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St. Petersburg and its people

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Title:
St. Petersburg and its people
Physical Description:
v, 390 p. : ills., ports. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Fuller, Walter P ( Walter Pliny ), 1894-
Publisher:
Great Outdoors Pub. Co.
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Saint Petersburg (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
letter   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Walter P. Fuller.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - C54-00005
usfldc handle - c54.5
System ID:
SFS0036421:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


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. $ 14 95 ,_ St. Petersburg AND ITS PEOPLE L c/. Walter Fuller

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St. Petersburg And Its People By Walter P Fuller What can you expec t t o f i n d in th i s book? The us ual l ocal history is a rather s todgy account by a mediocre or poor writer i n w hich a particular period is emphasized and resea rch i s limite d and inaccurate It i s usually fi na nced by the sa l e of a l arge por tion of i t s pages to portray and g lowingly d escribe the G r eat, the near Great a n d the woul d be Great of pas t and pres e nt i n the communi t y O n the contrar y t h is book consists of three well defined, well document ed parts. The firs t is a lively narrat i ve starting with a hand f u l of primitive I n dians l i v i n g briefly and scanti l y oil sea food a n d w i ld plants and f r uits and ending with a quarter million o f well educated, well tndo people born literally in every sta te of the uni o n and mos t na ti ons of the aryian pcopfe of the earth; dwelling t ogether i n pea ce, prosperity and contentment The second sect ion deal s separate l y w i t h the var ied segments of business, th e professions and occu pat i ons; for example, p u blic offic i als sc hool s, ban ks, the evol ution or housing, and or dm"m1ow n merchand i s ing. The Arts, Culture a n d Religion are e xam i ned. T he book ends with a searching analysis or th i s amalgam of peoples and rel igion s a n d phi losop h ies and gen tly prods the reader to wonder as t o the fu ture of t h is city which has charac terist i cs a coloration, a stirring se n se of direction shared by no other la rge group of peopl e o n ear th. \
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ST. PETERSBURG AND ITS PEOPLE

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ST. PETERSBURG AND ITS PEOPLE By Walter P. Fuller Published By: PASCO COUNTY L!3RARY SYUEM GREAT OUTDOORS PUBLISHING CO. 4747 T\liENTY .ElGHTI-1 ST. NORTH S T PETERSBURG, FLORIDA H7l4 5965

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Copyrig h t 1972 by Walte r P. Fuller All Rights Reser ved tibrary of Congress Clt .:.log Card Number: 72 11498l Stand.ard 8ook Nl>: 6200.1 023 Printed i n The United States of America ii

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TABLE O f CONTENT S C h apte r P age 1 I t s Cast o f c har ac ters ... .... . ... ......... .. ......... ............... .. ............................. .. ... ......... . .................. . .. ...... ... .... .... 1 II A n I dea I s Bo rn ... . ......... ............... . .... . ............ ...... .. ... . ... .. ... ............ .... ....... ....... . .... .................................. .... 4 111 The Pcimiti ve Peop l e ..................... ....... . . .. ........ ............. . . .... ....... . ................. . ............. .... . ........... . ........ ... 10 I V T h e fxplorers . .................. .... ..... ................... . . . ....... . . . ......... ... .. ... ...... ...................... .................. . . ......... ........ l 6 v De Soto T h e G r eates t Explore r . . ........................ .. ............................... .... .......... .. .... . ............ .. . ....... .. 2 5 V I l he Vacu u m o f The D ead; A Martyn.!d Saint ; A Maroone d Sailor ; A Maste r Soldi e r ; A Mass ,".ilu rde rer ..... .... . .... . .................... ... ........ ... . . . . ...... ... .... ... ... ..... ....... 30 V I I Trouble Fills T h e Vacu u m .. .... ............................. . . . ........ .. ... ..... ........... . .... . . . ........ .... .................... ......... 3 6 VIII "I Take T h is Lan d ..... . . .... ................ ... ... ........... ... ...... . . ..... . .... . . ... .. ...... ....... ...... . ....................... . . . ........ 42 I X T h e Might)' Hur ricanes ................................ ........... . .. ....... . .............. . ............................ . . .............. ... ... ..... 48 X F r a tri ci d e .... . .... ............... . .................... . . .. . ........... . ....... ..... ........... . .......................... . .. .......... ........ ... ........ .5 4 X I The l a n d H u nger ................ .... . . .... . . ....... ........... . .. ..... . ................... ......... ............. . . . ............................... 68 X II The Emp i r e B u i l d e r ....... . ............................. . . ......... ... ....... .......... ....... . ............ . ......... . ......... ............. . . ....... 74 XIII The Hardy Pioneers ... .... . . . .... ....... . . ....................... .. .. ... .............. .. . ................ ..... ............................. ....... 84 XIV Comes T h e Iron H orse ......... ........... . .. .... . ............. ....... .............. ........................... . ....... . . ........... ... .......... 93 XV Vag u e Villa_se .... ............................ . . ............ ........................ . ........ . . . .................................. ................... ..... 10 0 .XV I F. ' Davi s : T h e Visi o n a r y 1 \1\an ... . ...... ..... ... ... ...... ... ........... ....... ......... . . .... .............. . .. ....... ......... ....... 109 X VII T hen The Earl y G i a n t s Came . ................ . . . . ............... ..... ... .... . ........ .... ................. ..... . ......... . ........... . 1 1 5 X VIII Th e Ge n t le C r usader ............ ..... ....... ...... ..................... .... ....................... . ... . ............. ....... ........ .............. ... 12 3 XIX B a b y Boom ... .. ..................... . ....................... .... . ............... . .... . ....................................... .. ... ....... ... . ..... . ...... 1 3 1 XX U nhappy Pause . ....... .......... .............. . ............................. ... ... . ..... ............. . ..... ................ . .... .............. . ..... 14 1 XXI T o p s y Just Gro w e d O n ..... ... ... . ........... . ....... ........... . . ....... . . . ........... .. .............. ........... ................ .... . ....... l 4 7 XXII l'h e G r e a t L and Boom ...................................... ..... ..................... . ............. ..................... . .... .... .... ....... . ..... 153 XXII I T h e Bo om ..... .... ....... . . ............ ..... . .............. ...... ......... .................... ........ ... .. ......... . .... ......... . .... 1 6 5 XXIV S p uttering F use .... ..... ..... ............ ... .. ......... . ...... ............... . . ... .................. ......... ........... . ....................... .... .. .. l i 1 XXV B l a m Flas h S ilenc e ............. . ..... . .... ..... . . ......... . ..................... ............. . ......... ........... ................. ......... . ..... 176 XXV I Valley o f Des1>on d ................. . . .......... . .... ................ . . ..... ............. . . ........ . ........ . ........ ........... ...... . . ... .. 1 80 XXVII Th e Cha otic N i n e t een T h irties .... . . . . ... .............. .................. . ..... ..... ....... ................. .. .... ...... . ......... .... 1 85 XXVIII Ouch A nother P ai n f u l Pause ........... . ... . . ............. ...... . . . .......... ...... . . ..................... . .... ... ... ....... ......... 19{) X XI X l'h e S i n g l e Family House .......... .................. . . ............ .......... . . . .................. ............ ......... . . ............. ........ 198 XXX Trailers ... .... . .. ...... ... ........ . . ....... . ........... .... .... ............ . . ..... . . . . ........ ............. ...... .... . ...... ...... ... ......... ..... . . 207 XXXI T h e C l i f f D we llers ...... . . . ... ....... . ......... ............... ....... ...... .... ............ ................... . ..... .... .... . . ....... . . ....... 211 XXXII At l a st l n d u st ry ... ........... .. .......... ............. ...... .............. .. ........ ............. ............ . ............ .. .... .... ..... ........... . .... 216 XXXII I Downtown ..... ................ .. .... .... ...... ... . . ... . . . ............ ....... ................ ... . . . ........ . ................................. ..... 219 XXX I V S h o i>Pi n g Ce n t ers ......... . ........ ............. . ...... .............................. ............ . .... . ............... . . .... ............ . ......... 230 XX XV T h e P
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FOREWORD A F e w R emarks On Local His tories In General And This One In Partl culu local histories. a-s a genera l ching, arc .u about the bouom of the totem pole in l iterary mcri1 and reader interest. In the first p lace they are notoriously unprofilable and, theref ore, are us ually written by l ocal r>atri o t s long o n memory but s h o rt on money and experie nce. The usua l device t o s uppfy rnoncy is lO f iiJ the ba c k pan o f the book with pag e or pare page b iographi es o f the cont emporary g reat near grea t or woul d be great-for a st i f f monetar y con!lideralio n T h i s type of book is contemptuously r e f e rred to i n t h e T rad e a s a "mug book," t hat is, r elying o n paid for picture-biographies of living citizen s In the opinion of this successful history, be il of a neighborhood, a city, a region or a state. should scrupulously ever strive 10 answer three naturol and l og ical questions in the mind of the reader: 1) What happen ed ? 2 ) Why d i d i t h ap p en? 3 ) W h a t resu lted from the h appe ning? On t h e oth e r side o f th e Re.adcr -Wri ter fence t he write r t o have a n y chance of s u ccess shoul d fee l tha t th e parti c u l a r s ituation and place h e w r ites about ha s significan ce, as differen t from any o th e r s ituat ion and that the story mus t flow without too many interrup tions and side trips. At any rate thAt's how this writer views it. from the be ginning of h is t ask until the end he had thi s knowledge; that starti ng a s a v agu e village accidentally in a superb location the tiny h am l et in almost exactly thr ee founlu o( a century flowered inro a city o f a quarlo r million p eople. Thi s i n it se H was nothing s tar llingly r e markab l e i n a nation t hat in a few years short o ( two centuries e xpande d lrom three milli o n to ove r two hundred milli o n s and fro m conve ntional pove rty and pio neer conditions to the r ichcsc. most power ful nation of people with more l uxuries gre ater liberty and highest level of education than any other l arg e group of people that had ever e x isted anywhere in the known history of the workS But what is d istinctly different and s t artling at least t o the wri ter is t hat the city or St. Petersburg and its people is some t h ing new. It i s dis tinctly differ en1 i n several important and s i gn i f icant respect s t ha n any other city i n America. Th e p r i n cipa l ones will be men tione d b riefly. A gre a t majority of th e peopl e over twenty-one living in St. Pete r sb urg were born In one of th e other iv fortynine states, o r they or their parcms w ere born in some one of twent y Eur opean nalions. Aside from the negro group t here a r e no undigested groups of other ethnic people be they latin Asian o r n o n white peopl e O n average the cit izen s are fin ancially cornfor table, f e w Ut!ing pove rt y s t rickeS o f worship; a Methodist churc h a Jew i sh Synagog ue, a Cathol i c compl e x They a n d th e m o r e tha n S O o ther faiths all dwe l l and worsh i1> i n pea ce. T h e perce ntage of people in th e c it y over 65 years of age is th e h ig h est f o r any major COI'rHnunity in 1he n ation. And yet the perce ntag e of young pe o p l e has increased recently. Interest in culture enhanced remarkably in the last decode. The average educational level of all the people ran k s third in the s.tate, a mere shade below the top two Two d ec ades ago, St. P etersburg had a painfully u n b a l anced economy. Ah'l'l oSl cts so le e xcuse for ex is t e n c e was c atering t o t o uri s m T h is is still domin an t but g r o w i n g bal an ci n g face c s are modern sophi s tica ted non smoke s ta c k a tremen d ous e xpa ns i o n of ser-vice s for luxurious l i vi ng, a gr owing army of rela tively young r esi d ents, voluntary r e t i r ees. living here co enjoy th e c limate, the r ec r eational and cultural f a cilities writer dubs rhis new business .... re.sidcntialism." What has fasci nated the writer. therefore, from the day he s ta rted writing the book has been a seeki ng of an ans wer to the Question ; can a n e w type of peopl e and community emerge h ere a s lhe result of the dwelling together in pea ce of a p eople, re latively h igh in edu c ation and money; of vari e d r e ligiou s beliefs a n d p r ac ( ices of var ie d ethni c sroups and wi1h a n el d e r l y compl exion i n a community w i rh a fairly well balanced eco n omy?

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A C KNOWLE DG M ENTS T h anks From The Heart To A Host of Generous People N e lson Poynter owner a n d edi tor o f t h e St. burg Da ily T i mes, be yond qucs r ion s h o u l d b e t he f i r s t name mentione d i n a s tatemen t of thanks by the writer It was h is idea th a t the boo k shou l d be written and h e n o t only inviled the w riter do so, he provided gener o u s financi al ass i s ta nce, llowed help and by high ranking mem bers of the Times news staff and free foraging in the Times library by the writer. He disapproved lhe balance and tone of contenc or some of the chapters and particularly the semiauto biographical tone of some of the contempor ary c h ap t ers and disavowed any connection with t he book b u t a t t he same t ime ge n e r o u sly donated his contribution in money a n d Tom H a rris began his almos t haft century career w i t h th e Times as p r i n t ers d ev i l s hottl y befo re l h i s writer serve d hi s fir s t or three s ti n t s with t he nmes. In his l ast years as managing editor Hart i s advised and guided the writer for almost three years during his third and last conne
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Chapter I ITS CAST OF CHARACTEP..S St. Petersbu rg i s one of the g reat cities of Flo r ida and even noteworthy on a cont i nental scal e The pleasant a nd fascinating task o f th i s writi n g i s to relate its beginn i ng and growth portray the city of t oday a n d make, perhaps, observat i ons and p r edict i ons of its future potentia l. St. P etersb u r g and Miami are the y oungest of t h e first r a n k cities o f the state. Miami i s the larger but in dications are that w i t h i n a decade St. Petersb urg will be second. The growt h of St. Pe t ersburg has been ve r y rapi d; its evolut ion through several p hases of coloration, s pectacular. An import ant duty, the refore is t o answer a num ber of n a t u ral questions whi c h occur to an inte rest e d reader: Why such rap i d g rowth w h o were the peopl e who first c a me, why did they come and why to the p articular spot they did come, when they had almost unlimited choice i n a la rge w i l derness sta te? W h at abo u t the bronze peopl e who w e r e h e r e befo r e the p a l e faces? VVhal wer e t he ir re aso n s for being here? What had natu re done t o the land a t this particu l a r place to ma k e it prefe rable to o ther p l aces? Some answers a r e to th ese q u es tions, expressed i n t erms of per son s of many n ations, T he y a r e the ones w h o played leadi n g rol es in the d eve lop ment of Pinellas Peni n s u l a, each l eavi ng a n im portant contribution. Thei r names will appear agai n and again in this n arrat i ve and H s eems importan t that the should be introdu ced t o them now. T h ey ace listed a c cording to the author s esti ma1e of their signifi cance rather t ha n i n t erms of dates After that. i n a more or l ess o r de r l y fashion, answers will be auempted to t he quei t io n s ra ised. GEORGE GAUlO, an Englishm an, one of the first men to re cogn i ze Pinellas as a spo t w h e r e a g r eat city m i g ht rise some day. He was a c hartma ke r aboard the English warshi p A l arm I n Aug u st, 1 765, t h e A l arm was a nchored off what is now E gmo n t Key. He was wo rking on a char t call e d, "A Survey of t h e Say of E spiri to Santo, East F l o r ida. An isl and at t h e mouth of this bay h e l abeled 1 "Egmo n t I sla n d. The west p rong, a t the north e n d of "Esp i ri t o Santo" where i t i s split by a p en i n sula he called "Bay of Tampa according t o t h e Spania rds" (Old T ampa Bay .) T h e e ast p rong he c a lled Bay." showed a pen ins ula j u tting out betwee n the bay and the "Gulph of M e xico and a lso two bayous on th e east s ide of this peni ns ul a, which he did not nam e. He had f in ished his chart. I t was a hot day He was s itti ng aboa r d an E ng l is h warship named th e "Alarm" a t anchor near t he shore oi a n isla n d n ortheast of "Egmont I sland ( Fort Dade ) Probab l y o n a sudden i mpulse he lette red the followi n g words along the s h o r e between t h ose two bayous, w h ich inden ted t h e east s ide of that peninsu l a (Co f fee Pot on the North and Big Bayou o n t h e South: ) "A PRETIY GOOD PlA(f. FOR A SETTLEMENT." He drew a l itt l e circle back of the l e ttering a n d i n small l etters added "Fresh wat e r (Mi rro r lak e ). DON FRANCISCO MARIA CEll, a pilot ol the Royal Spanish fleet who, i n May 17 57, compl eted a cha r t Qf the same bay. But h e called the bod y o f water "Pl a n o de I a G ran Bahia de Tampa." "Ysla de San B i as Barreda" was h i s name for "Egmont Isl a nd/' t h e naval commander of h i s wars h i p w h ich w as named XEBEC, b e i ng Don Frey B ia s de B a rreda. Th e point south of the two b ayous he named '"Punta del Pina l de Ximenes A big lake a t the south e n d o f t h e pen i nsu l a he called "t\guada d e St. Francis" (lake Maggior e.) Eventuall y the unique word "Pi n ellas e v o lved l r om that name for the "point" as B ethell called i t He i nked no lett eri ng on that pen i nsula between t h e bay a n d t h e gul f 8u t he d rew a p ictur e of a wild cat and a snake on rhat peni n sul a The snake stretched about from what now would be Cent ra l Aven ue to Wa l singham Roa d. He d re w a bear b rows ing off a palmetto tree and a h uge alli gato r on t he pe n i nsula between th e two prongs of bay at its upper o r n o rther n end (l n terbay peninsu l a ) On the southeast shore of T ampa Bay (Manatee County) he

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showed a huge bear and several wild turk eys. There were threi! Indians. three canoes, four block houses . an oron tnpod holding a huge cooking pot over a fire near the houses on the east shore of the Bay ( At Ruskin.) He showe d the eastern shore of the Bay heavil y cov '!red with palmetto trees and an occasional R oya l Pal m. DAVI D S. YULEE, a j ew, b or n David Lev i was a United S tates Senator from F l o r ida, easily the most powerfu l po liti cian i n this state a t tha t time, railroad promo t e r ow ner of huge plantations g row ing prin cipally sugar cane and tended by Negro s laves. Using blatant political pressure. he caused A C. Bache superintendent of the U.S. Coast Survey, to hav e a survey party headed b y Lieut. 0 H Berryman, m a ke a R econnaissance of Tampa Bay, Florida in 1855 This c h art s howed a "Mullet Key," a "Piney Point a nd a pier juttin g o u t into T ampa Bay abo ut where Fiith Avenue N orth, St. Petersbu rg now mee t s the shore and it is label ed "Propose d Site for R a i l road Depots." In pla i n words, Yu l ee had t h e United States Govern ment fi n ance h i s railr o ad promoting survey DR. WASHINGTON CHEW VAN BIBBER, a Baltimore physician of Holland ancestry who, April29. 1885 at the annu al convenr ion or the American Medic .al Association in New Orleans delivered a paper called A Contribution to Sanitary Science,' relating especially to the climate and healthfu lness of Pine llas Peninwld, Florid>. In this paper h e mad e his now famous decla ration that Pin ellas Point i s the healt hiest spo t i n th e world. T he f acl that the canny doctor fir s t had his son, C l a ude, and thre e f e ll o w Oaltimorians nam e d W i lliam Whi tridge. William C. C hase and A F Bulin s lip down t o florida a n d quietly buy the point f rom Oominga Comet, widow o f Maximo Hernande z, the o r igina l homesteader might tempt one t o question lhe objectivity of his opinion. Research proved conclusively however the Doctor's sincere and deep fairh in his dream of a great sanitarium oi world wide appe.al at Maximo Point But the promotion failed an d the speculators let the land go for taxes. PETER A. DEMENS, whose real n ame before he changed it after comi ng t o th e Uni t ed S tates to e ngage il''l a con tra c t ing and prom ot i o n a l career, was Piotr A l c x e witch D ernent i ef He was a Russian. He built a railroad pier extending ou t int o Tampa Bay 3,000 feet at First Avenue Sou th, six blocks south of the point Yulee first planned one Yulee had gotten into con troversy over laod bonuses, angrily chan ged his built from Fernandina to Cedar Keys JUSt before the opening days of the Civil Wa r (Pardon : War between the S late>. ) He successfully undertook the promotion ol a narrow gauge rai l ro ad f rom Sanford t o Tam pa Bay, play ed Disston against John C. William s (two of St. Petersburg 's early deve l opers ) dealt with Williams, and the two of th e m fil ed a pla t called "City o f S t Petersbu rg" i n spi te of the f act th ere wa s not a singl e building h e re then. But th ere soon was 2 JOHN A. BETHEl l who, with his father Willia m Belhell had a home on what is now Big Bayou prior to the Civil War. Dig Bayou lies at the south end of the point where George Gauld wrote his observ ation about a good plac e for a selllement. The Oethells were an Engl ish family of some h u ndred years residen ce i n th e Bahamas before moving first t o K e y West and then t o Pinellas. Bethell was a fi s herman, b oat buil der, farmer, who became a good soldie r H e wrote a his tory o f Pinellas Poi nt whi ch he ended with the com ing of the rai lroad ABEL MIRANDA, a Minorcan and brolhe rinlaw of John Bethell, had his home near that of the Bethe lls. His family had first settled on the Florida East Coast, then S!. Augustine, !hen Pinellas ANTONIO MAXIMO HERNANDEZ a Cuban who had a fish ranch on a point of t h e peninsul a west of Punta Pina l which e ventually became known as Maximo Point He had lived i n Flo rida apparently from ab out 1814. JOE S ILVA, a Span i ard had a house and a small orange grove about where 38ih Av e nue North meet s Boca C icga Bay, and made a living catch i ng turt les. He dnfted here hom parts u nknown in th e Eigh teen Th irties. J UAN lEVIQUE a Fren chman, lived near Silva's camp and was the Spa niarcfs partner in turtle trapping expeditions. His antecedents are also unknown. He is known to have buried gold on t h e shore oi Boca Ciega Bay ncar the P rad o building. WILLIAM BUNCE, a ship's cap t ain from Baltimore h ad, until hi s d e ath in 0, a fish rancho on wha t now is Fort De Soto Par k or Tierra Verde. Pre viously aro u n d 1 835, h e ha d a camp at Shaw's Poi n t a t the moulh of ihe Man a tee Riv er, from which h e ha d fled before an attack of Semin ole I ndians. Bun ce had l ived a while i n K ey Wes t atta i n ing enough prominence to become a minor official. He had also been elected a member of the 1838 Constitutional Convention. AMERIGO VSP UCCI, a Florentme after whom North and South America are named In 1497 he had skirted the coast off Tampa Bay while in the employ of a group o f florence Ital y merchants, who feared that Chr istophe r Columbus' discove ries might threaten their near monopol y on s h i ppi ng a n d trade i n the Mediterra nean. Thei r fears w ere w ell found ed. PONCE de LEON, a Spania r d who had g o tten rich after a \\'i t h C olutnbus, wan lt.d to ge l s till richer. dropped in Tampa Bay in 1513 a n d 1521, after his 1513 foray along the Florida East CQast i n search of gold and tractable Indians as slavot laboreis on his huge West Indies pli!ntations had faill!d: Hepiobably landed at Fort DeSoto Park possibly landed briefly on mainland St. P etersb urg At any rate he got his dea th wound off these shores PAMFILO de NARVAEZ, a Spanish explorer and searc h e r for sudden wealth already wealt h y w i th gold which h e and h i s m e n h a d go n e n by looting i n Mexi co. landed April14, 1528 at the Jungl e and made camp a t what l ate r was the resid e nt ia l l an d of Mr. and

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Mrs. Harold C. Anderwn, 1620 Park Street North. He marched north searchin g for gold and fame, perished m i s erab l y i n the Gul f off North Florid a HERNANDO de SOTO, great es t o l the Spanish e x ,j)]Q!ru-s, .<:ame.wlth a rreeu>J 10 ship s i n th e summer o f fS39 !9iand pro babl y a t Point (Th i s is one o f illeireat dis p u tes among F lorida histori ans and a sub c hapter art h is writing will ancmpt to settle il) 1 for_ a short while, partly marched, partly sa iled to a I pomt near t h e K apok Tre e Inn south of Safety Harbor wM "re he establi shed a permanent camp from th e r e he marched a l most 4000 m i l es i n the sout heast e r n Pirtof i h e United S tates to per ish near the Mi ss i ss i ppi. And lfutre "Yere "'!any more, some known, some unknown of the SpaniSh ad venturer s who s a iled into ilieCr e.u Bay saw or visited the shores of St Peters .ti!Jrg. THE IND IANS had sett le d h eavily over the land tha!.ls now S t P e 1 ers6urg, for..e ttr h.ap s a miriim u m of sllOO years l?cfo re the w.hi t e s .came. T hey w e r e p.!Qba bTy Tfri>Uc u a n although r ecent d iscoveries i n th e fields of a rchaeol ogy _and a ntl)ropol ogy question that '!JiWmaY ba..ve been Cal usa_, two. nd De Soto speaks of a tribe caUed Ucita. 3 Eslimotcs vary from 15,000 tO 25.000 a s to the total number of Indians in Flor ida in the 16th Century. In dian were scaucred thickly ov er what is now St. P e tersbu r g and e n v ir ons mofe so than in a ny o th e r part of F l o r ida. T h at perhaps as ma ny a s a fifth o r a s ixt h o f all I n d i a n s in Flo r ida lived on thi s favored peni nsula h i nts strongly that perhaps V a n Bibber an d the early white seulers and boosters were righr i n think ing Pinellas Point one of the world's favored spots. The India ns p roved beyond doubt that for p r im i tive li ving on what th e land and water s natur ally p rovi ded with o u t much agri cu ltu ral aid the spol wo1s tru ly a one. So, what has Ma n added or sub t racted from those natu ral advan tages? I mmediately follo wing chapters w ill investigate and report in more detail on rhe n a tur e and h i story of the land, the p r imitive bronze people, the early e x plorers other peo p les and even t s t h at c on tri bu t e in answer i n g the question s a s k e d at the beginnin g o f this c hapt er. Su(flc c for now t o sa y that the wide range o f nationa lit ies rep r esented by t h e so few peopl e who came in th e first centuries ancsrs to th e u niversa l worldwi d e magnet that Pinellas Po i n t proved i tself to be then and now.

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Chapter II AN IDEA I S BORN The s tocky, ruddy faced. vigorou s lookin g but e lderl y man, read with a c r usade r 's fervor from the manuscnpt on the podium. His audience, sauered ragg;,dly over the huge auditorium. listened listlessly Th e dead atmospher e was humid and hot. H e linished abruptly, handed h is paper t o a sec r etary and came down. There w a s bored. polite applause The Chairman announced the n e xt paper and a new speaker c ame t o th e rostrum. Dr. W C. Van Bibber M. D of Baltim ore, Mary land. had d e l ive r e d his scheduled pap e r on the second day o r th e meeting o r th e 36t h Annual Meeti n g of th e Ame rican M edical Asso ciation. T h e place w a s New Orle a n s, Loui s i ana. T h e dat e was Apri l 29, 1 885 The subjec t o f the paper was; "A Conuibution to Sanifaty Scie nce, relalins especially to the climate and healrhlulnen o f Pin ellas Peninsula, Flor ida." F e w if any in tht bored audi en ce real ized thou an idea had been born. the destiny of a City not yet rounded. prophesied! And what was thot idea ? Dr. V a n Bibber made two sali enr points in his address Point 1 Peninsu las and s-Ub-pen insul a s have a d is tin c tive and superior climate Of the six greal penin s ula s of the world, clim ale wise Florida i s the best and the sub p e r'lins ula of P inella s the cream o f th e best. Poi nt 2. N e p roposed that the peoples o r t h 0 Unite d S t a t es, E ngl a n d France, Russ i a and Spa i n join iorthwith t O build a g r e at Health C i ty o n the s o uthern e nd of f i n ellas Peni n s u Ia,. F l o ri da, a s a great boon to mar''lkind. These w e r e hi s words: "On account o f this and also for other causes, th e air and c l imate o f a s mall e r peni nsu l a attached t o a la rg e r one o r Jutting orr from i \ ofte n d i ffer s from t hat of i t s parent v ery materially; this d iiferen ce corr espo n ding. in a grea t rneasur e. t o the extent of t he wate r sur face separat ing i t from the main la nd, and also to the quality and area of the land formin g the l esser penin. s ula Such a fact as t his is impo n ant and has n o t here t o fore bee n observed or utilized to the extent i t deserves. Th is is one of the r easons why, in peninsular study. 1wo or more places in rhc same latitude may be found having quite d ifferent climates. 'We have all heard of Pau Pisa, Mentona, Monaco, Cannes and other European resorts; and may be familiar with wha t h as been said concerning the banks of I he Ni l e, or Mexi co and Lo wer California, bul none of these. it may be said wirhout f ear o f can compa r e with Florida a s a peni nsular c l i mate. or as a land ha v i n g peculiar att r a c ti o n s a s a w i nt e r r esiden ce. Indeed, i t may w i t h tr u th be s a id that F l orida r'IOW s ta nds conf essedly prccm i n e nt in t h i $ r espec t before all othet l and s o r p e n i n s u l a s. "But t h e most desira b l e r e g i o n and th e one desti ned t o b eco me t he mos t ce l ebra ted for its win ter c limate, will be found on a l a r ge sub penins ula o n i t s southwestem o r gulf coaS-t. "The sc heme which w i ll now be proposed i s t o p roject a Health C i ty" upon an enlarged scale and to invite through the medical,. the social and scie n tific press, the nat ions of Europe and America, to uni te in its erection and improvement 'Where should such a city be bulltl Overlooking the deep Gull of Mexico, with the broad warcr s of a beautiful bdy nearly surrounding it, with but little now upon its so i l but the primal forest. the r e is a large subpeni ns u l a Point Pinellas. "It should be done at once, and when finish ed, i n valids and p l eas u r e see ke rs, (rom all l a n d s will com e to enj o y th e d e l i g h t s of a winte r c limat e, whic h all t hings con s idered can p r obably have no equal e lsewher e Those who have carefull y sur v e yed th e entir e State and have personally i nvestigated th is sub penin s u la and i t s surrounding s think t ha t it o ff e r s the finest climate in Flo r ida." Editors N ote: For further information on Or. Van B ibber, who W.l:S quite an u nusual man. see the end of this Chapter.

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St. Peter sburg is a you ng c it y a n e w k ind of city in both na tiona l a n d s t ate te rms. And si g nific ant ly, e v e n in county sense, d espit e bein g overwhelm i ngly the it is the youn gest in age except the Gull i sland towns nd a satellite town o r t wo, and w e ll it m i g ht be, lor i t i s a n e w kin d o r community Old cities began l) f ort resse s or land ita tion s a t sta c rossr o ads f o r c o m m e rce, o r cent N s o r la n d comm e rce, tr a d e and agriculture. B u t the site o f St. P e t e r s burg l ent i t s e l f t o none o r the se u s es. None t h e l ess the t o w n born l ess t h a n e ight y ye a r s ago, t h r o ve,. b ec a me a small c ity, a n d f inally b lossomed i nto a r ea l c it y and a h u b oi one of tht two g reat metr o p o l itan a reas of th e n a t i o n's e i gh t h Florida. And the force that brought i t i nto bei ng and d">ve i t towa r d gr e a tness/ A pleasant and h e allhy pUce to live for t hose who, i n the grt!.atest and ri c hest nation on e a r t h had acquired enough wealth to buy leisure1 or who were imp elled to see k a clim ate kin der t o human ills tha n the o n e t hey wer e posed to. In othe r word s a leis ure c ity f o r t h ose w h o desi red o r n e eded s u c h a spot. A n d a d d e d 1 0 th ose, or cou rse. those w h o w o u l d s u p pl}' h o u s ing and e ntertainmen t and services. C l i m a t e and w eather, e l e v atio n and d r a i nage, ac cess, variety, bea u ty w a terscape, th e e l ements needed for recre at ion, w e r e obvi ou s l y impo rtant f a ctors in d e t ermin i n g a spot w h ere such a community would evolve. Exa min a tion show s the St. Petersbur g site had i n all these virtues. St. Pe t ers b u rg occupies 57 36 square miles a t the routh e n d of P i nellas P e ninsui.J, a sub-pen i ns u l a of that grea t s u b tropic pen i n s u l a o l the N orth Amer i can c onti n e n t F l o r id a. T h e peni nsu l a Is 32 m i les lon g 1 5 m iles w ide a t the w i d e s t point a t i t s wai s t a n d 10.5 miles w i d e a t th e w i d e s t i n St. P e t e r s burg. It sepa r a tes the G u ll o f M exico from T ampa B a y Tampa B ay's 300 square mile s is F lo r i da s greatest b a y I n size, has l a r ge r areas o r naturally deep and u n o b s t ruc t e d w a t er t ha n any o th e r It i s Flo r ida' s greatest bay an d h arbo r The nort h en d o f t h e Pin ellas P eninsul a n arr o w s to l ive miles, the Bay and (;ull joi ntly the r efore almost fo r m an island of the peninsula. For the v a st G ulf of Mex ico, one of th e worl d's s i x oce ans, for ms t he west bo u ndary a s Tampa Bay d efi nes the e a s t a n d south limi t s o f St. Peters b u rg. Boca Cie g a B a y o n the west separates th e ma i n l a nd peni n s ula f r o m the 23 mile l o n g n ec k lace oi Gu l f fro nt i n g i s l a n d s As w a t er h o ld s h eat longer t h a n land, thes e w a t ers t e mp e r winte ( s c hill compare d t o i n l a n d Flo r i d a c ities; and fresh l a n d breezes t e mper summe(s h e at. T hus Pine lla s and St. P e t er sburg e n jo y less hot sum m e r s t ha n do man y nort h e rn a reas, which is v ery h a r d for many a northerner to believe until he has tried one. wise S t. Pe t ersburg is fortuna t e F lorid a coastal ar eas a re n o t o rio u sly low, ty pically vast s t r e t c hes bei ng mang ro v e f ores t s o r grassy llats w i th firm dry land l y i ng miles back l rom t ide l i ne. and of ten one mu s t go s t ill more m i les lr o m t h e s ea to lin d a s muc h a s te n feet of el evat i o n A l a r ge part o r St. P e t e rsb u r g is the sout hern e n d or 5 a n arrow h alf moon c r esce n t of h ig h la n d that spur s off of the limestone r idg e or centra l Flo r ida, and sweeps lrom the nort h end or the peninsula, s k irts the Gulf and curves southeast to end i n t he w a ters of Tamp a B a y a t P inell as Point. This ridge at poin t s r eac h es an elev at i o n i n ex cess of 80 feet Safet y H ar bor, C l e a rwater Belleai r Indian Rocks, all buil t o n this ridge hav e bay f r o n t elevatio n s n o tab l e a lmost to t h e poin t of be i n g s e nsat i on a l i n t e r m s o f F lorida coast a l e l e vati o ns. N o F l o r i d a c i tie s sa v e Pan a m a Ci t y and Pen saco l a r each s u c h e l eva tio n s a t con ta c t w i th t i da l wate r s, as does S t P etersburg and t hese o th e r P inellas Coun ty cities. Highes t elev ation i n St. P ete r sburg is 57 tee t at two points on e a t a p proxima t ely 44th Succt Nonh a nd J2nd Avenue, and the other at Allendale on Nort h 9th Sueer. In most areas the elevation will clim b a bove 1 5 fee t wi t hin a half m il e or less from the sea. Entire cities ehewher e i n F lorida ha ve di f f ic ul ty p oi nling t o a spo t an ywher e i n th e ir l i m i t s wilh a maxim u m o r 15 f e et. N o point i n the C i ty ol St. l c t c r s b u r g i s more than 5 .25 miles from se a l e v e l water and a s ther e a r e nume r o u s cree k s th at c r ease t h e l a n d sever a l b ayou s that ind ent it, surface d r ainage i s r e l ativel y s impl e a n d ertect ive. The soil is ge n erall y sa n d y and porous. The r e i s some hard pan underneath; at but f e w poin ts a r e there marl, cla y Of rock. Ld. k e Maggiore is a lmo st a square mile in a rea i n the southern p a n o f the city, and t here i s g ood evidence that as recently as the S i x teenth Century w e ams ra n fro m the lak e t o both B o c a Cci ga Bay o n t h e west a n d T a mpa B a y o n the e a st. In r ecent y e a rs, a f t e r a certain amou nt of p olit ical and s p o rt s ma n un cer t a i nly M aggi o r e w a s def i nite l y m ade a f r es h w a t e r l ake, alth o u g h it had n a tu r ally b e e n con n ec t ed w ith salt w ate r E l evat i on, soil. sub s oil, p ro ximi ty o f sea l e v e l wa t e r geogr a p hy, m ake t h e a r ea read i ly dra in able, f r ee of unhea l t h y b ogs, or wat e r-lo gged land So n at ur e d esig ned it and man selec te d it a s a choice spot lor peopl e seeking leisure and health T his is not to say t hat the o r i g inal sett l e r s h a d t h a t cle a r concept In la c t, c urre n t l y even t here i s d e bat e and un cer tainty a s t o the ci t y s destiny, desp i t e fact s and p erf o rma n c e. B u t why t hen \Ver e nei g h b o r ing t o w ns, C learw at er, Safe ty H arbo r G u flpor t L a r g o born llr s t ? T h e r e wer e sev eral f ac to r s Tampa was es tab lish e d a s a n A r my pos t ( F or t B roo k e), a ye a r a fte r t h e Uni ted S tates ac q uired Flor ida from Spai n in 1822, and it oon became a Iron tier commercial cen te r a s well a5 a milit ary one Commerce then depended on horses and sailboats Cl ea rw a ter and Safety Harbor were a day' s h o r sebac k r ide from Ta m pa was on t h e g reat K ey W e st Ced a r K e y schoon e r trad e rout e Big Bay ou, t h e p ioneer Harbor f o r S t Petersb urg. had g o o d wat e r dept h, b u t wa s too con s tr icte d f o r sal e and con v e n i e n t opera t ion o r sc h o o n ers. The high r i d g es o r Nort h P i n ellas w e r e b e tt e r ada pte d than t h e

PAGE 14

South Peninsula for couon and corn. later for citrus. Sout h Pinella s therefore at first mainly furn ished open range for v"'t h e r ds of ca111e T h e ba1ous and var ied waf ers of Bay and Gull both e a sily a ccessiblc1 aunac t e d the f i s hermen. So North P i n ellas saw r h e solid homesteads of th e farm e r s drifting i fro m Geotgia; South Pinella s t h e paln1eUo t hatch ed huts of the nomadic fis h e r men hom Hava na and Key \>Vest and an occasional cowboy. AI>Propri a tely Pinellas Peninsula particularly the South end; in geologiol rerms and eons is new ground. The t o p soil of St. l'etcrsbusg and most of F l o rida so u t h thereof i s of t h e P l e isto ce n e a n d Miocene J)eologic ages ( th e wilh s orne Oli gocene. Bur f urt h e r down rhc de e p limes t ones a nd ot her formario n s include some of t h e oldest geological for mcuions known by th e scien t ists. Florida generally and deep down layers in Pinellas Paleozoic. the oldest formation and an integral pan of Appala chia; that i>. west Georgia and the Carolinas. U J > per F lorida anciently rose above th e sea and remained t hefe, bvl a t Bbou t the Pinella s Counly l i n e th e r e was geo l ogicall y a brea k and the area sou t h ros e a nd f e ll below the sea i n s u ccessi v e convoluti o ns. h.11f moon r i dge dis c ussed was sever a l times an i s lan d or isl ands. Hence .. although i t 5 f ufl damental lower Ieveil of matter are manty gravel and sand from Appalachia, St. Petersburg's up per l.1yers of soil are formed mainly from limestone .. originally carr ied in in sea water. The soli d l imes t o nes w ete depo s ued i n 1he e-ar l y EocenP. and Oligoce n e p e r i ods D u i n,l{ th e s uccee din g M iocene pe dod sand from APf.l l ac h i a m i n gl e d with the se a l imes tone to i orrn th e uppe r sandy limestone c h arac t cristic o f l m ver Pin ellas stra t a so t h at muc h of particul arly Pin ellas and Florida south thereof are of relatively recent geologic iormations; Oligocene. Miocene and Pleocene This rising and falling in rel arion to sea level resuhed j n thick s l rata of seashells, (which form what In the buildin g and trades i s known a s marl, fi n e r d epos i ts a r e c all e d f ullers e arth o t h er forms, phosp h a t e,) althO U B h ther e is a contrary theo ry t ha t r >hos p h at e was formed by droppings from prehis tori c flocks of sea birds. Th ere are at times almost solid deposit:> of marine mollusca Sharp in surface conditions, now marshy. now dry, occasioned by the risings and s.inklngs as well as changed conditions when the ice s heets melted at the e n d of g l acia l periods a l so c reat e d a nimal t raps lor unwary prehistoric a oim8 1S. T h e refo r e it I s n o t s u r p r i s i ng tha t n o t a ble depos i ts o f f ossi lize d a nima l bones a s w ell as preserved sea c reatures a n d flora have b een f ound in St. P eters burB areas of the Pinell a s Peninsula Perhap s the most notable such deposit is that in Fossil Park located at 70th Avenue North and Ninth Street. Fossil P a r k dedicated a s such on January 19, 1959, s h o uld be nam ed Fargo Park, after Williar n l i Far go, a w inter res id e nt o f the l>cni nsula, who became 6 aware of the rich mollusca deposit, and through C. M Hunter, Ray Ougan (then Councilman ) and others in duced I h e Ci t y to acquire th e lands and 1hem p e r manently as a park. H e1 t oge ther wilh olhe r s. notably C h ar les R Locklin, .tnd Major Georg e 1). both now r es i d e nt s of St. initiated explora t i ons of th e area, w hich evcniUall y r esulted in an intecnationally notable p u blication by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, M titled Monograph Number 8 "Picocene Mollusca of Southern Florida with specia l reference 10 t h ose f rom North S aint P ete r s burg by Axe l A. O lsson and Har b is o n, with s pecia l < ; haptc m ; o n T u rridae \'V i ll iam G Fargo. a nd and Fresh Watter M ollus k s by H enry A P i lsbury, Phrlad e l phia, November 6, 1953 Thrs volume of 456 pages wrth 65 collotype plate> based on actual photogrphs firmly implanted 5I Petersburg in rhe S<:ientiric world. Mr. Fargo sponsored the e xp lora tions and the publ ication. W alle r VI./. H o lmes, who buill a water f ront home at 1504 North S h o re. i n th e nine t ee n twenties, aware of a huge deposit of fossilized I Mld a n ima l bone s as well a s sea (ln i ma l s and shell i n th o b ed o r J oe's Creek a sho rt d i st anc e south of 46th Avenu e Nonh and ncar 70th Streec which he leased incidentally. from this writer. He iniliated c1nc.f financed e x lcns.ivc explorations which were called to the auention or the scientifrc world in 1945 by a book by Cooke, who dubbed the area the "Semin o le Field Th is in agai n calling lhe aue n tion of 1hc sdentific world to Jnother phase of prc h i s t o r y in which 5 1 Pcr cl's b u rg is r i c h ptchi sroric l a l'ld m am mals. l rnponan t f i nds hav e also recen tly b een r ecovered i n the Maximo Moorings arcd . Those schol ars who wish to e xplore this field fur lher will find proper references to scientific publications in the bibliography Following i s a mor e comprehens i ve treatmen t of the geol ogy a n d a rchaeology of th e ar,a, i n l a n g uB the l ayma1' can u n derstand and enjoy. wri tt e n by Dr. L yman 0 Warren, M.D., 7215 4 th Avenue North specificlly for use i n this Chapter. The P r e hi s t o r y of Pinellas By Or. lyman 0. Wmcn, M 0 If you hav e e ver wondt-n!'d where the sand in your s hoes comes from you ca n gel a sort of educ arcd guess f rom th e profe ssiona l geol ogi s ts. The san d o f Pinellas County is a chi l d o f th e Ice Ag e and the story goes somet h i n g fike this. During the past million years or so the world h a s had four major gl a ciations and several minor ones Each glacial advance was clSsociated with low sea levels and each retreat with h i gh sea levels. As the waters of the Guli of Mexico subsided during an a dvance o f the ic e s hee l a sand b eac h or lerrac e \vas f o rm ed. In Pin ellas lh 'ec

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terraces, the Paml ico.. Penh o l owa y and V\1icomico form the major pari o f our $ilndy upl ands Win d a c t ion, especiall y strong i n a hypothetical dry spell, perhaps 7 o r 8 t housa n d years ago formed sand dunes and he l ped shap e some of our rolli n g grove country i n the no r thern part of t h e county. The e vidence for t he relative youthfu l ness, geo l ogically speaking, of some o f these d unes cons is t of Indian fl i nt ch ips at sev eral locati ons at depths of 5-10 feel or more, s u ggesti ng that t h e dunes we r e formed and c overed up t hese In d ian sites w ithi n the past few thousand year s Under th e Plei s tocene s a n d l ies a 10 million year o l d Pli ocene deposit of ma r i ne s h ell. Th is stratum was b r ought to the s u r'fac e b}' excavat i o ns at w h at is Fossil Park at Ninth Str ee t an d 70t h Ave nue Nort h i n St. Pete rsburg, and became t he subj ect oi i m r>or tan t investi gations of Mr. Cha rles R Lockl i n, 1036 Mon terey B l vd., S n ell Island A monogr aph was p ubli s hed in 1953 on t h i s important f ind by a group of sci enti s ts under th e ausp ices of the Academy of Natur al Scien ces of Ph i l ade lphia. Still lower ate the i mportan t Hawth o rn and Tampa format ions dati ng ba c k 2 5 million years or so 1 0 t h e M i ocene lower sti ll i s an O l igocen e for mation, l he Suwannee lime stone, and t h i s i n t urn r ests upon c he underlyi)S Oca l a limesto n e l a i d down on a 60 million year o l d Eocene sea. Whi l e all of t hese strata w ere m a rine in o r i gi n, recen tly some evi d e n ce has showed up that P i nellas may have been abov e wa t er dur i ng part o f th e Miocene. Th is evi d ence cons ists of over 30 ankl e bone s of th e littl e thr ee -toed M i oc e n e horse whi ch eroded out o f a bluish-green clay dred ged out of Boca Ciega Bay abo u t a half mile north of the Wekh Cau seway. The Suwa n n ee Lim e s tone and T ampa Format i o n have a n ecologic importa n ce to our p r esen t residents as a sour ce of our fresh water T h ey a n d t h e un derlyin g O c a la limestone cons t itute (he "Flori da Aquifer, a ser ie s of por ous strata a thous a n d o r more feet thick, which have been tapped in t h e Cosme Odessa s ec t ion of H i l lsborough County for St. Peters burg's wa t e r supply. Th i s water c ome s f r om t h e 50 inches o r so of rai nfa ll which Flor id a rece ives an n u ally and s i nce much of thi s wate r charges t he limes(one strara in the centra l h ig h land i t set s up in the lo wer l yi n g Gul f C oast a certa i n head of p re ssure, and may s urface as s pri ngs, o r be tapped as a rtesi an well s Pro bably, however, a good part of our l o c a l aquif er g e ts i ts wate r cha r ge from l ocal r ainfall. To our abo r i g i n a l predecesso r s in Pinellas of more importance t h an the aquife r were oul-cr oppings o f the M i oce n e Hawthorn. Thi s c l ayey marl bed of the Tampa (ormat i o n r ich i n bou l ders of s il i cifi e d li mestone and co r al, provi ded the Indian braves w i t h the raw materiaJs for their stone ag e tool s arld weapons while the women used t h e clay of t h i s bed for th ei r p ottery. For the most pan the I ndians water supp l y came f rom superfici al rat h er than dee ply sub t erranean sources i o r the fe w natural spr i ng s i n th e county were h ardly enough t o go aroun d. A m ile o r two be low us lie th e 300 m illion year old 7 C retaceous deposits where you m i g h t with a l u cky deep boring st r ike d i n osau r rema i ns for there are none on the surface o r close to it, a lthough you may be told differently. An d i f you were really luck y at t h is depth you m i ght even st r i ke oil. Abou t 1 s.000 years ago things i n P i nellas were m u c h d ifferent. T he last g re a t glaciatio n th e Wiscon s i n h eavy o n the northern hemisphe re, and ext ending as far south as C incinnat i made the climat e h ere in St. P e t ers b urg cool rainy and stormy Fortu n ately the St. Pete r sburg In dependent was not i n bus i ness at that time. Th i s m.1ssi ve g l acier, some five to ten thousa n d feet i n hei g h t had l ocked up immens e v o l umes of wa t er from the seas and ocea n s of th e world, and sea l eve ls e ver)'\Vhete were a hun d re d feet or more IO'-\'er t han at p r esent. T h e Gul f of Mexico was s malle r and shaiJower, a n d wha t is now P inellas was m uch la r ger T a m pa Bay, not to become a bay fo r a few thousand year s .. vas a ser ies of r iver valleys, richly watered a nd f u ll of game I n this u nfarniliar l andscap e l i v e d some eq uall y u n fam i l i a r grotesquely la r ge l a n d a n imals. Their t ee th and d i sart i c u l at e d sing l e bones a n d o<.:casional jaws and jaw f ragments and r a rely entire or nearly enti re s k eletons, hav e been found in many p la ce s The classic find s we r e discove r ed at a n d near Joe' s Creek i n Seminol e fort y years ago by Mr. Wal te r w. Hol mes and were w r i tt en up by Ame r ica's dea n of pa leontol ogy Georg e Gaylord S impson. They hav e made our local fossi l s f amous the world over .A couple of year s ago Mrs A l ton T urner, who l i ves near J oe's Creek, found a n e n ti r e car apace of a g i ant l and tortois e in the creek bank. Th i s h uge rept i le, now ex tinct eve r ywhere but the Gal apagos Is l ands, wa s once very much a t home h e r e This part i cu l ar spec i men was e cavated by Doctor Clay ton Ray a n rl his st u dents from the Universi t y of Florida In the p ast lew years numerou s new s i te s have been drag l ined or pumped to t h e sur face. One o f the most produ ctive \vas Maximo Moori n gs, especially rich in tapir j aws a n d jaws of small rodents and Olher small mamma l s ( f n. 2) l ake Cat al i na, dredged u p from low l and west of N inth Street Sou th con tain ed bones or tee th o f over two dozen P l e is toc e ne l and animals, a n d a nearly compl ete ske leton of t h e F lorida G lyptodon was excava t e d by Dr. Stanley j O lsen of the F lorida Geo l ogica l Survey a u n ique find u n publicized a t the time b eca use o f th e re sident i a l area in w hich it was located. A mastodon ja w i n t he marl d r edged o u t of this lak e Jed Mr. E rni e S e g ere n to d i g u p a n d r ec onstruc t a por t i o n of t h e rest of t h e ske leton of t h i s huge c reat u r e Whil e the g lyptodon s k eleto n is a l the Florida Geologic B uilding i n T allahassee, the r ema ins o r the Ameri c a n Mastodon are on d is p lay at the St. Pete rsb urg H is tor ical Society Museu m Olher remarkab l y rich Pleistocene l oca ti o n s which c am e to l ight d u r ing t he d r edge and fi l l ope r a t i ons in our bays during the '50s we r e (1) th e K e llogg F i lls j us t north o f t h e Welch Causeway (2) t he P res byte r ia n

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College f i lls, (3) th e T erra Ce i a Bay fills a nd ( 4) the Apollo Beach de ve l opment ne ar R u skin. All of t hese areas had espec i ally not eworthy Pleistocene beds ; mammoth mastodon, camel l i ke c r e at ures tapir, gian t g r ound s loth g i ant beave r g i ant a r mad i llo, gia n t b ison and man y more. And p r e y i n g on the giant s were t h e carnivo r ou s saber tooth c a t, dire wolf and s hort f aced bear But d esp i te their' numbers, and size, an d s t reng t h, t hese c reatures of the tail end of t he Ice Ag e w er e o n t heir way out i n part because o f a war m i n g of th e cl i mate and d rying u p th e l and and its vegetation, a nd in part from t he adve n t o f a n ew carn i vore the Pal eo -Indian. Abou t 12 .000 years a g o s m all bands of n omadic hun ters wandered i n l o Pin e llas Cou n t y They were armed wilh spear s and spear t h rowers ( t h e bow and arrow had nor yet bee n i nvented ). T h ey probab ly had dogs u sefu l i n h u n ti ng, and baske t s usef u l for carrying things Clay pottery, he avy a n d noisy, wou l d not do for a m i grant h unting l i fe and was not n eeded nor i n veo t e d for anoth e r 8000 years. These Pal eo Indian s li ved a n d hun t ed j n o u r p r ese n t bay bottoms, which i n t h ose days were choice dry-l a n d hunt i n g a reas. And they liv e d and hunted on our uplands a l o n g game trai l s and ne a r water holes Becau se of the i r nomadic c u stoms, t hese i n trep i d h u n ters left n o n e of t hei r own s ke l eta l rema i ns, so tha t we have n o idea what they l ooked l ike. But the i r p r esence h e r e ca n be deduced from their beaut iful and h i gh l y c h aracte ri s t ic S uwannee p oi nts T hese g r aceful, l an ceolatc sp-ear heads were fas hioned w ith exquis i te s k ill from the l oca l c h e rt cha lce dony, and s ilicified c ora l. I n symmetry and f orm, they and t h e ir somewha t less attract i v e D a l ton poi n t cousi n s resem4 b l e the famous a n d ancien t Clovis a n d Fol som poi nts of t h e Ame r i can Sou thwest, which, i n t h ose areas are close l y associated w i th the terminal Pleist ocene fauna, especially mammo t h a n d extin ct b i son. The evidence has grown (hat our analagous Florida poi nts were rough l y con temporane ous w i th C lovi s and Folsom. l n P i nellas t he Paleo41ndian poi n t s wer e found sing ly in sand, c lay and oyster she ll d r e dg e d up from 8 the d e pths of ou r bays. They have also been fou nd a t Pa leo sites, i n g roups of two o r more, associa ted with o th e r r e l i cs i n t h ree locati o n s : ("I) a dre dg e d up bay bottom m i d d e n i n Terra Cei a Bay a t t he Tamp a Gap D r a i n (2) an upla n d site a road cu t on Sta t e R o a d 593, near a n ancient spr i n g and wate r hole a half m i l e s outh of th e Boo r Ranc h southeast of Lake T ar p on, a nd (3) a d r edged u p flint wor kshop on the Duned i n Causeway i n S t Joseph s Sound whe r e th e fl i n t was sai d t o come from an 18 foo t cha n ne l beneath th e mos t weste r ly b r idge just bef ore t he causewa y ap proa ches Honeymoon I s land. This a rea was d i s cove r ed by Mr. and M r s Charles Gre th. It was an obvi o u s w orkshop, and i t s d iagn o stic a rtif act \vas a C l ovis -l ik e point found there in A u gust o f 1965, a fi nd ing, among th e thousands of ch ips and f lakes a nd scores of scr apers a n d choppers and h ammerstones like t he proverb ial nee dle-i n thehay s t ack A t i me c ha r t of Tamp a Bay a r c he o logy appe nds, th rough t h e c ou r t e s y of Ripley P B u llin, Flor ida State Museum, Gain esville, F l a Archeologi cal Chro n o l ogy Semi n o l e Span ish M issiOI) or l eon Jeff e rson Safet y Ha rbo r Weedon Isl and II Weedo n I s la nd I or Perico I s l and Deptfo r d o r Deptford influ e n ces (Pasco and St. John's Incised ) Trans i tiona l Orange, late decorated w i de l ips Orange e a r l y decora ted Orange, undecor ated S t e mmed Points L a t e Pre<:eramic A r cha ic Bol en Po i n t s .. EarJ}' Preceramic A r cha i c Suwan nee & Dalton P o i nts, Pal eo -! n dian C irca A.D 1704 Cir c a A.D 1 633 C irca A.D 1300 C irca A. D 800 C i rca A.D. 300 C i rca 400 B.C. C irca B.C. Ci rca 1400 B .C. Circa 1600 B .C. C i rca 2000 B.C. Circa 5 000 B.C. C i rca 7000 B.C. C ir c a 9000 B .C.

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81 BLIO G RAPH Y C. Wylhe Coole. And Stuart M()))Om Ccoolocr ol flotida. rn coopertion bnwt"t'' United Su.tes Geological Svwl", al\d tht" Ftoridi. 5;atc Gcoloticl kiwe) ) Pages 29 228, t h e 20th Annual Jtcport of ttw $1..tte CA.-ologk a l Survey: 1929. The A C dcen., of Sci cnct. '). of Ph rladtdph i a Monogr.a m Numl>t:l 8 : Pliocene M oll u sca ol Southtm f iOtida wit h s p e(. i 3 1 rtf eu: nce !0 those f rom Norlh St. P t tcnbura. O y A lex A. l.lld AfiM H tubhon. \\li( h s pecial c:h41PhH$ o n T urtidae b y Willi3 m G ra rgo ,md Vilrinclfcdac nd Water \.-\oll usks b y llc:nry A. Pilsbur y P h ila d e lphia 1953. GtofOSY M t h e T Uay A r ea : Flonda Enc yciQp.rt, 5-Rpl'n. ... in cob. MqnilicM. cown Retch ot sck!I'Ke., economics, lr.lMpotl.llion govern """'' 1he Aluminum Zone of the 8ontt VAIIty Formacioh .aftd (I) U1M1i11m De-posits ( Ta1npa floridl lntrrn;uional Coo fetenct: (or Peacei u l U ses of A tomic Proceec:hng.s. 1956. Poses 507'13. Geol ogy o f 100 f.)mpa Afe a. A m V r lc u r 1 k>tmM( o f SciMcc. Volume 2. U N 6 l'liSC 38. K e (, w u h i ng ton Ml the Geology of th e Rt'&ion about l ,amp.l, F l otid. l." Sdentlflc: M(l Soci.ilogical )ournJ. Vol um<' 1 1 8fiS 869 0 lyon s. P L "Geology nd Geophysics ot the Gulf of Mexko'' ; Ctdf Auoci.lrion Socif!.ty 11Jru. Volume 1. 1 957 ,,,., 1 10 9 Georse C.l)'kw"d ... Ptetstoc:te M.a.l'llmali,n Fauna ol the Stmnott f1eld County, Florid&. -8u11H i n ol Ame-ucan MtJ Sfou m of "';uw.al HIUOiy Vot LVI AA. VIII pp 561 599 New Yor1:. f('bruar y 19, 1929 11th 11n11ual Survt>v. P:.gcs 4H68, 1926. fo s, 1877, and Amer fGall Medicll Anociation: and dilor o f Vlllio u s Medical Journ a ls, lect u r e r olnd I pioneer physi ci a n ic' chlldrt>n's and venerf!al d isf!ses 1 n d a c t ive in many Mcdic<1l Societies. DlHins his c ntifc pract.ice hl' (IQr'l\'lled a m 1 jo r pan o r hi s tin'le, l o variQ u s group s s u c h as 6.-lti mOC"C A t m s hou$t, Christ Chvu : h Ot(lhJn SOCICty .acld Hom e o f h e Fricndltts An a sl'!ip's C.-.plaln, was a fhst $
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Chapter Ill THE PRIMITIVE PEOPLE ,,. Jt-'s Indian Mounds show that it was selecred by rhe original inhabieants for a populous set Oemen t These Mounds are not v ery common in Florida and where found cllere are always excellem auracaon s .. .. --That it was considered a choice and favored spor by rhe I ndians has already been said, of which there is no doubt The ar chaeology of tile United Scates shows that as a rule rhe best food producing and the heallhi est situat i ons contains abundanc eviNsib l e excep tion o f Phillippi Par k, the la r ge st mound compl e x i n the County was an d still part i ally i s al o ng t h e shor e s of Boca Ciega Bay, stretc h i n g some two rni les alo n g the wat e r b e g i n n i ng at the Semi nol e Bridge and extendi n g Sout h to the equivalent o f about 1 5th Ave nue North. A t hi r d larg e group large l y still in t act, is on Weedo n I s la nd. The Phillippi Park rnou n d r i valed t h e Seminole B r i dge concentration i n s ize. Cala desi Islan d had a la rge group, so did a reas arou n d T a rpon Spr i n gs, at Bay View and so u th of Safety Harbo r. W hat kind of people we r e they and how d i d t h ey live? For the modern r eader to v i s ua l i ze them, he first must complete l y d i smiss from h i s mind t h e TV an d Movie Indian, the Ind ia n or wri tten riction ? the war bonnets, th e war pai nt, th e savagert? the scalping, the dari ng horseman s hip, the col orful w igwam. The prim i t ives here t h e n and now, called d i ans because Columbus i nsi sted i n believing he had found In d i a by a ne w routel ive d a meager, tim id, peacef ul, i gnorant l i fe d i fficult now to i magine. They had no dom estic an i mals except dogs whi c h wer e raised for fo od. T h ey ha d no metals. T hey had not d i scovered th e wheel. Thei r u t ensils t o ol s and weapons p e rforce were made of sea shells, animal bones, s t one an d wood. They had a very l im i t e d agricul ture perhaps corn and pumpki ns and herbs

PAGE 19

using hoes made or conch shells. They had as weapons clubs, spears, bows and arrows, stone knives. Coo k ing and eating vessels were of fired clay and ground out stone. . There was no written language In fact ha r d to believe now tribes Hving a few miles apa rt would MWIA lndi.tn wJrrior have differing la ng uage. th e jung le group fo r i nstance would have a lang u age d i ffer in g somewha t from tha t at M aximo and Big Bayou Gover nment was very simp l e Each group had a medic ine man and a chief or Cac;que. The post was inherited from the female side. This Is usua l in primitive people because life and s urvival was less cettaln on the male side law and order was simplicily itself There weJ e three crimes that were punishable : theft. adultery, 1nd murder There were three punishments; tortur 'e, banishment or death I n the case or Infide l ity both parties we r e punished. T h e people were not war like. The process o f acquiring e nough lood wa s so s trenuous and precarious there was n o time f or wa_r. Main i tems o f 11 food came from the sea; conchs, c lams oysters, scallops, snails, fish, a vegetable or two, wild fruits a nd berries, and in hard times, grass and palmetto buds and bark Small animals and birds were on the menu, notably turtles, gophers, coons, dogs, deer. One now, knowing their needs habits and foods, could predict l ivi ng sites wilh those tell tale signs human s a lways leave garbage and litter. They had t o hav e a non-fail i ng s ource of drinking wat er, hence vill ages were a lways besid e a st r eam, spr ing or l arge pond. Firewood was a constant n eed h e nce near by forests or seashore wher e t here was a co n stant drift of wood; shallow waters because they abounded in seafoods. particularly shellfish The ordinary people would usually live in a com munal house of posts a nd palmcu o fans, not unli ke Coastal fishermen use in the Keys today Clothes were scanty or non-existent: moss. woven palm leaves, animal skins, feath ers The Chief had a separa t e house, frequently round us uall y if a l arge village stood a con ical mound of l oose sand t o protect against s u r prise raid o r a ttack and to fac ilit ate obser vation and lend p r estig e. There was commu n icat ion betw een th e v illage s and tribes. T here were trave ling tradesmen w h o evidently were privileg e d to come and go. They traded in clay vessels, flints, ornaments. It is heartening to know that even in rhMe limit ed people, there was a love of beauty and a worship of a God In their case, a fearful and dim one visualized in the sun or a soaring eagle, the lightning nash, the roll of 1hunder. The re were individuals who se r ved i n a primitive way as p r iest $ and doctors But thei r women w e r e adorned with str i ngs or made of ground and gierced piec es o f s h ell, brig ht b its of s t one, and small animal bones They were pendan ts g round from stone and shell. The ir pottery was often decorated For as do all people, the y were swayed by beauty and wondered and worshipped a Supreme Being and a crea(or or the world and life They were peaceful people. They became savage and cruel onty in response to the treatment they r eceived from whites who se ized their food, violated their women$ dispossessed them from their homes, ensl aved them for killing labor in distant la n ds and as hum an pack animals. l'hus the primiti ves were when the w h i te me n came, and it i s worthy of comment that the Amer i c an Indi an, alone in the known history of the world, sur vived invasion by a foe superior in weapons, n u mbers and intelligence. The original Florida Ind ians-the so called Spanish Indians did not survive but nationally other tribes did. It is that there are today nationally more Indians than there were when the while man came. There were perha ps a half million in the p resent United States; now 625,000 Wh e nce cam e these people? Anthropologica l consen sus i s that ages ago -10,000 years. 1 5,0 00 years, 30,000 year s, perhaps 100 000 years

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ago people from Asia crossed the Bering Srraits and slowly over the cen turies fanned out o v er the two American continents. Curiously, along the ridg e s of th e mount a ins o( the western United States, Mexi co, Central America the Andes r idges o f Sout h Am er ic a they reach e d their high est civilizat ion. In mathematics, astrology art ar c hitec t u re they eq u aled or s u rpassed E gypt. T h e y h ad appa rently a grea t l i terature. One o f t he tragedies of h istory is that a l m ost every book was dest r oyed by the Spanish i n the nam e o f rel igio n T h e y failed to discover and a cquire the h ar d metals; gold, silver, copper they had in end less amounts that inflamed the cupidity of the Spaniards, who spent more than two centuri es l ooting them o f this form of wealth Their only utility metal was bronze. But even these metals had not reached Flo r ida. They had n o domes t i c a n imal s when the f a b u lous Cortez wit h 000 m en destro)ed the ten s of tho usands o f co u r ageous ded i ca ted (A zte c ) so l d iers, h i s c h i ef a i d was t hei r terro r at h i s h o rses and h is bloodh o u nds. T hey stood u p t o the crossbow and guns b u t fl ed b efor e the horses and dogs. Leut advanced were thesE' peopl es i n the coasta l Gulf Coasr, including those at St. Petersburg. and the Caribs of the West Indies. A s mof e and more gyptian influence or similarity appears in art. science and physical appearance, scholars and scientists a r e swi ng ing 10 the theory that man entered the Amer icas from the south e n d of South Amer ica rath e r t han via the B orin g S tra i t s a n d tha i it was Egyptiar>s and n o t Mongols who d isc o v e r ed A meri c a W h erhe r th e ad v e n r wa s from the sou th or !he north i t is obvious that the F l orida penins ula was the l a s OCCupied by t he spread i ng peop les. In F lorid a when th e white men came were th e yo ungest a nd most primitive ot the native Indians. Puzzlement to scientists and amhropologists until recently, was the fact that the village sites in Florida including the many within the presen t limi ts of St. P etersburg were dated back compa r ative l y few years, tw o thousand, t h r e e t housand or so years But now it i s kn own t ha t beginn ing p e r haps 6000 ye ars ago the seas bega n to r ise perhap s a foot a h undred years, and o lder t own sit e s were sub m erge d and t h e people re t reat e d t o h i gher gr ound. R ecen tly, D r lyman 0 Warren 721 S F ou rth Avenue North, a n d o th ers hav e begun discovering un dcrwater village sites under Tampa Bay, Terra Ceia Bay, at Caladesi Island and othe r points. Perhaps t he most notable reco veries have been made through the friendly cooperation o f Benton & Co. offici a ls, who h ave a large shell dredg ing oporation in Tampa Bay. Tools, implements and weapons, as w e ll as m ammal bones a ged cyc le s ag o a re being W e modern s know w her-e the compara r iv e l } recen t p re-while peo p les l iv ed bec a use of the mounds t h e y lef t, garbage and re fuse o f s hell a n d anima l bones, and ashes a nd sand: they are a ll l o osely cal l ed Indian Shell M o unds. T hat 's where th e Indians 11 ate and k epr house and somerimes slept. The State Board of Health would nowadays be p r operly horrified, but they survived r ypes of mounds were reli g ious. for the reside n<:e of the c h ief, and fo r burial. There were forty o r rifty mounds of svch varied types withi n p re sent dty limils. Man y h ave been des rroyed b y the f orce s o f P rogr ess." O n e u n u sual mo und b u i l t of s a n d, i n t h e f o r m o l a r u rr l e ar R u p pert prob a b l y wa s t h e w o r k of a w ande r i n g group of Miss issippi River mound bui l ders. Two s u ch m ounds In the vicinity of rh e lighthouse, Tyr one Boul evard and Park Street were destroyed recent ly t o allow a residenti a l subdivisaon. F ortunately Wm Sears .. then of the University of Florida, now head of the An thropological Department of Atlantic University at Boca Raton, conducted a d i g prior o o destruction, upon the urging of Major George D. R obinso n S347 Dartmo u t h Ave nue, .Me rcer Brown of chc S uwan nee 1 1 ote l Tom T Dunn, 1 1 2 6 Count ry Club R o ad an d o r h e r s and the cooperari o n of t he owners R i ch ard D Keys, Jr. and To m H u dson. O n e moun d app e a red r o be o C h ief's domi c i l ia ry mound rho o th e r a r e l igious s ite Pro bab l y Caci que (Chief) Hi rrah igua l ived thert when rhe Span ish exp l orer Pamfi l o d e N arv aez, land ed on the shore of B oc a Ciega Bay abou r April 12, 1528. A stro k e of fortune was that Oavd A. Wan .. a n Engl ish enginee r .. who w a s a pioneer resident on lhe s h o res of B oca Ciega Bay, gave t o the City of St. P e ters burg a portion o f h is homesile a s a park, t o be kept i n i t s prim i t ive con d i tion, and a portion o f t h e H i rr a h ig u a v i llage wa s on thi s l an d. It is now named Aberc rombie P a r k, in ho n o r o f h i s fathetin l a w the C ity's f i r s t doc ro r The Park i s loca t e d ar Park S tr eet and 38t h Aven u e North. C rca(est s troke of fortun e wa s that a few years a go fd C Wright, loca l cap i tal ist and large land owner, deeded to the City of St. Petersburg for a park t he East Half of lot 1S and all of lots 16, 21, 22, 23 and 24 Bloc k 2, Section B Mound Section of Pinellas Point Addition, located a t the Southwest corner of Pinellas Por n! Drive and Bethell Way (approx imat ely 20th Stree t ,) on w hich is locat ed a gr e at mound; p r obab l y a c h i e f 's domi c i l i ary moun d a n d p ossib ly t h e sit e o f rhe high ly controveosia l l and i n g of the g reatest o f t h e Spani s h explo rers H e rnand o de Solo, w h en he c ame a>h ore o n May 2S, 15 3 9 B u t liulc othe r tr ace rema ins of these peopl e except t he mounds. and t hese e arl y people of St. Petersb urg. common ly called the Spanish Indians, toget h er with all the other orig inal South Florida Indians, have disappeared Many were cap tured e a rly i n the Spanish period and sold as sla ves for the mine< and plant a tions in the West Indies. Many died of while w e r e k illed when used as soldie r s i n clashes betw ee n the Engli s h a n d Ame ricans and The end ca m e in 1704 w he n Col. Thomas M oore f ormer Gover n o r of S ou th Carol i na, swept rh r o ugh all f l o r ida destroy ing S p an i s h mission s and t h e I n d i an s 10 r estor e a once glamot ous milit ary rep u tat i o n t arn is h ed w h e n h e f ailed t o c apture Fort Marion at St. Augustin e, in one of t h e in

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numerab l e unoffic ia l wars that fl11'ed between the of florida and the Engli s h and later the Amerions, unril in frustration Spain gc1ve the State to the United States in 1822. Moore saod he enslaved or killed all the Indians "to the end of the fir me grovnd," that is down to the Eve r glades 1\ handful of the original Spanish Indians perhap< hav e surv ived on o n e or th e Bahama h.lands heavily miKed wilh negroes and other Bahamian s No uace of l hcir l anguage S u fviv es. How then do we know so muc h about lhcm? l..lrgel y due to the development in com1>aratively r ecent y ears of the carbon 1 4 method of dating ar t icles of orhcrwisc unknown age. rhe method is based on a system of measuring the amount of radiat ion left in an object after it has been exposed to fire. It is believed to be accurate within 50 or 75 years. no mat ter how many thousands of years have elapsed since the event of fire A s a re s ult of t his dati ng. MJI"'Y patien1 ar c ha eolog i s t s. d igg ing i n the o l d onounds caref ully c h arti n g depths at w hkh pottery and o ther arti f acts occur hav e cons tructed t i m e t a bl es, a n d by other d ev ices hav e established dates of occupancy. foods. weapons, types of houses and many other facets of the i r l ives during lhe varying time periods. I n addirion 10 Or. \Varren and Major Rob inson. there ar e many such skilled people in St. Petersburg. Among them are Frank Bushnell, formerly Professor at Boca Ciega now at St. Petersburg Junior College; Walter Askew gifted 23 year old anthropologist, 5110-30th Avenue North and many persons of th e 60member St. P e tersburg Chapt e r of the F l o r ida .'In thropological Society, headquartered at flor ida P resbyter ian College. In addi tion t h ere is the "Sear c h ers," < l g r o u p of young peopl e of upper Pinellas led by M r a n d Mrs. J ohn White, and the Sa fe t y Harbor H i 6 the p e r manent camp site of d e Narvaez a t th e 1 -tarold Ander son re s idence a t 16 20 P ark Stre e t North rhe J ungle; as r e l a ted offic i ally i n Vol u m e XIX, Numb e r s 1 2-3. 1966 "The Flor ida 1\nthropologist." T h e Sea r c hers a t its Bay View dig (i n a pasture west of Kapok Tree Inn at Seven Oaks) uncovered the s ite of a S ixteenth Cenlury white European camp and Nelson et al, in 1967, at Philippi Park unearthed abundant traces of other Cenlury whites. These e xciting will be discussed further in a chapter dealing with lhe coming of the white explorers of th e early Sixteenth Cenrury. A notable "dig" was made at Weedon I s la n d m o unds by J, Waller Fewk es, of Smi thsonian ln sli luli o n in 1923.24, his fin d i ngs b e ing record e d i n Publi cation 2 787 o f t h e Smithsonian Ins tit u tion. (See 13 Bibliography. ) I h is \vas made ill chc instigatio n of Eugene Elliott, sales manager for 1hc original Slock sale of the Candy Bridge, and promote< of boom time {1925) subdivisions on North fourth Strccr and Weedon's Island. The story has a touc h of fantasy and humor. Seekir>g t o create lot selling publi c i ty for his Weedon l s l,lnd subdivi sion h e "pl an t e d In dian ar tiftlct s i n the h u ge mounds on chc I sland, i n vite d Fcwkes d own at Elliott' s expense for a d ig." F ewkes carne and his experien ce d eye soon discove red ohc "plalll," so he quietly started digging i n other areas. and to E lliott's amazement. made major history -mak ing d iscoveries.' Fewkcs' finds are preserved n the $1. Petersburg llisrorical Sociely Museum. 335 2nd Avenue. N E Museum at the Univcrsly of Florida .tnd the Smtthsonian lnstilulion, Washington, D C. These earl y Indians \\'ere of Timuquan stock. dif fering s harply from th e Indian s of North Florida, bul ;imilar t o the Calus a ol Fort Myer s (Ca lusahatchee Riv(;'lr is t"'amed afle r them. ) Olhcr uibal names bur of the same rada l s t o c k w ere these. Teq uesta. oi t h e M i ;lmi area. the t\ies of Central F lodda's .ur Coast. None of 1hese Ind i ans arc to be confused with t h e Seminol es, who drifted into Florida in the Eighteen th Century as "runawa ys" from rhc Cree k tribes of Georgia and Alabama. (Seminole means runaway.) The Seminoles, Nonh Florida, and South Eastern States Indian> are of Muskhogean and Algonquin stocks. But early ; >eop l es. w h o left so l i ttle rrace, and had n o influence on their w h i l e successors because of their compMativel y heavy setlh,Hnent of th is a rea. proved by being here, what a p lcasan r land i s thi s Pinellas o n whic h S l. P ete r s bu r g i s loca te d. Jo h n A. Be thel l who settled at Slg Bayou in 1859, was by pr(')(ession a fi s h erman ar1d boatbui lde r He loved hunting and ranged frequently over the penin sula that s now St. Petersburg. and did so wilh an ob servo.nt eye and mind. His family was English. having settled in the Bahamas about 1720 Some Bethells e-:entually moved 10 Key West. He and his father. Willia1n, fished and t urtled on Tampa Bay as early a s 1849. He makes i nreresting observations o f the num erous Indian mounds i n this area i n a l i ttl e book he wrot e i n 1 9 14 T h e following is /liJC>ICd from that book: "Before and after the Civi l'vVJ.r was a cl uster of cabbage palms growing o n the sand beach at Poin t fronting on Espirit u Santo Oay, as i t used to be called. which was known as the 'Three Cabbages.' In 1884 the government surveyors cut down two of the leaving only one. since known as the 'lone Palm,' as being a bellef mcuk for true bearings in run ning lines It also answered as a bearing 1 0 a very large mound i n a northwesterly d i rection and abou t three q uartor s of a mile disuu't. This mound d i ffers i n shape a n d construction f rom any other rn ound i n thi s sec lio n o r possi b l y i n th e Staw. In 1872, w h e n Or. Van

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Bibber was exploring the West Coast lor a locat i on lor a sanitarium. and Professor Ag.lSSil was looking up curiosilies for the Smithsonian I nstitution, Captain Eugene Coons met and b roug h t them to my place at Big Bayou I then piloted them through the Poin t and t o thi s mound. (This 1872 dat i ng is undoubted l y i n error, 1882 is probably int e nd ed Edito r) "Alter inspecti ng it, they con c l uded that it was built i n layers of earth and s h ell to the dep t h of about three fee t to eac h l ayer Though they could hardly tell lor a certai nty from the fact that the mound was so thickly covered over w ith s aw palmetto that it was a very dl((icult matter to tell precisely how t h ic k the layers were or whether the earth and shell were mixed u they went on. An excavation In the north side, s i nce made by employes of the Phi ladelphia Ac ademy ol Natural Sciences, woul d seem to disprove the separat e layer theory. Other mounds constructed of eanh a n d s hell seem to show that the s hells were mixed in with th e earthy mat eriaf to be tter keep it in poitlon. "Thete are th ree or more circular excava tions lik e s inkh o les or pond bolloms, f rom which the eart h was taken. The p resent county road along the section line s k irts the largest o f the holes beyo n d which to the south and but a stone"s throw from lhe road stands the mound. "As the mound stands on the h i gh timbe red land about a quaner of a m ile from the present beach line .. the t,.nspora tion of the shell t h it h er is a prob lem The r emains o f a causew a y reaching the top of the mound and gen tl y slop ing toward the sou th may have assi sted in making the depos i t of s h e ll T h e mound is e longat e d i n an almost east and west fine. T h e slope of th e sides i s abrupt except on the south as men ti oned. The lop at the south end had once been le ve led off for fif t een or twenty feet and t erraced over. "'It must ha v e been i n existence many years .. perhaps ages, from the fact that when f f irst saw it. in 1849, it had pine trees growing on i t equaff y farge as any In the neighborhood f did not see the mou nd a:gai n until 1859, and i t was then in a good state of preservation But since the Civil War vandal hands have preyed upon i t so often that now there is scarcely a vestige of t he terra ce t o be seen. "About t hreequart ers of a mil e west and fronting on the bay, G. W Bennett 's cottage sit e i s the easter n extremity of an inter esti ng ridge or mound .. which curves northward and westward tr aversi ng about a quarter of a mile, and comes back along Maximo Road to the bay, then recurves eastward twenty rods or more along the water's edge with the e x tremi t y again thrown back towa rd the west l i ke the end of a mon ster's tail It encloses ten o r more acres, and is generally called a serpent mound. (Sensat i ona l discoveries are cur rent l y being made In rhi s mound. Editor) "This mound is constructed or earth and shell mixed. and the slope o f the l andwa rd side is quite s te e p, so much so t hat i t may h ave been used as a for tifi cation. from Max imo Road west and along the bay 14 is a regular tumb le of mounds of all shapes and s izes. Covered w ith a hammock growth or palms, oaks cedars and shrubbery, this extend s another quarter m ile to near Point Maximo. These are a l so of eanh and s h ell, wilh a large percentage of shell. "Juttin g out from this mound base run two long straight ridges or spurs i n a n o rth e rly direction to a length of several hundred fee t and still six to eight feet h ig h T h ey resemb l e rai lroad e mbankmen t or o l d earthworks. Perhaps i t was intended t o complete t he quadrangl e lor a defen s iv e purpose. A short d i s tance north, al the edge of a bayhead. is still to be seen a wat o rhole where the earth exc avated was thrown up in the m iddle of the two basi n5, making a solid passageway between. These re l ic s are of genuine in terest and should be p reserved as far os possible. West of Point Maximo is a less str i king contin uation of th e shell w o rks lor a good many yards. ''There are many isolated mounds in the lower P oint. There was a hands ome group o n the Kemp e p roper ty at Big Bayou a n d the big oyster shell mou nds al St. Petersb urg were many I t i s a pity that they were n o t preserved intact. i n a publi c park. "It i s very evidenl that many years ago there was n o Booker Cree k but afl solid land where it now r uns .. from the fact that on each side of the creek. several hundred yards northwest from h i gh bri dge, and op posite each other# are two embankmenls of oyster shell that at one time must have been one very l arg e mound spanning the p resent creek Possibly some heavy c l o udburst flooded t h e flatw oods to the north westward c oursed its way th roug h t he la nd as it sloped downwards and unde rmined the mound or for ced a passage throug h i t and wash ed the land away, whic h was the maki n g of the c reek There is a descent o( about fifteen or twenty feet from the bayhead above N inth Stree t bridge and when the flatwoods is fl ooded t h e I all of the water is so great that it gradually wa shes out the cree k and keeps it open. (This violent c h ange in contour probab ly occ urred in the great hurricane of September 23-25 1 848 Editor. ) A real mystery. what appei
PAGE 23

And again it may have been l eft open for retreat by boats i n the eve n t o f an attack by a n e nemy, and the garrison n ot ab l e to hol d t h e i r own. Th e walls on the nor theast and northwest corners were at leasr three feet hig h and gradually s l oped to ab out two feet at t h e waterf ront. "Th i s en cl osur e had two openings, at t h e northeast and northwest corner s, about four teen feet wise, possibl y i nte n ded for s ally ports A remarkable c ir cumstance about the enclosure was that the ground inside was abo u t two feet lower than the land around the for t o n the outside T here wer e cabbage p a lms, oaks and pi nes growing i n the embankment as large as any i n the hammock. high t h is shell had been p iled up originally, how long and by whom, is a mystery that will never be revealed "A great dea l of s hell rema i ns there yet to ma r k the spot where t he fort once stood though in dearing the land the shells were l eve led and t h e timber piled o n them and burned to get it out or the way Besi des, much was hauled off a n d b u rned i n k i l n s for fertiliz e r "It is very ev i dent that there has been some fight ing done on that spo t f rom the fact t ha t i n clearing we fou n d i ns ide the e nclosure qui te a number of arrow heads, some with shafts n ine and one half i nches l ong, in a finely polished state, whi l e some were ve r y c r ude.n T h i s structure fits no s ituation kno .. v n to have oc curred in thi s area. Obviousl y the breastwo rk s w e r e bui l t by people who wan ted to keep retreat by sea open o r who felt no fear from sea attack. Ye t the water depth nor area was suffici e n t fo r large boats to have suppor t e d the defenders of t he fort. No account of the early Spanish explo r er s h i nts of any l and forts Nar vaez and de Soto established camps but no forts. De Leon never made it to shore. The age of the tree s mentioned by Bethell i ndicates a con st ruction time be t ween one and two h u n d red yea rs pdor t o 1 859, which makes i t fit no wars, nor th e Engl ish occupation of 1 7631783 E nglish records were very voluminous and p rec i se. Besi des, Ind ia ns used guns not bows a n d arrows at t hat time. T he i nvas ion by Colonel Moor e and h i s 1500 Creek Indi ans i n 170 4-08 fits timewise, and the peacefu l disposition of rhc original Florida Indi ans may hav e chang ed by 1704 08, a n d as Moore c ame overland the y may have hastily th rown up the < arthworks, p l an nin g to escape by water as a fast r esort Time, a s i t has so often before may solve this enigma, but t h e chances seem remote BIBLIOGRAPHY Exploration of andem Kt'l-' rem t il1!' on d e CuU C<>.lH of Flwida (11lirh 11 Plar est Cushillf; frar'!k H :unil!on 1 h Am erican P hilosoph ica l 104 F iith Sttt: 181)7. ($1. H istorical Soc i ety has. <;(lpics . ( T hi s ('X p l o ration sponsored by HamiiiOr l ownc: r ol <' major pan of t he fand whi(P'l i s now St. P("ICrSI>ug.) Co-rdon R Archt'Oiogy of til e ffotidil Cull Coast Bureau oi Amerkan i!thno log) Sm ithsor'! i (ln lnst i t ttion. t >ublk.ltion N o. 3988 Oe<. 29 t < H9. J. Walter Prt'limina r y Afcheofogical ExpiOtation ac WP.t'ldon Maml. f l orida (21 P late H P u blkati<)r'l 2781 Smithsoni.ln In October 14, 1924 John W Gtifiin and R i plC'r' P Th<> 5aler v H;ubol Sit(', Pint!llas. County, Flor ida. o f F lorida l<.tSo. M W. Sterling. Smit hsonian Repot lvr 193 4 Smicbsoniov Ar theological Proiecu Conducted under the Fed e r a l Eme gco c r Exped itio-n. 1933 3 4 Pages l11 -100. Put;)hc.ation No. 3324 Rlple'! P 8ulltm flevcn Mch<>ological Sites i n H ills bomugh County f l o r id a Flo rida Gt>ologica l Survey, Tallahassee. J 9S2 'IS John W GtiUin 'flit florid.t lndi.w /It)(/ ,\'eigh b O t $ lnwr Am t rican COIOg ical Tl t' Tcu.a CffA S i re C oun!y flo !ida Pubficv' i lle. $ w;) r l (t:m John R ftK.fi.w Ttibes of rhe lowet M ississipp V.dl ()' ;w(/ of thr: Gull of MC'Kico. Bur eau oi A m e r i(' ,ln Hhnology. Smithsonian Insti t u t i on. 8ullf:fin .J3. '<\"as h i ng( Oil tnstilution. T h e Indians of lht Soud)eJ.Ht-rn Urli(r.(/ StoW5. 8ureau of :\me r i can Ethnology. 1 37 \\>'as h ingt<)n. WI Uf) per Tr I %4. 'n, Lyman 0 dnd R i p ley P Bull e 1l. A O,tllon cornpltx (tom florida Thr: F lorida Anthmpologi s t. Volume XVIII NQ. 1 1965. Bushnell. Fra nk. Thf' M l :.::.'mc:> Pohll S it('. Th( f l o r ida t\nthropologi sl. Volume XV No. 4 OC!(:
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Chapter IV THE EXPLORERS And Moses sent them a spy our of the land o f Caanaan, and said unt o them, Get y o u up this way southward, and go up into che mountain; And see the land, what It is; and the people that dwel/eth th e1ein, wheth e 1 they be Jrtong 01 weak1 lew Ot many; And what the l and is that they dwell in, whether i t be good 01 bad; and what cities they be that the y dwell in, whether in rents, o r in strong holds; And what the land is, whether it be Ia t or lean, whe th er th e r e b e wood th e r ein 01 not. And be ye of good courage, and bring o f the fruit of th e land. Numbers 1 3 : 17-20 At n o poin t in the enrirc continenta l United States there gteater pageantry. more stirring events .a g audier procession of great leaders, bearers of o n per is hable names than in the St. Petersburg area during the exploratory and early occupational period of th e new world conques t by the first perma nent c-onquest and settlement by the while men who in the process co nquered and well nigh des tr oye d the Red P eop l e I t i s a grea t r egret t h at a lmos t n o vis ible ev idc11cc ol th at brave day remains. Even the l i s t o/ n ames st irs the b l ood. Sebastian Cabot (maybe) 1496 Amerigo Vespucci (probably) t498 Alberto Cantino 1502. Map publisher. Not an expl o r er Ponce de Leon in late May 1513. He came l\vice. Diego Miruelo 151 & Francesco Hernandez de Co rdoba (Cordova) 1517 Francesco de Ga r ey 1 5 19 (A lso A l varez de Piu eda, Co mmander) (with t he g reat p i lot A n to n de Alaminos who also piloted de Leon.) 16 An unknown s h i p f rom whic h 17 bodies of d ead w h ite Europea n s w e r e found P o nce de Leon ('1521) P am fi l o de Narvaez April 14 or ts 1528 H ern ando de Solo May 30-31, 1539 Frey Cancer 1 549 Pedro Menendez de Aviles 1565 Escalenl a Font aned o 1575 (He gave Tampa its name) and a forever u n known un na med, swarm of other bold u nlic ensed, slave hunt e r s and treasu r e seek ers (Dear reader, f ret not i f th e s pelling of so m e of t hi s l i st of famou s e xp l o r ers differs from that yo u ha ve seen cls<>wh cre. Th e r e were freque n tly many va r i ants in the spel li ng Th ere i s eve n controversy over the s p e lling o f as r ecent a name as "Odel Philippe" even thoug h he spelled it this way i n his homes t ead applica tion on November 1 1a.2.) And let it be said with all candor, there is ser ious doubt and o ften great c ontrove rsy among present day historians (and Chambers of Comm erce) where many of them landed and even whet h er they l anded at all. A s t o o n e Pamfi l o de Narvaez. there is now n o doubt. And where P amf i l o l anded de Solo's an c h o rage and land i n g plac e was for c erta i n near by. Ther e is sound r e a son, h owever fo r deducting that except as to Cabot, Amer i go, and Cant ina, they all came t o or int o T ampa Bay. All KN O WN landings were ot Tampa Bay. Ocean pilots i n that day were a close knit and privileged grovp of pe ople. Piloting the high, clumsy, squa r e r i gged, sailing v esse ls of tha1 day w as a s kill requ iring a life time of study ap titude t i nged w i t h genius and flavored with luck and high courage. Th e p i l ots were a fra t erni t y born of th eir f e wness ol num b e rs, s imilarity of i n te rest and ins tin c t t o surv i ve. T he y exchanged c h.uts and i nforma ti o n and expe ri ences. As ther e was u s u ally m onths of living i n port w aiting for s upplie s and crews, long waits at ports en route

PAGE 25

nd plen ty of grog shops i n seaports there was good time and good fellowship for the exchange of infor mation It was but natural when one pilot reported t o others he had found and explore d a vast, deep land lock ed h a r bor o t hers woul d go the r e too when in that part of the world. ProbabJy it wUI nev e r be k nown what while European first set foot on what is now St. Pet ersburg soil. His reason for being here. for sure, was to rob. loot, acquire sudden wealth. When th e Spanis h rulers ferdinand and Isab ella, realized i n part w hat fab u lo us wealth i n the form of gold, s i lver and pr ecious stones s udde n v isibl e wealth exi sted, merely for t h e taking i n this new wor ld, inadvertently discovered by Columbus, in search of a new route to Ind i a they not only clamped down an iron curtin of censo r ship against the resl of the European powers, but a lso rigidly r egulated, and co nt r olled and ex p loited that wealth as iar as was possible t o th e enr ichment of t heir treas ury. I f n o thin g e l se, those two h ereditary rul ers of Spa in were a prac tical couple when it came to a doflar. o r rather a piece of eight. It was made unlawfu l to wrhc about or gi ve any tccount of voyages t o the ne1-v world and what edsted there. H e nce all th e earliest p u blished a c counts of travels t o t hi s new worl d came from Ital y France, the Germani c states, and co untries o t h er than Spain. T h e great Span ish were released later But it is now abundantly obvious that the wor d spread l i ke wildfire from tongue t o tongue and lost nothing in the telling. Those seeki ng to exploi t the wealth of the Americas were l icensed and reg u lated after careful and tho ught. And almost w it h o u t exception th e c r ow n was to receive at l east 20 p e r cent of all things of value re<:over ed, the can ny monarch s us ually send ing along their personal repr esentatives to keep the books. Cos ts of an e xpedition were usually a t the ex pense of the e
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named Alarmed a t the threat to their near monopoly of shipping the merchants of Florence had enjoyed, particularly in the Mediterranean and between thefe nd Asia by over1and rout es, because of their strategic location on the Mediter ranean and their e nergy and enterprise, they employed Amerigo lO go spy out the Columbu s lands. His try was cloaked in deepe st secre cy, a l though he was a fami lia r o f Chr i s t oph e r Col umbu s a1)(l act u.llly sai l e d f ro m Cadi z on May 1 0, 1497, as n avi gator i n a fleet o f four caravel s Sailing through the \Nest Indies the flee t reached the Yucatan Peninsu la coasted the Gulf of Mex ico past the mouth of th e M i ssissippi "until, in the Iaue r part of April of the following year (1498), he reached the lower end of the Peninsula of Florida. perhaps in the vicin ity of Cape Florida. Still hugging the shore, he crepl up the Coast (Atlantic) t o the nonh until i n June of the same year, he anchored in C h esareake Bay." (Subs t a n ce o f a letter fro m Vespucci t o a friend w r iu e n o n Sep t ember 4, 1 504 ) G reat doubt a n d s k epticism as t o th e au t hority of hi s t rip, hi s a ccuraq in r eponing it, exist e d for cen ruries, until d ispelled r ecently. by modern research. It is now becoming widely a ccepted Amer i go w e n t where he said he did. But despite the fact he s a w the Mississippi 44 years before de Solo did the Iauer will doubtless continue to get the credit His trip wa"S of ficia l. Beyond reasonable doubt Vespucci s k i rted the shores of Tampa Bay and St. Petersburg Not inhibited by the Spanis h order of silence on new worl d d iscoveries, Italian. French and German ic writers b egan rc(ccrin g to the new w or l d as Ameri go s land; because o r w r iting s and charts based o n h i s voyage The Spanish knew more w e r e n o t allowed r o p u blish their e x c iting discoveries The Cant ino map of second of those known today which showed I he new world1 was made b y an unknown canographer for Alberlo Cantino, of Rome, about November 17, l502. Neil her Cantino nor his car tographer apparently had been to the new world; the map probably being made from data supplied by Amerigo and ot her now unknown voyage r s ma p show s Cuba as an is land. The trend and lal olude of F l01id a i s approx i mat e l y correct as i s rhe Atlan ti c coast to about t h e 59th d egree of l a t itude W ith a b i t o f patrio t ic i magina t ion a fri e ndl y reade r can pick out what i s now known as T ampa Bay. Florida i s sho w n as roughl y triangu la r i n shape. In discussing the next great name. rhat of Ponce de one comes to orw of those myster ies of \vritten history Almost without exception historians dwell on the theme that Ponce touched shore on the Atlantic seaboard, somewhere between St. Augus tine and the St. Johns River o n E .aster motning. while in search of the Fountai n of Youth. H e was then 40, an o ld age i n those days A c tua lly i t was the Friday b e fore East er, a n d h e was in searc h of slaves for his p l ant ation a nd for s a le. th e I ndians. orig i nally fri e n d l y and gen ile 16 unless hungry had b y then become sadly aware of th e treachery and designs of these myslenous whole bearded giants, and drove de leon of'.'vilh flights .of well aimed arrows... Competent cyewnnesses tes.ttfy the I ndians had amazing could seo\d a s tone tTppe
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q ian. s aboard his vessel, was poss essed of gold, there _..gf.lle to the ships a canoe with an Indian who under stgod Spani sh T hey s u pposed h im to be a nati ve of Flispaniola, or of one of the i s l ands whi c h t h e Spaniards had sett l ed, and he asked th em to remain, asilie caci que would send gold to barter The advenltlle>readi l y f ell i nto the tra p so cleverly baited for waited. Soon there appeared twenty .__ ... canoes, some of them being fastened toge ther i n pairs andrawi ng near t h e flotilla d ivi d ed one part making for tfie ships and engaging t h em i n battle U nder cover O flh i s attack, t h e othe r div i s ion made for the ancho rs, 7lld;" Un able to we i gh them. attemp ted t o cu t t he A l ong boat was sent out from the s h ips, whic h put the Indians to flig h t k ill i ng some and cap tunng f our prisoners One Spaniard was k i lled. Two of these Ponce r e le ased and sen t to the cacique w i t h a 111essage that, t h ough he had killed a Spaniard, he ..VOuld make peace with h i m. The following day, Satur day, the boat wa s sent o u t tnJQ.und the harb o ur Here t h e crew was met by some Indians who said that the cacique would come next day to trade. Again the Span iards allowed t he mselves ta be dece i ved As .it subsequent l y appeared, t h e was but a subterfuge to gai n t ime i n orde r to men and canoes J "for at eleven of the c l ock, eigh!Y. canoes well equ i pped attacked t h e nearest s hip ana fought from morni n g till n ig ht, without however, -!!Oing.the Spani ards a n y ha rm;" for the Indians f earing the cross bows and great guns, kept a t such a distance !E\JMir arrows fell sho rt. At last the In d ians d r ew off and the Spaniards. ha v i ng passed n i n e days in that neogn horhood, resolved o n Monday, the fo u r teenth, to . r eturn to Hispaniola and Puerto Rico I n this Struggle ca!!,!:!.Qr s were used for the first time i n Co.n tioental U n1ted States -This one S pani a r d k i lled is the first offi c i al deat h i n battl e of a whi te man i n the p resen t United States. d ied, as the 17 previous l y mentioned, but they were unofficial, hence made littl e or no i mpreSsi on on the h i storians o r readers. .:.J[n . the ret u rn tr i p discovered and named the jslands of the Tortugas R e turning toward his fiome base, P u erto Rico, de l eon ran i nto an unau tfiorized "boot leg" ship under the command of Mirue l o, famous p i l ot, while c r uising t h e Bahamas. -Thus due l argely to the deter mined Pinellian In d ians, the f i rst official attempt to COnqUer a n d colon i z e F l o r ida. after de l eon returned from Tampa Bay (1516) Dicg(?Nii'ruelo, apparently the same Ponce had elicouiilered j n 1513, .cruised t h e Gulf Coast o f -flil' rTdif," \raded for gold with t h e Indians kept the i n Rmnalion tle-Oad Obt a i ned for himself. and probab l y The next Febr uary, 1517, Francisco Hernandez de Cordova, with the officia l b lessi ng or the Gove rnor of Cuba, w ith whom, in fact he had made a deal he .traded him a car go of Yucatan I nd ia n slaves i n payment for one of his three ships departed with 19 110 men. One of the crew, Berna l O i ez, destined to participate i n the c onquest of Mex ico und e r Co r tes, a n d help immortalize t h at saga w i t h his g reat acco u n t of those stirr i ng eve nts, l ed a revo lt that t u rn e d th e p urp ose of t h e voyage i n to o n e of d i scove r y instead of s lav e hunti ng afte r th e t hen wised -u1> Yucatan In d i ans had k illed half of Co r dova's men Sai l i n g for Cuba a s t o r m drove th e s h i p northea s t erly u n til o n e of the p ilots, Anton de A l aminos, w h o had a lso pi l o ted Ponce de leon, r ecogn ized the coast the y ap proached as being t he en trance of th e bay, de l eon ha d visited T hey entered to get wate r Again t h e St. Petersburg Indians attacked Both Cordova and Ala minos were wou nded and Cordova died ten days later in Havana to which t he expedition returned to rep ort a nother fai lur e to the Governor of Cuba T he wate r was probably drawn from l ake Magg i ore o r M i rror take. The n e x t known g reat exp lore r to see St. Pete rsburg soil was Fran cisco de Ga r ay, who d i d t he most notab l e job of discovery and chart mak i ng or them all except Amerigo u n t i l t h at time. Garay had sailed with Co lumbus on h i s s econd voyage h ad become Gove r n o r of J amaica u n der C h r i stophe r's son, Diego. Fired by reports or t h e gr e at wealt h part i cu l ar l y i n gold r epo r ted at various Gu l f of Mexico 1 >oints he got offi c i al permission to e xplo r e fro m Fr iars of the Order of St. Jer ome, a t that time governors of the Indies under the Spani s h Kin g and sen t fo u r well equipped carave l s u nder command of Alonzo A l varez d e Pineda and ou r o l d pilot friend Alam i nos. This was in t h e year 1519 Pineda spent almos t a year explo r i ng. mappi n g a n d sound i ng the enti r e Gulf coast from the south t i p o f Florida to Tam pico, Mexico. including the delta and mouth or the g r eat desp i te w h ich u nacco u n tably, h istorians cred i t H e r nando de Soto w i t h discovery twenty years late r Pineda r emained 40 days i n the Mississippi delta Pineda and Alaminos made a masterly c h art of t h e whol e coas t which was f orwarded ro the K ing and still r eposes in the great Span ish ar chives. (Thousands, pe r haps tens of t h ousands, of documents, still repose i n those treasure houses, not t o thi s good day trans l at e d i n t o Engl i s h .) Th i s chart and voyage ended for all time the per siste n t i llusi on that F lori da was an isla n d This chart and repo r t inc i den tally establishes for certa in th at Ponce de Leon, i n his f i rst tr i p u p t he Gul f Coast in 1513, traveled as far as Appal achee Bay. Beyond any quest i on the de Garay -Pineda ex pedition l ooked on t he s h o res of St. Pet ersburg. De Garay app l ied for and r e ce i ved a gran t to an area th en called Amiche l extendi n g fr om Pen sacola to Cape Roxo i n Mex ico. The grant from t h e new Empe ror of Spain spec i f i ed i n stern, vigorous l ang u age that en slaving, slaug h tering and p l undering the Indians must cease b u t instead that vigorous efforts be mad e to C h rist i anize the nat ives. But l ove of G o l d con ti n ued to do minate t h e explo rers instead of a l ove of God De Garay led two expedit i o n s attempting to s e ttle h i s

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grant, failed was finall y captu red by Cortes. and died in the C i ty o f Mex ico. Whil e Vas q uez d e Ayllon the grea t Spanis h exp l o r er and (Oi o niz:er of the At l antic Seaboard, wa s prep.Jring the first of his e x peditions, which witnessed two settlement s on the Eastern seaboard of the United S tates, two failures, a nd the event ua l death of Ayllon Ponce de leon ndertook h is second voyage t o the Flor ida Gulf coast p urpos ing to foun d a Col ony. l'hi s o ne had official b lessi n g before i n stead of af ter. But it too failed, de leon losi n g not only the great fortune he had ac cumulated but his Ji(e. lowery says: W riti ng t o Cha rles V, in a lette r da t ed the 10th of Febr uary 1521, he says: "Among my s ervices I dis cov ered ac my own cost and charge, the I sland of F l o r i da a nd others in the distr ict . and now I return to that Island, ii it please Cod's will, t o settle if . I )hall set out t o purs u e my voyage hence i n fi v e or six days. From thi s i t app e ars th a t Ponce still s upposed F l or i da to be an island. as we see i t repr esented in lh e so- were killed, Driven off again by the determined resistance of the natives. Ponce finally re-embar kcd with his people an d re turned t o Cuba. losing on the w a y one of his ve.ssels, which, with the a rmament, ulrimat e l y fe ll into the h.t nds of Cortes. H e d ied o r the wound he had received w i thin a few days of h i s return. His body was sen t to Puerto Rico for burial Commenting on the fa1lure of the expedition. Oviedo observes: .. The time was not yet come for th e conversion of that land a n d prov ince r o our Holy C.uholi c fili th since il was allowed lha t t he devil s h o u l d still these I ndia n s w i t h h i s dece it s a nd the populati o n of hell be swelle d by the i r sou l s." The discoverer of Florida was a typical conquist ador; he was a ctive, enterprising, r es tle-ss, ex perienced, and somewhat s k e p tical o f common reports, if the negat ive evide n ce offere d by his grants may b e a ccepte d and th e gossip of t h e lime, whi c h has sur vived tO our da y o1nd w h i c h ascrib e d h i s iirst 20 exped i t ion to a search for the founta i n of perpet ua l yo uth, his pa t e nts and grant s make n o m e ntion o f it. A ll visitors to the Florida C u l i Coast r eport the In dia ns of that area h a d a linle gold, to which they at tached little value. A half lifetime of search by Mont ague T a llant, of Bradenton, ndic. at es rather cle arl y tha t one o( t he Spanjsh trea sure ships en route from Mexic o City o r Ve ra Cruz was wre cked on this coast, probably at Ooca Grande The I ndians th e r e h ad t he most g old. those to the north a n d so uth of th e r e in diminishing amounts the further from Boca Grande. And then came Pamfilo de Narvaez, t ha t courageous, tempcsruovs soldie1 of f ort u n e, who ted his milit ary life i n th e n e w wotl d as th e Lie utenant o f D i ego de Valesq uez, Gove rn o r of Cuba, i n conquering that Island. He wa.s sent by the Governor to bring Cortes to heel, who had been commissio ned by the K ing t o conquer Mexico, under direc tions of th e Cuban gove rnor. Cortes h ad defied the G ove rnor's o rdersmos t ly i n not sen d ing to him a part of the enormou s q uantities o( gold and s i lver and pre cious stones he seized. Cortes easily outwi tted Narvaez He filled the pou c hes and purses of some of his soldi ers w i th gold, had t hem infilt ra t e N ar vae z s m e n as lhe i r l eader was p r e pa r i n g for ba tt l e T hese me n s aid i n e ff ect: look boys the money Is o n our side Come join us.." They promptly did. When Narvaez protested, c ha r ged among his men 1 0 disci plin e them, i n t h e r esu lting scu ffle he had a n eye knocked o u t Cortes thu:w him i n fail release d h im w hen h e prom ised l oy alty, which he gave and became wealthy from his shar e of the loot. Returning to Spain he asked for an d was granted a kingdom from the R i o de las Pat inas to the Cape of F l orida As was th e c u stom, he fitt e d o u t an a t his own expense, recr u i tin g his men f r o m Casti l e Eager to get to the fab u l ous New Country o i gold, volunteers easily filled his ranks On Jun e 17, 1527, Narvae z sailed with 600 colo nists and sol diers franci5c.an friars and neg r oe s l'h e St>anis h h ad found by now t hat th e free dom loving Ind ians made poo r s l aves often esCaping, som e t imes s t arvi ng them se l ves to death or perst.ad i ng a fellow slave 10 kill them rather than endure slavery. Vasquez de Ayllon had gone the summer before with a large following to colonize the Atlantic Coast, set tling f irst a t Cape Fea r a nd then a t the Pedec Rive r but both a ttempts faile d miser ab l y His att empt e d set t l e ment is nota b l e ior the fact that h e fi rst Introdu ced negro slaves into America. With Narvaez wa.s C011ber,. de Vaca treasurer# high sheriff and rnstorian. name signifies Cow's t 1ead, b estowed on an ance s t o r for an e xploit th a t enabled the K i ng of Na varre to surprise and defeat an Army of Moors, who wer e invading h i s t errilory. A secret narrow defil e was mark ed by t he an cestor with the

PAGE 29

s keleton o r a cow's h ead t o poi n t t h e way. Th i s d e Vaca a g iant Moroc<:an neg r o and a t hird rn a n were t he only survivor-s o f t h e de Narvaez expeditiOn1 thei r e igh1 yea r s of h a r ds h i p s kill and courage whic h enabled t hem to trave l on foot from North F lorida t o Mexico Ci t y const ituti ng t h e most remar kabl e saga of adventure of t h e e)ti re S p a n i s h e xp l oratory per iod De Vaca told the story when he returned to Spai n. After many mishaps and misadventures, i ncluding a d i sastro u s hurr i ca n e in \'Vhich t w o sh i ps a n d s i xty men wer e los t, t he surviving four s h i ps wer e ap: poaching Havana when a secon d storm drov e t h e m North. The coast of F l o r ida came in sigh t Apri l 1 2, 1528. Sailing north th e pilot fai l ed to find the mouth of Tampa Bay fo r which he a i med, and the sh i ps a n chored of( what i s now known as Jo h ns Pass or perhaps B lind Pass, on April 14, 1528. T h e b i g s h i ps appa rentl y did not enter Boca Ciega Bay ( Boca Ciega mea n s B l ind Mouth in Spanish), and of coursP. the n ame of B l ind P a s s c arr ies out t h e same i dea in Engl ish. Johns Pass as we now know i t probabl )' did ex ist at this t i me. The next day a l .lndi n g wJs made a l a n Indian Village apparently with small boats. De Vaca reports t h ere was a l ong house-" capab l e of h o u s i ng mor e t h an three h undred persons But the I ndians h ad fled Next day, April16, 1528, de Narva ez landed officially and with g reat pomp and ce r emony took possess i on of the lan d in t h e nam e of hi s Ki ng Thi s taki ng posses s i Of'l il' the nam e of t h e K i n g was an absurd ap pear i ng performance The Cornma ,der would have his men on dress parade, round up a group of nat i ves and r ead in Sl)anish a long legal document, ca refully prepa red long i n advance in Spa i n, its purpose being t o lay leg a l claim to t h e area for later diplomatic and m i l itar y deali ngs w ith other n at ions and c l a i mal'l l S There had been the us ua l controversy as to th e l a nd i ng site. Many favor a p o int ir l C l ea rwater Bay, a fe-w Charlotte Harbor. However in recent years histo rian s have rat h e r u na n jmously agreed on the shores of Boca Ciega Bal' at the Jungl e fo r th e r easo n de Vaca, the h istorian, notes that 01'1 (he f i r s t dav's march t h e course was northeast and the marchers "at t h e hour of vespe rs, reached a very larg e bay which app eared t o swee1) f ar i n l a nd." A carefu l study of the g eography discloses that at no other point on I he florida Gul f Coast <:an a pers o n march Nort hea s t f rom the Gulf and c.omc to another l arge bay, except a long the sou thern end of the Pinellas Pel'linsu la. 11'1 other words de Narvaez landed on t h e shores of Boca Ciega Bay i n St. Pete rsbu rg a n d marched northeas t to Safety Harbor. In 1965 this l andi n g point was very def i n i te l y nailed down to a very specif i c poi 1)t by archaeolog i cal work and discoverie s by a group l ed by Prof. Francis Bushne ll of St. P ete r sburg Junior College, on th e beaut i fu l propert y of Mr. and M rs. Harol d Anderson, l.ot 2 B lock 'T', Jun g l e Shores, as pre v iousl y stated. Mr. a n d Mrs Anderson who, in addition to notewor thy fame as gardeners and growers of tropi ca l and sub tropical p l ants and f l owers, ar e devotees o f Flor id a 21 history, read ily agre e d to l arge i n their yard afler encouragi ng evidence had been found tha1 white men had camt>ed in th i s a rea many year s ago. In years p ast two o ld swords had been f o und in the huge k itchen m idden Indian mound. the h ig hest point of which i s on the A n derson property, v,rhich mound has been carefully pres erved b.,, lhern One swor d \ \ 'as i ntact. th e seco n d consisted o( the e laborate h ilt and about 12 inches oi b l ade. Bot h u n fortu na tel y were stolen Professor Bushnell f o und Maj olica ware, Ch i n a ware much in use at that time, met a l and or her har d objects, all be i ng th ose associa ted w ith whi te Europeans. One object was apparently part o f a pair of scissors. T h e Indian'.! possessed n o meta l s ex.cept a few gol d ornaments bel ieved 10 hav e obtai n ed in uade with l)eddl ers from Nor t hwest Georg i a or the Boca Grande area The d e pths of the finds. keyed to p i e c e s o f rec:overed Ind i an p ottery, t h e ages of which have been dete rmin ed by skilled archaeolog ist s over the past two by use of the carbon 1 4 method and by painslaki ng comp.1r i s on(, with tenr. of thousa1)ds or o t her pottery fixes th e date approxi mately at the t ime o f the Narvaez expe-dit ion. At a.I)Other point i n thi s accoun t the-dates of beginn i n g or end of oc cupancy of various major I n d i a n mounds in the T am p a Bay a rea are s e t out. U nanimously qualified au thorities hc1vc accepted th e Bushnell d i g as the s ite or Nar vaez' fi rst encamp ment, a defi n i te p i n pointing rar e in connection with expeditions of the Sixtee nth Centurv The ne a rby Jung l e Prado building i n fac t rests on top o f a l arge Indi a n burial mound. This writer e r ected th i s building i n 19231924 u nder t h e dir ect ion of P 1 McDevitt fath e r o f C ity Attorney Fr,tnk M cDevin, and a f oc.mder of Pinellas Park. There were ser i o u s con struction d i fficulties, notab l y buil d i ng the foundations over a f resh water Slream whic h flowed from a spring on the east s ide of Par k Street As the fou ndations were n eari n g compl e tion this writer compl a i ned about the delay, w hereupon M r McDevitt explained tha t in addition to the troubles over t.he stream he had been d e l ayed because the r e were so rnanv human skeletons i n the way. So apparently several h undred d ead Indians h ave t heir f i nal rest i ng p l ace marked and p r eserved by a rathe r i mpressive t h r e e hundre d foot l o n g buil d i ng, archi tecturally Spanish i n style (192 5 boom time Spanish, tha t is.) T his Anderson Mound is one of a complex of 23 mounds orig inally stretching from about Jsth Avenue North a l o n g the 6ay to the Semi n o l e Br i dge lvlost have been destroyed i n the p rocesses o f "urbanizing;" one at the Sem inole B r i dge, fully as l arge as the o n e at the Anderso n property was largely u sed to hard su f ace 30th and 38th Avenues North when they were f i rst built by the County i n 1914 as a first hard surfaced route to Clearwate r A considerable por tion of the Mound complex i s perma nen t!)' p r eserved within Abercrom bie Par k, located between 37t h and 39th Avenues a nd Boca

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Cicga Bay and Park Streel. Anorher portion remains largely intact in Parque Narvaez. Subdivision; due ro the public s p i r ited of the young developers. R C. Key, Jr and Tom Hudson. Th & 1wo con i cal sand mounds however, located south and wes t of th e lighthouse R es t aurant, were d es troyed Wm. Sea r s, Archaeol og i s t formerly of Untv e r 51ty o( F l orida now florid3 Atlant ic Uni vers i t y i n Ooca Rat o n explored them b e for e rmoval. One of these mounds is certain l y th e c h ict's residence. men tio ned in th e accou n t of the de Narvaez ex pedit ion. W e know that the name o f the c h ief or c acique wa s I lirrahigua (chi-s name, like most t ndian names o( thai e<. has a half dozen varied spellings ) There was a permanenl fresh water stream at whal 1s now the Prado buifdmg. and another immediare l y behind (sourh of) the l ighlhouse Restauranr, therc(O f P the two huge kitchen midde n s w e re on the Ray shore adja c e n t, convenient t o water wood omd food s upplies The second coni cal moun d was pr(')bab l y rel i gious in nature. Bcrwee n t he two principal kitc hen midde n s {fragmen l s rema i n a1 spots ) several s hell h eaps, bvt there were <1 number of small ones o f odd s hapes, apparently mostly of sand, there bcinl': no expert ar description of explorations of rhem, which would have indica ted their uses, by archaeologists. There has been too much progress" in rhe area to leave any decipherable story . H e r e al rhis t eemi ng primiti v e community of ap parenlly S('vNal hundred Pamfi l o de Narv aez landed with hi s stuviv in g 400 men and 42 horses As will be se e n t h ese horses becarn c vha ll y important i n a few 5 hort m o n ths And a s fur 400 they evenlUa l l y dwin d led to three. Aller th e absvrd alld bomb.a scic ceremony of reading i n sonorous Spanish the docu rncnt to the uncomprehending Indians lurking behind uces and in the scrvb palmetto, who under stood not .:. word, N arvaez left his main body of men al ril e vill age 11 w a s doublless rh eir camp liuer as they resrcd and furbished rheir gear, 1 hal Prof. Bus hnell reCO\'eredand with a s mall party marched nonhcas t to Philippi Park where h e found another grear communiry h eade d by a c hicl nam e d Tocobago I I was h ere tha t Na(vae.c: found the bodies of 17 dead Spa niatds. traces of gold, and Ind i c ations !ha t a s h ip had been w recked and looted n e arby. H e then returne d to h is orig i na l camp and o n a :,econd shon foray v is iled still another inhabited area, probably Point Pinellas or \tVeedon lsl .. nd, o r even Maximo Poinr, ahhough !he Iauer hvo had abandoned b y 't528 by rhe Indians. A Council was I hen held on future moves. Pamfilo. true t o his impetuous nature, was all for plunging ah ead. 0(!Spi1e almost ulanimou> opposition from th e other leaders, th e Commander decided 10 march non h The four s h ips were 1o l d 10 c oa s t t)O r 'th unti l a n o t her good ha rbour was found and await th e over land marchers. They fo u n d n o harbour, doubled 22 found the entrance of Tamp a Bay. searched rhe shores for rhe expedition, aided by a fifrh ship which had tarried in Ha vana. Finding norhing they returned r o New S pain (Cuba). The lnd expedrion h eaded f'IOII h o n Sunday, 1 \'\a y 1, 1528 after two weeks spe-nt mos tly on th e Boca Ciega Bay s h o res, wi1hin 1he ci1y lirnils of St. Pe tersburg. I n lwo week s the With1aC<)O<: hee was reached thai time th e m en had redu<:ed to subs i sli ng mainl y on scrub pal m c u o buds and cabbage palmetto (Sable) hearts. R a ft s wer e built to cross the rive r N e xt th e Suwan nee ; whe r e thE' c r o s sin g was expedile d by chc loan of In dian dugout canoes from a group hvang on the river I>ted 25 days. by which t ime th.e com had been eaten; small forage parti wcren'l the re. A t h i rd o f the m e n were s ick They s truggi H d o n w es t to Appa lathec Bay. l ler e i l was dccid!ld to take to the sea i n a desperJI(' e lfort to r each M ex i co. W it h only one shi p's carpenter the men made five phifully makeshift open boats. The hO<$e< were k illed the meal used lor food, the hides lor rhe boar hulls over wooden ribs, the tail s and manes and leather from small an imal.s for rigging the m en's blankets for sails. The f o rlorn crazy f leet sel sai l o n Se poember 22, t S2H. there r10w bein g onl y 242 s urvivors All boats w e re eventually l osr or wrecked, d e N a rvaez being i n th e first o n e The fifth reac h e d a large is l at d a t Matagorda Say near th e T exas-loui s i ana l i ne when i t was wre<"k ed on November 6, 1 528 Survivor s of lhe th i r d bodt found rhose of the filt h t h e l otal now being down to 80. Only 1S lived to escape from rhis island Aher a winter o( near star valion and surfering irom cold lhe men naked by now-only De an ot her Spaniard named 0\1iedo and the huge Monocon Negro. Es1ivanico, Of as he was f r equently called. surv i ved. 1 h e n a ianra stic situalion d e ve l o ped. Usi n g hyp noti s n apparently an d ritualist i c hocus pocu s, t h e the" pose d as healer s of the s i ck and it worked. Th e y becam e tre a ted gods, panic \) l ar l y Est eva n. Trib es and groups lought t o get th e m ro sray with

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them They were too s u ccessful. After weeks of dissimulation they would manage to escape, only 10 be captured by the next group and held; and the whole process would unfold again At the end of eight years of !hi s fan1a stic existence they reached Mexico City A(ler a brief period of g lory and renown V.tc.a had ha d enou gh rewrned t o Spai n and perpetual fame fr o m the great adven iU r e book he insp i red which so f,li 1hf ully and with s u ch vivid d escription and detail r e J)OrlS t he e ntir e de N arvaezde Vaca ad venture. But de Vaca l ive d out hi> life under an ill star. The Spanish Empero r re ceived him well but vacillated T hree years before r ewarding" him with the gover norshop of La Plata and task of conquering the fierce Pariembos the Parcl8uanian Indians unconquered to this day, who inhabited the headwaters of the La Plata R iver De Vaca had sought the gove r norship of Florida as successor to the perished Narvaez:. The La Plala ex. p cdi li o n (ailed Impover i s h ed, de Vaca was cast i n to prison rema i ned t here six years, banished to 1\frica died whe r e, wher a n d how1 nobod y knows In earlier day s th e pena lt y of de fe at for publi c servant s was usually deat h ; today a per1s i o n As f o r the N egro Estavan, he capitalize d well o n his fame, as a fawned upon hero he led two great ex ploration expeditions into California. Arizona and New Mex ico. But he finally overplayed his hand. On t he second he had become so arrogant in his treat ment of the Indians, at one la rge town the inhabit a nts mobbed h im and lynched him. To ret urn t o Sl. P etersbu rg, a s h i p eventually arriv e d at th e orig i na l l andin g sil e from t -lavana !despa t c hed by de N arvaez's wife ( s h e was his \'Vidow, but u yet d i d not know that ) t o searc h fo r the exped it io n Anchoring i n fr ont o f t h e orig inal point of departure on the land ma rc h the men aboa rd tho u ght the y saw a pap er i n a cleft s ti c k o n t h e sho re Surely a message from Pam fifo! Two priests were rowed ashore by an 18 year old youth J uan Orti z As they stepped on the beach Indians hidden in the dense growth, rushed out. slaughtered the two priests fo rthwith and took J uan before Hlrrah ogua as priso ner. l h en began the ep iso d e t hat has s pawned a half dozen books and romantic tale s of eve r y shade of sen t ime nt al lty and fantasy. Opera s hav e bee n w r itten, po e m s sung fab les spun th e great, ten de r r oma nc e b et ween Juan and "Pri ncess" Hirrahlgua T h e truth i s Hirrahigua tort ured the boy, en s l aved 23 him, assigned him to K .P. and the detail to guard dead bodies against the ravages of wolves at night and in cunlons of buzzards by day The Indians exposed dead bodies on h ig h platforms until onl1 skin and bones r emained before be ing buried Eventually he escaped, took refug e with a nearby Chief, probably at Pin-ellas Point o r Philippi Park ; probab l y Philippi, wher e h e wa s resc ued in 1539 after 10 or more year.; cap ti vity among the Indians. The prosaic known facts ar e that th e hot b l ooded Latin and the girl becam e i nfa tuated and i nvolved The Counci l voted t o k ill the boy This was i n stric t accord with the moral code of these aboriginal people. If a pair transgressed. there were three possible punish menu; t oriU re ban ishment or dcith. The girl's entreaties and those of her mother and others pers uaded the Cacique to cance l the death penalty bu t his treat me n t of the boy became so abu sive and painful that the couple fled t o a nearby tr i b e between whom and Hirrahigua's group there wa s b a d blood, and there the y w e r e allowed to r ema in. For almos t three centuries many learned hi stor ians fully s u spec t e d t hat th e very, very clever John Smith stole the s tory up Virginia way so ld Pocahontas on the Idea, wrote a book. and went o n to fame ar.c for tune. And they thought therefore that most of the rest of John s tall tales were of whole doth. But recent research has confirmed that facts chec k from other reliab l e wit h th e fab u lous cl a ims of the famo u s Joh n Smith whic h proves t hat ma ids and men and their ways differ but little be i t i n Florida or Virgi n ia John Smi th j ust had a better gift for publicit y and d rama ti cs than did Juan Ortiz. But t h e loca l Litt l e T heat e r m ight wit h great pleasure to th e tour ists and profit to the l ocal economy c apital i ze on the l oca l roma n ce, w h i c h did actually happen here in St. P etersburg almost 450 years a go. The Juan Ortiz story is the log i cal introduction to the land i ng on Tampa Bay-of the greatest e x plorer and the most ambitious e x ploration adventu r e of them all ; He r nando de Soto on his s tart on a three year marc h from Espi ritu Santo Bay (the na me he gave t o Tampa Bay) to his buri al in th e g reat Mississippi River. The space o f t i m e wa s almos t e xactly three years. T h e l anding on Tampa Bay, May 3 0 31, 1539; his death May 21,1542 H e wa s buried in the Mississippi a f ew days later.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY St::HicmefliS, Yhe Woodb1. n y 2 Vol. Ruswll & In<:. New Y o r k Author .ui,e, beauti fully w r illen. The fto1i d a: Ch t onologica l History o i 8ar<:i11s. 'rhil> early Classic, cover ing the ye. F l orid;) His1o r ktll S o O. T h e firsl New \.\'odd Alf r e d A. K nopf. t9SS. he d i d $.3if by h .rnp;:a 6tly i n 1498. Ma1 y 8. Alfti e n < l. /vo w O r tiL : Ccnrleman ol Sevilie. 1940. How t o ;t b3d novel ovt o f good hi stmy. Mt: m o ir s. 1 575 Tr
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Chapter V DE SOTO -THE GREATEST EXPLORER "And Lo! Abou Ben Adhem led all the rest." Leigh H unt Hernando deSoto was the Greates t of all the Spanis h explorers. He was a milicary o n e o f the greou est s o/dien o f his time in Europe. There is much pe s u as;ve e v;de n ce that deSoto made h is l andi ng f o r the s tart of his exploratory adverl(t.Ue a( Pinellas Point. He wa!o bom i n Villa Nueva de B arcar r o t a abo u t 1 500 t he son and g r a n dson of persons o f noble birth. O r so said all th e his tori ans for sl ightl y more th an 4 00 years B u t noble or no, h i s par e n ts were poor and H e r nando sought his fortune i n the new w o rld equipped only with a sword, ambition a n d cour age. For almost 20 year s h e fough t and traveled and learned i n the Wes t Indies and Sout h Amer i ca, goi ng soon after reach i n g t h e new wor l d t o Nic ar agua w ith Pedr a r ia$ de Avi l a He marr i ed h i s daughter Dona Isabel. De Soto eventually joined Pizarro, e nded up seco n d i n command for that grea t soldie r and He was i n comm and o f the ex p e d i tion whi c h cap t u red t h e Moun tai n Capitol of l'e r u and the Inca Atah ualpa (Emperor of Peru ) a n d r ece i v ed a fina n c ia l r eward w hich cna bJed h i m to return to Spa i n with more weal t h t han a ny oth e r u p t o that tim e f rom t h e c on q u est of the A meri cas 6ut let u s return to I hat matter o f the great man's b i rthplace V i lla Nueva d e Barcarrota has well n i g h u n a nimou sly been d e emed t he birthplace of de Sot o I n fact the Conqui stador s o f B r aden ton, w h o h a v e mad e al m ost a religi o u s c u It o f th e e xplorer i n r ece n r years adopt ed 8arcarrota a s Braden t o n 's sist er c i ty. A dozen Co n Q uistador s made a pilgri mage to that city, e r ected a monumen t to t hei r hero. Then t o the confusion of h istor i ans and particu l arly the Conqui stador s, Spai n's gr e ates t contem poraneous h i stori a n recently publ i sh e d concl u s i ve e vi de nce t ha t an en ti rely different cit y i n a par t of 2 5 Spai n distant from the s u pposed b i rthpl ace, had t ha t d i sti n c ti o n The actu al b i rthpl ace, says Don M i g ueJ M unoz de San P edro, the histori an, was Jerez de l os Caballe ros. He then procee d s t o documen t his s tat ement be yo nd d i s p ute The F lorid a Histori ca l Quarterl y, Volume XXXXIV N umbers 1 a n d 2, Au gust, N65 det ails t h e facts 1\ pa r t oi t ha t ar ti c l e i s now quoted: "This note about Herna ndo de Soto s b i r th p l a ce i s due t o the inqui r ies ab o u t him by a g roup of Ame1ica n visit ors f rom F lorida. T h e follow i ng statement i s an eval uation o f the data on this subie cl. "T h at Hernando deSoto m ight h ave bee n boro i f V iiJan ucva de Barca r rota, as has been said, is a n assumptio n based o n the Historia de Ia Flor i da by th e I n ca Garci l aso d e Ia Vega In th at wor k appears a casua l not e w ithout documenta ry o r b i bliograp hical proof, say i n g m ere l y th at Hernando de 5oto brought from Per u th e St.m o f a h u ndred thousan d d u cats with w hich h e could b u y in h i s na ti ve town whi c h ""'as V i ll an ueva de B arc a r r ota mvch mor e l a n d A note app ear s late r i n the t ext. "This i s the onl y mention of Bar ca rrma as Her nando deSoto' s birt h p la c e and i t i s with o u t a sh r e d of document a r y support. tt was simply copied by Hetrer a and S o lano de Figuer oa N e ve r t h e less. as t h i s st a teme n 1 re ma i n ed uncor rec t ed t h rot,gh subsequen t cen tu r ies, it was fi n all y accep t ed as cor rect. O n e wri te r c o p ied i t from another, and i n the past cel) tury it r eceive d its o ffi cial confirmati o n so to speak, by defau l t The main d e f ender of this hypoth es i s in th e pa st cent u r y w a s 0 l u i s Villa n e uva y Canedo, a nat i ve o f Barca r rota and a Senator H e was a prom i nent perso n o f gre a t i n f l u e nce and d i gn i t y as wen as a seri ous amateu r h i sto r ia n, d evo t ed t o the his tory of his n ati v e p ro vi nce. He became a c o r re sponde n t o f th e R oyal H i sto rical S o ci e t y and vice .. pres ident o f the p rovi n ci a l monu ments commissi o n o f Badajo z 'ThE.> first r es u l t of his l o ca l p a t r i otism ,-.as the erec tion i n 186 6 i n Jer ez Barca rr ota o f a statue 1 0 Her4

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nando de Soto; his second conuibution was the of his Estudio B iografico about the F lorid.> hero, published in 1892, in which h e dedicated his e f forts t o establishing Barcarroto a s t he birthplace of de Sot o. An i mpa r t ia l study requires. firs t of all, an assessm e nt of Gar c i laso's statement t h e only o n e whic h m en t i ons Bar carrota. Car cilaso was, w i thou t doubt, a seriou s and t ruth f u l author whose works a r e o f primary impoaance for his native Peru. As for Flori da, althoug h his contribution is val uable one mus t remember that he based his book on references to orhel work s .. as he himself admitted when he men tioned a mysterious source whose name he does not give Moreover, he wntes it some chronological distance from the f acts. de Soto died in 1S41,. and the work of the Inc wa s w r i tt en i n 1587, f o rt yfiv e years later ; it was published in 1605. "Ar'lo th e r c hronic ler who part icipa te d in the ex p editio n to f l o rida a n d who is the refor e a mor e i m mediat e so urce, was t he F idal go de Efvas w hose R e l acion wa s publish ed in Portuguese at Evora in the year t5S7, during the lifetime of its auth o r T his work, which points elsew h ere for the birth place of the illustrious Ade l antado says: 'The captain de Soto was the son of a Squire of Jerez de Badajoz' which was the name of the city of Jerez de los Caballeros. "This fact, although known to schol ars, did no t gain currency in Spain, because che tex t of the R elacion r emaine d untran slated untlf only r ecently when I brought out the Spani s h text fo r the first time i n Bue n os Aires i n 1952 (and a second edit ion i n M adrid i n 1954.) There are therefor e t w o pieces of dif fer e nt data, one an i n fere nce and one the report of a persona l witness These f o rm all the extant bibliographica l material since al l subsequent statements are only copies. is, however, further nd more explic i t documentary material concerning de Soto which has been i gnored for centuries until afler 1he appearance of the work of D luis Villanueva in 1929. the year in which Solar and Rujula p u blished 1heir book: El A dela ntad o Hernando de Solo These authors did not hesitate, In v i ew of the docume nts, t o preface their boo k with the following d edication: 'To the very nobl e and loyal city Jerez de los Caballeros, c radl e of the ce l ebra ted Ade l a n tado H ernando de Soto.' I e xpressed the same opinion I n my two editions of El F idalg o de Elva s and in my book Extremadura where a fte r a description of the statue to Hernando de Soto I add this comment a ry: 'Due to an error t h is monument was etected to a famous man presumed to be a son of the town, but the fact is that the documents do n o t permit re petition of t he sta tement t h at chis hero .. o ne of t he gods of Extrem aduran myth o l ogy, was born here, but r athe r t ha t h e was born i n J e r ez de los Caballe ros.' u s see what t h e docume nt s have t o say abou t thi s ques tion. The first is th e r eco rd o f the Ade l an tado's admission to the Order of Santiag o, which is preserved i n the National Historical Archive, classified 26 as number 7.855. It is dated 'Santiago 1538; E1 Adelan tad o Hernando de Soto, native of Jerez. "The royal Cedula of the Empndo de Sot o and that he was born i n the town or Jerez: Another witness, Hernando de leon, while test ifyin g to his acquaintan ce with de Solo said : 'I k new the father and the mother of the said adelantado whose names were respectively, Francisco Mendez and Leono r Arias, and I knew tha t t hey lived in this ci t y of Badaloz and in the ci t y o f J erez: "Finally we have another d ec i sive also k ept i n the Archiv e of t he In d ies In t he same place: the will g iven by de So t o i n San C ri s t oba l de I a Habana b efo r e secretary Fran c i sco Cep e r o o n May 13th, 153 9 Its open i ng provis i on read s as f ollows: "'Fir s t I ordef that if God r emoves me from this pr.,.ent life-i f it were b y sea-l comm and that my body should be so kept t hat i t cou l d be carried ashore where our lord shoul d be served to let them make poll, and if there should be a c hurch or a church were to be built that there it s hould be deposited until such time as arrangements coul d be ma Oe to send it 1 0 Spai n t o the city of Jerez near 6adajoz .. where it shou l d b e buried i n the s epulchr e w here my mol he r is burl e d ; and I order t hat i n said chur c h of San Miguel there b e boug h t w i t h funds f rom my proper t y a site f o r a c hape l to be b u i l t ded icated t o o u r l ady of the Conception: T his d isclos ure understandably cre ated emb.lH.lSSCd conste rnation i n Bradenton. After much fevered private conference the Conquistad ors decided they would simply i gnore the whole thing. which they have done So as far as Bradenton and Manatee County are concerned de Soto was born in Villa Nueva de Barcar rota and not in Jerez de los Caballeros. And thus are major historica l errors repeated and repea ted ce nt u r y after century. S ay s Elvas, who accompani ed him ; "deSoto was at that tim e in che ilower of his age, of a fi ne p r esence, being a littl e above the medium h e ight and having an agreeabl e though somewhat s warthy f a ce. He was a

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ski llful hor s eman, d e xt e r ous in all warlike e x ercises, o f strong con stituti o n f itt ed t o end1.tre hardships and o f r rpe exp erience i n the conduct o f I ndia n camp aign s." At the Cou r t of Emperor Cha rles V de Soto wa s a sensation. B u t he soon t i red of th e g l i tte r a n d pomp a nd i n trigue of tha t ; t h e n the greatest of t he Courts of Europe. He asked and receiv e d wha t h e asked; Gove rnor ship o f C uba and f l orida (an d "F l o r ida" then meant all th e presen t Sout h eastern U nited States from Mex ico to the At la ntic north to Ca pe Fear, covering 1 2 degrees of lati tude) H e was author i z ed i n a con tract signed by Char les V t o "conquer 1>aci f y a n d people'" Florida. H e was allowed t o i mport duty fre e 100 negro s l aves. one-thir d of whom must be wome n and p l ace h alf i n Cub a ha l f i n flori da. He was to ge t h a l f of all treasu re f o u nd, 16-2 /3 of all r ansom money (a form o f extor t i o n developed to a f i n e point by Cortez a n d P izarro, ) 60 pe r cent of all e lse. He a l s o was granted an y land he de s i red e x cept a seaport or t he p ro v i nc e' s cap itol 12 leagues square. tead ing to u tter con f u s i on a n d r cn d ering a na lysis of early reports o f explorat i on s w ell n i g h usele5s, the league had great var i ations. O n e Span ish league measu red 4 214 miles, another 2 634; in E n glan d 3 ; France 2.764; Portug uese 3 .84. S tuden ts th ink earl y ac counts reflected a usage of between 3 and 3.46 mi les. U s ing 3 .4 6 m iles the de Soto g ran t would have e n compassed app r oxima tely 1,103,3 40 acres, an area 20 times larger than St. P e t ersburg a n d abo u t S times the size of P i nellas C ounty H e was allowed 500 sol d iers, p l u s the k ing 's bo o kkeepers, priests, cam p followers and Sel\an t s T h e e xpedit i on must s tart i n one year. An oddment lawyers wer e forbi d den in the n e\v pro vince of Flo r i d a I t was s igned April 20, 1537. Thre e months af te r this s igni ng d e Vaca ret urned f r om h i s eight year tr ek f rom F l o r ida to M exico and dazz led the world with his gi l ded and romanticized stories of his adventures. He p i ctu re d t h e new land as r ich in tr easure Th ese t a l e s added to de Sol o s g r eat exp loits and wea l th gave the new governor t h e pic k o f the elite of Spa i n a nd P ortuga l i n both a m i l i tary and a soc i al sense. In the e n d he was oft embarrasse d w ith too m a n y ge n erals, too few p r iva te soldiers, none t heless he set sail Apri l 6, 1538, 14 days befo r e h e would h ave for feited h i s contract by non-complia n ce from t h e pon o f San l ucar, Seville, S pai n wit h seven l a r ge and thr ee small vessels over s i x hun d r ed soldiers; t he largest and best eq u i ppe d flee t ever to sail from Spai n on a n exploratory expedition Ar r i v i n g at S antiago de Cuba a mont h late r de Soto added horses and o ther equipment includin g cassav a b r ead, salt mea t and swi ne a nd add i tio na l recr u its, Span i ards_.. Negroe s India n s and domest ic s ;" of these h orses 213 were d eba rked on the s hore s o f Tampa Bay. DeSoto vis i t ed all c ities i n Cuba, set u p headq uar ters i n Havana_, na med a deputy go v ernor of Cuba and l eav ing his wife Dona Isabel there, set sai l for Florida on Sunday May 18 1 539 27 Prior however de Soto h a d w isel y sent his p i lot, Juan de Anasco to seek a land i ng port on F lorida's Gulf Coast. In two trips A na sco spen t a t ota l o f n inety days e x p l o ring T ampa Bay t o learn. among other th ings, t he best landing spot. He h ad two p inna ces (oversi z ed r owboats a l s o equ i p p e d with sai l ,) and a l arser moth e r s h i p and 60 men l-Ie ret u rn ed w ith t\vo cap t u r ed In d i ans to act as i n t e rpreters who p romptl y escaped when the exped i tion l anded T here wherever it was -de Soto p re pared to l a n d. H e arri ved off Egmont May 2 5. spen t t h ree days getting i ns i de, because o f adverse w i n d s He starte d deb ark i ng men, h orses an d supplie s t h e last day of May, 1 539, f i n i shed t hat job in t i me t o take f o rmal possessi on o f the la n d i n the nam e of the Emperor on J u ne 3rd Th i s was the thi r d such ce remony, i nvol v i ng Florida, de L e o n and Pamfi l o de Narvaez having al r eady done so twic e i n the self same area A ctu aily lan ded from n i n e vessel s w er e 600 lan cers, targetee rs. cross -bowmen a nd arqu e busters, 213 horses, greyho unds, sw i ne (who made th e entire trip) O'Or'nihican fr i a rs, a surgeon .. a c o o per a shi p's c arpente r cau l k e r s (no la wyers) Equ i pment i ncl uded port able f o r ges, chain s and slave collars and vast q u anti t ies o f f ood arms and a rmamen t t oo l s a nd medicines. Fair ba nks, t h e f irst n o tab l e modern h i storian t o detail the stor y of d e Soto says he l a n ded at G a d sden Poi n t (Mac Oill Airbas e ) Fairban ks by his choi ce of G a d s den Point, started a controversy t hat s t ill rocks the world o f Florida His tory. J u sl wher e did de S oto l and and where d i d he set u p h i s base where for some s ix months he l e ft mos t of his s u p p lies a n d so me 60 men? More th an forty year s of s tudy and resea rc h ha s conv i n ced this wri te r that Hernando de Sot o first gathered hay for his hungr y h orses on Mullet Key (fort de Soto Par k ); landed h i s horses, part o f h i s sup plies and men on P i nella s Point partly m arched partly boated to B a y View (near Kapok T r ee Inn and considerably south o f Philippi Park) wher e h e made per ma nent camp and from which p oint he launche d h i s epic m a rch t h r o ugh the sou t heastern Uni ted States to h i s event u al de ath n ear t h e Miss issippi Riv e r Bradenton Conqui s tadors a r e fantas t ic a lly a n d with closed mi nds wedded to Shaw's Poi n t and Terra Ce i a as landing site and camp Schell and oth ers say Charlotte H a rbor a n d For t M yer s E v e n Pen s acola has been favored by o n e or t w o But w i thout further argume n t, tor the purposes of t h i s chapte r the Pinellas Point-Saf ety H a rbor s ites will be assumed The rest of the de Soto adventure i s r a ther generally agreed on. The exp l orers c rossed the Withlacoochee R iver, the Suwan nee, c amped somewhere for the winter i n the T allahassee area, went no rthe ast to Westlake Georgi a ; (nea r Savanna h ) .. to Silve r Bluff South Carol i na; to B u r n s Is land Ten n essee (over m ounta i ns) t o Coosa, A l a bam a, to Pon totoc Ridg e Mississippi; to the Miss issi ppi R i ver to Lit tle Rock, A r kansas; bac k to t h e M ississippi by

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another route; to Louis i ana ; (here the youth Juan Ortiz died); (shortly thereafter Hernando d e Soto died); to the R ed River near Shreveport, t o Trinity R iver, Texas s ome 2,634 miles, in 256 marchin g da ys or abou t t e n miles a day. Thf!n lh e surviv ors, de m oraliz ed w i th thei r great leader dead, built boats, d escende d the Mississip p i Riv er and s k i rt e d t he Gulf Coa s t to Mexico and eventually t o M e xico City. Over h alf th e me n surv ived T h e best r eco rd of any of t h e e xp l o r e rs. It i s difficult for moderns co v i sualize the m eaning of that m arch in ter m s of sweat. rort i tude, skill and un. swerving driv e T h e tr avelers literally carried on the ir backs or that of their horses and Indian slaves their all ; arms clothing. food, supplies loot, and the y walked through wild land without roads, or charts and often de l i berate ly led astray by captiv e gu i des. D ay and n i gh t they wer e s u bjec t ed to ana ck fro m de t erm ined skillful fight ers o ften a t odds of ten to one \yh o would give no quart e r G rap h ically illustr ating t h e contrast of t he ar dors o f tr a v e l in 1539 with 1%5 i s the in ciden t of deSoto d eciding whi le camped n e ar Tallahassee, to abandon hi s supp l y base o n Tampa Bay. On October 17 Anasco started south with supplie s and 60 me n accomp a n ied by 30 lancers on They reached Safety H ar bor eleven days lat e r C a lderon Camp Commander who had been left for six months with 30 horses and SO men, and p r ac t ically all suppli"s and equipm e nt, w as instru cted to b r i n g w ha t supp lies h e cou l d and g i ve large q u a ntities of these s u pplies and equipment t o th e Indians and burn th e balance. Some of these gilts m a y w ell be the sourc e o f m any o f t he European artHaCI S which h ave been found i r l lnellas County. Th ey were given to members o f M oscos o's g r oup, who h a d fled their village and cou l d hav e removed to t he s h or e s o f t he Bay at C l earwater a n d o ther spots To exist, u nde r thei r foo d and supply habi ts, they had to live on or near shallow bays.. That's whe re their l)f'i ncipal food suppli e s a.me rrom Th" return tri p to T allahassee partly on loot and with heavy packs, took thirty days Today the Com mander would rad i o h i s message, the me n and all the s u pplies w o uld be flown i n i n a m a tt er o f hours Sot o proved as skille d at admi nistration i n spira ti o na l leaders h i p and judgm ent a s at war. By ins tin c t h e seemed to use force whe n t hat was bes t d iplomac y w hen that pa i d bett e r To s u s tain morale of his men he u sed firmness, h ar shness. flatte r y pra ise, Vessel 800 tons Size San Cristobal (the flagship) La M a gdalena ... no sm aller even the deceit of conc ealment of bad news with in stinctive timing and timeliness. The great leade r marched further, lost r elatively fewer men t han any other eMi y e x plorer -about h al f s u rvived, and yet deSoto d ied of a brok en h e art. T he c hroni c l ers said he died of a f ever But he who had con q u e r ed a nation i n South Ameri c a numerou s tribes i n North Am er i c a ; s u ccee d e d where others f ai l ed; acc umu l ated more riches t ha n any other of the exp l orers, coul d not conque r h i s p r ide, could not sur v i ve defea t o f his ambit ions. Wh en h e k ne w h i s p u r pose had failed; his men driven on l y w i th th e o b session to esca pe the wilderness and to survive r athe r than do his will, he lay down and died. Had h i s train been heavy with gold and precious stones he would have marched at the hea d of his troops t o Mexico C i t y His l o r y cred i ls d e Sot o wit h d i scover i n g the Mis sissip pi ; errolieo(J s l y j ust as i t c redits Po nce de L eo n with discovery of F l or i da. Sev eral officia l e x p l o r e rs h ad seen the mouth o f th e r i v er and traveled a considerab l e disrance up it. De Sot o had the advanta ge o f havi n g more or less competen t o b serve(S a n d writer s w h o repor t ed w i thout romancing and knew wher e they had been. His e x pedirion wa.s official. It was recogni zed at court. others didn't know where they were; some concealed what they did know. Others later by comparison, deductions and surmises. figured out their tr ails B u t de Soto knew w h ere he was His m e n re ported mericulousl y w here he wen t. He go1 the off i c i al c r edit. I n perhap s unconsciou s ad mi r a t io n fo r the ability and courage of the men t h e hi s t o r i a n s have u nan im o usly awarde d h im a r ich l y deserved t aliry by nominating hi m a s th e d i scove r er of the "grea t rive r;" a n d ig noring those who a c tuall y had been there befo r e him. He fully pai d in coina ge of courage and s kill for his large page in History That it cost h i m his file, desola t ed his fam ily, g rieved his friends matters little now, for the world env i ed him his adve n tu res ad m i red his c ou r age an d skills. m ade him one o f the i m m orta ls. F o r the Record : It seems f i tting t o reco rd t he meagr e known or generally a ccepte d facts about the great de Soto flee t that sailed into Tal'npa Bay in 1539 See t able o n t hi s page. Commi.nder Hernando de Soto Nuno de Tobar La Conc eption Buena For t u n a San Juan Santa Barbara San Anton 5 00 + tons "eq u all y a s la rge" anoth e r Jarge ship11 "another large s hip "a small galleon l u is de Mor.coso A n d re de Vasconce l os D i ego G arcia Arias Tinoco Alonso R o m o d e Ca rdenosa Pedro C al d ero n (n o t named) "a very f i ne carave l (n o t named) Two pinna ce s (vergantines) 28

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BIBLIOGRAPHY J ohn M. Coggi n The Span i s h Olive /:)t, .'In i n t uxluctor y study. O epanm e n t o f Anth ropotogy, Yal e U n i vcrsily 1960 J ohn M. C ossi n A Pu?limiNuy Considt:r.w 'cn o f Span ish. Introduced M a j oli 1 5 2 1 f k s t conclus ive pin pointing of dit:, which ;.Jso SC\'eret y l i m i ts the de Sc>to l a n dins p()int. Geor ge Ban<:rofl. H i s ts. 8oswn 1854 l 'il.ge s T h e d e Soto Story J H. Eldico t lmperiaJ Spain. 1469 1 716. St M.trlin's P r e ss, New Yo.rk 1963 Makes dear why how Spai n sud<.lelll) bcc;;amc f o r ;a b riei whi l e th e l eading wor l d JX)wer Nw Wofld C C. laird S.Ji! ing Ships. His(<.lr}' and Development. londo n 1930. Tc-Jh diUkulties and l o g i!>t i c s of S<1iling squar e r igged i n t he S i xteenth Cent ury. 29 T O;a\i s Florh11. Qv.JtCerly, S pc<:ial Ponr' of doCt m('lli S d<-al i rlg w ith t h e N L w \\,.or l d Collc<:14.-d by h im almo'>l il) fast r >tncd. Th4.'5C dt'il l with (nglan d's concern!> with I h e N e w Worl d Pedro P i u rr o Relations of the D isco-ver y and Conquesl of (he Kingdoms o i PNu. 2 Vol. Ph i l i p A i ns w m t h Means C ransla l i o n lhe Cones Society. New York 1921. Gives de Solo' s m ilitaJy h i s lol) i n lhe New V .... orld p rior to t h e T.tmpa Bay t a n d i n g Leuet of Hemando De Soro. Tra nsl.aled b y B ucki n g ham Sm ith W l a n d in g P l a c e of de Sow Flor ida Hisr01ical Quarterl y. Vol. XVI No. 3 Jan. 193 8. P<1ges 1 4 9 1 i3. Specia l De Solo Number. John lee W i lliams. The J'euitoty of Ffot ida. New York 1837.

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Chapter VI THE VACU UM OF THE DEAD ; A MARTYRED SAINT; A MAROONED SAILOR; A MASTER SOLDIER ; A MASS MURDERER W h en He rnando de Sot o sta r ted h i s ma rch north f rom Tampa B ay i n 1 5 39, the para d e of pageantry, military m ight a n d bol d men i n frant i c searc h of sud den wealth and g lory came to a n abrupt end. I t was r ep l aced almost totally by a vacuum of silence an d d eath th at last ed almost t h ree ce n turies. That 5 i fence was f i nally broken by th e rumble o f d r u m s a n d pre p a r a tions for a noth e r war as owners h i p of Flo ri d a passed f rom Spai n to t h e fl edgl ing Uni ted State s of A m e ri c a $ i n t822 However ther e were bri e f glimpses o f t h i s penins u la tha t shou l d be not e d The Martyred Saint The fj r s t cha p ter i n the sombre parade of deat h s t a r ted w ith a bizarre and piteous d r ama o f rel ig i o u s fa nati c ism. Principal actor \Vas a Dominica n missi onary Fray (.sometimes spelled Frey) Luis Cancer de H a r bastro, a n ative o f Sar agossa o r Zaragosa (This word wa s 1he one t hal evolv ed into t.h e plc)Ce narne Sara s o t a. Mostl y, i n ear ly America n recor ds, i n ref err i ng t o t h is plac e t he wol d i s spelled Zara Zot a T h e r e were man y var i at i o n s in its spell i ng.) Fray Cancer had come earl} to t h e new Spanis h worl d knew well a n d pai n f ully the o ppres sion and bru (aJi(y Spani a r d s practiced on t h e natives. Attitude of Conquerors F(oro a background of forma l ize d over rih,,a l i s t i c and rig i d l y dogmat ic r eli g i ous belief s and r i tual s t h e weahh c raze d i nva rl NS evolved a now neatly u n b e l ievabl e attitude. They came w ith a sword i n one hand, a crucifix i n t h e o th er. "Accept God, a s I under s t and him, or d ie, t henaid. "Bow before t he Cross and s ubmi t your neck t o t h e d rudgery of s laver y." That was the w a y i t was as u nbeli evable as it now seems. Church a n d were all p owerfu t Men no matter how m i g h ty o r humble th e i r rank o r p r o ject, n eeds m u s t at every turn cla i m t h e y a c t e d "for t he G lory o f God and i n I h e service of yo ur Grac i o u s Majesty Ser v i ng h i s mas t e r i n Gvat amala and Chiapa Vern Pa l and M exi<.:o C i t y, t h e F r ay Cancer s a w and hear d 30 hapf)en i ngs that sickened h i m He lhe gr e a t champion o f the Ind i ans. He urged o n e and all to t r eat them w i t h gent leness a n d patience. He kn e w t hat t h e I n d i ans of F l orida wen? relati v el y unmoleste d as yet by rhe Spani a r d$ a n d there grew in hi m an obsess ion t ha t i t \vas h i s desti n y h i s dut y, to devote the remai nder of h is l i f e t o t hem. He convi n ce d a f ellow monk Padr e F rey G re go rio de B etet a o f t h e meri t o f his d e s i re. T hey co n v i nced other s i n the Ca tholic Churc h orga n ization i n Mexico and it was. d ecided Fri a r Cancer wOl.ll d go to Spai1'1 t o p l ead h i s cause. A t the Span i s h Court i n Valladol i d he and hi s companion got a heari ng i n Aprii 15 4 7 w ith the Coun c i o f the Indies (admi n i st r ators for the \>Vest Indies, Mexico and So u t h America) a n d P r ince Phi l ip a n d the request was app roved. A n order was event ually sent to the vice roy of Mexico to p rovi sion a n d eq u i p fray Cancer a n d h is pa r t y a n d to gather up a l l the Flor i da I ndian s who had been sol d i n t o slave r y from that cou n t ry and r etum t hem t o t h e i r n alive l a n d a n d f r eedom. Voya g e t o Florida P a d r e Fray and h i s associ ates, Fray G regorio d e Penal osa, F ray j u a n Garcia and a l ay work e r named F u e n tes went to Hava n a wher e the governor of Cuba s uppl ied a vesse l (1an1ed San ta Mar i a de I a n c i na; a pil o t named Juan de Ar a n a, an Indian woman i n ter preter named Magda l e na (s upposedly a conve r ( t o Chr is tia n i ty), c rew and supplies. T hey sail ed f o r F lorida's Gulf Coast. T hey sighted land o n Asce n s i on Day 1 5 49 and the nex t d a y l anded on a small is l and p robabl y Passage Key Next day t hey moved into a bay, which was obvious l y Tampa Bay, alt h o u gh because of a long series of u f, h a ppy encounte rs wit h the T a m pa Bay Indi a ns, fray Cancer had ordered th e pilot to seek a nother port. However because s upplies were ru n n i n g short a n d the saiiO(S wer e becoming r estfess h e d ecided to proceed It s houl d be adde d tl:>at beginning with d e Leo_!),. 1ndian$ had been captu re d and many take'' to Havana ....

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wbere promisi ng ones were educated, particularly in religious matter$. First the pilot, Juan de Arana, Fray luis and Fray Diego, Fuentes and the I ndian woman Magdal e na w ent near sho r e i n a small boat, appa r enlly on Mullet Key. T hey saw In di a n huts but n o Indians Fra y D i ego w e nt ashore and cl i m b ed a whereupon some 1 5 Or 20 Ind ians appeared a n d a c t e d f ri e n d l y Fuentes a n d Magda l en a j o in ed Diego. F r a y Lui s leaped out of t h e boat i n waist deep water and waded ashose. R each ing t h e b each he kn el t d own and prayed for grace and divine he l p -perhaps th e f irst rel i gious s er vice in Flo rida: i n which the Indian s joined f ree f rom the compulsion of swords and overw h elming military might Priests Disappear The Ind i ans seemed so fri endl y Fray D i ego, Fuen tes an d Magda l en a remaine d w i t h them w h ile Lui s mturn e d 10 t h e s hip f o r mor e p r esen t s Wh en he r e t u rne d t h e two priests and M a gda l ena had d isappeared S udd enly one of the sail o rs w i t h Luis was also seiz e d and ta ken away He waited until s unset but none of t h e f ou r recurned Next morning l u i s and Gregor i o returned but t here were neither white nor red men t O be found. Then 1he ship entered further into the bay and spent som e 16 days search ing for the members of the ir part y The In dians had s aid they were from another part of the ba y On Corpus C h r i sti Day Fray Luis and F ray juan w en t ashore a n d said mass. T h e n ex t day it was decid e d t o leav e the ba y A t t h i s point a n In d ian appeared beari ng a s taff w i th w h i r e pal m l eaves {the heart l eaves of the cabbage pa l meuo, doubt less) foll o w e d by a n o ther Indi an c rying o u t i n brok en S panish : "fr iends, fr iends, good, good Corne h er e come h e r e. no, s w ord, no." Fray Luis who had learned their lang uage, in prepart ion for his m i ssion replied In thei r tongue: 'We are good men Then Fray lui s F r a y Juan and Fray Gregorio, who had joined them, went a shore and were han ded t he p eace t o ken w a n d w i th the whit e pa l m leav e s The priest s t h en asked for the r e turn of t heir four com pani o n s and t o t his the Indian s agreed. The Indians made the S p an ia rd s present s of fi s h and a s ked f o r a cross, whic h was g i ven t o o n e o f the m en. He ca r r ie d the cross to a naked Indian woman stan ding s o m e distance away who k issed it S h e turn ed out to be Magdalena. who had obviously prompt l y gone n ative But she told the three priests t ha t the three white men were prisoners in the house of the Cacique but she had assured them these were peaceful monk s come ro preach Christi anity and n o t soldiers to enslave the m Full o f joy, the priests returned to the ship, exp ect ing t o recove r t h e ir f r i ends on t h e morrow o n l y to recei v e shock i ng news w h ic h w o u l d h ave saved their lives h ad they acted o n th e new in f o rm at i o n One Juan Mun oz, one of d e Sol o's soldiers who i n 1539 h a d been ca p t u red b y the I ndians and h eld c ap-Jl live for ten years, h ad escaped and reached the shi p in a to report that the Indians had k illed fray Diego and Fuentes but char the sailor was still alive. In ciden tally th i s escape was entirely cypical of che expe r ience of th i s d a y. Perhap s not an exped itio n lan ded in Florida during the exp l oration period that one or m o re of the \vhit e v i s i tors w e r e e ither ca ptured lived p e a cefull y or at least s af el y w i th th e In d i ans, who w e r e pea c eful by na t ure, a n d n orma lly h ad an titude o f awe or a dmiration t oward the whi te m en. In fact, the re wer e n vmefous in stances o f I he exp edition members vol untari l y deserting to j o in the Indians. Thes.e pri sone r s or deserters turned u p almost in v J riably when another expedition landed. Also as frequently Indians were found who spo ke Spaniih, more or less effectively be
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The Marooned Sai lor One o f th e white E u ropean sojourners i n I n d i a n Flo ri da. p l ayed m o re t h an a minor pal'l iJ' the oexr episode. He was a ship wrecked l a d named Hern ando Fontanedo. Escalant e Fontanedo when 13 years ol d was t n a s h t p w r e cked off the florida Keys in the Atlantic about 1 5.51. H e w as b orn or Spani s h par e n t s 1n Car thagena and was enroutt' to S pai n in a s h i p with a semi-annual treasure f l ee t robe educated. He lived a number of years-he erroneously says seventeenwith the Indi ans a caplive. yet free ro move from p l ace t o place f?r he obvi ousl y familiar f rom p e r s onal obscrvaCion wHh the I ndia n s cen tered on Miami, ft. Myers Tampa Bay and Cenual F lorida H e 5')'s h e never vis ited t h e EaSI Coa s t Indian s of Cent ral florida the Jeaga(HoboSound and West Palm B each) lhe Ais (U.naveral) or the Mayaca (Oaylona). f_n addtru ;m to a d?wn to earth description of t h e F londa thc r persona l appearan ce th e i r cl o t h es, t h e i r foo d Fon t a ncdo is solely responsb.l c for T a m pa it s name. J n givin g names co the vanous man g roups under one strong chief like Carlos (farher and Son) of fl. Myers, who were overlords during lhe period of the Eplorers, wt h we are now co n c erned h e gives t h e names o t t he s m a lle r group s o r tribes t he pri n c i pa l t o w n s He names Tamp a a s a l arge t o w n a t the head of a large bay on a riv er. (He however spelled i l TANPA.) Although de Soto had named the bay Espiritu Santo o n l y a de c ade o r so previo u s l y and th e Fon t aned o n arrat i v e w as o bscur e a n d t h e d e S o t o s a g a world f arn?us, th e E ng li s h ton gu e as evolved b y t h e ge n u s Flo n d a Crac k e r look more kindl y 1 0 th e word Tampa" than the phrase "Espi ritu Santo" so the ior _. rr.et surv1v'v And 10 Fonta nedo we are indebted for the name 'Tocobaga" fo r the o verlord chief and r u l e r of t h e T a :npa O a y I n d ians a n d f or the relativ e l y l arge tr ib e at Ph1hpp1 Park ( the record s on thi s a re conflictin g and u n certai n ) Fontanedo was rescued and reached Spain Because of his grea t kno wledge of florida, Pedro Mene ndet: de Aviles, whom yo u will meet in a pag e or two, h i m to re t urn t o Flor ida a nd h e was an d.Cti v e fi gure in many advenlures; p a r ticul arly one i n voJv m g Tampa B ay, wirh flori d a s f irst Governor. Those tumultuous years he also survived to rewrn again to Spain when he finally wrot e his famous let rer, the first mlimare ey e witnes s accounf of th e o r i g i n a l F l o r ida Ind ians. I n h i s t r a vel s h e undoubledly o n ce uod the land tha t n o w con stitu t e s t h e City of St. Pe tersburg A Mas t e r Sol d ie r P edro Menende z de Avi l es, Flo rida's first Gover nor during th e 257 years o r Span i s h rul e (n o t deduCI i ng th e 20 yea r h iatus o f 1763'1783 when the British flag flew over Fort M a r ion at St. Aug u sti n e ) w as un 32 doubtedly its g rea t e st. He w as a remarkabl e m an. R emembe r e d mosl v i v i dly, and with hat e, for h i s me.r. ctless s l a ugh t er o f of unarmed f re n c h H u guenot s at For t Ca rol ine o n the St. Jo h ns Rive r and : on the Bt>aches at New Smyrn a and for the founding of Augustine, the nat1on's oldest C ity, and it s Fort Manon; n eve r captured i n banlc; hi$ orhcr ex p loi t s were muc h more s i gn ifica nt and i n fact ma teri ally s haped th< : co u rse of Hi s tory and Empir e i n Europe 8u1 he belongs i n th es e pages by benefi t o r staging on the waters and shores of Tampa S a y perhaps the most ptcturesque and dramatic spectacle this colorful State ever wirnessed. Th e principal operator s were some tSOO I n dia n warriors in full b a ttl e d r ess, a gr eat ponton o f th e m a t the rime b e i n g res i d e nts of w hat i s now St. Petersbu r g Men ende:z was th e great est m i l itary genius o f the generation in Europe. s k illed in both and warfare; his Emperor Philip, ma de him at diffe riili"""' l i m es head h i s lan d forces, then of t h e Navy, awarded t o tum the u nu s u al title of Captain Gener a l and put h irn i n c h a r g e of all m i l itary a f fair s o n both sea a n d lan d In the new world. The French and British were nor only contesting wilh Spa i n for control of the lands of the New World. th e i r shi p s bor h p r ivate and g overnmenta l. w e r e r e v ens_hl y scou r i n g t h e seas to cpture Spa n is h s h i ps r et urnmg to Spai n with p rec i o u s metals, j ewel s and oth e r (orms o r w e a l t h Th e cons tri c ted and treacherous Bah.1ma Channel between florida and the .. Bahamas was the most logic al area for ptracy. french r ealized th is first, established Fo!.L on the St. John s r iver M enendel destro yed thos for t and es tabl i shed S t Aug u st ine on Mar c h 20,' 15 6 5 and starte d F ort Mar ion whi c h s tood. conquered for 257 rears unul ceded 10 the U n i t edStates in 1822 o '.l<)re imi>Ortanlly the fori kept ,he English and Fren ch out of Southern North AmeriO and all o i South America f or that s am e period of time. T h e s h fcwdcs t move of the new g o vern o r was to ?ather the c l u msy and helpl e s s rrea s ur c g a llio n s mto or annual fleets, h eavily prote c t them armed naval vessels and escot11hem safel) to her then only serious was from humcanes, whl( h dcsrtoy c d .tnd sun k shi p s bea r i ng i n toto. h_un
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lwo reasons b r o ug h t it about. Cacique Carlos at fvrtM)'_e.rs and Tocobago at Saietr Harbor w ere in a power s tr u gg l e and each had many p r ison c r f ta ke n from th e other and P ed ro wanted peace among the I nd ians and between them and the Spanish as a prac t i cal a id to his aQmini stra tion of govemment. The second reaso n was more important He .. a l o n g w ith mosl Spania ( d S belorc h im acquainted w it h F lori d a, it to be an i s land and he desrJera t e l y wanted t o find a water r o ute irom gulf t o ocean 1 0 avoid the dan gers of the Bahama C hannel irorn ma n a nd the e lements fo r t h e semiannual Plate F leet voyage \ovas tol d by the Ind i a n s there was a r ive r b}' pass, a n d indeed for their l i ght canoes t here was a practica l route in fac1 two f l ) St. JohnsOclawaha with a p o rtage t o the W i t hl acooc he e ( how Pedro woul d have loved the now abu i l d i ng Cross State ba rge canal!); (2) St. J o hns -Kissimmee R i ve r-Lake Okeec h obee-Ca l usaha t chee So he dropped in o n Carlos at Forr Myers w ith small vessel s and 1 5 0 sol d iers ":here h e already had a fort and a m i ss ion. See i n g all this power and want i ng i t t o g o away, Cados tol d h im the crossMstate passage led out of Tampa Bar, or Esper itu Sant o, as de Soto had named it, so Pedro invited Carlos to go W i th h im and the Ch ief went hoping he coul d per suade to aid him i n c r ush i ng Tocobago a t Safety Harbor. The l ittle fl ee t r eac h e d the mou t h of Tampa Bay in Jhe late afternoon but contr ary to afmost u niversa l custom? Menendez d i d not anchor and wai t u n t i l morn i ng t o en ter Wit h the broad deep e ntrance and vast areas of contin uous deep water all the way to Safety Harbor and a s killed Indian p ilot Carlos h ad brought a l ong, he dared to sai l u p the bay a t night, arr i ved safely at prcdawn aitcr l ogg i ng rhc 20 leagues (about 50 m i les) lrom the usual a nchorage 2 or 3 leagues off-shore to the anchorage off Bayv iew. Tocobago and his ttibe w e r e tht.u"ldet s truck to see w hat they though t was a noth e r slave h u n t i n g e x pedition and fled to the forest i n terror. B u t with the -aw of a Portuguese s a i l o r who had been T o cobago's pr isoner fo r six years, Menendez persuaded them t o retum. After som e touchy nego tia tions at long d i stance between t h e two In d ia n Ch iefs, the bel licose and treacherous Carlo s creating most of the trouble a t rea ty o l friendship \Vas arranged Tocobago asked for a day's delay befor e s ig n i ng, w h ich was granted. To th e aston ishment of the Spa nish and the const ernation of Carlos, next morning 1500 Indian warr i o rs i n full b attle array wer e draw n u p on t h e shores of Old Tampa Bay to receiv e the visi t ors Carlos was i n such a rage a n d panic, th i n king i t a Menendez betrayal, h e actually attacked s om e of t he Span ish s o l d i ers, had to be phys ically restra i ned, t o h i s i u rther enragement. Menendez solved hi s d i lemma by thanki ng Tocobago for the show and then asking him to dismis s his a r my and then wit h a few of his leadecs teceive Carlos and him and their p r incipal men ashore i n a peace talk And t h is meeting took place one Apri l day 33 in 1567 under t h e h uge spr eadi ng oaks of Safet y Har bor. Amon g t h e 1 500 warrio(S w ete o f
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1500 able Creek India n Warriors the on promise of rich loot in FIO of Ft. Myers t o cease t h ei r raids and harassm ents of the M issions of North F l o r ida, what thei r missi on acco mp l i s h ed, the record does not r eveal. Our next good look at Pin ell u Peninsu la and St.

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Pewsburg came i n 1822-1824 a look climaxed when Col. B rooke landed 400 U n ited Stat e s sol d iers on the East bank of the H i llsboroug h River i n the la s t week i n December, 1822, and established For t Brooke, d estined t o be t h e start of t h e g reat C i ty of Tampa. And t .hat ra isi ng o f the curtai n was surpri s i ng in deed! But Moor e and h i s b lood and moneyt h irsty Creeks s ignaled over a century of s ilence fo r P in ellas a n d St Petersbur g land. BIBLIOGRAPHY O.aniel G. Brinton A6. on the Peninst r e SNrched <>l o n t h e N togr Q ir'o the Seminol e War. Joshu a G i dding s TIK" f)(i/c s of fltc:r sburg H istori<.'al .Societ y Reliab l e onl y hn 8ar t r .lm Oesc r i plloll of E m Ffo1ida. 1769 A C l ass ic Has oo:>tlu<.fe Chapter .:tnd fin e map on Tampa Bay \Voodbvty Lowery. The SIMI'Ii. 411 t(> 42 7 in c lusive. Russell & R ussel l, Inc. Ne\ ... York 1 959.

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C hapter VII TROUBLE FILLS THE VACUUM But a vacuum does not exist for long. The treaty of Feb. 22, 1819, ceding florida from Spain to the United States, bru shed the veil of silence a w ay, and, lo, wha t is thi s we see r I ndian s Fro m whence? Not Spanish Indians. Semi noles! Nol living in primitive fash ion on k i tchen m iddens. S-eminoles w ith guns and h orses and caltle and dogs and iron utens ils. This calls for anoth er l ook. The Spanish Indians lived by shallow b a ys, ate mostly seafood, piled the shells in heaps, now called kitchen middens. The Seminoles lived roving lives of hunters and cattlemen, wilh oc casiona l vegetab l e gardens. The trea t y did not t ake effect u n til two years l ate r Feb. 22, 1 82 1 because of act s of fr aud an d bod fait h on t h e pa rt of t h e Ki n g o f Spai n B u t the tran s f er f i n a ll y t oo k p l ace at P ensaco l a and St. Augustin e, Jul y 10 and 11. The Spani ards, en masse, depa r ted for Havana and other Spanish ports United States authorilies under the new terri torial gove-rnment, William E. DuVal (Americans soon made Duval of DuVal and named a cou nty for him) prompt ly set about finding what they had in th is vast new t erritory First excite d r e p orts ((o m Tampa w ere th at 20 0 Cowe t a India n s de stroyed fou r Spanish t owns In that area and left the region Thi s was never confirmed Within another month a second wild rumor was rhat runaway Negroes were fortifying themselv es at Tampa Bay. Governor Duval saw f i t t o send john R Bell, the new U.S. India n Agent t o Tampa to rnake a survey of Seminol e settlements. His report wa s asto undi ng H e spo tt e d six Seminol e vi llflgcs in the Tampa Bay area One was named Tatttala hosta-ka or Watermelon Town, described as being on the west side of Tampa Bay on the seacoast The Florida Cracker tongue could never cope with t hat five syllable word, Tatetala hosta-ka, so the settlement simply be c am e Seminole Town and then Semino l e and t hus i t has remained un 36 til this day, and is now one of Pinellas County's finest res.ident ial areas. Some 5,000 Indi ans, once classe d as Creeks, had simpl y drifted away and occupied th e vacuum c r eated by Co l o n el Moore. This happy have n however there w ere all toge t he r some 2S Semi nole towns had eve r lurking da nger threateni ng An und erstand ing of this requires a brief exp l an ati on and a sketch ing of background. The trouble started in 1796 with the treaty of Coldrain, Ga., between the United States and the Creeks, of which the Seminole s (roug hl)' the lower Creeks) were a part. The India n s agreed t o retu r n all white and Negro pr ison ers buc che lower Creeks, p M ti c u l arly, woul d not accep t it T hey an d t heir Negroes began to drift away i n t o th e vast empty l a nds of Florida (The na m e Semin o l e means r u naway.) But the s i tuation actually had its beginning in the 1821 treaty of Indians Springs, Georgia. with the Creeks The Creeks gave the U S 5,000,000 acres of Georgia land. The Government gave the Creeks $200,000 for the land and paid th e white p l an tation owners f or the Negr oes with the Creeks T h ereafter, said all the law an d t h e rules, th e Negroes with the Seminoles be l o nged to the Creek s The Cree k s moved to Arkansas. The p lan soon was to move che Seminoles there too and int egrate them with the Cree k s Well did the S
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Then ha d come the oulrageous Andrew Jackson undeclared war on Spantsh F lorida in 1814 and 1815, followin g t h e war of 1812 bet ween th e United Sta t es and England I n t h a t war of 1812 th e Un i ted S t a t es b o ldly and baldly tr ied l o s ei z e Canada whil e Eng land wa s a l most be i ng ove rwh e lmed by Fra.nce T h e Un i t e d S t a t es was soundl y th ras h e d b u t Andr e w Jac k son saved national pr ide by w i nning the O allle o f New Orleans, a c t uall y fou ght afle r the tre a t y of Ghent had been sig ned, ending the war. Then Jac kson invaded Florida for the purpose, sta ted frankly by him in scores of personal leiters of r ecove r i n g the "stolen Neg roes" from Spai n a n d p u nish ing t he Indian s lor their r aid i ng Georg i a under S pani s h i nci tement. In fac t and truth the N egrnes had run away fro m t h e ir whi t e mas ters and the Seminoles f r o m t heir Creek a ssoci at es. All both grou ps wanted was to be l eft alon e Jackso n however, h ated Neg roes and In d ian s with a passion so h e invaded Florida. He apured P ensacola He burned the Negro town al Lak e Miccosu kee near Monticello. Then he took the Spanish ior t a t St. Mar k s and dest roye d the Semino l e Negro town a t O l d Tow n n ear whe r e U .S. 19 cross e s the S uwannee River His military e xpl o it s made h i m Presid en t o f the Unit e d States. He v o wed the Ind ians h a d t o ge l out of F l o rida The t r eat y of Fort Mou l tr ie (si x m i l es be low St. Augustine) was made September 18, 1 823, which tem poralily brought an uneosy peac e B y it the Indians agreed to m ove south of a line a pproximately at Ocal a and stay away f rom the coa s t s in retu rn fo r pay m enr f or th e i r cattle and an annual stip end for food. But this did n o t work for l o ng. lack s o n and the big l and own e r s want ed them entireJy out of F lo rida. E v e n tu ally anot her tr e aty w as n e gotiated to that end The treat y a t Pai ncs L andin g ( located be tween Ocala a n d Ga inesville) was m ade on May 9, 1832 The Seminoles agreed to move to Arkansas if a delegation of their pepple examined the land and found it good They did n't f i n d it good and t he y re f used to g o. B u t J ac k so n d espite th e U.S. Senate hadn't r at i f ied the treaty said the tr e aty w o uld b e enfor ced, sen t a n In dian agent approv e d by the p l an t atio n owne r s a n d slave dealers, then se nt tr oops a n d tol d th e Se min o l es to p r epar e to m o v e t o Arka n s as T he C reek s let it be k now n if th e S emi n o les JOin e d them t h eir Negroes belonged 10 the Cree k s beca u s e they had paid lor t hem a s in deed they had. So the clouds of war beg an t o h ove r over the new 1e1rit o r y Acruall )', t h e Negro e s on average were smar r er a nd more indu s tri o u s than t heir masfo rs. F riend ship affec tion and int e rmarriage followe d an d the Lwo r aces becam e o n e p eople domi na ted more b y th e Negro elem e n t tha n b y the Sem i nol e T h e wa r i n Flor ida from 1 83 5 to 184 2 t h e conve n tion a l historians l ove to call t h e Seminol e War The fictional connotation is that the fierce and blood thirsty Seminoles ravaged and sla ughtered the pea ceful >clllers t o an end that the United Stat es Army perforce had to dest roy lhern and remove the r e mn ants to 37 Ark ansas (now Okla homa) lor the sak e of peace. In fact, the w a r should b e called the Land and Negro W a r The land h ung ry o w ners of cotton p lantatio n s in the south e a s t e rn States c o veted the rich v irgi n l a nds of c entral Flor i da. In additi o n many of the plantati o n own ers had an accumulated rage 200 years i n th e making at th e hundreds p e rhaps tho u s an ds, of N e gr o s l ave s who h ad slipped a cross t h e Florida lin e 1 0 s a fety and freedom under t h o benign lax Spa nish r ule These two groups of white propeny owners forced the war Actually Spanish law prohibited a free Negro Jiving in Florida b ut the aulhoririe s blessed an a rrangemen t w he reby t h e Negro bound himself i n t o s lavery under a pa r ticular Semino le, was allowed o n hi s own i nitiative t o est abli s h a farm or r aise c a ttl e, g i v i n g a t enth t o his "mas t e r T h at w a r cente red i n T ampa a nd in its ver y begi n n i ng t h e most pr om i n ent cilizcn of th e P i nella s Penin su14, if one excep ts Odet Philippi of S a fely Harbor got tangled in its dangerous skein That man was Wm Bunce Besides Bunce, there were but five other inhabitants now know n to be living at tha t t i m e, ac tuall y with i n the l imits o f th e p resent St. Peter s b u rg. Muc h is kn own about h r e e o f them, a s hadowy linl e about th e last two. It i s in t e rest ing to note t hat t w o w e r e Ang l o Saxon two Spanish one French, o n e E n gl ish O r Min o rcan or p ossibly Span ish. Bunc e l ived on Cabbage K ey, now t h e south p a rt of Tie rra Verde. Joe Silva, a Spani ard lived at 38th Avenue North and Boca Cieg a B a y His panner and n e ighbor, Juan leviq ue, lived at a bou l 1000 P a r k Stree t near the residence of Nels.on P. Poynt er, owner of the T imes. Anto ni o Maximo Hernandez liv e d about on the site of the L ibrary of F l orida Pre sbyteri an Colleg e H e, lik e Bun ce, h eaded a great fish ra n c ho. The fo u rt h w as a f ish e r man named Pap y after w h o m Papys B ayou I s na med. It is enti rely poss i b l e t h a t his h ome, d u e 1 0 very recen t of the remnants of a n o l d house. sat on the lot now occupied by Mr and Mrs Joseph A. Wallach in Shore Acres near the Bayou. The nails in the timbers appear to be the type of one hund red p l us y ears ago H e p r obably wa s the Pap y who marri e d o n e of Odol l hilippi's daughters. Bu! he does not appear i n any o f the ea r l y censu s r e p o rts. There was al so a John T e mpl e ma n who liv e d a l about 54th Avenue N ort h and perhaps 16th Str eet. H e w a s a lso a sur veyor of sores and was h i red to survey the land now con stituting St. Petersburg in 1845 and actu a lly m ade the survey and was pai d for it, but it proved 10 be so erroneous that it w a s thrown out and George Wat son. Jr. h i red In 1 848 to do i t over ag a in. Little e l se is kn own o f him. But ba c k t o Wm Bun c e and hi s !roubles. H e w as in th e m e r c ant il e b u sines s i n K e y West f rom Augu s t 18 2 4 unt i l 1834 with partn ers named T homas Disney .1nd W m Saunders, and in 1 8.)2 was a c u stoms i n spec tor for the Key W est Di strict, which inclu ded Tampa, where he wa s w e ll and favorobly know n He traded and hauled merchandise with a small sloop named 'T h e Associ ate." I n addition to these b usi n esses, he owne d and

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opera ted a fishing rancho at Shaw's Point. Manat ee River, beginning about 1832, in partnership w ith Saun ders. (The present 1S39 land i n g p l ace of--deSoto. ) T h e s tore owned by Bunce and Saund ers at the Ranc h o was _plundered -and burned a roparent l y by th e Semi n oles. saunders had had e n o ug h and quit but moved, first to the north end ol Mullet De So!Q b age. K....ey (Tierra J:US.o.nure.besttold o n a ser ies o f letters p rinted i n Document No. 271, 24th 1 sl Sessi o n \!nder state of June .3, 18.36, the t QD>ngoos b.)L.Prruld'l!'J An drew jackson The first lette r dated J anuary 9, 1835 is i rom Bun ce to G eneral Wiley T h ompson, Indian Agent for Floril spe ak the Span ish lan guage. and ha ve n ever been i n the counrry t e n miles in thei r lives; their only mode o f living is by f i shing with t h e d i fferent Spani s h compan i es, from Augu s t unti l Mar ch ; duri n g the summ e r they cu l tivat e some small s p o t of land in the neighborhood of their wO
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at Key West, and ano th er i s enrolled among my r evenue crew, a nd is a first rate seaman, h aving followed t h e sea from a boy. Very truly yours, AUGUS TUS STEElE" Genera l T hompson wrot e t o the W a r Department, addressing his l etter to Albe r t Herring, Esq., o n January 19th, enclos i ng the le tters from Steel e and Bunce, which is quoted in part : "Sir: In my report t o the Superintende n t of In dian Affairs i n Florida, now in yo u r off i ce made on t h e 1st of j anuary 1 83 4 I adve r ted 10 the existence of several unauthorized set tlement of Negr oes, Indian s and Spania rds (lawles s bands) on the pen insula of Florida The enclosed copies of two letters a fford ad ditiona l i nforma t ion on t h e s u bject, whil e at the same ti me, they p r esent a quest ion whi c h i t is my duty to submit fo r the cons i deration to t he department." General Thompson then goes on t o say tha t he thinks Bunce's Indi ans should be removed forcib ly with i n the In d i an R eservatio n and even(Ually deport ed Mr. Herring wrote th e General that he d i d n o t agree with h i m and the Gene r a l wr ote again, at great l engt h arguing his case over agai n He also w r ote J udge Steel e re luctantl y agree i ng that t he I ndians cou l d s t ay with Bun ce unti l he was ready to move them but tha t they would have to move but p r omised he p r obably woul d nor make that step llntilthe spring of 1836. Genera l Thompson, in his l ettel' to Herring stated that General Cl i nch, t hen i n command of the ent i re Sem i nole War operation, also agreed .. lith him that th e Ind ians w ith Bunce shou l d be removed but, i n th e finalleuer, dated April 30, 1635, from D Kurtz, Acti ng Corn missio.n er of the Office of Indian Affa i r s to Gene ra l Thompson, the depa rtmen t f i n all y and defi n i te ly dec i ded t h at T h ompson was wrong and that Bunce was right. It i s f u rther becoming increasingly clear as new documents come to light, or r at her as old doc u ments a re re-d i scovered, tha t the Spanish ranchos, whi ch by t h e way, were l i censed by the Spanish Government i n Havana .. existed on the lower coasts (both east and west) of Flor ida c ont i n uous l y from the ear l y Spanish days o f the Englis h occupat ion of 1763 to 1763, and well through U S occupation i n 1622 a n d on a l most to the Civi l War pe ri od; and t h e tact of the existence of these groups of seasonal Spanish occupants ac counts for t h e lal'ge number of Spaniar ds who home steade d land upon t his coast, pa r ticula r l y under the A rm ed Occupat i on Homestead Act of 1842. Despite all these dist u rba nces the standing of Bunc e in t he T ampa area was such tha t he was e l ected ro th e 1838 Const i tutiona l Convention as d e l egate f r om Hillsborough County and on Jan uary11, 1639ai-39 fi xed h i s s i gnat ur e to F l orida's f irst Constitution, although th i s Co n st it u tion was not actually adopted until 184S. Desp i te this a U.S. Army Captain S.M. Plumm e r i n '1840,. under instru ctions f rom Gener al Armstead,. who h ad superceded Col. Brooke as Commandant a t Ft. 6rooke, proceeded irom Tampa to Cabbage Key and burned all the Bunce buildings, and eve n destroyed the crops that the Spanish Indians and t h e Spani ards ha d growing on t h e I s land What was the reason for this s udden turn in affairs? In other words, i n 1838 Bunce so thoroughly commanded the respect of t he commun i t y that he had been elected to the very im port a n t post of del egate to the Con stitutiona l Conven tion ye t by 1840, he, apparen tly, had become an e11em y of t h e United States. Appa rently Captain B u nc e d i ed s h o rtly aft er t h i s event for we find that on J anuary 21, 1842 General Jessup r eferred to h im as the late Captai n William B u n ce of Tampa Bay." On January 2 1844 Henry W r ight of Baltimore Cou n ty, Ma r yla n d, was appointed as adminis trator of h i s esta te. He event u ally brought s u it agai nst t he United States Government f o r t h e destruction of the rancho and f i nally s u cceeded, on March 3, 1847, i n collecting $1,000 .00 for compe n sati o n for t h e damage i n fl i c t ed At thi s tria l Manuel Olegue l a h e J ived w ith B u n ce at Shaw's Po i n t i n 1834, moved to Palm I s l and (Cab bag e Key) i n 1836 and t h at Bunce had a smac k a s loop and numero u s f ish i ng boats, can oes, and buildings calculated i n all for the employment of 150 men. It is interesting to note howe v er that in con nec li on wi(h the litigation againsl the United S t ates, Genera l Armstead, a B r igadier General. who had 01' dered the destruction of the B unce buildings, signed a l ette r on Janu a ry 9, 1845 i n which he said, "In the summer of "1840, while I had the command of the A r rny I o r dered some s h eds, previously owned by C a ptai n B u nce, deceased, t o be burned. T hese bui ldings, tha t ched with pa l metto and situated on Palm Island. T h ey were at t h e time I had them destroy ed used as a cove r and hidin g place for a party of renegade Spania rds who had p rev i ously and at thi s time, had i n tercoutse with t h e savage band my troops had to con te nd agai n st." It, perhaps, shou l d be further noted that the Bunce buildings at the mouth of the Manatee had been burn ed in 1837 by offi cers of th e squadron of Com modore Dallas, which sailed i n to the Manatee Riv er a t tha t ti me. These buildings we r e repo r ted t o have bee n worth not less t ha n $10,000 In fact one of these buildings, a c oncrete o r tabby h o use, is still standing and t here was cons id erab l e mystery rai sed about it b y certain Manatee County citizens rece n tly who though t, mistakenly, that they had d i scove r ed a Spanish building_ perhaps goi n g back to t he 16t h cen tury. T he legi slat i ve Counc i l on Feb r uary 12, "1837, had ordered an election t o be hel d t o ascer t ain the wishes of the people as to statehood A n d this election revealed that a very narrow majotity of the people

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favo red such a Convention. The Council, thereupon. a u t hori;:ed a Conven tiOf'l t o be allcndcd by 56 d e l egate s and t h e d i s tribution of these d elegates the sharp contrast i n population distribution in florida a> belwcen 1636 and 1954 We find lhal Of the 56 delcgai M. 6 were assigned IO leon County; 4 each allowed lor Gadsden, Jefferson, 51. John s Jac kson and Escambia Counties; while Coluonbia and Alachua had 3 each. On lh C oth e r hand, MosquitO County, which cove red th e en tire centra l east coast sec tion, had 1 d e legate ; Monroe County had 2 delt'gales; Dade Counly had 1 delt'gale and Hillsborough had 1 delegale. AI that t ime, of course Hilfsborough cove red an ill1me ns c area which is now d i vided inlo followi n g Counties: Hernando, Pasco l'i n el l as, Hillsborough, Pol k De Soto, H i g hlan ds, Clades, Okeechobee, Manatee, Sarasota and Charloue. II is now hdrd to believe lhat when the people voted for or aga inst the Conslilution, on the 1 s t Monday in M ay, 1839, 1he vol e in Hillsbo rough Coun ty was : lor t h e Conslltution 56, aga in s t 49 T h e vo te i n Monroe w a s 97 f o r and 18 agai n s l T h e vote i n Dade Counly was 64 for and n one again s t But. that i s another and interesting SlOfY to be told perhaps some othef time lncidenlally; the stare-w ide vole in iavo r of statehood (adoplin g t h e con sti tut io n) was 2 ,072 for a n d 1,953 agai n st, g iving \1 rhi n favorab l e ma j o r i t y o f but 1 19 On 41h the second day of the Convcn lion at 51. Joseph's, during the voting for a President of the Convenlion, a vote was cas t b y proxy for a Mr. Cool ey, c l aiming t o represent Hillsborough Coun ty which cJuscd u o u b l e l at(;!r o' b e cause \!VIIIIam O unce appeared on December 17th with c redential s cer tiiying his e lection and it was necessary for rhe Coun cil to re-do everything they had done during the first 14 days of 1he Convention so that 8unce would have a n opporhmit y l o vole. William Bun ce, o f cou rse, w41S one of the s i g ner s of the Conscilution. Silva a n d levique will r (llurn i n the ''txf C ha pter. They were the i n ter esting pair. The Negro and land War had a most dramatic beginmng; the shooting pan, that is, on December 26, 1835. General Caines a t fort K i ng, near lhc W i t h l acoochec, had asS<,mbled ma ny of the In d ian C hi efs t o sign a f i n al awecrnen t for r e m oval t o A r kan sas. In an open air c eremony under a cluste r of ash trees with a thousand or so U S Army troops forming a hollow square on three sides; the lndt ans came to the table o n which the treaty lay The nigh t before, Osceol a had passed the word he woul d k ill the f i rs t man I h at SiRn ed. As th e leader s, uneasy and afr a id, but p ressured, badgered, wined by General Wiley Thomp son; Indian agent stood about full of Osceola boldly stepped forward. ""I will sign;' he said in Sem i n o le. H o either could not or would not speak Engl ish. Th e r eupon he sud d e nly w h ipped his knife f rom u n d e r h i s s hi r t and p lunged il through lh e parchment deep i n t h e table, 40 a n d back, le;wing h is knife vibratin g i n t h e wood. Nobody else stepped forwa r d. T h e doc u me n l with the cut in it reposes today in rhe National Archives i n Washington. A few days later Osceola was twice arrested and placed i n i rons by T h o lnJ>SOn ior threalening talk around 1hc cam1>. for which i n d i gni ty Osceo la k i lled him. Next day, Sunday, December 28, 1635, Thompson and a friend wNe murdered by Osceol.a Wildcat and a handful oi followers AI almost the same lime, a (C'w miles to the south, MaJor Dade, his 102 enlis ted m e n o fficer 5 and Negro i nterprete r loui s Pacheko wer e at l ac ked All b u t l o uis, an officer and an e n l isted m an died i n the battle, which s t arte d a t eig h t in the morn ing a nd was over at eleven Probably Osceola a nd Wildcat took pan i n the laller part ol lhe allack. Dade County is named aher the Commander of t his Com pan y Lour s Pacheko had lived on Cabbage K ey w ith \.Villia m Bun ce. H e was a s l ave belongi ng lOa Span ish lady, named Pacheko ( s laves had but one name) and Bunce wu administrator of the estate. He hired louis to the Army al fl. Brooke at S25 a month as a guide. Osceola was the most widel y known F l oridia n that eve r livcrl. Th i s w r iler thinks h e was the g r earc st. whi c h i s an oddme nt. For Osceo l a was a h alf b reed born in Georgia, t o a Cre e k woman and a Sco tc h I n dian T rader He wa. s not a chict whic h was an hereditary thing. He spoke no English, he owned no property, he held n o orlice He'lva s captured under a f l ag of tru ce near St Augu s tine, whe n ce he was heade d in an effort 10 make pea ce. V\.' hencc h is g reat ness? His body1 his min d, hi s spi ri t were afl ame \\'ith a burning behcf in in Liberty, in Justice. H e electr i fied an apathelic people with that fever. l'fe terrified a great nation. He ins p ired lhe admirat io n of half the worl d He died of vol u n ta r y s tarva tion i n a mil i tar y prison. His head was seve red by the Ar my doctor a n d cas u ally giv e n t o a friend whose collection hobby was human skulls h was dcslroyed when a barn burned in New York Slate The Army doc1or who severed it, Dr. Freder i c k Weedon, was the gra ndfath e r of the Doctor l esl ie W Weedon of Tampa w h o lor many year s owned a n d made a point o( preservi ng t h e Indian Mounds on Weedon I s l and In volu ntary retribu t ion? The conventional historians with more pride than have 1heir pages ren ect the impression rhe United Stat es won th e Negro and land War of 1835 42. T h e gener als helped too After s u ffe ri n g defea[ five times Genera l Gai nes was r eplaced (Ga i nesville i s nam e d for h i m. H e fought around that town.) Th e next general led 1025 U.S. soldiers agains1 50 Ind ians at the Creal Wahoo Swamp near the site of 1hc Dade Mas).3cre. He later reported l O 1 he Secretary of War how admirably his troop s had behaved, how well t h e y f o u gh t B u t it was the General and what remained of h i s 1025 troops who retr eated.

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The war was ended after three leaders wete ;.,;zed under white fla g s of truce r aised b y the U S Army The Indi ans were harassed and starved into nonresistance. They never surrendered. After 115 years, no tre aty has been signed by the United States governmenr. leRoy Collins, while Gov e rn or. soug ht to arrange one, was rebuffed T h e captured o r sur rendering I ndians were brought Into Tampa and from there moved to Egmont Key i n a c oncen tration camp As a ship l oad collec te d they w e r e taken across th e Gulf, up the Mississ ippi, herded t o the Creek sett l eme nts and put on reser vation s Slave dealers in New Orleans and at debarkation point on the Miss issipp i tried to seize the NegrO.\ny 1698. T h e b M I o n lhe "Oic.OI I. Doub l e rlunbef. ftor;\' r Aut horative and compta)(t KcmnC'lth W P()ntr. 0Jceola dfld lhe P erNps l)e)t reo ftt rched o f wu(itlgS on the Nqr o rn l h e W,u, Jll e Exilf!'' o f Mmber of Congrt5s from OMo. 18S8. Hysu:riC6.50 1 0 S8.00. Currently available. SOOO ,._ ges o t offi cial p('lltlons welt arranged 41 by iubjecri, da te s a.nd events.. Covers yNI) 1822164>. I n valuable and r eliable. hMc>ri 1%1. Unpublished. Ac.'t.> Teflito r i a l Council. 18 12 82 State library rJII.Ih.mee liou)e Oocumenc 201. 22nd COflStes$ 1 Seulon. 1 and 7 11 .;nd subsequent. library of Cong tes> .;nd Arc.hiws. llou.K' Oocumen1 No. !71 2 4t h Congns 1st SeuiotL June 3, 18'36. llbr1ry of Con-gre's and " ational Arch ives, Jh4: 7 8unct" teuers. Pages 80-8J ; I J6.1J8 ''lh" St Jos.e-ph Constitutional Convention. f101ich Qo(ll U!'l l y l vty, 1937 Start JJ. Aho i u u e c>f Ocl ober 193fJ.

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Chapter VIII I TAKE THIS LAND" The First land O wner s Unli l A ug. 4 184 2 n o pri va t e person had l ega l titl e to a n y l a n d i n So u th F l o rida except th e owners of a l e w Spanish grant s o n the East Coast whi c h had been declared va l id b y the U.S. Commiss ion set up a f ter the United States a cquired Flortd a A few claims to g,.nts on the Gull Coast inclu d ing three large ones on Tampa were decl ace d invalid accord i ng tO Lester Bryan of the West Coast Title Co., there was one Spanish grant for land now i n or nea r St Petersburg which h a d considerable merit. The Com mis sio n disallowed t h e gran t, but th e government, i n p artial compensa tion con veyed to Josep h P u i g a n d o t h e r s o f h i s f amily, land i n th e Gul fport area. T h e r e w as a l arge numb e r of peopl e act u ally l i v i ng on the la n d from Tampa south1 including s izab l e Spani s h sett lement s a t Tampa and Sarasota : Ode t Philippe who l ived at S a fety Harb o r owners of fish ranchos, notably Bunce first at Shaw's Point on the Manatee River and then on Cabbage Key and a New York lawyer, John Drysdal e who was building a house on t h e e xact site Col. Brooke wanted when h e and several hundred soldiers arrive-d in December, 1822, t O estab l is h a fort o n Tampa Bay, 10 be known as Fort Brooke. Bro o ke seized t his hou se without ce r emony a nd fi n ished it a s a resi dence f o r t he c om m a ndan t h ims elf. T h i s l a w yer had bought part o f a n i n va l i d Spa ni s h g r a n t f o r land i n the Tampa B a y a rea which was disallo w e d Odet Philippe was one of th e few preAug 4 1 842 squaeters who rurne d ''p o sses sion" Into that tent h point a vendable t i tle ( a n old saw in the l egal fra ternity is is nine points of the law.") Homesteading Foails South Flor ida w a s opened to priva t e owne rs h i p by homesteading e f fective Aug 4 1842, as a move t o end th e socalled Sem i n o l e W a r Gov. Ric ha r d Kei t h Call gave b i r th t o th e i dea in a suggest i o n to Gen. Zachary Tay l o r w h o commanded u S A r my forc e s 42 fight ing the Se m inol es to-wit : Throw th e I n d i a n la n d s open t o h omestead t o U.S c i tizens over the age of 1 8 wil ling and a b l e t o bear a rms; fill the are a with men deter m i ned to prote c t t h ei r homes and hea r t h w ith guns and that will defeat t h e Indian s In a word, call in th e p rofit mot ive an d put the real estate ag en ts to work. The taw required applicant s tO clear at least five a c res build a home "'fit for human hab i tation and live on the land five years. Congress passed the law and opened land offices at Newnanville, nea r Gaine-sville, nd at St. Augu s tine. Th e law worked i ndifferen tly and as big plan t ati o n owners and U S Se nator Dav i d S Yulee were o p posed, it w a s repeal e d a f t e r t w o yea rs. Duri n g tha t p e riod 9 4 9 va l id appl icat i o n s wer e made a t Newn anville a n d 370 at St Augusti n e of which 1 6 were can celled or found t o conflict with previous cl a ims. T h is left a net of 1303 men (and women) who were willing to risk their lives and i n v e st t h eir time for five ye ars to own 160 acres of land in South florida 01 that 1303, only about 24 were in P inellas County and only three w ithin the boundary of t h e present city, which points up what a \\ ilderness Pin e lla s and St. P etefsburg were a bit over a century ago or lhe 21 oth ers over h alf were grouped aroun d P h i lippe Po i n t and Bay Vie w (Cour t n e y C ampbell P arkway ) the balance o n lh e b l uffs a l Clea rwat e r a n d the s tra tegi c wate r way s i t u atior) at Indi an R o c k s frontie r E ss e ntia l s The three essentials of the fir s t adventurers here were watef access to T natural all year guarantee against flooding and easily cleared, tillable ground. St. Petersburg had the lea .SI of these advan tages. Hence f a rm ers homesteaded in Upper Pinellas, fis h ermen in the Pin ellas Po i n t area l'h e t h ree res i dents i n St. Pe t ersburg were fish e r men: T w o Span i ard s a n d one F renchman (all persons residi n g i n F l o r ida Feb. 22, 1 8 21, who took t h e oath o f alleg iance t o the Un i ted Sta tes w e r e b y la w

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a ut oma t ically made c i tizens ) T h e r e w ere two ven 1ur e s o m e u n m arr i e d you n g f ellows w h o trie d w homestead Mullet and Egmo n r Keys, but \ 'ere s t o p pcd beCclUS e lhe 1ni lilary controlled these keys. T h e three in St. P 1 0 i t One pur port e d ht-i r a p pealed to thi s w ri t e r s evera l year s ago a n d h e u nder took ro f i n d o u t I n the reco rd o( t his l and he ran into ar\ i nstru men t written e nt ire l y i n f Hmch ask ed les ter Br yan w hat th e pape r contai n ed B rya n s a i d as far as h e kne-w i t had never been The mys t e r y d e epe n ed f or t h e instrument was a mortgag e from o n e Alft ed Lech avellie r n at uralist o r Montreal Canada t o L L Mai ltet, a lawyer of Montreal for $1,8()() d u e ir> 18 m onths a t 18 percent i n tere st. cover i n g all oi t h e Hernandez l a n d, PLUS 40 acres mor e alon g side and also <.:ove ri rlg a busi n e ss cons i s t i n g o f s tu ff ed b i r ds and a nimals sit uated i n Montreal. l' h e da t e was O c t 27, 1880 The next i ns trument in t h e r eco r d onl y made ma t t ers more mys terious Thi s was a d eed dated t \ p r i l 25, 1 8861 f rom Dorninga Herna n dez to \Vtllia m \Vh it fidge, C l a ude Van Bibber Willi a m C. Cha s e and an F Dul in of Balt imore Now r ef e r b.1Ck t o t h e ope n i n g chapt e r o( th i s book and the 1 885 spe ec h o f W. C. VanBibbe r at th e New Orleans convention of the Amer ican Medi c a l Asso c i a t ion! In h i s s peech Van B ibbe r q u oted person s h e f e l t were experts on F l o rida cl i lnett e One wa s \+Villiam C. Chase "who has traveled ex t ensive l ) over the s t a t e w i t h a v i e w of studyi n g its w h o \Ver e I sent abro a d t o sear c h for a hav en for tired men w h e r e n e w l i f e woul d come w'it h every sun, a n d :;lum b e r full of s leep with moon, I wou l d s e l e c c Po i n t F lorida . Its Indian mou n d s show that i t was s elec ted by t h e ori gina l i n hab i t an ts for a popu la r sett l emen t.'" Point Pinellas Sold Obvi o us l y. the enth u s i ast i c C has..-gathered up o'vlessr s W h itr idgc and Dul i n a n d C la ude VanBibbe r a so n of O r Vv'. C. Van Bibbee and returned to P o i n t P i nellas. look ed u p Mrs. Dominga Comc1., who had bee n M r s Domi nga Hern a n dez and boug ht P o i n t Pin e llas They b elie ved il' their own m e d i c i n e A n d Chase obvi o u s l y i nspi red the famo u s Dr. Van B i b be r s p e e c h to the Amer i c a n M edical As s o c ial i o n. C l a u d e Van Sibber graduat ed from t h e University of Maryland School of M e d i c ine in 1 877 H e took a vacati o n and bought a fou r t h i n t e r e s t i n a piece of St. P e t ersburg l and. as h i s fat h e r h ad advis ed T he dee d t o thes e men was nota rized b y a person who la t e r be came perh aps t h e mos t powerful and best known cit izen of Tampa. Pet e r 0. Kn ight

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pres idenr of T ampa Electric and head of many other enterprises Doming_ a was illiterate and signed with an X but K n ight arefully noted that the person signing wa s Oominga Gomez, formerly Oomi nga Hernane under th e J ungl e P r a d o buildin g W h e n Geo r g e W a t s o n Jr. came a long in May, 1848 on his survey i n h is notes h e says (paren t het i c e x planations by this writer;) .. Began at east post and ran west 40 chains (to the Center of Park Street a t 38th Avenue Nonh) s e t post of light wood, (A number of these origi nal ligl\twooeofectly so und d e spite bei ng over 100 years o l d ) ran 47 c h ains t o s c rub h ammock, 53 cha ins t o J o sep h Sil va's r enee ( 1 2 54 feet wes t o f Par k Stree t ) 5 9 c ha ins t o Boca Ciega s e t pos t of c e dar. B y r e quest o f Jo seph Sil va, set tl e r und e r t h e A r m e d Occupa t i o n Act, I assign him t h e f ollowing fr a c t ional lot s .. $ "1/2 o f 9N 1/4 of Section 1 (3 8th to 42nd Ave n ue N orth), N 1 1 2 of NW of Section 12 (34th Ave. North to 38th Avenue)' The next day he got to John Levique and S
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was terrorized by the "bushwhackers" so badly (he identified some ol them as John Bethell and Abel Miranda.) they fled to Key WeSt lor the duration, that Port being under the control of the F ederals lor the duration ol that struggle There are many descendants ol la c k Girar d s till living in and around St. Petersb urg. Jack sai d that Silv a and levique, who h u n t e d tur ties in pa r t n e r s h i p, had been unus uall y successfu l i n th e early s u mme r ol 1 8 4 8, and had acc u m u la t e d a s hi p l oad As they c a ugh t t h e turtles th ey pe n ned the m up in J oe's Cree k, d rilli ng holes in th e rear carapace of the i r she lls and tethering them down. T he y took t his load to K ey West and returned with $800 o f the sale price left over, which was in g o ld Again the y were quickly successful in their catc h and decided the Key West market was pretty well glutted, so they took the second load to New Orleans. Before l eaving, J ohn buried the gold n e a r his house. They ret urned about Oct. 1 1 848. Joe was a s l eep and Joh n w a s at the wheel s teering f o r B l ind Pass t h eir traditiona l en t r y w a y i nt o B oca Ciega Bay. T o Joh n's aslonishmen t t h e r e was a new broad a n d d e e p pass severa l m i les north ol Blind Pass, where no opening had been when th ey ha d l eft in the ear l y part ol Sept ember. John wa k ened Joe and said ; "look! A new pass." and ever alter it was John's Pass. This first opening of J ohns Pass was at 1 50th Avenue. The waterway now a sho rt d i stance east of Gulf B oulevard is the stump of the closed pass. Ther e are similar open i ngs at 14 5 t h Aven u e and 135t h A ven ue, l e ft as th e pass ope n i n g moved so uth. The Moving P asses All passes on t h e Gull Coast ol F l orida. i n response to the normal wind and warer currenrs. gradually work south As late as 1900 Blind Pass ran r oughly southeast northwest (st a rting on the bay side). its north side being south ol the little island which is nort h ol the west end of t he old Corey Causeway. It now runs northeastouthwes t and per sistently t r i e s t o cat away s till f u r t her s o u th\vard J oh n and Joe ente red t h e n ew pass and h eaded fo r John's h ouse B u t the house had disappeared. s wept away by the te rr i f ically h i g h wat e r The s hore l i n e had been cut t o ribbons; trees w er e down and piled i n heaps all over t h e p lac e The upshot was that while J oe and lohn dug frant ically many t imes, they never found the i r $BOO i n gold. Jack wanted permission to searc h lor the $800. He had a metal detector. Perm ission was freely g iven but Jack had no luck L eviq u e was bu r i ed on his land and a s i mpre mark er indicates the spot Stephen W oze ncrolt, in 1915, gave an affi davi t t h a t he had li ved i n the St. P e t er s burg area s ince 18S9 and that h e h e l ped b u ry J o h n L c v i q ue. He s i g n ed t h e alli d av l t with a n X, be i ng illiterat e 45 lost Treasurer One night a man came to the home of this writet when he lived in the Jungle Prado Building. vibrant with e x cite ment. He w a s a treasure huncr. Feelin g ( from l ong ex per ience) that almost inva r iabl) treasu r e h u nt ers were more or less ctaty a n d mor e or less compul s i v e liars, this writer did n o t shar e t h e ex c i t cmcnt, bu t l i s t e n e d T h e man asked : "Do you know w h ere j ohn L cv lque's house \v as?" "Exactly" wa s the rep ly. H e meant remains, thai is, th e house levique built alter the 1648 hurricane Walter Askew then a 17year-old archaeologist thought he had found the site or the pre-1648 house The art i facts he recovered are convincing. This writer cultivated and cared for th e old c itrus trees surro undi ng the levique house f or ab o ut five years, 19 1 6 t o 1921. T h e ma n's e xcitement increased. "Well," he s a i d, "I h ave Informat i on w h e r e h e b u r ied i n g o l d. I I y o u will h el p me l ocat e th e s p o t I ll give you half of it. II Remembering J ack's account o l the $800 the writer wa s not too excited about the $80 000. but in vited further i nf o rma tion Said the man; "He buried the $80 000 at the south west comer of his house i n an i ron kettle I s my proposilion acceptabler' "No," was the reply I 'll make you much better propo sitio n Yo u give me $10 1n couh tonight and i n the morning I 'll lend you a s hovel and s how you the exa c t so uthwest corn e r of h i s h o use s ite ." That s tu n n ed him. 'Why d o you s ay tha t ? h e a sked "Because, when J oh n d i e d around 1 8 7 0. he wa s d eep i n debt and his w h o l e place was sold at p ubli c auction a lillie lat er (the eact dt e was Apr i l 1, 1873) lor $60 t o a man named Mitchell (H.L). My lather, H Walter Fuller, bought it lrom Mitchell about 1908 lor S2,SOO. (It was Nov. 28, 1908,) and we developed a large part ol the golf course and Jungle Subdivi sion on it. II John had had $80,000 buried at the corner ol his house he wouldn't h ave died broke The man wen t away w i t hou t giving the $10, wh;cn s r ri kcs me a s bein g a b it u n grJt cful. Thi n k how much hard w ork my i nfo r m a t ion saved h im! O h w e ll life among the treasu r e h u n t e r s is like that. There w e r e p rior trace s ol o th er peop le. For i n stan ce. waterf ront tra di tion s ince th e f irst recoUec lions ol this writer, which dat e lrom 1900, i n c luded one story of a Brit ish paymaster ship that was wrecked somewhere along the ${. Petersburg waterfront Dramatic confirmation of rrad ition came i n 1929, when lhis writer w a s a salesman for S nell Isle with C. P erry Snell owner A M ystery Coin W e two were v ery n e a r sell ing a wa terfront home there to a Mr. Murph y R ecollect i o n i s the sale was madeand we tw o were going thr ough the house

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with Murphy when h e happe n ed to pull a l arge gol d coi n from h i s pocket a n d h e t o l d u s the story t hat wen t w i t h the coin. Murphy and a man named Ged ney, i n 1 926, had a large contr act wilh the ci t y for i ts f i r st ext e \ S ion oi t h e origi na l san i t.uy sewe r syst e m Their men \vere hav i n g a d iiii<:ul t t ime wit h an i nstalla t ion a t t h e i nt erse c tion o f T h i r d Str ee t Sout h a n d E ighth Ave n ue. T h e c u t ior the p i l)i ng was some n -14 ieet deep S t o u t t i m b e r wal ls. slrong l y brac e d were used t o keep t h e d i tch s i des f rom c:: aving i n on men work ing down in th e d i t ch S uddenly, there was a w i l d scr amb l e and mel ee among t h e m e n at t h e d i t c h bonom. Murph y hap pened t o be standing t h e r e a t s t reet level. s uper vis i ng H e e v entually f ound t h e men had ru n into a cache of gold coins i n t h e mud a n d muck. After t h e men came out, h e call e d t hem around him and said : "Now l ook, m e n I'm n o t goi ng t o try t o t a ke the coi n s from you b u t I'll g i ve $20 i n U S money for each coi n yo u w ill s ell to me." He boug h t abou t 30 o f them. He gave t h e one he h ad with h i m t o S nell. All were E n gl i s h <:oins m inted prior t o 1774 A lso to be noted, w i t h t hese well estab l ished owne r s wer e two other i n hab i taf) ts. A nton i o Papy certainly lived on t h e Bayo u t h at sti ll bears his name H e was doubtless a f is h erm a n He p r obab l y came from St. Augustine henc e could b ee n a M inorc.1n f r o m Ne''' Smy r na o r a Span i ard Ca t h o l i c C h urch reco r ds l ist an "A. P apy He m ight h ave come f r om Key VVest. Be rnie Papy, l ong t ime s t ate l eg i s lator from Monroe County ( Key W e st) a n d a senator a t th e t ime of h i s deat h who has been s u c c eeded i n the legis l a ture by a son coul d well have been a descendant. (The son was defeated in t h e 1968 p r i mary ) Papy cer tain l y was h e r e i n mid-1 8 4 0's but n e i ther the 1840 n o r t h e '1850 cen s us report s h i m 8ut Phil i ppe's seco n d da u g h te r Octavia marr i ed a Pap y and had a son born Dec. 1 8. '1843 a n d a da u gh t er, P at r oce n i a born in 1844 Mr. a n d M r s J osep h A Wallach 1375 Delaware Ave n ue, S h ore Acres, well may have built t h eir h o u s e atop Papy's h ouse During some yard improvemen t s t hey discovered o l d hand hewn t imber and handmad e nails that p r obably represe n t remnants o f t h e Papy house It i s a l og i cal s i t e for a fisherman to h ave bee n l i v ing. A Mr. Temp l eman, who made a d i scred i ted s u rvey in 1845 had a hous e a t abou t 54t h Avenue Nort h, b e tween 16t h and 22 n d Streets i n Sect ion 2 31-16 b u t he took t itle to no la n d nor appeared in e i t h e r the 1 840 or 1 850 cens u s' anywh e r e i n F lorida. He mus t the r efore, h ave l eft the state o r d i ed He probabl y was a cattl e h e r der f or Tarn1>a cat tl e owners w h o had v ast h e rds o n P inella s Peni ns u I a Summing u p the f irst two decades of t he south e rn e n d of Pi n ellas Pen ins u la under U.S. own e rshi p, th e sco r e is most ulimpr essiv e Commerc ial and bus i ness i nt erests clu stered a r o und t h e s o l d i ery and govern m e nt money at Fort B rooke. T h e s turdy n o nslave own i ng farmer s from Geo r g i a and t he Ca r o l inas 46 pre ferr e d the h i g h rolling l ands o f Upper P inellas The Tampa catt l emen started r u n n i n g t h e i r calll e t h e r e and shippin g t hem by b oa t f rom 8ayv iew. The ''Ci tize n s h ip" score of w hat i s now St. Peters b u r g may hav e be e n propheli c as i t w a s i n cl uded; two Span i a rds, o n e Frenchman, one Span i ard o r Minorc an, o n e Ameri c a n Th r ee were known to b e illi t erat e But at l e ast they were a cosmopo l i tan g roup. A n d all got t i tl e to thei r lands under t he 1 \ r med Occupation Act of Aus. 4 1 842 T h e r e wer e two o t her routes by whi ch l r ee land was secu r ed : From t h e Federal Government with sold i er's warr a n tee s a n d f rom t h e Stat e of Flo ri da w ith w h at came to be called 'school t eac h e r scri pt. T h e state went bankr upt i n t he E ightee n E i g h ties a n d i t paid t h e reac hers with docum e nt s sta t i n g h o w much was O\'ved t hem. These documents be c ame known as school script. T h e s t a t e u n der l aw r edeemed t h e stript w ith l and at $1. 25 an acre. Lan d was tak e n i n P i n e lla s on sol d i e r bonu s war ran t s in 1 3 inst ances but none i n St. P etersbu rg. However, one of t hese w h i l e not i n St. Petersburg. i s on a nea rby Gulf Beac h i s l and and is i n t e n s el y i n terest i ng Origin of Vin a D e l M a r He n r y L onas, a pri vate in Cap t C hi l e s' Company o f th e T e n nessee Mil i t ia, War of '18 12. rece i ved s u c h a bonus. Roy S Han na, vetera n of t h e Span ish Ame ri can War of 1898, St. Petersb u rg's f i rst p rominent R e p u b l ica n (fr om time to time S t P e t e rsbu r g post master s i n the good o l d days" before civi l S-e f\1i ce, whenever a Rep u b lican pre siderl t happ ened to be e l ected were Rep u b l i cans), and a b i g land own e r fi l e d t his L onas patent Nov 2 4 1 906 and rece i ved there f o r Governme n t Lot 4, Sect i o n 7 and Gove-rnment Lot 1 Secti o n 1B i n Township 32 South Ran g e 16 East, co n taining 57.04 atrcs, the deed bei ng iiled April 7 1 9 1 0 i n Deed Book 113, P age r 22, H i llsboro u g h County records. T hi s 57. 04 ac r es e v e n t ually, w i t h the aid of dredges and drag l i nes and w h at n o t be c ame t h e magn i f icent subd i v i s ion of V i ,,a del Marl As far as i s no\'v k nown, the r e was only o n e l oca l i n stan ce of schoo l s cript bei n g used t o acq u ire land in thi s coun ty. Tom t V\cCall, an o t h e r ear l y p i o n ee r i n about 1912, acquired t h ree small islan ds i n B o c a Ciega Bay whi c h by the same proces s as i n th e Ha n n a case have become an importa n t par t o f T ierra Verde How did thi s happ e n ? The sol d i ers or teachers t o w hom the scr i p t was issu ed, seldom us ed i t t hem sel ves. Most of it was bou gh t by spec ulat ors a n d sol d. some of it at enormous bonuses, t o acqu i re th e scri p t w h ich was redeemab l e i n l and at $1.25 an ac r e It i s t h i s w r iter's recollec tion that Mr. McCa ll pa i d $300 fo r e ach $1.25 of scri pt. Quite a profi t for t h e pat ie n t speculato rs! Onl y i n f o u r instances i n P i nella s t h e 14 uses o f script made by th e person to w h om granted

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The school scr ipt was i ssued in 1886 when th e Stat e bee.tme b ank rupt and i t s t reas ury was seize d by a Federal ma r shall whe n owners o f Flor ida ra i l r o ad b o n ds se c u red j udgme nt s T he famed H a milt o n Dlsston four m i lli o n a c r e p u r chase fo r $1-m i llio n was the d rama t ic transac t i o n by which F lorida recovered fro m th e b a nkr upt c y The S ta l e reckless l y had gua r a n teed vast a mount s o f b o nds is sued b y p r i vat e 4 7 s peculative rai lroad companies and when the road s bee.tme i n s olven t a group of Philade l phia bank e(S, who o w n e d m any of th e bonds, b rough t s u i t T h i s wri ter w a s p resen1ed wit h one o f the s e bon d s by a t otal s tran ge r one d a y when h o w a s s ea ted a t a tab l e in a Tallaha sse e d r ug stor e, e n joying a coke w i th a c h arming yo ung lady, w h o e v en tually became M rs. Fuller H e still ( 1 969) has b o th -bond a nd wif e

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Chapter I X THE MIGHTY H URRICANES "And the raitlS d e s cended and the floods ca m e a n d th e w inds ble w and b eat up on t h a t hous e an d i t t ell, and g r e at was t h e fall" M atthew 7 :27 Tropical p a rticu larl y those desig na ted as hurricanes have played p r ominent rotc s in the historical liv6 of mos t cities in Florida. including St. Petersburg The r e is no subject for discussion more fascinating t h an th e weather and r hese phenomenal mixt u res of w i ld winds a n d tumultuous sea s deserve a c hapt e r i n thi s c h r o n icle St. P e l e r s burg, as f a r a s th e record s s h o w has been hie l r e m e ndously hard by o nl y lwo Slo rmsone in 1 8 4 6 a nd o n e i n 1 921. Som e o c hers, however have c a u sed va r y ing a m o unls of d a m a g e. The G real Gale of '48 No person who liv e d c h rough che hurricane o f Sept 23 25, 1 848 w a s ever lhe s a me a g a in. They called h lhe G real Gale of '48" nd lhing s were forever af ler daced from it T o them and I heir childre n, a n d in m a ny inst ances u nto rhe t hird gene r a tion. it was a viv id never fadi ng t hin g. I I l i ve d wi l h t hem. It was che g reatest storm ev er t o s trik e what i s now known a s Sl. Pe l ersburg i n t h e 4 68 y e a rs l h a t r ecords h av e been k epi and reporl e d o f chcse mos t powerful and a w esome of natu re s upheavals. T h at i s as f a r a s can be 1 o l d from lhe meager and fra gmentary reco r ds. 11, a n d lhe olher d a m ag ing hurr ican e of lhe 201h Cenlury, Oct 2 1 31, 1 921 made i l c lar lhacche m ain body of S!. Pe lersbur g. excepl low fringes along 1he bays seems forever saf e from major hurricane disaster. No1 so l h e Gulf Beac hes. II is !rue 1 h a1 ch e handful of inhab i l ants of c h e presenc St. Pete r sburg a rea fa red badly i n the Greal Gale. Maximo Hern andez f ish r anc h o a t fren chma n's Creek ( F l o r ida P r e s byter ia n College) was des l royed a n d Max imo h a s tily depa r t e d never to re t urn. Tha t was beca u s e b e ing a fish e r ma n h e had b u ilt h i s bu i l d i ng s i n relati o n t o b a y sho r e c on v en i e nc e, 48 ign ori n g c h e h i gh Ind ian rnoun d s 1 0 the sou t h and the relativ el y h igh g r o u n d lo
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the perfect hurr i c a ne ; "perfect in this inst a nce meaning jus t right (or just wrong) lor maximum damage T h e course of the storm was slightly wes1 of nonh that it e xactl y p a ralleled the G ull coast l i n e with the center or "eye .. o f f s h ore The result was that as the eye m o ved nort h u p t h e Gulf slightly angled to th e s h o r e, It caused a hug e water sur g e i nt o i nlers, passes and ba ys. A s the eye swept p as t th e wind r e v e rsed i t self, coming lhen from th e north wes t and causing a n o t her reve r se s urge outwa rd and off th e l an d 'Mi ld S t atistics This accourHs for the facl that the storm statistics seemed mild enough so mild as to ma k e the record h i gh water a seemi ng mystery H ere is the dat a : Wind 72 miles per hour; barometer28 18 Con t ras t these figu res w ith those of o ther hurr i c a nes: 19 1 0 at F ort Myers 12S mll e wi n d ; 28.40 bar o r ne t er. 1 926 a t Miam i 3 8 mi l e w ind ; 27.61 baron 1 c t e r (at that t i m e a Western Hemi s phere reco r d l ow.) 1928 at Palm Beach 100 mile w i n d; 27.4 3 barometer, (a new Western Hemisphere record low.) 1935 in Florida Keys 26.35 barometer ( an all tim e low lor this he misphere ; 135-mile winds 20-loot wate r .) 1926 100 l iv e s l os t at Miami 192818 3() live s l o st at L ake Okeechobee. 1 935 3 76 dead on the K eys and a t Miami. But t h e r e l ative l y "mi l d b low o f 18 4 8 caused migh ty h avoc and di d considerab l e sh i f ting of geography At Englewood, Stump Pass was cut from Gul f to Bay, so-called from the huge b lack mangrove stumps that were left in the pass i tself and on the edges wind and water having twisted those tough mangrove tree trunks-so me were 2 4 i n ches i n diametera su nder f r om stump and r o ots. Casey's P ass appeare d a t Veni ce, n o w rein fo rce d with giant j etti es to make i t a n o f ficial s torm r ef u ge. This p ass was named after Capt J ohn C C a s ey, an an ces t .or o f the Wil b u r Ca s ey f am i ly. l a t e r i n the dairy o n Ulmerton, but long tim e prominent res 1den ts of St. Peter s b urg. Captain Casey, beca use h e, mor e than any othe r Army off i cer, had the confidence of the I ndians d i d more than all the bullets the Army fired tO end the Sem inole War ol 183S-42. little Sarasota was opened into Sarasota Bay Passage Key, between E gmon t and Anna Maria. then covered w i t h gian t b lack mangrove s, was swept com p l etely away to the exte nt, i n fact, t ha t the re w as 8 feet o f water Sept. 2 6 1 848 whe r e the day b e f o r e there had been high ground. The i s l and r e turn e d It was a w a y aga i n in 1921 but w as q u ic k l y bui l t u p a g a 1 n 4 9 Mullet Key Hi t Hard A pass running sou theastnorthwest was cut through Mullet Key (Fort De Soto Park ) and the gre a t grove of cedars, bla c k m a ngrove and palmettoes then g r owing ther e. The lan d wa s swept na ked ol tr ees. The pa>S e v e n t ually dosed at the south a n d w h e r e i t opened i nto Tamp a Bay and the re s u lting d eep, long and narr O w bay 1s now known as Soldier's H o l e a n am e it when used a s a s w im min g hol e, 1898 1 923, w h tle F ort De Soto w as manned b y c o m p anies of th e Coast Art ille r y of the rcg u lar U.S. Army Most of t h ese soldiers w e r e l a n d lubbers an d cauti o us ly learned t o swi m in Sol d ier's Hole before venturing in t o the Say or Gulf. The storm may h ave cut through an isl and then called Palm Island immed i ately sou theast of Pass-a Grille and now called Tierra Verde.,....into two is lands became Cabbage Key and Pin e I s land, but tha t nor cer tain There was a pass running nonhe ast .. b e tween the two. / J o hns Pass was opened a s pr evio usly r e ported, but or> tha t September day in 1 846 it w a s loca ted at what l i s now 138th Avenue, Madeira, and n o t a t 128th Avenue Treasure Islan d as now. The l igh t hous e a t Egmont Key had just been ac tivated i n May, 1 848 It w a s under the care of Marve l Edwards of All i gator (now lake City ) He and h i s w i fe and 5 child ren lived in a cottage and tended the light. They fled the lighthouse when the w ind twisted and cra c ked its tower a n d the wild water undercut its founda t ions, cau s i n g i t t o lean dangerous l y A stout rowboat was h i tched to a palmetto tree a t th e highe s t point o n the i s l an d ab o u t & t o 7 fee t e le v ation and when t h e wate r s went d own th e tie rope was fo und t o b e 9 ieet abov e gr ound Edwards a nd his fam ily thankfully rowed to Tampa the n e xt day (For t Brooke) a n d Edwards p romptly r e signed. He had had enough. H e never re t urne d t o Egmont Key but entered business in Tampa Incident ally the great light t ower ol 2 -loot thick brick and concrete coast a mere S7,0SO in 1848 and only S2, 200.65 to repai r i t and the k eepe(s house after the hurri c ane. One wonders about that 65 cents. All t h e material h ad t o be ferrie d f rom Tamp a Philippe Mound Damaged A l a r ge sect ion of the huge m o u nd a t Ph i l ippe P a r k w as cut a wa y by the st orm. Cou n t an d Cou ntess Philippe ha d j u s t retu rne d i n th eir schoon e r fro m a n annual vacation and shopping trip to Charleston and Key West Mrs Ph i l ippe wrote a friend in Char leston shortly after the srorm Her greatest conc ern was tha t a new bolt of cal ico sh e had bought had been washed out of the schoone r and festooned through the h uge ettrus t rees g r o win g then and now atop t h e Philippe P ark mound She had l i t tl e t o s a y about the h urric ane. T hose g r a pef r u i t trees atop the mou n d, gener ally con ceded t o b e the first of that fruit I n F l o rid a survived and bor e f r u i t into the 1920's. Allen's C ree k whi c h c r osses Highway U. S. 19 two

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miles south o f Gul f -to-Ba y in C l earwater, was 167 feet wide ot the mouth before the storm and about 2300 feel wide The great body of water forced up by the hurricane winds, rushed bayward in two or three hours of I hat wild afternoon of Sept 25, 1848, swept away pine trees, palmeuos and ten s o f thousands of yards of eart h IO make lhe creek 's mouth almost a half mile wide ft was t h e stor m s waves not th e w i nd, tha t did the damage. T h e la t e I van Roy Tannehill, in h i s book l l urricanes'' which chart s every h urrica n e from 1494 1 0 1951 (lhc eighth and last edition was printed i n 1952) describes w hat ha ppened Sept 25, 1848. 48 Storm Described '*Evidently the storm wave is facilitated by a rising ocean bed and f avorable shore conrours, as is the astronomica l tide in li k e situat i ons. The o rd i na ry r ise of the tide, from gra vita tional causes, amounts to onl y rw o or three feet in open oceans T h e r e i t is o f little s i g nif ica nce; its rise a n d fall ar c grad u al. In cer t ain bays and c h a n nels, where the wave e ncou n t ers the shores and a ris i ng ocean bed, the r ise may b e 25 10 50 feel above low wa t er. The times o f ebb a n d flow o f such a tide a r e well known.; otherwise many people would be caughr unawares and drowned. On the o ther hand, the storm wave comes so rarely to any one communily 1ha1 h i s se.ldom anricipaled in irs fully developed f orm. "In some places the storm ride Is never in .any form except a fai r ly gradual r i se o f water ; ; n other loca lilies desuuctive s torm waves are d eve loped whenever a tr opica l cyclone of great inten sit y f ollo w s a par ticu l a r course across the coast li n e "Th e true storm wav e i s not d e v el ope d unless t h e s l ope o f t he o c ean b ed a n d th e contour o f the coastline are favorable Like the gravi t ational t ide, il reaches its greatest h e ight in certain situations. If there is a bay lo the right of the point where the cyclone center moves the waters are driven into the bay With a gently sloping bed the water is piled up by resistance and becomes a great wave o r series of waves which moves forward and to the left, the prin cipal Inundation usually l aking place on th e left bay s h ore. Great storm waves which have taken a n enor m o u s t o ll of human live s h ave, so far as records a re ava ifabl e, occu r red i n n ea rl y every case in a s i tuat ion of this k ind." Fort Brooke Report Brief offici al reports of the 1848 storm at Tam pa are given i n two letters written the afrer the sto r m, the f irst from Fort Brooke's commanding officer, Majof R 0 A Wade : "General I have to repoll that yesterday a ''ery severe cquinoxia l sto r m from rhe southeast destroyed all the wharves an d most of th e public buildi ng s a l this post. T h e commissary and quartermaster stor eh o uses with all th e i r con t e nt s w er e s w ept away, and a f e w damage d p r ovis ions, e tc. o nly can be recove r ed so "The offi ce rs' quarters (except headquarters) a r e destr oyed or very badly damaged, and the barrac k s are beyond repair. The storm began about 8 a m from the southeast and raged wilh gre a t violence until past 4 p.m., after whic h i t veer e d t o the south and so uthwest and lu lle d very much toward 8 p m Its great force was between 1 an d 3 p m The water rose t o an u n preced ented h eig ht and I he w aves swep t away th e wharves and all bui l dings that we r e near the l>ay o r river The com mand was turned out early i n the s t o rm but such was th e viol ence o f t he win d and resistless fo rce of t he waters that no p roperl y could b e saved. 1 am happy to report that no lives were lost, althoush som e of t he people w ere rescued with great difficulty. Here is another l e tter regarding the scorm, writte n by B P Curry, acting assistant surgeon at the Fort Brooke Army Hos pital (su rgeons in thai day, al Arm y pom, also >erved as offic ial weath e r obse rvers : ) ''Sir I have the honor t o i nform you t h at in th e violent hurricane of lhe 25th i n s l th e roof of th e h o s pita l was complete l y carri e d away, t he doors broken, the win dows des tr oyed and the property o therwise lost or mater ially injured, with the excep tion of the medi c i nes and s t ores, whic h rece i ved but lillie damage "In the passage of the storm the barometer depression was from 30 122 to 28.181. The wind a111 a.m ., W W (force) 10, continued southwest10 until 2 p m ., then shi fted to W N.W. (force) 8, the barom eter 30.012 and con t i n ued 3 0.012 unti l 4 p m The tide rose 15 feet above lo\v water mark It commenced r ising very fast a t 10 a.m and continu ed t o r ise until 2 p.m.'' Th i s s torm dimme d the glory o f Fort Brooke Dur i n g the Sem inole \Var i t \vas eXpanded int o p erhaps th e l argest m i litar y p ost ill tho Uni ted Slates, alld t h e money i t b rought e s t ablished th e t in y civilian village of T ampa. Wilh the war ended, it had no v i tal use, but as governmenta l establishments have a habit ol doin:g. H lingered on. The hurricane virtually destroyed it. Surviving buildings were repaired. but few were replaced. Its military prcs tigc was never restored. Several stores in T ampa were dcsuoycd. All piers and the h o me s of three p r ominent Tampans : lohn J a c kson s u rvey o r ; judge Simon Turman and William A s h l ey w e re swept away The Army lost a c arpenter 's s h op a b lacksmith shop, a c loth i n g buildi ng horse sheds the h osp ital and its uansport schooner was swep t far up i nlo the p i ne fo res t north of T ampa. The schoon er eve ntually was salvaged by digging a canal 1 0 the Hillsborough R iv er But 10 From a historic standpoint. the 1848 storm was not a great hurricane. not measured by the sweep of almost five centuries and some 600 tropica l s t orms and h urricane s t ha t have hit F l orida duri ng that peri od. Some of these gr e a t s t orms thai could have done great er damag e t her e arc n o l oca l r eportswere hurricanes o f '1768, 1767, 1610 and 1837, all of which did great damage and look man y lives I n the West In

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dies 1 0 an ex le-nt hard to visualiz.e now; and t hei r tracks from meager records available, could hav e or did cross South Florida. 1844 and 1 846 S torms T h e r e were hurricane s of conside rable intensit y that did for sure hit Tampa Bay. One was i n 1844 and anothe r in 184&. By a weird mischance, the S ept. 23-25, 1848 hurricane was f o l lowed t 7 days later, Oct. 12, 184 8 by a secon d hurricane almos t a s v iolent as the September one, causi ng hig h w ater of 10 feet the third high est mar k fo r Tampa Bay s ince F l o rida was acquired by the United States in 1 822. But followi ng the 15 feet of the September hurriconc, the 1 0 feet of the October storm was anliclima tic In the 20th Century, only one damaging hurricane has hit St. Petersburgtha t very late seasonal one of Oct. 2123, 1921. This one followed close l y the track of th e 184B one, coming up th e G ulf a l i ttle furthe r west and hitt ing the Tampa Bay area a t almost right angles. It, too, was o f low w ind v e l oci ty 72 mil es; ha d a l o w barome t e r o f 28.81, but pushed 't0 .5 feet of wate r into t h e Bay. G ulf Beach d eve lopm e n t was then extrem e l y limited, there being onl y a s mall village at Pass-a-G r i lle. Most of the houses w e re wooden, sitti ng on relative l y high b rick piers. The water swept under l h em a.nd the damage was minimal. Flor i d a "Crac k ers," from generat ions of e x perienc e had learned safe construction pra ctices to foil hurricanes.. Pier Swept Awa y Oddl y the storm of 192 1 sparked a vigorous c ivic rev iva l that contributed much to the 1925 boom, whi c h e v e n then had developed gent l e ground swells p r esag i ng th e v iolent economic and r eal estate frenzy that eventually developed. T h e storm swept away the otigina l municipa l and S ( cams hip pie, of Second Av enue North, which then was rel atively of great im portan c e in the public mind for r ecreational act i vities The Spa was a soc ial and spons cen ler. Because th e r e was only one flimsy wooden toll bridge to the Gulf beaches and inadequate roads, the Spa bathing beach so c iOiC to downtown was a popular spot and th e pier f r equently held severa l hundred fishermen. P leasure boats were then expen s ive, h a rd to oper ate s low and unrel iabl e com1>ared t o n o w A pri vate l y own ed p l e a s ure boat was a r a r ity so f i s h e rmen mostly fis hed from piers. T h e l oss of the pie r great l y d epresse d the com munity Major lew B. Brown owner o f the Even ing In dependent electrif ied the communit y after the stor m with a bold call "let's buil d a million dollar pier." People rallied to the cry. Bond s were voted. A new pier and park f a cilities were built all of which star ted the cit y's g r eatest period of crvic and private betterm ents T h ere has been n o comparable period since. High Water Report Army E ngineers at J a c k sonville, Se pt. 29, 1961, i ssued a s t u dy of florid a h urri canes. It m ai n ly w as concerned with beach and land erosion. I ts stat isti c al 51 data is a bit mor e conservat ive than most so urces of information Its report on high water for k ey points in Flor ida, part icul d rly S t. Pete rsburg and Tampa Bay, contai n s the following figures on water elevations: Sep t 25, 1848, Tampa 14 3 feet. Oct. 12, 1 848, Tampa 9.1 feet Oct. 2 1 31, 1921: Punta Rass 1 1 feet ; Sarasota 7 feet ; Tampa 9 6; St Petersburg, 7 .7; G ulf Beaches 8 to 8 5 feet ; C learwater, 6 feet. Sept. 22, 1926: Fort Lauderdale, 12.58 feet; M i ami bayfront 1 0 .9; South Biscayne Bay, 13.2; Punta Rassa (fort Myers) 12 feet. Aug 31Scpt. 8 1935: Matacumbe K ey, 1 8 feet ; long Key 16 feet. One can see that e xcept for the 1935 s torm in the Florida Keys, the Tampa Bay Great Gale of '48" recorded the highest water of any hurricane of record tor all time for all Florida. Damage i n 18 48 was r>egligibl e for a s imp l e r eason: There was l i ttle to damage. To t h i s mu s t be added the fact tht the people of t hat age w e r e a tough o utdoors breed self-sufficie n t because they had t o be to s urvive, wilh houses buil t to wilhsrand hurricanes Those houses ex cept for fishermen were on the h i ghest ground available, offering natural drainage and con ditions suiled to a nonmechanized agriculture But what of modern house s and living habi t s .. che crowding of the Gulf Bea ches, finger fills i n the b ays with e l evatio n s of seven and six a n d e v e n five feel, a community with mo( e than one i n four ove r 65 and less and l ess toughened by long, h ard, physical labor ? Storm of 1950 The record reveal s that Sept. 5-6, 1950, a mild hurricane passed up the Gulf uncomforta bly close t o the Gulf Beaches spun aroun d indecisiv el y for long hours off shore to Pin e llas suddenly intensified, raced to Cedar Key and struck it a d e vastating blow. It pushed 6 to 6.8 feet of water ashore o n the Gulf Bea c h es h e re flooded Gulf Boul evard and caused an officia l evacuation of the b e a c h es during the night. Fifty-nine homes and build i ng s w e re destroyed, 80'1 damag e d ; lo ss: $3,3 00 ,000 and tw o lives. At tha t time, Gu l f B oulevard veered wes t a t about 200 th Avenue and continued about e ight blocks to the Ind ian Rocks Bridge before comin g bac k eastw ard to ils present course. It was a con crete road along the shore and the r ampag ing t ides brok e i t up a n d piled i ts huge slabs around rec k lessly The warning w as obvious and the road was not rebuih h was re-routed on a s tra ighl li ne along the ba y .. as it is now. Also, during this storm Un i ted Pr ess, in r eporti ng the d e vastation, said omin ously, "In some points of T r eas ur e I s l a n d, Gu l f Bou l eva r d disappeared." What UP m ean t was that t h e road was cov e r e d with water -but the s tory d idn't exact l y make t h at p l ain.

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Hurricane Donna Hu rrican e Donna, Sept. 3, 1960, r ecorded 13. 4 5 fee t o f w a t e r a t M a tac u mbe Key; 10 t o 1 '1.86 fee t at var i ous poi nts f ro m Cap e S a b l e tO Fort Myers; at th e last m i n u t e veered i n l an d a sho r t d i s t ance sout h of Sarasota to put T ampa B a y on th e w este rly, or weak side, of th e hurricane, with only about 3 feet of high water on the beaches and in th e Say No heav ily populated a r e as were h i t by Donna, yet 1911 b uild in gs were destroy ed. 25,000 da ma ge d 11 lives lost a nd m o n etar y damas o f $77 ,800.000 in llic ted I n late Sep t ember, 1%3, mil d high wa ter occurred on the beaches. 1he result of no hurricane, merety a combination of natural phenomena that resulted in an abnorm a lly high tide Flooding occurred, many peopl e fled the beaches, dama ge w as considera b le, yet no s t o rm serv ice n o r the Army E n ginee r s noted o r recor ded the eve nt beca u s e i t was so min o r T hursday. Sept. Y. 19 65 Hurricane Bet sy, hurryi ng to i t s rendezvous with be l owsea l eve l New Orleans, thirsty for the hundreds of lives it eventu ally claimed. nd bl ind t o the hundreds or millions of dollars loss it infliClE'd, gentl y sid eswi ped the Gulf Beaches and Tamp a Bay with resul ti ng high wat e r o f perhap s 4.5 fee t Agai n there w a s n ea r p a ni c, s a ndbag brigades, flooded and sand -c l ogged Gull Oouleva rd M i n o r l oss was rep o rted bul it was a close call with d isaster Glady s Biggest in 4 7 Years Gladys wor" or 1968's >even storms gave the T ampa Bay a r ea a n d Pinellas Cou n ty th e mos t seve re pounding since the 1 921 h urr i c ane. Even so, it cou l d have b een muc h worse. G ladys fo r m e d Oct. '15 about 450 m i l e s sou th of Miami bE>tween Swan Isla nd and the I sle of Pine s, so uth of Cuba. It stalled for several hours at the toe of Florida near Key West, then headed north a long the West Coast. The storm passed the Tampa Bay area Oct 18 w i th pea k w i nd s o f 85 m p. h a t th e cent er, l oca ted som e 40 m i les o ff sh o r e. G l adys turned inland n ea r Crysta l River bulled its way across Florida and broke into rhe Atlantic near Sl Augustine, heading up to Cape Hatteras and even wally winding up i n C a n a da. A t the U.S Wea r her Bureau Tampa I n t ern ationa l A irport w i nd speed of onl y 3 6 m .p h w i th a p e a k gus t t o 5 5 m.p h w as record e d as the s t orm passed (A 95 m p .h. r e a d i ng camE' !rom atop a St. Pete rsb u r g Beac h bui l ding, however ) The bureau s barometer reading was moderate at 29.52; top tide measurement, 4.5 feet above normal, or S feet above mean sea level. PrE>sidenl ) ohnso n d ecla re d th e F l o rida pat h of G lady s a m a j or dis as t e r area allo c a t e d the state S250 000 i n fede ral assi sta nce to help r epa i r damagu. Arm y engineers, surveying e rosio n d a mage est i mated that tidM ranged from cwo feet a bove nor mal in Charlou e Harbor to five above normal in 52 Tampa and Hillsborough Bay. Sarasota had tides 3.5 feet above norma l Beac h eros i o n r anged u p to 40 f"" t h orizo ntally a n d 2 feet v ertic ally between Sarasota an d Dun edin. The s tr o n g s i d e of a hu r rican e, which whi rls count er d ockwise1 in this h e misphere, is o n t he tight s i de as it enters landa nd this was illustr a ted in Gladys's case. flor ida Power Co r poration reponed that about 40 per cent of h ome s i n Tarpon S p r i ngs (near e r t he s torm) lost power. as compared to 25 per ce nt i n C l earw a ter an d a l esse r n u mbe r in St. P et e rsburg fur the s t a way Large sectio ns of t h e Gulf Beaches w ere water, with about 80 per cent of beach r estdents evacuated. Pinellas County' s 31 evacua tion centers w e r e crowded, an d pol ice, na1ional g uardsme n and sher i ffs deput ies s tood g uard to p reve nt loou ng. G l ady s, duri ng her com p l e t e s pan l eft five dead a n d da mage estim ated a t $6,700, 00 0 Yet it was not a "ma jor" hurricane (winds 100 m.p.h. or more, pressure 28 inches or lower. tides above 6 feet damage at least SSO million). Nor did i t come direc tly i n land to Pinellas County. G ladys was a warn i n g A h i n t of what migh t be ex pected f r om a major storm ma k i ng a dire c t h i t i n t h e low lying. h eavi l y popul a ted Tamp a Bay a rea A review of these storms results in two con elusions : I s St. Peter sburg Safel The m a in body o f St. P e tersbur g enjoying elevation o f 20 feet or more and mos t of its r ema i n ing are a sa fely above 1 0 feel, appears foreve r sa f e f r om maj or disaster However. the Gulf Beaches, a vital economic partner of Sl. Petersburg with social, political and governmental life inexorably intef\v oven, a re an invitatio n to hea r t bre.aking d i saste, w hat w i t h ave rage e l eva t ion of only S t o 8 fee t ; concret e bloc k house s a top concrete s l ab s whic h in turn are o n the sa n d; lig htl y b uilt st reet s r un ning s tra ight f rom G ulf t o Bay t o become pote ntial c.1nal s carrying racing waters; finger fills choking bays which originally had been balanced by wind and tide so that waters could cir cul a le and th e up la nd survive The Army E ng ineers' repor t o f 1961 summarize s the s it uati o n i n more p r osaic but j ust a s de a d l y languag e i n i t s open i n g parag raph : "Since 1630 Flo r ida h as experie n c ed a tota l of 190 known tropical storms, of whi c h 82 h a ve been classed as hurricanes More tha n 3,500 lives have been lost in the s t ate. mainly irom drownings, as a result of these s t orms. Pa s t damag e s to coasta l a reas, p r i marily from tida l flooding, e x ceed one-holf bi llion d olla rs. Abo ut 450 mil e$ o f the availab le 850 m i le s of d e v e lopab l e coast l in e w ith i n the boundari es o f the ja cksonville dist ri c t now con tain u rban developm ent. Much of tha t development is on land between 5 and 10 feet elev a tion and is subj ect to damage and destruction

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from sevcce hurricalle tides and wave act ion. Hurricane-protect ion stu dies for e ac h of th e more than 2 5 0 u rba n areas along t h e Atlant i c a n d G u I f coam a n d th e Flor i da Keys made under the d irectives of Public law 7 1, have indica t e d tha t hurricane protection m easures may be feasible for onl y a l i mited number of communi t i e s o n t h e AUan ti c and Gu l f coasrsi.e areas i n the vicin ity o f For t l auderda l e M i ami Tampa, Char l otte H arbo r and N ap les. In view of t hi s the d istri c t eng i neer recommends that no i m provem ents for hurrica ne p rotection be under tak e n by t h e Unite d S t ates at this time i n the coasta l areas of peninsula r Florida ( Edito(s Not e : Since t h e n the U S A rmy Corps of E n gineer s has rec ommended a $ 1 3 8 miUion hurrica ne dike across l o wer Bay. T he project, sub ject to pallia l fund i n g b y l oca l gov ern ments was ap proved by Congress in November 1 968 Fir st step w a s to be c onst ruction of a scal e model o f the bay area to d e termine w h ether the p r oposed dike wou l d do t he job expected o f i t and wher e i t s houl d be located ) BIBLIOGRAPHY l\'.t n Tanne hill. 8 t h Edi t ion, t9S2 Pr i nceton U n i .. e r $ ily Tan n e hill was chi ef of the of Snyoptk Repor t$ and foreca$t S of t h e U.S. \Vea ther BtJre.au spent a l i f e t i m e l e t e illu ilr.lt<'d Gordon t:. D u n n, O ir<.'< lor Nationa l Hurricane Center; Banner I. M ill e r R<.-warch Meteorolog i s t. ltt/anrk Hurn' c a nes. Nat io n\l f Hurricane C e nter, M iami ; loui s ian a S t ate Univer-sity Pr.:-ss, 1960. A uthor i tati\'e adds new daM and fa c t s t o Stoneman Dougla s. Hwric.we. 1<.158; Irwin Com jX\ny. lomot o; vel )' good. by compete n t v(' t<.r;an oewspapw womJn and novel ist o f Mia mi. Lawrence E Will. Okeechobee G r i sly gruesome E yewi l ness account by an o b :;endng who survived the 1 928 hurricane a t Lake H e wri tes w i t h an i ntense vl..,kf ness. Great Outdoors Pubhshing: Co. (ou r own Rube Al l yn ). 5 3 U S W(!a t h e r Bureau. 0 Lee Ha r ris, o f U S P r i n ling Oifi<;e. washinSlQn lS, O.C 70.;. 196 3 Ch;u.-c tcodsrics of (he Huui(Jr)(f S I Q r m S11r1)(. l<:<:hnic31 paper No. 48. ''Hun i ca n e OonrM i n rhe f l o rida K e y s/' Flo r i d<-. Keyj Sun 1900 A q ui(:kie ; sensation.1lly illus r r.ate-d. llO l mue h e!l se Karl H. Cfi"Smer. Tolmp.t. $t. J>eter sbug P rin t ing Company. 1950. Good Qn 18<118 s \orm Kart H Gri s m er. The Sor y of S r PNe r s borg. S t Pr inting Com JO}'. 1 948. Same s t o r y D B M(l<. ly. Pit>tt('('r SouttW)rn Com pany Tampa, 3 vol u m('S, 1959, S6s.OO. Summ;)r y of the fam ous P ioneer Page 1)1 \ T ribune. Scvcr .ll reference"> to '46 g a l e i n second v o lume. John A Bethell, ol PineUas Peniruula. St. Petersburg I n dX'Ogro laborers diE'd. J M Dent & SOn $ l l d,, london, 193 7 A dass ic o f great drama!ic power.

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Chapter X FRATRI C IDE Whe n the C i vi l Wa r eru p ted i n the spring o r 1 861 i t woul d have been reasonabl e t o belie ve th a t the spars e ly settled Pi n ella s Peninsul a occupi e d i n m i d a n d upp e r Pin e lla s mostly w i t h dir t farm e r s ownin g no or f e w s l aves, and with the ''point" occupied by a score o r more fishermen and seafarers, with no slaves, would have escaped involvement But not so. This nationa l fratricide the large ll. longest most deadly event of lhi:s sort in we.stern world history did t o a U t h e peop l e in the nation-even quiet p i oneer backwoods Pinell a s what a hurri(ane does t o everything i n hundreds, sometimes tho u s a nds o f m ires or i t s cen t e r -destroys, d amages o r d isor ders. So vas t so b i tter, s o f a r r each i ng w e r e the p oisons of war that even now a fler mor e than a hundred y e a rs, people ca n't eve n a gree on i t s cause, ils s tart, or i t s name. But be it the Rebellion," or be i t the "Civil Wa r, or be i t "The War Between the States, it halted all growth in the St Petersburg area lor 15 years, im poverished the people, caused b inernesses that in some quarters makes the event a touchy subject of conversaEion to t h i s good day And that is true whether s l avery or states r ights started i t or whether it s t a rted when Senator (Levy) Yulee walked out of the Union, or when th e S tate of Florida seceded January 10, 186 1 o r t h e Con federates f i r e d o n Fo r t Sumter, Apri l 1 2 '1861 I n war' s first exciteme n t l ocally a v o lun t eer pany was formed i n upper Pinellas o n July 20, 1 861. It h.;td an enrollment of 60. amazi ng for a c om mu n ity with a total population of 381 But that is more understandable when one glances down the column showing thei r ages which ranged from 16 to 71 (The lull muster roll with lull data i s reproduced on following pages.) They d rilled e n t hu siastically for a few weeks, ol the mselves t o the state o f F l o rida. but wer e not accept e d by th e Confederacy, were never paid, d i s b ande d o n Octob e r 20, 1 8 61. They wer e origi nall y accepted for th e s tate b y 54 Brigadier Gener a l J M Tay l or. Some discree tly moved to Egmont K e y whe r e t h e Fed e r a l s set up bl ocka d e h eadquarters i n November 1861 unde r com m a n d o f lieute nan t Commander\Vm. 6 faton Some rema i ned on their farms, apparently too k part in the bush whac king that develope d between t h e people of t h e :point" and upper Pinellas. Some eventually ended up on Company K 7th Flor ida which was mustered into the Confederate army on April 25 1862 i n Tampa These eventual enrollees in Company' K got there mostly throug h another temporary v olu n tee c Compan y in Tampa u nder c ommand of William J T urn e r k i n sma n o f Joe K T urner, pre sent l y Mayor o f C learwater. But the w a r more directl y i nvo l v e d the po i n t .'1 John A Bet h e ll, of the "point," eventually ended up as a second l ieutenant in Comr>any K and m a d e a mighcy li n e soldier. Abel Miranda, brother in law of Bethell whose house was bombarded by the Federals fro m Egmont on March 16, 1862, fled disappeared from sight until war's end, when he quietly returned to the "point. james R Hay cattle herder lor Tampa catt l emen, quick ly v anished when war started,. disap peared from s ight in this area permanently. He sol d a good h o use and land lor $ 25 .00, and a watch a small i n cident marki ng the losses and disr upti ons o f war a lso the d e gree o r h is fear The bombardment o f the M iranda home a n d the fleein g of t h e Be t hell and Miranda fam i l ies i s a h ig hlight o f t h e locally famous l i ttle book by John Beth ell called H i story of Pin ellas Peni nsula It was published in 1914 Trouble has been that he never ex plains why the M iranda home was bomba rded. The renon appears to be that inhab i tants of mid Pinellas believed Bethell and Miranda, particular l y the latter were i mplica te d shortly prior t o the time o f t h e bombardment in the k i lling of tw o a n d the wounding of another two W h i tehurst s and a M c Mullen who apparentl y had d e l ivered a load o f beet to th e F edera l so l dier s at Egmon t an d w e r e sho t at from a mbu s h on Mull e t K e y as th e i r boat skirted shore on the

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homeward voyag e The y als o obviously believed they were invo lved in raids on midPi nellas farms and in other actions But let Bethell tell h is own story in his own words. as ori ginally printed in Chapter II of h is little book. Th e title of the Chapter is: Federal Attack on Big Bayou and Exodu s of Settlers In February, '62, t he Federal s and 1'orics made a n atta c k o n the home of Abel Miranda at Big Bayou and burned it with all its contents, including furniture and wearing apparel. The commandan t of the blockadi ng fleet at Egmont Key manned a captured Key West fishing smac k wuh men hom the neet and crew with enough r efugees to make two barge l oads .. and sent h e r t o Pinellas B i g Bayou, to capture Abe l Miranda and destroy his home. T h e smack wa s furnis hed with a cannon and p lenty of ammuniti o n inc luding shot and s h ell. This outfit anchored off the Bayou some t i me before sunrise About 7 a m they opened fire with round s h ot. They made t hree good l i n e shots for the house, but they were about 200 feet too h igh and landed in the scrub. One imbedded itself in the ground about the crossing of Founh Street and Lake View Avenue Miranda found it after the war and too k it out !O h i s new home and hung it to his and 1 guess ir IS about there yet, if some of the pot hunters have not s h o t it away at quail That was the first time we ever hear d cannon s h o t whistle over o ur heads, but we kn ew. th e re was no danger so l o ng as they wer e up in th e "" Th ey quit tiU about 6 a m whe n they again ope n ed, Wtlh shell thiS l t me. I d o not remem ber j ust how many were fired in all. but the first burst, as we thought, about ten feet over our heads a s we \verc standing out in front of the porch. It like the heavens had fallen through and scared us so that we did not know whethe r we were killed or just para l yzed I picked up several p i ece s of the shell a f ter the war and buried them by an orange tree. They c1fe ther e yet. While we were st ill s tand i ng there, and before w e go t over our scare, they fir e d a nother, b u t that rang e d higher and exploded sever al h u ndred yard s away as also did severa l more before we l eft for a more congenia l cl im e T here were tw o hireling s on the p l ace, but at the crac k of the fi rst gun they "took leg bait" for parts unknown, and we never saw them again I ill long aft er the wa r Residents Flee After we saw the two barges l eave t he smack_ which they did onder cover of their gun we then decided t o l eave the home pla ce took his w i fe a n d s o n to William Coons' on Boc a Ciega Bay, fo r a r>lace of safety and t hen return e d to a bayhead about thr ee -quart ers of a m i l e from hi s home and temain e d there unti l about 3 p.m. when he 55 out in t h e opening. and a s he saw nothing and heard no noise in the direct ion of his home, he concluded that the vandals had left, and that he would go a little nearer to make sure. T h e r e were three l arg e shell mounds sev eral hundred yards west f rom his and if h e could r each the larg e r one undiscovered, in the event they had not left, and get to the top of it, he could soo n take i n the sit uati o n os the mo und overlooke d h is h omestead as als o th e Big Bayou. H e d ecided to advance cautious ly1 which he did under cov er of the pine trees. A f t e r he had reached a p ine about seventy-five y ard s from the coveted spo1. he took a long breath and waited a few s econds to peer around before mak i ng a dash for the mound. As the way seemed dear, he slipped from behind the pine to g o ahead, when he saw a man rise and stand up at the mound and look almost i n the direction of whe r e he wa s stand i ng Quic k as a flash he dodged b ehind the p ine agai n, and was about to crawl back to h i s hiding place th i nking possi b l y th e fellow had seen him. But to be sure befo re d oing so he thought h e woul d t ake another peep and see I f he was still t here. Whe n h e had clea r ed t he tree so that h e could see, t here were two instead of one, facing and appa rently tal k ing to one another. Old Friend Spotted Although seve ntyfive yards away1 Miri.nda distinc tly recognized one of his old and most intimate friends, th e c aptain of the sma c k a Key W este r, who fr equen tly visited his home, to r e g a l e in milk and h oney, for Miranda always had a plenty for himself a n d fri ends and lo spar e Miranda t o l d "'e that i f the captain had bee n by h imself, after he hod recog n ized him, h e would have hailed him, but seeing no chance t o do so, he decided to go ba ck t o his h iding place. After th e close of the war M i randa receive d a lette r from the capta in of the smack, enclosi ng a watch charm and some jewelry that his w i fe left on the s ideboard in the excitement and hurry to get away. He said that he regretted very much and would always re gr et th e part he played in the destr u ction of h is home, and distressing of his family and hoped they would f o rgive hirn for his very unkind act One o( the most re markabl e e v ents o f that day happ e n e d abou t a half hour after Miranda left h i s family at the Coons' home, on hi s way back to the Bayou when hi s wife walked out on the rear porch and confronled a man i n Feder al uniform As she was about t o step back. he saluted h er and asked if she was Mrs M iranda "Yes/' she answeJed 'Whetc is Mr. Miranda I I want to see him. "If you had come by the can ro.ld and not through the wood$, you would have seen him. Take the cart road back and possibly you might sec him yet." M i randa s aid that he went by the carl road to Coons, and returned by i t ; that h e saw no one and that he bel i eve d the fellow wa s one of the refugees i n disguise f r o m the f act th at. had It b ee n one of the ship's or s mack's crews. he woul d have taken the

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road1 as t hey were not familiar wllh the woods, and rhcre were no through trails.. Bay o u left Behind After we left t he Bayou that morning we thought best 10 r.ep arare Miranda would go t o Coons' with his fami l y and I would cross Booker's C reek and mount the top of th e l argest mound that overlooked the surro undings, so t hat I woul d not b" su r p r ised by the Tories, i n case they s h o uld b e looking for us But b efo r e w e separated "'-'e agreed l o mccl i n the eveni n g at "Beggs' Hill," a mound i n whal is now Mr. Taylor's grove. and wait there until the crew should leave the Bayou Nut finding Miranda when I arrived at the hilt I concluded not to w ait for him, as lhC sun was only C.apl.ain M ir11nd.a .tnd Wlft abou t a half hour high; but to take a cow trail along the Bayou front that l ed to the home landing. through the palmettoes and myrtle bushes, that were high enough to keep me from being seen When 1 got within abou t three hundred yards of the landing I rose up and looked out on the Bayou 01nd saw one of the boats about a q uarter mile and not seei ng the other one, tho ught it migh t have gone also, and s ta rted under cover of the bushes agai n t o get a llnle near er. W h e n within fifty yards o r s o I came t o a ha l t to w a i t u ntil dark 5& However I had not long to wail ; for in a few minutes I heard someone say : ''I s evl!rything in the boat/" Then I heard the answer "Ye s si r"; then, "All aboard' Man your oars nd pull away!" I wailed until they were some di stanc e away. when I made my way 10 the place where the home had been; for there was nothi n g leit of i t but c harcoal and a s hes. All the iences and out-houses a n d every th i ng I hat had wood enough o n o r about it t o take f i re, was burned. T here was l ig ht e n o u gh whe n I reac h ed the spo1 t o th e desaruction that had been done. Abou t for ly l arge fine orange trees i n th e enclosure had shared the fate of the home. livestock Kille d And these were not all of the p itiful s ights to be seen Some eight or ten head of chickens were hop ping around with broken wings and legs. There had been a great many iowls on the p l ace, but the f ellows had to shoot them, as there w.l s no ch.1ncc t o get rhcm any oth e r \Vay. A ls o sever a l of the shoats we r e crippled, some w ith l egs broken, some shot thr o u gh th e body. One had a bullet hol e th rough its neck a n d wa) l ivi ng : but one long4eared s hoat 1h011 had n ever been marked had bullet h o l e through both ears He mu s t have been posing for a target They carried off a great many chick ens and hogs, large and s mall ; also about five hundred pounds of homemade bacon; two barrels and several jugs of syrup; over one hundred pumpkins s evera l ba rrels of corn in the ear, and some ten bus h e l s of swcer potatoes there were h oused. I had two sloop boats; one or four t<>ns and one or five t ons; the l atte r was hauled out for repairs ar\d they ruined i t by c utting u p th e d ecks and s ides. As i t was pas t repa i r i n g after tht:> war I burned i t. The four ton boat was newly refitt ed. They u sed it to carry the plunder to the smac k They made two trips with it well loaded each time. from the top of the mound I had seen my boat go to the s mac k loaded; then return to the Bayou and back again to the s mack a second time loaded About 11 a m. they had fired the home! r could see the smoke and flames very dislinctly. Th e smallest piece of pelly meanne>S p erpetra ted by them was the slas hing the s k i r ts of an old wornout saddle! Home Burn e d Miranda, n o t f inding m e at Beggs' Hill, s u ppose d I was eith e r killed or captured, so made h is way to p lace where, the ddy before, s tood his happy home. Night had now shut i n but there was light enough from the burning embers to see any nearby moving obj erd h i m say: 'Who's there/" I "Irs me, John." It was quite a relief to us both when we met. By this time it was too dMk t o do anything, so we conclude d that we had bette r go to where h is fami l y was1 a s they woul d be unea s y about hirn; and come ba c k n ext morni n g a n d try to get to Tampa. B efo r e we left f thoug ht it bes t to t a k e a long a s l ab of bacon that

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I had recaptured from the inv aders. As we had been without food all day, I realiled thai i t would come in good season when we s h ould come to where his family was quartered. It was this On my arriva.l at the ruins, that evening. I heard a great buzzing of bees so walked over to where they were .. and found th a t one of the hives had been turned upside down. As I turned 10 l eave I espied a side of bacon hanging to a spruce sapl ing by the hive. I took i n the situalion at once The fellow passing with the baco n had though! he woul d t ake some honey along a lso; but all he took was "leg bai l," for lhe h o n ey a n d bacon were lefl behi nd. w h ere I found 11. And thai i s how I "rec a ptured" i l We r e turned t o the Bayou nex t morn ing and F a H e r putting e v erything out of m iser y t ha t wa s roo bad l y crippled to live, w e made prepa rations for a trip t o Tam1>a. Aller wa lking around we found a small leak y, wallsided sadiron-s haped skiff twe l ve f ee t l ong and as many inches deep, and four feet wide that we had built for alligaaor hunling in Salt Lake. As il leaked badly, il had been tied to I he l a ndi ng to swell up, and had been lurncd adrift by some of the boal's crew 1ha1 morning. as i t was full of waaer I I h a ppened lo come ashore in the marsh near the landing. Flight t o Tampa This was the situ ation: There were on l y tw o chances for us to get to Tamp a foot i t or take t hat skiff. Our fou r boats, with oars, s ails, poles an d p ad d ies, w e r e all c arried off t o the b l ockade. We d ecided 10 lak e a h e s kiff I t d i d no1 t a k e us l o ng to get ready. W e had n o bedding o r e xtra clot h i ng as e v e ryth i n g in that line h ad bee n lak en a way a lso. or burned w ilh the h ome. We dug a f e w potatoes and took a s lice of the ba con th e bees had t aken in charge, and set out for "Paul's L anding" to gel a supply of waler, fo r the well at the home was full of c harcoal from the burning of the curb All we had to propel the s kiff wilh was lwo split pickets, so we slow i n to Paurs Landing, where we could get a drink of water There we fitted a jug rhal we found at the Bayou; also p i cked up an old paddle with which, and the two pickets, we Slruc k o u t for Papy's Bayou, and from there to Brushy Point; as it wa s l he nearest land on the other s ide of the bay. We met with n o mishap f rom the Bayou to Papy's, b u t before we gol t o Bru shy Point th e w i n d rose up from th e n o rt h and mad e s u c h a choppy sea a har It was with d iffi culty thai we cou l d keep lhe water o ut. O n e o f u s w ould h ave to qui t paddli n g every now and th e n to k eep i t fr ee, it lea k ed so badl y. We finally got across without any furth e r mishap, and then went on to Gads den's Poi n t where we camped for the nigh!. Here we proceeded to roast some potatoes and broil so me b aco n to regale on, a s we were by ahls lime ve r y hungry and aired. We had no bedding so we lay down on 1he sand by the f i re The next morning we set out again for T ampa where we 57 arrived at noon N ext day Miranda h ired a team and went back to the Point an d broughl back his family to Tampa And so we bade good bye 10 Point Pinellas But a much better glimpse of war in 1he St. Peters burg area is given i n a diary, never published, by a Confederalc soldier Robert Walson of K ey West and a member of Company K 7th Florida Regimen! He was a sergeant. Watson was .1 fin e soldier and qui t e a guy in ot her respects. H e was by trade a s hip' s carpenter and a relative of the f amou s Low e famil y, people of English extraction who had l i ved in the Bahamas since t h e earl y Seven teen Hundreds, m i graled t o Key West, tri ed t o h o mestead on K e y l argo, south o f M iami we r e d e n ied because o c ean and gu l f island s w ere nor ope n 1 0 h o mestead u nder the 1842 Arm e d Occupati o n Act; finally sell l ed i n Pin ella s i n ahe Eight een Fort ies, being the origina l settl ers at O zona. Mrs. M a u r i ce P Con dric k 800 37t h Street Norlh, deceased, generous l y sup pled this wriler w ith a copy of lhe diary some 20 years ago. Mrs. Condrick was a Lowe. H er husband died recently Extracts from the Watson diary follow. They tell the story of Civil War in St. Petersburg beuer lhan any ocher written recOf'd. But first, Watson' s own words from the diary must get him 10 Sr. Petersburg Key West Septem b er 27th 1861: Owing to the politi cal affairs of the counlry and the Federal troops havi ng possession of I his p l ace and as it is rather unsafe lor a southern man t O live I have d e termined to l e a v e i n d isgust, consequent l y I left 1oday in t h e schooner Lady Bann e rm a n for the Bah ama Islands, in compan y w i th Can fi e l d, Sawyer, Low e and several o1hers. T h e schoone r h a s o n b oa rd 55 passengers i n all, the moSI of whic h are w o men and c hildren Sunday 28: Arrived a l Bay Honda at 9 o'clock AM, all h ands b righl. Wm. Sawy e r Alfred Lowe, Canfield, and olh e r s went ashore to c atch crab s while I stayed on board making love ro Miss L. Got under way aboul 2 o'clock PM and arr ived a1 Knights Key at 6 o'clock PM and came to anchor O c tober 3: Laid to off Sandy K ey and goa a lot of conchs and as my appetite was very k een I ate many conchs, stewed conch. fried conch and roast conch and tapered off on rum. Was laken very sick i n the n i ght with the cholera morbus. October 3: Arrived at Green Turlle Key about 10 o'c l oc k PM went on shor e got somet h ing to eat and drink, came on board in high sp iri ts owing no doubt to the s tren gt h of Mr. Michael Harr is's brandy. October -5: Went on s h o r e and was l a k e n v e ry s i c k with c h o l era morbus, t h o u ght I woul d die, but r ecove red today, fee l in g v e ry w eak. October 12 : Wenl on s hore a n d stayed u ntil Satur day 1he 14 when I s ta r ted w ith Mr. Can fi e l d for Nassau in an old sloop with a Negro captai n and crew. Arrived i n N assau on Sunday the 15th. Stopped a1 Spanish Wells on our passa, ge down and saw sever al of Key Wes t acquaint ances. I forgot to mention that I left my brolher George, A lfred Lowe and Mr. Sawyer al

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Ha rbor Island. Took board at the Am erican House at $1.00 per day October 23: Aller we left, but after waiting for eight days we got tired of Nassau and find i ng that our pockecs were getting low we engaged to work our passage in an old leaky schoo n er bound for Jackson v i lle, Fla. Started t his morning for Norman's Pond for a load of salt. November 2: Got under way at 8 o'clock A.'-'1 and started for jack sonville Fla. and as I did not write in my journal d u r ing the voyage, I s h all s t a t e the proceedings in as few words as possib le, it i s as follow s : two men in a one would steer two hour s and the other pump every half hour, and then reli eve the o n e at the wheel and let hi1n pump for tw o hours, eve r y l i tt l e squ all ou r sails woul d spl i t a n d ro pes give wa y and t hen all hands would be busy f or three or four hours at a time Our food consisted of rice and salt pork very poorly cooked at t hat. At last t h e joyful cry of land h o wa s sun g out from the mast head and we came up to the St. Johns bar on Wed ne sday Novtmhe.r 12: Saw a steamboat coming down the river and all hands were joking about the blockade, bu t w e soon c h ange d ou r tune for on look i n g to l eeward we saw a large steamship coming for u s with all on, then we saw that our only hope was to run her through the breakers which was done and I really thought the old schooner was going to pieces. Whil e she was thump ing the steamer was fi r ing at us but luckily h e r s hots fell short, the nearest one fell about 250 yards astern. ship knocked off her false keel and then went over into deep water leak i ng very bad. Cam e to anchor at Mayport at 5 o'cloc k N ovember 15: Made f a st at Capt. Millers wharf a t one o'cloc k t oday Jacksonv ille. Went on shore and took board w ith Mrs Donaldson at $5. 00 per week took my clothes and tools to her house. D ecembe r 9 : Left thi s place at 6 o'c lock for Ceda r Keys, arr iv e d at Baldwin where we changed car s fo r Ced ar Keys and after stopping at numerous places we arrived at our destination at S o'clock PM. Met Mr. Mulrennan and a lot of the Key West smack smen, r e port ed oursel ves ro Lt. Mulrenna n who took us up to the hot e l that h e was stopp i ng at De c ember 13 : Received a letter from Jacksonville informing me that my tools were shipped according to order but they did not come i n my hand Lt. Mulren nan took us bef o r e Judge Steel e a n d w e were sworn into the service of the State of florida and of the Con federate States of America. He came to our quarters this evening and told all hands that whoever was willing t o join th e Coast Guard mus t be ready by 12 o'clo ck next day but I am sorr y to say that not one of th e party would join. The y wished to go to K ey West. Dec ember 1 4 : l eft Cedar Keys in the sloop Os ceola fo r C learwater Harbor at 4 o'clock PM and arriv ed at 3 o'clock PM 15th inst. Call ed on Gus Ar cher Dick Mars ) ohn Low e and som e more Key WeSt u nfortunates. Th ey were all very glad t o see us and us lik e brothers. 58 Dec ember 16: Wal ke d five miles o ut in the co un t ry to get a cart to tak e our baggage to Tampa Saw the owner of the cart who promised to take us throug h next day but that he would have 10 take our things to hi s p lace tha t night i n order to rnake an eady $ tan i n the morning. Wen t on board, packed up o u r baggage, put them i n the cart and wa lked back to his hous e af ter bidding our friends good bye We slept at his house December 18: Turned out at 4 o'clock AM got break fast and started fo r Tampa a dis tanc e of 35 miles arrived a t Tampa a t 5 o'clock ahead of the party, for on the road I met a Methodist minister, who. seein g that I was very tired very kindly took me t hr ough i n his buggy, the rest of t he party arr i ved about o n e hour later. We went to the h ouse occupied by the m embers of the Coast Guard and took our quarters with them. found that Lt. Maloney and twelve men wer e on a cruise down the bay in the s loop C ate Dale, they arrived t oday and we r epo rted ourselves t o him. He told us that he would sen d us to Poin t Pinellas in a few days, that point being our station fo r the Called on Messrs. Crusoe, )andrill, Kemp and o ther K ey Wester s who a re living in Tampa December 2 1 : Took ou r things o n boa rd of o ne o( our boats, a 14 oar boat and started at 9 o'cl ock AM for Point Pinellas where we arr ived at 4 o 'clo< k December 29: Mr. Smith began drillin g us today for t he firs t time and the most of the party went thro ugh the foci ngs very well. December 31, 1861: The gua r d at the poim report ed a boat coming up the coast. w e manned the boat and went aft e r her she prove d to be a f r iend Went b ack and dri lled. n early all day building palmetto shanties. Some of the camp h unting and fishing, oystering, clam ing & etc. & etc. Thus ends the old year 1861 and may the year 1862 be a more peaceable and ha p py year t o u s all and may the Southern States pros p er in all i t s und e rta king, gain its i ndepen den ce and b e a prosperous, happy and powerful nation and may we all return to our happy homes and firesides is my prayer. Amen. R Watson. Point Pinellas S tat ion January 1st 1862, For t Buckley. N e w Years day, all h and s in good h e a l t h and spi r its, working on the palmetto shanties but who can tell where we will be next New Years day! The day ended as usual, with a d rill. ja nuar y 2: I was on gua rd on th e point all day w a t c h ing the b lockad ing bark, got bac k to camp too la te to drill. January 6: Thirteen of us went to Maximo plac e t o build pa lmetto quarters. A rri ved there at 11 o'c l ock AM and commenced w o rk 'fhe m osq uitos w e r e ve r y thick i n the first pa r t of the even ing and i t was very warm but about 11 o'clock it was so cold and damp that we could not sleep Our beds consisted of a few palmenos spread on the ground and a blanket spread over t hem. j anuary 7: Worked all day on th e quarters, c utting poles palmettos and putting them up. Dug a well whi ch caved in as soon as it w a s dug.

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january 8 : Finished t he-house today Cut and put on board a load ol palmettos and pulled up to our c amp a distance of five miles. Got home safe and find ing the boys drilling Sent m y trunk and all of my fine clothos up t o Mr. Crusoe at Tampa. Mr. Smith and John B ethell s tarted for Tampa a t S-1 /2 PM, also Mr. Thoma s Ru,.ell w ho had been detai ned by Lt. Mal o n e y h e had stopped at the s tati o n o n his way to C l earwat e r Harbo r but as h e had no pass from the comdg o fficer at Tampa h e wa s d e tain e d as a pri s oner and sent to Tampa No boat or person i s allowed to leave Tampa w i thou t a pass and our co mdg offi cer has orders t o detain all boats and persons without said pass. january 10: Nothing worthy of remark t oday ex cept that som e of the boys wounded a deer but did not get it. Shot 1 rattlesnake and brought it to camp At nigh t c aught a lot of fish Nothing t o eat for supper bu t mush all t h e rest of the provi sions bein g out fo r sev e r al days. january 11: Very f oggy this m orn ing, some of the boy s h a v e gone h u ntin g others fis h i ng, clam i ng, oystering & e t c all of whic h came h o m e empty han ded excep t those who went oyst e ring T h ey brought i n a ti n e l o t o f oysters. Provis i o n s very scarce january 14: Worked all day thatching the house. Nothing worthy of rem a rk. took p l ace during the day. In the afternoo n we d rilled an d Mr. Smith and two men made preparations to go on a cruise to Mullet K ey to have a look at the block adi ng b ark They star ted at 7 o'cloc k PM. I was on guard a t night and fel t very unwell owing to a bad co l d. No excitemen t thr o ugh the n i ght. Jnuary 15: Worked all day floori ng the offi cer's quarters which was f i n i shed by night. W e drill today owing t o the absence of Mr. Smith who arr ived from Mullet K ey at 7 o'clock PM. He made no discove r ies of import ance. Mr. Cruso e killed fine dee r in the for enoon. No excitement during the night )anuuy 19: Sund ay, Inspection of arms at 6-1/2 o'clock AM my gun was pronounced to be in the best order In t he company. I forgot t o mention that we had target shoo t ing yesterd ay, a great many of t he com pany did n o t h i t the target a nd I hit in the same place, my gun gave me an awful ki ck and I really thought that my jaw bone was broke Every o n e of the guns k i cked bad l y owing to the r e b eing too much powder in the c artridges. The best s hot receiv e d for a pr ize tw o pounds of tobacco the second best one pound and the third best half pound. I w ent to the oyster bar and ate my fill of oysters and brought home enough to f ry for supper. At 7 o'clock PM volunteers w ere called for to man the Mollie Post to go to Boca Ciega to try and cpture a Y a nkee schooner boat that reponed to be about t hat p l ace We star ted at 7 o'clock PM w it h fif t een men and Lt. Malone y in command Arrived at Maxim o place at 1 1 o'clock PM t oo k o u r things on sho r e a n d turned in. About 2 o'c lock AM w e were all aroused fr o m sleep by Ma r cus who was on guard. He rush e d into the s h anty and sang o ut t o u s to hurry up and get ou r a rm s for the Yankees w e r e upon us. We all 59 j umped up, s e ized our arms, loaded t hem nd rush ed out into the ope n air expect ing to see a large party of the enemy close at hand but found thot i t was a f alse a la r m Marcus h ad seen four of our men coming out of t h e w oods and took them for th e enemy. We made and dra nk so me coffee ma n n ed the boat and pulled for Boca Ciega at which p l a c e we s t o pp e d at, at daylight went on s h o r e had a l ook at th e bark, ate breakfas t s moked o u r p i pes and was cal c ulat i n g to stay till next d ay when we saw a b oa t coming down th e coas t hailed and hai led and brought to. She proved to be a frie n d and inlotmed us that the Yankees had ta k e n Cedar Keys and burnt some of the p l ace The boat was manned and we left for camp at Point Pinellas for the l r. said that he e x pected that we would be wanted in Tampa. We arrived at camp a t 1 o'clock PM find i ng Capt. Mulrennan t h e re. He was waiting lor us to go t o Tampa All of o u r p rovis i ons had already gone, w e got dinner and s tarted for Tampa feel i n g very tired at which place w e arr i ved at 8 o c l ock PM all hands completely used up for we had pulled l o r twenty four hours on a s teady drag, o n l y taking tim e o ut to eat. We went t o ou r o ld quarters, got a slight s upper and turn ed in. Janu.try 21: Volunteers wer e call ed for to go over t o Spanish t own to build batteries as the e n emy was ex pected in a short time january 28: C. p t Mulre nnan took Alfred lowe a n d myself over the r iver to mak e cartridges.. We worked all day and made quite a large number. The sloop Cate D a l e came up from Point Pinellas lat e in the eve n i ng bri ngin g our clothes, for I f orgot t o m e ntion t h at we left all o ur clothes there when w e cam e uJ), our boats b ei ng too s mall and c r owded to bring them w ith us whe n w e carne. )onuary 30: At roll call this morn i n g Mr. Smith i n f ormed us that there wou ld be an election thi s day for one 1st, one 2 n d a n d one 3r d Lt. ond tha t our com pan y would h e reafter be known as the K ey West Avengers After roll call there was great disputing about who should be run fO< the above named of fice r s Nearly all of t h e compa ny were in favo r of not giving W C. Ma l oney a vote for any office as he i s not lik ed by many on accoun t of h i s act i o n s t o ward s the company, and a lso lor the followi ng expressions that h e made at Point Pinellas He said tha t we could not b e treat e d like white m en but must be trea t e d like n igge rs, he made th i s r ema r k to M r S m ith and severa l of u s hear d h i m but whil e the boy s w e r e elec tioneering and writing tickets some one w e nt over and tol d Capt. Mulrennan about it. He came over immediatel y in a great passion and told u s t ha t he did not care a dd who was elected for 1St Lt. for he should appoint Walter Maloney over him. We all knew tha t it was out of h is powet to do so and Mr. Smith w ould have been u nanimously e l ected for that office, but he came over and called the c ompany together and t old the m that he had heard about the feel i ng of the company and he wis hed f o r his sake that the y would n o t run h im for that o ff ice as it would mak e h ard feelings between h im and the o ther officers s h ou l d he b e e le c ted and

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requested that all who were i n favor of l ett i ng things go on smoothly and not r un h im for the office to shoulder arms. B u t not a gun was raised He then begged them not to persist i n running him and made q uite a nice speec h but his fee l ing overcame toward s the last so tha t he could scarce ly speak. He sai d in h i s r e m arks that he did not wan t any o ffice on account of pay for he had mone y enough, he on l y desired to be of service t o h is sufferi ng c ou n try. He thanked them all fo r th e i r good opi n i on a n d kind feelings t oward h i m and etc and wound u p b y requesti n g them again not to r u n him as he co u l d not th i n k of acc ep ting the office The men then t o plea s e h im very reluctantly shouldered the i r arms. He t h anked them and told them to break rank s The e le ction wa s the n post poned until next day a t 2 o'clock PM. February 2: Sun da y Ins pection or arms by Capt. Mul rennan. O u r arms pronounced to be i n good or der. I am on duty today as off ice r o f the day. 30 volun teers wer e called for to go on an exped i tion to Manatee to look after t h e Yankees that are reported to be i n tha t place. Our boats w ere launch e d and put in the stream. VVe are to start tomorrow, I g o with them Nothing more today. February 3: Great preparations thi s mor n i ng getting the boats ready and packing our dunnage. Left T ampa at 2 o'c l ock PM. Capt. Mul ren na n in the Mary Jane, Lt. Ashby in the Mollie Post and Lt M al oney i n t he sloop Cat e Dale. I am i n the Mollie Pos t and we beat the Mary Jan e so bad that we ha d to anchor at Gadson's Point and wa i t for her Whe n she came up with us Capt. Mulrennan told us to p roce ed to our old quar ters at Poin t Pinellas a t which place we arr iv ed a t 9 o'clock PM whi c h wa s over a n hour ahead o f the Mary j ane. February 5: S ta r ted fo r th e settlemen t Manate e at dayl i ght at which place we arrive d at 7 1/ 2 o'clock AM. In passing the guns ou t oi the Mary Jane one or the guns acci den tally went off, one of the b uck sho t w ent into Tom Buller's r oot. It st ruck one or h i s toes breaking it all to pieces and passing u p i n t o his foot. All hands in goo d health and anx iou s for fig ht. Got breakfast at 12-l/2 o'clock PM. Sent To m But l er up t o Tampa in theCa t e Dale to hav e his wound d ressed for we have no doctor with us. I walked out to Capt. Dick Rob erts a dis tance of 1 4 m iles. He an d fami ly i n good healt h and sp i r its. Spent a few hours very agreeab l y with them and got ba c k to c amp at 1 1 o'cloc k PM. February 6: Afte r b reakfast we wen t over to the sugar plan(ation. J drank a lot of cane bee r which wa s very n i ce but i t d i d not agree with me Afte r dinner we star ted for S haw's Poi n t taking 25 men belonging to Turner's Horse Company with us. We f ixe d our quarters. got suppe r set the guard and turned in, the mosq u i tos and fleas i n abundance. February 8: One ot our men ha s been missing sin ce y e sterday (deser t ed). After breakfast I went i nto the woods and cut a mast for our boats having carried ours in coming down to thi s place. Ende d the eve ning by s ingin g songs, telling s tories & etc T he fleas were s o s avag e tha t I could not sleep 60 February 10: On guard today. Co ntinued rarnrng u n ti 112 o'clock PM. T h e Mollie Post's crew with Capt M ulrennan went u p to the s ugar p l antation and brou g h t us a t the camp a barrel or cane be er T he y were all p re tty merry owing to the strength of the beer that they had drank i n large quan t ities at the mill. All went well thr ough the night. February 11: The horse company are all g rowlin g and dissat i sf ied, the y don't want to s t and guard. I hope they will go away soon for th ey are the laziest, di r tiest and l ousi est set of men t hat I ever saw. Our b oa t wen t up the river afte r bee f but d i d not get any i t nor being ready for u s February 12: Went fishing this morning, caug h t a f ew n ice s he ephead. Aft er breakfast th e horse com pa n y went a\vay, t ha n k for tune. I think that we w ill go t o Tampa soon, for th e fleas are awful. February 13: I wen t up to Mot h er Joe's p l ace thi s morning a fter beef. Started at 3 o'clock AM and got the r e b efore day l ight The d ista n ce i s s ix miles Got 287 lbs. of b eef and got back to camp about 8-1i 2 o'clock February 16: S u n day. Aiter b reakfast this mor n ing i nstead of inspect ion of a rms Lt. Smith told us t ha t the Co n fe d er ate States wanted us t o join their ser v ice fo r one year o f t he war. H e delive r ed q u ite a nice speech which had t he effec t o f getti ng us all to j oin Company K Regi m ent 7 Febr uary 20: Worked all day and in the eve ning I Iecei ved an i nvi t a t ion f rom a you n g l ad y to com e over and spend the evening and t o bring my f l ulina. I ac cepted th e invita ti on and went. Passed a very p leasant eve n i n g and got back to camp al n o'clock. Wh i l e over there I hear d that the enemy had been at Clear water and taken ou r boats that had been left there for safe keep i ng. The peop l e a t that place offered no resist a nce w h atever. Shame on them, f or three or four men could have k i lle d th e whole party the enemy being in a boat and they i n a thick wood wilhin gu n shot. February 21: W h ile a t roll call t h i s morning o n e of th e men that s tarted for Baypor t came to camp bri n ging information tha t t he enem y ha d bee n at P apy's Bayou and th at a man nam ed J oh n Whitehurst an d h i s wife ha d gone off wit h t hem to the b l ockadi n g barque. Th i s man ha d long been suspected of be ing on fri end ly terms wit h the enemy, b u t no proof cou l d be b rough t against him until now. I s pen t t h e eve n ing with Mr. Richa rd s and f ami ly. February 22: Capt. Mulrenn an and te n men wen1 to the plac e lately occupied by Whit ehurst for he is exp e cted to be back after his t hing s a n d i f th ey c ome t here will be a chance for a f ight. T h e r e is on l y eig h t men lef t here at presen t a nd sho u ld the enemy come we would have to tak e to the woods for saf ety. February 23: Sunday. T r u ly this is a cosmopol i tan com p an y it is composed o f Yan kees, Crackei-s, Conchs Engl ishme n Spaniards, Ger man s Frenchmen, Ita lian, Pol es, Ir i shmen Swedes, Ch inese, Portuguese, Brazil i ans, 1 Rock Sco rpio n C rusoe; bu t all are good sout hern men T h er e are also Scotch m en Welshm e n

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a n d so m e half s urCi y this is th e greates t m i x tu re of nations for a small compa ))' that I eve r h eMd of. February 24: T h e Yan kees hav e take n Fernan d i n a .1bou t a ago. Just hea r d by ma i l that J ac ksonville a n d St. Aug u s tine are in th e ha nds of enemy con sequently I have l ost all rny tools worth $300 00 a ser ious los s for me for I was i n h opes t hat I wou l d save them a n d shou l d my life b e s pa r ed, to st a r t bt.si)ess after the war was over. March 16: S u nday. Rece i v e d i n format i ot) that the enemy ha d s h elle d 1 n d burnt th e dwel l ing and o u t hous es o f M r t\bel Mirar)da. Ot.H Captai ) gav e u s o r d e r s t o get ready t o go t o Mana tee tomor row. \Ne took ont.-six polmder and put i r on b o of th e r i ve r \Ve are to wail until the ma i l arri ve s .1s Lt. Smilh i s expected in the s tage March 18: \Vent out in the coun try /\anatce a n d called o n Mr. B ill lowe and famil y and Capt. Richard Roberts and fam ily all w ell. To o k d i nner with Capt. Rob er t s a n d went back t o cam p. S tarted for Tampa a t 5 P M S topped at Point Pinellas a n d landed C h a s Berry and f i ve men to sign a l ize when the e n emy comes i n sig ht St oppe d a t Gads o n's P o i n t and landed Joseph Cole and S men for the same p u rpose March 19: Arri ved a1 Tampa at 6 o'clo c k AM Af ter breakfa s t tu r ned i n a n d had a n ap for I had not slept any for 1wo ni g ht s I n the ailen)oon was i n formed thai 30 voluntee r s wanted to go on a seoul at Po i ) t Pin e llas. T h e Yan kees had bee n a t Miranda's p lace and burnt ev e ry c h ing t h at h e h ad, h is <:lo t h i n g a n d w i i e' s niP.<:es' and c h i l d r e n s clothes, and chc1scd h i m through the woods, f i r ed twice a t h i m but h e esc aped u n h u rt. I returne d t o go but i t b lowe d too hard t o start. March 23: Ve r y rough, but started for Point Pinellas. T h e sloop came very near c aps i z i n g severa l times b u t managed to get to o u r dest i n at ion at St.nset Camped i n th e woods and slept f i rst rate although i t rained through the n ight. March 24: Afte r b re akfa s t we went ove r to a s h anty abou t three miles dista n t wher e we are t o bE' statio ned for t h e prese nt. D u g a l o l o f sweet potatoes, cooked and ate suppe r a n d turned i n March 25: We ired a small boat belongi ng to Mr. Coons and f ive of us sta rted i n t h e afternoon, th e boat leaking ve ry b adly. I t i s usel ess to mention all th e little indden1S that took place we wen t a long lhe coast wading the boat ove r oyste r bars, hav i ng n o c han ce to s leep. our clothes wet all t h e t ime, very l i t t i e 10 eat & e tc. March 27-April 2 : We stopped at Po i n t a Rassa thi s day (P u n t a Rassa, near Ft. o\E>n i > Ounds of s teak a n d 1 112 b u s h e l s o f pot atoes cooked and a t e d u r i n g the day. Passed the e ven ing a t Mr. Coon s house He and w i f e and eldes t daught er a r e high i ) educa t e d and I wonde r at t hei r buryi n g th emse l ves i n t h e pine woods of Florida when they have l i ved all thei r l ives i n the best of society. April10: S t a r ted t hi s morning for Tam pa with Mrs 1\-\iranda a n d son, M iss A l i ce Curry a n d brothel on boa r d II bei ng cal m had t o pull all the way. Arrived at 2 o'clock PM. Heard that C h arley Coll i ns had rna rri e d M rs. Black the n ight before In lhe evenin g a lot o f us w e n t ove r t o h i s house and gave h i m a w i t h ti n pans & e t c. He c ame out w i t h h is I iddie and s t ruck up a lso. We then stopped t h e noi s e and he and Woods played s e ver,t l very n i ce t u nes t ogether,. after whi ch we went t o the officers q u arter s took an old fellow that belongs t o our company named P ratt that was li v i ng '"ith a N egro '"'oma n that cooked for the o f ficers and rode h i m on a r a i l down t o the w h a r f a n d t hrew him overbo a r d We t h en gav e h i .n a h?.C h.ue, t o l d h i m what i t was done fo r imd that i f h e was caugh t d o i ng th e like a ga i n tha t w e woul d g ive h im th irty n ine l a shes. April 13: Nothi ng worthy of remar k t ook p lace durin g the la s t two days except that I joi ned Capt. Mul r e n n a n 's company Capt. Smith ''anted me t o j o i n hi s compa n y and offe r ed to make me f irst maste r s mate and quar termaste r of his company but I p referred bei ng w i t h M u l rennan. A111 o'clock AM the ala r m was g i ven t hat the enemy was in sigh t a n d comi ng up the bay. We all took our arms and ra n down to the dit<:hes a ll ha nds anx i o u s fo r a f i g ht. A large sc hooner was comi n g t0\1\tard s the to...,.n and a f tcr k eep i n g u s wai t in g for 'over an h o u r came t o an chor behind an i s land two m i l e s from town. l ) i cke l gvds were set at all the d i fferen t roads leading to thi s p lace fo r we are o f opinion that th e Yan kees have lan d e d men below u s and came i n the schoone r to d r a w our attention whi le t hey march up i n our rear A boat w.u see n coming from her a n d two o f our boats

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wer e manned an d wenr o u t to her. She had a tla g of truce and demanded the surrender of T a mpa . -....jor Thomas told them tha t he would not surrender it The Yan kee omcer then gave him twenty four hours to t a k e t h e women a n d c h ildren out of the town a s t he y would a uack rhe pla ce a t tho; end of 1ha 1 time Our m e n gave thr ee cheers a t the prospec t o r havi n g a fi ght which mad e th e men i n t h e Y an k e e b oa1 loo k d o w n in the mout h as t hev e xp I<> I h e Sth of M a rc h Fro m t h a t d a t e we ar e to b e p aid b y t h e C o n f e d e r ate S t a tes. M u l rennan c h arged u s al l 5 pe r ce n l f o r p ay i ng us o f f which has c au sed a grea t d e al o f hard feeling$, for t o make th e best ol it. i t is very mean and shabby of him to e xac t it from us. M y 12: At 10 o'clock PM just as I was going to bed 1he drum beat to quarters, we all hasrenOO with our a1ms & etc. a n d learned t ha t twenty of us were to g o to C lear'wat e r Harb or. We volunteered c h eerfully a s t here was a prospect o f a fight We s t a rted a l 1 2 o'clock with lweot y of our compa n y and twent y f o u r o f Go tt o's compa n y We pulle d thQ who le way t o O l d Tampa dlsta nee of f o rt y m i l es. M ay 13: We a rr i ved a t 1 1 o'clock AM all ha n ds t i r ed, s leep y and o u t o f h u m o r for w e h a d pulled with o\Jt a spell fr o m the sol diers who were too green and l azy t o help us. We cooked and ate dinne r and wal ked over to Clearwater We arrived there at 3 o'clock PM ate supper with our men that w e r e slilioned I h ere and then walked six miles funher to a p l ace tha t w a s t h o ug h t th e enemy would l an d at. H ad t o wade o n e c r ee k a n d slt-e p i n a n old s h a n t y o n a dir t y floor full o f flea s a n d n o b lanket t o c ove r us f o r w e had lcf r the m at O l d Tampa. K ept guar d all night b u t n o t h i n g happened. May 14: Afler an e arl y breakfa s t w e s t arte d f or th e 6 2 lowes landi ng. Anona. and on the r o a d we met a horsem d n wilh the Intelligence that the Yankees were at A rche(s place (Bill fletcher Meares (largo) talked to them) and were getting the sloop Osceola orr We hurried u p and when we got to t h e selt l emen r th e C a p t h al ted us a n d sen t ten men a s a seou l 10 see if t h e enemt was there. A h e r wai ting lwo o r Lhrcc h o u r s all han d s g ett i n g i mpJiicm t the or de r w a s R i v e n by Lt. Henderson t o .-n arc h 10 t h e plac e that th e Y a n kees w e r e s u p p o s e d t o b e a l. W e h ad got abo ut t h ree m i les o n the r oad w h e n we wer e m e t b y Capt. Smith o n horse ba c k H e i nformed u s tha t t h e enemy ha d got the O s ceol.a off and were on th eir w a y to so we turned back 1n double quick and when we got 10 where we starled hom we saw them coming. bul when lhey were opposite us they went about and bea t it out of the pass. We were all greatly d i sappointed for I ne v e r saw men so eager f o r a fight in my l i fe. W e kep t a str ict g ua r d all ni g h t b u r rhe )' d i d n o r come. May 16: At 10 o'cloc k AM w e l efl f<>r Arc h er's p lace u nder Lt. A s h b y, CarJt. Smith h av i n g gone to T ampa lt. H e n d e r s o n a n d h is comma n d s t ayi n g a t C l e-arwat e r W e a rriv e d a t our dest ina ri o n a n d stOPf)ed at B o b Whit e h urst's h o use, one of th e Tor ies. We f o u n d prenty of everything to eat such as green corn, cabbages, honey & et c., hogs, cows & etc. We lived high. Kept a strict guard M y 1 6 : Guard d a y and night. Archer, Lowe Mears and Anderson moving their things to Clearwarer, f r om th e r e to be t a ken 10 O l d T a mpa and we are t o c arr\ them a n d t h eir f am i l i es t o T am p a for t hey are afra i d t o s l a y o n th eir p lac e s as t h e Yan kees h a v e t h r e a t ene d t o r ak e t h e m p t i soners. T w o seoul $ w e r e s e n t ow and t h ey repor t e d that t h e e n emy ha d b ee n a t a p l ace o wned by o n e o f the T o ri e s and h a d d1.1 g pota toes .1nd robbed six b ee g ums. T h e)' could not have l e ft m o r e than two hours befo r e th e scouts gol the re. T h ey found a letter i n the house directed to Major Thomas. The letter contained two letters for frank Phillips. Shortly after, a horseman came from Clcarwarer with rhc informalion tha t Lt. Maloney had arnved ell lhat p l ace and that M r )as. McR ay & son had arrived a t Tam,-,a. T hey were sent i n a smack w i th a flag o f t rvc.e. T hey h ave brx>n prisoners al Key W est for some ti me. M r M c Ray s la t e d that t h r ee b a rges w i t h 90 me n had l e f t the bloc kad e for C l e a r w ate r t o t ak e t h a t p l ace and o u r c::ompa n y th a t t h e y h e.ud was I here. VVe went v p l o C l ear water i n the a ft ernoon wgr. th e r w i t h the families of Archer lowe a n d o t hers M ay 26: A flag or tru ce was sent to th e bloc k a de today to see if t hey would give up some Negroes t h a i had away hom thei r owners and are on board of the barque. I w rote my molhcr by lhis opportunity. Mo y 27: I am on gua rd t oday and night. Rained all day a n d night. About 1 2 o'clock a t n ight the boat f r om the block a d e arri ved They d i d not s u cceed in g etting t h e Negroes b u t our l etter s w ill b e se11t t o K e y West by f irst oppo rtu n ity. June 1 4 : R e cei ve d o r d ers to ge t ready t o ma r c h for T e nnessee w ith i n len days. All of Gen e s c ompany g o t

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furloughs and l eft for home i!flm edia t e l y and many o f o u r men did the same. I r ema i n i n camp June 27: Left Tampa today at 9 A .M T he l adies i n large n u mbers tu r ned o u t and saw us off. T here .. vas quite a wavi ng of handkerch i efs and many tears s hed but I am sat isfied that non e were fo r m e for I have no f e mal e acqu a i n tances in the p lac e We c rossed the r i ver1 gave three cheer s arld proceeded on o u r way and sto pped at t he 13 m ile r u n f or the n i ght ate sup per had so m e mus i c and danc i ng i n s p ite of our being ti red for t h e road is soft san d and tireso m e to walk. june 28: S t arted at 3 AM and marc hed 2 1 m i les. We t hen stopped fo r the day, i t be i ng abo u t 10 AM. All hands i n good h ealth and spirits. (And thu s f rom t he St. Petersburg scene) Robert Watson Biography Rob er t Watson was born Sept ember 9, 1835 o n Ragged I s l and i n the Bahamas and moved to K ey West i n 1847. A shi p s carpe nter by trade he en l i sted in the Confede r ate A r my, Company K 7t h Flo rida re g i m e n t on April 25, 1862, a ft er hav i n g served i n t h e F l or i da Coast Guard since Ma r c h 5, 1861, be i n g stat i oned at Tampa He tran sferred t o t h e Confederate Navy on March 3, 1864 at Dalton, Georg ia. He served on the Ram Savannah unti l it was captured. H e s ub sequently escaped and repor ted to the navy at C h arleston ser v i ng th e re, l ater at Wil m i ngton, N C and t hen at For t F i s her W h en t his fort fell, he was captured and was exchanged and joined the Army at R i chmond, be ing statio ned at D r ewery's B l uff. When Richmond was evacuated, h e was i n the rea r guard. He surrendered with Lee 's Army to G r ant. W h en he died on July 22,190 9 he was 75 years old and resided in Key West on Grumell Str eet, between D ivision and V i rgini a Streets. H e t h e n was ma r r ied deaf and a l most b lind. He was d r aw ing F lori da Con federat e pen s ion of $150.00 a year under Certif i cate 3224, which had been approved by Dr. J oseph U Fogarty an ancestor of A. B. (Bab e ) Fogarty o f St. Pete rsburg. War hysteria i s a th i n g ver y difficul t to under sta n d even after reading the things Watson thou ght said and saw Even mor e than a casua l reader of h istor y woul d be j ustifi ed i n believ i ng thar the overwhelm i ng major ity of F lori d ians enthusiastically favo red secession and the war Actually th e col d facts were mark ed ly d i fferent. A large fraction of the pol i tical leaders private l y wer e not i n favo r of war. But i n war as i n peace one ma n or a few men who fervently believe a th i ng carry along with them the dubious t h e pass i ve, the in different. Th us Flor ida was swept into a wa r Onl y a tiny m inorit y of peop l e owned s laves, ha d posi tions of power an d wealth and prestige thereby In mid Pin ellas for instance i n 1860, of some 70 fami l ies onl y s i x owned slaves. \.'Villiam J Turner had 19; William L. Mobley, 13; 0 B. Hart, 5 (he was la te r elec ted Gove rn o r of Flor i da); Odette P h il i ppe 6; J ohn S Taylor, 6; frederi c k Varn 11 T here were a tota l of 82 fam i l ies i n the w h o le County -381 people. 63 T h e bal a nce wer e s tu rdy "di rt" farmers. who dTove the ir own p low h o rses, killed their own pigs built th eir own homes. Actually the y had come here because t h e econom y and socia l struc tvre built on slavery i n t h e i r places of b i rth \'\'a s d istas tef u l to them. But at first they r u s hed to arms, s ought 1 0 serve t h e Co n fede racy When they coo led off, so me quie tl y t e nd ed t heir farms, some slipped ro t h e safe ty a t fgmont K ey l"h ei r oppon ents called them Tor ies, Black Republ i cans Federal s the e nemy. Th e Fede ral s called the Con federa tes rebel s renegades out l aws. Conver sely the settler s a t the "Point." \ Vith British and Spa n ish b a ckground wer e not defenders o f the Confederacy. They were lishermen, t urtlers, smu gglers. traders by ship, with economic, socia l a n d emotion al ties to Havan a an d K ey West. Traditi onally the federal Government, made v i s i b l e to them by t r oops at Tampa, wer e t h e e nemy; hence they worked lor, fo u ght w i t h the Co n f ede racy not beca use t hey lov ed the Confederacy but from fear o r h atred of th e Federa l governme nt. Miran d a and B ethe ll, o n e Spanish, o n e E ng l i sh, were typi cal. Oddly enoug h t hose other long t i rne fishermen and tu rtlers, Armed Occupat ion Act homesteader s w h o have been promi nent in these pages; Joe S ilva and John Levi q ue, of the Jung l e area, were i nvisible dur i n g t h e war, thereafter quietl y reappeared They probably d i screte l y s te p ped ov er to Havana An d as in every war, ther e were th e enterpris ing money make r s, whose declaration s o f loyalty wer e dictated by thei r financia l interes t s The s la ves f reed, th eir mo ney worthless, the i r farms i dle, the i r cattle eaten by one arm y or the other; most Flo ridians \vere destitut e at war's end, but a iew were r ich. Dramatic act ors and war a c ts in the area wor th y of note w ill now be mentioned. J ames McKay of Ta mpa, a recentl y a rrived Scots man, cattleman s hippi ng magnate. mer c h ant was conspicuous duri ng the war. W h i le his l u c k was frequently bad e ven d isast rous, on balan c e he ap pa rently did well. H i s g r andson D 8. McKay, who d ied i n recent years, became famous as a newspaper man, editor and author of the famed "Pioneer page whi c h appeared for some 1 5 years i n t h e Sun d ay Tampa T r i bun e James McKay was an active blockade r u nne r Of record, he lost three r u nners dur i ng the war. His shi p "Salvor," one of the first captured by t h e "Bl ockade" at Egmont, was taken October 31, 1861. In lat er years he l ost the "S cottis h Chief," w hich was burned by the Federals i n the upper Hillsboro R i ver where i t was hiding. His Kate Dale" was captured Other famed and generally successfu l blockade runners wer e Capta i n Archibal d McNeill, of Ma n atee. Cap t ains Frederic k Tresca and J o h n W. C u rry of Upper Pinellas Oth er Tam pans not ably i nv olved i n blo c kade r un n i ng wr e the o r i g i nal Perry G. Wall second Perry G Wall, h i s son, was seve ral t imes mayor of T ampa ) Wall was one of a g r oup which i ncluded

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Chris t opher L. Fri ebele, E. A. Cl arke Samuel Swan n Major Aaron F r ieso n an d S. G. frierson. Clarke and Friebele were married to Wall's sisters. McKay suffe red a very severe blow when t h e Federals u nder Commodore Semmes destroyed his large sal t works on Old Tamp a Bay loca ted o n All igator C r eek, a short distanc e south o f Safety Har bor. The s i te is now owned by the County, the Cree k having been dammed to form a halfhea r ted lake. This wr i te r many years ago talked to an eyewitness of t h e destr u ction, who was still exci tedly i nd i gnant about the whole th ing. I t i s difficult to real ize at this sop h isticated age, how vita l salt w a s to the Confederacy I n fact some students bel i eve salt scarci ty had more to do with the defeat of the South t han shor tag e of gunpowder and cannon Sal t was absolutely vital to pres ervatio n of food a h u ndred years ago T h e South had no natural salt deposits. The coasta l states of Georgia, Flor i da and Alabama wer e spr i nkled w it h perhaps hundr eds of salt wor ks; batte r ies of k ett les and boilers evap orat ing sea water to get salt. So vita l was thi s work tha t sal t makers, along with preachers, were almost the onl y classes exemp t ;r om conscr i pt ion. The most vita l contribu tion of Sout h flori da to the wa r, par ticularly the "Poin t and all Pinellas as well as Hillsboro and Manatee, was caut e. Prob lems o f por t ation and cu re, we re very simply solved by dr iving the herds of catt l e to the armie s where t h ey we r e ki lled as they were needed for food. Both McKay and the more famed J acob Sum m er l in .. of Bartow, were domina n t i n t his cattle trad e Towa r d war s end t he Fort M}ers area, where there were even more cattle, switched l oyalty to the Federals because the y had troops a t Fort Mye rs and th ey pai d for cattle in go l d rathe r t han n ear worthless Confederate paper money. Both Bethell and Miranda were beyond question deep ly invo l ved i n the blockade running. T h i s activi ty as well as their bushwacking doubtless we r e a t t h e bottom of the attack on the Miranda home. More spectacu l ar but equally ha rm less; was the bombardment of Tampa on April 13, 1862. T his event spotlights how vastly different ly war was waged then, than now. William B. Eaton wa s the Federal comma n der, usi ng the U.S. schooner Beauregard; Major R. B. T homas commanded at Fort Brooke and exer cised martial law and r ule over Tampa under a flag oi truce Eaton sent this l etter to Thomas : "Sirs: I demand i n the name o f t h e Uni te d State s the uncondit i onal surr ender of t h e town of Tampa, Flor i da, together with all the munit i ons of war and o r dinanc e s tores con tai ned therein If these terms are not complie d with I will give you twenty-four h o urs to remove all t he women and children to a proper 64 distance an d t hen bombard the town. I have the honor t o be your obedient servant. William B. Lieut. Com. Major Thomas immed i ate l y r eplied, stat i ng tha t he could not accept the p r oposition of surrendering but agreeing "for the sake of h umanity" to remove the women and c h i l dren After wa i ti n g a few days to give Thomas a chance to c h ange his min d, Eaton "bombarded" the town as he had t h reatene d A cannon ball h i t the gable end of the courthouse and went th rough the bui lding. Another h i t t h e home of R M. Duke at jackso n and Franklin, went through the fron t window, s r nashed a mirro r and dropped on t h e kitc hen f l oor. A few more balls landed i n the garr i s on and in town but d i d l itt le damage. Despi t e t h e m i l dness of th e bomba r dment, Major Thomas was i nfuriated He sent a savage message to Eaton b i tte r l y denounci ng h im fo r so bru t ally at tack ing a comple t ely def ense less town, endangering the lives of scores of noncom batants. Upon rece iving the message, E aton was stricken with remorse and he apo l ogetically r eplied. "Si rs: I regre t that my des i gn of com m e n cing an attack on Tampa did not meet with your approva l but I would say i n just i f icatio n of my course tha t the threat to bombard the town was an i nadve rtenc e and shou l d have r ead 'fort' or 'bauery' which howeve r la i d d i re ct l y i n fron t of and afforded p r otecti on to t h e town. f h ave the best information from part ies who had but a s h o r t tim e before been there and made the ir escape that the women and children ha d all been r emoved f rom the town a n d t h at most if not a ll of the property holders were strong secessionists. You will I have no doubt, overlook the e r ror i n judgm ent which I made on taki ng into considerat i o n t he fact t hat I have been here with my vessel near ly six months and after a shost per i od of i naction I was na turally a nxious to give my officers an d men an opportunity to s how their mettle an d a f fo rd them the cha nc e w hich they so desi red of doing someth i ng. i f ever so l i ttle toward cripp l ing the enemy. Very r espectfully, W. B Eaton. L ieu t Coon." To s how that h e was truly sorr y f o r hav ing caused Tampa a l a r m, Commander Eaton depa r ted with his Beauregard and more than a year e l apsed before Tampa was s h elled again. The second shelling was a lso r elatively harm less. In 1864 when the city was temporarily without troo ps the Federals landed, loo ted some p r ope rties, including the Mason i c lodge, pa raded up an d down the ma i r ) -streets, depa r t ed with out doin g any ser ious h arm Dr. W. S. Weedon (Weedon Island ) But Hillsborough Co u nty beat the State ol Florida i n seced i ng f rom the United States by a good two m o nth s in fact i t was one of the f irst politica l u nits i n the nation to do so. Nov. 2 4 1860 a tot al of 106 of the most p romin ent ci tizen s of t h e area s i gned a

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declara tion o f secession In t hat year the Coun ty which the n i n c l uded an now d ivi ded into 1 0 counties includi ng P inellas -had a popu lation of 2 ,981 The l is t of signer s included five preachers, four d octors, three l awyers, many o Hicials, the w i f e of a man who l ater became Gove rnor o f florida, schoo J te,tchers, merchants; in a word t h e formers of publ i c opinio n A number of other p eople identified with "The Point" o r th e Tampa Bay area were invol ved i n vary i ng facets of the war. Dr. W. S Weedon, a surgeon, joined the 4th F l orida R e giment and served w it h d is t i n c t ion throughou t the wa r His son, Leslie W. Weedon. set tied at Tampa, a cquired Oct. 8, '1898 what t hereafter became known as Weedon I s land, d espite the fact it wa s nev er q u i t e a n i sland. H e esta blish e d a grov e on par t of a huge shell mound, which occupied a part of the l a n d and which was his prin ci pal re ason for acqu i r i ng the property. also had a vacation home ther e Many t i m e s h e expressed a hope th e proper t y woul d become a park. H e so s ta ted to this w rite r when, as a member oi the Tampa D r aft Board in World War I he examined t h is w r iter, rejected him because of poor eyesight. Thre e generations of Weedon s were doctors o r surgeons. T h e f i r s t was the most f amed. H e attended the g reat Seminol e w arr ior Osceol a p rior to his death i n a milit ary p r i son ; firs t i n St. Augus t ine. then i n Charleston, S C H e created a m ystery that was not solved fo r more than a century whe" he secretly severed Osceola's head, (after death), p resented i t to a f r iend who had a ghoul i s h hobby o f collecti ng sku lis. T he head was lost in an U pper New Yo r k state ba rn which was dest royed by ( i re John T leslie of Tampa, noted f ighter in both Seminole Wars iormed a volunteer company which eventually became Company K, 4th Flo r ida Reg iment. John T l esl ie a gran dsOfl b e came a noted h istorian of T ampa. He was active i n founding t h e Hillsborough H istorical Soci e ty Be not m i s led however after reading these r eci tations of "war" in t h i s area whi c h was more comic opera tha n War. that the C i vil War was not one of the mos t deadl y and d estructive wars ever fought. Compared to modern c ombat t h e s la u ghter was almost inc red ibl e. At the battl e of Oulstee Pond "ear lake City the b iggest F lorida soi l experienced, i n vol v ing severa l thousand troops. casualt ies were more than 40 percent o f the troops i nvol ved. F l orida's contribut ion was equally incredible. The State had a popu l at ion I n 186 0 o f 140, 424 o f w hom 77,746 were w h it.,. Th e State furn i s hed between 14,500 and 1 5,000 troops (records are not exact); o f these more tha n hal f wer e k illed, wounded or cap tur ed. Soldiers Of Florida Published 1907 b y Democrat Book a n d Job Pr int live Oak, Flor ida, under a uthor i ty of Chapte r 2203 Laws of F lor i da, passed May 14 19()3. Supervised by Board of S tate Ins t itut i o n s Infantry Company Captain james P. McMullen Mustered i n t o the service o f the S tate of Flor ida o n Jul y 20t h 1661, to October 20th, 18 61, by order of Brigadier Ge n eral J. M Taylor. The Com p any was stat i oned a t C learwate r Harbor, and at the expi r ation of t h e i r t hr ee mont hs' service was mustered out and the men composing i t joined other commands. Mu5tered In Mustered Out Na:me$-Rem.ults Mus t ered In Mu,ten:d O u t Officers C ampb ell, W. M July 2 0, '61 Oct. 20, '61 captain-Carl i s le, J S July 20, '61 Oct 20, '61 james McMullen J u ly 20 '61 Oct. 20, 6 1 Oay, Adam July 20, '61 Oct. 20, '61 1st Lieutenant -Clay, W. S Ju l y 20, '61 Oc t 20, '61 G W Whitehurs t J u ly 2 0 '61 Oc t 20, '61 Colli e r \Y. T. Sgt j u l y 20, '61 Oct. 20, '61 2nd Lieutenant -Crawford jesse J uly20, '61 Oct. 20, '61 levi S. W hitehurst J uly 20, '61 Oct 20, '61 Crum, D. 8. July 2 0, '61 Oct 20, '61 3rd lieutenant Garrison, G. A. July 20, '61 Oct. 20, 6 1 A. J Y oungbl ood July 20, 6 1 Oct 20, '61 Garr ison, G. A. J u l y 20, '61 Oct. 20, '61 Garrison, S. D. Corp. July 20, '61 Oct. 2 0 6 1 Enlistc.d Men. Gaskins, Lewis July 2 0, '61 Oct. 20, '61 Arno ld, H. G July 20, '61 Oct. 20, '61 Gaward, Frank. R. Ju l y 20, '61 Oct. 20, '61 Arnold, M E. Jul y 2 0 6 1 O
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Namtt Rem.-.rks Mus1ertd In Muster e d Out N.aMt f M".stered In Mustered Out Holland, G. W. July 20, '6 1 OGt. 20, '61 Stephenson s . H. July 20, '61 OGt. 20, '61 K iules, Lawre.nu July 20, '61 OGt. 20, '61 Swain, 8. C. July 20, '61 OGt. 20, 6 1 Leaven, James July 20, '61 OGt. 20, '6 1 Tillm.an, ). W Jul y 20, '61 0lood, S. S. july 20, '61 OGt. 20, '61 Coast Guord s Lieutenant Able Merander's Detachment. Second Lieutenant Able Mcrander's O e taehment1 Coast Guards, called into St1rvlce b}' Brigadier jos. M Taylor, July 1 4 1861, to Septem ber 5, 1861. Ortic ..... 2nd Lleutcmanl Able Mmndcr Seam
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Nmt$ MU$ttrt-d In Mus ter e d O ut R emArks B ishop, Asa April '62 8 fySOn, Robert Apr i l '62 lkltler, Thoma> April '62 Burnes, Thomas April '62 Olberles 1 .. frglll wilh U.S. \Yar Sh ip "Water Witch"; June 3, '64 April'62 Col e JOieph E. A p ril'62 Collin s J. E. A pril '6 2 Comb Chari., Apf i l 62 Cow arl, R A. April26, '65 Curry joS<>ph April '6 2 Curry, Samuel April '62 Curry, W i lli a m April '62 DcLaunay, J A April 2 6 '65 D eLaun ay,St.Joh n April '6 2 Dorsey, Edw a r d April 62 Duprey, John April '62 E dw..rds, George W A p ril 6 2 Fallis, Rofina A pr i l 62 Fagan, )Oieph April '6 2 Franklin, William April 62 Guerro, Miguel Apri1'62 Giblcy William T. April '62 Daniel T. April '62 H errymand, William April '62 jackson, John B. April 6 2 April 26, '65 Josselyn, W illia m April '62 Lee, Edmund April 6 2 L o v en, jamC$ April '62 Lowe Alfred April '62 April 2 6, '65 T ransf c fred to Ram Savannah; C S N L o w e joh n T. April '62 April 26, '65 T ransferred to Confederate Navy. lowe Willi a m E. April26, '6 5 Mclaughlin William April '62 M c L ea n J o h n L. Apr i l '62 Mason, joh n April 6 2 M crrilac, AugusluJ Apr i l '62 Cor poral Miller, Charles A pr i l '62 Monte-Oo-Oca, Manuel A pril '62 Morrison, John April 62 Moss, JOiephus April '6 2 Honorable" menti on i t Chidcamauga. Oliveri, M1rc.us April 62 O'Neil, W illiam April '62 Pent, John April 26 '65 Sho1a1 Missionary Ridge, Tenn. December 25 '63. Benjamin April '62 Richards, George April '62 Died Camp Ch>se p rison, A pri117, '65; grave No. 1884. Rodd enberry, J Died Camp Chase, March 8, 6 5; grave No. 1592. Russel john April '62 R ussell, April 62 S>nds, j o h n B. April '62 Sawyer, William April '62 Corpo ral Swain, Benjamin April '62 Thompson N S. April '62 D i e d Camp C hase, September 17, 64; grave N o. 253 Wadswo rt h, M c l ehl April '62 Watson, Robert April '62 Sergeant W eathersrord, Jeremi a h April '62 Willia mson,). P April 62 W oodruff, J oseph A p ril 62 W ood, Andtrson J une 62 April 26, '65 Capwred, '62; and e x c hanged, 63 Woods, I ames J une '62 67

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Chapter XI THE LAND HUNGER The f i e r ce U(ge of the early American settlers to own lan d, the i m pulse t h at con q uered t h i s cont i nen t an d i n too large a degree despoi led it, s tr u c k flori da begi n n i n g some f i ve ye ars after the c lose of the Civi f War F l or ida ior a whil e la y stu n ned after t he war's end. The natives were pa i nfull y reconst r ucti n g their l ives, adj usting f armi n g a n d to an ext en t comme r ce a nd business t o a soc i ety of n o n s l aves. T h ere was a hostility an d bitterness toward "yankees. Th e t h irst for lan d ownershi p, and the availability of g ood la nd a l most fo r the tak ing joined to rel i gious free dom a nd a democ r atic fo r m of government, at tr acted and b red w ha t ha s become t h e greatest and mos t e ffectiv e g roup of people on earth from that breed of peo p l e evolved mass p roduoi on w h ich ha s c r e ated a lso by far the w e alt h ie s t peop l e t h e earth ha s seen. Industria li sm, t he services sophisticated man ufa c turi n g processe$ h ave i n the last ha l f cent u ry obscured and a ctu ally to an ext en t cancelled f act tha t free owners h ip of lar1d and th e exe r cise of the p r i vileges of owners hip i s the foundatio n roc k of the people, and s till t h e ir most f undame n t al urge The first people to America were flee ing from a s o c iety where most m e n were serfs t i ed to t h e land and at the mercy o f la ndlords. Th e i r government told them what to be l ieve about God and at times killed them if t hey d issen ted Most l y a ha n d fu l of r u lers made the laws, appointed the judges who i n te r p r e ted it a nd t h e sheriUs vvho enforced it. Ownership of la nd was the badge of f r eedom Until t h e e n d of the civi l war except for t h e h unters a n d f isher men and mar i ners of South Florida and the T ampa Bay area, the prin c i1>al occupiers o f l and i n the state were the great p la ntati on owners wit_h the i r tens and sco res and h u n dred s of slaves. Bur when the b i tterness of w.u had lost some of its s ting and a man l ived b y h i s own t oi l or the h i red work of free Jab o r me n by the thousands look ed to Florida as a nearby irontie r where l and wa s c h eap,. t he soil boun tif u l, t he clim ate benign. And what is now S t P etersburg for th e firs t ti me got its share of th e ne wcomers After the Wa r's en d on l y \Vill iam T Coons l iv ed in what is now St. P ete rsburg. In 1860 th e r e were but 2,98 1 peop le i n H i ll sbo r o ; ther e were 3 8 1 in w h at i s now Pinella s By 1880 there were 5 ,814 i n H i llsboro, 1,11 1 on th e P i nellas Pen i n s ul a an d abou t '190 i n what i s now St. Petersburg (The u nce r tainty is due to vagueness of l ocation a n d num bcr of peop l e l iv i ng alo n g t h e shore o f Boca Ciega Bay i n what i s now the Jun gle area.) T h e r e were 240 houses o n the Pen insula, 242 fam i l ies. Of the 1, 1'11 almost exactly h alf, 550 we r e on high g r ound i n the Safety Harbor ar e a By 1900 the Hillsboro total had risen to 14,941, what is now Pinellas to abou t 1,800, and what is now St. P e ter s burg to 273. One mus t recall, of cou rse, Hillsboro t hen consi sted o f pe r haps h al f of all South Flo ri da some te n C ou n ti e s T he bulk of pubicl y owned land by 1890 had p.lSsed i n t o pr i vate owne r s h il> Whi le t h e p r i nc i pal story i s w h o go t the l and and what they did with it, the mathematics and the l egal mec ha n ics of t hat tran s f er i s worthy of recording Th e lands of St. P ete r sburg w ere S
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was u n til r ece n t y e a r s j ust. ified, i t be i n g a n amaz ing fact t hat what i s now South Madeir a was a c tu all y homes teaded by Georg e E. Roberts a f amou s fis h er m a n on Ap ril12. 1912, although p a r t of North Made i ra had bee n grant e d to anothe r f i sh e rman. William H. Gei ger o n September 2 4 1 906. and another pa r t to Luther f Ward o n May 8 1905. And a hom estead wa s secu red by Thomas H P e arce as lat e as Janu ary 6, 1913 on what is now Red i ngton B e a ch. A n d t h i s w r i ter a1'd his la t he r i n 1 9 1 5 gam b led $500 on a n opt ion on i t and l o s t beca u s e t h e y cou ldn t s ell a mil e of f rontag e o n G u l f and S ay fo r $15.000 What i s now T r easure I s l a n d was t h e f irst homes teaded C l aude A S a u nde r s havi n g gott e n a deed June 1, 1886 T h e owner t h ought so litt le of it he sol d i t to H. Wa l ter fuller i n 1914 lor $800 .00! B u t back to the mainland of S t Petersb urg. When t h e s urv e y o r s got throug h the i r e xa c t measur ements of wha t i s now St. Pete rsburg, they totaled 34 965.53 a c res. By Governm ent survey tha t i s the official size of this city. B u t the dredge r and Iiller has e xtend e d that are a q u i t e a b i t I t i s wort h y of note 1 hat \v h en Watson was surveying t h e North S h o r e S n ell Isle a r ea h e did not both e r to ru n out the l i nes of two se c t ionsit wa s partly subme r ged mangro ve t idal landthat now a r e the local e fo r a considerable number of million s of dollar s wort h of the tow n's p r oudest h omes It w ell may ama z e you t o find w h at t h e feder a l a n d S t ate governments got lor their 34,965.53 a cre s whi c h were assessed i n 1 965 as hav ing a value of $751 ,3 2 5,327.00. T h e y got $15 ,'125.001 The pre s ent day va l u e o f 7500 squa r e feet an d a modest home! A n d w h o got the lan d and why did t hey buy it? T h e r e were l e ss t h an 15 0 o f t h em a n d of those f i v e were actually i n the s ame g rou p and s everal oth e r s w e r e p artner s They w ere f rom eve rywh e r e, l iterally ; F l orida, Georgia N or t h Carolina, I ll i nois New Yor k M ic higan. Cana da, Cuba. Spa i n. France I rela n d. Ve r mont, Ph ilad e l p h i a ; pa r ticu l arly P hilade l p h i a One of the m e n, who ha d the g roup of asso c iates (rom wealth / dar i ng, imagi nation, opportunity; h ad it w ithi n his grasp t o hav e becom e t h e g re ate s l mos t (amou s the most honored name in all t h e h i s tory o( f lor i da whi l e und e r United State s sov erei gnty; n o r e powerf u l tha n Dav id S. Yul ee, flori da' s first U .S. Senator and g reat est ear l y pre Civ i l War rai l road bui lder; Henr y 8 Plant, the great post Civ i l Wa r r a i l r oad t y c o o n of the Gulf Coast of flor i da: H e n r y F l ag l er, c reator o f the Gol d Coast. Thi s was Hamilton Ois ston o f Philadel p h ia. H e came a f i sh i ng to F lori da i n '1877, fell i n lov e wit h i t, bought 1 8 per cen t o f the w h o le sta t e dared to bui ld an empi re ba sed on st eamboa ts i nstead of rail roads ( h i s fata l b lund er), sugar cane a n d rice in stead o f palatia l hot els a n d wat erf ron t lots; fai led, d ied of a broken heart-and i s commemora ted onl y b y a 100 f o o t wid e s treet, Disston Blvd. i n S t Petersbu r g and the map makers are tr ying to cha n ge that to 49th Str e e t But more about him l a ter -a b i t l a t er. O f the other 13 5 o n l y some 25 or 30 l eft the i r marks o n the city Severa l n amed s ubd ivisions after the mselves, two b ec ame p ostma s t e rs, on e named a l ake a n d another had a l ake named after h i m one bec ame mayor one was the city's f i r s t doctor a n d had a city park n a med after h i m, o n e started a n ew reli g i o n, two wrote books one 7S yea r s too soo n t o c apture fame and acclaim One was the town s firs t Negr o sired a son w h o is perhaps the old est person l iving i n St. P e tersburg w h o wa s born h e r e One na med this cit y after the city of h i s b i rt h. a n ot her s e ttl e d by g i v i ng th e na m e to the city's first hotel Some of the o thers never saw St. Pet er s burg Rel at i vely few staye d Of t hos e who stayed most gr u b bed out a hard but independen t l i v i ng from the st i n g y s o il. And though th e y c ollective ly boug h t fo r penn ies land that eventually be c a m e wor th milli o n s none o f the m none o f t h e ir d e scendant s e ver became r ich Ex cep t Hamilton D isston that is. He wa s rich t o star t with los t a fort u n e d i e d f u n o f despair wlth his em p ire shattered. A qua r te r century l a t e r h i s h e irs were enrich e d by sa le of the fragm e nts! But because they wer e p i o neers a n d because t hey w ere v en t u resome courag e ou s and rugged, and because they loved independence and freedom t hey well deser ve t o be remembe r e d T h e i r land t it les flowed fro m t he feder a l and S tate go vern m ent but t hrough v a r i ous c hannels. T h ere a r e 3 4,94 4.5 3 acres, a cco r d i n g to govern ment survey, in the city l hn i ts. Of t h i s almost all, 33, 448.2 9 ac r es, was patented to t h e State as "Swamp and ove r flow" land The Congr ess pas sed t h e land act of 18 5 0 selling out the t erms u n der which lands would b e tran s ferr e d f r om t h e United S tat e s to the States. Thi s act wa s activa1e d a s far as F \o r i d a is co n ce rn e d by t h e Swamp an d Overf low Act o f 1855 un d e r which afte r a l ook see by author i zed ag e nts l a n ds declare d s u c h were deeded to t he Stat e of f lori da One need b u t men ti o n that pra ctic ally all of th e pre s e n t S t Petersburg was decla r ed swa mpy and ove r flowed despi t e t h e repor t of the surve y ors of th e p rio r decade to the contrary t o rea l i ze tha t t her e was more tha n a t r a c e of c h ic anery i n t h e deal in fact the swamp and ove r flow perfo r mance m a y well have be e n t h e S t at e s b i ggest f r aud. Under the Armed Occupation Act of A u g u st 4 1842 some 354 17 acres wer e con vey e d a s relat e d in a previous c hapter. Only 18 1.55 acre s w e r e conveyed by t h e Homestead Act of 1662. T he o rigi na l s chool lan d act of 1822 b y w h ich the Sta t e got for school s and could sell, each sect ion i n a township numbered 1 6 for sch ool u s e only one oversize d sect ion o f 641.52 acres was co nve yed The terr i tory and l ate r t h e State d i d sell most the so -c alle d school l and fo r $1.25 an acre a n d pu t the money in the school fund. At that r ate, i f i t p r e vailed today, the Sta t e would ha v e t o s ell the ent ir e 35 m illion acr es (35,072 640 acres if one wished t o be exact} i n the State to run the Pinell a s County s choo l s f or one year! But now b r i e f l y a t eport on Joh n C W i lliam s the most i mportant o f t hese peop le, o th e r than Dissto n

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and la ter on about the others of whom most is known, o r whose personalities and perfo rmances, deserve reco r d i ng Short shift w ill be g iven t he specul ators, more attent ion g i ven to those who ac tually settled allhough a statist i cal s ummary on all of them is given i n anot h e r place, giving dates of acquisition, amou n t of acreage where they came from i f k nO\vn, and the general a rea of the c i ty i n which the l and is located In examin ing t hat l ist, note tha t the sett lers were few during th e war and for a numbe r o f years thereafter. T here was a great b itterness, as is commented on at considerable length in t he next chapter. But here l et it be said, tha t t h e r e is no doubt of t he exis t e nce and its depth The followi ng quota t ion is i n a personal letter t o the writer from a wise and shrewd observe r who lives in that rarity in Pinellas, a rura l a r ea, s till almost e ntirel)' occ upied by "Old T imers.'$ 'When I was going to schoo l in t h e early 1900s ( i n Pinellas) we school kids were still f ight i n g th e Civil War. At the drop of a hat boys would use fists and gir l s words! Th e fir s t q uest i on that wou l d come up was 'what s ide was your grandfather, un c l e etc on?' We had few and sometimes no Yankee chi l dren i n our sch oo l But when we did we southerns didn't l ike to trust them. The h urt was so new the children he ard the war discussed at home i n very u nfavorab l e terms "Many c h i l dren had a gra n d parent who had go n e th rough t he \va r and the stor ies told were better than the present day TV Westerns. Nearly every stor y was of the Gettysburg battle "One of o u r reachers was from Tennessee. Somehow the quest ion came u p as to whether her father had fough t i n the war S he sai d he had When the chil d ren wanted to know what side he wa s on she r eplied it was o f no concern$ that the war was over and should be forgotten. A brash youngster with a sneer said, 'T hat means h e fought fo r t he Nor t h.' So t he stream oi buyers started tim i d ly. There wer e but fo u r i n 1868, two i n '1869, five in 1870, one i n 1872 and between o ne and twelve a year t h rough 1882. But i n 1883 the advent of imminen ce of r a i lroad const ruc tior> and t he g i ant purchase of over 26,000 acres of St. Pete rsburg land by Disston as part of h i s 4 000 000 acre deal broke the resistance on all counts and the flood of buyers and settlers started in 1883 and con tinued until the 189 4 panic, t he death of Disston a n d the end of t h e cheap l and era T he name of John C. W i lliams leads the list of all t h e early sett lers except that oi Hamilton D i sston on several counts. F irst, t h e da te and size of his pu rchase s made in 1876 and 1878. Secon d th e fact that he even tually on January 24, 1887 made t he vi t a l deal with Peter A. Demens, wresting from H am i lton Dissto n t h e gre at p r ize of havi ng t he l i ne oi r ails thai became a rail r oad t erm i nate in St. Petersbur g instead of Disston City and making i t the great metropolis oi t he County rat her than what th e n appeared secured for Dis ston C i ty He gained that prize by g i ving De mens ha l f of his l and Th i rdly, that further he filed the plat of St. Pet ers burg and then a few mo n ths l ater th e rep l at, and he 70 r iveted h i s name f o r all t i me in people's m i nds by givi n g a b l ock for a park whi c h i n evitab l y was named Williams P a rk and finally his numerous progeny have into the fourth generation been prominent i n the civic, business and soc i a l life of t he city. W ill iams made two monumentalourchases.ln 1876, thr o ugh four deeds, he acquired 72.06 acre s of lan d from the government in whar i s now downtown St. Pete r sbu r g and the close i n 'nvirons. Two years l ater by virtue of three governme n t deeds he acquired 736.93 acres more, c l ustered a rou nd B i g Bayou, Coffee Pot Bayou and i mmed ia tely w est of 9th Stree t He solid i f i ed his holdings by buy i ng from W illiam F Spurlin 600 acres which he, Judge Petry a n d the Hackney co usins had p r ev i ously bought from the Gover n ment. If one desires to be technica l about i t, the \Villiams governmental deeds were re c ord e d ; n H ill sborough County cou r t house as deeds D-702, 703, 704 and 705 for the '1876 land a nd deeds U -230, 231, 232 for the 1878 purchase This total of 2048.99 acres, bought from th e Governmen t and Spurlin a t trifl ing cost were perhaps the most momentous purchases ever made in St. l'etersburg nex t to t h e hug e Disst on purchase; because the solid block o f land enab l ed Williams to offer Demens an att ractive dea l a nd allow a town to b e la id o ut. Who w a s this man, what about his family a n d why d i d he buy? William s wa s the wealthy son of a Detroit man who became rich as the r esult of p i oneer owner shi p of large acreage in and near De troi l. M r Williams came to F l o r i da to repeat that experie nce. He made h i s three large pu rchases in St. Petersbu r g but also dealt extens i ve l y i n acreage i n and around Tampa. He a lmost fai l ed to come h ere John Bethell tells t he story well "The year 1875 was dest i ned to be a most impottant one for Poil)t Pinellas. In thi s year t h e city of St. Petersburg may be said to have had its beginn i ng, i n the fo r tu na te advent of t he late Gene r a l John Constantine V\li ll iams, whose foresight, good j u dgmen t and broad a n d l i beral ideas made t he present beautiful city with its elega nt l ocatio n and broad t h oroughfares a possi b i l ity. "The s t ory of h i s coming savors strongl y of romance and might almo s t have stepped bodil y out of t he Arabian N ights. Ge n eral Williams had come l rom Detroit, M ich igan, f or the p urpose of selec t ing a suitable site for a small colony I n h i s searc h he had gone as far south as Punta Rass.a without results. He had traversed the east side of Hillsboro County with no better success, and after look i ng over t he O l d Tampa sectio n. and Tar pon and Clearwate r he r eluc t a ntly decided to abandon the p r oject and return t o Detroit. T horough l y disappo i nted a nd d i sgusted, he cha r tered a boat for Cedar Keys, the nearest p l ace to a railroad station. On his a rriv a l at

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Cedar Keys he cha nced to mee t Mr. George W Pratt, of Comargo Illinois, who seems to have made i t h i s to find out every other body's business. which he proceeded t o do in the Gen er al' S case 'Did you go to Point P i n e l l as!' s aid t he genial George .. 'Damn Poin t P i n e ll a s l 1 was t o l d b y a gen t l e m a n i n T ampa, also by o n e i n Cl>ar wat er, t ha t it is only four fee t above tide wate r !' '' 'Not .t word of t ruth in it!' said Pratt. 'it i s forty or liity feet above sea l evel and I will s a y more than that; i t is the healthtest and bes' t section in the State of Flonda II IS a perfect Paradise, sir. I lived there several months with John Bet h ell, and if you go there you will find it as 1 s ay.' "'\1\' cll, Mr. Pr att I am glad I've me t you. I will go ba c k and see this Garden o f Ede n you s p ea k s o f avorably o i.' General \1\,.illiam s th e r e u pon r c1urne d t o C l e arwa t e r h ired a team and set o u t for the lan d of P inellas. Hi> fir s t stop was a t lhe home of Mr. James A Cox o n the height s south oi t he h igh bndge. The noble view of the bay from here musl have been very to the General And when, after a few hou rs' rest, Mr. Cox piloted him over the s.ection. he wa s very rnuch plea sed t o find the elevation greater th an Mr. P ratt figured it, also 'O sec suc h fine t imber and farm i ng f a nd, besi des suc h heallhy, robu s l cniCrpris i ng peopl e a n d such a t >ros p e r o u s l illi e smtleonent. "Aft e r carelully siz ing 1..1p the situation, h e decided that Pinellas was t h e plar.e he was searching for, and made some investments. He then returned to Detroit 10 sett l e up some business and get his famoly On his return he invested largely in land, including the site of St. Petersburg. From this time on he labored for the advancement of the Point, and in h is variou s sch e mes a n d enterprises gave em p loyment t o a gr e a t ma n y peuplc, -bo t h before a n d afte r St. Pete r sburg was well stan < t d as a b u s i ness pla ce and t ouris t r esort. An d w h e n t h e s itua t ion was ripe f o r t h e founding of a t own and t h e adve n t o f a rai lroad he bent h is energ i e s toward the accompli shmem of this, his orig inal purpose Hos l iberal dealings with the railro<>d company brought in the Orange Belt# and it was none oi his lauh that the S S O & G road did 00< make i t s terminus here at the rime "Soon alter thei r father the General, came three sta lwart sons, B. C., John R a n d 1. C. W i lliams, l r Barney and John came fir st, and w e r e fof' a time identified with I h e inte rest s o i l heir father 'Tine : a s the o th e r was fami l iarly kn own, beca m e a common ca r r i e r, p l ying 71 between Pinclla s and Tampa with passe ngers .. freight and the U .S. m a il. O!d settlers remember with what regulauly the sh arpte #'Ne ttie" used to make the trip to and iro r egard less of wea ther. While St. Pet.ersburg was i n its infancy h e gav e up boating and bough t a lot on Centr a l Av e n ue. corner. o f Seco n d Stree t o n which h e e o ected a fon c l arge building, sti ll know n a s the \il'illiams B lock" fo r residenc e an d b u si ness p u rposes. l i e t h e f irst to ernbMk i n mcrc.1nti l e business i n St. Petc t sburg a n d fo r a time had a monopoly of trade. later o n o rher s joined in the onward march for the 'almight y dollar; but 'Tine had the lar gest and best equipped stor e and, consequently, kept in the lead. For quite a long time h e con trollcd probably t hreefillhs of a lithe trade of th e West Coast but close a tt e n t i o n t o business and i n door c::onri n G m C I 'It and the yea r s of toil a n d so undermined h is h e allh t h a t he though t it a d v isable 1 0 emba r k i n less slre nuous entequi ses a n d exac ting less per sonal confinemen t and finally c l ose d out. .. B C. \tVilliams, al so an en t er prising businessm a n of St Petersburg. year or more with his father. went to work on his own account. H i s firs t move w.as in the fishing business, but there being so little money i n i t in those years h e gave i t up t o e n gage i n boa!i ng, which h e has bee n following off and on to t h e prese n t time in connection w it h olhc r i n t erests l ltl first p lied b e t ween P ir)ella s and Tampa, carrying i r e ight and p asse ng ers. T h e n from Pin ellas h e w enl t O Gul f City, from which p l ace h e ca rri e d freigh t and passengers and U.S. mail for seve ra l years. T h en he engaged in coasting and steamboati ng. In these years he .1lso became a skillful boat builder, doing honest work for honesty was his mono. As mechanic or boa(man he has bul lew equals. Outing his s ea service h e ha s n eve r met w i th any ser i o u s mis h aps, though h e has h ad se v era l h airb readth esca pes "J. Moll \'\l iUiam s i s too w ell k nown w n eed a u en tion h e re. H e d i d n o t com e ti ll muc h l ate r b u t h e inhe rited hi> full s h are o i the family e nergy and enterpnsc. and ne ver could keep st ill. In addition to his ma n y material interests in and around St. Peters burg. hc has that strong affection lor the
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thereaf t er on August l 8, 1 890 a n d Williams deeded h al f of the lots to Dem ens on F eb r u ary 28, 1889. T he amusing r e ason for this hasty rep tat e v e 1 y downtown deed mus t r ecite fore ver Revised Plat of St. Petersburg"is that Mr. Williams had a v e r y l arge f a mily mansion at the Southwest corner of what is now Fifth Avenue South and Fourth Stree t when th e land was acreage No one knew per haps, at l e a s t no one bothe red to <.:heck s ection or fract iona l section l i ne s p rior to bui l d i ng the house, but after the orig i na l plat wM fi led when the s u r veyors began l aying out th e town lots i t was foun d to cons i derable embarrassme nt o f every one concerned tha t p.u t o f th e h ouse was i n fhe bed of Fou rt h Street. So it was necessary to revise the plat to get the house ou t of the street. Mr. W i lliams d ied i n 1 894 befo r e t h e sickly littl e town had develop ed enough to g ener a t e any l o t sales at profi t ab l e prices, many sales al ong ab ou t lhal time be i ng us uall y fo r $ 1 00 to $ 300 a lot. The family unfort u nate ly be cam e p romptly em broiled i n l i tigati on at Mr. Williams death, he having in his will cut off all the c h ildren of both h i s i ir
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the pav i ng cost assessed against the a buUing property own e r s a nd the tra c k s i n a d i r t cen t e r s tr i p avoi ded the pav i ng cost and provided a r oad so much c h eape r t o ma i nta in w h e n i t w a sn' t necessary to tear u p pavi n g ever y (ime cross t ies were renewed. So you modern car dri ve r s be th a n k f u l f o r t h e economies an d s u bt e r luges and chican eries an d acc i dents of the past t ha t at t i mes wea r t h e re s pec tabl e cloak of sta tesmans h i p, p rovi dent i al fores i gh! and public beneficen ce A n d f i n ally t h er e i s t h e popular tra d ition t h at ahe r Deme n s and Williams had agreed to jointly bui l d a h otel and t h e y tossed a co i n 10 s e e which narped the h otef a n d w h ich t h e town. T h i s unfortunate l y -was not tr ue. Demens, from the first day he started to ext end t h e rails f rom San ford to P inellas Point, had wa nt e d t o name one of t h e new t owns tha t of course he t h o ught would spr i n g up along the l ine a fte r his b i rth city, S t Pete rs bu rg, R ussi a ( b r iefl y Petrograd now Len i n grad) B u t u ntil he met W i lliams every donating la n d owner insisted on p i c k i n g his own town na m e W h e n he got to Williams and was play i ng him against O i sston fo r the pl u m of getti n g the r ai l term i nus, W illiams was i n no pos i ti o n t o b a rgain, so Demens f i nally had his way, and ha d the lu c k to f asten t he name of h i s h o m e town to the only community on the whol e l ine whi c h was des t i ned to become a first class city; t h i s desp i te t h e fact tha t the name "St Petersburg" is abou t as unli kely and unsuit ab l e a n a m e f o r a F l o r ida to u r ist pa r ad ise as one could easil y imagi n e or pick. W i lliams pe r force, had to b e cont e n t w i th na ming t h e hote l D e t roit. 73 whi ch remained the tou r i s t a n d soc i a l center o f the c i ty l o n g afte r Demen s and Willi ams wer e gone. A n d it too was about as u n s u i table as the name St. burg. But so runs hist ory a n d happenstance. Th i s last foot note t o t his portion o f the Williams s t ory T his writer has as o n e o f his i n n umer able i tem s of St. P ete rsburgia n a ( i f one may c o i n such a wor d), a deed from Mr. W illiams and h i s wife Sar ah to W E Nobl e dated Oct ober 9, 888 fo r a cons i de r ation of $300 .00 t o L o t lO, Bloc k 24, Plat of St. Pet ersb u rg. T his, of cou rse, \v a s a f t er t h e orig i nal pl at and befo r e the r evised p l at This lot is l ocated on F irst Ave nue North at the S o u theast co r ner of Secon d Street. O n e w on der> wha t adj u stment, i f any, had to be mad e w it h Mr. Nobl e It i s to be r egretted that t h e co-fou nde r of th e o r i gi nal city of St. Pet ersbu rg did not l i ve to see the l i ttle frontie r v i llage g i v e eve n a p romise of its f uture g r eatness And a still furth e r i r o n ic epitap h i s t hat i n the first e l ectio n fo r a mayor of St. Petersburg, Mr. Williams run n ing o n a dry plat f orm, (the p r inciple issue was w h ether o r n ot to have open sal oons ) l os t 1 0 t o 2 1 t o Davi d Moff ett, who was on t h e saloon t i c k et. To sum i t John C ons t an tine \ Vill i ams was a man of stat ure, one w h o h appened t o be i n t h e r ight p l ace a t the r i gh t ti me, and d eserves to s hare w i t h Ham i lt on O i sston the honor and distinct i o n o f h av i n g bee n two of t h e v ital perso n s t o s hare t h e h onors of fou n d i n g a n d b uildin g a g reat c ity.

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Ch apte r XII THE EMPIRE B UILDER Ham i l to n Disston could hav e been ; s hou ld have been ; p e rhaps was the patron saint of St. Petersburg. Two 1hing s are certain; f irst, h e owne d mor e o f it than any privat e per son eve r did .. e v e r ca n ; second his vaguely r e membe r ed, dim l y un ders tood 1881 purchase of t o u t million a c res o f p rime Flor ida land f o r o n e million dollars tr i ggered a major l nd a nd rai l road boom in florid a t ha t first started St. Petersburg t o ward ts presen t grea tnes s and Flor ida on its first foot pa t h towar d its p o s itio n a.s t h e oalion's eighth s-ta t e Hist o r ians and writer s have som e h o w missed Hamilt o n u n til now. What follows is a n e ffo r t to place thi s rather remarkable man in pr ope r p erspective. Hamilton Disston wa s the o ldest o f f ive sons or Henry S. an imm i grant fro m Europe who d e v e loped a secre t fo rm ula for hard e ning steel so that hand t ools, parti c ularly saw s, h e l d th e i r cutti ng edge l o n ger t h an had previously been possi bl e. Als o t h e D isston saws ha d t o h a ve t he saw t eeth "set" l ess often. H e also h ad o r developed Ameriun production know-how and in the P hila d elphia subu r b of Tacony b uilt one of th e earl y great m a nufaCiurin g plants a n d an eq uall y impr es sive family f o r t u n e St. Pete r sb urg and Pin ell a s Co unt y owe t o Hamilt o n and t o his bro th e r Jacob and the Disston m o n e y more than to any ot her i ndiv tdua l or fami ly, for th eir early g rowt h Thi s writer v i s ited the Dis s ton plan t and family many tim es knew first hand th e gr e at fami ly pride in th e fact t hat thro ug h a l most a hundred years the Disston s.aw works never kne w a l abo r s trike. The reason was o b v i ous. Th i s writer personall y knew m any e mployees who were the grandsons and granddaugh t ers o f original e mpl o yees T h e Dissto n s sa w t o it th at thei r e mploy ees a n d their families got good ed u c ations,. a m ple and gener o u s medical care,. cheap loan s fo r family needs, full t i m e w o rk Two f ull generati o n s b e fore Social Security and Me d ica r e. In hi s tender teens thi s writ e r in h e r i ted a l a r ge chest full of second hand carpent ers tool s, th e mos t prideful ite m of w h ich was a Disston hand saw, which 7 4 f or sentimental reasons he retain e d until recent years And h e felt a personal loss when a few years ago, the once gr e at D i ssto n 'Works wa s absor bed in to o n e of th e m o d e rn mult i -branched i ndu strial compl exes Ha m ilt o n inclined in hi s y o uth t o be a pla yboy an d dilett ante, came fishi ng t o Florida i n th e w i n ter of 1877 a nd fell i n love with the State B y t ha t ye a r northern tour ists, h ealth a nd pl e asure see k ers, had begun to floc k to the Sta t e despite the e xtre m e ly limited travel a nd l i v ing facil i ties. H o t e l s w ere few s mall an d primitive. Rai l r oad s w e r e r are and horribly un co mfortable Peop le mostly trav e l e d by boat, horse or foot. But th e post civil war hostility to northerners had l os t its bitterness and open di sp lay appare nt i n th e ea rly years after 1865. B u t don' t d o ubt it ex i s ted In fac t thi s wri ter gre\v u p i n a town where dyan kees" w e r e still a peopl e a part, and Dam n wa s the most popular ad jecti ve before th e word yankee often t olera ted wi t h scant courtesy large l y beca use they were a source of mu c h w elcome money. B u t t hi s wri ter persona lly knew people who still refused to rake "soft" money ( paper ), still o n "'h ard mon ey, gol d preferably to silver. It is h a r d t o bel i eve t o da y b u t hi s f a ther in hi s Brade n to n (it was spelled B r aid e nt own then ) general stor e, had as d i d all mer ch andi se of th at era and area "Mo n e y" sca les that r ecorded not only o un ces b u t grams. Hord money was o f var i e d nationalities, mostl y Spani s h and was valued by w ei ght rather than th e deno m i n a ti o n stamped on it. That h osti l i t y was openl y r ecogn ized i n a n offic i a l publica t ion of the Florid a Gover nmen t issued by the B ure a u of Immigra tion i n 1868 .. a bur eau which was eventually absorbed by the Departmen t of But the word "Immigration;' w a s r e tained i n the deparrm e ntal title unti l r ece nt y ears. T h e ex pcn scs o f the Bureau o f I mmigrati o n were paid with land s a l e r evenues by the I ntern al Impro vemen t B oard (L I. lloard o f today) The quot ation which follow s i s fro m a book l et in

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the possession of the writer wit h perhaps one of longe st t i lles on recor d It reads: "FLORIDA. ITS CLIMATE. SOIL AND PRODUC TION$ ; with a sketch of its HISTORY, NATURA L FEATURES AND SOCIA L CONDITION, A MANUAL of reliable informat ion concerni ng the resou rces of the State and the ind u cements which i t offers t o I M MIGRANTS." After ably calling attention to t he fact that flori da was at one and the same t im e the ol dest State in the Union but now the newest. as far as actual sett lement went the oldest, but with its successive nationa l it i es and r aces of peoples d r iv e n ow by war and changes of f lags the n ewest; because the C ivil War had broken up its three par t populati on, ric h p lantat ion owners, ignorant slaves e q ually i gnora n t "poor white trash" but had not yet acqui red new i nstitutions or IJeop le. T he booklet says in parr ; "The immi grant o f good cha r acter and hab its will be read i ly re ceived by a ll. Southern men and women are not super h u man, and cannot be expected sud den l y to absolve t h emselve-s f rom the domination of t h ose tra ins of pol i tical thoug h t and those p r evalent social not ions tha t hav e ruled them for years, or the whole popul a tion of the State is becoming rap idly convi nced that 'men, money and labor; are to be t h e watch words of s u ccess in the future of Florida; and indeed a recent movement h as been made in concert, and associations a r e bei ng formed in t he var ious counties to coop e rate with the Bureau of Immigration about t o be estab lished under t h e new Constitutio n, in the promoti on of Immigration, by offering all practicabl e inducement s with i n their power; and .. at a recent publ i c meeti ng i n J ackson ville, in V1lhich wer e representat i ves from all p arts of the State, the most em i nen t an d i n fluential men in the State, of alf parties, u n i ted i n expressing a dete r mination to do all that could be done to promote the i m migration upon which the future p rosperity of the Stat e must mai nly depend. Indeed, any good citi zen that proposes to pay spec i al attent i o n t o h i s own affai r s, will be welcomed by all, and th is without any sacr i f i ce o f pri nciple, o r any abr idgement of h i s r i g hts of f ree thoug h t and f ree s p eech ''Northe r n men and women, who may come and persist in associating exclusively w i th each other, and sequester themselves dili gently from all social i n tercourse w ith old resi dents will be allowed th us to indulge thei r socia l predilections w i t hout let o r h i n d r ance "Bu t those who come with a d i spos ition by ind i vidual general e ffort to cont r ibute to the common good, and assist t he common progress, and who w i ll by socia l and k i n d l y intercourse assist in rhe doi n g away of un 75 founded d i slikes and unreasonable prejudices, h oweve r bol d ly, and open ly, and frankly if only with a right purpose, t hat may vindicate th ei r right of ind i vidua l i n depend ence of thought and act i o n will not on ly be t olerated, but respected and c h erished. "Still it i s as u ndoubted ly tr u e of F l orida as it was of Kansas, and indeed is of every new S tat e t hat a want oi th e means and ap pliances fo r socia l comfort and advancement must for a time be expected by newcomers, and the best way in which imm igran ts may avoid the consequent incon ve n iences and der i vat i ons, i s by coming in groups of five or mo r e fami l ies, and thus secure from the f irst those socia l interch anges which are o f the f irst impo rta nce e verywhere Anot h e r and a commanding recommen dation for s u c h a group ing of immi grants i s to be foun d in the iac t that much o f the most val uab l e lan d, both for ferti lity and access ibility, is i ncluded i n large tracts, which were originally government grants, and whose owners are disi ncl ined to divide and sell in smal ler parcels. Such large tracts are of ten val ua b le, but la rge r t h an sing l e sett l e r s need or will buy; while a colony of men who desired to sett l e together and form a com m u n i ty can combi1)e their means, and thus easily sec u re to each such portion as he d e s i re d, at reasonab l e rates "And this subdi v i sion o f large p la n t a t ions is the i n d i s p e nsabl e fir st step to be taken befo r e any general ag r icultu ra l prosperity can be hoped for The a uthor of t his ab l e a n alysis was one \oVm. H Gleason, one of th e d espised (by the native F l orida whites) Carpetbaggers, t h e n Secretary of Immi gra tion. U nder the next administration he was elec ted L ieuten an t Governor (Fl o r ida had lieutenant Gove r nors unti l adoption of the 1885 Constitut ion) under Governor Reed, also a Carpetbagger. He was i m peached and Gleason fo r a s hort hecti c time was F l orida's governor. later he join e d the Democrats and remained active an d prominent i n polit ical affairs until his d eath. Disston during h is 1877 visi t and sub sequent ones became well acqua i nted with the sit uat i on. The Democrats i n t h e 1876 e lection had come to power which they h ave since reta i ned {sub ject to revisi o n Novembe r 8, 1966) and Disston became a n i ntimate of Governor William D B l oxham who assumed office i n 1881. B l oxham was one of Flor i da's few great gover nors, w hich h e demonstrated by again gett i ng elec ted Governor i n 897, the on l y man to be re-elected gover n o r fo r two full fo u r year terms s ince the Civil War l eRoy Col lin s served as Flor ida 's governor l onger than any o ther man other than Bloxh am, but due t o a constitutional q uir k whereby he ser ved a par t term a{ .. te r the de a t h of Dan McCarty and t h en was re-e l ected i mmed i ately for a four year te rm.

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Bloxham was \ .veil of the despa r ate dil ernrna i n w h i c h Flor i da foun d itse i L It was broke. n o t o nly broke b u t w ith its v i t a l Interna l (1. 1 ) fund sei zed by cre d itor s It cou l d r)O( g row with o u t rai lroads ll h ad n e i ther money not ocdit onl y l a n d and t hai encu mbe red with a Fed e r a l j u dgment. II C01..1Id neilh e r sell i1s l and for mon e y or predge it as bon us to rai lroad p romoter s Startin g with mul e dr n d still owed $644,300.00. Its onl y power to pay was by s a l e o f t h e public land s and wit h a judgmen t agai nst t hose land s i t coul d not del iver good title. Bloxham s t a rted negot i at i ons with Oisston a 1)d others. Diss ton was t eccpti v e Ql) J a n ua r y 31, 1881 a contfaCt was made O i s slon a n d assoc ia tes a n d t h e S t a te whereby th e D i s ston group ag r eed t o d r a i n Alllh e land i n Sout h Flo r i da south o f Towns h i p 24 (begi n n i ng about 1 2 miles sou t h oi O rl an d o) and fas t of Peace Creek (o rigi nally spelled P eas C r e e k) i n Po l k an d De Soto Counties. H i s pri ncipal associa tes were W illiam 1 1 Wri ght W h i t fiel d H. Drake and A l b e rt B. Linderman of J ) h i ladelph i a Willi am C. Pars o n s of Ari zona a n d I ngham Coryell, of Chicag o Th e f irst two bt><:amc promi n e n t in P i nellas Cou n (y a)d S t PetetS burg i n its ear l y day s T hey r aised $600,000.00 <:apilal. f f t h e l and wa s d(ained s a ti sfactor i l }' t o the Stat e th e Company was t o rece i ve t ille to half of all t h e l and i n t hat vas t domain! T h i s was stopp e d temporari l y by the cou rts, a l though w i t h unbel i e vabl e daring Dissto n had a l ready promptl y s1aned performa nce by r.on vact i sls f or dredge s to cut a can a l from To h opekaliga nea r Ki s simmee to l ake Okeec h obee with p lans to l a t e f cut fro m tha t vast lak e t o the Calochsah a t c h ee R i ver But Blo x ha m a n d Dis.ton d i d n o t propose t o let the couns stop t hem T h ey made a secon d dea f o n 76 J u ne 1 188 1 u ndt:!r tbe rerms of which Di.ssto n ag r eed to pay s 1 000,000 f o r h i s c h o ice o f 4 000,000 acres o f th e S t ate s publ icly owned l a n d Of t h e 35,0 7 2,640 a cres i n FI01i da, the State owned 20,133,837.4 2 a cr e s at tha\ t i me D i sston p romptly pa i d down $200, 000.00: w it h i n a few mon ths p ai d $:100,000.00 more. He i n t h e mea n t ime sol d hal f oi the l a n d to a E urope an syndi c ate h eaded by S i r Edwar d J R eed, oi Kent, Engl a n d a n d a Dutc hman n amed V..'ert h e irn. These I aue r two.afte r some sho r t d elay, pa i d in th eir h a l i m illion and in t he m e an ti me D i ssto n had compl e t ed pay i ng h i s hal f M eanwhi l e Disston h ad sent k n owledgeab l e men swar m i ng ove r F l o r ida t h e l a n ds belong i n g t o the S t ate, eve n tually s elec t e d tract s l y i ng in 25 Cou n t ies, most l y i n Sout h Flo r ida. T he I. I. Boar d d e live red i t s d e e ds t o D isston o n february 3, 1883 U n f o rt u n ate l y f o r l he persona l fame of for fi n an c ia l a r )d othe t ( easons h e scatte red th e titl e large l y among va fi o u s co r pora ti ons, alth o ugh h e took t itle i n h i s own nam e t o some pa.-ts of it. In P inellas County, w h e r e he acq u i r ed vast h o l d ings, h e rnos1ly took t itle t o la n d in t h e U l>per Coun ty, partico i M i y i n and a r o u n d T arpon Spr ings, i n the name or th e l ake Butler V i lla Company and i n St. P etersbv r g i n t h e O i sston C ity land Company The l ocal lands were also the n or l ate r sc attered among William H Wri g h t and o th e r i n d i v i d uaJs a n d torpor at i o n s Man}' thousa n ds of a c r e s i n th e Papys Bayo u and S h o r e Aoes are 1 were vested i n August u s F Bei d l er Nobody has ever taken the time to co m p i l e t h e description o f t h i s m illion acres. The i n d efat i gable a n d gifted Ha r vey l. Wells, of the Pin ellas H i stori c a l Com missi o n has i n deed compil ed and mapped th e O i sston holdings in l owe r Pinellas a n d a slatisti<:al a n d g r aphic d e picr ion of t h ose land s are p r i n t ed e l sew h e r e i n t h i s volume fo r the first t ime. To t h e acUi e .1n d u ndy i ng gti e r of t h i s write r he h ad i t i n h i s power fo r a numb e f of years t o compi l e t hat vast acreage of four million and fail e d to do so. 1 1 happened t his wayJ acob D i sston fou nd one tirne a comp l e t e set of 25 county m a p s as par( of promotiona l bookl e t s Hami lt o n D i s ston, his b r o th e r h ad issued, not onl y e>:toUi n g the vinues o f h i s l ands but givi n g legal descript i o n s of the m He gave the maps to thi s w r i t er, w h o t h em catcfvlly i n the bollo 1 n of a chest rese rved ;or h is mos t prized b u lk.,, F l o r i d i a n a i (ems. Along carne the (ather gentle h urri cane o f 1935 T h i s w r i te f h ad r ece ntly moved i nto a house i n 'he J ungl e harf the chest i n th e garage. H e went to the Gulf Beacht!s t o th oroug hly e njoy t h e hurricane, even l u,111y discovered that the garage s at on t he lowest pa r t of h i s hous e lot .. tha t f o r some three o r four days th e ches 1 had be e n s itting i n six or e i ght i n ches of wa ter, that t h e precious 2 5 bookl ets wer e a hope less sodden mass of pul p a n d green i nk. But th a l s t he way life is. The rel e a s e of the Fede ral l ien on the I. I Board made i t s la nds salab l e and more to the point, availab l e for ta i l r oJd promoti o n . a n d th e State prompt l y l au nched i tself upon a wild r ai l r oa d

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promot i o n and building era which igni ted i n turn o n e of the State s g r eatest l a n d b ooms a n d it is fascinat i n g to know tha t f o r th e past 200 year s F lorida has had a land boom, roug hly a b o u t eve r y 20 year s T h is one was a l u l u and St. P e tersb u r g beca me o n e of its hottest spots. O d d l y the Disston boom, w h i c h ran f rom t881 t o the nationa l pan i c of 1894, an d the last boom w h ich e nd e d i n N ove m ber, 195 9 wP.rP. p o w ere d by t h e s a me impul se; the Disston b oom a hun g N for land; t h e 1 946 -1959 boom, a des i r e for a home i n t h e s un by the h u ndreds of thousands of Amer i c ans fin d i n g t hemse lves ''dth fina nci a l freedom in their sunset years. I n both t her e developed m uch absen t e e and specu la tive bu)'ing, bu t in each the greater po r t i on of buy ing was by people who hung er e d for l and on whi c h t o estab lish h omes a n d far m s a n d f in.d security. These two co ntra s t ed sharply with the 192 5 boom, whi c h wa s a huge gamb l i n g f renz y w ith lots as chips, w h ich will be treated in its prop er p lace B u t neither Oisst o n n o r Bloxharn gave up on thei r first contract, the g iga)tic and da r i ng d raina ge one fi r s t made. P ay in g off the j u dg ment w i t h money from the secon d Disston deal m ade o perat ion o n ( h e f irst one possible and Dissto n went f ull steam ahead o n it, full s t eam l i te rall y H e set ou t t o d r ai n t h e Kissimmee Valley and lak e Okeec h o b ee and the Everglades. So confident was he tha t he could do i t, w i t h in c r ed ibl e da r i ng he set up in K i ssimmee, a l and locked cow town works to b u ild st eamboat b oi lers and engi nes an d o t her s to bui l d th e s t eamboats, at the same t i me two d redges star t ed i n l ake O k eecho be e to dredge a 40-loot canal from th e lak e to Kissimmee! And, by gosh, he d i d i t! By 18 8 3 h e ha d lour steamboats on 3 6 hou r runn i ng lime s c hedu l e f r om Fort Mye r s to Kissi mmee, a n d i n general they ran on sched u le, wher e two year s p r ior the r e wer e on l y s w amps .. a n d d isconn ected lakes a n d a nkle dee p streams. By 1885 h e started p r oduction o f sugar even tually bui l t two s ugar refineries, on e o n lak e O k eec h o bee a n d one at Kissi mmee and by 1887 a t K issi mmee from 1 00 acres of sugar cane he produ ced 5, 000 pounds o f white gra n u l a t e d sugar p er acre, the h ighest p r oduc tion per acre at t h at t ime recorde d i n the Uni ted States. He ev en tu ally b u ilt up produ ct i o n to 2 0 000 acres of s ugar cane wi th S,()(X) acres of rice on the s i de. K e y f.>Ctors i n this f ab u lous success story were three brothers n amed Menge, Joseph,) F red an d Con n i e The first two named ha d i nvented a d r edge I t had steel buc kets o n a slow l y revo l ving steel c hai n belt tha t scoo p ed u p the d irt or m u d or mu c k d ropped it in a hopper and fro m the hopper a s tream of w a t er c arri e d i t to a s po i l bank o n t he shore The i n vent i on for a t i me r evo l utioni z ed d r e dg ing. The th ird Meng e brot her, Con n ie, operated one of the D i s s ton steamers. This writ er had the good f ort u ne t o meet Captain Con n i e i n the summer o f 1921. Two other gay yo u ng bla des, Max H u n ter and Gidge Ga n dy, now a sedate g ran dfa the r, esi d i ng at 2700 7 7 D r i ftwood Roa d near t he o l d horne of J oh n B e th ell a n d a ;on o f "Pop'' Gandy builder of t h e G andy B r idge, an d the w r iter, el ected t o sai l the C hico, a 40 foote r bel o ngin g to the Gandys arou n d th e S t at e of Flo r ida. And an interesting voyage i t was end ing the the n v i llage o f Fort lauderdale Retrac i n g ou r s teps seemed a bor i n g i dea, so '"-'e elected to attempt to sai l a 40 loot sail boat t hr oug h 1 00 foot canals to Fort Mye r s a f e at mayhap n ever accomp lished by o thers bef ore or s i nce. Aft e r sundry adv entu res, some bizarre, some b l i stersorne l i k e p a dd li ng a 40 loot b o at fo r two d ays w ith a pair o f 6 f o ot oars; t h e voyagers, t h rea t ene d with the sinki n g of the s un, came t o an old D isston lock b etwee n Okeechobee a n d t h e C a l oosa ha tche e One or the l oc k gates was a jar. Ther e was n o a ttend .mt. The ga t e woul d not cfose. It was d eci d e d to def e r u n t i l the morrow the som ew ha t r isky ch o r e o f expl or ing by d ivi ng t h er e wa s no s uch t h i n g as scu ba gear i n those d ay s t o find the t rouble l olling o n d eck i n the sof t nigh t -the re w ere no m osquitoes after a h eany meal the qt. i e t d.ukncss was p un c tua ted with a n o d d soft noise t hat grad ually g rew l ouder until i t v.ras s l i gh tly Jl'lEmacing. Th e noise had a two tone beat sep arated with a suspensefu l s i l enc e first t h ere was a drawn o u t n o ise l i ke the low c ough o f a pa n t her. T hey d o cough. T hen t he long sil ence. T h e n a s h o rt, s har p ba r k lik e t hi s P a n ther c ough S i I e n c e Bark It was from t h e l ake The n li ghts. T hen a w ei rd cra f t sli d u p a longside t h e p i e r w e w ere moored to. It secu re d a nd the n oise stopped Alte r a decent time we called long i nto the n ight t h i s w r i te r sar on d ec k 1 a lki ng to Con n i e 1\o1enge, the C apta in. His craft was a stem w h eeler! One o f t h e four original D isslon r iver steame r s 6 u t l e t Con nic tell the stor y 'You know, th ings wer e going fine T his was i n 1 8 9 4 Then Mr. Hamilton sudden ly d i e d and e v er ything s t opped. I kn ew money ha d bee n tig ht; neit h e r I nor the c rew had bee n paid for severa l months. So I j u st t ied h er u p at t h e sugar m i ll o n Lake Okeechobee. After sev er a l d ays Mrs. o\olary Disst on came. I t alked w i t h her a n d told her I h.>dn't be en pa i d an d what shou l d I do? So she s ai d : 'Hell, Capt ai n, th e r e i s n't any m ore money Nobody knows i f there will be any. W h y don't you j ust take the boat and take off?" "So I d id. And I b een freig h ting ever since. T w en ty seven year s The b o a t had a load of ience posts desti ne d for a rancher Early nex t morni ng th i s v.-ri t e r dove down fo u nd a small cabbage pa lmetto tree w e d ge d in the g.He h inge, got i t o ut. T h e lock was closed and the Chico and Captain Con n ie Menge moved i n ; the gates were closed a n d we opened t h e lower gates an d l et the wate r d r ai n o u t and p ulled out i nto the C a loosaha tc h e e Rive r And a wa y wen t Cap t a i n Conn i e P a n t h er cou gh s i I e n c e -bark and a ll, and soo n sai led i nto h i story w hen H enr y For d d i scove red h i m

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boug h t the boat, moved i t and Captai n Con n ie to h i s Lake in Dea rborn Par k in Detroit where th e boat was alternate l y e x h i b ited and u sed for gentle excu r sions ar o und the la k e u n ti l the good Captain passed to his r eward H i s widow? a round eve n h u ndred, lives sound of mind and fu ll of gra n d stories in h er own home i n Fort Myers? where this writer has vis i ted her. Her proud and fi n e gr andson Walter Purs l ey, an d f amily r eside in St. Petersbu r g at 1038 4 1st A ve nue N orth Captai n Men ge, a steamb o a t p ioneer in the K i ssimme e valley, his grandson a g rass so d pioneer in modern Pinellas The f r ee enterprise s y s t em and spirit still works! I n 1883 one of the Kiss i mmee River s t eamers not Co n n i e Men ge's grand ly conveye d Pre s i den t C harl e s A. A rthu r (rom For t Myers t o Kissi mmee w here he was g r e eted b y D i sston and most of th e proud an d g rea t o f Florida's government and economy. Disston saw, d r eame d and da red i n flori da w ell before He nr y B Plan t an d Henr y Flagl er T he l atter two w ent on t o enduri ng fam e an d fortune Th e y bac k e d the Iro n H o rse. Hamilton was bemused by t h e rh ythm and b e at of t h e s t e rn whee l er and the side wheeler, sank i nto de f eat and obsc u r ity. Noth i ng has ever been i n print as f a r as t h is wri te r has ever seen as to t h e cause of Hamilton D i sston s death. Jacob D i sston his b ro t her, told this wri t er, that when the panic of 1894 d ried up the nat i o n 's currency an d c aught Ham ilton off ba l ance and th e ban kers t urned h i m away, he u nable to f ac e t h e agony of fai l ure, went home, (a n water i nto a bath tub, sat down i n i t b lew h i s b r a i ns out. T h e fam i l y st r aig h t laced Methodis t s shoc k ed and s h amed d r ew a v e i l of s i l ence across t h e whole sad afiair To back track a b it, after the payi ng off of t h e lien against the I. I Board, Disston and h i s drai n a ge com pany went ah ead f ull t ilt w i t h t hei r work, as has been tol d briefly. Came fatefu l 1694. Wh en it d i d Hamilton in but good the Trustees of the I I. Boar d generously declare d that t he H ami It on Diss t on d rai nage ente r p r ise had fu l f i lled i t s cont r a c t s i g n ed J a n ua ry 31, 188 1, and conve y e d t o t h e compa ny a creage cons i d erab l y i n e x cess of two million acres, a n area abou t t w elve times bigger than all of Pinellas Cou nty! But the d eed came too l ate t o save t he Disston e n t e r p r ises. But meanwhil e the s pecta cula r D i sston deals had p u t the I. I Boar d back in bus iness. T h ey cou l d agai n e n c o urage the construction of rai lroad s And en cou rage t hem they d i d, w ith resu lts t h at stagger the imag i na t ion. In all S64 r ai l r oads wer e c hart ered or i ncorporate d T hey all d e p ende d i n whole or i n par t on la n d gifts from the State O f t h e 56 4 exactly 2S1 were actually built Of those bu ilt survi v ed, and when a count was made i n 1939 by a W.P.A. researc h p rojec t {Work s Prog ress Admi n i s tration, t h e F eder al governme n t 's first emerge ncy work re l i ef p rogram u n d e r h anklin D Roosevelt i n th e d ire depressi o n of the n i n eteen th ir 78 t ies ) t h e 54 h ad bee n melded into the fo u r great railroad systems that now operat e in Flo ri da. This W( iter r ecent l y h ad t he p r i vilege, i n th e ar ch ives r oom o f the new shin in g A.C.L Head q u arters B uil d i ng i n Jac k sonville, t o thu mb throu gh the s till compl etely prese rv ed and i ndexed c h ar t ers an d i n corpora ti o n papers and r ig h t of way dee ds and constru e t i o n con tract papers, a n d so o n down to the last deta i l an d rai l spike of rai l r oad constr u c tion of ap p r o x i mately ha l f of those origina l 154 Flor i da pioneer railroa d adve n tures, t h e present A C.L System. (Since merged with the SAL i nto one; the Seabo a r d C oast L i ne!) T hree of these rai l road enterprises h ad a bea ri n g o n t h e St. Pet er s burg Story. The p r inci pa l one o f course, is th e Peter A. De mens r oad n o w part o f t he A.C.L, and t hei r sto r y will b e told i n the next Chap ter. A con s i derable portion of this phase o f St. Petersb u r g histo r y i s mad e v i sible by t h e St. P ete rsbu rg N i stor ical S ociety in i ts pion eer r ailr o ad s t a tion at its Museum complex i n the 3500 block on Second Aven u e Sou th. But t o retu rn to th e D i sston land sto r y as it appl ies to the ex t ensive l a nds h e acq uire d i n St. Peters b u r g and P i ne lla s County In h i s 1883 deed Disst on go t 2 6 112.5 0 acres of the 34,%5.53 acres now cons ti!Uting St. P etersb u r g Besides tha t h e got pract i cally all that i s now Gulfpo
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Dl&&TON PURCHASE 4!1 ; h FLORIDA m / .I ./,. .. : I H.amllton Oltston the Empire b'\lildt>r .and f .araest owner of Rotid l<11nd. H.amtlton Oiu:ron"s tiJ,f'l.aturc-., hown on bove document h.u neve-r i n print .u l.ar .111 It Is known. I -1\uotu nil Jllrn by thr s t That the Ft.OIIlo. .voo lU'm" II (II;;-....... lhc: b.s cf IJw: .. t'bib.. ia cl lllc t.um o( ( .' - _.....,____::: c-..-n:tciJK " l:nMI' 1<.' lv.l.ld. ll. by _ --' ---<'/; } ,_ ../. f.-J .'. { f<, I gn.nt. ;/' ',1./l( ( I -r{r --lai'J.:nrn. :.ell M(l OOIW\:f unl" /. bcirn 1111J !' ,. I / .... IJ.-it,(d ... """" in .... SQue d '"""",., I 1 l I_ { :.._ .. I I , fltU.It 11110 IO )ioiO: o.ml<> tllo: !ll;,t --' lwt"J nnd :h::ign:o tiM: :ui d ((,r f o"d il .. ;n ;nl : llilol, <'o ) \'c o u n:,; l ll v i wil h t lu : :1:oiJ , lw-lr s lft.' t il l:.wf'.llt} in r.,.. (I( th<; prulll:<"!: llut lll.:r a;o: fro: 1 :rrul d1'.lt t;J 3JI i.'\('11mb r th:u it 1'3.'1 d :.-11 tin"ey J,.M< '" :!rid th:t tf' .... title ,., -.1 lh! W.l J!Rmh.'fo. it, t6 ,__ __llrjN Uol 3IJ bd.Df tbi:Nn.(. ,. riaiM C... o--, or -.r 141t WI *""'C':' U G"n"l ,. .. & Ate" rtr. QU ..t t:W ,.'\ Jl, florida Land and Improvement Company, 79

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territ o r y were A. W Ormond a nd his daughter. Mary of North CArolina w h o h a d established a home on the Anclo!e R iver in 1875. In the year following. Jos h ua B oyer, along rh e coast, went up the river, met the Orm onds an d soon afterward the d au gh ter T h e land s u rround i ng th e spri ngs and bor d e rin g th e bayous was cover e d with a d en se oa k and palm thic ket d own t o th e wa t e r's e d g e a n d abounded i n game. The s p r i ngs and were filled w i t h fis h O n e day while taki ng s o m e lri<:n d s a l ong the wa1er, w h ere fish were l eaping,. Mrs. B o y e r exclaimed: "Sec th e t arp o n s pring!" H e r remark i s said to have given t h e p la c e its name and i t was kn own thereafter as Tarpon Springs. Oiss ton first visit ed Tarpon Springs in December .. 1882 He came w i th a party ol friends, ma k i n g th e t ri p from Cedar Keys b y steam e r T h e party slayed se veral week s at t he home of the Boyers a n d D i ss ton became s o e nthu sed over the reg ion that h e d eci ded to found a O w n th e r e. A first he thought h e woul d lay out the town s h e at Lake B u t ler b u t s i nce al l tr a nsp or tat ion was by w a ter at t h a t time. the bayo u s ite finally was s e l ecte d A new compa n y call e d th e Lake Butler Villa Co. was inco rpo r ated by D iss t o n t o h a ndle details an d make lan d sales. The town ofTarpon S prings was laid out in 1883 by Ma jor W J Mar ks, a n Orlando a tt orney represen ti ng th e Disston inte rest s, an d Cap t Joh n W. W a l ton, a Disston :su rvey o r All op eratio n s were directed by An son P K Staf ford, exgove r nor o f t h e t erritory of A rizo na who h ad become ass o c iat ed with th e Disston i nt e r es ts The T rop i c a l Hote l wa s built in 1883 and, during th e followi n g year th e Tarp o n S p r i ngs Hote l a large, threcsto r y building wa s com p l e t e d All lu m ber for th e second hote l was c ut a t Atlant ic Ci t y N l ., whe r e D i sston h ad sawmill i nt e rests. h was shipped to the mout h of t h e Anclote River, unloaded at a pier which had been buil t into the gull, and barged up the river to Tarpon S p rings. Soon alter the hotel was f inished a h a c k line w as est a blished to Tam pa Winter vis itors. ma n y o f t hem frie nds ot Oissto n or h i s associates. b e gan t o arrive and s t ar ted b uilding fin e homes a round the sp rings. The I n f a nt t o w n bega n to grow. O n e of th e early a r r ival s was Jacob Dissto n a broth e r o f Ham i l ton. He had com e t o F l o rida upon th e a d v i ce o f his physician and visited Tarpon Springs t o satisfy his brother who wan t ed t o s h o w off the town he h a d fou nded J acob had just finis h ed re a din g an article, The Frostless P inell a s," written by Dr W C. Van Bibber, ol Baltimo re, Md., and h e e xpected to lind Tarpon Sprin g s a tropical f a iryland A f ew weeks a f ter J acob arri ve d on the pen i n su l a a hc.vy frost OC curre d which c aused g reat damag e H e began to h a ve grav e d o ubts about the fit n ess o f th o tit l e F rostless Pin ellas" but he rema i n ed regardl ess a nd soon liked th e p e n i n s u l a so w ell tha t h e took a mos t active pa r t in it s d e v e lopment. BO D isston City Is Founded Hamilton Disston was proud ol Tarpon Springs but his m ain interest turned 10 t own h e olt tempt ed t o found O i ssto n City at the p r ese n t s i t e of Gu l fpo rt. H e had th e highest expec tati o n s lor this t o w n whic h was to bear the Disst o n n ame a n d he en d ea v o r e d i n e v ery way pos s i bl e t o make it boom. Tw o men who were not associat e d originall y i n an y w a y w it h the D i s ston e n terprises had a h a n d in t h e prom otio n ol Disston C ity One wa s Jos eph R T or res, a S pania r d who hold been w ith Maximilian i n Mexico a n d la t e r had been act ive in the carpetbag regime in New O rl eans The o t her man was Willia m B Miranda, a nephew oi Abel Miranda "Bill" Mir anda. a s he was known .. was a m a n of achi evements he h a d been a steamship capt a in. a surveyor. a business a nd had h ad legal training. H e w"s also a clever promo t e r Bo th T o r res and Mir anda c am e t o the po i n t in 1676. M i randa bought la nd and built a horne on what i s now Lakeview Ave nue. T o r res bought impr o v e m e n ts w h ich h ad been m a d e by Capt Jame s Barne tt one of t h e earliest scnlers, o n B oca Ci ega Bay. H e a l so bou g ht 169 a c r es from the sta te. Miranda m et Dissto n f o r 1hc firs t t ime i n the f a ll of 1883 whi le the Iauer was inspecting his large holding s on the lower peninsu la Mira nda knew tha t the fin an cier had been responsib l e for the rounding of Tarpon Spr i ngs so he as ked D issto n why he didn' t sta rt anolher t own on the lowe r pa r t of the pen insula wher e, he s.aid, the possibilitie s f o r deve l o pment were far g r ea t e r than i n t he T arp o n Sp rings are a 1\n ex ce ll e nt pla c e for such a town, Miranda s a i d was in the vi c inity o l th e property which T o rr es h a d gott e n from C aptain Barnett. T h e T o rr es tra c t was almo s t s urr o unded by lan d w hich Oiss t o n owned and the Philadelphian s aw t h a t a sale ol town lots, from Torres' plo t coul d easily be linked with s ales of farm tracts from his property. So he said he would give the proposed town his full b a c k i ng. He appointed Mir a nda 10 serve as his ag e nt. And to pro m o t e t h e d r eam t own he f o r med the Disston Cit y Land Co., with h i msc l l as p r es id e nt. The compan y w as incorpor ated Augu st 21, 1884, with a capital s tock of $100,000. A number ol O i ssto n s a S$OC iates were l i ste d as directors. T h e p l at or Disston City wa s flie d dur i ng th e same summe r And a gra n d iose plat i t w as It took i n eve r y thi n g on the lower p e nin $ula except p r operry own ed b y W illiams on Tampa Bay and a small section a t Big Bayo u A ltoge ther i t i ncl uded more tha n 12, 000 acres Along the e ntire waterfront there was a grand boulevard, on paper a n d a ll S-treets and .1venues w ere a hundred feet wid e, o n paper The city w a s large en o ug h, on paper to take c a re of at l e ast 50, 000 people. N o t e v e ryth i ng was on paper. Dlssto n financed th e c<>n s tru et ion ol a 26-room h o t e l b uilt in th e shape of an L, o ver look i n g t h e bay. Lumb e r for t he h o t el, nam ed th o Waldorf was brought by sc h ooner from

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Apalach i cola. It was c o mpleted la te in the fall and for mally opened on C hristmas eve 1884. D i sston and a number of h i s ass ociate s atten d e d t h e open ing. A young Englishma n named Willi am A Wood be came the f i r st manag er of t he hotel. In add i t i on to the h o t el, a whar f was bu il t a l a rge warehous e, a number of homes a n d th ree s to r e bu il d ings. The great-ci t y-to-be was w idel y advert ised i n nor t h ern newspapers an d an ex tens i ve advertising campa ig n was conducted in E n g land l arge l i t hograp h maps were prepared s howin g w h e r e an i mmense har b o r a n d a large b u s iness sectio n were t o b e Pam phlets were prin ted b y the thous ands. T he y la uded Disston City to the skies and told, i n g i O \ \' i n g terms, ho w wonderfu l it was to li ve on s un kissed Pi n ellas Pen insula wher e the cl i mate was so wann, a n d the soi l so ferti le, that two boun t i ful crops cou l d be grown a ye ar. Anyo ne cou l d ma k e a fin e living there on j ust a few acres of land Plenty of fish an d garne P alm trees a nd ora nges! Peop l e on Pi n ellas P en i nsul a tr u ly l i ve a n idyllic e xist ence! So raved t h e pamph l e t s Scores of sales o f fiv e and te n acre far m trac t s w e r e m ade f r om th e Diss ton C i t y a dvert i sements, paid ior by t h e Disston Ci t y L a n d Co Ma n y of the l and b uyers bou ght as an in v estme n t an d never came t o the p enins u l a But doze n s of o thers did. D u r i n g 1885 Dis s t on C ity really boomed As a res u l t o f th e adver tisin g i n E ngla n d a score or more of E1,glish c o l onists arr i ve d i n cludin g \V. j Godden, Arthu r V\ 'atson, Percy l a wrence, Robe r t E r r i n g t on the R e v WaH and sons Joseph, J oh n and Davi d ; th e Harrison fam il y A rth-.,r a n d U r ban Norwood, R o b er t Stanton, H u gh Richa rd son th e Wat s on fam i ly, R L lock e William Wall s a n d james M c Ma han. I n a d d ition to t h e Eng l i shmen ther e were m any Amer icans, f r o m all par t s oi the N o rth a n d the Southwest. Man y of t he ne w arriva l s settled i n Disston City Others l i k ed other p arts o f the l ower pen i nsul a better and sett led elsewhe r e To make i t easi e r f o r th e colon i s t s t o get to t h e la n d of th eir dream s D isst o n made arrange m e nts t o h av e the s t eame r "Mary Dissto n owned by one of h i s compan ies, stop regularly at Dis s t on City. Th e steam er drew seve n fee t of wat e r and ma n y t imes i t h ad dif ficulty ge tt i n g u p t o the D i sston C i ty wha r f It often w en t agr ound on s hoals and had t o be p u lled o ff. By the f all oi 1885 i t looked as though Disston City m i gh t become a s u r e-e nough c i t y T he hote l wa s a l most always fill ed to capacity and thr ee s tore s w ere ope n joseph R Torres had a genera l store, spe c i a li z ing in grocer ies; H. E. Bau meis t er sol d dry goods an d h ardwa r e and R. L L o c k e ha d a combine d gr ocery and mea t m ark e t T h e f i rst school on th e lower pen insu l a was opene d w i t h A tthu r Norwood as t eacher In t he spr i n g of 1866 William). M c P hers on brou gh t in a s ma ll j o b p ress and s t ar ted p u b l ic a tion of th e f irst newspaper eve r publi s hed on th e P oin. t c alled the "Sea Breeze M c P h e rson was assisted by a v ete ran n e ws pape rman, G. W. B ennett, and togeth e r th e y 81 p roduced a newsy p aper. Bennett c u t the mast head for t h e p aper out o f a p i ece of black mangrove Following are some exce r pts f r om a copy of the Sea B r eez e dated jul y 1 1 886: "F ine wate rmelons are bei n g brou g h t t o t own by ou r f a r m e r s and are being sol d cheap" ... '\Ne have ha d i i ne show e r s la te ly and p e o ple a r e bu s y setting out s weet potato v i nes" ... "The Norwood brothers ha ve moved to t he i r p lace n o rt h of town w h ere they will make th e w i lderness blossom l ik e a rose. . "Mrs. J ames Barnett has so me gra p e v ines t hat ar e full o f grapes of a super ior qua l i t y." ... T h e schooner Del ia. Capt. ) Low, ha s been at anchor h er e several days and E B McP herson has charte r e d h er t o go to Apa l achico l a for a cargo of lu mbe r." ... "T. A. W h i t ted, a fo r m er D isston C i ty resi den c now of Palma S o l a has bee n v isi ti ng f r iend s on t he Poi n t an d will spe n d t h e Fourt h here ... The Ada Norman, C apt. A rthur, John s Pass touched a t the w h arf Monda y nig ht, en rou te t o T ampa w i t h a s h i pment of poultry f rom L ongley s chicke n yar ds a t the Pass." . "Our l eve l h eaded citizen Farmer Mills l oo k s con t e nted as h e d r ives i n from his n e w home nort h of town with lo ad a ft er load of fancy wa t er me l on s h en f ruit and oth er savory p l under from his r anch." An editor i a l i n the Sea B reeze l auded Poi n t l'in ella s "where alteady the r e are s p r ing ing up l ittl e ham lets fr o m Johns Pass t o Co ffee Pot, eac h w i th its own peculia r adva n tages. Under a h eading D i sston Need s" Editor McPher so n list e d th e ne eds as a good bathhouse, a regular fish and meat market, a smit h and r e pa i r s h op, a drug s t o re, st r e et s c l e a n ed u p an d tree s pla n te d bett er trans porta tion, more ; req u e n t ma i l s more intere s t i n Sun day School, and more ha r mon y among ou r ci ti zens. An effo rt w a s made to ge t a po s t office for D isston C i ty i n 1884. As t here was a nother post o ffice in Florida c alled "Diston, north of Tampa the post o f fi ce f rowned upon "Disston Ci ty a n d the nam e ''Bon ifaci o was c ho sen as a s u bstitute. S ome p eople say th a t Bo n i fac i o was W illiam B M i randa's m iddle name a nd t ha t h e c hose i t to per petu ate h i s con n ec tion with the city. I n 1890 t he D i ston o ffi ce was aban d oned and Oisston Cit y was perm itted to take i t s own na m e i n ma i l ma tters. Disston City Served a Purpose But by that time the d ec line of D iss t o n City had s et i n T h e Orang e Belt Railway passed it by and th e dreams of t h e p rom o ters were shattered D i sston City b r e > thed a f e w last gasps and t h en expired T he de serted wharf r otted away a n d the Waldor f Hotel was abandoned It w a s was he d off its foundat i ons d urin g a heavy gal e on May 3, 190 1, and bad l y wrec ked. T h e lumber was sal vaged by f a r mers w h o l ived i n t h at l oca l i ty and car ted away O isston C i ty passed out of exi st ence and all traces of i t d isappe ar ed But i t woul d b e a mis t ake to brand Disston C i ty as a municipa l d ud. It serv ed a p u r pose a very good p u rpose As a r e s u lt of the a ctivity at C i ty sco res of enterp rising s ett l ers were at

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tractcd t o the lower peninsulamen who later p l ayed prominent parts i n the development of St. Peter sburg In cluded among the n e wcomers were men like H VV. Gilbilrl, Art h ur Norwood, George L. King. T A. Whit ted, Z ephaniah Phillips Hugh R. Richard son, E B McPher$on and h is sons, and many others. The impor tance of this influx of "new blood" an hardly be over -emphasized. It proved invaluable in Sl. Petersdays Th e development w o rk in Disston City and surround ing territory, paid fo r by th e Disston C i1y Land Co brought con s i derab l e "cash money" to the lower penins ula and the jobs provided aided mate r ially I n helping many of the o lder seu lers get on th eir f ee t fi n an c ially T h e wages wer e n o t high but t h ey w ere pai d in cash and n o t i n f ar m produc ts, a s had o f t en been the c ust o m i n the past. lobs p r o vid ed by the deve l opment pro j ects also helped so me o f t h e new settlers i n gett i n g established For i n stance, t a k e the case of H W Gilbart. He l eft England on November 5 1883 but it was not until more than a year later that he ar rived on Pinellas Peninsula, where h" had planned to go The delay wa s caused by the theft in Philadelphia of live of his trunks containang practically all of h is money. ap proximately a lhousand pounds He worked for a year in a Philadelphia hotel to get enoug h money t o pay for his trip t o Florida He finally arri ved i n Disston City w it h only a few ce nts in hi s pockets Gilbart got his first job from William B. Miranda, ag e nt for th e Oissto n i nrercsts. He was pa i d f ifty cents a day f o r t e n h ours work Small as t h e wage s Gilbart manased to save a l illie and after a t i m e h e purchased ten acre s oi l and from t h e D i sston s f o r $50 m o s t l y o n cre d it. A fr iend, W 1. Godde n with whom Gilbart l iv e d i n "bachel or quart e r s," a lso bought five acres On th i s land the two men r aised almost all th e food th ey needed. E arly i n the '90s, the two men made an arrangement with Hamilton Disston whereby they were to be g i ven forty acres of land for digging what later was known as the Green R i dge ditch, leadi ng to Salr Creek They completed the job and selected forty acres ad1orni ng the land they already owned. The land they received comprised practically all the land which had been drained and when O i s sron later came to view the drainage projecl, an d saw that he had given away practically all the land he had reclaimed, he considered it a great joke on himself. During the years whic h followed, Cil bart developed on e of the fine s t cilrus g r o ve s o n 1he pen i n s u la and becam e o n e of St. P e t ersburg's l ead i ng ci t i zens. Anoth e r m an w h o got h i s stan in Oisston City was A rthur Norwood, who a l so ha d c ome f r om Engl an d The home in w h i c h he Jived b umed down a s h o r 1 tim e after hi s arrival and all the possession s h e had, except the clothes h e was wcar i ng, were des tr oyed Des pite this misfortune Norwood kep t pluggi n g along, work ing for the Disstons until he got enough money to buy new clothes. He then was app ointed teacher of the Disston City school, becoming the first 82 paid r eac h er on th e lower peninsul a During the first two terms he received S25 a month and during the third ye ar, S30 a month, a munificent sum i n those days. In addition to his teach ing. he whitewashed the school building. dug a well, and built desks and b lack boards In the spring of 1889 he bought out the stoc k of a small store in D isston City and moved i t to St. Petersburg where he finally became one of the city's leading merchants. As a result of the building a ctivi t y at Oisston City, th e lower peninsu l a got its fi rst Silwmill bro ught here dur i ng the s pring o f 1884 by George L King, of On l ario, Canada K i n g set up the mill 01 Mule Branch, about a m i l e southeast of Oisst o n City, but la ter mo v e d i t nea r New Ca diz. During t h e n ext r ou r years h e supplied most of the l u mber used a t Dlssto n Cit y and Pinellas. In th e spr i ng o f 1 888, j u s t before the r ailroad e ntered St. Petersbu rg, K i n g mov e d th e mill t o Booker Cree k close t o what i s now Tw elfth S treet. Besides attracting n e w sett lers, Oisst o n Cit y a lso served t o breathe new life i n t o the enti r e lower penin sula, and gave it new hope and vgor While 1he Oisston City boom was on. the community ol Pinellas also forged ahead Thomas Sterling. of Connecticut, built a 12-room hotel and also constructed seven cOl tages which he rented The hotel and conges attract ed excursionists lrom T ampa Pinellas became a lively little place Several new stores were opened as w ell as a community meeting plac e and a sch ool. In rhe Sterli ng Hote l the f irst enrcrtain r nent hel d o n lhe lower pen i nsu Ia was given on December 29, 1886, to rais e fu n d s for building St. Barth o lom e w's C hurch on lakeview Av enue. Two play l e t s were staged'Tum H i m Out a n d "Ol d l'hi l' s B lrrhclay. T h e actors were m embers of t h e Engli s h cul o n y whic h had settled at D i sston C i t y Many of t h e settlers w ere S < :andalized t hat a t he at r ica l e n ter t.Jinment s hould be he l d t o benefi t a chu r ch. But the y all c rowd e d to see it So many atte n ded that a repeat p er formance had to be h e l d th e following night The actors w ere: H Bec k J. M. G W att 1 P G. Watt D A. Watt, P J Lawrence Mss Wau and Miss The platting of DiSSion City also probably led to the platting of another "!own" on the Point -New Cadi z loated on Boca Ciega Bay between Clam Bayou and Maximo Po in t This town, which never e x isted except o n paper, wa s platted by J oseph and Bcneventura Pui g who had come t o th e l o w e r pen i n sul a i n 187 4 from New Orlean s and had purchased 120 a cres ftom the state for 80 cent s an acre T h e town n e ver materialized bu t i t did get a post office, established late i n 1885 Josep h l'u ig was t h e first pos t master. T h e pos t office wa s c l osed i n 1090 and N e w Ca di z cease d to exi s t even i n mai l matters. V i ewed in re11ospect Disston City und ou bt e d l y was mos t importa n t because i r served t o focu s the at t cn ti o n of Hamilton Dissto n and his bror h er Jacob on the n eeds o f the lower penin s ula. B o th m e n visited Disston Cit y often and they soon began t o realize that whar the Point needed most w.1s a r.1ilroad 10 connect ir with the outside world. Without a railroad, they

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agreed. Oisston City and the Poin t didn' t have a chance to prosper, with a railroad, the pot entiafiries of the sectio n would be tremendous. With t hat fact in mind, the O i<>tons i mmediately took s teps to h elp bring a railroad in And the hel p th e y gave was invaluabl e. Had they not lent a hand, th e Orange B elt R a ilw ay undoubtedl y n eve r would h ave been extended to Pinellas Penin su la and the St. Petersburg of today might still b e a spar
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C hapter XIII THE HARDY PIONEERS There were two groups of settlers who into Sr. Perersburg following lhe Civil W a r and prior ro in corporation of the town The first drifted In individually al i n fr equen t inr ervals; the second we r e a wave of buye r s, som e present i n perso n, some abser'tee1 i n response t o lhe vigorou s and s t a te wid e selling program of H amilton Olsslon T h e aclua l sen iors deserve pri mary (Onsideration. Perhaps the most i nteresting "'''ere th e f our Ncelds; Allred, William P ., R E and Mille<, from Selma, Alabama. They were hard working and !heir worthy descendants are still here, active if not prom ine nt in rhe C ity. They came i n 1873 (Beth ell says 1871 bul Is c l ear l y In e rror as !h ei r la n d deeds arc dar ed 1873) Allwd's l and wa s l oca red i n rhc C rescen t L a k e area on North Fourt h Street. William bought a t the Southwest corner of 9lh Slreer and Tangerine This was natural for several re ason!>. Most convenient access 10 Tampa. the economic and subsistence lifeline of the community, wa s by boar from B ig Bayou In facr, unrilrhc railroad cme, almos.t all sett l ement was oo o r near conven i enr spot s for la nding or anc h oring boats, the main means of comm u n ication. A bad second wa s horseba c k a sore and woefu l t h i r d, "sh anks mare." H ence, Bill Neel d and most of I h e ear l y o nes fanned out from Big Bayou or Clam Bayou II was nol far from either l and ing poinr ro high, narurally well drained land Prior to rails therefore, Tangerine and lakeview and Maximo Road (31st Slreet Southl were rhe main roads When th e stree t car came i t narurally and w isely laid its first tra c k s where the t >eop l e were, f r om waterfront in St. Petersburg ro Bay side i n Gulfport. William i mmediat el y srarl e d far ming. Joh n Bethell t ells i r well. In this same year came a lso William P. Neeld. more familiarly known through this part of Florida as Bill Neel d.' He bought forty acres, cleared, fenced and planted oul the grove on Tangenne Avenue now owned by M r B la ckstone with sweet seedling 84 oranges grapefruit, mangos avoudo pears and various other kinds of tropical fru its. I rhink I heard him say !hal afrcr he had paid for his land h e had j us l twenty-f i ve ce nrs lefr t o comm e nce l ife w ith, whi c h was s u r e l y a v ery srnall c ap ital for the g i ganlic !ask h e wa s aboul 10 Iackie. Bul Bil l was a h usrl er from wayback and when oul on the warpath small obstacles did not stand in his way. At night he taught school for Vincent Leonardy's children, gelling his board and lodging r h crcby Daytimes he would dear land, spill rai l s and such. Woul d l ake a day o r lwo off now and the n lo fish and h onr for profil; also to COill p()s t fish a nd sea'" ecd for fetliJize r for h i s young grove He also composred leaves, muck and catll e droppings; for in rhose days commercial fertil iz e r s were un known, con sequently those nO( fortunate enough to own caule had 10 resorl ro orher methods ro procure it And Bill soon learned rhe a r t and became qui t e a n expert in tho business., .1nd w hen lhc s u p l > i y ha p pened ro be n o 1 equa l lo rho dema n d, he would o ff s hoes, for shoes w e r e a n item i n those times though not as h ig h priced as n ow, but th e r e were n o cob bfers lo mend rhe holes Wirh panr> r o lled up he would take a sack and strike out for a palmello parch, where he would be seen hobbling around gathering leaves and cowchips. The s a ck lull, he would bac k it lo the grove, for he had n o horse-and rhal i s how h e made lhe p rize grove of rhe pen i n s u l a "Afler some year s of t oil and hardship, Bill began 10 reap the r ewards for his ha r d lab or. For his trees flo urish ed and bore fru i t abun danlly and proved very remunerative. "Bur rhe Pine llas Philosopher,' as he was larer called, evenrually gor wheels in his head and wanted to see the world go 'round sold

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out hi s hol dings on the Point for muc h wealt h and mov e d over to the mai n l and, where he still abi des, as he says, a t N o. 1 Easy Street, Par adise!' In 1876 R .E. Nee l d moved in from Tampa and settle<:! at Big Bayou. Later on he opened up a small grocery store, the first on the Point T his wa s a very great c onvenience to t h e few settle r s i n the section as it suppled t hei r need s for the time be i n g." B ill Neeld, ho\'\'ever, has an impo r tant claim to real fame, whi c h until thes e words ha s escaped printed notice, except Bethell's passing remark, t ha t among other th ings Neel d p lant e d mangos and "avocado 1>ears." (Most Flor i d ians at first cal led th em all igat o r pears but the singl e word .wocado ha s been sub stituted t herefo r.) Until def i n i te data to the c ontrary i s p r oduced this writer firm ly believes thai of those casual plants of Bill Neel d t here have s urvived t hr ee mango trees, the oldest l i ving in the state and perhap s on the N o r t h American conti nen t a n d that one surviving avocado i s a cor>testant fo r oldest Plin}' W Reasoner i n B ulletin No. 1 Division o f Pom ology, U.S. Department of Agriculture publ ishe d i n 1887 tells the story. "Next t o t h e finest varieties of p i ne4 apples, and perhaps also the mangostee n there is no mor e d e l i c i ous f ruit in th e wor ld t han the mango No fr uit stood h i gher i n the popu l ar esteem in pa rts of South Flor i da than the mango at the t im e w hen the disastrous freeze of January, 1886, killed to the ground every, or almost every tree nor th o f Fort Myers. The mango t ree i s a na tive of In dia and some ot her parts of Sout h Asi a It is cvl (iv ated for f r uit in north ern In d i a to an e lev at i on of 3 500 feet in the Hima layas, j u st outst idc of the tropics. The t te e was introd uced in to the hot-h o uses of Englan d i n 1690, and probab l y to the West Ind ies a few years after, as we hear of its being na tu r a l i zed there and spr eading spontaneo usly, at l east in Jamaica as early as 1790. "The mango was i n trod uced into Flor i da about the year 1840 by Dr. Perrine, who per is hed i n the massacre of Indian Key, but none of t h e pla nts introduced by him stood the vicissitudes of fire, \\1a r and neglect, and many yeats e lapsed before t h e exper i ment was again tri ed. It s later i n t ,oduct ion was to Point Pinellas, about fif teen yeats ago, where two seeds we r e planted, b u t which d i d not grow off well In 1877, however, Mr. William P. Nee l d of the same l ocality pla n ted three seeds, two o f \-.hich grew l uxur iantly, and the pa r en t trees of man y of the mangoes growing i n d i fferent parts o f the State One t ree fru ited in its four th year; from the sale of 85 f r uit and seeds $9.15 was realized T he ot her l r uited in the fift h y ear F ruit t rees so very prolific as were these two trees during t he next two years are rarely or never seen elsew her e "Anothe r g rower rece i v ed fro m t he produce of one of his bearing trees $66 i n its six.th year Many your,s t rees were set ou t and many com ing in to bearing .At other local i ties than Poir>t Pinellas considerable star t had been made T h ere were fi fteen large bearing trees and h u n dreds of smaller o ne s b etwee n the Manatee River and K ettle Harbor At fort Myers and along the Cal oosahatc hee t h er e were a number of bearing tree s and D r Kellum had a large grove set out on the Cal oosahatchee. At Orlando the re was one bearing tree and man y small ones, and other trees were oc4 casi onally seen i n d i fferent pa r t s of sourh Flori da thoug h on the keys and s h ell h am mocks of the lower coast they do o o t sue ceed as well as on the h i gh yellow sandy soi l farther north. "Then came t h e freeze of J anua ry, 1886. Every mango t ree of any s ize nort h of t h e Caloosahatchee was killed to the ground, and many of them wer e killed e nt irel y "Las t w i n t er was a lso very co l d i n some foc
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eig h t g r afted p l an t s of the t w o bo;st sorts B ombay and Ma l de. They were nearly three month s on the passage, and when the case was opened five were dead; ano t her died soon a n d the two rema i ning pla n t s w ere star ting n icely, w h en t h e freeze demoyed them entirely S i n ce then other at t empts to introduc e the b es t v a ri eties have been made, and i t is probab l e that w i t h i n the present year many of the best kinds will have been successfully transplant ed t o F l orida soil I t i s worthy of n o t e that the ffrs t ma n go fruit prob ab ly produced in Florida was o n a tree belonging to Mr. Tinny, of Clear wate.; whether this tree was planted bo;fore those at Pinellas or not we do not know. Mr. Jeffo r ds, or the s am e local i ty, had a tree that was p l ant ed a b out the same t i me. "Apricot Mango The but sort tha t h a s y e t fruited i n F l orida. S i z e m e d i um to small ; col o r, yellow ishgree n with r eel c h e ek. and f e w er bla c k spots than th e commo n mango. Flavor rich and spicy w i th the taste o f a lusci o u s a p ricot or p l um tho ugh s uperior to eit her. Th e t u r pentine 1aste enlircly w ant i ng The foliage of an old tree differs slightly in ap pearance from that of the ordinary mango. though the difference is hardly distinguisha ble w hen the plants are young f r uit npen s f rom three t o six week s late r t h a n t he common mango Th i s vari e t y was much gr own on Point Pinella s and was inlro d u ced by Mr. W i lliam P. Neeld. whose o l dest tre e wa s about seven years o l d when k ille d b y the fr eeze." But P l i n y R e a soner was w rong The Neeld mangoes did survive T h is wri te r has been c h ecking them almost yearly since the 1920s and is cert ain tha t three of the trees, one at 944 19th Avenue South and two i n the yard of C. W. R ichardson, 1040 18th Aven u e Sout h, are the o rig i na l N eeld trees. T h e case o f the avocado s i s not as con c l us iv e, al t houg h t he tree on the property of Mrs. Florence A. P e a ce, 1021 19th A ve n ue South I s certain l y a Nee l d t ree. R eason er supplies the f ollo w i ng il>forma tion: -"Th e Aguacate of th e S p anis h West In dies, the Palto o f Braz il; o ften known a s 'mids hipm an's buller.' Th i s i s a large tree o f t ropical America. known in Florida for many years The first t rees on lhe coast were planted many years ago by Mr. Joseph Robles, of Tamp.1. T hese h a d alla ined large size, and were badly i n j ured by the freeze of 1868. F rom that ti m e unt i l 188 6 n o seriou-s i n j ury from f rosl OCC1..nred to th e large trees i n T ampa, but i n 188 6 t hey w e r e kill e d to the g r o und, large and small, without e xcept i on. Even tr ees o f 30 or 35 fe e t i n height with 86 trunks a f oo t to 18 inch es in diameter, were killed bac k "On Point P inellas the first seeds were planted by C aptain Miranda, in 1866. From l hese fou r trees atta ined maturity, and were the p are nt s o f nearly all rhar were afte rwards p l ant e d on the poi nt. Th e y usually bore th e fifth yal m Nurser y, at one tim e the l arg e s t and bes t kn own tr o p i c al nursery i n the w o r l d P liny and his brother Egbert probab l y i mport e d Int o the U n i ted S t a tes m ore tropical shrubs, trees an(! f r u its than any o ther Individu a l o r i nstirut io n nor even ex cepti ng Fairchild an d the U. S D epartment of Agriculture. The Nee lds st arted the Neeld Gordon Seed and Fertilizer store many ye ars ago. still doing business at 13th Avenue and 19 t h Street North. Mr$. Ma rt h a B e aton, liv ing a t 1321 22nd A ven ue N orth is a granddaughter o f William and has many in t erest i ng early papers an d memen toes of those p io neer d ays, includ ing a h istory of the family i n Am er ica. Firs t Neelds arr i ved i n Massa chus etts f r om Eng la11d, i o the 1600s. Thi s w r iter ha s in h i s possessi o n two deeds f rom W m. P Neeld and his wiie, con veying tw o sma ll par eels from his o r i ginal fa r m One da ted May 9 1887 runs t o Evel ina G Str auss for a considcntion of $ 25. although it was probably more In conveys oddly a t riangle of land, which may accounr for the sta rting of Seminole Boulev ard, which ru n s norlhwest a n d sou t heast at abou t t he a ngle shown in the d e ed and i ntersec tin g 11th Street Sou th. T h e descr iption starte d at T ange rin e Av e nue ran sou th 378.8 feet east 1 1 5 feet th en north west 39S.8 fe e t and contained a h alf acre Th e second deed is dated January 2, 1890 to t h e

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sam e Evel i na and i s e xactly sout h of the first piece a n d c on t inues to the odd no(thwes tsoucheast bou n dary l i ne. Thi s p i ece c on t a ins .62 acres and th e consideration i s stated to be $720 (the i n k i s b l urred, it could b e t 2 0 and th e plac i n g of a$ sign i n f ron t o f a n "I" making l i k e a 7 ). A mode r n lawyer o r titl e man would be vecy tHlhappy ove r the fact that i n the firs t d eed Neeld's wife is nam ed M. E mma and in t h e second Mary E. T he f i rst deed i s w i tnessed by Flora L e ona rd y, D W. Meeker and W M. lealman R. E Nee l d and Mr. Meeker witnessed the s econd and Mr. M eeker acted as not ary on bot h o ccasi ons AU t hree witnesses w e r e memb ers o f well kno\vn pioneer families M r lealman s tart ed a settl ement and s u bd ivision w h i c h still bear s h i s n ame an d i s a heav ily popu lated co mm u n ity i m med ia tely n orthwest o f t h e c ity, call ed leal man. A ll signature s concerne d except t ha t o f Mr. l eaf man wer e of meticulous, copy book perfec tion putting t o shame the scrawl th a t char acteris t ically t hese day s pa s ses for ''wr i t ing. Th e d eed, of course h ad to be recorde d in Tampa T h e May 9, 1887 deed was r e corded May 30 and the j anu ary 2, 1890 deed o n Febr ua r y 1 2 Ma i l wa s in f requent and peop l e usually waite d u ntil bus i ness t ook them to T ampa to tra nsact c o urt house busin ess, as these two inscrumcn ( s testi (y Mrs Neel d wa s t h e daughter o f Mr. and Mrs V i n c ent leonacdy, n"igh bors who h a d sett led with t h eir ch ildren i n 1668 M r s l e o n ard y w itnessed the dee d. Two d i s ti n guished Con f ede r a te sol d i ers from North Caro l i n a c ame to St. Petersburg in '1868 a f te r trying O rlando made maj o r la n d ptrrc hases in what i s now down town St. Pet e r sburg, but sold out to John C. Willia ms, moved to upper Pinellas and from th at d ay ha ve been impo rtan t factors i n t he development of Pi,,ellas County. T hey have cen t e r ed th e ir act i v i t ies a t Bayview near the Courtney Campbell Causewa y and the ancestra l home i s there They w e r e a t first, how ever, a ctive i n fo u ndi 'S the abo rtiv e town of De Soto b etwee n the Bay a n d U.S. 19. T hey were cous i ns, James D and )ame s Sarvent Or. J a mes Sarvent who served i n t h e Confederate Army a s a doctor, boug h t 200 a cres i n 1666 lyi ng i n the shape of the lett er T T h e stem ran f rom t h e Bay b e tween Fir s r and A venues Sout h to N i n th Street the n the cap a h al f m i l e north and south from 9th to 12th Streets and f i r st to Ninth Avenues South In 1 870 h e bought 80 a cres mor e athwart N i nt h Street from First Avenue S ou th to T h i r d Avenue North. Jame s D i n 1666, bought 120 acr e s f r om Fif t h to Ninth Avenues S ou th r u n ning hom t h e Say to N inth Street. A prev i ous settler, joh n Tayloe, had cle ared a small pact of thi s la n d James D Hack n e y completed the c lear i ng, erected for that d.1y a rath er pretentious h ouse p l a n ted citrus a n d ot h er fru its a n d embarked i n a d dition on general farming. The two cousi n s owned more of the hea r t of w hat i s now the City than anybody, a n d th e Wilfiarn s plat oi St. P e t ersburg woufd have bee n imposs i ble withot.Jt thei r land Willi ams i n f act, added to a n d improved 87 the james D house as a home for h is l arge fam i l y A third Hackney R o bert B ., bou g h t 60 acres in 1873 between 4th Str eet a n d Coffee Pot Bayo v Judge William Perry bought about 1 2 0 acres in 1868, t a k ing t itle i n the of hi s wife Cath edne, part o n the w at e r fron t a n d pa r t bac k i n la n d, t hat in t er l o c ked with t h at o f the two H ack n eys, to for m a so lid body. J osia h Pai ne, adm i n i strator o f t h e estate of Randal W. Marst o n, of Georg i a h ad take n titl e i n Hl6 0 t o w h a t is no w all o f the North S hore waterfro nt. William F. Spurli n i n 1873 and '1874 bought 1 60 ac res. As has b ee n p r e vious l y related, the Ha c kn ey Perry 1\.\ar ston, Spurlin lands w ere consolidat ed by Spurlin. then take n over by Willa ims t o fill out his pr i ncip ali t) which e v e nt ually became downtown Sl. Peh?rsburg l'h e Perry broth e r s came i n te nd i n g t o beco me establ ished a s farm e rs, were fully e qui pped, inclu d i n g s yrup a nd sugar making eq u i pment. T h ey cleared, p l an t e d and built. Spurlin before selli n g to \:Vill iams, i n creased c i tru s p l anting, occupied the ori g i na l Hackney house and obviousl y had every i n t en t ion of li ving o n his some 600 acres of land perma nently w>ti l tempted by t h e W i ll iams pocketbook Dr. John 6. Abercrombie came t o St Petersburg f rom N a tche z Miss. i n 1883. H i s com ing wa s i mpor tant to the comm u n i ty f or several reasons. He wa s t h e first professiona l doctor to p ractice i n this ar!!a. He boug h t 120 acre s cent er i ng on 16th S t r eet South in the h eavy tim b erland north of l ake Maggoire, being a t tract e d a s a matt e r of fact b y the sylva n bea u t y of the area b ui l t a f ine hom e en h anced the natural charm by wise and s k illed l andscap i ng. H e had a li v ely and a ttract i ve wife a n d daugh ters, a n d th e home prompt I V became a social center a n d a poi n t of cu h vre which dis tinctly enh anced what ha d been a r ug ged, pioneer a tmosp her e T h e doc t or soon h ad a wide p r actice, tre ating all the sick w i th no a tten tion pa i d to t h e i f ab i l i t y or non abi l i t y to pay. His f ami l y was be l oved by the entire c om m u n ity. He added a not her cle men t which had bee n conspicuous l y la c ki ng whe n h e dona t e d lan d on lakeview o n whic h was erec t e d the settle ment' s first ch u rc h St. Bartholomew' s at 2030 19t h Street Sout h T h is Episcopal Churc h with the adjoining cemete r y, a l so a gift f rom D r Abe rcrombie, insta n tly became a great i n flue nce i n the com m u n ity, s till has the devo t e d rove of many descendants o f the pio n eer. D r Abe rcrombie d i ed ja nuary 22, '1912 his body l ying in the Ch u r c h ce me tery A daughter m arried an Engli s h min ing engi n ee r 'ame d Watts, \vho wandered this way, a n d they bought a large b e autifully wooded trac t on th e shores of Boca Cie ga Bay bou n ded by P a rk Street 36th and 40th Avenues North, p art of the o rigina l Joe Silva homeste a d or 1646 l'hi s writ e r had a very warm frien ds h ip wi t h ,\.\r. Watts d u r i n g t h e last 3 0 years of h i s l i i e, spent as a semi h e r mit w idowe r on th e 6ay f ront Mr. VVatts had his r>eculiar ities He had a passi ona te l ove of nat ure,

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tree .s, plants and flowers and an equally passionat e ha tred o f a ut omobi les. He woul d n ot r ide i n one. He went to town for shopp i ng the har d way, tr v n d led a wheel bar row to the Jun g l e t erm i n u s of the s tr eet car l i ne, by trolly t o town. W h en M r Wa1ls d i ed, i t developed he ha d b eq veathed the l and t o St. Pet ersburg under r ig i d con ditions T h e C ity m ust mai n t ain the land i n it s natural stat e, allow no boat ing from it s main t ai n the trees and ferns a n d other p l ants a n d p rovide a p l ace where peop l e would come "For and the q u i e t contemplat i on of the beau ties of nat ure." Par t of t h e lan d was free a n d clea r part would rever t to C i ty if it pa i d a s mall sum still dve on it. T h i s vriter had a s h ar p and partly los i ng b altle w i th City Co uncil to accep t t h e gift. It f i n ally agreed to a c the pa r t free of debt. t hen pe r suaded the parks and p u b lic l ands committee ( th e Cou nci l then had a commi uee system of handl i n g c i ty bu s iness), t o recomme n d t o the whol e C o unci l i t accep t the part under debt F but u nfor t u n ate l y C i ty M a nager \+Vi ndom persuad e d th e Committee to r eve r s e i tsel f a n d t h i s write r f a i led to ge t the whol e C o u nei l to reverse the re v ersed committee. I t took consi derabl e lon g and v i gorous prodding b y the jun gle T e rrac e Comm u n i ty Clu b t o get the Counc i l to activa t e the park The Director of C i ty Parks, howev er, was en t h u s i a stic, and Abe r c rombie Park, cen t e til'g on Av e nve N orth and Park Street, no w seems des tined to rema i n indefi ni t e l y a p l ace of ch arm an d beau t y Th i s w r iter con fesses w ith con side rable s h ame, that when Counci l refu sed t o accept t he indebted portion under th e terms of the w i ll; h e then sought out all the hei rs, a child less widow i n Irela nd, two elderly bache l ors, one l iv i ng in India, one i n England, t o q u i tclai m so the w i ll p rovi s ions cou l d be set aside so that t h e C i ty wou l d accept B u t t h e widow, actuall y persuaded t o come h ere and v i ew t he park by t he Community C lub, refused to sig n off, and th e w i ll provisions stu ck A n i nteres t i n g grou 1 > of peop le, who p r i mari l y wete p i oneers of Gu l f port and only i nci dentally of St. Peter s b urg deserve remembe ring. Th ey are Joseph and Benevent u r a P uig.. bro t h ers. J oseph Torres and Tim othy and Emanual Kimba ll, b r others The Puigs and Kimballs came first i n May, 1874 and Torre s i n 1878. A ll h a d bee n fri ends i n New Orleans, the P uigs a n d To rres being o riginally from S pain Joseph Pui g was married to on e of the t h ree sister s of the K imball brot hers. N e it her of the brothers ever marr i ed. T h e mot her o f the K i mball children accom pan ied them T im othy l i ved t o a ripe o l d age at his on Maximo Road, th i s write r knowi ng him q u i te w ell. Short ly b efo r e h i s deat h h e gave to Joh n B l ocke r a large number o f th e Bethell b ooks telling the Pinella s Point s t ory and to the St. P e tersb u rg H i stor ical Socie t y he gave the masthead of t he Seabreeze? an early, in teres ti ng bu t brief newspaper 1>ublished by t h e . . . ... . . .. 88 McP h erson s T hey had a small q uanti ty of t ype bu t n o satisfacto r y large type f o r the m asthea d Ha l McPher son remar ke d casually t h at h e cou l d carve a be tt er masthead ou t o f B la ck Mang r o ve, whi c h h e d i d, and the quarterly historical broch u re issued by the Hisror ical Societ y uses t he wood c"Mved p iece for its masthea d to t his good day In 1874 Joseph Pui g bough t 120 ac res of l arld. Ex ci ted i n t o emulat ion by th e H ami l to n Diss ton a<> tiv i ties ar D isst on City, Pui g p l atted h i s la n d i nto a sub div i sion, na m e d New C adiz., in 1 882 started a g rocery s t o r e and a po s t office one of t h e fi rst on t he pe n in s ula. But "hen the fa ils werlt t o Willi ams a t St. b urg the store d i e d a n d the post offi ce closed i n 1 890 and d r i fted to Seminol e. T i m othy K i mball lived with the Pui g family u n ti l 18 7 8 when he boug h t 80 acres at 37th S tre et South and 2 4th Avenue and l i ved t here unti l h i s death a t a very advanced age Torres came ovt also in '1878 and acq u ired 200 a cres at D i sston Avenue and Boca Ciega Bay, an d p l a t ted the first subd ivis i on o n t he Po i n t rorres Sub. on D ecember 11, 1882. It al s o flare d b r iefly dur i n g the Ham ilt on D i sston boom the n s u n k i n t o obsc u rity. This w r i ter secured titl e to much o f i r i n t he d e p ressi on o f t h e 1 930s from a ma n who had acqu i red it o n tax deeds So pe rish dreams Richa r d S trada was a lso a member o i this Orlean s gr ou p ar1d boug h t80 acres on Maximo R oad extending as f a r sou th as what i s now Maximo Estates. He was cl m a' of many g ifts, farmer, sculpter? painter cab i net ma k e r bu i l der A ma n of grea t energy, bes ides making a l i v ing as a f r u i l s tock a n d food crop f atm e r he roamed f ar and i n t h e Mea engaged in varied e n te r p rises. His s t epso n .. )oh n Y o un g, i n her i te d the prope r ly, and l i ved on t he old homestead until the mid 1940s, stou tly resist ing all th e adva nces and b lan d i shments of the enc r oach i ng civ ili zatio n a n d illl provements Th ey were jus t changes, he s aid, not im p r ove m en ts. T h i s writer i s h a l f i ncl ined to a g r ee w it h o l d J ohn. Unusu a l i nterest attac hes t o a mar1 w ho carne (0 th e Poi n t i n 1868. He was a Neg r o born a slave He and h i s farge family fo r mor e than 20 years were t he on ly Neg roe s i n th e St. Petersb u r g area, and t h ei r careers and tre atment i n the comm u n ily are a rather rema r k a b l e sto r y John came fro m North Flo rida w ith Lou i s B e ll, Jr. Accompa ny ing the pa rty wer e thre e members of the Bell family, h i s w i fe and two sons, and be s i des Negro )ohn the re was a mulatt o gir l Anna Germa in, a h o use servant. They came i n an o x carl, taking 30 days fo r th e tr i p f r o m A lab ama. ( T h e 1870 cens u s says Bell was born in Flori da. E d Dona l dson the l i v i ng son of J ohn, says the group came f rom Alabama with the aid of t h e o x cart. T h e tu rmoil of war weJI may ha ve ha d B e ll, a nat i ve Flor i dian l iving in A l abama at war s end.) Bell, with t h e aid of Captain john T leslie, of T ampa, bou g h t t h e old Bay property on lakevi ew, whi c h at t hat t i m e be l onged to Abel M iranda. T h e i n c l ude d a good s t oc k of cattle and hogs He

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farmed it succcsslull) with the labor of his family and the two i'egroes. In 1871 Bell bought 40 acres a t the Southwest corner of >4th Avenue South and 4th Succi John Bethell tells amusingly what happened: "In the same year, 1 868. Cap tain John T Leslie of T ampa an d l o u is O c ll boug h t Abel M i rand a's improveme n t s nut View toget h e r wi t h < aule and h o g s. Bell l oca ted o n the homest e ad and planted t h r ee acres in s uga r ca n e1 whic h woul d have proved a vety p1oii tablc invesunent but for freeze of December 2S, 1868, which nearly ruined rhc crop, before It could be gathered and made into syrup and sugar. l'lowever, he realized S550 from what he Nex t year from and onehdlf acreS Of rane he shipped syrup 10 w hich sol d ror S 7 4 0 A iter thi s expe riment on pine land, he decided I n try h ammock l and. 1 h i n kin8 i t would be h e tt c r .1ela p ted to cane, possi b l y ; so h e bou g h t th e m ap l e hamrnoc k a t Lilli e Bayo u clea red a n d fenced l i ve acres cui a ditch f rom t h e bayou t O the hammock to drain il, built a f u rna ce lor th e kettles. put up a mill and waited for grinding lime to roll around It finally cc1me. failure wilh it; for the C.Jne was ulterly wonhless ; would no1 make syrup, though it was large and full of sap h had no sugar or sweetness in t U was just Cim e. money and lab or wasted ''He then l>lan t ed corn m e l ons and p u m pkins, wit h I h e s ame r e s ult lie (i na lly moved b ack t o t h e firs t home p l a ce, h e rna d e a \1( ry fi n e p r o fi t i n t ruck i n g I s h o u l d have rem arked that t h e Map l e Hammock coul d brea k 1 h e world's rec o r d for producin g moe cuin snakes, i f nothing else!" John Donaldson is l i sted i n the 1880 cens us as living with the B e ll fami l y and b ei n g 17 year s o l d But th e 1890 ce n s u s l ists h i s age th e n as 3 1 s howing a d iscrepanc y o f f our year s B u t i l l is t e d a n Ann H arriso n a s 20, b u t i t i s known t h a t s h e eventually marri e d john Don4Ji dso n under the na m e Anna Ger ma i n and the 89 1890 rcnsus shows he r as Anna Donaldson and as being 33 ; discrepancy. this time of lhree years. Oe that as it may, they had eleven choldren, accord ing to the sole survivi ng son, d. There is also a sur viving daughter living i n \Va shing t on, Ed lists lhe children as Evie ( Eve). Emmaline (Emeline). Magda l e na, Ed, A li ce, Josephi ne, Anjy (Anna), J ulia Frank a n d Joe. a n d a boy whose name h e c an t r ernember, who U i e d i n i n fMlCy. rhe agrees w ith E d a nd the o rder o f b i rt h, excep t lor o h c unde r s t andab l e c hanges i n spe lling Th e ce n s u s spelling i s g i ven in parenthesis afte r the nam e Ed uses where ther e s variation. The 1880 ce-nsus lists Ed's age s three. whkh woukl have him born in 1877 City rccOtds (or whom Ed worked many years gives the dates as January 15, 1873. Ed s.l)'S he doesn't remember exactly but h e thinks he is abou t 90 years o l d T h e City figu r e woteaded in St. Petersburg in 1877 at Avenue 1'-orth and 4th Street However, the lather harl been in St. Petersburg some lime before he gol title to his land. he was res1dcn1 ht:>r e when his son John F. was born. Murphy docs not presently live i n St. P etersb urg. Added to t h e e ncomium Bethell gives John Dona ldsot1 a n d h i s f am i l y "Irs florence S. Harrell I'IOw livin g a t 332 7 Emer son Avcr1ue South i n her His10ry o f G u lfport, say s : ;'l-Ie was o n e of the bC$1 men in th e worl d and we children calle d him "Bl ack John." Our old IJiack John and his wife are buried in Glen Oak Cemetery with the white people." Ed Donaldson and his Ro x ana, own their home at 40 1 12th S t ree t North and have lived f h ere many years. (Ed died Nov. J, 1967.) Ed i s o n e of t h e bes'l fr iends this writet e v e r h a d. H e a n d anoth e r N e g ro To n y Young, fo r ma n y y e a r s worked for Captai n J W loh ns l o n e ( w h o w a s an im migrant a n d a h o m esteader i n M a n atee Coun ly, fathes o f Duncan J o h ns t o ne, oil deal e r and form e r owner of J o h ns tone Marina at Fren chman's Creek on U.S. 19 South), this writer's l a ther. and th e City of St. Pet er sbutg. This writer's memory of Ed goes back to 18'19 when he was five years old and his father was engaged in some rush, rush contrac ts for the Government at For ts Oade nd De Soto, made urgent by the Spanish A m e r ican War. and the fact that lhe prin cipal U. S Army was e ncamped i n T arn r )(l; and t he gra n d fl t!et th P l argest t h e U S h ad eve r assembled U l ) to tha t time -was anc hored with i n T a ll'IJ>a Bay. L a r ge q uant iti e s of pine piling, rock and oth e r m a t eria l w ere be i ng

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fer ried from Bradenton and Tam pa t o the Forts, an d Ed was in c h arge of thi s as well a s the general COI'I stru ction. T his w r i ter mad o severaJ trips a cros s Tampa Bay w i th Ed. Ed \vas one of lh e best engi neets and heavy and rough outdoor construct ion men this 'vriter has known. He was simply a natural. He went 10 school a total of only two and a h al f years i n a chool at D i ssto n an d Lakev iew The t e a c h e r was a young ngJis hman named Arthur N orwood then a resident of Oisston City, destint'!d to become one of St. Petersburg's first great merchants and a mayor of the C ity Ed says all the c h ild ren in the s c hool were whi te, except him and his s iste r s and b r o th ers and as far as he can recall nobody ever paid any attentio n t o th e (act t hat some of t h e chi l dren were bla c k and some white. Ed was i n charge of the pile driver fo r Sid W ash i n gton. another pioneer, when the first railfoad p i e r was buill to deep water i n 1897. H e met Captain Johnston e o n the pier Captain John ston e t h e n owned and ran a sc hooner the Sammy Lee. a s a t ram p hauler of f r eight. mostly lumber, to Key West and Havana. His crew were Ed and Tony. Not unusual (or sailors none of the th r ee could swim. Once i n a calm the two boys were scuffl ing on deck, r hey tripped and both iell overboa r d Ca pta in Johnsto ne promptl y hitched a rope aro und his waist jumped overboard, and the three hauled themselves safe l y back on deck. Ed a lso worked for a while on the once famous ship Margaret., owned by the AC.L, which often made runs to Mob ile and New Orleans Ed also built the t h ree fish houses th e Hibbs Fhh Company e r ected o ver water on the A .C. L ra i l road bri dge. At that t i m e commerc ia l f ishing wa:, per haps the biggest sou rce of income to the little town. Befor e the Spanish Amer i can War broke out, scut tie outt in ship ping c i rcl es is t o the effect that the Samm y lee was not above turning a big and r i sky dollar r u n nin g and arnmuni ti Orl f r urn T ampa t o Cu ban rebel s h i ps lurking off s hore. Ed won't say He just grins. Capta in Johnstone and H Walter Fuller joined forces in 1907 opera ting a myriad of enterprises in St. P e rersb vrg. in cl uding the elec tric power plant whete t h e Yacht C lub now is, th e s treet car lin e, two boat l i nes and eve ntua ll y a number o( s ubdivision s and a h otel or rwo Ed was the man in charge always of all construe tion work. for these enterprises that were particularly rough and rough especially i i i t was a roug h job. When the s tr ee t car l in es went i n t o b an krupt c y and the Ci t y took them ove r the C ity grabbed Ed and kept him until he was ret i red becaus e or old age. Which hasn't interfered with him lead ing a n act ive and useful life ever since tor a couple of decades. William H. Murphy, trom Mississippi, who bought 40 acres of land on North Fou r t h Stree t at 24th Avenue in 1877, s i red a so n who can poss i b l y challenge Ed Donaldson as the oldP t native born 90 citiz en. Murphy was her e a couple of yeari be fore he bought and his son, Jo h n F. Mu rphy was bor n Aug u st 6, 187 6 and I s at this w r it ing 90 year s old and l ives a t 2 825 N in t h Street Nort h Vincent leonardy. a Confederate veteran cam e in 1868 from another section of florida and bought 40 acres on Lakevie>."' Avenu e and developed one of the fin e citr u s groves i n th e a r ea. Ent i rely by c hance one of th e Leo nardy grap elruil t re es p roduced excep tiona lly fine f ru i t of di ffere nt flavor and appea ran ce from any of the o t her seedlings in the grove, which for a period was locally and even regionally famous and became known as the leonardy grape fruit But it did not reproduce evenl y ancl dependably, from c utt i ngs and was eve ntua l h abandoned by rhe indus try i n favo r of b e u er and newer vari eties. In 1883 Vincenl's son Ale.xand e r bough t 40 ac res i n t h e nonhwest sec tion and developed a second grove From Georgia in 1880 and 1883 came lwo related families named S heffi e ld Each family bought 40 acres o n North which s h a r e d a s mall, d ee p, round la ke located a t 23 rd Avenu e N ort h famili ar to most presen t inhabltanrs of the City, becau se Diss ton spl i ts and circles the lake. It is named naturally enough lake Sheffield T hese two families stuck to their sturdy of se l f suffic ient pioneer farm life l onger than a ny oth e r f amily i n t h e C i ty; p ursuing t heir habil o l r a i sin& killing and curi ng thei r own mea t making thei r own syrup an d sugar rai sing their own food using pioneer tools and equipment until l i terally the crowding sub divisions pul a halt to the1r mode of life in the mid 1940s Georg e H Mear es and f ami l y bought 40 acres i n 1878 ar the corner o f lake view Avenue and 22nd Street a nd developed a grove. Mr. Meares was a pioneer floridian who a respected authority in citricuhure and during hii active years became the manager of many other grove s in the area as well as attending t o his own. In fact he m ight rruly be sa i d t o have become t h e citru s tree docto r o f t he ar ea, s uch a noted exper t d id h e become. The Meares family remains one of the respected pioneer groups of the County Elias Belcher, Confederate veteran from a disti n guished V ir gin i a family, came in 1 680 and boug h t 1 20 acres the n 120 rnore i n 1683 in th e north s ide a r ea. north o r 40 t h S treet and west of 9th Street. Through the generations, the family has been prominent in foal governmen1 and civic J(f.lirs in the Cou n ty. Orley and R eese MoHeu arrived i n 1879 f rom South Caroli na, and e ac h bough t 40 acres on North 9th Street, and promptl y became active and prom inent in locar business and poJir ica l matters A third member of the family, David Moffett, whose family had moved from South Carolina to Ind i a na, moved first to Marion County nea r Gai nesville in 1879 and i n 1 88 3 to St. Pet ersburg a n d sett led nea r the other members of t h e f amily. H e later boug ht north and west of Mirror l ake and developed a sub cfivision,

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named Moffett, northwest of Mirror Lake. It has been all bu t ob l i t erated by rep lats to get smaller lots. W hen the town was i nco r pora t ed i n 1892 h e headed an anti saloon ti cket and was elec ted Mayor 21 to 1 0, defeating the town's f ounder, John C. Williams Th e Hamilton Oisston activities of 1882 an d 1883 b rough t a flood of new r esidents and b u ye rs. Wm. a n d J. M. Miranda, kinsmen oi the old p ionee r Abel M iranda j o i ned Abe l i n the late 1870s, became exci ted by the O isston doings, bought much land out G ulf port way W i lliam, who had a smatte r i n g of l aw, a fla i r for pro m ot i on, beca m e a sales manager, or perhaps more p r operly a sales promoter for O isst o n City s ubdi vision Abel M iranda a lso bought coo siderabry more land in 1883, this \<\'ricer having the orig ina l deed from Ham t lron Dissto n to him, whi ch h e p r izes for lts au t ograph interest be, He h i red a car and raced to t h e K i rkh uff grove and hauled t h at astonished gen t l e man literally from behi n d his p low w i th w hich h e wa s cu lt i v a ting h i s grove, and rook h i m ( O his a t torney, Char les W Curry, in Braden ton, a n d prelty s h o r tly wal k ed o u t w ith a valid contract to b uy t h e l and fo r a Tho usan d Dollars an acre When he j o u rneye d t o Bradenton for a fi na l sel tleme n t a few weeks la t er he was gen!fy upbraided by Mr. Kirkh uff"Look, Walter," he sai d. "I owned that la nd f o r a l most 4 0 years and nobody wanted to buy i t and you came oul to my grove one day and talked me into sell ing it. And you know what? Jn the next three days I got five offer s beuer than yours Whi c h wou l d i ndicate t hat the m a n w h o wrote t h e fabl e about the torto ise an d the hare, had never l i ved throu gh a Florida land boom o r i n t h e days of a i r planes. A specula t ive Diss ton s.Jle i n 1884 (O lewis Har vie B l ai r, a busines sman of Richmond, Virginia of 1,0 4 0 91 acres in the northwest part of the City, attac hes St. Peter"sburg to a dramatic story o f q u ite another sort. B la i r was a Confederate war vetera n The r e i s no ev i dence he eve r visted St. Petersb urg. In 1889 he quietly published a book which h e de clared was th e result of Jong study and extensive observation." I f the book had been wide ly read i t could ha ve caused a sensation, but i t was ign ored, caused n ot a ripple. B u t the in te nse n ationa l in1erest i n ci vil r i ghts lor Negroes caused its re-publi cation in 1964, and its reappearance has h ad a p rofoun d effect on recent pUbl i c sen timent on the sub j ec t of r ace r elatio n s in the Sou th. The ti tle of the book i s "A Southern Prop h ecy : The Prosper i ty of the South Depende n t Upon the Elevation of the Negro A rc<:en t book rev iew i n t he F l o r ida H i s l o r ical Q u arterl y says in part: "Using irony a nd satire and common sense, he attacked raciaJ segregation, d iscrim i nati on, and i n j ustice of any k i n d; demanded full c ivil r ight s for Negroes. in elud i ng all poli t ical rights and equal access to all p l aces of amusemen t and p ublic accom modations; and boldly challeng ed the dogmas of whi te supr em acy a n d Negr o i n ferior i t y as well a s the domi na n t mythol ogy abo u t the southern past The author could scarcely be dismissed as an ou t s ide 'ag i tato r 0( 'Yankee fanatic : (Qr his southern oeden fialb wer e i mpeccab le: He was a veteran an d a member of a dist i ng u i shed Virgi n i a fam i l y Indeed B la i r i n sisted t h at h i s book, the r esult of long study and exte n s i ve obs ervation, was in spired by his i n t ense devotion t o the f utu re well being and h ap piness of h i s na tiv e state a nd sect ion and by h i s moun t ing disq u i etude ove r certa i n new c u rrents: in t h e r elat ion s between whites and Negroes in the South Althoug h he stated his case i n t e rms of South's ma re ria l self i n t erest and was unabl e to free h i mself completely from t he paterna listic tr adit i o n B l air cou l d n o t disguise a s ub s t antial egalitari an ism and a suong mor a f indigna!iOt) over radal i n justice. B l air's book never attracted muc h atte n tion and was soon forgotten. I t was r edi scove r ed by P r ofesso r C Van Woodward, who is resp onsible fo r the new edition. Woodward has supp l ied ed it oria l notes and a mag nifi cent i n trodu ctio n w h ich p laces B lair and his book in the broad histor ical swee p of race r e la t i o n s i n the New Sovt h and m oder n America. The volume is a revealing document fo r t h e s tu dent of race r e la t i ons T hi s i ncide n t underscores that the f i at common l y held nowadays that all southerners were f ig hting hot in favor of sl.avery ,a century ago is onrealis(ic This early St. Petersburg land speculator was a

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Virginia businessman, a Confede rate sold ier yet he obviously not onl y d i d not believe in slavery he though t the Negro should be free and enjoy equal pol i tical and economic status w i th whjtes The h is tory o f this writer's grand f athe r wen t beyond that o f Mr. B l air Owner of a larg e Georgia plantat ion belore th e war, he came to d is app r ove so strong l y of he sol d his slaves and p l a 1ltation, moved to A l \anta, volu n tarily stepped down i n the socia l scal e by becoming a wholesa l e merchant. Yet he vol unteered i n the war, served as a calvary officer in the Second Georgia r e gim e nt At a l 'res b yterian Church p r a\'er meeting one night.when a strong argument wen t on about the rightness or wrongnes s of the action of some Old T estament character. he burs t out This man thought h e was r ight but he was wrong. Just as \Ve o f t h e Sou t h thought we were right but we were wrOilS too." VVars do s trange things t o peopte. lorenzo D Ross and A r chibald Ross gave t h e i r names to loca l geograp h y whe n they bought 54.83 acres on the north bank of Papys Bayou i n 1884 T h i s poi n t i s the south tip of Weedon I s l a nd, which ac tually isn' t an island and yet t o thi s day this t i p is c alled Ross Isl a n d rather than Weedon. Two years b e fore, in 1882 bought '120 acres at the north e n d of the Bayou, Archiba l d 53.10 acres more at the south tip i n 1886 The two men we r e Confederate soldiers. T hey lived on the land unt i l the y d i ed and arc burie d at th e head oi Papys Bayo u Neg l ected a n d fo r gotten for many yea r s patr ioti c Confederat e organiza t ions have r ece n t l y marked the sraves and an nually remer nber thei r resti n g p l ace. Although Oisston associates a cqui red most of th e other l and o n Weedon and around Papys, joseph Masters had bought 80 acres on Tampa Bay on "lay -rQ, 92 1859 but less than a month la te r deeded i t to a Tampa merchant for a S 159.n mer c hand ise bill. Th e mer cha n t sol d to James P Mullen, and he in 1869 for $500.00 sold to William P. Pillan s Pillan s h ad on November 25, 1868 bought !rom the State the 80 acr e s a l o ng side the Mullen 80, t h us g i v ing him a half rnile s quare of the str ateg i c h ig h grOund between Bayo u and Say at the nort h end of what i s now known as Weedon Isl a n d. Pillans very promptly i n r870 sold to George W Hammoc k who two years l ater sold to a prominent Tampa businessman and speculator, William 6. Hen d e rson He gave the l and t o h i s daug h ter, w h o had marr ied O r. Lesli e W Weedon. l)espite th e f act Pillan owned the land onl y briefl y the area was called P i l lans Hammock fo r two generations and in fac t one to lh i s day c an hea r tha t name used by old t imers. Generally however, the area is known as Weedon So ther e you have three overlapping na mes for the same ar e a All of th i s area i s now dominated by th e modern Flor ida Powe r Cor poration generating p f ant. Almost unk nown but fortunat e l y c a reivUy guarded and p r eserved by the Powcc Company i s a mag n ificent grove of hug e cedar tre e $ t h e o n l y orig i n a l s p ecime n s i n P i nellas County, of a beautifu l varietr of t rees tha t once heavily dotted the Cull Coast from Venice to Cedar Keys. \!Vhile the Powe r Company merits community thanks fori" gua rdians h i p oi t h is rar e beauty spot, the publ i c woul d be better served i f the City, County or State own ed i r and i t was u n der p rope r condit ions mad e more eas i l y seeable The remain i ng orig; na l buyers ma i n l y w ere non r esi dent spec ulat ors or person s who d i d n ot take rool and d r i fted away.

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Chapter XIV COMES THE IRON HORSE R ealist ically, St. Peter sburg as a t own was b o rn J une 8, 1888. For on t hat day th e f irst train o f t he Orange Belt Railroad, t hen th e l o ngest o>arrow gauge railr oad in th e Uni ted States. steamed up to the rai l head at N i nth Srreet. 6 u t the da ring and co,.rageous if you will Peter A. Demens, a native of Russia, did not arrive until six days later. He was too busy keeping his baby railroad from sudden death due to financial malnutrition and it is an in triguing fact I hat this first train arrived 28 years not hours late By early Decembe r the tracks had been ext ended to Second Street ? a n d a stat ion built between Second and T hird S t reets, on Firs t Av enue South, where i t remai ned until removed, J u n e 12, 1963, to it s present s it e on 36th Avenue North and 31St Street. Early in 1869 a 2,000 foot pier had been buil t to 12 foot water depth and rails laid, and St. P etersburg had a rail tiein with the rest olthe nation and water connection with the whole world. This complied with Dcmens' con tract with John C. Williams whereby Oemens owned half of St. Petersburg. And the land owners of the St. Petersburg area drearned dreams t hat failed lo materia lize for two decades and then only partia l I)' The great h o pes of a g reat por t never came true And f ac tors never dreamed of by the promo te r s and financ i ers, and sweated i n t o rea li ties by N egro laborers, made t he dream come true! The dreamer s dreamed of ci tr u s groves and farms, and fish and timber. The actuality is for following pages to tell. The drama had odd principa l actors There was the dynamic, handsome, polished Oemens; the rich Hamihon Disston who was the principal person who made the road possible, but failed to capture t he g reat prize of Immorta l ity within his grasp, and t he indif ferent r e l ucta n t John C. Williams, who became t he symbo l f ounder of St. Petersburg De m ens named, Ois sto n lost Wil l iams won. None profited lif e has odd e ndings. 93 But the sto r y i s a p rincipal s l ory, per h aps the piv ota l story, of the h istory of a great c ity. Pel er A Dcmens was bOrrl May 1 1850 i n Pete rs burg (now Leningrad) Russi a as Pio t r Alcxewitch Oementicf Of the nobilit y (his daughter became a Countess) he had a polished and aristocratic education. fluenr i n Russi an fren c h Germa n and English. He came to America in abouc 1880, forsaking an intcrCS I in rhe great famity estates in the Province of Tver. His motive was a preference for the free air and free enterprise of a democra cy. He carne to Florida s hortly after entering this cou ntry a nd engaged in the lumbe r business at Sanford. Obtai ning timber rights a t longw ood, some te n miles sou1hwes t of S anford, formed the company of Oemcns, McCain & Cotter A n a rrow gauge road wa s built I() bring logs lo the sJws. He bought his partners ou t i n 1883 T h e tim ber was used up by 1885 and Ocm<>n< decided to become a railroad builder That was a logical mo,e. The railroad building boom that started in Florida in the 1840s was inter rupted by the Civil War. State debts blanketed railroad promot on until Disston solved that problem in 1883 \vith his rour million acte and rhe great r ailroad boom was on To an ambi tious man i n 1885 building a railroad i n Flotida wa s as natura l as start i ng a subdivi s i on i n St. Petersb urg i n 1925. So Demon s started o ut t o build a railroad I n fact, he sort of got nudged into b u ilding one H e had sol d $9,400.00 worth o f cross ties t o the Orange Bel t Rail way and it cou ldn't pay him. I t had a charter to bu ild a 34 mil e road from the St. Johns R ive r to Apopka west of the St. Johns and north of Orlando. He took over the road for the debt. It had been incor porated April 20, 1885 by T. Arnold, H Miller and H. Hall. Oemens made a dea l to tic hi s road in with the J acksonville, T ampa & Key West Railr oad ai lake Monroe, north of Sanford and t ook off for Oakland to the west. A l most unbe li evable t oday, h e s tarted w i th 16 pound rails, i n,reased this to 25 pound and l ater 30

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.. ... ' ' .. . . a..th.lng P.l\tliiOn o n Railro.ld PJtr; F1rtt Avenue South 1889 / Hottl Detroit, St. Pt:tf'rtburs 1888 Hottf nor1h side of Ct:nlr.at A venr.tt eut of 2nd Street 18e9 ' '' Hotel Odroll with lirch .uklldon 190$. Hotel Odroll 1918. 94

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pound rails as contrasted with the 8Spound to 115 pound rails used now. A 16 pound rail is o ne with stee l we igh i n g 16 pounds to a r unni ng f o o t of ra i l and so on It was n a r ro w gauge a s w o r e t h e usual loggin K r o ad s Narr o w gauge i s usually 3 feet 6 i nch es be tween rail c:enters, sta ndard gauge 4 feN 6 1 /2 i n c hes between centers. Converting trom one ro t h e other wa s a rather simple job. Pull spikes and shift one l ine of track was the usual procedure for the light and r o l l in g s t ock o f that day But not quite so sim t>le 1 0 c hange r olli n g s tock S t an dard gauge i n this counuy f o llow e d th e E n glish fig u re be c a use e ngines we r e lm ported from tha t count ry The orig inal risk ca p ita l was supplied by Oemens, Josef Henschen, a winter visitor from Buffalo S20 ,000; Henry Sweetappl e, an ailing Conadlan, S15,000 and A. M Taylor, Staunton, Virginia, who ran Oemens Com missary i n t he sawmill d ays, $2,000 A constr uction compa n y Th e Orange B elt I nves tment Co. was fo r m e d Roll i n g s tock wa s bought on cre dit fro m the Sou th F l o r id a Rail ro ad which had sw i tche d f rom narrow to standard ga u g e and S30,000 of 25-pound rails, also on credit from George W Stetson Co. of New York. und donations were sough t and ftom owne r s along the p roposed right o f way. The princip.>l one wa s fo r 100 a cres from Judge/. G. o n Lake Apopka, and the Judg e and the Orang e 8C!I t Inv e st men t Company jointl y for med a t o w n Oak l and. w h ich 5 urvi ved promotio n d.1ys and i s a pleasant village in Orange County Spee r owned 200 acres, so the half Oemens got shaped h is pauern lor seeking land g ifts from Williams and others The c a sh was e n o ugh for labor and grad ing and cross ties. and the r o ad mad e i t to O akland i n early N o vember 6. T h e b i g event w as ce l e brat e d by t h e t o w n p e opl e w ith a g a l a dinner o n November 15, 18&6. This s u ccess wheue d rat her t ha n s ated the Oemens appetite Which is the way with promoters. as this writer painfully knows. One sm all su ccess leads to a bigger try, and t his t o a still bigger. Promoters don't die T h e just blo w up. O r become w r i t ers as did Oemens and t h i s wr iter. O e mens w a n te d to bui l d to t h e G u lf. At the so uth end of P i n ellas Pe n i n su la specif ic ally. The Buf f a l o member Josef Henschen, had had enough and quit, but Sweetapplc and Taylor went along, Taylor to biller end, Sweetapple until he dropped dead from emotio nal tension at one dramaticalty d i s a stro u s crisis I n t he road's h istory On November 2 0 1886 the c h ar ter was amended t o au thorize the r oa d to g o on fo r 120 mil es to P o i n t Pinellas. I ssuance of S700,000 ol capita l stoc k and S700,000 of 6 per cent bonds wa s authorized. First promorional efforts failed. Oemens tried un successfu lly to indu ce t h e investme n t house of Gr i swol d and Gil len t o unde rw rite t h e bonds a n d was about r eady 1 0 d r o p the promot ion when H a milton O isston sudd e n ly a nd deci siv e l y i n v i ted himsel f into t h e s ituat ion On O<>eembe r 1, 18&6 Oissoo n u nan nounced w a lked Into the Oakland office of the Com p.>ny and offered to give Oemens 25 per cent ol all 9 5 land he and all of his companies owned within si< mil e s of the rails between Oak land and Dis sto n Ci ty, which w o ul d a m o unt t o about 60 ,000 ac res. This g e n e r a t e d a new head of steam an d energy in O e men s He p r omptl y wro t e Griswol d a n d Gillet! of the D i sston offer and listed other la n d g ra nt offers he had. This impressed the firm sufficien tly to bring one of the partners, W a lter Gillen, to f lorida for a look and his report led the firm to underwrite the sale of the $ 700,000 of bond s M e anwhile Oeme n s s tudied the Pinellas situa tion a n d d e ci ded i t was vita l for t h o success of th e road to nave i ts t erm i n u s at Mull e t Key (Fo rt Oe So lo Park) o n Oiss t o n obviouslt "YaS content to the rails end 01 Oisston City (n9W Gulfport) OPmens i nsisted on the Mullet Key OISston fo r SO,OOO acres addit i onal bonus l an d t o finance the high costs of ca useways and br i dges 1 0 Mulle t K e y T h e 50,000 acre r eques t was consi d ered by one of the p r in c i pa l Oi ssto n c o m pan i es, Flor ida land & lm p rovement Co., on December 18, 1 866 and rejected Oisston obviously was opposed or i ndifferent because the directors would not have crossed Hamilton if he h a d been determined. This writer diS<:ussed this in cident In the 1920s w ith W H Wr ight and Jacob V ogd es two of t h e sur v i v ing directors, w h o spent thei r winters i n St. Pet ersb urg, an d t hey h a d n o firm mem o ries of i t It was cons i dered un i m po r tant by the D i sston group The c onclusion from this iOcident and others involving railroads is that Hamilton Oisston, truly a great man i n imagination, pl annin g and action, i n many m a tters simply failed to realize the f u t ure destiny of r ai l roa d s i n Florida and the nation, con s i d e r e d l a n d a n d s teamboat s m ore i m por t ant l h an t h ose vita l tw i n ribbons of s t ee l e lse D i s sl on wou ld h ave r a n ked i n Florida hist ory w i th F l agler and Plant. In January, 18&7 Hemy Sweetapple. Treasurer, en tered negotiations with John C. Williams, who Demens had never met or apparent l y h eard of. On the 2 4t h of J a n u a ry, 1 8 8 7 he and William s stl uck t h e fat eful b argai n a n d the opportu nistic Oeme n s pr ompt ly dashed off b y h an d a tri u mp h an t lette r to hi s b rokers, Griswo ld a n d Gillett, as follo ws ''Gentlemen Just received a report from our Mr. Sweetapple that he succeeded in making an arn.ngement with a cenain H Williams about gettin g 1(2 i nt e rest i n 500 a cre s with a mil e f rontag e on th e G ulf, just where w e will h a ve ou r term i nus, i n case the Key c a nnot b e h a d There i s 16 feet of wa t e r right at the shore and a s p len did town site there Thus th;u last question is settled very salisfac torily Very truly yours, P A Oemcns Thi s writ e r c annot r e frai n f ro m pausin g a t t h i s e x c i ting poi nt t o m ake a few gentle r emar k s abou t promoters Peter Oemens partkulorly In the first place

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Demens obviou s l y d i d n't even know John C. Williams o r h i s correct name. tole called h i m "a certa i n H. William s And the m i l e frontage was on t h e Say, not th e Gu lf, and i t wasn't 1 8 feet of wa t er "ri g h t at t he shore"; it was t 2 f e et of wate r 2,000 f ee t from the sho r e 8ut i t was a sple ndid town s i t e The r e i s ancient and weigh ty testimony to t h a t f ac t as well as the l ater of First t her e i s t h a t trul y ex tr aord i nary rema r k of the Engl ish maker, George Gaul d on S ir W i lliam Burnaby s ex p edit i o n in the s ummer o f 1 7 6 5 to make a naviga t i onal of T ampa Bay Afte r Gau l d had finished h i s f o u r mon ths of measur i n g waler depths depths that hol d tru e today and s at down to draw hi s map and record t h ose depths he made two notation s on t h e l and within the limits of the present city of St. Petersb urg, l an d that then hel d only trees, wild animal s a n d Indi an s He note d M i rr or Lake a s the location of good water Doubtless, stornach felt f eelings wenl int o that d es igna t i o n beca use for tour m onths h e h ad bee n d r i n k i n g b r ackis h water d rawn fr om a shallow w ell two barr el len gth s i n depth on the sand y beac h of Mullet Key and his i n n ar ds were thorough l y r evo l ted by it. But his second r emark was th e truly r e markabl e one A l ong the s h o r e i n t he a rea betwee n Coffee Po t and B i g Bayou h e leuered the followi n g prophe t i c s entence"A p retty good p l ace for a settl ement:" Th e s econd endors eme n t had c o m e 3 2 y e ars p r evious ly Thi s also on a cha rt. Looking at a cop y o f a n 185 5 chart o f Tampa Bay i n t he possession of thi s write r one c a n r ead: "U.S. Coast S u r vey" Rec on n aissance of "Tampa Bay" f lorida 1 855 Lieut. 0 H. Ber ry man U.S.N T h e chart g ives wal er depths for those port i ons of T ampa Bay measur e d by the Spani s h i n 1757 and British in 1765 a n d i n addi t i o n mea s u r es water depths i n Hillsboro Bay l eadi ng t o T ampa, and O l d Tampa Bay l eading to Safety H arbor and tO St. He l ena Point north of Phi l ippi P ark Neilher lhe Spanish n o r E ng l ish cha r ti sts m e asured t hese upper two branche s of t h e main bay. T h e s i gn i ficant i t em i s a l i n e p r otrud i ng i n t o T ampa Bay from t h e land at a point that i s estimated lobe the p r ese n t Fift h Avenue N orth i n front of the V i noy H ote l T h e sto r y or r a t he r the man behind thi s ear ly American c ha rt was the remar kable i n fact th e fabu l ous Dav idS. Y ule e i n 1855 United States Senator. Davi d Yule e's fat her was Moses levy, a Spanish Jew who b eca m e prem i er of Mor oc c o f led duri n g a palace u pr isin g, therea f ter took his wife's fam i ly name of Y u lee. H e be c ame a b i g lumber shipper and m er cha n diser i n the V\'est I n d ie s and Cuba sough t even tually t h e vast p i n e t i mber forests of F l orid a fo r l umber the West In d ies and Cuba were a lmost barren of 96 nat i ve trees suitab l e f o r lumber -and became in vol ved i n vast l a n d a cquisi t ions dur i ng th e Spanis h owners h i p p eri od O ne h ug e gran t h e got toget h e r with t h e g reat Span i s h Gra n d e e Don F erna n d o de I a 1\.1aza Ar redondo, covered wide a reas s u rrou n d ing Gai nesville. Som e of h i s grants from t he S pan ish wer e i n con t r ove rsy. hen c e it b e cam e important for h i m to become a U n i ted S t a t es ci t iz en. Under t h e te r m s o i an Ac t ol Cong ress d e al ing w i t h the acquis i tion o f Florida l a n d, any person residi n g i n Flor i da o n the day o f t h e take ove r i n 1 822, upon tak i ng the o a t h of allegiance, atta in e d c i t i z ens hip. T he elde r Yulee (levy) togeth er w i t h his fami l \ whidl i n clude d son Dav id, l ef t Cha r lesto n S .C. i n t i me p resumabl y to a rri ve i n St. Augu s t i n e b ef o r e t h e take o ve r da t e missed i t by a day beca use o f a st ub born c a l m at sea. T he s li ght lapse was overlooke d t.rn ti l Davi d S Y u lee, one of F l or'i d a s f irst two s enato rs, soug h t t o t ake h is seat in t h e con gress. was a s to hi s c i ti z en s h i p was not s e a ted unt il a special a ct was passed confirmi n g h i s U.S. c i ti ze n ship. From tha t da y until h e r e t i r e d af t er the C ivi l War. Yulee w.1s i n the midst of poli tica l ba H ie an d turmoil. He ofte n w o rl, some1i m e s l ost but in all his activit ie s ke p t a ca ref u l and ca nny eye o n that import ant i tem, the good ol d United S t at e s dolla r He d ie d a rich man But he was a man o f superior qualit ies, great ab i l i t y, d i d wha t h e t hought was good for f l o r i da and David's bank account As a sena t o r h e was a b i g f acto r i n passin g t h e Swamp a n d Over flo w Act S eptembe r 28, 1 850 poss i b l y had a h i dde n h a n d in the survey of th e s e all eged sw amp land s under Gov e rnor lames E B r oome. to the end t h a t the Uni t e d States conveyed m i llions o f t h e best la n d i n Florida to the I nt erna l 1 m p r ovemen t Board because t hey were de clared l egally s w a mp and overflow H e and associates s h o r t ly be f ore t h e C i v i l War got a charte r to build a raHroad from Fernand i na to Tampa Bay, w ith a to Cedar Keys. He had made the r econna issance" just desc ri b e d s o hi s r ai l road could p i c k the best spot fo r a deep r a i l road terminus ,\nd who can deny tha t a w isel y l o c a t e d rai l and water t er m i nus woul d benef i t Flor i da? And in t h e doing would h el p D a vid? Yul ee was u nable to make sat isfactory land bonu s arrangements for t he Tampa Bay t erminus at t he sit e o f the f u t u r e St. Pete rsburg, so, ange red, h e amende d h is< h ar t er, switc hed h i s t e rminus to C edar Key. A resuh of t ha t change was t hat Ceda r Key zoo m ed f rom a thi n s c a tte r ing of fi sher man h u t s to a bust l i ng port and pencil ma n ufactur i ng city. At o n e t i m e C edar K e y was a ct\l ally th e l argest port c it y in Florida W h o knows? Had Yu le e built his r a ils to F i ft h Av enue N oeth t his c ity mig h t h av e been named Morocco -o r l evy So why quarrel with "51. Pete rsbu rg?' One of the s urvey crew that made the r eco n na issa n ce, W i lliam P a u I was so entr anc e d with the p r opos e d piec s i t e tha t h e l e f t the Navy, squatted on the la n d, p l an led the f i rst c itrus g r ov e with i n t h e

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present city of St. Petersburg. other than the h u ddle or citrus trees t hat Joe Silva and fohn Levique an d An tonio Maximo H e rn a n dez had planted B ut when the Civil War st a ned, P aul hast i ly sold to Abel Miran da and left t hese p arts perman en t ly Ret u r ning t o the rai l road that was act u ally built. at the conc lu s ion of t h e William s ag r ee ment and aft e r D e m e n s gave u p t ry i ng for t h e alt e r nate s ite a t M u llet K e y thr ough a dea l w i t h Hami h o n Oisston D emcn s pressed hi s f i n ancia l agent s Grisw o l d a n d Gille tt for money fr o m bond sales. T hi s m o n ey fail e d to come. His vario u s c reditors wh o had adva n ce d r o lli n g s tock rails a n d money p ressed ha r d In desper a t e straits agai n Oemens t u rned to folamilton Oisston, who again helped him out. fhrough Disston, D e mens borrowed $100,000 from foi. O Armour & C o. of New York, using $170,000 of bonds for c ollatera l and p aid all h is e x isti ng d e bts. Wh e n m o n e y ran o ut again Disst o n i nuoduc ed him to an d spo n s ored him with Phil ade lph ia bankers, and b etwee n the m and L Lissberg e r & Company, New Y o rk m o ney l ende rs, Dem o n s man a s e d t o kee p goi n g Karl G r is m e r i n h is 1946 "S t or y o r S t Petersb u rg" t ells th e b a l ance of t h e c o n s tru c ti o n argosy abl y and d r amatically. "Under the t e rms of the agreement, L lissberger & C o. was to advance $ 30,000 in cash e.1ch month. The concern afs.o was to a c t as t h e Orange B e lt 's "iron broke(' an d s upply all the s t eel rails a n d "iron" w hich t h e railr o ad needed For t his du a l serv ic e the mon e y l e n ders were t o b e p aid e i g ht per c ent lnre rest on all money adv.1nce d a n d a l so w e r e to r eceive as a bonu s $2 50 i n the O rang e B e lt's common sto c k f o r e a c h $1,000 spent. An expensiv e dea l -but it wa s the best ar r a n gement Demens cou l d ma k e "L. liss berger d id not live up to ils a gr ee The firm wa_ s irregular in rhe monthly advances of S30,000. Only S1S,OOO w a received in July and none in August To m ake the sit uat i o n the money lende r s fa i l ed t o ship stee l 1 0 the Orang e B e lt as p ro mised. To mak e a s avi ng, they purchased the steel in Eng land ins t ead o f i n the Uni t ed S tares and shipment s w e re long delaye d A s a re sult or the delay in g elli ng the rails, th e O range Belt was unabl e to rece ive any money fr o m the sale of its bonds, due to th e fact t ha t the bond m o n ey co uld not be paid u ntil the trac k s w ere lai d and the road ready for opera l ion. No r a ils, no completed tracks; no complet ed trac ks, no bond money. A vicious circle which nearly drove Deme ns mad 'The Engines a r e ChAined t o t h e R a il s.'' To make the s i tuat ion e v e n t he rai ny season was unusually bad and t he wor k o f g ra d i n g was delayed for w ee ks. And then, 97 l ate in t he summer an epidemic of yellow fever brok e out in Florida. The Orange Belt work ing for c e was demorAlized. Demens spent days with t h e road gangs to preven t the men fro m qui tting i n a body. "The a ffairs of the co m pa n y reac h e d a c risi s e arl y in Septemb e r 1887. Demens' funds a n d his credit w e r e e
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.. I e x pect a telegram immediatel y upon t he r ecei l > t or this telle r.' "Despite this des p eta t e p l e a L lissbctget & Company failed t o give Demens the im mediate hel p he needed Oemens' l euers do not reveal the reason; but they reveal his bull dog determin ation t o finish the rai lroad r e gardless o r obs tacles. Repeat edly he told lissberge r t hat he woul d t h row t h e w h o l e thi n g over if h e did n ot get money b u t he neve r d i d. A l ways when things looked darkest Oemens managed to get a little money somewhere, by hook or by and kep t on going "On Saturday, Octobe r 1, an ang ry mob or more tha n a hundred Ora nge Belt w o rkme n gathered in Oa kla nd, coming on flat cars from all parts of the line. The men demanded their wages. more rhan three weeks overdue. They t hreatened to lyn ch Oemens unless they were paid and set the deadline a t eig h t o'clock tha t n ight. D eme n s wired fr an tically f or m oney. II did not come At the last minurc, some of Oemens' friends came to his aid and advanced enough money to pay off the men. Another c risis averted. "On Monday, October 3, the schooner "Cit y or llaltimore" arr i ved w it h 245 tons of steel -shipment whic h had boen promise d 'postive l y' in June Demens had to wait three days to borrow enough money, in addition to all he had already borrowed, to pa y for the unloading of the boat. T h e n he h ad t o wait four more day $ f o r an advan ce from lissbe r ger to start hi s consrructiOI) c r ews to work asaln. S y that tim e the schooner Ida C. Schoolcraft had arrived with another ship ment of steel. ''From lhen on, steel kept on arr ivi n g w i t h fair l y r easo nable r egularity a nd for the fir st time O emens was able to main t a in a normal working sched ule. He worked his crews ovenime and by the end of November enough tra c k had been laid so that h e could borrow $200,000 more from H.O. A rmou r & Co. on less r uinous t erms than Llssberger demanded. In December he a l so began borrowing f rom a syndicate of Philadelphia financiers composed of E. W. Clark & Co. Ed T Stotesbury and Drexel & Co. "l' his financia l h elp did not ar r i ve I n lim e how ever, to enab l e Demens to compl e te the Orange Bel t exten sion by Oocember 31, 1887 and many of the land donations had been made conringent upon che completion o( 1he road by that date. Consequently, Dcmens lost abo u t 25,000 a cres of land s r ants The Oissto n i n t e rests. howeve r granted h i m an extens i o n of time so the failure of the O range Belt t o 98 finis h th e construction job by the end o f 1887 \va s n o l compl etely d isastrous "Ih c O range Bel t was completed to the e d ge o f the Williams property at Ninth S treet on April 30, 1888, a nd on June 8 the first train c-ame into St. Petersburg from the eastern end of the line on the St. J ohns River. On June 14, Dernens came to St. P e tersburg in hi s priv ate car and had a confe rence with Williams duri n g w hich he agr eed to bui l d a hotel at a cost of $10,000, one-half to be paid by him self and the other half by the Orange Belt In vestment Co. work on the hotel, l ate r named the Detroit, wa s st arted during the summe r and comp l eted i n th e l ate fall. The depot a lso was built during the l ast half of 1888 and during December the tracks were extended down to Second Street. Early in 1889 a 2,000 loot pier was built int o Tampa Bay, 10 twelve feet of w a t er permi tti n g medium-sized ocean going vessel s t o dock." But like most Florida railroads of that the Orange Belt was doomed for bankruptcy even beiore it was finished. It was poorly p lann ed, poorly bui lt, with e q u i pment operation. It r a n th r o ugh largel y unpopulat ed a reas. The f e w "peeker wood'' saw the sparse c r ops. the almost non existent citrus, the few fish suitable fo r distant mar ke ts, the lac k of proper refrigeration for perish able foods, the comparative poverty of the people, gave no chance f o r a profitab l e volume o r fr e i ght. At compl elion D e m e n s owed his ba nk e r s $900 ,000 On Jul y 1 1889 $ 55,000 i n t erest was due and t h ere was no money. The 200.000 acres of bonus land that came with completion of construction was un salable. So Demens made t ha t sad journey to his Ccthsemane at Phi l adel phia, and s old his roa d ior $ 25,5 00. Of t hi s h e got $14 ,400, Hensc hen S6,850 a n d Taylor $2,000 Oddly only the smallest man in the deal, Tayl or, go t his orig i na l investment bac k But they had a rich and enduring wealth that bankruptcy couns cannot d ivest. They had the soul sat isfaction of havin g the i r labors, their coura ge t heir qua l i t ies or leaders h i p, c reat e someth ing big an d co n su u c ti v o T h ey were c r e ators. T hey were pioneers. T hey were doers. The ir memories nou r i she d them t o t he end of their days They could hold their heads high with pride. They had helped build their country. They ha d served their fellow men. They were rich, eve n if their neig h bors never knew it. Oemen s his promoting fires sati s fied and quenched, w ent to California, ended h is days as a re spected and usef ul newspaper writer. He and Am erka h ad each done w<.>ll by the other. He be
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no clime, no cul t, no creed, no b l ood str eam <:an cla i m full credit or even major credit for that end r esult, of whi c h this write r and you in d u lgent r eader, are the heirs a n d beneficiar ies. So admi t one Piot r A l exewitch Dement ief to the permanent Worl d Hall o f Fame and write h i s nam e i n the skies. Nei t her d i d the syndicate of ba n kers who took over the road do we ll with it. They staffed the road with officers : W i lliam Mcleod, St. Pete rsburg, president; George A Hill, treas ure r; Frank E. Bond super i ntendent; S. H. Hare pur c hasi ng agen t; Joseph W 'taylo r f r eight agent ; A. l. Hunt, c hief eng ine er; and H. H. Richardson, s ecretary. T he new own e r s p r etty well le f t their streak of rust and its local officia l s t o t heir own devices and i t and they did poorly. The decrepit engines were wood bu rners. the r olling stock was a mot le y f rom othe r r oads the r oadbed was a roller coas t er the rai ls were too l ig ht, and b u siness, although it g r adually beuered was never good. Th e bankers however d i d form a l and holdi ng company, called the St. Petersbu r g Land and Im provement Company T h ey put an able man, Col. l. Y J enness, i n charge of the St. Petersburg lot;, w h ich it i n a deed f rom W i lliams february 28, 1889. He man aged the property well but not sensationally unti l December s, 906 when the remnant i ncl u d ing the Det ro i t Hotel was so l d to C. P erry S nell, A E. Hoxie and j C. Ham l ett Snell even t ually became one of the great devel opers of t h e c ity. Mr. Hox i e was prominent t hen and h e and his family have bee n ac tive and respected c i tizen s of S t Pet ersburg to this good day. M r Ham leU, a pleasant, gifted and wealthy man, was for some ye ars a par t ner of C. Perry Snell. But Mr. Snell was too ambH i ous, too driving. too ven turesome to suit Mr. Ham l ett, and he even tu ally sol d t o Mr. Snell. Th i s writer i n his youth had many pleasant experie nces wit h Mr. Ham lett. He and M r Snell had homes o n adjoi ning b l ocks f a c ing north on 99 Coffee Pot Bayo u and East on Tampa Bay, th e big "show place" homes of the City i n ear l y days. The trai n crews limped a l ong w i th three man crews, eng ineer, fireman a n d a handy man of all dut ies, called a conductor Wilbur F D i v i ne was on e of these overworked. long s u tfering ge n i uses who served as co n d u cto r s L ater he became the extremely popula r City Cl erk. He spent h is last days i n the em ploy of this wri te r He was a portly, jolly, g i fted gen tleman. In those days w h e n S t ate society p i cnics, society boat and streetca r excursions were a b i g factor in t h e l i ve lihood of t h is wri te r and h i s associates, the j olly u n i versally known Wilbu r Div ine was the off icial trip and excursion organ i:ler. We called h i m the g l ad hander Nowadays he would doubtless be called a Pub lic Rel at i ons Counsellor The disastrous freeze of JS94 -95 f inished t he r a i l road, under i t s t h en ownership. This f r eeze was never equalled u ntil the one of December 13-14 1962. The cold k ill ed back the citrus which was the i ncome backbone of t h e r ailroad T h e unhaPJ>Y own ers leased the road f or ten years to H. B. Plant, who w a s in p r ocess of p utting together the great Atlant i c C oast Line Rail r oad l-Ie operated i t as the Sanford and St. Petersburg railroad until he bought it outright and it bec ame a part of the Atlant i c Coast line Railway a nd as everyone knows a merge r o f it wit h the S A.l. Railwa y is i n process. But despite its "fa ilu re" as a rai l r oad it was a g r eat success; espec i ally i n sofar as St. P e tersburg was con cerned. It started a town on a fortunate site sui table fo r a grea t city, which it has become. Had the rai l s stoppe d at Disston City there would have been no r apport w ith l ampa. If it h ad gon e to Mullet Key, maybe the i ndustrial and port c ity of the S a y wou l d ha ve been there and not a t t h e head of N i llsboro Bay. But i t was so located by the vicissit ud e o f man y chances and m i schances as to be a l ogical comp l ement to T ampa and T ampa to St. Petersburg. And so l et i t be!

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Chapter XV VAGUE VILLAGE The coming of the railroad to deep water on Tampa Bay at the platt ing of St. Petersburg d id not start a boom, as some hoped it would, but it did rathe r quickly form a quiet l itt l e village and kill th e b u dding settleme n t of Disston City o n the shores of Boca Ceiga Bay. T here had been a considerable inf lux of peopl e to th e lower Penins ula as a resul ( of the D!sston adver tisi n g and effor1s at Oisstoo City. and for other cumul ative rea sons that were headin g a fe'"'' people f rom other S t ates and ever' other nations into Florida Before the 'aitroad came these people were scat te red a round as su i ted their occupalions and their tastes. The people whose i nterests were o r iented toward the water, f i shermen and boatmen, were mainly at B i g Bayou. The farmer s and fru i t growers were along Tangerine and lakeview Avenues, t h e peopl e drawn by the Hamillon Oissto n eHoftS at Disston, cattlemen a n d fis herm e n thinly in the n orthwest area and on t h e shores of Boca Ceiga Bay. Then came the railroad and things to jell. Typ ical v.ras Arthur Norwood. An Englishma n a ttract ed by Oisston, he and h i s b rother f irst tried farming at Disston and (ailed He is then fou r,d teac h i ng the firs t school in the area at Tanger ine and Oisston. I n 1889 he opened a grocery at 9th Str eet. After a little he c hanged again to a clothing store at Fourth and Ce n tral. later moved to Fifth, rhe two Huber t Rutland (or i ginally Rut land Brothers) stores . one for women, one for me n now being on the s ite and a con tinuation actually of the Norwood sto re T h e Nor thrup family were first par tners with Norwood, l ate r with Rutland, and finally selli ng oul. Ed Durant and Ed T. lewis. notable pioneer mer chants, arrived in S and 1887, respectively. As soon as the r a i l road fixed the center of things they went into merchandising together at the northeast corner of Th i rd a n d Central. D u rant later branched into tobacco retailing, lewis stuck to his original site and busi ness. T i tle to this land on the east side o( T h i r d Street betwee n Ce n tral and First Avenue Nor th still remains i n th e hands of Lewis descendams C. Durant arrived in 1888 and soon b e cam e invol ved i n th e l u mof downtown St. Pett-r$burs 190S. Never before printed, 100

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Lookln& eut o n Centrl from 4th S tft-fll 19 1 0'11 ber business, e ndi ng up with the town's fir s t lumb er works. Robert Stanton an Englishman settled at Ninth and T anger i ne in 1896, but came the railroad, he moved downtown, his heirs srill owning property in that area Another typical family and movement was tha t of the M cP h e r so n f ami l y In Aug ust, 188 5 Edward B. McPh e r so n and his t h ree sons Edwa rd C., C h arles an d W 1., drove in a wagon fr om D e Land to Dis ston C ity. First the y boug h t land th e r e f rom ] R T o rres, built a h ouse and i n November Mrs M cPherso n and the two daught ers, Ella and Babbett arrived The famil y acquired land o n L ong K ey (Pass a Grillej. They brought sawed lumber from Pensacola and started d lumber yard, which failed. They then bought a set of printing type started a newspaper the Seabreeze, which lasted but a few months Finally they followed rhc railroad, built a home in Ward & Baums Addition, w est o f t h e s mall lake at Seventh Avenue North, where rhe f am i l y mainta ined a home for several decades. The family however, ha s remained p rominentl y identi f ied wit h P as s-a-Gri lle, acqui r i n g lar g e land hol d i ngs o n that Key. T h e r e wa s a defj n i te but minut e s t art of the t ouris t b usiness. A m i l d d imat e was 1he main with two mot ivat ions. health and fishing. To the town1s first hotel the Detroit, severa l others w"re quickly added in response to an obvious demand F irst of the new hotels was the Paxton House1 built in 1890, at the nort hwest corner of Cen tral (t hen (Sixth Avenue) and First Street, i n a n obvious effo rt to appeal more favorab l y than would the D etroi t t o the fisher men and bathers. I n 1693 ]. D. Bates b uilt a small hotel on th e north e ast corn e r of Six Stre et and Sixth Avenue (Cen tra l ) George L K ing, opera tor of the f irst sa wmills i n 101 the area, boug ht this hotel Febru ary 28, 189& and add ed a s t ory and remodeled i t considerably In 190 2 W i lliam H Tippetts, head of a family which have been leaden In the City for over a hall century bought the hotel, changed the name t o Belmont, which it retained until partly torn down and remodeled for modern merchand i s ing under long term leases, on Jun e 2 4 1952 The f ami l y still owns the lee T h e e lder T ippett s d i e d shortly after arriving h ere, but h i s w i d o w Mrs Kathe rin e T i ppett s was a l eade r i n society a nd i n civic beue r ment s f o r a g e ne rati on. Typ i ca l wa s her le adersh i p in sta rtin g Boy Scout work i n Pin ellas County She wa s a lso active in Audubo n Society work. One son, William, became a prominent att o rney and l eader o f th e County Democratic party longer than any other person The other son, Ernes1. founded an engineering business doing a world wide bus iness. In recent years he has relurncd to St. Peters burg and is semi-retired. In 189 4 the wate rfront activit ies drew an o ther ma jor h o t e l The Clare nde n, o n the so uthwest corner ol Firs t Str ee t o pposite the Paxton The most notab l e th i n g about thi s h o t el was tha t it w as built by Dr. W. E Van Blbber The hotel was compl e t e l y d e stroyed by f i r e on December 17, 1699. Van Bibbcr had i n '1885 d e l ive red t h e notab le speech nam i ng P inellas Point the h ea lthi est spot on this earth. A.n important dimens ion was added to the S t Perersburs economy in 1869 # bringing with it a man sturdy physically and a power during his remaining l i fe time# beca use of his fine cha racter and sound but kindly b u siness pri n ciples a nd practices Henry W Hib bs His brother Walter M Hibbs, was a worthy associa t e in e v ery way. U n fortu nal e l y th ere are not now ny ma l e descendants i n t he C ity, but the wome n of the fami l y are good c i tize ns who pe r petuat e a li n e fami l y of Ame r ica ns. Origina lly located

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on t h e Rail road p i er at First Aven u e South, t he H i bbs business removed to Bayboro at 10 1 6 T h i rd Street South. T h e present P i nellas Seafood Compa ny, 1533 T hird Street South, is a con ti nuati o n under a changed name of the p i o n eer H ibbs bus i ness. T h e H i bbs brothers for two decades stoutly maintained their legal resi dence a t their old home i n Nort h C ar olina, and r eturned there to vote. K ar l Gri smer i n his "Sto r y of St. Petersburg 1 946 edition, abl y tells the balan ce of t he Hibbs story. "During the 1890s commercia l f i shing \ 1V a s t h e p r i ncipal i ndustry of St. Pet ersburg, emp l oy i ng t h e most men. When the O r ange Belt cons tr ucted the pier i n Hl88 89, i t built o n i t a numbe r of warehouses One of t hese was leased duri n g t h e s u mme r of 1889 by Henr y W Hibbs, a native o f North Car oli n a who had gone to Tampa a few years before and b een e ngaged in t h e f i s h ing bus iness. H ibbs had b
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emergencies .. a man on horseb.1ck could m ake the round trip in two days. The early fisherm en, but princi pally the cattlemen slowly established a trai l from B i g Bayou that wan dered ou1 lakeview to the early houses in the Oisston City area, thence followed the high r i dge generally i n the 0Jsston Bfvd. area to catt l eman. camps i n m i d Pin ellas and d i mly con n ected with the rnai n tra i l l eading fr om Clear Water and India n Rocks to th e main trail around the head of O l d Tampa Bay. The fishermen of Boca Ceiga Bay and the point now h ousing the Veterans Hosp ital at Bay Pines angled a trail northeast to connect with the O issron B lvd. r oad. Bur after 1he railroad grass and brush gre\ ... in mos t of these wagon rut \fails. St. Petersburg by now had begun to have varied strings to i1s economic bow ; vegetable farming. c-itrus. stock raising, commercia l fishing. swimming. sports fishing, winter health resort summer fun resort There began to develop dvic and co mmunity dif fituH ies due to the fact that all governmen tal authority and offic ials were l ocated in Tampa, a nd the transac tion of eve n th e most trivial kind o f legal bu s iness th at cou l d n o t be handled by s low mail, required a tediou s trip consum ing at least a day and having consi derable cos t attached. There began to be talk of incorporat i on of a town. The vague feeling of need wa s c rystallized by a relat ively m inor but irritating thing And that matter was the utter lack of any police authority to stop fights and aue s t r he increasing number of drun ks. There was no vestige of law i n the community. T h e Hillsborough Sheriff did not have refused to establis h a dep u ty i n St. P e tersburg T here was no j ail But there were two s alo o n s and the i ncreasing nu mber of Hsh erme n and b oa tm en, as well as citizen s with a thirs t f rom ot h er walk s o f l ife .. made thi s elemental la c k In gover nm ent a v e xing one. A meeting of the town elders re s ulted in a deter m i nation 10 i ncorporate and the call was made for an election on February 29 1894 Two slates promptly appeared ; one for continuation of open one against T he election had the following results;-Mayor: Council: Clerk : Marshall: AntiSaloon David Moffett George L Ki111 Charles Durant Arthur Norwood F ra.nlc Massie ). C. Willims, Jr. Wm. ). McPherson S. A. Sloan 21 22 18 25 22 27 26 1 8 103 Mayor: Coun oil: Clerk: Marshall: S..loon john C. Williams, Sr. H. W. Hibbs H. Martin G. W. Anderson T A. Whitted ) Baum ).Torres C. W G ill 10 6 9 7 7 1 5 13 And oddmenr of this election, which was a con siderab l e embarrassment in the founding Williams family1 remem bered by some member s of the family to this good day, was tha t Papa Williams was sou ndly tr ounced for Mayo r al though he l ed his open saloon ticke t by one vote whereas his son was el ected t o Council with the to p vote cast that historic day. Mr. Hibbs, who wa s a responsible citizen had a change of heart politically thcrefter, alt h o ugh he per sonally was a moderate drinker, as was known lhrough a personal warm and admiring fr i endsh i p w ith 1he lwo H i bbs brothers by this wri ter As a result of h i s change of position as to a governme nta l po1i cy Mr. Hibbs was elected as the second Mayor of St. Petersburg. and both h e and Mr. Moffett served creditab l y and to t he e n t ir e satisfaction of a majority of th e ci tizens of the new town. A l most rhe fir s t hasty act of the n e w City Governm e nt was to build a jail, as is r epo rted in more detail, in th e specia l report on the h i story of the Police Department. which appears i n a separa te chapter lat er The argument lor and against open saloons continued to be a burning and biucr eleclion issue from the v ery first election until open s aloons were voted out of ex i stenc e first in St. Petersburg, t hen in rhc County, even tuall) brieOy and uneasily in the nation. But 1he o ld swi ng i ng bar-room door was eliminaled for e v er from S t Petersburg, to be r ep l aced l ater with "barS11 and "cocktai l l o un ges" i n a more t ole rant and sophisticated day. Thus we lind St. Petersburg l aunched as a city w i th an uncertain sense of directi on as t o its eco nomic and socia l destiny with but the fainteSl glimpse, il any, o f it s s ignificant purpose in the life of a great State and a great nation. And what of th e color and of tourist life and leisure in !hat far day! For a s the world speeds on its way in th i s meteoric agenearly three quar t ers of a cen tury is a long. long time indeed l h is writer in re a ding. studying and living i n this community fo r ove r ha l f a century has n eve r read anything tha1 answers that question as well, as color fully, as i s told in two thin booklets called "Off Hand

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---b mout SMU fltft
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down the Bay and return laden with f ish and oysters whic h are the p r in cipa l articles of com m er ce from St. Peter s burg "The s ite o f St. Petersburg and th e lands i n view f rom lhe dock, a re b y some writers called bold bluffs but the b l utry feature is not visible to the naked eye. Main running east and west, rises from the water's edge gently for some six hundred yards, and my in for mat i on i s that the e l evation i s s ix tyfive feet abov e the bay at h i gh t i de I would have guessed it, fr om appearance, at thirty five to forty feet ''It is claimed for the gulf coast that the air i s drier than Minnesota. It is said that fish and game, hung in the o pen ai r dry up and hard en without b ecoming offensive, being simi lar t o the j e rked meat so well known on the plains during the Mexican war an d long thereafter .. Aiter enjoying the morning hou r i n l ooking over the site o f the town I followe d the ge n e r al llde of tra vel ou t on the dock t o observ e the fishing I fo und fifteen or t we n ty men an d women engaged i n fishing, and they were catching sea trout sheephead black fish grouper flounders pig fis h toad fish drum fish, and some other kin ds. The trout was the leading fish being c aught during th e f irst few day s that I was on t he dock. I had been used to fis hing from a boat where I sat but a f e w inches above the surface of th e wate-r. Her e I had to stand some eight o r te n feet above the s urface and found my rod and tackle not s uited to the chang e d condition and sur ro un dings I caught some fish, however, ahc r som e change s i n my e q u ip men ts, an d t h e second da y I was ou t I ca u g h t s ix. trout and a pig i n less than an hou r During the f irst three or four day s I was on the dock I noticed the pelican two k ind s of sea gulls and an occ.Jsion a l loon. and many sea or fis h duc k s as some one called the m These, especially the pelicans and gulls, were i n immens e numbe rs, a n d lh ey would d i ve for min nows wil h i n t wenty fce1 from th e end of the fish erman 's pole Dur ing these fe w days persons with net s had no troubl e in dip ping up all the best bait for trout fi s h i ng that the crowd required Bai t could be d i pped up by the sco r e within thirty f eel or where the trollt wer e biting the same bait But the t h i r d an d fo u rth day s afte r my arr i val here, I saw out a l i ttle b e yond the end o f the dock, pelicans gulls, l oons and ducks, all i n count less thousands h ove ring ove r the water and act i ng as if almost crazed for food 'lOS feb. 14, 1893 "We have three hotels at St. Petersburg, one larg e and two small ones. S ince february 1st they have been preny well filled w i th guests, and none have d i ed, s o far a s I h ave be en abl e to lear n At the Paxton liouse, where ab o ut twent y f ive people get their meals and from fi ft een to twenty are lodged, t here has not been, s i nce I h ave been here (now five weeks), a singl e per>on confine d t o be d by sickness. It i s tru e t hat many of u s cou g h but i t is equ ally tru e that the most o f u s cough less than when we c ame here N o w rhesc ar e the facts so far as St. Petersbur g is concerned "I regard the climate h e re on T ampa Bay as v ery near perfection, and that the breezes from the pi n e woods or fro m th e sal t wat e r are hea l thful, pleasant and inv i gora ting. In coming ro Florida I did not expect to lind an agr i c u ltura l country, nor did I expe c t to see hay s tacks, corn b i n s, Durham or Pole Angu s c attle or Berk shire Chesl er White or Poland C h i na hogs. "A cou ntry where th e o range blossom s blow; where the pineapp l e is a native and the cocoa an easv trans-plant ; where the r i pens in January and the w U d vegetatio n springs up during the e a rly days or February, is not th e country fo r hay corn, hogs and c attle, nor did I expect t o find it suc h ; and s o I a m not d isappointed by th ei r absen ce. I am delighted with the country for the use I have for and am spendin g my time contentedly, and bel i eve I am benefitted by being here ). H S." Feb. 16, 1893 "The best estimate I could make of the number o f person s who w e r e still fishing at 5 p.m wa s 120, and e v ery fls henman had his o r her pile o f macke r el I think there w er e full 2,000 caught d u ring the afternoon. "I hav e been somewhat carefu l i n my description o f Tam pa Bay and its s u rround ings, (or I bel ie ve in c:;limatic con dit i ons it is the cream of Florida Other sections may raise more oranges and other fru its and vegetables but the climati c conditions here in wint er appro ach perf ect i on. Feb. 20, 1893 "l'h e steam er Marga ret is a mail steamer, as I u nderstand il, and makes a daily trip from Pon T ampa down the ba y to the main gulf

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aroond to some point on the Mana tee River We have a Manatee River. and a M a natee County. and M.natee is the name of a sea cow whi c h once flourished in the waters of Southern Florida, and is now n ea r l y if not en t ire l y e xti nct. A s o ur boat ap p roac hed Egm o n t K e y i t seem e d to b e beauti fully w oode d but on c loser i ns p ect ion I fo und th e beau tilul gr een woods was all p al mettos, c alled her e t h e cab bage palmeno. The is l and is perh aps a m i l e and a h alf long. ext ending into t h e m ain g ulf by, perhaps, a little over a half mile wide. As I had been directed, after turning over my lunch to my lady friend I took the left or southeaSI side of the k ey, in advance of all others, and wit h b a sket in hand comme n c ed my searc h l o r she lls I was t h e onl y p erso n i n the cro w d w h o made the tri p ent i r el y arou n d the isl and I had on r ubber b oo ts, an d w a de d In th e e d g e o f the surf as it beat u p from t he g u lf, and my tr i p w a s but little, if any s h ort of six m iles. I gat hered m y ba sket so full of shells th at I d i d n ot h a v e room for another I wa.s h ungry. wor n and ti red when I retu r ned to the dock, but proud in the v ictory ol an en tire circuit of the key, with more shells than any person whose stoc k I had the opportunity to investigate. Feb. 22, 18 9 3 "It i s bu t repe a ti n g w h a t I h a v e s a i d i n sub s t ance b e f o r e t h at a r ound Tam p a Bay the c limati c c o n d ition s i n w inte r p resen t a nca r approach t o p e r fecti o n I. H 5." Feb. 26, 1893 .. 1 note that a mong the visitors to Florida_,. stopp ing at SL Peter.;burg. a very large proportion ar e g r a y ha i red, and many of them past sevent y Whi le the a n cient sto r y ol t h e "Fountain of Youth" i s not credite d anyw h e re, the o l d o ne s a r e i ncli n ed t o the opi nion tha t l i f e may b e prolonge d b y a c hange f r o m the severity o f our northern wint er s to the semitropi c a l o r s u b-tro pical c l i m a tes o f c en tra l or sout her n Flo r i d a I hav e me t co n sumptives h e r e w h o hope for relie f from t heir m a lady, but a large per centum o f the transiencs now at St. Petersburg ar e o l d men of lair vi gor and in good health, who have escaped from the severity of the northern cl i m ate to Tampa Bay where t h e climatic co ndit i ons in F ebruary a r e like our in n ort h Missou r i." Feb 27, 1 893 "On Monday night U ncle l a k e Miller o f Washing t o n, P a.; L. St e war t, o f Sch ene ctad y 1 06 N Y ; S S Griffi t h, of Indianapol is, Indiana_ and your most obedient servant made arrangement with the owner of rhe Marmi on a small s t eam tug which is usually employed in shippi n g fis h from the fish camps down among t he keys, t o t ake us down t o the pass a t a dolla r e ach fo r t h e r ound trip. "Alter p assi ng th e sout h end o f P i n e Key w e had l o n g Key d i r ec t l y i n o u r front, wit h a view thro u gh the p ass t o t h e main gu lf. Oown the pass to the sou th we could see Egmont Key and t h e Government ligh t House abou t e ight miles dis tant I visited Egmont a few weeks since, and gave a hasty description perhaps to the T imes. We finally landed at a rick ety dock on the east side o f Long Key, and a w alk of 600 or 800 feet carried us a c ross the isla n d to t h e west side, w h e r e w e stood in a w e an d w o nder, at t he edge o f th e surf as i t beat up agai n s t the n arro w b elt of l and f r o m the Gulf o f M e x i c o "T h e f o u r o f u s each w ith bask e t o n arm, started dow n t h e beac h in q uest of s h ells. W e retu rned to th e b o a t i n about two hou r s w ith bas kets well filled. I had provided myse l f wit h a larger bas ket than I had on previous trips to the gull. and I gathered it full, in some variery. In quantiry I gathered as many as my three companions. Neither of them wanted m any, and t hey gat h ered wit h care and o f t h e choicest v arie t ies; b ut I was a her q u a n t i t y as well. W e p a r took of o ur lunch befo r e l a n d i n g and so los t no time a t d i n ner. No o ne lives o n l ong Key, tha t is, so far as w e saw i t T h er e i s a n old shac klin g house but n o tena nt. O n P i ne Key t her e is one I n ha bitant and a fishing camp. Th e inhabitant is a reg u l a r Robinson Crusoe, l ivi n g all a l one. and his e n t ire outfit of clothing. including hat and shoes, would not c ommand f ifty cen1s in a second hand store. I conversed with him and found him qui te int elligent. He has lived o n this island several years He left a you n g and growing family i n New Yo r k Had come t o F l or i da h unting health. Had f ou n d i t, b u t met with s ome fi n ancial tr oubl e an d I s working h is way u p fis hin g, gat her i ng s h ells, sea oats f o r o r n ame n ta ti on an d any th ing e lse lor w hi c h h e can find a market" March 9, 1893 "This morni<1g with Mr. Thomas, of Bed lord, Mass. ; Mr. Stewart, of Schenectady, N. Y and Mr. Co le, of B u f f alo, N Y .; I had a tri p o n hand to the M a n at ee R i ver, some 3 5 o r 40 miles down t h e bay the way of Egm o n t Key O u r boat, the Margaret was d u e to lea ve the dock abo ut 8 A.M. and befo r e t hat hou r 1 w en t o u t t o t he end o f th e d oc k a nd r ebaited o u r s h a r k hook and w en t o n my w a y

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The Be lmont Hotel. N E corner of 6th and Centr.al. 1902 rejoicing We had a de l ightfu l tr i p down t h e bay to Egmont wher e our boat la nded an ex cursion of some 30 or 40 men women and c hildren for a s h ell h unt, but my especial party were bound for the end of the run on the Manatee R i ver. "from Egmon t our course was nearly due east at the f oot as you m i gh t s ay, of the Tampa Bay, about 1 0 or 1 2 m i les to the m o u th of the Manat ee R i ver. The mouth o f t h e r i ver is indicated by l and o n the rig h t and l a n d on the left, low .1nd uninteresti ng, bur covered w i th pa l metto, p ine a n d man g r oves, all evergr een and inte r est i n g i n t heir way. Our course then was up the r i ver in an easterly direct i o n The r iver seemed to be about 1200 yards wide at t h e mouth and for some miles up. I not i ced a p r etty heavy popul ation on the shores espec i ally on t h e south side of t h e r i ve r I noted o r ange g r oves a n d tru ck gar den s and ev i dences of a rathe r thrifty popu l at i on, tho u g h it i s plain to be seen that a lar ge po r t ion of the popul a t i on, are peop l e from the north who win t e r in F lorida. Our boa t was a mai l boat and we stopped at all t h e villages, among which I noted Pal metto B r ade n town, E lle n to n and o n e or two ot h e r s t h e n ames of which have escaped me. We finally stopped at a wood stat i on; wooded a n d started on o u r return about r :10 p.m March 1 2 1693 "During the past week Mr. Thomas, of New Bedford, Mass who I have menti o ned befo r e took a horse bac k r ide across the peninsu l a to Diston City; and a m il e t o the east o f D i s t on h e made the acquai nt ance o f an old ci tizen by t h e name of Puig (pronou nced Pooc h ) a Spani a rd, and in spite of his sixty years, and of h i s eighteen years reside n ce o n t he coast, he speaks E n g l ish with evident difficulty. He has on h i s small far m, as I hast i l y v i ewed i t, o ranges, l emons, dates, palms, bananas, pecans, scuppe r nong g r apes a nd a fai r s i zed c a bbage pa t ch. 107 Manual Tuinins School; 4th Street and 1St Ave n u e Soul h 1900 T h e con veya nce con sisted of a rather heavy road wago n not a spring wago n -with 1\vo spr i ng seats, a1ld draw bt O'le mule. The d r ive r a M r K i mba ll a rel ative of Mr. Pui g called t he m u le J i m. With t h i s outfi t, four of us and the d r iver, star ted fo r Disto n some five o r s ix m iles across t h e pen insu I a The mule, J i m, was of regulat ion colo r -a yellowi s h b r indle, with a s t r i pe a l ong the back; bu t t h e gai l was s l ow. Jim carried h i s head low, a n d h i s ears f l opped forwa r d l ike a mule already fati gued. When the driver woul d h i t h i m on the r ight s i de, J im woul d make a gracefu l c u rve to the l eft and when h i t on the left s i d e t h e c u rve w a s r eversed, b u t i n neit h er event was t h e speed per cep tibly acce l e r ated March 1 8, t893 I migh t write more and i n g r eate r deta i l about Tampa Bay, the Manatee R i ver, Egmon t Key, Pas de Ag rille Boca Ciega Day, Clear water Ha rbor, a n d t h e shells to b e f o u nd o n t h e gul f side of any of t h e Keys, and t h ere i s muc h more that might be sai d about t h e P i nellas Peninsula its prod u ctions, its ponds, its marshes its alligato rs, its l ong l eaf e d p i n e forests, its hammocks, its palmettos, its scrubs of the same name, i t s air pla n ts, its Span ish mosses its b i rds a nd its flowers, but a g l ance at a ll t hese is all I can f u r nish w ithout mor e work than I came to Flori da to do. "I presume that none of yo u r reade r s con templa t e i nvestme n t down here, but if t hey do I would not w ish to d i sco u rage them All i n all a n d t o svm i t up i n a nu t shell, my con clu s ion i s that th i s bay affo rds man y good places to l ive. In fact I r egard St. Petersb u rg as one o f the best, i f n or the ve r y best pla c e to live I h ave ever seen; but taki ng all t h e places I have me nt i oned together, t hey fu r n ish per haps fewer oppo r tun i t ies of m a k i ng a l ivi ng t han a n y co un try of t he same scope with i n my knowledge."

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March 26, 189 3 "I t o l d h i m no din ner for me, j e r ked on my rubbe r coat, fo r it was rai n i ng, wen t down to t he office and found t h e r e M r Hillia r d a vet eran fisherma n o n our doc k w ho had brough t the news 01 my catch a n d h e i n f orm ed m e tha t I had a l atge s h ark on my hook. "Wit h th e aid of M r W i lliams I broug h t him to t he p i l i ng a n d d r ew his head a bove water. We t h e n made a n oose and th rew it down over him; a nd whi l e w e had t w o thicknesses oi 318 rope on h i m, many thought t hey would b reak w i t h his w e i gh t a n d w e t hre w down a no t her noos e thus giving fou r plies of 3/8 rope all well a tta c hed. W e t h e n ha u le d in a nd w i th t he unit ed s tr en gth of ten men we pulled h i m on t he d ock a n d t h a l lowed u nt i l I was h o arse. "He meas ured 10 fee t a n d t wo i n c hes i n length a nd his w ei g h t was guessed a nywhere 108 f r om 350 to 500 p ou nds. The guessi ng a t weigh t is an uncer t a i n t h i n g ; but this one was a w h opper I stood by i ) the r a i n to see i t disemboweled a n d f rom his s t omach I saw dis c h a r ged a n d lai d out on the dock, 23 hors e s hoe c rabs, s h e ll and all o n e duck, w h ole a n d with n o evidence of the comme ncement of digestio n ; one bon e or 1 2 inc h e s l ong and as t h ick as your a rm; the ha l f o f a cow's ho of; several s mall par ticle s of hoof, and a p i ece of manilla or other ro pe sub s tan ce, not par ticu l arly no t e d. All th i s was tak en f r o m the stomac h o f t h i s sea monster and I s tood i n the rai n and w i thou t my d i n n e r ? to see it" To s u m i t all up, i f }'OU had a way t o make a l iv i n& or h ad i t a lready ma de; t h ose f e w score who came i n 1893, l i k e Co l one l S h a nklin, though t St. Petersbu rg a very very n ice p lace to l ive i ndee d for a week o r a l i f etime. And the h u n d re d s o f t h ousand w h o come now, i n t h e main, s till do.

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Chapter XVI F. A DAVIS: THE V I SIONARY MAN Orings. his firsl major effort was to r evive Diss t on C i ty whi ch h e fenam cd Gulfport. He then m o ved the sea t of h i s efforts t o St. Pet ersb u rg becaus e by tha t time the peopl e w e r e t her e When ba n krupt c y drove him from S t P e t e r s b urg. h e foun ded Pin ellas Park. AI each poi n t he s tart e d with la n d h e bought from t h e Oisston estate. And more chan fr om anyone perhaps everyone e J se. he operated with money in vesed or loaned by Jacob Oisston a survivin g brother of Hamolton Jacob, and the coterie of friends and a ssociates he dragged from Philadelphia over a period of 30 years, financed the devel opment of St. P cter$burg. Dav i s in effect, by consent of the family under took 1 0 liqu i dat e th e D i ss ton h o ld ings i n Pinellas Cou n t y T h e 't68S Van B ibbe r paper ex t olli ng the h eal th ful ne ss and phys i ca l deligh t s o f P o int un doubtedl y firs t attra c ted Davi s t o St. P e t e rsb u rg. It was th e printing of that speec h and th e n ational broad cast i n g of It by Da vis tha t f irst sen t the bro.1dcaS1er to wha1 Van Bibber was talking abou t It was the reade rs oltha t speech who Slarted the first tric k le of travel to P inell a s which has s w elled over the years into the flood that >till pours down during t hese mode r n days So it woul d see m well worthwhile to star t at the beginning a nd l e ll in mor e ord e r l y an d coheren t fashio n th e Davis s t o r y whi c h in m a ny o ther p hases, i s an Imp ortan t a n d i n tegra l part o f t h e St. P ete rsburg s t ory

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First out of S ta t e publ k ity folder by the St. Petersburg Board o f Tude 1 9 0607 Paid f()r by r A. l)avls. F. A. Mr & Mrs. F. A. Davis looking West on Cen1ral Avenue at 4th St. 1906 110

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Publi sher Davis The F. A Davis Co., Pub lishers 1914 Cherry Street, was founded b y DaviS in 1879, and was the principal bus iness of his lifetime. The company .. still own e d by I he family, and opera1cd al 1he same ad dress, I s a l>rincipal publ isher of medica l books and pcriudica ls, a n d of nat ional stature in m e d ical p r i n ti n g and the world of Th e full Dav i s n ame was fr.1nk A l h r o n Dav;s. In cidentally, this wri ter has reacJ sco res o f Davis publications, booklets, letter s and oth e r documents, and h as assiduously scar(hed h i gh and l o w and as far a s his eyes have ever seen .. this is the first time t har the subject of these words h.as been n.11med in print other than as "F A Davis .'' Davis second w i fe was .1s remarkable a woman i n her own way as Davis was a man. She died July 8, 1964 bur wa s a ( t i ve president of the F. A Davis Co. lhrough her 8Sih year. Th e persona l biography of these lwo r ema r kab le people I s well and i ntimate l y tol d in a pe rsonal l etter to this wrilcr from Robe r r H Craven/ or t he Davi s Co., daled Mar ch 29, 1966: (Mr. Crave n i s a neph e w of Mrs. Davis.) "The stone on his g rav e gives his b i rth date as 1850 and he died in January, 1917 You know aboul his son by his firs t wife; and, of course .. m y aunt was his second wife. They were marr i ed in 1896. 1-te came f rom a rarm n ear Montpelier, Vermont, and was a schoo l r eacher a t the tim e he came t o Philadelp hia H e went to wor k as a book salesman for William W ood and Co. a Briti s h firm, the l ar8e st distributor of med ica l books i n the United States at the time. H e the prese n t company i n 1879. It w.1s Incorporat ed in '1901 and we moved into our present building al that time. You know how he bame i nterested in Florida and probably a greal dea l more about how he bame i n volved than I know. Mrs Davis was Elizabeth I rene C raven. She used the name Irene. 1>any we publis h ed most l y med i c al book s for pract ici n g physi ci ans She ex111 perimented with educational books. which achieved some success but were finally given up. "Her bigges t contribuuon to rhe comp.tny was ob1aining the services o f Mr. C W Taber. who est ab l i shed a l ine of nurs ing l cxtbooks, and sales eve ntually cx(ceded th ose o f al l the o1he r publ ications He a lso (Ompilcd ,, m ediC31 dict ionary w h i c h i S ()O(l O f the best selling med ical books of all tlinc Taber' s CYCLOPE D I C MEDICAL D ICTIONARY. last year we went ove1 the 1 00.000 mark with the sale of 117, 000 copie:S. We ar c now nearing the 2,000.000 mark in total >ales. Dav i s had no children of h er but she took me in i n 1927 al the age o f five." Davi s Promotes Ci ty S t P e t ers burg was f orcefully and favorably present ed 1 0 1he peop l e oi tht' n alion, particu l arly i n the Phi l ade l phia area and al ong the fas t er n Sfl aboard i n vari od way s i n r>ri n t by Davis F irSt ht! printed th e Van Bibbcr art icle "The H ealt h iest Spot o n faflh" i n t h e nariona l magaz ine of the Am er i can Medical Journal and distributed thousands of extra copies printed at his expense He p r inted ilems, thin on m edical con tent. thick on real estate promotion. for Pinellas Pen in sula in his medical magazine. In 1896 he printed a 132 page book, with a Pinellas P eninsul .. map, profusely and interestingly illustrated, devoted entirel y to extolling the virtues and wonders of St. P e t ers burg. G u lfport, Tarpon Spri ng s and Pi n ellas i n general. T h is book was widel y ciis tr ihvt c d. C r aven ptesented t h i s w1i1er with a copy, very n ear l y l a s t one in the possession o f the Davi s C o. Davi s a poet of cons i derab le ll'H:!rit p r i nted a bookie! of h is poems under th e title, "l'oems of the P i n ell.u." and sent it to hundreds o f friends and a(quaintances Poem tiUes included "Tarpon Springs," "Anclote' s Winding Str e am." A Dre am of PassaGrille But he surrendered in despair seeking to s u b l ima1e I he harsh word "$1. Petersburg ... into rhyme. l'c rhap s his moSI effec! i ve publicu y effort for St. Peter s burg was t he once famed 1 906 booklet "Sou veni r S t P ete rsburg, The P l easu r e City of the South. II c l a i ms is suance "By Authority o ( S t Pet ers b u r g Board of T rade," an organi z ation Dav i s was in strumental i n reviving The a c tu a l ity wa s that t h e B oa r d 38 r ee d lo underwrite the cost defa u l ted and DaviS paid most of the bill. Th e book o f 6 4 r>ases, 8 x 11 inches, is on slic k paper, has scores of pictures of h istoric an d artist i c merit. Reproductions are fre quently seen in current publications. Many are reproduced in his book. "florida" Magazin e Mosl r ema rkably but almos t unknown and l ost in th e dust of time, Davis started a magazine Florid a i n j anuary, 1905 j us t before his Pin ellas empi r e col l apsed It had a short l i f e T h e first i s s u e had a r l i cles on tarpon f ishinR al Passa-Grill e (Davis s pelled it Passa-

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Grille) ; the Manatee Rive r D isston C ity, the pre historic Cull Coast Ind ians. T his a rticle th e picture of a round shell mound, apparently the one a f ter which Mound Park Hospi tal is named. These publications, along with the efforts of Davis and others, brought a stream of visitors and set tler s and, with them, pre.ssing necessity for e nlarged or ad ditional municipa l fdCilities and improvements. These came in r apid fire ord e r T he v ill age soon changed into a fairly thriving town. Many persons and, in fac t mos t came through Davis' efforts. A brief chr onological s tatement of them is perhaps t h e most effect ive way to desc ribe the ran s formation: S ignificant Events 18q1 Alter a long campaign by th e W T .I.A. (Wome n 's Town Improvement Associati o n ), m oney was finally raised t o bui l d wooden sidewal k s on both s id es of Central from Fourt h to Second S t ree ts Shell replaced the wood in 1895 and asphalt the s h ell In 1900. 1892 -Feb 29 Town incorporated. The act was conrested in court, but ratified by the legi slature in June 1893 Meanwhile, the Town functioned anyhow. 1892 -In April a town jail, tO by 12 feet, was buill at a cost ot SJ7 68 1 893 -July 18. Bonds for $7,000 authorized by a vote of 39 to 1 to buil d the Town's first school. For severa l years the town and its officials were ignoran t of the fact chat town school bonds were illega l this right being reserved to 189 3 William s Par k remai n e d i n i t s raw s tat e f rom 1886 to 1693, whe n a women's o r gani z ation "The Park l rnprovcmcnt Associ ation,'' was form ed. An officia l "Park Day" was h e l d and the men, e ncouraged and nourished with ice c r eam cake and coifee grubbed o ut th e palm e ttoes and la id walks A fence was built to e>e lude hogs and cattle, and the first bandstand errec t e d in 1895. Th e officers were Mf1. George L K i ng. president (her husband owned the community's first sawmill) ; Mrs George Anderson. vice-president; Mrs. Jeanette Baum (husband a n early subdivider and d eveloper). se<:.retary and tre-asurer Th e m e mbers were Mrs. Ferdon (her husband, city's first archi tect) Mrs. A W e lton, Mf1. Sa rah Willi a ms (widow of Jo h n C. William s ) M rs C Durant, Mrs. Branch, Mrs Molly Allen Mrs C B Hai n es ( husband furn ished name f o r Haines Road, now 66t h S treet a n d U.S. 19 in N orth P inellas), Mrs Burc hf i e ld Mrs. W. f. McPherson, (he r family s t arted th e firs t newspaper th e S e a breeze) Mrs A rthur Norwood, Pearl and May Mof fett (papa was an early m ayor), Mrs. W ill McP h erso n, E d na Bado let M ay Kin g and C race Oaum. P ond Filled In 1894 -''The Swa l c," which was l itera lly a pond following heavy rains, on Ce n tra l between Second a n d Third S tr eets, was tilled i n The ladie s in 1891 had elevaled their wooden walkway across the s wafe f ive 1 12 Council m e mbers T. f McCall, C. Durant,/. C. Hoxie T M Clar k and T A. Whitted, borrowed the money from the local bank until town ta< es could be col leeted co repay t hem. 1894 -C. W. Springstead hard surfaced, w ith shell from Mound Park. the principal downtown street intcrse<:rions. Some shell was sprinkled in the ru t s wagon wheels cue i n the deep sand 1895 -F. A Davis visits St. Petersburg. 1897 Cent ra l w as "paved" with pebble phosphate screeni n gs from the Bay t o Ninth S treet with a loop arotJnd Mirror lake (th e n Reservoir lak e, mu c h wider and s h a llo wer than n o w) T h a t loop was for a long t i me the town's one p l easur e d rive. 189 7 -Feb 2, Dav i s received a n e lectri c p ower franch ise a f ter a r efere ndum vote; and mov e d his power p lant which h e had firs t s tarted In Tarpon Spr ings a yea r previo u s to St. Pet ersburg but it fai l e d. H e built plant where the St. Petersburg Yac ht C lub n o w stands, the bui lding being the w e ird es t patch work of iron, lumber and glue ever assembled for a power s:ta.lion. Dav is had a SO-Watt s t ation Many a private business in the rt o f the P e nin s u l a Telephone Company, which eventuall y sold t o the present owners, General Telephone Company, and thus St. Petersburg gradually joined the w orld. 1899 S t. P etersburg Board of Trade organi>:ed. II soon d ied. 1899 March 8. $5, 000 in bonds tor sewers were defeated 9 t o 1. SS,OOO was approved lor a water plant 17 to 5 These bonds were dedared illegal, but a second issue for $10, 000 was approved and validated May 23 by a vote of 31 10 9. A lank was buill at Fifth Stree t and Second Avenue on the northeast corner and water setving th e downtown business turned o n Dec. 12 1699. The water cam e from M i rror lake 1900 The 1 900 census measured th e Davi s im pact on the Tow n T h is censu s s howed 1 575 peopl e in 1900, compared w i t h the appr oximat e l y 274 o f 1890. First Chamber o f Comme rce 1902 Boa r d reorganized as S t Pe tersbur g Chamber of Commerce but soon died. 1902 -Davi s got a franchise f o r a s treetcar l ine Feb 4 1902 He SJ>ent almost two and a half years raising capital mostly from Jacob Disston He opened his fine Sept 28 1904 The line t ermina ted at

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one end ar Ninth Str eet and Fiflh Avenue Nonh, thence to Cencral Avenue; to Ninth Stree t thence south t o Booke r Creek The nClc"t fea r i t went o n to then west t o 55th S trster and school's end, in this day. 113 Board of Trade 1906 -March 1 5. Chamber of Commerce reo r ganized ar. Board of Trade again fi rs t office r s wer e i n flue nt ia l and prominent 1own leaders. Th e y were: Judge J D B ell, p r esid e nt ; C. A Harvey ( h e c reated Bayboro}, first vic e p res id ent; Koy S Hanna, second vice pres1den1: T. A. Chancellor (lhe t owns first great banker) treasurer; Dr. A B Davis, secretary (son of f. A. Davi s) 1 907 -Came the 1907 panic, a localized m o ney panic th ai i nvolved. with dest ructive virulence, th e Tampa Bay area. T h e Davi s empir e collapsed. All o f h is compar,ies -the rand compa n y, railway. e lectri city and boat we(e thrown into receivership Frank Harrison, one of the hardwar e store brothers, was made r eceiver, and Davis dropped from the St. P eters b u rg story But D avis was far from through. For one l h i ng ablear'd p o,ve rfu l peop le he was In s tru men t a l i n l>ri nging loSt. and their a rc fo r ces tn the c it y and county until chis day. Notabl e among th e m was GeorgeS. Gandy Sr. ol Phil adelphia. Gandy had had a distinguished in streelcar managem enr and ownership in Philadelphia in mir,ing a n d o ther activit ies in th e west. R e l a ted by marriag e t o th e Disston fam i l y and consult ed freque nr l y by D a v is, he became a cquainted with St. P ewrs burg a n d ol tho>e connections plu s his greac love lor yac hcing. wedded himself to St. P elersburg for the remainder of his life, lhus introducing ham 10 1he mosl spectacular bus i ness venture of his career 1he Gandy Br idge, the success of which had a profound i mpa c t o n St. Pecersburg s u r passed by few o che r e vent s if t'ny, i n import anrc. Pinell as Park But wilh quenchless enthu5iasm, Davis refused to depart the scene of his first failure. He soon gathered new re-sources, new associati o n s, made a huge acreage purchase northwest of St. Petersburg. and staned a new town, Pin ellas Park. He sel out industr iousl y to mak e this commun i ty an agricu l t ura l or,e His fir s t spec tacular venture was the c reation o f a Florida can e syrup and )ugar com plex aga1n borrowing from Ham ilton Disst:on toteplanted flourishing cane fields stretchin g as far south as 38th Avenue Nonh, buill a cram r ailway t o carry the cane t o his mill on 1he west side of the ACL tra c ks north of Park Boulevard, and had som e s uCCr:!Ss maki ng Flo rida cane syrup. Among those he gathered t o help him w e r e lames Shoecrafl and Pat McDevi tt th e first skilled i n agricultur e, the second in consttucrion. )ames Shoccrafl eventually became perhaps !he fi rst suc cessful. pioneer i n a bus i ness which has becom e o n e of the imponant and pictur esque industrir.s o f F l orida, growth o f perishable flow ers lor north e rn markets, carried 1he r e principally by air plane. H e a lso became a goo d count y commiss i o ner one ollhe first Republicans elected lo public office i n P i nellas County.

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McDev i tt was i n c h arge of all i mport ant const r u c tion for Davis Even t u a lly h e ass u med a sim ilar pos i t i o r l with thi s w riter and was the builde r o f the Jung l e Prado Build i n g A son, Frank 0 McDevi tt, has had a long and dist i ng u ished career as an a tt orney for the City of St. Pet ersb urg. Park in Trouble But i n "1915-1 6 the v i llage of P i n ellas Par k a p r e tt y st raggli ng and anem i c c h i l d a t the t i me, fell upon evi l days T hos e two s u mmers wen:-ones of ex cess ivef y h eavy ra i ns and flo ods, pa r t i ally p reci pitated by a flurry of misses a n d n ea r misses by wander i n g h u rricanes (o n e d idn' t m i ss), and for severa l month s i n the s ummer o f 19 1 6 Park Bou l evard was man y i nches, i n som e places a foo t or so under w ater. Th i s wri te r drowned o u t his car once i n thi s ilooded st r eet. That summer t h e Goose P ond, w h e r e t h e p rou d and b usy Cent r al P lata ShOPI>in g Cen ter swa rms w i t h million d olla r bus i ness today. flo oded and one of the \vt i ler"s c h o res was to fe r r y woul d -be stre e tc a r passengers across the f lood in has t i l y proc u red rowboats to connec t w ith the hal ted s treet cars on e ach s ide of the pond. Drainage District Davis moved swi f ty and effec liv e l y to cure t h a t di sas ter. He formed lhe P inellas Par k D r a i n a g e D i str i ct. The lak e latgo C r oss B ayou D i str ict to the north of h i s was also ha sti l y formed. Between the two? under the general di r ect ion oi Shoecraft and McDevi tt f or the P inella s Par k Distric t and William McMu lle n lor the lak e larg o Dist r i ct, t h e r c l alivc l y vast low flat woo d s 'waste'' of m idPi n ellas was effect ive l v drai ned P rin cipa l e lement s of th is work were the dredg i ng oi Cross Bayou f rom Boca C iega t o O l d Tampa Bay and the d r a i nage o f L ake L argo, whi c h had effect i ve l y s topped t h e growt h of Largo eas tward Before t h i s dra i nage system could be compl e t e d Davis d ied a1 a lime when his l ast sett lement and developmen t wor k were i n a sad s t ale indeed T h e short range effect of the vast drai nage operatio n \vas d i sas t rous for mos t propeny owner s i n the a r ea The Drainage District law had a n d still has ver y sharp tee t h as far as tax collect io n s are concern ed. T h e super v isor s of a d i strict l evy a total s u m of ben efit cost to each p iece of p roper ty, w h ich i s re corded aga i n st the p roperty as a l ien, a por t i o n o f w h ic h is Jevied each yea r as a tax I f n o t paid the s u pervisors sell the l a n d Under this law, sell means sell. The pur chaser get s a goo d vendibl e t i tl e t o t h e lan d T h e l a n ds bein g of re l ative low value a n d t here b e i ng few or n o roads and conveni e nces a n d th e lands s u f ferin g f rom a t r adition of b e i ng low a n d unfit for use, t hey were for a time re l ativel y uns a l a ble. T h e 114 annual taxe s represented a rather l arge per cen t of the m a r k e t va lue. J n a few short years the two dis tri cts f ound t hemse l ves owning much of the land i n t h e i r d i stticts. $11.00 an Acre! Th i s writ er bai l e d t h em out i n the early 192 0's by buying so m e 10,000 a c res of l and from t h em lor t h e now u n bel i evable price of $11 an acre. B ut t h e floodi n g m i sadvent ure effectively for t h e time put th e qui e t us on t h e l'ineiJas P ark venture a n d t h e last D a v i s d ream. This wr i ter is startled to rea l i ze the v i vid ness wit h w h ich he recalls Davis the f i r st time he s.1w h i m. The Lime was c l ose t o 60 year s ago T h e p l ace was the F u lle r home i n Bradento n The Dav i s empire in St Petersburg. the wor k o f 1 2 years, had collapsed. H. \'Val ter F u ller had ta k e n over the poWet pla n t, the st r eetca r f ine, the r ea l es t a t e and as re<.:eiver, was n egotiat i n g a merger o t t h eir r i var steamboat l i nes \>Vi t h hal f a dozen bus i nesses i n Braden t on, v a r ied and rather la rge new oper at i ons i n St. Pete rsbur g. H. Wa l ter Fuller enterta ined a const ant s tream o f doers b u yers, selle r s, g r eat and near g r eat. Restaura n t s of q u a l ity bei n g i n Braden ton a r d SL Petets b urg, and Mr s Fuller a locally famed <:ook, there were many m e a l s served to g u ests i n the F uller home. A Defeate d Man This w r iter's memories o f t his stream of guests ar e i n the mai n dim o r va r ished. B u t F A Davis shines out l i k e a bright l i g ht. H e remember s w h e r e Davis sat. He r ec alls where h i s d i sti n guis hed looking patri a r c h of a gran dfat her s at. He t hen had n o knowl edge t h a t Dav i s sat t h e r e a defeated ma n a ma n who shoul d have f e l t dejec ted, rej ected, i ll at ease. There sat a d i m i n u t ive man, a q u iet m an, b u t a man of dig n ity, n o t of auste r e or ha ughty d i gni t y bu t a man with a power f u l i nner l ig h t t h a i s h o n e th roug h bu t compelling The Dav i s voice was q u iet and leve l b u t w ith an eager r ap i d i t y When h e s t arted to t a l k all <1uie t ed t o listen, ev en the o l d Pat r i a r c h w h o was accustom e d t o havi n g his booming pronouncements i n r espe<:t f u l s i l e nce. Afte r s i x deca des, the the n tee n age r i s s ti ll s h arp l y aware t h at he wa s in the presence of a Ma n Apart and that t h e head of t he table was w h ere th e man sat. And he i s pleased that h e sal a t that tabl e s i x decades ago. Hist ory has been kinder and '" iser with Dav i s than were current eve n ts a n d the opi n i o n o f m any of his assoc i ates and c o n te mporaries His assoc i ates called h i m the Visionar y man. H i s tor>' hails h i m as the Man of V i sion

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Chapter XVII THEN THE EARLY GIANTS CAME Given a sense of d i rection, a feeling of increasing ce rta inty of a rendezvous wilh g r eatness by th e gen iu s of F. A Davi s the community, although s mall was bustling wich growth and o ptimism There was building to be done, the encircling wilderness to tame, money to be made. And the Giants heard and were q uic kened and they came. First t here was C. Perry Snell, a huge man o f power and ene rgy an d dri v i ng ambition i rom Kent ucky H e came i n 1899 H e \VaS to w r i te his "namc on North Shore Snell I s l e, a beautifu l building. Came H Walter Fuller in 1907, born In Atlanta, al ready wilh a quarter century of alternatin g riches and poverty in Tampa a nd Bradenton1 o n the Bay with s h ipS1 to liq uidate o r brin g t o o rd er th e Davis Emp i re. And he wro t e hi s name w it h s hips and s treet cars, and hotel s a n d subdivis ions and subd ivisions a n d more subdiv i sions C. A. Harvey from Jesup, Georgia in 1903 to create Bayboro Harbor from noisesome sand flat s Charles R H all from P h iladel p h i a in 1 912, to w rite his name in th e s ands of subdivi s ions and crown h im sel f with lakewood Eslates and its maze of curl icu e sueet s. C. M Roser to create Roser Park and preserve beaut y from a meandering negl e<:tcd c reek, and t h rough t h e gen e ro s ity o f his grac iou s wile establish Roser P ark Noel A. Mitc h ell immortal ized the Green Bench when he innovated it a s an advertisi n g gimmick for his pyrote<:hn i cal type of promotion and development, and was the first successful developer of a G u lf Beach resort. His lifeen d misbehavior s d i d dim hi s deserved lustre as a community build er. And earlier and late r there were AI Fisher and Jim Foley and Thomas J Rowe, and E A Donovan and his giant sons, and Chan Springstead, and Code 8 Allen and David S Welch and A. B Arch ibald and Jack (J. M.) Tayl o r T h ese m e n cam e and saw that he1e was a job for Gia nt s t o d o In building a ci ty and they g ird e d them 115 selves w it h armor and arrayed themselves ro buil d it. And they built themselves a city, a fair <:i1y1 a city s ized (or 25,000 (or 5 0,000, for a hundred th o u sand, for h owever many cared to come. And they played them selves their parts on the stage, for short or long.. for riches or until their lines had been spoken and they reti red into the wings. But they had their day, rich days, dizzy days, disas tr o u s d ay s, days of laughter and o f tears d rudgery and triump h b u t days of satis faction all. Because they b uilt The main purpose of this chapter is t o por tray these men, how they looked, thought, acted rather than de1ail th eir accompli,;hments. C. Perry Snell started hi s b u siner.s career as a phar mac i s t in K entu c ky, w o r k i ng as such for 1 7 yea ts H e was born I n Bow l i ng Green, Kent u c k y, J u n e S, 1869 and died in Mexico City May 30, 1934 six days short of 65 years. Thrice married, his last wife was Carolyn Har degen, a gifled1 ralented woman ''ho took an intense interes t in his h aving been an independent business w oman herst>l f before but a com p e t e nt g r acious hostess as well S n ell had no children. A brother, who d eveloped a t Fort Myers, preceded him in death. He had one son. S n ell was a big man, tireless, asserti ve, talka t ive but 1he observer had rhe d is tinct im press ion h e had a hid den inner reserve which resis t e d tre spass l-Ie was two distinct p ersons wrapped in o ne sk i n In business h e was hard and cold a tough barga i rl er. I n coversat ion or controversy he drew wa.s mostly con stantly nibbling at his lips with his teeth. He would settle for not l ess than 1 S ounces of flesh The o th e r man was a w i l dly e nthusiast i c of beauty. H e ransack e d E urope for p ict ures, fur n i t u r e, s ta1uary, t i le; once bought an d had s hipped t o St. Petersbur g p iecemeal the entire interior walls of a f amed lla l y palace. He spent a fortune on such thing> fitted the ent ire third floor of his huge home on Snell Isle as a picture g a l lery. His greatest legacy to S t l'etersburg was beauty. H e came too early fo( that and reception was l u kewarm o r caustic He decorated s tree1 int e r

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C lty'f f lrSI fir e equ i pment wit h h orse 1r mul po w er 11)07. sec tion s at Snell I s l e w ith li f es i ze d r epl icas of credit able piec e s of statua r y h e had The y w er e brok en, desecrat e d, stol en, negl e cted r idicu l ed H i s ta s tes were two ge n e r a tions ah e a d o r most peop l e Snell v i s it e d St. P e t ersbu r g a s a t o u r i st in 1899 bough t a h alf bloc k o n Second A ve nue Nor th, r et urned each w inter e r e cted a h ome in 1904, la u n ched into real estate on the grand scale in 1906 when he was part of a group that bougnt the remnants of the Orange Belt Railroad St. Petersburg lands, includin g the Detroit H otel. Even tu a ll y he ac q u i r ed mos t ol the la n d in t h e cit y n o rth o f f if t h Ave n u e N o r t h th a t lies c a st o f f o urth S tr eet, 3 lso the l and aroun d Crescent lak e a nd s ome ar o und M irror l.ak e and a b i g s li ce of St. P e t ersbu r g Beac h H e qui c k ly estab l i s hed N o rt h S h o r e as the p r e mi e r "s t atvs' r e s i de n t i a l address, w ent o n e v ent ua ll y t o cre a t e from mud a n d m angrove mag n i ficen t Snell I s l e A s a t h ing of b eauty first, an i nvestme n t second he b uilt the Snell Building (now the Rutland Building) at the northwest corner or Central and Fourth Street .. th e n and now the most b e a utiful building in St. Pete rsbu r g He also developed Bennett B e a ch on t h e Gu l f at St. Pet ersb urg Bea c h Second o nly t o the p ioneering c r usader editor W L. S t rau b S n ell is resp ons i b l e fo r p u b li c o wners h i p of th e Tampa B ay w a t erf ron t o l th e cit y N e b o u g ht a n d h e l d f o r y e a r s someti mes wate rfro n t p r o p e rty until the city was r eady a n d abl e t o b u y it N e e x a cte d no i nt e rest H e sol d f o r a n o mi na l p rice C r esce nt l a k e P a r k I O I h e city. This writer altern a tel y competed w i t h a n d ;ought Snell and worked for him. The recounting of some personal incidents involving lhe two distinct p e r sonalilles can perhaps best ponray rhe man. need one da y to see Mr. Snell, this writer wen t to the o l d St. L o u i s Bro wns spring train ing bAll p ark o n Tw enty secon d A ven u e N o r th ad j o i n ing C o ffee P o t Bayou Snell was one o ( a gro u p o f town b o oste rs, w h o had br o u gh t the tOwn's fi rs t ma j o r baseba ll l eagu e team to St. Pet er s bur g o n aS y e ar c on rr a et, w h i c h includ ed fu r nish i n g a b a ll park T h e con1 1 6 tract had e xpi red and t h e g r a ndst and h a d b e en torn d ow'l, and S n e ll was preparing t o d evel o p a s u b d i v i sion there, whi ch h e call ed Granada T errace H e four>d Mr. S ne ll and three lillie N e gr o b o y s s itting o n b o xes t ap ping a way with ham mers. He wond e red wha t i n th e w o rld this re p u ted m illi o n ai r e a n d three little Negro boys cou l d b e d o i ng In com m o n Well, t hey were straightening out bent rusty old nails They had laboriously e x tracted thousan d s of these nails from the lumber of thP wreck ed gr and s t and And now t h e y w e r e s t raightening them and sor t i n g f o r s ile. Appa r ently t hey had labo red m a n y h ours. Mr. Snell was w o r king hard er t ha n an ybody O n e go t t h e idea his l ife d ep ende d o n H In 1929 thi s wri ter worke d f o r M r Snell as S nell I s l e salesm an H e was t h e e ntir e sales I o ree. His off ice was a gro und floor C en t r al A ven u e space i n th e S nell Building. The e xq u i s ite an d ta s t c lu l f urn iture a n t ique p i eces a ll t he g o rgeo u s rugs, th e masterpiece pi ct ure s on the walls well ma; ha ve ha d a value of S50,000 or $100 000 He h a d a liberal credit with the St. Petersburg T imes, a cquired by virtue of a t r ad e be tween Snell and an e xecutive of the Times who had cont racted t o p a y fo r a Snell I s l e wa t erf ront lot f ound h i msel f s h ort of cash T h e Si:llcs m a n a vers t h at h e never w o r k ed h a rder in h is life than duri n g th a t season. II was 1929 and th e fi nan c ia l w o rl d o f t h i s c ou ntry h a d s pectac u larly cras h e d o n th e B lac k Fri d a y o f Sep t ember 29, 1 929. A s S t P c lersburg had s hown no s igns o f recove r y f r om t h e F l or i d a crash or 19 2 5 i h er e was d i s t i n c tl y no for any kind of Flo rid a real estate. To tal com missions for th e of f ice for the were e x actly $420 00 Snell at the same time was carrying on steady and e x tensive deve lo p m en t work on Snell Isle He ha d ope ned the are a t o an eager a n d prosperous world on Octob er 1 4 1925 and in a few days sol d l ots for a tot a l pri ce o f o v e r $ 7 ,0 00,00 0 The d e v e l opme n t w o r k had bu t w e ll b e g un when h e l eft t h e cons t ru ctio n w ork to t r u s t e d l ong t i m e e mployees, s 1 il e d f o r w her e he s p e n t a rnill ion or so b u yirl S v ar i o u s o b j ec t s o f an,

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notably one of the b iggest and colle.;tions of miniatures in existence owned by pri\tate collector He re turned to St. Petersburg to find most of his ell I sle was completed and none of t he 11 and 8 actors Slarved and they all r emained good and close friends And this final last gl impse of this strange and fascinating man. The president or a small Kentucky college, Ogden College at Bowli n g Green cam e t o S t Petersburg as a guest of t h e S n ells Perry had graduated f r om that schoo l a s a youth fi nished hi s e ducation a1 the College o f Phar macy i n Louisville, Kentu c ky Mr. Snell wanted t o arrange the constru ctio n of a fine art gallery at th e Co lleg e a s a gift. He wanted t o fill the bu i lding with arl Jnd furntiure f r om his fabulous collection. The heart of the d i spla y was to be that collection of The gift was arranged lhc money sent, the building built. T here w a s then the busin ess of pack i ng the pictu res. Mr. Snell and this rep o rter packed the miniatures. T h e bo>es were in the quiet third floor an gallery. Perry S n ell would pick up each ti ny picture, many n o t b igge r than two or t hree inche s one way maybe t hree odour the o th er He woul d crad l e eac h i n his huge pow erf ul hands, l ook at i t for a l o n g minute, wrap i t w i th pac k i ng material and la y it i n one of the boxes The audience of one had th e queer h ushed feeling that h e was watching a young mother cupping her new born baby in her hands before laying the sleeping inrant i n its cradl e ior the night. The ben t rusty nails and the huge man and the three littl e Negro boys somehow for the first time seemed rather u nimportant. H (for Henry ) Wa lter Full er wa s b o rn May 17 1865 in Atlanta and died in Hende r sonville, N .C. Novem be r 25, 1 942, aged 77 years. Hi s father H enry A lexander 117 had been owr>er of a large Georg i a plan tation and 200 Negro slavO!$. Not believing in slavery he sold the plantation, went in th e business in Atl a nt a a distinct step down in the social scale, but despi t e his feelings o n s lavery .. served in the Civ1l War as a Calvary omcer i n a Georgia regiment. Suffe r ing rrom consumptio n, the son came to Flor ida in 1883 on advice of his phys i cia n who assured him h e wou l d neve r f i ve long enough t o vote The railroad not ha ving reached T amp a he drove from Sanford in a wagon There h e s1arte d a whol esale groce ry business and added a c itru s packing h ouse. I n 1866 h e made a sudden fortune when he had bo11ght all th e citrus that survived rhe gre.tt freeze ol 1886 and afterwards the country's fnst major flu epidemic occurr e d an d the Americ.an Medica l Assocuuio n recommended orange juice a s a flu prev e ntative. He started an amb;rlo u s s teamsh i p line between New Orla ns and Tampa Bay i n competition with the railroads, and ther e th e n being no I .C.C. the railr oads w it h a neat bit of cutthroa t competition prompt l y bu s ted the 21 year o ld en trep reneur w h o threat en e d their monopoly. Full er moved lo Br.:tde nton and wa s soon i n half a dozen busine>Ses including a genera l s t ore, selling every1hmg f r om patenr medicines 10 s t eel traps, buying everyth i ng from deer h ides to dug up Spanish gold. He planted groves ha d a rock quarry, built some of the forts at Forts De Soto and Dade eventually wen t bac k i n steambooting on Bay i n af filiation with the A.C.L Railroad. H e found i l better to "jin e1 them than f ighr e m Som e 80 h ungry mules brought him to S t Peters burg i n 1907. There wa s a mon e y panic i n this a rea. locaJ m erch ants estab lish ed a c l eari n g house1 maki n g ou t pretty well except for th e mules. l'h ey insi sted on oats and corn and alfalfa, and thai took money rather than Certificates of Oeposit o n frozen bank deposits St. Petersburg ha d just voted a S32, 000 bond is.sue 10 pave Max tmo Road (31st Streer South) and other roads and the bond money being safe in New Yor k banks was available FuJier won the r oad contrac t moved his mules to St. Peter>b urg and gave the m corn. At abou1 that t ime the Davi s utilities went i n t o bankrupt c y and j Fran k Harrison wa s made receiver. A s Fulle r had built and managed a stre e t c ar line and a p o w er p l >nt in B radenton for John A Gra h am, Hanison induced him to manage the bankrupt ut i lities. He did so, e ventuall y a cquired the Dav i s steam boats, also merged them with the ones he had and for a bout 10 years operated a six boat fleet of combined freight and passenger boats in the Tampa Bay area. Winter tim e excursions for tourhh were the chief money makers for th e line. Ht also established a boat line from the end of the streetcars at Gulfport to PassaGr illc. Full er p romptly lau nched into a wide ran gi ng s e ries o f l and development operations, had a dozen o r more cor po r atio n s to h andle th e m He built extens iv e

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offices tor his enterprises at the southwesc comer of Fifth and Central, including offices and terminals ior all passengers from the streeturs and boat lines. It suddenly became the busiest corner In town. His big con r ribu[ion to the ci t y was streets and highways He acquired pract ically all the land i n the West Centra l area beginning at 9th S tr eet t o Boca Ciega Bay i nclud i ng '"hat i s now Pasade na, and th e Jun gle, al so the ent i re fiOrth end o f Sand K e y (St. P e t ersburg Beac h ) and m ost o f Treasure I s land Ceiling the C en tr al Ave nue area from 9th Street to 1 &th S treet took some doing. as Centra l then en ded a t 9th Street and from there west was the ma i n resi dencia l section for Negroes and was thick with houses Out he bought them all because his plan was to extend the car line svaight west to Boca Ciega Bay, and a part of that plan was to crce Central Avenue and First Avenues North and South 100 feet wide from Bay to Bay. He accomplished his goal and i n carryi n g out his p l ans igni ted the now al rnost forgoue n boom of 1 911, whi c h will be trea t ed in th e f ollowi ng c h ap t er. Oy 1914 Furler was agai n a milli onai r e In fact when Worl d War I broke out_ h e had a million dollars i n the bank H e had emba rked on a series of enormous sub4 divisions including Pasadena and the J ungle, gambl ed that the War would be of short duration, guessed wrong and went bust in 1917. Not waiting ior bankruptcy court, he voluntarily assogned all assets to a committee of bankers in Philad elphia for the beneiit of creditors. Sort oi i n heriting Jacob Oissto n from Davis, fuller had cultivated the relationship, opene d a P h i lade l phia offi ce an d negotiated b ig ban k and mort gage l oans t here The l i quidawr the b anks had emp l oyed, C. M. A ll en, found the task of unrav el ing th e Fuller ta ng l e t oo much for h im eventually emp loyed H Wal ter Fuller, and his son, t his writer. t o untang l e the mess the Fuller$ had made. Eventually George C. Allen (no relation to C. M.), one of the banker committee adVilnccd a million cash to the Fuller s to acquire most of the holdings of the old fuller on a panner ship basis This was in 1919 and as the first g round swell of the 1925 boom was at work, th e three rather promptly ran u p another fortune. I n th ose days summers i n S t l,ctcrsburg w ere pre11y qui e t A major p robl em of the F ulle r oper ation was that a n orga n i zat ion big and good enoug h t o funclion e f fectivel y in winter, if kept intac t through the summer would eat up much of th e winter profi ts, so rh e idea was conce ived to start a development program in Hendersonville and shutt le employees back and forth with the waxing and waning of the seasons. It worked so good that father and son divided responsibilities, H. Walter directing the moun tain eering in Hendersonville and son Waller the d r edging and filling i n St. Pete rsburg Bot h ope rati ons did v ery well fo r several years and this tim e two fortu ne s wer e accun,ula ted. So when the 1925 blowu p came, N. W al ter Full er quite outdi d all of h i s past accomplishm en ts, he managed t o lose 1 1 8 two fortunes at once instead o f just one. Which took some doing. But H Walter recovered rather quickly, a s was his wont, soon bought laurel Pari< back thereafter sedat ely adminis t ered that properly, died as he undoubtedly woul d have wished sudden l y at his desk in his Hendersonville offi ce, was buried there neat his grandfath er who ha d be en a Presbyterian Bish o p in West e rn North Ca rol i na a f act h e an d rhis w t i l e r d i scove red o n e day when t hey espied a n el abo r ate o r nate marble set of steps g r otesquely i n froo>l of a rather humble bungalow. H Waller promptly negotiated to buy i t. was told the steps once went with the home of Bishop Fuller The house b u t not the marble had burned Thereafter the marble stairway served as the front e.nuance to H Walte(s home in Laurel Park H Waller i n all made eight fortunes, lost 7 1 /2 of them. But he created! H. Walter and his wife, Julia (Reasone r ) Fuller had five childr en, all l i v i ng. who h ave done reasonably w ell, no'e having been i n ja i l as ycc. Jul i a, who i s a stu rd y 95 a t thi s writing and j u s t as st o u t l y a Republ i can as the day s he was born i n Illinois is a sister of the famous R e ason er brothers, who founded th e Royal Palm Nurseries at Oneco, neat Bradenton, once the largest tr opical nt..Jtsery in the world. The nursery still operates at under the guidance of Bud Reasoner of the fourth generation, with a fofth on deck and standing by. Julia is the finest Chri stian this writer has ever known She and God t alk lo each o ther. She ta u ght Sunday School for S O years and t h o children of the children o f th e c hil dren of h er fir s t pupi l s a n n ually pay th ei r respects to h er. C harles R. Hall was a high vo l tage salesma n w h o calle d himsel f to the allention of H Walter when he so l d o l d man john Wanamaker a solid carload of win dow shades for his Phi la delphia s t ore The Fulle r family had become rath er intimate with old John because of the friendship of John and julia ignited by their devotion to the Nonhern Presbyter ian Church, and John spent two winters as guest of H Walter at his Plaza Hotel a t Pass-a-G rille in !he winters of 1915 and 1916 H Walter persua ded C h ar les Ha l l to come t o St. P e t ersburg. sold h i m maj or acreage o n West Cen tral a s pari of his West Cen tral dev el opme nt sch emes, the la n d e v entually being t u r ned into Hall's Subdivis i o n s n um bers 1-3-S a n d several thousand people now l ive with high av erage sali sfac ti on on the lots t hus creared. Hall eventually a cquired huge acreage totaling about 2,500 acres on the South side and with the a i d of Land Planner and Engineer George Young laid out lakewood Estates wilh the spor1y Lakewood E states Coif Course as the center of it. Hall was th e f irst developer who dared the prejudi ce of resident$ and buyers against t h e Sou t h s i de, and whil e h e opened hi s developme nt w ith el aborat e ceremo n ies, il d i d not g o well. I I took a nother generation 1 0 o v ercome the prejudi ce against the south s i de A fte r most of il had

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been picked up lor unpaid ta. xes in the boom aher math, a huge chunk ol il includin g lake Maggoir e and the land to the south (Nature Trail ) and west were conveyed 10 che Cily as ics largest park. Bul chat took place in the dcsperac e and despondent Ninet..,n Thu ties and Forties, when the g low <>I the 19 15 boom had dulled inl o che despondenc gra y ol the depress ion for S40,000 chc City acquired some 1 500 ac res, including lhe lake <>n December 21, 1 943 This turned oul t o be by fa.f the most s ignificanl act i on during the ad ministration of R J McCutcheon as mayor Hall wa s born in Derro i t Sep tember 22, 1 869 but chc f amily moved t o Phi l adelphia in 1876, where h e acqui red live years ol p u bl i c school e d ucat ion. AI 1 t years of age h e went t o work in a five and dim e s c o r e and thereaf ter for 27 years worked i n var i o u s mercan tile firms, mostl y in clo t h ing and milli nery, and while a junior partner i n Wm W. Ridd le & Co. h e made hi s famous s.alc of window s hades. He-came to St Peters burg in 19 12, promptly bough t 80 a cres running I rom 25th 10 28ch Screct s and straddl ing Cencral. He buill the lir s t h o mes west ol Ninth Street and very good h<>mes, which 1 0 the surpri se of mosc peopl e sold rather rapidly, sell i ng the l<>ne ol residences lor that area. Chara cleristic of che d ay and ol Hall is this in cident. 1 n the dying days ol the 1925 boom, Hall un dertook lo d evelop a square hall mile oi land strad dling 34th S treel (U.S. 19 now but of no imporcance in 1925), and rhcn lar out in lhe boondocks The hand som" All S c a tes I ns urance Company has ils general ol fices on chis l and >ow. The Ci t y had been re c k l ess l y paving s t ree t s far and wide with bri c k, fina n cing t h e work by taktng liens ag,tinst the lo(s a n d using these as basis of securit y f o r bonds, w h ich the City guaranteed1 a lact whi c h evenlually bankrupted it. Hall submlucd a p ecition lor paving che entire t 60 acres, with e laborate wide streets di.1gonally through it and with rim s treets around its enti r e edge Bids lotaled approx imacely $1, 000,000 The Coun cil had belate dly become uneasy at the stale ol the Ci c y's treasury and and at lhe meet in g at which the pav ing bids were opened one of the coundlmcn urged cauuon and alcer e xtended deb.l te, the Council chen and ther e adopted a resolution thai no more paving con 1 r ac1s would be let until th e owners of th e property involved pa i d in advance in cash 30 per cen t of 1 h e cosc of the work Mr. t"ialt was in the audience, as was this wri t e 1 and Mr Hall had been v i s ibly s u llering duri n g th e discussion. When th e 30 per cen t r u l e was laid down, Mr. Hall blith e l y s tepped forwa r d, out a check b ook and dash e d olf a check for $300,000, w h e r e u pon th e Cou ncil promptly awarded th e con trac t When the c h eck eve n tua lly bounced f or insul fik of fice r s, A l berc Miller and Bob McCu tc heon c h e amo unl o f Richard' s ba l ance but no d ice. An empl oyee on a lower echelon ca utiousl y indi caced th at chef. Richard ba lar'lce was a figure representing a s ub s tantial portio n of SS,OOO. A f ter due though t the landl or d cashed a c heck lor S2,000 gelling che money in $100 bill s Thereupon he deposi lcd $100 in the Hall accounl, and presented h i s check. The ca shier shook her head. He deposited another $100 and another, and anolher and stlll another and so on unril \here were only three o r lour of the l i ttle green pieces of paper lelt. He prelly apprehens iv e .. but ris ked another Thai one rung the bell The cashier s m iled, nodded yes and honored che check in cas h E Ric hard and his landlord had scant social intercou rse thereafler. C.M. (Charles Mar ti n ) R oser is prin c ipa lly r emem beretl lor h i s bea u tifu l Rose r Park an d th e h o s pital bearing his name, but a lt h ough h e carne here l a t e i n life planning t o retire here because hi s parent s Mr. and M rs. john W. Roser, lived h ere, h e s oon pl u nged inco accivily. He bui l l the Po i ns e ttia and Royal Palm holels, and bought and sol d and im1>roved a half dozen ot hers; and spec u l ated a bit in Centra l Avenue and downcow n property He a lso undcrcoo k a racher ambitious development on th e north end o f Anna Marla Key but lhal didn't do very well Bridges had nol yet come co che Keys and cransportation by boa t al tha1 (ime was sporadic and not too reliable Boats didn't have self starters then. Mr Roser was born in Elyria Oho In 1864 and esta b lished a large cracker and candy manulaclurong business in Kenton .. Ohio. A head l iner ws a crac ker h e named Fig Newton It becam e so popular chat Naclonal Biscu i t Company bought him out for a cputed millio n i n 1910 and he came t o S t Pe tersburg the following year. S truck w ich the p icturesque poss i bllllle s nl t he Booke r Creek area he p a ti ently began t o buy u p the r e l alive l y small traels i nlo whic h th e l and had been div\ded, paying what th en were astron omical prices lor acreage. Fortu na tely because of th e creek and the s t ee p grades none of rhe srnaU tr act owne r s had been ( e mpted to subd iv ide, a disinclination wh ic h wa$ c l inched by the lact that !here were n o bridge s ex cepe at Fourch and Ninth, and the s teep bank s and deep gully made a bridge to serve a sm all tract

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C A H.1rv-ey H, Walter fuller C. P trry Snell 120

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proh i b i tively costly By 1 9 1 4 R ose r had enough l a n d a ssembled to la unch h i s p ro ject. Rat her prornptl y some 60 h omes were boug ht. In (hat R ose r was several steps a head o f h i s brother developers h e either buih supe r i or hous es h i ms e l f or saw to i t that lot b u y ers d id the sam e Brick very expensive h cue at that time because o f adverse freight ra t es haa been used scantily for house c onstru ct ion. Roser became a p i oneer in that fiel d made h i s ar e a distinctive. Roser can share honors with Dean A lv ord at H ar bor O aks i n Clearwa t e r i n bei ng the p ioneers on t h e West Coa served o r buil t in as a n element of equa l importance with s treets and utilities. Rose r, in bui ld i ng his own hou se s or comperlins construction to mee1 h i s s tan dard, to ok a pos itio n tha t did nor h ave gene r a l accep ta n c e fo r thi r t y yea rs. Nei ther he nor A lvord w o u l d t olerate lo t s s tay i n g vac a n t for long. Almos t w i thout exception other developers thought they had done thei r duty i f t h e y f i l e d a p l an, cut or paved a few street s, sol d th e bare l ots Thereaf ter t h e y l et man a n d nat u r e ta k e thei r courses. B v t not Roser and A l vord Mr. Roser died Ap r il12, t93 7 Mrs. Rose r who sur vi v e d her husb a n d, res ides a t 585 R ose r Park D r i ve, was di stresse d t hat the Ci!y d id not have adequate hos pital f aci lities S h e l ed h e r h u sband i n a j o i n t ven lure and <:on stlucted and fumished a fine n u rses home a d jo ining the 1 hen small a n d i nadeq u ate Mound Park Hosp i (a l. When a new hospita l was bui l t, the Ros e rs move d th e o l d b uild i ng t o 22nd S treet and it became Me r c y Hosp i ta l lor Negroes. The Rosers ha d one chil d, a daug h t e r M r s )a m es 8 Reed, w ile of an Orl a ndo doctor. Bayboro Ha rbo r was c r eated, a bligh ti n g swamp whi c h had b l o cked the development of the South Side eli mi n ated, and the extension of p ubli cl y owned waterfro n t cont i nued to T w e n ty-Se cond Avenue South (lakeview Ave n u e ) sol ely b eca use C. ( for Char l e s) A. Harve y came to St. Petersburg in August, 1 903 He died h e r e january 18 1914 hi s great con tribution to the City not yet assu red. H arvey was born in J e s u p Geor gia Jun e 16, 1868. H e started hts career a$ a hot e l man i n T homa s vi lle Georg i a. $w i tched to sawm ill operat i on, came t o Florida when s a tisfactory timber supplies ran out His f i rst year here he ope r ated a leased hotel. Then he en ter e d t h e rea l estate busi ness f i rs t with E 6 Row land, then F A. Freeman Next he took the s tep that shaped the balance of h is career and a ltered the face of St. Pet ers b urg. lie bought a l arge tract of swampy a c reage for med by th e mouths of Sa l t Creek fro m l ak e Magg iore and oi Boo k e r Creek ? and started buying up othe r surro unding tra c ts. His firs t big p urchase was from Mrs. Sa rah A r m i stead, formerl y Mrs Jo h n C. W illiams, part of t h e origina l t ra c t W illiams bough t i n 1876 Of limited mean s H arv e y ,..,as abl e w i t h h i s ins i s tent enthusiasm, to form a publ icly owned stock compa ny on June 13 1 906, dedica t e d to th e 121 propos i tion of creating a commerci al harb or from the was t e l ands His sto ckhol d ers included an i mpres s ive l i s t of t h e leadi ng capital ists and leaders of the town. Unfortunately for the company, few local citize n s be\ieved 1n the possib i liti es o f a commetcial freight h arbor, power f u l Tam pa in terests i n terposed op posi t ion, sometimes subtle ( St Pet e r sburg was s till a part of H illsbor o u gh County, T am p a held the whip hand polit ically and f inancia lly), and to c ompound the dilf i c ull i es another power ful St. Petersbu r g group was dedicated to freigh t and p assenge r s hippi ng i n front o f dow ntown St. Pete rsburg. where the Cent r al Yacht Basin now i s A three \\'r a n gle d eveloped b etween th e two S t Pe t e rsburg groups and Tam pa interesiS By goo d lor t u n e. C o ngressman S park ma n of T a m p a looked kindly on th e Bayboro project despite Tamp a o p p osit i on. The Harv e y company dredged out t h e har bor created much va luabl e r es ident ia l p r o p erty to the s outh. which eventuaUy was a great success financially But th e hol e in t h e g round, although f i lled w i t h ,,vater, h ad n o comme rcial v a l u e or sign i f ican ce until t here wa$ a ch anne l to d eep wat e r and governmental r ecognitio n a n d support Ha r v ey, as s isted by W l. Straub. was able t o get the loca l forces i n accord o n a waterfron t dev e lopmen t plan; with par k recrea ti onal, passe n ge r and f r eig h t s h ipping l ogically d i v ided i nto four seg ments. W i th agonizing delay1 i nevitab l e wit h Federa l governme n ta l action, Wash i n gton app roval for Bayboro H a r b o r was sec ured i n the spri ng of 1912, afte r havi ng been disap proved by o n e A rmy Engineer report i n 191 1 ; p ar t i al approval later i n the year by a n o t h er. F ederal money total i ng $4{),000 was secured i n 19 1 2 by l eg i slative act ion of ConAressman S pa r k ma n T h e Sec r etary of War on May 2 4 1913 approved a joint City-Federal p rogram of d evelopmen t a n d one dredge owned by A C. Ph eil sta r t e d work i n May, 1914, and a government dredge j oi n ed i t i n August, but Harv ey h ad died the previou$ Janua ry, his dream fu!f i llment v i s ib le but nor a$$Ur e d A dose a ss o cia t e at t h e t im e of his said of h im: "'T h e most pr opheti c and daring real estate operator w h o ever came to St. Pet e rsburg One m ust deepl y r egret h e COl.l ld not have l ive d a y ear lo n ger. The full s tory of the W i n n ing of the Waterfront for publ i c ow, er$h i p i s dealt w i t h i n the $ucceeding c hapter I t i s tru e that the Harbo r was not final l y completed u nt i l 1923. It is a lso t r u e that i t has never approached in rea \ ity t he d ream s Harvey had. B u t i t i s U i s used. Be ca u se i t wa$ there the Coast G u a r d cam e Because it was t here t he Mari t ime School came, and when it ended cam e t h e State Marine Laborator y, and a temporary first home for F lorida Presby t e r ia n College and th e State sponsored V i sta and a branch of Sout h F l or ida Univers i ty Great changes are brewing i n Tampa Bay, notably the fight to establish the Mar1atee Coun ty Po rt. Anyth ing c a n happe n n e x t The pot entia l of greatness still ex i sts for Baybo r o Harbor Ha d a ma n not dreamed and dared i t wou l d not exist.

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M r Ha r vey o n Jun e 7, 1894 marr i ed M iss l u c i le Edmon dson a t h e r fathe(s planta t i on i n Brooks Co u n t y Georg i a T hey had two da u g h te rs E st elle a n d Ruth, and on e son Charles tester. Mother a n d da u ghters '"'ere all strik i n g l y bea u1 i f u l and spi r i ted women, a c t ive and spark l i n g in St. Pet ersbu rg soc i ety. C h ar l e s who died young1 had a n active car eer i n l oca l real estate and sport ing society He shared an office for several year s with t h i s write r who found that l.estet's (Harvey preferr e d the lest er t o the C h arles) ext r a c u r r i cula r act i vit ies a t t i mes cou l d -.1nd d i d im pai r h i s u s efuln ess as a real estate ope r ator But l i fe was never dull arou n d lester. Oth e r giant s and m e rl of g r eat stat u r e in th e early deve l opm ent of the C i t y w i ll be given the attent ion t h ey deserve in subseque n t chap(ers at points rel at i ve to their act i v i ties Notable amon g them i s N oel A. Mitch ell Another not ab l e and colorful o ne is Jack (I M.) Taylor. T h e l ist i n c l udes Thom a s ) Rowe t he Donovans, Cade B. A ll en, Dav i d S We lch A. B Ar c h i bald a n d man y others. T h e r e ader \' the c h ao s tha t c areless and i n d i v i dua l i s t ic a n d bitby-bit subdivid i n g brou g h t to the area to whi c h T a n gerine Ave n u e is the cote. Snell bu i lt i n beau t y as h e ' ve n t a l ong Roser preserved bea .. t y a s did C h a r les R H a ll. Both were cart!'f u l to tie i n w i t h exist ing s tfeet patterns Jack T ay lor a lso did a con spic u ous job both in str ee t widths and pattern s an d p r eserving a n d c r e ati n g b e au t y A n d ma ny. most i n fact, of thei r brethre n followed s u it. u ncon s ciou s l y these men were good c om munity p l anne r s Tayl o r a n d Fuller howe v e r both em ployed prof e ssional p l a n n e r s In fact T aylo r v ery largel y followed land p lans fo r Pasadena t h at F u ll e r 's pla n ner, T homa s ) M e han of P h i l ade l p hia, had mad e a l most a de c ade befo r e T aylo r bou ght the l ands from t he younger F ull er. Compare, i f you w i ll the St. Petersburg fram e work of h i ghways and logical and order l y distribut i o n of the p r i n cipa l res identia l antl b usiness areas with all the othe r towns i n P i n ella s County. As a strange r perhaps, compare th e ease of loca t ing a pa r ticula r add ress i n St. P e ter s bu r g with a s i m i l ar task in Cl e arwate r or l argo o r Tarpon Spr ings. That o r der i s a prime reaso n t hat Sr. P eter s burg is the Gian t among P i n e llas c it ies. Goin g f u rt h e r afi e l d, what othe r majo r c i ty i n flori da can c ompare with St. Petersburg i n t raffi c c i r cu l ation, a l ogica l ba l an ce an ord er l y framewo r k for a city? N one of cou rse. except Miami Beach and Cora l G a b les, a n d bot h t hese were on e man creatio ns. each man armed with v i sion and experienc e and a v i rg i n area. Giants yes: g i ants in visi o n cou r age and perform ance They wrote this c h apter with thei r lives i n t h e sand and b r ick and b u i l dings of the C i ty they d i d so m u c h to mol d a n d c r eate

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Chapter XVIII THE GENTLE CRUSADER W. l. (William Li ncoln) Straub mor e than any other m an built beauty and tourist appeal into St. Pete rsburs and gov e rnmenrl effectiv eness in10 Pinellas County But he never subdivided a piece of land or built a building for profit or star ted a bank o r owned a bulldozer lofis onl y weapon was a pen Straub's tw o g reat life w o rks \VC r e t o persuade Sr. Peter sburg t o a c qu ire for p u b lic usc and own e rshi p its mag n i ficent waterfront and to gently l ull the pol i t icians of Hillsboroug h County to look the other way while the Florida legislature chiseled the Pinellas Peninsula from the west flank of .. Mother" Hillsborough. These two crusades oddl) were climaxed wit h s uccess at about lh e same time, 191 1 12, and spe eded S t Petersbu rg on i t s destiny o f becom i ng one of the great t o uris t p l aygrounds of th e nation This pen wielder rendered a dozen other service s for his beloved city and equally adored Passa-Grille enou gh in rhcmsefves to have qualified the doer for admission t o anybo d y's "\'V h o's Who" of St. Peters bu rg. Gent le, sel f effac i ng, in his myriad writing s and draw i ngs, he never once b lew eve n the gent lest lOOt o n his own horn. Straub wa s born J u ly 14, 1867 at Dowagiac, Michigan, the son and only ch ild ol Henry and (Woolsey) Straub finishing high school at16 he went t o that por ti o n of Dakota Territory which e ventually bec ame North Da kota AI th e age o f 21 (188a) h e bou gh t and ran th e Sargen t Co u n t y R u s t l er. Six years l ater he becam e part owner and editor of t he Oakes Weekly Rep ubi ican in North Dakota, an d two years l ater managing editor of the Grand Forks Daily Herald, a position he held five )-ears. Poor he alth brought him to St. l'eters burg fo r the winter of 1 896 with great ben efi t That s umm er h e dec i ded he had had enoug h of th e r ig ors of North D a k ota and moved permanently t o t his city. The owner of t he S t Petersburg Weekl y Times, J Ira Gore having recently died, he and A P Avery a n d A H Lin delie in April. '1901 bought the paper from the widow, 123 a n d S trau b became editor. I n 1903 he b o u gh t out his pa r tners the pape r wasn't making money -a nd owned and oper a ted it by h i mself until1912 when he sold controlling interest to Paul Poynter and Ch arles C. Carr b o t h of Indiana. H e was appointed postmaster i n 1916 by Presi de n t Woodrow Wilson to be rep l aced by Roy S. H anna i n 1 922 when Warren G. Hard ing, a Republ ican, became Pre sident There b ei ng n o civil service nationally at that time, the Jac ksonian philosophy of the spoils going to the victor still prevailed His term a s postmaste r ended by the political spoi l s syst em of the day Straub r e turned to the Times as e ditor inchief, l argel y an h o nora ry post., whic h he hel d until his death Apri l 1 0, 1939 S traub h ardly had bec ome editor of the Week l y Times in 1901 befo r e he started his twi n c rusades which he pursued relenlle s sly until bolh were climaxed by fulfillment eleven years later First, let us s tart back a number of years and then look at the controvers ies of m ore than a decad e that S\virJe d ar o und the wat erf ron 1 pri n c ip ally i nv o lv ing the bui lding of piers t o ser v e s t e amboa t tr aff ico ne o i them des i gn ed to con n ect oc eangoing ships with the Orange Belt Railroad (later, of course, the A.C.l.R. R ., when Plant eventually consolidated all the lines into one. ) T h e objective o f aU the pier builders was to p r ovide this n e w and g r owin g communit y with a pon. Eventually Baybor o Ha rbor did b eco m e a port. Straub's r o l e wa s to urge, and even tua lly i n f l uence, t he creation of a port by the Cit y oi St. P e t ersburg. rather lhan by priv ate enterprise But first, back to 1888 when John C. Williams, who then was preparing plat s of the cit y was paying I itt l e attention to t h e waterfront. At th a t t i me B ig Bayou wa s a natural p or t w h i ch seem e d t o WiiJ iarns, suffic i e n t for th e fl edgling commu nity Only s hallow flats, w i th no semblan ce of deep water s tretch ed more than 1 ,000 feet in front of what is now St. Petersburg's Downtown. Apparently with no consideration for the

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possible future development of this shollow water front. Williams d i vided this area into 12 water lots, each a block wide, numbered one to 12, beginning at Fifth Avenue North and exte n d i n g t o Seventh Avenue South. This was in 1888 and 1869. Fir s t ma r Uime a c tivity was c r eatio n or th e lo ng Rail road Pie r i n 1889 ex t e n d i ng some 3,000 feet from firs t Aven u e South into Tamp a Bay. The Orange Belt Railroad built a bathing pavi lion on it 1 ,000 feet from shore it bejng to go th a t far to find s w im m o ng and bathing d epth water, so shollow was the Bay Pie r a n d Pr o b lems Relentless monopol y and cuHh roat competit i o n w e r e t h e nat u ra l orders of t hat day. The r ai lroad hav i ng t h e o nly deep wat e r fac i lities f or big boats, took full advantage of the sit uation, part icula rly after H 8 Plant took over the railroad. Soon after the pier was fini shed only steam e r s owned or w i lh the ra i lroad were all owed to dock there. Plant not only had no love for St. Petersburg but an aclive hat red for it. A s a companion piece t o his great Tarnp a Bay Hotel in Tampa (now pr inci pal bui ld i n g of th e Unive r s i t y o f Tampa ) he plan ned a s i m i lar one for St. Petersbur g but h e was rebuffed by local propert y owners from wh om he sought price concessions for a hotel site, settled for Belleair near Clearwater and made no bones the reafter that St. Petersburg need seek no favors from him Which makes thi s a s good a point as any to t ell the famous story of exchange of telegrams between Plant and Henry Flagler builder of the flo r ida East Coa s t Railroa d. Plant and Flagl e r became engaged i n a bitte r r.uc war for b o t h freight and passe n g ers, p a rticul a r l y passengers, becau se both contempl a ted building chains of great tourist hotels. F lag ler wired Plan t therefore that he considered the rate war needless l y damaging to them both, s uggested a meeting t o ma k e a truce. Plant wired ba c k he was agreeable and where s h ould they meet? Flagler replied, sugge>ting Pal m Beach. Plan t answered with a query, "Where i s Palm !leach?" T h e st i n ging answer: "Co t o J acksonvill e and follo w t h e crowd." The meeting never took place. T his w r it er's u n c l e, a ban k pre sident a t Milwaukee, vo uched for this story, saying he was at t h e time of exchange of telegrams a house guest of Flagler' s at Palm Beach M o rt o n Plant. son of H. B., also vouched to this writer for the authenticity of the tal c. A. narrow and shallow channel, extendi ng almost t o s hore, exi s ted alongside the north side o f the Rail road Pier a n d a n umber of small f r eight boat s used thi s c ha n n e l u n t i l stopped by the ra i l road i n 1 89S. Th e fir st ste a mer t o u s e the pier, with railr oad tion, was the Mar y O is s ton, owned by Hamilton D i sston. whose bemusemen t with ships rather than railroads .. caused him to miss immortality in Florida history alongside Plant and Flagler. This small steamer had first operated b"'ween Cedar Key and Tarpon Spr ings for D isston, but the S t. Pet e rsburg Railroad 124 Pier made a freight distr ibution and passenger trad e on Tampa Bay more profitabl e lnci derltally, Ed Donaldson, the St Petersburg Negro, who when he died in 1968 was the ofde>t native bom ci tizen l i v i ng i n St. P e t ersburg ( so m e record s say h e was born i n 1 673. oth e rs 1 877. J o hn Mur phy was b o rn in Ano n a o n Aug u s t 6, 1876 b u t has l ived most o f hi s f ife in St. Petersburg. E d d i d not know hi s b i rth )-ear .. for sure AI any rate his first con struction job. he having just reached manhood in 1889, wa s straw boss on the pi e r c onstruct ion j o b When l'lant cut off independent boat operators from h is railroad pie r D. F. S llrantley, seafaring mem ber of a di s t ingu ished American f1ionee r f am i l y d
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port facilir ics. Dec. i, 190"1, the Cily empl oyed B E Coe. on a bid of S2.2SO. ro d i g a channel ar Fir s t Avenue Notth. v.S. Army Engineers S lopped lhis tem porarily because the Cily had failed 1 0 get a dredge permil from rhe government The cily backlrac ked and go t a permit Feb. 2, 1902, and Coe resumed h i s c h anne l work. The Coe Channel was six feel deep and took r he s hap e of a "T, rhe top of r he "T" r unn ing paralle l lo s hur e so a s to serve the King Pier at Cenual the A. W e lr on pier a r Firsr Avenue N o rrh a nd rhe Branrley Pier. St. P eters burg was in business f o r ships, it had a Port. The Welron fami l y had jus l arr i ved; later became big factors in merchandsina, particularly in tobaccos and lumber mill work Things moved fasl lhen F A. Davis bough! the An r hea for his rown building efforrs ar Gulfporr, sailing il from rhe re 10 I he Gulf Beaches. King bough! I he Ger tru de Dudley, a 100-fool ship, il docked lim" Brant ley's, th en used the Coe Chan nel t o his own p ier. I n 1905 f A. Davis mov ed inr o t he Sr. Pcrersburg sicua tion by b u}ing the Bra n tley P ie r and of course s ub s r iruring his name for rhe o l d nam e of 6ranrley Thi s he lore down i n 1906 a n d buill a w ider pier 16 feel wide and 3,000 ieer long. He ran his firs t srreercar l i ne out to its end to meet the boats which made it very rough for rhe other pioneer boar lines. In 1906 and 1909 the waterfront between Second Avenue Norrh and First Avenue Sour h was r he scene of a fierce iUuggt e between 1hese courageous, hard w o rk ing free enrerprisers. Publi c Waterfront Bur s ince 1901 B ill Str aub qule r l y ins i s renr l y been preac h ing public owner s hip o f th e ware rfront and by jul y 2 1902, had won e n o ugh converrs to in du ce th e Chamber of Commer ce to adop r a r esol ulion avowi ng t h at the waterfront from Secon d Avenu e North to fiflh Avenue North should be a public park They did not feel eithe< strong enoug h or even in clined t o c l>allenge the free-enlerprisers oper a ting ar, and sour h of, Second Av e nue Nonh. In 1903, Straub induced U.S. Rep Sparkman. of Tampa, to get a U.S. Army Engineer r e port o n rhe f easibili ry o f a cily-owned port h o ping f o r Federal a i d T h e report was u nfavorable. Tampa opposition quietly was exerted 10 r h at e nd This was q uit e nal ural s h ip ping being vita l 1 0 t hat port Oddly, i n the 1965-69 m oveme n l b y Manaree County t o establish a port on the east snore o( Tampa Bay, thai County and Tampa were engaged in a duel very similar to th e one between S1. Petersburg and Tampa interests more rhan a half cenrury earlier Again Tampa sough! to block the Manal
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ouoer line of which parallcl<'d Bc.ch Drive and firs! Streel Sou1h a1 a diSiance ol500 feel. and 1hc intervening space filled excepl where yacht basins were planntlCi "A seawall now extends the entire lengt h of lhe city, a n d VVatcrfronc Park has been deve l o p e d a n d beautifi ed f rom Fifth Aven u e N o r l h to Seventh Avenue Sou t h wit h courts, a fi e l d .1nd a fly i ng fie l d in<:luded. Three yachl b asi n > provide ample p r o tection a n d facilitie s for s mall cr.aft, while lhe Port of St. P eler>burg, al I h e eXIen sion of Sevenlh Avenue South, though as ye l small, offers excellenl harbor lor sea-going vessels The Pori was opened in March, 1926. II has a depth oi nineteen feet in 1he channel and lwenty.one fee( i n the turnin,;t bc1sin. "Tha t I h e harbor of S1. Pe!Crsburg is now fl lll y recognized as o n e of importance by the United Sta tes govemment I s s hown i n the fact I hal it was sele c1ed l o r the establ ishment in Oct o b er. 1927, of Coa" G uard Base N o 21, o n e of th e largest bases ye t eSiabl ished. "An o u tstanding r esult o f t h e waterfr ont program was that a pier our from Second Avenue Norlh in 1913 as a lreighl pier was completed as a recrec11ion pier; \Yas followed by lhe establishmenl of lhe Spa al its base ; and the of pier by srorm in 192 '1, the replacement o( 1 t s successor and later with St Petersburg's famous Million Dollar Recreation Pier/' which ope ned with a grea t ce l ebratiO r l on November 11, 1926 Tho won the idea i ndclilJ i y written i1ll O the public mind, t h e story auto matically finished itse lf. fir>l C Perry Snell o n the Norlh side, then Judge). M. Lassing gave free va.st s.tretchc<. of waterfront and 1oday only lhc A.C.l. pie< and 1he Vinoy llolel and a small north oi it ar e not in public ownership. Belaledly, on March 7,1939 lhe Si. Petersburg Plan ning Board and the City Council goc around to nam i ng a portion of the m agnifice nt ci t y waterfron t Straub Patk." Oecause t h is part o th e wa1crfron1 is me r ety J w ell l andscaped part of the wa tctfront n o s t a d i um or mus e um or auditodum w ith f req uent meeti n gs the name ''St raub Park" 1 0 appe-ar i n t h e press th e case, f o r instance, with lang Field. Few c iti.tens in prescnl day St. Petersbu r g r e alize th e dominant, nay the leading pari, S1raub played in wa1erlron1 acqu isition. Nor is S1raub properly remembered lor his leader ship in the crealion ol Pinellas Coun1y He lalked and wrote county division from his first days as editor o{ Th e Times, finall y steamed u p his drive in 1907 ailer t h e waterfro n t f ight was \veil on th e way to victory. County Division Fight Slraub s tarl e d h is campaign f o r cou n ty d ivis ion w i th a long factua l a na l y s i s of the fac t s as t o taxat ion1 126 roads, isola tion oi the .and the politica l fac1s of life There was, of course, lhe certainly !hal the dom.nant City of Tampa would oppose county division. This louchy subjecl S1raub handled wilh deh diplomacy. His study ic.urhermorc showed that a c lua lly, under div i sion, St. Pe1ersburg would gel bcuer government at less cosc. A s ummary of 1he laclual s t a tement and his ac count of the invol ve d (1nd e xciting pol i t ical man euve r s chat resulte d i n the formation of lhis counly o n May 29, 1911 a s recorded '" S Haub s "Pinellas Counly beSI t ell the Slory. Th e reader can, at the same t ime, note I hac I his tale vivid ly illusllales 1he polilical handocap Pinellas and all of hevily populaled and rapidly growing Soulh florida suffered under !he 1885 conSiilulion because of under reprcscnaation in the fiOfida Legislature due to refusal of l h c small cou n ties of Norlh Floroda 10 properly r eapponon, an ill that has j ust been removed by reapp orcionme nt. T h e 1%7 l egislature was th e fir st since lhc c r ea1ion of Pinellas Coun ly !hal iiS peopl e had a c h a nce for a p r o p e r v o i ce and i n legislation, a pro p e r hand ling of its p ro bl em. Brakes on p r ogress in Pinella s exi st.ed beca us e of under rep r esen tation in the leg isla t ure in 1965 jvst as !hey did in 1909 and 1911 Oul !hose days are hopefully past. 6euuse of various new situation!l and problems developing in 1967 advanlages 10 Pinella. and other populous urban counties are not dear. There were pre ssing iinancial maucu.s; the actual emerg ence o r two party pol i tics and government. The schoo l crises; adjusting. to huge, n e w l eg i s lat ive Bu t obvi o u sly a new day is dawni ng. Bul ba c k 1 0 I h e 19'1 0 p r i m a r y Wilh loom i ng county div is i o n Hill $b0(0 pro' s induced D C. McMulle n a n()tivc Pinc llian but now a power in H illsbor o, t o stand lor lhe Senate. H e was e l ec1cd bul p r o h i b ition was a flaming issue in Florida politic) then, and McMullen was -and is -one of the state's outscanding prohibition leaders He was to be op posed by Robert McNamee, ano1her prominent Tampa lawyer, once of S1. Pe1ersburg. and a leading wet. Having a big lighl ahead of him In Tampa as a prohibitioni-st1 McMullen t old hi s Pi n e llas friends that ht> w o u l d n o t car ry t h e additional h andicap in Tamp a o f cou n ty d i vis i o n and that th e issu e m u s t not b e in je c t e d i nt o t h e 1908 campaign nor any county divis ion bill proposed i n 1 h e legi s l al ive sess i o n o f 1909-as he v.rould hold ove r the session of 19 1 1 it could come up then. All !his could nol be made public; and lherefor e, when John S Taylor, of Largo, a counly division teader. as a candidate for the House announced that !here would be no Counly bill in !he legislature of 1909, rh e rc was a great uproar ir' Pinellas. and even cha rg es of t r eason A straig ht -o ut divisio n l eg i sla tiv e lickel. w i l h F A. Wood. o r $1. Petersb ur g as it s head was put i n the fi e l d, and a v(!ry fierce cont est ens u e d Wood swepl St. Pe1ersbur g bul was a 1 >oor th i r d In th e county, and McMullen and ."1cN amee ran

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it off in il secon d prim ary-which was t he m e thod then-and Pinellas swinging heavily to irs own nat ive son, McMullen, elected him. So determined were the "secessionists" by this time char a mass m eeting of r hcm decided t o try rhe 1909 legisl at ure. anyway; an d the bill was s en t there again, a nd Rep resen t a tive T a y l or refusin g t o introduc e i t a n East Coa s t f r i en d p er formed that o f f i ce, T a y lor s i l e ntly l e ttin g it pass. But Senat o r M cMullr.n ob s erve d th e unde rstanding u n d er w hich he wa s e l eele d and killed il. T he third and f i n al c am paign was l ong and heavy a nd somew hat spec t a cu lar. The Ta m p a p ol il ic,al maNgers in the 1910 campaign succeeded in defeating Repres enta tive john S Taylor. division leader and electing Hugh Somerville, of Dunedin, a staunch anti divisionist; which coup was supposed to have scotched t h e m ovemen1 for good and all. B u t it d id not, 3n d a con v e ntion was hel d a t C lear w a t er an d reso lutio n s w e r e a d o pted a nd commillees were ap p o i nt e d fo h n S Taylor a n d S D. H arris w ere put i n command a t Talla h assee with e v erybe>dy else s layin g h o m e a nd s u p ply ing t h e mor a l a n d othe r necessar y s upport But it prov ed t ha t t h e w ar had been about the same as a l read y won b y a q uiet mov e o f w h ic h the public knew nothing at the time Immedia t ely following the June prim a ries in 1910, which deter mined the legislature lor 1911, The St. Petersburg Times obtained permission t o put the entire m ember ship on its mail i ng l ist, so that w hen the bill re a c h ed that body all t h e members hod been readi ng the co u n t y d i v i s i o n c on tr o v ersy betw een the St. P e t ers burg p a p er and t he Tamp a n e w spapers lor n e arl y a year TCimpa coh o rts, pourin s int o Talla hassee f o u n d t h emsel ve s up agai nst a too solid wall of under s t andi n g o f the issue o n th e pa rt o f th e leg i s lators. A g l ance a t a statement i n The St. P ctc r sbu rg T imes during that year find s some compariso n s t hat a r e i n t erening and i nform at ive. P i nellas \vo u ld be the 48r h county and as to size it would be No. 48, with 205 square miles# th e others tapering all the w a y down from with 4 b4 1 square miles. But notwith s t an d Ing its tiny are a P i ne llas would be 23r d in popula t ion, w i t h Duva l l eadi ng wit h 75,16J. And a s t o pr opert y val uat i on i t would b e th e 1 2 t h $3,800.236 Duval l e a d i ng with $ 2 0 278.733 T h e bill wa s passed b y t h e H o u s e o ve r th e o bject i n g v o t e of one antid i v i sion l lills b o r o ug h r ep resen t a t ive s u p port e d b y a gentl e m an's agreem ent t o look aft er Pi n e lla s pen in!.ula int e rest s II was pe rm i tt e d b y McMullen to pass t h e Senate, and was s i gn e d by Albert Gilchrist M a y 23, 1911. A Bizarre Story Passage throug h the L e gislature ol the l a w c reating Pin ellas County, as r evealed b y the Journa l lor th e H ouse, was biza r re in the e x t r eme. Th e r ecord a l s o reflects the slo w to rturou s cou rse o f a bill thro u g h t h e Legis l atu r e w h en i t i s a contr o v ersia l bill w i t h o pposition. l o c a l b ills, o n t he contrary 127 tha t is, bills a ppl ying t o one county only and h a ving no bearing on state policy or i nvolving rhe expen dilure of funds from General RNenue, flash through in an eye twink le, if the right member of a county delegat i on docs t he twinkling, and t h e r e is no op position. I t rook nearly t he w h o l e 1911 sessi o n to wor m t his d i vi s i o n bill t h roug h ( A prOilOSed l o w is c all e d a b ill while e n r oute t o passage, an ac t a l t e r it h a s passed ) E ar l y i n t h e session o n Page 350 o f t h e H ouse fou r rlal t h o fo llowi ng ap pe ars: "By M r Butle r of Palm B e a ch. "House Bill No. 247. "A Bill to be entitled An Act providing lor the creation of Pin e flas Count y in the State of Florida, and lor the organization and govern men t th ereof. "Which wa s read for th e f irst time b y its t i tle an d r eferr e d to the Committee o n Cou n ty Organiza tion." T h e h i s t o r y of th e b ill c o n t i nues a h e ft y 415 pages l a t e r when an e ffort w a s mad e 1 0 k ill it a n d a n other s u ccessfu l m ove mad e t o amend i t the ame ndmen t bein8 vita l a nd sign ifi ca n r .. in t hat t he boundaries of the proposed county were at first very tightly and un favorably drawn. The record from the pages of the Journal follows: SPECIAL ORDE R The time havi ng a rrived lor t h e co n seide ratio n o f -H ouse Bill No. 2 4 7 : A Bill t o be entitl e d An Act p ro vidi n g fo r t h e c r e ation of P i nell a s Coun t y i n the Stat e of Florida an d f o r the orga n i z a Hon a nd g o vern rne nt the reof. Was t a ken u p a n d r e a d a second time i n lull. Mr. Tomlin moved that House Bill No. 2 4 7 bo indefinitely postponed Mr. Butler (Palm Beach) offered the following am endmen t to Hous., Bill No. 2 47: S trik e ou t a U of Se
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Mexico thence nol'thward along the coast to the point of the beginn ing. Mr. Butler moved the adoption of the amendment. Which was agreed to. Tho quest ion recu r red up on che motion to indefin i te l y po stpone H ouse B ill No. 247, a roll cal l bei ng o rd e red the vol e was: Yeas Mr. Speaker Messrs. Angle, B l an ton, Brow n (DeSo to), D o u gherty, Ellis, F l o y d, Fortner, Harper, Hendry tgo u, Knight lake MacWilliams, McC l ellan (Jefferson), Mcleod, Middleton, Reaves, Somerville Stringe r Tom lin, Wall, Warren, Watson, Wesl. Win throp-26 Nays-Messrs. Acres Brown (Columbia), Bullock, But le r (Palm Beach) Causseaux Chase, Colson, Combs, Borman, Fee, Gold stein, Cornto. Gray Hanson High, Jennings (Hamilton), L amb, L eslie, Littell, McC l ella n (Cal h o un). McKen zi e ( Putnam), M c K e n zie (Wash i ngton) M illinor, Ogilvie, Reddick Rivers, R ogers. Scofiel d Sheppard, Sin gletary, Smith, Stewart, Summers, Terrell, Tidwell Wilson-36 So the motion to indefin itely pos(pone did not prevail. After other tedious but necessary parliament ary moves, motions, roll calls the bill finally passed on second reading. The vote to indefinitely postpone, which woul d h ave killed the bill wa s the cr ucia l one. And House B ill No. 247 wa s ordered ref err e d t o the Commi tt e e on E n g rossed Bills. The carefu l and importa n t Engrossi11g of a b ill, c h ecking and double check i n g against a n y cl erica l errors en rou te to passage, havin g been accomplished, it c am e back to the record on Page 961 as follows: "By permission, Mr. Gra y. Chairman ot tre Comm i ttee on Engrossed B ills, submiuedthe following report: liouse of R epresen tatives, T allahassee, Fla., May 4, 1911. Hon. T. A. Jennings, Speaker of the H o use oi Repres en tatives Sir: Your Committee on Engrossed Bills, to whom was referred Hoose Bill No. 247, A Bill to be entitled An Act providing for the c reation of P inellas County in the State o f Flo rida and for the organizat i on and gove rnm ent thereo f Begs to r epor t that having carefully e x am i ned t h e s aid b ill, find s I t torrect l y 128 engrossed, and respectfully returns it herewith Very respectfully, R A. GRAY, Chairman of Commiuee. House Bill N o 247 contained in the above repor t wa s pla ced on the Calenda r of Gill s on T h i rd Readi ng." (Editorial comment It i s fasci nating 10 this wri t er th ai thi s r eport reflects a keen interest i n passage of the bill by the c ha i rman of th e Engrossing Committee, bul a most particu la r point is that chairma n R A. Gray, eventually thereafter became Secretary of State, served longer than a ny other Secretary of State, and was but recently replaced by the present Secretary, Tom Adams. Mr. Gray served under appointment from Gover nor Carlton lrom April 12, 1 930 to 1958. He was r eelec ted nine time s only once with opposit ion He wa s a grea t Gent l eman a fin e public servant an d a firm S l ates R i g hts F l orid ian. This writer i s the proud owner of an autographed copy of "Capt ai n Bob 's" modest autob iograph y H e was four years Exe<'utive Secretary for Governor Park Trammell, livi n g in the Governor's Mansion a s neilher the Grays nor the Trammells had any children In addition to almost SO years of public service, Gray served in World War I, wa s a long time officer in the National Guard, taught school, and ran a newspaper ) A few days later (Recorded on Page 988) came the crucia l third reading and t he fina l vote. Not a squeaker but u n com f ortabl y close, th e bill passed 28 t o 18, T h er e we r e many pai rs and many members j vs t plain ducked an u ncomfortab l e decision b y wa l k i n g ou t of the c hamber b e f ore the roll call. In t h at compalatively dim day the r e was no $udden deci sion e lec tronic roll call board t o vole, one whic h eac h member merely pushes a bulton on his desk (the rules say the member must be silting at his desk) and there ,vas plenty of time to ron and duck. Page 1577 reports that the bill had been enrolled, which meant it had been again carefully copied on specia l sized, spec ial printed and numbered sheets, ready for t he signatu re o f the governo r A nd sur e enoug h o n May 23, 191 1 F l o r ida's bac h el o r Govern o r A l bert W Gi l c h r i st, s i g n ed the act into law 'l'his writer h ad an ama zir'S if unimportan t e x pelience with Mr. Gilchrist who at one time was a land surv eyor. In 1917 the F l o r ida Masonic Order was considering the buying ror an orphanage what is now the Masonic Home at the north end of Coffee P ot. The writer and his father were then operating the building which had started as a girls' school. as the Southland Hotel Mr. Gilchrist ,va s being escorted to the building tor an inspection/' h e being chairman of a p u r chasing committee. At t h e inter section or Fortiet h Avenue and First Street N orth, he s uddenly o rd ere d the car stopped, hustled out o f I h e car beckoned ior thi s writer to follow h i m The vigorous old man wa l ked t o a clump of scrub pa l mettoes, scrambled

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a r ou n d o n t h e grou n d for a m i n ute o r two, stood up, poi n ted a t the ground and said : "Young man, yo u see that s t ake? Well, I cu t tha t s t ake and drove it i n t h e r e i n the winter o f 1889 Quit e a memory! With d i v i sion a fact the t umult s t arted Clearwa t er and uppe r P i nellas were exrreme l y l ukew a r m abo u t "Divi sion Ther e lo n g a n d pleasan t economic .. social and political ties be t ween C lear wa H u and T ampa. There we r e practically n o n e bet ween C lear4 w ater and St. Pet e rsbu r g In ( a ct i n 1 9 1 1 t h e r e was no servi ceable road between the two p laces. Until 1917 mos t peop l e f rom St. Petersburg w i t h Clea r wate r b u siness made the trip by t rain, taki n g most of the day tor eve n the s implest o ( c hores. Str aub had prevented ou t rig h t r evolt by patiently and w isel y persuadi n g mos t of the St. P e tersbu r g leaders to agree with Clear wa ter l eade rs th at fo r 20 years the co u n t y seat wou ld be at Cle a rwater, a nd t hat th ( ee of five county commiss ioners woul d be from Nor t h Pinellas. N oe l A. M it c h ell was a noi s y and vigor ous hold-out. H e offered the county for free a whole b lock fo r a cou n t y buil d i n g s i te a t 45t h Street and F irst Avenue North, i n a subdivis i on he op timi s t ic ally c alled M itch ell's Cou r thouse Sub d ivision. Upcounty l eaders were suspic ious, dist rustfu l of even Straub, and u pon d i v i s i on becoming effective a f4 ter a referendum i n Nov ember, 191. a handful of patrio tic bu t fearf u l me n working 2 4 h o urs a d ay, slap ped t ogethe r a makes hift c ounty buil d ing. The act provided t h at t h e Gov e rnor woul d n ame the f irst co u n t y o f f i cia l s and th i s list had c arefully been agr eed upon, but even t h i s d i d not lull fears and t h e appoi ntees hasti l y moved i n t o t he makes h i f t "court h o use." As a matte r o f f act bad b lood between "up and down cou n ty ran hot and b i tter for n ig h on t o ha l f a cent ury, an d t here are still t races of t h e o l d bitterness. A master st roke which has appa r en t ly finally obi it erated the la st o f t h e o l d scars wa s t he ., %6 b r oadening of t he St. P ete rsbu r g Committee of 100 to become t h e P i nellas County Commi ttee of 100. As has bee n prev i ously rel ated t h e u p county -down county b i tterness had i t s ge nesi s i n the f r atricidal days o ( the C i v i l War Ther e i s one more foot note t o t h e d ivisi o n story. Th i s writ er h a d l o n g been aware t h at Tampa leaders, in taci tl y agre e i ng to t h e sever an ce had carefully seen to it th at t h e descr i p tion of th e bou n da r y o f the new cou nty ran tigh t at wa t e r s edge aroun d t h e tip o f t h e peni nsul a an d the south s h o r e o f M u lle t Key ( Fort De Sot o Park), and with eq u al c ar e l ef t Egmont (Fort Dade) withi n the bor ders of H ills bor o u gh Cou nty. T h at county i n t h e format i o n of both Manatee and Pin ella s saw to i t t h a t prac t i cally all th e wa ters o f Tampa Bay r ema i ned with H i llsborough. Th i s was to prot ect the vita l b i g s h i p c h an nel to t h e Por t of T ampa. Egmont Key, F ederal l y own ed, has for well over a h u ndred years been withi n H i llsbo r ough Co u n t y y i e l ded not a ce n t i n r eve n ue, i n fact isn't 129 even on the H i llsborough tax rolls T h i s w r i t er had great d ifficulty when emp l oyed sever al years ago to app r aise thi s is l and (secretly) for a bra nch of the Federal Gove r nment to fin d rhe a m ount of the acreage, a r el i ab l e s u rvey of i t s shores. A n a mu s ing by p roduct o f t hei r k eep ing the bay i n Hillsboro u g h is the awkwa r d necessi t y of the H i llsborough Sher i ff's o f f ice having to h an d l e acc iden t s ar1d deaths occ u r r i ng on the S k yway T h e s i gn i ficance of t h e ski n tight l i n e around M u llet was to care fully see tha t the Quarant ine Station, loca ted a t t h e end of a l o n g p i er project i n g i nto t h e bay from the shores o f Mullet r ema i ned i n H i llsbo r o u g h Cou nty. The port a n d recreational pos s i b i l i ties of M u lle t Key had fo r a lmos t a l i f e t i m e fascin ated t his write r so upon be i ng elec ted H ouse m ember o f the 193 7 legi s l atu r e, dete r m i ned t o try t o get a practical a n d usable b a n d of water s ou t h o f Mullet with i n the bor ders of Pine lla s Co unty. He t herefore began an assiduous courtsh i p of Ray S h eldon and Seth Dek le, Hillsborough House members a n d Sen ator Henry C. Tillma n o f Hillsborough. The Senator was t h e son o f famed "Pitchf or k Ben Tillma n Uni ted S tates Senator f rom South Caro lina. Th e f riends h i p w ith Ray Sheldon and his f iery knowl edgeab l e and ch arm ing wife has con ti n u ed war m and c l ose t o this good d a y The legis l ative effort was successfu l, the H i llsborough de legation l et the bill sli de thro u g h g i vi n g Pine llas w i dened bands of wate r off its south end F orces i n 1-li llsbo r o ugh wer e still u neasy because t hereby the Quaranri n e s t a t ion was now with i n Pine llas and pvlled the Was h ington wires they are s o s kilful i n man i p u lating t o t h e end t ha t t h e Q u aran ti ne s tation was mov e d from Mullet Key t o Gadsden Point, even t h o u g h the Stat i o n had l o n g s i n ce .. u nde r c urr e n t health knowl e d g e an d practice lost a n y s i gnif icance. B ut T a mpa memo r ies wen t back to the terr o rf i lle d days w h en period i c deadly y e llow fever epide mi cs swept T ampa. Strau b r e n de r ed man y another g r eat. ser vice for his commun ity. He was a better t han passable c artoon ist a n d a r t ist. a n d car toons we r e a vi tal weapo n i n his campaigns for a p u b l icly owned w a t erfront an d for co u n t y d i v i s i on. H i s p a i n ti n g of the ware rf ront, i n w h ich t h e Bay Stea mers were a co nspi c u o u s pa r t_. is bo th a ve r y cre d ita b le ar tist i c work and a va lu able h isto r ical document. Ac t ivity i n acquir in g and usin g lands for par k s was a matte r of cou rse f or Str aub Twice h e rev i ved a dea d o r dying C h ambe r of Commerce large l y t o fu r the r wate r f ront acquisi t i on. He wa s preside n t o f t hat body i n 19"13. When t h e Carneg i e F ounda t i on r o utinel y offer ed St. P e t ersburg a minesc u le grant f o r a publ i c l i b r ary he vigorous l y moved t o get the s u m g reatl y in c reased g o t a cre d itable libra r y for t h e city loca ted a t F i ft h S t reet and Third Aven u e North whi ch served the city well u n t i l the prese n t magn i ficent s t ruct u r e was s ecu red at 3745 Ninth A v enue North thro u gh effo rts o f Tom Drier and the f r i ends of the Lib r ary The

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o r igin a l structure still serves thousa nds of downlown c i ti z e n s A l most s i ng leha nded h e for med a P i n ellas County Boa rd o f Trade which although s h ore lived, so u g ht to heal the friction and damage in county effcctivenes caused by division from Hillsborough He i nspired the c r eation of the city's fir;t P l anning Board, served as i ts firs t p res ident. He w as a cha rter member of t h e St. P e t e rsb u r g R orar y a n d Yacht C lub. B u t aside from h is fam ily and the Times Pass-a Grille was his great love. 1\ s k illed and passionate tar pon fisherman, despite the handicap of a wilhered leg, his ha ppiest hour s a n d days were spent at "Lo af e r s Lodge" on the Baysh o r c side o f Pass-a-Gri lle This w r i t e r c an well whe n h e w a s an employe e of the Time s Newsroom in 19 "17 a n d 1916 the power ful Pass-a-Gr ille fever" that seized Mr. Strau b each Friday aftern oon. Each staff member wa.s acutely aware that it was n ear folly I( not treason 10 b ring u p anythi n g for Impor ta nt d isc ussio n or decis io n o n F r i d ay afternoon E ach w ell kn e w tha t Bill S t raub l i tt le ca red how r h c worl d went f r om then unt il n o t too early morning. This writer is happy and prou d to remember that he was a welcome g ues t a l Loafe r s lodge And f r iend ships m ad e i n th o s e r i c h da y s still h o l d a s t o t h e s o l e s urv i vor o f the f a mi l y a da u g h te r Bla n c h e, w ife o f ja y Sta r k ey, crscwhile cowboy, ca Hie m.Jn County Tax Collector and now banker, elder statesman of the Democratic Pany, and in private conversat io n rich raconteur of cowboy a n d pioneer days. It's just too b ad t h a t Jay's mor he r d utifully return e d t o St. C l oud, Min nesot a, so that her c h ild cou l d b e b orn a t h o m e,'" 130 bec aus e no greater or more loya l Florida Cracker ever wa s born t ha n ja y Srarkey Evalu atio n and desc ri ptio n of Willia m lincol n S tr aub is diffic ult indeed. was b oth patien t a n d determined, wise but colloqu i al, skilled but unobtrusive in political and civic maneuvering. Outstanding in the f a cr tha t he had no drop of bittern e ss, e nvy or avari ce i n h i s b e i ng. He fough t f or Issues, n o t a g a inst people T h i s \'\ rit c r nev e r hea r d h i m uuer never r ead a word of perso n al c r i t ic ism by h im of a huma n b eing. But strangely, Straub had many bitter er>emies. In retrospect this writer now realizes they were driven lo despai r an d rase at hi s logica l rele n tless, c alm drive (o r h i s o bjec t i ves If this is not t o o i n volv"d t o f ollo w it w o u l d S
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Chapter XIX BABY BOOM A t own wit h 7,186 people and 22,SOO residential a n d busi ness lots? A town spread out over ten square m i les w ith 4 0 square m i les of s uburban areal A hummingly prosperous town with nary a factory a n d n o industrial payrolls? A streetcar line 8 m iles long and two permanent year round residents at the far end of ill Crazy! Y es. Impossible/ No. Ever run into a hurr ictlnel Exciting, but dangerous. Ever run into a land boomr E x citing, but disastrous. T r y thi s o ne Nationa l ec onomic cond itio n s b e ing norma l and wealth and populati o n expanding, a boom of grea ter o r less p r o portions was an i nevitab l e en d result o f th e series o f favo rable events that happened in quick succession i n and to the placid litt l e village facing Tampa Bay on the beautiful Pinellas Peninsula And sure enough the boom happened. And like all booms it crep1 up unawares. For a boom slips up on a person l ike a series of slowly sipped dry martinis do on an inexperienced dl'inker. Nothing unpleasan t happe n s t o w arn either until suddenly th ere Is an ex:pl o s i on a n d one i s in th e poor house and the other i n the gut t er or th e jailhouse One cann o t say exactly whe n t h i s boom began c alled i n the early days the Nineteen E leven boom -bul it s end can be pin poin ted exactly T hat e nd was the day i n June, 1914 when a bomb in Sa rajevo Ser bia k illed th e Hapsbu rg heirs to the Austrian throne and signaled World War I which was to destroy the semifeuda l era of k in gs and emperors and tsats, and start a reborn Europe on the road to m odern democracy and industria lism. Strange that it would end a baby boom i n lots i n far off Florida, but it did. Men shaped the events that triggered the boom. First F A Davis c alled the w o rld's attention to St. P e t e rsbu r g and Pinellas County He Installed elec tr icity a nd star t e d streetcars running He made the G1ilf i s lands and vario u s point s o n Tampa Bay easily 131 rea c hable by boat. He started s ubdivi s i ons. T h e n came H Walter Fuller t o p i c k up the p ieces of th e s h a llered Davis empi r e. Ca m e C. Perry Snell, who devot e d the rest of his l ife expanding St. Peters burg n orthward a long the shores of Tampa Bay to create the city's premier resi d e n tia l area. And C. A. Harvey pushed South to create 8ayboro Harbor and subdivisions surrounding it. Straub made dreams of a publicly owned w aterfront come true and prodded people to beaut ify and enjoy it. And fought to create Pinellas Counw so a logical coherent area devote d to t ourism and w i nter ho mes and r ecreation. cou l d grow f aster I ha n mother Hillsborough, with its eye o n commercia l d eve l opme n t a n d s hips and po rts, wou l d san ctio n Ro ser added beauty and dlgnHy In homes on Booker Creek. H Walter Fulle r more than any other was the a r chilect of the '19'11 boom. Hard l y had he enl isted fresh Philadelphia money to patch the Davis enterprises together than h e began to mak e a grand new plan. And that plan was to extend the ci t y of St. Petersburg to Boca Ciega run his strecta.r fine out there build a great new >treet and open up a vast new territory to manufacture l o t s for s a l e to peop le who eventually would bui ld homes there. For the modern con ce pt of an organization a cqu irin g a tract of land and doin s everyt h i ng to i t needful t o e n d u p w ith neat rows of finished houses, la n dscap e d yards, w i th s miling salesmen stand i n g a t t h e open door ol a f i n i shed house, ex t e n d ing a con tr act for deed w i t h one hand and a key w i th th e other had not y et been born. That wa. s Cor ano ther generation and another ag e to emerge after a number of economic revolutions as yet undreamed of. Now, The Detail s Centra l Avenue was p latted 100 feet wide by W i lliams, but stopped between S ixth a.nd Seventh Streets Ward and Baum platted t o Nin th Street but made Centra l but 50 feet w i d e and it was thus until 1909, w h e n pressur e by A. C. Ph eil a n d Fulle r resulted

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... -I ( Club lus t comp leted .111 foot of Ctntrl Avenue. Loolling t UI.Jit ruu Cent,.t Yat ht 8uin is airp l ane ha _ngtr O<t h SHeet to Boca Ciega 8ay, at le a st a half mile wide on each sid e of Central. Most of it was bought at SS an acre o r less. Th e l argest traer some 3,000 was bought from the H amil t o n Disston estat e at $5 an acre. T o acquire one traCI, Fuller ha d to buy 1 5 ,000 ac r es from W W. Whitehurs t. alt h o u gh some 1 1,000 a c res l ay i n t h e area on Tampa Bay roughly from 361h Av enue North 132 alm os t t o the present St. Peter sb u rg-Clearwater Inter n a tional Airport. Whitehurst had engaged in v ast l u m bering and wrpenline operaUons had drained the tree) of turpentine and turned the trunk s into lumber. ltk c the typical lumberman of thai day, Whitehurst couldn'l see !he land for the trees. He paid Whitehurst an acre. One prize tract on Boca Ciega Bay n o rlh of Fifth Av enue North, had been th e h o m estea d of Joh n l cvique (Levi ck, Levie) who had los i t on a $67 gro ce ry bill t o H enderson & Miller, fam ed wholesa le gr<>cer s o f Tampa. Fuller paid $2 ,500 for 160 acres l arg e wawfront lots, o f about an acre carved (rom this tract now command upwards of $ 15,000 each, say $2 ,500,000 roughly, not figuring houses Fuller's City Pl; m Having acquired the land. Fuller found city autho rities at first unwilfi ng t o g o a l o ng with his plans. H o p'oposed taking in a stri p a mil e wldP. bct\veen F ifth Avenue North and S even th Ave n u e Sou th f rom Nin th Street to 1he Bay a n a rea of approxi mately 5.5 square miles. The thoughl s tunn e d the author i ties The ex i s ting limits encompassed appr o ximat el y a one square mil e area The result woul d be a g i ant letter T, the uheadu downt own o n Tampa Bay. the stem one mile wide, si x miles long to Boca Ciega Bay and another mile and a half to !he Jungle Prado. Starling at Tampa Bay, the city limits r.1:n west on Fifth Avenue North to a poin t midway be t ween S ixth and Scvenlh S tree ts, !hen sout h t o First Avenu e South. west t o Twel fth Street, south t o Seventh Avenue Soulh, then eaSI t o Tampa Bay. Make the c ity s i x times l arger tha n that ? Un thin k ab l e T he c ity and its voters had b ee n tom a sun

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der with fig ht s over street paving for five year s a lready In 1905 a bond issue of $10,000 was voted to add brick paving on between Second and F ifth, to First St r eet and Sixth St ree t and from Centr a l to first Avenue Sou t h on Second and Third Stree t s to giv e ac cess to ihe AC l station, the d e barking poin t for the golden stre a m of touri sts Other vita l conn ecti n g s treet s, in c ludi n g N inth were t o b e pave d w i t h rock or marl. Squabbles over thi s p rogram as tO ex a c t l y whi c h s treets and aven u es woul d be p a v e d del a yed lett i n g th e contra c t unti l J an. 24, 1906 H Walt e r Fuller h a d been low bidder, gotten the contract his first activi t y i n St Petersburg. As a ma ller of fact, another squabble developed between "downtown'' and W ard & Baum and the paving on Central between Sixth and Ninth wasn t finished unt il 1909. But t h e Boome r s pressed hard and the town began to yield Onl y Ju l y 19, 1909, $67,500 more was fro m a $100,000 bond i ss u e l or s t r eet> ( t h e res t went for u t i l i t y ex tensi o n s ) and June 13, 1911 a n a d d i t i o na l $ 35,000 These sums mostl y were spen t o n the n o r th side because that was w h e r e most o f the powe r g r o u p l ived. Sut pave a stree t with bri c k 36 feel wide 6 miles to Boco C i ega Bay and then another 1 5 miles! Man, that would cost a million dollar s. There a in't that much money. No sir! T hat would be 15 miles of brick street 18 feet wide with the s tr eet car t racks of 7.5 miles in the middle of each 7 5 mile strip on the sides. No sir! Twice, No sir! The Boom e r s P r e s s On But the Boomers couldn't b e stopped now. They presse d on. F ulle r i n duced C h arle s R Hall, a ma ste r salesrnan w o rking foe J ohn W a namaker t o come f r om P h i lade l p hia, so l d h i m 80 ac res (for $16,0 00) bou n d e d by 25th and 3 1 s t Streets, Fifth Avenue N orth a n d F i r st Avenue So uth. H a l l bega n a creditable devel o pm e n t known a s Hall s Sub divisior> N o I and 2 He bui l t a number or fine homes fo r sale, leadi ng even Roser in what was then an innovc1tion in land development. Noel A Mitchell bought 80 ocres and st arted Mit chell's Courthouse Subd ivision between 40th and 46th Streets, sprad dling Central Avenue Roser bought a creage, s tarted Oakridge a lso on Central at 46t h to Oisst o n T h e woods were c a tching f i r e. All these and others had flamboyan t s ellin g c a mpaigM. Fulle r t opped t h e m a l l Fro m t h e f r o nt of h i s office at Four th a n d Centra l where t h e H all B uil d i ng now i s, he arranged a p rojec tor, rented th e f r o n t of a bui lding across the Ave n u e where First Federal now is, thr e w a magic l a nter n picture of a subdivision on a g i ant white screen, had runners at the AQ station as the night passenger train c ame in, led the u nsus.pecting strai ght into a S lreet u r On lowl!r 19 16. 133

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-w... ... ... New r.ailw.ay freiJhl .arwf t"\"pn-u c.&r. fifth St Sout h I A C L looklns tow.atd Avt
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t h e City, to pay the contr actor Note tha t wor d .. owncrshp''. I f you owned s per cent .tnd 49 o w r)ed one per cenl each, your \ide won Theau t horities were lulled 1010 beli e ving 1ha1 the Cily #aving deal. In t h e follow-m g. r at he r recit ation of ciry limit c x pa n sio nr. you can a ccura t e l y calc-u l a te the r e l a t ive p o l i tical power of the vari o u s g roups o f rlcvol o p e r s Ocl 3, 1 9 1 2, Dec. 10, 1 9 14 and D ec. 17, 19'14 the Ho r v c y g r oup, by ordin a n c e s N os. 360 471 a n d 472. h ad the Baybo r o a n n exed 1 0 171h Avenue So uth. T his was the f i r s t c ity expan s i o n af t e r the orig i na l i n co rporati o n in 1892. I n the C ity o f 1 913, the o l d limit s were squared out so that the city extended nonh 10 Ninth Avenue North, west to 16th Stret't (a home run b y Fuller) 11nd south to Sixth Avenue Soul h. Nov. 30, 191 4 and Dec. 10, 191 4 by Ordinances 4 66 a n d 4 7 1 Snell got a f u rthe r ex tensi o n to 22nd Avenue North and west t o between Ser.ond and Third Streets. O ri&inAI Flut &.ln k southull corne r (If (P.ntrl o1nd Second Strut. 135 :, l r; tL : . Southwel l of Ce-n tu.l nd Sth St th l houJ..-d lhrt'4:' f:N.nks in 1915193 0.1945-n () w n ()ffi('t: building Bu r Full e r came down l o th e wire In a l mos t .1 d eild h eCil w i t h S n ell. In O r d inan ces 4 7 t and 472 on the s am e date, Dec 10 1 9 1 4 h e 5.5 s qu.ue mile s in the c ity fro m 16th St reet to Boca Cicga O ay between Fift h Ave nue North and Seventh Aven u e South (Don't get confused -all three got goodies in 4 71, two In 472.) Snell came back the nex t week got North Shore expanded to F o u rth Streel North. M a r c h 9 and 16. 1915, the peopl e came bac k with four small extens i o n s l o ge 1 the lim it s stre t c h e d (i0ut h to 11lh "'ve n u e South and west to 1 o th St r e et. 'rhat was all. for five b itt e r y ea r s af t e r whi c h the C i t y by e lection, mad e a rr'lajor e xpan s i o n i n lhe nort h west q uadrant. Th e B o om Dies 1914 it was sta te d t hat rhis boom died in Jun e 1914 woth the bomb explosion in far orr Serbi a It d id. Fuller, meanwhile. w a s steaming a h ead He dreamed g reat dreams for the Boca Ciega Bay end of his t o rrit o ry From Phi ladel p h i a h e br ough t Thomas). M ee h : m o ne of the 11ati o r1's land planners and gol f course a r c h i tects. H e l a i d o ut i n th e Boca C i ega B a y are a f rom the presen t m ain land end o f the old C o r e y Ca useway to 22 n d Avenue North, and as far c a s t as 66th Street, the largest area o f the city ever p lanned as one whole i n t o a residcnti4l.l area The re
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' -L .. ' ... ,. Ne"' C.tndy Tht: atrC! at southwest uwner of Fifth Sheet and Ctnlr.ll. lnv.uion by automobiles threatens streetc;ar 1913. By 1916 automobile invasion i$ complete. I '' l . l, ... -.. t Ju:vniun by $1r et((,u 191S. Street railway freight c.ar 1916 1916 fttlival of Slates Parade. 136

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major S treet paving f i n all y a vailable, F uller l aunched his building program h was a program he c arried to fulfillment despite the fact i t eventually bankrupted him. Central I s Pa ved Tho tas k was a t oug h one. To get his two ra.root S lrips o f paving on C e n lral t o Boca Ciega Bay, h e finall y worked out a deal w it h th e Augusta P a v i ng C o o r August a, Georgi a l O take paving certi f icates in return f o r the full cost of the w o rk by issu i ng thre e series of ce rtificates; f i rst series t ota l ing 60 per cent of f he cos l of Cen tra l Avenue on 1he two rows o f Jots on Cemral ; second for 25 per cenl on the two rows on the First Ave n ues; and a third for 1 S per cent on the t w o rows facing on the Second Avenu es. This plan was later c hallenged in the c ourts, stood u p H i s plan 10 pave the First Avenue s imm ediate l y he perforce ha d 1 0 d rop as he had mortga ged all the l ots on th e t hree a v enues to get r h e vita l pavi n g on Centra l. S warm s o f Negroes s tar t i n g grading an d lay ing hun dre d s of carl oads of b r icks. Other c r e ws tack l ed th e gol f cour s e. This p rojec t was fin a nced o n a patriotic ba s is, its s u ccess atteSi i n g well 1 0 the public spirit of the people of t he c ity. B onds t o taling $60, 000 we re issued Purch asers or each S500 bond got free in ad dition to the bond a share of stock and lor in or facing on the golf course Enough bonds were sold to raise money to complete the course The cours e w a s opened N e w Yca(s Day, 1916 The city's principal ban ker T. A Chan cello r drove t he first ball (After h e had m issed three times. But nobody laugh e d Most o f h i s aud ience o wed his ban k money.) The p a ving c r ews had worked many e xtra hou r s to co m p l e t e one s ide of th e Centr al paving t o Par k S t ree t and Flfl h Aven u e North by opening day. The town n o w on the banks o r rwo bays, s w elled its che s t th at da y and began c a lli ng itself a real city. It wasn' t bu t i t was idea Albert F lang. newly a rrived in lhe cit y. was elect ed president or the new golf club and proved a per feet glad hander and officia l hos t In addition to the link s there was a really impressive club which prompt l y became quite a soc ial T his agreeabl e job e1nbarked him on a long and useful l i fe in publ i c affairs i n the cily, a l th o u gh h e a c hi eved his p rinc i pal fam e and r e n d ered his mos t valuab l e service as "Mr. Baseball. Effect s of Bur l e t it be repeated; The lot sellin g m adness end ed abruptly in that hot summer of 1914. This country did not get directly involved i n the s hooting part of th e war until April 1917. Bur immediately upon its star ting, almost all the money c apital of the country be c ame involved in vase war i n dustr ies, b u i lding a b r idge of s h i ps" for the All ies, manufact urin g am muni ti o n, muniti on s growing fo od stuffsThe f l oat i ng labo r supply o f Florida and S t Pelers burg flowed to the aurac t iv e wages of war indu s tries i n the N orth. A 137 CenlrA t Avenue .at 1 6th Shut too ina Wtt t 1714 f e w h ems were rati oned ; n otab l y automobUe t i res a n d s ugar There were scar ci ties. The country s u ffe red a maj o r p s yd>ologica l s h oc k For t h e it became consci o u s o f i tself as a w o rl d power. Almost eve ry body worked They we r e In no play i n g or vac ati o ning mood. It wa s unpatriotic t o take a vacOIIon Besides, Libert y bonds blotted u p all the loose money No signific ant w a r induslrics c-ame to Florida There were a few Army camps around Jacksonville# two a ir training fiel d s al Arcad i a Many of th e dare devil studen t flyers s pent we e kends i n t h e city And a flye r had to be a dare -devil to att emp t 1 0 f l y th e craf t that th e n fle w s omelimes. No fisures eve r w ere given o ffi c i ally bur the r e was a b elief curre nt that nea r l y half of lhc s tudent f lyers d ied l earning 1 0 fly. This wri te r s aw two o f th em die i n Ian d i n g and t a keoff attempts i n St. P e t ersburg. The w a r d r ained money out of Flo r ida a nd St. Petersburg, and thi s was a pioneer. debtor deeply dependent on a steady flow of mone y from the North. From mid 1914, the flow of money to Florida wa s curtailed sharply. People weren't s ur e of the f u ture A vacant lot out in the w oods of a s mall town on the Pineflas Peninsu l a utterly lost it s glamour. A measu re of the inlens ily o f the l o r buying and an e xtreme o n e admiHed l y bu t a r eveal ing one c an be taken from an in c i d e nt i n which thi s writer wa s involve
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PftnJC l ht' 1915 UCUtSfOn OUI Wst astounded and delighted to discov e r that he c ould gel $5,000 for it I g n o ran t of rea l estate ma tt ers it developed tha t h e had never recorde d h i s deed. Del ving thro ugh th e papers con ne c ted wit h t h e lol !h i s broker discovered a lega l paper called a n Agreement for Deed. This Agreement had been i ssued by H Waller Fulfer early in 1912 to the buyer from him The amazing record r e vea led by the various assignmenrs written on every 138 available square inch or lhe Agreemen t that the lot had changed hands e leven lim e s i n thi rtee n days f rom the date o r the o r i g ina l sa l el It is forgo tten as 1 0 just where Dave stood i n l h e list o r t h e n e a ger a s s ig nees but h e w a s lhe only one apparently wilh lh e means and the will 10 pick up the tab and fin ish paying lor the lot after the bubble burst His lot cost h i m not much more than a thou s and dollars, as memory runs, so Dave ended up doing quite well But unbeknownst

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co eith e r Dave or t h is observer # the new owner sold out at JUSt the wrong time as the firsl ground swell of a succeeding boom began to pulsate Ten resalei in thirteen days is admittedly an excep tiona! inciden t but at least the reader know s that the turn over was tremendous. Of course many of I he lo t s n eve r chan ged h ands, some didnt until the next b oom; b ut r eca lling that t he Boomer s manufac t u r ed som e 20,000 l ots d ur i n g those boi l i n g days o f 1911 1 9 1 4 and that most of them w e r e sol d at least once, one can real ize th at a con siderab l e lot business wa s done in a town that i n 1910 by th e Federal census held 4,127 people and b y the State census rive years later numbered only 7 ,186. It must be recalled that there was a considerable cit y limil enl argemen t during lhat time and further that there was a wide difference between the count ing rules of the Federal and State nose countings. In t h e Federal on l y those who claimed and seemed to hold legal r esidence were counted But i n the state ro ll call, pat r ioti c and c hamb er o f commerce t ype thinki11g preva i led and the count e rs, so much per h ead, coun t e d everybody, trans ient s even in hotel s But allowing for all that th e town had grown r apidly. The most significant t h ing i s that between 1915 a nd 1920 the population almost doubled The 191 5 census was 7,186 and the more reli.i.ble 1920 count w a s 14,237 This s hows tha t while lots quit sellin g. some hundreds maybe some thousands of people were quietly putting them to work by building houses and a partments and ho te l s on many of those 20,000 l ots So l et's sum up. What we re the plusses and w h at were th e minuse s of the 191 1 booml There were many p lusses. T h e framewo r k o f a g r eat and la i r city was co mpl eted. Its stree t s ystem i s s imple, d i re c t and traff ic p roc eeds on broad th oroug hfares E x cept f o r two bad areas of narr o w confused, dead e n d strcc r s in the close-in southwest a nd northwest q u adra nts resulting from individuali stic subd ividing of small traces free from p lan n ing and l ot and neighborhood street patterns are good No major city in Florida, save Coral Gables, has a happier framework, design location The 191 1 boom bequeathed that. . An intangib1e, bu t important p lus; rhe cn1zens be came acu t e l y conscious thai lh ey lived in a com mun i ty destined to become a city The decade begi nn ing in 1910 o r 191 1 wa s t h e go l den o n e of co mmuni t y cooperat i on, o f optimism, of neig hb o rliness. P eople had a sense of bel ong1ng, of b e ing on a ream T he town was sma ll enough i ndivi dua l not to feel l ost in the crowd. The ObJeCtiVe was "we" and not "'they." It was good to live h er e AI Lang made a phrase known nationw ide: "My Town/' Sunset Hot e l '' west end of CtniUII Ave 191S. 139

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First trip by trolley oul wt-sl Cenlr.lf 191S There were many speci fics GeorgeS (Dad) Gandy, who had firs t visit e d St. P e tersburg i n '1903, even tual l y becam e a p ermanent r esident. becam e e n thused enough to build the Plaza Theatre, with two wings, one one offices at Fifth and Central in 1912-13 That was cons ider ed preuy far ou t of down town in 1912! And yet i t was o utg rown and torn down b y 19551 For a decade or more the Gandy boys, (Gidge) S. Jr. and AI, presented theatrical fare tht a city of a qua r ter m illion would envy today. Noel A. Mitc h ell in 1913 spe nt a small fo rtune on a beach reso r t on the north bank of Johns Pass, com plete with hotel. 140 The City paved 4 0 m i les of streets. mostly bri ck. I n the baby boom period the city spent S35,000 on parks, S91 ,000 on water line extension, $20,000 for an i n cinerator, S179,()(X) on rhe waterfront. The pa r k expe ndi ture was the firsl sign ifican t o ne i n the C i t y's h i s tory W illiams P ar k ilnprovem ents had been made by pri vate groups of public spirite d women. The waterfront improvements, the filled shore, the seawalls, the Central Yacht Basin, gave th e city a mag n ificen t fr ont yMd" that was the e nvy of the entire State W ith the wat erfron t a re<11ity, t he Yacht Club as a matter of course followed in 1916. One brash newcomer dared t o build a modern three story 60 room hotel on a whole block althc very west end of Central Avenue, over looki n g B oca C iega and S unset Park, the latt er a city b l ock s ized gift of the Fullers to the city. Th is was the first hotel beyond walking distance ol Williams P.rk, and to most people's astonishment, it was c1 success O n the minus side w e re t h ose 20,000 vacant l ots scattered far and wid e with a scant sprinkfing of lonesome houses here and yon. There was a chastened spirit for hundreds of spec u larors with b u rnt finge rs. many o r w hom neve r ventured near the f i r e again. But think not that th e s hock of war c r ushed the wave or growth It merely repressed it for a time In dividu als licked the i r wounds but the community was consc iou s an d con fi dent of irs s tr ength, its f aith and its wisdom. The Baby Boom expanded the physical town, enlarged the vision. nourished the splril of its people.

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Chapter XX UNHAPPY PAUSE April 29, 1918 was an u nhappy and disastr ous day for St. P e tersburg. O n that day th e g r oup of ent erp r ises h cadd and managed by li. Walt er Fulle r entered v o luntary receivership (o r reorga nizatio n or l i q uidation Included was a f i v e s t eame r boat line servi n g all poin t s on T ampa Bay and the Manatee River th e St. Petersburg street raihvay boa t line from Gulf port t o Pass-a-Grille, the Southland Hote l (now Masonic Orphan age at north end of Coffee Pot Bayou,) the Pass-a-Grill e H ote l (it eventually burned) and som e ten o r a dozen real es tat e co mpan ies and syn d i cates_ T h e ele c tr ic plant avoided the d isast er, h aving bee n sol d April12, 1915 t o a Baltimore g r o u p T h e l o t boom o f 191 1-19H had actually e nded when Worl d War I start e d i n 1914, bu t th e t own had r u n o n momentum a n d accumul a t e d cap ita l f o r severa l ye.,s. b ut the collapse of th e Fuller enterprises ha r s h ly s ign aled economic disaster fo r the town T he foot-l oose, young and otherwise, had flocked to w ar industries. A nation suddenly caugh t up fo r its firsc lime in intense and profitab le manufacturing. farmers spurred b y sudde n vast demand for food sruffs, a national administration mak i ng precautionary military preparat i ons, was i n n o mood for leisurel y w inle r vac ations. T here were n o air li nes, no fast ca r s o r go o d roads. P eo p l e pa cked trunk s and came f o r l ong S lays. M any even bro u ght basi c food s upplies. Some 2 00 odd of the adventur o u s youth of t h e town formed a company of sol d iers, organi zed, t e n dered th e ir ser v ices to the United S tates governmen t The town econom y at that day was pretty fra gile and brittl e Fishing emp loye d a Gonsiderable number But earnin g s were low per cap ila, as always, in rhal business Citrus and farming were insignificant. A h igh percentage of srores were seasonal the owners soapi ng their windows for l ong summe r months and c l osing whil e they were in Eastern and New England surnmcr resorts running s i milar businesses o r l oafing. T h e r e was a n i n s igni fican t summer t o u rist bus ir,ess at Pass-a-Grill e s u p porte d by a r e l at i v el y f e w Tampa and inl a n d F l o rida fam i l ies, t h e f ami l y heads mostl ) com141 muang weekends while the w o m e n and chil d ren p l a y o d all week. St. P etersb urg d i s t i n ctly a pi onee r commu n i ty which is from the natur e o f t hings a de b tor community p r osperi ng duri n g n o rm al perio ds by s.teady i nfl o w of c api t al from ouJ of S131C. Most s u c h G ap ita l for St. Petersburg came irom Philadelphia; first the Disstons, then F. A Davis and people they induced to join rhem. The Fuller enterprises were fi nanced through the summers and for major conslruction with short tim<> loans l rom Phi l adelphia banks All o th e r local developers dis c r eetly cu r ta i led the ir activitie s i n tu ne with s ales or l a c k the r eof. Fulle r was t h e except ion bett i ng t h e w ar woul d be o f s hort duration stea m e d ah e ad with major deve lopment w ork, g uessed w r o ng w ent bro ke, called his creditors tog e t h er had them fo r m a comm i ttee, an d tur ned a n properties ove r to them But committe-es u sually ve r y good on ning streetcar line s a n d boa t lines and selling lots, and this commottee absentee Philadelphia bankers, was no e xccprion. They sent in a professional liquid ator, one Char1es M Allen, who wa.s experienced in closing out mercan tile and commerc i al bank r u ptcies, bul unequal to t his task_ The bank ers committee e ven tually sough t Fulle(s a i d i n l i q u i daling h i s o l d compan ies. M eanwh i le the economy of th e town lurche d to a n u n h appy near h alt. Pro f essiona l white m e n suddenly found themselves competi ng with Negro la borers at $1.25 a day, as compared with the then normal $ 1.50 a d a y Remembering thai government, assessed v.1luations on propetry and m any other act i v iHe s that refrecl eco nomic conditions. lag usually one o r two year s b eh ind actua l events, th e f ollo wing tabulat i on of coun t y assessed valuat ions ref lect the 1 911191 4 b oom, the following eco nomi c pa use of 1916-19, t he rising head of steam l ead ing to the g reat Boom of 1925 and its a ft e r math

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YEAR 1911 1912 1913 1914 1 9 1 5 1 9 1 6 19 1 7 1918 1 919 1 920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1 927 1 928 TOTAL VALUATION $ 3,546 ,130 4,854,228 7,712,383 8,5 1 6 ,043 8,977 ,930 8 880 582 10, 0 12,360 10 ,504 ,099 10,599 ,2 38 1 1, 42 8 298 13,192 959 15,237,102 17,781,958 26,223, 606 34,361,716 >40,856,540 41,032 374 38, 4 37,674 x Major increas e in c i t y l i m its PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE 36.89 58.88 10.42 05.42 '01.09 12.74 04.91 00. 9 1 07.8 2 I 5.44 15.49 16 .70 47.47 31.03 18.90 00.43 32 The reade r will note that following eac h ad v ance 1hc boomlel and r he boom there wa s an acrual drop in assessed values, in 1916 and again in 1928 It mus.t not be understood that th e town surren dered in despair Quite the contrary St. Petersburg was an opt i mistic place in those days. There w a s always a group r eady to back any intrig u ing idea with Time, Money and Fait h The "no'' chorus s ung low in th ose days Fulle r and many an other man con tinued t o venture, and hope and devel op. For In s t a nce there was th e mau e r o f a bri dge or bridges t o Pass-a-Grille and t h e !leaches. W 1.. S tr aub and H. Wal ter Fulle r had J>roJ>oscd In 1916 that a bri dge be built and a s a result specia l R oad a n d B r idge Oi.stric l Number 1 was forme d Watch those spec ial Road and Bridge Districts. The S r Petersbur g area eventually created 13 of them a big facror in the great collapse of the Nineteen Thirties. No.1 included all of Sr. Petersburg and the island Pracrically all of the voters were i n St. P etersburg but they c heerfully voted the bonds, in the sum of S100,000.00. Islanders who now complain t h e main land is a drag. would do well t o remembe r that t h e Island s c h ie f ben e ficiaries of th ose roa d s and bridges, duri ng th e firs t years paid Less than fiv e pe r cent of the taxes t o pay them off. Even tuall y th e secondacy gas r.ax pa i d m u c h or all. The money was enou gh for a brick roa d on the is l and but nor for a b r idge across Boca C iega Bay. Ful ler made a fifty-fifty deal with the County Commission rhar i f it would levy a rax for irs half, one-lifth a year for five years he would put up the orher h a lf. The County did levy rhe rax. Bur in rhe meantime Fuller went brok e and couldn't pay his half So rhe Coun t y wouldn't s pend irs h alf. W. D. McAdoo, a flambo yant wheele rdealer from Green sbo ro, breezed into town abo u t th e n, bought th e n o rth end of L o n g Key St. P e tersburg Beach, sough t and got a roll !>ridge franchise from the County, and b u i l l a wooden toll bri dge from Vill a Grande Avenue (slightly south of Fifth Av enue South) ro 87th Avenue ar Sr. Petersburg Beach, the first of many roll bridges, all of which eventually became a on t h e comm un ity. He l et the conlract in fu ne, 1916, opened the bridge with appropriate fanfare February 4, 1919. frank Fortun e Pulv er, St. Petersburg's famed bac h e l o r mayor b o ugh t rhe b r idge Ma y 11, 1920. H i s associates were J. J Duffy, l o ng lime mayor of Pass-a-Grille, A F Th omasson Presi den t o f Centra l Nati onal Bank G W Griffiths, W arren Webster, C. P erry Snell and H. R. McChesney. Thomasso n's b ank had a mortgage on the Pass a -Grille Hotel owned b y Fuller, and Webster and Snell had acquired con siderable island holdings from fuller or had unhap py mortgages on some of his property. McAdoo fo r a while cui c1 w ide swa th in loc a l realty circles For instance, on Centra l betwee n about 6 t h Street and 16th Street h e acquir e d many vacant l ots, e rec1ed on eac h a long low i gn which simp ly said, "Sec Mr. McAdoo:'' The writer cannot refra i n f ro m t e lling thi s in c id ent. McAdoo dec ided ro subd ivi de his beac h property, thereby srarring what eventuall y became the origina l St. P e tersburg Beach on the north end o f long Key. H e emp l oyed the fullers, fath e r and son, r o handle the lot sale. Not approving the proposed lot sales contract. they withdrew. In f act this wrirefs employment by McAdoo lasted some two hours, ir raking him ap p roxima t el y rhar length of rime r o r ead and digesr the 142 / N W corne r at Uh & Cen1tal1917. Nael A. Mltt h e ll'$ oflict, late-r W a lgr un's Dtug Store, now c l othlns store

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An t1111ly flisht of wo,kl famous Tony j .llnu ) disch.trJing 1914. proposed contract. T he r eafter for a time t h e r e was a feud between McAdoo and the Fullers In the summer of 1 919 the Fulle r s gave a pri vate b eac h par ty at the Pass-a-Grille Hotel Cas i no. Everyone was hav i ng a good lime, d i d not w ant to quit by 9:00 P. M . the time at. whic h th e toll bridge cus tomar i l y closed for th e day (McAdoo charged 25 cents to get on the i sland nothing t o get off ) McAdoo was te lephoned i n St Pe t ersburg and asked p e r mission to pa y the bridge tender to stay open l ater than usual. McAdoo read ily agreed "I n fact," h e said I am going out to t h e b r idge in a few mi n utes and will tell h i m to .... ait u n til y our party gets off the isl and.'' B u t whe n theparty meuil y ar ri ved at rhe d rawbridge about midnight the d rawbridge was open, t he bridge t ender gone Thi s wcirer s tripped t o his s h orts, to the span suppo r ti ng the draw, found the "key" whic h c losed and opened the draw a n d closed it. Thjs key was simiJar to a huge auro tir e Jug wrench w h e n t he cup was i nserted p roperly a per son l aboriously pushed it ro u n d and roun d u ntil the d r aw was shut (or ope n ) removed t h e "wrench/' locked the draw shut and traffic p r oceeded across. On this par1ku lar n ight th i s writer ope n e d rhe draw Jgai n af te r h i s pa r t y had crossed, t h rew the K e y overboa rd, $\'\' am bac k t o his car and drove on home The repercussions were rather violent. Th i nking the cu1pri t h ad not been suff i c i en 11y punished this write r the next Sunday aflernoon, the period of greatest bus i nes s of the wee k fo r t h e drawbr i dge took h i s 1 5 foot sai l boat and l eisurely sai le d i t back and forth through t h e dra\'\ tor severa l hours by which t i me the auto traff ic was ba c k ed u p seveta l m iles. McAdoo Oared not close the d r aw Federaf law giv i ng water traffic r i g h t of way to land traffi c After th i s a treaty of peace of sorts was mad e. Another l i n e o f life sav ing act i vity was the J ungle Golf Cou rse, or the St. Petersburg Golf D e velopment Company, a s i t was l egally and formally known Prev io u sly a golf club had been built a t Bayboro in 190 7 It was sponsored by the Board of T rade at a meet i ng o n Ap r il 26, 1 906 a n d was f i n ished and opened i n F ebru ary, 1907 Officers were e lected as follow s: N oel A. M i tchell. president; VI/. H E nglish vice4president; A B Davis, 143 Johnny hydroplane "kUy." Ht' J.11nus .u tily'j e.ulr bird rm. secretary, and T K. treasurer. Oire cro r s nam e d w e re : W E. Hea thc o t e C A Harvey, C. A. Smi th, )r., C. W Barke r A F. Bartlett,). G Foley, Dav i d W. Budd T A Chancellor W l. Straub, A F F r eeman. f E Cole, S E Denny Roy S Han na R T homas W H Adams, V N Ridge l ey and W. ) Longman B u t the course faile-d. Th ere was no (ransp o rtat ion by land o n account of the sand conven i e n t acces s was by boat only and p la yers would not take t h e trouble. But another effort in 1 9 1 4 Ha<.:ceeded. Chades R. Hall cal led two m eet i ngs on febr u ary 9th and 26th, and a proposal by the Johns Pass Real ty Company, a Fuller led company, a ccepte d h woul d deed 1 20 acres of land for a gol f c o urse take back a S60.000 long r e rm seco n d morrgag e ; the company would f i. ,a n ce course, club house and l i quidatio n o f second mor tgage through issuance and sale of $500 and $1000 f irst mortgage bonds. each bond in cl ud i ng s t ock i n rhe Gol f Cours e company and a lot facing o n or nea ( the Gol f Coucse The Course l ay between f if th Avenue N o r t h and 22 n d Avenue N orth, Park Slr ee t and 7 4th Sueet. Farragut Academy is housed irl lhe o ld Club House. In less th an a month the needed amount was sub scribed The subscribers were: Charles R. Hall C. M Ros er, H. Wal t e r Fulle r ) F M cBean GeorgeS Gandy H. K Heritag e, A F T homasson, A l bert F Lang, H M Pancoast E V Pech i n, G W. Cooper, R C Benn et, Walter P Wilkins$ l acob S Oisston \Nill i am L. 1\-1u r phy Josep h Murphy, Henry W. D u p o nt, Paul P o ynte r T. A Chancellor, 8 G Stee l e, D W Budd, G W Foster, William C. McCl ure Roy S Hanna, lew 6 Brow n J F r a nk l i n Meehan, E E '"lad e ira, T ). Northr u p . A P. Ave ry, F A. Wood, Or W K Bradf i eld. F. P lowe, Noe l A. M i tc h ell. G B. Haines. G. B Ha yw ard, Mrs. C. N. C raw fo rd lil ia n Dusenbu r y R H Thomas A Norwood Wm M. Davis, F W. Wilcox. C W W i ccking, May f Purnell, Emilie E C. Rowland, Charles D Hulbert, St. Pet e r s b urg Hardware Com pany, Southern Concrete and Con struc tion Company. Willson C h ase Company Dent & Engl i s h Compa ny West Coast Abstract and Mortgage Company R. ) Col e, ) U. Be t hell Anson i a H otel E H Tom l i nson, Manhattan Mar ket, S. D Har ri s St. P e t e rsbutg Novel ty Work s. A E Hoxie George 0 Osb orn e, M rs. Mary E

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Whiteley. H H. Smitz. ( Truly an Honor Roll of the Boosters and wealthy of that day) At a meeting of the stockholders In June. AI F. lang was e l ected presidenl; H. Walter Fuller vice-president, H M Pancoail, secreta ry, and J D Harris, t reasurer. Dir ectors named were: A P Avery, A. F. Thomasso n Char les R Hall. T A. C h ance l l o r David W Budd, and E. E. Mad e ira T h e course was l a i d o u t by A. W Tillinghast, o n e of the IT\OSt c apab l e gol f eng i neer s a n d des i gners i n t h e country, and work p r ogressed rap i d l y during the sum mer. eve ry e ffort being made to have the n i ne-ho l e course comple ted by winter. The clubhou s e was started on Novembe r 20 1915 The course was formally on January 1, 1916 The first game was played by/\. f lang and Dr. W K Bradfield against Judge William Dishma n and Dr. Elton Wilcox; Mr. lang a n d Dr. Bradfield w inni ng one up. Two hundred spectator s watched the match. The clubhouse was formally opened March 10, 1916 M embers o f the recept ion committee were Me s d ames A. F. lang, A P. Avery, D W Budd W a l t e r Fuller, C h a r les R Hall John D Harris, H. M P a nco ast and /\. F. Thom a ssson. The second ni nehofe co urse was opene d January 15, 1916. The eig h teen hole course thus prov ided was 6,082 yards in length, par 72. C J. Smith, golf professiona l at the Palma Ceia course in Tampa arrived on May 2, 1917, to take charge of the club. ' . -. -= ._...-'/.'' . Previously reported was that first ceremonial swing by Mr. Chancellor. the town's lead i ng banker and first citizen The list of members is truly a roll call of the leadi ng develop"'' leaders, sportsmen of the town. Many of the name-s are already familiar to the readers of these pages. large s tockholders, officers and finan cia l bJckers of the Full er ent erprises included; J f McBean a P h i l adelp h ia ba n k e r whose son eve ntually was chie f e ng i n eer fo r th e conSi ru clion of the Ga nd y B ridge; H K E. V Pec h i n I nves t ors from Philad e lph ia, B. C. Steele first resi den l o f Pasadena ( a t first called Dav ist a i n honor of F A Dav is,) Wm. C. McClure of Peoria, Illinois, J Franklin Meehan, land planner and golf a rchitect ; ). U Bethel, F ullet's attorney from Philadelphia, H M. Pancoast Treasurer of the Fuller enterprises Hotel people induded G Bainbr i dge Hayward (Detroit and Bainbrid ge h o t e ls,) Mrs. C. N Crawford, hote l owner, Mrs. Lilian Dusenbury (her pionee r ho tel was demol is h e d i n 1966 t o provide a parking lot lor the l'rlncess -Mar tha,) May F. Purn e ll, Poinsettia a n d othe r h o t e l s G. W Cooper, J osep h Murphy, Emi l i e E C. R o wland, George 0 O sborne w ere l oca l c a pita l ists and big property owners. Doctors Bradfield, H u lbert Jnd Davis were local p h ysicians. Bennett was the super popular proprieto r of Bennett 's drug store and D W Budd of the equally popular Budd's drug store. Walter P Wilkins became famed as the "Apple Man,ff pioneer grocer with the merchandising nair now T ony tuni n g up for l'ir& l fllaht 1914. 144

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Jolnl: u S W corntr of 41h Ct-nlrl 1917 aypif ied by super markels. H en ry W Dupona wa s an orch i aeca. C. w Fosl er a n d H 8 S mitz (Smitz not Smilh ) were r e al eSiale b r o k e rs. E. E. Made ira was on e of a h c mos t popu la r early rnin i s l ers i n ahe ciay. E. P Low e s tarted the very fir s t uail c r a n d t o uri S ( c amp, was th e princi pa l saockholder of ahe ahen Ninlh Street and now Uni o n Tru s t N a tional Bank G. 6 H aines io( his good roads pioneer ing and publ ic sp i r i led proclivities had Ha ines Ro.Jd named for him. He was a jeweler ; R. J Cole was a lso a jeweler (now Bruce Wat ters) R. H Thomas was broker. mor1gage m a n, banker S D Hanis. undertaker, senator churchman. Mrs. White l ey was an earl y Jung l e resi den t A I Lang wa s in a c lass by h imself, one of l he bigg est fac t ors in I he l eadershi p o r th e city du r ing ahe tr oubled dayr. now beil'lg exam in e d, a nd i n f act was a most usefu l cilizen fro m lhe day h e arr iv ed i n the fall of 1910 with "My g i rl, a s h e al ways c alled his w i fe. Ma r ie, unlil h e d i ed o n F ebruary 27, 19(,0 at t he age of 89 years and 4 months. When h e came here he was n ol quile 4 0, having been born in Pinsb u rgh Novem ber 16, 1870. and said himself he never e xpecaed to reach SO. He had operated a laundry retired because of frail health, was of modest means w hen he anived but two fonunc u e purchases and l ong (ime leases made him comfortab l y wealthy Long ond justly will his name be blazoned on th e St. Pea ersburg s ky by ahe Alb era F Lang baseball f i e l d on the waterf r ont al Fir
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e(aborat e but confusin g pa tt ern o f w i ndin g ro ads and his cou rse d id not reall y become a re creat i ona l factor u ntil a p r i vate c lub was fo r med by a n i n f l ue nt ia l group i n m i d Ninetee n Thirt ies to take ove r th e c ourse. Jac k Taylor a lso go1 under way lale w ith Pas adena cou rse. In 1925 he used s mart bu t expens i ve showmans hip, had Wa lter l lage n then t h e m ost colorful g o l fer i n th e world, sponsor a beautifu l cou rs e and with the e labora t e Ro l ya t Ho tel and C lub, a g r a nd opera pr im a donna Or' two and t h e mul ti mill i onaire Aug us t Hecksher as showpieces, p u t on the mos t dazz l i n g s ho w i n town. T h e Uph ams b e latedl y on and off had a gol f cou rse at Shore Ac res. S n e ll. a natur a l l one r made no e trort to fo r m a club. H e just buill a cou rse, a super e xpensive Moorish clubho use. served food, a nd h e who w o u ld pay coul d p l ay. Tayl o r f o r the bri ef period before t h e b lo w u p superbly u sed snob appeal a n d showmansh ip, had his course jammed, his hotel full the bar packed three deep. In 1 916 t h e St. Petersbusg Yacht C lub was formed, add ing a new d imen sjo n to th e communi ty, and an i mporta nt one f o r a t ouris t a n d rec r eational city. A. T. R o bert s was responsi b l e for the Yacht C lub idea becom i n g a fac t. Roberts had been c i t y edi tor of the St. T ime-s, b ecam e p u b l icity d i rector fo r the Fulle r gr'Oup of e nt e r p rises He and his family liv e d on a boa 1 in Cen t r.11 Yacht t oved the water a nd boats and he was conv in ced a yacht cl u b wa s of pa r amou n t import anc e t o the growrh of the city. Roberts sol d h i s idea t o a small but powerfu l group of cit izens and secured the i r a gree m ent to sponso r t h e forma t i o n ol the proposed club. They were: Major lew B. B rown, who bec ame temporaty cha i rm an ; W L. Straub, Ed T. Lewis C. W. Spr i ngs tead, Arth u r L. Jo hnson, Frank C Ca rley, Georg e S Gandy, S r H. W alter F u lle r and Ch a rles R Hall. A drive for a m ini m um of 100 membe r s at $25 a year was over4 whel m i ng l y successful. th e actual total run n i ng to s l ig h tly mor e than 1 50 A organ ization was effe cted on Jun e 23, 1916 and t h e fo llowin g offi cers elected; Frank C. C a r l ey, Commodor e A C. Butle r V ice Commodore, D W B udd, Rea r Co mmodore, A T Roberts, Secr eta ry, John D H anis, Treasur'er. T h e f i rst d i rect ors, i n add it ion to th e officers, Brown Lew is, Strau b, Johnson, Gandy, fuller, T. A Chancellor, C. W Roser, Roy $ Hanna, D r W. W D av is, J. C Fo ley, Robert Carroll and C. W G reene of Tampa. 146 On August 26t h t h e city gra n ted th e clu b a 30 y e ar lease al the trad i t i onal dollar a yea r with a n option f or another 30 yea rs bui l d i ng p lans s ubmitted by Ar chitect George W Stewart were accepted, and a b u il d ing contract awa r ded to J Frank Chase on Novem ber 29th. From th e b egi n n ing the clubhouse was loca ted at the foot of Cen tra l Avenue Temporary finan c ing was arranged by 53 of the members, i ndiv i dua l s and corporations, sign i n g a j o i nl note t o the loca l b a n ks for $ 1 5,000 00 (a popul ar but h i g hly dange r o u s method o f f i nan cing commu n i ty projects i n those earl; e n th u s iasti c days w h e n the town was small and "ev e rybody knew everybody .") Th e cl u b buil d i ng was iorrna lly opened o n June 1 5 1917, all of the orig i na l o f fice rs a n d d i rectors havi n g been re-elected on June 11th. Bonds tota l in g $20 000 wer e i ssued o n Aug u st 9th ; forty of the members buyi n g a S SOO bond each a n d t h e $15,0 0 0 ban k lo a n reti r ed. T he c l u b was an i nstan t success and a larget cl u bhouse soo n b ecame a n eces$\( y a n d a ma j or e nl a rgement was approved Apr i l 22, 1921 and a new bond is s u e of $ 60,000 approved and sold to the mem bers. A r c hit ec t Stewart d rew the new p l a n s a lso and F r an k li n J Maso n constructed t h e addit ion. The n e w clu b h o use was opened December 2 2 1922. fn this day o f mass prod u ct i on of boats, easy t o opera te inboard a n d ou tboard moto rs, o f w i desp r ead o pu la n ce and prosperi t y i t is d iff i c ult t o r eal i ze how restr icted was boat owner s h ip at that time and how re l atively diificu l t a n d expens iv e thei r operat i on Probab l y n o t a t h ir d of t h e or i g i n al m embers own ed boals. Then as now the socia l side oi the club loomed l a r ge which was an im p orta n t r easo n w hy the c l u b f ina lly surv i ved through some dark a n d d i f ficult f i n an dal periods Actually t he clu b \vas ref i nan ced a couple of tim es, the ori ginal bon d holders never bei n g r epaid In one reo rganization t h e i r bo nds were wiped ou t by vol u ntee r surre n der in o rd er to all o w r e fi nancing of the club. But through the year s i t has been a valuable civic, rec reational and e n t er t ai n ment factor A t t h e time o f i t s o r ganizat i o n w ith the City economy i n a near state o f p a ralysis, its success r a ther d r amatica Uy illust r ated the spir i t of goodwilf, coopera tion, <:i vic pr ide and optimi sm tha l and dominat ed the to wn. l n som e ways these 1 h e golden days T his write r is t h e sole surviving o rigina l i n corp o r ator and member H e has been mad e an hon orar y life member because o f that f act.

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Chapter XXI TOPSY JUST GROWED ON D ur i n g this per iod very sign if icanl stt ides wer e made not only i n city s t r eets and o ther mu n icipa l im p r ovements, but i n co unty h i ghways; thi s last p robably being the most import an t City bonds were voted on Feb r u ary 16, 1917, November 12, 1919 and )un o 18, 1 920 for $ 180, 000, $100,000 a n d $448,000. T h e money was used mai n l y for major warerfr o r ) t impr ovemen t s incl ud i n g p u r c hase of the long disputed Wate r Lot 4 (the rnun i c i pa l p i er site at t h e Bay e n d o f Second Aven u e North), t h e Cooke prope rty, (Al bert Whitted) sewers, band s h e ll a t Willi ams P ark, Booker Creek bridge at N i n t h Stree t South, city gas plant, e n largeme nt of water pla nt; i m provemen t s ahd ex t ensions t o s t reetca r l i nes; fire d e p a r t ment. comfort stat ion s a n d whi te way str e e t l igh t s A p roposed i ss u e of $112,000 f o r s1reet s i n VVaterfronr Par k was defeated. But t he b i g s t o r y was county h ig hways On june 4 1912, shorlly alte r the County was born. a $300 000 county bond issue was s u bmitted and fai l e d 489 to 505 in a squea k er e lectio n, "do w n th i n k i r l g "up county" was gett i n g the b i g end of the s tick Boosters lor cou n t y u n i t y and the h ardy a uto fans kepi up a p u bli city a n d ed ucation a l c ampa i gn a nd on De c ember 3, 9 12 a s l ightly enla r ge d issue of $475,000 geared mor e ge n e rousl y to down cou nty was a p proved b y a narrow majority A s h a k y brid ge was bu ilt at Semi n o l e and t h e ba l ance oi r h e money spen t o n poorly bui lt marl and shell r oads, whi c h rathe r pro mptly w e n t t o p ieces. The b r i dge also eve n tuall y f ell down. Another try was made for b ric k roa d s with a ST15 000 issu e in Augusl, 1915. It passed 808 10 629 i n a countyw id e vote, b u t was knocked out i n the cour t s Anot her elect i o n was held November 15, 1915 and this too c arri e d b u 1 by a nMrower marg i n, 827 t o 754. This write r has v i v i d recollections of t his campaign h i s f i1st civ ic; a n d po l i tical act i vity af t er college days. He helpe d organ ize a motorcade designed to cover i n one day the app r oximate route o f the proposed 75 H7 miles of 9-foot brick roads. It was a l ong ha r d day, t he tired motorists gelling home l ate t hat n i g h t Neve r will it be f o r gotten t h e acute embarrassment of t his w r i t e r w h o ha d a posl of honor t h i rd i n l ine; Noel A. M i t c he ll bei('lg in the f i rst car complete with leather put tees professio n al chauf fe ur (he famous midget A n d y wiJh the b i ggest au tomobil e in the County, E B Willson of Willson Chase secon d ao>d this writ er t h i rd Mr. 'vVi llso n h ad lo s t a whee l turn ing a curve on 78th Avenue North i n P i n ellas Par k But 1hat \'lt a s a trifle compared 10 !he Fuller tragedy. Along a bout where Park Boulevard would now interse c t 66t h Street (Haines R oad ) h e became h opelessly d ug i n w h i l e at tempt ing a toug h st r e tch of san d. (!'l aying smart alec k h e tried to do i t i n seco n d It was a B u i ck, M r Adc o c k ) The whole process i o n was stalled for a good h alf hour. Oh, th e shame of t hat day! In these days ol lengthy condemnation procedures, ted ious \Vaits fo r completi ng engineering pl a ns, to rtuo u s wending of d pro je c t s rh r o u g h co u n t y an d S t a t e Ro a d Department p rioritie s . i t may com e a s some what of a s u r prise to learn rhar t h e e lection was Novemb e r 6 19 15 a n d the roads we r e com1>l eted and officially ded i cated i n exaclly o n e day s h ort o f a y e ar W A. (B ill) McMullen wa s the eng i fleer The bricks were l a id Orl t he bare sand -or the m u c k r i ght of ways were use d as f ound, many a comer bei n g turned at righ l ang les, and i f the r i ght o f way was 60 fee t w ide f i ne, if not 50 woul d do i n f act some times 40 fee t "di d." A n d thi s w r i t e r is e tern ally proud of t h e fact th at he j o i ned a voci fer o u s grou p of lad ies, who screamed and sho u ted long and loud unti l t h e county com missi oners s plit one of the r oads t o save a be a u tif u l group of oaks. You can see t hem to thi s goo d day i n th e middle o f the road along by the Kap o k T ree restaura n t N o s e l f r e s pec t ing e n g i n eer would tolerate s u c h fo olis h nes s today Pine lla s was that p r o u d of its 75 miles of bric k r oad Even if th ey were o nl y 9 fee t w id e. A nd well th e y might be. ll was the l ongest and best syste m o r

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good roads in 1he en ti r e Slate! E x cep t for a stretch fro m J a ckso nv i l l e t o L ak e Cily, it was t h e only coun ty (thece was n o s tate sys t em) sys te m or brick r oads i n Flo rida. Soon after, P olk County compl eted a longer. but just as narrow syslem of she et asphalt roads, regretted lhe construcuon almost as soon as lhey were f inished, because thO) prompll) fell apart. lit tle dreami n g w h a t a flood of a utomobile s Ford a n d others were pJannint;; to loos e o n 1 h e Amer ican people, the boosters of 1915 wou l d have bee n amazed to be ro l d then that within five years they would regret theic lack of wisdom. 6ut so it tucned out F o r in roads. as in many another field, Flo r idians a n d all o th e r Amer ic ans Wc.lre caught t otally by sur p r ise by th e s udden r evo l ution i n tran spo r tuion Soon more and more freqt.ent "passings" on the 9 foot path s with the outer wheels of both automobiles go;ng over the curb. dug dilches in the sand just beyond the curbs. Soon these ditches became dangerous as more and mote cr ank case) cr acked as the y t h u mped down on th e con c r ete c urb ing. Anoth e r issu e was soon s haped op. s ubmitte d on August 1 5 '1922 in the s um oi $2,695 ,000. But that original one wets also heavily weighled in favor of up county, and the Evenong Independent led a light that defeated it 1,657 to 1,234 A wise r and fairer program was mroved Jun e 5 1 923 for $2,863 ,000 by a 2 708 to 403 vot e The s e roa d s w e r e 16 f e e t w ide. A n d b elieve it o r not the old brick s w ere taken up and reu sed but with base under rhcm chis time In some places however, where there was good base. the original 9 feet were allowed to rema in; 3 1 / 2 feet being added o n each s ide. And a lmost equally u n beli evab l e there i s o n e p iece o f ori g i n a l 9f oot roa d north of An clo te still i n use, and several stret c h es o f the 1 6-loo t ro a ds 146 T h e sharp contrast between 192 3 and 19 67 i s shown i n t hat the citizen s of t h e ci t y and c ou n ty are told today t o be pat i ent for lo u r or five years an d alon g will come Interstate 4 w ith right of way cos t ing almost as much as lhe paving. compared 10 literally not a dollar lor right of way lor the 9-foot system. a nd trifling sums for the system. And i n some stretc h es Inte rstat e 4 w ill cos r mor e fo r one mile tha n all of the ISO m i les of 16-loot r oad How r apid l y the world has changed in 43 years! The auromobile revolution was well under way i n 1923, but none could IO M Allen, l iq u ida t or on May 3. O n April 7 1919 the propert y was so l d at foreclos u re sal e and bough t i n by t h e

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creditors, mainly l acob Disston for S165,000. The city too k an option to buy and started operating following July 1. On August 30, 19'19 the voters ap proved 350 to 103 a 5250.000 bond is sue. $175,000 to pay for ic and $75.000 fo r imp r o \ r ements. A loop o n Fir st Avenue Nor t h between 2nd Stree t and 6th, with new waiting r ooms a t \Villi ams Park a nd a1 6th and Cen tr a l were adde d B u t all i n vai n The 1925 boor n had h a rd l y e nded bef o r e t h e cit y s tart e d converti n g t o buses. O n Ju n e 5, 1926 i t placed 8 buses o n the l ealman r un In 1 936 active conversi o n ro buses start ed with th e purchase of two new b u ses and from then unti l 1947 new o nes wer e added almost e v er y year and o n Ocotber 21. 1947 City Council voted 5 to 2 to convert entirely to buses by December 15. O n May 7, 1949 C ity Manager Ross Windom made quite a ceremony of a "l ast ride by streetcar from &th and Central to G u lfport, the tr ip starting at m i dnight. This writer was one o f the g uests. The last car at the end of t h e trip was preu y w ell str ipped by sou ve n i r hunters. The s treetcats never really ear ned a n ho nest opcraling doll a r in th e ir entire e x is tence. A b ook keeping "operating" prof i t wa s c l a i med i n '1\109'1 0; i n 1916 and under the ci ty in 1 9 4 0-41 and 1945 46 But it is doubtful that depreciation and i n teresc on investme n t were figured T hi s writer ha s the dubious p l eas u re of remember ing that he managed the line in 1916 and substantially increased incom e b y -believe it or not-adding a 35 cent rubberneck" tour or complete line, complete with "barl
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bombarded the va r i ous stat e t ourist societies to spon sor day r ide exc u r sions o n thei r Bay steamer s I n that day the vari ous state societ ies loomed much bigge r in t h e tovri s t trade. Tourists carne ma i n l y for a l ong w i nte r stay. They e n joyed t hemselves more. felt at home mor e comfor ta b l y at the freq u e n t meetings and affairs of their s tat e socie ties, some of which had huge member s h ips P romoti ng t he touri st theme, the publicity depa r t m ent of the Fuller g r oup, i n the summer of 19"11'>, made an effective map-t h e first suchshowing the e n tire Tarnpa Bay a rea a n d h ig h l ighting the points of interest This writer a n d the Company's chief eng ineer C. E. Bur leson later C o u nty Engineer showed t he draft copy to H. Walter Full er for f i n al approva l. After a quick g l ance at the m a p and apparently on a sudden i rnr)u lse, h e put h i s fi n ger on 9 t h S treet and Cent r a l and said to Bur l eson : "Burleson, draw a dotted l i n e here and ma r k it proposed streetca r line ."' A n d he drew a lin e runn i ng o ut 9th Street to abo u t 90th A ve nue North and t hen swung i t to and across O l d T ampa 6ay on ap prox i mat e l y the route o f the Gandy B r i dge of today A hundred thousand of the maps were ordered. printed in color, a very adva nce d proceeding for tha t day a n d placed i n the str eetca r boat line wait ing room at the southwes t corner of 5th Street and Cen t r al. At t hat t i me GeorgeS (Pop) Gandy, Sr. and fam ily lived in a luxury apartment on t he second floor of the inner oi lwo wings that exlended from the Plaza Theatre t o Centra l Ave nue, the Fuller offices o c c u pying t h e erlt i r e two stor ies of t h e outer a n d cor ne r one. "Dad' s" customary mornit1S habit was to stroll u p and down Centr a l Avenue i n f ront of l he two buildi11gs for a co ns1itut ional. The erect, v igorous ; i gure was famitiar t o most local cit i zens, the waiti ng r o om bein g pe r haps at tha t day a more freq u ented cen tral gat her i ng p lace o f peop l e t ha n any other spot i n town. And customar i l y j u tting strai g h t o u t from th e l uxurious beard was a l ong, t h i n ver y e xp ensive ciga r Usually Mr. Gandy strolled into the waiting room, to pass a "Good Morning" w i th this writer w h o was serv. ing a n apprentices h i p on t h e information des k H i s at tent ion was called to the new publicity map and h e went out u nfolding one I n a few m i n u tes he marched in, striding rather t h an str o lli ng, as was his wont. "What do you know about h e asked point ing at t h e dotted l i ne on the map He was t old how it happe n ed to be t h ere uHmm," he said ''Is H. \>Valter i n?" To l d he was, h e and t h i s wri ter went to t he big front oHice upsta \rs. Without any prelimi na r y he asked: "Who is goi ng to bui l d ( his street ca r line, H Walter?" And equally prompt the reply was: "Why not you and me?" "Uh-huh. li-mmm. The boys (A I and George )r. 150 (C i dge)) and I will take the boat and look the situa tion over/' he said and depa r ted. Several days l a te r he c a me back a n d i n the p r esence of t h i s w r i t e r with onl y the br i efest pre l i m i naries asked: "What ptopositio n do you have i n mind?" In a s u r pris i ngly few m i nutes it was agreed chat a company o r com pan ies would be form e d to bui l d a str eetcar l ine, conn ect ing St. Peter sbu r g to T ampa: that the fullers a n d Gandys would put up organ i zationa l and promot iona l money f i f t yfifcy; that the Fuller orga n i zat i o n would handl e t h e prel i minary e n gi neeri n g w ork, th e secur ing of a r ight of way and t h e routine legal work. Mr. Gan dy of course wou l d dec ide the details of the st r eetca r l ine ; and i n cooperation w i t h H Walter's brothe r C. Paul of T ampa, n e gotiate t rackage and operationa l contracts w i th the Tampa Electric and t h e s t reetcar company, then controlled and operated by t he Stone & Webster ut i li t y empire of Boston ; Peter 0 Knig h t economic and pol itica l g i ant of Tampa be i ng l o cal gene ral ma nager. Surp r i s i n g l y q u i c k l>' two companies w ere formed; The Gandy B r idge Company, and the Bay Con structio n Company; two F u llers and t hree Gandy s be i ng direc tor s and officers of each. A satisfac tory per pet u a l charter was secured f rom the F l orida Legislatur e i n the Spring o f 1917 1-fighly favor.>bl e arrangements were made w i th the Tampa uti l i ties to h ave the terminal point a cir c l e of \racks arou rl d the Hillsboro ugh Court h o use, then located between F r a nklin and F lori da Aven ues on lhe north sid e of lafayette S t reet. The cars woul d come i nto Tamp a on the Bay shore track of t he Tampa stre et r ailways. Ston e & W e bste r agree d to h an d ie t h e bond f i na ncing o n e xtr e mely l i beral and economi ca l te rms Years l ater thi s writer ask ed Pc1e r 0. Knight why his company made such a friend ly, ;avorable dea l w i t h a compet ing line. His p romp t answ e r was: '"I knew your father and Gandy would p robabll' buil d it, t hat eventually your father would go b roke and Sto n e & Webste r could then take i t over a t a favo rable cost.'' T h ere were honest p irates i n therr davs. Thi s writer secuted wit h out cos t t o the Count y a r ight of way 100 feet w ide from 38t h Ave nue North t o what is now the Candy Bri dge h e ad for Fourth Street North, the d eci s i o n havi n g been made to have the t racks ext e n d out 4th Str eet instead or 9th. Deeds w ere secured ftom t h e Flo r ida Joterna l Improvement Board t o a st rip of water bottom across O l d Tampa Sa)' at t h e des ired l o c ation Everyt h i n g seemed set t o bui l d t he b ridge. It h a d been realized at t hi s poin t tha t eve n tually automobi le t olls wou l d p rove more profitable than streetcar f a res and p r ovision was so made i n the cha r ter Many p eopl e have ask.ed t h i s w rit e r w h y for many years streetca r rai l s were embed ded i n t h e con c r ete floor of the bridg e T h e reason was that t h e origina l f ra nchise required a stre etcar H n e a n d when the bri dge was event ually built i t was deci d e d i l woul d b e a wise regal precaution to bui l d

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in the rails although all thought or actually operating cars across had been a bandoned There was a thought however lhat considerable rental revenue mighl ac crue should rhe A. C. L Railway de-sire 10 establish a railroad sho rtcut bet w een Tampa and St. Petersb urg across t he bri dge In 1 914 t h e Tampa and Gulf Coa s t R ailroa d had b een p r omote d from Tamp a t o St. Pete rs burg. Th i s wa s r at h er p r o m ptly acq u i red b y th e S t\. l. and as e put on 1Ce. Th e Fulle r E nterp rises soon t h er e aft er w ent into bankrupt cy af'\d th e i r i n t e rest i n th e ve ntu re was acq ui red by M r Ga ndy for $400 .00 and S100 par val u e oi sto ck. T h e actua l even tual con str u ction of the b r id ge i s ano t her s t ory for a l at er chapter A few person,.)l e x periences of rhe writer will perhaps best convey to the reader how really dead was the vital (eal esrate market in St. Petersburg begin ning in 1914 and con tinuing IO 1919 One deals with the fi rst and almost t h e only l o t the wri t e r sofd d uring this p e riod. H e reported from colle ge i n A u gust, 19 15 aft e r h a v i n g con s cio u s l y tr a ined h i mself for sev e r a l years t o j o in th e Fuller g r o u p o f en t er p rises. He arriv e d full of yo u t hfu l h o p e s and e nthusia sm o n 3 day of tur m o i l 151 and uoubl e. occ a sioned by a small huuicane tha t brushed by Pinellas with but minor damage but it had slopped sreamer service. Stre-etcars were barely operating; fo r instan c e at what is now Central Pl aza and then war. t h e Goose P ond, water was thre e f eet deep across Cen tral Ave nue and car s could not c ross. H. Walt er Fulle r wa s in P h i lade l phia busil)' engaged in renewing b a n k notes a n d 'Seek i n g t o flo at more. H i s f ai t h f u l and h ig hl y compet ent a ssocia le, C apta i n J, W John stone, was i n c h a r ge It was a h ec t ic d a y At its end t h e Cap t ai n apo l ogiz ed f or igno r i n g th e fl e dg l ing. remarked tha t a f ter a good rest over the weekend he would start teaching him the business. During the weekend he had a st r oke, never another word before he died shortly. The Caplain was by v irtue of owning and operating a tramp s chooner between Tampa Bay and K e y W est and Hav ana. James Wright Johnsto n e was i n capsu l e the story o f America B o rn i n S ti rland Scotland, a s a you r h a sol d i er s t a tioned at th e v ery same castl e at w hich R obe rt B ruce made hist o r y and l egends and h e lpe d m o l d th e image o f t h e l aconic, h er o i c Br iton; h e m arr ied his Maggie came to A merica as a n immig r ant. H e stepped off a s team er a t B radetllo n o n e day w ith l itera l ly al l his wor l d ly possessions in a dothw r a pped bundle on his bac k James homeste a ded 160 .crcs of land on Perico Island which faces on Sarasota Bay soon befor e it melds with Tampa Bay. A large pan of the homestead was a huge I ndian shell mound crowned with a hug e oak t r ee A round its 4foot t hick trunk he buill h is h ome, a r oug h U-s h ap ed shan t y 1 1 i s Magg i e develope d a f e a r of s nakes wher eupon he b u i l t a pier i nt o the w a r e r an d bu ilt anoth e r h o m e o n p i l irlgs 150 feet o u t i n the Bay. In t h ese two h o uses thi s wri ter spen t ma n y of t h e r ichest days of his l i fe. Thai is, in the bay a nd on t h e edge of the gulf beyond Anna Maria and th e ba y ous bac k of t h e "Cr eak Oak" and in the woods and the grove, and the m a ngroves and on the oyster bars Years later on an unhappy day of progress it developed that the C re al Oak stood withi n t h e r ight of way of Manatee Aven u e i n Bradenro n w h ich th e engineers decreed w o u l d be the exten sion of a causeway 10 rh e GvU Du ncan McGrego r Johnsron e o n e or t h e f o ur c hil d r en of James Wrig h t h e a r d o f the p lan Invol ving th e road and th e oak looked u p the own er o rt e red to pay h i m S'IS,OOO for th e Great Oak and an acre of land or> which it stood, p ro v ided t h e county would acce p t a gif t of t h e lan d m ake it a park and detour the road around it. The engineers stuck to the slide rules and their formulas. But as long as the son of an imm i grant will offer to pay thus in terms of money to honor the dreams and memories of chil d hood i n this land of the free, t his country i s i n good hand s and no great har m can be f all il. C apt ai n Johnsto n e becam e H. W alter Fulle(s r i g ht h or>d. H e was c an ny and prac t ical a n d s hrewd and l oyal. B ut here he was dead an d a n Empi r e was floun-

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dering.. and an i nexperienced youch was suddenly in charge Thai fall and winler and lhe following spring !his wrhcr tried to le arn to be a real e:stalc s ale sm an O ne b rief incidenl will perhaps beSI porcray rhe bleakness of I ha l unhappy pa use i n chc mar c h of S r Pecersburg toward bec oming a gr e a t c i t y Dulifully almos l eac h da y h e cook hi s l u r n l r y i n g 1 0 sell l o i s I O lhe p r ospe cts dredg ed ur> by lhe 6 i r d Dogs the organi zat i on had p l ant e d l n every hote l i n th e c i ty Days stretched into week s, weeks inlo m o nth s and never a faintest sign o f a sale. One day lhe fledgli ng s al esman had a glimmering of an idea H e decided 10 pick our one parlicula r lol i n Davisca (now Pasadena) where lhe sales pitch was beifl8 concenlrared, and compile every reason, sound, p l au sible or fancied, why thai one parlicul a r lo t was I he very beSI b u y in che whole development. The nexl prospect wrned out to be a man n amed Wells, who, it may be )aid1 became a firm h iend of the s al es ma n for t h e r emainder of h i s l i fe which h e l iv e d out i n O avi s la The s alesman drove Slraighc 1 0 c h e l o l delivered his r eci tati o n, and then to his comple t e confu sion Mr. W ells quielly s aid : .. All rrgh1, I'll buy i(."" 152 This completely con fused rhe $.llcsman a nd he blurred OUI: 'What do we do nexH" Mr. Wells smiled and a nswered : I wou1d suggest we dfive to your office and I 'll give you a check and yo u can h ave someone draw up a tempora r y contrac t .' And r hu s was made 1 h e f i rs! sal e of l he fl edgl in g salesrnan Sut il was no go a n d the empir
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Chapte r XXII THE GREAT LAND BOOM The great Land Boom o( 1925, w hich even t u ally became money madness, the m ost spectacul ar F l o r ida eve n t of the 20 t h Century, began as far a s S t Peters burg was concerned Aug. 26 1 920. Nobody was aware of that fact. N o g e ne r ally accep t ed expla nation o f the Boom w h e n i t starte d w h y i t w h e n i t stopped, w h y it d i d, whether i t w a s good o r bad, has eve r been agreed upon. No o n e "great" book h as ever been w ritten abovt i t -or a h u r ri cane a boom def ies exp l a n a t ion, a n a l'ysis or des c r i pt ion, a n d w h o can or has desc r ibed a h u rricane? The y a r e so big, they st a r t so sud d en l y and violen tly appa r e n tly a n d stop so mys t erio u sly they defy descr iptio n even to t hose '"'ho e xpeti ence one and e xcite o n lv d i sbelief i n t h ose who h aven't. Noneth e less, the r e follows a reporr by o n e who sa w t his 1925 Boo m star t benefiued rather spec ( acularly from i t p l ayed a n o t too s mall part i n i t and was even t u ally done i n by i t despite what h e t h o u gh t a t the tinie, were earl y and wise safeguards agai n st j ust such a conti nge n cy Here was a boom st a rt ed a n d nobody was awar'e of it A rec ital of t h e prosa i c facts probably sound t otally u n i mpressive a n d m ay ha p a mite ridi c u lous. For' on tha t day, Aug. 26, 920 rwo f a m i l ies, j u st arr i v e d i n t h e S u nshine City p i tched t en t s and cam r>ed on a b l o ck o r c itycontro lled prope r ty at 1 8 t h Stree t and Secon d Ave nue Sou th. I n th a t la t e summe r 22 mon ths aft er World Wa r I the St. Pet ersb urg econ omy was sic k and u nhappy. T hen sudde nly months before r h e n o rmal tour ist season s t a r ted, St. Petersburg i n cornmon w ith mos t S o ut h F l orida t ourist spots, was inva ded by a l a r ger number o f tou r ists t h a n c he cit y had e ver s e en pa r ticu l arly at s u c h a n u nseaso n able time of the y e ar. Tent City Is Created T hese two fam i l ies coul d find no accom m odatio ns. The Chambe r o f Commer ce P l aceme n t 6 ureau c o u l d fi n d no rooms and appea led to the m ayo r T h e m ayor, spect acular Noel A Mitchell, a 153 r esou r ceful f ellow, p romptly d ream ed up Tent City." H e i n stalled san i tary fac i lities a Ia c hic sal e i nvi te d one and all to u .se t h e g rounds fre e These two fam i li e s eith e r had ten ts or mad e do \\it h th ei r cars f o r s l eer>ing q u a n ers Two days l ater ther e were 20 fami lies Five days l ater t h ere w e r e over 50 f amil ie'S. Two week s l at e r t here were 125 famil ies. A c onside r ab l e n umber had t e n t s Others had o r bough t t a r pau l i n s u sing o n e s ide o f t heir cars to he l p form makesh i ft leanto s h elle r s A surpri s i n g n umber cam e i n trucks on t h e rea r of w h i c h homemade camper f acil i t ies ha d b een b u ilt although the wor d "camper" hadn't evo lved at th at time. Man y b rough t coo ki n g ute n s i l s a n d campi n g equi pment. W h e r e h ad t hey com e f r om and why? The Back ground W h e n th at 1914 bom b exp loded i n a sma ll Balkan countr y and W o rl d War I s tart ed th e Uni red States was caug h t flalfooted i n dust r i ally, politically and m ilitari l y T h e cou n try, by sel f i n te r es t strong ties t o E n gland and France, s p r ang i nto a. f e v er of p rodu c ti o n o f s h ips, wa r mu niti ons a n d foods of end less vari e ty. T h e foot loose, the poor, the s k illed, t h e unskilled a n d the patri o ti c s tre amed o u t of St. Pet ers b u r g a n d South Flor i da to t he factories and s h i p yar d s a n d f a rms, a n d i n t o the Armed Forces Eve ryone was busy. It was unpat r iotic to be i d l e Wages soared f ar beyo n d a n y previous expe rience. Peop l e work ed fiv e days, six days, seven days a wee k; long hours w i th m u c h overt i me. Vacati o n s wer e forg otten. C i vilia n goods were oft en scarc e and e xpens i ve. Peopl e earn e d more but spe n t l e ss, pe r cen tagew ise t han withi n memor y Th e war ended rather s u ddenly N ov. 1'1, 1 9 1 8 B u t t hat s i gnall e d no letup i n the eco n omy, o n l y a s u dde n c h ange, as t h e new a n d expande d i n d u s t r i a l m i g h r o f t he count r y h astily ad j usted to s upply t he pent u p d emands for c ivi l ia n good s In that day ther e wer e no swa rms of governmenta l or p r i vat e eco nomic s l euth s tabula ting, measuring,

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Thom A (R) onr of the: r.u1 v and are t Architects of the 19:1$ loom. Hi1 mlltt-rpiece w a s the Don Ctur Hotel. rid i ng h e rd o n money, manufacturi ng, production. Thus, with frigh ten i ng abruptness, c ivilian demands lor goods were soon satisfi ed. There was no u nemployment compens ation, no welfare, no generous severance pay f e\v or governmental pensions. facroties closed in waves in August, 1920. There was sudden. widespread unemployment, a brief panic.. Then came price tead justments and a measu r e of stability but a s harp drop i n empl oymen t Most ol the r ecent l y employed h ad pockets and bank acco u n t s p len tifully suppli ed w i th money. Quit e importan tly, a man nam e d H e nry Ford had developed mass productio n or very c h eap, very good au tomobiles. for a whi l e t h ey sold as c heaply as $400, but usually around S 600-S700. The American p eople looked around, discove red the "family Ford" and said, "lers tak e a vacation." An enormous percentage of them decided Florida was a good place lor that; what dillerence il it was mid summer? So the family p iled heher s keher into the Family Ford and headed lor florida, good roads or no. A personal exper i ence of the writer i nvolving Henry Ford and t he ori gin al great Phi l adelph ia me r J ohn \o\/anamak e r, may be of perti nenc e Wanamaker h ad spent the w i nt e r o f 191 6 and 1917 in St. Pet ersb urg and Pass a-Gril le, tying up his palatial 154 J,uk Tyfor .tnd wife posln3 by n 1 ilr0.td c .u 1 91$. y01cht at the PassaCrille t
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Golf between Bobby )Gn4!t and Wallt-r H.aat n vn cou rJe. B obby Jones puuing 192-5. that they needed my contract to finance their coming year's production and fail ure IO set il would be disastrous to them. But I refused t o change my decision I said t o them ; All you car manufactu rer s are on the wrong tr ack. You constant l y make your car s bigger and more expensi ve and a r e con stant ly c h anging them. What you shoul d do i s make a good, simple, s mall c ar; turn them out cheap l y in quantity mak e dependabl e par ts that will Iii any or the c ars and quit c h ang ing t hem. Standardi ze.' "They went away very unhappy. A few days later F ord came back and told me that he had decided I w"s right and he was going to do j ust that. His partner hadn't agreed with h i m. Th e y h a d quarreled and he had bought his partner out. "'I then made a contract tha t was a turning point in not onl y automobile manufa c turing but modern mass production in this country ," Wanamaker concl uded Tho truly great old man was not o n e to undere s t ima te his part in an y situa t ion bur t his writer hd n o reason to doubt the essentia l correctness of VVanama ker's statements. Wanama ker's p resence a t che hote l was fo r a peculiar and pathetic reason. H e had had two sons, John Jr. and Rodman John Jr. was the appl e of his eye On an Atlantic ple a sure trip by yocht with Robert Carroll the son had died suddenly. From that time Wanama ker had spent the anniv ersary of the death with Robe r t Carroll. Usually Carroll to John, but the Fullers had st o len h i m from the Tamp a Yacht C lub, where he w as lamed as hos t and manager and on his u r g i ng, the great John had come on his palatial yac ht t o tic u p at the Pass-aGrill e hot e l pie r Robert Carroll w as a descen dan t of th e C har l es Carroll of Car r olto n who was a s igner o f the Amer ican 155 Dec l aratio n of Independenc e. Sir Robert was hee busy c h arm in g the Tampa socia l crowd int o deserting In d ian Roc k s, Lake Thonotosas.a, the Pasco l akes and other popular summer s pots lor Pa ssa Grille. The F o rd l nviiSion So here in 1920 came the fords streami ng into St. Petersburg. Even before "T ent C i ty' was born, authoritie s tried to cope with the flood. The local Narional Guard loaned its tent s and many visi tors were sheltered brieflyan d very unsatisfac torilyin Nat i o n al Guard tents i n William s Park. Public schools suddenl y were laced with lack oi liv ing q u arters for their tea c h ers A n o l d unused school build ing was hast i l y t urned int o a dormitory for th e m The A C.L Railroad started its crack all Pullman winter rrain hom New York a full monlh earlier th an it had ever done before. City Hall announced that August, 192 0 witnessed issuance or the b i ggest vol u me, d ollarwise, or building permits in the city's history Nov. 10 it also annou nced that its October ut i li ty income from wa1cr and gas was 75 per cent greater than O c tober, 1919 Buil ding per mit s lor 192 1 ran 64 6 per cent ahea d or "1920, totaling $4,(>06,820 bigge s t y ea r in the city's h i st ory. } Harold S ummers ann o u nc e d the s tart of a new

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lobby of H otttl, the crowning of Jacl T .tylor, crC!.ItO r of 192$. fhe word is T ylor spc>lltd bu!(wilrds. monthly magazine in t h e city, "The Tourist News," whic h enjoyed great prosperity and popularity during the Boom. Summers had drifted into the city on C1utches after being cruelly injured in a truc k crash while in officers' tra inin g camp. Beach Bargain Int erna tional Realty A ssoci a t es, a new corporation or nationally OUI5tand ing RealtorS, formed IO specurate and develop anywhere in the where booms appeared imminent or were in progre.ss, bought St. Perersburg Beach from Wm. D. McAdoo for S750,000, one of the biggest and most spectacular real esrate deals in the areJ's h is rory. S t Pere rsburg Beach as rhen origi n ally s tarted con s lsted o f about a third of the i slan d at the north end, runni ng up t o Blind Pass I n t e resting l y Nate J Upham, th e o nly man to ever twice b e president of th e Inter national Association of Really Boards, was the Inter national Realty Associates and he and his sons Neil and William eventually pioneered the development of Shore Acres William survives in while managing e xt e n s ive St. Petersburg Beach properties. 156 St. Petersburg was jammed with tourists. and the regular season hadn't even It is significant that this of people was a new breed of Winter rourish. They were restless, full of energy, frequen tly cosmopolitan rather than provincial as of yore; frequ ently in f am i l y groups rather than just grandpa and g r andma; from cities mor e ol
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hiends and acquainta n ces f rom home towns. l hese registra tion r evea l ed that a great d t anse bega n a t t h is t ime. P rior to 1 920 about 80 pe r cen t of the tourists came by tra in, 20 per cen t by boat and auto. I n a iew short years th e figure s were r e versed with 80 per cent arriving by automobile. The world had changed. T h e Lodwi ck Influence A considerabl e f actor in altrtlC( in g the attention of this ne\v swarm of visitors to St Peters burg was a publicity man n amed Joh n Lodwick, a remar k able personalhy f r o m Clevel and via Akron His parenls were f rom Wales. l-Ie had work ed on O hio n e wspapers, principa lly in Cleve land a n d primarily in sports. He h ad don e promotional work in Akr()n Lodwi ck's employ ment b y th e C hamber of Com l 'nerce was completely characteriscic of the man and his unorthodox way ot opetation. He drifted quietly into town some months ahead of the Winter of 1918-1919 and became a regul.u visitor 10 The Times newsroom where this writer was then toiling. Lodwick wrote and submitted bright little afticles aboul lhis and 1hat from the local scene He never mentioned money, obviously was not seeki ng a job. He just l oved n ewspapers, l i ked n ews p ape r peopl e and got along with A reg u lar pol' t of c a ll for t h is r epo r te r was the C h arnbe r of Commerce t he n d i rected by L. A Whit n ey, an e n e rgeti c one man "organiza tion." One da }', Lodwick i nvi ted himse l f a l ong In conversa tion with Whitney he began to suggest various ideas (or attrac t ing, on a nationa l basis, more visitors The essence of his plan was it required no money for advenising, just a clever writer and incidcnral supplies. \.Vhitney could ill conceal his interest, nay, his ex citement about the ideas F inally, he did exactly what Lodwick had hoped i n !he beg inning h e would do: Asked Joh n what pa y h e want ed 10 d i rec t such a pr ogra m. John wa s r eady with an Jns wcr, whi c h was a proposa l ha l w a s simp l y impos sib l e to dec line T h e Lodwick proposal was s implicity itself. H e o f 157 fered 10 go to work for !he Chamber, leave i t 10 Whit ney at the end of the season of 1918-1919 to decide what his services had been worth. Needless to say, the deal was struc k. John went to work that minute. remained identified with the Chamber until the day h e died i n 1942. No one did more than John Lodwick t o draw toori!otS t o St Petersburg during h is ten u r e T h e Lodwick t ec h ni<1 ue wa s as s impl e i t was ingeni o us. M r . 1nd Mrs. Iones woul d r eg i s ter a t the Chamber frorn Smal l Town, Ohi o. John's photograph er woul d take t h eir picture Next day an a r ticle woul d be mai led 1 0 the local paper in Small Town with a picture of the jonescs smiling from a bank of palms or maybe a tarpon leaping in the ba ckground, or pl.lying roque or shutnebo ard E xcep t for a "lead" paragraph with the names and the address changed, simil ar stories by the hundreds went oul t o other towns all over the US. Anmhet angle w as sports pfomotion and of ki nds never bef() r e th()ughr of. for fot a number of ye.us a "\vor l d 's c hampi o nship" p itching tourn a ment wa s d e t ermined be fore interested thousands a t the water f r ont. Ther e was a hwo rld's checker tou rnament. His masterpie ce was the colorful. photogen i c millionaire bachelor" mayor, Frank Fortune Pulve r who one day strolled down Broadwa y in New Yor k City, attired from head to foot in white and attended by sever al beauty queens. This stunt caused an histori c traffic jam. H o u sing Prob lem Out back to Ten t City Obvious l y, mor e hou s i ng wa s n ee ded but quick, i n St. P e t ersbu rg; b u l of'' k ind diffe r ent fro' m the a p artm ents a n d roont i ng houses of

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-Psden.l; fieJd office 19'15. Downtown offic.e-s .and Taylor Arc.ade, 1925 Aer iAl vic>w of Snell's tw o gre.ar deve-lopments North Shore on the left and Snell hl.and o n the right 1925. 1 58

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SMII'$ dow n t o w n office. O r i g i n.ally Arude 1 929 Now Rullo1nd Buildi n g t he past. T h e new auto touri s t s wanted h otelsnot Amer i can Plan hotel s s e rvi n g t hree mea ls a day, but do-as you-please h otels. Quick to ta ke a h i nt, the entrepreneu r s of th e ci t y obli ged. At that ( 1 920) there was the conven tiona l ' travel ing sal esman hotel, the Po i ns ettia ; the venerab l e and historic Det r oit, the Floron ton (now the Toffenell i ), the H u ntingto n fo r the wea lthy and th e West Coast Inn on First Street South fo r the heal t h f addists (T h ey d r ank f rom the "Fountain of Yo u th w hi ch actually was an artesian w ell) and t h at was about it. The r e developed a rash of new h ot els. In addit i on t o a con s i de r able number of small o nes, t h e r e wer e 10 majo r o nes, all bu i l t i n the b r i e f span of f i ve years 1920 -1925. N o othe r majo r hote l was built in t h e en t ire Low er P i n ell a s from tha t boom period u ntil Harry Playfo r d b u i l t The T i des at Redi ngton Beach i n 1939 And whi l e there had been brave and hopefu l ta l k of a big downtown convent i on-type hote l f o r St. Peters bur g for severa l years at the t ime of t h is writi ng, mid 1969, none had been star ted nor was t h er e an y reasonab l e assurance for one in prospect s i nce T h e Tides (Note: The Hilton opened i n H70. ) T he chang i ng emphas i s t o roadside motels ac counts only i n par t for the lamentable l ong pause i n S t Pete r sburg publ i c accommodations. The pr i ncipal cause was the loss, in t hese la tte r years, of t hat whoopit-u p publ ic spi r i ted op t im i stic att itude of St. Petersb urg l eaders such as p r evai led i n the f i rst q u ar ter of the 20th Century; t h e spir i t that led 53 cit i zens to s i gn a joint ba n k note to b u ild a yach t club, for in stance T his was replaced by the caut i ous "banker 159 approach, or t h e l e t George -doit'' spirit, or the ''it won't work" altitude 10 New Hotel s T he 1 0 big hote l s added about 2,000 r ooms to the public accommodations of the community, for a tota l o f 4500 d u r i n g 1920 t h r o u gh 1925, plu s 450 apart ments none over 30 units The 10 hote l s were i n order of completion the Soreno, Phei l. S u wannee, Mason (now Pri ncess Mar t ha ) P enns y l vania Den n is, Vinoy Par k Jun g le, Rolyat. Don Cesar. (The Jungle is now a nav al academy the Rolyat a l aw school, t h e Don Cesar headquarters for Vete r ans Admi nistratio n u n t i l 1968.) The (its t s t he Soreno, was b uilt by Mr. and M r s Soren l u n d nat ives of Den mark who so l d t h e Hunt ington to J lee Barnes and h i s son Pau I of Atlanta in 1920 : bought t he old Erastus Barnard homestead at f i rst Ave nu e North and Beach Drive, and erec t ed t h e 300-room Soreno, n amed for the i r son. I t face s on Beach D r ive betwee n First and Seco n d Avenues North. The P h eil now na med the Madison an d l argely in c orporated into t h e First N a tional Bank Bui l ding, f irst built as a movi e t hea tet and h otel, has the mos t amusing h i story of t h em ai L Star ted by Abe P h e i l a pic t uresque ear l y c i tizen and mayo r who had made a modes t fortune i n t h e h ard rock phosphate boom arounQ Dunnellon at the tum of the ce n tury, was an ear l y local dredge r and con trac tor. With a compuls i ve fear of debt and f i re, Phe i l woul d not borrow a d ime to bui l d his buildi ng He would do a contract i ng job, then spe n d what of his profi t h e thought p r ude n t o n h i s hotel, which he w h imsi cally dec i ded to make 13 sto r ies hig h To p r event any dang er of a theate r f i re he built h i s theater backwards, with th e scr een i n f ront so h e coul d perch h i s projection room i n a wart o f a roo m stuck to the rear of the buildin g hig h above the ground with holes fo r p r oject i on l i g h t through the main f i r e wall o f t h e building, with the da n gerous f la mmable film safely outs i de the building. He took 1 0 years to finish his b u i l d ing and i t was obsolete w hen compl e ted. The Suwannee came next, built by John N Brown who came from Sum ter County i n 1899 a n d was f rom ear l y p i onee r Flo r i da stock. His grandfa t h e r Parson Brown was the origi naro r of a o n ce famous Ffot i da ora n g e n amed after hirn the P arson B rown. Brown bough t a cottage w h e r e the Suwan n ee now i s and live d first in the cottage and l a t er in t h e hotel from 1904 unti l he d i ed March 31, 1951. Members of his fami l y still l ive at t h e hote l t h e ownersh i p being entirely in the fami l y Brown came as express agent for t h e ACL eve ntually had a d i stin guished p ublic career, whi c h i n c l uded ser vice as County Clerk, St. Petersbu rg ci t y commis sioner St. Pete rsburg mayor, pre s ident of t h e Chamber o f Commerce, president of t h e N inth Street Bank, (now Union T rust National Bank ) He was quietly the polit ic al boss of Pinellas Coun ty for a quar

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'' View w ithi n Arcde. ter century The hote l is on the northwest corner of first Avenue North and fifth Street Princ ess Mut h il The Mason (now Princess Martha) was the only one of the 10 that started with publ ic ownership through s ale of .rock. The p romoters were Franklin ). Mason, a r e tired con t ractor ; Frank Jonsberg, reti r ed Bost on archi t e ct; James R. Bussey, attorney; E B. Willson o f W illsonC hase. Sam Mann, a par t ner of Bussey, en ded up as th e eventual owner. Th e hotel, on the northwest cor ner of Fourth Str eet and First Av enue North, was modern i zed in 1967 The h o tel was first named the Mason a fter the contractor, and a principal owner. The hotel became bankrupt, was ba iled out by Wm. Muir, a wealth y winter resident whose wife's name was Martha hence Princess Martha The Pennsylv ania was b ui lt by Harry C. case, who came t o St. P eters burg from Phi ladel phia (Penn s y l vania Oil ) to run the streetcars, promoted a l>an k wa s a c tive i n the W e s t Coast Title Co and t hen built the Penn s y lvania. T h e family of ex-Senat o r Bond of 160 K entuc k y eventually acquired it. It Is located at 320 Fourth Street North. Nick Dennis an engaging. friendly and successful G'eek restaurant and hotel man built the Dennis It faces Williams Par k at 326 First Avenue North. The Vinoy P ark was built by Aymer Vi noy Laughner, membe r of a family of wealthy l'enn sylv ania oil peop le, w h o were active in l ocal rea l estate a n d business ci r c les f o r a n u m be r o f years. S tric t ly h i g h social and American p l an, th e h otel was t h e soci a l status pinnac l e for a b rief s pan I t i s the c ity' s largest. It faces Tampa Bay on partly filled ground at fifth Avenue North. The Rolyat (Taylor spelled backwards ) now Stet son Law School, after having been a military academy lor a whi le, was the spectacularly beautiful Spanish style climactic achievement of handsome, dashing Jack Taylor promoter of the Pasadena subdivi sions and the town's chief arc hitect of the fre nz ied lot buying clima x of the 1925 Boom II opened in a b laze of g l ory, inc l uding among its guests a half dozen nat ionally fam o u s peop le, golfers, baseball s tars, actors, p r ima donnas and what not;

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golfer Walter Hagen baseball's Babe Ruth, Pr ima Donna Freida Hempel. The Don Cesar a t Pass-a-Gr ille, lor two decades the VeterarlS headquarters for this pan of florida, was built by Thomas I Rowe, of Ireland via Norfolk, who made a fortune In So. Petersburg real estat e duri ng the Boom bui l l the impos ing hostelry on the Gulf i n g ratitude lor the c it y's bestowal of wealth o n him, n amed i t fo r his favorite G r a n d Opera c h am c ter I t had 300 rooms, la ces the Cul l of Mex ico near th e south e n d of St. Pe t ersburg Ueach The VA departed in '1968 -t o the Federal Bui lding in St. Peter sburg. leaving the Don's fucure un ce rtain. The Jungle Country Club was built by this wri l er to operate in connection with his Jungle Golf Club. and as an effon to creare, in the J ungle area, a complete com plement of recreational and services facilitie s fo r t he large residential area he was under-taking 10 develop. It is now Admiral Far ragut N a v al Academy It overlooks Boca Ciega Bay at Park Street and Fifth Avenue North. F irst Radio Sfiti o n T his hote l had t he d isti ncti on of housing the fir s t radio s tatio n to o p e rat e i n the city, a Slation that now i s kn own as WSUN Jac k Oadsw ell, father of lhe J u sl icc of the P e a c e J ack Dads w ell, b r iefly ran a f i n a n c i a l j o urnal i n St P e t ersb urg. acquired b y trade a radio st a t i o n l icense and t h at first operated in Savannah, was o n th e verge of fai ling. H e opera t ed it at the Fenway Hotel in Dunedin for a while, left a sin k ing shi p by trading il to this writer for a lot, and some S2,CXX> i n rea l money. The Jungle Prado had been built to accommodate what was actually the first shopping center in the The photO$ a r e eumpl es of furopun antiqu es ;md art lhlt Mr. Snell s pent mllll o n t of doll111 c qul r ina. 161

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Snell Island v lewt: 192-S. 162

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hrly homes e-rected on Snell l 1lo11nd 19'liJ..19'l9. cou nty, a llhough the nam e hadn t bee n invented yet. It housed s tores and ser v ices to meet the needs ot a resid e ntia l community; also county's firs t n ig h t c l ub, the Ga ng p lank t h at sported the f i rst usc of terrauo floors in this area. The experts were imported from Havana at SSO a day to lay it T he club furn i shed rather excellent entenainment elaborate food, by dint of ex tortionate boom time prices. managed to make money for a couple of years. The radio station needed t o be on the air on l y two hours a day to hold a l icense This problem was mer by dividing th e Gangpla nk orchestra 's work t i me be tw een the Jungle Hote l a n d th e n ig h t c lub. The music wa s broadcast ? to a v e r y small lis t e ning audience, one can be sure. T h e station u l tima t e l y was donated t o the St. Petersburg Chamber of Commer ce, e ventually going to lhe City. It later was sold to private owners. Of the 10 original builders of these major in sUtutlons, only three received a profit from their in vestments and only the John (Suwannee) Browns retai n ownershi p (in 1969) after four decades. New Building s The tremendous upsurge of business that came with th e ear l y stages of t h e Boom r evo lution i z e d d owntown and brought on a ras h o f n e w bu i l d ings. Th e 8S room Ponce de leon H o t el a t first and Cen tral 163 not quite b i g enoug h to rank with the B i g 10 new h ote ls, was er ecte d in 1 922 And ther e was the Royal Palm in 1923 o n F i ft h S tr eet South, recently demolis hed to make room for t he nth extemion of the Times A modern four-story expan sion of Che Willson Chase Department Store was at the northwest corner of Third and Centra l i n 1922 This pioneer department s-tore started as a modes1 business under Miss B eulah Chase, i n 1905 II expanded in 1909 under the energy of E. B Willson who bought in. It con tinucd under the manageme n t of Jay Willson, a son, until it met evil days in t%4, becam e ba n k rupt i n 1%6 and was sold I t enjoyed continuous management u n d e r o n e group longe r rha n any o th e r business i n St Petersburg. (T h e First F ede r ol r ecent l y razed it.) R 1-1. Sumne r erecrcd his sevenstory Surnn er Building. lter the Profe ssional Build i ng at the south west corner of Seventh .:tnd Central. which confounded the pessimists b y succeed i ng handsomely. Thar was too far out. they said 6ut il was demoli:shecf i n 1968 t o mak e room for the gliuering new Florida National Bank The six-story Hall Building w ent up at the south eas t co rne r o f Fou rth and Cen tral. the principal in ve s tor bei ng A R. W el ch, a solid broke r and a s taunch R ep ublic an who astoni s hed the coun ty and the state by being el ected stole senator in 1928, the

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year swamped AI Smith This was the first year a Republican was ever elected in Pinellas County. Anod>cr Republican Or. George Finch stunned C. C. Carr then a 1hird owner of the Times and Chairman of the County School Board In 1925 I he Wesl Coasl Title Co. ventured out of i t s field, e rected an eighHtory office bui lding a t the n onhoas t corner o f Fourth and Central, ran into d il l i c u ltlos, t h e bui l d ing b e in g a c q u i red by th e Fir s l Federal Savi n g s and loan Association as its main office I I has u dergone rnajor ren ovatio n a n d several expa ns10ns in recen t years. An impress ive group of buildmgs sprung into being during the magic year 1925 The Famous Players Thcaler. laler the Florida Theater at the northeast cor4 ner of F1fth Street and First Avenue South ; torn down i n 1968; the Florida Power Corporation downtown of4 fice at the southwes-t corner, the second b ig expan sion of th e St. Petersburg Times b uilding a bil east of Filth on Fir s t Ave n u e So u th, th e YMCA at the north cast corn er o f Fif t h and Seco n d Avenue South. A p<>pul ar s u bscri pti<>n carnp a i gn for th e YMC A m(: t o verw hel m i ngly g en e r o u s response f rom a Boom rich bus iness com m un ily. The bui l ding ran in t o bad money troubles when rnan y a subscriber perforce delaulled amid general embarrassment when pay da y 164 found the promisers franti cally seeking grocery money in well nigh empty pockets. Major enlargements were made lo the First National (later Florida National) a t the sout heast cor ner of Filth and Cent ral and t o the Cen tral N atio n a l (now First National) a t the southwe51 corn e r of Fou r th and Cenlral. The First wen l eig h t-stories high t h e Cen tral f ive. J B ruce Smit h a p ionee r mer e han I, erecte d h i s s ix s t ory office bu i l d i ng at t h e southwest corner of T h i rd and CentraL This b uild i ng was enlarged and revamped i nt o an apartment bui lding in 1966 Building permits for 1925 established an all-lime record with a total of $23 005,000 a figure not sur passed until 1949. One is startled 10 lhat the 1926 lotal was an imp r essive S15,720,000 Although S 8,685,000 less t han 1925 and i n spi t e of the Boom being d e finitely over, it i llu strates th e lag between plan s and the hamme r a n d saw. and s adly, that m a n's h indsig h t is beuer than his fore sight But mor e on th is i n ,, lat er c hapter T hese commer cia l b uil d i ngs toge t h e r wit h t h e 10 big h o t e l s constit uted St. Petersburg's skyl ine from 1925 -26 to the year 1967 without ma t er ial change a fact not prideful f<>r those who love St. Pete rsburg.

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Chapter XXIII TRIGGE RING THE BOOM It is impossible and to d e t e rmine w hen the rap i d and happy g rowth o r the 1921 1925 pe r iod became s ky b lue p r omotion and not growth. In f act construct ion and conve rsatio n : performance an d promi se ; money and mon k ey business ; civics and chicanery int ermin g led t hroughout the period. E v e n tually s h owmansh i p an d hys t e ria and c u p i dity over s h adowed d e v e l o pmen t and it bec am e a boom. Generall y and frequen tl y m ore gaudy t h e same c ondition p revai led thro ugh o u t all South Flo r ida and e ventually the Florida boom attracted na tional and even mlern a tional a u ention and envy as w ell as m o n u m enta l m ill io n s of restless m oney Two ev en ts, mor e per haps than a ll oth ers com b i ned, tr igg e r e d the S t P etersburg bo o m One, p r omotio n and c o nstr uction of the G a n d y Bridge un quest ionably more than any o ther one e vent stimul ated town gtowth and expansion T h e second w as str ictly boom. Geo rge S Gandy, Sr. was rrin ci pally and primaril y responsib l e l o r th e b r i dge th a t s till bears his name. But i n its promotion and cons trucrion th e c a s t c ontained a v aried a n d col o rf u l cr ew, o n e in part ic ul ar add ing $pect acular fuel t o the boom fires when they st a rted b u rn i n g T h e s eco n d head l i ner event, s tarred I. M (Hand s o m e j ack ) T aylor p romoter o f Pasadena Estate s He too had a var i ed an d co l o rfu l s upport ing c a st. But b e f ore I h e p rinci pal actors a p pear it is well to quickly scan the stage; the then C i t y ol St. Petersburg. that i s Th e ph ysica l land area ol the city wa s e x pa nded in e very dire c tion during th e brief lot selling flu rry prior to World W a r I t h e main e xpans ion being w e s tward t o Boca Ciega Bay to provide fina n cial flesh l o r s upJ)Ofling and financin g the e xtension of Central Avenue to t h e Bay. Snell expanded North Shore to lhe waters o r Coffee Pot B a you during that period an d Harve y and other s pushed south t o B ig Bayo u. B u t t h ose e xtens i o n s w e r e mos tly bones without much flesh a lthough the l and area t otal e d more than 165 52 square miles. But as peopl e pour e d i n des p i t e t h e war prior, during an d after; C ity Governm e nt beg an t o flesh i t o ut as prev iou s l y d e t a i led, by adding s treets an d u tilitie s a nd the County contr i b uted v ital city h ighway>. Beginn ing even d u ring World War I b u t s t ron ger a fte r priv ate v e nturers a dded golf courses i n e very the c ommu nity a s a who l e added a y acht club; j ohn Lodw ick end l e ssly p rom o t e d h i s odd and mostly fictiti ou s "world" champions hips in c heckers, h o rs e s h o e pit c hing and s huffleboa rd, which e venl u ally d rew thousands of w inter people from the middle West and unto this good d a y pu t the solid, some times stolid, brand or t h e m i d western s mall t own reoples o n St. Pet ersburg. john wa s a smooth pro mote r He h aile d l r orn Akro n Ohio, c am e to St. P e t ers burg alt er a s uccessful c aree r a s a ne w spape r man and s p orts promoter because ol mild ill-health c haract erized by sli g h t d eafness and acute discomfort from cold ... l e was soon pu b l icit y man lor th e Chamber o r Com me r ce, h i s s m o oth p rom o tion of himselr for that new l y sell -cre a t e d p ost w ell documents his flair. He star ted han g i ng arou n d lh c Ti me s news room, where this w r i ter labored, m akin g himself useful. writi ng for free s park ling shor t articles lor the p aper. Carefully avoi d i ng ma k i n g a n u isance of himse lf. One day, o b viously hav i n g dec i ded h e had the I eel o f t h e place h e asked 1 h i s w r iter to rake h i m over to t h e Chamber ol Comme r ce, where L. A Whitney a great p ioneer in the Ta miami Tra il a nd the A.C.L cutoll, presided. Lodwick outlin ed a proposed p ublici ty program which rai sed Whit ney's blood pressur e that high It was t o p romote nati onwide the ser ie s of w o r ld" c h ampi o n s hips menlion e d abov e L odwick v olun teered t o run the deal. This brought Whitney ba c k t o t h e rea lities ol m o ne y and his limited sup ply ol same. So he cautiously a sked the p rice for h i r i ng Lodw ic k And t ha t as1u te man cinched his job with hi s an s w e r "I'll do t h e job and at t h e end ol th e sea s o n you pay me wha t you think il has been w o rt h

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Ceorse S. C ndy, ftu whom Cindy Bridge wa s named. Thus begun che career of the most i n novacive and rewa rding publi c ity period in c h e his tory of the city I t was novel; lively ; and competition was weak or nil throughout Florida. Lodwic k's promotion of che cily's famed bachelor mayor is legend Gandy fitted inco chis s cen e perfectly and ac jus t the r i gh t t i me. His fir s t wife wa s a Oiss t on. H e was per s uad e d to visit S c P e tersburg by J acob Dissc on, a heavy lender to the Fufler enterprises, t o give advice and council on operation of the stree tcar line, the boac lines and even rhe struggling local telephone compan y Going i n heavily for boating and yachting, carefully fending off che skill ed efforts of H Walter Full e r to involve him i n h i s r eal estate adventure s h e n o netheless had his s killed fingers on che pu lse of rhc b u siness community, helped both Dissro n and Full e r When he saw a situ$1tion that fitted his ''dr uthers" and appealed tO him as sound he launched inro local affairs, and few i f any had greater influence on rhe desti n ies of Inc community of his day. He wasn t a promoter, he was a ca gy, t houghtful free enter pri ser who l iked l ong oddsu sually and pre ferably with his own mone y and rhc prospects o f l ong profits The Gand y Bridge was ro o big. coo r isky eve n for his sready nerve and rclarively long purse-hence public financing. He cs.:hewed the risk of mortgage-or bonds wirh fixed incere>l, c hose a popular local srockselling prog r am, saf e for him but a lso with a fai r speculat ive s hak e for his buyers H e evolved a package which e ventually becam e famous du e co h ig h powered publicity by his "fronr man," one Eugene M. Ell i ott. The stock package became a Gandy unic; three shares oi $10 par cumulative preferred srock bearing 16 6 eighr per cent if earned and one share of no par common, Par value ol the pref erred was $2,000,000 ( e nough to bu i l d the bridge) and 250,000 s hares of n o par com mon. Obvi ous l y 66,666 o f rh e com mon shares wenr with the preferred to form rhe "uni ls"; leaving 183 334 or a controlling equ iry, for the promorer and his close associates and Elliou; a not unred.S<.mable division. Eugene Elliott E u gene E lli o u was abou t rhe most colorfu l tern pestu ous, s uperenergizcd man ever to grace the St. Petersburg stage. He grand iosely claimed he had "un derwritten" the stock issue, which was contrary to 1he facts He m ere ly undertook Its sale. He i mported a large and gaudy crew of high pressure salesmen, and put o n a great and suc cessfu l show ind eed Units initially w e r e offered ac $32.50, meaning o n l y $2.50 f o r the co mmon s h are w h ich helped on EllioU's expenses bur I n wellti rned, supe r publidzed warnings, the price was steadily and rather rapidly advanced. At the very Ia >I rhe y were offered ac SSS, an excessive p r ice of S25 a share for the common. When s ales had puc a comforr abl e $1 m illion cash in the bank and sales were briSk1 Gandy start ed h i s bridge, fini s hed i r an d opened i r w ith much fanfare, w i rh Gov Cary A. H arde e culling the r ibbon Nov. 20, 192 4 The origin al deal with Ellioll was made Sepr. 12, 1922. Fasc a crion indeed, the opening being acciden tally timed jus t righr for maximum boosr ro rh e chen roaring Boom. Pracrica ll y all of t h e srock was bough t by S c Peters burg and Tampa people. Young Jack McB ean, son of a Phi ladelphia bank p r esid ent f o r ma ny years deeply i n volved i n Sr. Pet ersburg financing, headed rhe con s-truction team A crew of s urveyors and engineers loaned by rhe Fuller organ iz arlon and headed by two brothers; E C and "Skeel'' Burleson, p ic ked the roure and continued under McB ean. Small d redges locally own ed pumped r h e ca useways. Dad Gandy and h i s two sons and a son win-law supp lied the m anagement Mr. ltlllnJ lht-idu of bridle to 1923.

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19 Years Of T olls The Gandy Bridge operated as a toll bridge just seven months tess than twenty years. being raken over by the United States Gover nmen t at 1:.30 P.M April 17 1944 under direct orders of Pres1dent F rankhn as an emergency war measure MacDill a i r base had been and a very high percentage of th e mil i tary personnel live d in St. Petersburg and th e Beaches. Tolls had bee n c u t voluntarily to 65 cen t s plu s 10 cents a passe nger prior to this. A sr:con d reduction to 3 5 cents Hat was forced by ths \VCJter 1n 1941 as a part o f his crusade to construct U. S 19 and to make St. Petersburg accessible by toll free h igh ways This reduction came as the clima x of a biuer fight which ended up before the Rai lroad and Utility Commission, now the Public. Utililie-s Commis sion ; Fuller and his forces asking for a flat 2S cents, Gandys wanting the status quo. The Commission com promised at 35 cent s. But the Commission held the case open for rev iew at the e n d of o n e year and the tak ing of s u c h a c tion as the earnin gs under the reduced rates d i c t ated. This writer was delighted that his check oi the earnings revealed an approximately 10 percen t in crease at 35 cents over the previous 65 cents. ap plied for a re-hearing. was thrilled at news of the Federal State take over, promptly, of course, withdrew his application for a new hearing The Gndy Bridge management (and D.-is Causeway which w a s separat ely owntd) still adamant l y refused to install a educed toll for the personnel of the Tampa ai r bases. Claude Pepper, a favori t e of Pre s ident Rooseve l t, th e n a U.S. Senator, now a U.S. Representa ti ve. was running for r e .. e l ect i o n r o t h e Senate and was faci ng potenti a l troubl e in getti n g the nomination from ) Oll ie Edmu nds, who later became president of Stetson University Pepper needed a dramati c proof of his value as a senator and Roosevelt provided It by ordering both Gandy and Davis freed of tolls under the President's emergency war meuures. The story is that Pepper called FOR personally and suggeste d the move. Governor Spessard l. Holland, and s ince then U.S Senator, spea rheaded state action to share the cost of buy in g the bridge and causeway from t h e i r private owners with the state p ay i ng hal f and the U S. Governmen t half. Thus the spans were made f ree, Pepper defeat e d Edmunds and th ree Other opponents in the Democratic primaries and everyone, especially the daily commuters wer e happy. Bridge Causewa y Free d Eventually a j ury awarded th4! stockholders $2,382 642.00, the common stockholders getting $5 a share. T h e bridge had been prolitabl4!, the preferred had been replaced with lower in t e rest bonds, and many had been p aid. Davi s Causeway was take n over s h ortly after Gandy lor S1,085 ,000 aga i nst an orig inal cost o f $750, 000.00. Gar>dy Bridge was a solid. meaningful boost to the economy. But E lliott, flushed with big and easy money, quickly slid into the role of real estate promoter in the North Fourth Street area. ). Kennedy Block led the Fourth Street promOtional procession with Rio Vista He did a solid and honest job of developing. with passable streets and water, clearing and grading. As woul d be ex pected of Ell iott, hi s devel opment was o n the g rar>d sca l e a n e laborate layout o f h u n dreds of acr es, centeri n g on Weedon Island and un der t h e grandiose name of Florida Riviera. It mostl y a map and. with much showmanship, dev eloped more noise than u ,. Elliott soon faded out early m 1926 never hit again He drifted back to St Peter1burg in the early 1940's with a second wife-his f i rst had been k 1lled when the two were engaged in a very public and luti? divorce fight in an unfortunate _The became Involved i n a p hys ical brawl 10 thelf pal at1al home near Coffee Pot Bayou on 22nd Avenue Nor t h a n d Elliott tr ied to eject her f rom th e h ouse. In a str u gg l e on t h e small entr y porc h to th e front door Mrs Elliott fell a n d struck the back of h e r head on t h e edge of a con c r ete step, fracturing her s kull. She died a l most instantly. She was a bec1utiful and gracious lady This writer sold Elliott a modest home on a bit of waterfront acreage on Oakhurst Road for less than $6',000 H e had to help finance the deal f o r Elliott between his quanerly annuity payments and never did collect all of his money before Elliott died. Ellio tt's sol e income a t the time was a s mall annu ity. He was born Dec. 18, 1882 in To p eka, Kan He had done prom otiona l work in New York financia l ci r cles a.nd had been active i n the successf ul Warren Hardmg preside ntia l camp a i gn j us t prior to coming to St. Petersburg As for that grand old man. Dad Gandy. he l ived to be 95 years and 36 days old, dying in St. Petersburg at his home, 816 Beach Drive North, Nov. 25, 1946 at 10:55 Except that he had lost h i s sight two years before the end, he was a lert, vigorous and interested in the daily doings of the world unlll his last day. H e l eft a widow. two ions1 three e i g h t grand c hildren, eight greatgrand c hildren; admired, honored and respected by the entire comm u n ity. 1(>7 North Fourth Dev e lopment Many another subd ivis ion was spawned on North Fourth Street in the w ake of the Gandy Bridge activity. Most were small. Few were well developed and none except Rio Vista involved any house-building activity or sound ground preparation. Rivaling Rio Vista in size was North St . Petersburg. sponsored by R. H. Sumner. most active and prominent of a notable p io neer fami l y of English stock who reached St. Pe tersburg i n 1697. Mr. and Mrs. William S u mner, parents o f R. H ., migrated from Eng land i n 1865 as a res u l t of t h e Hamilton D i sst o n purchase of 4,000,000 acres o f land

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I Gndy Bridj:e neuing compledon -1924. and th e re s a l e of hal f of i t to a British syndicate, w h o active l y promoted it, mak i ng many sc ul ement efforts, notabl y at Kissimmee and Sara sota. Most of the coup l e's seven children were b o tn Jn Frorida. They f irst sellled in Eustis, then Gainesv i lle fin ally Sarasota where t he y dev eloped a fine grove. This, howe ver. wils destroyed by the 1894 95 freezes and the family migrated firsl lo T ampa i n a small row sail boat .. then arne 1 0 St. Petersburg by steamer, in October, 1897. R H Sumner d i ed April 21, 1 950 He would h ave been 70 July 19 of that year. The head olth e cla n was a tall, gaunt o ld aristocratic patriarc:h w ith a snow whlre c rest o l hair and t he most impr essive s pread of bea r d thi s writer saw It reminded him of the Patriarch Ab raham, and s u re enough he w as ru l i ng Elder o f the loc al P res byterian C h u rch R. H (h e was c;alled Reg by hi s intima tes) was an able real est a t e operator and p o lit icia n l-Ie was County Commissioner when Gandy erupted, promptly an d properly paved North Fourth as a County highway l et one hand wsh the othet by pioneer ing with North Sl. Peter sburg. laid out w ith more novelty than practica li t y in the form of a gia n t wheel with completely c ir cular s tr eets, pivoting on 62nd Avenue North. tvtany lots were sold, has a minimum of houses built even t o thi s good day This write r was quite act ive in the area, by v irtu e of se vera l ra t her d i zzy big acreage d ea ls. Origi nally the entir e area was solidly owned by Hamilton Diss ton first, muc h going later to the Orange B elt Railroad for b o nu s l and and endi ng up i n th e U lmer family, pi o neer sawmill people, who p assed it on to the leverett.s for turpentining H Waller Fuller bought it lor S 2 n acre in 1908 syndicated it lor much more This wri ter and his Phila delphia banker partner bough t it lrom th e liquidator of the H Walter fuller i nt erests lor S6 an acre i n 1919 ; sold i t in 1921 to E. W. Gr oves, of 666 Tasteless Chill Toni c fame for $17 a n a c r e Mr. G rove gave this w r i t er a most u n u sual live year exc lu sive s elling contra ct at the also un u sual com mission of fifteen percent. Mo s t ol S h o r e Acres was 168 from this Ira ct. When the Gand y dram a s tarted th e land wa s being peddled in s mall tra c t s a t $100 an acre. Mr. G rove s agen t moved steadi l y up whh the ma r ket1 so l d a large portion i n the l ast month s o f fre nzy a t $1, 000 an acre. T h i s presented th e o ld s ituatio n ol r he sam e m a n within a span of four years, first gloating at a profit of some S4 an acre ai hal ( own er. ending up c asually collecti ng commi ss i on> o f $150 an acre o r 37 1/2 times more than his pro f h as owner. Incide-ntally the brokers cons.::ience twinged him a bit H e knew all the land was low underlaid at shallow depths .. vith mart a lmos t impossible t o dra i n and lh e r erore t eally unfit fo r septic tank o perat ion. He th erefo r e decl i ned the re spons ibility ol sponsoring su bdivisi o n s directly, sinned a l lon g r a nge and second hand for a f ract i o n of th e loot. rhl s w rite r became a cquainted with Mr. Gro v e i n an odd way, won his grat i tud e and ba c king 10 the end ol his file He met the old gentl e man o nly al(er tedious months oltitle work demanded by J Hard e n Peterson of lakeland and long lime Congr essman ol dist r ict ol which Pin ellas was then a part Mr. Grove suffered terribly from i nsomnia. He acquired a habit of phonin g this wril e r at weird hours of th e night. somet i mes as late as 3 A M and the two w o uld wa l k lor miles, a favo rit e route being the Second Avenue North Muni dpal Pier. Never to be fo r gollen was a piece of sound adv ice T h e writer was avid to adventure i n B razif, which he had vis i te d. Nev e r Wal ter, ever operate any Olher p lace than under the llag of t h e United Stat es o l America. I own 60,000 acres of land in Mexico across the ln1c-rnational b o rder. I b ough t it for a dollar an a c re and am trying to sell it at two. I f i l were across the R io Grande it would be worth $75." The writer l ater visited Mr. Grove at the Grove Park I nn In Asheville, which was built with prof its lrom lhe Florida land he had bought. Shortly t hereafter he became ill and his son-in-law had h i m declared men tally incompetant and he was put i n c harge of all the Grove prope r ties. S h o r tly thereafter th e F l o r ida boom bl ew up and Ed C. Wrig h t bought th e r es idua l 3,900 a c res of the G rove lan d for S24 an acre This writer l ate

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Petusbvrg .lJJproa c h t o C.1ndy Bridgt' by w.1y ot .Uh Sl. Norlh. in 1 970 a ppra i sed this lan d at f r om $6,000 t o $13,000 an acre and i n fact some has recen tly been sol d fo r more t ha n that and a Hol i day Inn i s b e i n g b u ilt on it. I n cidentally t he first proposed s i t e fo r Dis ne y World w.1s on t h i s ver y self same p r operty. Hence i n the span o f o ne l i fetime land has advanc ed from two to $15,000 an acre which of course has multi p l ied 7 500 times. But to do th at and s u rviv e the land mu s t b e bought with abso lutel y s u r plus funds above i mmed i ate living n eeds and one must hav e pa ti e nc e a n d longev i l y T h e important thin g is to sel ect land i n the path of grow th This writer recently appra ised a lot near Bayboro own ed s i nce 1 925 b y the same man and i t i s wor th less today than the day h e bou g h t i t So eac h shoemake r best stick to h i s own last. A s k ille d participant i n t h e Nort h Four th galaxy was fd W r i g h t Nat j Upham and h i s two sons, William and N ei l. Upham Seni or had t he unu s u al d i s tinct ion of ha v i ng bee n a f ounder of the N atio na l Assoc i a t i on of Realtors, an d per h aps the o n ly man to twice be N at i o n al presi de nt. He i t was that p rompt ed the l oca l bro k e r s to j o i n the N a tiona l R eal tor mov emen t a service lO th e profess i o n a n d the p u b l ic fo r whi c h he has r ece iv e d less than app r opriate recognition. long a n d expensi ve d r edging prepara tion was necessar y b e f o r e Shore Acres could b e mar k eted. Ge t ti n g r e fl ected g l ory and prest i ge from b o t h S nell I s l e a n d North Fou rth; u n der t h e pressur e sell ing of two s k i lled b r okers, P au l Boardma n and Howar d Frazee, the l ots nonet h eless sold rat her s lowl y because its barren sand cou l d ill c ompete w i t h more f avored l o oking areas. T h e uttermost "hi gh tide" m ark o f t h e 1925 boom i nsof a r as the N ort h Fou rth segme n t of it was cerned \Vas a comp l e t ely unrealisti c hvge s ubdi v i sion o f 640 acres w ith the unbelie v ab le name o f Toytow n. I t s traddl e d Roosevelt Bou l e va r d app ro x i mate ly one hal f m i le beyond the Gandy curve at approximat e l y 96th Avenue North The promoter owners w er e h i d den under a tru steeship to the Amer ican Bank. T h ey r eco r ded their p la t on Marc h 8, 1 926 In ad dition to being entirely t oo far i n t he boondocks the y 169 (i.1ndy Bridge engineers a lso wer e far off o n the i r da tin g, e xper i enced one of the part icu la rly dismal f lops of the dyi ng day s of t he b oom Two d e cades l ate r t h e County an d C i t y did a Gasto n and A l phonse act as to whic h wou l d h ave the honor" (and bu r den) o f acquiring i t by tax f orecl osure. The Coun t y "won"; the land ended up i g n ominiously as first a marl pit s i te for r oa d materia l current l y a county d ump fo r garbage A read er whose m emory or knowl edg e goes bac k t o t hose hectic days may well wonder why the mos t d i st i nguished d evelop m en t o( t h e whole north side has not yet even bee n m e ntioned The reason in dulgen t re ader, is that Snell I s l and a n d its c r eato r C. Perry Snell, des erve specia l t reatme n t w h ich they will r e c eive i n due cou rse l ater along i n t his r eport B u t w ha t about oth er segm en t s of the C i t y d u r i n g these t im e s ? Charl e s R Hall w ith h i s huge lakewood Estates a n d hi s l.akewood Golf Course n e ar i n g compl e tion i n 1924 should ha ve bee n rig h t i n the m i d s t of the crea m pit c h er But desp i te his grea t success out \Ves t Centra l and his great d r i ve an d s kill as a de v e l op er, he c om p l e t e ly missed the boat and for a crue l reason lak ewood was o f cou rse on t h e Sou th Side an d f rom the very beginn ing b y ori g ina l p la tter Williams sout h side developm ents had been uniformly doomed to f a i lure .. a fail u re t h at Harvey, Ken nedy and others par tially esca pe d along South Four th d u ring streetcar days l arge l y beca use t hey were w aterf r ont. Physic al facts wer e against th e South S i de T h e f ir st and primary great bartie r was the A.C.l. Railway r un ning to t h e Bay along First A venu e Sou th. Peop l e j ust had a rel ucta n ce to l ive "beyond th e tracks Even Roser, w i th h i s emphasis on b u il ding a ttra c t ive houses rat her t ha n sell i ng bare l ots d i d not escap e at Roser Park S ec on d g r eat h andicap was t hat b ecau s e of bul ging lake Maggiore no conven i en t grid of throug h streets was poss i b le. T hird b arr ier was one of psychology and p la i n h uman na ture. Growth j u s t does n't happen a t the end o f a dead end street an d all streets o n the sout h side pe r forc e had t o be "dead end" unti l the

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Skyway w a s i nvent ed Besides the serpent i n e stre ets in Lakewood are confusing to t his day. Hall developed well but f a i led to sell enough to survive fo r l ong after 1925. The fi rst tr uly successf u l sou th s ide deve l opment was Maximo Moorings w h i ch started i n 1956, and despite excellent p la nning, mast erly development, able promo tion, it has lagsed beh ind s i milar com mun i ties i n m ore favored areas. Which b r ings t he story to the West Centra l area, w hich r ival ed, perhap s s u rpassed Nort h Four th, desp i t e Gandy I f the Gulf Beaches had gollen i n t o the Boom s .. ving it woul d withou t question have taken the top billing. But the Gulf Beaches performance, boom t ime w ise, .. vas even mor e odd, and more d i fiicu l t of u nde rstanding than the South Side r ecord II seems odd a l most to the poi nt of d isbelief today that t h e Gul f Beaches, now the g r eat d r aw i ng card of the entire area, never cli mbed ou t of t heir barren sands and thei r mangrove s and mosquitoes and sandflies i nto popul ar acceptance u nt i l ...... .rell a f t er boom days It is true tha t f rom the ear l iest days t he Beaches had their fana tica l devotees. L ocally the f i rst notable o nes wer e Georg e L i zotte a n d the great edito r of the T i mes, VV. l. Straub Lizotte pionee r ed with the Bonhommie and l ater Lizotte's Hote l and prospered by virtu e o f his tiptop food his sparkl i n g Frenc h per sonality, and becau s e the g e nus fis h erman will go a nywhere any t i me a t any cost to fi sh, and PassaG rille f i shing was of the best. And the Fullers i n 1915 bought a building per haps a thousand feet sou t h of where the Don Cesar now is; which had f ai led once as a hote l made it a dec i ded l y l uxurio us p l ace for that day, earned a precar i ous dolla r c a tering to a thin an d cla n n ish bu n ch of Tampa b lue bloods an d nor t herners including John Wanamaker bu t t hat was a casualty o f the 1917 Fulle r collapse The professiona l m ull e t f ishing was l eft most l y to Cubans and a few hardy sea-mi n ded "conchs and varied types who had no taste for farming or stock raising. But t hey w ere a minute breed apart f r om the main stream of "crackerdom Noel M i tchell, from Rhode I s la nd, had bee n the first pionee r save th e g r oup, seeking to 170 c r ack t h i s ant i pathy w ith his Mitchell's Beach Hotel, subdiv i sion and resort on t he nort h ba n k of J oh n 's Pass. Th i s was in 19 13 I t failed spectacu l arly after a brief rather l urid alcoho l i c t i nged run. But as the main l and boom waxed hot t h e zealous Beachcombers," A r ch i ba l d and Welch; f ortified by the Donovans, who had made a success of Lake Pasadena sought to popula r ize a master lot deve l op m ent on T r easure Is l a n d ce ntering on where Central ,\venue, i f exte n ded, wou ld h i t the Beach. joined forces with them. T his writer also j oined, for he wanted to rid his jun g l e and jungle T errace develop ments of t he hand i cap of be i ng the end o f t h e l i ne a nd bes i des which he was one of the few Florida Crackers who loved t he Gu l f an d its beaches But f irst Welch, joined b y Fuller and Pat McDevitt, the b i g man of Pinellas Pa1k j o i ned i n a t hree way mutually b enefi cia l team, to get a bri dge to the Beaches, for med Road and Bridge Dist rict. 7, managed to sell $389,000 worth of bonds (th at was the maximum sum they cou l d get a Bond Hous e to buy) based on a distri ct covering N orthwest St. Petersburg, all of P i nellas Park and Madeira Beach. W ith the money avai lable, a s kimpy road was built f r om Fourth Str eet North, through Pin ellas Park on Park Bou l evard, to 66th Street, t hence to T yron e Boul evar d and the Seminole Bridge t o a point w h er e t he Made ira B r idge now is. T he orig i na l Welch Causeway was built, the first free bri dge to t he Beaches. The money ran out befo r e a roa d could be bui l t to Indian R o cks. The promoter s appea led to John Tayl o r of Largo, the Big Powe r i n mid Pinellas, one t i me State Senator, one t i me almost Governor, l ong t i me c i t r u s k ing, to allow a supp lement ary bond issue, secured by the Up per Gulf Isl ands and t h e U!rgo a rea. H ere was an enl i ghte ned Flor ida business tycoon, a power i n s tat e politic s H e turned the promoters down, with hosti le, s cornfu l words; words that exact l y p hrased t he trad i tiona l Flor i da Cracker att i tude toward the Gu l f Beaches: "You fellows ought to know beller than to ask me to agree to a scheme l ike that. T her e s nothi n g but sand on t h o s e isl ands Nobody ever grew an orange tree out there. Cover my g roves w i th a bond issue to b u i l d a b r idg e and road to those i s lands? N ever!" And he meant NEVER.

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Chapter XXIV SPUTTERING FUSE T here are two p r etty sure t h ings about the 1925 land Boom N o two people ever wi II agree when they k ne w i t started. Nor will any two agree when they knew it ha d s top ped. As far as t his writer is concern >d, he knew the 1925 Boom had s t arted ear ly one Monday morn i n g in la t e F eb r ua ry or ear ly March 192 1 For when he got to h i s office in the Alexander Building i n the 500 Block of Central Av e nue, t here were a dozen or more people l i ned u p i n front of his offi ce door, each clutch i n g a piece of cardboa rd His he artbeat stepped up rapidly because he knew he had read the s igns ar i gh t and a happy flood ol dollars had started his way. Dec. 20, 19 19 George C. Allen, Phi l adelphia ba nke r, who h a d been on the c r edito r comm itte e l iq u idating the H. Walter Fuller complex acquir e d 325 lots and some m i scellaneous acreage tracts a t fo reclos ure. T he l ots were between 2 2 n d and 25t h Streets and Fifth Aven u e North and South. None had been sold and Allen was a bit r estless T h e Tent C i ty that was ja mmed w ith a new breed of tou rist s in the Winter of 1920-21, b i rthed a n idea. F r ancis 8urklew had been elected mayo r of T ent C i ty, t h i s writer having a hand i n that bit o f politics. (A son of Francis Bur klew, J ack E. Burklew served a s a city councilman from Apri l 1 1961 to March J't 1965. ) O n e Sat urday n igh t, a gaudy, cloth sign had been erected across t he s treet f rom T ent City, It read: F OR GOOD LOW PRICED LOTS "IN THIS VICINITY" SEE FULLER AL EXAN DER HOTEL BUILD IN G Burklew obliging ly told the astou n ded citi zens of Tent City Sun day morning that Fuller was a n i ce fellow and h e (Bu r klew) ju st h appened to have some maps of the lots. Sun day, many of th e cu r iou s Tent Ci t y ers l ooked over the lots. They fo u n d a sign on each lot with an envelope tac k ed to which read : 17 1 THIS I S LO T B L OCK ST. PETE INVESTMENT CO. SUB. B RING OR MAIL THIS ENVELOPE AND $5 0 AND l'HE LOT IS YOURS FOR $---, BALANCE PAYABLE $ 1 0 A MONT H WIT HOUT I N T EREST. FULLER ALEXANDER HOTEL BUILDING Ther e were a dozen pe rson s Monday mor n ing waiti n g fo r the office to open By F riday night Fuller and his secr e t ary had d rawn contract s lor 325 lots. It deve loped tha t ever y dollar of eve r y contrac t wa s paid i n full. No advertisements, no commissions, n o showings, no e xpense. Nev er had the b ro ke r ex perienced a sal e l ik e lhi s one Surely thi s was the m i lle n i uml Allen had a lot of other l and that had n t been selli ng. T ha t story sounds a bit l ike a fairy tale t o o Alle n as a member of the cre ditor s commi ltee, ha d come to St. P etersbu rg i n August 1 919 to look over th e wrecked Fuller empire. He s pent a day with this writer. It was t heir first meet i ng $ Million Deal Allen r etu rn ed in a few weeks to an nounce he had just made $1-rni Ilion do llar s on a fortu na te deal i n volvi ng an abando n ed wartime army housi n g development i n Philade l phia, He proposed that he and the Fullers invest the money i n a sel ec ted assort ment of the fuller assets; that the Fullers select the propert ie s mana g e them, and that when and i f h e got his $1-million ba ck plus 6 per cent i nterest per an nur n he woul d give the F u llers half of the profi t as pay for t h e ir services. A vast assortmen t of acr eage, mostly in the west Central section and Gulfport, i nclud i ng what is now Central Plaza, all h eavily mor tgaged, six bay steamers for long known as t he F avor i t e line ; a marine ways and machine sho p in Tam p a stocks and bonds con trolling the Jungle G ol f Course (now Admiral farragut

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Naval Academy), hundreds o f Pas adena lou, acr e age on the Gulf Beaches wer e acqui red. T h e boats were soo n ope r ati ng w ith good t>rofi t But th e l ands wouldn 't sell for a w hile. th e Tent C i t y sa l e be i ng the only significant one except for severaf hundred acres in small acreage tracts under the plat name of Fuller's Ga rden H omes, between Seventh and 13th Avenues Sou th, 37th to 46th Streets, which fetc hed trifl ing sums. In the fall o f 1922 mortsases were on the prite piece s of the Allen holdings T h ere was a huge tO{al ol paving liens and unpaid tax es an d Allen an nou nce d he was about ready to thro'"' in the sponge. Th e tract in question was on both side s of C entral beginn i ng at Disston a n d str e t c h i ng t o 58th S treet and runrling nnnh a nd south varying depths. Perm ission w as granted by Mr Allen to lake a try at dividing rhe i.Crcage into lots to be sold a1 auction Auctions were scheduled for each Tuesday st arting with lots at the corner of Disston (49th Str eet) and Centr al. The f irst l ot. the southwest corner, brough t $680 Lots so l d briskl y all afternoon. To eve rybody' s amazement th e second Tue sday, despit e the lots being a mit e less valuab l e because they were further west, sales were slightly more and higher than the week before, and so on lor each Tuesday. Anoth e r m i racle was happening. Strange Visitors A significant rhing was noti ce d at the fJrs t .aucr;on. A swan k y ur drove up. a very old PierceArrow. Three well dressed men stepped out. They followed the sale all afternoon t ook copious notes, ne ve r made a bid, b ut watched ev erything w il h obviously e x c iled in terest. One was taU, handsome, cutly h air, s tJiking features bla c k piercing eyes. The second was dark, also handsome, restless eyes. The third was portly, elderly, placid, seemed hall asleep later, t his writer sa\\' th e three men walk into his of fice. The p o rtly one wa In n ess Henry The s mall, dar k man w as Fred G A ul s brook. The t h ird was I. M. (Jack) Tay lor who, with GeorgeS. (Dad) Gand)', was dest ined to be star or the 1925 Boom, St. Petersbu r g sectio n They wanted to bu) all the land they coul d ge t in West St. Pet ersburg and West Gu lfport. They did. The n egot iation s were r athe r bri e f cen tered mostly on t e rms Thes e w e r e illu s tr ative of 6oomrlme terms. They weren' t typ i cal. They wer e too tenuous lor that. The wouldbc bul"'rs wanted two bites at their golden ap ple and the seller was agreeable. For $270, 000 they contracted to buy all of Pasade n a ( o riginally Dovi sta ) west of 64th Street, lying between Fifth Avenue N o rth (then Seve nth Avenu e) and V illa Gra nde. They took an opti o n a t $195,000, on all of the lands r oughly west ol 58th Street in Gulfport except some small odd pieces the oeller did not own, but later acquired lor the buye rs. Pasadena Golf Course and Stetson law Schoo l now occupy part of these lands. The y t o ta led about 600 a c res of wild land and approx imat ely 2,000 lot s. 172 $5,000 'Cas h Total i n itial cash involved was $5}000 and rhe word "cas h is i nt e n t ional. At the the sump tuousl y be gow n e d and bea uteous Evely n Taylor, lack's wife, was present The session was in the office of Freeman P. Lane, attorney; a recent arri v a l from Kentucky who it l ater develo p e d h ad l eft rather hastily when things g o t a b i t u n p l easant. H e e v e,,tually became a ci r cuil j udge for thi s distri ct. H e l a ter was joi ned b y j a mes R Bussey, from M ississippi, a bri lliant man of many ralen ls At lane"s ascension to the Bench the firm bocame Bussey, Mann a n d Barton (Sam H. Mann, Sr and McKinney Barton) and other gro u p ing s a s deat h s and b i rths and ac c retions happened and c urr entl y h as proliferated int o two firms involving 19 auorneys and a myriad of se<:retaries, c lerk s and assistants! The biggest firm with 15 law yers -the largest in the cou nt y is t il led Harrison (Bay aM.), Greene (Raleigh W Jr.), Da venpo rt (Wm. F J r .), Rowe (Billy l ) a nd S tanton (Ross), a n d the other with fo u r i s title d B us sey (Robe r t N ) S immo n s (Stephen E.), and Owen (H. Rex); all of which is dramat ic ally illustrative o f the growth of the city. Greene has become presdent of the ciry's largest financial instilution, the Firsr Federal; D avenport w as a city counci l man; S t anton was o nce atto rney for the S tate Road Boar d. The lim e cam e when L a n e announced: "Now, it so meone will produGe S5,000 we hav e a deal." T aylor looked at Evel yn and Evel)'fl looked at Jack who said a bi t sharply: Evelyn! Evel yn looked u n happy. S h e asked Lane the use of his priv(ltC o ffi ce. Tol d there was none sh& ( h ose th e farthesl cor n e r turned h e r back blu shing l y r olled down one of her stockings. This observ er, slightly agitated and startled, recall s not whether the silk en cased the right o r left legand unc overed a sheaf ol U.S. currency, detached one a nd handed i l to ) ack Across it s fac e i n b i g bold figures was prin t ed "10,000." T his o b se rver beli eves there were seven of these slips As it turned out, chcy were the entire capi tal of rhe adventuring three and furthet I hat it was the salvage of a somewhc1t unfortunate stock promotion out ot N e w York t itle d "bst Coast F i sheties.'' T he m a i n fish thi s ente r prise eve r caught w e re suck e r s lan d ba sed, that is. J ack hast i ly decam ped to Europe sta yed there a safe three years, then hit St. Petersburg. jack later confided to this repo,ter in a coniidential moment that he had mi llions of German maries stashed away wh4 ch would so m e day make him rich when ' mar k s r eturn to the ir o ld l ega l val ue.'' But Jack p roved a poor rnoncy proph et. ihey continued the ot her way a nd wo re valued at about 10,000,000 marks to a d olla r when they v an ished from sight. But producing the $ 10,000 bill didn' t the deal unti l the next day beca use nobody could c h a nge t h e bill in cash, and Jac k was t a king nobody' s c h ec k i n c hange. He finally trusted th e bit o f pap e r t o lane,

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who also h el d the s i g ned papers unti l t he ban k s o pened on the morrow. Taylor moved sw iftly and expertly and soon had t he best sell i ng orga n i zation i n town u n rival ed for ef fectiv eness until Gene Ell iott b lew i nto town a y ear later He i nstalled h i s offi ce br i efly i n a n a n c i ent private rai lway car he par ked consp icuously on a specially l a i d Seaboard side track on Cen tra l Avenue an d about 74t h S treet. Few loca l peopl e kn ew the pr i vate car had been r etired d u e to o l d age, bough t f o r a song t h rough connect i ons J ack reta i ned with Genera l Goetha ls, of Panama Canal fame an d briefly associated with Taylor in his ill-fa ted E ast Coast Fish er ies. Even tu all y h e bo u g h t the southwes t corner of First Avenue Nort h and Fifth Street, erected the Tay lor Arcade to h o use his office, still an effect i ve bui lding, now known as the Driftwood Bui l d i ng. Taylor r ec ruited almost the enti re sales otgani z arion of George Mer r ick, the n in bad financial straits af ter creat i ng Cor al Gables, south o f M iami One rnvst pause to obs.erve that h i story has not paid due respect to that t r u l y great pe r son, Geor ge Merri c k He wa s the f i rst man in th e United States de l iberatel y to start f rom scrat c h to create an entire c i ty, whi ch had as its primary pu r pose the creatio n of a be au t i ful and gracious place for the reside n ce of peopl e. He succeeded magnificently. Unfortunately, at that moment h e had f ina n cia l diffic u lt ies, appa r ently was faci ng bankruptcy. Geo r ge Cumm ing s headed t his group H e mana g ed i t with great effect i veness and at Boom's end returned to Miam i and Co r a l Cab les and was, for a t ime, agai n d ir ect l y associated w i th Merri ck Taylor developed soundly He des i gned good s u b d ivis i o n patterns, large lots, h i gh restri c tions and built good stree ts. At h i s own expense he ext e n ded a high pressu r e gas l ine from downtown, buill a good water system and set a good tone, as almost no one else d i d i n that day by scatter i ng imposing a n d well designed residen<::es th ro ugh his a rea T i tle to the l and he bought and optioned was con veyed to t h e F irst Nati ona l Ban k as T rustee w i t h ap propr i ate release c lauses. He even tu ally pa i d for all h i s l and excep t some o l d "mi ll ends," w h ich rever te d to th e seller He gai ned an i mportant phys i o l og i cal ad vant a ge i n t hat his purchase con tracts were signed by t he F irst National Bank. Most buyers missed the s i g n ificance of the word "trustee" appended at the end. Tay l o r ran u p a d i s a st r o u sly high o v e r he ad Com missi on s to h i s sales manager and t eam cap t a ins, bonuses f o r spec i al sales drives and for exceeding quotas e ve n an over riding 5 percent to this writer as "adv iser." Actually, that f ee was an inducement" to avo i d competit i on so Fulfer would not ma tkec with hi gh p ressur e selling, land he owned i n the Jun gle area not f ar f rom Pasadena The "br ibe ' was unnecessary as the ambition t here was to const ruct a g r eat re side n tia l a rea, offe r s to buy were decl i ned unless it appea red probab l e the buye r would promptly build. In fac t the oi that area, t he huge wat erfro nt l o t s were so ld to a selected li s t 173 and w i th a n option t o the origin al seller t o reb uy i f a home wer e not sta r ted within one year. T he flaw i n that a rran gement was that when t h e year was up almost everybody i nvolved i n these deals was busted Jungle T errace was marketed, howeve r by the Fuller-Hun t e r corporation i n compet i tion w i th Tay lor. The l and was fully developed. Streets, for insta n ce, served the a rea well u ntil t h e re habi litatio n program o f the 1960's under C it y Ma na ger lynn Andrews, whereby, district by d i str i ct, s tre e ts, sidewalks s tr eet lights, util i ties, drainage, wer e brough t up to date i n first class ma n ner Onl y then were Jung l e T errace str eets r ebu i lt T his w r i ter was conside r ably embarrassed near the en d of th e 6 4 0 lot sale to real ize that ther e was a $600,000 cash p rofi t lying in the ba nk, but o n l y o n e lone house in t h e e n ti r e m i le long "deve l opment." Ma na geme n t fo rthwith copi ed Tay l o r spr i nkled a f ew houses strategi cally thro u ghou t t h e area. It proved har d however to ge t either buyers or te n ants. T h i s was solved by calli ng i n key perso n n e l issui ng thinly ve i led ultimata: "6y the first of next month you and your f amily will be residi n g i n Jun gle Terrace or you will be l oo k i n g for a n ew job. I t wor ked Taylor de campe d has t i l y and w ithout ceremony when the Boom f un was over On Cen tr a l Avenue at 71 st Street he had an elabo rate and eye c atch i ng display o f gaudy and colorfu l b i rds; on an isl an d i n fai rway Fou r o f the Pasadena Golf C ourse a monkey house with som e 20 simian r epresentatives So pre ci p it ously was t h e organiza tion disman t le d that no provision was made for f eed ing o r liberat i n g the b ir d s and an i mals This writer rescu ed t h e birds giving most to fr iends who ha d facilities fo r caring for them. Senator W. C. Hodges, of Tallahassee, go t most o f them Whi l e being tran spo r ted t o Tallahassee by th i s wri ter the macaws got out of t hei r cage a lmost wrecked th e auto i n which they were being ca r r ied before being recap t ured T h e monkeys were turned l oose, p romptl y mig r ated to the Jungle They rnade the Jungl e P r ado (it i s n't Prada as c u r r e n t l y call ed, there isn't any such word) t h ei r headquarters T hey effective l y stripped t h e roll paper roofing off the bui lding, p r ankishl y t h rew wadded p ieces o f it at passersby Th er e were some startled sightseers u n ti l t his w r i ter i ndu ced the sailo r s on a fore i gn vessel berth i n g i n Tampa, to ac cept t h em. One adven t uring ma n captured o n e and go t h imsel f painfully and dange r o u s ly b i tten on hands and arms tor his bo l dness. St. Petersb urg knew very l i ttle about Jack T aylor. He clai med he was born A ugust 13, 1876 in T i lton N H. I t i s known to thi s writer that his pare nt s \vere i mmigra n ts, probably from Russia, possibly Poland His parents nam e was n ot ori g ina lly ' T aylor," i n h i s opinion. As previously stated the first Mrs Taylor was a D u Pont. Her f am i l y left her sever el y alone d u ri n g her marr iage to Handsome Jack.

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Taylor is bel i e v ed to h ave been engaged in variou s fiNncial enterprises and act i vilies in Boston and New Yor k prior to East Coast Fi>heries. Then came Pasadena. Taylor left St. Petersburg w h ile 1926 was young He retur ned to New Yor k too k rathe r e l abora t e offices on the 13t h fl oor of th e Hecksch er Building a t 57th Street and Fifth Avenue Occ u py i ng b ri efly, a des k in his office i n th e s ummer of 1 927, thi s writ er viewed the lin dbergh parad e tr i um ph up Fif t h Av e nu e a few days after his his tori c Atl antic solo fl i ght May 20-21, 1927. During the summer of 192 7 lack a n d Frieda Hem pel, an opera s i n ger of con siderab l e note. who had frequented t he R olya t planned to marry and ta k e a grand tour ot Europe on the i r honeymoon This writer and W W Hardaway atte nded a very gay going away bachelor brea kfast, complet e with c hampagne, given by Jack in h i s own honor at the New York Athleti c C lub, afte r which he d epar ted for th e ship where he was t o meet Frieda. Nex t day, a very sheepish Jack reappea r ed. It d eve loped that eac h had gone to s hipside thinkin g that th e oth e r had attended t o tick ets a nd wou l d be equipped w ith tour money. Neither had Th e trip was abandoned as well as t h e frie ndship Evelyn ha d promptly been divorced by Jack when the Boom ended She was of the famous Delaw are Du Pont family and lack regu larly sprin k led his sale tal k to lot buying prospects with t he Du Pont name, "My fr iend General Goetha ls; and "my friend Mr. He c ksche(' and o n and on. They w e r e part of the lot s elling "st age," along with M o nk ey I slan d the Aviary, t h e priva t e rai l road ca r his duo o f Da i m l e r automobiles, w ith booted, unifo rm e d cha u ffe u r. H ec k$ch e r had followed fri eda to the Rol yat so when he c h a nge d base to New York h e took e labo r ate office space in the ne w Hecksch er off ice building at 57th Street and fifth Avenue Ha rdaw a y had been l ack' s oWce manager, financ e man and auditor in St. Peter sbur g and he and I tac kled the New York money men in an 18 month effon to r efinance the T aylor a nd fuller real e$tat e enterprises. f'iardaway to th i s good da y ma in ta ins his business of lice i n the Taylor Ar cade Bui l ding (Driftwood Building). Satellit e s u b division s sprung up far and wide i n the West Central area t o p r ofit from th e Pasad ena bonan z a A particu larl y sound one, S tonemont, was devel ope d by Nathan F. Stone, who bu ill many fine homes there and also built o n e of the s how places on the waterfront at the Jungle, 1520 Park Street North. He cam e in 1918 from Shrewsbury, M,ass., his wife louise being from nearby Worcester Stone went to Moore Haven in August, 1924 bought 20,000 a cres of la n d near lurchase of 4 million acres for $1 million dollars Jan 5,1883. He sol d 440 acres, including most of which l ater became Eagle C rest, at SS an acre to Edwin f Keen of Philadelphia Nov. 15, 1885 Keen owned the land until 1922 In t ha t year, this writer undertoo k to acqu ire a 1 00foot right -ofway from 16t h Street to Boca Ciega Bay for a new east/west ar terial street. He succe eded in d oing so and donated t he la nd t o the City to form Fifth Avenue North. Th e Keen l and faced a mil e and a quart e r on Fifth and was t h e last big obs tacle. Keen would not answer l etters or wires. In Phi l adelphia thi s writer f ou nd h i m sitting i n a n e n o rm ous easy c ha i r gazing out on Broad S tr eet through a h uge p l ate g lass

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window from the lounge of the Union League C lub, a club the sons of P hiladelph ia's wealthy families with impeccable records are nominated for before they are b.ptized. If they stay wealthy vote the str a i ght Republi c an tic ke t and live long enough, they will mak e il. Out s iders i nvi t ed t h e r e for lunch ha ve rea c h e d t h e p i nnac le Keen appar e ntly had s a t t here for 39 years. H e w ouldn' t g i ve a r ightofway. w o u ldn' t sell a right of way But he wou l d sell th e e n tire tract f o r $44 000 to this w r iter He was talked down to $35,00 0 in eluding agreement t o convey th e s tr ee t porlion immedi at ely The final pa yment wa s made Jan. 3,19 2 4 on which date 400 acres of it were resold to Thomas J Rowe and Herman l. Page for S80, 000 Rowe and P age swapped w it h Page gett ing 80 a cres of what became Eagle CreSI, which he sold to a syndicate he for med under the name of Du l w ich Land Co. for $1, 000 an acre F eb. 5, 1925. He acqui red another 40 at the same pric e Eigh teen days later he so l d the 120 acres tor $3,000 a n acre t o H arry Eagle of New York, head of the b igges t s i l k mills i n t he worl d the E agl e Silk Mills Eagl e hired John M cBe an who had been engineer on the Gandy Bri dge and by d int o f $ 3,00 0 000 did th e best job o f land developmenl done up to that time i n the St. Petersburg area H e i n st alled the f irst un derground drainage sto rm sewers in the cit y But he finished too late. The Boom fren z y was over and the beautifully developed l ots needs must wa i t until the next boom. 175 H W Hardaway i n 192B, who had inherited all the Pasadena headaches fro m and for Jac k Taylor, and this writer combed Baltimore. Philadelphia and New York for money to refinance P asadena and t he Jun g le, finally made a deal with Prudence Mortgage Co. of Brookl yn, and Eagle, whe r eby Pas ad e na, the Jungle an d Eagle C re-st would merge and become securicy for a $3,000 ,000 loan ( l ess a SO per cent discou nt), E agle woul d ge t p r eferred stoc k for his equity, the oth er two the comm on. Eagl e s igned the final papers i n New York, whe r eupo n Hardaway and F uller painted certain hot spot s In N ew York ente r ta inment worJd a glowing red in ce l ebra tion. They a wakened ne x' morning with rosy dreams despite throbbin g heads only to learn that tragedy had struck. A New York Times headline sa i d : Harr y Eagl e commit s suicide." The expl anatio n : Eagle had cornered the silk market o f the worl d just as r ayon burst on worl d mar k e t s a nd ru i ned h im. Th u s the unfor tuna te man missed a golden opportu n ity twi ce in a row. He j ust c ouldn't stand the double b lows. That n ight t h i s writer b roke, disco u raged and lonesome. aimless ly wandered down Broadway. Two a ler t well-dressed New Yorkers pa ce d briskly past hi m and he heard this s.natc h of conv ers at ion. One said : You know wh a ( s the mauer w i th Floridal"" Said the othe<: 'Who cares!" Thus i t was in 192 8

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Chapter XXV BLAM FLASH SILENCE When everybody conce rned is i n agreement that t his is a boom. Isn't s h e a doosy?" T hen sudden l t h e boom i s over. The reason is q uit e simple T h e suppl}' of sucke r s has r u n out and as rhis fact becomes evident (he frenzied player s of t h e game are for ced t o pause and pe r fo rce Jetur n to rea l ity. Thus it was in the fall of 1925. T here has been i nterm inabl e d iscussion as to when t h e boom ended and why. T h i s matte r m i ght as well be c on c luded now. And t h e r e is confidence that the docume n ta t ion of t hat te r m i nus can be done mat h e matically a n d wilh the b r iefest of statistics There are se veral p opular theor ies or e x planations of the cause of that e n d ; th e r e is th e storv of the N ational Investme n t Banker s Convention which opened i n St. Petersburg December 7 1925. l'h er e is the horrib l e winter-of1925 -26 t heo ry. There is the majo r freeze o f Decembe r 31, '1925 ) anua r y 1, 1 926 There was the rail freight ern bargo t heor y (Du ring the sum m er and fall f r eigh t e m bargo by the rail roads was imposed because 1 h ere was more t r a ff i c than the s i n gle t rack road s cou l d hand l e and developers cou ldn't get rock and sand and cement and l umbe r and br ick and til e and w h a tn o t and development. slowed down and s hips tried to fill the gap and o n e sank in the nar row s h i p's cha nl\eJ into M i ami Harbor; that stopped the boorn say some .) T here was a hurric ane i n the lat e summe r of 1926. That d i d i t, t he arguments ran. And there was t h e f i r st Med fly panic of that s ummer, onl y the r e weren't any Me
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a crop of waterme l ons, I t o ge t a thi r d o r fourth as I remember. My shoe was pinchi n g too, a n d I would go by t ha t field every day or s o and admi r e those water melon v i nes. T h e mel o n s got along bea utifu lly One da y the Dowlings pitched i n to pick and s hip t h ei r first car, wh ich b rough t a good price. You never saw a prett i er f ield of m el ons. Knowing that o n the t h i rd day f rom t h en t here woul d b e a noth er p i cki ng, I went by, because, by the n I wou l d be i n t h e money, too. In ste a d o f piles of m elons, I saw several Dowl i ngs wander i ng dejec ted l y up a n d down t h e rows, turn ing o ve r mel o n after me l on. 1 went ove r to A I deeply mystified "What 's wrong/" I asked. "Ever hear of t h rips?" he a s k e d. f Ycs." I answ ered. "Well, I n e ver d i d u ntil ye sterday," h e sai d. "Nobody tol d me and I d i d n't trea t my seed." Not another good me l on c am e ou t ol the fi e l d. A I took off in a day o r so fo r Washi n gton with h i s family, sto pp e d at a cheap Wash i ngto n hotel, tal k e d h i mself i nto t he managersh i p of the p l ace w hen he c ouldn't pay his bi II. He eventually bought it, then another, then anot h e r a nd t hen t he New Deal h i t Washington a n d t h e first thi n g anybody k new A I was a rich a n d successful man agai n But h e never lost his deep affect i on for St. Pete rs burg, ret u r n ed often, made a poi n t of always hav i ng lu nch with me. He died recently W hich gets us down to the answer As to w h y the boom stoppe d. The answer i s very simple We j u st ran out o f suckers T h at's all. We got all thei r money, l h en started trad ing with o urs e l ves For i nstance A I Dowling's syn d icate. D i d I say we r a n ou t o f suckers? Tha t isn't q uit e correct. We became t h e s u cke rs s tand ing down t here at the foot of t h e class. Very s i mple, indeed. There was a story beh ind the Dowl i ng incide nt. T his writer and his Philadelphia ban k e r part ner had been n egot iat i ng w ith t h e o l d F A Davis g roup w h i c h had f ounded Pinellas Park, s till owned most of i t alte r a fash i on (sub jec t to a m u mb l e of mortgages, con f li c t i ng a n d p articip at ion c l a i ms by other estates and in terests) and severa l thousand acres surrou n d i ng Pinellas P a r k A poi n t was r eached i n m i d 192 5 where all of these interest s were p u r c h a s abl e for so me $865,000 i n one f ai r l y s a fe an d defin i te bund l e B y then there was a defi n i t e feel i ng on the part of th e p art ners that the 1925 boom could b low al most any time. T h ey the r e f o r e paid some $ 1 65,000 cash to close a deal w h e r eby the package was tr u s teed to the First Natio nal Bank u nder co ndi t i ons w hich w ou l d allow over a period of years opti o n at fixed prices to pur c hase piecemea l segments o f the ent i r e holding s Th e sale to Dowl i ng and h i s syndicate was a p a r t of this kett l e o f fish. Follow i n g ret urn of the Dowling check s and tearing up the contrac t s, the Bank was in st r ucted t o noti fy t h e Dav i s g r o u p it had ba c k its lands and no never mi n d the $ 165,000. 177 The embargo theory is no good Thi s writer had the f u rnitu r e f o r the Jungle Country C lub Hotel (now F arragut Naval Academy), shipped from High P oi n t t o be del iv ered to a s i d i ng a h a l f m i l e f rom the hotel. One day a w ire announced t h e f u r niture was i n Mobil e, A l abama a n d to p l ease w i r e i nstr u ctions. A tu g and a couple of barges b r ought t h e furniture to St. Peter s burg and t h e h o t e l open ed p ractica lly on t i me which illustrates t h a t the essential t hing s got done w i lly nilly, a n d no never mind th e cost. So wha t i f a decrepit sai l i ng vessel the Prins Valdema r h auled off the beach a n d patched up to benefit its owners from the fab u l o u s fr eighl rate s t o M i ami, did tur n turtle i n the M iarni chan n el Janu a r y 1 0, 19261 W ai t i n g s hips simp l y wen t to Ft. lauderda le and unloade d T h e boom w a s already over on that date. T h ere ca n be d ire c t testimony on t h e Investment Banke r s conve n tion theory l hi s writer was c h ai r man of t h e C h amber o f Com m erce e ntertainment commit tee for the conv en t ion and h e spen t a day show i n g t h e p r esidenl elec t and seve r al of th e top officials the won ders and att r act ions of the commun ity They started o u l w i t h open scor n fo r t h e boom and the l and sell i n g economy. T hey demanded that I point ou t some recen t sales. With conside rable p ri de I showed them t h e northwest cor n e r of Central and 22n d Street, and repo rt e d tha t I had sold t hat 1 00 f oo t s q ua r e of l an d for $7$,000 Sitt ing i n my car in front o f the lot, t h e Presiden t e l ect asked m e scorn f ully, Fuller, w h a t can be bui It on t ha t lo t t ha t will earn s i x per cen t net on the cos t o f the im proveme n t p lus $75,0 001" "Noth i ng," I a nswere d. "listen, Full e r/' he sai d, ve r y ear nestly "don't e v e r forget this No piece of l a nd, n o place i n the worl d is wonh more than i t can earn, developed to its highest and bes t use Vl/e a r gued t h i s thesis fo r severa l h o urs as I showed him some of o u r belter r esident i a l d e velopments, em phas i zing mine of course Al the e n d of t hat trip, greatly impressed, h e said: "Fuller, I wan t to amend t ha t statemen t I made about chat $75 ,000 l ot. I now realize ther e i s a n e w and h ighl y spec ia l iz e d ki n d of real estate tha t I had never fully appreciated before You have some iew \'\' Onderful spots in thi s country where a wealthy m a n can b u ild and en joy l i fe as h e never ha s before. In t he enjoyment of you r e xceptional conditions he can ge t a p leasure that can' t be measured i n dollars Real estate of that kind i s wort h whatever y o u can ge t fo r it. Charge 'em plenty, boy, an d the best of l uck H e had discovered, of course, what the app raisal profess i o n now calls th e 'ameni c ies in estima ting real estate val ue. M u lli ng over tha t inci dent somewhat la ter th e l i stener r ealized t hat for some ten years he had been one of th e d u mb p l ayers of th e rear es ta te" game, d idn't even u ndNstand t he fu n da m en ta l v i tal fact s of the business And as far a s th a t goes d idn' t t h os e Investment

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Bankers proceed from that point and pallicipat e in the great s tock speculation f a nt asy rh.ar was a rhous.tnd t i mes b i gger in dollars and ended i n the disastrous stock market crash of October 29, 1929 ( B l ack Friday), that rocked the financ:.ial universe. thre w lhe Republicans out of Washington ; brought on the g reat nin e reforms of t h e Franklin Rooseve ll administ ration that c reated the fab u lous wea lth of today with i ts safe guards tha t i s supposed t o preve nt forever and a day a repe tition o f e i ther a 1925 F lorida land boom o r a 1929 stoc k market boom? (If, dear read er, you com p letel y bel ieve that theory unti l human nilture c ha nges. it might be wise ro qu i etl y have your head e xamined.) Enough of that. let us get on with the docurnen tal ion. H e r e s t h e Money Stor y St. l.tn k dtpoJIIJ December 3 1 1920 December 31, 192 4 April 1 1925 Decembe r 3 1, 1925 Decemb e r 3 1 1926 December 31, 1931 POJ)ulation Sludy $ 5 928,171 $24,177,642 $30,533,101 $46 ,167,03 8 $27,4 "10,71 3 $ 4 ,336,777 St. P etenburs Pt-runt 1 1 f n Sttt' P'ertenl t 920 14,237 1925 26 647 88.57 30.4 1930 4 0,425 50 .57 39.5 19 3 5 40.856 1.06 9.4 luitdina Ptrmits St. PtiNsf>urg 19 20 $ 2,801,120 192 3 $ 7,12 4,56 0 1 925 $24,08 1,700 1 926 $15,58 0,200 1932 $ 278,100 The three sets of stati stics, if taken at face v a l u e di a gram the sharp shoot up, the almost as steep l eveling off in money and building permits Th e actual #acts in some aspects were more extreme than the cold offici a l figures ref&eleeper t han the ta b l e indicates the drop aft e rw ards l ess severe than seems t o b e the case. During the boom a very largo percent of the buyers were Impul sive, had no idea of buying when I hey l eft home, d idn't h ave local bank accounts. Ma ny who opera t e d quit e widely and for considerabl e time never ha d local bank accounts. A trem endous portion of local property was owned b y distan t people. As they sold the money the y received in pay never was deposi ted in local banks As examples the writer bought one rract from 2 lady residing in Paris France rem itled t o her with New York e x change; another from two Philadelph i a brothers who demanded cash, bought Cash i er's che cks caught the train for home. Wh e n t h e boom w a s over and a s vague dist rust i n local banks grew, more and more people kept the bulk of thei r money i n far d i stan t banks, and a sur pris ing number tucked the act ua l money i n safe 178 deposit boxes. Many deposited I n the post office. i n particuf.lr r a rely trusted their money to banks in those d ays. A very large proportion of that 192 6 bank money was publi c mo n ey waicing co be spent on contracts f rom bond money, or from g over n me ntal budgets mad e o n 1925 dreams and t o be paid for from m a d e in 1925 and collected i n 1926 Many p r i vate project $ financed w i t h bond s and mor t 8ases wer e also in th e spending stage. Other sums represented a vast series of 1 920 through 1925 sales on contr acts whic h h01d reached the f i nal scn lement s tage which found money hungry sellers and emot i o nally r el uctant and financially Pr essed buyers seuling through ignorance, hopes, psional qualifi cations, nor any r esidentia l requirement as now. Anybody coul d walk up t o the l icens e w i ndow a t the City Hall and get a real estate l ice n se Some 6 000 did duri ng th a t year, and perhaps 75 percent of them didn't eve n pretend to be citizens. Perhaps hal f w e r e as s igned to local of f ices of developments in Miami, Daytona, mid Florida, a score ol other communities. Hundreds more live-d in Tampa worked the more lucrative green benches of Central Avenue Thousands came after that spring head counting Other thousands l ived in hotels w hose gucs1s were not counted. Conver s ely thousands who w ere counted as r es ident s of St. Petersburg i n 1930, were actually drawing or seeki ng Saturd ay pay e nvelopes i n other citie s or s rates. Did the City o f St. Peter sburg s h o w a profit or los s

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fro m the boom? This q uest i o n can be answere d on two planes; the t ang ibl e gain or loss i n dollars; the gain or los s i n i ntang i b les. A l ong decad e ago t h is writer attempted a sum mary of these two groups of valu e i n a small b o o k he wrot e ti tle d "This Was F l orida 's Boom" decided t hat on b oth counts the City stood a l oser He OO\V r ecants. His co n clusion no w that short time the City t ook an enormous loss dollarwise; l ong rang e th at i t was the gai n e r bot h fi n anciall} and i n some m u c h more va l uable i n ta n gibles. First, the money accounting. Jn 1923 St. Pe tersburg had a bonded i ndebted ness of $ 3 ,787,759 I n fou r s hort years, 1927, t he de b t w a s S23,70 8,600, pra ctica lly all a t a r uinou s 6 percent i nterest. A stagger i ng $12 m i llion of it was 1 0-year serial bonds s u pposedly a t time of issu ance amply secured b y l iens on land for streets s idewalks..w h ite way l i gh t s drai nage a n d w ha t n o t In 1927 most of t h e l ands weren t worth the liens, and later on a maj o rity o f them weren' t salable at the dollar amo u n t o f two or t hre e years ac cumu la ted and u n paid c urrent taxes. In 23 the Ci ty collected $1, 303, 163 i n taxes. It was $2,982,619 i n 1 925 bu t two years afte r the boom i t tota led $4,270,258. In 1933 i t didn't make much dif fer e nce w h at t h e te vy was, a majority of the people couldn't o r wouldn't pay Current collectio n s in 1932 were 54.75%; 1933 48.78% and $1, 498,273 .86 lor 1932 ( 15 months ) and $681,818.42 in 1933 i n money I n th e 192 7-30 period every h u man bei ng i n St. Petersburg on ave rag e was r esponsible legally for $802.06 of b onded debt; the h ig hest i n the Uni ted States except Atla n tic City, fo r any major politica l unit. Th i s tota l debt was the d irect city bond tota l p l u s t he r atable s hare of Co u nty a n d schoo l debt Atlantic C i t y n ever did hav e a v ery h i g h legal r esidentia l total but e n j oyed a n enor mous i ncome from milli ons of short t ime spenders, mostly conventioners spend i n g ex pense account money I t had h ig h e arni ng power; St. 179 P eter sburg a ver y low earning p owe r fo r the per io d u nder sc r u tiny. Actually i n te rms of ability to pay the St. P ete rsburg debt wa s many t imes that o f Atla n tic Ci ty Toda y i ncluding prorata porti on of County deb t the 1>er capita ci t y obligation is about $38.30 B u t l ong range it profited bee au se among other th i ngs, t h e g l aring fact of the utter l olly of neig h b o r and crony government by a h i t and m iss g roup of cou nci l men mostly utt e rly i n expe r i e n ced in govern ment, fo rced the town i n to the councilmanage r form of political man agement Experienced p r o fessio nals tra i ned i n and conscious of the revo lutio n u n der way from r u r a l towns with s impl e needs to a metrop olit a n economy wilh r apidly multi p ly i ng sets o f nee d s and w i t h c onstantly mounting costs co u ld b u dget expertly resi s t community p r essu re, steer local governm e n t through t h e growing lists of lo cal governmen ta l ser v i ces Th e bigge s t a n d mos t impo t tant i ntang i b le was that the whole nat i o n and to a cons i der>b l e ext en t, t h e whole world, was made very conscious o f Florida a n d St. P ete rsbu rg, and the fact t h at Sout h F l o r ida was one of th e most desirab l e pla y recreationa l and resi den tial area s in the world. T h e two booms, part i cularly t h e last had built the framewo r k lor a g r eat city, and its clos i n g days had made its peop l e con scious that the greatest ass et, i t s Bay and Gull fronts were largely u ntapped go l d m i nes of h eal th recreation and money Desp i te t he agony that l ay ahead, th e community book keep ing en ded u p with black i n k, not red. But the wastage i n terms ol h u man l ives, t o co u n tless people was h i gh, often tragic. For t h e interest and information of those peopl e with orderly and stat i stical turn of m ind, complete an n ual f i gu res on taxes, bonds, popu la tion, and oth er economic tabu l a t ions t hat portray the ci t y and its growth and people ar e repor ted i n a la ter spe ci al report. These tables gene r ally are complete throu gh 1966.

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Chapter XXVI VALLEY OF DE S POND And so the rosy d ream ended The days of s u d den weallh1 easy come go were over St. Petersb u rg i n common with most or South florida en t ere d and passed through it s darkest days, those f r om 1926 i nto and through 1933, Not that many people of purpose and substance reali zed it at once; in fact in some in stances not for years. Local government actu a lly continued an upward spiral for severl years, there being obviously and traditionally the t i me lag in public affair s between plan and e x ecution. But however uneven, the tide ran out until 1933, when dramatically the flow was r eversed. The s t o r y can best be told in terms of h uman equations rather t ha n s tat ist ics. First example to m i n d involved St. Petersb u rg's biggest a n d r i c hest dev eloper, C. P err y Snell. This man's pos t -boom hi story was undoubted ly the biggest, i n size at least, that occurred. It probably also was the mos t significant in community impact. As mosl of the people who knew Snell businesswise considered him a hard and disagreeable man and he scood poorly in public affect ion, this scatement doubtless sounds itrange In presenting the case it must first be staled and remembered {hat in leng t h of i nv olvemen t time wise, in magnitude of opera t ions dollarwise, In visible con t r ibution t o th e c i t y i n a real in qualicy, in p e r mane n ce his contributi o n was c h e largest. H e died a poor man. H e d eliberately impoverished himsel f under no legal pressure to do so, but i n pu rsuit of an i deal of a devotion to one of the greatest human varves, the pursuit of Beauty; to satisfy an ingrained integrity. The Snell story until lhe days of the boom has already been told. In mid boom he finished out his North Shore development, embarked on his greatest life work, the cre ation of Snell Isle. Perry Snell had more money in the bank a t boom's end than anyone in t h e city. Abou t $3,000,000 il was So muc h so i n fact it bothered h im. Th i s writer by chance sat in w i th a conversati on between him and 160 T. A. Chancellor, P r esident of the (ol d) First National Bank then at the Sou t heast corn er of 5th and Central now occupied by t h e F lorida National Bank, discussing wha t to do with chat
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Prorn1scs of improvements wer e elaborate and ex plicit Despite the fact mO>t of the purchasers defaulted or made sharply reduced compromise sei Uemenli Snell car(ied ovt his development promises not only 1 0 I he letter, but geneJous l y over a.nd beyond his comn 'litmen t s pressed ahead with heedless enrhvsiasm al th ough all other development In the cit y had Slopples m anag er aod Mr. Snell. that never varied. But each 3Clor went through h is lines with Slr'.light (ace. SAlES MANAGE R "Well, Perry, here it is another Saturday and n o grocer y money.'' SNEll (Prepared). well'" pause. I ll have 10 do sornething about that.' Elaborat e l y r ams his hand in h is p oc ket. b r i ngs out a thin roll o f bill<, co u nts munc y s lowly in full view o f sales manager "Huh. Elev e n Dollars (all ones) Here you tak e eight." Hands over th e eig h t dollars. ll was always e leven dollars, h e always for ked over eig ht. Out everybody survived. fortunately there was moonlighting even in those d ays. Eventually Snell righted h is finances somewhat, died suddenly in Mexico on another art quest for 6eau1y. His dream survived \.Vhe n death found him, most sur e l y he was r eady, fulfilled at peace with h imself The City government, more th a n any o th e r e n ti ty, group o r individual, suffered. Firs t th e re was the time lag. p r eviously mentioned ; th e n i n d ivi d u a l s and group s despe r ately or optimis tically h ope d tha t public cred it could bridge th e gap, tha t its activi ty coul d re scue private enterprise. Council could not have withstood the press ure had i t desired A prime e xample of the d.saster of r h e lime lag was lhe paving of fifth Avenue North. Realizing the danger and imbalance of the some rive miles of the wPSte-rn "handle" of the city, though only a mile wide depen d e nt o n one through a r tery this w r it e r pressed for the opening o f Fifth ,\venue North as an additio nal ar tcrial h ighway rathe r than the fitful hit, s k ip, h i t s k i p affai r il was: va ry i ng in width from 40 10 60 feet; and serv i ng i nadequate l y va r i o u s i sola t ed n eighbor hood> At h is own expense he acqu i r ed the righ t of way from 16th Street, where i t then dead-ended, t o Boca Ciega Say The s1ory of rhe a cquisi rion of a v1lal sector of this highway has already been told H e had no difficulty persvadmg the cny to order a 40 foot pavement lor the entire length ( In burs t of misguided enthusiasm the c i ty council t hi$ t o a faterul 60 reel whil e the r oad's author wa$ away o r'l a badly needed vacat i on. Con uaCI f o r the pavit)g was l e t -an i ns i d e job NOT at the l owes t b id, to a city hall favorite, Bill Ove rman, who was a s.traw man for th e town 's mos t powerful politica l banker, A. P A very In mid 1927, when the economy was as dead as a salted mack erel. the paving s1ar1ed. opening ua> some thousands of lots, about a s useful as a pair of ice s kates would be 10 a legless mcm who didn'r know how 10 Liens for ten years a tenth maturing each yea r w ere issued, an d every pirce of property abutling the s tr eet. was prompll y bankru1 .H. Thes e r 'lew lie n s adclf:d to 1hose a l ready oui S t Jnding brought the ci t y wtal to $1"1,264,000. CoiiC(' tion o f c:urren1 taxe s wcn1 in t o a tai l spi n 1'h c r e p,essive e-rtect of 1hese plu s s anihHY ertic< h a d th e raxes paid and in the case of eight they had b ee n paid by the holders o f mortgages 6 y contrast th e a rca cast of 4 t h Stre
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Bayou was surveyed and an astou nding 9 7 percent or t he properites h ad paid. A ques tion nair e was sent to the owners of these proper ties and a l most 100 per cent of those rep l ying to the part i cular rel evant q uesti on stat ed th ey were able to pay their taxes beca use or income d er i ved from o u t -ofFlori da N ei t her St. Pet ersbu rg nor South F l o rida in genera l had arr i ved at the state a n d size of eco nomic growth which generater. a self cont ained viab le economy. There i s a certain poil"'t of i n terwebbed commen;i a l and industrial act i vity at which a city becomes self sustaining and con tained and can very well defy ad verse economic condi tions apply i ng gene rally to the r ema i nder of a state or region or nat i on The Gulf Beaches got the i r f i rst modern growth as a result of a fligh t from the manifold ills or the city It well migh t be called a fli ght from taxfisc ati o n Scores of houses were p i cked up from with i n the city limits mostly in far outlyi ng areas and moved to the Beaches T his wri te r for instance had b u i l t a n d paid for in cash nine good wooden cottages a t Pinellas Park, at a cost of approx i mate l y $4S,OOO. He sold them for $350 each to Perry Snell, neHing about a thousand d o llars for the n ine a fte r payi n g ac c umulate d city and county taxes He was quite happy abou1 it. T hat much cash was eat i ng money for over a year man No man or woman who was i nvolved i n the loca l economy escaped th e bony hand of pover t y or c.alamity. F o r i n s tance there was o n e loc ally owned, well ope r a ted mortgage company large for that day T h e active manager fra n k l y gloated at the situat ion, reaped fat fees h i gh i n terest open l y descri bed himse l f as sitting ''in the driver's seat/' and loudly cracked his w h ip. But sudden l y o ne day he found himself star i n g bankruptcy and ruin i n the face and indeed the Spectre rode him down. Eventually th i s writ er boug h t several o f his $1,000 "First mortgage gold bonds" for one dollar eac h f r om owner s who needed an income tax deducti o n He sti ll has a fold er full of them, n eve r havi ng been able w get h i s dollar back Warren Hunnicutt, n at i onally known and respe ct ed mass appraiser, and head of a sound 1 00 person n e l i ncl udi ng some 45 t ec hni cia ns, h ad a pre-dur ing-and-poH boom experie n ce while pe rhap s a b i t more spectacular than most, i s still r eat i stically typical. Mr. and Mrs. Hun n icuu casu ally dropped into Tampa in 1 924 on a brie f vacation he at the time bei ng sales manager for Chimney Rock, a l ocally famous Nonh Carolina sum me r resort development. T h e pur pose for coming was to vis i t a brother of M r s Hunnicutt' s H e cha n ced into conversation w i th a stran ger who turne d out t o be the owner-developer of a quick i e boom time subd i vis i on called Ganbr i dge, at the Tampa en d of the Gandy Bri dge He was invited to drop by and did. He promptl y started t o shy awa y f rom a l ine of ta l k t ha t sou n ded to h i m l i k e a sales pitch Sai d H unnicutt: Look I'm on a vaca tion. I am inte r ested i n buy i ng or selling nothi ng I just want to have fun." "I' m not try i ng to se ll yo u some lots the owner '182 protested You look like a good salesman t o me; I want you to make some quick, e asy money selli n g l ots for me. You don't n eed a l icense. All the equipment you nee d is a blueprint. You won't have to h u nt p rospects j u st pick them up at the property How about it?" "No thanks, sai d H unnicut t B u t a few days l a ter he tol d his wife, "You know, I j us t be l i eve I w ill g iv e that lot t hing a try for a d ay or so. And he did. Hunnicun repor t s that the thi r d p r ospect h e talked to o n his fi rst day was a man named H urd There c h anced to be a s tre et in t h e deve l opme n t n amed Hurd I l ove to play h u nches th e man said. I w ill buy a ha l f a block. And did; for $18 000 cash. Warren says he turned i n the sale, walked away with a commission c h eck for $1,800, "more money than I had eve r made i n a month i n my life before .'' Hunnicut n eve r went back He became r ich a l most ove rnight, the n broke i n a twinkli ng. A north er n national dredg ing company asked him t o ap pra ise post boom 180 l ots i n the n orth Fourth Street area on whi c h they held an $180,000 mortgage t hey had take n i n p ar t pay f o r a boom t i me dredging con tract. Hunnicutt r ef used the a s s i gnment, t elling the peo ple there was no way to p u t a sound value o n th e p r operty, and ref used again after a repres e n tati ve urged h i m to do so, so they cou l d establ ish an i n come tax loss. A year or so lat e r t he representat i ve agai n came to see him. cajoled h i m into buying the en t ire 180 lots for $100 w hich, says H unnicutt, it took him severa l days to raise. Shor tl y thereaf te r he pressured A. B (Babe) Fogarty and John B. Green into formi ng a syn dicate and buying t he l o t s from h im for a t housand Value of t he land today is far far i n excess of $180.000. T h e boom time expe r ience of George Morrison of M orrison & Sch ippert1 lnsurors, now a pillar-of-thc r comm u n i ty businessma n is interesting l y illumi native George ha d been born i n Tam p a but early 192S fou n d h i m thorough l y enjoying h imsel f as a member of a. c h orus i n a Broadway show starr i ng Henry M iller and Ruth Chatterton. Heal t h and b u s iness problems of his w idowed mother, who had moved t o St. Pet ersburg, impelled h i m to desert t h e foo!li ghts an d c ome to St. Pet ersburg. \.Yithout a day's experience Morrison became a sal esman with C. Buck Turne r who had an offi ce at 29 Th ird Street North. To h i s wonder ment h e made $500 t h e f irst week and doubled that the second week H i s eye caught a sto r y t hat a big Tampa devel oper, Burks (fl. l.) Hamner was ope n i n g an office in St. P etersburg i n the i n te r est of a s tring of notable developments i n Tampa; Temp l e Crest, Nebraska Avenue He i ghts, H illsboro Manor and finally Forrest Hills T his la st developmen t blossomed w ith an el aborate country cl u b and gol f course Th i s co urse was l ate r owned by the famed g i r l athlete Babe (Diedri c k son J Zaharis. Hamner had 35 salesme n and f our Pierce-Ar row buses to f erry prospects to Forrest Hills. A Mr. Brown, of Brown, Corbin Coaster Brakes

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(Bicycles) stepped into the St. Petersburg Hamner of fice to telephone his room at the Vinoy Hotel, casually asked George what the office wu selling George gave a brief sales tal k on F Ofrest Hills, whereupon Brown expressed an interes t i n seeing it and agreed t o go with George the next day. George pulled up a t the h o t el in his Model T ford. Mr. Brown took one look and said : "Mr. Morrison, I am sorry, b ut I l ust can' t brin g myself to ride i n a Model T F o r d Geor g e co n ce aled his embarrassmen t and agreed t o return with a better car a t a late r date. He th er eupon went to the E rro l H. Bryon P i erce-Arrow and Rickenbacker car agency on 9th Street North and used the Model T as a down payment on S3,8CX> Pierce--Arrow and borrowed the balan c e at the Morris Plan S..nk at 6th and Central on monthl y p.>yments of $208.00. Next stop was the city's top men's c loth i ng s t ore of th e day Dent & Englis h. for h imself he bought a white lin en suit, whit e buckski n shoes and a $20 panama hat, and for an impressive Negro h e had h ir e d a chat l eu r's uniform from cap t o leath er pu ttees. Dul y equipped, George rolled u p a t th e Vinoy to hear Mr. Brown re mark : "Mr. Morrison, why didn't you b ring lhis c a r the other dayl" George answered: I didn' t own this car the other day I bought it on your account." After a fitting l u n ch a t the famed Spanish restaurant in Tampa, the Colu mbia they visited the property w i th Mr. Brown ending up buying $40,000 worth of l ots G e orge t oo k his $4,000 and wisely f i n i s hed pay ing fo r his PierceArrow. Mr. B rown was n o t so fortu nate. He eve nt ually abando n e d his J.>Ur chase. wro t e off $40,000 under the head of ed u c ation a nd wisdom. Mr. Brown i ncidentall y was f rom an o l d and conservativ e New England fam i ly Of such r a w material were the fires of rhe boom fed. But busting banks were the most v i s ible, the most fr i ghten i ng and the most damaging milestones -or shall we say gravt>Stonesl -of the collapsing economy. At boom's end Pinellas County had 1 8 banks equally d i vided be tween up-county and St. P eters burg I n add i tion there was briefly a Morris Plan Ban k i n St. Pet ersburg. The h i sto ry of the two groups o f banks; Up County and Down Co u n ty, rathe r ac cu r ately reflects the d i ff erence between the response of the two areas to the boom. Up Coun ty, desp i te Clearwater. was s t rongly r ural i n temperament i f not actually in practice. T arpon Springs was an i solated lit tie world of fine Greek Amer i can s preoccup i ed with sponge fishing. Duned i n was deeply i nvolved with citru s dominated by the great and distinguished Ski n ner fami ly, whi c h developed a long line of citrus machines and machi ner y which revo l utioni zed that i ndu s try B. C. Ski nne r's citrus gr ader was t he very fir s t p iece of citr u s mac h inery ever u sed What he and h i s family deve l oped e ventuall y w ound up as one of the n ationally important farm mach i nery manu fact uring 183 p l ants And the senior S k inner p i oneered the first c i tru s c oncentration plant. Clearwalcr was preoc cupied with county government g olf, serv ices for the county's first gre a t colony of home s of wealth y retirees. Up county had no ou tright ban k f ailures. T he two i n Tarpon Spring s q u ietly m erged Int o o ne. T he same thing occurre d i n Clearwa te r But Donald R o eb l i ng, hei r o f the Roebling who b u i lt th e Brook ly n B r i dge, u ndoubt ed l y saved a da y of crisis there when he cal m l y and ve ry publicly pushed his huge bulkhe we i ghed about 300 pounds -to the c ashie(s window of a Clearwc1ter bank, while a panic stricken run was on and deposited S25,000 in cas h Th e money was in s mall b ills and he took a long time counting it. By then the shamed line of people had quietly melted away The Dunedin bank never faltered Started in 1913 i t was very solvent; la te r w ent on under the brilli an t l eadership of Woodrow Register to boldly s tep out fr ont in P i nell a s Coun t y ban k financing for mass h o u sing con str uction. For sever a l year s his bank had a pra ctical monopoly on thi s big a n d l u c rat ive modern d epar tm e nt o f bank lend i ng. T h e yea r s o f crisis i n St. Pet e rsbur g ban king were 1930 and 1931. Preliminary trou ble in 1927 and 1928 was handled quietly. J K ennedy B l o c k dynamic bu t h i gh flying promoter was of the E ugene Elliott (Gandy Br i dge) group, promoted Rio V ista, c entering on 82nd Avenue North and Fourth Street and Flor i da R i viera He also ope ned two banks F irst Security on 9th Street North and People s Bank and Trust Compa ny a t 670 Central. fir s t Secu rit y was quiet l y merged with Cross Town Bank at Nin t h Stree t and Seventh Avenue North ; this i n turn was merg ed with Nint h S treet Bank (wher e the Uni o n Trust Nati ona l Bank now is) under the l eade rship of John N. Brown owner of the Suwan nee, and Wm. D Crawford. The Morris Plan Bank operated brie fl y at 623 Centr a l Avenue. liquidated; and its promoter moved o n r o other loc-ations. This writer was a director and stockho l der in this insti tution He was pla ced on the l oan c ommi ttee was startled and shoc k ed one mccling when two of the committee. a l eading banker and a big merchant, vi g orously urged a loan on some v a can t l ots on North Fourth S tr eet based on what he thought was a d i s astrous ly h ig h appraisal. In the brawl whic h followed h i s de n unciati o n o f the l o an, w hich wa s made, h e resi gned, demanded th e others buy his stoc k which t h ey d i d T h e bad bank fa i lure p eriod was in the s ummer of 1 930 Fo u r banks fai l ed in rapid suc c ession T he Fidelity Bank failed April 24, 1930 It was locat e d in p.>rt o f what i s now the First Federal Savings and loan. It was a small bank h eaded by Harry C Case. He i nept ly bought this write(s stock in thot ban k at 60 cents on the dollar a short time before i t failed. T h e America n Bank & Trust Company failed Apr i l 29, 1930. A. P. Ave ry, its l ong time president, had been a g reat political power i n the c i ty for al most 2 0 years, had s tart e d life as a ba n ker, was frequ ently dubbed "the lu c ky ba ker." Afte r his bank failed he moved to

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Panama City, ente red the real estate business and rode that growth to a modest fort une Th i s writer was engaged in reO
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Chapter XXVII THE CHAOTIC NINETEEN THIRTIES The 1930's were full of promise-a n d accomp l ish ment -for Sl. Pelersburg a l though the clouds wer e not all lined with si l ve r The decade was off t o an auspicious s ta r t when the city exchanged its archaic City Com mi ssion form o f gove r n m ent, w it h depa r tm ent head s respons i b l e t o amateur, a n d often inept, elected commissioners, for a counc i lmanage r system under a ne w charter A new day of effi cien t ci t y governmen t was a t ha n d B u t problems and troubles still w e r e aroun d As real estate sank l ower and lower i n price a n d payment of tax es on vacant or nonincome p rope rty well n igh ceased, St. Pete rsburg bonds plunged into default. Th ese were ref i nanced in 1937. T hey were sound but enormously burdensome on the ad valo rem taxpayer because of a debt of approximately 22 million, Half were long-t e r m bon d s for general im provements of general benef i t B u t the oth e r fatal ha l f consisted of what ha d orig i nal!}' been 10yea r serial bonds based on paving and oth e r i mprovement l iens against spec i fic l and, mostly vacant lots. 1 hese were supposed to be good for t he amount of the l i ens but, i n most cases, turned out not to be. T h is ha l f of the debt was turned i nto long-t erm general obligation bonds payabl e out of real estate taxe s E arly i n 1930 i t was real i zed t h at the commi ssion for m of government was no l onge r good e n o ugh. T h e com miss io n bowed t o widespread demand and S epL 22, 1930 appoi nted a seven man boa r d to draw u p a new charter. The member s of the boa rd were: E. C. Cun n i ngham, a mercha nt; C. B u ck Turne r, Real tor; T h omas Orr, master machinis t ; Judges Georg e H. Bilger and William K ing; Attorne y James Booth and Glen n U. Brook s, real estate broker. After eight months of draft i ng and bitter public d e bat e the new charter was signed i n t o law by Gov Doyle E. Ca r l ton, S r ., o'vlay 30, 1931. Non-Partisan Elections Th e charter provided fo r non-partisan e l ection o( a City council. Firs t there was a white primary (ex 165 eluding Negro voters) followed by a "general" e l ec tion with the two h igh men fro m eac h of seven groups vo ted o n i n t he pri mary. T h e C i ty was divid e d into seven geograph i c distri c t s (o r th e purpos e Principal i ssue i n both elect ions was whether to h ave an "out side" profe s sional cit y manage r or a local amat e ur. Mostly, those favor i ng an outside man won. The new council consisting o f R. C. (Bob) B la nc, Freder i ck W. Webste r Glenn M iller Dr. A l v i n J. Wood, William ) Cer mak Henry W. Adam s J r. and Walt e r L anier. T h e incumbent mayor J D Pea rc e, a drugg ist was defeated. Webst er and Adams w e r e retirees. Miller was an attorney. Blanc and Ce r ma k wer e r eaf estate brokers. tani er, a b us i nessma n, l arer becam e county tax collector. Ther e was no close rac e e xcept bcrween and Pearce t he d i f ierence being 170 votes There were about 3.200 votes i n t he pri mary, 4,000 i n the general e l ection. The charter gave council aut hority t o fix the saJ a r y of the manager The c ha r t e r recogn i zing the despe r ate f i nancia l condition of the city becau s e o f widespread tax delinquency, included a p roc edu r e then us ed by state and cou n ty; Ap r i l 1 of each year u n paid taxes b ecame del i nquent, wer e promptly so l d at public auction and a tax l ien filed against the p ro p erty. T h i s method was followed u ntil 1950. A f ter that year the county made a s i n gle assessment for all taxes t o be l e vied for the county and each of the 2 3 towns and cities, and upon non-payment b y April1 sol d one ce r ti f i c ate covering th e total county-city tax (The s tate dropped i ts coll ec t ion of ad valorem taxes in 1935. ) Adams Elected Mayor The new council took office July 1 and Ada ms was e l ected mayor. He d i d an excellen t job. R. C. (Bob) Bfanc was v ice mayor, late r became mayor. As his f a t h er h ad been mayor i n 1 925 26, t h is result e d in th e only fatherson mayora lty team i n t he city's h i story. Wilbur M. Cotton, an able p rof e s s io nal cit y manager was empl oyed. Couon, given a p r etty f ree

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ha n d by an abl e and und erst and i ng mayor and c ouncil did his best to hand le an alm ost i mpossible Tax collections had dropped to a disastrous 48 per cent by the time the tax collectio n period ended. There wa s n o t e n ough mone y even f o r payr olls. Wage s and sal aries were paid part ia lly in scrip t w hich local merchants loyally accepted although rhar path inevitobly led to eventual ban k ruptcy. But the re were at the same t i me promis ing elem ents not o nly i n the l oca l situati on bu t i n Tallahasse e and Washington. On the local scen e m i llages from 1924 through 1931 va r i ed b er wee n a low of 7.7414 m ills for 1927 ro the bondholder com mitleeen f orced levy of 9.6472 i n 1931. Sur when rrading in rhe low priced bonds for delinquent taxes and liens was agreed upon in 1932 the milla g e dropped r o an alltime low of 3.30 l r steadily i n creased ro 7 flat in 1935, zoo m e d up r o 10.5 and 11.5 in 1935 and 1 936 as stability began ro return in the bond debt situation. When the full burden of rhe 1937 refund made i tself fell in 1936, rhe rate j u m ped to 14 and has n eve r been below 1 2 since. B u t in the me a ntime ability to p a y had greatly 1ncreased. The 14 mills in 1938 was easier for the average c.itizen to pay than 3.50 mills in 1932. 6y 1935 a drop in tax collections n o r on l y had br ought solvenr raxpayers of improved propert ies to the point of bankrup t cy, bur Cou nry and City govern men! c o rhe point of complere breakdown, not on ly h ere but in many other Sou th Florida points. Key Wesr and Monroe County d i d reach char point. They asked the United States government to take over their a ff a irs, whi c h it did for a year or $ 0 Bankruptcy Act Relief was sou ght i n legislation at the n ational and stare l ev el. U.S. Rep. ) Mar k W i lcox, of Miami, passed his Municipal Bank ruptcy Act u nder w hich a u n it of local government could declare i tself ban k rupt and seek shelter in rhe F ede ral courrs until It could reorganize its affa i rs Th i s law wa s a potent t o ol i n a iding man y F l o r i da r efunds. R E Crummer, an extremely able bond dealer from Kansas, on a bigge r scale chan any other had encoura ged rhe cre ati on of some $500 -mollio n of c o ty and county debe throughou t Flori da during the Boom of 1925. When bond default became general and threatened him with ruin, h e conceived and lobbied through the 1931 Legis larure a Slate gasoline rax. Oregon had s tarred this most lucrative of mode rn state !axes and Florida was second This new flow of money was divtded between building and maintaining s tate roads A l ittl e went to the counties for roads, so they could ease t heir compe til ion w i t h th e ci ties fo r the ad v al orem tax dollar To the gas fix have been added auto tag taxes, sales tax, racing tax, w h iskey and cigarette taxes. The state stop pe d tak i ng a share o f t h e co unry land For eight years, 1934 through 194 1 fo llowong the depressio n of rhe earl y 1 930's, build ing i n Sr. Peters burg had been increasingly good each ye ':r. the S24million of buildi ng In 1925, the S b-mollion on 1926 and the exodus of thousa nds of peop l e after rh e eco nomi c collapse which f ollowed, rher e was ob v i ously no ne ed for elrhe r housing or p
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communitie s to expand and i mprove services, m a inly in tM! f i eld of utilities. To comply w ith the law the buildi ng i s officially known as the Public Utilities Administrat ion Building and an obscure corn e rston e so declares Until t h e c onstruc tion of this building, the City Hall and jail wer e inadeq uatel y housed i n t h e ol d T oml i nson A rmory Bui l d i ng a t th e no r theas t c orne r of F irst A v e nu e S outh and F ourth S treet T h e C h a mbe r of Commerce i n h er it e d the build i ng after the Ci t y Hall was moved. A l ook at a few fi g ures wi II give a good i dea of what happened. Mon ey i n loca l b an k s Dec 31,1932, a few month s before these laws started, totaled $4,616,512. By 1937 it had jumped tO S12,605,783, and by 1941, when World War II came S22,861, 145 Gross Na tiona l Product had sunk in 1 933 to S55. 6 billion. In 1%9 it had been stak ed 10 an incredible $985 billion. T h at i s a n i n c rease of almost 18 t imes. Eve n adjust i ng for popu l a t ion i ncrease, and the s h r i nkage o f th e v a lue o r th e dolla r t h e increase is w ell n i gh I nc r e d i ble. A s a yards t ic k o f compariso n money i n loc al ban k s du ring thi s pe riod i n c r e ased 210 times. As popu la ti o n in creased a l most exactly five times 1he adj u s t ed in.c rcasc per c apita ha. s been 4 2 times Dedicated To Tour is m Th i s is understandab le. St. Petersburg's one in dustry at t h at time w a s tourism h was one of the f e w communities in the nation t ota lly equ ipped and d edica ted to ent e rtai n in g v i sito u Th e cou n try, bef ore t h e "On e H u ndre d Days," couldn' t s uppo rt man y p l a y p l aces. Vacations were mai n l y limite d to two weeks. Relati v e l y few pers ons could acc umulate the me ans t o r e tir e and still hav e the health, cu r ios ity and des ir e to seek new scenes. It is i nteresting to note that at just about the time the .. Alp habe tic Agencies n conce i ved b y Rooseve l t. the first St. P etersbur g city manager, Wilbur M Cotton, employed Or George Reed, pr.,ident of the American Municipal L eague t o m ake an economic study of St. P ete r sburg with particu la r e m phasis o n future expec t ations. Or R eed utterly t a i led t o g l impse the exciti ng fut u r e of S t Petersburg pre dict ed its sol e d e s t i ny t o be Tourism with a 100 ,000 population t h e ultimate t o p But th e m o s t signif i c a n t th e mos t spectacu lar, resul t of the new n at i ona l legisl ati on is st i ll t o be discussed. Th a t deve lopment had more repercussi on on the ci t y and mor e longrange results than all else combined T h e First Federal Stor y This s tory revolv e s ar ound Ral e igh W. Gteene, S r It s tarted with him and the beginn i ng s of the F i rst Federal Savings and l oan Assoc iation, the largest bank i ng i nstitution in St. P etersburg and t h e 33r d i n t o t a l depos its i n the n ation It h o lds C ha rter No. 3 n ationally. 187 Greene wa.s a na tiv e of Opelika Ala. where h e was born July 2 1893 He work ed bri efly for a cotton brokerage finm before World War I and ended up a lieutenant colonel in that war At wa(s end he en ter ed the f ield of b a nking This was easy to do. The Greene family, for rwo gcnera lions,, had controll e d a n d operated t h e Firs t Nat i onal B ank o f Opeli ka. T he bank was sol d i n 1 922. Th e family m o v e d t o St. P e ters b u r g in 1924. G reene wa s engaged i n fin anc i a l affa irs for som e time whic h took him for p eriod s t o Det r o i t a n d New Yo rk I n 1926, Florida Com ptroller E rnest Amos put Greene i n charge of liquida ting a local sta te chartered building and loan institution, t h e Florida Mutual which had folded when t h e 1925 land Boom collapsed It turned out that these various activities resuhed in Gree n e not only being available but knowledgeable when the great opportunity came. T h e s t o r y of tha t opportu nity and how Greene grabbed it, is told by Margaret H Barns, who w a s the fi r s t paid employee o f F irst Fede ral, who work ed f o r t h e associ at i o n 21 y ears, re t i r ed and sub s eq u e ntly was secr e tary to th i s wri te r for a n u m ber o f year s in c luding t hose in which t h i s boo k was in prepara ti o n : I n 1933 (at a time when the coun t r y's economy was at low ebb and people wer e l osing homes farms and property through foreclosures) a bill titled HOlC (Home Owners loan C orporation) was pend i ng in Congress, des igned to rake c a r e of emergency, temporary fincmc ing It con tained a provisio n (based o n the best features ta k e n from 'buildin g and loa n companies th at had been i n e x i sten ce in E n gland and U nite d S tates for man y y e ars) fo r l o n g t e rm f inancing and savings f aci l i ties HOlC Bill Passed "Through contacts in the Nat ional Building and l o a n Assodation a n d i n Washinglon G reene anx i ously was await ing word of tM! appro v a l of that bill. I n Jun e 1933, he was advised that the bill had been approved. He l ost no time getting the necessary appl i cation forms and information as t o req uirements to be met in o rder t o get a permit to org aniz e a f ede r a l s aving s and l oan assoc i a t ion. (I was at that ti m e emp l oye d by Greene 011 a tempora ry basis.) "As thi s was s tr ictl y a 'savings and l o an o tganization the r e was no s t oc k issued or sol d and in ord e r to get a permit t o organize one req uirement was that h e had t o secure subscribers for savings accoun" i n the aggregate tot a l of at least SS,OOO. Another requ i rement was t ha t he had to select and q u ali f y a board of dire c tors as to charac ter and respon sibility, but he f i nally came u p wit h a board of 1 3 m e mbe rs, w h o met the requir em e nts and agreed t o serve T h e f irst board of d i r e c tor s consisted of Messrs. Osc a r low r y George A M cCrea, w

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l Tillingh ast W. E We lls. E M Eustis, Thomas M. Griffith T C McCutcheon, Dr. ) A Stric kland )ames D Bourne Allen C. Crazier, R aleigh W G reene, Raney H. Marl in and John Wallace. "Greene had been collaborating with Dr. W H Walker of M i ami, who was attempting t o g e l a p e rm i t to organize an associ a ti o n i n Miam i a n d Or. F rank Cha se who was working on a permit t o oq;;anizc a n associ a tion in Miami Beach. The thre e ap plications were sent i n about the same time .. and Aug. 26 1933 G r eene, with great reJOicing,. re<::eived the message that his ap p lica tion had been approved and he was granted Charter No. 3 lor St. Petersburg. "Dr Walker was granted Cha rter No. 1 and organized First Federal Savi ng s and Loan A ssoci ation of Miam i ; Char ter N o 2 was given t o Or Chase who orga n ize d C h ase Federa l Savin g s and loan Associat ion ol Miami Beach Dr. C hase was a m e mber of t he Federal Home Loan Bank Board which iss ued th e c hart ers fi rst Three ASsoci ation s '"These were the first th r ee savings a nd loan associat ions i n the United States to receive c harters (Greene always co ntended that although First Fed eral ol St. Peters burg h e ld Chaner No. 3 it was 1 h e f irst associa tion in the United Slates to open its door s for bu s i ness. Capita l S h ares: $5,200 "l' h e ori g i na l capita l ( s av i ngs) w as $5,2 00. The 'assoc i at i o n occupied o n e room, 5 0 5 F l o rida T heate r Duild i ng Greene was the only full time employee Mrs. B arn s was par t t ime sec retary a t a salary ol $2 a wee k ''The firs t officers of the association were: )ames D Bou rne presidenc Thom as M Grif fith, vice p resident; T C McCutcheon, 2nd vice pres ident; John Walla c e 3rd vice pre s ident; Raleigh W Green e, Sr .. secre tary trea s urer ; Alle n C. Gra z ier and Raney H. Mar tin, Attorneys I t took t h e combi ne d c o n tr ibutions o l 4 3 p r om inent c iti ze n s to scrape together t h e $5, 200 in sa vi ngsde p osits. This w r iter had mon g h i n IS il h e w ou l d subscribe $250 h e would be considered lor a d i rcclollhlp. He failed to r aise $100. first Loa n s The first c aut i ous growth of the new i nslitulion was les s t han sensational. The f irst two loans were made Oct. 28 and 31, 193J lor S 750 and S1,2SO. The fir st annual report Dec. 3 1, 193J, showed deposits o l $6,150 and capital o f $5 835 67 for total a sse t s of $11,985.67. The a ss ociat i o n rente d ne w quarters i n Jul y 1935 at the northeast corner of Fourth and Cen tral. in what was th e n known as the Equitabl e Building named after the Equitable Bank which had failed The bui lding h ad been named b y the West Coast Title Co. prior to for mation ol the bank The ti tle company buill the original 10-story bui l d ing. which it had in adequately financed The compa ny was for a whil e threa t ened with bankruptcy or in so lvenC\' but strai g ht e ned it sel f out by a h eavy assessment on the s t ockholders The ins titut ion reached the proud millio n-dollar mark in assets in December. 1937 and i n deposits in mid 1 936. In the i n credibl y short space ol 18 ye ars th e S100-million m a r k wa s reached ( 1956), and ni ne years later crossed the S300million ma rk There was a sligh t drop i n 1965 arvd 1966, due 1 0 a slight recession i n local finance and business II started when local bui l ding tapered olf in November 1959. But deposits have moved sharp l y upward since, reaching $34 2,300,896 Dec. 31, 196 8 A m easure of the r evo luti on th e R oose velt laws crea t e d in t his co u n try is sensed whe n one real i zes that s in ce 1 933, s tarting f r orn zero, money i n St. l)eteuburg s avings and loan i n stit uti o n s outs tripp e d that in lull se rvice banks lor se veral years unlil1968. Here ar e a few contrasts: 188 December 31, 1933 1 943 1953 19 63 1968 $ 5,256,156.00 4 1 239,539 00 136,918,438. 00 690 775, 1 91.00 $ 6,150 00 4,052,379 .00 78,049,876.00 441,621,674.00 5 60,478,9 99.00 Greene's g r e at service to h1s In s t i tution and to t he community a b ruptly ended Apr i l 20, 195 4 w hen he died I rom a heart attack H e had had a previo u s severe atta c k and it is obvious, in that he thought first of the association, e ven in such dire cir c umstan ces H e had persuaded the subsequent president and board cha irm an of the association, Oscar R K r eutz. to assume t he post of exe-cu tiv e vice p 1 eslden t dur iog the year 1953 K reu 1 z not only conti nued to direct the prog ress of the associ a t i on bu t was a l e ader in i nnumer ab l e c om muni t y aclivities, no tabl y the rounding of F l orida Presbyt eral n C ollege, developmen t ol Bayfronl Center and downtown rehabilitation T h e r e were but two savings and loan associati ons in the ci t y unt i l 1954 and in 1969 lhere we r e six as follows: Fim Fed eral Savings and Loan A ssoci at ion of St. Pet ersburg. Frankli n Feder al Savings and loan Association, Home Fed e ra l Savings and l o a n Assoc iati o n Guaranty fedetal Savings and Loan Asso c i ation, St. Pe t ersbu r g Fede ra l Savings and l o an Asso c i a tion, Secu r i t y Fede r a l S aving s and Loan Association.

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St. Petersburg : 1933 The following random items of l i fe i n St. Pet ersburg dur ing September, 1933 throw a light on the l ocal scene Thirty five hundred fam i l ies, representi ng abou t a fourth of the tota l popula tion. ha d received i n the previous two years a t otal of 4 ,293 barre ls of fr ee flour from Fede r a l loca l r e l ief agencies. City Hall, u nder Manager Wilbur M Cotton, wa s unc ertai n that tax collect i ons wourd bring enough to mee t the c u rrent pay r o ll. Onl y 48 per cent of the t .ax roll had been pa i d some four month s AFTER the theo r et i cal dead l i ne. Co tt o n didn 't meet h is pay r o ll. He paid in script whic h r nerchants l oyally honored ( This writer has some of t his script i n his St. Petet s burgia)a fil e I t was issued i n sums as l ow as five and 1 0 cents ) A s i ng l e edition of The St. P e t ersbur g Times con tained these items in the classified advert isement sec t i on : ('1933) McCutcheonChevrol et. '30 O ldsmobil e sedan $295, '26 Buick $35. $3,000 f irst mortgag e on T r easure I s l a n d lot, $300 Northside u n furni s h ed bunga low total price $750; $50 cash, $' 1 0 a mo. E legan t 4 r m furn apt. $10 month. Manh attan Market. Rib vea l chops '17c l b Co rn ed spare r ibs 3 l bs. 25c. Webb' s C i ty Maxwell Hous e coffee 1 5c. Cigarettes 97c carto n, lOt a pac k A&P Chuck r oast 12c l b R ice 5 lbs. 15c Veal shoulder 1 0c. Butte r 25c l b Sar d i nes 3 cans 10c Sears -Puerto Rican gowns 39c Shorts a n d shi rts 5 for $1. Dent & Engl ish. Summer suits reg. 512 .50. C l oseouts $6.75 Perhap.s mor e viv idly t han i n any other way can a person who h ad n o first hand e xp os ure t o the stern facts of l ife of the '1929 3 5 era understand that per i od by r ead i n g t he f ollowin g t e l egram sen t t o President Roosevel t by the St. Pete rsburg G enera l Con tractors Associa t ion Ju l y 31, 1933 in response t o the direct i ves o f NRA (National Recovery Act, better know as M i n i m u m Wage Law a n d adopted i n June, 1933) "Th e Gener al Contractors Asso ciation oi St. Petersburg, at a specia l meet ing July list. ra t ified t h e Nationa l Act < :ode for em p loyees a n d adopted a wag e scal e of 30c pe r hour for laborers, 60c pe r hour f o r ca r pentcr s and pai n ter $ and $t.o0 per hour for brick l ayers and p l aste rers. n 15 Cents an Hour Pay for common laborer s i n the build i n g trades and other pursuits h ad been as low as t5c an h our. Current l ocal union h ourly wages (or l h e job classif icati o n s l i s t ed a r e : labor ers $2 .72; carpenters $4.50 ; painters $4. 00; br i c k l ay e r s $ 4 .70; p last erers $4.47 plu s u sually f r ing e ben e fits \t\'ages in m any l i nes wen t up pre c i o u s littf e i n the next decade. T h i s writer remembers h is sense of v i r tue when, in 1944, h e paid an ab le. will i n g and experi e nced gar d e n e r 5 0 cen t s an hour. He remembers the day he was the targe t of th e shortest, most eff ect i ve stand up" strike in t h e h istory of more or less organ i zed l abo r At the en d of one Saturday he tende re d t he gar dener $4 for a n 8 hour day With qui et d ignity )ames (t ha t was his real name ) sai d -' 'Mr. Fulle r us yard men got together t his w ee k
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Chapter XXVIII OUCH! ANOTHER PAINFUL PAUSE St. Petersburg's frag i le but hopefully floweri ng economy complete ly collapsed shortly after World War II had literally exploded i<> the face oi a tran q u il United States on that "day of infamy;' Dec ember 7 1941 VVhen within a few weeks tire gasoline, buildin g material and food rationing was clamped on th e coun try the dismay of St. Petersburgers tu rned into pan i c The economy at that day was nearly 1 O
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Pet ersbu r g, was used as the stat ion hospita l Part of the command was l ocated in Clearwater, 22 mile s away because of insufficient housing in St. Peters4 bur g A "tent city" was se t up on t h e golf course o f the Jung le Hotel i n St. Petersburg to accommodate 10,000 men. However, on 23 April 1943, th e camp had been reduced to 4 800 men, a n d two days late r all were gone. This influx had been a r esult of an epidemic at anothe r trai n i n g camp 5 Duri ng t h e l i f e of t he post, approximatel y 25 p er cent of 119,057 enl i sted men processed through t h e train ing schedule of the post were f o reig n born or of fore i gn extraction. The y numbere d roug h l l 30, 000 men n. Many m edical and o ther offic i a l s c om rnended the St. Pet e rsburg tra i ning center on havi n g one of the l owest vene real disease rates in 1 h e nation 7 N ormal length o f tra i ning changed acc ording to regulations: Ori g inally all A i r Corps recrui ts e ligible for tech n i cal t r a i ning wer e t o rece iv e a m i n imum of fou r w eeks basi c vain i ng effect ive 1 March ; effective 1 April1 943 t he train i ng period was extende d to five week s ; e ffectiv e 1 May, six weeks. T he tra i ning schedu l e was car ried ou t on a s i xday basis, u tiliz ing Saturdays T h e recruit use d e q u ipment such as would be u ti l ized i n jungle warfa renear l y dai l y use of r ifle rang e e tc 8 Inact i vat i on of the post was g r adua l and S}'Stematic and was car r ied out wilh rema rkab ly l i tt l e conrusion or d iHicu l ty The last of t h e personnel cleared the c i ty by t h e date of officia l i nacti vation 31 July 1943. Date! qf D.ate of Date! o f No. ot Hottl Opt ion lnvt. niOry 0((Upln() Roqm$ ALB E MARLE SR & JR 7 -3-42 8-4 4 2 8-7-42 98 145 3rd Ave. N E 1 1 5 3rd Ave. NE ALEXANDER 7 27-42 8 27-42 8-28-42 7 4 Central Ave. ALLIS O N 7-18-42 7 28-42 7 31-42 125 260 2nd Ave. N. APPLEGATE 6 27 42 7-26-42 8-9-42 45 226 5th Ave. N. BEL LEVIEW BILTMORE 7 -1742 8-2 42 8-6-42 800 Belleair Florida BEVER L Y 7 10-42 7-2742 8 18-42 76 100 2nd St. N. CARLEVE 6 -24-42 7-22-42 7-29 42 48 357 2nd St N. CARNS 6 23-42 7-17 42 8 3 -42 Med. 161 2nd Ave. N. Dis CARMACK APTS. 7-9-42 8-3 -42 33 356 4th Ave. N COLONIA L 6-26-42 7-16 7-22-42 64 126 2nd Ave. NE CONCORD 6-42 7-13 42 7-24-42 65 100 2nd Ave. N. CORDOVA 6 27-42 8 3 42 3-4 35 253 2nd Ave. N 191 DEERMONT 235 2nd Avo. N. DENNIS ANNEX 262 I stAve. N. DENNIS 326 1 st Ave. N. DeVILLE 535 2nd Ave. S. DON-CE-SAR Passa Grille, F la. DUSENBURY 427 I s tAve. N. EDGEWATER INN 307 7th Ave. N E EL T OVAR 2nd Ave. & 6th St. S. PENNSYL VANIA 4th St. & 3 rd Ave. N. FLORONTON 25 2nd St. N. FUNK 241 3 r d Ave. N. GAYFAIR 160 5th Ave. N. GOODWIN 204 5th A'e. N H I B ISCUS 160 3r d Ave. N HILLCREST 220 5t h Ave. N. HOL L ANDER 421 4th Ave. N. H UNTINGTON 4th Ave. & 2nd St. N. ID LEWIL D 125 3rd Ave. NE 8-5-42 8-12-42 8 12-42 73 6-24 42 8 5-42 8-6 42 44 6-42 7 -2542 7 -31 42 110 8-10 -42 8 -1442 8-18-42 23 7-1-42 Sta. 263 Hosp. 8-4-42 8 17-42 8-17-42 134 6-24-42 8 -13-42 8-244 2 .so 8 5 42 8 1 4-42 8-18-4 2 24 8 -1-42 8 5-42 8-6-42 138 6 26-42 8-17-42 8 -1942 74 6 26 -42 8-3-42 8 4-42 22 6-25-42 8-3 42 8-9-42 4 9 6 29 -42 8 8 42 8-17 -42 24 6-2742 7-20 42 8 3-42 26 7-20-42 8-8-42 8 -10-42 29 6 -24-4 2 8 7-42 8-10 42 96 6-2 7 42 7-21-42 7 -31-4 2 126 7 1 42 8-4 8-19 23 J UNGL E 7-14-42 9 6-42 9-7-42 94 5th Ave. & Pk St. N. LANTE R N L AN E 7 6-42 8 20 42 8 2!-42 29 340 Beach Or. MAGNOL I A 8-20-42 8 -2242 8 22-42 66 4411stAve.N. MARl-J EAN 7-1 1 -42 8 1 -42 93-42 60 2349 Centra l Ave. MARTHA WASH INGTON 7 9-42 7-3"142 98 237 3rd Ave. N. MORGAN-TENEYCK 8 204 2 8-42 8-3142 39 132 M irr or lake Or. MT. VERNON 6 25-42 7 15-4 2 7-29 4 2 7 1 2194th Ave. N. PENINSULAR 6 26-42 8 15 42 8 1 8-42 36 39 7th St. S PHEIL 6 24-42 8-18 42 8 -18-42 130 424 Central Ave. POINSETTIA 6-42 8 -15-42 8-18-42 108 450 Central Ave PONCE de LEON 6 27-42 7-42 8 4-42 85 Central Ave. & 6each Dr PRATHER 7 -2-42 7-20-42 8 6-42 27 133 Centra l Ave.

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Opth>n oonu PRINCESS MARTHA 6-2442 7 -142 7 1542 251 401 1st Ave. N RANDOLPH 8-4-42 3-13-42 8 2 6 4 200 4th St N. R ITZ 9 1 9 -442 9 45 701 3rd Ave. S. S H ERMAN 6 2 5 4 2 8 542 8 1 42 46 11 5 2nd Ave. NE SORE NO 6 25-42 7-9-42 7 1142 3 4 4 Beach D r & 1 st Ave. N. SOUTHLAND 7 -6-42 8 21 8-42 30 25 6th St S. SOUTHMOOR APTS. 7 9-42 8 "18-42 84 42 33 146 6th A 1e. NE S T ANTON 7-24 3-3-42 8-42 33 225 3 r d St N 7-18-42 9 42 9-42 18 336 8th Ave. N. VIN OY PARK 6-27-42 7442 7 374 Beach Dr. N. W IGWAM 6-25-42 7 24-4 2 8<1-42 60 2561st St. N. W I LLIAMS APT. 6 26 42 8 8-1842 58 325 2nd Ave. S. PROCTOR 8 142 8-17-42 8 23 557 2nd Ave. S. SENECA 8-42 87-4 2 8-42 50 545 2nd Ave. S FT. HARRISON 7-21-42 8-42 8-42 277 C learwater F l a GRAY MOSS INN 7 -25-42 8 2 3 42 8-6 42 94 Mili tary precaut i o n s were p r etty tight r h e r e was a rigid blacko u t a t n i g ht. Householders had to either douse their l ights or cove r all open ings w ith b lack mate r i a l throug h whi c h not a ray of l ight could peneuate, nor through whi c h eve n a dull glow would show. W ith g a sol ine tightl y rationed, e xcept f o r essen t i a l people who had t h e l u xury of a n unlimited "X" car d. people cou l d use cars only i n dayl ight and onl y for the ba r e essentia ls. T he g lass of car head I ighls had t o be pa i n ted b l ack An "A" card for insta n ce called (or five gallons of gas a week. New t ires were non exist e n t and maximum speed of cars was set at 35 m iles an hou r Meats, butter, sugar, sweets, and man y other essenti a l food i tems were rationed People had red and g r een rati o n books of sta mps ... g ree n fo r meat b uller, fats, r e d for sugar, sweets and canned goods. Peop l e w ere even urged t o r et urn used grocery p a per bagsa n d d i d in e n ormous quantit ies, in o r det to save paper Newspapers were s aved and collec t ed Shoes a n d all leat her goods were rat ioned. But t h e r e were ways more o r less legit imate f or fudging a b i t o n rationin g. One w ith an "X" card f or i nstan ce could buy hig h test gas. F i ve gallo n s of t hai thi nned with 15 gallons o f kerosene made a fairly good motor fuel. Then there was the matter of aut omob i le tires. Th i s wri te r d i scove r ed t hat Russell Smiley now president of the West Coast Tille Compa n y, own ed a small tow a round house tra i ler almost unused He had golle n 19 2 the idea i l would be exc t tmg fo r t h e fam ily to vagabo n d around the co u n try in t h a t manner one summe r After a fe\v days the rest of the f amily th o u gh t emph atica ll y not. so the trai l er i n d eep d isgrace, was p u t i n s torage. The r e were two never used spare tires, p lus t wo good one s on the whee l s Trail er t i re s were r ation f ree T h e ti res were the sam e size as t h e fou r pa p e r th i n tires on this w r iter's car and the r atio n boa r d had re f used h i m a t i r e permit. So he bought t h e trai l er for $450, towed it to a poi n t te n m i les outside Pan ama City, w h e r e the twc> sets of t ires wer e exc h a nged The J ones S hipyard at Panama C i ty, a war eme r gency ope r at i on had be en t hrov1m into production, hous ing was i n pat h etic shortage The trai ler was tende r ly parked on a ren t ed t r a iler lot sold t o a s h i p -working fami l y lor $750 w i thi n an ho u r and t h e c a r w a s drive n caref ree ( rom Panama Ci t y to St. Petersburg o n safe rubbe r Then t h ere was meat T hi s writer deatly loved b r eakfast bacon and home cu r ed hams Carefu l reading o f the l aw disclosed that the own er of farm raised pig5 cou ld have h i s pork cured, t ake deliver y from the curi n g pla n t w i t h out t urning in meat ration ing s t amps So a Levy Coun t y farme r sold two 200 po un d porkers to a certa i n St. Pet e rsburger kept them on the farm for a few days them to the meat cu r ing p l an t a t Chi e f l and and order ed t h em b u tchered for the accou n t of the St. Pet ersb urg er, w h o took delivery af t e r cu r i ng About h a l f of the loot was distribu ted as gifts to f r iends and rel at ives but still t h e St. Petersburger "al e h ig h on the hog" as t h e saying goes, for some months. (R e member t hat ham you got the day a fter your t e r m as Governor expired, Doylel) Gaso l ine r at ioni ng h i t the dog track hard for in stance B u t t h e dog fanc i e r s and the t r ack management were not to be t hwarted complete ly. The racin g fans could d r iv e t heir cars to t h e cit y li mits, which was about al Webb's O u t post and there t hey h ad to stop w i t h a l o n g m ile yet to the t r ack grand stand That was solved by t h e track managemen t sup plying a h uge wagon and a te a m of h orses W hich created a s i tuation o f the h orses throwing the lambs t o the dogs Amer ican civilia n s in St. Petersbu r g a n d gene r ally t h r o ughou t t h e nation accepted t h e onerous regula ti ons not onl y w ith good g r ace but w ith pat riotic enthusiasm. For i nstan ce a drive i n St. Peters burg as late as early 1945 collected 12,08 1 o l d s h oes fo r repai r and r euse 1\-1i litary s u rve i llance was strict and r i g i d For the for e par t of the wa r German s u bmari nes prowled the coasts of Florida and the r e are knowl edgeab l e l oca l people who c a n sti ll rela te-i f t hey will, w h ich t hey won'tta les of several tru l y e x c i t ing and dang erous l oca l sit uat i o n s i nvo l v i ng Germa n subma r i nes. This writer had a s o n i n the Air Force on sub marine pat r o l on the East Coast and h e himsel f was along t h a t coast frequent l y on offi cial business for the Governo r of Flo r i da. Two i ncidents are wor t h repeating.

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This writer was in the George Washington Hotel in We1t Palm Beach in m i dsummer of 1942 when an odd ly muffled but plain and loud e xplosion was heard. ResideniS there k new instantly what h a d happened. An American fre i ghte r s team ing South close to shore i n o r de r t o avoi d buck ing th e north f l o wing Cul l Stream had bee n hit by a German torpedo f r om a sub marine. Th i s w r i t er rushed l o t h e roof a s did scores of o thers in tim e t o see the shi p s i n k In a ver y s hort time the c rewmen, rescued. w alke d int o the lobby of t he hoteL All were i n dripping we l and s limy work clothes, grimy with c rude oiL H e will never forget those men. They were sil ent. Th e y were not frightened T hey just naturally huddled together, talked in low, slow voices inaudible ten feet av.tay. The y were people apart. They had all looked a t unex peeled, sudden death againsr which here was no def ense exce p t luck and c hance. For the moment they had no J>ast, no futu r e, n o p l ans. Lif e con s isted of b ei ng o n shore and al i v e T hat hour o r two colore d all th e rema i n i ng days of t h e i r lives. T h e ot h er inc i d ent had n o r h a s any e x pla na t i on I t made n o r makes not t h e sligh test particle o f sense. Out i t happer,ed. The w r i ter was s t a t ioned at Stuart o n a very d isagreeable chor e for Governor I t i n volved the mis use of public funds. (There were d i l i gent alert crime busters before the days of Kirk WaC'kenhul headlines) and the mission accompli!>hed its purpose Be that as it may, the day was Sunday and all of fices were close d a n d t here was no work t ha t could be done in a h o tel room, so not without a gui lt y twi n ge o f con sden ce, th i s writ e r fudge d a b i 1 o n h i s "X gasol i n e c ard t o v isit a d e l i gh t f u l oce an be a c h some d ozen m i l e s nort h o f S tuart. A n d i n a ll that g l o r io u s s t r e t c h o f s and o n a h o t Sunda y afternoo n i n July t h e r e was just one per son on that be a ch A lon el y s wim was followed b y a l o n g walk a l ong lhe beach And then il happened There was not a ship in sight. Thete was no plane overhead The r estless Atlantic was as quiet as it ever gets. There was no mov emen t, no sound, no people. Jus:t o n e l one man and a few lazily wheeling seab irds Suddenly and s i l e n t ly, som e two, t h ree hundred yards o f f shor e a se)ser of wa t er s hot up int o the a i r f i fty feel a hun d red f e e t m aybe fifty feet more, t hen collapsed bac k i nto the sea. Th ere wa s no a f t ermat h no r ipples, no p l an e no noth i ng llul i l hap p ened During thi s pe riod lace one after n oo n thi s w r ite r l eft Tallah assee afte r r eporting ro the Gover nor, f o r h i s home In St. P etersburg He went along d u tifully at 35 miles an hour during daylight much slower after dark as he had heav ily blackened headhghts. It was after midnight when the lonely stretch from the Cull H am mock t O Wee k iwa chee was being negotiated. Suddenly the d r ive r was awar e that c here was a road block ahead A s he sto p pe d muffled flashlights had vague s had o w s wirh vo ices beh ind t h e m o rd e r in g the dri v e r to climb out. There a crisp d e m and ror ide n t ificat ion T he inqui sito r s wer e c o l d l y p ersistent ror some t i m e. Th en 193 ther e was a whispered consultation You say you were born in April 6, 189 41" (The spelling was "town" rot her than "ton" at t hat time ) "Yes S i r.'' "l"'ow was the name of th.1t town spelled in thos e days1" I t was spelle d B r aid e ntown." "Ca n you exp l ain t h a t ?" Yes Sir T h e town was named afrer Hecto r Braden w h o had a home an d sugat m i ll at the j unct u re of rhe M.1na 1cc River and Braden Riv e r but when the town was incorporated a careless cler k or legislator i nserted an "i' in the Braden an d so it remained for many years unt i l another legisl a tive act couected i t." This writer was carefu l not ro e xplain that the l egislato r h appened to be his father After all, one has his pride, even u ndet stress. T hi s satisf ied t h e questi o n e r s a n d the tr i p w a s allowed 1 0 p r ocee d The abr u p t c h eck t o t h e economy wa s all the more c r u e l I n tha t the p r o m i s e s of recov ery to a n o r m a l economy i n response t o a decade o f soun d govern ment a nd the effectuati n g of necessary ma;o, acts of economic surgery h a d taken p lace or were in con tem plation. The new fiscal year of the revamped city govern ment slarled October 1, 1 931. The council appointed Wilbur M Cotton, professional city manage r, holdi ng a junior position i n the manage r's orfice in Dayton, Ohio. He assumed of fico Au g u st19, 1931, resig ned January 12, 1934 u n d er pressure from cou ncit. Cotton pr o v e d t o be a g o od and aggressi ve m a nager. He viijoro u s l y a ttack e d h i s f irst probl em da y t o da y o p er a ting m o n ey H e em p l oyed this wri te r t o m ake a s tudy of d el i nq uent a d val orem t axes, p r ev iousl y re fe r red to, soo n reali zed that a soluti on of the
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)ames S S immons, Ch arles L. Snyde r, Carlton E r vin, Joe M. Toua r l C. B uck T u r n er Cha rl es) Van Fleet and E arl L Weir Mean whi l e a n ingen ious but s l i g h t l y illegal d e vi ce was worke d out r o meet the realit ies of the s i t uation. Afte r default c i t y bonds plumm e t e d, by m i d 931 reac h ed a l o w of 30 cen t s flat (wh i c h meant in bond de a ler lingo that a $1,000 bond c ou l d be bought lor $300 including d efaulted and unpaid inter est coupons ). The dev i ce was an arrangeme n t whereby a dea l e r bought o n e o r more St. Pet ersb urg b onds, turned them i n to t h e t reasu r er and go1 i n r et u rn a docu m ent calle d a bond cred it. If t h e dealer bought ten b onds lor 30 cents fla t i t meant he had paid $3,000 for $10,0()() face val u e or bonds p lus say $600 or past du e i n te rest coupon s He woul d get a bon d cred i t ce r tific a t e o f $10,600.00 being t h e lull lace of inte r est and principal. If a p r o p er ty owner owed $300 past due taxes and $700 past due p aving l iens h e woul d buy a $1,000 part of t hat bon d cre d i t at, say 45, whi c h mea n t $450, I rom the bond d e aler and pay h i s taxes and l iens The c i t y reti red a t hou s and dolla r bond, t h e ta x payer saved $5SO, t he bond broker made $150 Ed C. Wri g h t a nati ve St. Petersb u rger, a n d toda y per h ap$ th e ci ty's ri chest c itiz e n certa i n l y so i f money earned locally is m easure entered t h i s field, soon became th e "Bi g' dealer. H e had be en in Ch i cago for severa l years, wor king for a bond house Ste i f el. N i c k el ous & Co kn ew th e Municipal bo n d bus i ne% bette r p e rhaps chan any o ther local busi n essman. Starting wit h a scant few hundred dollars c ap ital he eve ntu a ll y became perhaps t he largest i n d i v i d u al buyer and selle r of Florida Munici pal bonds The Bond Holde r Committee h alt e d this prog ram b r i e fly on th e prope r legal grou n d t hat taxes l e v i ed for bond inte r e s t s h ould be collected i n cash at par Cot t on went to N e w Yo r k to co nfer with th e bon d hold er comm i ttee co n vinced i t th e a rran gem e n t. l ong range, was go o d for th em as w ell as the t axp ayers. A t fi rst they had warned that portion o f cit y taxes orig in ally l evied to pay bond p 1 ici i n cash. However t h e}' wai ved t his u nd er Cotton's per.suasi o n; h e bei n g power f u lly aided by Hollins, who hel d th e confi d en ce of 1he members of the b on d com m i ttee. Th e pfa n was astou n d i ngly s u ccessful. Ove r a tw o yea r p e r i od several millions o f bonds were retlred, wit h t he r esult t h at 1 he some 29 millions at the peak i n 1 927 by O c t ober 1932, shrunk to $22,6'17,0 00 1>lus severa l hu n d re d thousand of past d ue unpai d interest At that p oi n t was decided that a p e r mane n( refunding was ieasible Th i s wri ter was p r e sent in New Y ork when thi s agreem e n t was t e ntJ t ively ar r i ved a( hebein g i nvi ted by Manage r C otton t o atten d. Alte r t his meet i n g the han d f u l of St. l 'etersburgers who had b een at t h e meeting were having an e x u ltan t post mortem in a h otel room i n t h e P e nnsylva n ia Hote l when Cotton sudder>l y realiled he h a d a t r ain t o catch for Dayton a nd l acked enough money io r his hot el b ill, a ticket a n d o ther e xp e nses. T here w er e no 194 c redit car d s in those d ays and New Y ork h o t e l s wer e u nd erstandably reluctarH about c ashi)g c hecks for strangers A hasty canvass of those revea ,ed that t he $76 i n thi s w r i t er 's pocket wa s abo u t all the cash present. H e s wapped h i s cash fo r a Cotto n che ck for $76.00. T his gesture got h i m i n deep t r ouble wit h a f ascinati n g en d ing. T h e day happened to be a Friday Next morning h i s flea bag hotel o n upper Broad wa}' would n ot cash the Cotton check. Meanwhi l e a vertebra disc in the che ck's unha p py own e r had slipped, w h i ch l eft h i m v i rtually helpless and e n tirel y cashless. Some desperate phoni n g f i nally loca t e d a forrnef salesman who was currentl y a well fixed salesman in a prospe r ous stock brok erage house A tortu r i ng wa lk or some 15 b lock s got the check owner to the brokerage office a n d sud den alfluer>ce to the exte n t o f $76.00 More t cdious phoning f i nally l o cated a Fifth Ave nue and very expens ive o s t e opath, u nac customed l y in h i s office on a Satu r day morning1 and an appointment was made. The d isc soo n tC( u rned to its u s ua l p lace a n d duties a n d t he patie n t was p u t on a cot and tol d to go t o sleep Th ere was anot h er pat i e nt on a seco nd cot a l ready aslee p Eventually the two awoke. T h e other pat ient turned out t o be H en ry R L uce, t he creato r COI o v n d er and great owner edi tor of Time Magazine. T h e next coupl e hours wer e fo r suu! \wo r ich hours of main ly li s t ening t o a strea m o f words and id eas fr o m one of the G r eat Mind s o f t h i s ce n tury i n America. T his fab \ J i o u s ma n h ad h i s c a ree r t e rm i nared i n recent months b}' dea t h S h o r tly after this w rite r retv m e d to St. Perersburg i t l e aked 'hat h e had b ee n at th e sec r et meeting w ith t h e bondholder s and he was b i tterl y labeled a "traitor" to the c i ti zens of St. Peter s burg A f r i e nd of rnany y ears s t an d in g mel h i m on Centra l Avenue a da y o r so l ater den o unced h i m l o n g and l o u d i n b i tte r a n d profane lan guage. Time, o f course e ventuall y healed those wou nds. T h i s whole pe r iod, 1930 t937 was one of great b i t te rness o ver mailers of taxe s r efund ings, c i t y gove r n ment. Impossible 10 real i z e no\v. Cotton ac tually "resigned '; to avoid be ing fired T h e r e was strong, v i o le nt and u suall y u1'1informed vot er, taxpay e r a n d proper t y owner pressu re on the c ou nci l. then the cou n ci lm e n in tu rn were t orn between politic a l pressures an d real it ie s and the word and spi rit of t h e ne w and Couon, a young a n d h i gh spirit e d man was i n constan t hot wate r H i s successor Carlton F S ha rpe, a more ma ture man, wa s a l so extremely abl e H e steppe d i n t o the hot seat J an u ary 1s, 1934, last ed a bare six mont h s resig n ing July 2, 1935. T h ere was a most unu s ual sequel to h i s brief tenu r e A b i t over nine year s later, October 1, 1944, he r e tu r n e d as mana ge r, had a b r i ll iant c::areer her e until Januar y 1 4 1948 when h e resig ne d (actually this time v olunta r i l y) to tak e a much bette r j ob, has gone on to becom e o n e or the out standing city ma nagers o f the nation. Oddl y the r e have been twel v e St. Peters b u rg c i t y managers, the fo ur outstandi n g l y abl e ones be i ng t he

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f i rst two, Cotton and Sharpe, and t h e la s t two, Ross W i ndom and l ynn Andrews. The record or W i ndom until now is tops He served ten years and eight months, res i gned a t a t im e when he was ext re mely popular has since t horoughly enjoyed l i ving Per haps h i s proudest accomplishme n t s i nc e r u nn i ng ably a multi million co r p orat ion i s t h at i n add i t ion to becoming a very accomp l i shed small boat operator, he h a s also become a n expert at t hat very difficu l t sport, casti ng a hand net. (Th i s wr i te r was f a i r unt i l he cha ng ed his sty le of teeth.) Perhaps a discussion of a few figures on assessment and tax levy, p r e tty cold fa r e for the ave r age reade r u nless interpreted can explain some of the emotionar b i tt erness and t r ibul ations for p r o perty owners that occurred d u r i ng those years A good place to start i s r.he 1927 asjesse d val uation o f $ 161,873,412. Thi s was a good two years after t he 1925 boom b l ew up. Yet i t was r h e hig hest assessed valuat ion u nt il the n a n d th e highest fo r 23 years thereafter, when t he figure reached $'164,982,627. It is no coincidence that this year 1950 scr a new high figure This was the fir s t year tha t the coun t y assessor took over the va l ua t ion of all land in Pine llas County for both the Co unty and the 23 cities and towns A loo k. the correction of man y an error, th e stern raising of many a low figure based on cronyism, failure to follow rising tides of value in some areas, use for the first t i me of m odern appraisal technique, all com bined to shoot the total up from previous years. The next year th e to ta l zoomed some 94 million to $258,711), 738 an astr onomica l 57 pe r cent inc rease. But assessment s mea n nothing unless vie w e d a l ong w i th the m i llage Millages from 192 4 t h rough 1931 varied between a low of 7.7414 m i lls for '1927 to th e bond holder committee -enfo rce d l evy of 9 .6472 i n 1931. But when trad ing in the low pri ced bonds fo r delinquent taxes and liens was agreed upon i n 1932 the millage dropped to a n all time low of 3.30 It stead ily inoeased t o 7 frat i n 1935, zoom e d u p to 10. 5 and 1 1 5 i n 1935 and 1936 as s tabi l i t y began to return in t h e bond deb t situation When the fu ll burden o f the 1937 r efund mad e itself fel t i n 1938 th e rate jumped to 14, has never been below 12 since But i n th e meantim e ability to pay had greatly increased. T h e 14 mills in 1 938 was easier for the average ci tizen to pay t h an th e 3 .50 mills i n '1932. Full detai l s over t he years on m illages, assessments, debt s erv i ce exempt io n and simila r mat lers are repor ted for those i nterested in such s ta t i s t i ca l data, gathered i n a spec i al sectio n on later pages, c over ing t h e last 50 to 60 years. Th en of course, the St. P etersburg world, slow ly men d i ng, f ell apart on th e morning of Decembe r 7 1941, as p rev i ously stated i n t his C h apter By 1935 drop in tax c ollection s had not o nly bro ugh t s olvent taxpayers of improve d p roper ties to the poi n t o f bankruptcy, but cou nty and cit y gover n men t to I he poi n t of complete breakdown not o n ly i n St. P er.ers burg bu t i n many oth er South Florida p oints. I n fact Key West and Monroe County d i d r each that 195 p oint; they havi n g asked the United States govern ment t o take o ver their affa irs, which i t d i d for a year o r so. Relief was sought in legisl ation at the nat i ona l and s t a te l evel. Congres s man ) Mark Wilcox, of Miami devised and passed his Munic ipa l Banhuptcy Act u n der whic h a unit of local gover n ment could declar e it sel f bankru p t a n d seek shelter i n t h e Federal courts u n til i t could reorganize its affa i r s T h i s l aw was a potent too t in aiding many F lor ida refund s R E Crummer an extremely ab l e bond d e ale r f rom Kansas, on a bigger s<.:ale than any other broker, ha d encouraged the c reat i on of the s ome $500,000,000 of ci t y and county debt d uring the boom of 1925. When bond default became general and threat ened h i m with ru i n of his business he conceived and lobb i e d through the 1931 legis la tur e the st ate gasoli ne tax. Oregon had started this most l ucrati ve of mode r n state taxes an d Flori da was second. T his new flow of money was d ivided between bui l d ing and maintaining state roads and paying for those al r eady b uilt b y help ing pay i n terest and principal o n road bonds Crumm er was i n t er ested i n helpi n g Cru mmer b ut he w i sely devised a tax law that h elped both s ides As part goes to secondary ( County) roads a heavy load was l i f ted from Cou nty and C i ty ad valorem taxp ayers More d irect r e lief fo r the hard pressed real estate owner came th rough the Murphy Act. Senator Henry Murphy, of Zol f o Spring s H ardee Coun ty, introduced thi s re volu tio na r y faw. It provided fo r the payment of de lin quen t ta
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modernized wa s o ffe red f or sale i n July 1967 for $ 350,0 0 0 T he Futch Act went even further than the Murphy Act, was ha ra ssed by l itigati o n never was a b i g f acto r i n the sad mess A c tu ally, alt hou gh al most nobody reali zed i t a t t h e time, mode r n civilization a n d a more and more sophisti ca ted g overnment from which c i t iz ens demanded mor e a n d mor e services, had reached s u ch an expensive poi nl, par t iculady for schools, that local government. i nclud ing cit ies, count ies a n d s c hoo ls, cou l d no long er l ive off ol ad valorem taxes on land, as t h ey h a d trad i tionally done To the gas ta x h ave been added auto tag ta xes, sales tax_, r acing rax, whi skey and cigarette taxes. The s tate dropped taking a shar e o f the la n d taxes. But t he problem i s s till unso lved. However discussi o n of tha t probl em is beyon d t h e prov i nce o f thi s book o ther than lO say t h al today these comparative l y new taxes pay over 80 percent o f t he cost of all state govern4 ment To all t his disarray the emba rgoes and r at i o n i n g d iscussed i n rhe opening pages of this Chapter broug h t St. Petersbu r g to a s t ate of pa r a lysis. How com p let e t ha t was can be seen in an ana lysis of c i ty b uilding permit re cor d s for the critical years, 19411945. For eight years, 193 4 thr ough 1941, following the depressi o n of th e ear ly T h i r ties, bu il ding i n St. Peters4 b u r g had been i ncreasing l y good eac h year But a fte r the 24 m i llions o f bui l d i ng i n 1925 an d t he 15 m i llion i n 192 6, and the e xodus of t h o u sands of people after the economic collapse which followed, t her e was ob v i o u s l y no n eed f o r e ith e r h ous ing or bus i ness p r oper ties for many years. In 1933 t ota l buil d i n g pe r mits were a n insign i fican t $381,650 and these i nclu ded only 1 0 houses costing a total of $69,100 bu t i n creased rapid ly thr oug h 1940. B u t in 1942 a n d 194 3 with strict r ation in g and con4 trois sudden l y im posed, St. Petersburg b u i l d ing ex perienced a sharp nose d ive fro m t h e almost 6 m illi ons i n 1940, and 41/2 million s in 1941. The next two years were almost identical in t ota l $630,0 4 6 i n 1942 and $630,03 2 i n 1943. Des pite t h e eveness i n dollar t ota l t h ere wa s a drastic d i ff e re nce T he fir st year s aw 107 h o uses b u ilt th e next ye a r 11 permits w ere issued fo r res i dentia l work b u t the total expe nd iture a s k ed fo r $3,600, s h owed c l early tha t only mi nor repairs we r e i n volved. It was a real damp down t ha t per iod of rati on i n g T h e r e was a m ild relaxat i on i n 1944 but not much; 79 re s ident i al pcrm irs fo r a total of $43, 160. A pers ona l experience of t his wri te r diagrams the situation. H e had boug h t a a mai n consi detation b eing a very lar ge atti c he a d j u dged b ig enough, if properly equ i pped, so tha t fo r a rofrcshi n g cha ng e he cou l d gather togethE?r i n co nv en i e n t p lac'e a ll of his books He had some several t hou sand deal ing largely wit h Flor i da T h e a tt i c was b i g all r ight, but i t had a coupl e o f drawbacks It was entered by a foldaway stepladder 1% and it had no floor. He
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fil ed before the R a i l r oad Commission (now r h o P u blic Comm i ssion) for a flat 25 cents per car toll There was a grand fight, the commiss i on decreed a 3 5 cent subjecl to review after a year for an adjust ment shou l d returns p rove roo high in fairness r o the pu bl ic, too low i n fairness t o th e cqmpa ny. T h e yea was u p a n d a p elit i o n had bee n fi l e d for a r e h earing w h e n suddenly th e t olls w e r e lifted As p r e vi o u s l y r el ated Presi d en t R oose v el t seized th e bridge as a war measure . also to g i v e C l a ude Pepper a l i ft i n r ec lccti o n to the Senat e T h e roll was dropped Tho usands of airm e n fl ocked i nto St. PeteJSburg a s a result, and to I he B eaches for housing and recre a tion, and happy days returned to St. Petersbur g again. The Beaches bel at edly w e re ready fo the influx. Oddly, they had been neglected unti l the when people from S t. P etersburg suddenly found t here was a pleasan t r e f u ge from high taxes i n St. Pet ersburg. went there t o b e f ree from t he pro blems v e a tion s and e xpe nse of l i fe in deso l a t e St Pete r s burg. T h e a n tipathy of the I s l and peop l e t o ad valore m taxes, a qui e t ani mos i t y to St. P e tersburg that exists today, desp ite sto u t denial s s t e m s fro m th a t day T h er e were g oo d h app en i n g s i n the pe ri o d Ed C. P r ice, promoted t h e Tr e a sur e Islan d causew a y i n 19 3 9 40, founded the town of T r easure I sland. W a yne 19 7 Palmer, an eng inee r from Mobile. who had sue cessfully promoted and bu ill a vehicular tunnel unde< the Mobile R iver, saving much milage on U S 90, sought to promote a tunnel from Ninth Street South to Piney Poin t in M anat e e H e f a i led by a hair because of b ittet oppositio n f r om T a mpa and f r om th e own e r s o f th e Bee line Ferry but he l it the fires, l au nche d t h e c amp a i g n t ha t d i d not end u n til th e S k y way was an a c luafily. A n d so. Worl d War II end e d with St. Pet ersburg desperatel y short of housi ng, b u s iness bui l d i ngs, a u t omobiles, everyt hing exc ept p eople The town wa s pac ked and j ammed. T his prese n ted an odd s i tua tion. For a space of twenry years first because of t he c ollapse of the boom and the prostration oi the economy ne x t because of war restrictions. Sr. Peters burg had made mi ghty strides in population, had stood still o n building. P eop l e h a d acc umulated m oney during t h e War. I n 1wcnt y year!t a new generation had come on the scen e T h e 1930 p o p u la t ion o f 40,425 ha d In c r e ased SO pe r ce nt t o 60,8'12 b y 1940, and by 1 9 4 5 to 85,184 m o r e th a n dou b l e t he number fifteen yea s b e f ore. ff ever a commun i t y wa s r ea d y for an ex pans ion, a boom, a pe riod o f optimi s m and building. St. P e ters b urg was ready And it happened

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Chapter XXIX THE SINGLE FAMILY HOUSE Abruptly at the end of Wor l d Wa r II a frenzy of construct ion of s i ng l e fami l y houses er upted. The movement was to last 1 5 years and b y its end the n umbe r of homes in St. P etersburg had more than doubled. European armistice came abru ptly May 8, 1945. T h e J a panese surrende red Aug ust 1 4 The tides of change had s t arted to flo w even before the a r mis tices. A fter that St. Pete r sburg i n common w ir h most of South F l orida exper i ence d g rowth an d chan ge unequalled before in F l orida h istory. The pri ce of buildings tr ipled, the price oi land w ent up an average of per haps a t housand percent. Populat ion creased over a hundred percent. T h e change i n the gene r al c haracterist ics of t h e n e\v popu l a ti o n was equally drast i c And little wonder. For twenty years there had bee n fi rst for fi fteen years an econom i c bar t o c on str u ction and then for a lmost five more a pol i tic a l prohibition b o rn of war, even more drasti c than the econom i c deterrent. At the beg inning o f this movement a vacant house i n St. Petersbu r g was nonexiste n t and i n many there was f requent ly an uneasy crowding of two families, and i n extreme cases t h re e famil i es into a sin gle house. At the end there were severa l th o u sa n d hoUses r att l ing around with no occupants and sometime s with no owners. Jt \\ 'as a d r amatic time. T he period might p roperly be calle d t h e age of the single f am ily house. I t could also p r o p er l y be desig n ated as the com i n g o f mass prod ucti o n to h o usin g, the deve l opmen t of en t i re l y new safes techniques, new land developmen t t i ces new finan c i ng processes. The economi c and so c i al changes were more s i gnificant, mo r e p e r manent and more l astin g than th e nois i e r and more colorful '1925 l and b o om T h i s one, by cont rast was a h u man invas ion, a re vo l ution i n living. The "1925 thing was a h ug e gamble, a poker ga m e, i f you wi l t with vacant lots fo r chips. T his was the impact of a d r amat i c c h ange of the America n way o f l ife upon a city, a retirement city, a cit y o f resident i al i sm wher e the change could be most easi ly seen, meas ur ed and 198 studi ed. Mos t changes, eve n majo r o nes came g r adually bu t beca use o f the twenty year s of rep r ess ion th i s one came l i k e a torrent o f water w hen a d arn breaks. The sequence of events and ca u ses will be briefly listed Th e year 1926 foun d St. Petersbu r g spotted with emp t y houses by the hundreds and f illed w it h bankrupt people by the t housands. New crops o f t ou rist s poured in annually b u t the slack i n t h e economy did not beg i n to not iceably tighten i nto nor mal prosper i t y until the l ate thi rties. And why build a new h o use when a good old one cou l d be b ou ght for ha l f its rep roducti on p r ice? The n cam e war, and pan ic. for e i g h teen months a q ueer artificja l p rosperity res u lted from tra i n i ng some hund red t housand rookie sold i ers in the s tr eets and park s whi le they a t e a n d s lept in w h at were normally t ou rist hotels. D uri n g th i s period key essent i als of food were tat ioned; more impo r ta n t to a t o u rist town; gasoline, t i r es, new ca r s, n o r ma l ra i l road passe n ger t r affic were all nearl y non -existent for other tha n str i c tly essen tia l use. S till the tou r ists pou red i n and war's end fo u n d exis t i n g hous ing cram med to t h e rafters. (Th i s wri ter once rushed to the hosp ital i n an emergency, was be dded i n a b room closet.) And for twen t y yea r s a va s t number of vacant l ots created dur i ng t h e 1925 lot game" acc u mula t ed u n pa i d ad val o rem taxes and dishonored impr ovemen t liens T ax certi ficates bear i ng high ra t es of i ntere s t to make them attract i ve to specu l ators. no l onger ap pealed and the cer tif icates r ever ted to the State. But in the mid T h i r t ies the Stat e qu i t the ad valorem ta x f i el d fo r part o f i ts funds a n d the certif icat es reve r ted i n stead to the Cou n t y and the City as t he y now wholly owned them instead of sha rin g an i n te rest with t h e S tate. B y 194 4 about a t h i r d i n dolla r value of taxes i n Sout h Pinellas was del inque n t a n d t h e p roper t y off

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th e roll. Up c o unty the del inquency was less, pe r haps about a fourth dollar.v ise. Th e Mur p h y law h ad allrac ted onl y a minor fri n ge o( dar ing and hopefu l spec ulators; had not be e n (he c ure-all hoped for Came war's end. Hope, optimism, t h e sp irit of sp eculation c ame alive, and th e Legisl atu re county officials, c i t y authorities responded; and a lmost i n a twinkling a vas t program o f l i q u i dation of de l inquent taxes \ vas under wa}' w hich resulted i n creating a bran d new crop of r e a l estat e owner s All knowl edge ab l e pe ople real i zed the H r sl job befor e revival was to clear the o ld sla t e Th e old ialse s t andard of 1925 boom p r ices was erased. l and va l ues were near ze r o there was room for spewl a\ion, th e new ball gam e s t arte d \A/hile the public g enerally did n o t become awMe oi thi s n e w da}', a day to again hcwe f aith i n vaca n t l and a n d to risk a speculative dollar o r two, leadershi p of a few far s i g h1erk Ray Gree n saw w hat h ad t o b e done Robert McCu tcheon J r., mayo r in 194143 and Ray OugaJ), CourKilmar'l und e r 1'-'\ayo r G eo rgeS. Paner soo, long time real estate opera tor a n d durin g this per iod lar ge scal e i nves tor i n t ax cetlilic ah%, saw the prob l e m dearl\' also. So when the County stalled movin g toward mass for eclosu r e and sales of lots a n d acreaoe, th e city, ir l sel f moved too. T he two bodies, County governm en t and C ity govemmen t worked i n harmon y, partly under law, l a r ge l y by i n f orma l coope r a t ion, wward mas s foreclosur es withou t par tially w i p i n g o u t eac h otht-r C i rcuit. Judge T. Frank H o bson (lat er, a State Supreme Court Justice d i ed Aug ust 1 '1966,) really trigg e red the movement enoug h to a t tract genera l spec u l a tor altenti o n when on D ecembe r 18, 194 4 h e qui e t ed ti t le into the County for some 2 500 propert ies, so t hat the County cou l d s e l l t he land s and place them back on the rolls as free of de li nquent taxes . As ownP.r of tax clear lan ds i t undertook t o i naug urate a s te ady serie-s of public auc tions so as to distri b ute the title to a l arge number of p r ivat e ownt-rs, w h o hopefully woul d develop, but a t minimum had the courage and means to pay th e an nual taxes Th i s procedure was delayed by court action a 1'1d 199 for other re asons so t ha t the fir st pub lic sal e was actually h e l d on the court house s t e ps at C learwater on Augu s t 1945. Between then and October 1 1,1951 a t o ta l of J9 County sales were hel d. A c tually to a con side rable exten t . the offere d at eac h sale were d i c t a t e d by from sp ecu1.1tors a n d p r ospective builders and oth e r s who prom ised t o b i d th e lands off ered i n a t p r ices 10 the Cou n t}'. T h e C ity unde r the l eaders h i p of C i t y Manager Carlton Sharpe and D u gan u n d e r t ook a similar p r ogram as to Ci t y proper tie s T he C i t}' would sell j ec t t o Cou nty taxes a n d the buye r could se ttle circle of buyers got l.uger .ll'ld larg e r O n e patriotic gesture by the City did m u c h to a t tra c l the atte ntion of ( he public 1 0 t he l and sales I n 1 94.5 and 1946 VVar v N era n s w e re streaming back t o the dty and t o shmv publi<: apprec i a t ion a lan d "auc tion ' l imited t o ve t erans was arra nged. O u t il wa s an a u c t ion i n r everse i n fJct it was a I o tter} T h e ve terans \'l.'hO wis h e d t o p a rticil)ate d r e w for numbe r s Th e "price" of each l ot was a n ominar sum T here were seve ra l h undred l o t s selec t e d from all sections o f th e c:ity Owner of Number 1 had first choice, Number 2 had ''e x t, and so on. The "atJCiiOI)" was qui t e a suc cess. T h i s \ W iter attende d p r act i cally an o f both th e county a n d city sa les. He prompt l y s o licit ed various individ uals, rn.1de d e a l s with f ive, whereby 1 he y provide d t h e mone y, he se lected th e p roper t ies, bough t the m deve l oped prog r ams to resell the lit)ds. Thi s in seve ral i ns t ance s l e d to h ouse b u i lding oper at i ons. At fi r st a f e w oth ers were doi ng l i k e wise rapi d l y th e circl e of buyer s s p read and event u alf} .. a very bri s k re a l estat e ma rk et deve l oped rn fact t oward th e end the cro-..vd s got l arg e and t.n r u l y w i t h frequent r a t h e r a ngry clashe s betWeen bidders. T h e lots sold ior p r i ces that woul d be consi d e r ed absu r d today. For i n stance l ots i n choice sections o f f.ag lecre st, Pasade na, c l o ser i n West Ce ntral sub d i v i s ions sold at frorn S75 t o $200 a lot. A fe w even sold i n Snell Isle and Gra n ada Ter race T h i s writel' bough t w h o l e block s o f lots out Fourt h Stre e t irom N o r t h St. Pete r s burg Subdivi sion 62nd Avenu e Nor t h to 90th A venue for a s low as S10 a l ot. Fortun atel}' a cons i de rable numbe t oi l h e n e w own e r s h a d th e urge to bui f d1 w h i c h \va s natural_ bec;ause demand for homes was terri fi c and o f course war t ime restric tions w ere p r omp1 1 }' dropped \\lith t he d eclarcuion of pea<.e Perhap s the r eade r can ge t 1 he clearest picture of this revoluti on.uy move m e nt a b r ief des cript ion o f a specif i c si tu ation which sta rwd with auctio ned lots and e nded u p w i d'l a hundl'e d occupi e d h omes, all i n p relly s h o r t o r der. One of the loc al inve stors tha t thi s wri te r in tetested in bu ying many of the auctioned lots was At-

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rorncy H W. (lack) Holland. The two bought some 200 Jungle Terrace lots at around a piece They were 50 foot lots that lhis writer had momufactured logelhcr with C. W. Hunter on '1923, and had sold at ascending prices during the 1925 boom. ending o n a h igh not e of $2,!XJO to $2.500 a l o t O n e hazard of this pur<:ha.$C was lhat the style in l ots h a d c ha nge d d r a s tically between 1925 and 1945 I n fac t lhc real estate i n d u st r y ir"' F l o r i da i n <:om mon with all other e l e .n e n ls of professions, 4Jnd moreshas bccr'l in a con sl ant ferm e nt of during this century. These changes h av e ap i>lied to lot sizes and shapes .tyl e of h ouses, methods o( building and marericlls. finncing and sale I)< O. ''' lhc century''> beginning. the 101 was narrow and long. There must be room for a house, and one or more of" horse. a cow, a privy, a garden, a wood pile. a barn, J c i ste r n and a well and pump. wer e two, r r e quently three occas i o nall y four s t o r ies high. wal ked to work, t o school, to church anti l o p l ay The ,wtomobile banished th e h o r se alld the cow. Rcfriger.:tlio n and canniJ)f{ and food prese rvation processes doomed the gard en Cas and t!l ectricity ended the wood pile, the tank replaced the privy. The utomobile shelter up .. tongside the living widened and shortened the lot. '"-'odern appliances and furnirure shrunk room sizes and elimina ted upper stories. Fin a ll y carne a i r conditioning and t hen the r e b ellio n o f sonny boy and da d again s l pulling weeds and mowi ng lhe l aw n; a1)d the p rese n t age cl iff dwelling th e high r i se a parlmenl born. Tim e was \vhe n building new house was a momentous eve n t. ),wed for and p la nned for half a lifetime. Bank s did nor lend on mort&ase. fin.ancing wa.s hit and miss in the hands of individua ls. Capital was scarce compared with this age of ai nucnce. Architects could make a living only in large cities. People pl anned their own or let the bulder do il or selected one from d book of house designs In Sou th F l o rida house s built of wood. P e r iod. T h e town 's rich and proud buill a b r ick hous e a s a s l alus symbol. A l and l imited nimsel f t o c l eari n g the land. fi l ing a p lat and m aybe putting thin temporary s h e ll o r f nad surf.1clng on one o r more oi the s tree t s In luxury subdiv isio n s si dr.walks were e-ssential. It never occurred to de-veloper t o build a He leit that to the buyer. New areas grew up slowly with a thin scatt<.>ring of houses In 1925 the style was a lot SO by 135. By 1945, the style was 75 by 100. The Jungle Terr ace lots were SO footers. That situation was me t in part in th is particular sit ua tion by gro u p i ng l o t s in set s of three and dividing the three 50 foot lois into 1wo 75 foot lol<. Nothing coul d b e done, ol cour se, co salvage t h e bac k 35 feet that was now out o f style, but e v e n that sit ua t i o n was rnade to work out f o rtunate l y through SOt!'\C ctu e in e l a b ora te l and 200 :aping of back yards. and goong for outdoor grills, patios and elaborate informal plantings. A builder was contacted Willing to undertake the construction or 100 houses. he agreeing to buy the new 7S foot lots at $375 each on a when and H basis1 giving th(! s pend ators approx i mately a c lc.tt hundred p e r cent profit. O ne mus t not for get h owever that th e r e was a trem en dous amount ol work involve d a temporary subordinati o n o r I h e lot p rice during a work ou t of house construction and fi. nan cirlg under FHA aus pices This writer became th e sales agen t for the b u i lder. A modern d a y b u ilder w ould turn green with e nvy at the situation. P erhaps half of the were sold tM-fore fooling was poured or a found.1lion laid. In respons-e to modest adverHsemems would-be buyers almoSt s1ormed the office. They barely looked at the plans. fhe house hungr y prospcci', largely returned war vet erans, wer e actually intere sted i n onl y c.vo o r thrtw th ings; h0\1\' quic k cov l d they move in, the m onthly paym e nts, t he number o f bedrooms. Noth ing e lse matterednot even the rricc. I n fac t the da te of p ossess i o n was the crucia l question. Th e F H A r ig i dly !1-Ct th o price based on real islic f ormula. at times were quite embarrassing o r at least inconvenient. For i nstance I h e r e was lhe case of the lady from Manila and her t eenage. date -eager Mother was in process of getting a divorce from a U .S. military officer stcuioned in the Islands. They bought with a guaranteed delivery d ate The date was not met. Mother came t o t his wri t e /'s of fice in teat s and near hysteria. She had paid her rent exac tly c o the dat e o f l)romised She had n o more money. Her landlord had r e nted he r room; s h e h ad to move the n ext day; had no roof, ''0 wam pvm. This writer a n d h i s family had f r ee house guests for several weeks. The land brokerag e business is not all skiules and beer. Jim Rosati has the honor and distmction of revofutioniling 1he great parade of almosl 50,.000 single famoly houses (48.513 10 be e xact) that altered the size. the appearance, the direclion of th e cily of St. Petersburg and Pinellas Coun1y. He fir s t b r o ught effec ti ve mass production te<:hniqucs t o th e C it y H e was th e firs l operalor l o f i le a b i g J)CW p l at i n twenty y ears. Rosati appea red q u ietly ancl with o u c fan f are b c f ort! th e Cil )' Phu)ning Board o n N o vember 17, 1948 a n d asked approva l of a p l at to b e known as l'frone Gardens. some 100 acr es at th e northeast cort'ler of Ninth Nofth and Tyro n e Bou l evard \1\that threw chc Board inlo a tizzy a plot of 17 acres ar the comer and designated Shopping Cenler. Certain members h1d fear under indignation ..,.Vhoevcr heard of such a thing'!" Well, nobody poesent e x cept ROS
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bu i l d t he City' s fi r st major mode rn shopp i ng ce nt er His cons tructio n was O r ange l ake Village on Seminole Bo u l evard (U.S. 19-A). The l o t s were s mall which turned out to be just what the buyers wanted (not much grass to mow), the l a n dscaping w as g enerou s. but best o f all th ere was a really good Commun ity Club, generous r ecre ationa l area, a l ake and provis ion for amp l e shop p i n g faci l i ties. Rosati built i n all approx i mately 2000 houses, m ostly in t h e $ 7 500-$11, 000 ran ge i n the City P e rhap s l ong r ange, Rosati' s g rea tes t con tdb uti o n to loca l rcsid e n tial ism was st.ccessful i n troduction of conc r ete blocks i n house build i ng. Blocks, plus soli d f ill u nderne ath con c r e t e o r te rrazzo floo r s are now the conve n tion a l standard. T hi s wti te r visite d th e Ty rone Ga rde)S operat i on frequently was f asci n ated w ith the various s h o r t cut tech n i ques Rosat i used. Of course so rap id h as been the advan c e s i nce the n that w hat was f a r out at that day wou l d b e hopel essly i ne fficien t today James Rosati wa'.l born Janu ary 26, 1898 in New York C i t y a n d h ad a successfu l care er i n the house and ro ad bui lding i n d ustries i n t hat area. He was known as "l'he Duke. H e loves music the th e aue, sports. H e becam e i nv o lved i n Norfolk, V i rgin ia durin g World War II, moved f rom th e r e to Tamp a bui l d i ng 39 8 houses i n Bel ma r Garden s i n t he lnter bay a rea. Fr om the re t o St. Petersburg was a nat ural ste p Rosat i s ma j o r developments h ave included, bes i des h i s pion e er Tyrone Gardens, Oak Vall ey i n West Gu lfport, Ora nge H ill and Orange Estates in St. Petersburg, Ret i rem en t Village at Disston and U.S. 9 Orang e Lake E states, U S 19 -A, a n d S ky v iew Homes in S em i nole. He b u i l t m o r e t ha n 5,000 homes in the County, n early half oi t h at n u mber i n m etropol ita n St. burg. He has two sons, Joh n and ) ames, Jr., is r e ti red and lives on Treasur e I sland Cau seway {Rosati d ied October H, 1967. E d itor. ) Johnny H ay n eswo rt h of P lant C ity, l ate r partnered with John Shelton (de ceased) together with Mart in Ahl, Jack Willi ams as part of a great team o f ded i cated you n g men was at thi s ti me i ndu stri ous l y b u i l ding lar ge n u mbers o f h omes b u t at first wa s bu y i n g l o t s from ha n d to mouth h e r e and there, o n existing sub d ivi sions. He q u ickly real ized t h e adva n tage of b u yi n g l and relativ e l y c h eaply w h o lesale co nditioni ng the land barel y ahead of t h e h ouse f oundations, a n d throughou t str eam l i ning his operations. F or a t i me he domi n ated t he f iel d Haynesworth had du r ing war times d01)e well on var i o u s m ilitar y c ont ract s a n d l ater after t he heyday of h i s St. P e t ersburg sing l e hous e operat i ons again executed ma j or con structions for t he U.S. m en t a t Cape Canaveral, the Canal Zon e vari o us West Indies I s la nds a n d elsewhere H i s crown ing p li shments locally was Mead owlawn on North Nint h Street, complete \'Vith shopp ing center. Firm name, on ce tops i n St. P etersburg was F lotida B u i l ders, I nc ., St. P etersburg M r Hayneswor th was born i n Fort Meade Polk 201 Cou nty, i n 19 '10, but h is moved f r o m t h ere when h e was an i nfant. (F or t Meade got its n ame durin g t he Seminole \ll,' a r fro m an army o f fice r who l ater bec a me a f amous F edera l ge n e ral i n the C iv i l W ar .) T h e family moved to Mulber ry a n d Joh nny as a yout h worked i n t h e pho s pha t e m i ne s H e was i n Panama City d u rin g the wa r as a p l um b e r He t hen moved to Plant C i t y ( for the very good and u n der st an dab l e r e ason that h i s wife l iked the town) a n d has made h i s home there since. Florida Builde r s was fo r m e d b y Hayne sworth, Bob (still i n bus i n e s s l ocally) and Ed Tessier. Th e last n amed owned most o f t h e lots i n Eaglecre s t a n d rhe firm f irst s tar ted bu ild i n g ope rations there Hosack and Tessier soo n dropped o u t o f rhe e nterp1ise. Hearing of one of the first pref ab p l ants i n Orlando, the part ners i nspected the ope r ation, star ted one of the ir own here short l y b efore Rosati began opetations. Eventuall y the company e n ded u p w i th l arge admi n istracton offices and a str eamlined prefabricat ion pla n t at 7 00 43 r d Str ee t Sovth. Here af>pr ox i mat ely a thousan d houses wer e t urned some being tr ucke d to other s t ates. Haynesworth has been n ecl ed wit h the Cit izens, Northeast and liber t y Bank s of St. P eters b urg and the Flor ida N a ti ona l of P l an t C ity. The o rgan i zatio n has faded f rom the local p i cture. A brother, R ) H ayn eswor th, a n attorney, operates a s mall title i nsurance b usin ess at 370'1 Central Ave n u e Johnny Ha y n eswo rt h was bdef l y a princ i p a l i n the e a rly days of t h e Ci tizens Nationa l San k Th e f i rm b u ill app rox i ma t ely 5 000 houses. Gadfly to all other builders, but esp ecially Flor ida B u i l ders was N ortne y Cox, f r om Decatur, Alabama. If Flor i da Build ers put up a model h o me, Cox woul d prom ptly pop o n e up a l ongs ide o r nearby, a shade more a ttracti ve a shade c h eape r He built a good h ouse, loved a figh t better than a feast or m o n ey for that matter. Whe n the h ouse "game" p e tered out Cox changed into polit ics, wa s ele<.:ted cou n c i lman for St P ete r s b urg, creat e d more t u rmoi l t ha n a pan t her i n a flock of roosting wild tu rkeys. He l o v e d i t. He was ly wrong but he was a great stirr er upper Because he made peopl e mad and f i g h t b ack he a l so made them t hink. The end resu l t was goo d W hen h e ran for re e lec tio n t he elec t orat e rewa r ded h i m with one o f the most re sounding defeat s any local officia l offer in g fo r reelection, ever r eceived B u t Mr. Cox i s currently doi ng ve r y well, thank you. H e c atches on quick, can sense a c h an g e as quic k as the n ext on e i s now doi n g well i n apartme n t s He built approx imat ely HOO s ingl e f amily houses, Prior to h i s b uil ding act i vities Cox had been a ba nd leader f o r f ourteen ye ar s i n h i s home town, w h ere he was born in 1908 H i s wife Ernaline Kir kpatrick, T upe f o M iss. and he ha ve two sons. T he fami l y came to S t Petersburg i n 1946 i n a house trail er, on a vacati o n ; l i ked i t and Cox add e d a 1 4 by 20 foot Cabana to t he lfai l er, sold it at a handsome p rofit,

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promptly went i nto th e h o use building bus iness. However, l ong rang e S i dney Col e n has been and now i s perhaps the greatest of them all. When he came to St. Petersburg i n 1 947 he was an i n t er i or decorator by profess i o n had no i nten tion of bui l d i ng houses. In fa ct, he casuall y sto pped by e n route to Sou t h America to visit h i s parents has never left Deeply d i ssatisfied with the genera l pattern or local h o u s i ng he fou nd, he took a han d in the game. His fort e has been to build a d i s tin c t step above the low price media n g e ar h i s operat i ons on the wholesale economy p l a n but nonetheless cont r ive to tum out super i o r a 1)d distinctive houses to suit the indi vidua l tastes o f Madam Queen, the Housew ife. He has done better than sw i ng with the tide -he usually l eads the p r ocession He alone of l oca l bui l ders concei ved, planned a n d fat h e red h is own City, Kenneth C ity. In c hoosing the name he followed his pattern of honori ng members of his family by using th e i r name s Examples: Shery l Heights i s n amed for one of his two daughters, Merna Sheryl. T h e other d aug h ter is named Leslee. The son is Kenneth. T h e n ames of all t h ree are u sed for sub divis ion tit l es. Kenneth City i s smac k a l ongs ide St. Petersburg, l ying between 40th a n d 54th Avenues N o rth and 54th and 66th Stre ets. The city was incorporated i n t957, now has more th an 1 ,200 homes and 4 000 p eople. It has a complete government. p ark s shopping center, all utili ties, c i t y hall, pol ice and f i r emen Mr. Colen b u i lt a n d donated to the city a $20,000 city hall and the 3.47 acre s i te on which it s its. Colen was born in Toledo, Ohio i n 1919 and received h i s educal i on there i n the p u b lic sch ools and the Univers i ty of Toledo maj oring in the h umanities. He has been very a ct iv e and i nfluen tial i n civic a nd p u b l ic affairs of h i s community. ever g enerous with h i s time and money H e was f or many years a member o f the St. Petersburg Plan n ing Board, characte r is ticall y steadily u r ging its members to study the ever -cha n ging pattern of h ousing and in build i n g cities and ro c h ange r ules and con cepts before trouble deve l oped. Among h i s o t her activities have bee n Board of Realtors Uni ted Fund, F l orida Phi l ha rmonic, the South Pine llas County Hospital Foundation, Jewish Community Cou ncil. H i s w ife's given !'lam e is f na, t he family reside nce 2200 2nd Street Nort h. Pri nci pal developments have bee n, besides Ken neth C i ty Merna Manor, Dissto n Manor, leslee Hei g h ts, Kendale Par k South Causeway Is les, Sheryl Manor, Merna Park, C l earv iew Oaks Cfean iew Oaks is one of h i s most signi f i cant con t ribu tio n s ; it being an apa r tment complex designed foe an eventua l 651 u n its, ce ntering at 40th Avenue North and 58t h S treet. This is o ne of the t hree major apart developm ents t h at s tand at the leadership of the pa r ade of m u lti-family units now in process of revol u tiona li zing St. Petersburg l iving. T his movement will be d i scussed at greater length in a followi n g chapte r but the "BI G T HREE" in apartments are summarized now b r iefl y 202 Town Apartments, 2100 62nd Ave nue Nor th i s planned for 765 units . in mid-1967 had 425 fam i l i e s in residence, a total of 580 sold The owners thoroug hl y conf i dent of the future, have s t arted a second development in South Pasadena, t h e c ent ral unit of whi ch i s a 6 story i2 un it luxury waterfront building Ultimate goal is 400 units; in mid'67, 48 had been sold and occup ie d The two owners ar e Jul ius Green from Michigan, Herman Geller from Miami. Seminol e Gar dens Apartments, 1 1200 86th Avenue North, Seminole, aims a t an ulli mate 1.100 units; i n mid-67 had 425 sol d and occupied Sam H Vuncannon i s Presid en t Cassius l. Peacoc k Secretary and Treasurer they being resp ectively fto m Washington D. C. and Coral Gables. M inimum age limit of occupants is 18. C l earview Oaks with 651 units, plus 765, p l us 400 for Town Apa rtm ents, p lus ,100 for Semi nole Gar dens, tota l s 2 ,916. To t hese must be added the com mun i ty bu i l dings, administration and maintenance f acilit ies ser v i c e s for approx ima te l y 3 000 units, w ith a head count of perhaps 7 500 people. T he three will occupy not more t han 250 acres of l and I t is to be noted that 3,000 sing le fam i l y h ouses woul d req u ire about a thousand acres o f la n d lt makes one somewha t breath less to calculate t h at t h e 57. 36 squar e miles of this city at tha t density would house 1,101 3 00 people From t h e s tand po i nt of governmental expense and occupant costs the apartme n t plan of liv ing is distinctly less exp ensive. Governmentwise, less ex pense for Slr eets. u tilities, poJ ice and fire protection, garbage collection. For occupants less trave l expense, fewer cars, cheape r housin g in relation to qua l i t y and services and amusements And more com f ortab l e and conve n ient for e lderl y perso ns. I t is not necessary to add that all th r ee of the big deve l op m el) t $ prov ide rec r eation, amusement, oc cupat ional hobbies, services Pri n cipa l reason for the Col en success has been h i s long r ange p lanning of h is f i n ances H e carefully p l a n s and p r epa res his safe and solve n t exi t from a n i nvest ment adventure before he d ives overboard Colen has bui l t i n Pinellas 5,100 living u n its. In mid 1967 Col en announced by far his most ambit i ous project, a 4,9 00 unit apartment deve lopment l ocated on 412 acres o f land nort heast of downtown C lear water. Ther e will be a million dollar r ec r eational area. When compl eted it will be l arger tha n the total of perhaps the exi st ing ha l f dozen apartment complexes i n the County com bined. Col en is t h e champion bui l der of them all both in n u mbers of u nits, and also dollar-wis e Charles Cheezem also rates l isting with the l eaders Although he arrived on the local scene bel ated l y in t erms of 1945-59 and has scattered his activi ties as far as Cape Cora l For t Myers, O r l ando, Tampa and MacDill, by h is vol u m e of homes some 3,300 and h is prompt response to the sw i ng to apartments and a sensibility to t he tastes of the people, he ranks high o n the lis t of l eaders. Born at Fort S ill, Oklahoma to military parents, o n October 25, 1921, h e grew up on the run, s o to speak

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auended grade schools in Andrews S. C .: Colleg e a t Clemson, S. C.; rose to rank ol in World War II, earned a purple heart finished college alter the w.u ; buih 800 houses before coming 1 0 florida. He partne red he r e wi t h D avis i n 1952. eventually bough t him o u t i n 19 58 went it a l o ne. High point s o r his varied acti vities are : R edingt on Ree f Waterfro,,t Co O p Apa rtments at 5 th Aven u e Sou t h, both i n 1956 ; T a n g e rin e Towers, Ne-gro 2b c droom apMt m e nts i1' 1960; 200 h omes at Pat rician P o i nt i n S hore Acres. H i s b i gges t s ingl e p r o jec t has been Rid gewood Grove and Ridgewood Mou n tain (el ev at ion 70 feel) Vtllase on Oakh urst Road (74 th Aven u e North) i n Seminole His public facilities a r c unusually generous. His community building is Seminole's focal point ior publi c affairs Chcezem has a flair for publ icily, goes in heavily for prrze winnjng modeJ a nd experime ntal homes, prom o t es tu rkey shoots a nd other aucntion getter5 was St. Perc r s burg B oa r d of R ca ll o r s p residenl i n 1903; h as as a mem b e r or t h e Sout hwes t Wa l e Manageme nt D i s lrict s i nce 196 2 Currentl y h e trend s more and moreto apartments sc att e r s them around. C h eeze m married Caro l Tisda l e of Maysville S. C. They have three sons K enneth. Joh n Michael and Christopher Rdting close behind leadeiS are Dick and Ray Oeeb. w h o over the y ears have bu1h 1,900 livin g units. They have operated over a w ide li&ld, th&ir principal operati o n probably be ing Sun Haven Homes Sub divisio n ad j o i n i n g Kenneth City They a r e vcrsa1ile, d o genera l contracting. will any venture where t hey smff a dollar Dick is c u r rently one of the four S t ate Sena t o r s f ro m Pinell as. P r evio u s l y h e setvecl a term i n th e Hou s e met deieat after a l a c klu s t e r term ; as a Sen. l! o r has w ell played a wong and l e ad i ng hand. The Deebs arc members ol a large and f ar ran ging family o f Armenians Mosl prorn i n cnl membe r of the family is Syde Oeeb, of Tallahassee, usually a power behind the throne at the scats ol pow er at the S tate Capitol, but with Kirk his star was dim. fran k and Bob Cr isp, uncle and nephew team h ave had distinguished success i n Northeast St. P e t ersb u r g Operati ng at a h i gher price level than th ose p r e vious l y dis c u ssed ( except Colen ) t he y too h av e f ounded a flourishing commu n it y i" what waft o n ce a disc o u r.1gingly l ow a 1)d un all,ac tive area. They ar e r espon s i ble fo approximately 900 h o uses h ave t o lhei r cred it a major s hoppi ng ce nt e r a bank and other community appur te n a n ces Bob has a political flai c has been Pre s ident of the Chamber o f Comm erce is a member ol th e downtown power group. and is and ha, s been ind i spensable as a local represenrativ e or vtlrious state and national p olitical figures. He was bo r n on O r lan d o July 1 & 192 7; graduated from FSU School o f with BS degr ee. He marr ied Joyce Car t e r in Jacksonv ille Jul y 10, 19 4 6 and the couple h a ve three child ren G a i l Joy ce, 18: l a urel Dev on 1S; Patt erso n jr., 7. They m ove d t o St. Pe t ersb urg in 19S1 and joi n e d his u nc l e, Frank and i s oow pr es id ent ol the f irm. 203 fran k C r isp was born July 7, 1888 I n Laurens, S. C ., died Janu ary 28, 19&& in St. P etersburg. He moved here in 1924. He w as a graduate of Clemson Univcrsi l y, was president of the Rea lty B o a rd. The f irm developed Northeast Par k N. E P ark S h ores. S n ell Isle E sta tes an d built th e Northeas t S hop p i ng Ce n te r Frank don ated 18 l ots to the Nonhea>l litt le League lor a ball park named for hi s o n e c hild who die d as an i nfant. The n ames of s eve r a l other m e n o perating \\ilh dis t i n ctio n o n I h e e dge of th e mass productio n field, but i n th e upper l e v e l s oi pr ice and qual ity s tand o u t Rat ing first m ention, bec au se of leng1h of operation and excellence or product, s t ands Cade B Allen, who died in M a y 1959 Starting years befor e the 19 4 5 1960 hurrah, he created one three or lou r high pticcd "status residential aeas Allendale All h o uses were ca refu lly built t o sui1 1hc tasres of th e e x p ectan t owne!S. Unknown p r obably l o the buye r s, th C ) too were chosen by Mr. Allen to f i t in with t hose homeowne1 s a l r eady I h e r e Buying a l o t in All end3 1 c and livi ng there was an earned mark of distin c li o n Cade B Allen was born June 2, 1682 a t B i n gh am ton, New Yor k a nd married Eva Leona B ennett t her e i n 1<)12. He had first been in St. Petersbur g i n '1911, returned here in 1 912 with his bride, opened a rea l estate office. switched to his old trade or bnck mason. then stoned a dairy and garden on North F ourth Street. which ran west to Crescent lake. He s.hipped i n th ree cMio ads of Guern seys, first in St. P e tersburg, so m e o r w hich were used to stan th e Nood Dairy, still in exis t e n ce In 1922 h e and Har o l d S m ith boug h t 16 0 a c res o f l and, s tar ted l l aro ld Smith, who come s close to being the l o c a l broker w h o ha s opera t e d here the long es t soon so l d t o Alle n Mosl or the homes in Allen da l e were built b y Mr. Alle n and their excellence is t h e only t est i mony the builder needs. He bui l t the Allendale Methodist Church, giving the l and and much ol the money, also contributed liberally to other churches and to the present Y M. C. A. build i ng. he being one of its first pr&sidentS. Mr and Mrs. Alle n had eig ht c hildren. Dona l d C. an d H a r o l d B continu e the original conuactin g fir m of Ca d c B. Alle n & Sons. Ral p h W I s a n independen t build ing cont rac tor. Robert 1.. i s an a r c hitect, Burton L., a R ealtor and appraiser 01 t h e thre e daugh t ers, Mrs R S. (Re na) McClendo n and Mrs R o bert E (Eva) L ewis l ive i n t his city; Mrs. Paul B {Esth e r ) Chand l er, Jr. fives in Memphis. Mrs Cade B Allen, 80, lives i n St. Petersburg Jamei Stephenson_. Sr.. father of the present builder council man Jim Stephenson, started the Alta Marina project i n 1925 between 56th and 62nd Avenues, South from 4th Stree1 Eas1 to Tampa Bay i n a good area but i t failed o n first tr y nevertheless In 1 929 Robert Lyon s, a Wa s h i ngt o n lob by ist, tr ied again failed. A powerful fac t o r was a n c labota t e $11 /4 millio n club house r ecently turn e d into a luxury ecirernen t home and the subject of bitter l itigation

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between the sponso" and County Tax Assessor Mac Haines. who won his point that property is not in fact a cha ril.tble institution entirled to .td valorem tax exemption The home ope rales unde r sponsorshi p of the Methodist Church. But Lyons gave up, died in Washington i n 1948. Joe Oonsey and Wm. G o rman (deceased July, 1966 aged 77 ) another nephew and u n c l e team r>ioneered firs t bri efly i n Gul fpor t b ut lat e r n o tabl y in Bahama Sho res (Bahama S h o res i n popul a r conver sation, Bah ama Beac h accord ing to the name of the p lat) with comple t e success Two things make this ach ievcmenr n o teworthy Bahama Beach had previously failed twice under the name of Alta Marina a s previously had almost every attempted Southside development. RonSe to 300 pounds. He had been a successful e.ngineer Was first cha irman o( the Auditorium Authority His widow lives in St. Petersburg. R W Caldwell, of G ulfport. led anocher success f u l Southside parade, when he started buildi ng quality homes o n South Ni nth Street. H e h as built several scor e h o u s e s in that area Mr. Ca ldwell was born Augu s t 2 0 1920 in MeadvHic, Pennsy l van i a and mar r i ed Adele Alpor t i n 194 5 and the y h ave three c h i l d ren. H e fi,st came t o St. Pere r sbu r g w ith his ill mother, wh o announced she would never leave, d idn' t. Her husband en tered the real b usiness in Gulfport Their son was educoiited as an aeronautica l engineef at Massachusetts Inst itute of Technology; left San Diego in 1951 where he was work ing at his profession, came to Gulfport. He successfully pioneered the South Ninth Street area after having made a s uccess of Pelican C reek in Gulf port H e and W 0. Stricklan d th e n made a success of Cata l i n a Gardens at 56th Avenue So ut h and 9th Streel, s tartin g in 1 957 Henry Har s haw, a r ugged i ndivid u alis t i f I here ever was one, has made a notabl e and di stii''IC tiv e add i (ion t o S i P e t ers b urg with Harshaw Lak e i n the 22nd Avenue North to 30th Avenue area, run n ing west from 37t h Street. H e has built in St. Petersburg 1200 homes. Born April 13, 1894 in Murphy, Cherokee Counly, North Carolina, he takes deep sati sfaction from the fact thai the ori ginal Harshaw homestead has been in the family since 183 6 and that h e has recently re s tored the house and operates th e farm. H e loves to tell the story that h e came t o St. Peters b u r g on June 10, 1924 peddlins a s pecial auto tir e deal sold th is write r a set for $250 who prompt l y sold h i m two lots for $2,500 and bought them back severa l 204 years later for $250. started Harshaw in 19S1, was i pioneer locally in displaying model houses, builds on order mainly and only for adults. He shuns F H. A and G. I fin ancing. He ca r efully selcccs and screens his b uy ers, all but two percen t of them having pai d cash for their homes. He was edu ca t ed at Riverside Military a n d North Ca r o l i na State in engineerin g Jim S t ephenson, quiet but competent developer, a city commissioner until recently defeated, has had n o table s uccess on rhe South side. He i n h erite d l a rge acreage from an able father. but a man who h ad very indifferen l success prior to 1945 in th.11 .1.rea. He builds quality homes, has produced a diSiinguished and camfully planned home area. The Wolosoff brothers, Morty and A 8 (Bibbs), were t h e last o f the big successfu l southside tradition b r ea k e rs, with thei r Max i m o Moorings o n Sout h 3 4th S1rccr T h e ir Maximo Marina, claimed to be the largest marina in the world. ha s b ee n a .,reat success. The hom!! a r ea, cove ring several hundred acre s w i t h rnin imum house cost of $ 1 5,000 has a lso en joyed s u c cess. There are 920 h omes i n th e area. Thi s parade o f tames i s not complete without that of Chatles Rutenberg, alth o ugh he never operaled in St. Petersburg. For more than a decade he has been the blsgest county builder, one of the s tAte bigs. He and hi s brolhe.r and father came! to Pinellas hom Chicago i n 195 4 with a total capital of some $32 000 In earl y 1969 they sol d che i r corporation, I mperi al H omes, t o o n e of the n e w national cong lo m era tes for slig htly l ess rha n 13 m ill ions. Charles R u t e nberg con t i nues t o opera t e rhc Pi n ellas and state operat ions whi c h ha s swung s h arply from upper pric e s i ng l e fami1y h omes ro lux ury apaf t ments. Rutenberg introduce d i n th e high pr i c e home f ield 1he technique lim \.Valter spre a d n ali onwide i n lhe low cost fie l d build i n g on the owner's lot rather lhan his. Th is eliminated both risky financing and the and expense oi selling the pa ckage after il was finished The organi zat ion has done major building in St. Pecersbvrg, is now in the f irst ten na t io na lly That 51. Pe tersbufg i s dist inc tl y a community of conservative peopl e was sharply demo n strated in o ne South Ninth S\reet developme nt t h at ver y decidedly flopped local peopl e want none o f t h e so-calle d modernistic housing. George E l y a b r illia n t loca l ar c h itect bui l dcr, bu i lt fou r o r fi v e "model" modern homes at Pinella s Drive and Ninth Suee t South. At thei r open i n gs, t housands Hocked to look and exclaim but definilely not to buy. The o wnc1 h.1d hard going to dispo>e of his models, which he called .. vislonarying .'' lncidcntlty, another brave couple buill a vari colored. gaudily painted modernistic house a few year s ago in Soul h P asadena on Pasadena Avenve and move d i n Public respons e was bilterly reflec ted in a l arge sign they erected i n th eir front yard. It read : W e don't like your house either. But t h ey soon remode l ed. fled.

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Bul sudden l y i n November, 1959 che whole building and banking fra ternity realized I hat the Time had run for lhe greac Single Family Building Boom There was a shudde ring pause and shivers of the fea r chac brings panic ran up and down che spines of men. Everybody real i zed at one time tha t there were h u n dreds of v a c ant h o mes; c ha t p eople were walking a way fr o m othe rs e v e ry day tha t f o r eclo s u res had star ced. But n o pan ic occu r r ed a s rna n y rnornt'n t a r i l y had fear ed. An assessment of v arious factors very q uickly and cle.1rly shows why, a f ter t h e f irst brief uneasi ness .. the economy of the community flowed strongly on. Bulkhng had indeed gone bad very bad, but it was soon realized that che