF ORA::\GF. COt:XTY Col. \V. B. Anno and Mr. John C. Anno c:ame to Orange County in t\ui!USt, 1877; Mr. L. J. Dollins, a native of Tenness ee in 1875 ; Mr. J. B. Magru der in 1878, (sec Biogra phica l sketch in Part Two o f this work); :\clr. from Hartford, Connecticut, in Hl79 ; Hon. John G. Sinclair, a of the Democratic party of New Hampshire ami a mem ber o f the of that stale, in 1879; Samud A. Rubinsun. a native of .\I ichigan. gifted a skillful engineer, and for many years one of the n figure s in the life of the county, a s county surveyor, t<\x collector. ta.x asses.wr. mc:mber of the Legislature, member of the Tow11 Council and not;cry Jlttblic, in Octobe r. 1876: so mewhat later, Prof. Nomtan Robinson, Sam net's elder brother, who had bought land in San ford in 1875, profes!IOr of Nat ural Sdcncc in Rollins and state geologist: Dr. Kilmer in 1872, first to Altamonte !:ip rings in 1872, and then to Orlando r Jacob Summerlin was one of the most notable in tht' !'ar ty of Orlantlo. was born in Lake City, February 22, in :t fort erer.terl a Orange County in 1874. A Biographical sketch of Capt. Robinson may he round in Part Two of this work TI1e foregoing is an incomplete roster of the settlers in and about Orlando during the 60's and 7(Ys.

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PART 1 X :\RR.\TIVE 91 We will now turn back a decade or two and how the e11rlicst of Eettlers lived are two it ems, taken from the coun t y records. whkh throw a vivid light on the social and fi nancial conditions of the t ime. On 16, 1 860, Mr. Dav i d Mizell "gave, granted, bargained and snld .. t o Ann E. Roberts a certain negro woman natncd Harrie t aged about t wenty five years, t ogethe r with her three child r en . . togethe r with the future issue and increase of the said negro woman and her children ... }lr. William Mills, on Nov. 1, 1864, gave a promissory note to Mr. J G Speer for $1500 in Confederate treasury notes, with the stipulation that "if a further depr eciation shoul d take place in the Confederate currency the said note is to be rs and cattlemen of the t ime, in co nv ersation with the author of tllis work Daniel W Prescott was born in Clay County. Florida. April IS, 1856, and came to Orange Coun ty with his father' s family in 1867, settl ing some thirteen miles south of Orlando. There he afterward took up a homestead, and devoted himself to raising hogs and cattle. In 1914. he m o v ed t o the farm near P i ne castle where he spent the remainder of his life Here he d i ed on July 30, 1927-a friendly soul and a born s tory -teller. M r s. P rescott's W \V. B axley, o perated a water-power cotton gin and grist mill about 1862 on the run leading out of Lake Ivanhoe ; he also operated the first blacksmit h shop in the commu nity near Lake Conway. He made and repaired the two-wheeled oxcarts which were then in use, getting his i ron from guns, thrown away by the s oldiers and other s worn out or broken. He a lso made fine pocket knives butcher knives and bowie knives from discarded fi l es, the l ining of the handle s made from the brass h oops from old buckets a nd the handles them selves f a shion ed from the horns of bucks The howie k nive$ were mostly for the I ndians. He al so made hoes rakes, plows that would turn two furrow s at o nce, and other farm i m ple ment s, harnesses saddles and bridles. These versat ile and industrious pioneers also made spinning wheels and looms; they fashioned beehives from hollow logs; they made chairs, tables bedsteads, side table s and other articles of furniture. The settlers ranged their hogs and cattle in the woods; the hogs were fed on sweet potatoes, slaughte red and the lard pack ed in container s made from large gourd s. The cat tle were al so slaughtered, their hair removed from the hides by means of l y e made from the a s hes of oak the hides tanned in "tan oou" made from oak bark, and fashioned into boo ts and shoes for common and Sunday wear, on lasts which were made from black gum, and with pegs cut from maple

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92 HISTORY OF ORAXGF. COCXTY trees brought from the swamps. Deer skins were also used for dress shoes. They made their own household implemen t s, largely from gourds, dippers milk pans, jars f o r anti larl"n was made and the first one planted to sweet potatoes; later, corn Md other crops were grown on this lot for a year or two. They planted and ground suga r cane and made their own sugar and sy rup; the $yrup sold for around fifty cents a gallon the d r ippings for twenty-five cents and the sugar at te n cents a JlOU!ld. Their "coffee" was brewed from sweet potatoe.s cnt in cu hes, ctried in the sun, parched and ground. When on hunting trips bamhoo roots were macerateu in a hollow tree and put in a sack through which water was po11red into a \'CSScl underneath; the water was
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ArLidtttC wud l111pl llml.x uC a Halt il (.'t>ntttT}' Ago. AU llandliade hy "'Cnr1Et-Uan" nml "Annt Virx init&'' l'rca<.'
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93 ''Uncle Dan .. an ardent fiddler. c:ing prolonged sometimes fnr two days anti nights; they were feasted on barbecued beef and pork and sweet potatoes-and whiskey. 1t seems almost increditable that only sixty years ago, life here was so tlifferent, so isolated and primitive, so in many ways to that of the New England colonists of some three centuries ago, and the southern mountaineers (> f later times. Will the uext sixty years bring other changes as startling and revolutionary as these? Tf!E TOWN COUNCIL The period of gestation was now over, and the time was come for the birth of a town. How did the name Orlando come to be adopted by the little settlement? The matter is in doubt. Three versions have been given; first, that it was named in honor of one Orlando Reeves, an Indian fighter who was amhushed hy the Sen1inoles and killed in "Hughey Bay," to the southward, and buried in a nearby knoll; second, that "a man named Orlando became very ill here-ami taken into Judge J. G. home and cared for, and that he was afterward in Judge Spt:er's employ; that a cordial friendship sprang up betwten the two, and that Judge Speer named the settlement in his honor;" and thirdly, that Judge Speer, who was a student and lover of Shakespeare, named the place for the leading character in "As You Like It,'' being moved thereto in part perhaps, by his fondness for this friend. This seems the likelist opinion, and is accepted here. The corporate life of Orlando may be traced from year to year in the minutes of the Town Council. Here is the first record: On June 3, 1875, a "large assembly of the duly qualified electors of the village of Orlando and its immediate vicinage assembled in the court house in said village, and organized by electing Col. R. W. Broome as chairman, and requesting Mr.]. R Cohen to act as secretary," the purpose of the meeting being to take steps looking to the incorporation of the town. It was voted that "the metes and bounds of said town be for the distance of one mile due east, one mile due west, one mile due north, and one mile due south, forming a square. the electors within that distance were listed and the result was twenty nine names," four more than required by law. On July 21, a meeting was held at the court house, attended by twentytwo electors, and it was voted to incorporate the town with the name Orlando;

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94 HISTORY OF ORA:\GE C:Ol:XTY nnd a corporation seal was "elected." At an adjourned meeting held the fol l owing :\ londay, ofT wert' chosen: William J. Brack, mayor; James P Hughey, clerk; J. W. Williams, marshal ; and James R. Mnntague, Jacob Summerlin, E. W. Spier, W. C. Stubblefield, E. A. Richards, C. A. Boone, :and ]. R. Cohen, aldermen. The first meeting of the Town Council, following incorporation, was held in the court hou11e on August 4, and Jacob Summerlin was elected as president and Colonel R. W. Broome as attorney. At the next meeting, the ;,ttorney presented for consider ation and approval twenty-three ordinances, all of which were adopted except two, which were veoted by the mayor. These ordinances related to disturbances of the peace, nuisances, offences against public decency, the ullt of fire-arms (this was veoted), the keeping open of business on "the Sabbath day," vagrancy, the "throwing of fire balls"-whatever these ma y have have been--street ob:;tructions (this also was vetoed), the r unning :lt la.rge of anin1:1ls, the protection of churches and cemeteries, the showing of "stallions or Jacks," the killing by the marshal of any bitch found running at large, drunkenness and the use of profane and indecent language, the collecting of fines, the duties of officers, licenses, and other Additional ordinances were adopted at subsequent meetings. The salary of the marshal was fixed at $300 per annum. At the nex t meeting it was voted to publish the ordinances which had been adopted in t he MeUonviUe Advertiser, "at a cost of twelve and one -half <-etlts for every one thousand letters. A tax asses!IOr was subsequently elected :tnd apparently a treasurer At a meeting on September 2, it was voted that "any person desiring to hnild a sidewalk in the town of Orlando shall be allowed to do so at their own expense provided that the same shall not be more nor Jess than five feet wide." Mr. E. R. Trafford seems to have "surveyed, defined and established the boundary lines of the corporation" Oct. 1 and 2; his field notes may be found in volume 4 of the minutes; his starting point was the cen t er of the rourt hou.o;e. The first reference to a jail is found i n the minutes of the meeting Octobe r 10, and at the same meeting an ordinance was adopted authorizing the mayor to orbranize and appoint a police force." On December 9, it was "ordered that the marshal summon aU male persons between the ages of eigh teen and forty five years residing within the corporate limits of Orlando, to work the public Roads and Streets of the corporation, and that all delinquents he fined according to the State Road Law;" among such delinquents were mentioned at a subsequent meeting Mr. C. A. Boone, an alderman and John H ugh ey, and they were fined one dollar each. On January 28, 18 76, i t was voted that three Commissioners of Roads, Stree t s and etc., be appointed by the president, one from the alder -

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PART I-NARRATIVE 95 men, and two from the citizens of the corpo r ation, said Commissioners to act under the supervising control of the marslml," whereupon the president ap pointed E. A. Richards, C. D. Sweet and L. P. Westcott as said C:ommis At the held February 3, 1876, it was reported that th e assess ment roll showed the ''lorn! ta xahle prt>pcrty within the corporation amounted to the sum of $64,125.' On May 15 of this ye ar, it was voted that "the committee on education be and they are hereuy authorized and requested to solicit and receive contri butions in money or land for the purpose of a high school at Or lando." At the first anniversary meeting of the Council held July 26, the following resolution adopted: "that the Council hereby heartily render t o our worthy fellow-townsman, \V. J. Braclc. our thanks for the honesty, faithfulness and energy with which he has perf orme d the arduous and impor tant duties of mayor during the year just closing and further that to him more than any one man is due the success of this, our first year of life.'' On August 3, Mr. W. J. Brack was re-elected, to during the second year of the corporate life of the town. T n July of 1877, J. H. Allen was elected mayor and J. L. Brylltl, clerk. On October 4, 1877, a curious ordinanoe was adopted pro.-iding that every owner of any hog or hogs running at large upon the streets ot com mons of the Town of Orlando, shall he required to ring the same, with a sui ta ble through the of the nose." ordinance w:\$ uy the mayor. Mr. Charles H. Munger was elected mayor for the year 1878. At the meeting which was held July 3, 1879, it was voted that "the map of the Town of Orlando drawn by Mr Westcott be accepted as the official map of the Town and all streets as laid down thereon be and are declared pub lic highways or streets, thirty feet in width. And that all streets or highways in any portion of said to1vn that do not appear on said map be and hereby are d isco ntinued except in the original four acres of the Town .of Orlando. It seems likely that these "orig inal four acres" were the area lying between Court and Main streets, and Central Avenue and Oak, now Wall street, and tbereabouu. An ordinanoe adopted September 13, 1880, provided that "all hereafter laid out shall be from forty to sixty feet wide." On July 24, 1879, it was reported in the Council that at an election held that day to determine "whether a new charter should he procured or the pres ent charter be surrendered and the corporation be dissolved"-some question having arisen as to the legality of tbe existing votes were cast in favor of a new charter, thirteen in favor o dissolution and one for "no corporation." Whereupon, the mayor issued a proclamation that the "corpora-

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96 HISTORY OF 01{ :\XGE C:Ol.:'\TY tion is ubsolvcd hy the majority vote of the citizens of Orlando; and it was ordered that "the books and papers of the corporation be deposited in the Cir cuit Court Clerks Office for safe keeping." a l though the cor poration, and with it the Town Council, were defunct, a meeting of the Colm cil was held the following October, business was transacted as usua l and an election was ordered for town officers on November I 2; this election resulted in the choice of A. M. Hyer as mayor. By what means, and for what reasons, the town of Orlando had been re suscitated as a body politic between July and October, does not appear in the records nor has anyone been found who can supply the missing fatis. In 1880, R. L. Summerlin was chosen as mayor. On Nov. 25, 1880, it was declared to be "unlawful for any swine o1 hogs (a nice distinction!) to run at large upon the streets of Orlando and the rnarshal w:c; :1llowed a fee of "Five cents per head for each oi head of Hogs or Swine taken up and impounded by said Town Marshal; however, this or dinance appears to have been vetoed by the mayor. On Dec. 16 1880, it was ordered that the marshal "proceed at once to the erection of a Town Jail, the cost of which shall not exceed fifty dollars." In 1881, J L. Bryan was elected mayor. On September 12, 1881, it was voted to instruct the marshal to buil!l a pound for stray animals, at a cost not to exceed fifteen dollars On January 20, 1882, the mayor, Mr. C. D. Sweet, addressed the Council, urging, among other matters, that a suitable place be provided for the meetings of the Council, "more within kec:ping with the dignity of their office than when holding court in some back shell, stable, or on a Dry Goods Box;" that a safe place be provided for keeping the records of the town, now "lying in a paper box un<1er the desk of one of our merchants;" and that measures be taken to establish a town school and a town park. On April 19, 1882, it was voted to "adopt the original plot of the town of Orlando, together with the additions of Jacob Summerlin and Robert R. Reed as surveyed and plotted by S A. Robinson, surveyor." At this time, there was a good deal of discussion of the bad sanitary con ditions of the town, extending through several meetings, and it was decided to "procure a horse and cart to do scavenger work," but on April 28, a com mittee reported that "the town was unable to procure a horse and asked to be discharged." On June 13, 1882. it was voted that an annual salary of fifty dollars he paid to the mayor for his services, plus a fee of one dollar for each case brought before the mayor's court, and that the members of the Council be paid one dollar for each meeting attended by them, "Provided that each member may be fined in a sum not exceeding Two dollars" for unexcused absence from such meetings.

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P.o\RT 97 The propMnl to bond the town was made at a meeting of the Council, June 2i, 1RR2, for the purpose of building a s chool house and procuring suita ulc grounds to this encl. It was voted to order an election for the purpose of ..'tended no further south than the present City Hall. On April 20, it was voted to extend Court street to Church street; to authorize the opening of a sixty foot street beginning at South street between the lands of James DeLaney and J. D A nderson and running southward "to a bayhead and around it. and continuing in a s traight line to the comer of the lands of McRae and to extend Central A v enue to the east boundary of the town; to extend Main street south to Lake Lucerne and that a drive sixty feet wide be opened around said lake : ln August of 1883, Mr. J. L. Dryan was elected mayor and Mr. George C. Munger, clerk On May 10, 1883, Mr. Jacob Summerlin came before the Board and stated that he would give the Town of Orlando from forty to sixty feet of land aroun d Lake Eola to be used for the purpo se o f a park, provi ded the town would improve and keep the same by planting s hade trees, making a drive nround the margin of the lake, etc.; and on August 29, Mr. Summerlin "pre-

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98 HISTORY OF ORANGE COC!'\TY scnted a deed donatingLake Eola ancl a spcdfied portion of the land around it to the Town, to he as a public park, which was on motion accepted by the lloanl. llttt one that a vote of thanks had been passed and s yrcad uu the minutes! And uuc could wish also that the name Summerlin Park, by which the Council :mhscrted that the special election which had been held with reference to bonding the town for $10,000 for school purposes had

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PART J-XARRATJVF. 99 been lost, for want of the necessary two-thirds majority; a study of the rec ords of the Orange County School Board seems to indicate that this is one of only two or three cases in which a l>ond electio n for purposes has been lost in Orange County during the half century. On October 5, IRB6, an clalx>rate contract was made between the city and Mr. :\ . \. l'arker of Huntington, Pennsylvania, and for the con of a of water-works, and granting a franchise to the Orlando \\'ater Company for t en years, "or until such time as they may be purchased l>y city:'' this C'Ontract was signed hehalf nf the city hy !\1r E. J. Reel. mayor, and 1\'lr. C:F. Gooding, clerk. ()n February 24. 1887, on motion oi :\lderman Giles. it was ordered that this contract he annulled, ?vir. Parker and his associates not having cumplied with its tenus. On November 11. 1886, was pr ... scutctl a "petit i on of Dr. S. Henkel and}. H. Livingston and others att"ntiuu to the Pond of water at corner of Orange Avenue and Lh;ngston Street: the street commis sione r reported that it was settled by dry weather ... On December 9. 1886, "the Clerk was onlcrcd to T clcphonc congratu lations to the Mayor and Council of Sanford on the Telephone connection of the two cities.'' On Fehrnary HSil7. an orclinancc 'au thorizing the South Florida ( ias and Light Company to construct Cas works in the City of Orlando" was adopted and on A ngust t'i. the me company was given a fran chise to put in an e lectric light system. On March 29, 1887. "a petition signed by nearly all of the Physicia n s in the City asking that no orange wine manuf actnrics be allowed to be made in the City limits as it would cause sickness," was Permission was given to the Orlando and Winter Park Railroad, on May 18, 1887, to lay their tracks in Gertrude Avenue. On Deeember 9, 1887, the salary of the mayor was fixed at fifty dollars per annum, and it voted tbat the Doard of County Commissioners be u rged to reimburse the city for money spent "to keep up the quarantine dur ing the yellow fever epidemic;" on July 12, 1888, Mayor Chapman reported that the yellow fever epidemic at Plant City was under control, and that "Or lando in first-class sanitary condition and at the present time one of the healtiest cities in the co tmtry." On Decemher 12, 1887, the Finance Committee reported that the First X ational Bank had agreed to advance money to the city for current expenses, at the rate of twelve per cent per annum, and that the Citi7.ens Natiottal Bank had agreed to perfom1 the same service for ten per cent. if it were made the city depository ; the latter offer was aceepted The question of providing a sewer system for Orlando was discussed for the first time by the Council on March 22, 1888, and on May 19, the citizens

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100 HISTORY 01' OltANGE CO'CXTY Yotcd, by the necessary two thirds majority, to honlls for sewers, schools nnd the refund inK of the deht. In DcccrulJcr of l&lR, :\fr. :\latht:w R. :\farks was elected mayor, and on the first day of February, the c ouncil acloptecl a which of great significance for the fu t ure oi Orlauc lo. ancl which witt muse the nnme of Mayo r :mel his to r.-rnembert"Se valnahlc senice in proviclin g shacle trees for Orlanclo appears on another page. deserved to have his hon ored name spell ed correctly by the clerk of the council. On l\ fa\ 24. 1H89. it was resolved, un motion of :\hkrruan il had "l..ecr>me al>.;;olntel y necessary that the or public money hy this <'ily he retlui'etl :uul rigid economy p ractkcr s were sold from four hundred to two hnnclrccl ft:et, ancl to sell liquor were granted to four applicants, an d another on the following d a y. Major M. 1{. Marks was re-elected mayor ior the year 1890 On }am1ary 6, 1890, ''Alderman Sperry moved a committee of three he appointed to act in conjunction with the Mayor in relation to a coll ation to he spread on the opening of the S. F. R. R. Depot on the 14th lnst.; the Chair appointed Aldermen Sperry, Bowen and Macey as such committee." A very adroit re so lution, introduced l>y Aldennan Dickson, was passed July 17, 1890 as follows: "Whereas a petition has been presented to this Council signed by a large numiJcr of citizens. asking for a redurt ion o f taxes, a .nd whereas, we do not see how the city govenunent can be efficie ntly ad ministered with less than our present expense, therefore, Be it Resolved, That the said petitioners be requested to appoint a Committee of three from

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1';\l{T 1-XARRATIV E 101 their nnmher tn suhmit to this Council a plan by which the expenses of tlte city can be reduced, \rith a \'iew to the reduction of the rat(' of taxation." This committee was appointed, C. G. Bull dmirman, and a conferent-e was held. the citizens' mmmittce "heing fully satisfied that you arc doiug all in yonr power to reduce thP tn a mininnnn and that you will dite consideration to our humble suggest ions." \t a meetingheld on Xew Year's Day 1891, l\Iayor bade fare well to the council in a message of old-time southern eloquence and fen or, and his successor, }Jr. \Y. I .. Palmer, was indurted into office. On ?v!arch 19. 1&91, it was yotcd. "that a committee of five he awninte(l by the President of the Conndl C\11". George E. !\lat-y). to consist of the mayor, the city attorney and three memhers of th<: cmmril and the said com mittee he requested to -.all t.n th<'ir ten citizens, and that said com mittee of fifteen he authorixerl anrl requested tO fonnulatc a fharter ior the city to be placed in the hands of the members of tht I A.'gislaturc flom this County. at th<: coming .-\ similar was appointerl for the same purpose on l'ebruary 16, !893, and a mass-meeting of citit.ens was called "to hear said charter read." On Selllcmhcr 12 1891, an election was carried, by the necessary twomajority, providing for the issuance of seven per cent bonds to the amount of $15.000. for the purpose of pavinJ.{ the streets with clay. The of llN2 anrl the following year were dc,oted chiefly to the matter of claying the streets. On St'pteml,er 22, 1891. the coum:il voter to coll(lemn as a nuisance "the huildin;:known as the oltl dturl'h on thf large lot at the corner of Main and Pine Streets. to ()ayis :" and ordere, 1Xl.J2, the third of bond h<.ues was authorized, amountingto $20,000, of whidt $15,000 was for street improve ments. and $3.000 for the purchase of Greenwood Cemetery; on March 25, on motion of Alderman Svcrry, al{ainst the protest of Alderman Dickson, who thought the price "exorbitant," it was voted that the cemetery grounds be purchased for the smn of $3,000, and at a later meeting Messrs. G F. Sperry, IT. Rice, and William Smith were maue a cemetery committee. On May 5. 1892 it was ordered "that the board sidewalks i n the city limits are hereby condemned and o r dered taken up ... within twenty-four hours after the notice is given," these to be replaced with clay. On August 25, it wa. voted to enter into a contract to build a brick addition t o the public school, at a cost of $6,000. It was voted on November 17, that "the balance of the driveway around Lake Lucerne unclayed be now clayed as soon as the right-of-way can be

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102 HlSTORY OF OlL\:'-i(;E COCXTV :;ccurccl ;" a part of this r ight-of-way had to be secured by coutlemnation proceedings. On January 7, 1893. an ordinance was am the State Board of Health to Mayor Parramore i n relation to the fever outbreak in Tampa. authorizinf.{ him to prevent passengers from Tnmpa from getting off in Orlando, was and read," and appropriate and drastic action was taken. On January 3. 1901, after discussion in many meetings as to the rela tive merits and costs of gas and electricity, "President O'Neal reported that the \Velshach lig-hts were expected to nrrive in a day or two. and the Council fixed a time to meet in as a whole. to ('onsider and decide on location of said lights, and :1 representative of the Gas Company to be re quested to meet with t hem.'' On May 2 of this year, hids for electric lighting of the stl'cets from Mr. ]. M. Cheney, representing the Orlando Light & Water Company, and Mr. George Shaw of Jacksonville, were considered and the former bid was accepted; two weeks later a contract was authorized with the Orlando \Vater & Light Co., f<>r "28 arc of 2,000 nominal candle power or their equiv alent in incandescent lamps, for $2,000 per annum:" an election was called for June 22, at which the contract was ratified

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P.-\ RT RR,\ TIVE 103 On January 6. 1902. it was 'voted that l'arramore Street North from Ccmral Avenue be opened up,'' and that ''100 trees be ))()nght and set under supervision of the It was given as the sense of th.: cowtcil "that all Autmuohilc:s. r .. ami power Vehides shall be provided with s11itahle gong or alanu. mul that drivers of the same shail give alnrm when turning corners, nud fnrtlwr that the $!JCcd withiu the fire limits of the city nrot exceeinson was elected may<>r, to fill out the unexpired term of Mayor Parramore. In June 9f 1902, an election was held which resulted in Orlando and vicinity being made and constituted a Special Tax School district" and in the school buildings and were turned over to the dis trict trustees, together with an indebtcdncs$ of $2,000. On September 18. "a petition from the Sanford Telephone Company was read asking a thirty-year frnnchisc to operate a Telephone System in corporate of City. On motion. a twenty-ye.u was granted abo,e company:" this franchise was in !\ovember. in :-.lovcm ber, as the result of a special election, a contract \\'as (>ntered into with the Orlando Water & Light Company for furnishing water to the city, and a twenty-year franchise was granteu this company. On New Year's Day of 1903-this being the traditional time for good resolutions-an ordinante was adopted "relating to licensing and regulating -the sale of intoxicating li
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104 HISTORY OF ORAXGE COt:'NTY city;" that ''th<'. words intoxil-ating liquors and liquor as usccl in ordi nance shall include all intuxi.:ating liquors whether ,inon < vr m:tlt.'' Supplem e ntary were Nml,lllh"r 3. Jons shall at midnight: :mel on :\lay I of this prohibiting the: sdling oi liquor to minors, intoxirat<"l p<'rsnns and l'ertain othc:s. i\u .-.rclinance "'"" adoptee) that rJw rity clerk shall keep a l ist of perscms convicted of rn llell Telephone & Teleg-raph Cmnpany, the franchise hcing-g-i,en on wndition that "the charg-e ior not exceed $1!! for priYatt and $30 for houses. per annum for each telephone instrument fur nished at any point within the city." On (ktnhcr I, the Connci) acl\llf<'
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PAin T-X.-\ RRA TlVE 105 On June 20. i\lr. L. C. presented his resignation as city itor, ami it \\:tS "R. public-5pirited citizen." And now. the li!(nor 'fUestion comes 11p again. though in a new iorm; in i\ol'l'lltll(" I City of Orlando that it shall be unlawful for any person or persons to sell within the City limits any i ntoxicating li quor, nr Hr-cr, nr any prCJ>aration intended for or which may be used as a beverage which may produce intoxication ... The Council recalls that Orlando has a semi-tropical climate, and sym pathetically resolves. on !\fay 7. 1908. "that during the Summer months from the first day of May to the first clay of October of each and every year. the Marshal and Police may, at their appear in duty without a coat. A vote was no t taken on the rcsolntion, but an expression was given in which a majority favored allowing such olTicers to appear on duty-hot days-without coats." About this time, the first mention of vitrified brick as a paving ma terial occurs in the records; Pine Street from Court to Street is men tioned on June 18, 1908, as having been so paved. There appears to have been a healthy epidemic of construction during this summer of 1908. largely promoted hy Mr. M. 0. Overstreet, chairman of the street committee. On October 7, 1908 an ordinance was unanimously passed prohibiting "the selling or giving away to minors oi cigarettes or cigarette materials."

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106 IIISTORY OF ORAXGE COCKTY On Febmary 3, 1910. an ordinance was introduced cbanging tile name of Irene \venue to Core ,\venue ' in honor of !IIahlun Gore: On .May 5, 1\110, a C<)lllmittee was appointed to and rc!Jl)rt a vractical source from which an of pure water, snitaltlc for all city may he obtaine1l .... and an electric light plant of :sted was happy and satisfic<.l with the invc:
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PART I-XARR;\TIVE 107 Avenue with l{eel (now \Vcs tmorl'lan m her 7. a petitiou was rt"Cei,ed from t he Orlando Country C lub that Col o nial ()ri\ C he opeuctl up and improved westwar d from Orang-e ,\nnue I() the city l im its. It was ordered on C>. 1913. that Circl e be paved with v i t riiicd hrirk soon as the sewerag-e pipe:; are laid aruunu the :said and that llmpctcnt man to systematically number all houses in the C::ity that are not already pr opt"rly numhe r ed and to cha rge the sum of 2jc for all newly numlx:rcu ., this sensible ordinance was passed fourteen years ago, and s imilar action was urged by Postmaster Claudia DeLaney at a later date, b ut the nmnhering of the houses i s s till in 19 27, lamenta b ly incompl ete and vexatious. At a meeting held June j, a committee of the Ladies' Civic League, composed of Mesdames Mary B. Patterson. !vfarie St. Clair Beeman :n1
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108 l!!STORY OF OR.\XGE COC:\TY :\ special election. hdd llJ of this year. resulted in the is$ning vf bonds to the unwnnt vf !FIOO,OOO for street purposes. On ..?5. a Lloard of l':trk Commissioners tnatecl, in t'oomr<: tion with gift of lantl anti money for park pnrpu:;cs hy .\Jr E. F. Sper ry .:on!>isting of .\lcssrs. and a nti . :\lancl ... ,., paid Twenty-Five Dollar5 :" :\I r. Sperry irom the rnmmi:o;sion, to take eiTo:d July I. 1914. On September I!!. a re><>httion wns adopted providing fur the erection of uniform ornamental lamp polt>s in streets whtrt eighty per cent of the property owners on both siclcs apply for them. the lig-hts to burn from :'\ovmnhcr I to 1. ami from sunset to midnig-ht. :\Jr. E. F. Sp(rry was rltcc!t-d :\layor fur the year J<)J4, :mel rcsignrd as chairman of the l:oorcl of ]:ontl Trustee.<: w:<: is the heg-inningoi .Com mission form of c;uvcrnmcnt ior the City or Orl:tndo, Orange County, Fla.: at eight O'clock .\. :'If. January 1st, .\. U. 1914, heing E. F. Sperry, Mayor F.:l.,.:t. H. Clarke Hubertson all(! Samuel .\. Johnson, Com missioners Elect. ml'l at the Cnurt I Tou$C, in the office of the Hon. \\'. M. Martin. County Judge of Orange County. ami the oath of office duly administcretl hy him to the same F.. F. Sperry as !\iayor and to H. Clnrke Robcrtron arul Samuel A. Johnson as Councilmen:" the iormcr were reappointed. Mr. 1.. C. Massey as City Solicitor. Dr. P. P. as City Physician, 1\!fr. William Dean as Chief of the Fire Mr. Carl Jensen as City Clerk, Mr. C. A. Brown as Collector of Taxes, Mr. J. L. Giles as Park Commissioner; later. l\.Jr. S. Waters Howe was appointed Treasurer; Mr. Howe "donated his salary of $100 per year to the City l'ark J mprovcments." On April 7, 1?14, there was received a "deed to a strip of land on Lake Eola and in frtJnt ,,f the C.athercss condition that the land be used for Park only and that no huiltlirtf\'S or other s t ntctures be erected thereon.'' and two weeks later deeds from Messrs. E. F. Sperry and C. F. Grannis to lands given by them for p:uk purposes were also re ce ived hy the council. On April 21, H. L. Beeman and J. L. Giles and Mrs. Maud Whitman were appointed members of the Park Commission, and on May 1, deed was t.'lken to land on Lake Eola purchased for $2,000 from Mr. J. P. Mus.el white On September 4 an ordinance w a s adopted creating a city Board of Health to be composed of the councilman charge of the Sanitary De partment and the City Physician, ex-officio, two "regular physicians prac-

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l't\RT 1-:'\.\RR.'\TTVE 109 hsmg in the City aml one memhcr not a this hoard to be elected by the council at first in J:nmnry ui year, for 11 tt'rm of three ycnr$:" Dr. Syhan llr. I;, II. and :\lr. \V. ll. Hey no!ds were appointed as the members oi thi < honnl. In the Spring of 1915 c l .,cds were rc,civccl from Scualur lluxtun, Mrs. l. ;\, Boone ancl .\Jr. 1: . \. Thcnnas, :mel :\fr. C. E. Graham. to on Lake Lu,crne. On June 8, 1915. "a cnmmunicatiun was received ancl rearl f.-om ;\fr. Samuel :\. Robinson :mel :\I r. C :>.. Roon<', the o nly two of tlle o r iginal in r.orporators ui the C ity Cemetery n<'w livin14' in Florif the ccmctcry in another of this rhaptt>r. In the sununer of JOIC.i, two and citizens of Orlando died, and the council ad>ptcd suitable rc:lic Building,; ui the city he clrapcd in mourn ing for 30 clays. The council also inr.orpurntrcl in the minutes a tribute to Mr. Sperry signed hy Mr. J. H. Reese, editor of the Reporter-Star, Mr. W. ).[. Glenn, erlitor oi the Morning Sentinel. and !\1r. C. E. ll<)warcl editor of the Or.tnge County Citi1..en. On Octollt'r 31. JQll), it \'
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I 10 IIISTORY OF CC)L; XTY On 22, the following very explicit and detailed onliuancc wa,; adopted : "From and after the of thi;; Ordinan<"e it shall he un lawful for any to make or deliver auy puhlk oration or cleda ratiun to any audience assembled in any pnhlic place in the City of Orlando, containing any inflamatory utterances, expressions rtr dedamtions, directed to or about any religious sect charging ;my religic ,u,; ,;cd, chun: h. lllina tion or organization or all)' of its mernhers. followers or believers as such, with lack ot patriotism. honesty or morality, or containing opprobrious and derogatory insinuntions or epithets referringto relig-ious sed, lieuom ination church. or organi>.ation. or any of memhers on account of their <'Oilltcction thrrcwith, that would he calculated to excite the anger of the members of sn<"h rdigions s<:ct. chnrdt.
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PART 1 -:'H RRATI V.E 111 resolutions were a'Cm. nr cMporation tu o r dispos e o f any intoxicating lic1uor, fluid o r I>C\'erag<<' nthcr than for medicinal purpose< upon a physi cian's prescription." On .\ugust 26, it was yoten7.a" ,i s itecl Orlando, and rm October I i. th ''that all stores of any kill( I or de sc ription in the City c.r Orlando be and they arc herehy o r de red t o ciMe their doors to all business at t he hour oi iive o' dock l' .\I. each ami every busi ness day of the week, except Sat urday. o n which the y may remain open un til 6.00 o'clock: the epidemic seem s to have fM on No\'ember 2, it was orde red that all schools, or an)' other congreg-a tions should be closed for one week." Howc,er. it was agreed three days that th c "licl h c taken off on :'\o\'ember 9." It reported that there was "little influenza in the city ami that there has been reported onl y ten deaths in this en! ire sec tion." On 1\ovemhe r II, the onl y entry in the minu te::, and this i n cap ita l letters and red i nk, wer e these words : "VICTORY DAV CELEBRATION NOTHJNc; 1 1'01<'/'N WIIJI.J.:.." A nd a news paper clipping. dated 'll, is in the rec or. l s, cont:lining a proclamation by :\fayo r Giles calling on the citizens to join in a Victory Day parade and maS-meeting on the foll owing Thnrsc lay, Thanksgiving J)Qy, On January 16, 1919. a petition was presented, asking that the name of Street bc c hanged to Poim;ettia Avenue The discernin g mayor sug gested that the nam e Poinsettia would not be distinctive, and proposed Rosa lind Avenue as being a ppropriate in conne ctio n with the name Orlando, and in view of the fact that the Rosalind Club had erected in that street a club hou..
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112 HISTORY OF OR.-\XC. E CtKXTY Messrs. 0. \\'. E. :Vlartiu, and \\' j :l. D:1.Yis a;; bond in conncdiuu with t i!',Ue : later. i\ 1 cssrs reel anti l.bvi s r"sil'ned ami l\Iessrs. W. and Samud \ JnhHMJil \\'ere awi>inted in tltcir s teatl. In J.)ece!llber or 1019, the Rosalind ('IHJ. to '6n a lut tu the city on rondition th:\t three iu till' Spuncil. the in '>Heu. the ity derk ami !l c itizen: :uul tloc uf oourt wns interSJlCrsed with that of the Coundl. This Inner fe:nure, hnwc,c r seems to ha\e been after t he firs t few hut th e prayers wtrt cont i nued so lung-\l:oyuo llnd.\\t.,nh rtm:tined in ,)fficc. On J;mnary 21, 1920. a committee !tended hy X. 1'. Yowell appenrecl hefore the Counci l i n the interest of a puh lic library, and the C ouncil to include a c ne-mill t:tx in the ne xt lr\y fnr Jihrnry Tn the election held :\h1y I I. thl' voters \'Ott'cl o\erwhclminl{ly in favor of a lil.Jtary tax. 414 Yote s heinl{ rt'rorcltcl fo r it and 22 ng-aiust. On !\farch .?1, the mayO!' appointed a l'ulJlic t:tilitics of twenty-one :\tr S. \'. Way, chainnan. On August U the h<:ginning oi the fiscal year was chang-ed from January I to August 1. On November 10, the following re solution was adopted: "True loyalty ancl patriotism to hom e and commun ity is put to the test in times of impending-dangers, when threatened outbreaks l a w nncl order inflame the minds of men and women. J ust at such moments as t hese, it is gratif};ng to know t ha t w e havt such tytl<'l' nf men, who bravely ami w i llingly sacrifice their tim e and personal interests for the protection, peace and welfare of our wutmuui lies. "De it therefo re resolved, thn t we, the ci t izens of Orlando, represented by its commission e rs in on Wednesday November lOth, A. D. 19 20, do hereby express our thankful appreciation to C aptain Preston Ayres, cacl1 and every Ex-Service ;\-Jan, Chief of rolice Ed. Vestal, and to all others who rendered v a luable and faithful service during the recent emer g ency which confronted us," and it was voted "to a supper to the ExService Men in apprec i ation of thei r ser vices.' On September 2 1921 it was voted to purchase the property of the Orlando W ater and Light Company "at a price for each to be fixec.l by one board of three arbitrators . . engineers of national reputation.''

PAGE 118

PART I-f ;111 incinerator, and $60.000 for the erection of a public lihrary, a total of $1.400.000: on June 21), the appointed J. l'el\(llrton llolhrook. William E. !vlar tin and Robert L. H yer hond On r\p1il 3. the council voted to erct't the library on the northwest cor nor of Ea,;t Central ancl Rosalind : \venues, and on May 13. the plans of :'1-fr .. !1 urry S. King, architect. were accepted. the total cost not to exceed $75,000. On March 14, Mr. S. Kendrick Guernsey appointee! chairman of the City Planning & Zoning Commission. On l\-lay 4, it was ,oted to establish a Cemetery Commission, :mel the mayor apP,oinred Mrs. W. R. O'Neal as chairman, and Mrs. Marcus Floyd, Judge C. 0. Andrews and Mrs. D. E. Fishback as such commissioners. On July 10, it wns voted to purchase the fair grounds for $125.000 plus one year's taxe.. $810: but the J
PAGE 119

114 HISTORY OF ORANGE COCNTY was voted to dder ral ifkatim1 of these appointments, and an <>nlinuu< c was adopted the followiug-day prminucilrnaro. or t'
PAGE 120

PART I-NARRATIVE 115 currcn{e of the Hoard o( County the County School Roord, thr. lcw:tl Roard of Trustees, and the City Council. .. On April :.!5, 1923 a spcdul election w:t!< held at which it was voted to lc, y an additional one-mill tax fnr pnhlir ity Jl111')lMel'. :tncl the following were as mcmher s of the Charter llo:ml; :\l c ss rs. J. F .. \nge. E \\'. Ua, is. II. II. Dicksom. C. r. Dickimon. V. W. Estes S. K. Guernsey, L C. :.\(:t!'sey :tncl )i, 1'. Yowell, and :\irs .. Maud Whit man. On July 18, the nf op.,ning up 1 inc :'!red cast ward through the of the Cmhcclr:tl Schoo l \\ as and considerable controversy was occasionecl hnth in the Coum:il and nutside hy this proposal. On :\ngust 2!1, :t s pecial cla-rion wns htl(l at which the proposed Otarter was di!<.1pprnvccl. On Stptt"mher 4. another special elec tion wa s hdd at whid a the pro p o sal to i,;suc honcls to the amount of $525.000 for extending the wallr works :uul >lectric light plant. did not recci\c the nc<:cssary two thinls majority, :tnd so was rejected ; i t was re-submitted at a s pecial election held Decembe r 18, and carried On December II. a special ion wa s h elintcd City : \mlitnr. On March 5, Mr Duckworth resigned as Mayor, and at a speci:tl elec tion held !\pril I. Mr James T.. Giles was l'lectcd to fill the une.'
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116 HISTORY OF ORANGE COC:\TY On .May 3, Mr. F. \V. Fletcher reported on behalf vf the l>ningCom mission that thl' city had been di,ided int< idtJII:es of the IJcst 2. Jorivate 3. husines:: district: manu facturing district: 5, unrestricted area: 6. wloretl On May 2R. it wa> \'toted that the rity purd""" oi l he Tax School Distpct I, the ole! on Orange :\venue for the sum oi $115.000. to be used a,; a City !I all: and on July 1, the Council removed the city offices irom the tluor of the :\ nuory Tluilding to the City llall. On :\-lay 31. it voted to proceecl witl the construction of a fire sta tion on the we::t ;;ide. On Septemher 24. 1924, the mcmhcrs of the Council "stood for one minnte in silence. in honor of thr memory of the Jlonorahle Braxton Bcacharn. fonner mnyor, anti on!' nf Orl:mclo's hest citizens :md larg-est t:J.x-payers \ bond election was held (>n 30. (:overing $100,000 for the erection of the auditorium, $35.000 for of a munil:ip:ll pipe or g-an, ancl $65.000 for improvements on the f:lir grounds property. The first ittm was c.1rried hy the necessary two-thirds majority: the second ancl third items were lost On :-
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1-':\RT 117 tinguished citizens of Orlando \\'ere erased, uniortumuel y, frnm the map of city. On !lc1arch Dr. \\". F. t:lack111an and }lr. C. Dc\\'itt }filler were ap pointed members of the l'nblic Lihrary Board, and on March 7, E. S. and C. 1>. 1..: inw Wl'ft' appoimed members oi the Zoning ComOn :\1ardt 25. a read irom Mr. S. :\. Robinson, stating that the School Board not avitilable fnnds for making suitable cases for the specimens which he had given to the city. he had himself arranged to have two fine cases made in Grand Rapids. at a cost of about $500. and that he hoped tu add tu the collection and to furnish additional cases when nec essary; the offer g-ratefully accepted. On 4 of this yC!'ar. it was voted un motion of llayor Giles that "hereafter. in case of any re<1uest or requests for cuttin){ down trees. and petition for widening streets where trees will have to be remoYed, that same be first referred to the Park Commissinn, before anv action is taken, for recommend:ltion to the Council if the Park and the party or parties making the re<1uest cannot arrive at some amicable agreement." On April 18, the city solicitor was instructed to take steps to condemn the property of the Cathedral School for the of extentling Pine Street from Rosalind A venue tn Lihcrtv Street, and on Mav 12, the case was tried. the jury condemning the property. and fixing the amount of compensation at $7,000. On May 4. it was voted at the rclet; hoW" ever, was affixed to a large oak tree on the sonth margin of .. as is reported elsewhere in this chapter. ; :.:, : . On June 27, the Council authori7.ed a Board of Public Recreation, 'io appointed by the mayor. and to have the management of "all P6blic pia}'\' grounds athletic fielcls, swimming pools. bathing beaches, and othe r recreation centers." ..._. On July 8. the mayor appointed 1\.fiss Roberts of the Park mission, Mr. Jay J. Newell of the City Council Major C. A. Browne of the Zoning Commission, Dr. R P. Buckmaster of the City School Board. and Mr. I. W. Phillips of the Chamber of Commerce as such commission,

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118 HISTORY OF Cot::\TY :\t the san1e meeting, it was voted to issue bonds to the amuunt of $500,000, for the of refunding the inr the City, and asked a Committee from the Council he up pointe with them in the matter Mayor Giles appointed Commisftctcher, Newell and Manual a Committee on City to work with thi' eotnmittee from Orlando 's Civic Oubs." .. On November 28. it was voted that Mr. Harlem Bartholomew of St . . I.Uis employed as City Planner t o be paid $10,000 for services and $4,000 for maps. On the same day, the Executive Committee of the Citizens \Vhite Pri mary presented the following candidates for city officers; Mr. L M Au trey, mayor and Messrs.]. M. Cook, G. R. Ramsey, Jay ]. Newell and F. W

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... '"' .... ... 1 , : I . . .. J ............. ,' f =-= l 5 r! .. / . . . ) '. :...;. " . -"

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PART I NARRATIVE 119 Flekher as conunissioners : on l>ecember 8, an election was held and the foregoing were elected {or the term of three years. Un December 2, contracts were authorized fur the construction of the anclitQrinm, am<>unt ing to $170,282 40. During (;iJcs administ r ation many meas ures were put thmugh; the pre:>elll dty hall was !Jurchasc<.l: tl1c old debts of the city were refunded, amounting to some $500,000. drawing eight per <"Cnt interest with 5 per cent bonds, payahle at the rate of $50,000 a year through a oi ten years, thus saving three J!el' cent interest charges: the municipal auditorium was con t racted for and construction hcgun; the recreation department was established: the White \V ay was created : the street traffic signals were estahlishcd : the polict' and firt"-alann signal sys tems were contracted for and be!;,'llll: the west side fire station was erected, anti land purchased in the north and south parts of the city for additional ;,lations: and contracts for paving and otherwise impro ving streets and putting in sewers. amounting in t he aggreg-ate to some $3,000,000, were en tered into ; this is said to have heen the largest undertaking in one contract ever made by any city in the south. On January 7, 1926 a Park Commission was appoinre<.l, consisting of Emily L Bridges, M r s J. W. Simmons, ?e Starbuck, and Messrs H D l'iper, L. T. Hewitt and A. M. Crittenden. On January 27, it was ,oted to begin the fiscal year with the first day of January, instead of the first day of August. On February it was voted to divide the city into four election wards, corrtsponding to the four commis$iOn districts. Orange ,\venue and Centl al A venue being the two axes. On Feb. 11, the city purchased from :VIr. ,,-_ C. Rives the prOJ>erty known as the Boardman Home, located in Summerlin Place, in the Grannis and Sperry subdivision. at a cost of $67,000 as the site of a new City Hall, and on March 1. the property known as the Boardman Apartment House, on the comer of Main Street and Summerlin Pial-e. was purchased from Mr. C. H. Hoskins for $110,000, for the same use. On March 24, the office of City Auditor was abolished, the office of City Comptroller was created, and Mr. R. G. Higgins was appointed Comp troller, an office which he has filled until 1,1ow with notable efficiency. On Marr.h 31, it was voted to deed to the Chamber of Commerce a fiftyfoot lot on East Central Avenue, as a site of the Chamber of Com merce which was about to be erected On : \ pril 7. an elaborate and important ordinance was passed "prohib iting any person, persons firm or corporation to cause or permit within the corporate limits of the City of Orlando any collection of standing or flowing water in which mosquitoes breed o r are like l y to breed," and suggesting seven particular methods of treating the mosquito problem.

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120 IllSTORY OF Cm;XTY On April 21, on motion of l'lett:hcr, an onlinance was vasscd ctaua City !'Ianning & Z1min:; Clmmissiu u. ui seven members, two two mtmhtt ' ttf the lark purposes: $40,000 for constructing a swimming pool on the fair grounds: $64,000 for recreation equipment: $35,000 for purchasing an organ for the auditorium; $30,000 for completing the auditorium: and $70,000 for constructing a police and fire-alarm llys tem The election resulted in approving the bonds for the new fi r e 11tations, in cinerator and the police and fire alarm and all the other item$ were defeated On December 1, resolutions of sympathy were adopted on the death of Mr. Samuel A. Johnson.

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Pi\ RT I---XARRA TrVF. 121 On December 15, an ordin:mcc was adopted prohihiting use vf the iur advertising pnrpo>es by \'chides ''usingband, bagpipes, mega phones. gtcam piano. calliope or any other noisy or the out of r $25,000, the property known as the Sink II ole, adjacent ttl ( C<'m ctcry. On Fehnmry 9, an ordinance pas.. and elsewhere to twenty-five miles. On :\lanh .>. a resolution was arloptetl that in view ni fact that dty had appn!priated $19.000 at Yarions times to the maintenance of the Orang-e lien('ral Hospital, the C01mcil disapproved the proposal to sell this property. On .\1arch 9, the L:tilitics Commission was authorized to borrow $50,000 of the Barnett :'l
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122 HISTORY OF ORAXGE COCXTY -----------------------------------------ingly to the regular appropriation to the \ssodatc ha'l "shar('() well his part in the buildingof the present Orlando, .... the popular Dickson-lves rlcpartmcnt store the First l'rcsbytcrian Church. of which he was :tn cld<'r for nearly fifty years, hoys and girls into Christ ian ami women, a f with liNJU:lintancc. a name that meant everything goocl, a life that all follow, and instrumental in many other worthwhile '' On September 28, Comptroller Higgins made a report which must have been gratifying to the tax-payers. to the effect that he had mel the members of the Council. the City Clerk and twenty-five leading citizens. ami had dis cussed with them the budget of 1928, ancl the pruhahle ext.en
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PART I-)U\ RRATTVE 123 White Way system and to the water and light plants: the openingof Garland Street north and south of Livingston Avenue, and of the north end of :'11ag nolia Avenue; the opening up of Court and Wall Streets, the widcnin;; and repaving of Washington Street around the new Court ami thc O(K.'ning and widening of 'West \Vashington Street. now in ami the of the City Hall and painting of street names on the corner cnrus. Tho:se records. from the first meeting in 1875 tv the present, in twelve large volumes have been read through for the pul'}>oses of th i s work. This was a somewhat tedious task: for the mo s t part. these are of course records of routine matters. as dull as the l.lihlical hooks of Chronicles. Y ct they rc count the de\'elopmeut of the community from year to year. from decade to decade. its ''g-mwiug vains" from birth to maturity; its tlmmgh \illage, town and dty; from municipal to form of go\'ernmcnt: the opening of new strccts and the closing IJf old ones. the paving oi streets ancl the laying of the different employed for these purposes; the changes in from the ox cart, the mule team. the carriage and wagon, to the automobile: the gradual growth of such public utilities as water, and electricity, and the sewerage system. and of police and fire protection: the growth of the school system: the change in the civic and moral ideals and ideas of the people: the long struggle with the liquor traffk; ancl the cleveloping sense and love of beauty, as shown in the planting of shade trees. the providing and care of parks, the condemning and destruc tion of ugly and unsanitary structures. and the marked improvement in the ;architecture of public and private buildings. The records reveal also the ancl the fraility of human nature for here are the pull-haul of con flicting ideas and interests. both within the Council itself and in the corn munity-smrcs of pages of appeals from tax-payers to ha,e their assessments decreased. and ohjec..1ions from the owners of property to ordinances requir ing the paving of streets and the laying of sidewalks If an apparent effort of politicians to control city in their per sonal and political interests appears OCl'llsionally. yet the mai n impression which a study of these rcconJs makes, is that of oiTicials-mayors, council men, clerks, marshals, police and fire chiefs. members of numerous com missions and boards -who have served the city faithfully, conscientiously, ably, diligently, unselfishly. many of them for long periods of years and with scanty financial reward On the whole, it is a goodly company, from first to last, dc.scrving to be remembered with gratitude by the community which they have served. and in large part made what it is. a city beautiful, pros perous, substantial, law-abiding and cultured. One of the most interesting and significant facts revealed in these records is the coming of women into public influence and position. For a long while, in accordance with the ideas and habits of the time, it was men only who the affairs of the community; then, gradually, women appeared in the meetings of the council with suggestions and petitions; then they were ap-

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124 IIISTORY OF COC\TY pr>intcd IIK>tllhers uf lhe !'ark C:runmi:;siron. lhe Zoning Commission, the Ceme tery Cmnmission, I 'll<' l.ihrnry llnarrl C hnrtcr Board, and other com missions ami finally. a \\'Oil Hill was ector of taxes. :\nd meanwhile the right of suiTcrag'c crmferrt d <'r-ha\'t : served Orlando in the important and honorahlc ofiicc oi mayor. Elcfli(lns occurred at different times of year, there i s er. Mr. :\. Mr. It 1.. Snnuncrlin. :\ir. ]. L. Rryan. 1&'!1. Mr. C. D. Sweet. Mr. C. :\. Doone. 18RZ Mr. J. L. Flryan. ll:t83. E. 1.. Reel. IR85-8t\. Dr. Cha1;man, 18R8. Major .M. R. 1889 -90. M r W. L. Palmer, 1891-9.2-93. Mr. Mahlon CM<'. I R'J4-91'i. Mr. J. B. Parrimorc, 1897-190.2 in nffire). Capt. B. M. R(lhinsnn. Mr. J H. Smith, 1905-0G. Mr. Braxton lleacham. 1907. Gen. Wm. H Jewell. 1908-09-10. ;vrr. W. H. Rcynolcls, 1911. (Two terms of two each). :\fr. F:. F. Sperry, 1914. (Died in uffice). Mr. James L. 1917 Mr. E. G Ouckworth. 1 920. Mr. James T.. Giles. l92.l Mr. Latta M. Autrey, 19.26. THB BNGT.Tl'TT CQT.ONY A unique and picturesque feature of the life of Orlando during the middle 80's was the so-called English colony. Prior to this period, large tracts of Florida land had been purchased in England f rom the state or railway corporations, at around a dolla r per acre. investors in Florida lands bad agents in London, who put out fa scinating advertisements in and sporting papers, of the new

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!'ART 1-X:\RRATIVE 125 ----------------------Eldora. particularly exploiting the orange industry, which promised a certain annual inC'nme of at $10,000 after the had reached ma turity, and describin g the delightful outdoor life which might he enjoyed in this new land. Many responded to these allurements. Mr. K. A. :\rnold oi Lake Conway. ha:> most of the informati o n conccrnin{.! this interesting company for thi s work ;\ir. \ rnolcl d ivides them into !{roU)JS: the elder se.:tion. made up large ly of retired profes sional men and army officers. who .:ame to Florida on account of its benignnnt climate and in II<: cases becau se of their limited incomes; the younger section, son s oi "g-entlemen'' just out of school and univerwho were sent abroad by their parC'nts f o r reasons and supporte d b y remittance s f rum homeand therefor e known as "remittance men;" and .:ouunon laborer s, some of these brought out as serv ants. Mr. Arnold himself left England in F eb ruary. 1885. and located in coosc c, then in Ornnge Ctllmty, thi:< deRtin ation hcing chosen through an interview which he had with Mr. Arthur .Fell, brother of Mr. N. Fell, who was the as soc iate of ;\lr. \V. B. rli. Davidson in promoting the English colony at that point, and ior whom the town of Fellsmer e on the East C oost was afterward named. In the party which went to Narcoosee were :"llr .'\mold and his younger brother, a medi cal s tudent from Aberdeen C niversity, named Reade, and two men oi the name of Stillwell of a fnrmer in the south of Eng land. The state of tra n s port:J.tion in t hose days. and the discouraging re mo teness of the n ew home, arc shown by the fact that the party had to re main in Kissinnuee for fiv e days before they could he transferred across Lake Tuhupikaliga to B rac k s Landing and th e nce by wagon roads eight miles to Narcoosee. On returning for the night to the attic of the crowded hotel, the young men, running true lo English form, placed their shoes outside the door to be polished; much to their disgust, they found them in the moming where they had left them, untouched, and were assured by the youn g English clerk that they were joll y lucky" to find them at all. Among those who welcomed them here, was Mr. P A. Vans Agnew, now an attorney in 'Vinter Park. When Mr. Arn old pas .o;ed through Orlando on his way south, he was favorably impressed by the business-like appearance of the village, and re solved to return f o r a further inspection of the place, though without thought that this would be his home for more than forty years. In July of 1885, he came to .Orange County, to occupy the property which had bee n pre viously purchased by his father, Rev. C W. Arnold, some fi ve miles of Orlando, in the Conway section There were already a num ber of English settlers in thi s region, nnd the fo llowing winter added many more. A C a ptai n Snead had a fine b e aring grove and in tion with Mr. Aubrey Hopwood, whose father owned the Bigelow place

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126 HISTORY OF ORANGE COL:XT\' nt \Vinter Park, was instrumental in bringing mnny settlers to Conwny A Mr. Ruck and a Mr. Percy T>ashwood now at the hc:11l of a of Dentistry in Atlanta, l>ought property adjoining that owned hy the elclcr Mr. Arnold. Colonel H. B Church, among the first settlers in the sec tion, had a g rove on the southeast side of Lake Underhill. fn Septem ber of l&qs Mr. Arnold's father and sister, together with six young men nnd two servants, came out from England and built a home in the Co n way section, called Arnold's Court, in which he had a private chapel, and where he erected a ten-room barrack s for young men. Four young Englishmen lived with him during the year 1886; of these, a Mr. Tyler bought the cast portion of the Church grove, ancl the Rouchcr brothers, from the Isle of \1\'ight, bought a valuable grove and consi
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P.\IU l-X:\RRATIVE 127 The polo team was organized by a retired army officer, General J. S Swindler, formerly colonel in the Dragoon Guards, who came to Flor ida in 1886 and bought a large grove and considerable land a litt.le west of Orlando. According to Mr. \Vyndham Gwynne, a member of the team, now living in the Conway district, polo games were in 11!88. In 1890 tilt" Orlando Polo Club was organized; it had more than a hundred members. In 1906, the club became a member of the Ameri can Polo Association, and laid out full si?.ed grounds in Orlando Games were played here for many the contests between Orlando and Camden, South Caolina, arousing great interest. In the recorcls of th<'. American Polo Association for 1912, one finds the Orlando Club liste
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128 HISTORY O F OR.\:'\(iF COL'i\T\" --------------------------Another retired army officer who came to Florida some years later was !:)ir Horace late Colonel of the Twentict Ia H a hmther of Mrs. Drury-Lowe. Colonel Beaucham arrive'! in Florid:! in the spring of 1907 to visit his sister. He found that she had sold the l.nke Sue and moved to Orlando, Colonel Drur y Lowe having cliecl in England the previous year. Mrs. Drury-Lowe returned to F.ng land in 1907. Colonel Beauchant invested in Conway property with Mr. Arnold in 1910. and lived with Arnold He owned one of the first anwmol)iles in Orange County, and he and Mr. Arnold made what is believed to he the fir s t rouncl trip hy auto uet ween Orlanclo anrl Jnck scnvillc. Colont'l 1\eaucham returned tn "nglaml in 1 913. enJ..,ragcd agnin in military service, returned to Florida the following year for a visit, in the \Vorlcl \Var, accepted the conmtanl of th, Fifth )\;orfrlk Regiment, and was reported "mil'siug" in an SMn after landing in the Gallipoli campaign. There were also SC\"eral English families living with families in and about Orlando, among them M r T. Picton Warlow. afterward Judge of the Criminal Court of Record (sec biographical in Part Two of this work), Mr. Algerman Hayclen and brother -in-law a Mr. Smythe, Mr. Charle s Lord, (see biographical sketch), and Mr. Harold Bourne; and others in Oakland and around Lake Apopka: nnd the Hop and Willetts at Winter Park and Maitland. There was also at the same time nt Sanford, then in Orange County, a considerable colony of English people sent out by the Florida Land & Colonization Company, of which Mr. 'William Beardall, afterward resident in Orlando, was manager. But there came the "big freeze" of 1894-95, killing practically all the citrus of Orange County to the ground. ll was characteristic of these lively roung Englishmen that during the three days of this freeze, tho:y engaged in playing "soccer" but almost immediately afterward more than half
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129 CH.-\Mlii::K 01' COl\HfERCE, CLCBS Perhaps no other org-:mi1.ation h:1d so great an influence on the c!evelopmt'nt of Odandn in later the Chamber of Commerce. Mr. I I ll. i)i ckson gi1cs the following inter e sting account oi the beginning and growth of this civic body : T he first organization was called the :.Vlerchant's Associa tion and it held its meetings over the old DicksonI ves store, occupy ing a room in the southwest corner, and the Rosalind Club has the north side. Mr. Mah lon Gore was the first president. "Somewhere about 1890 the .\ssociation raised funds to build the f i rst pavt.'tl road in Orange County, long known as the !ron Bridge Road "Shortly after this the Orlanclv Board of Trade took the place of the Association, and Judge John M. Cheney was tlte first president. Mr. W. R. O'Neal acting as secretary. \Ve held our meetings in a room in the old Orlando Water and Light Building; where there was anything particular that needed to be done, Judge Cheney appointed a committee and it was done. "Then Mr. C. E. Howard became secretary and for a number of years our meetings were held in his studio, then l ocated above what is now the Evans-Rex Dn1g Store. on South Orange Avenue. Dming that time w e had quite a membership, and when the question of dividing the County came up, the Hoard of Tracie naturally op posed such division. but nevertheless Seminole County was created in 1913. "Later our quarters were established in the San Juan Hotel, and for part of the time Dr. V. W. Estes was secretary We had quite an organization and our membership dulli were set at ten dol lars then Mr. \V. S. De\Vitt was secretary for a short time "Meanwhile, the Rosalind Club had grown into an important organization, with its own clubhouse, a one-story building where the A ngebilt Hotel now stands, and we leased that building from them when they built the present Rosalind Club House on Lake Eola, and re-organized as the Chamber of Commerce, taking up the pleasurable new responsibility of providing a meeting place for our increasing number of winter visitors and tourists, as well as adding new departments of work in our new quarters. At this time, Thta atatemont by Mr. Dirkoon lo q n otod by JIOrmiolon from n in tl\0 Or lal\do Moming l:lentlnl by .Mra. J,...e Waahburu, whu !ollowe lt wlt.h a full aceount of later development and acthitifll of th C'hamber. It le underttood that :Mro. Waohbura It prep&riDII' for publication Rlotory of Orl n do, whioh will be antborltatlvt and of tU and value.

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130 HISTORY OF Ol{A.NGE COUNTY Judge: Wilbu r L Tilden was made president ; in 1919 Mr. 1. G. Uuckworth wa5 president and Mr. H. M. Vuorhis secretary. "Then again the growth of the city brough t the nccc:ity fur a new location. and we llought the building in Wall Street which we occupied until last when, again outgroy;n uur IJuar ters, we sold it in antici1ation of a new home suitable for our needs. Uuring the summer, we were again back in temporary quarters in the San Juan llotel, moving to the Armory Building the first of October. "Suc<'eeding Mr. Voorhis as secretary was Mr. Uenjamin R. Cox, who re.
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ClrJ :nwln (."h;unh:T oi ( "u : t:nu. rn. hueriur Orhtwlu uf Cummcr,c, F ac:u lc J 'htJtn hy 1{(.1binson

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PART I-NARRATIVE 131 Since May, 1926, Mr. A. F. Cuith has !'ei'Ved as Beautification Secre tary, acting also a part of the time as secretary of the county and city Beauti ficativu presidents of the Chamher have been: Mr J. ?vi. )l!cConnick, 1924; }lr. H. P. Len, 1925; and Mr. V. W Estes, 1926; tbe present officers arc: Col. George C. Johnston, president; C. DeWitt :\filler first vicepre:fr. A. W. llrennn. president; Mr. C. D Stowe, secreta r y. The Civitan Club-Col. R. :'vi. Shearer president: !l.f.r. H D. \\'right. secretar y. The Lions W. Ed. Brown, president; Mr. T. ]. Gurney, first v ice -p resident: Mr. Thomas ). Lant%, secretary: Mr. Charles Potter, treas urer The Orlando Ad Club--Mr. John Masek, pre:.'ident: Mr. Alan Roth, first vice-president; Mr. A.]. Hanna. second Yice-president; Mr. Mandlecom, secretary-treasurer. Junior Chamber of Commerce-Mr. R. B. B r ossie r, president ; Mr. A. Phillips, secretary. WOMEN' S OROA!H?.IITIONS Orlando Sorosis was organized in 1893, with :1 limited membership of twenty-five, for the purpose of bringing together a congenial group of wo men who were intere s ted in literature. The charter members were Mrs. D. S. Shine, Mrs. W. R. Anno, Mrs. Forr est Lake, Mrs. H W. Greetllam, Miss Lilly Shine, Mrs . Pomeroy, Miss Emily Dic:kinson and Mrs. Robert

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132 HISTORY OF ORANGE COU:>iT\:' Hull, the last-nam ed being elected president. So ro sis was rosis IJy Mr. W. C Comstock uf Winter Park, in memory of his wife who had been an active leader of the cluh The era of small things passed in Orl ando. and Sorosis recognized the o pportunity fo r service which a membership and a wider program offered. Under the leadership of l\f T$. :\. B. Whitman. who was for nine years its Sorosis adopted both of these forward-looking changes. The building in Pine Street was sold and the handsome Sorosis House in Liberty Street wns built. at a cost of $.10.000. the honds for it:; erecticln heing sold among the n1cmbcrs and their immeclinte familie><. In :ulcli t iun to the club s interest in c11ltural sTUdies. its main purpose has become the ad vancement of the public interest in city. county. sta!e and national questions. The rnntributions of the club go to the Red Cross Day Nursery. Associated Charities, Orange General Hospital. Park \Vnrk, Florida Chil dren's Home in Jacksonville. Nenr Ea st Relief. and to meet other calls for financial assistance membership nnw well over the four hundred mar k, and the social life of its members is not neglected. Mrs. R. M. Shearet followed Mrs. Whitman as president. and ?\-Irs. Alexander Akerman has recentlv retired from this office :tfter two :;crvicc; Mrs. C. D. Christ is the present presiding officer. The Cluh was organi1.ed in 1894, for purposes, as its first name. Ladies' Social Club, indicates. and it wem to house-keeping in attractive furnished rooms in the .'\ rmory Building. Later the name was changed to the Rosalind, Mrs. Leslie Peli Clarke, the first president. suggesting the name Charter members were Mrs. Leslie Fell-Clarke. Mrs. W. A. White, Miss Margaret Hart. Mrs. George R. Newell. Mrs. C. G. Butt, Mrs. Bell Shepherd (now Mrs. E. G. Hauselt), M r s. M. C. Rerdell Mrs. M. B. Palmer, Miss Mollie E. kay, Miss Maude Anno (now Mrs. Forrest L'\ke), Mrs. L. C. Vaughan. Miss Mag-gie Fitts (now M r s. Margaret Barnes). Miss Mary Rerdell (now Mrs. Kirby Smith), Miss Mary Holden (now Mrs. Otto Langenbach), the Misses Oma and Alice Coffey, Mrs. L. H. Lawrence, Mrs. L. H. Davis, Miss Clara Hutson, Mrs. A. F. Odlin, Mrs. Addie L. Webb, Mrs. W. R. Anno, and Mrs. Lena Hartridge (now Mrs. 13en Cotton). In 1901, the club built a home of its own on the property now occupied by the Angebilt Hotel. This commodious club house was the center of the social and music:&! life, not alone of Orlando. but its hospitality reached out to the surr ounding towns of the county. In 1916, the business section of the ci t y, which had seemed so remote when the club house was built, had brought its noise and confusion to the

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P. \RT 1 -.:-JARRKfTV. E 133 neighboring and the dub house and lot were :;ulcl, ancl the handsome home of the cluh em Lake F.nla was huill. and continued tu dispense a delightfu l hospitality to the you nge r women as they have t"ome along. as wdl as to the winter visitors in the city. During the World War, the dub house wa s the headquarters for the wor k of the Red C ross. and its members wc:re in charge n f that hranch nf war acthities i n the cou nty The presidents oi the Rosalind Cluh have hecn M rs. Lesli e Peli-Cl arkc, .\1rs. T. Picton \\'arlow, .\1r s &:th Wnodmff. Mrs. H L. Beeman, S. G. Hauselt. Mrs. James C. Patterson, :\frs \\'. 1{. O'Neal, Miss Ma ggie llarl, Ma r y R. Robin son. :\ir s. Chester C. Goodrich, l.reorge H Holden. l\lrs. F.. S. Bridg-es. and M rs. J. Y. C h e ney. :1\frs. (';eorge R. New ell has l.occn i ts onl y treasurer O n i \pril 2 3 1898 a charter was granted to the follow ing women of Orlamlu fnr a chapter of. the Cnited Oau ghter s of the Confederncy: M es dames 1.. 1'. Lawrence. Mary A. Broome. Mary :\. Pe r son L. C. V aughn. C. G. llutt C. E. Hart. :'lfary K. Duke Roher! I low e. W H G reetham George K Ne well, S. F.. Tves, Carolin e Shine, ; \nn:. M. White Set h W ood ruff and Mil;$eS F annie Dickin so n, Adele Ducr, -'iargaret Hart. Hallie Fernandez :'11ollie Ray, and E mm a Floyd. On May i of the same year. the complete org-anization took place The chapter was na med for ... Coleman o f Orlando. The first officers were: Mrs. Broome. pres i den t ; Greetha m, vice-p resident: Miss N e lli e Mr$. W. H Jewell, tre;t surer: ancl :\fiss Mollie Hay, histo r ian Since that time the following have as o f the Chap ter: ;\1 rs. C. G. 13utt for ten years, Mrs B. C .. \hemethy. Ma rgaret Hart, Dea coness H. R. Parkhill, Mrs . \. C. Branham, Miss M ary Rohinson. Mrs. Leroy Mrs. Seth Wood ruff Miss Agnes .Per so n Mrs. E. R. Bliss. Mrs. L F. Blankner, M rs. L. P Lawrence a nd at t he pre.'lent time Mrs. E R. Bliss. The aim and objects of the OrganiT.ation are benevolent, memorial, edu cational, hi s torical and social. The Orlando Chapter of th e Daughters of the American Revo lutio n was organized December I 5, 1906. by Mrs. Carrie Packard Scliuller, as organiz ing regent, w ith twelve charter members, as Mrs. Athena Y ard, Mrs . Mary B Robinson Miss Emilie Y. T emple Mrs. J ess ica Y Branch, Mrs. Mary A. Hudson, Deaconess Harriet Park hill. Mrs. Bessie :\ 1 Warren, Mr s. Francis P. Montague, Mrs. M a belle C. O Neal Mrs. F l orence A. Hendricks Miss Floren ce Hudson, and Annie M. Taylor The mem bership has increased to one hundred and fift ee n The O rl a ndo Chapter concerns itself c hiefl y with patrioti c education. Americanization and the marking of historic sites. Its interest in the Mont verde I ndustrial School in Lake Co unty i s shown in the financi a l h elp extended to gi rls who are students o f the school, and in its present effort. to

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134 OF OR.-\N\.E CO\JJ1i1Y funds for the builcling of a dormit(Jry which will he a home fur fifty girls ; it also contributes to other and tu immigration w o rk on The l\IcmtveTCie School the endorsement, not only of the Flnri Orange County men who fell in the World War was unveiled in front of the Memorial High School; this monument is a large granite boulder carryinga hronze 11late which hears the in scription: "LEST WE FORGET'' IN M EiviORY OF THE ORANGE COUNTY llOYS WHO GAVE THEik LIVES IN THE WORLD WAR P.RF.cTED llV 'fUll ORLANDO CHAPTJ;R !lAUGHTERS OV Til F. AMERICAN KEVOLUTIOX MORn RV PATRIOTIC CITIZENS 01' ORI"'GE COUNTY 1 924 The Florida Equal Suffrage Association was organizer! in Orlando in November of 19 13, with l{cv Dr. A. Safforcl of Orlando as its pres ident. The uf the $late a s sociation were directed from the Orlando office Or. Saffor d travelled OI'Cr the organi7.ing local branches, and the great national leader, Dr .'\nna Howard Shaw, who had a winter home in r1orence Villa, lent her aid. and the work went rapidly forward until the time came when the object of the association had been attained by the adop tion o f the Eighteenth Amendment to the Fecleral Constitution. Mrs. John T. Fuller followed Dr. Safford, and president of the : \5sociation when the suffrage amendment was :ulopted : tlte Association having accomplishecl its mission, then dishanclecl The Business and Professional Womans Club was organized in 1920 and incorporated two years later: there were thirty-two charter members While the main object of the club is the social acC')uaintance of members. with tlte help that comes through co-ope ration in its domestic plans, the club has been active in promoting civic betterment and has brought to Orlando under its auspices the Redpath Chautauqua, Fritz Kreisler and Edgar Guest and has sponso red many other concerts and lectures. The member$ of the club have maintained a lunch room for themselves and the public, always of excellent quality, and are at present comfortably at home in their dub rooms in East Pine Street. The presidents have been :

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PART I-NARRATIV.E 135 Dorothy Pratt, Mrs. Grace Holt Rcidlcr, Miss Ida Ryan, Mary McQuartcrs, .Mrs. Carol K. White, Louise Allen, ami :Miss l\Iildred Dovell; l\-1iss Claudia DeLaney. postm:.ster of Orlanoo, is the present pres ident. The Orlando Art Association was organized January 15. 1924 i.\-lrs. Huhy \Varren Ncwhy initiating the movement and Mrs. l.ee llalsted Jerome being the first prcsidem: the other directors were .Mrs. F. X. Schuller, W. <.;. Jamieson, ;\'Irs. R. E. Hinshaw. l\1rs. Florence Hudson. Madante Chnr lntte (iero, the l:.t.e .\Irs. L. Smith of \\'inter Park, :\Iiss Vir ginia Robie, and Mrs. D. R. Cobb. The Associatio n was later incorporated on the suggestion of Rev. Dr. Mary S. Warlow and Captain Charles L. Albertson, who had previously offered to give his collection of books, amounting to some 15,000 volumes. and par ticularly rich in historical, biographical and geneological material, to the city. Later, 'Professor Johnson removed from Orlando and Mrs. \Varlow withdrew from the board; Dr. W. F. Blackman and Mr. DeWitt Miller were appointed in th eir stead, Dr. Blackman being chosen as president. Soon after the organization of the Library Board. and after earcful search far and near, Miss Olive Dn1mbaugh was engaged as librarian . Miss Rrumbaugh graduated from the high school at Frankford, Indiana, s tudied at Earlham College, Richmond Indiana, where she received a certificate in Library Science, and took special oourses in .English and library science at Butler College, the University of Wisconsin, and Columbia where

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136 HISTORY O'F COl::\'T\" -----------------------also she was awarded a certificate. Miss Brumbaugh became librarian o f the Frankfort Public Library in 1923. which position she held until she came to Orlando i n 192 3 : she established both county and township hranchts of the Frankfort lihrarv. She was elected treasure r of the Indiana :\sso. (.iation in 1917, and again in 1919. anti achie\'cd a recogni1.ed and position in the lihrary fidd in that state. Miss Brumbaugh took up the task of organizing the Albertson Puhlic Lihrary in Orlando in May, 1923 and supervised the work of cataloguing and arranging the books, and of purchasing others She has continued to act as librarian and manager of the library up to the present time. with distinguished It is chiefly due to her ability, thorough training experience en thusiasm. tact and energy, that the library has not only taken its place as a leading cultural force in the hut has also achieved a nation wide rec.:OKJutum. It has bee n placed on the honor roll recently compiled by thr American l.ibrarv ,\ssociatirary Association in March, 1927. The Albertson Librar y now contains nearly forty thousand volumes, and serves some eighty thousand monthly borrowers; through the main library and its school and colored branches, it circulates from fifteen to twenty thousand books every month. The total disbursements of the library during the year 1926 were $38,763.99 1\ biographical sketch of Captain Albertson may be found in Part Two of this work. It was the author' s intention to add a special section to Chapter Two, on the clevelopment of music literature in Orange County. but, to his very great regret, he has not been able to assemble the nec essary materials for this However, there follow a ft!w spedmen poems bv a half dozen of Orange County's writers, of the early and later days. A biographical sketch of Will Wallace Harney. founder of Pine castle, may be found i n the second section of this work. From Mr. Har ney's volume entitled Spirit of The South, published in 1909, is quoted this graceful and tender lyric:

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PART I-XARRATIVE FI.(')J.IDA DAWN The moon is low in the sky, And $<.>11th wind is blowina. Where tho ber gamot blossoms breathe and die; In the orchard's sntcd :Cut the ;,re few, an< l scattered lie, Where the sinking moon ;, going. Witb a lo,e sweet ache, a .train Of the night's delicious fluting Stirs in the air, with u sweet a pain Aa tbe flower feels In fruiting; And the nigh t air blow a breath of r ain. Over buds and 1.-.1
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138 HISTORY OF COUNTY That lay by yon little ediD' shelf, And watth the fO'r.'e'rS row ; paddle wing, like the heron's ,. inl(, The young chief going to give himscll. l\ hostage, for Pbilip the King, And his squaw must watch at the live oak crotch, For a word that a bird of the will bring. Coo-a-coo-.chce hatl hrokt:n his parole; Slipped from a casemate and out of a porthole. His fetters kft for the next deserter. But. after be pased. w .. a :Ucriek like the )' ol murd er, And the bovf uf riders riding fast .... nd when he came in tht war c:ano<. The robe uf scarltt, purplt, and blue, Of the King in Hamlet wu dabbled red By a new wlg torn from an actor's head. 1\s they ..,t at f=t oi the ripened rom The wise old Philip spol<< of ease And of peaco, beyond the narrow seas, Bnt Cooa
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PART !-NARRATIVE But fifty years ago! And the shell marl under nur feet, Still keeps the dead in its winding shtel, In the places they used to know. Thr saw J(rass, hright as a basket of gold Still bolus tho picture it used to hold: Tl1e slough, hayou, ami rivfr, 1\nd the wreck of the old canoe, But the forms of life and love it knew Shall it know no more forever: l1nd tbe low, white vapor curled (her empty village and optn graves, And the cry of thr v:hin1pcring I s Hkr the end of tbe world. 139 Victor Starbuck horn in Orange County. Kovember 16. 1887. He practised law in Orlando for a numher of ancl now resides in Asheville. North Carolina. He has puhlisherl many poems of notahie quality in ''arious magazines, most of them written in Orlando, which have been collected in a volume. "Wind of the Pines, issued by the Yale Uni versity Press in 1923 Victor Starbuck is an authentic singer, and every poem in this col lection is a "gem of purest ray serene." It is difficult to make a selection, but these three may suffice to indicate their quality: These brokeu shards of wbat I might have dono-Great dreams with gullo and planet. winged and starred That shouted to me when the heart beat hard In nights of tempest; sails against the sun. The doom of cities, and loud wars hegun-,\11 thooo 1 tried to sing, but all l marred With incompleteness. Maimed, deform and scarred, 1'hey merge into the silence. every one. God of all Wholeness! by these riamelus things Judge Thou me not; hut that l strove to fin d Some clear and starry height where angol come To light the darkness with their flaming wingsF'orgi,e me that I stumbled, being blind. Forgive me that I stammered, being dumb. Tlflt PUlE A(;AINAT Til "LUF. If I but knew The meaning of yon pine agaiust the blue And what tho wiae winds whisper blowing thmurh, What need were mine of books to teach me lore? !-gathering shells life's windy shore Where all that is and all that was before Breaks on Etemity-Jf I but knew The meaning of the pine agaimt the hlue!

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'140 HISTORY OF OR:\XGE COl:XTY If I could sing The !!utter of a swallow's wing, What need had I lor any other thing? Yea, what of .,..orth to me wero Homer'. lyre Or Dante's vision, or Mahumcfs firt" To harp down Heaven to the heart's deire Or chant m.,n up to gods-11 I could &ing The (ajut
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141 ----------------------------------------------Therefore tho11 dost hold The gift llf til: a .t iu thy heating hrart 1 hear the stir uf ut.iUiuus yc::t nnbum; And at the iuuntaius oi thy breast shall drink The thir!iting g{'ltcrations. Yea, I hear Within thy fksh the tn1mp nf marching hosts With !tucidt:n trumfl('ttt :mrl tht thrilt of sword,, The pump ui priuccs anti of c:mperort, The vatic auU the martyr's fire .\nd throbbing life of cities yet 10 lie-All these shall spring from this white flesb of thine :\ud they shall call thee Mother. Is it this, 0 Littl that makes beat so fast? Reverend Geor,_-e Ht,my Badg-er has hcen pastor of the First Unitarian Church of Orlando for some eight years prior to which time he hc:ld pas torates in New England, New Jersey and Texas. He was for twelve years Fic:ltl Secretary of the American Unitarian Association; he was also editor of the Advance for ten years. Mr. Badger has published a book of poems through the Deacon Press of Boston. Stars of tbe strange, sky, That thrill with mystic light, I know not what may lurk beyond Your curtain-pall of night; But yc, and God, and I Are comrades of the road; Ol1 peace. of strenvth turc, Be ours, who fare with God! THE CLOUD JtAK..I All the vast sky abov me spread. So so blue; Octan of eUenre uleep o'tr nt\' head,Eternity's bue; And on it one cloudflake, one coil of Iicht Salls all alone, gloriOU8 in isolate flight,So tiny, so alight, So valiantly brisJ>t! I care not for """'" of vast-sprcadiiiJ Wue; T 11 not the "!an of eternity's hue : That cloud-flake's the sky, for me! SLE2P How good it is to sleep! To put tbe bush of darkness Betwem what wu

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142 HJSTOkY OF Ol
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PART I-NARRATIVE I fnr fai1h in God, while creed.s arew stale; 1 wrrstl