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Tampa

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Title:
Tampa a history of the city of Tampa and the Tampa Bay region of Florida
Physical Description:
431 p. : ills. ;
Language:
English
Creator:
Grismer, Karl H ( Karl Hiram ), 1895-1952
Mckay, D. B
Publisher:
St. Petersburg Print Co.
Place of Publication:
St. Petersburg, Fla
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
History -- Tampa (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
History -- Tampa Bay Region (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
letter   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Karl H. Grismer ; edited by D. B. McKay.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of South Florida Library
Holding Location:
University of South Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
usfldc doi - C54-00006
usfldc handle - c54.6
System ID:
SFS0036422:00001


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lS an

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Other Books Dy the Author: History of St. Petersburg (1924) The History of Kent, Ohio The Story of Sarasota The Story of St. Petersburg The Story of Ft. Myers

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TamPa Ded.i c (tled lo the Memory of M ARCAIU:T TltP.W KOPUN

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/'Aot by Bturt" Brot.. Tampas Cit y H:tll as sten f rom. the c:x>unty o:mr t bouse lawn.

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TamPa A HISTORY OF THE CITY OF TAMPA AND THE TAMPA BAY REGION OF FLORIDA by KARL H. GRISMER Edited by D. B. McKAY Publi,ht
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APPRECIATION autho1 wishes to expre.ss his appre<:iation for the assistance ghen to hi1n by the: following persons : dwi n Dart Laul.br-ight for reading all the manuscript and making numerous e%cellcnt sug gestions; Katl Bickel, for his c;oopc:ration during all stagc:.-s of the work; Theodore Lesley, Cor furnishing much biographical d :na; H Walter Fuller, for-the \1$-C of rare old documents, and Dudle) Haddock, fo r data regarding early Florida rai lroads. Burgert Bros., t.Xnnmercial photogtaphers who furnished mos t of the splendid photographs used in the book : also, Fred E. Fletdu::(, for a number o( old photographs. and the Tampa New s Serv i ce. for severa l modern views. joseph T. Lykes R. J. lli nnicker J. A. Griffin, Francis J Gannon, Ho,,ard Macfarlane, Giddings E Mabry. Carl D Brorein, 'Nallac;c f. S t ovaH, frank M. Cooper . and Dixie M Hollhu who furnished early help and encomagen:un.lt; also to Colonel Ha.r r y C Culbreath . George B Howell, John A Dolcater, Da\'id E. Smiley. J aUles A. Swann David A FaU:.. J. B. Mim.s, \V. Howard Frankland, L. Spencer Mitchell. }'r.tnk M Traynor B laine Brin$0n, the late Charles A McKay. and many others who provided invaluable assis t ance. ,V, T. cash Florida State historian. D r Doroth)' Dodd. Florida State archivist. Julien c Yonge. editor of the F lorida His t or-ical Quarterly for a ss istance in obt.aining historical dat a : R. A Gray, Florida Secretary of State, for mtac h offidal information; W. L. (;. Joerg E G. C.1rnpbell and Elix.abeth :S. Drewry, of The National Archives, for information 1 egarding Fort Brooke; L. L. Knight. comptroller o( the Seaboard Air Line for data about r ailroads; Alberta johnron. corresponding secretal'y of the Flor-ida H i storical Society, fot maps and data; Mrs June Connors for data regarding banks: and Mrs Ralph Dell of the St. l)ete rsbutg Print ing Company for numerou s helpful l,a. rticulatly, the author w ishes to thank the publishers of the TtM&S and the TAMPA TR.1BUNE for permitting him to use the files of thei r newspapers and enabling him to obtai t\ dat.a from Lhcir l ibraries; abo to Mrs Daniel A. R rown, librarian of the TAMPA Tll\n ts, and Miss Audrey Ether idge. librarian of the TAMPA Tar.anma: and Mrs. H C. Callen TAMI'A TRIBUNE ass-istant l ibrarian, fo r assistance: i n obtaining lllaterial A bove all, the author expresses appreciation t o Donald Breohaan McKay who not olly edited the book but also ga\'e aid and encouragement during e v ery phase of the work. Without his help . this book could not have been written.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PACE I I N TH DAYS 011 LoNe Aco........ .. ....... .............. .. ... ......... .. 9 2 ANGLO-SAXONS COME TO TAMPA BAY................................ 48 3 THE SEMINOLES FIGHT -AND LosE........................ .. ............ 72 4 A Crrv B UILDS ON TAMPA BAY............................................ 94 5 'WHEN THE NATION WAS D I V iDED ........................................ 131 6 \VHEN TAMI'A SLI1'1'D BACKWARD ...................................... 150 7 A RAJLIWAD BRINGs A GoLDEN ERA ................. .. ................. 170 8 MoDERN TAMPA Is BoRN .................................. .. ................ 190 9 A'r THE TURN OF THE CENTtJRV .......................................... 212 I 0 TAM I' A SPENOS FOR FuTURE GROWTH ............................... ... 231 II TH FLoRIDA BooM-AND AFTERMATH .................. .............. 247 12 WAR-ANI) AFTERWARDS .................................. 269 13 GASI'ARILLA SEES THE FAIRS .......................... .. ...................... 294 14 MISCELLANEOU S .................................. .. .............. ................. : 30! 15 BIOGRAI'HIES .................................... ...... ................................ 312 BlBLIOGRAl'HY .................... ... ........... .. .................................. 426 INDEX .......................................................................... ......... 427

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CHAPTER I IN THE DAYS OF LONG AGO IEAGR WITH ANTJCII'ATION, a thirteen-year o l d lad bade farew e ll LO his par ents in the fall of 1545 and boarded a fast sail ing caravel in the bus tling, sweltering port of Cartagena the g littering mushroom c i ty of the Spanish Main. The son of an influentia l Spanish official in Cartagena, the boy had been born in the New World and now he was bound for Spain, to be educated i n Madrid, the home of his grandparents. Never bef ore had he made an ocean voyage and thoughts of com ing adventures filled him with exci te ment. The boy's name was Fontancda H ernando de Escalante Fon taneda. His journey of long ago and his experi ences are noteworth y simply be cause the T ampa of today owes him thanks. To Fontaneda, Tampa is indebted for its name. The ship in which Fontaneda sailed carried a rich cargo. Her hold was filled with silver from the mines of Potosi and gold and jewels from l ooted temples of the Incas, all consigned to the treas ury of t h e King of Spain F ontaneda was not the only passen ger on board. There also were more than f ifty men, women and children, all looking forward t o re unions w i th old fri ends in their nati ve lan d. Four days out fro m port the carav e l was becalmed Not a breat h of air moved. The sun blazed down pitilessly. Then, late in the after noon, the sky became overcast with an ominous haz.e. A little later the wind came, a terri f i c blast out of the southwest. With the wind came rain a veritable deluge. A hur ri cane was in the making. Throughout the night th e wind b l ew with savag e relentless fury, its dreadf ul moaning increasing with each passing hour. The rigging of the caravel was blown away and th e rudder s mashed bey ond repair. Like a hunted thing, the ship ran before the wind, uncontroll ed and uncontrollable. C l o ser and closer she was blown toward the southwest coast of Florida. Just be fore dawn the next morning the roa r of surf was heard. An i nsta n t later the ship hit bottom with a sickening cra sh. Her keel broke and water poured into the hold from every side. Another wav e, and the ship was flu n g upon the shore. Following waves pounded her apart. Passengers and members of the crew were hurl ed into the foaming, surging maelstrom. To most of death came quickl y Only a few survived They floundered ashore, threw themselves upon the rain soaked sand and lay there gasping for brea th. One of the su rvivors o f the wreck w as young Fontaneda. Half naked Indians who qune out of nearb y mangrove swamps when t h e storm was over found him lying on the beach and took him to their

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10 TAMP A village. He was a friend l y youngster and t h e chief of the tribe took. a liking to him Given almost complete freedom, he was permitted to do nearly anything he wanted. He l earned to fish, and hunt, and to live as the Indians did, wearing no clothing except a breechclout. The chief often took him on trips over the Florida penins ula and, as a result, he gained a comprehensive knowledge of the cus toms of the various tribes and the lands they occupied H e learned the language of the tribe with which he lived and also those o f the natives of three nearby provinces. Fomaned a remained in Florida seventeen years. T hen in some manne r which never has been explaine d, he gain ed his freedom, about 1562, and returned to Spain. A few years l ate r he served as interprete r for Menendez when the latter first visited the Florida West Coast. Back. in Spain again in 1575 Fontaneda recotded his recollect io ns in a M e moir which is still considered by h ist orians the best e xisting sixteenth ce mury description of Florida To Fontaneda goes the credit for the preservation of the word T ampa." H e gave a list of twemytwo t owns occupied or controlled by the Catoosa I ndia ns, masters of south Florida, and the nam e "Tanpa led all the rest. H e spelled the word with an "n'' instea d of an "m." Contemporat) writers and map makers who saw Fontaneda's Memoir apparently l iked "Tampa" better than "Tanpa" and when they picked up the word and used i t they gave it the more e uphonic spelling. Fontaneda gliVe no hint as to the meaning of the word. H e simply said that Tanpa was a large town" and let it go at that. In rccem years someone declared that Tampa is a Seminol e word meaning "sp li t wood for quick fires," descript ive of driftwood used [or building fires. l nas much as the Seminoles did not enter Florida until more than two hundred years after Fontaneda used the word such an e xplana tion of its meaning can hardly be considered valid. Dr. John R Swanton, o utstandin g authority on the Indians of the southeastern United States says ther e is a possibi lity that the Caloosa tongue was relat ed to Choctaw and that there is a Choctaw word "immpa" which means "a pail" or "a bowl." Howev er, he adds that no authentic interpretatipn of the name can now b e give n a nd "there is littl e hope there eve r will be unless a Caloosa vocabulary is discovered." Besides failing to tell the meaning o Tanpa, Fontaneda also f ailed to give any due as to its location. The Catoosa Indi ans probably had their principal villages in the Cal oosahatchceCharlotte Harbor area; consequently most authori t ies believe that Fontaneda's Tanpa was located somewher e in that region. llut that is only guesswork I t is equally possibl e that the Tan pa of the sixteenth century was located somewhere on Tampa Bay On a map of Florida drafted in 160 I by H errera, Tampa ,Bay is definite l y label ed "B. de Tampa." Herrera had access to other records besides Fontan eda's and he may have had infonna

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IN THE DAYS OF LONG Aco I I tion wh ich amply .iustified him in giving the bay its present name. But that is more guesswork. The only thing that can be surely said is that the word "Tanpa" was first used by Fontaneda and that other writers and map makers who read his Memoir picked up the word, changed its spelling to Tampa, and perpetuated it, thereby giving Tampa Bay and the City of Tampa the name by which they are known throughout the world. Incidentally, the word Tampa is the only town name recorded by Fomaneda wh ich has survived. Other names on his list. were: Tuchie, Soco, No, Sinapa, Sinaesta. Metamapo, Sacaspada, Calaobe Estame, Yagua, Guevu, M uspa, Comachia, Quisiyove, Cutcspa, Tavagucmue, Tomsobe, Encmpa, Guarungune, and Cuchi yaga. Perhaps it is just as well that these names ha ve long since passed out of use. Fontanecla undoubtedly spent som e time in the Tampa Bay region. Perhaps he once tramped over the ground on which Tampa is now located. In all events we owe him thanks for much of our knowledge regarding the first known "residents of this region. From other sources more information is gleaned; from the writings of Dominican and Franciscan monks, from the Frenchmen Ribault and Laudonniere, from the sketches of Le Moyne, and from the research work of modern anthropologists, ethn olog ist s and paleontologists. These We,.e the Fi1st Inha/Jitauts On May 4, 1929 the mineralized skeleton of a human being was unearthed by an amateur paleontologist from the bank of a newly-dug drainage ditch ncar the head of Phillippi Creek. a few mi le s from the heart of Sarasota. Newspa pers ha i led it as a discovery of the first magnitude, report ing that the skeleton was at least 20,000 years old per haps much older. The skeleton was indeed old. But as for its being 20, 000 years old-well, the scien tists had their doubts. They insisted there was nothing to support the contention that human beings lived in Florida fourteen millenia before the construction of the first pyramid in Egypt. The fact that the skeleton was mineralized carried little weight with most anthropologists. They declared that bones mineralize quickly

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12 TAMPA in Florida because of the amount o minerals in the soil and th a t it is more d i fficult to find a s k eleton several hundred years old w h ic h shows no signs of mineral i zation than to find one w h ere mineralization has proceeded to a marke.d degree. N o o ne knows and probabl y no one ever will know w hen the first human be ings came to the Florida peninsu la. The most co mmon guess i s that they arrived about a thou sand years ago, about the time L e if Ericson left Ice l and with his Nors e men and sailed across the bleak Atlantic to discover the la nd he called Vinland. The course followed in the journeys of the first Floridi ans is purely a matter of conj ecture. Some scholars say they came in to the pe ninsula from the North; other s assert they cam e from Ce n tral America or M e xico by way of th e G ulf Coast, and still others insist they came from Central or South America b y way of the Antilles. R egardless of the way of coming, they came-and mute evidence o[ their existence long before the arrival of the first white man was furnished by the shell and earth mounds which once dotted th e penin sula. Man y s uch mounds were located on the shores of Tampa Bay. A l arge o ne at l east forty feet high and two hundred feet in diamet er, was l ocated near the water clos e to the present foot of 1\ Iorgan Street. This mound, as well as many others, was l eve led to get shell for sideWlllks an d street s and no trace of it remains. One of the f in est mounds still e xisting in th e Tampa Bay area i s the m ag nificent one in Phillip pi P ar k on the west shore o f Old Tampa Bay. Another fine mound i s located on Weedon's Island, south of t h e western approach to Gandy Bridge Scient i sts who have made excava tions in these mounds assert they are at least five hundred years o l d. Most commo n o f the mounds left by the f irst inhabitants of t h e F lorida peninsu la arc the r efuse heaps or k itchen. m i ddens whi c h sti ll dot th e shore of bay and rivers. The aborigines ate huge quantities of oysters, clams and conchs At places where the s h ellfish were unusually plemiful,'and where the Indi ans l ived for long periods, the refuse heaps sometimes became of enormous size, coveri n g a c res and rising fifty feet or more in height. Smaller mounds can still be seen on alm ost any key alo ng th e coast. Most of them have been badly torn up, however by pot hunters" seeking Indian relics or by persons seeking pirate s gold Ashes of camp fires dead for ce nturies are found in almost e v ery mound, alo ng with b ro ken pi eces of pottery in which the Indian s cooked the ir meals. Excavations indicat e that when the In d ian s sat down aro und the fire to eat, they tossed th e shells aside And when th e growing, surround ing refuse heap becam e inconvenien tly high and threa t ened to slide down upon them, they went up th e mound and built another fire. Through the passi n g years this process was repeated again and again, and the mound grew and grew.

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IN THE DAYS oF LoNG AGo 13 In the lower levels of very old kitchen middens human bones often have been found, indicating that bodies were buried very near the camps But when the Indians began to sense that more attention should be given to their dead, they built mounds for use solely as burial places, using whatever material was close at hand-shell, sand or loam. Of all the mounds left by the Indians, the burial mounds are of the most interest to present-day ethnologists In addition to skeletons, many objects of great value have been found in them-pieces of molded pottery, sometimes colored and decorated artistically; delicately designed ornaments which once adorned the necks of Indian maidens; finely carved and polished hairpins made from bone; shining shell pendants which hung f rom the belts of Indian warriors; tools and weapons made from shell, and stone and sometimes copper, and many other artifacts which furnish proof of the culture of the vanished race. A splendid collection of such objects can be seen at the Bradenton Museuin The artifacts were gathered over a long period of years by M. E. Tallant, of Manatee, one of the nation's leading amateur ethnolo gists, who made excavations in mounds in all parts of tl\e state. Many of the objects are extremely rare and almost priceless. Ki tchen middens and burial mounds were not the only mounds made by the Indians. The most elaborate of a ll were those built for holding religious ceremonies. These mounds were usually constructed of sand or earth and towered above the surrounding land o r water. Ramps led up to the summits A giant mound of this type located on Marco Island boasted of terraces and plazas. Cana l s which ended in courts were dug out to bays and bayous. To prevent dirt from washing in to these canals the Indians bordered them with walls made of palmetto logs and shells. A fine mound on Terra Ceia Island, in Manatee County probably was used for holding ceremonies and also as an observation post. From the top of the mound an excellent view can be had of. Tampa Bay. It is more than likely that on this mound was lighted one of the signal f ires seen by De Soto when he came to loot and conquer. He reported that the smoke from the fires could be seen for miles, and that the Indians were signalling messages telling of. his arrival. . To make sure that the Terra Ceia Mound would be preserved for fu t ure generations, Mr. and Mrs. Karl Bickel, of Sarasota purchased it a few years ago and in 1949 deeded it to the State of Florida. It has been named the Madira Bickel State Park Memorial. This was the first mound of any k i nd which has been presented to the state. A truly superb mound which also w i ll be preserved is the cere monial mound at Phillippi Point, a mile north o f Safety Harbor on Old Tampa Bay. An 18-acre tract at this spot was purchased early in 1948 by Pinellas County for $27,500 and has been converted into a park, named in honor of Odet Phillippi, pioneer settler who lived there

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1 4 T A MP A many y ea rs and p l anted the first c i trus grove on the Flori d a W est Coast. At this m ound i n Phillippi Park an I ndian v illage w a s l ocated in the sixteenth centu r y w h e n the Spani s h con quistadors w e r e ma king t heir forays into F lori da The Indian s who liv e d there were Timuc u a ns m embers of the T i muc u a family o f tribes w h ic h dominate d t h e no r t h ern h alf o f t he Florida pe ninsul a The Timu c uans of O l d T ampa Bay had e nem ies close at hand. O n the east side of Tampa Bay, and to t h e sou th l i ved the Caloosa I ndians, masters of th e southern h alf of th e penins ula. H illsborough Ri ver probably served as pan of the boundary between t he two Indian provi nces. I nasmuch as Tampa B ay was then r eco gnized t he same as n ow, a s one of the most favo red sections o f Florida i t is quite l ik e ly that the Timucua n s and the Caloosas often fought to possess it, and that some of t h e b a ttl e s were fought wh ere th e City of Tampa i s today. The e xact mean i ng o f t he wor d "Tirnucu a" has nev e r b een deter min e d But i t is believed to be a corrupted for m of their word for "ch i ef." T wenty eight diffe rent spell i ngs of the word have been l i sted. The name Caloosa is said to be a variation of the C hoctaw wor ds '' k ala I u sa," meaning stro n g and b lack. The I ndi a ns in the tribe proba b l y c alled th emse lves k a-lo s ." T o Fontancda's S p a nish ears, t h e word sounded like "Carl os," and that is wh at h e ca ll e d them th e Car los I ndians. He sai d the word meant b rave and s killful, as i n deed the Carlos Indians are." H e also gave th e n ame ' Carlos ' to th e chief of the tribe with w hi ch he l i ved. The nam e has been pe r p e t uated in the pl ace nam ed San Car los Bay, where th e water of the Cal.oosahat c h ee meets the Gulf; also, in the names Big C arlos Pass and L it tl e C arlos Pass. T he word Caloosa survives in Ca l oosah a tchee which mea ns, of co u rse t h e rive r of the Cal oosa hatchee" signifying river . Physic a lly, the Timu c u ans a nd Caloosas wer e p racti c all y i dentica l t he members of both group s being m u scu l ar and we ll propor t i oned and of a light sha de o f b r o wn termed b y th e Fre n c h olivatre. They were just about the sam e size as Americans of t o d ay, the men avera g in g a b out five feet n in e o r ten in c hes in h e i g h t anci t h e women sev e r a l i nc hes sh o rter. They were hea vy-boned ; their heads were wellshaped a n d most of them had remarkabl y g o od teeth. T he Catoosa Indians w ere a brave proud peop le and never sub mitted to lvhite man s domination. not even after t wo of their )cading chiefs and many of their bes t warriors were e xecu t e d by the Spaniards. Inste a d of submitting, t h e Ca loosa adopted a sco rc h ed earth po licy, burned t hei r v ill ages fle d into t h e i nterior, and l eft the S paniards to shift for thems e lves. T h i s the Span i ar ds co uld not do, so they were forced to leave. Missi o naries had no b e tter s uc cess with them than d id the conquista dors. T h e Caloosas were too to u g h to conque r and to o stubborn t o convert.

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IN THE DAYS oF LoNG AGo 15 The Timucuans were a more docile people, particularly farther north in the peninsula where the conquistadors had not raped and looted, tortured and killed. When t he Spaniards went into north Florida the Timucuans offered no prolonged resistance. In many places they even welcomed missionaries as friends. Letters from Franciscan monks written in .1602 reveal that twelve hundred Timucuans had by then been converted. T he Franciscans succeeded in persuading the Indians to build chapels and to settle around the missions Mainly because of the efforts of the missionaries, who established a chain of missions across the northern part of F l orida, Spanish officials encountered little diffi cu lty in extendi ng their military rule. Sixteenth century Spanish invaders greatly exaggerated the num ber of Indians on the peninsula. One chronicler said that De Soto was opposed by ten thousand warr i ors. Another declared that Menendez conferred with a Caloosa chief in a town of four thousand people. But most historians now agree that the peak population never exceeded fifteen thousand including all tribes, and that no Indian village or town had a population of more than several hundred Nearly all the villages were small, having less than a hundred in habitants. Some of the places listed as towns by Fontaneda had only thirty or forty inhabitants, including women and children. The average town consisted of. a few palm thatched huts, often circ ular in shape; a Timucuan Indians killing alligalOl'S, as pictured b y LeMoytle.

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16 TAMPA larger rectangular building where the chie f lived and another structure which served as a combination temple and community meeting place. Certainly no village was spe ctacularly beauti f ul. Most o E them probably were q u itc sq ualid None of the Indians spent much time in ma king clothes. Fon taneda reported that the Caloosas went almost n aked. The men wore only loin cloths made of plaited palme tto strips fasten ed to a belt of dee r skin. T he wome n wore shor t s kirts mad e of strands of moss they found h anging on the tree s -later ca lled Spanish moss. Above the waist the Cal oosa women wore nothing. The Timucua Indian wem in for more elaborate COSlumes. The men wore breechclouts and sometimes clo ak l ike garments of colored deerski n decorated with pai n ted pictures of wild ani mals. T he wom e n wore moss or painted deers kin s ki rts which they often varied with a garment carried up ov e r the shoulder and l eft hanging down to th e thigh. Early write r s described this outfit as most attractive. Timucuans of both sex adde d to their charm by loading themselves with ornamen ts mad e of brightly poli s h e d stones, s h e lls, bon es and animal tails worn abou t t heir necks, waists k n ees and ankles. The Timucmin women wore their ha i r long allowing it to dangle freely down their backs. But the men were satisfied only whe n they had a breath ta king hairdo. They trussed their rav en strands high on t h e ir head s and bound the m on top with plant fibe rs givi ng themselves the appearance of wearing bellshaped caps. To attain an eve n more allu ring effect the men usually s t uck brightl y colored feathers into the coiffures, arranging them in strik i ng patterns. The general effect often was heightened by in flated fish bladders inserted in pierced cars. Le Moyne said thes e fish bladders glistened l ike pearls. The fascinating appeara n ce of the Indian warrio r s was great ly in creased by the zeal and stoi cism with wh i ch they tattooed their skin. Thorns were used t o prick the c olors into the skin and often the fig h t i ng men cover ed practically thei r entire bodies with lurid desi gns, intended, no doubt, to catch the eye Of Indian maidens. But to Europeans the tattooing made the warriors appear form id able and ferocious. The principal weapon of both Timucuans and Caloosas was t h e bow and arrow and they could shoot with deadly accuracy as the Spaniards l earne d to their sorrow. The arrow heads were o ften ma de from snakes' teeth, b one and she ll but in the Tampa Bay area flint heads were used extensively. The flint was obtained from a large quarry just west of Six M il e Creek Swamp about twelve miles from the heart of presen t day Tampa. This was the finest flint quarry on the peninsula and the co untless chips found there indicate that it was u sed for man y years, pe rhaps for centuries. The stone is said to be o f better quality than ;my other south of the Ohio R iver. The quarry was located inside Caloosa t erritory but numero u s arrow heads made from the stone have

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I N THE DAYS OF LoNG AGO 17 been found in places wher e t he Timu cuans lived. P e rhaps the quarry was work ed by both groups throug h some kind of gentlema n 's agreement. If that was the case the agreement must have been made through an interpreter, because the Timucuans and Caloosas spoke d ifferent languages. The langua ge of the Timucuans has been described as "mellow sonorous, and rich in vowels and with a very complicated grammar. Thanks to Catholic mission aries, exce llent Tirnucuan vocabularies have been preserved. Pra ctically nothing is known about th e Catoosa langua ge. Almos t the only words of theirs which have been handed down are pl ace names gi ve n by Fontaneda for which he failed to give the mean ing. H e gave only one other w ord: Se-lete-ga. He said it meant: "Run to tlte lookout; see if th ere arc any people com ing." And h e added, needlessly enough: "The people of Florida abbrev i ate their words more than we do." Besides spea king diff erent languages, the Caloosa s a nd Timucuans were dissimilar in other ways. The T i mucuans made excellent pottery, well molded and beautifull y deco rated while the Caloosa pottery was of the crudest kind. On the other hand, the Caloosas greatl y excelled the Timucuans in wood ca r ving and painti ng. Some of their pieces, unearthed o n Marco Is land, are said to be finer than any done by any other I ndians of southeastern United States. The two group s also differed agricultu ra lly. In Ca loosa terr itory, the Indi ans pa i d little or no atte n tion to farming. But they did no t suffer from Jack of food. The Gul f and ocean and inland lakes and streams were alive with fish. And Fon taneda speaks of toothsome young alligat ors, savory snakes and juic y eels "as long as a man and as thic k as a thi g h." Moreover the Caloosas had learned that tlte low koontie bush had sta rchy roots which when dried and ground into flour, made e x cellent bread; that the mud pota to which tasted sweet, was quite sustain ing ; that the heart of the cabbage palm was tender and nourish ing, and that even the black berries of th e palmettoe s could be eate n In addition to all this the Caloosa had endless forests filled with game -deer, wild cats, little brown bears, squirrels, and turkeys. Nature w as most gener ous to the Cal oosa and quite naturall y they considered farm ing a waste of time The Timucuans, on the other han d, w ere bas i cal ly agriculturists, ev e n thou gh they sp ent part of each year fishing and hunting. The men condescended t o clear the fields but the women sowed the seed and did all the rest of the work through harvesting. The princip al crop was corn; however. pumpkins squash and other vegeta bles were grown. Food w:ts stored in well-built granaries and warehouses made of earth and stone. To insure a bounteous food supply, the shamans, or medic ine men, prayed over the fields just before tilling and when, the grain was reaped. And abo u t the firs t of March, a larg e stag was sacrificed. The

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18 TAMPA skin w ith head attached was stuffed with fruit and grain, decorated with garlands of flowers and placed on top of a pole facing the rising sun. The shaman then offered prayers whil e the people responded with weird songs and dances. Rites also were celebrated at new and full moons. Tall tales have been told about how the Indians capture d scores of Christians from wrec k ed ships and sacrificed them to heathen gods. Almost all these stories can be traced to Spanish exploiters who we r e endeavoring to break down the opposition of the Catholic Church to their prof itable pursuit of capturing th e Indians and selling them as slaves. Under such circumstan ces it was quite natural that the tale tellers should picture tl1e Indians as being unspeakably vicious. It is interesting to note, however, that Fontan eda does not mention having seen any Christian tortured or sacrificed during the seventeen years he lived with the Indians. H owever, there is no doubt but that the Indians of south Florida mistrusted and hated the Spaniards even the first conquistador landed on Flori da soil. They had ample cause for hatred. White Men Brought Only Tragedy The Spanish conquerors and exploiters of the New vVorld have been called, and probably rightly, the worst murderers in mankind"s history. When Columbus made his great discovery in 1492 the islands of the West Indies were thic k ly populated by natives called the Arawaks and Caribs. Ruthlessl y and viciously, the Spaniards killed them. Some they killed in battle; others by torture, and many many more by wor king them e ndless hours as s laves under the pitiless, blazing sun. As an inevitable result of the exte r mination of the native popu lation a labor shortage soon developed To get replacemcllls the Spaniards mad e raids on islands which had not yet been exploited. The natives were hunted down, captured, and ta ken in chains to mines and fields. There they died like flies, from overwork, disease, mistr eatment and homesick ness. Slave ships probably reached the mainland of Florida about 1500. The fact that there is no record of slaving expedi tions means nothing. For various reasons the slavers did not care to publicize their activities. To escape paying a license f ee to the crown and high c ustom duties on slaves taken into Hispaniola, they operated as smugglers snea ki ng through the islands with their human cargo. In all probability, the first slave ships which sailed into Florida harbors were welcomed by the natives. The Indians were naturally a happy people, friendly and hospitable to visitors, and it is more than likely that they greeted the first white man with gifts of fruit and game and trinkets. If that was the case the Indians soon learned they had made a tragic error. The white men had not come to make friends-

PAGE 19

IN THE DAYS oF LoNG Aco 19 they had come to capture human beings they could sell at high prices in the slave markets And that was what they did, again and again. Inevitab ly, the friendship of the Indians turned to bitter, violent hat red. As stated before, there is no existing record of such raids But it is a known fact that both coasts of F lorida. were charted before 1502, because in that year the famous Cantino map was published a map which shows the Florida coastlines with remarkab l e accuracy. It is more t han likely that data for the map was furnished by pilots of the slaving ships. Slave raids also would explain the f act that when Florida was "discovered in 1513 by Juan Ponce de Leon, he was met by an aroused and fighting peop l e, ready to battle h im to the death Juan Ponce was quite a fellow. Born in Spain in 1460 he too k part i n the Moorish wars and then sailed w ith Columbus on his second voyage to the New World in 1493. During the years which followed he made an impressive record H i s feats were so outstanding that by 1506 he was made administrator of Haiti. Three years later he was appointed as the first governor of Puerto Rico. There he became rich. His grea t plantations re t urned huge profits. He worked his slaves pitilessly and when they died, he buried them where they fell. vVhile i n Puerto Rico Juan Ponce heard a story from the n atives which fascinated him. He was told that to the north of Cuba there was a marvelous island-an island called Bimini. O n this island, the natives said, there was go ld, and silver, and precious gems, and spices and ra r e woods. That was not all. In Bimini there was a miraculous river a river w hos e waters would restore youth to those who bathed in it. A veritable Fountain of Youth! Intrigued no end b y t h i s alluring tale, Juan Ponce lost l it tle t ime in persuading Ferdinand, king of Spain, to grant him a patent t o con quer and exploit the island of Bimini The document was sig n ed February 23, 1512. As every school c hild knows, Ponce de Leon sailed from Puerto Rico with a fleet of three ships on March 3 1513. He did not discove r Flor ida on Easter Sunday as the history books used to say. Easter came on March 27 in 1 513 and on that day his fleet was some four hundred mi les from the F lorida coast. Not until April 2 did he sight land and go ashore probably about eighteen miles north of St. Augustine. But April 2 was still during the Easter season H errera wrote: "They named it 'La Florida' because they discovered it in the time of the flowery festival." Thus Florida got its name . Needless to say, Juan P once did not find gold or silver in Florida; nor a Fountain of Youth either. He searched down the :East Coast, through the Florida keys, and up the West Co a st at least as far a s the Ten Thousand 'ls!'ands. And all he found on that long, hard journey were hostile nati ves who fought him f ierc ely.

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20 TAMPA A n extraordinary t hing h appe ned down around Marc o O ne of t h e natives came f orward to talk to the Sp a n i ards. A nd he spo k e i n S panish! J uan Ponce was amazed, and well he might be. For a m a n to discover a ne w country a nd the n h ave a na t i ve s peak to hi m i n hi s o w n language wo ul d be d isconcerLin g indee d. The S paniard s su rmise d th a t the Indian must have come from the West Indies. If so, he un do u bted l y had brought word of th e Spanish cruelties in the is l ands L i ttl e wonder t hen the Indians f aile d to e x tend a warm a nd hearty welcom e t o the Sp a n i ards. After s p ending all summer on a fruitless search for loot, Juan P once r e tu rned t o Puerto Ri co, d i s c ourage d but no t yet ready to give up. Eight y ears were to pass, howeve r be fore h e retu r ned to F lorida. During that period he added year l y to his wealth His immense pla n ta t i on and great herds of cattle returned h im lush profits. H e also had a tidy income f rom his p os ition a s governor o f the islands. Even so, h e was no t satisf i ed. He w a s conv i nced that gold coul d be fou nd in F lorida perhaps far in the interior where h e had !lOt explored; mines as rich a s any Cortez had just discovered in Mexico And being now sixty years o ld, h e may h ave been more in need of a Fou ntain o f Youth than he ha d been b efore. A nyhow, h e was determined to go t o Florida and try again. Early in 1521 Juan Po nce bega n making preparations for the return trip. This t ime he i n tend ed to d o a t h oro ugh job o f e xplo ration His p l ans p rovided for the establishment of a permanent settlement which he could use as a base of operations. H e left Puerto R ico F ebruary 20, 152 1 with two ships, two hundred me n s e t tl ers a nd p riests. H e also had a herd of swi ne f ifty h o rses and a gricult u ral equipment. Som e where on the \.Vest Coast, no one knows just where, h e found an ancho r age. P erhaps it was on the Caloosahatchee, or at C harlotte Harbor It could easil y have b een in Tampa Bay. Any o ne of th e places wou l d have serve d his purpose. H e wanted t o explore t he interior o f the peninsula and c ertain l y it was easier to explore the interior by sail i ng up a river o r a bay t han by ma r chin g t h roug h swamps and fores t s The landin g pl ace select ed, n o tim e w as lost in brin ging goo ds a nd men ash o r e, small boats shu ttling back and forth between the s h ips a n d la nd. But sud denly th ere cam e a r a in of arro w s from t h e shad ows of t he for ests. And spears were t h rown w i th dea dl y acc uracy. Many of th e spears and arrows found the i r mark and Spaniards fell. Their blood s pilled upon the sand The Spaniards rallied and brought t h e i r cross bow s a nd arquebuse s int o us e. But th e b r own f i g ures of t he Indians, d arting in and out among the tree s made elusive targets. The battle raged for h ours. O n e of t h ose wh o fell was t he great conquistador, the daring a d vent u r er, Juan Ponce de L e o n. An India n arro w penetr ate d his armor

PAGE 21

IN THE DAYS OF LONG Aco 21 and buried itself deeply in his body. He writhed in pain. Clutching his side, he staggered into a boat and was taken to his ship And when the las t of the survivors came on board, and the anchors were lifted, and the ships sailed away, Juan Ponce realized that his dream of conquest had become a nightmare. Taken ashore a t Havana where his fleet went immediately after the battle, Ponce de Leon breathed his last. Instead o f getting riches in Florida, he received a mortal wound. Instead of finding t he Fountain of Youth and ever l asting life, he met death. He died, but the name he gave the land he found, lived on. By mortally wounding Ponce de Leon and thwarting his plans to establish a colony in their land, the In dians won an important round in th e battle with the treasure-seeking Spaniards. But they had not delivered a knockout blow. Juan Ponce was dead but other Spaniards were to follow to renew the battle i n the quest for riches Oneeyed, red-headed Panfilo de Narvaez, a grandee like .Juan Ponce who had become wealthy after years of conquest in the New vVorld, came up the West Coast in the spring of 1528 with a f l eet of five vessels, four hundred well armed and armored men, and eighty horses He knew of the existence of Tampa Bay and intended to land there Old re cor ds state definitely that he hunted two days for the entrance to the bay, but without success. Givi ng up the search, Narvaez A fortified T imucuan village of lhe 1 6th centul"), as pictured by LeMoyne

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22 TAMPA sa iled into lhe entrance of a smaller bay on H oly Thursday, April 9, 1528 At the head of the bay a small Indian village was seen The inspector, Alonzo Enriquez, land ed and found som e of the Indians. Making signs of amity, he ca lled to them; they ca me forward and in barter gave him f i sh and several pieces of venison. Encouraged by the indications of friendliness, Narvaez landed the n ext day, Good Friday, taking with h im as many of his soldie rs as his boats would hold The landing party found the village deserte d, the inhabitants evidently having fled at night . The dwellings of lhe v illa ge were small and round, like p igeon houses, with trees for uprights and thatched with pa lm etto leaves. In the center of the village was a barn like b ouse with whole t rees for raf ters, large enough to hol d more tha n a hundred persons. The Spaniards tramped through the entire village, turning over everylhing in the hope of finding go l d. Suddenly a great shout aros e. One of the sold iers, poking around som e fish nets had disc overe d a gold trinket. Everyone was t h r ill ed. Lingerin g doubts about the ulti mate success of the expedition were dissipated. Surely lhe trinket was positiv e proo( that there was gold in F lorida. Narva ez ordered the remainder of his troops to la nd. The horses also were brought ashor e. Of the eighty brought from Cuba, only forty two remained alive and most o f these were too weak t o be of service. "On the following day, Easter Sunday, I ndians of the town came and spoke to us," stated Cabeza de Vaca, treasurer of the expedition, in his report to the king made years later. As we had no interpreter, we could not understand wh a t they meant. They made s i gns and me n aces apd app eared t o say we must go away from the country. vVith this they le(t us and made off." It would have been far better for Narvaez and his men if they had heeded .J:he Indians warning. But they did not. They spent several days exploring the surrounding country, finding several villages and a large field of maize-but no go l d, and then proc eeded nortl1ward. Narvaez gave orders for his ships to follow along the coast and meet him later-but they were neve r seen a_gain. Indians followed Narvaez and l:iis men shooting at lhem with their deadly arrows. Food was difficult to find and many in the party became ill and died. When north Florida was reached, weeks l ater, the plight of lhe adventurers became desperate and lhey finillly built boats to flee the country. One boat was wrecked near P ensaco l a, two were lost at Santa Rosa, and a fourth, carrying Narvaez, was blown out into the Gulf and swamped. Of the four hundred men in the expedi tion, only t hree besides C abeza de Vaca managed to reach Mexico, and then only after several years of harrowing e xperiences.

PAGE 23

IN THE DAYS OF Lollic Aco 23 Historians argued for years about the exact location of Narvaez' landing place. They now generally agree, however that he turned iu from the Gulf at Johns Pass and landed on the west side of Pinellas Peninsula at or near the Jungle. This conclusion is based upon a statement by Cabeza de Vaca describi n g an exploring trip made by Narvaez. "\Ve took our way toward the 1'lorth until the hour of vespers when we arrived at a very l arge bay that appeared to stretch far inland," De Vaca stated. Old Tampa Bay is approximately a day's march due north of Boca Ciega Bay. Nowhere e lse in the state is there a large bay that distance north of another bay, scholars say, and hence the landing place has bee n fixed. Narvaez expedition ended in failure but his chronicler, Cabeza de Vaca, handed down the first known description of Tampa Bay. He wrote: "The port of which we speak is the best in the world. At the entrance are six fathoms of water and five near the shore. It runs up into the land seven or eight leagues. The bottom is fine white sand No sea breaks upon it nor bois t ero u s storm, and it can contain many vessels Fishes in great plenty. There are a hundred leagues to Havana a town of Christians in Cuba, with which it bears north and south." Beyond all doubt, that was Tampa Bay. Although Cabeza de Vaca conveniently forgot to mention it, Narvaez undoubtedly treated the Indians cru elly before he departed from Pinellas Peninsu la. L ater explorers were told that when the Indians fai led to tell Narvaez where gold mines could be found, he ordered the mother o f Chief Hirrihigua thrown to his dogs. She was torn to pieces. And in the same playful spirit, Narvaez ordered his swordsmen to slash off Hirrihi gua s nose, which was do ne. After that the Indian c hie f re portedly became a bitter e n emy of the white men-naturally enough With the departure of Narvaez to\vard the north, Tampa Bay Indians had an eleven year respite from the Spanish maraudings. Then came that noted conquis tador Hernando de Soto, that dashing adven turer whose name has become almost as much a part of Flo r ida as mock ingbirds and cabbage palms. A county has been named for him, scores of hotels, and countless stores, and restaurants, and even hotdog stands T ruly Florida has taken DeSoto unto itse lf. It would be nice indeed if DeSoto could be described as a gallant, benevolent, k indly nobleman inspired by a desire to carry the story of the cross to the brown skinned men of Florida. But to do so would be in direct contradiction to the facts. He certainly was brave and he may have been gallant according to a sixteenth century definition o f the word. But he certai n ly was ne ither benevolent nor kind No t if old Spanish wr i ters can be believed. Said one of them: "De Soto was fond of the sport of killing Indians." If killing Indians was sport, then De Soto had sport galore during his lifetime. His record literally drips with Indian blood.

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24 T AMPA : Born in Estremadura, Spain about 1 499 of an impo verished aristo cratic family, De Soto wem to Cenn-al America whe n twen ty years old There, during th e next nine years, De Soto won his repu tatio n as a splendid" Indian killer. Spanish writers say he was devoid of mercy. In 1528 h e explored the coast of Guatema la and Yucatan and in 1532 went to Peru where he p l aye d a prominent part in th e conquest of the Incas' k ingdom, and in stea ling the Incas' wealt h His c ruelt ies, as r eported b y the Spaniards, were almost unbeli evable. But he ga ined renown as be ing a great conqui stador-and also a princ ely fortune In 1536 h e returne d to Sp a in with 1 80,000 ducats Now he was able to settle down and live the lif e of a Sp anish grandee; also, to marry the b eauti f ul and c harming Isabella de Bo bad illa. H e s h o uld have been satisfied, but he wasn't. H e wanted a province in the New World he c ould call hi s own His t h oughts turned toward F lorida and h e was convinced that he could succ eed where .Ju an Ponce and Narvaez had failed, and win Florida s riche s for himse lf Pulling the right str ings in the Spanish c o urt, De Soto on April 20, 1537, obta ined a com mission as ade lantado of the Lands of F lorida and of Cuba. During the followin g year he gathered together a n army of over seven hundred men, described as the flower of Spain and Portuga l and out f i t ted a fleet of nine ships. He sa il ed from San Lucar Novembe r 6, I 538 taking with him his brid e Isab ell a The band spent the winter having a gay time in H avana and left there in high spirits May 18, 1 539. Isabella stayed behind to wait and wait, for a h us band who would never retum. The s h ips in DeSoto's expedition were heavily loaded when they sailed out of H avana's harbor. I n addition t o weapons of all kinds and hundreds of ferocious fighting dogs, they carried more than two hundred h orses, f ifty hogs and large quan t ities of nails, too ls and e ven lumber. DeSoto ha d no doubts about finding gold-and he intended to be read y to establish a colony as soon as he found the p l ace where th e mines were richest. One week out of Havana D e So to sighted an island n ear t h e entra nce of Tampa Bay. And as his ship s s ailed clos er, the conquistador saw a wavering wisp of smo k e ris e l azi ly into th e turquoise sky. It rapidly b ecame m ore dense and black er. Silhouetted sharp ly a gainst t he snowy, wool pack clouds hanging ove r the mainland beyond, it was visibl e for miles. Minutes later, another column of smoke rose from another island farther north. Then, in quick succes sion, other col umns bega n rising, up and down th e coast as far as eye co u l d s ee. T he Indian s had s ighted D e Sot o's f leet and now wer e sig nalling that th e dreaded white man had come again On the afternoon of M ay 25, D e Soto went ashore on an island to re conn oi t er. H aving fallen four or five l eagues below the port and without any of th e pilot s know ing where the port lay, i t was the reupon

PAGE 25

I N THE DAYs oF LoNe Aco 2 5 de termined that I should go and look for it," DeSoto wrote in a report to the governor of Santiago. The report made history because in it De Soto gave Tampa Bay its first name, E s piritu Santo. He gave it that name because the Spanish festiva l of Espiritu Santo, or Spirit of th e Saint, fell on lvfay 25, the day he had first sighted l a nd As stated before, Herrera labelled the bay ''B. de Tampa'' on the map he drew in 1601. Thereafte r some map ma k ers used Tampa and others Espiritu Sa mo. de pending on wh ich one they liked the better. Many gave it bOlh names De Sot o's report to the governor is interesting for ano ther reason It was the first one ever wr itten with a Florida date line E spiritu Santo, Florida, July 9, 1539. During the night of May 26 DeSoto stayed on shore, making ca mp on the mainland n ear the mouth of a river on a point where he had seen some Indian huts. The India ns ha d fled, undoubtedly after they had seen the warning signals The follow i ng morn in g, the channel to the port was located and DeSoto rejoined his fleet. Shoals e x tended across the channel at many places and five days passed befo r e all the sh i ps were anchored at the port, close to a small Indian village called Ucita. From Ucita too the Indians had fled A good description of Ucita and the camp the Spaniards established there is furni shed by the scribe, the Gentleman of Elvas, who was a member of De Soto's {orce: "The town consisted of seven o r eight houses, built of timber and covered with palm leaves. The chief's house stood near the beach o n a very high mound made by band for defense. At the other end of the town was a temple and on the top of it perched a wooden bird with its eyes gilded. Some pearls, spo il ed by fire and of little va lue, were found there." The scr ib e went on to say that De Soto and his officers l odged in the chief's house whil e several smaller buildings were used to store pro vis ions from the ships. he other buil dings were destroyed, a l ong with the te mple and the sma ll native huts. Dense thickets and tow eri ng uees around the village were cut down "for the space of a crossbow shot in order that the ho rses might run and the Chris t i ans have the a dvantage of the Indians if the Iauer should by c hance try to attack by night ... E very mess of three or four soldiers made a cabin where i n they lodg ed. All the horses and swine brough t in the s hips wer e t a k e n ashore at Ucita, along with great quantities of supplies. The swine w ere penned up but many of them rooted through the fence and wandered into the woods. Perhap s they became the progen i tors of the countless razorbacks still seen in Florida woods.

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26 TAMPA By the middle of June, 1539, the white man's first semi permanent camp in Florida was estab l ished somewhere on the shore of Espiritu Santo Bay. But just where that "somewhere" was, no one knows for sure. To settle the matter once and for all, Congress in 1934 authorized the creation of the De Soto .Exp e dition Commission. Headed by Dr. John R. Swanton, of the Smithsonian Institution, t he commission spent tluee years d i gging through musty Spanish records. It finally issued a report stating tha t De Soto's camp at Ucita probably was located on Terra Ceia Island and that the conquistador probably had first landed at Shaw's Point, near the mouth of the Manatee. The repo r t immensely pleased the peop l e o f Sarasota and Manatee counties but it was anything but satis f actory to people elsewhere on Tampa Bay. St. Petersburg insisted that Dr. Swanton got his data all twisted and should have fixed the landing place somewhere on the other side of Tampa Bay, preferably right at the Sunshine City. And Tampa proudly pointed to its famous "De Soto Charter Oak" and argued that the ancient tree was living proof that the conquistador selected a Hills borough River spot for his landing place. To add to the confusion, Historian John Blocker, of St. Petersburg, definitely "proved" in a trea t ise published in 1949 that Ucita undoubtedly was located at Phil lippi Park, on Old Tampa Bay. There are many good reasons for a divers i ty of opinion among historians. Four different accounts of DeSoto's expedition exist. Three were written by meri who accompanied the expedition, the fourth by a man who got his information from one of DeSoto's companions. All the accounts are different and all are unbelievably vague in their descriptions o f localities. They can be given almost any interpretation. Mother Nature has added to the difficulty of arriving at a general agreement. During the past four hundred years she has made countless major changes along the coast. vVinds and tides have taken sand from one place and dumped it in another Old passes and old channels have been closed and new ones opened Keys which existed as recently as a hundred years ago have aJ.l but disappeared; others ha v e become much larger As a result of all this change, t he vague descriptions o f the Spanish writers become vaguer still; in fact, almost meaningless So, to be on the safe side, let us say that De Soto's camp at Ucita was loca ted somewhere on tl1e shore of Tampa Bay and le t it go at that. DeSoto spent almost all the summer of 1539 hunt ing for the go l d mines of his dreams. U p and down tl1e coast and far inland he sent his men. He captured natives and tortured them, hoping to force them to tell where g9ld could be found. But he learned nothing simply because the natives had nothing to tell. Indian guides who failed to lead the Spaniards to the fabled mines were thrown to the fighting dogs. No doubt DeSoto's men went to the Indian village known t o have existed at the mouth of the Hillsborough Riv er, where Fort Brooke

PAGE 27

I N THE D AYS OF LoNG AGO 27 later was establish ed Perhaps he conferred with the Indians under the famous De Soto Oak. But if he did there is nothing in the records to document the statement. Instead of making a treaty with the Indians under the oak tree, as legend has it the chances are De Soto destroyed the I nd ia ns' village on the river just as he di d a ll other villag-es hi < forces overran. By autumn, DeSoto had become convinced there were no gold mines in the Tampa Bay region. Hoping to get rid of him, some of his captive.< told him gold could be found at Ocale, nea r the present city of So in November he sent the last of his ships back to Havana and aban doned the camp at Ucita. Before he departed, he burned all the builrl ings t here in cluding those his men had built. Then h e started northward, pilla g in g and destroying as h e went alo ng. l.VIany of his men were killed or wounded by revengeful Indians who lay in ambus h along the trails. But the Indians were no match for the Spaniards with their armor, their guns and crossbows, and ferocious fighting dogs, and De So to pressed on. Into north Flor i da he went, and then westward, ever seeking gold m i nes which always were just a few leagues ahead. Behind him he left a wide path of destruction d i scernible half a century later. Finally he reached the Mississippi There he died perhaps of frus tra ted ambition, on May 21, 1543. His body was buried at night in the muddy waters of the --:;;:$'i ,;;: river. Six teen months later II the remnants of his once resplendent army, by then despondent ill and weary, f i nally reached T ampico and safety. ,......""', Thus ended the last great expedition to Flor ida in search of go ld, and s ilver, and sparkling gems. There were rich es in l'lor ida true enough, but not the kind of riches sought by the conquistadors. The Tale of ]ttall Orti% There is a romantic sequel to t h e story of the Narvaez and DeSoto e xpe d itions When Narvaez faile d to return, hi s wife sent a re li ef ship after him. On the ship was a young fellow named Juan Ortiz, a nativ e of Seville Somew he re in t h e Tampa Bay area Juan saw a sp l it cane sr.icking in the

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28 TAMPA beach, holding a letter. Bel ieving it might be a communication from Narvaez, Ortiz and another youth went ashore. They were seized by Indians. The other youth re sisted and was killed. Juan was captured and taken to the village o f Hirrihigua, th e Indian leader whose mother had been thrown to the dogs b y Narvaez and whose own nose had been cut off by Narvaez' men. Hating all white men with venomous hatred, Hirrihigua ordered Ortiz burned alive. A scaffold of green wood was made and the young Spaniar d was tied down upon it with deerskin t hongs. Rich pine knots were thrown under the scaffold and set afire. Flames sprang up and seared his body. He screamed in pain His suffering touched the heart of a daughter of the chie f and she pleaded with her father for his life. Though one Christian might do no good, she said, cer t ainly he could do no harm and it wou l d b e an honor to ha ve him for a captive. Reluctantly the chief yielded to his daughter's pleas and gave orders for Ortiz to be f reed. The blazing wood was kicked aside, the youth was released from the scaffold and the young Indian maiden tenderly dressed his bums. When he got well, Ortiz was told to stand guard at the Indian burial ground and keep w i ld ani mals away During the first night he saw a wild cat a t tempting to carry off the body of a child The ste nch of decaying corpses had made the Spaniard ill but he man aged to throw a spear and kill the animal. His act was praised by the Indians and he was allowed almost com plete freedom. Three ye ars later the village of Hirrihigua was burned by an enemy tribe, headed by Chief Mococo, and Hirrihigua moved his people to another port. Medicine men said the disaster had come because the Indian gods were angered at them for permitting Ort iz to live and demanded that he be sacrificed to appease their wrath. Again the chief's daughter came to the Spania rd' s aid. She told him he must flee to the la nd o f Chief Mococo, two days journey distant. She said she had learned that Mococo had asked about the youth and would like to see him. Ortiz traveled all night and in t he morning came to a river bordering the territory of: .Mococo. There he was seen by fishermen. He could not speak their language and was saved from being killed only b ecause an interpreter arrived and talked to him, and then explained to the others who he was. T aken to Mococo, he was welcomed. Ortiz remained with Mococo until the arrival of De Soto, eight years l ater Mococo sent Ortiz and nine Indians to contact the Spaniards They met a party of Spanish horseme n who started to at tack furiously. Ortiz attempted to cry out in Spanish but to his horror discovered he had almost forgot ten t he l anguage. Finally, in desperation, he managed to gasp "Seville-Seville Christian-Chris t ian. Saved, he joined DeSoto's expedition. That' s the story related at great length by Ortiz himself and reported

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I N THE DAYs oF LoNe Aco 29 in full by two of De Soto s chronicl ers. It is particu larl y interestin g because it parallel s almost exactly the story told in 1616 by Capt a in John Smith regardin g his roman tic rescue by Pocahontas. Many historians say tha t t he Ortiz story. published in 1 557, provid ed the them e for the Pocahontas tale-that Captain John Smith picked it up and used it to get publici ty for himself. He got i t. The Pocahontas tale has become a part of America n lo re while the Orti z story unfortunately has never received the attention it desen ed. The hair-raising adventures of Orti z undoubtedly occurred in the Tampa Bay area. The v illage of Hirrihigua was certainly located on Pinellas Penin s ula, perhaps a r 1..Veedon's Island. The river crossed by Ortiz in his flight prob ably was the Hillsb oro ugh. Mococ o probably lived somewhere in the region of the Alafia o r Little Manat ee river. He was a Caloosa chi e f while Hirrihigua was a Timucuan. That a cco unts for their enmity and a lso for the fact that they spo ke different languages. True Christians Followed De Solo After the failure of DeSoto's expedition, no more Spaniar ds f ired with a lust for treasure cam e co Tampa Bay, or anywhe re else along the West Coast. But Florida was not forgotten by Spanish author ities. They could not forget it. The South Flori d a India ns were causing them too much trouble. At that time, the principal Spanish storage points for treasure looted from the A ztecs and the Incas were Veracruz in Mexi co and Cartagena in what is now Colombia. Ships sailing from tl10se ports had to pass throu gh the Fl o rida Straits. They were often blown far off their course in tropical storms and wrecked upon t h e Florida coasts. Indians captured the survivors and took everything worth taking from the wreckage. They even took the treasur e which the Spaniards had looted from the Inca s and the Aztecs. From a Spanish viewpoint, this was downright repre hen s ible. The Spaniards were deeply pained. Obviously the Spanish trade route had to be protected. Some thing had to be done. But what that somethi ng should be was a debata ble question. The Spa niards had l earned to their sorrow tha't the Indians could not be easily conquer ed. And to send in a force l arg e enough to exterminate them would be extremely costl y and dangerous. The F lorida problem was a thorny on e for the Spanish authorities. It was so thorny that t he y finall y consented to listen to the pleas of the Catholic clerg y for perm ission to tr y to conve r t the s.wages. For years the Catholic Church had protested aga in st Spanish outrages in the New World but th e protests had fallen on deaf ears. But now the situation was dif f erent. Perhaps it might pay after all to treat the Indians decently. If the heath ens could be converted and taught to refrain from maki ng off with the l oot the Spaniards stole-fine

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30 TAMPA So it was that the first missionaries came to Florida. These men were true Christians. They differed from the conquistadors in every way. They were humble and considerate, not arrogant and cruel. They sought to teach Christianity by kindly deeds, not by brutality. They were good men, sincere in their beliefs, and also brave. Such a man was the Dominican friar, Father Luis de Cancer Bar bastro, more commonly known as Father Cancer. Accompanied by four other priests, he sailed from Veracruz early in 1549 intent upon found ing a mission in Florida, somewher e far up the East Coast in a region where the natives had not learned to hate the Spaniards. But the captain of the ship was obst inate. He did not want to make so long a journey, so he headed straight for the Florida West Coast. The exact landing place of the party is unknown. Most historians agree, however, that it was somewhere in the neighborhood of Tampa Bay, in a locality which had felt the full force of the conquistadors' invasions. While searching for a spo t to build a chapel, three Spaniards were captured by Indians w ho crept upon them-Father Diego de Toloso, Brother Fuentes and a sailor. '-\lith them was taken a woman interpreter Father Cancer had brought with him-an Indian whom the Spaniards had captured as a child on this coast, taken to Havana and baptized as Magdalena. Nine days passed before Father Cancer received any word of the fate o f his companions. Then l\fagdalena appeared on shore. She said the whole country was aroused, fearing another invasion. But she added that the three captured Spaniards were still alive, prisoners at a village several miles away. Hopes aroused by Magdalena's good news were quickly shattered. A man dressed like an Indian, but obviously a Spaniard, came running from the forest, plunged into the water, and swam to Father Ca ncer's ship. He was John Munoz, a soldier of De SotO's force who had been captured by the Indians ten years before He brought the dread ful news that Father Diego and Brother Fuentas had been killed-he had seen their scalps. Father Cancer was grief stricken : But he did not think of giving up his mission. He insisted on being taken ashore; perhaps he could convince these savages, despite everything which had happened, that he had nothing but good will in his heart. The others tried to make him change his mind, but he was adamant. Regardless of consequences, he must go ashore. A boat was launched and Father Cancer was rowed toward the land. As the boat neared the shore the priest stepped overboard and walked through the water to the beach. Indians came forward. They seized him, and with a club. beat him to death. He died, on June 26, 1549-a courageous martyr. The Indians did not kill him because he was a priest. They killed him because they could not understand that

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IN THE DAYS oF LoNG Ac;o 31 this godly man was tota lly unlike the marauders slave hunters and conquistadors who had come before him. He paid the penalty for sins that others had committed. After the slaying of Father Cancer, the Spaniards might have le f t Florida in indisputed possession of the Indians indefinitely had it not been for pirates and the French Pirates of all nationalties began taking a heavy toll of Spanish shipping about the middle of the sixteenth century. Moreover, they had the temerity even to attack, ravish and plunder a number of towns on the Spanish Main. They not only took Spanish lives but Spanish treasure as well, a n d that was inexcusable. To make matters worse, French Huguenots boldly sailed across the Atlantic in 1562 and established a fort and colony at Fort Royal, in what is now South Carolina. Spanish officialdom was incensed and alarmed. '.Yith the French at Fort Royal, the Spanish shipping route would be endangered. To remove the menace, a Spanish ship was sent from Havana. But before it reached Fort Royal, the French departed for France, having run out of supplies The danger was over, but not for long. within less than two years, the Huguenots were back again. And this time they located even farther south, at Fort Caroline, dose to the mouth of the St Johns River not far from present-day Jacksonville. Pirates soon began using the port as a rendezvous. Spanish officials were now truly alarmed. The Spanish shipping Janes were more seriously endangered than before. And there was also an even greater danger. If the French consolidated their position at Fort Caroline and then extended their control down the Florida peninsula to the Straits, Spain's position in the Western Hemisphere would be jeopardized and her priceless possessions imperiled. In this extremity the king of Spain turned to a man long famous for his bravery and brilliance as a strategist; a ruthless man and perhaps a religious fanatic, but a great fighter and a great leader Pedro Menendez de Aviles Born in Spain in 1519, Menendez ran away from home whe n four teen years old and for the next sixteen years engaged in piracy. His feats were so daring and his prizes were so rich that in 1549 Charles V commissioned him to attack corsairs even in times of peace, granting him all the booty he co ul d take. Records show he took plenty. Five years later he was appointed captain-general of the convoy wh i ch carried the trade between Spain and ihe Americas. In 1563 he was arrested on (.harges of grafting and imprisoned twenty months. While in jail, Menendez' only son, Juan, was lost in a shipwreck off Bermuda while commanding a treasure fleet sailing from Mexico to Spain. Menendez was convinced that his son had no t drowned and,

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32 TAMPA upon being released from prison, sought permission from the king to go and search for him. The request came at exactly the same time that Spanish officials had become most alarmed about the French colony and fort in Florida So a deal was ma:de. Menendez was permitted to go and seek his son and, at the same time, establish a colony in Florida-and drive out the French. The agreement with th e crown provided that Menendez was to shoulder all the expense of the expedition It cost him a million ducats. But he expected to get all the money back with compou nd interest. The king had promised him a grant of approximate l y 165 square miles of land in Florida o f his own choosing. Moreover, he was awarded exclusive trading rights with a number of Vest Indies islands. And, in addition, he was given the right to prey upon pirates who swarmed the seas. He was to have the title of adelantado, or governor, of Florida. Sailing from Cadiz on July 8 1565 Menendez reached Puerto Rico a month later and on August 28 entered and named the Bay of St. Augustine. He established a fort there. Just twenty three days la t er, on September 20, he surprised the garrison at Fort Caroline and massacred almost everyone-men, women and childre n After s la ying them, Menendez hung their bodies on trees wi t h the inscription: "Not as Frenchmen but as Lutherans." Less than two weeks after the massacre Menendez over to ok two hundred French survivors of a shipwreck at Mantanzas Inlet and, after they surrende red to him and laid down their arms, massacred all except eight who said they were Catholia. It is possible that these two massacres in a row satisfied Menendez' thirst for Lutheran blood. Soon afterward he swooped down upon a hundred and fifty Frenchmen at Cape Canavera l who were trying to build a boat in which to flee and, when they surrendered he refrained from killing them. He merely captured them. Now that Florida was cleared of Frenchmen, by massacre and by capture, Menendez was master o f north Florida. He looked about him and decided he had won a rich domain. In jubilation he wrote to the king of Spain: "The province of Florida will bring enormous profits from vineyards, sugar, cattle, ship stores pearls, timber, silk wheat and endless supplies of fruit. And I assure your Majesty that in the future F lori da will be of little expense and will pay .your Majesty much money and will be of more value to Spain than New Spain or even Peru." Had Menendez been content to settle down and develop his St. Augustine domain, his name might not have appeared in '.Vest Coast history. But he had other plans. He decided to establish a fort in Caloosa territory, on the southwest coast, to make his hold on Florida secure. Perhaps he also wanted to make it a base of operations against the pirates whose ships and cargoes he had been given the right to seize.

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\ \ ... ..... . ,. -' . . *1 .. '( --(.: . ,., l ........ . . Map of Lhc Bay_ in 16th dots ind.iea te where Indian wer e l oqt,ed. J>Pt.Led. lines sho.w bord.e\_ed by Udal maJshes of mangrove s wamps Legend : 1-Probable tandang pla.a: of Nanaet1. n 1529. Point; wbe:te De-59
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34 TAMPA Menende z had other reasons for wanting to go into Caloosa ter ritory. He had heard that the Caloosas held a number of Spanish captives and he wanted to find out if his son was among them. Moreover, he had been told that Indians crossed the peninsula by boat and he wanted to find their waterway. In addition to all this, Menendez wamed to recover some of the treasure he had been told the Caloosas had salvaged from wrecked ships. Waterfront gossipers in H avana estimated Caloosa wealth at millions of dollars, in gold and silver and precious gems. Certainly the Caloosas had wealth worth looking for, and Menendez was not the man to pass wealth by. So to the land of the Caloosas Menendez sailed, in February, 1566, with a fleet of seven ships and hundred s of fight ing men. On the seventeenth of the month the hawk eyed, beetl e-browed Spaniard had his first meeting with Carlos, the Caloosa chief, a ma n who looked exactly like the man he was, a real leader. Nearly six feet tall, the Indian was heavy-boned and broad-shouldered, and walked with the easy grace of a panther. H is dark eyes, almost jet black were k een and piercing. They were the e yes o f an a lert and intelligent man one not easily deceived or in timidated. Carlos showed no in giving up eleven Span iards he had been holding as captives But Men endez' son was not among them. And the Spanish captives did not appear overjoyed at being freed. Three Spanish women who had married India ns and borne children insisted on staying where they were. Menende z remained several weeks in Caloosa territory. During that time he and his men spent much of their time trading with the Indians, swapping almost worthless gadgets for gold, and silver, and jeweled ornaments the Caloosas had salvaged from wrecked ships. Just how much the Spaniards obtained has never been revealed. From the Caloosas, Menendez got one thing he never expected, or wanted-another "wife." She was the sister of Carlos; a woman at least thirty-five years old, almost an old squaw, and ''not at all beau tif ul." Carlos insisted upon the union, sayin g it wou ld cement his friendship for the Spanish leader. All this occurred at a great banquet which Carlos held to honor Menendez; a banquet attended by several thousand Indians who had come from all parts of the land of the Caloosas for the occasion. Menen dez could not marry the woman-he already had a wife. He did not even want to sleep with her, as Carlos wanted him to do, particularly when a ll his men would know about it and spread the story throughou t the Spanish realm. H e would be laughed at for years. Besides, the woman was homely. He final ly thought of an excuse. "Christian men," he said to Carlos, "do not s leep with women who are not Christians."

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IN TH. DAYS oF LoNG AGo !15 Carlos replied tartly that since he had taken the white lord as his brother, he and all his people were Cluistians also. "One blood, one heart. There is no difficulty." 'Whil e Menende1. pondered over his predicament, feasting at the banquet continued. Many wine casks were brought from the Spanish ships. Everyon e drank and became merry. Menendez began to feel quite good. His moral scruples, if he had any, began to melt away. At this opportune moment. the ch iefs sister rctumed to the banquet hall. Christian women had taken her away, and bathed and clothed her. Now she "appeared much better than she had before when she was na k ed." M enendez looked at her again and now he was not dis pleased. The bathing, and clothes, had clone wonders. She was really not half bad, after all. He seated her next to him "and said many things to her through the interpreter which p l eased her." They danced. A sprightly accoun t of all that happened has been handed down in a narrative written by Gonzalo Solis de Meras, brother-in-law of Menendez, w h o was with him at the time. "And w hen the dance was ended, Solis wrote, "they conducted her to rest on a bed which Menendez ordered to be made for her and he followed. And in the morning she arose very joyful and the Christian women who spoke to her said she was much pleased ." Thus it was that the first "marriage of diplomacy" occurred on Amer i can soil-Menendez, the adelantado; "married" to the sister of Carlos, the Calo osa ch ief. His "wife" was given the name of Dona Antonia and the harbor where the "marriage" occurred, San Anton. Historians say this harbor was located somewhere in the Caloosahatchee Charlotte Harbor area, probably at Pine I sland. Soon aften\ ard, Menendez departed. D ona Antonia went with him because Carlos insisted. Back in H avana, Menendez placed her in the care of his friends. Then he became absorbe d in other affairsmutiny at his colonies on the East Coast and trouble with the Indians in north Florida. M enendez did not forget the harbor of San Anton. He had not yet established a fort in Caloosa territory and neither had he been able to find the cross-peninsula watenvay the Indians were said to use. So he ordered one of his captains, Francisco de Rei noso, to re turn to San Anton, establish a for t and hunt for the watenvay. Almost a year pa ssed before Menendez returned to Carlos' village. He arrived March S, 1567, bringing Dona Antonia with him. When Carlos saw that she did not have a child he was deeply offend ed. Arid he bec ame even more offended when his sister told him thafMeneridez had n o t l ived with her at any time while she was away, even though she h umilia t ed h erself by begging him to be tender and loving. Carlos never forgave M enendez.

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36 TAMPA Two priests were with Menendez when he returned. They were Father Rogel and Father Villareal, both of the Society of J esus. They were sincere, humble Christians and if they had accompanied Menendez on. his first trip and proceeded in their own way to convert the Caloosas, the course of West Coast history might have been greatly changed. But. they came too late. Not knowing that, Father Rogel built the firs t Christian mission on the '\<'Jest Coast, probably at Pine Island, at the mouth of the Catoosa hatchee. During the following year he learned the Caloosa language and started to compile a Catoosa dictionary His work has disappeared Some day it may come to light among the millions of Spanish documents, still uri translated, which are stored in the archives at Seville. If se>, Tampa may discover the meaning of the Catoosa word "Tanpa" from which the city got its name. Fort Established on Tampa Bay To his regret, Menendez was inf ormed by Captain Reinoso that the sought-for waterway across the peninsula had not been found. Bui: Reinoso told his chief he had learned that it lay i n the country of Toco baga, an Indian chief living at the head of a large bay f ifty leagues distant up the coast. Tocobaga, a Timucuan, was a bitter enemy of Carlos and even then held captive eleven o f Carlos' people, including one of his sisters. The desire of Menendez to go to Tocobaga and f ind the waterway pleased Carlos greatly. Now he might find a chance to get revenge But when he divulged his thoughts to the Spanish leader, he was quickly silenced Menendez told him flatly that he had no intentions of fighting Carlos' battles. All he wanted to do at Tocobaga he said, was find the waten'lay. On the morning of March 7, 1567, Menendez set sail for Tocobaga. him a fleet o f six brigantines. Carlos went with him. The flee t arrived at the entrance to Tampa Bay that evening. There was no moon but the wind was favorable. with an Indian guide to serve as pilot the fleet proceeded up the bay and arrived at the village of Tocobaga an hour before daybreak, without being discovered. The village undoubtedly was located at what is now Phillippi Park, north of Safety Harbor. Anc horing Menendez ordered a Spaniard who knew the Timucuan tongue to go ashore and proclaim in a lou d voice that he came in peace. This the Spaniard did. The Tocobagans awakened at such an early hour in such a manner, fled in t!!rror with their wives ahd children. Torobaga alone remained with six companions and his wife. when daylight q;me, : the lpdian. chief.sent a Christian slave out to ship to th<\!Jk him .for hot having burned his village The slave was a Portuguese trader who had been held captive by the Toco-

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IN THE DAYS OF LoNe Aco 37 bagans for six years. His bark, laden with maiz e and chickens, honey and woolen blankets, had been wrecked on the coast while headed for New Spain. Members of his crew had been k illed but h e hid in the woods for a month, living on shell fish, palmetto hearts and acorns. F in ally captured, he had been required to serve Tocoba ga as a cook. W'ith the Portuguese to serve as an interpreter, Menendez went ashore and talked to the I ndian chief Tocobaga told the Spanish leader that other white men had come to that region som e time before and had killed o ther chiefs, his friends, because they could not give them maize. And lhese white men, Tocobaga said, were followed by other wh i te men who slew the first. Tocobaga asked what kind of a man Menendez was -like the first white me n who had kill ed his fri end s o r like the second group. Menendez assured him, of course that he was a true Christian and would nol dream of harming others. Menendez remained several days in Tampa Bay, Lalking peac e term s and searc hing for the walerway. But on the third day he was alarmed. A great crowd of warriors assembled, estimated at fifteen hun dred Tocobaga had sent out messengers to tell of the Spaniards' arriva l and the Timucuans streamed in from all directions, fully armed and ready for action. After that Menendez did not tarry long. At a final peace conference, arrangements were made for an exchange of prisoners Pltoto rtuf Btl#. BeauLHul Hil1sboro ugb Ri,er probabl y SCJ:\'td as a natural boundary which separated the powerful Catoosa nnd Tim ucuan l n d iaus in the J(ith. ce ntury.

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38 TAMPA betwee n Car los and T oeobaga, and the Timuc uan leader said he would not objec t i f Me n e ndez left a forc e of men to establ ish a fort. Menen de z then d epa rted with his fle e t l e aving thirt y soldi e r s under the c ommand of C aptain Gar ci a Martine z d e Cos, who is reporte d to hav e remaine d sor e l y aga inst his w ill Once more Menendez had fai led to find the cross peninsula water way. And, n ee dless to say, he ne ver d i d find it. On his r eturn trip do wn the coast, Menen de z stopped o nly a day at San Anto n Sensing a gr owing enmity of C arlo s toward him, he in creased the garrison at d 1 e fort b y fifty men and departed for the E ast Coast H e l eft D ona A n tonia behind After t he depar ture o f Me nendez Carlos was bi tter. He was humiliated by the way t he Spani a r d had treat e d his sister. He wa s angry b e c a use Menendez had established a fort in his land And h e had bec ome conv i nced d1at the adelantado's o nl y aim was to conquer and enslave h i s p e o ple. H e r e fu sed to listen tO Father R oge l whe n the priest spok e of Chris t i anity Havin g see n how the S panish conq uista dors practiced Christianity, h e wanted non e of it. Less than two m o n t h s l ater, C arlos was execute d by the Spaniards, alo n g w i th twenty of his leaders O ld r eco r ds say tha t th e Indians had mad e s e veral attemp t s to destroy the Spani a rds and were f inally ca ught in a flagran t p lot. It's jus t as like l y they w ere e xecu ted because t hey re fused to b ri ng out any more Spanish treasu re they had hidden In a ll events t hey were k ill e d and P edro Men endez Marquez, n e phew of the adel amado, stated six y ears later that h e beheaded C arlos himsel f alo n g with t wen ty others of the most gu i lty and had a j udicial r ecord o f it drawn up." Don F e lipe, son of C a rlos, suc ceeded his fat he r as chief l a te in May 15 67. For a tim e he d i d nothing t o antagoniz e the Spaniards. Father R ogel contin ued to hold services in h is crude cha pel a n d als o made a number o f trips t o Tocobaga w h ere he tri e d t o convert th e T imucuan s He had s ome succ ess with the children a t bot h places, J?articularly when he had g ifts to distribute, but little or n o n e with th e olde r Indians. They were p olite t o him but seldom c o uld be persuaded to enter the chapels. T he p r i est spent most o f his time co n so l ing the Spanish s o l die r s at th e two ga rris o ns. T hey h ad no l iking for thes e f orts t n the wild erness and l onge d to re turn home. In one of his reports, Father Rogel told o f his troubl e s with th e Timuc uans at T o cob aga. \.Yhen an I ndian f a ll s s ick h e wro te they say t h a t o ne of his s o uls has escaped, and the m edicin e man goes to the forest in search o f i t a n d he rds i t bac k like one drives goats t o an i n closure. S eizin g the sick man by th e throat, t he y force th e truant soul b ack into hi m again and light fir e s a ll around t o keep it t here. When a man dies, hjs p rinc ipa l so u l enters an anima l or a fi s h and when t his d ies, ente rs a sma ller o ne, and so desce n ds until i t r ea ches n o th in gness.

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IN THE DAYS oF L oNe Aco 39 Hence it is difficult to convince them of the immortality of the soul and of the resurrection." Serious trouble for the Span i ards began to develop late in 1567, both at San Anton a n d at Tocobaga. At both places the I nd i ans ref used to bring in food as they had before. The situation finally became so desperate that Father Rogel was pers u aded to go to Havana tO obtai n supplies. He left on December I 0 and returned a mo n th later on a ship commanded by Menendez Marquez the nephew of the adelantado After putti ng some of the food ashore at San Anton, they proceeded up the coast to Tampa Bay. At Tocobaga a shock i ng surprise awaited them. The fort h ad been burned and twenty-six of the soldiers and their l eader, Captain de Cos, had been massacred while foraging for food Three others had been captured and they tOO were k i lled when the Spanish sh i p came in sight. Menendez Marquez landed with his men, buried the three Spaniards, and t hen burned the village. Back at San Anton again, Father Roge l persevered in his efforts to convert the Indians. But t heir enmi ty toward the Spaniards was t oo great for him to overcome. He f i nally departed in sorrow and was succeeded by Father A l amo. He too found the assignment hopeless. The Indians continued tO refuse to bring in food And the Span i ards, k nowi ng what had happened to the i r comrades at Tocobaga when they went foraging, did not dare l eave the fort. They became hungrier and hungrier. Perhaps in an effort to break the Caloosas' sp i rit, Menendez Mar quez adopted drastic measures. Don Felipe and eleven of h i s petty chiefs were capt u red and charged with treacherously plotting the de struction of the Spaniards. They were, of course, found guilty and were executed on December 17, 1 568 The Spaniards gained nothing through the execution, or m u rder, of the Caloosa chiefs. Protected as they were by their fortress walls, and heavy armor, and arquebuses, and fightin g dogs, they were safe from Caloosa assault But they were not safe from hunger. And when the Indians adopted a scorched earth policy burned thei r nearby villages, and disappeared into the forests the position of the Spaniards became untenable. Unable to get enough food to satisfy their needs, they were forced tO abandon the fort and mission, late i n December, 1568. As they sailed out into the Gul f they saw rising from Pine Is land a great pillar of smoke The Caloosas had returned and set fire to the fort and miss ion buildings. The act was a final gesture of defiance. The Spaniards had killed Carlos, and Don Felipe, and many of the bravest warriors, b u t the Indians' fighting spiri t remai n ed unbroken. Then, for many years the Indians of the \Vest Coast were un inolested by the white man. They were truly too tough to conquer and too stubborn to convert. So they were left alone.

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40 TAMPA Dming the Era of P eace For more than two centu ries following the massacre of C aptain d e Cos and his men at T ocobaga, th e Tampa Bay area slipped into oblivion so far as reco rded history i s concerned. Soldiers and priests had l eft. With them went the scribes who told of passi ng events. No o n e remained to tell through the written word of th e activit ies of the Tampa B ay ind i ans Missionaries may h ave come to the bay from Spanish settlements farthe r north, but if so they left no record of their journeys. There is nothing to show they ever establishe d missions anywhere in the bay r egion. Life went o n much as it had before the white man came. Indian mounds built after the departure of Menendez show that the natives l ived just as they h a d lived before-fished and hunted, planted their fields of maize, wo r s h iped their gods, and fought each other now and then. B u t now they had new ornaments-bright, shiny dis k s hammered out of coins the Spaniards had left behind, and gold chains and beads salvaged from the wrec k s of Spanish ships. They also h a d new weapons made of copper, iro n and steel. T hese the Indians highl y prized. Year s passed. And then there came the day whe n t he fir s t Spanish trader from Cuba sailed into Tampa Bay. His ship was small and he had no fighting dogs or deadly muskets, or force of fighting men H e was just a lone trader with pe rhaps his w ife and a child or two. The Indians recognized him for what h e was and had no fear of him. They had no difficulty i n l ear ning what he came for-traders every whe r e use almost the same sign language He wanted to get alli gator hides, and deer skins, and furs, and any thing else t he Indians had to offe r To pay for them h e had many articles which s t ruck th e Indians' fancy-kn ives a n d axes, kitchen utensils, pottery, boltS o f gaily colored cloth, and t rinkets of all kinds. The natives were well satis fied with the deals they made, and so was the trader. Before long he was followed by other traders. Soon there was a lively traffic in goods between Cuba and the West Coast. P roof of the improved relationships was furn ish e d in 1612 when a peace mission from S t Augustin e under Lieu t. Juan R odriquez de Carta yo sailed into Tampa Bay, exchanged gifts with Indian chiefs and then went on down the coast to the Caloosah atche e to the principal town of the Caloosa Indians. Everywhere h e found the Indians friendly. Cartayo was much impress ed with t he Caloosa chief and in a l etter to Gove rnor Juan Fernandez de Oli vera expre ssed the hope "that within a short time monks will b e able to go there in safety and rea p great harvest because t his caci qtie has more than sixty towns of his own besides many oth ers which pay him tribute." But Cartayo's hope apparently was never rea lized. Sp anish records indicate that th e C aloosas had had enough of missionaries. One old document reveals that in 1680 a reconnaissance of the C aloosa territory

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IN THE DAYS oF LoNG AGo 41 was made preparatory to the resumption of missionary work but that the emissary was turned back. Another old document states that a similar missionary effort made in 1697 had the same fate Even though the \Vest Coast Indians turned the missionaries back they continued to welcome Spanish traders. The historian Barcia re ported that in the one month of March, 1697 "the trade with the Caloosas totalled $17,000. But the Spanish traders brought something to the Vest Coast besides gayly colored cloths, and trinkets, and other things the natives wanted. They brought something.for which the Ind ians paid a dreadful price. They brought diseases-white man's diseases. The Indian TTibes ATe Deci?l)ated Back in the booming 1920s a gruesome diScovery was made o n Cypress Street in Tampa . Digging foundat ions for a home on land he had j u st purchased George Henriquez came across a human skeleton just below the surface. Soon aftenvard he found many more, nearly two hundred altogether. The burials had been made in a most unusual manner One man, apparently the chief, had been buried i n an uprigh t manner and the bodies of all the others extending outward horizontally from the chief like the spokes of a wheel. Only a l ittle ear th covered the skeletons. Dr. Mathew W. Stirling, of Smithsonian I nstitution, who ex amined the skeletons, said he believed all the Indians had been buried at the same time late in the seventeenth century and probably were victims of an epidemic of smallpox. That explanation may or may not be con-ect. But it is a known fact that the native Indian tribes o f Florida were ravaged by white man's diseases when they were at the peak of their strength . They died like flies from smallpox, measles and yello"' fever, diseases they did not have before the white man came. Whole villages were wiped out. Some times the bodies of the victims were heaped up by the score and hastily covered with a thin layer of earth; sometimes they were left untouched, unprotected from the elements and scavenger birds and beasts. Records of Spanish missionaries indicate that nearly half of the Timucuan Indians in the northern part of the peninsula were victims of a dreadful plague which lasted from 1613 to 1617, and that the tribes were furtl1er decimated by a fe
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42 TAMPA the Spaniards' Indian allies in north Florida. With their own Indian allies, the Yemassees, they drove deep in to the peninsula. Many of their raids were made on the pretext that they were seeking runaway Negro slaves. But almost invariably they seized Indians they could sell at high prices in the slave markets farther north. The Spanish governor at St. Augustine reported in 1708 that thousands of Christian Indians had been captured by the English in north Florida and that only three hundred men, women and children remained and that "even these are being carried off daily." The Yemassee allies o f the English later established slave hunting routes deep into Florida and made raids as far south as the Caloosa hatchee. U ndoubtedly forays were made in the Tampa Bay region. But no one will ever know how rnany Indians were captured. The Eng l ish slavers, like their Spanish predecessors, kept no records. As a resu l t of the epidemics and slave raids, the once thriving villages around Tampa Bay disappeared. The only Timucuans and Caloosas heard of thereafter were in straggling ba nd s employed by Spanish fishermen. Spaniards began corning to the west Coast to get fish for the Cuban markets early i n the eig hteenth century. They established fish "ranchos" on the keys where they dried and salted the ir catch. A number of such ranchos were seen in 1769 by Bernard Romans while preparing a map of the \!\lest Co ast for the British government. Apparently one was located at the tip of Pinellas Peninsula because Romans labeled it "Fishermen's Point." He said the Spaniards fished from September to .March, using about thirty vessels of from fifteen to forty tons and employing (rom twelve to forty men. He said they salted a thousand tons of f ish each year and also ne tte d huge quantities of mullet from which they took nothing but the roe. Bernard Romans did much more than report about the fisheries. For instance, he was the man who named Hillsborough River and Hills borough Bay. Lorcl H illsbcno1
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IN THE DAY S oF LoNe Aco 43 Born i n Holland, Romans had spent some time in England and had come to America about 1760. He w as a good engineer an e x cc llcm navigator, and a mathematic ian. He als o was a firs t -rate botanis t and an accomplished writer Placed in charge of t he Florida map making job, Romans wen t to work immediatel y a n d by the summer of 1 7 72 had the Gulf coast charted. During this period the Brit ish secret ary o f state for t he colonies was L o rd Hillsborough, an irasci ble fellow who h ad l ittle love for American colonists and opposed granting them any concessions. Some historians say that Hill sborough's stubbornnes s did more than a little t o aggravate the America ns to the point where the y fi n ally should ered muskets and star ted the unpleasantnes s called the Ameri can Revolution Romans first map of Florida was sent to Lord H i llsb orough on August 14, 1772 by Peter Chester, then governor of West Florida. With the map went a request that Romans shou l d be g i ve n an annual pens i o n of fifty poun ds a year, in addition to his regula r pay, be cause of his exce llen t work. Per haps R omans had no idea o f a pple polishing when he prepared his map P erhaps he gave no thought to the annual pensio n which was being reque sted of L ord Hillsbo rough. P erhaps i t is mere coincidence. But it is a fact that on tlte cha rts of th e Fl o rida coasrs sent b y R omans to the secretary of the colonies, his lo rdship was well rememb ered. On the East Coast, the river now known as the Indian River was lab e led /lhotD by llu rt,." JlltM. 8l' OWns kinned Iudlan su.lked through thc K florida wilds before the carne to IO()t, and kill con quer. :

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44 TAMPA Hillsb orough River. And on the West Coast, Hillsborough 's name was perpetu ated again in anothe r Hillsborough River and al so in Hills borough Bay, the eastern arm of upper Tampa Bay. There is no way of k nowing, of course, whether Lord H illsborough was p l eased by havin g been so well taken care of on the map. But certainl y he could not hav e been too badl y irked because it is a matter o f record that on December 9, 1772, word came from London that Roman s' fifty pound pension had been granted. The Hillsborough names were car efu ll y preserved on the first k nown officia l British map of Florida, published February 20, 1775, by Jeffery, .. Geographer to His Majesty." And the names of Hillsborough Bay and H illsborough River hav<:: endured ever since, a binding link between historic Tampa Bay and a man who never sec foot on Florida soil, disliked Amer i can colonists, a n d did much to precipita te the Ameri can R evolution. The associatio n was mad e eve n m ore binding in 1834 when the Florida territorial assem bly created a new county and, in its infinit e wisdom, tacked onto it the name of Hillsborough. While hol d ing the job of secretary of stale for the colonies, Hills borough secured a grant of Florida land bm he never took possession of it. In fact the American Revolut ion got under wa y before his lord ship could even determine what land he wanted. As a r esult, his grant was nullified when Sp ain rega ined possession of Florida in 1783. But the names of H illsboro ugh Bay, Hillsborough River and Hills borough County still remain, potent r eminders of the fact that hi s lord ship onc e wie lded a mighty stic k in t he l and of the Roaring Lion. Delayed Recognition Comes to Tampa Bay The H illsborough names were all that Tampa Bay got from the Briti sh during the two decades they possessed Florida, from 1763 through 178 3 Engl i shme n sw armed into St. Augu stine and caused that ancient city to boo m as it never boome d befor e They also gave P ensac ola a mighty boost. But they disregarded the Tampa Bay region completely ; so far as is know n not one Englis h man ever set foot there during the period of Briti sh rule with the i dea of settling. Tampa Ba y also was f orgotte n by the Spaniards when they regained Florida in 1784. Not until many years later, after the War of 1812 was ended did the bay rec eive the attention it l ong had me rited. Seminole I ndians finally forced the United States to r ea lize that possession and fortification of Tampa Bay was a military necessity The Seminoles were relative newcom ers lO Florida. Most of th em were Creek I ndians of G eorgia who had come to Florida with the British during the eighteenth cemury t o kill and capture and e n slave the Spanish speaking Indians They took over raided Indian villages and settled down. They farm ed and raised cattle and hogs. As the years passed they severed all ties with the Cree k s in Georgia and became

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!N THE DAYS OF LONC Aco 45 known as the "runaways, or Seminoles. Numerically strong they dominated other Indian tribes in Florida and ultima tely the whites referred to all Florida Indians as S e mino les. For military reasons, the British assiduously cultivated the friend ship of the Seminoles and induced them by vari ous means t o wield their scalping knives with zeal on the heads of luckless Americans at every opportunity. During both the Revolutionary 'War and the War of 1812, the Seminoles were allies of the British. British-inspired hatred of th e Seminoles toward Ameri cans was intensified by countless border clashes. The Indians protected Negro slaves who escaped from Georgia plantation owners; the India ns held lands Americans coveted; the Indians owned herds of cattle the white man wanted. So, at more and more frequent intervals, Americans raided Indian territory, recaptu r ing runaway slaves and stealing cattle. The Indians retaliated with raids i nto Georgia and South Carolina murder ing families and burning homes. War between Americans and th e Seminoles was ine vitab l e and war came, on December 26, 1817, when the War Department ordered General Andrew Jac k son to take whatever steps were necessary to put the Indians in their place. The offending Seminoles were in Florida, and Florida was o'\rned by Spain, but that made no difference to hard boiled Jackson. The resulting conflict, know n as the First Seminole war, was amaz in gly bri ef On Marc h 8, 1818, J ackso n marc hed into Florid a with a force of three thousand men. The Semino les and their Negro allies were ill-prepared to engage such an army and instead of fighting a major battle, they retre ated. In pursuing them, Jackson destroyed twenty Indian villages, took thousands of bushels of com, and made off with two thousand bead of cattle. Great areas of the Indian territory were devasta ted The "fighti n g was ended bv April 20. When J ackson invaded Spanish-owned F lorida he undoubtedly h ad more in mind than the subduing of the Seminoles. He held a grudge against Spain for lending aid and comfort to the Bri tish during the War of 1812 and there is little question but that he intended to use this oppor tunity to seize Florid a and hold it, regard less of consequences. Proceeding on that li ne, he captured St. Marks on April 7 and P ensaco l a on May 25. Immediately thereafter, General Jackson sent his aide-de camp Captain James Gads den, on a reconnaissance down t he West Co ast to find the best loca ti ons for a chain of seacoast defenses which would prevent a foreign power from again getting a foo th o l d in Flori da, as Great B ritain had done four years before. In a report made to Jackson August 1, 1818, the establishment of a for t at Tampa Bay was recommended for the first time. Said Gadsden:

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46 TAMPA "The Bay of Tampa, in latitude 27 degrees 36 minutes, is esteemed one of the fine s t harbors in the Gulf. Its entrance is bold, admitting of four fathoms at low water and from its pecu lia r situation must at rio d istant period b eco me val uabl e as a maritime depot for Florida. As such it must be embraced with in any chain of seacoast defenses which may be constru cted and its occupancy is a ll important a t this period. It i s the last rallying point of the d isaff ected N egro es and In d i ans and the only favorable point from whe nce communicat ion can b e had wit h Spanish and European emmissaries. Nicholas, it is repo rted, h a s an establis h ment in that nei g hborhood and the Negroes and Indian s driven from Micosukey and Suwaney towns have directed their march to that quarter. In stressing the need for a fort at Tampa Bay, Captain Gadsden emphasized th e f act that the invasion of Florida by the British in the '.Var of 1812 would h ave had most serious co nsequences if the war had not ended when it did. He pointed o u t that the British with their Sem inole allies, could easily have cut th r ough to the Missi ssipp i a n d th ereby "united the four southern tribes o f the I ndians in hostilit ies agamst us. And Gad sden added: "The western states would hav e been cut off from all communication from the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana wou l d necess arily have fallen an easy conquest. That the strength and patrio tism of th e west might ulti mately have triumphed over such succeSs is rio t doubted but oceans of the b est blood of our cou ntry would have flowed befor e a powerfu l enemy thus favorably posted could have been expelled. Establi shmen t o f the Tampa B a y fort recommended by Ga dsden was delayed several years because the Unite d States finall y decided it would be more po l itic to purchase" Florid a from Spain than seize it through military conq uest. Against his will, Ferdinand VII, king of Spain, reluctantl y signed the socalled purchase treaty October 24, 1820, and President J ames Mo nroe sig ned it F e bruary 22, 1821. Spain re ceived no money from the "s al e T he $5 ,0 00,000 so often mentioned as the "purchase price" went to Americans who had claims against the Spanish govern ment. Strictly speaking the U nited States did not pur chase Florida-they acqu i red it. King Ferdin and h ad a wee bit o f revenge for being pushed around so brusquely by the United States. Immedia tely after Jackson assembled troops to invad e Florida in 1818, the kin g proceeded to make huge giants of land to three of his favorites: the Duke of Alagon th e Count of Punon Rostro, and Don Pedro de Vargas. Rostro got a big slice of north Florida, Vargas a hunk of the low e r pen in sula, and Alagon a treme nd ous portio n of the central peninsula, includ ing all the Tampa Bay region.

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IN THE DAYS oF LoNG AGo 47 These grants were specifically nullified in the purchase treaty but desp i te that fact, the Alagon grant resulted in no end of litigation and put a damper on Tampa Bay land sales for many years. But all tha t is immaterial. The all-important f act was that the ratification of the purchase treaty meant that Spain had to give up forever the land it had held for nearly three hundred years the land which Menendez said "will bring enormous profits from vineyards, sugar cattle, ship stores, timber silk, wheat and endless supplies of fruit." Mene n dez was right. Florida has brought enormous profits from almost all the things he mentioned But the prof its did not go to the country which had sent conquistadors to Tampa Bay to find gold and sil ver, and precious gems. Riches were in Florida, true enough but not for Spain.

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CHAPTER II ANGLO-SAXONS COM!: TO TAMPA BAY lHE NAME or: THE !fiRST Anglo-SaxOJl who lived on the shores of Tampa Bay probably will never be known def initely. But he may have been an adventurous British army officer, Captain George 'Woodbine, a man who dreamed great dreams of conquest. Captain Woodbine was one of ti)e of the British force which took Pensacola from the Spanish on August 29, 1814, during the War of 1812, and then proceeded to arm the Indians and train them in the most effective methods of extermihating Americans. The British were interrupted in this pleasant occupation early in Noveinber, 1814, when General Andrew Jackson suddenly appeared on the s cene and sent the redcoats flying woodbine departed on one of the British ships and nothing m o re was h eard of him until the summer of 18 15, months after the war had ended. The British captain then was reported to have settled at Tampa Bay and as having dealings with the Indians, encouraging them to defy the Spaniards and Am eri cans and estab li sh a kingdom of their own. It i s possible that Woodbine was acting on his own responsibility, hoping perhaps to become the white overlord of the Indians domain However, it is far more li kely that he was acting as a British agent. Be that as it may, '\Voodbine lived at Tampa Bay a year or more. From the meager r ecords avai lable it is be lie ved he persuaded many Negro runawa y slaves to work for him, clearing land and planting crops, paying them perhaps with money or supplies sent from Grea t Britain. The exact location of woodbine's h o m estead or plantation has never been learned but that he lived at Tampa Bay is undispu ted. During his sojourn at the bay Woodbine became most friendly with the Indians, not only the scattered few then living in the bay region but those living farther up the peninsula as well. The friend ship became so close, it is related that the Indians gave him a large tract of land on the bay and assured him that if the Spaniards or Ameri cans tried to drive him off, a force o f fifteen hundred warriors wou ld come to his aid. In the summer of 1 817 Woodbine went to Fernandina, which had been captured from ihe Spaniards shor tl y before by General" Gregor McGregor, one of the most picturesque soldiers of fortune w ho ever enlivened the pages of American history. McGregor had been associa ted with Bolivar in the South American revolutions; now he was scheming to seize Florida from rhe Spaniards and establish his own empire But McGr e gor lacked t he n ecessary followers to carry out his ambitious program and when Woodbine told him how t h e needed force might be obtained, the Scotchman hearkened to his words.

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ANGLO-SAXONS CoME TO TAMPA BAY 49 VVoodbine's plan was simple. All that would be necessary, he said, was that McGregor should go with him to New capitol of the Bahamas At New Providence, he decl ared, hundreds of British soldiers from a disbanded regiment could be enlisted in the scheme of conquest. Ships also could be obtained, he said, for ta king the expedition to Tampa Bay where the Britishers could join forces with his fift een hundred Indian warriors From Tampa Bay, the army could proceed a cros s the peninsula and capture St. Augustine-and Florida would be safely bagged. Convinced, McGregor went with woodbin e to New Providence where they began rounding up recruits One of the volunteers, quite possibly a friend of vVoodbine, was an exBritish officer named Robert Christie Armbrister, whose name has been spelled "Ambrister" in American records. Still under thirty five years of age Armbrister had fought in the British army in many parts of th e world. He had been in the battle of vVaterloo and later had been assigned to St. Helena as one of Napoleon's guards. After a short stay there he was transferred to the west Indies; soon afterward he wounded a fel10 w officer in a duel and was suspended from his rank for a year. Nothing daunted, he proceeded to woo the daughter of a rich banker who promised to marry him. when he was reinstated in the army. while waiting for this happy day to come Armbrister went to New Providence to visit his uncle, Govern01: Cameron, of the Bahamas In New Provi dence he jo ine d forces with McGregor and was given a most impor tant assignment-he was instructed to proceed to Tampa Bay to mobilize t he Indians who had promised Woodbine their support. History does not record who went to Tampa Bay with Armbrister. Quite possibly he was accompanied by another colorful character, a Scotch trader very much his senior, Alexander Arbuthnot. The Scotch man, who had first gone to Florida to trade with the Indians a year before, was then in New Pro v i de nce laying in a new stock of goods and was j ust getting ready to make the return trip. He had purchased huge quantities of powder, lead, knives and other commodities needed by the Indians in time of war as well as in time of peace. Since both Arm brister and Arbuthnot were headed in the same direction, they may have gone together : Arbuthnot was a man n e arly eighty years old but still strong and active. His flowing white hair gave him a dignified appearance and his warm sm il e aided him in quickly making friends. Although he had been trading with the Florida Indians only a year he had already cut deeply into the business which had been long monopolized by Panton, Leslie & Company, and that finn's successors, John Forbes & Company. Arbuthnot's enemies, and he had many, asserted that he got his business by underselling his competitors and that his low prices were possible

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50 TAMPA because he was subsidized by the British. In fact, he was accused of being a British agent, assigned to Florida to incite the Indians to make war against Americans. Arbuthnot insisted he was merely what he said he was: an hone st trader desirous only of making an honest. living. At Tampa Bay, Armbrister lived a few months at woodbine's place. If Arbuthnot came with him, he did not tarry long. He headed north and soon resumed his trading with the Indians in the Apalachicola regton. Armbri ster had no success rounding up I ndian warriors in the Tampa B ay area. Only a scattered few were living there and they were definitely c ool to the idea of joining an expedition to oust the Span i ards from St. Augustine. Believing he might have better lu ck farther north, he proceeded overl and to the Suwannee River. Along the way he found time to pay attention t.o the pretty daughter of an Indian chief and become friendl y with the c hief hims e lf Then he went north again-. and on April IS, 1818, wal ked into tl1e In dian town of Old Town which had just been captured by General Jackson. He was taken prisoner. Ele ven days before Arbuthnot also had been captured by General J ackson. H e had been a guest of Commandant Luengo o f tlle Spanish fort at St. Mark s when Jackson came storming in. Jackson held him as a prisoner of war. When the American general ceased chastising the Indians h e gave orders for Arbuthnot and Armbrister, both British subjects, to be tried on charges of inciting the Indians to war against the United States and supplying them with arms and ammunition. A court martial of four tee n American officers, presided over by Genera l Edmund P. Gaines, was held in tl1e Spanish tow n of St. Marks on April 25. The court found botll men guilty and recommended tllat Arbu tllnot be hanged and Armbrister shot. Then it reco n sidered the case of Armbrister and made a new recommendation that he be given fifty lashes and im prisoned a year. Most obvious ly the officers had decided that t he evidence against him was altogether too flimsy to warran t death. But J ackson arbitrarily insist ed that both men be executed-and they were on Apri l 29, 1818, in St. M arks, by soldiers of th e American invading army on Spanish soil. Armbrist er, the man who once tarried a while on Tampa Bay and who might have led an exped i tion from that point to se ize Florida from Spain, did not fli nch at the death sentence And when he heard tlle fife and drum parading tlle platoon for his execution, he remarked: "I suppos e that admonishes me to be ready-a sound I have heard in every quaner of the globe, and now for the last time." Whether Armb rister and Arbuthnot were actualJy agents of the British is unquestiona bly debatable Certa inly the evidence against them was not strong. But impetuous Jackson was convinced they were guilty so, innocent or not, their fate was sealed.

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ANGI.o-SAXONs CoME TO TAMPA BAY 51 The execution of the two men aroused a storm of indignation in Great Britain and might easily have caused another war with the United States. But E n gla n d had he r hands f u ll at that time on the Continent and the matter was finally dropped. Jackson continued on his meteoric career to become the president of the United States. Hackle y Established a Tampa Bay Plantation Richard S. Hackley, wealthy New York attorney returned home one afternoo n i n the late spring of 1819 almost breathless with excite ment. He had big news. He had just purchased more than half of the entire peninsula of Florida! To prove h i s statement, Hack ley showed t he members of his fam il y a most impressive doc u ment, many pages long, written in Span i sh and s i gned by Ferdinand VII, king of Spain. It was a grant of approximately eleven million acres of Florida land made by the Spanish monarch on February 6 1818, t o the Duke of Alagon Hackley said the duke had become hardpressed for cash and was forced to sell the grant. The New Yorker never revea l ed how much he paid. Sale of the Alagon grant to Hackley was completed on May 29, I 819 Three months before that on Febru ary 22, 1819, the State Depart ment and Spanish representatives in Washington had agreed upon the terms of the Florida purchase treaty. I n the treaty, all Spanish grants made after January 24, 1818, were specifically nullified. That auto matically cance ll ed the A lagon grant, made thirteen days after the deadline had passed Photo not available

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52 TAMPA vVhether Hackley knew that the tr. eaty threw out the grant he had purchased is purely a matter of conjecture. In all events, he later claimed that he made the purchase at a time when the grant was still valid, inas much as the treaty had not yet been ratified by the king of Spain or by Congress. He insisted he had made the purchase in good faith and consequently had a sound claim to the property. The Alagon grant too k in all the Tampa Bay region. It is quite likely, therefore, that Hackley was deeply interested in articles regard ing Tampa Bay which appeared in the influential NILES' WEEKLY REGISTER. The first, printed March 24, 1821, shortly after the final ratification of the Florida purchase treaty, read: "Florida, in every respect, is a valuable acquisition to us. It may cause a considerable revolution in things, domestic and foreign. It opens to us a large tract of country, capable of furnishing immense supplies of cotton sugar, rice and perhaps coffee and cocoa, and the olive, all of wh ich it may be expected, will be fully tried on an extensive scale, by n ew adventurers in those, at present, rich commodities. "The product of tl:lese w ill have a domestic effect, as well as that which may be caused by considerable disbursements by the government at Pensacola a n d probably at Hillsborough Bay, or Tampa Bay, or Espiritu Santo Bay, as a place on the west coast of the peninsula is called, which will, most likely, become the seat of government; for we presume that what is now called West Florida will be added to the state of Ala bama, to which it seems rightfully to belong." Of even more interest to Hack ley was a second NILEs' WEEKLY REGISTER article which appeared June 30, 1821. It read: "From what we hear of Tampa Bay, though its shores are not now inhabi ted, it will probably contest with Pensacola the honor of being ultimately fixed upon as the site for the southern naval depot of the United States. The bay is said to be easier of access and to have more water than that of Pensacola; the neighboring country is fertile and abounds in oak (valued for use in the construction of ships) and a short canal w ill unite the bay with the great river St. Johns." These newspaper articles and many others which followed later indicated plainly that Tampa Bay was a place of coming impo rtance, even though it might never become the capital of Florida or the site of a United States naval station. It was quite natural therefore, that when Hackley deCided to take steps to strengthen his claim to the Alagon grant, he should select Tampa Bay as the place to establish a home. Hack ley was too busy with his law practice in New York to go pioneering himself so he sent his son, Robert J. Hackley, on the long, hazardous journey which was made on his new schooner. Lumber for a large frame dwelling and barns was taken along and so were many kinds of agricultural implements. At St. A ugustine young Hackley. then just twe nty-one years old, purchased two yoke of oxen, eight head

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ANcLo.SAXoNs CoME ToT AMPA BAv 53 o f caul e and many ch ickens. H e also emplo yed sixteen white men to go with him to clear the land, erect the buildings, and start a plantation. The schooner sailed into Tampa Bay early in November, 1823. After cruising around a day or so and going ashore often to examine the land, young Hackley decided that the bank of the Hillsborough River at its mouth was the finest spot on the bay, so there he land ed The site was covered with a heaV)' growt h of oak trees, cabbage palms, and a tang l ed mass of undergrow t h, ind i catin g that t he soil was fertil e A great Indian mound close by showed that the spot o n ce was inhabi ted by savages but now no Indians were seen Seve ral appeared a few days later but t hey w ere friendly. Given a few presents, they l eft and returned soon afte nvarcl carrying a young fat doe they hac! just k i lled and four wild turkeys. Smiling, they presented the game to H ackley. With his crew of men, Hackley p r oceeded at once to build a wharf and unload his supplies. T hen the men went to wor k building a house described later as being 'of superior style and quality for a new locality." They also erected barns and cleared many acres of ground. And they planted citrus trees and crops. By the end of the year the plantation was well established, the first on the entire '.Yest Coast of Flori da. It was truly a plantation at the end of nowhe r e, a home in the wil derness. Photo not available

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54 TAMPA F ood was no problem to t h e new settler and his men. The forests t o the north of the plan ta t ion w ere alive with game deer, bears and wild tmkeys. And in the waters of the Hillsborough River and Tampa Bay, f ish litera ll y swarmed Heapin g basketsful of fat, luscious oyst ers could be gathered in a few minutes. C l ams were abundant and del icious stone crabs cou l d be fou nd everywhere. The pioneers always had plenty of food. Satisfied with the progress which had been made, H ackley decided to have a shon vacation. So he took the schooner and sailed away for Pensacola, l eaving his foreman Rhodes in charge. '"' h il e he was away, disaster came-disaster brought by the United States Army His prop erty was seized and used as the si te for a fort-fort Brook e, the parent ol' the Tampa of today FoTt Brook e I s Esta/Jiisheti Serious trouble with t h e Seminole s began to develop almost im med i ate l y after the United States took over Florida from Spain in 1821. D espite the devastat ion wrought by General Jackson in the First Seminole \ Var, north Flo rida was still dotted wit h Indian villages. Many of the Indians had lived there a hundred years or more and had large fields of crops and herds of cattle. Some had Negro slaves who were not held in bondage but who paid a tribute in corn in e xch ange for pro t ec tion from white s l ave humers. The Indians considered th emselves the owners of t h e l ands they occupi ed. Practically all of th em were peace able and friendly. The picture began c h anging wit.h the return of Gen eral Jac kson to take formal possession of the Spanish prov ince. Land speculators came with him and looked greedily upon tl1e lands the Indians occupied. The speculato r s were Jackson's friends and, to s atisfy them he advocate d removal of the Indians to the Vest. The Semino l e l eaders heard of his p lans, and tension grew. The situ ation was rapid l y made worse by the influx. o f new settlers. All wanted l and and none believed t h e Indians had any right t o hold the land on which they lived. Strident demand s w ere made that the Indians shoul d be forced to leave th eir villages and give up t h e fie l ds they had cl eared and c ultivated. P owerless to resist, the I ndians reluct a ndy agreed on September 18, 1823, at a m eeting held at Camp Moultrie to move southward into the peninsula. The treaty, if it could be called that provided that the I ndians should be paid $4,500 for the lands they were forced to vacate, $6,000 for farm implem ents and livestoc k and a government annu i ty of $5,000 a year for twenty years. They also were to receive $1,000 a year for a school and another $1,0 00 a year to maintain a blacksmith and gun shop. At that time t h ere were approximately five tho usand Indians in Florida. The treaty, therefore meant that gen erous United States prom i sed to pay about $2 to each Indian to reimb urse him for the loss

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.Ai'iGLO.SAXONS CoME TO TAMPA BAY 55 of his land defray the cost of moving southward and buy new equip ment and livestock and about $1.50 a year for L wenty years as an annuity and to maintai n a schoo l and smithy. Colonel James Ga dsden was assigned the task of blazing a li ne acros s the peninsula t o mark the boundar y of the Indian re servation. T h e li ne was t o run east and west a littl e south of the present city of Ocala. In an attempt to make sure that the Indians wo uld submit peace full y to the terms of the treaty, the War D epartment on November 5, 1823, issued orders for the establishment of a military post at Tampa Bay. The order was sent to C olonel George Mer c e r Brooke then stati oned at Fort Clinch, near P e n sacola. Inasmuch as this order ulti mately led to the birth of Tampa, it merits being given in full. It read: Adjutant Ccnt : ral s O ff ice, Wa shingto n 5 Novemb e r, 1823. Brevet Colone l Brooke witl1 four compa nies of me 4th lnfanu y will proceed with as little delay as pract i c able t o Tampa nay, Ea s t Florida wh ere he will establish a military post. H e will se lect a pos iti o n w ith a view t o health and i n refer e n ce to th e location or the Fl orida Indians, about to be removed to mat v icinity agreeably to me late treaty. Upon this point he will consult Col onel Gadsden the commiss ioner e m p loyed in 1 oc;tting the Indians. Colonel Brooke will compl e te as near as pra ct icable the companies which will go t o T;unpa from those l eft at Cantonment Clin ch and Uarrancas. r ec ruits will be sent to shortl y to supply all the deficienc es in the regim e nt, and he will d es i e natc the officers t o acc om pany him, a s drcumsta n ces may render adv1sah l e. The p e rman ent headquart e r s of' the 1th Infa ntry will remain a t Cantonment Cl in c h and sho u ld Colon e l Cl in c h have reformed his r e gim ent on th e r eceipt of this order h e will be charged with the duty of preparing Colo nel nrooke's command for the e xpedition t o Tampa. !he quarte rm aster's and subsistenc e departments will furnish me necessary transportation and suppljes and will make su c h further arrange mentS as may be requjred for the accommoda ti o n of the t roops at their new statio n. By order of Major General Brown E. aide-dl! -cnmp. Col onel Bro o k e rece i ve d the order l ate in November. But he did not hurry to carry it out and move on to T am pa Bay. Perhaps he had troubl e getting n ecessary supplies. l3ut what is more likely is that he had no burning des ire to forsake gay P ensaco la with i t s theatres and hotels and taverns and social l ife, and depart to t he wilderness and live in company with rattlesna kes and alliga tors. Who can blame him? While sti ll at Pensacola Colone l Brooke recei ved a lett e r from Colonel Gadsden, written i n St. Augustine on December I In the letter, Gadsden requested Brooke to meet h im at Tampa B ay as soo n as poss ible. "Othenvise," he wrote, I may be much embarrass ed in my operat i ons if not m uch ex pose d to privations of a severe chara cter .... The India ns hav e of late exhibited someth ing like an unfrien dly feeli ng and are unwillin g that I shou ld run the lin e immediately. Your presence with troops will produce the most happy resu l ts."

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5 6 T AMPA Despi t e t hi s urging, Colonel Br oo k e did no t leave P e n saco l a until January 15, 1 824. With the memb ers of hi s s t aff h e travele d on a schooner owned by C aptain H e n ry Brigg'S S ampson, of Danbury, Mas s., who received $10 e a c h for his passeng e rs Non commissioned officers and privates w e n t on two other vesse ls. An acc ount of the tri p and th e est ablishm ent o f a canton ment is rela ted i n a report f rom C olone l Broo k e to Maj o r G e n era l Jaco b B r o w n written Febru a r y 5, 1 824, from ''Camp on Hill sbor o ugh Ri v er." The r eport, now i n th e files of the National Arch i ves, in Was h ington, reads : "I h ave the honor t o report that I left Pen>acola w ith four full c o mpanies o n the 15th J anuary las t and arrived o([ the mouth of Sa n to Spirim B ay o n the 1 8 th. But u nfortunate l y wa. b lown to sea the same evening by a sev ere g ale. The v e sse l o n hoard of which 1 wa .s, reg-ain ed the Bay on the 20th, the other two did n o t co m e in until som e days af ten\' ard. "On the 22nd me t with Colonel Gadsde n who had arrive d some days pre, i o u s and w h o h a d made a partial reconnaissance of the co u ntry but f t a d not selected any particular spot. On visiti n g s everal places, and after a consultation, we detem>ined upon this place as the (most) eligi ble rcga .rdiog the objects of the expedition, health and the con v e o i ence o1 getting supplies We were also inueoced by the quantity o f cle ared land wfticll was a t o n ce adapted to garden s for the officers and men "\'\Fe arc situated on the northeas t ban k of the Hillsboro u g h R iver imme diately on its entrance into the Bay of t h e s ame name. Col o n e l G. did me the honor o f insisting that the ca ntonment s h o uld be called Brooke but i t will be known as tha t o[ Hillsboro ugh till the ple a s u re of' the War Department s h a H be as certa in ed. I mmediately in the rear of this place. say two mile s the ridge of piney l ands commences i n w h ic h I saw some very fine s p rings and shoul d the slightes t disease manifest itself we will retire on it with our tents. I woulil beg leave to remark the necessity of having at leas t two surgeons a t all times here and an abundance of good supplies. We are even at this t i m e bad l y off for tems i n consequence of our n o t being abl e to procure the necessary n u mb e r f t o m New Orlean s and those we took from Pensaco l a were all o l d with the excep tion of a few common tents and when w e in the summer will be compe lled t o move on die hig h land they will b e abso lutely necessary. "The r e i s in t h e n eighborhood o f thisJ>la ce a most excellent s i te (or a grist and saw m ill whic h could b e ercctc at a s m a ll expe ns e p r ov ided the ma teria l s were f urnished a s we h ave two line millw rights i n the command. l t would no t onl y b e a great conven i ence t o the trOOps but would have a good eUect on the Indians in grinding their corn and furnishing them with some plank and should the deparonent ever wish i o dispose of it, it would adil greatly to the value of the l and. I have n o doubt t h a t the country will be settled by immigr:uas from the Southern s t a t es as soon as i t i s know n they are pro t ec t ed fro m the Indian s by t h e command stati o n ed a t t h i s p l ace The r e are m any lar{$'e hammoc k s o f v e ry fine land near u s no d o u b t adapted to t h e c ul t! vatton of s u g a r and e very variety of ' ege t ab l e production "I hav e not as yet seen many Indians b u t expec t to have a talk i n a f e w d ays as I have sent to the chiefs T h ose whom l have s een d o not s e e m to be we ll p l eased with the tre:nv and have ex p ress ed so m e d i s l i k e

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ANGLo-SAxONs CoME TO TAMPA BAY 57 to CoL Gadsden's running a line They will be treated with kindness and respect but at the same time with dete rmination and firmness. It would have a good effect on the Indians if some of our vessels of war wer e ordered tO l ook into this Bay freq u e ntly from Key 'West ftom which we are but a shon d i stance. The Indi ans appear 10 have no idea of the strength and power of the United States "Colone l Gadsden left us two days s i nc e, himself and party in good health Upon his request I furnished him with three addi t ional men The numbe r of tents l should wish f orwarded will be fourteen wall, two h ospital and forty common. By every opportunity I shall furnish s uch information as I may acquire of the country and i t s reso u rces with such Other matte r as may be intere st ing to the Depanment of \Var. Mcp A tuWnfll Aniun!s nouttdaries of milita1 y reservation at f 't. Brooke a$ shown br map made in Fcbru:.uy, 1830. Reser v ation was 16 mi l e s square with ft. nrooke in exact <:elHCr. 'fhis was the fir::;t map made by 1\toericans in South Flor-ida. ..

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58 TAMPA "1 have the honor to be most respectfully your very obedient servant George M. Brook e. "N.B.: 1 should wish two six pounders mounted with a supply of carni dges ... \Nc might be absolutely in want of them." Unintentionally, Colonel Brooke made one misstatement in his report. While writing about the fine land near the cantonment he said that the country would be filled with settlers as soon as they learned they wo ul d be protected from the I ndians. The colonel probably did not know that the Camp Moultrie tre aty specifically prohibited white set tlers f rom going in to the Indian terri tory, as marked off by Colonel Gadsden. It was this provi s ion which reta rded Tampa Bay development for at least a decade. Colonel Brooke ma de ano ther error in his r eport this one, an error of omission He made no mention whatever of the fact that to get the site he wanted for the cantonment, he forced Robert Hackley to give up the buildings he had erected and the fields he had cleared and plant ed He merely said: "We were also influenced by the quantity of cleared land which w a s at once adapted to gardens for the officers a n d men ." No one can say definitely why Colonel Brooke failed to mention that Hackley had cleared the land and made many other improvements. Pe r haps he did not think the 'Var Department would be interested. Perhaps he was ashamed of the fact that he had adopted brass -hat measures and h ighhandedly dispossessed the only bon a fide settler on the entire west Coast, particularly when he had countless other sites on Tampa Bay where he could have located almost as well. But t he fact remains that Hackley truly had sta rted a plantation and was forced to leave. Proo f of that is f urnished by affidavits sworn to later by Colonel Brooke himself, Colonel Gadsden, one of Hackley's hired men, a soldier in the 4th Regiment, and by Hackley himself. The affidavits were used years later in a law suit brought by Hackley's heirs to get possession of the fort site. Said Brooke i n a statement signed November 27, 1834, in Brown County, Mi chigan: "The place selec ted was occupied by Hackley who had erected upon it a comfortable dwelling house and had the ground near it under cultivation Said Gadsd en, August 27, 1834 : "The im provements made (by Hackley) were on the identical spot selected by Colonel Brooke as a site for Cantonment Brooke." Said B. J. Benjamin, a soldier, October I, 1834: H ackley built a frame house of superior quality and style for a new loca lity. He had sundry implements of husbandry tOgether with hoes, spades, ploughs and also oxen, cows, poultry, hogs etc., which he had brought with him." Unfortunately, n one of the affidavits indicated w ha t tactics were emp lo yed to get Hackley o ff the la n d or what happened to his livestoc k and farm equipment. All that constitutes a mystery of the bygone past which probably w ill remain unsolved forever.

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Cor.u: TOT AMPA BAY 59 It is undoubtedly true, however, that because of Hackley' s labors, Colonel Brooke established the cantonment where he did. The whar, the cleared fields and, above all, the fine dwelling where he and his fellow officers could live were inducements he could not resist. They more than made up for the lack of a deep channel which was sorely needed in later years. But what difference did a deep channel make when weighed against a good night's sleep in a staunch dwelling secure ag ainst winds and rains? Interesting supplementary information regarding the establish ment of the cantonment is furnished in letters written to his father in the spring of 1 824 by Lieut. Geor ge A. McCa ll one of Colonel Brooke's officers. M cCa ll revealed how Gadsden Point was named. He said that when his ship came into Tampa Bay a signal was sighted far ahead. It was a staff with a piece of musl i n flying from its head, stuck int o the beach on a point of land separating Old T ampa and Hill sborough bays. Inv estigatio n showed that the staff bore a letter from Colonel Gadsden stating that he was camped at the mouth of the Hillsborough River and that Colonel Brooke should meet him there. McCall added: "Colonel Gadsden begged leave to name this embryo stat ion Fort Brooke in honor of my commanding officer and the latter returned the compli ment by naming the point of land which separa tes the two bays and where the letter was found Gadsden Point' ." The lieutenant stated that, because of shallow water near the site selected for the cantonment, the so ldi ers had to land near Gadsden Point and wal k to the mouth of the river which they crossed in row boats. The camp equipmen t and supplies had to be brought in on lighters. The soldiers spent most o{ their time clearing out the under brush at the rear of the camp and cutting pine logs used for building barracks for the men. H e said that the walls of the barracks were made tw e lve feet high to permit free circulation of air. McCall was thrilled by the mammoth oak trees at the camp H e wrote: "Our camp extends under a canopy of the most superb trees l have ever beheld. These giant live-oaks throw out their huge limbs at a distance of six to ten feet from the gro und. These enormous limbs, as l arge as the trunks of common trees, extend in an alm ost horizontal direct.ion for ten to fifteen feet, then spread in g and rising to the height of fifty or sixty feet, form a dens e round head that is a perfect parasol. Thei r great limbs and smaller branches are hung w ith long pendams of the Spanish moss and with festoons of the yellow jessamine which has been in bloom, with clusters of bright yellow flowers, ever since we have been here." The lieutenant also was thrilled by the sight of oysters "growing on trees." He explained that they were r ea ll y growing on the root branches of the mangroves covered at high tide b y water but which at

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60 TAMPA low tide were e x posed. He said h e walked into the shallow water, gathered som e of the "tree oysters" and ate abou t a dozen, finding them very well flavor ed but not fac. There is one thing about McCall 's l etters which is co mp l etely mystifying. The elates he gave for happenings f rom the tim e the ships lef t Pensacola to th e esta blishment of the camp were about six weeks later than the dates give n by Colonel Brooke. For instance, he said that the departure from Pensacola was on February 27; B roo k e said January 15. McCall gave M arch 5 as the date the camp was established; Brooke indicated it was J anuary 24. From the dates, one would think there were two separ ate e x ped i t i ons but that is defi nitely not the case because eac h tells of the same happenings. It seems that the onl y possibl e ex planation of the date differen ce s is tha t McCall, in writing th e l etters, depended on hi s memo ry and was six weeks off in his reck onings The original copy of Brooke's letter is on file in washington and must be acce pted as correct. Being t he comm and i ng officer and h aving been required to ma k e official reports, he certain l y should have known the exact date he establ i shed t he camp which bore his name. Tranquil Days at Fort Brooke Few army posts anywhere in the country were more isolated in 1824 than the post at the mouth of th e Hillsborough, first called Canton ment Brooke and then, soon aftennrd, Fort Brooke. The Tampa Bay region was almo st uninha bited. Out on the keys nea r the entrance to the bay, a few Span ish fishermen had their "ran cho s" wher e they dried and cured fish for the Cuban market. They were itinerants who came and went, livin g a year or so on one key and then moving on to some place else, wherever their fancy might take them. I n tl1e forests beh i nd the army camp, a few Indians roamed but there were no I nd ian villages in the vicinity. The nearest home of an Anglo American settler was more than a hundred miles away Nowhe re along the cost was there a white settlement. Pensacola was the nearest town of any consequ ence and that was three hundred miles away, by water. Key \Ves t was sti ll just a hangout for ruthless "wr e ckers" who lured ships to des t ru ction wit\1 false flares and beacons The nearest army post was at St Augustine, far across the peninsula. Fort Brook e was truly in t he heart of a trackless wilderness. There were a few Indian trails but they did not seem to lead anywhere; t hey l ooked more like hunters' trails than roads used by travel ers. I n 1824 Congress appropriated $12,000 to build a road from St. .Mary's River, on the n orthern boundary of the Florid a territory, to Tampa Bay Need less to say, the road was not constru cted. In 1825, work of blazing a trail up th rough the peninsula was started ; this road becam e known as the Mili tary Road and later as the For t King Road. Fort Brook e's only connec tion with the o utside world was by sa ili ng vessels. Once a week a s loop came in from Pensaco la bringing mail and

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A NGLO-SAXONS COM T O TAMl' A BAY 61 supplies, and gossi p from the soldiers stationed at Fort B arrancas. Trad ing vessels occasionally came into the bay but more from curi osity t han to transact bus i ness. T he "warships" requested by Colonel Brooke rarely arrived; th e W'ar D epartmelll probab l y di d not think their presence w a s n eeded to i mpress the Ind i ans wi th th e mig h t o f Uncle Sam. During t h e spring of 1 824 the Tampa B a y region got i ts first Anglo Ameri can f amily -Mr. and Mrs. L ev i Coller and f ive ch ildren. A native of Massachus etts Co ll e r w ent tO St. Augusti n e when a youn g man and in 1 8 1 3 was m arried to Nancy Dixon, whose f a t h e r owned a trac t of l a nd at Rose mary Bl uff, on th e St. Mary s Riv e r. T he new l yweds m ade their hom e w ith the b ri de's p a r e nts but ear l y in 1 8 1 4 were forced t o fle e t o escape from Indi a n s wa r ri n g on th e s i de of the Britis h aga i ns t Americans. Proceed ing sou thward the Collers found s h elter i n a desened trapper's hut on the Suwannee River and there on Janu a r y 22, J814 the day af ter their arrival a daughter was born They n amed her Nancy, after the mot h er. L earning t hat the Indians in that section were [riend ly, the C ollers l i ved there ten years, during which time four more chil dren were born: Corde l ia Eliza, M e r ce d e s and John. Desir in g t o live clo s e r to sa l t water, Colle r came t o T amp a Bay in t he early f a ll of 1823 and s e l ected as a ho me s ite a beautiful hamm ock near t h e mouth of the Hillsbo ro u g h Riv e r. He then returned h ome t o get t h e members of his f a mil y In t h e spring, they started southw a rd t r ave lin g on horseback b e c ause it was i mpos s i bl e to drive oxcarts thro u gh the wil de rn ess. T heir pos sessions were stra p pe d on the backs of mu les. Weeks we r e required for t h e journey. T hey h ad no l e gal rig h t to enter the India n terr i to ry but they came anyhow and n o o ne s topped them Arriving at Tampa Bay in April Coller was a s t o nish ed to learn that the spot he had ch osen for a home already had been occupied, first by H ackley and t hen by t h e army a nd that now it had be c ome Canton ment Brooke. Colle r w a s disappointed abo u t los ing the fine hammoc k land he had wanted b u t there were countless other sites availa ble, so he moved his family across the river a n d built a l og c abin o n the west bank, almost opposite the fort C learing several acres, he raised vegetab le s w hich he sold to t h e ga r riso n m aking a good living. He a lso p lant e d cotto n whi c h he g i n n ed himself ; his wife and daugh ters sp un a nd dyed it, and wov e i t i nto clot h f o r garments for the family. Although the Collers w ere separate d from the fort by the river, t hey we r e n o t afraid o f Indi a ns, simp l y b e cause v ery few Indians lived anyw h ere near. Almost a ll o f t h em sti ll l ive d north of t he line w h ich Gadsden h a d just f ini s h ed blazing across the pe ninsula, a littl e sout h of the prese n t ci t y o f Ocala. The I ndians were supp o s e d to g o south of the I ine at once, abandoning their homes farther no r t h but most of them ref u sed to lea ve the land where they had lived for years. T hey

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62 TAMPA considered the central part of the peninsula definitely inferior to the northern section. This view also was held by the tenitorial governor, William P. Duval, who inspected the land in the Indian territory below the 'Vithla coochee during the winter of 1825-26. On February 22, 1826, he said in a letter to Washington officials: "I left the Military Road near Okihurnky and visited the whole country to the right of the road as far as Tampa Bay. I visited every spot where lands were spoken of as being good and I can say, with truth, I have not seen three hundred acres of good land in my whole routes, after leaving the agency. The lands on the Big and Little Withla coucha are poor, and the lands on the Hillsborough River, within the Indian boundary, are of so little value that there is not one Indian settlement on any of them .... The best of the Indian lands are worth but little; nineteen-twentieths of their whole country within the present boundary is by far the poorest and most miserable region I have ever beheld." Governor Duval recommended that other lands be assigned to the Indians. But the government refused. And most of the Indians re mained where they were, north of the boundary line. As a result, the soldiers stationed at Fort Brooke lived a most tran quil life. They had a few camp chores to do, and a little drilling, but they almost always were able to find ti1ne to leave the garrison and go out and fish and hunt. In letters sent back home, the soldiers often described Tampa Bay as a fisherman's and hunter's paradise. In the beginning, the officers lived in the Hackley home. But soon they tired of living bachelors' lives and built separate homes for themselves on the high land overlooking the bay. Then they brought in their wives and Fort Brooke began to have a little social life. Two historic events occurred at Fort Brooke during 1826 The first was a Derby, a three-day Derby, the first ever held on the Florida peninsula. It started March 15, 1826. The races were described in the PENSACOLA GAZETTE of AprilJ5, 1826: "First day: Mr. Page's horse Bacchus, Mr. McCall's horse Packing ham, and Captain Dade's horse Richard the Third, were entered for the three mile heats-won by Bacchus in two heats, which were well contested. "Second day: Captain Yancy's horse Uncle Sam, Mr. Collin's horse lleppo, and Mr. Morris' horse Bob Logic were entered for the two mile heats. First heat beaten by Beppo. The superior bottom of Uncle Sam gained him the second and third. "Third day: Mr. Page's colt Keep Coming, and Mr. Collin's colt Go It, were entered for the single mile. This race was handsomely run on both sides and Keep Coming was beaten by Go It a half neck only."

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ANGLO-SAXONS COME TO TAMI'A BAY 63 One can well imagine tha t many a soldier lost his month's pay wager ing on his favorite horse in that Derby on the shore of Tampa Bay so l ong ago. But it was all clean sport and what t h e soldiers los t in betting on the horses they could not los e in p l aying cards, which they did hour after hour. The second historic event of 1 826 was of far more importance than a Derby It was th e b ir t h of the f irst whi te ch il d born to Anglo-A merica n parents anywhere in the Tampa Ba y region. The newcomer was J ohn Merce r Broo k e, son of C olonel G eorge Merce r and Luc y (l'homas) Brooke born at the garrison Dece mber 1 8, 1826. The youngster was dest ine d to becom e a famous man H e received his early educati on at K e nyon College, Gambier, 0., and was graduate d from th e United States Nava l Acad emy in 1847. For a number of years .......... Jl# c...,tuy I , . ,..__, J\11\ p ..... t.lt c 111. \'W. iFOR'l' 'B ROOK. t 'nrt Brooke was one oC the largest miliLat) estabJi s.hrnent s in the United States when this map was made in January, J 858. Ltgel'ld: l -judge Augustus Steele's home and out-buildings. 2-Indian d\\cltings 9 -James L ynch's home and store.
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64 T AM P A thereafter he was stationed at the Naval Obse rvat ory. Becomin g director of t h e astronom ical d epartment, he was engaged in the Vinc en nes ex pedi tion in the e xplo ration and survey of the North A t l antic. Re signing from the United States Navy at the ou tb reak of the War Between the States, he was appointed ch ief of the bureau of ordnance and hydrograph y of the Confederate Navy. Unde r his direction the hull of the U.S. frigate M errim ac, which had been sunk by Federal forces near the Norfolk Navy Yar d, was ra i sed and reconstructe d as an ironclad. Ren amed the C.S .S. Vi1ginia it became the first ironclad warship in the wo rld. From 1866 to 1899 he was a professor at the Virginia Military Institute. He died December 14, 1906. Development of Bay Region I s Slow During tlte mid-1820s the Tampa Bay region made progress slowly. In fact, it might be said that no progress at all was made. The re were many reasons why dev elopment was retarded. Tampa Bay was in the heart of the territory set aside for the Indians and white men were not supposed to enter that territory excep t on official business. Even when they came, they could not get title to any land. The Preemption Act of April 22, t 826, gave pioneers the right to buy 160 acres of the public domain i n Florida after settling and establishing a claim to the land but the act did not apply to land inside the I ndian rese r vat ion. Besides, a bitter dispute still raged regarding own ership of th e Tampa Bay region Uncl e Sam, of course, said the lan d was his-all his. But there were other cla imants. Richard Hackley whose son had settled at the river insisted that the entire area belonged to him through his purchase of the Alagon grant. His claim was considered so strong that when John Lee Williams made a map of Florida in 1837, he labeled all the Tampa Bay area as Hackley's. Ano the r clai mant to ttiis muc h desired land was Henry Eckford, of N ew York, w ho had purchased a grant of 24 miles square, or 576 square miles, given by the Spanish government in 1810 to Don Ped ro Mirand a, of St. Augustine. As shown by Spanish maps, this grant em braced a large part of the Tampa Ba y region including Fort Brooke. Auorneys for Eckford insisted he had a vali d claim to the land inasmuch as the grant had been made years before the Florida purchase treaty was first con sid ered. Fed eral courts did not pass on either the Alago n or Miranda cl aims during the 1820 s and, as a result, no o ne could say for sure who was the real owner of the land. To complicate matters still more the War Department decided in 1829 that the timber and naval stores around Fort B rooke should be preserved so on April 23, orders were sent to Colonel D L. Clinch, then in command at the fort, to prepare a map showing the location of t he fort and si xteen miles square of surrounding territory. The map TJte Miranda tlaim wa.s iravolitlated by the U. S. Supreme Courl in ]tJmUJry, 1U2. U. S. v.1. Miranda. 16 P
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ANGLO-SAXONS COI'H; TO TAMPA BAY 65 was completed and sent to the War Department on February 9, 1830 and on December I 0 following, President Andrew Jackson set aside the reservation. As shown by the map Fort Brooke was made the center of the reservation, being eight miles from the center of each side of the square. This tract took in almost all t he land now occupied by the City of Tampa, embracing altogether 256 square miles. The map shows that t he Seminoles had begun settling in the Tampa Bay area and by 1830 had established two v illages, Thlonotasassa, on the shore of the beautiful lake now called Lake Thonotosassa, and Hicka pusassa, at the present site of Plant City. The Semin ole meaning for Thlonotasassa is said to be "Field of Flints," because of flint deposits found nearby, and for Hickapusassa, "Tobacco Fields." The map also gives a Seminole name for the Hillsborough River, "Lock cha-pop-ca." Presence of the Indians nearby aided rather than retarded the development of Fort Brooke as a place for civilians to live as well as soldiers. The embryo community soon became widely known as an Indian trading post as Seminoles started coming in from miles away to barter alligalOr hides, bird plumes, deer skins and furs for bolts of gaily colored calico, arms and ammunition, cooking utensils, tobacco, and countless other things they wanted. The first t rader to develop t his potentially profitable business was William G. Saunders, o f Mobile, Ala., who came to Fort Brooke in the fall of 1828 with a sloop heavily loaded with general merchandise. Convin cing Colonel Clinch that he would not sell liquor to the Indians, he got permission to build a Jog store on the river near the present foot o f Whiting Street. There he opened his establishment, the first general store on the entire West Coast. It might be said that the openi ng of Saunders' store represented the birth of the town of Tampa. Prior to that time Fort Brooke had been a military post and not much else. Now it had something to attract civilians Spanish fishermen, living in palmetto huts up and down the coast, began coming in to Saunders' store to get their supplies. Trappers also started making it their barter point. And the store soon became the general meeting place of the few white settlers who had braved the dangers of the wilderness and built their Jog homes in this frontier! and. A cobbler arrived to repair shoes and also turn his hand at harness making. A blacksmith shop was opened. A laundress employed at the garrison began taking in boarders at her home. A small boat shop was established where the hulls of sailing vessels were repaired and sails mended. Gamblers began drifting in, eager to help the soldiers and frontiersmen get rid of their hard earned money. A few women of morals set up in business in huts along the waterfront. ;

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66 TAMPA And so it was that a civilian community began to develop. To serve the postal needs of the embryo town, and the entire Tampa Bay regio n as well, the Post Office Department on November 24, 1831, estab lished the first post office on the West Coast at Fort Brooke. It w a s named the T ampa Bay Post Office. Saunders owner of the general store, was named as the first postmaster. Mail was brought in and taken out on a schooner which plied up and down the coast between Key \.Vest and Pensacola, stopping at the garrison once a week. Saund ers was succeeded as postmaster after serving eight months by a man who may easily be termed the first outstan ding citizen of the Tampa Bay region a Connecticut Yankee. Augustus Steele was h i s name. \.Vell educated and talented, Steele had come to Florida in 1825 with a group of Connecticut colonists who settled south of Tallahassee on the St. Mark s River at Magnolia, one of the first boom towns of Florida. There St ee le published a newspaper, the MAGNOLIA ADVERTISER. Largely because of Steele's newspaper propagandizing, the Federal government on J anuary 21, 1829, established a customs c ollection dis trict of St. Marks and made Magnolia the po r t of entry for the district This district extended south as far as Charlotte Harbor and of course inclu ded Fort Brooke and the infant communi ty at its side. After four years of struggling, the MAGNOLIA ADVERTISER ceased to be, but Publisher Steel e was not left without a job. While working on his paper he had become well acquainted with politicians in the terri torial capital and also with Federal officials who then, even as now were not adverse to wandering down to Florida on official business during the winter months. As a result of his know ing the right people, Steele got an appointment on July 13, 1832, as deputy collector of custom s at Fort Brooke. Just ten days later, on July 23, he was appoint ed post master at Tampa Bay Post Office by President Andrew Jackson With these two positions to provide him with bread and butter money Steele came on to Tampa Bay and soon began taking a leading part in commun i ty affairs. Appraising the region's future prospects, Steele decided that it could never hope to forge ahead so long as it remained a part of sprawling Alachua County, the county seat of which was at Newnansville, near the pres ent city of Gain esville. What the Tampa Bay area really needed, he concluded, was a cou nty all its own, with Tampa, of course, the count y seat. Losing no time day dream ing. Steele went to Tallahassee in the fall of 1833 and began lobbying to have a new county created. He was a frien:d of Governor Duval and knew all the members of the territor ial legislature. Moreover he knew the right strings to pull to get things done. It is not surprising, therefore, that on January 25, 1834 the legis -

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ANGLO-SAXONS CoME TO TAMPA BAY 67 lature passed an act which carved up Alachua County and created the county Steele was seeking. T he new county was n amed Hills boroug h to commemorat e the name o f Lord Hillsborough, o f England, who had previously been better-than-well remembered by havin g Hillsborough Bay and Hills borough River named for him. The le gis lati ve act stipula ted that the new county should be bounded on the north by a li ne running east and west from the Indian v illage o f Toachatk.a, forty miles from T ampa; on the east by Mosquito County, on the south by Monroe Counry, and on the west b y the Gulf. The infant county was a giant in size. It e xtended more than half way across the peninsula and from above the present Dade City on the north t o the Caloosahatchee R iver on the south. It contain ed 8,580 square m iles-5,491,200 acres. From that origina l c o unty, the present counties of Man atee, Sarasota, De So to, Charlotte, Pasco Polk, High lands, Hardee and Pinellas have been created. Old "Mother Hills borough" truly had many stalwart chi l dren. Large though it was, Hill sborough was most sparsely populated. The first Federal census, taken in 1840, showed only 96 civilians in the counry. Of that total, 81 were white and 15 colored. In 1834, the J/up Flt>rlda Map of }'t. B rook e millu'l.ry res.cmation m ade by G-eneral Land OUice in 1849 showing first map of Tampa as platted b)' Smvc)'Or John Jackson. Onl y t'l few buildings were then in the garrison ; many had been destroyed in Lhe del'ast.ating hurricane of 1848 T he s tru ctures s hown .are: Officers quarters, public store house wharf, b4trracks, hospital and sutler's score.

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68 TAMPA population was undoubtedly even smaller 75 probably would be a liberal estimate. As might have been expected, Augustus Steele was named as the first county judge, being nominated by Governor Duval. He now was Judge, Postmaster and Deputy Collector of Customs Steele. Other offi cials named to serve t he new county were: william Bunce, William G. Saunders, John 'Varren and J oshua Stafford justices o f the peace and J. B. Benjamin, auctioneer, notary public and inspector of lumber. Saunders was the town's first mercha n t and first postmaster. But little is known about any of the other minor officials except '.Villiam Bunce. He was a man whose name has lived in history. Born in Ba l timore Bun ce went to Key vVest in 1824 and for five years was engaged in the mercantile business. In 1832 he was listed as a customs inspector in the Key West district. Shortly thereafter he entered the fishing business which previously had been monopolized by Spaniards and Cubans and established a rancho at the mouth of the .Manatee River. He was well established there when Hillsborough County was created. In 1838, Bunce was elected county delegate to the St. Joseph Con stitutional Assembly and on January II, 1839, he signed his name to Florida's first constitution. B u nce undoubtedly enjoyed the confidence of his neighbors but, despite that confidence, he was later accused of advisi n g the Indians to resist ; the Americans and refuse to be banished to the 'Vest The evidence against him was most flimsy, and came from most unreliable sources, but it was believed by the military As a result his rancho, then located on Palm Island, just off the present city of Sarasota, was destroyed i n October, 1840 by order of high handed General W. R. Armistead. That he was unjustly accused is shown by the fact that Congress in 1847 appropriated $1,000 for payment to Bunce's heirs as compensation for the loss he had sustained. Tampa was named by the Territorial Legislature as the site for the county seat of the new county o f Hillsborough. But no provision was made for gi v ing Hillsborough any land on wh i ch a courthouse could be built. Tampa was in the center of the military reservation, owned by the Federal government and Uncle Sam would not consider parting with any portion of the reservation at that time . ; 1 Legend has it that a log co urt house costing $200 or so was erected by county officials shortly after the county was created, and that the building was burned down a little later in an Indian raid. This story was related in 1 848 when Hillsborough officials petitioned Congress for 160 acres which could be sold to bring in enough money to have a courthouse erected. Perhaps therefore, the story may be true. But early records g i ve no hint of such a disaster and certainly the need for a courthouse, in 1834, was not great. Any official business which had

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ANCLOSAXONS COME TO TAMPA B AY 69 to be t r ansacted could easily h a ve been handled at Judge S teele's home o r in one of t he garr i son building s The to w n name o f Tampa ca rne offic i a lly into exis tence o n S e ptember 23, 1 834, w h e n the Post Offi ce D e partment chan ged t he name of the post office f rom Tampa Bay to jus t plain Tampa. But o f f i c ia l re c o gnit ion of t h e to w n ma de n o apprec i a bl e di fference-it was sti ll jus t a minor appendage to i ts parent, Fort B rooke Not until years later was Tampa shown on any state map: And the populatio n of Tampa was not reporte d separately by F ederal census ta k ers u ntil 1870. H illsborough County's inhabitants were few and far between dur ing th e mid-1830s but it h ad a t l east one whose life story, as handed down through the pass i ng years is most interest ing. H e was Odet Phillippi-or, a s ma n y say Count Ode tt e Philli ppi. Count Phillippi, s o the story goes, was a great neph e w o f Louis XVII and a sch oo l mate a n d close f ri e n d of Nap oleon Bon aparte w h o appo in te d h i m chief surgeo n o f the F renc h N avy. Captured by t h e British in the Battle of Trafalgar, he was imprisone d in the B ahamas. R eleased after two years becaus e of his e x cellent wo rk during a yellow fever epidemic, he went to C harleston, S. C. where he married a French g i rl, C h arl otte Desheries, who b o r e him four children Fina ncial difficu l ties ov e r a n o te signed for a friend forced him to l eav e Charle ston. He p urchased a l a r ge sail in g vessel, loaded i t w i t h his possessions, fami ly, a nd a hundred s l aves a nd white over seers, and .. T"1 "'!r"' J l C o .. UJ-y o! few pho t ographs ex.isl of buildinbt;j in o l d Ft. H too k e. This view, s h o wing a sec.t.io n of lhe officc 1'S q uarte r s is the best one obt:\inable. The beautifu l oak Lrccs th e n in the gani.ton can bt" seen i n th e pirture.

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70 T AMPA went to the Indian River, near the present Fort Lauder dale. There he embarked on a project of ma kin g salt out of sea water. This proved impractical so he started a c itrus p l antation. Warned by friendly Indians of an impending uprising in 1823, Count Phillippi 1\eadcd south again. His schooner, which he had named th e Ney, was overhauled by } >irate John whom he had en countered once before on a voya ge to Havana. He had won the pira te's friendsh i p then oy curing several sic k memb ers of his crew and Gomez still remembered him. Informed of the count 's plight, the pirate gave him a c hest h eav il y loa de d with trea sure and also advised him wher e to go. He hauled out a map o f Tampa Bay, which he extolled as t he most beautiful body o f water in the world," and s uggested that he go there and start life anew. Taking the pirate's advice, the count sailed into Tampa Bay. H e cruised along umil he saw th e Indian mound and high ground beyond on t he west shor e of Old Tampa Bay just north of the present town of Safety Harbor There he put hi s s laves ashore, buil t a home, a nd estab l ished a larg e plantation he called St. Helena. There he raised a great herd of cattle, had large fields of cotton, and planted the first citrus grove on the West Coast. The count 's home was destroyed in the hurricane of 1848, the treasure chest was washed away and the citru s trees were killed. But when the storm ended, Count P hillipp i rebuilt his home and re planted his grove, and started over again, aided by his faithfu l slaves. During the Civ i l War he moved his family, his s la ves and his herds of cattle to H ernando Cou nty but when the war ended, he returned to St. H elena wher e he lived until his death i n 1869 That's the stor y about C ount Phillippi as relat ed by old timers. Hillsborough County re cords show that in 1842 Odet Phillippi own ed two billiard parlo rs in T ampa, ten-pin alleys, and an oyster house; his p r operty at St. H elena; also, two Negro slaves, Anthony and J ohn; five horses and a colt; four mules, five cows and six calves ; a certain number of hogs and my hunting dogs," and a w agon and a baro uche with several sets of h a rness The first m entio n of Phillippi in count y records was made F ebruary 5, 1839, when a deed was recorded show ing he had p urc hased three lots on Tampa Street from Augus tus Steele for $100. Nothing app ears in the record s to in dicate he practic ed as a physician or surgeon in the Tampa area. Anotl1er interesting early pio neer was John Monte s de Oca, a Spaniard who arrived about 1830. H e could speak English and Seminole as well as Spanish and the arm y emplo yed him as an interpreter. O ne day while in the Indian vil la ge of T h l onotasassa he met a pretty Seminole girl, lovely of soul as well as pf person." H e fell in love and they were

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ANGLO-SAXONS COME TOT AMPA B AY 71 married The girl wife died a few years later, leaving a daughter, Victoria. The chil d was reared and educated by o ther pion eers. An intrepid Baptist missionary whose name must be recor ded in history settled abou t fifteen miles east of Tampa on a tract of rich ham moc k land in 1829. He was the Rev. Danie l Simmons, who came from Savannah, Ga., to establ ish a mission in Indian te rritory. The Seminoles l iked and respected him and in 1 835, when they prepared to go on the warpath, they warned him of i mpe n ding dange r and advised h i m to leave. Loa ding his possessi ons o n an ox cart, he went to Fort B rooke with his w ife and daughter, El i zabeth. The famil y remained at the fort a few months and then wen t t o Mobile, Ala. The p l ace wh ere he set tled was know n thereafte r as Sim mons' H amm ock. The tranquil peri od which followed the establishment o f Fort Brooke in 1824 ended abruptly and tragically a little more than a decade la ter, three days after Christmas in 1835. The Seminoles went to war.

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Ill THE SEMINOLES F IG HT AND LOSE MERICANS CALLED HIM Osceola. The Seminoles called him Assin Yahole, or "Singer at the Black Drink." H e also could have been called one of the most vicious rel entless foes that Americans eve r had. Osceola learned to hate the Americans as a child whe n his mother, a Creek Indian was forc ed to flee from Georgia into north Florida then owned by Spain to escape capture and deportation to the \Vest. And his hatred grew with the passing years. Osceola's feeling toward the wh i te man was not softened by the fact that he hims e lf was partly white. Some histOrians say he was the son of Villiam Powell, an Englishman. Others say hi s white blood came from a Scotch grandfather. \1\' herever it came from, he had it, a s shown by his ligh t eyes and white man's cheekbones. B u t except for his eye s and cheekbones, he was all Indian-tall and erect, agile, and fierc ely proud. The young Seminole was jus t approaching manhood when the United S t ates purchased Flori da and bega n forcing his people south into the peninsula so that white could move in and begin develop ing the territory. Quite naturally the Indian s objected to being pushed around, and driven from the villages where they had l ived for years. They often r etal i ated w i t h raids ag-ainst white settlements and killed whole fam ilies with savage cruelty After a particular ly vicious raid in 1826, the government punished them by stopping annuity payments and taking away the Indians' guns. Great suffering followed T he condition of the Sem i noles in the late winter of 1826 -27 was described by Colonel Gad H umphreys, Indian agent. In a report t o the terri torial governor in M a rch he wrote: "There is not at t his moment, I will venture to say, a b ushel of corn in the whole nation, o r a ny adeq u ate substitute for it. The coutee and briarroot, which have hitherto been to them a tolerab l e dernier dependence, are almost entirely consumed For nearly a year they have been compelled to rely mainly upon these and the cabbage tree for sustenance of the vegetable kind. "What they are to do another year I dare not imagine. They have not corn for this year's need nor can I procure it for them .... The si tu ation of some of these p eo pl e is wretched, almos t beyond descr ipti on; those particularly who du!'ing the late alarm were robbed of their guns, have been absolutel y famishing .... Towards a people like t h e Indians, whose chief dependenc e for subsistence i s upon the chase, a greater

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THE SEMINOLES FIGHT-AND LosE 73 cruelty could not be practiced than to deprive them of the implements so important and indispensable to their mode of life." During the year following Humphrey's report, hundreds of Semi noles were starved into submission. With bitterness and hatred in their hearts, they left their homes in north Florida and moved southward into the reservation assig ned to them. Many came at that time into the Tampa Bay region and it was then that the villages of Thl onotasassa and Hickapusassa were established The forced migration of some of the Seminoles did not end the Indian problem Many remained in the neighborhood of their former homes, hiding in swamps and forests They emerged occasionally to raid the homes of settlers, stealing corn and cattle, burning buildings and scalping men, women and children. From the white man's viewpoint this state of affairs was intolerab l e and insistent demands were made that every Indian should be deported out of Florida. If this was not done, the white men warned the entire peninsula would remain uninhabited and undeveloped, rich though it was in fertile lands and untapped resources. Tired of constant strife, some of the older wiser chiefs reluctantly consented to leave early in 1835. But they did not speak for all the Seminoles. A strong faction of younger warriors led by fiery Osceola, prepared to resist all attempts by the government to carry removal plans into effect. These warriors had acquired guns and ammunition from traders and through raids, and were supremely confident. An ultimatum to the Indians was issued in April, 1835, by General 'Wiley Thompson, newly appointed India n agent, at a meeting with the chiefs. He tOld them bluntly that if they would not sign a new treaty expressing their willingness to leave voluntarily, the Seminoles would not be permitted to buy any more powder regardless of how much they needed it for hunting. Osceola was defiant. His eyes flashed with anger. He cried: "Am I a Negro, a slave? l'vfy skin is dark, but not black. I am an Indian a Seminole. The white man cannot make me black I wilJ make the white man red with blood, and then blacken him in the sun and rain, where the wolf shall smell of his bones and the buzzard live upon his flesh." General Thompson was adamant. Sternly he told the chiefs to sign the treaty or suffer the consequences. Osceola sprang to his feet and strode to the table where Thompson sat with the treaty before him. Drawing his knife, he plunged it down, pinning the treaty to the table and cried: "The only treaty I will ever make is th i s!" The treaty Osceola scorned stipulated tha t all Indians should leave Florida by January I, 1836. And General Thompson sent word to the I ndians that the deadline would not be extended. Shortly aftenvard he

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74 TAMPA capt ured Osceola and held him at Fort King for six days in chai ns. F in ally released, the Seminole leader lef t d1e fort cold with anger. Several old chiefs rea lizing that res istanc e was hopeless, prepared to leave Florida before the de adline One o E these was Charley E-Mathlar H e wen t to Fort Kin g and receiv ed mo ney for his cattle. On November 26, 1835, while returning to h i s village, he was me t on the trail by a party of Indians led by Osceola and kill ed, as a warning to o ther chi efs not to submi t to whi te de mands. Osc eola to ok the mon e y Cha rley E-Mathlar had rece ived and thre w it away, saying he cou ld not keep i t because i t was made of red man's blood. The killing of Charley E-Mathlar p lainl y showed that the Sem in oles did not intend to heed the January lst deadl ine. Cencral Dunca n L. C linch, then in char ge of Federal troops in Fl orida, immediately bega n ta k ing ste ps to force the Indian s to comply. He had seven hundred regu lars under him and could count o n the help of several thousand Florida volunteers. H e did not cont empla te having any trouble. Gener al Andrew Jackson had r o uted the Indians in 1818 w ith little ef fort; surel y h e could do the same. Ge neral Clinch 's plan was simple. H e intended to assem ble a strong f orce at Fort Drane about fifteen miles nort hwest of F ort King, drive south to the vVithlacoochee River and then swin g eas twa rd, cat ch ing the Indi ans in a trap. The In dians would then be driv e n into Fort King, near the present city of Ocala, and k ept pri soners in a s tock ade unti l the time came to deport them to the West. To provide enough soldiers at Fort Kin g to prevent his e xp ected prisoners from escaping, t he general sent orders to Fort Brooke instru ct ing Major J. S. Belton t h e n in command there, to send two comp anies to Fort Kin g at once Major Belton rec eive d the orders on December 19 less than two weeks before the dea dline. Two days later while preparations for the long overland march were being com plet ed, Major Francis L. D ade ar ri ve d {rom Key \'\fest with t hirty nine men. M ajor D ade was no stra nge r to the Indian territory H e had co me to Tampa B ay as a captain with Colonel Brooke when t he fort was est ablished in 1824 and had been statione d at the fort several years H e k ne w the region well. And he had no fear of the Indians all those he had ever s een had be en fr iendly. Without misgiv ings h e acc epted th e assignment of leading the force to Fort King. On December 23 the day before the troops were schedu led to leave, the famil ies of two pioneer set tlers Levi Coller and the R ev. Da niel Sim mons, cam e to the fort. Coller had been livi ng a t Six Mil e Creek, wh ere h e had move d in 1829, and R ever end Simmons about fifteen miles eas t of T ampa. T hey to l d Ma jo r Belton that I ndians bad

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THE SEMINOLES FIGHT-AND Losr. 7 5 warned them of impending trouble and had advised them to leave their homes. The major told the m he believed their fears were unjustified but invited them to "bunk down" in one of the garrison buildings That night Mrs. Coller, her daughter Nancy, and Mrs. Simmons kept busy making powder bags for the departing soldiers. Early the next morning, on the day before Christmas, Major Dade left the fort with seven other officers and one hundred and two men. His fife and drum corps played a merry tune as the troops marched away. The air was cool and sharp but the sun, just coming up over the pine trees, was bright and warm-ideal weather for the hundred and five mile trip up the Military Road to Fort King. A Negro guide, Louis, accompanied the troops to serve as an inter preter and tell them what route to f ollow through the Withlacoochee River swamps where the Military Road was not even a blazed trail. The Negro had been hired from his owner, Mrs. Antonio Pacheco at $.25 a month. Later he was accused perhaps unjustly, of keeping the Indians informed of all of Dade's plans. The troops made slow progress. The bridge across the Hillsborough was down and Major Dade's men had to rebuild it before they could proceed On the 27th they crossed the Withlacoochee and camped. The worst part of the trip now seemed t o be over. North of the \Vithla coochee the road led through open pine country where fast time could be made. South of the river Major Dade had kept scouts on his flanks, just as a precautionary measure, even though he had no fear of being at tacked. Now with the dangerous country behind him, he proceeded t:i:;hcrmen who settled in the Tampa Ua}' region in pioncx:r days Hv<:d in pafmetto(hatdacd huts such as this oJd time dweHing which 'vas phoLographed in 18%.

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76 TAMPA w i th only a small advance guard as prot ection. It was the morning of Mo nday, D e cembe r 28, 1835, just three days before the deadline set for the submiss ion of the Indians. A bris k north wind was blowing, bitterly cold for men accustomed to the war mth of the semi-trop ics Most of them were huddled up in their overcoats, with collars turned high and the front s buttoned tigbr over their boxes of ammunit i o n. No one expec ted any troubl e The column was stretched out sev eral hundred yards, with th e baggage wagons and a six-pound cannon lumberin g along at the rear. Sud den ly without warning the hideou s shriek of Semin ol e war cries fill ed t he air. And from palmetto clumps and thic k ets on both sides of the r oad came a w i thering rain of bullets. Major D ade and balE his force fell dead or wounded at the first blast. Capt. U S Frazer was instantl y killed Lieut. R R. Mudge was mortally wounded and both arms of Lie ut. J L. Rea is were shatt ered with bullets Despit e the shock of t h e unexpected attack, the remai nder of the force resi ste d bravely. The men took positi ons behind trees and bega n returning the fire. But the Indians and their Negro allies were well co n c ealed in th e tall grass and palmett o clumps and few were hit. Lie u t. VV. E. Basinger fin ally s ucc eeded in bringin g up the can non and putting it in position H e poured in six rounds of canister upon the Indians and they retrea ted. The surviv ors then had a mome nt's respi te and t hey used i t to start build i ng a breastwor k of logs. But it provided only slight prot ectio n and wh en the Indians r eturned they soon finished their dea dly work. O nly three Americans escaped. They were J ohn Thomas, J osep h Sprague and Ransom e Clarke. T hom a s and Spragu e got away while the fighting was going on by crawling through the woods and hiding. A Negro saw Clarke lyin g o n the ground af ter the fighting ended and went over to him to beat him with a club. But when the Negro saw the ghastly wounds on Cla rke's head, he yell ed, Damn him, h e's dead enou gh," and passed on to another victim. The three survivors, all badl y wounded, mana ged to return to Fort Brooke six days later and tell the story of the m assac re. O sceo la did not take part in the m assacre, the worst that American troops h ad ever suffered H e helped plan the amb ush and ex p ecte d to t a ke part in the fi ghting but h e was delayed by another sava ge task-the killing of Genera l Wile y Thompson, the man he had once defied and who had later held him in cha ins. On the afternoon of D ecembe r 28th the day the Dade massac re occurred O sce ola and a pa r ty ot warriors succeeded in ambushing the general and a lieutenant about a mile from Fort King. The two off icers fell instantly, pierced by many bullets The Indians finished their horribl e work with their scalping knives. N ea r by was a sutler's store.

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THE SEMINOLES FIGHT-AND LOSE 77 The I ndians surrounded it and, firing through the windows, killed the sutler, his two clerks and a small boy. Then, after plundering the store, they burned it and scalped their victims. Back at the Fort Drane, Ge neral Clinch received no word of the Dade massacre or the killing of General T hom pson So far as he knew, all the arrangements he had made for rounding up the I ndians were being carried out as he had planned t hem. General R K Call had arrived with two regiments of Florida volunteers and his own force of a brigade of regulars was readv for action So, on the morning of Decem ber 29th, two days before the deadline, he headed south toward the Withlacoochee. General Clinch did not kno w it, of course, but Osceola's scouts were observing all his movements and keeping the Seminoles constantly informed. And on the morning of December 31st, Osceola prepared to attack He waited unti l half the volunteers had crossed the vVithlacoochee at a point about twenty miles from the Gulf and then closed in. The Americans were caught completely by surprise and had it not been for tl1eir superior numbers, might have suffered t he same fate as Major Dade's command. As it was, five Ameri cans were killed and forty wounded. The battle was indecisive but it could be called a victory for Osceola inasmuch as General Cli nch was forced to retreat and give up his plan to trap the Indians. Moreover, Osceola had convinced the volunteers that Indian warfare was most hazardous and exhausting. The term o f enlistment of most of the volunteers had expired and they quickly decided it would be necessary for them to return home and protect their families. The families truly needed protection. During the followi ng month, the Indians struck time and again in north Florida. Sixteen large plan tations were la i d waste. Scores of isolated homes were burned. Sugar mills and storehouses were destroyed. Many families were killed. With sal(age fury and cruelty, the Indians were getting revenge for all the real or fancied wrongs they had ever suffered. The Second Seminole vVar had begun a war which was to drag on for seven long and bloody years. Fort Brooke Is Endangered The f irst word of the dreadful fate of Major Dade and his men was brought to Fort Brooke by the three survivors on January 3, 1836, six days after the massacre. The fort and t h e infant town of Tampa were stunned-and grief stricken. Included among the victims of the massacre were many brothers, relatives and close friends of the fort's officers and men and

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78 TAMPA news of their death came as a tragic blow But no one had much time to sorrow. The for t WM in imminent danger of attack. O n the night o f January 3rd a red glare was seen in t h e eastern sky. Soon afterward sentries bro!lght in th e report that Indians had fired t he home of Levi Coller at Six Mile Creek Other sentries brought word tha t bands of I ndians a n d Negroes had been seen crossing the Hills borough River near the Military Road Major Belton was deeply worried. Under him he had less than a hundred and fort y men and soon the fort might be attacked by hundreds. To make the situation worse, the fort was protected only by a flimsy stockade n o one had ever believed before that much protection was needed Now every man was put to work building a stronger barricade. A schooner was anchored at the mouth of t he river and the captain offered to take the officers' .wives and children to a place of safety. But all t he wives chose to remain with their husbands, even Mrs. Belton w ho was expecting a baby in another month. Upon urging !>y the major, .Judge Steele finally conse nted to g6 with the captain to carry a report of the massacre to Governor .John H. Eaton and inform him of the urgent need of reinforce ments Near the entrance tO the Gulf, .Judge Steele sighted a vessel sailing south. He hailed it and tOld the captain to hasten to Key \.Vest and seek reinforcements there The schooner on which Judge Steele sailed was buffeted by strong winds and thirteen days were required to reach St. Marks, a journey which ordina rily could be made in much less than a week. The judge reached Tallahassee on January 17th and the governor immediately sent an express to General Clinch to inform him of t he disaster and of the need for troops at beleagured Fort Brooke But the general then was desperate with troubles of his own i n north Florida and had no men to Reinforcements did not arrive at Fort Brooke until January 29. On that day a detachment o f fifty six marine s under Lieut. Nathaniel S. Waldron came i n from Key West and a smaller detachment of eight marines under Lieut. Andrew Ross came in from Pens a co la. This was the fi rst time t ha t marines were called upon for service with the army anywhere in the country and their appearance at Tampa Bay made history. It also was most welcome. "Our arrival was very gratifying and unexpected," Lieutenant Waldron said in a letter written .January 30. "We were badly n eeded as an attack was expected at the very time of our landing by a force of four hundred Indians and Negroes ':.:. All danger to Fort Brooke was averted eleven days later when Genera l Ed mund P. Gaines sailed into Tampa Bay with a flee t of vessels Ioaded with seven hundred men six companies of the Uni ted States 4th

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THE SEMINOLES FIGHT-AND LosE 79 Infantry and a regiment o f Louisiana volunteers. The general had re ceived word of the Dade Massacre while stationed at New Orleans; he came to F lorida on his own initiative without waiting for orders from the War Depar tment. For this action he later was severely censured. General Gaines' men did not have an opportunity to engage the force o f Indians and Negroes which had besieged Fort Brooke for nearly a month. The brown and black skinned allies slipped into the forests and disappeared when they sighted the armada in the bay. After staying two clays at Fort Brooke, General Gaines left with a strong force a nd proceeded to Fort King Fifty seven miles north of Tampa the troops came across the scene of the Dade massacre. The bodies of the victims were buried in two trenches, t h e officers in one and the men in the other Six years later the bodies were removed to a national cemetery at St. Augustine. As a memorial to Major Dade and his men, an 80-acre reservat ion at the place of the massacre was dedicated in J 935 as a State Park It is just south ol' the town of Bushnell. The Semnole War Drags On Determined efforts to encircle and trap t he wary I n dians were made during 1836 by four top-flight American generals but crafty Osceola was not caught and ne ither were any other Seminole leaders. COifrkty Btugf!lt Bun. : f'or more than th i rt\ years this btlilding, erected in 1855. se(ved as .the COll.rl house: of Hillsborough County. The: home of Capt James Jr., is at the right

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80 T AMPA General Gaines made the first attempt. Leaving Fort King on February 27, he swung southwest hoping to engage the Indians on the With lacoochee where General Clinch had been repulsed. The Seminoles sniped a t his men along the way but refused to fight Gaines' superior force in open battle. Reaching the river, the general's men ran out of food and almost starved before G enera l Clinch came to their rescue from Fort Drane A much more ambitious attempt to t rap the Seminoles was made in March and April after General Winfield Scott came to Florida to take command. With General Clinch and General Abraham Eustis helping him, Scott tried to throw a net around the Indians and then draw the net in. But the wily savages slipped through the mesh as easi ly as a minnow slip s through a turtle net, and Scott's efforts were in vain. Blockhouses buil t by Scott's men were fired by the Indians and soldi ers left to man them suffered severe privation s before they were rescued. So ended Scott's attempts to prove to the Indians that Uncle Sam's armies were not lObe trifled with. H e departed and Flori da's governor, General R K. Call took charge of operations. Always convinced that volunteers could fight better than regulars he assembled a strong force and struck south into the muchfoughtover vllithlacoochee region. Call s men met a large body of Indians near the river and shots were exchanged without much damage being done on either side. The I ndians then drew back to the Wahoo Swamp farther up the river and tried to induce the volunteers to follow them into the morass where ambushing tactics would be more effective. The strategic withdrawal of the Indians was reported by Call as a "brilliant victory" for his men. And, quite satisfied w ith such a victory he left the Indians safe in tl 1 e Wahoo Swamp and went back home. Thus ended the campaigns of 1836. All had resulted in f ailure and the Seminoles had been encouraged t o continue their resist ance. But by now the War Department had become convinced that the war was a most seriou s affair and it took steps to conquer the savages by sheer force of numbers. General Thomas H. Jesup, one of the army's most able genera ls was placed in command and troops were rushed into Florida from army posts all over the country. Hea dquarters of the Army of the South were moved to Fort B rooke to be close to the scene of operations. Thousands of F lorida civilians were employed by the army to serve as cooks team sters, clerks, mechanics and common lab orers. Slaves were hired from Florida plantati on owners to handle the heaviest jobs. Working hurriedly, the army and civilian forces erected scores of forts and bl ockhouses, sprink ling them all over the northern half of the peninsu la. Network s of military roads were constructed, radiating in all directions from strateg ic points.

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TH FIGHT-AND Los 81 The road leading north from Fort Brooke to Fort King was im proved and a new one was constructed eastward across the peninsula. It passed through the newly constructed outposts called Fort Sull i van, Fort Cummings Fort Davenport, Fort Gatlin Fort Maitland and termi nated at F on Mellon on Lake Monroe, the present si t e of Sanford. This road known for many years thereafter as the Fort Mellon Road, was used w hen peace carne by pioneers in c rossi ng the peninsula and became dotted with settlers' homes all along its length. Another important road built out of Fort Brooke led more directly east through Fort Fraser to Fort Gardner, near t he present site of Kissimmee. Construction of the military roads and forts helped greatly in crippl i ng the Seminoles The roads were nothing to brag about but they were infinitely better than no roads at all. They provided routes on which trees and undergrowth were cut away, which had bridges over sr.reams and rivers and which were corduroyed through swamps. Over them, army forces could be moved quite rapidly. From the forts, detachments of troops could strike quick l y into Indian territory, con stantly harry i ng the enemy. The t roops fought no major battles But they overran scores of Indian vill ages and captured old men, women and chi l dren. The Semi nole '"-'ar changed from a war of fight i ng to a war of attrition and a war of. devastation. A number of chie f s re alized the hopelessness o f the struggle. They surrendered with the i r warriors and were deported west. And then, on March 6 1 837, the last remaining chiefs met General Jesup at Fort Dade buil t on the spot where the Dade massacre had occurred some fourteen months before. On that bloodstained spot, the Semino les agreed to capitulate to cease fighting and move south o f the Hillsborough River where they were to remain until transports could be secured to take them west. Fort Brooke was named as the place where the Indians were to assemble. As a concession to the Seminoles General Jesup promised that all Negroes who had been living with the Indians and were considered their property should be permitted to accompany the Indians. '.Yith this understanding the Indians and Negroes began coming in to Fort Brooke, scores arriving weekly. By the end of May more than seven hundred had gathered all ready to make the long westward journey. Everyone was convinced the war was over. Soldiers began making preparations to leave the fort and go back home. In the bay, a fleet of transports and five warships had assembledtwenty-six vessels altogether. Then, on the night of June 2, the Indians and Negroes fled from their camp and disappeared in the forests Not one remained behind The camp where they had been l ivi n g a few miles northeast of Fort

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82 TAMPA Brooke, was deserted and empty. Not even any tents or belongings had been left behind. Various reasons have been advanced for the breakdown of the deponation agreement. Some historians say that the chiefs never in tended to leave-that they came to Fort Brooke merely to get much needed supplies and to give them a breathing spell. Another explana tion is far more likely. It is known that a swarm o f slave hunters descended upon Fort Brooke late in May and began hunting for "run away slaves They grabbed Negroes right and left, paying no heed to protestations of the black men or to the Indian chiefs. The slave hunters had no intention of permitting all these assembled Negroes to get away-they were worth almost $1, 000 each. vllhatever the cause of the departure-of the Indians they left. And Osceo l a was blamed Accompanied by his chief lieutenant, Coacoochee, the Wildcat, he had arrived at the camp a few days before And it is claimed that through oratory and through threats, he had induced or forced the assembled seven hundred to slip away at night. Perhaps that is true, but then again perhaps it isn't. Guilty or innocent of deception and promise breaking, Osceola paid a heavy penalty On October 20, I 837 he was captured at St. Augustine while under a flag of truce and imprisoned in a dismal cell in the old Spanish fort of San Marco, then named Fort Marion A few weeks later he was taken to Camp i 'v!oult r ie, on Sullivan's Island, near Charleston, S. C. There he died on January 30, 1838, his hopes de stroyed, his spirit broken. A half hour before Osceola died he requested the officers of the fort to gran t him one last wish permission to die dressed as an Indian chief. The costume he had worn during the days of fighting was brought to him and he put it on. Exhausted by the effort, he Jay down a few minutes, Then, rising, he gave his hand to each one present, drew his war knife from his belt, and folded his arms across his breast. A moment later he died. The greatest warrior of the Seminoles passed on to happier hunting grounds. Osceola's chief lieu t enant, Coacoochee, also was captured in the fall of 1837 along with his friend Talmus Hadjo. They were imprisoned in a dungeon at Fort 1\-iarion High above them was a narrow window. Knives were smuggled to them and they cut toeholds in t he wall. Then a fter making ropes of their bedding, they climbed to the window squeezed through and escaped After the exodus o.f the seven hundred Indians and Negroes from Fort Brooke, the war dragged on and on. It was not a tt'ue war . Rather it was an endless pursui t of the Indians through the almost impenetrable swamps and forests where they had fled and from which they emerged occasionally to raid arrd pillage, or snipe at army forces.

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TH SEMINOLES FIGHT-AND Lose 83 Only one battle of any consequ ence was fought after the Fort Brooke fiasco. This occurred on Chris tmas day, 1837. In the valley of the Kissimmee, a few miles north of Lake Okeechobee, bauds of Semi. no les and Mikasukis w i th troops commanded by Colon el Zachary Taylor. The Americans had I ,067 men-th e number of Indians is not known. The Battle of Okeechobee, as it was called, lasted for hours Twentysix white soldiers were killed and 112 wounded The Indians left ten dead on the battlefield. The Americans finally succeeded in driving the Indians into the swamps and fastnesses of the E verglades. All through 1838 the pursuit o f the Indians continued. Almost all of those who remained in the northern half of the penin sula sur rendered or were captured M ore than two thousand were deported. Not many more than a t housa nd men, women and chi ldren still were at l arge and they were hiding in the swamps and forests of the Kissimmee Valley, the Ever glades and the Big Cypress Swamp. An attempt to end the conflict without further fighting was made m May, 1839, b y Major General Alexand e r Macomb command e r in chief of the Uni ted States Army, who made a special trip from Washing ton for the purpose. In a meeting held at Fort King on May 17, the general told the Indians that if they would stop fighting they would be permitted to live in a large reservatio n sout h o f C harlotte Harbor. Taking the general at his word, th e Indians agreed t o the proposal and l'am p2's wat erfront tt looked hi 1880 &om Laayette ttreet. The warehouse of Spencer HenderSOn is 6hO\\"Tl ac: che tefr.

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84 TAMPA once more the war seemed ended. The Indians ceased fighting and began moving into the reservat i on. Two months later, however the I ndians learned that General Macomb had not meant what he bad said-that instead of the reservation being perma n ent, it was to be only temporary; that after the Indians had assembled there they were to be rounded up and deported. The In dians were f urious. They got revenge on July 21st by swoop ing down on a tradi ng post whi ch had been establis hed on the Caloosa hatchee River. Attacking after midnight, the y massacred Trader J ames B. Dallam, two of his clerks a civilian pilot, and eighteen U S Dragoons of a for ce o f twenty six which had been assi gned to protect the post. Lieut. Col. William Selby Harney, commande r of the force, and eight of his men escaped by swimming in the river. The Indians seized all of Dallam's goods, valued at $3,000 and $1,000 in cash. T hey also got a large quantity of guns and ammunition and several barrels of whis key. After the massac re the Indians fled again into their hiding p l aces and the war of pursuit was renewed. A chain of forts was established on the Cal oos ahat c hee at the edge of t he Big Cypress and around Lake Okeechobee. The whites closed in from every side, pene trating track less s wamps and marshes to fi n d the Indians' hammock homes and gardens Harried and hound ed, many Indians gave up th e stru ggle and surrendered On June 15, 1841, w hil e new peace n ego tiations were being dis cussed, Coacoochee was seized at Fort Pierce on the St. Luc.ie Ri ver, with fiftee n other warriors and imm edia tely sent West. Col. William J \ '\forth, then in comm and of the troops wi th headqua rters at Fort B roo ke heard of the deportation and sent a messenge r to New O rleans 10 intercept the prisoners and bring them bac k to T ampa. The ship carrying Coa coochee and his me n arri ved in Tampa Bay on J uly 3 and on the day following, F r eedom Day, Colonel Worth went on board. The Indian chief was in chains and so were his men. The colonel to ld the chief that the war must end, and that Coaco ochee must e nd it. H e w arned that if the chief did not send out messengers to his people to tell them to come in, and t hat if all of them did not arriv e withi n forty days, the chief and his comrade s would be hanged from the yardarms of t he vessel. Confronted by this ultimatum Coacoochee selected five messeng ers and sent them away. Ten days later six war riors and a number of women and c hildren arrived. Dayafter day other sma ll parties appeared. At the end of forty days, 80 warriors, 72 women and 59 children had come in. They were camped at the head of Old Tampa Bay at what was later k nown as Worth H arbor. The irons were then taken off Coacooche e for the firs t time and he was permitted to go ashore and meet his peop le.

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THE SEMINOLES FIGHT-AND L os 85 On the following day the Indians w e r e marched on board two v e ssels and sent to the W est. It is reported that whi le the ships sailed down Tampa Bay and out into the Gulf C oacooc hee stood on t he deck lookin g shorew ard his u s u ally impassive (ace draw n with sorrow. And as the land droppe d below the horizon, lhe chief wrned and said: "Never again will I see the pine trees of my native land. With the departure of Coacoochee wen t t h e last hopes of the Indians of making effect ive warfar e aga inst the whi te man By early summe r of 1812 only scattered bands remained in Florida. The one important chief still un ca ptured was Hollater-Micco, b ette r known as Bill y Bow legs a young and intelli gent Indian who had become prominent during the latter part of the war. Late in July, 1842, C o l one l \ Vorth sent word to Bill y Bowlegs to come to For t Brooke and d iscuss peace. B illy arrived on August 5th. Haught y and defi ant, he refused to listen to any talk abou t d eporta tion of the remaining In dians Finally, after lon g arg uments, arran ge ments were mad e for the Indians to occupy, a t l east temporarily almost tl1e ide n t ica l territory General M aco mb had said two ye ars befor e lhat they could have: sout hwest Fl orida from C h arl otte H arbor and P eace Rive r on the nonh, t he cent e r of Lake Oke echobee and Shark R iver on the east and the Gulf on the \ Vest. On August 14, 1812, General 'Worth declared the war offi cially ended. H e reported to the War Department that only 30 l Indians still remain ed in Flor i da. His esti mate undoub tedly was too low. Even so, there was no doubt but that the once powerful Semino les and their allie s were pract icall y decimated. While the war lasted 3,930 were de p orted to the 'West and hundreds more were k illed in battle o r d ied from w ounds, starvation and disease. The seve n year war cost the lives of 1 ,466 members of tltc Feder al army including 215 offic ers It also cost th e lives of several hundred Florida volunteers. And in money, it cost the Federal government approxim ate l y $40,000,000. T here i s li t tle doubt but that the war was prolonged lo nger lhan was necessary at least two years a f te r the I nd i ans had ceased t o be a menace. The f igh t in g was con tinued simply because thousan ds of per sons had n o desire to see hostilities cease. They had a fina ncial interest in the conflict. wea lthy plantation owners were rec e iving large sums each year from th e Federal govern ment for labor their s laves performed for the army. Hundre ds o f families of lesser means received army ratio ns. Volunt eers w h o went w i th the Fede ral troops were paid i n good cold cash. wages were paid t o civilian employes of all kinds. Grafters and poliucians made hay whil e lhe bullets whin ed. As Historian Sprag ue rep orted: "S ome of every class, every profession, lhe opulent as well

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86 TAMPA as the humble ... had a pecuniary interest in the prolongation of the war. Money flowed in abundance." Not wanting dtis golde n flow to ebb, greedy F loridians joined with greedy indi viduals from other states in demanding that the war contin ue until the very last "bloodthirsty r eds kin" be exterminated or deported to the West. Needlessl y lon g though i t might have been, the Seminole War helped Tampa become estab lished. Tampa Has a B rief War Boom When Major Dade and his men were massacred and the Seminole War began, Tampa was noth ing but a tiny Indian trading post huddled alo ngside of Fort Brooke. It had a post office and the county seat of Hillsbor ough County but since the co unty was pt :actica ll y unin habited, that did not mean much. Fort Brooke itself was a quite unimportant place merely a small military outpost where two hundred men or so were stationed. But six months later it had become the main center of operations against the I ndiansT r oops f rom every part of the country poured in, remained a few days or weeks, and then went inland to campaign against the savages. With the troops came endless quantities of supplies. More barracks had to be built, more warehouses more offi cers quarters. The fort mushroomed in size. Early in 1837, General Thomas H. Jesup made Fort Brooke the headquarters of the Army of the South. Members of the Engineers Corps and th e Quartermasters Department had to be accommodated as well as the fighting men. The fort mushroomed some more. To provide amusements for the soldiers, Odet Philli ppi opened two b illiard rooms and a ten-pin alley. Captain Rufus D. Kilgore erected and opened the first hotel on the West Coast south of St. Marks, a twelve-room frame building on the riverfront just north of the garrison. He called it the Tampa Hotel. Rooms in it were r a rely empty. The general store owned by V\Tilliam G. Saunders was purchased by tw o newc omers from Philadelphia, Jos ep h Burr, J r., and James Lynch. They built a large two-story frame building and stocked it with thousands of dollars worth of goods brought in by schooners from New Orleans and Savannah. They also built a wharf at the foot of the present Whiting Street. For a time Lynch was an important figure in Tampa. H e was popu lar with the soldiers at the fort and on March 18, 1837, they helped elect him clerk of the county court, th e first man known to hav e had that office. He started the first county record book known to exist. This book which cont i lins a wealth of information abou t early Tampa, was found a century later on a burning trash heap i n Tampa and now is owned by D. B. M cKay:

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THE SEMINOLES FIGHT-AND LOSE 87 For reasons unknown L ynch departed hastily from Tampa ea rl y in 1839 despite the fact that he then had tw o shiploads of merchandise coming in and due to arriv e at any time. He went to New Orleans where he sold all the merchandise in hi s sto re and on board the ships to the owners of another general store which had opened in Tampa the year before, William B. Lovel ace and Henry Lindsey. Ly nch had to wait five year s b efore he found a purchaser for his store building and land in Tampa. Finally on May 30, 1844, whil e in Philadelphia, he sold the property to B e nnet Ball, of New Haven Conn., for $1,800. ln the deed, L ynch made the unusual statement that the property cost him $5,000 and "but for t he interference of the military would have been worth to me more than $1 0,00 0." L y nch gave no hint of what the "military interference was. It is quite possible that the co=ander of Fort Brooke forced him to leave he may ha v e been caugh t se ll ing liquor illegally to the Ind ia ns or the sol d i ers. It i s a matter of record lha t he owned an astounding quantity of rum and whiskey when he so l d out-mor e than a hundred barrels and near ly the same number of casks and kegs plus twenty-four demi Tbi:s was the fint ''modem'' hotel built in Tampa. It wu located on the east side of Ashley atrc:et just north or La fa)ctte and was opened on JX,mber 14, 1884, b y t1te owner-, Jerry T Anderson It of ba,ing a a.to, e fOr heating 1he guest rooms on the secood fioor.

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88 TAMPA johns Surely Lynch must have developed quite a liquor trade, legally or illegally. Because of the war, Tampa experienced its first real estate boom. Fort Brooke was filled to overflowing with excellent real estate prospects -soldiers brought in to fight the Indians. Many had never before been in the semi tropics and were enthused by the land "where all the time is summer and flowers never die." They caught the Florida spirit and yearned to become land owners. Judge Augustus Steele saw to it that the would be land owners were not disappointed He gave them an opportunity to buy "city lots." Through his efforts, two "towns" were platted and l ots in them put on the market, the Town of Tampa on the east bank of the Hillsborough, just north of the garrison, and Tampa City on the west bank of the river. The land for both the town and city was purchased from Richard S. Hackley, of New York. Hackley, i t will be remembered was the man who purchased the Alagon grant and claimed all the land in the Tampa Bay area. His son Robert was the man who had started a plantation at the mouth of the Hillsborough and was dispossessed by Colonel Brooke when the fort was Tampa City was the result of a sale made early in 1837 by Hackley to Merchant William G Saunders. Hackley sold him Rabbit Island, now part of Davis Islands, and a mainland tract on the west side o the river consisting of ''fifty eight acres one rood and thirty eight perches ." Soon after he acquired this land, Saunders employed Judge Steele to act as his attorney and land agent. And on December 4, 1837, Judge Steele sold this property for $1,300 cash, t hereby becoming the f irst real estate broker in the infant county of Hillsborough The purchasers of the 58acre mainland tract plus Rabbit Island were two members of the army stationed at Fort Brooke, Major Dona l d Fraser and Private John Munroe, and i\Ierchant Henry Lindsey Desir ing to make a quick turnover and a profit, these investors engaged Judge S t eele to subdivide the land and sell ic. So the judge straightway platted Tampa City and proceeded to sell "city lots thereby becoming the west Coast's first subdivider and town planner. The first purchase in the dream city was made March 27, 1838, by Bartholomew Tole, a sergeant in the army and a native of New York. For two lots fronting on the river, Sergeant Tole paid $60 cash. Truly, Tole' s name must be recorded in history: Sergeant Tole, of New York the first man in th e world to buy a town lot in peninsular Florida t he first of countless thousands who were to buy in t he years to come! Other sales in Tampa City followed i n quick succession. Private Thomas F Hagin paid $60 cash for an extra-choice river front lot, No. 41. Antonio Carillo paid $120 for four lots not so choice. Patrick Galbraith paid $40 for two inside lots And Julia Ann Randolph, wife

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THE SEMINOLES FIGHT-AND LOSE 89 of an officer, paid $33 for lots Nos 5 and 6 Julia Ann Randolph, first woman purchaser of a wee bit of South Florida heaven! Judge Steele s plot of the "Town of Tampa" was f iled in 1838, but is no longer in existence Water Street was made forty feet w ide and Tampa Street sixty feet wide. T h e first sale in this embryo town was made to Captain Rufus D Kilgore who purchased lots Nos. 54 and 55 and built the Tampa Hotel. Odet Phillippi also was one of the early buyers, paying $100 for three lots on Tampa Street. Hackley's sales of land which led to the platting of Tampa City and the Town of Tampa were minor transactions for him. At that time the New York attorney had much bigger deals in the making With the intention of selling the vast tracts he thought he owned, he joined wit h three o the r New York attorneys and organized the Florida Peninsular Land Company on S eptember 1 4, 1837, capitalized for $200,000 E x tremely leng thy indentures in the Hillsborough County record book indicate that the company planned to push land sales after the Seminole War ended. But the p l ans collapsed when United States courts ruled that Hackley's claims were invalid and that he owned no Florida land at all And so ended Hackley's dreams of making rich profits from the grant he had purchased from the Duke of Alagon. The decision of the courts which upset Hackley's claims auto ma t ically cancelled all sales at Tampa which had been based on his alleged ownership of the land. The biggest loser was Judge Steele who thought he had become the legal owner of twe nty five acres in what is now the heart of Tampa. Now he learned he had no right to it-that it was a part of the Fort Brooke military reservation and hence was owned by Uncle Sam Judge Steele's loss was softened somewhat by the fact that by the time the decision was made. the land had become of little value. The real estate boom had collapsed. One of th e main causes of the crash was yellow fever The dread disease was brought tO Fort Broo k e and Tampa by the steamer Falcon which arrived late in July, 1838, with a cargo of military stores from New Orleans. Two men on board were deathly sick. They were taken to the fort hospital where they soon died. A short time later, others were stricken. And before the epidemic ended, nineteen died-fifteen soldiers, t he hospital matron and three children Many others became s erious l y ill but recovered. Partly because of the yellow fever and partly because o a greater need for men elsewhere, soldiers were transfened in large numbers from Fort Brooke to other forts in the l ate fall of 1838. And by 1839 the worst of the Scininole Var was over and many troops were with drawn from Florida. Fort Brooke had passed its zenith. And as Fort

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90 T AMPA B roo k e de cli ned, so did T ampa. Because of a lack of b u s i ness, the Tampa H otel closed its doors in Apri,l, 1840, The slim population o f T ampa and a ll H illsbo r o ugh County in 1840 was s h ow n b y t h e Federa l census of that yea r. It gav e the p opula tion of t h e entire coun ty as 452, includ ing two free col ored a nd thirteen slaves. The total included 356 persons in t h e ga rrison under the com mand of Major Hoffman-3 0 4 male adults, 38 females and l4 male ch i ldre n under 15. This m e an t that t h e e n t i r e civilian population of t h e co unty was only 96 persons-81 w h ites and 15 colored. Incl u ded in the list of families w ere : Au g ustus Steele four m a l es and four s laves; Ode t Philli ppi, five ma les, five f e males and thre e slaves; Henry W a rren four m ales, three fema les and o n e slave and Lev i C o ll er, four males and t h r ee f emales, Other h eads of families were: Cason Cooper, Will iam Prime, J ohn Showard R obert Hall J o h n Ballen D. Sp al d i ng, W i lliam B. Lovela c e, Robert Murray, Donal d Fraser, Ped r o H aley, Juan Monte, C regoris Monte and Robert J a c kson. All trace of m ost of these families has been comp l etely l ost with the passing years. The Robert Jac k son family was an o u tstand i ng e x ception It bec ame o n e o f t he l eading families of Tampa and tOok an active part in commu n ity affai rs for many dec a des. M rs Jackson was Nancy C o ll er, o l des t daughter o f Mr. a n d Mrs. L ev i Coller, the first p e rmanent sett l ers at Tampa B a y Her marri age t o Robert Jackson culrninat'ed a w a r t ime romance and was th e first o n t h e entire West Coast of which t here i s any record. Bor n in Philadelphia, J ac k son came to Fort Brooke i n 1 834 to serve as a s t e ward in t he fort hospital. He soon be came acquainted with Miss Co ll e r, w ho li ved nearby at Six M i l e Cree k And w he n th e Call e r s came to live at t h e fort at the outbrea k of t he Seminol e W ar, their acquaintanceship ripened into love. They we r e marri ed o n September 1 4 1836, by J udge Steele, Almost everyone at the fort j o ined in giving the newlyweds a merry weddi n g party. Alter the war, Jac kson retired from the army a n d h omesteaded on t h e west side o f t he Hillsb orough R iver i n t h e s ection now k nown as H yde P ar k. He later s e r ved as probate judge of the county M r. and Mrs J ackson had eight chil d r en: Mary Josephin e Levi Osc ar, M aria Theres a John Brown, vVill i am Parke r R obert Andrew, Pa r k e r and Corde lia Jackso n died in 1865 but his wi do w lived untill907. Mrs Jackson's father L e v i C o ll e r, was probably the first Tampa Bay p ione e r who receive d a go vernment job, A lighthouse was erected on Eg m ont Key during t h e war afte r severa l sh i ps bringing in s upplies missed t h e chan ne l at ni g h t and were stranded o n sand bars an d C oller was appo i nted l i g htho use k eeper. He he l d the po s t many years. The Egmont K ey lighthouse was not the o nl y nav igati o n a i d which seame n got d uring the war, In the fall of 1 838 a chart of th e co ast from

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THE SEMINOLES FIGHT-ANO LOSE 91 Fort Brooke to the Suwannee River was made by Captain Rufus D. Kilgore. Ship captains, officers of tl1e United States Navy, and le ading c itize ns of the Tampa Bay region were so well pleased with Captain Kilgore's work that they signed a testimonial stating tl1at the chart "surpasses anything we have ever seen both for correctness and con veniences to all navigation." The testimonial, which was copied in the county re cord book shows that steamers as well as sailing vessels were then coming regularly into Tampa Bay. Robert May was pilot of the steamer Chamois and Charles M. Gallagher master of t he U.S. steamer Columbus. Most of the incoming ships, however, were schooners and brigs. Captains of t hose sailing vessels of bygone years were: I. N. Sawyer, Montgome1); B. W Tucker, Col. De R1my; William Rysdyke, Ma1ion; Joseph D. Mitchell, Constit1ttion; B. T. Wilrie, Chilie; John B. Min er, Rol> Roy, and Asa Sawyer, Sarah. Accounts of the damage done to t h e brigantine Homer during a v icious stor m which started Sunday Septembe r 9 1838, filled eleven pages o f the county record book The ship, commanded by Ca ptain John Nabb, was blown from its anchorage off Gadsden Point to a sandbar off Egmont Key where it was stranded The brig was finally pulled off the bar by Cap t. Franklin D. Philips, of Groton, Mass., who towed her into Tampa and claimed salvage fees. PiloUJ Cou11cs-y o/ Brt f. lldore the oom.ing of the railroad S<:hooners and shallow draft steamers pro v ided Tam pa's only oonnwion with the outside world. This: pieture shows a Morgan Lin e steamer docked at the font of Jackson street i n 1882 when Tampa had a pop\t l;ui.oo of Jess than 600.

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92 TAMPA Ships which came into Tampa Bay during the 1830s occasionally b r o u ght in Negro slaves as we ll as military supplies. The first slave sale recorded in H illsborough County was m a de July 2 8, 1838, when M ajor Donald Frase r sold a Negro woman recent l y introduced into this territory" to Coran E. Cooper for $300 cash. The major purchased the woman in New Orleans where h e o btained a certificate from th e recorder of mortgages showing ther e w ere no encum brances against h er. Negro slaves were freed as w e ll as so ld ar. Tampa Bay during th e I ndian war days. The county r ecor d boo k co ntains nu merous entries signed by General Zachary Taylor a nd other high ranking army officers show i ng that many Negroes who had b ee n fighting with the Indians were gr anted the ir freedom wh en they s urrendered at the fort. What happened w those freed Negroes is not k nown. The Federal censu s of 1840 showed that onl y two were then li ving in Hillsborou g h C ounty. Two slav e transactions o f long ago which have more t ha n a l it tl e human in terest are recorded in the county record book. They indicate the love that a Negro s l ave owned by Chief Micanopy, Char les P ayne, had for his wife and daughter who had been taken from him by slave hunters and sold ]. H. Mcintosh, of Ala chua County purchased the wife, Jean, and Gad Humphreys, Indian agent, purchased the daughter, B e tsy. To make them free again. P a yne paid Mcintosh $350 and Humphreys $400 It would b e most interesting to know how Payne got eno ugh money to buy his lov e d ones out of slavery. One slave mentioned often in the record book made history. H e was t he Negro Louis who had b een brought to Tampa Bay by an army major a nd so ld in 1832 to Antonio Pacheco, a Spaniard then living n ear the Manatee River A most unusua l Negro, Louis had been well edu cated a nd could read write and spea k Spa nish French and English and a l s o k new the various In d i an languages. B ecause of Louis lingui stic abililics he was hired from M rs. Pacheco on D ecember 23, 1835 by Capt. John C. Case y to serve as interpreter and guide for M ajor Dade on his ill fated journey toward Fort King. For the service s of the Negro, Mrs Pacheco was paid $25 a month. During the Dad e m assacre, Louis was captured by Chief Jumper and held as his slave. When Jumper surrendered in May, I 837, Louis was deported to Louisiana. Many years later he returned to Florida and lived in Jacksonville unti l he died in January 1895. Louis has been accused by many historians of having conspir ed with the Indians by giving th em in f orma tion which enabled th em to slaughter Dade's men. Louis how ever, v igorously denied time and aga in that he had ever betra yed the troops. When the Seminole War ended J udge Steele's p lat of the "Town of Tampa was retained but Tampa City d i sappeared forever. So did most of the men who had been act i v e during t he war period. A few

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THE SEMINou:s FIGHT-AND LosE 93 remained but the great majority drifted away and nothing is left to show they once were here except their names in a musty record book. One of the men whose name appeared often in the records remained in Florida for etern i ty He was James Baxter Dallam. Born in Hartford County, Maryland, in 1806, Dallam enlisted in the army when a youth and was stationed in many parts of the country I n May, 1838, he went into business with Philip G. Hambough and became the sutler for the 1st Regiment, U.S. Infantry, buying $20,000 worth of general merchandise from James Lynch, at Tampa. Dallam and Hambough first opened a store at Fort Harllee on the Sante Fe River just north of Waldo and then moved with the regiment to Fort Clinch, on the Withlacoochee River eighteen miles from the Gulf Dallam was a strong Florida booster and in a letter to his brother written November 30, 1838, he said: "I have no doubt b u t that Florida property will be in great dem and after the war and sell much higher than \!\'estern lands I shall speculate a little myself In June 1838, Dallam was granted the right to esta blish an ex clusive Indian trading post on the Caloosahat-chee River in the heart of the newly established Indian reservation. He expected to make big profits, as shown by his letters home. He said that the Indians undoubt edly had great quantities of hides and skins and also considerable mon ey and since they were wretchedly off for clothing and supplies, he had no doubt of. doing something handsome this summer." After buying a large stoc k of goods from the firm of Lovelace 8c L indsey, in T ampa, Dallam left Tampa Bay with high hopes in July, 1839. Lieut. C ol. William Selby Harne y accompanied him with twenty six dragoons to give him protection. But on the night of July 2 1 a large barid of infuriated Indians swooped down upon the post, the n being established, and massacred almost everyone in it, as previously related Trader Dallam was one of those who were killed. His body was fou nd a few days later and b u ried on the bank of the Caloosahatchee close to the spot where he had falle n. Dallarn never had the chance to learn whether the Florida which he loved wou l d forge ahead when the war clouds passed. But forge ahead it did. A new era was dawning.

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CHAPTER IV A CITY BUILDS ON TAMPA BAY /\LURING NEWS about Florida for the land hungry people of the nation was featured in newspapers throughout t h e country dur ing t he late summer of 1 842. The stories told about the success ful termination of the Seminole \.Yar and then went on to tell in fascinat ing detail all about the wondrous attractions of the vast domain in the Florida peninsula now opened for settlement. In this fair land of the semi-tropics, the writers said, huge fortunes soon would be made in citrus fruits and coconuts, sugar cane and cotton, f igs and dates, spices and tea, and countless other things which could not be grown in the northern states The soil was so rich that crops grew as though by magi c and almost no effort was required to make a living. Large l y because of the favorable publicity, daring men a n d women in all parts of the North soon began heading for the land o f year-round sunshine And they also came from Georgia, Alabama the Carolinas and Virginia And from Germany, Irelanc,I, France and H olland. The southward migration was materially accelerated when Con gress o n August 4, 1842, passed an act "to provide for the armed occupa tion and settlement of the unsettled part of the peninsula of East F lorida." The act, commonly called the Armed Occupation Act, provided that any person "being the head of a family or a sing le man over 18 years of age a nd able to bear arms" who settled anywhe r e south o f Gainesville, erected a house "fit for the h abitation of man," cleared and c ultivated at least five acres and lived the r e four years 'vould be entitled to a quarter sectio n of land, 160 acres. The purpose of the act was obvious. The poss i bility of another war with the Seminoles seemed remote i n deed, now that most of the savages h ad gone to the reservation in southwest Flor ida, but members of C ongress wanted to eliminate all chance of a renewal of the conflict. This could be done, they argued i f hardy, Indian hating frontiersmen thickly settled central Florida. And such settlement could best be pro moted, they claimed, by giving part of the public domai n to willing t o undertake t heir own defense and mak e payment in that ma nner for the land they occupied There was strong opposition to the act. Many members of both the House and Senate from southern states were strenuously opposed to any form of a homestead ac t, even when homesteaders were required to bear arms to protect the i r homes and families. They had no desire to see the rich lands of Florida pockmarked by the farm s o f non-slave owning settlers

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A CITY BuiLDS ON TAMPA BAY 95 T he opposition gave way finally only because of the undisputed fact that another Indian war must be prevented, now that war with Mexico was imminent, and the act was passed. But during the debate it was materially weakened. Onl y 200,000 acres were alloca ted for settle ment and the offer of free land was limited to one year. To carry out the provisions of th e act the General Land Office opened two offices in Florida, one in St. Augustine and the other in N e wnansville, a once-thriving but now-vanished community about ten miles northwest of Gainesville. The St. August ine office issued the first permits on October II, 1842, and the Newnansv ille office Decem ber 15, 1842. The promised free homesteads proved to be an irresistable magnet. And a large percentage of the land seekers headed toward the Tampa Bay re gion because of the publicity it had received during the war. Some of the pioneers came in sloops and schooners. Others traveled overland, all their earthly possessions piled into huge covered wagons drawn by mules or oxen. Sometimes they followed the military roads constr ucted by the arm y during the Indian war; often, however, d1ey cut through the wilderness, making their own trails as they went. The journey from Gainesville to Tampa Bay rarely was made in less than two weeks by the ox or mule teams. Often a month or more was required to make the trip, the pioneers camping along the way occasionally to give their animals a rest. Many brought with them small herds of cattle. Records of the Land Offic e revea l that at least 119 persons secured permits to settle in what was then Hillsborough County. Included in that total were a number who had been living here before and took advantage of the act t-o secure homesteads for nothing Odet Phillippi for instance, who owned two billiard rooms, a ten pin alley and an oyster house in Tampa, secured a permit for a 160acre tract at Worth's Harbor where he had previously started his St. H elena plantation and become this section's pioneer developer of citrus fruits. A real old timer of Tampa, Le\'i Coller also seized the opportunity to get land. On March 18, 1843, he wrote to Newnansville applying for a 160-acre tract on Rocky Creek and a week later the permit was granted. It was delivered by Land Office officials to John Waterson who had been pers ua ded by Coller and eig hteen other applicants to ma ke the arduous journey to Newnansvi ll e and secure the necessary papers. Waterson went on horseback and completed the round way trip in a week. Coller's son-in law, Robert Jackson who had become the first bridegroom of Tampa by marrying Nancy Coller, got a permit for 160 acres on the Alafia River. Henry Lindsey part owner of a Tampa gen eral store applied for 160 acres on the Manatee River. Louis Covace vich, Tampa Bay pilot, secured 160 acres at Rocky Creek. And Judge

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96 TAMPA Augustus Steele, Hillsborough County 's first judge, tried to get !60 acres on Depot Key, now pan of Davis Islands. But his permit was an nulled because the government decided the key had to be reserved for milita ry purposes. This was the second time Judge Steel e was denied Tampa Bay land -just a short time before the federa l courts bad upset his claim to a 25-acre tract he had acquired from Ric hard Hackley. Badly disappointed the judge soon deserted Tampa and went to Cedar Keys t o live. Soldiers stationed at Fort Brooke whose tenus of enlistment were nearing an end applied for permits and so did Spanish and Cuban fishermen who had been Jiving in small, palmetto-thatched huts on bay shores and islands close to their favori te fishing grounds. Included among this la tter group were Maximo H ernandez who settled at the tip of "Fishermen's Poin t," on Pinellas Peninsula at the place which still bears the name Maximo Po int. Hernandez did not li ve long enough to receive a government patent to his land. H e died before it was issued on October 15, 1852 but his widow D omingo H ernandez, became the owner. Joseph Silva and .John Levich, two other fishermen, settled on Boca Ceiga Bay. Joseph Elzuardi and Emanuel Olivella secured permits for land on the shores of Sarasota Bay. El1.uardi's l and l ater was acquired by William Whitaker, pionee r o f Sarasota, and part of it was given by him to his daughter, Nancy, when she was married to John H elveston, of Manatee. Their home was k nown thereafter as Alzarti Acres. A large majority of the persons who sought land under the pro visions of the Armed Occupation Act were newcomers to the T ampa Bay region men and women who were determi n ed to mak e their homes in this semi-tropical country regardless of the dangers and hardships which might be encountered Many received patents for the land they occupied and became the progenitors of some of F lori da's present day leading families. Names of the settlers who were granted permits for acreage i.mcler the Armed Occupation Act are listed in House Document No. 70, 28t h Congress, printed in 1844, which gives a report dated January 24, 1844, from Thomas H Blake commissioner of the General Land O ffice, to Speaker John vV. Jones of the House of R epresentatives. A tattered, yellowed copy of this rare old document is owned by Walter H Fuller, of St. Petersburg. The document plainly shows that the Manatee River section then a part of Hillsb orough County, was most favo red by the homest eaders, a total of forty -five secur ing pennits to settle on the fertile banks of the river, in the rich back country and on the islands near the mouth of the river. The Manatee Janel was so much in demand that the Land

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A CITY BuiLDS oN TAMP A BAY 97 Offi ce ordered that i t should be surveyed by government surveyors ahead of any other section of Hill sboroug h C ounty. The first s urveys in Hillsborough were ma de early in 1843 by Col. Henry \.Vashington who ran the b ase l i nes vVashington was followed by Samuel R eid and A. M Rand o l ph who made t he interior surveys. Field notes of these men show they worked under most trying conditions, defying alligators and snake s to run their section lines through the dense unde rbrush and almost impenetrable swamps. The fir st settler in the Land of the Manat ee was Jos i a h Gates a South Caroli nian who had leased the Kilgore H otel in Tampa in 1841. During the summer of 1842 h e l earned that the Armed Occupation Act was bef ore Congress a nd would p robably soo n be pass ed. Deciding to take advant ag e of it h e sailed down to the M anatee River a nd selected a most desirabl e tract which had been the si te of a small In dian village. The ground was rich and the India ns had clear ed several acres, t he reby prov iding Gates with an admira bl e home site. Returning to Tampa Gates loaded his belong i ngs on the sloop Ma rgmet Ann, owned by Captain Frederick Tresca, and went back to the Manat ee ta kin g with him h i s wif e and two childr en and eight Negro slaves. A s ix-r oom log cabi n, w i th a passage way and detached kitchen wer e quickly built. In a f ew weeks the Gates House," a hot e l in the wild e rness, was r eady for bus iness. And none too soo n. O ther PlltHO C<>uU$7 f)/ISut,crt This was the: bca n of Tampa ill 1880. The: photograph was tak en from the top of the co urth ouse looking south on Florida avenue.

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98 T AMP A homesteaders began pouring in. \.Yithin a short time the Gates House had to be enlar ged and was always filled with g ue s ts M any of th e newcomers were co mmon folk" who had never owned land before and wanted to get homest eads of t hei r own while they had the chance. A few were descendants of wealth y socially prominent southern families ori ginally from Virgini a, who had been hard hit by the collapse of the banks at Tallahassee and Pensacol a during the de pression of 1837 and now were seeking to recoup their losses. Included among these aristocrats were the Brade n brothers, H ector W. and Dr. J oseph Addison; the Gamble brothers, Robert and William, and the Cra ig brothers, Pinckney and John William. During the latter part of the Semi nole War these men employed soil experts to cruise t hrough the peninsula and select the best section for growing sugar cane. The expert s fav ored the Manatee River region. Taking the experts advice, the three sets of brothers purchased huge tracts along the river as soon as the section was ope ned for settlement. The Bra dens bought I, I 00 acres on the so uth side of the river the G amb les 3,450 acres o n th e north side, and the Craigs several t h ousand more acres adjoinin g the Gamble holdings on the west. All paid the government $1.25 an acre. To develo p thei r holdings the men brough t i n thei r crews of slaves and whit e overseers. Co u nty recor ds of 184 7 show tha t the Bradens then had 121 slaves the Cra igs 7 4 and t h e Gambles 70 Hundreds of acres were clear ed and t housands of feet of drainage ditch es were dug. Months we re required for this back breaking job. More than $100,000 was spent on buildi ngs and equipment and genera l s u pplies. T wo modem sugar r efineries we r e built, one on each side of the river. \.Yhen the plantations finally got in to operation, t hey w ere rated as amo ng the finest in the e ntire South. Imposin g homes of the co lo nial type with stately pillars, were built by Dr. Braden and Robert Gamble. For t he walls, shell bri cks were u s ed. They were made by the s l aves o f shell sand, water and lime, the lime being obtai ned by burning oyster shells. Brick s molde d from this mixture and then dried becam e almos t as durable as stone. \Vhen completed the Braden C astle and the Gamble Mansion towered high above the surrounding country and thei r masters were truly mon archs of al l they surveyed Supplies for the river plantations were brought in and cargoes of suga r were taken out by Captain Tresca and Captain Archibald M cNeill, two hard y sea dogs who had sa i led the seven seas and finally selected Tamp a Bay as the place they li ked best T r esca was a native of Dunkirk France. When twelve years old he was appren ticed to the master of th e Bellerophon and was serving as a cabin boy when the shi p conveyed Napoleo n t o Torbay on his way

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A CITY BUILDS ON TAMPA BAY 99 to St. Helena. Later he became a master mariner and learned five languages. On March 4, 18!18, he took out citizenship papers at Key West. In his sloop Margaret Ann he carried merchandise from Cedar Keys to Key '\Nest, stopping at Fort Brooke and Indian trading posts along the way. In 1840 he made his home at Tampa and three years later homesteaded "near Tampa Bay." But he continued to follow the sea and for three decades was one of the best know n mariners of the Florida West Coast. McNeill was another "for eigner" who selected Tampa for his home. Born September 15, 18 15, on the island of Gigha off the coast of Scot land, he ran away from home when thirteen years old and shipped before the mast. Coming to the Florida \V est Coast late in the 1830s, he made his home in Tampa in 1841. On January 28, 1843, he bought the old Kilgore Hotel at public auction for $235-it had been closed since it was abandoned by Jos i ah Gates when he went to the Manate e River. Three years later on Ma y 27, 1845, he sold the hotel to Mrs. May F. Palmer for $1,000. None of the pioneers who came to the Tampa Ba y region in the early 1840s settled in the immediat e neighborhood of Fort Brooke or Tampa. That was because the Fort Brooke military reservation took in 256 square miles, the fort being in the center of a 16-rnile square. Many permits for homestead s were granted, howev er, for land just beyond the reservation boundary line. Six were gra nted for land "near Tampa, two for land at Rocky Creek, and three on the Hillsborough River. Fourteen permits were granted for land on the Alafia River eight "near Tampa Bay," ten on Old Tampa Bay, seven at Clear Water Harbor, two at worth's H arbor, two on Boca Ceiga Bay forty -fi ve in the Manatee R iver section and three on Sarasota Bay. Not all the pioneers wanted la nd on the wate r Four got permits for homesteads at Simmons' H ammock, two at Hickapusassa, one at Thonotosassa Lake and five at Fort Sullivan, close to t he present city of Lakeland. Most of these inland settlers located along the Fort Mellon or Fort King military roads. The Armed Occupation Act was in effect less than nine months, no permits being issued after August 4, 184-3. During the nine-month period, 1,312 permits were issued, 942 at Newnansv ille and 370 at St. Augustine. Of this total, 128 were annulled because they had been issued for lands covered by private cla im s or for keys and islands which were reserved for military purposes. That left a total of l, 184 permits to which no objection was made for a total of 189,440 acres. There is little doubt but that south Florida would have developed even more rapidly than it did after 1843 if the Armed Occu p ation Act would have been extended beyond that year. But" efforts to prolong i ts

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100 TAMPA life were killed by political friends of slave owning southerners. Af ter 1843, settlers were unable to acquire free homesteads until the Hom e stead Act of 1862 went into effect. The death of the Armed Occupation Act slowe d down but did not s to p the southward migration. All through the 1840s and well into the 1850s, home seekers continued to enter the Tampa Bay region. Some bought tracts from the Federal government, paying $1.25 an acre. Many others selected places they liked and then just squatted. In some sections the number of squatters exceeded the number of land owners. All contri buted their share to the development of the region The Wilderness Is Tamed a Little Into the u ntracked forests those early pioneers made their way and established homes in places whe r e white man had never l ive d before. Simeon .L. Sparkman, the first of niany Spark mans who came to Hills borough, settled just east .of an Indian village near Lake Thonotosassa, the chief of which was Billy Bowlegs. Most of the other Indian s had gone farther south in to the Indian reservation but not Billy and his people. They liked the place where they were living and intended to remain t here as lo ng as they could Few of the other pioneers had any neighbors, Indian or white. Each family had its o'vn spot i n the wilderness, and there it became established, sufficient unto itself The homes were simple built of logs and thatched with fronds of palmettoes. Only a favored few had glass in the windows; practically all had wooden shutters to keep out the cold and rain-wooden shutters hung on hand.made wooden hinges which creaked and groaned when strong winds blew. During th.'e winter mon t hs the shutters were kept closed but i n warm weather they \v-ere thrown back and the houses often swarmed '''ith flies and mosquitoes. The mosquitoes were th' e bane of the pioneers' existence. During the rainy season when the flat w ood lands stood covered with wa ter for weeks, the mosquitoes bred by the trillion and often made life almost unbearable. In attempts to repel the pests smudge f ires were burned in fTont of every home. Old timers assert they often succeeded in driving away alinost all the mosquitoes by feed in g the fires with cow chips. But they ruefull y agree that the smoldering cow chips didn't smell"none to o good." When they went to bed the pioneers slept under cotten-mesh ne tting co get a little rest. Almos t every old timer tells .about having encountered giant wild cats, or panthers, fully six feet long and frightfully vicious but so far as is known, no pioneer was ever killed by one of the animals. However, few of the early settlers were fortunate enough to escape from having some of their cattle kiiled by t he wolves which then roamed through the

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A C1w BuiLDS oN TAMl'A BAY 101 bac k coun try in savage packs. Many years passed before all the wolves were exterminated The worse task every settler unde rtook was clearing the groun d for crops. Trees had to be cut down and ta ngle d underbrush clear ed away Then followed the endless backbreaking task of grubbin g our the roots. Sometimes it took more tha n a month to clear one acre. As soon as a small space was ready for cultivatio n tl1e firs t garden was planted-sugar cane, sweet potatoes, peas, squ a s h and corn. Then came troubl e from the animal s and birds. The tende r vines of the sweet potatoes were most tempting for the deer which overran the region and the pioneers often had to buil d barricades to prevent their crops from being entirely devoured. Rabbits caus ed more grief. And th e wild turkeys were attracted to th e gardens, causing no end o f trouble. They cam e in flocks and gobbled up the tiny green sprouts as they burst through the soiL Scarecrows did n't frighten them away. H undreds had to be shot before the others learned that the luscious peas and corn had not b een pla nted espec ially for them. Despi te the fact that birds and a nimals oft e n devoured c rops, n one of the pion eers ever suffered from lack of food. The woods and swamps were alive with game-deer, grey and fox squirrels, coons, opossum, turkeys quail, blue wing tea l, wood and brindle ducks green -necked Mallards c urlews, and gan netts better known as Methodist preachers." There was never a time. winter or summer, when the pioneer could not go out into the woods and "shoot a meal" for his family. When the settlers tired of game, they always had sea food to fall bac k upon Tampa Bay and nearby wate rs then boasted of having some of the finest oyster beds in the world-oysters wide ly famous for their exq uisite flavor. The bays also were noted for their delicious clams and scallops, and st one crabs Enough shell food for a dozen meals could be gathered in less than an hour. As for fish-well, the tales h anded down by the pion eers are alm ost unbelievable. One o l d timer w h o lived near the tip of Pinellas Peninsula told of one scllool which entered Tampa B ay in the morning, kept moving northward all day long and was still passing when d ark ness rei!. Ofte n whe n com ing through the c.hannel, scho ols o f mullet would be chased by sharks or porpoises In fren z ied efforts to escape, the mullet would leap high into the air and make a weird, uncanny noise whic h old-timers say sounded like the roar of heavy surf on a beach. In the old days most of the pioneers liked m ullet bett e r tha n other fish. Bu t if t hey prefen-ecl pompano ;-or trout, o r red fish, or any of a hundred other species, all they had to do was go out in a boa t for an hour or so, cast a net or fish a while, and come bac k loaded down.

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102 TAMPA Pioneers who lived inland often came to the bay in their covered ox-wagons and camped while they caugh t, salted and sun-cured a supply of fish, havi ng a vacation while repl enishing their food supply. Few if any of the pionee rs had iron cooking stoves. Almost all the women cooked on so
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A CtTY BUILDS ON TAMPA BAY 103 Fortunately enough, the women had few "fanc y cloth es" to wash and iron. "All that a man needed then," said one old tim er, "wa s a hickor y shirt, a pair of dungarees and brogans for his feet. For special doings a man had a black suit which he expected to last ten or fifteen years. The needs of the women were just as simp le. A few calico dresses and an alpaca dress for Sunday best were almost all they wanted. ..<\s for the children-well, th ey wore almost anything and few of them had any shoes until they reached the ir 'teens." Not many pioneers had money to buy lots of clothes, regardless of the family's needs. In those days, silver dollars looked as big as cart wheels. Many settlers had no money at all. This was not because they were shiftless or the land sterile. The trouble was that the pioneers could not get good prices for their produ cts Often they could not sell at any price. More often than not they had to barter their products for the things they could not supply themselves-cloth, shoes, tobacco, spices and coffee, guns and ammunition, farm implements, and all the other "luxuries" and necessities every family needed For rnany )'Cars this hotel, the l,almeu o, was tbe leading commercial hotel of Tampa a.nd accom modated man) winter guests as well lL was built on t.he northc:ust co rner of Florida and Polk in 1884 by judge N.C. Buff. of Tcrl'c H:wte.ll\d.

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104 TAMP A By virtu e of its geograp hical location and hea d start, Tampa became the bartering and s h oppi ng center for a great part of the W est Coast and central Florida. Tampa Sheds Its Swaddling Clothes Infant Tampa began to suffer growing pa ins in the mid-l8 40s But in the begi nning the pains were mild. That was because Tampa was a very small p lace. The Tampa o 1846 was well described by Geo rge B allentine, an English soldier who served in the United States Army, in a boo k published in 1853. Ballentine came to Tampa Bay for the first time on November 4, 1846 and the schooner which brought him had to anchor eight mil es from Fort Brooke "on accoum of the extreme shoal ness of the bay." H e made the remainder of the trip on the government s l oop The Sta1 which served as a lighter for larger vessels wrote Bal lentine: "Tampa is a neat little v illage of w ooden houses s ituated at the momh o f t he ri ver Hill sborough and close to the garrison. There is a small traffic carried on between it and the scattered settlers of the commu nity who bring in their surplu s produ c ts and e x change i t here for goods and money. Its situ ation is rec koned to be one of t h e most healthy and salub rious in Florida but as the land in the vicinity is mostly of poor quality, and as the bay is difficult of approa ch for shipping, it does not seem destined to ris e v e ry rapidly in imp ortance "The barra c ks, which may almost b e sa id to be part of the villa ge, are a long range of log buildings erected by the troops during the Florida Indian War of 1837. They have a cove re d gallery all around and are well adapted t o the clim ate of Florida be ing ra i sed about t h ree f e e t fro m the ground, hip;h in the roof and we ll ve n tilated. They are built on the h ighest part of the garrison, about fiftee n feet above tl1c level of the s ea, an unu s ually grea t elevation o n the coast of Florida. "'.Ye wer e all delighted, on landing, with the appearan ce of the garrison, its neat whitewashed buildings and it s grassy parade grounds; while round th e neat cottages in which the officers and their families lived, grew rows of orange and lime trees thickly covered with their go lden fruit tl1en nea rl y ripe. In front of the barr acks stood a noble grove of live oa k trees which off ered a de l icious shade from the scorching heat of the sun and gave an air of quiet and an expression of sylvan beauty to tl1e scene .... "On arriving we found another company of our regiment stationed there two companies being consider ed requisite for the protectio n of the inhabitants against any sudden outbrea k of tl1e Indians. . Parties of twe n ty or thirty frequently came to th e v illage. They wer e always accompanied by a sub-chief, a sort of lieu te n ant, who had char ge of the party, and their object was to exch ange deer s kins for powder and other

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A CITY BuiLDS ON TAMPA BAY 105 necessary articles. They frequently brought a few turkeys or a few pieces of venison, part of the game they shot along the way. These they sold cheap enough a turkey fet ching a quarter and a piece of venison of fifteen or twenty pounds weight, half a dollar. "The Indians always visited the barracks when they came to the village, walking through the r ooms and shaking hands with the soldiers in a perfectly peaceful manner .... On paying one of these visits it was customary for them to have a bout of drinking and dancing, a sort of Indian ball, which they held in a yard behind a house in the village appropriated exclusively to their use. The entertainments of the eve ning usually consisted of smoking and drinking whiskey until pretty late a few of them dancing at in t ervals in the most ludricous attitudes imaginab le. They would end the evening usually with a war dance in which all who were not too drunk joined.'' The Tampa which Ball entine wrote about was a small place indeed and it is easy to understand why he believed it was not destined to be a town of importance But destiny had other plans for the infant town. Ballentine probably did not know it but the main thing which retarded Tampa's growth in 1846 was a place in which to grow. It was a comm u nity squatter on government land. No t an acre of land, not even on:e lot, was privately owne d Uncle Sam owned everything. That was due, of course, to the fact that Tampa was still part of the military reservation. Newcomers could come in and erect buildings, if they wanted to but they had no assurance that the government would not step in at any moment and take possession. This was a hopeless situation and no one knew it better than the county officials who took office in January, 1846 the first full slate of officials Hillsborough ever had. They were elected in 1845, the year Florida changed its status from a territory to a full fledged state. The county commissioners were Simon Turman, William Hancock Micajah C Brown, Benjamin Moody and James A. Goff. Turman was president of the board and also judge o f the probate court. Simeon L. Sparkman was the tax assessor and John Parker tax collector. Thomas P. Kennedy was treasurer and E. A. W 'are was county clerk_ All these men were relative newcomers to the Tampa Bay region. Kennedy, a native of Philadelphia, 34 years old, had come to Tampa in 1840 to establish an Indian trading post but left soon afterward and did not return untill845 when he opened a store at Tampa and 'Vhiting Streets, in the building built by Burr & Lynch_ None of the other officials had arrived before 1843. Turman, 47 years old was a native of Ohio. When a youth he moved to Indiana. In 1843 he caught the Florida "fever and promoted the migration of a group of Ohio and Indiana men including Ezekiel Glazier Mortimer Bright, William Lockwood and Asa J. Goddard. At New Orl eans the

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106 TAMPA colonists met John Jackson, a nat i ve of Ireland, who was assistant city engineer of New Orleans. They persuaded J ac k son to join them and chartered a sailing vessel to make the journey. Arriving at Ma natee in July, 1843, they immedia tely filed appl i cations for home steads along the river and were granted permits in August. Turman built a house on the river at what later became kn own as Turman's Landin g and was living there when elected county commissioner in 1845. Soon after ward, he and Jackson moved to Tampa. Each built a Tampa home, Turman at Lafayette and Ashley and Ja c kson on lower Tampa Street. Micajah Brown, 32 years old, was a native of New Hampshi re. He came to Tampa in 1845 and opened a small clothing store. William Hancock, a farmer of South Carolina, had bought land at Simmons' Hammock in 1844, as did John Parker, a North Carolinian. Benjamin Moody, a 35-year-old Georgia farmer came to Tampa in 1845 with his wife and five children. J ames A. Goff, who called himself a politician from Virginia, was living in Tampa in 1845 with his wife and seven children. Edbridge A. Ware had settled at Manatee in 1 843 with his wife and child. Simeon L. Sparkman, 40 years old, was a native of Georgia who had homesteaded at Simmons' Hammock in 1843 with his wife and four children. One of the fi rst acts of the new county officials was to petition the Federal government for a drastic reduction in the 1rtilitary res erva tion a nd the grant of a quarter section, 160 acres, which could be sold by the county and money' obtained for the construction of a court h ouse. The petition was approved by the War Department in July, 1846, and Major L. Whiting was instructed to make a survey and establis h the reservation boundaries. The major completed his survey on September 14. The northern boundary was f ix ed at the picket fence, just south of the Palmer House and Kennedy's store, wh ich had been built in I 836 to ward off the Indians. Conf i dently believing that the county was assured of getting the 160 acres requested, the commissioners on October 26th employed John Jackson to make a survey and plat the town. He completed the survey December 30 and the town plat was recorded January 9, 1847. It is believed that when Jackson laid out the town he followed the plat orig inally made by Judge Steele in 1838. He certainly did at l east as far as Tampa and 'Water Stre ets were concerned. These stre e ts had been in existence l'or nearly a decade and buildings had been erected on them. The street borderin g the m ilitar y reservation of the north was named Whiting, in honor of Major L. Whiting. Four of the other streets were named by Jackson after presidents : \>Vashington, Jackson Madison and Monroe. He also remembered Benjamin Franklin Gen eral L a Fayette, and the Revolutionary War heroes, Francis Marion and Daniel Morgan. Ashley Street was named for 'William Ashley, 42-

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A CnY BuiLDS oN TAMPA BAY 107 year-o l d Virginian who had lived in Tampa since 1837 clerking for the army sutler. His home was located on the southeast corner of Lafayette and Water Streets. The name of Monroe Street was soon changed to Florida, so to avoid confusion, the name Florida will be used hereafter. The blocks in the town east of Tampa Street were laid out i n one acre squares. 'Vest of Tampa there were a few odd-shaped blocks with varyi n g sized lots. Most of the lots between Franklin Stree t and the river, however, were 70 by I 05, with six lots to a block Those east of Franklin were I 05 feet square, w i th fou r lots to a b lo ck. The streets were 80 feet wide. Old tim e rs say that when Jackson made the survey he used a link chain which varied i n length depending on the tempera t ure, with the result that some blocks in the original tOwn are eight to ten inches longer than others. But no one knew that then and even if they had know n they probably would not have cared. Land was very cheap in those days After the town was laid out, the county commissioners straightway proceeded to let a contract for a courthouse Negotiations had been started earlier with Michael Ledwith, of .Manatee, to handle the con tract but Ledwith left the county and the commissioners lllrned to Captain James McKay, a newcomer in t he town. The captain agreed t O erect the building, two stories high and 20 by 40 feet, for $1,358. Fud FfeU:II
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108 TAMPA He started at once on the block bounded by Franklin, Madison, Florida and Lafayette Streets To get money to pay for the courthouse the commissioners pre pared to sell lots in the ne w ly platted town. They had received word in February that an order had been signed by the Adjutant General reducing the military reservation to four miles square and they assumed that the last legal barrier to the lot sa l e had been removed. So they advertised in the JACKSONVILLE NEWS and the TALLAHASSEE SOUTHERN JoURNAL, announcing that the sale would be held l\-ionday, April 5, 1847. The sale was held as scheduled and $ 2,900 worth of lots were sold at prices ranging fro m $25 to $ 83 a lot. The commissioners were jubilan t -but not for long. A few months later crushing news came from Vashi n gton. President Polk had failed to sign t he land grant and hence the sale had been illegal, and clear titles could not be given t o the lots which had been sold Unless some thing was done to val idat e the grant, the county would have to return $ 1.500 it had received in down payments for the lots and would lose $.1,400 more i t still had coming in deferred payments. In this dire emergency, the commiss i oners turned to Micajah Brown H e was well educated and talented ahd had a flair for writing : Responding to the plea Brown "Tote a carefully prepared peti t ion which was presented to Congress on April 3, 1848, and referred to the Committee on Public Lands It urgently requested that Congress pass an act granting the county the 160 acres desired To make h i s petition more effective, Brown went to vVashington and appeared before the committee on April 17. The principal argument used by Brown was that Hillsborough County had a rightful claim to ti1e land because of the loss it had sustained when its "courthouse and other buildings were destroyed by the Indians at the commencement of the late Seminole war." He insis ted that the burned buildings were worth far more than the $200 the 160 acres would bring at the preemption price of $1.25 an acre. And he added: "The whole quarter section would nor be worth $100 (had it not been selected for a county seat) because it is the very poorest sandy land." In his peti t ion, Brown stated that Tampa was then a village of "'upwards o f one hundred inhabitants" and he pointed out that the back country was becoming thickly settled and the need for a court house and a jail was becom i ng increasingly acute. He argued that the necessary buildings could not be erected unless the land was granted and the town lot sales legalized Responding to Brown's plea, both houses of Congress passed the land grant act and it was signed by President Polk on July 25, 1848.

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A CITY BuiLDS oN TAMPA BAY 109 That date is really Tampa' s birthday because it was on that day that the town of Tampa became a legal actuality Anticipating favorable action by Congress, t he coun t y commis sioners had tapped t heir treasury in January and paid Captain McKay in full for building the courthouse. He received $ 1 ,368-$10 more than the con t ract call e d for because he put i n a few extras the commissioners decided we r e required. That courthouse builder, Captain James McKay, was a most un usual man physically and mentally. Over six feet tall, he weighed a hundred and ninety pounds and ther e was not an ounce of fat on his body. He was broad shouldered and had the muscles oE a prize fighte r He was a born leader and for three decades was one of the most out standing men in south Florida. Born March 17, 1809 at Thurso, in County Caithness, in the north o f Scotland, he went to sea when a boy and became a master seama n before he was twenty-fi ve. While in Edinburgh one day in 1 835, he me t a bonnie Scotch lass Matild a Cail, wi t h whom he fell in love. But Matilda was then only sixteen y e ars old altogether too young to be married, in the opinion of her mother, Madame Sarah Gail. To remove her daughter "nom temptation," Madame Gail left Scotland and went to America, taking Matilda with her. They set tled in St. Louis. Not to be outwitted so easily Captain McKay followed, located the Cails in St. Louis a n d immediately resumed his courtship In 1 837, l'vladame Gail finally relented and gave permission to Matilda to be married. The captain was then twenty-eight years old and his brid e seventeen. Soon af ter the wedding they move d to Mobile, Ala., where the captain engaged in the mercantile business Four children were born there: George, Sarah, James and John. In Mobile, Captain McKay met the Rev. Dan iel Simmons, the Baptist minister who had established a mission in Hillsborough County in 1828 and had li ved there until the Seminole War started, when he went to Alabama. Re v erend Simmon s was an ardent Florida booster and never ceased singing the praises of t he Tampa Bay region. Captain McKay did not need much selling on the future prospects of the bay section. He knew that because of its geographical location Tampa Bay was destined to become one of the leading ports of the na t ion. So in t he ea r ly fall of 1846 he decided to go to Tampa. Chartering a schooner, Captain Me Kay left Mobile with his family m September. Reverend and Mrs Simmons wen t with him, and so did Madame Gail and Mitchell ? &Carty and his wife, Elizabeth daugh ter of the Simmons The schooner never reached Tampa. It was wrecked during a hurricane on shoals in Chassahowitzka Bay, in Her nando County. The cargo was lost but all on board escaped. The Simmons and McCarty families went on to Brooksville but the McKays

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110 TAMPA soon afterward made their way to Tampa, arnvmg Ill November. Madame Cail came with them. Both Captain McKay and J\.fadame Cail were well off and soon after arriving in Tampa they began investing heavily in real estate, buy ing some o f the best blocks in town as soon as the property was put on the marke t. They also purchased many large tracts throughout the county, becoming two o f Hillsborough 's largest land owners. One of the blocks purchased by Captain McKay was the one bounded by Franklin, Jackson, Florida and Washington Streets. There he built his home On another o f his blocks, the one adjoining o n the south, he built a store building and went into business. But he was not long satisfied wi th store keeping. Late in 1848 he purchased the schooner Sarah iHatilda and started making runs to Mobile and New Orleans. Two years later he bought another schooner Emma, for use between Tampa and Fort Myers. During t he 1850s he added to his fleet, buying the 125-ton steamer Venice, a smaller steamer called the Wood and the brigantine Huntress, purchased at federal auction in Key '.Vest after it had been condemned as a slaver. In 1859 he chartered the steamer Magnolia from the Morgan Line and entered the cattle busi ness, buying herds and selling the animals in Cuba. He is credited with being the first shipper of ca ttle from Florida t o the Cuba market. As the years went by, Captain McKay continued to make history. Construction of the courthouse was not the only public improve ment considered by the commissioners in 1846 and 1847. They had roads to think about, and give them headaches. From every section of the far-flung county came bitter complaints about the condition of the roads built by the army during the Seminole vVar. Bridges were collaps ing and the logs used in the corduroy roads through swamps had rotted and disintegrated. Many roads had become impassable. And to make the situa t ion worse, mos t parts of the county had no roads at all. In an effort to solve the highway problem, the commissioners the county into road and bridge districts and named super visors to take charge of repairs and new construction. The county's treasury was empty and consequently i t had no money to pay for road projects o f any kind, so the commissioners blithely told the supervisors to dig up the money as best they could. The supervisors had little success. Everyone wanted good roads but no one wanted to pay for them. As a result, few road projects were undertaken. The principal achievement was the clearing of t he right-of-way o f a new road from Turman's Landing on the Big Manatee River to Tampa by way of Bell's Ford on the Alafia. Elsewhere a f ew bridges were rebuilt and some corduroy repairs were made but that was all. Hillsborough County had to wait many, many years before a good road system became an actuality.

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A CtTY ButLDS oN TAMP A BAY Ill Two steps were taken, however to provide better means for crossing the Hillsborough Rive r. On April 7, 1846, E. T. Mobley was authorized to construct a toll bridge at Fort Foste r where the Fort King military road crossed th e river And on M ay 23 Thomas Piper was granted the right to estab lish a ferry at Lafayet te Street. The ferry fees were fix ed a t five cents per man and ranging from fifteen to twenty-five cents for wagons. P iper built a large scow and delega t ed the tas k of pol ing it back and forth across the river to two of his slaves. Traffic was a nything but heavy so the Negroes certainly were not worked beyond tl1eir endurance. Hillsbo rough Cou n ty got one more bad l y n eeded "pub l i c improve ment" i n th e early summe r of 1848-a county jail. It was built on the courthouse square by Simon Sikes for $345 To give the cou nty goo d measure, Sikes at no ext ra cost built a fence around th e courthouse to keep out w andering cows and hogs. The fence enclosed some thin g b esides the courthouse and jailsomething the children of Tampa had no particular l iking f or. It was the first community school. No separate building was required for it; classes were held in the court r oom. T he teacher was P. Wilson, of Boston, who had come to Florida for his health and had b een persuaded by town le aders to stan a school. H e was paid through tuition fees from Pflal4 C4tlt tllsy d i Fttd fl;zt e A flf Looking north east rrom the co unty i n 1884 &howlng the intcrS cct lon of florida A\'Cnue and Madison Stn::et. The of the Hol y Name i.s the rargc building shown aL top ccntct.

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112 TA1\1PA the parents; the "class room" was donated by the county commissioners. Teacher Wilson had fourteen pupils in that first class of the Florida West Coast They were Louis and Eli7.a J ane Bell, Joseph and Mary Ferris, William B. and John Alexander 1-fenderson, Mary R. Jackson, Thomas L esley, George and Sarah M cKay, and Eliza Jane, William James, John Howard and Carolin e Elizabeth Spencer. They were Tampa's first school children and were taught their fir st lessons Mon day, September II 1848. Glasses were held in t he new school just two weeks and t h en they were interr upted, most violently, by Mother Nature. Tampa experi ence d the worst storm in its history. The Wind Blew with Savage Fury The West Coast of Florida never h as been l ashed by a hurricane as severe as many which have wrought devastating damage and caused heavy loss of life on the lower East Coast and on the Florida keys. But it experienced one blow which made history the hurricane of 184 8 A t the t i me the stonn oc c urred Tampa was still a very small villa ge, with not more than a hundred inhabitants. It was still overshadowed by the arm y garrison Fort Brooke, w hi ch took in all th e lan d south of Whiting Street. Within th e reserv ation there were many buildings: large com missary warehouses, two hospital buildings, a bake shop, a carpenter's shop, the quartermaster's office and wareho uses a blacksmith shop, ordnance warehouses, a clothing building numerous horse sheds and large anny barracks. The officers had individual homes on the bay front at what would now be the foot of Nebraska Avenue. Vl. G. Ferris the army sutler ha d his store in the reservat ion, on the river about 300 feet south of Whiting Street. James B. Allen had a boarding house about a hundred yards east of the commissary. The fort also had a large wharf near the present foot of Platt Str eet The stormy weather whic h preced ed the hurricane started Satur day, Septembe r 23. During Sun day the wind increased in strengt h, coming from the east and accompanied by heavy rain. 'V. G. F e rris' schooner the john T. Sprague, bringing a payroll for the sol diers was seen coming up th e ba y and a crew of soldi e rs went down in a sloop to help brin g her in which they succeeded in doing after hours of effort. Early Monda y morning the wind shifted to the south and finally to t he southw est, blowing with dreadful fury. The rain fell in torrents water from the Gulf was blown into th e bay and the wind kept sweep ing it northward. Grea t waves began crashi ng in. The i slands in the bay were covere d and so was almost all of lnterbay P eninsula. The garrison was almost entirely inundate d with mad waves pounding at the buildings. Up the river onl y th e tops of trees could be seen through

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A CITY B \IILOS ON TAMPA BAY 113 the driving rain The wind was so fierce that people could move through it only by crawling along the ground Before the hurricane reached its peak F erris carrie<:! the members of his family to the Palmer House, then waded in water up to his arm pits back to his store. Then, looking southward, he saw the commissary building rolling straight toward him. He got away just as it crashed into his own warehouse. Both buildings were swept up the river. The Palmer House seemed doomed. Tables began floating around in the dining room. Josiah Ferris son of the sutler, swam through the front door with a young girl in his arms. The refugees retreated to the Kennedy store and then to the home of Captain McKay. The fohn T. Sprague, with t he army payroll still on board, had been anchored at the shipyard up the river. During the worst part of the storm the hull of an old abandoned boat crashed against her and broke her cables. She was blown into the pine woods close to Franklin and Madison with the captain and crew still on board. Late Monday afternoon the wind died down and the villagers could see what damage had been done. The once proud fort was a shambles The officers' homes on the bay front were gone and so were the army barracks the horse sheds, Allen's boarding house and many of the other buildings. The pine woods north of the reservation were filled with debris. Many of the magni f icent oak trees were down. The damage was appalling. The fort bore the brunt of the storm but Tampa suffered bad enough. The river front was swept dean. The homes of John Jackson, Judge Simon Turman and William Ashley, who lived along the river, were washed away, and so was a blockhouse farther north which had been built during the Semin ole war. The Palmer House and the homes on higher ground were still standing but all had been damaged to some e xtent. No lives were lost. On Tuesday morning the men from the Sf;rague came out of the woods and brought coffee and food. Learning that the supplies on the schooner were still intact the fort conimander sent a detail of soldiers to bring in all the food on board. It was divided among the villagers and the troops . The government hi ter paid for the confiscated goods . The wreckage of Ferris' store was found near the present Fortune Street bridge All its contents, valued at $15,000, had been destroyed and no trace could be found of two strong boxes containing $3,500 in cash belonging to John Jackson which Ferris had been keeping for him. The .1110ney had come in just a few clays before and was to be used by Jackson to pay his crew of surveyors then making a government survey oflhe county. Alarmed at his loss, Jackson employed two trustworthy

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114 TAMPA Negroe s to search for the strong boxes in th e debris along the river banks. Both boxes wer e found, near the foot of Washing ton Street with th e cas h still in them. The storm had a rather alcoho l ic aftermath. Several barrel s o f whis ke y from FelTis' store were washed ashore and before the sutle r could rescue them, they were tapped-and more than a l ittle of the contents cons umed. Ol d timers said that a number of villagers were quite da zed for several days thereaft er. Dow n on Egmont K ey, the lighthous e built during the Semin ole v\Tar was badly damaged and so was the lighthous e keep er's home. '.vhe n t h e k eeper, Ma rvel Edwards, saw that waves were going to wash over the i sland he placed h i s family in a boat a n d waded w i th i t to t he center of the island and tied it t o cabba ge palms. During the night the boat was lashed by the raging wind and on M onday the high water lifted it close to the tops of th e trees. By the tim e t he wind died down the memb ers o f the family were alm ost exhausted. But they all surv ived the ord eal. When the water su bsided the family returned hom e to find that all its pos session s had been washed away or ruined by the wate r. The ligh t h ouse was late r rebuilt at a cost of $16,00 0 t his time strong enough to withstand any storm. Much of the wor k on the structu re was don e by Mitchell McCa rty, a stone ma son who had com e to Flo rida two years before with C aptain McKay. The hurricane dealt the people of Man atee a tragic blow During the preceding summer Merchant Henry Cl ar k had built a large schooner, the Atlanta, and had pla ced her in servic e l ate i n August. She was on the way h om e from her maiden voyage to New York when she got in the path of th e hurric ane. T he schooner went to the bottom with all the crew includin g man y sailors fr om the Manatee section One of the victim s of the disaster was '.Yilliam Gamble, who with his old e r bro ther, Robert owne d the Gam ble Plantation. Another Manatee plantatio n owner, H ector '.Y. Braden, was a victim of a less severe hurricane which occurred October 14, 1 84 6 He was return i ng to the p lan tatio n on horsebac k from Tampa when the storm r eac hed its peak. VVhile attempting to ford the Little M an atee River hi s horse stepped into quic ksand Both the horse and Braden drown ed. An old account of the tragedy says tha t Braden s body "was found some days laterstill upright on his horse. The gruesomeness of the picture was accentuat ed by the fact that his eyes were wide open a!}d in his hands were bridle reins and ridlng wbip." Truly th a t was a most umque tragedy. But. there IS no doubt that Brad en lost his l i fe. During the 1848 hurricane the size and shape of many of the keys along the coast underwent many changes. Some o f the : keys w ere alm ost entirely washed away; others were built up b y the shifting sands. A

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A CtTY BuiLDS TAMl'A BAY 115 m u)'lber of new passes were ope n ed; others were clo sed. Government charts 111ade before the hurricane p r oved to be al mo s t valueless after t h e storm because of the countless changes in channel depths. Village Tampa Becomes a T own T he hurricatie of 1848 wrought serious damage to Tampa but, strang ely enough, it contributed in a marked degree to th e growth of th e infant town. In fact, the real growth of Tampa might be said to da t e from that day i n Sept ember whe n the high winds blew. The initial impetu s to growth had been given, of course, when Congress on July 25 1848, provided the lan d on which a town could be built. The hurricane speeded u p the growth tremendously. This was due to the damage done at Fort Brooke. The garriso n had been almost demolished by the high winds and water. The \.Var Department wanted it rebuilt, not on the scale it was before, but large enough to take c are of t hc army' s needs. A new wharf had to be con structed and new barracks, new officers' quarters, and new warehouses. Many buildings had to be repaired. This work required carpenters, stone masons, painters and common laborers. They came to Tampa in large crews, and many remained The influx meant better business for Tampa merchants, more patients f o r doctors more clients for attorneys, more activity in every fie l d. T ampa began to b o om. oJ 8MIKC'rt Bros. This was the first brick building erecced in Tampa 1l w:aa the home of the Bank or Tampa, p redecessor oC the First National Bank, :md w.as built in 1886. All the lead ing men or lhe tow n turned out to get in to the picture.

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116 TAMPA The boom was acce lerated by increasing prosperity in the back country. Planters came in from the southern states with slaves and established planta tions, not as Jarge as those on the Manatee but l arge enough to add to the cou nty's wealth. They planted cotton, su gar cane, corn and other crops. Many also turned to cattle raising: William B. Hooker James A. Hendr), Riley R. and Ridding Blount, James Lanier, Will iam L. Mobly, William H Meredi th, Silas McClellan, John S. Taylor, J. J. Wells, Frederick Varn William J. Turner, Columbus Stafford and Daniel Stanford. On Pinellas Peninsula the seven McMullen brothers became established. Cattle own ed by the pioneers roamed all over the open range, through the lush p lain s of the Alafia and Little Manatee river sections, down to the lower tip of Pinellas Penin su la, and deep into the back country. Cattl e raising became the leading industry of the entire area. The more th e back country devel oped, the more Tampa grew, not phenomenally but steadily, year after year. S i gns of increasing p r osperity were s o apparent early in 1849 that a group of fourteen men met at the courthouse January 18th to con sider the advisability of incorporating th e village as a town They pointed out that Tampa then had 185 inhabitants, an increase of more than a hundred per cent in less than two years, and that n iore people were co ming in daily. The motion to incorporate was passed unanimously. Exactl y one week later, on January 25th, the first town election on the west Coast was held in Tampa. Fourteen men cas t their ballots and of the fourteen, six became officials. M. G. Sikes was elected presi dent and four others were named to serve as rrustees: T h omas P. Kennedy, Jesse Carter, C. A. R amsey and 'Will i am Ross. James Gettis was chosen t o serve as the first town clerk. Sikes was a popular young stonemason from Savannah, Ga. Kennedy was one of the leading merchants and the county s first treasurer. Jess e Caner was a 40-year o!d native born Fl o r idian who had the contract for bringing in the mail from Gainesville by stagecoach. C. A. Ramse y was a 32-year -old farmer from Georgia. Ross was a 27year -old carpenter fro m Maryland. Gettis was an attorney and later won a statewide r e putation because of outstanding ability. One of the fiqt actions taken b y the new l y elected officials was to order the construf9on of a sorely need ed public market where T ampa housewives could produce raise d by back cou ntry farmers. It was erected in the middle of Water Street just south of Lafayette. Tampa's first expe riment i n town government was not a shining success. The officials soon found they had no legal power to levy taxes to pay for public improveme nts and meetings of the trustee s became more and more infrequent. Finally, on October 10, J 852 the e lectors

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ACrrvBOJLl>SONTAMPABAY 117 voted to abolish the government. The town then owed $42.50 and its assets consisted of the market house and the furnishings of the town hall, consisting of a small table, six chairs, an inkstand, two candlesticks, three small record books and a sandbox in which the tobacco-chewing trustees could sp i t. Judge Simon Turman was authorized to sell the office equi pment collect back rent due on the market house and free the town of debt. This he did and the debtors were paid in full. C. A. Ramsey was paid $11, M. Cunningham $21, John T. Givens $7, and Surveyor John Jackson $3.50. These debts had been contracted in building the market house. The action of abolishing the corporation soon was regretted by the good people of Tampa. The town was continuing to grow and becoming too important a place to be without a governing body so on September 1 0, 1853, the electors voted 23 to 2 to reestablish the government One of the most popular men in town, John Darling, a native o f Vermont, was elected president. Then forty five years old, Darling had come to Fort Brooke ten years before as an ordnance sergeant. Honorably discharged from the army in 1 847, he went into partner ship with Thomas Kennedy under the firm name of Kennedy & Darling. Their general store became one of the West Coast s leading establishments. The next step in Tampa' s governmental growth was taken Septem ber 17, 1855, when the citizens overwhelming l y voted to adopt a city charter, elect a mayor and council, and have the corporation validated by the state legislature. This the legislature did on December 15. The first election under the city charter was held February 16, 1856. Judge Joseph B. Lancaster was elected mayor. Councilmen chosen were Micajah C. Brown, C. Q. C r awford, B. J. Hagler and D. A. Branch. William Ashley was elected clerk; E. N. Lockhart, treasurer, and A. C. Pacetty, marshal. Tampa's first mayor, Judge Lancaster, was one of Florida s most distinguished citizens He had served successively as judge of Alachua County, collector of customs at Jacksonville, a captain of volunteers during the Seminole War, chief clerk of the terri t orial house of represen tatives, representative from Duval County for seven years, speaker of the House three terms and judge of the Southern Judicial Circuit from 1847 to when he came to Tampa. Judge Lancaster served as mayor less than a year dying on Novem ber 25, 1856. He was succeeded by Alfonso DeLaunay, a forty-six year old Virginian who had served Tampa as postmaster and was then operating the Palmer H ouse. The first city officials who were elected February 16, 1856, took office immediately and Tampa began to function as a full fledged,

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118 TAMPA incorporated city. The once embryo village on the Hillsborough, the child of Fort Brooke, had truly thrown off its swaddling clothes. Let us turn back the clock nearly a hundred years ago and see what Tampa looked like when it became a city. The sandy road which extended eastward to the pine woods and then mea ndered onward to connect with the old military road to Fort Mellon was dignified by being named for the first president of the United States. But as i de from its name, Washington Street had little to give it distinction Ox and mule teams hauling the huge covered wagons of the pioneers, had chewed up the street so badly that in dry seasons it was almost impassable. But that did not keep the back country settlers away. All through the week they drifted in and out, and on Saturdays the town was crowded. "Going to town" was a big occasion and whole families came father and mother and all the children. While the men folks shopped and perhaps had a drink or two, the women gossiped and the children played. The "business district" began -or ended-at Washington and Marion where Edward A. Clarke, energetic Yankee from Cornwall-on the-Hudson, New York -.$tate, had established his famous "Blue Store" :where everything was handled from candy and pickles to accordions and plows, all for sale "for cash or country produce only as 'credit is dead and bad debts killed him'." From the Blue Store, the business district extended down Wash ington to Tampa and then south to Whiting where the city's one and only hotel was located, the Palmer House Next door to the hotel was the general store of Kennedy & Darling which advertised that it received goods from New : Orleans by every steamer and was prepared to "pur chase, advance uport, or ship, cotton, hides, deerskins, etc., upon most liberal tenus." : On Whiting, a little east of Tampa Street, Tampa's oldest merchant, W G. Ferris, now had his general store. He sold clothes for men and women, specialized in goods needed on plantations, did a ship chandlery business and kept "for medicinal purposes only" a stock of "brandy vintage of 1805 and 1846, Scheidam Schnapps, Green Head Whiskey, porter, ale, Scotch whiskey, Brown stout, Mader i a, sherry, port and champagne." Ferris also sold the popular brands of cigars including Know Nothing, Anti-Know Nothing, Wide Awake and Opera. Close by on Whiting was the first public building erected i n town, the Masonic Hall, built in 1852 by H illsborough Lodge No. 25, F. 8c A. M. The lodge rooms also were used by the Odd Fellows and as a place where political rallies and socials could be held The business "center" of town was at Washington and Tampa where there was a group of establishments the general stores of John

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A CITY BuiLDS oN TAMPA BAY 119 Jackson, Christopher L. Friebele and Robert F. Nunez, which carried all human needs from the cradle to the grave, and the Florida Bakery owned by John F. Fletcher, beloved by all the youngsters of Tampa because he liberally handed out toothsome cookies and pas t ry tidbits as a lagniappe Another busy corner was Washington and Franklin where Captain McKay had his general store, across from his home, and Micajah C. Brown and his brother, J. W. Brown, had a clothing store. Scattered through the business section were all sorts o f business places: grog shops operated by D. W. Ried, W. D. Firman, E. I Heins and Jack Smith; a barber shop owned by Richard I. Hicks; blacksmith shops owned by Dennis Knight, Richard Alt, W. F McGuire and Andrew H Pallessere; butcher shops owned by John Schrould, Benjamin Cowart, and Edward T. Kendrick; a book and stationery store owned by Dr. S. B. Todd; a gunsmi t h shop owned by H. C Bellows; an oyster shop and fish market run by William Nelson; a cobbler's shop owned by John Crosson; a silversmith's shop owned by James Smith, and a small printing plant owned by Charles whiting the town's first printer. The town boasted of having six attorneys and four physicians. The attorneys were James Cettis C. A. Mitchell, Joseph M Taylor, 0 B. Hart and Richard Tatum. The doctors were Franklin Branch S B Todd, John P. Crichton and L.A. Lively. A littl e later Dr. S. Stringer arrived. He had just been graduated from medical school and was convinced that Tampa physicians were not receiving enough for their services. So he led a movement to standardize fees, as follows: Ordinary pre scriptions, $1; extraordinary prescriptions, $2; for visits in town to 9 p.m $1.50; for visits in town after 9 p.m., $3; for visits in country during daylight, $1 per mile, at night, $ 1.50 per mile, if raining, $2 per mile, and if the call came after the doctor had retired, $2.50 per mile; for giving opinion on a Negro offered for sale, $10 ; removing cataracts, $ 5 to $ 50; tonsilectomies, $5 to $10; amputating leg, $60; amputating hip joint, $ 1 00; simple obstetric cases, w h ite or sla ve, $20; for treatment o f yellow fever, charges doubled. By the mid-1850s, Tampa was becoming a town of pretty homes. None was as imposing as the Gamble and Braden mansions down at Manatee but many were more cozy and homel i ke. The Federal census of 1850 showed there were then 79 dwellings in Tampa and that the town's population was 441. Six years later the number of homes had more than doubled and the population was at leas t 800. The town then had two churches, the Methodist and the Baptist, and the Presbyterians had organized a congregation. The Methodists won the distinction of being the first religious group to establish a church. They were organized Jul y 26, 1846, by the Rev. John C. Ley, of the Georgia-F l orida Methodist Conference,

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120 TAMPA at a meeting of seventeen persons in one of the buildings at the garrison Dr. J. R oberts was the first class leader. The first services were held in a small edifice built of salvaged lumber on the bay front. This build ing was washed away in the hurricane of 1848. Four years later a frame church, the first real church in town, was built on the northeast corner of Lafayette and Morgan by Capt. L. G. L es ley and John T. Lesley two of the trustees Soon afterward the Baptists erected a church on the southeast corner of Twiggs and Tampa, Madame Sarah Cail paying for the labor. The Presbyterians were organized in 1854 by the Rev. Edmon d Lee who owned a small general store and apothecary's shop at Manatee. T o preach in Tampa he journeyed up by rowboat, following the shallow water near the shore and poling all the way. His first preaching appoint ment in Tampa was announced in rhyme: "Brother Edmon d Lee of Manatee will preach tonight by candle l ight." Mrs. Lilli e B. McDuffee, in her most interesting book, "The Lures of the Manatee," said that the R everend Le e was a quite thrifty New Englander who could see no reason for squande ring money or for pass ing up a good chance to make a few extra dollars to help eke out his meagre income. She wrote : H e felt the urge to preach to the negroes and frequently crossed the river in his row boat and held religious serv ices for the Gamble slaves, who in appreciatio n would fill his bucket brought for the purpose-with molasses. It was told on the old man that he soon began taking along two buckets. Molasses at that time sol d for thirty-five cents per gallon." Despite the fact that Edmond Lee was born and raised a Y ankee he was loyal to his adopted Florida and at the beginning of the War between the States he offered his services and served three years as a chaplain in the Confederate Army. The most interesting spot in tow n in the F ifties was the wharf at the foot of Whiting Street where shallow -drafl schooners and steamers docked, as well as smaller sailing craft owned by settlers all along the coast. Larger vessels had to anchor off Ballast Point because of the shallow channel. Lighters and sloops were used to take cargoes and passengers to shore. Mail was brought in OI)Ce a week from Key West and Pensacola by the Gulf Mail steamers .faspem and Pampero which plied up and down the coast. In 1853, Tampans were abl e for the first time to travel north by stagecoac h, a line being established then by Jesse Carter who got the contract for bringing in the mail from the northem part of the state. Carter's line ended at Gainesville where connect ions were made with other lines running to St. Augustine, Jacksonville and Tallahassee. The coach was a lumbering, sturdil y built four-horse vehicle constructed in Cincinnati especially for the rough corduroy roads which extended

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A Crrv llmLns ON TAMPA BAY 121 through t h e sw amps. The journey, wh i ch required two full days was made over the old Fon King mil itary road which h a d just been rebuilt by the army. A mong man y f i rs ts" which Tampa got during the 1 850s was its first cemetery Oak Lawn established i n 1 850 at Harriso n a n d M o r gan, then far out in the region known as the "scrub," so called because of i t s d is re putable Negro shack s. Prior t o t h e establishment of Oak L awn, b urials were usually made by th e pio n ee r families on their own p r o p c r t i es. One old burial spot was l oca t e d o n the west side of th e rive r a t th e p l ace known as Spanish Town because {ive or six Spanish fishe rmen and t h ei r f amilies had set tle d t h ere in t h e l a t e Forties A l o n g w i t h its fi rst r egular ceme t ery, Tampa g o t i t s fi r st u nder ta k er, J ohn T. Givens, a So uth Carolin ian who came to T ampa on C h r i stmas day, 1848. A carpenter by trade, Givens slaTted i n the u nder ta king bus i ness by building coff i ns for bereav e d families; later he pro vided every t hing needed for funerals. In 1853 he e r ected his home on the so u theast corne r of Morgan and La[ayette, ac ros s t h e street from the Methodist Church. A h igh class private sch ool was started in the fa ll o f 1 853 b y a young M e thodist minis t e r, J asper K. G l ove r, shonly after h e ma rried Lavo nia Branch, daughter o f D r. and Mrs Franklin Branch. H e got fort y-five pupils the first yea r and prosp e re d But the following y ear h e had stiff competition. Mrs. E me li a Port e r of Charleston, S. C., cam e in and established an exclusiv e priv ate school for girls-and Gl over .... C..ui*AY (}' IJ'IIf'' IJ,f/4, This SCrinS of brick buildings constituted the htart o Tampa's business in 1889. Sc:parJtC buildings m the block w ere crottcd lxtl'l'et'll 1 886 :and 1889 They fad Oil Franklin fnnn the south"'est come r of Lalayeuc. For many ) 't"Jrl th b corner Wa$ k nown as .. Tibbeu's Comer' btcause a conf:tiooe11 store "'-as there for many b) the libbetts brhen.

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122 TAMPA was left with only the boys. Unable to make enough money to live, he soon left town. Mrs. Porter continued with her private school for several years but she too soon had competition-most serious competition. The first public schools were opened in Hillsborough County in the late fall of 1854. But the school term lasted just a few weeks, only $307.04 being available to pay all expenses of. operating schools in ten districts. The first teachers were James Petty, Esther Hawks, F. C. M. Boggess, Mrs. Otwayanna Roberts, H. L. Mitchell, W. P. Wilson, william N. Campbell, Jeremiah Newman and Thomas McCormick. Their pay ranged from $22 to $40 for the term. Perhaps one of the reasons why Hillsborough did not have more money for schools was that it had outgrown the first courthouse, built in 1848, and had to have a new one. A contract for a twostory building with offices on the first floor and court and jury rooms on the second was awarded in May, 1853, to the Rev. J. A. Breaker. The building was constructed on the site of the first courthouse and was completed June 5, 1855, at a cost of $5,000. Entrances were on Madison and Lafayette Street and the building was decorated with four large columns at each end. Probably the most important "first" which Tampa got during the 1850s was its first newspaper, the TAMPA HERALD. The paper was first planned in 1853 by M. Whit Smith and C. S. Reynolds, of Columbia County, Florida, but publication was delayed by difficulty in finding office space in fast-growing Tampa. Late in December, however, a small flat-bed press and several fonts of type were brought in and on January 10, 1854, the first issue appeared. In November of the same year Editor Smith sold his interest to Dr. J. S. Jones, also of Columbia County, who four months later changed the name of the paper to the FLORIDA PENINSULAR. In August, 1855, Jones sold the PENINSULAR to Simon Turman, Jr., saying in the editorial column that he was forced to sell because "it did not pay sufficient to support my family." Three years later William J. Spencer bought an interest in the paper. Very little local news was carried in those newspapers of the 1850s. Most of the news was "boilerplate" supplied by a news association in Savannah, Ga. But any news was better than no news at all and the paper was read avidly by everyone in town. From late 1855 to mid1858, the paper contained much Seminole War news the conflict with the Indians had been renewed. The Seminoles Are Pursued Again Vhite man's insatiable greed for land was the basic cause for the so-called Third Seminole War which began a t t he end of 1855 and lasted until late spring in 1858.

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A CITY B U ILDS ON TAMPA BAY 123 The reservation in southwest F lorida assigned t o the Indians at the close of the war of 183542 contained millio n s of acres o f E verglades la nd, said to be m ore fertile than the Valley of the Nile Plantati on own ers co veted that land-they wanted it for suga r cane and rice plan tations on which Negr o slave l abor wou l d be used. The reservation a l so con tained mill i ons of acres of ric h pasture land-and those pasture l ands were coveted by Florida 's cattlemen. The plantation owne rs and cattlemen had grea t influence in Talla h assee; hence, it is easy to und e r stand why Tallahassee politicians con stantly bombarded Washi ngton with dema nds for the deportation or killing of every Indian in the state. U nquestionably the India ns had co untless faults and many vices and durin g the war o f 1835-42 h ad been vicious and cru el. B ut, on the other hand, it is also true that after the war ended most of their mis demeanors and crimes were greatly e xa ggerated for propaga nda purposes Thus i t was that on July 17, 1849, a great outcry arose whe n a trader named Whid don was killed by five In dians at his trading post on th e Peace River. No one in quired what moti v e the Indians ha d for comm itting the murder. No one asked whether Whiddon had cheated t hem beyond endurance or sold them so much rotten whis k ey that they went amuck. The motive did not matter. Neither did the fact that Chief Billy Bowlegs left his camp near Lake Thonotosassa, went o u t and captured the guilty men and brought them in for punishme nt. The hue and cry went on. A few more widely separat ed crimes were reported t hrou ghout the state and always the Ind i ans were h eld responsible. The cries for vengeance became so strident that they could no longer be ignored in Washingto n Major Ge neral David E. Twiggs, t he n in c o mmand at Fon B roo ke, w a s ordered to take action. H e i mmediately began estab l ishing a chain of f orts around the I ndian territory. The anti-Ind ian agi tators soon had an excus e for putting on mor e heat. In Au gus t 185 0, a you th named D aniel Hubbard was murdered in the northern part of Hill sborough County. No one k.new for sure who committed the crime but Indi a n s wer e blamed. Three young Seminoles were caught and t aken to Fort Brooke. Before they co uld be tried their dead bodies w ere found hanging from limbs of trees. Army officers said they committ e d suic id e Billy Bowlegs disagreed. H e said emphatically that the men had been l ynched-and he was furious. Soon afterward he left his vill age, where h e had made many f ri ends among the white settlers and went to the Big C ypress. All his trib e went w ith him. Neve r agai n was an Indian vi lla g e established in Hill sboroug h County During th e next fiv e years repeated efforts were made to induce t h e Semi n oles to leave Florida Bu t the Indians led by B illy Bo w legs,

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124 TAMPA refused to go The war Department finally adopted drastic measures .Trading posts were closed and the Seminoles no longer were able to buy supplies. Moreover, to inform the Indians that "civilization was advancing," surveyors were sent into the reservation, despite solemn promises made earlier that the Indians would be let alone. One of the surveying parties left Fort Myers December 7, 1855, with Lieut. George L. Hartsuff in command. Twelve days later they ran across the home that Billy Bowlegs had made in the Big Cypress. "Let's tear the hell out of his garden and sec what he does," one of the men yelled The others thought that was a fine idea. So they trampled down the banana stalks, smashed the pumpkins and uprooted the potatoes. Soon afterward, Billy returned. He was enraged. But when he demanded compensation, Hartsuff's men roared with laughter They tripped the chief and sent him sprawling. When Billy arose, his face was covered with dirt. Then the whole camp roared some more Seething with anger, Billy left. But in the early hours of Thursday, December 20, Billy returned. With him was a small band of Indians They attacked Hartsuff's camp, just as dawn was breaking. Caught by surprise, two surveyors were killed H artsuff and three of his men were wounded. The survivors finally beat off the attack and made their way to Fort Myers There is no doubt but that the Indians would have gone on the warpath again even if the wanton destruction of Billy's garden had not occurred. They had been goaded into desperation by a carefully devised plan to cause them to retaliate, and furnish the army with an excuse for waging war against them, and they undoubtedly would have struck back sooner or later even if the garden had been unmolested. Once aroused, the Indians lost all reason Small bands struck out into the white man's territory pillaging, shooting, burning as they went One band struck north-ivard, beyond Fort Meade Others attacked settlements along the East Coast. One reached the Manatee River and attacked Braden's Castle, the home of Dr. Joseph Braden. They were beaten off there but struck again at the home of William Whitaker at Sarasota Bay and burned it to the ground. None of the roving bands struck close to Tampa and the residents of the county seat were never badly frightened. The closest the Indians came was at the Alafia River where they ambushed and killed John Carney, operator of a ferry, almost within sight of his home. But they did not approach Carney's ho u se and members of his family escaped. At Manatee, the settlers were panic stricken following the attack on Braden's Castle. From miles around they came into the small village and took refuge within a stOckade erected around the home of Dr. Franklin Branch. There the women and children remained for ten . months while most of the men joined volunteer forces to fight the

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A Cn BuH.os oN TAMPA BAY 125 marauders At least three children were born within the fort: Furman Chaires whita k er, first son of Mr. and Mrs. William Whitaker; William Blakely Tresca, son of Capt. and Mrs. Frederic k Tresca, and Alice Mary \Vyatt, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. G. Hance Wyatt. These three babies were cousins as Mrs. 'Vhitaker, Mrs. Tresca and Mr. vVyatt were the children of Col. William Wyatt who settled in Manatee i n 1843. The depredations would certainly have been far worse than they were had it not been for the fact that the Florida Indians were almost a vanished race. In the entire state there were less than six hundred. And that included women and children, cripples and men too old to fight. The number of. warriors did not exceed one hundred and fifty. The conflict which followed, theref:ore, cannot be dignified by calling it a war. One of the bloodiest engagements was fought .June 14, 1856, when the Seminoles struck at the home of Willoughby Tillis, about two miles south of: Fort Mead. Five pioneers were killed in the battle at T illis' place and in the pursuit of the Indians after they were driven off. Five other pioneers were seriously wounded. The India ns suffered about the same number o f casualties A few other minor engagements were fought but, generally speak ing, the "war" was one of pursuit -of hunting the Indians in the swamps and marshes deep in the Glades and the almost impenetrable f astnesses of the Big Cypress. But that was grueling, dangerous work. The Indians were desperate, and tricky and venemously angry. They sho t from ambush t o kill-and their aim was accurate. Fort Brooke played a rela t i vely unimportant part in this conflict with the Seminoles. Even before the first blood was shed the army decided to make Fort Myers the center of operations and many of the men and officers at Fort Brooke were transferred there. Proof of this i s furnished by a letter written December I, 1854, by Lieut. Col. .John T. Greble. "They are breaking up Tampa as a military station," he wrote. "The headquarters are to be at Fort Myers, where I am going." Greble's letter is interesting because it shows that keno, or bingo, was being played at Tampa nearly a hundred ye ars ago. "On our return from the garrison," the colonel wrote, "we missed our way and \vent into a place that had a light in it and there saw a long table with a miscellaneous crowd-soldiers, negroes, etc .:....seated around it playing keno. A man at the table turned around a calabash filled with numbered blocks and at each revolution drew out one of these blocks and called out the number. The players were f un1ished with cards bearing different combinations of numbers and as any block 'vas called that was ori their card, they would mark it with a grain of corn and the one who had his card -rilled first would call out 'keno' and take the money staked, each player having put up ten cents each. The

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126 TAMPA banker paid himself by a percentage of the amount staked on each game." ... Federal soldiers, trained for orthodox warfare, were of little good in the last war with the Seminoles. Most of the Indian hunti ng was done by Florida volunteers. As an inducement to volunteering, the government agreed to pay $500 cash for each warrior captured a n d $200 for each squaw or boy. One volunteer company was formed in Tampa with Richard Turner as captain, Abel Miranda, first lieutenant, and Eli J. Hart as second lieutenant. Many other companies were organized elsewhere in the state. The most effective work was done by boat companies which went through the Glades country in lo ng, flat bottomed stee l boats each large enough to hold sixteen men with all their supplies. One of the most successful Indian hunters was a picturesque swag gering fronteirsman, named J acob E. Michler fearless and a dead shot. He organized a company of vol unteers but often worked alone. On August 2, 1857, he marched into For.t Myers with fifteen squaws and children and was paid $1,500 He would have gotten more but seven of h i s captives were papooses. Other boat companies did not have Michler's success in capturing Indians. During all of 1857 not more than thirty brownskins were rounded up. Billy Bowlegs and his warriors were too elusive. On November 28, 1857 he was almost trapped by a scouting party led by Captain John Parkhill, well known in Tampa. But he got away and Parkhill lost his life and f ive of h i s men were wounded. The secretary of war was forced to admit late in 1857 that the Sem i noles "had baffled t he energetic efforts of our army t o effect their subjugation and removal." James Buchanan, the new president, decided to change the government policy. He could see no sense in continuing the bloody, expensive hostilities and issued orders for making new ef f orts t o remove the Indians by peaceful means. As a result of the president s order, attractive offers were made t o the Seminoles. They were promised that if they would move to the Arkansas reserva tion they would be well taken care of for life. Terms sati sfa ctory t o Billy Bowlegs were worked out at a conference held in Fort Myers March 4, 1858, and by M ay 1st a total of 124 Indians had assembled there ready to be moved west. They left Fort Myers May 4th on the steamer GTey En route to the v\Test, the steamer stopped at Egmont Key where forty-one more Indians were taken on board. These were the Indians which had been captured by the Federal troops and the volunteers On May 7 t h the Grey Clottd departed from E gmont Key on its westward journey and on the following day announce ment was made at Fo r t Brooke that the war was ended.

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A CITY BuiLDS oN TAMPA BAY 127 The group of Indians which had sailed from Egmont Key was the last to be deported from the state The others were allowed to remain. They numbered probably about three hundred-no one knows exactly how many. Those wh o stayed behind were the undefeated. But now they did not have an acre they could call their own. They had no rights as citizens; legally they were trespassers on others' lands. Not until 1917, when the United States was fighting to make the world safe for democracy, did the State of Flori da set asi de I 00,000 acres for them as a reservation-I 00,000 acres of swamp, and sawgrass, and wilderness. Since Bill y B owlegs and his people left Egmont Key nine decades have passed into history. But never again did any of the Indians venture forth to battle their white conquerors, large l y beca use they were left alone. During World vVar II a number of Seminole men were employed in Tampa shipyards and were .said to be good workers. Today many Seminole families can be seen by tourists who zip along the Tamiami Trail through the G l ades, but scores still mistrust the white man and remain hidden in their camps, far from the beaten roads. F ive Years of Ups and Downs The peopl e of the Land of the Manat ee struc k Hillsborough County a harder blow than any of the Indians struck during the last half of the 1850s. Owners of the large plantations along the river, Robert Gamble, Dr. Joseph A. Braden and the Craigs, had much legal business to trans act and they had no liking for the long trip to the .county seat at Tampa. So in 1855 they led a movement to carve up Hillsborough, create a new county and make Manatee its county seat. The plantation owners and other influential settlers of the Man atee region had many friends both in Tampa and at Tallahassee and the separation drive was quickly completed. More than half of Hills borough County was split from the mother county and the new county of Manatee was created. It became a legal actuali ty in Octob er, 1856 The extent of the loss to Hillsb orough can be measured by the fact that the newly cre ated Manatee County took in a vast area of rich territory extending from Piney Point on the north to Charlotte Harbor on the south, a11d from the Gulf of Mexico half tyay across the state. It took in all the land now included in H ard e e, Sarasota, D eSoto and Charlotte as well as the present county of Manatee. The loss of this tremendous area with all its taxable property, was a heavy loss to Hillsborough Two years later Hillsborough and Tampa were hit again-this time by another yellow fever epidemic. Two hundred and seventy five cases were reported in Tampa alone and thirty died. Everyone who could leave, left hurriedly. The FLORIDA PENJI':SULA reported: "Our city is

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128 TAMP A almost depopula ted and presents more the appea rance of a church yard than a thriving business place." During the sam e year, 1858, Tampa suffered still another blow Four years before, high hopes had been aroused when announ cement was made that Senator David Levy Yule e a n d his associates had r ecei v e d a charter from the state to build a railroad diagonally down the peninsula from Fernandina to Tampa Bay. Inasmu c h as the state guaranteed inte rest p a y m ents on all bonds issued by Yul ee's road, and huge gran ts of land were promised as a re ward for its construction, no one had any doubt but that Tampa soon would get rai l connecti ons with the nonh. Constru ction work on the road called the F lorida Railro ad, was started in the summer of 1855 at Fernandin a and by April, 1858 seventy miles had been comp leted and tl1irty additional miles to Gainesville had been graded. Everyone e x pected that from Gainesville the road would head south LO Tampa. But in N ovem ber, 1858 reports were received that had no intention of building to Tampa Bay-he was going to e x tend the road to C edar Keys, carrying it through a section where he h ad vast real estate hold ings. Verification of the reports soon were rece i ved and Tampa was s tunned. The people were so angry t ha t '!n effigy of Yulee was hastily made and hung from an oak tree in th e courthouse grounds And t h e n it was set afire But the burning of the effigy did not bring the railroad-and as a result of the change in Yulee's plan, Tampa was destined to suffer for many years its g r o wt h being greatly retard ed. But in No vembe r 1858, the peo p l e of Tampa had other t h ings to worry them than rail r oads. war clouds were gathering E very month the r e w ere new signs that a conflict between the Northern and Southern States was ine v i table. Strangely enough, the prosp ect was not too bad l y dre
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A CITY BUILDS ON TAMI'A BAY 1 29 River: Alexander Gage Richard Dickson and J a mes H. Johnso n. On the Alafia River: Louis Bell, John J. K n ig ht, Robert Jackson; Lot Gage, William Delaney, E b er Beal, Henry S Cla rk, James C. Pearce James W h etton, A n tonio Gas t igo George Clarison, John Talmadge John Dixon and U riah .John Co lli er. Near Tampa Bay: William M itchell, Freder ick Tresca, John Craig, T h omas Peterson, George Mitchell, H enry P eterson and .Moses Ellis. On Old Tampa Bay: George Forsyt h, John Grillon, Samuel Bish o p Thomas S tanfield, George Sulli van Charles HoffinghofE Jordo n Smith John Conra d Dalwig, William Nelson and Josep h J ones At Clear Water Harbor: James Stephens, Benjamin B ird Rebecca J enkins, Thomas Piper Charles i\>IcKay, Alexander .McKay and Ge orge .McKay. At Worth's Harbor: Odet Phillippi and Samuel H. Starr At the end o f Pinellas Peninsu la: Maximo Hernandez. On Boca Ceiga Bay: Joseph Silva and John Levic h. At Hic kap usassa : Simeon L. Sparkman and James P ace. At Thono tosassa: John Brooke. Fort Sullivan near present day Lakeland: Stephen Holling worth, Wytche Fulford, Guiton Fulfor d, John H Hollingworth PhQit> CQI&tUJ11J/ All Tampa th rille d when the J.n:tgnil'icem Tampa nay l l cHd was erected by H . B. Plant in 1888 91. fbe hotel was the finest in the en tite s outh at t hat lime and amacted cc1ebrities to Tampa from all parts o f th e nat ion an d abroad. It w as opened with a grand 5, 1891.

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130 TAMPA and Samuel Ro dgers. Al Simmons H ammoc k: Seth H owa rd J ames Glascow, John C. White and Thomas Weeks. In Manatee Riv e r section: M iles Price, Dav id lhimster, H enry Lindsey, Herbert H B oo l ey William H. Shaw, Joab Griffin, John Davidson, William E y les J ames Gun! iffe, Josiah Gates, Joseph A. Braden, James D. Green, John Follansbee, Sa muel Reid, Lawrenc e Ross, John M Irw in, Micajah L. Durham, Edward Rodgers, Edwar d Sn eed, banicl McMillan, Matthew N aylor Michael Ledwith, PhillipS. L eaver, Isaa c B. Holman, Green H. W a rth en, Eustatia Thompson, Ez e ki el Glazier, James B. Tucker, Mich ael Sheridan, John Parker Willi am Wyatc William H. Wyatt, John B Hicks, Joseph Moore, John Weeks, J ohn Weeks, Jr., William l:lanby, I saac Bruney John Jack son, Charle s C. Macy, William Lockwood S i mon Turman, Mortimer B right, and Asa J. Goddard. On Sarasota Bay: Joseph Elzuardi, Emanu e l Olivell a and Benjamin P Full er. Included among the other families who had located in the Tampa Bay area b y 1860, and whose names have not been alread y mentioned were: Constantine Bou rgardez, B. G. H agler N B. Hudson, H C Bellows, Nathaniel A Jame son, Willi am Lofton, James S tevens, MarLin Cunningham, Joseph Atzeroth Georgia Bravo John H Da ege nhart, V. C. Leonardi Benjamin F. D rew, Richard Alt H. Edwa rds, Archi bald Campbell, William H M c Do na ld, William Cooley, William S. Brown George Perkins, William Davis, Richard I. Hicks James T. Magbee MikeL. Shannahan Ab e l Miranda, Samson Forrester (a freed N egro), Thomas Majors, James Wilkins o n Jesse Crawford, Dani e l P M yers, John H. Myers Thomas Ell is, William Hern Hugh T. Fish er, Stephen Hollingsworth, Willi am Brown James Olive r, William Whit ton, James Green, william H. Shepard Richard Gainy, Moses Turner, Samuel B Todd, John Futch, William Hancock William I. Russian, H enry H Frier, Richard A Vic k e rs, F rederi c Barn P e t er Platt and John S kip pe r.

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CI-IAPTI:.R V WHEN T HE NATION WAS DIVIDED H) Y-Sl'ITE SETJ!ACKS suffered during the preceding decade Tampa and 1 1 H ill sborough County were thriving at the beginn i ng of the fateful 1860s. The once microscopic settlement alongside Fort Brooke had grown to become a town of 441 persons in 1850 and a full fledged city of 885 inhabitants in 1860. The county's population had jumped from 432 in 1840 to 2,377 in 1850 and 2,981 a decade later. The gain from 1850 to 1860 was actually much greater than it appeared because the 1850 total included some 300 soldiers at Fort Brooke who had departed by 1860 and also more than 800 persons li ving in the vast area taken from H i llsborough in 1856 to create Manat ee County The back country which had been nothing but an untracked wilderness less than twenty years before was now dotted with the homes of pioneers. In the fertile Simmons Ham mock section, between the present-day Seffner and Lake Thonotosassa, nearly fifty settle rs had l ocated with their families Others had gone across Old Tampa Bay and had started farms on the upper part of Pinellas Peninsula, then a part of Hillsborough County. In less ferti l e regions, cattle men grazed their animals on the open range and their h erds became constantly larger Most of the settlers had s mall farms, ranging in size from forty to several hundred acres. A few had plantations of five hundred acres or more. The larges t plantation was owned by William J. Turner, of Georgia who had purchased a large tract near I n dian Rocks, on Pinellas Peninsula, and was rapid l y developing his estate with the help of nine teen slaves Another l arge plantation was being developed north of Dunedin by William L. Mobly, owner of thirteen s l aves. Other settlers who had five slaves or more included: Riley R. Blount, 5; Redding Blount, 10; Rigdon Brown, 7; Will i am T. Brown, 7; Dr. J. C Burwell 6; Adam C lay, 9; William Cooley, 9 William M. Fa n ning, 6; James Hamilton, 7; 0 B. Hart, 5; John Hawkins, 5; James A. Hendry, 8; John J. Hooker, 7; Jesse Knight, 7; James Lanier, 5; Silas McClellan, 6; William H. Meredi t h, 16; John C. Oats, 9; Odet Phillipi, 6; Peter Platt, 9; Daniel Stanford, 9; Columbus Stafford, 10; John S. Tayl o r, 6; Frederick Varn I I ; Basheba wilder I 0 and J. J. Wells I I. T he largest plantations on the \>Vest Coas t were still located i n the Manatee River section wh i c h in 1 856 was separated from Hillsborough C ounty and became a part of the new Manatee County. But Robert Gamble no longer was the owner of the famous Gamble Plantation. A plunger, he had gone deeper and deeper in t o debt during the 1850s and had mortgaged everythi n g he possessed. The finan cial crisis which

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132 TAMPA followed Buchanan's inauguration in 1857 dealt him a fatal blow. He could not sell his crop of s u gar and molasses, could not make paymenr.s on his debts, and his creditors closed in. Finally, on December 18, 1858, he was forced to turn over everything he owned along the Manatee to John Calvin Cofield and Robert McGeorge Davis, of Louisiana. The property was then valued at $190,000. The plantation consisted of 3,450 acres with 1,500 acres under cultivation, and 142 slaves After the property transfer, Gamble returned to his former home in Leon County and soon married Martha Chaires, a young heiress to a large estate on Lake Lafayette. Dr. Joseph A. Braden, owner of the second most famous plantation in the Manatee section, also had been swamped by debts. On October 27, 1845, he and his brother Hector gave a mortgage on their property to t he Novelty Iron V.'orks, of New York, after purchasing sugar refinery equipment from that finn costing $.43,941. The refinery was erected on a creek known thereafter as Sugar House Creek Doctor Braden also borrowed heavily year after year on his crops of sugar cane, tobacco, rice and corn. In 1850 he borrowed more money to build a fine home which became known as Braden Castle. For a time he managed to stave off his creditors but in 1858 the Novelty Iron Works foreclosed on its mortgage and stripped t he refinery of all the machinery. Doctor Braden left Manatee soon afterward and the once fine plantation quickly grew up in weeds. Dr. Franklin Branch, who in 1850 had owned a plantation on the Manatee valued at more than $2Q,OOO, sold his property in 1856 and moved to Tampa where he established a drug store on the south side of Washington near Florida. He was an ordained minister and often preached in the Methodist churches in Tampa and Manatee He also was a physician and served the town as health officer. Sixty miles north of Tampa, at Homosassa, a plantation was being developed in 1860 which rivalled the best along the Manatee. It was owned by Senator David Levy Yulee get-rich q uick promoter of the Florida Railroad who had aroused the wrath of Tampa people by constructing his rai h:oad to Cedar Keys instead of to Tampa Bay. His H omosassa plantation consisted of 30,000 acres and he owned 81 s l aves valued on the tax duplicate of Hernando C o unty at $40 ,500. The only trace of his plantation still remaining is the ruin of his sugar milL Levy and the owners of the Manatee River plantations specialized in growing sugar cane but in Hillsborough County little cane was grown except to provide sugar and molasses for home use The principal crop was cotton, with tobacco a close second. Every settler also raised corn to provide feed for his horses and cattle, and grits, corn meal and hominy for his family.

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WHN THE NATION WAS DIVIDED 133 T h e f irst grist mill i n H illsborough County was located at a f all s in the Hill sborough River close to the present Nebraska A venue. The mi ll operated by water power, was owned ror many years by B e ll &: Graves w h o bought a small river steamer, W oodduck, to provide trans portation back and forth from town. In 1854, B ell built a new mill in tow n which was operated by a steam engine. Captain McKay soon after ward purchased the Wooddu ck for $3,000 and used i t fo r runs on Tampa Bay. To supply the needs of settl ers in a great surrounding area, Tampa then boasted of having nine larg e genera l stores: \<\!. G. Ferris 8c Son, Capt. James McKay, Christopher L. Friebele, E A. Clarke & Co., Ken nedy & Darling, M ich ael Wall, L. G. Covacevic h Robert F Nunez and Jose Vigil. All these establishm ents advertised that they were whole sale and retail dealers in fancy and stap l e dry goods, hats and caps, boots and shoes, ready made clothing for men and women, hardware and croc k ery, plantatio n tools, Yankee notions, woodware and h ollowware, ship chand ler y and paints, wines and liquors, and a complete line of prov i s i ons and fine grocer ies They all emphasized that in lie u of cash they would gladly accept cotto n hides, tobacco, Spanish moss and pota toes. J ose Vigil went a step further and said he would also accept f u rs, of Pl
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134 TAMPA eggs, beeswax, skins, chic kens and tallow for which he would pay the highest market prices." In 1860 Tampa had three places w h ere travelers could stay. In additio n to the old Palmer House, t h en operated by R. Duke the town also had tl1e v\Tashington House, operated by Mrs. Ann M. Roberts and the Florida House, run by Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Thomas, where board and lodging "of the finest" could be had (or $1.50 a day, $8 a week or $30 a monm. The Fl o rida H ouse, built and owned by Capt. James McKay, was located at Morgan and Lafayette where the Masonic Temple now stands. It later burned and on the s it e Capt. James McKay, Jr. built his home. During 1860 Tampa also got its first mansionlike residence. It was constructe d by William B. Hooker a wealthy cattleman who sold his stock mat year and moved into town. Hooker built his hom e at the corner of E ast and Madison and in tl1e spacio us grounds he planted many orange trees. After me Civil War, when the home was converted into a hotel, i t was called the Orange Grove Hotel. Still later it was used as an office building by the Tampa Normem Railro ad. It was raz ed in 1945 and its heart pine lumber was still sound. The ever popular ballad, '"When You and l Were Young Maggie," was composed in the Hooker home by a guest, J. A. Butterfi eld, an accomplished English music ian who came to Tampa in 1858 and opened an academy of music. Butterfield dedicated the song to Jane K ennedy daughter of Thomas Pugh and Adelaide (Chris ty) K ennedy, then a leader in t he musical life of Tampa. The English man did more than compose a famous song while living in T ampa. H e also organized Tampa's first band at a meeting held in his academy on March 31, 1860. Members of me band, called me Tampa Brass Cornet Band, included John Darling, Hen ry L. Crane, R. B. Thomas, T. W. Givens, James McKay, Jr., John A. McKay L.A. Masters, V. C. Leonardi, J. D. Haygood, Josiah Ferris, William Ferris, Robert F. Nunez, J. J. Givens W. C. Brown, J. H. Krause, John Crich ton, F. F. Andrew J r., and C. E. Spencer. Musical instruments for members of the band were purchased through me firm of W. G. F erris and Co. at a cost of $170.11. From the same firm, material for uniforms was obtained-thirty yards of scar let flannel and eight yards of gold lace. When the clom and lace arriv ed, the wives and sweethearts of me musicians were persuaded to make the uniforms. White p lumes to set off the hats were donated by one of the members During May and June me band practiced long hours in a deserted building in the garrison and the FLORIDA PENINSULAR plaintively re ported that "the weird noises which are wafting in on tl1e cool evening air perhaps may some day turn out to be excellent band music -but that

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WHEN THE NATION WAS DIVH> 135 is hard to believe." Under the skilled leadership of Bandmaster Butter field however, the band improved rapidly and by mid-July the PENINSULAR declared that "Tampa can now boast of having the finest band in all of F l o ri da Attired in their gaudy scarlet and gold u nifor ms the band members made their first public appearance on July 17 when they played at a party given by l'I'Irs. Porter at her School for Young L a dies During the remainder of the summer the band played at all sorts of gatherings and for excursions of the Scottish Ch ief on Tampa Bay. On August 14 it journeyed dow n to Mana t ee and gave the Mana t ee River people t heir first band concer t Late in the fall of 1 860, Butterfie l d r esigned from the band By then it was evident that a war between the North and the South was certain and the Englishman, who had little sympathy with the insti t u t i on o f slavery, decided to go to a northern state before the conflict started. But the band remained active for a year lo n ger under the leadership of young Henry L. C r ane One of the biggest gatherings for which the band furnished music occurred on July 1 8, 1 860, when the town c e leb r ated the arriva l of the sleek screw steamer Salvor, a former Great Lakes vessel, purchased in New Yor k by Capt. James McKay A 450 ton, 161foot long ship, the Salvor was one of the finest vessels which ever plied West Coas t waters and Tampa was m i ghty proud of her. The steamer was s oon placed in service on t he Key West Havana run, leaving Tampa each \Vednesday and arriving in Havana two days later. Captain McKay at that time practically monopolized water trans porta t ion in the Tampa Bay area His trim s teamer, the Scottish Ch i ef, provided regular weekly service to Cedar Keys and also made excursions on the bay. The captain also was the agent for the New Orleans and Key \Vest Steamship Line whose 1,000 ton stea m ers Galveston and Mata gora, arrived from New Orl eans on the 4th and 19th of each month and from Hav ana and Key \Vest on the 13th and 27th, leaving the same days as they a r rived Because o f shallow water close to town, these steamers had to anchor off Ballast Point. Captain McKay s ac t ivities in 1860 were not con f i n ed to looking after his shipping interests and ca ttle trade. He served as mayor in I 859 and when he was succeeded in that office early in 1860 by Doctor John P. Crichton he continued serving the city La t e that year he endeavored to acquire, for T ampa, the property which had been occupied s ince 1824 by the army -Fort Brooke. Shortly after the end of the Third Seminole War in 1 858, the last troops had been withdrawn from th e fort and on July 2 5, 1860, the Sec retary of war notified the Secretary of the Interior that the army was ready to turn t he property o ve r to t he Department of th e Interior.

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136 TAMPA Acting for the city Captain McKay immediately tried to buy the land and buildi ngs but was advised that the government was not yet ready to relinquish ownership. Determined to get some kind o f a hold on the property, McKay on November 27 asked the Secretary of the Interior if he could rent it until the time came when the government would be willing to sell. Six days later his request was approved. McKay im mediately posted a $1,000 bond as guarantee that the buildings would be kept in good condition and on January I, 1861, he took possession. No mention of Captain McKa y's rental of the garrison was made by Editor Alfonso DeLaunay in the FLORIDA PENINSULAR. That may have been because too many columns of his paper were filled with advertising to devote much space to news. Most of the advertisements told of the quick and easy wea lt h which could be had by buying lottery tic k ets. Seductive half -p age ads were paid for by the Georgia State Lottery of Sav annah, Ga., conducted "in the interests of Monticello Academy;" the Consolidated Lotteries, of Macon, Ga., and the Single Numbe r Lotteries, of Augusta, Ga., con duc ted for the Sparta Acad emy. The Georgia State offered 25 828 prizes amounting to $366,040 weekly with a capital prize of $60,000. Tickets cost only $10 each. The Consolidated of Macon offered three plans of investment: the City the Havana, and the Combination. The City Plan hung up a capital prize of $50 000 with tickets at a dollar each; the H avana tempted with a capital prize of $70,000; and the Combi nation held out a $100,000 plum. A Combina tion ticket cost $16. Sprinkled throughout other pages of the PENINSULAR were Help Wanted ads aski n g for agents to sell the lottery tickets with big commissions hinted. With all this advertising it is easy to understand why Editor DeLaunay preached no sermons in his paper about the evils of gambling A news story of early 1860 for which Editor DeLaunay managed to devote two entire paragraphs told o f the first hanging in the county of which there is any record, on January 16, on t he courthouse lawn. The paper reported that George M. Buckley was hanged by the sheriff for having killed his father-in law a year before. And then as sort o f an afterthought, the PENINSULAR stated that after the legal execution a young Negro, "owned by one Gree n who had been held as an accessory to the crime, was taken out of the jail by a mob and hanged from the same scaffold, even though the State Supreme Court had issued a writ of error which would have necessitated a new trial. That was all Editor DeLaunay had to say abou t the entire affair. The story about the hanging did not even mention the name of the sheriff, vVilliam S. Spencer. Perhaps that may have been one of the reasons why the owner of the paper, the sheriff's son, William J. Spencer, soon afterward got another editor Simon Turman, Jr., who had been

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WHEN THE NATION vV AS O J VIDEO 137 part owner of the paper a shor t time before. Turman took charge on Marc h 24, !860. After l eav in g the PENI NS ULAR DeLa u nay i m media t el y s t arted to get backi n g for a new paper. 0. C D rew a n d St John D eLaunay, b ro ther of Alf onso, advan c e d mo ney and beca me publish e rs. The f ir s t issu e of the paper, called th e SUNNY SoUTH, appea r ed Janu ary 29, 1861. T h e reafter Editors Turman and DcLaunay vied with each other in denouncing the Republican party and Pre sident-elect Lincoln. Young Turman was a native of Ohio but he was just as fiery a rebel as De L aunay, a native Virginian, and was just as insiste n t that the South should not permit itself to be "'tramped under the fee t of the insane abol i t ion ists of the North." I n a December, 1 860, issue he told of T ampa w omen appea rin g a t a sta te' s rights mee ting with blue cockades in their hats, a to ken," h e sai d "'o f res i stance to abolitio n rule-an app ro p riate, graceful l ittl e e m b lem that evinces t h e true s pirit o f the wearers.'* Editor Tunnan was not the onJy ex-Northerner who was in sym pathy with the Southern cause. Many others who had come to H ills borough County from northern states and from European countries had bec o me convinced that the economy of the South was completely depen dent upon the instit u t ion of s l avery and that t he c ost of abolition would be disaster. Conseq u ently t h ey became s taunch advocates of secession whe n Linco l n w a s elec te d. T he Federal census of 1860 sho wed the r e were t h e n 564 s l aves in t he co un ty a n d 2,41 5 w hi te pe o ple. The Neg roes com prised only 18 per cent of the popu l at i on, a smaller percentage th a n in any other county of Florida. But small though the percentage was, the slaves represented a large part of the county's wealth. On the county tax rolls they had a n assessed value of $200,035. They were actually valued at more tha n $400 000, slaves t hen being worth an average of more than $75 0 e ach. I n other words, o ne able-bodierl slave c ost more than 600 ac re s o f la n d then val ued at the preemption price of $1.25 an acre Slaves pe r f ormed much of the h ea v y wor k d one in th e c o unty. On the p lantati o ns, they cleare d th e f ields, dug ditc hes, a n d planted t h e crops. I n Tampa, they handle d most of the arduou s chores the whites did not care to handle themselves. And almost every fam i ly of means had at least one male slave to ta k e care of the stables and work around the grounds and at least one Negro woman to take care of the house. C onsidering the val ue and usefulness of slaves, it is not surprising that most of the white peop l e o f the county, even man y of the native Northerne rs had little l ik ing f o r abol itio n ists a n d n o l ove whatever for Abraham Lin coln. On Sun day, Jan uary 13, 1861, th e driver o f th e Gai nes v i ll e stage coach br o u gh t in the moment ous message hat F lor irla had seceded from

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138 TAMPA the U nion three days before. Like w i ldfire the news spread through the t own. A crowd quickly gathered on the courthouse grounds. Despite the fact that the day was Sunday, young men rushed to the fort and fired the cannon again and again. Members of the Tampa Brass Band hurriedly donned their uniforms and paraded up and down the streets. And that evening, ministers prayed that Florida's leaders be given divine guidance in this ho u r of peril. A formal celebration was held at the courthouse on the following Thursday night. Speech after speech was made by the town leaders music was furni shed by the band, and a big fireworks display was held Immediately follo wing Lincoln's inaugural address, Colonel W L. Turner, commander of the 20th Regiment, Florida Militia, moved into Fort Brooke with his Staff officers and a company of men and took possession. He announced that the militia from the counties o f Hills borough, Polk and Manatee would comprise a battalion under the command of Lieut. Col. John P arker and members of the battalion were ordered to report at the fort on Saturday, April 2 I. On March 9, 186 1 a company of cavalry was organized at Alafia with \.Yilliam B. Henderson as capta in Michael Alderman, first lieu tenant; \Villiam E Seward second lieutenant; and John Mobly th i rd lieutenant. "War is inevitable," declared Editor Turman on March 16. "Mr. Lincoln s inaugural address cannot be regarded but as a declaration of war. It i s so rece ived and welcomed by aU portions of the South. Southern patriots should not rejoice at the prospect -nor should they shrink from the maintenance of their rights in consequence of it s awful prospect. If we are not prepared now to establish and maintain our freedom, time will' not gain us strength; and if through a lack of patriotism we miss the goal of Southern independe nc e the sooner we submit to t he cond ition of serfdom the less galling will be our chains If war must follow secession, the sooner it is inaugurated the better for the South When the first blo w is struck, the border States will take position with their Sisters who have abandoned the Old Union and then will the Confederate States of America be impregnable. Lincoln may back down from his position but we have no idea such will be the case until he has smelled Southern powder." Less than a month later, on April 1 2 th e "damned Yankees" smelled their first powder when the Confederates fired on Fort S umter. The war Between the States had started. News of t he capture of the fort was received in Tampa five days later and caused another celebration Bells were rung, the cannon at Fort Brooke were fired, the band played in the courthouse square, and, by order of Mayor Hamlin V. Snell, all homes were ordered illuminated" for an hour in the evening.

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WHEN THE NATION \'VAS DIVIDED 139 The Sunny Sou th Guards, a local comp any organized by Capt. John T Lesley, was must ered into service iu Septem ber. The so l dier s trained a ll during the autumn and winter a t the garrison and ofte n paraded at nigh t b y torch light through Tampa streets The Guard s left in April and we r e d i stributed in various units in Virginia and T e nnessee, many going to Company K 4th Florida I nfan try. During t h e foll o win g year, man y more Hillsborou gh County youths answe red the call to arms. The ranks of the Tampa Brass Band becam e so de p l eted that i t disbanded l ate in November n e ver to be reor ganized The first b l ow suffer ed by any Tampa citizen as a result of the war was dealt to Captain James McKay on October 31, 1861, when his steamer Salvor was captur ed by t h e U. S. S. Ke ystone S tate, commanded by G. H Scott off the southwest coast of Florida. On board the ship McKay had 2.000 sacks of coffee 400 ,000 cigars, 400 revolv ers, a large number of rifles, 500,000 percuss ion caps, many boxes o f clothi ng. McKa y vi go rously prote sted t he capture, decla ring that the ship had been sol d at Hava na to British interests and was be i ng taken to Nassau for deliv ery. And he pointed to the fact that the Salvor was flyin g t he Bri tish flag from its masthead. He said t h e only reason he had co me close to the Florida co ast was that he wanted t o put his Negro s laves ashore-had he ta ken them to Nassau, he declared, they would have become fr ee. PAoto Cornl.uy of Pu:4 FINd4:r Th.is is th e .street r ai l way whi ch provide d nanspott:uion bctwcet) dow1Howu T:tmt>il :tnd Ybor City I n 1886 The engin e wus l'ln impo r ted wood bum c 1'; coa ches were made in T ampa

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140 TAMPA Commander Scott of the Federal ship inspected McKay's cargo and, after noting the nature of the contents, chose to disbelieve the captain's story. The Salvor was sent to New York where i t was condemned by an adm i ralty and sold. The Negro slaves who had served as members of the c rew were set free. Captain McKay and his son Donald, who also was aboard the ship, were imprisoned But McKay's defense was strong e nough to cause his case to be revie wed by Lincoln and both t he fathe r and son were set free after five months. The captain s loss of sh ip, cargo and slaves was estimated at $70,000 While Cap tain i\.fcKay was in prison, blockade running was con tinued by other Tampa Bay seamen including Capt. Frederick Tresca and Capt. John vV. Curry. It was a fine business when the ships were not captured. Huge profits could be made at both ends of the hazardous journey through the Union blockade. Because of the blockade, la rge stOcks of cotton, naval stores and other products not needed by the Confederate armies soon piled up in Florida. Normally, they wo u ld have been sold t o the North o r to f oreig n countries. \Vi t h the blockade establ ished they became a drug on the market. But, delivered in Havana or Nassau by blockade runners, they could be sold readily at constantly zooming prices Ma ny thousands of dollars profit could be made from the cargo of even a small sloop. On the return trip, the runner made another handsome profit by bringing in a cargo of clothing, medicines, white flour p o wder, cigars, co ffee, and coun tless other items not produced in Florida. Inasmuch as the stock in all the stores was sold out soo n after the war started, every thing which was brought in could be sold quickly at sky-high p r ices. Naval records show that Tampa Bay was first blockaded in November, 1861, by a small squadron of barks and schooners com manded by Lieut. Com. William B. Eaton. On January 18, 1862, he reported the capture of the Olive Branch with a cargo of -16 0 barrels of turpentine valued at $11,000. Soon afterward Eaton also captured the 15-ton sloop Mary Nevis owned by Capt. Archibald McNeill which had been carry i ng the mail between T ampa and Manatee. The captain jumped overboard, swam ashore and escaped. Soon afterward he took a hand in blockade runni ng A land base for the b l ockading squadron was established on Eg mont Key and several buildings were erected close to the lighthouse. The base also served as a refugee camp Many northern sympathizers who sought to escape from the land of the "rebels" fled to th e key and lived there until ships were available to take them to Key West and t h e North Egrnont also was a haven for Negro slaves who escaped from plan tations. Old records indicate that as many as two hundred Negroes were on the key at one t ime during 1863. Early _in February, 1862, members of the blockading squadron

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W HEN THE NATION WAS DIVIDED 141 landed at B ig Bayou o n Pine ll a s Penins u la, and destroyed th e home o f Abel M irand a one o f t h e f ir s t s ettlers in that l oca lity. S trangely eno ugh, M iranda' s h o m e was the o n ly o n e destroyed b y the Union men i n the Tampa Bay area so far as can be l earned. Several reasons have been advanced for the Federals action O ne explanation was that Miranda h ad been an active blockade runner and that the U nion men burned his home to put him out of b usin e s s Anothe r ex plan a t i o n, give n by Miranda s Negro servant m any ye a rs lat er, w a s that Mira nda and s everal other red hot r ebe l s h ad dres se d as N egro wome n and enticed som e Federal soldiers ashore and k ill e d them. To get revenge some of the soldi ers friends came ashore to capture Miranda and stri ng him up, and when they could not find him, they burned his home to the ground. D u ring the w i nte r of 1861 6 2 the officers a n d men i n the b l oc kad ing squ adron had litt l e to k eep themselves busy and be came res tless. They wanted act io n and urged C o mmander Eat o n t o c apt u re For t Br oo k e and Tampa. Neither place was of strategic impo r tance but, t o sat i sfy his men, E aton proceeded up the bay in the U S. Schoone r B euregard and anchored behind B ig Island out of range of the obsolete "Ind ian warfare cannon" in the fort. Then, on April 13 Eaton sent th e f o llowing message to M ajor R B. T homas C onfederat e comma nd e r at For t Broo k e : "S irs: I de mand in t h e na me o f t he Uni ted States the uncon ditional surrende r of the town of T a mpa Florida, t o g ether with all the munitions of war and ordnance stores contained therein. If these terms are not comp l ied w ith I will give you twemy -four hours to remove all the wom e n and children to a proper distance and tl1e n bombard the town I have t h e ho n o r to be you r obedient servant, Will iam B. Eaton, L ieut. Com." Major T homas im mediate l y repli ed, stating that he cou ld not accept the prop o s i t ion of surrendering but agreeing "for the sake of h umanity to remove the women and children. After waiti n g a few days to give T homas a chan c e to change his mind, Ea to n bom b arded" the t own as he had threatened. A canno n b all hit the ga bl e e n d of the courthous e a n d went throug h the building. An o the r h i t t h e home o f R. M. D u ke a t J ac kson and F rank lin, went t h rough the front win dow, smashed a mirror and d ropped on the k i t c hen floor. A f e w more ba ll s l a nde d in the garriso n and in town but did little dam age. Despite the mildness of the bombardment M ajor T homas was infuriated He sent a savage message to Eato n bitte r ly denouncing him for s o brutal l y attack ing a comple tely defenseless tow n, enda n gering the l i ves of scor es of non combat ants

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142 TAMPA Upon receiving the mes sage, Eaton was s tri cke n with r emorse and h e apologetically rep lied: "Sirs: I regret that my design of com mencing an attack on Tampa did not meet with your approva l but I would say in justi f ication of my course that the threat to bombard the town was an inadvertence and should have read 'for t or 'battery' which however laid directly in front of and afforded protection to the town. I have the best information from parties who had but a short time before been there and made their escape that the women and children had all been removed from the town and that most if not all of the property holders were strong secessionists. You will, I have no doubt, overlook the error in j u dgmen t which I made on taking into considera tion the fact that I have been here with my vessel n early six months and after a short period of inaction I was naturally anxious to give my officers and men an opportunity to show their mettle and afford them the chance which they so desired of do i ng something, if ever so little, toward crippling the enemy. Very respectfu lly, W. B. Eaton, Lieut. Com." To show that he was truly sorry for having caused Tampa alarm Commander Eaton departed with his Benregard and more than a year elapsed before Tampa was shelled again. At the time of the bombardment, Tampa was under military control, Major Thomas having taken complete charge of the city in the nam e of the Provincial Army of the Confederacy An election had been held on February 3 in which John Jackson had been re-elected mayor, but when Thomas arrived on February 22, Mayor Jackson and the cou n cil members resigned, perhaps at tl1e major's request and municipal government was suspended. The need for city officials no longer was great. Tampa had become almost a ghost town. Nearly everyone who was financially able had moved to the interior, fearing th e city soon would be captured by the Federals. Many settled in the rural communities of Alafia, Keystone and Cork To the latter place, located about four miles north of the present Plant City, all the county records were taken for safekeeping. Business activities in Tampa had practically ceased. Merchandise in most of the stores had either been sold or confiscated by the Confed erate Army. Two of the town's leading merchants turned to blockad e running after their stocks of merchandise had been exhausted. They were Chris topher L. Friebele and E A. Clarke brothe rs in-law. Friebel e a native of Germany, had come to Tampa in 1848 and opened a general store. On January 8 1852, he was married to Julia A. Wall, daughter of Perry G. and Nanc y (Hunter) Wall, then living ncar Brooksville Clarke, a native of Corn wall-on-the -Hu d son New York, carne to Tampa in the early 1850s and alsp opene d a general store, the "Blue Store." A few

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WHEN THE NATION \VAS DJVIOED 143 years later he met and fell in love with a sister of Mrs. Friebele, Sarah L. Wall. They were married on May 31, 1860. Late in 1862 Friebe l e and C l arke formed a partnership with three other men to finance blockade running exped i tions. The other partners were Major Aaron T. Frierson, S. G. Frierso n a n d Samuel A. Swann. Major Frierson was related to both Friebele and Clarke by marriage, havi n g married another Wall girl, Mary M. Records left by Swann, who later became one of the lead in g l and operators in Florida, show that the comb in e started its blockade run ning activities in January, 1863. The partners purchased the sloop Elias Beckwith for $400, outfitted it at a cost of $706 .10 and secured a cargo of cotton for $7,000. The sh i p reached Havana where the co tton was sold at a "handsome profit, just how much was not stated On the return trip the ship brought in a varied cargo consisting of mus lin, linens, shaving cre am, hairpins, starch, quinine, shirt buttons combs, Morocco gaiters, "and a $.12.50 to u pee for Dr. W H. String fellow." Swann's records show that in March 1863, the partners purchased another vessel, the Mmia. and that both shi ps were then used to run the blockade. The documents left by Swann ind i cate that he sold his in terest in the combine some time in the summer of 1863 and there is no way o f knowing how long the others continued in operation. There is reaso n to bel i eve, however, that the blockade runni ng wa s most profita Pltflt .Ct <>/ Bllrgcn Bt()$ Frankli t ) street looking north from '\V'a$hingt.on in J89 3 The three :itOf)' brick building, the (irs t el'ected in Tampa, was tht: A lmeda Hotel. built by Dr. Howell T. L ykes. On the opp oslt(: $ide of the :street was the first home o! the TAMI'A TRmUN. The ck'Ctric hght and telephone po)(:s and the street cars, wh ich had just staru:d n a nning, gave Tatu pa a big ci ty app catance

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144 TAMPA ble for all concerned inasmu ch as Clarke and Friebele were two of the wealthiest men in Tampa when the war ended. And so was Judge Perry G. wan, the father of their wives. Possib ly he was a silent partner in the blockade runni ng activities. Late in the war C larke and Friebele were captured at Anclote Key and held prisoners until hostilities ceased. Another less fortunate but more f amous blockaoe runner was Captain James McKay when he regained his freedom f ive months after his Salvor was ca ptured McKay put his Scottish Chief in operation. Moving only on the darkest nights and not permitting his crew even to light their pipes, the captain slipped six times past the watchful eyes of the blockaders. Sometimes he carried cattle which he sold in Havana; more often he carried cotton, which was easier to handle and more profitable On his return t rips, he brought all the commodities whic h the hard-pressed civilians so badly needed. In the fall of 1863 Captain McKay took the Scottish Chief up the Hill sborough River to be cleaned of barnacles and to take on another load of cotton. Northern sympathizers informed n aval officials at Key vVest of the location of the famous ship and on October 12, the U. S Gunboat Tahoma, commanded by Lieut. C om. Semmes was sent out to find the ship and destroy her. The acting master s mate on the Tahoma was a man well known i n Tampa, former Colonel Henry A. Crane, a veteran of the Seminole vVar who had worked for a number of years on the FLORIDA PENINSULAR. A native of New Jersey, he had no sympathy for the rebel cause and when the war started he left Tampa, went across the sta te joined the United States Navy and aided in the blockade of the Indian River. H is oldest son, H enry L. Crane, had also worked in the PENINSULAR's printing plant. He enlisted in the Confederate Army and in 1863 was stationed in Tampa as a quartermaster clerk At Egmont Key, Semmes contacted the U. S. S Adela and the next morning, October 14, the two ships proceeded up the bay. On the 17th, they bombarded T ampa. According to an official report, "the Tahoma fired its p i vot and twenty pound parrots and t h e Adela, of lighter draft, ran up near the works and threw shell after shell into the battery, barracks and adjoining buildings. The shells from both vessels made direct hits and &plinters flew, driving the soldiers from the works and the civilians from the town. After dark a force of 85 men from both ships went down the bay a n d landed at 10 p.m. at Gadsden Point. They then marched northward and just at daybreak arrived at a cove in the Hillsborough River, six miles above Tampa, where they found the Scottish Chief and the sloop Kate Dale. The steamer had !56 bales of cotton on board and the sloop II bales. The crews surrendered without a fight and the ve ssels were destroyed by f ire.

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WHEN THE NATION \VAS D IVIDED 145 After accomp lishing their object, t he F ede rals headed bac k to Gadsde n Point. By this time some of the soldie rs were so ex h aust ed that they had to be carri ed. When within a mile of the beach small squa ds of rebe l troops began appear ing d odg i ng about in the scrub. At first they were driven off but whe n the Union men began wad ing out to their boats, t he con cealed e nemy started firing from ambush and a squad of cava lrymen came cha rging up th e beac h. The attack was beaten off, however, when Captain Stodder of the Adela opened fire with his cannon. Shell burst amo ng the hors e men and they were com pelle d to retreat. I n this s k irm i sh, the on l y one fought in the Tampa area d uring the entire war, three Federals were killed twe lve wounded and t h ree ta ke n prison ers. Si x Confederates were k ill ed, an unknown number wo unded and seven cap tured Later it was learned by t he Federals that most of the rebe l s who had engaged in the fight ing were member s of a Confed erate cava hy unit which had been roamin g about th e country to round up cattle for Bragg 's anny. By chance they arrived at T ampa on the day of the bom bardment and the ne x t day eagerly took a hand in the engag ement. The ligh t f i eld piece they used had been made in Tampa by boring out an engi ne shaft They a lso made their own s h e lls. In pla ce of balls they us ed l a rge buckshot or s lugs, wrapp ed in cloth. Som e o f the Fed erals :were wou nded with t hese makeshift bu ll ets. Doctor Cal c of the Adela too k from one of the inju red men a h ome made lead ball we i gh ing four o unces. At the t ime of the attack. the fort was commanded by Capt James \.Vestcott, formerly of the United States army a nd a representat ive in Congress fro m Florida. H e to ld the Fed eral officer s that "since your men who died on shore fought so bravely w e intehd to give t hem the best fun e ral that \fe can. T he men o n the Adela raised a pu rse I 08 to send to one of their men, Donoly who had been captu red by Hie Confederates, to pay hi s way i n D i xie." Old timers later said that before the bom bardment star.ted on the 17th, Acting Master 's M ate Crane sent word ash ore and demanded the surrender of his son "so that the dam ne d rebel co uJd : b e hanged from the smok es tack of the Tahoma." Young Crane i s said to hav e back tha t if he ever laid hands on his father he w:ould see t o it would be hung fr om the highest oak in the counhouse s quare. Befo re the Feder a l s left Tampa Bay Commodo re semmes : sen r a crew of men to Frazier 's B each at the head of'O id .Tampa Bay to : destroy -a la rge salt wor ks ow.ned by Captain McKay The :wor.ks had been in -operat ion s inc e shortly a fte r the war sta rted Salt \!!as .. A btaiJ1-ed .. by boiling sea water and th e plant" was equi pped with hir,ge: boilets,. giarit

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146 TAMPA kettles, vats and barrels. Destruction of the works was a heavy blow to Tampa. A few months later another force of Federals landed at Frazier's Beach to see whether the salt works had been put back into operation. Joseph Robles is reported to have seen the Federals approaching while on patrol duty. He hid in one of the ruined boilers and when the soldiers approached, let fire with his heavy fowling piece. Several of the men were injured The others not knowing how many rebels were hidden in the ruins, threw up their arms and surrendered. Robles then marched eight of them back into Tampa as his prisoners. After the destruction of the Scottish Chief and Kate Dale Captain McKay did no more blockade running. From that time until the end of the war he spent his entire tim e obtaining vitally ne eded supplies for the Confederate armies, being made head of the Fifth Commissary Dis trict. His main job was supplying cattle, required not only for the meat but for tallow and hides as well. During the first two years of the war cattle had been supplied to the armies at the rate of: about 600 head a week by Jacob Summerlin one of the largest cattle owners of the sta te who was paid $ 8 each The animals were rounded up all through the northern half of the pen insula and driven overland to Baldwin, near the Georgia border. By the fall of 1863, more cattle were needed than Summerlin could supply and his contract was cancelled. McKay then t ook over the assignment. The captain's task was not easy. Some of the largest herds were owned by Federal symp athizers who had no desire to sell to the Confed eracy. Other herds were owned by lukewarm rebels who had sold willingly when Confederate money had real value but who lost some of their patriotism when the money began depreciating. Not desiring to be caught at the end of the war with a lot of useless paper, they drove their c;attle far down the Myakka valley into the plains southeast o f Charlot e Harbor, and far down the Kissimmee Ri_ver, into regions where they could be rounded up only with the utmost difficulty. The Federals added to McKay's worries by reoccupying Fort Myers, abandoned shortly after the close of the Third Seminole War in 1858. From Fort Myers expeditions were sent by the Federals on ca ttl e raids as far north as the Fort Meade region. Animals rounded up were driven to Fort Myers and Punta Rassa and from those points shipped to Key 'Vest : Many Union sympathizers and lukewarm rebels really sold their cattle to the "raiders'' and then, after they had been driven away, reported to the Confederates that the animals had been ':stolen." Fort Myers became a painful thorn in the captain's side. : : .. In an effort to : remove-.the thorn, McKay played a leading part in the organization late in .186'4 of the Cattle . Guard Battalion face tiously called the Cow Guard Battalion: A'force of'275 merr from

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WHEN THE NATION WAS DIVIDED 147 this battalion commanded by Major William Footman approached Fort Myers on February 21, 1865 and dema nded its surrender. His demand ignored, the major opened fire with his one piece of field artillery. All day long the attack continued. By nightfall the major concluded that the fort could not be captured as eas ily as expected and withdrew. He succeeded only in capturing a couple of pickets and a few horses. The attack served one good purpose however. It showed the Federals that they now were opposed by a large, well organized f orce and there after few raids were made in the cattle cou ntry Despite all the obstacles whi ch confronted Captain McKay he and his men managed to k eep a steady stream of catt le moving northward to the Confederate armies umil almost the end of the war and was re pcatcdly praised for his efforts by army leaders. Fort Brooke suffered a death blow so far as effectiveness was con cerned "on Friday May 6 1864. Two days before, the troops in the garrison left on a cattle drive near Fort Meade and word of their de parture was hurriedly taken by a Union sympathizer to Egmont Key. Brig. Gen. Woodbury immediately came up the bay in the Adela and captured the unprotec ted fort. The larger cannon were spiked and the sma ll ones taken away. Machin e shops were destroyed. Fifty bales of cotton in Kennedy & Darling 's warehouse were seized and so was a quan tity of mail. Old records indicat e that a number of citizens were arrested, but their names are not recorded. After the F edera l s occupied the fort they marc h ed through the streets, whistl ing and singing Union war songs to tantalize the rebels. , .... CMJ,T I Bun. L.ooking east on LaJayeue from just south of f rankli n in 1896. s h o rtl y aft the: compfedon oC the Hendry S: Knight building $bo"-'ll in the center Tibbeu's COme r is sbo"-n at the c:xtrc.mc r i ght

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148 TAMPA '\.Vhen Darwin B. Givens saw them coming toward him he ran home and screamed to his parents that "the devils are coming But about the only devi lish thing done by the Yankees was to steal the parapher nalia and insignia of the Masons and Odd Fellows from t he Masonic Hall. When they left Tampa the next day they took the booty with them Union Army officers who were :Masons discovered the loot in Key \>Vest a year later and returned it to Tampa. In the meantime the Masons could not conduc t their meetings without their "working tools So John T. Givens, a skilled carpenter, turned out a homemade set, i ncluding compasses and trowel. vVqen Capt. James Westcott returned with his Confederate soldiers and saw the damage done to the fort, he decided it would be folly to try to man it any longer. Four days later, on May 12, he departed with his troops and on May 15th the Federals again came in, the force being commanded by Capt. D B vVestbury They remained a month and then left, the o fficers deciding that the town had no military i mportance. The Federals dealt the Manatee River section a stunning blow on August 3, 1864. Capt. Theodore p Green, then commanding the blo
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vVHEN THE NATION v VAs D1v101m 149 taken by Capt. James lVIcKay and Capt. L. G. Lesley to th e G amble Mansion o n the Manat ee where Captain M c N e ill assigned hi m a large secondstory room overlookin g the river. There Benjamin hid He was almost caught one day by a squad of Union men b u t managed to flee co the woods and escape detection. The Yankees had confiscated practically all the rebel owned boats on the West Coast and weeks passed befor e Capt. Frederick Tresca, acting for Benjam in, succ eeded in buying a 16-foot yawl in Cl earw ater. The boat was taken to Sarasota Bay, near the home of W'iUiam Whitaker, and from th a t point Benjamin fled from Am erica on June 23. Tresca took him to Nassau, being paid fift een hundred do llars in gold. How much go l d Benjamin took into e xile has never been revealed. F rom Nassau, he sailed to London where he soon became a member of the counsel. On his return to M anatee. Tresca sai d that Benjamin had had a narrow escap e near Charl otte Harbor. A Federa l gunboat stopped the yawl he said and Yanke e sail o rs came abo ard. They found Benjamin in cook 's cap and apro n s t irring the char coa l embe rs in the sand box. His face was streaked with grease and dirt. T he sailors f a i led to recognize hi m but one remarked: T il be damned if I ever saw a Jew coo k working on a fish ing boat till now." In Nassau, Tresca pu rchased a boatload of m e rchandise wi t h part of rhe gold Benjamin had paid him. H i s heavi est purchases wer e Eng lish calicoes, bolt after bolt and most of it purple, his favorite color. Old timer s related that for many years there after, a lmost ever y woman and child in t h e Manatee sect i on had at lea st one purple calico dress. Captain Tresca was one of the very few persons in the T ampa Bay region who had any ha rd money" during the gloo my days after the war end ed. Many who ha d bee n well off before the conflict s tarted now were desperat ely poor their slaves being now freed and their Con fecler'dte money being w orthless. County officials found it imp o ssible to take care o f all the families of soldier s who had be e n killed or wounded or had not yet returned from service. During 1864, when Confe derate currency still had some val ue the county h ad spent $10,355.66 for relief; in 1865 the county had no money for anyt hing and many fam ilies suffer ed acutely The future looked disma l and dark for Tampa and Hillsborough County Better days wer e ahead -but they were a long tim e co ming.

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VI WI-lEN TAMPA SLIPPED BACKWARD lAMPA WAS PARALYZED at the close of the 'Var Between the Sta tes It was almost a ghost town More than half the inhabitants had gone in to the country to live with relatives or friends to escape the Yankees" and to get enough to eat. They did not hasten to return because the food problem remained acute for months after hostilities ceased. Many former citizens never came back U nion sympathizers who had gone North by way of the refugee camps on Egmont Key and Key West and the loyal Southerners who had joined the Confederate army and made the supreme sacrifice for the South. Members of the former group were not missed; the others were deeply m ou rned. Sol diers who had escaped death on the battlefield or from disease returned home a few at a time, bedraggled and discouraged, many sick and fe.eble, w ith out money to make a new start in life. Only one business est ablishment remained open throughout the war. That was the apothecary's shop of Dr. Franklin Branch. His stock of priceless drugs and herbs was valueless to those who did not know how to fill pre scriptions and consequently it had not been looted by the Yankees. Besides even the Federals found it convenient to have a drugstore in operation . All the general stores were closed and boarded up when Ge n eral Lee surrendered The firm of Kennedy & Darling had continued in operation during th e first three years of the war but the Yankees cleaned the shelves of everything worth taking when they invaded the town on May 6, 1864, and the store owners sadly closed up shop for the duration All the other stores had been forced to close months earlier because they had nothing left to sell. Arrival of Federal occupation troops on July 15, 1 865, brought fresh disaster to Capt. James McKay. During the war he had lost heavily when his blockade -run ning ships were captured or des t royed. When the war ended he used much of his remaining money to buy cotton, planning to sh ip it out as soon as trade conditions became normal. He stored it in a large government warehouse just south of the present Platt Street bridge. By the time the soldiers o f occupation arrived, the warehouse was filled to the raf ters-and the Yankees "liberated' every ba le for their own profit. Captain McKay was never re imburse d. Not everyone suffered, however, through the arrival of the soldiers The Yankee greenbacks they brough t in helped more than a little t o

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WHEN TAMPA SLIPPED BACKWARD 151 r estore life to the community. Some of the first to profit wer e gambl ing ba ll proprietOrs and the owners of the Dew Drop Exchange at Wash ington and Tampa who had quickly stoc k ed their establishment wit h a tempting array of choice wines and liquors brought in from Cuba. Others who prospered were young Negro women of easy morals who "went intO business" and opened bawdy houses close by the garrison. In a short time they be gan parading through the streets dressed in fine clothes, much to the disgust of the good pe opl e of the town. Muc h of the Yanke e m oney, of course, went into legi t i mate chan nels of trade, paying for meat and fresh produce and o ther s u pp l ies, and helped to revive business activities. The first store established after the war was opened by Samuel Mitchell, son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Starns) Mitchell, who had come to Hillsborough County in 11!46. He had become a cattleman and during the war had managed to sh i p enough steers through the blockade to amass a nice hoard of Spanish doubloons. '"-'hen the Federals re Fort Brooke, he used some of his Spanish gold to go into business, laying in "a fine lot of corn, flour, bacon, pic kl e -pork whiskey, oats, bran, etc., also a fine lot of shoes and dry good s." He sold beef wholesale to the garrison and also feed for the army mules. Another cattleman who the opp ortunity and opened a store to sell to the army, a s well as the public. was William B Hend erson, the o l des t son of Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Henderso n who came t o Tampa in 1846 from north G eorgia. I n 1851, when he was twelve years old, his fathe r died and he took a job in K ennedy & Darl i ng's s t ore to help support his mother and {our younger brothers. On February 6, 1860 he was married to M iss Caroline Elizabeth Spencer. Soon afterward he bought a small farm on the Alafia Ri ver. When the war started he enlisted in the Confederate army and served until he became ill with tube r culosis and was given a medical discharge. Returning home, he engaged in the cat.tl e business and prospered. After he opened his Tampa store, he was even more successful. He became one of the wealthiest me n in Tampa, as well as one of the most respected. Before-the war merchants did not succeed in getting back into business until more than a year after the war ended. Philip Whit e reopened in May, 1866 i n his old stand a t W ash ington and Marion. In Septembe r stocks o f goods w ere received by Kennedy Sc Darlin g and J. S. Redbrook, enabling them to start up aga in. On November 10, stores were re-estab lished by Christopher L. Friebele and Edward A. Clarke, two pioneer merchants who had turned their hands at blockade running and were reported to ha ve prospered. Two weeks later, stores were reopened by two more o l d timers, John Jack son and Louis Covacevich, who had come to Tampa bac k in the 1840s.

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152 T AMPA The reopening of these stores did not mean, however, that Tampa's pre war prosperity had returned. It definitely had not. Relatively few people had "hard money" or Yankee greenbacks and the s t ores had to operate on a barter basis, exchanging their goods for cotton, hides, beeswax, honey, tallow or anything else the farm ers could supply and they could export. Most of the stores operated on a handtomouth basis, carryi ng small stocks. In March, 1867, the supply of provisions in all the stores beca m e exhausted. Consequently, the PENINSULAR declared that a "great calamity" had befallen the town when on April 2 the schooner james E. Price loaded with provisions for all the stores, was wrecked on Mullet Key and the cargo lost "Many families are out of food," the paper said. "vVe hope our merchants remedy the situation by chartering a schooner and dispatching her as soon as possible or else much suffering will inevitably result Tampa undoubtedly would have recovered much more quickly from the war than it did if it had had a railroad. But it did not. The nearest railroad was at Cedar Key, twenty hours up the coast by steamer, where the Flo r ida Railroad began its meandering way northeastward to Fernandina. This was the road Senator David Levy Yulee was supposed to have built to Tampa Bay but shunted to Cedar Key instead because he owned vast tracts of land in that area. The Florida Railroad was completed to Cedar Key i n April, 1861, jus t when the war started. Federal raiders soon landed and put it out of business. After the war ended, the line was quickly repaired and trains started running again. Cedar Key became the transportation and distribution center for the entire 'Vest Co ast. It prospered while Tampa stagnated. Proof of this s tagnation is furnished by Federal cens us records. In 1860 the white people living in Tampa totalled 885, as shown by couming names on the record sheets. I n 187 0, the census bureau reported that Tampa's population had slumped to 796, white and colored. During the following decade, the drop co ntinued, the 1880 census showing a population of only 720. Tampa's loss of population was caused not only by Jack of a rail road but by disease as well. The town was plagued by malaria and dengue or "brea kbon e fever" and occasionally was scourged by epi demics of the dreaded yellow fever. During such epidemics, every one who could do so fled from d1e city and went to neighboring com munities or camped in the woods. The Tampa Bay region suffered a severe yellow fever epidemic during the late summer of 1867. State records say it was brought in by Captain McKay's steamer Southem Star, then commanded by Capt. Archibald McN eill. vVhile the steamer was returning from Key West where it had taken a load of cattle, the engineer, Fred Green, was stricken. To get help, Captain McNeill pulled in at Manatee. Dr.

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WHEN TAMPA S L!PtEll BACKWARD 153 J. C. Pelot bad the s i c k man taken to his orri ce. Two h ours late r G r een died. Cap tain McNeill p r oceeded to Tampa with h is ship. O n J uly 31, Donald McKay was stri c k en. Bm Dr. Franklin B ra nch insisted he did not have ye llo w f e ver; the physician sai d his patien t j us t had "mal ig n ant f e ver." His diagnosis seemed to b e confirmed w he n Mc Kay recov ered fi ve da y s later. Bu t in less t ha n t wo wee ks, m o r e than a scor e of othe rs became se r i o u s l y i ll. By th a t time there was no do ubt about t h e nat u re of the dis e ase-i t w as y e llow f ever unques t io n ably R eco rds show t ha t 65 cases w e r e r epo r te d bef o re t he epid emic end ed a n d that 15 died An e pid emic a lso occ urred at Ma natee but th e numbe r of cases the r e is n o t r ecorded. Another e p i demic occur red durin g the sum m e r o f 1871. This t ime the disease w a s brough t i n by the steamer H M. Cool from C eda r Keys. The cab in boy, mortally ill, was taken ashore and treated by D octor John P Wall who e ven then was recog n ized as one of the foremost physicians i n Florida. A few days later the doctor w as stric k e n H e w a s nursed to recovery by h is w i fe, P ressie. H e had j ust gotten we ll when s h e becam e ill. Everyt hing possib l e was do ne for he r but she died, on Sep tember 6 187 I. Grief s t r i c k en, Dr. wall th ereafter devo t e d much of his t i me to a study of ye llow f eve r, tT) i ng to learn how i t was communicated from one pe rson to a no t h er. He fin all y beca m e c onvi n ced that the d isease was carried by m osqu itoes Bu t h i s th eo ry was r idicu led b y the public P4 C.-.n.,y I Many old timeors renlember this m.agn.ifittnt doublcxlcd street car ruo by the lamp3 .Suburban to 811llast Point back in the Gay Nineties. At that lime. and fo r man) \Un thcrea.hcr. Ball:aJI Point \\'U Tampas fnoritt place.

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154 TAMPA and even by f ellow members of h i s profession. Unfort un ately, D r. Wall did not live long e nough to see his theory proved correct. H e died in Gainesville April 18, 1895 while addressing members of the Florida M edical Associ ation Dr. '\ Vall was the s e cond son of Perry G. and Nanc y (Hunter) W a ll He was born in Jas per, Fla., Septem be r 1 7, 1836. He received h i s deg r ee as a p hysi cian shortly before t he Civil iVar and during the confl ict served in a m i litary hospit al in Richmond, Va. After the war, he ca me to Tampa to practic e and became one of t h e city s most re spected and beloved c i t i zens. H e he l d many publ ic offices and served for seve ra l years as editor of the SuNLAND TRIBUNE. His ho me, l ocated on F lorida between Lafa yette and Madison, was the scene of many social gatherings. If Dr. 'Wall's mosquito theory wou l d have been accepted, and steps ta ken to eradicat e the pests Tampa undoubtedly would have p r o gressed muc h more rapidly than it did. During the rainy season th e town literally swarmed with mosqui t oes and the community continued to be plagued b y malaria and dengue fever. H owever, Dr. '\ Vall did mana9e to keep the city free from yellow fever for nearly two decades. Appom t ed health o fficer, he put rigid quaranti ne regulations in to effect and n o person was a ll owed tO come into the city if he was suspected of having the dreaded disease. As a res ult, no epidemics o c c u rred. Tampa was affl i cted with somet hin g less dead l y than yellow fever but almost as obnoxious after the end of the war wande ring, ram paging Negroes. Freed from slavery, t h ey came in from the pl antations and paraded their "equa li ty" by Slvagger in g through the streets, often push in g w hite men and women from the s i dewal k s They refused tO work but they needed money for whiskey. They got it by break ing into sto r es and homes often in broad daylight. Said the PENINSULAR on June 23, 1866: Our fami l ies cannot even go to cliurch without leaving someone a t home lest on o u r return we find our places robbed." The trouble making, thieving Negroes cou l d not be curbed by the sheriff becaus e there was no court in which they could be prose cuted the offices o f judge o f the criminal court and prosecuting attorney had been abolished to save exp e nse. To correct t he s i tuation, the people decided t hat t he c ity govern ment would h ave to be reviv ed. T hi s was done i n October, 1866. E. A. Clarke was elected mayor and Dr. L A. Lively, R. F. Nunez Josi ah Ferris and B. C Leon ardi, counc ilm en. One of t he fir s t act i ons ta k en by the city officials was to appo in t John G. Robles marshal with inSlructions to "get tough." Robles did, and the troubl e caused by Negroes soon abated. To get money to pay the marshal and meet other city expenses, occupational taxes were levied.

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'.VHEN TAMPA SLIPPIW BACKWARI) 155 The levyi ng of these did not meet with public approval, due to the hard t imes. Many objections were raised. And the storm of protest increased in intensity two years later when real estate taxes were considered. The people of Tampa then decided they co u ld no longer afford t he luxury of a city government. Consequently, a "no cor poration" slate of officials pledged to discont inue the government until be tter times returned, was elected in March, 1869 by a large majority. John T Lesley was elected mayor and John F. F l etche r Lawrence A. Masters, John A. McKay James Williams and Cyrus Charles, council men. True to tlleir word, they did not hold meetings and the City of Tampa ceased to be. On Oc tober 4, 1869, t he county commissioners decreed that "as the City of Tampa has forfeited its charter, all property of the city shall be taken over by tlie county clerk." The county also had trouble ' abou t taxes. Money came m so slowly that more t han a year passed before enough was taken in to make urgent repairs to the county courthouse -rebuild the gable which had been shattered by a Yankee cannon ball and replace shattered windows and a badly leaking roof. Largely beca u se its white inhab itant s outnumbered the newly enfranchised Negroes better than f ive to one, Hillsborough County did not suffer from Negro supremacy or carpetbag rule during recon' struction days. Two companies of Negro soldiers were stationed for a short time at Fort Broo k e but when they became overbearing and white citizens complained, they wer e quickly withdrawn and replaced by white troops In 1867 a Freedmen's Bureau Court was established in Tampa to hear complaint s of Union sympathizers who had fled during war years and whose property had been taken by loyal Confederates but, so far as can be learned, none of the complainants .recovered damages On Augus t 16, 1869, the period of military rule ended, the last Federal troops being withdrawn from Fort Brooke. Thereafter, Tampa and Hillsborough County were left free to work out their problems by themselves. The only misery suffered by Tampa during the reconstruction period came from putting up with a n ative-born Southerner who turned "black Republican" after the war ended. He was James T. Magbee Born in Georgia in 1 820 Magbee became a lawyer and came to Tampa in the la te 1840s. Well to do, he too k a prominent place in the community and was well liked. During the war, he served in the Con federate army 'When the war ended he returned to Tampa to resume his law practiq:. For reasons unknown, he became a Republican-an ardent Republican. He won such favor at Tallahassee that on August 19, 1868, Governor Harrison Reed appointed him judge of the sixth circuit. Thereafter he often aroused the public wrath by compelling white men to serve on juries with Negroes. He was repeatedly charged

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!56 TAMPA with showing rank favoritism while hearing cases. When his enemies objected too strenuously, he had them brought before him on contempt charges and fined them heavily. Quite naturally, Magbee had few f riends among the Democrats. And when he fell dead drunk in t he sandy street at Franklin and Washington on November 16, 1871, a group of townsmen poured molasses and corn over him. The delectable mixture was soon dis covered by roaming hogs. Theyrooted him around until they ripped off nearly all his clothes. Hours later, the judge sobered enough to get up and stagger home. He suspected James E. Lipscomb of having planned the outrage and charged him with contempt. On the hearing day, Lipscomb went into court armed with a shotgun. He pointed it at the judge and pulled the trigger But just then E A. Clarke struck the barrel and the load of buckshot went into the ceiling. Although he escaped, Magbee was so frightened that he dismissed the case. Two years later, after Lipscomb had been elected mayor, .Magbee was overcome again by the urge to become intoxicated. Mayor Lips comb had him arrested on charges of disorderly conduct. Recovering from his alcoholic stupor, Magbee called his wife to the jail, had her bring the necessary papers and then issued a writ of habeas corpus directing the marshal to produce the body of James T. Magbee before James T. Magbee, judge of the circuit court. The marshal could do nothing but obey and of course the judge released himself as soon as he was taken to the courthouse. He thought so well of his strategy that he later wrote up the case for law journals. Judge Magbee's conduct on the bench finally was considered so reprehensible by Democrats that impeachment proceedings were brought against him in the state legislature. vVhile the case was still pending he resigned his office in 1874, after serving six years. Perhaps to get revenge on his political enemies, Magbee soon afterward began publishing a newspaper, the TAMPA GuARDIAN. His wife was assistant editor. On the masthead of the paper, Magbee pro claimed that it would be "Independent in Every thing, Neutral in Nothing." But despite the announced "independence," the GUARDIAN was ultra-Republican in po licy . Probably for that reason, the paper carried few local advertisements Its pages were well filled, however, with advertisements of concerns owned by Republicans in other parts of the state. And it was well edited and most readable. Magbee con timed publishing it until he died on December 1 2, 1885. The GuARDIAN was then taken over by H. J. Cooper and C. H Baxter and published until December 8, 1 886, when Editor Cooper sadly announced that Magbee in his will had made no provision for keeping the paper alive and that publication would have to cease :

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WHEN TAMPA SLIPPED BACKWARD 157 R epublicans vied with D emocrats for co ntrol of Tampa news pape r s for many years a fte r the e n d of t h e Civil War. B ecause of the war, the FLoiUDA PENINSULAR was forced to suspend publ icatio n on May 25, 1861. Publ isher Spencer enl isted in t h e Con fede rate army and became a private in Compa ny F, 1st Flori da Cavalry. Whi l e serv ing in Kentu c k y he was stricke n with typhoid fever. H e died in Frankfort on October 2 7 1 862, at the age of t wenty three. During the w ar t h e press and type of t he n ewsp ape r were taken into t h e country so the Y ankees cou ld not find them. When the war e nded the equipment was brough t back to Tampa and publication was resumed on April 28, 1866, by William's two brothers, John Edward and Thomas K. The Spencers appointed Samuel C. Cra ft edit or. H e announced that the paper would be Democratic. Less than two months later, John Spencer became ill Duri ng the war, w hile serving in the 4 th R egiment, Florida Volunteers, he contracted dysentery and when he relUr ned home he was still suffering from the disease. His condition became gradually worse and on June 30, 1866, he died. Publication of L h e PENINSULAR was thereafter con tinued by Thomas Spence r. The Dem o cratic PENINSULAR got a Republican competitor THE TRuE SouTHERNER, during th e summer of 1868 It boasted on its ma s t h ead tha t it was the official paper of the Sixth Judicial C ircuit and proclaime d that "We hold th ese truths to be self evident, t ha t all men are c reated equal." Edward e 0 P l umbe was the editor and Charles L. Newhall, the publisher. THE TRUE SouTHERNER was published in the courthouse probably by per miss i on o f Circu it Judge Magbee The paper had little support and n o advert i sing and afte r the N ovem ber elect ions, it died a sud den death. D et ermined to have a newsp aper mouthpiece in Tampa fo r t he next n atio n al election, in 1872 the Republicans bough t a controlling interest in the P-ENINSULAR and on February 17, the Democ ratic editor retired He was succeeded b y G. R. Mobl ey who announced tha t the paper would thereafte r be R epublican. This action proved fata l for the paper. Its advertising dwindled and s hortly after the e l ection the paper printed its last issu e. For the nex t two years the D e mocrats did not have a paper in which to express thei r views. Bu t early in 1876 they rallied their forces, knowing that the coming e l ection would be one of the most bitterly fought in t h e nation"s hi sto ry, and prom ised Thomas K. Spencer eno ugh bac king to enable him to start a new w.eekly called the Su NLAND TRIBUNE. The firs t issue appeared M a r c h 2, 1876, with. : Dr. :John P. WaU as.:edi:tar. During the months which foll owe d ; Ed itor W!Ul filled the columns of the TRIBUN E with pra ise of Samu el J : Tilden .and un ceasing l y de clared that the nation would be ruined. if R utherford B

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158 TAMPA Hayes came out ahead. Just the opposite view was taken, of course, by Editor Magbee in his GuARDIAN. "When Hayes was finally trium phant, Magbee gloated a n d Dr. Wall moaned that Florida had. been betrayed. While the newspaper editors were fighting their political battles, Hillsborough County was emerging rapidly from the slough of de spondency into which it had fallen at the close of the war It began to surge ahead even while Tampa was slipping backward, losi n g in population. The county's recovery was due in part to the golden harvest then being 1:eaped by cattlemen through supp lying the Cuban market. The first cattle were shipped to Cuba from Centra l Florida la te in the 1850s by Capt. James McKay who deve l oped quite a knack for dealing with grafting Havana officials. One way he did this was to limit his palm greasing to the right people. On one occasion, just after he had dined with the captain general of Havana, he was met on board his ship by a group of petty offic i als who demanded their share of the pay-off. Having had a wee bit o f champagne at the dinner, Captain McKay was feeling in fine fettle, but in no mood to argue. He told his mate to cast off And then, just as his Magnolia got under way, the six-foot, husky captain proceeded to tie into the graft seekers and toss them overboard in to the shark-filled waters of the harbor. After that he was not bothered with small time chiselers Captain McKay was unable to get another ship to replace those l ost during the war until the summer of 1866 when he chartered the Gov Marvin from the Morgan line. The ship arrived J uly 27. i.ess than three months later, on October 22, he purchased the Southern S tar, a much larger faster steamer. Strangely enough, Captain McKay had trouble getting enough steers to load a ship and resume the Cuban trade. Herds owned by the cattlemen had increased greatly in numbers du1:ing the war years and when the war ended there was only a l imited market for the animals. Nevertheless the cattlemen held out for prices higher than Captain McKay could pay and still make a profit, and this despite the fact that south Florida was desperate! y in need of "ha1:d money." Learning that Captain McKay was stymied, Editor Craft blasted the cattlemen in t he PENINSULAR. '!If the cattle owners assume that Captain McKay must lose all while they make all, we may expect .an abandonment of :tl'ie enterprise and a sealing .up of the doom of sa urb Florida for years c to come,'' t he editor declare,d ; ;'This is no {or the cattlemen to be obsessed with . . .': Captain McKay finally made the cattleme r l:listen to reason .. and ori October 29, 1866 he loaded the .Gov. . Ma1'Vin .. w.ith cattle at Manatee and left for Havana. He must have made a profit because

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WHEN TAMPA SLIPPED B A CKWARD 159 he made shipments regularly And by late fall, Capt. F. A. Hendry and J acob Summe r li n had ente r ed the business O n December 15 they shipped 300 head from M anate e on the steamer Emily which they had just purchased Later they made sh i pments from Punta Rassa where Summer lin developed the largest cattle sh ipping port in Florida. The Cuban cattle business began really t o boom in 1868 when in s u rrect ionists on the island started a ten year conflict with their Sp anis h ru l ers. The rebels controlled m any of the areas where cattle were raised and the Span i ards began paying top prices for the steers ne eded to f eed the soldiers they rushed r o the island. Spanish buyers flock ed to Florida and gladly paid a gold doubl<;>on, worth $15.60 in Ameri can money, for eve r y sr.ecr driv e n to a s hi pp in g point. For cat t le shipped in to Havana, ha lf again as much was paid, also in Span ish gold. In the Tampa Bay area the sh i pment of cattle was almost completely mono polized by Captain McKa y To handle the b usiness h e built up the largest fleet of schooners and steamers then owned by any individual in the state. His princ i p al ships were the Scntthem Star, Valle y City, Lindsey T. ]. Co c hran and Ella K night F o ll owing the captain's death, on November 11, 1 876, the business was carried o n by his son, Capt. James McKay, Jr. T h e Cuban demand for cattle conti nued strong all during t h e 1 870s. During that decade, 165,669 head were shipped to Cuban ports -. .. .... .. .. -.... . . c-"'"'1 J g,_., .. :Xch:ange Bank ;ts it in The emplo y ttS shown in the leh t o righl are : C. J R pt:mce MaS$ Uz.abt1h and J.. B Amderson. the Peter 0. Knight had h iJ o Ui ccs o n the second floor

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160 TAMPA and for them the Florida cattlemen and shippers re ceive d $2,441,846. The golden flood came at a time when it was needed most. Pumped into the chann e l s of tra de, it helped immeasurably in bringing back prosperity to many part s of the state. Hillsboro ugh County was helped most however, by a great influx of new sett lers which began soo n after the war ended and increased s teadil y year aft e r yea r. Many of the new arrivals were northerners who had hea rd abou t the beauti ful w est Coast from Yank ee sail ors and soldiers sent her e on raiding expeditions during the war. After the war ended and the Yanks returned to t he cold and dreary winters of the Nortll they remembered t h e balmy climate of the Tampa Bay region and sang its praises. They adv e rtised the sec tion throughout the nation and the advertising brou g h t results. With the northerners came many families from north F lorida and southern states which had been overrun by the despised carpetbaggers and dominate d b y Negroes. To escape the intolerab l e conditions con comitant with "Negro rule" they mig r ated t o a region where the carpe tbaggers and their colored allies were not supreme. It would seem as though th e mingling of the "vi ctorious" north erners and the sout herners for whom the war brought nothing but tragedy would have resulted inevitably in confl icr and dissensi on. But bitterness and s trife-there were none. The two groups got alo ng splend idl y togeth er. They intermarri ed. They joined in building south Florida the south Florida o f today. The influx of new settl ers was due in l a r ge measure to th e H ome stead Act passed by Co ngress in 1862. The Federal governmen t held title t o huge u-acts of land in cenu-al and south Florida a nd, with the war ended thes e trac ts became availab l e for occup atio n. E ach settler' was entitled to 160 acres provided he built a home and tilled th e soi l for five years. To get this free land, the hardy and the adventurous moved sout hward. They cam e in huge cover ed wagons, drawn by mules or oxen, traveling a few miles a day over the sandy trails, j ust as pionee rs had come ba c k in the 1840s to ge t land under the short l ived Armed Occupation Act. Others came in sloops and schoo ne rs, stopping at wh i te-beached islands along the way. A few came in style, traveling by steamer and rai l to Cedar Keys and t hen down to T ampa on t he U. S. l\Iail Line, opera ted first b y Captain Mc Kay and later by the Tampa Steamship Company. As a result of the southward migr at i on, Hillsborough County gained in popul a tion while Tampa was shri nking, increasin g fro m 2,981 in 1860 to 3,216 in 1870 . :The in c r ease was really muc h greater than the figu res Indicat e inasimich as Polk county had been carved

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VVHEN TAMPA SL!Pl'ED BACKWARD 161 out of Hillsborough in 1861 and if Polk s population of 3,169 in 1870 had been added to that of Hillsborough as it had been in 1860, the total would have been 6,385, truly an amazing gain. Hillsborough continued to grow rapidly during the 1870s the population soaring from 3,216 to 5,8 14. Few of the newcomers raised cotton, sugar cane or rice for money crops as t he pla n tation owners had done in ante bellum days. Those were vanishing crops, as far as Hillsborough County was concerned. They were profitable in the days of sla v e labor but not after the Negroes had been freed and demanded wages for their work higher wages than were paid in almost any c>ther section of the South. The principal crops grown by the newcomers were corn, sweet potatoes and truck produce. Almost all of them planted citrus groves. Most of the newcomers, especially those from the North, had money when they arrived. Some were quite wealthy and spent large sums to buy choice tracts and in developing their properties General W. P. Hazen, for instance, who came t o Hillsborough County from Ohio, spent a small fortune building a magnificent home at Lake Thonotosassa and planting the largest orange grove in south Florida. Money spent by the newcomers began to trickle into Tampa in the late 1860s and while it did not arrest the drop in the town s popu lation it did serve to help dispel the black pessimism which prevailed immediately after the wa r ended. Merchants reported better trade and everyone began to have greater confidence in the future. The slowly returning oplimism had one effect Ta1npa youngsters did not like-reopening of the public schools. Private schools had been opened within a year after the war ended Mrs. Hawkins Private School for Girls and Samuel C. Craft's Private School for Boys. Both Craft and Mrs. Hawkins charged tuition fees of $8 per term, when paid in advance, and $12 when paid in installments. Craft laid down strict rules regarding the conduct of the boys sent to him for instruction. He warned that all those who "make a practice of visiting any drinking or gambling place or other resorts of vice" would be promptly expelled. Perhaps for this reason his school was not a financial success; he closed i t after one term. Besides being proprietor of the school, Craft also was pastor of the Baptist Church and editor of the PENINSULAR. Despite this multiplicity of jobs, he had a hard time making ends meet. On July 21, 1867 ;he reported that his income from all sources for the first six mon t hs o f the year had been just $149. "That's not enough to live on," he moaned, "particularly. now that we have to pay l 0 cents a pound for beef." After Craft closed his school, another one was opened by Mrs. Robert F. Nunez. Her husband, who had owned a general store before th e war, enlisted in the Confederate Army shortly after their marriage

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162 TAMPA in 1862 and served as captain in Co. B 7th Florida Regiment. Unac customed to the colder climate of Tennessee and Kentucky, whe r e he served he contracted pneumonia and never fully recovered. H e died in 1868, leaving his widow and two children. In the fall of 1870, members of a newly-elected County Board of P ublic Instruction finally managed to obtain enough money to employ a principal and a small staff of teachers and open a public school in the abandoned cit y hall. Members of the board then were John T. Givens, Thomas K. Spencer and Dr. Franklin Branch. A. "\Natrous was the superintendent Because of the money shortage, the school term was limited to six weeks In 1872 a tax of five mills was levied for edu cational purposes, help was obtained from the Peabody fund, and a start was made toward establishing a real county school system. The first public schoo l building in Tampa, located on a half block lot on Franklin between Madison a n d Twiggs, was built in 1876 for the school board by John T. Givens and his son, Darwin at a cost of $2,350. By mid summer of 1 873 economic conditions had improved to suc h an extent that the citizens decided that a municipal government should be re-established. So a meeting was held August 11 and the 48 electors who attended voted to incorporate, this time as a town instead of as a city. James E. Lipscomb was elected mayor Charles Hanford, clerk, and John G. Robles, marshal. Councilmen elected were VI/. T. Haskins E A. Clarke, John T. Lesley, Josiah Ferris and Henry L. Crane. Soon afterward, the first town seal was designed and adopted. It showed a palm-surrounded waterfront with a few sail and steamboats in the foreground. A revived community spir i t was shown in 1873 by the organization of a Town Improvement Society by the women of Tampa. One of the first tasks the women undertook was the beautification of Oak Lawn Cemetery which had become overgrown with weeds and palmettoes during the war years. By holding lawn fetes and raffles, the society raised enough money to employ a caretaker and have the undergrowth removed. One of the oldest citizens of Tampa was buried in the cemetery that year-William Ashley, for whom Ashley Street was named. Shortly afterward a Negro woman died who had long been Ashley's senant. The relationship which had existed between Ashley and Nancy was much closer than that which normally existed between mas ter and servant but, strange to say, it was not frowned upon by the community. After Nancy's death she was b u ried in the same grave with her master and a tombstone was erected by John Jackson, executor of Ashley's estate, "to commemorate the fidelity which each bore to the other." The inscription on the tombstone read: "Here Lie William Ashley and Nancy Ashley, Master ;md Servant; faithful to each other in that

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WHEN TAMPA SLIPPEI) BACKWARD 163 relation in life in death they are not separ ated. Strangers, consider and be wis e in the grave all human distincti ons of race or color mi ngle together in one common dust." The tombston e is still standing. A famous visitor came to T ampa in 1876. The celebrity was Sidney Lan ier, n oted poet of the South, who arri ved with M rs. Lanier on D ecember 21. At f i rst he was not much impressed with Tampa and in a letter home descr ib ed it as "the most forlorn collection o f one-s tory houses imaginable." Mr. and Mrs Lanier stoppe d at the Orange Grove H otel, the forme r hom e of William B Hooker which had been con verted into a hotel and was being operated by Hooker's son-in law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Henry L. C rane. Lanier described the hotel as "a larg e t hree-sto ry house with many odd nooks and corners, alto gether clean and comfortable in appearance and surrounded by orange trees in full fru it. L anier came to Tampa prima rily t o obtain dat a for a Florida guide book h e was then writin g and e xpected to remain onl y a short time. But he l earned t o lik e th e town so much th at he stayed three months. In a letter to a northern friend he rhapsodized: "What would I not give to transport you from you r northern sorrows in stantly into the midst of the green leaves the gold oranges, the glitter of great and tranqui l waters the libera l friendship of the sun the heavenly conversation of the robins and mockin gbirds, and larks, wh ich fill my days with Plr.OJ Cnurr "' Tmpcr During the Gay Ninet ies, [be Tampa Bay Casino se1' \'ed Tampa as a theatr e. swimming pool and as a cemer for :;ocia.l e\'ems. The Casino, built by H. B. Pla.ru on the Tampa Bay Jolotel grou nds MHi opened Doceml>el' S.I 8 96. lt was d estroyed by fire July 1941.

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164 T AMPA de light. Whil e in Tampa, Lan ie r wrote e leven p oem s includ i ng Tampa Robins, The Moc k in g Bi1d, T he Masters, and A B a ll ad of the Trees. Despite his l ove for Tampa, Lanier neve r returned H i s failin g health preve n ted him fr o m again undertak i ng the long h ard journ e y t h e trip fro m P hiladelph i a h a vi n g requ ired e l even days. H e had spent four days on trains, four days o n steamers, a n d thr e e d ays in lay-overs a t D anville, V a., B r u nsw i c k G a., Fernandina and Ceda r Keys. H e had trave led fro m Cedar K eys to Tampa o n the steamer Valley Cit y, of wh i ch C ap t J ames McK ay, Jr. was master. The p oe t cou ld h a v e s aved h imself the la s t boat tri p i f he h ad wanted to get off the r a i lroad at Gaine s vill e an d make the rema inde r of the journey by stagec oach the line havi ng started running a ga i n in 1866. But Lani e r would no t have saved any t ime by goin g overlan d t wo days and a night h aving been required to mak e the 134-mil e trip. B y t h e time the trave l ers r ea che d Tampa they us u a ll y were sti ff a n d sore from the side-swaying and jolting of the stagecoach over the rough r oads. But the d r ive r an agile fellow enlivened the trip by "gophe r gra b bi ng "-he would leap from his seat, p i c k up a gop he r from the road a nd toss it o nto the baggag e rac k over h ead without s topping h i s team. For each gopher capt u re d, the d ri ve r made 25 c e nts, th e anim als then being highly p rized b y Negroes. Slow thou g h the Gaines v ille stag ecoac h was, it was lightn ing fast co mpared to t h e "freight express" whi c h operate d between T ampa and Bartow Ve hicles used b y the "ex press" wer e lumbering, broad whe eled tarpau li n-cove red wag ons and the motive powe r was furnis h ed by thre e and fou r yoke o f oxen, driven by brawny C ivil lar veterans w h o w ie ld e d their lo n g, b l ac ks na k e whips with deadly acc u racy. Two full d a y s were required to make the 42-mile journey. Duri ng the dry season, t h e w h ee l s sank i n clutc h in g sand and during the rainy season i n even more clu tch in g mud, and the oxen we r e a ble to proc eed only a t a snail's pace. T he Bartow freig h t line was e sta b li she d soon after th e war by Thomas B. M ims, of Bartow who later sold it to Isaac B randon. The la st owner was Capt. Dave Hughe s The line prov ided t h e first delivery service for Tampa stores w h ich sold to merch a nts in Bar tow, Fort M eade and other inland towns. It c o n tinued in operation until the coming of th e railroad in 1884. One of the drivers for the li ne, a Captain M ayo, w as r emembered v ividly b y Charles McK a y who oft e n went with him to Bartow just for the ride. O t h e r youngsters also accom pan i ed Mayo occasi o n a lly. One day the captai n wen t c omplete l y insan e a nd beat out the brains o f t he boy who wa s riding w it h him. M c K ay never c e ased feelin g tha nk f ul that he had no t been in a travelin g mood that tragic d ay

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TAMPA SLIPPED BACKWARD 165 Because of the slow transportation facilities then available, T ampa people felt as though they were l i ving at the end of nowhere. This feel ing of isolation was lessened somewhat when a te legraph office was established at Fort Meade by the International Ocean Cable Co mpany which in 1867 finished stringing a te l egraph line down the state Lo Puma Rassa whe r e it connected with a newlylai d cable to Key \Vest and Havana. Thereafte r, T ampa peop l e w h o wanted to send messages could take them to Fort l'vleade and hav e them te l egraphed. Tampa business men repeatedly asked the telegraph company to provide a branch line to their town but the offici als always refused, saying they could not hope to get enough business in Tampa to justify the expense. They suggested that Tampa c itizens organize a company and string the line themselves. Finally, in 1873, a meet i ng of lead i ng citizens was called to sell stock for such a company. T wo of the most prominent citizens refused to subscribe, saying they wou l d nor be benefitted-they got news quick l y en ough without a telegraph. Their refusal aroused the ire of outspoken Capt. John Miller H e angrily retorted that he was not surprised at their attitude. Everyone knew he said, that the r easo n they did not need a telegraph was because their wives beat any telegraph ever inv ented in spreading the news. All the men laughed, even the two objectors. But Captain Miller learned the next morni ng that he had spoken too h asti ly. The men had told the i r wives w ha t he had said-th ey met him on t h e street on his way to work and gave him a tongue l ashing he n ever forgot. Despite this disquieting episode, enoug h stoc k was sold to get the company establ i shed. It called the Tampa and For t Meade Tele graph Company. A small office was opened in Miller &: H enderson's store and a young fellow from Jacksonville named \Valter Coachman arrived to become the town's first telegrapher. The f irm of Miller &: H enderson was established in 1873 by William B Henderso n and Capt. John Miller. The latter was born in Norway on August 4, 1834. \ Vhen eleven yea rs o l d he sailed to Quebec as a cabin boy. Later he served as a sailor on ships plying between New York and Liverp ool. By the t i me the Ci vil War started h e had saved enough monel to buy a brig wh ich was used b y the Fed era l s during the war years. When the wa r ended he purcha sed a schooner a nd came to the 'West Coast to engage in coastwise sh ipping. In 1 869 he opened a g enera l store in Tampa. When Cap t Miller and Henderson joined forces in 1873, they proceeded to establish Tampa's largest gen eral store and also built up the largest fleet of ships on the West Coast. They l ater organized the Tampa Steamship C ompany. Some of their best known sh i ps were the Lizzie Henderson, Capt. Miller, Al abama, T.]. Cochran, H ostetter, Eliza Han cox and Lucy B. Miller.

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166 TAMPA Despite the fact that Tampa lost steadily in population during the 1870s, the town expanded in size. This anomaly was due to an in flux of north erners who had money and wanted plots o f land near town large enough to have small orange groves. Many located north of town and soon began demanding the opening of streets Neither the town nor the county had money for road construction and the demands might have been ignored had it not been for Joseph Robles. His homes t ead was located north of what is now Columbus Drive and be tween Florida and Nebraska Avenues. Deciding he would like to get some of the northerners' money by sell in g them some of his land, he called for voluntee rs to help open Florida Avenue Twenty-six spirited citizens led by Sherif f D. Isaac Craf.t responded and wo r k was started June 18, 187 6. Teams of oxen and log carts were provided by Capt. John Robles and before the day ended, the avenue was opened n early a mile beyond the town limits. The northern expansion continued steadily and by December 3 1879 Publisher Spencer proudly reported in his SuNLAND TRIBUNE that Florida Avenue had been opened for about two miles Nebraska Ave nue three miles and Michigan Avenue for about two miles east of the river. The newspaper editor listed the name s of the owners of more than fifty orange grove estate s" which had been established along the new thoroughfares. "A comparative wilderness lying at our very doors," he declared, "is being made to blossom as a ros e ." Spencer rather sad l y admitted that a majority of the newcomers who owned the orange grove estates probably were Republicans but he added that being in t elligent men and having become bona-fide citizens, they are not the kind of men to be imposed upon a nd therefore, as a rule, may always be counted o n as favoring honest government and in state elections will vote according ly ." The "blossoming" of the suburbs referred to by Publisher Spencer did not cause a concurrent blossoming of ''down town" Tampa. The business section in 1880 was much the same as it had been in Civil \Var d ays. All the business establishments were housed in one or two story frame buildings, usually unpainted and more than a li t tl e d i lapidated. Sand was ankle deep in all the streets and in many places scrub pal mettoes and weeds grew right down to the ruts mad e by the ox cans o f visiting farmers. Tampa was still just a sleepy little "cracker" village. But Tampa was a friendly town and, moreover few persons believed in letting work interfere t oo much with p le asure. Peop le often took time off from t heir daily chores to enjoy themselves. During the long s111nmer months, picnics on the beaches and excursions on the bay were common events Every week or so some gToup held a lawn fete, entertainment or dance. Ma n y of the you ng men belonged t o the Tampa Rifles and spent much time drilling or parading through the

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\.YHEN TAMPA SLIPPED BACKWARD 167 streets. During the winter, plays were given by members of the Tampa Amateur Dramatic Society. And each year at Christmas time the Knights of Hill sbo rough held their Ring Tournament. This annual event was something like t he knightly tournaments held in Merrie England back in medieval times . But instead of jousting each other off their horses, the gaily costumed knights tilted their lances at three rings suspended ten feet off the ground from horizontal bars. Each rider had three tries and if he was a fine horseman and had n erves of steel he could get nine rings. The winners had the honor of choos ing the Queen of Love and Beauty and her two maids of honor. The queen always was crowned at a ball held two days after the tournament. It was the big social event of the season and everyone socially prominent attended. The first tourney of which there is any record was held January 2, 1877. Seventeen young gallants were the cont estants W. B. Hender son and \1\1'. vV. Wall were the judges and James E. Lipscomb, the marshal. Thomas E. Jackson, the Kn i ght of Reform, had high score and named Miss Etta Warner t h e queen Dr. Thomas S. Daniel, who was "Oswald," took second place atid named Miss Ada McCarty the queen' s maid of honor. Wesley P Henderson, the Knight of Florida, took third place, and named Miss Mamie Parish second maid of honor . P/wt() CNtt
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168 T AMPA The SuNLAND TRIUUNE described the ball as "a brilliant and splendid affair which passed off to the satisfaction and enjoy ment of th e large number who participated." H. H. Hal e was the floor man ager and was highly praised for hi s eff orts. The Ring Tournament was held each year on the parade ground in the garri son. At other times the parade ground was the favored grazing land of a small herd of cows owned by Mrs. Benjamin Cowart, k nown to everyone as '"Granny" Co wart. Eac h evening the cows were driven from the garrison through the streets to Granny's cow pen on the northeast corner of Tampa and Lafa yette, now in the heart of the business d i strict They were scrawny creatures and gave only a quart or two of milk eac h but Cranny had the onl y "dairy" in town and peop l e gla dly bough t all the milk her cows could s upply Mrs. Cow ar t was an expert in castra t ing colts and youn g bulls and old tim ers say she never lost a case. She a l so was a sk i lled m i dwife and assiste d at man y of the births in town, always refe rring to the children thereafter as my childr en." Earl y in 1883, C rann y Cowart had to take her cows out of t he garrison, the Tampa R ifles had to go somewhe r e else to drill, and the Knights of Hill s bor o ugh had to begin l ooking for a nother plac e to hold their tournaments Because in that year Fort Brooke pass ed out of the possession of the F ede ral government. Yank ee troops had been w i thdrawn from the fort on August 16, 1869, and for mor e than a decade the buil dings were unoccupi ed. But in j\1ay, 1880, two compa nies were transferred there from Key W est, the n suffering from one of its many yellow fever epidemics. The soldiers remained at Fort B roo k e until late in 1882 when they were t ran sferred to Mt. Vern on, Ala., and St. Augu stine. The l ast contingent departed on Dece mber 21. On January 22, 1877, during t h e period when the fort was deserted the military reservation was reduc ed co about 148 acres, th e se ction cast of the presen t East Street and south o f Sixth Aven ue being reverted to the public dom ain. All the land h e ld by the government beyond th e new res ervation boundaries was then sold, l arge tracts bei ng purchased b y John T L esley Andrew J. Knight, Stephen M. Spar k man and others, for $1.25 an acre. The sec tion north of the prese n t Firs t Avenue later compri sed the Town of Fort B rooke notorious for many years for its gamb ling joints and ho uses of ill fame. This so -called town was not taken into Tampa until 1906. When the tro ops depa rted for t h e l ast time in 1882, at tempts were made by public spirite d citizens, l ed by S. A. Jones to acquir e the ga rrison, with it s gracef ul palms and towering, moss -hung oaks for a town park They sought the assi sta n c e of a U nited States senator who was supposed to be m ost friendly to Tampa, Wil ki nson C all, a breast-

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WHEN TAMPA SL!l'PED BACKWARD 169 beat ing spellbinde r who had enthralled voters many times by h is de nunciations o f Republican carpetbaggers. Senator Call promised his s u pport. O n January 4, 1883, the '.Var Department turned the prop erty over to the Departmen t of the Interior and Tampa p eople con fident l y believed the Land O ffice would soon transfer title to th e town. But on Friday, March 23, 1 883, bad news was received f rom Talla h assee. On the day before a diagram of the reserva tion had b een received at the Federal Land Office and imm ed iately on its arrival an app l ication for a homestead the re h ad been filed by a physician who liv ed in Arredondo, near Gainesville, Dr. EdmundS. Carew The app li catio n was for the fin est part of the garr ison a tract on which t h e officers' quarters stood. The town was stunned. The announcement that the reservation had been ope ned for home steading resulted in a rush of c i tizens to Tallahassee, all eager to get a portion of this valuable prope r ty. During the following week home stead were filed by Clifford H errick Louis Bell Daniel Mather, Andrew Stillings, Joel B Myers Ric hard Nash, G. W. K irby, Fran k C. Thomas, John H. H avans Julius Caesar, Frank J ones, W. B. Henderson, E. B. Chambe rlain, WinS. 1\-fyers, Marion M. Nels o n and Henry w. Beach, the father of the boy who ye ars later became a famous author, Rex Beach Dr. Carew arrived in T ampa on April 13 with his family and soon took possession of the offic ers' quarters. By that time most of the other applicants also had moved onto the land they claimed. And many others had entered the reservation to "squat," living in ten ts and ha s til y erected shacks. Years later evidenc e was in troduced during a legal battl e between various claimants for the property which showed that Dr. C arew had received a telegram from Senator Call te lli ng when the land diagram had been sent from Washington. And t h ere was also evidence indi cating tha t the doctor had received money from Call to pay for the homestead applic a t io n. Many persons contended that Call directed Carew's actions with the expectation of getting at least part of the land for himself In all events, Tampa had been doublecrossed b y th e sena t or, beyond all doubt. As a result, the town lost forever its oppor tu nity to get a fine park at its front door. And the once beautiful garriso n fina lly became a comm ercia l and industrial section. But in 1883, Tampa was in n o mood to grieve long about th e loss of the garrison. The town was grow ing as it had never grown before. It was just about to get something for which i t had a vital need; someth ing on which its entire future depend ed. A railroad was coming.

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CHAPTER VII A RAILROAD BRINGS A GOLDEN ERA THE CRAMPED FORECASTLE of the sidewheel Steamer New Yo,-k, plying between New York and New Haven Conn., was almost unbearably hot one blistering day in August, 1838. Perspiration covered the bodies of the deckhands sleeping there. And to the patrician nose of the captain's boy, the odors in the stuffy quarters were most unpleasant. He vowed that if he ever could work his way out of that forecastle, he'd never slip back in again. The captain's boy was a nineteen-yearold youth named Henry Brad ley Plant, of Branford, Conn. He was not particularly strong physically and had only a smattering of education. But he had a burning deter mination to succc:;ed-and succeed he did, most fortunately for Tampa. I n the years to come, Henry Bradley Plant played a leading role in the metamorphosis of Tampa from a sleepy "cra cker" village into the thriv ing city it is today Shipments of Beecher's New York & New Haven Express, one of the first express line s of the country, were carried in the hold of the steamer New York. T he master of the ship, Capt. S. Bartlett Stone decided one day that goods could be handled better if stored in a l arge double room forward of the wheel. Having taken a liking to young Plant, he gave him the job of lo o king after the room and had a berth place d in it so he co uld sleep there. Plant later told Tampa friends that the day he left the forecastle and moved to the express room was t he happiest day in his life. In l 842, while still with the steamship line, Plant was married. Desiring to spend more time at home, he got a shore job with the expres s company in New Haven Shortly afterward he was promoted and trans ferred to New York. In 1847, Beecher's line was absorbed by the Adams Express Company. Plant went with the Adams company, then expand ing rapidly, and soon became one of its officials. In the fa:ll of 1853 the company placed him in charge of its business in the southern states and he proceeded to establish new express lines all through the South When the Civi l V\lar started the Adams Express Company sold its holdings below the M ason-D ixon line to Plant to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Confederates and he organized the Southern Express Company with offices in Augusta, Ga During th e war many Georgia and Florida railroads became in solvent. Aide d financially by wealthy business associates of the North, Plant bought controlling interest in a number of the roads and by 1882 had built up a network extending from Charleston, S. C., to Jacksonville and across lower Georgia and north Florida. To handle the properties

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A R AILROAD BRJNCS A GoLDEN ERA 171 and buy more roads, he organized the Plan t Investment Com pany. In clud ed among his associ ates in the company were H e nry M. Fl ag ler a nd Morri s K. J essup, o f New York; W. T. Walters and B. F. Newcomer, of Baltimore ; E. B. Has k ell of Bosto n and Lorenzo Blackstone, H enry Sanford L ynde Harrison H. P H oadl ey and G. H Tilley. o f Connect i cut. Plant foresaw the day when the Uni ted States wo uld do an immense amoun t o b usiness with Cuba and Central and So uth Am e ri ca and he decided to e xtend his rai l road e mpire to a poin t on the Fl orida West C oast. At that time Cedar Key was the only town on the coast which boasted of a railroad the Florida Tra nsit&: Peninsular, successor to the o l d Florida Railroad fathered by Da vid Levy Yulee. Large blocks of IT&P stock were owned by Yulee and his relatives and they also con t rolled pra ctica ll y all the land in C edar Keys. Old t i mers say that Plant wanted to exte nd his railroad to the keys but w h e n he tried to buy the necessa ry land, the Yul ee crow d refused to se ll This ma de Plant so irate the o l d time rs say that he angr il y d eclared: ''I'll wip e Cedar Key off the map! Owls w ill hoot in your attics and hogs will wallow in your deserted streets!" According to another ofttold story Plant ne x t tried to get land for his railhead on Snead 's Isl and, in Manatee County. H e wanted to buy the e n tire islan d but the negotiat i ons collapsed so the stor y goes, when Pltto f """ Tampa was war minded iu the turbulent d3)'5 preceding the SpunishAmerican VVar. This p;c tu re l ooking north on Itl'anklin fnnn th e court lmu.'ie grotmds s h ows a pa rade of home l0\'11\ lnlfliers in 1897. '111C marb l e face
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172 TAMPA 'Varburton Warner, one of the owners, refused to sell his 200 acre tract expecting to profit handsomely after the port development started on the r est of the island. These stories may be true, even though there are many reasons why they can be doubted. But the fact remains that Plant finally concluded that Tampa Bay offered the best possibilities for port development and that the town of was the logical point for a railroad to terminate. Plant's decision unquestionably was logical. Despite the fact that Tampa's population had dropped during the preceding two decades, it nevertheless was an established community and the only shipping center for a large rapidly developing back country. A railroad into Tampa would be assured of a large amount of business-at once. No other place offered such opportunities-so Tampa won Plant's choice. As the first step in carrying out his plans, Plant early in 1883 acquired controlling interes t in the So uth Florida Railroad. This road held a charter from the state, granted in 1879, to build from St. Johns River to the Gulf. Construction work had started January 11, 1880, when General U S. Grant, then visiting in Florida, dug the first cere monial spadeful of earth at Sanford. The railroad was completed from San f ord to Orlando by October l, 1 880, and was extended to Kissi mmee March 2, 1882. There the company s money ran out and work stopped. After buying the South Florida, Plant co u ld have u sed its charter to build into Tampa but he had a most practical reason for not wanting to do so. The South Florida's charter offered a niggardly reward for railroad construction, only 3 840 acres of state-held lan d for each mile of road completed. Plant wanted something much better to guarantee a profit for his company on the money it invested. Shrewd Connecticut Yank ee that he was, he coveted the charter of another railroad which had been authorized to build to Tampa Bay, the J acksonville Tampa & Key West, which had been promised 10,000 acres per mile for each mile comp l eted plus alternate sections within six miles on each side of the track, a total of 13,840 acres per mile. The JT&KW already had started building a railroad. Officials of the company had arrived in Tampa in 1881 and on July 29 had secured from the town council an exclusive franchise to Jay tracks on Spring, Water, Polk and Whiting streets. The franchise had been awarded for a consideration of only $5, the town fathers having wanted a railroad desperately. Col. E B. Carter, chief engineer of the road, had arrived in town on December 29, 1881, and soon af t erward had started grading at the foot of Polk Street. Fifteen miles of grade were completed the following year. But then the work stopped-this company too had run out of money. At that juncture, Plant appeared in the picture. On May 4, 1883, he came to terms with the JT&KvV officials. He agreed to advance the JT&K'\IV enough money to starl construction at Jacksonville and. work

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A RAILROAD BRINGS A GOLDEN ERA 173 southward toward Palatka. And, in return, the JT&KW gave the Plant Investment Company a quit claim deed to all its rights in the railroad "built and to be built" out of Tampa. The arrangements also provided that the South Florida could build its road into Tampa on the JT&:KW charter and thereby get the 1 3,840 acres per mile its charter provided. The exact details of the deal have never been revealed. Perhaps Plant got a controlling interest in t he JT&KW along with other "valuable considerations." That's more than possible. As stated, Plant was a shrewd Connec ticut Yankee. Be that as it may, events moved rapidly after the deal was com pleted. On June 6, 1883, the Tampa town counc il revoked the charter given to the JT&:K \.V and gave a similar one to the Plant Investment Company. On June 16, a crew of 168 track labore rs came into town and began grading operations More men quickly followed. Other crews started grading westward from Kissimmee. Ortlers were given for hundreds of thousands of cross-ties; workers in logging camps worked from dawn to dusk, and new mills were brought. in to cut the timber Construction men bought or leased every mule and ox within a hundred miles, and every vehicle in which earth could be moved. Farmers quick ly sold every bit of produ ce they could grow; cattlemen reaped a harvest selling beef tO the construction crews. Hillsborough County seethed with activity, and so did Tampa. Overnight it became a boom town. On July 5, 1883, the tow n council lease d the lower ends of Polk, Zack and Twiggs streets with all riparian rights to the railroad for $30 a year for five years and gave i t an option to renew the lea se indefinitely at the same terms The company purchased land needed for passenger and freight depots, paying handsom e prices," as the TAMPA TRIBUNE reported. A wharf was constructed at the f oot of Polk S treet On August l, two three-masted schooners and a brig brought in huge quantities of supplies and work of laying steel was started immediately. The long-dreamed-of: railroad at last was becoming an actuality. Tampa gloated-and boomed some more. During the early summer it appeared as though Tampa would soon get two railroads instead of merely one. A sabre scarred Confederate general, John B. Gordon, came into town and said he had all the capital nee ded to finance a road from Jacksonville to Tampa and enough additional capital "in sight" to extend t h e road on to Key \Nest. He called his road the International. In July he built a whar f at the foot o f Whiting Street and therea fter for several JUonths repeatedly an nounced that grading operations were to start soon. But after mid summer nothing more was heard from the general-it was rumored that Plant had bought him off to eliminate competition. Tampa' s first railroad accident occurred August 21, 1883, when Lee Ferris, son of Josiah Ferris, fell off a "paddy car" on which he had thumbed a ride and was painfully bruised.

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174 TAMPA The first two locomotives for the South Florida arrived on a schooner September l. Five days later, after being assembled, their boilers were fired. Early the next morning the town was awakened by repeated blasts of the engine whistles Reported the TRIBUNE: "The echoes had hardly died away when from every street and alley, every doorway and window, and from the four winds came a mass of humanity to gaze at the monsters of the rails. It was an impromptu celebration such as Tampa had never seen before. Now everyone knew for s u re that the city really had a railroad." Plant came to Tampa for the fir st time on December I, arriving at 8 p .m. Accompanied by James E. Ingraham, president of the South Florida, and Col. H. S. Haines, general construction superintendent, he had left Kissimmee at five o'clock tltat morning. Eighteen mi les of the journey over the uncomplete d portion of the line between Plant City and Auburndale had been made by horse and bugg')'. The party was royally entertained at the Orange Grove Hotel and on the foll owing day was taken on a Tampa Bay excursion on the Capt. Miller, a new steamer of the Tampa Steamship Line Trains began pulling in and out of Tampa on Monday, December 10, 1883, when service was started to Plant City. The first train left Plant City at 8:30 a.m. and arrived in Tampa at 10 a.m.; left Tampa at 2 p .m. and arrived in Plant City at 3:30. Thereafter the train ran daily except on Sundays. H H. "Hal" Scarlett was the conductor and M. W Carruth baggage-master. Plant City was fou nded in 1883 by J. T. Evers, owner of a general store, cedar mill and cotton gin at Shiloh one mile north. The railroad passed Shiloh by so Evers purchased a large tract adjoining t he tracks, had it platted and named the embryo city in honor of the railroad magnate Evers moved his store to Plant City; other merchants soon f ollowed and the town became an act u alit y The last rail on the nacks between Tampa and Kissimmee was laid Tuesday, January 22, 1884, at a point six miles east of Lakeland. The event was celebrated in a big way that night in the Orange Grove Hotel. Pla n t was not present but many other topflight railroad officials were, as well as almost every prominent man in Tampa. Many speeches were made .and the festivities continued until almost daybreak. Committee members who had charge of the banquet includ ed Judge James T. Magbee Dr. Duff Post, Rev. T. A. Carruth, Henry L. Crane, John B. Spencer, Judge H. L Mitchell, ]. B. Wall, R B. Thomas, John T. Lesley, Capt. John Miller, G. B. Sparkman S. A Jones, Harry L. Branch and John N. C. Stockton. Completion of t he South Florida's 72 m ile line to Kissimmee, where it joined the old line running north, gave Tampa direct rail connections with Sanford At Sanford, connections were made with the Peoples

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A RAILROAD BRINGS A GoLDEN ERA 175 Line of steam ers, owned by the Plant System, which ran north to Palatka and Jacksonville. The first throu_J;h train from Tampa 1.0 Sanford left Tampa at 10 a.m. Thursday, January 24, but regular serv ice between th e two cities was not start ed until wednesday, February 13. In the beginning, the 115-mile trip to o k six and one-half hours; later, the running time was reduced to four and one -half hours No public celebrati on was held in T ampa when regular ser vice started. There w ere no speeches, no band pla ying. The c i ty accep ted the event quite calmly. B y that t ime it had become used to tra i ns ; they were no longer a novelty. Completion of the road brought another telegraph line to T ampa, the South Fl orida Telegraph Compa ny, and also gave the city its first express servic e, the Southern Express opening an office on February 6 in preparation for the inaug u ration of train service a week later. A badly needed link in the transportation chain between Tampa and Jacksonvill e was completed March 4, 1 884, when the JT&KW completed a r oad between Jacksonville and Palatka. That left on l y the sec tion between Sanford and Pal atka which had to be made by steame r And this last ste amer-l ink was elim in a ted Febr uary 26 1886, when the JT&:KW completed a road between those two cities on the right-of-wa y of its subsidiary, the Palatka&: Indian River Railway. Six months before this, however, Tampa got its first direct rail connections with the North. On August 2 0 1885, t he South Florida completed a tra ck northward from Lak e land tO P emberton F e rry on the Withlacoochce where it tied in with th e Florida Southern, thereby providing a direct rai l route to Jacks onv ill e v ia Ocala Gainesvill e and Palatka. Regul ar passenger service between Tampa and Jack sonv ille was started September 13 and a fast ma il train was put on te n days later, the run to J ac k sonville being made in 1 2 hours and 25 minutes. Gloa ted the OCALA BANNER: H ow this railroad service kill s t ime and space! Only a little while ago it took two days to go from Ocala to Tampa and four days to reach Jacksonvill e Now we can speed over the route in a few hours in comfort. B ecause of the ra i lroads, this entire country is being mag ical! y transformed. The engineer on the first train to Pemberton Ferry was H. Curran. Ed Anderson was condu ctor and F red DeVandt was bagga ge master. C F. T ubbs was enginee r and W. H Weatherly conductor of the first freight train At that time, conductors on the Sanfo rd run were George Coleman and C L Mosby, the engineers were W. P. Clarke and Dan Bell and the baggage masters were J. B. Ear l y and P. M. Elder. Wednesday September 22, 1886 was a red-letter day in the history of Florida railroads. On that day the tracks o f the line from Tampa to Sanford, as well as many other li nes throughout the state, w ere chan)1;ed from the 3-foot n arro w gauge to the four -foot eight and one-half inches standard gauge, lik e those of the trunk lines going North. Work of

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176 T AMPA switch ing the rails was start ed at 3 a.m. and w a s rushed all day The first standard gauge train arrived in Tampa from Sanford at 5:30 a.m. Thursday At th a t time the Plant System extended to Charl eston, S. C., where conne ctions were made with the Atlantic Coast Line for northern points. Passen gers were required to chang e trains at Charl eston until January I 0 I 888, when through service was starte d the running t ime between Jersey City and Jackson ville being cut to 29 hours and 30 minutes. M odern ra ilroad service for F lorida dates from that day. Y ears passed befo r e the Plant S ystem made large profits. But the official s were not perturbed. They did not expect that the revenue fro m the road wou l d greatly exceed expenses. Their ace i n the ho l e was the award o f state owned lands which th e railroads in t he Plant System rec eived for completi o n of the lines. State records show that th e Plant Investment Comp any on February 19, 1 884, was deeded 95,329 acr es. But that grant by no means was the full reward for the co mpletion of the railroad fro m J ac k sonvi lle to Tampa. State re cords also show that the South Fl orida was grante d 72 ,428 acres and the Jackson ville, Tampa &: Key W e s t 1,474 129. P lant and his a ssoci ates controlle d both these roads; hence it is l ogical to assume that they ultimatel y go t most of the lands And that wasn't all the P lant group got. There are good reasons for believing tha t the Plant synd i cate controlled the F l orida Southern Railroad as early as 1884, and the Flori da Southern received land gra nts totalling 2,655, 482 acres. Lands re ceived by the r ailr oads w e r e sold throughou t th e nation, s ome to prospectiv e Florida settlers but most to big speculat ors and large lumber companies. Many years of resea rch would be required to learn how much money the railroads ultimately r eceived from the land sales. Ce:rt ainly, however the retur ns were not picayunish. The i mmense land grants in the early 1880s were made possible by the extrication of the s ta te from a financial q uagmir e into which it had f allen. B ack in 1 850, that pe e rless schemer Dav id Levy Yul ee was a United State s senator from Florida H e was a zealous advo cate of the Swamp Land Act which gave to Flori da all the swamp and overflowed lands within it s borders. Title to th e l ands was turned over by t h e F ederal government to the Florida Internal Improvement Fund. With t h e h elp of friends Yule e succeeded in pe rsuadin g the Florida state le gislature to pa$S an act guaranteeing aid from the IIF in con struc ting ra il roads h e was promoting. One o f thes e roads was to come to T ampa Bay. The state aid guarant eed was munific ent. Not onl y did the state agree to give 3,840 acres of l and for every mile of rai l road built but it also guarant eed to p ay inte rest pay ments on bond s issued by the railro ads up to $ 10,000 per mile. I n other words, if th e railroads went bankrupt the State of Florida would be l e ft holding the bag. As soon as the go verno r signed t h e act, Yulee and his assoc i ates formed the Florida Railroad Co mpany to buil d the line from F ernandina

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A RAILROAD BRINGS A GOLDEN ERA 177 to Tampa Bay. But the road never reached Tampa Bay. Yulee switched it to Cedar Keys where he had tremendous land holdings. Through his manipulation of railroad stocks, Yulee became wealthy but the railroads f i nanced through his scheming never met operating expenses By 1880, the IIF was hopelessly in debt Outstanding bonds it was obligated to pay totalled $699,600-and the IIF had no money. Moreover, all its lands were tied up in litigation. The courts finally decided that a million dollars would be needed to retire the bonds and pay accumulated inter est. To get this money, the trustees of the IIF on February 28, 1881, agreed to sell Hamilton Disston, wealthy saw manufacturer of Phila delphia, four million acres of land at 25 cents an acre. The Disston deal has been condemned and lauded ever since it was made. It undoubtedly had its bad effects But it probably caused more good than harm. The million dollars cleaned up the IIF' s indebtedness. freed the state-owned lands which had been tied up by the courts, and permitted the IIF to make land grants which led to the construction of hundreds of miles of vitally needed railroads. For instance, it made possible the promised land grants which spurred Henry Bradley Plant and his associates to build a railroad to Tampa. And certainly that rail road was worth everything it cost. '.Yhen completion of the road from Jacksonville to Tampa was assured, Plant proceeded to go a step farther in his ambitious plans for building a railroad-steamship empire. On January 7, 1886, he brought PfiOUI CtHmiiii:Y IJ/ 8"''"'' Br"' Tampa was quite proud of this City Hall built in 1890 at a cost of $10,000. It was located on the site of the present Cit) Hall. It provided hea.d
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178 TAMPA in t h e ne w 200-foot steamer Mascotte to establish a l ine b etween Tampa a nd Ke y W est and H avana. The TRIBUNE descr ibed th e M ascotte as "one of the mo st hand some and com plete steam ships of the sea, its a p p oint men t s b e in g in e v e ry respect r ea ll y lu x u ri ous while i n poi n t of sea worthiness i t is everythin g th at t h e most expert m echanism co u ld mak e i t Its staterooms a r e as dainty as boudoirs w hile its saloon is as exquisite l y fitted up as any drawing room." A tremendous ovation was given Plant when he arrived in Tampa Wed n esday, March 31, 1886, with a party of Plant System officials. Crowd s greeted him at the depot, the newly-organ i zed Tampa Silver C omet Band p l ayed l usti ly, and t hat night a b i g b a n quet was h eld at t he opera h o use. Eulog i zi ng spee c hes were m a de by Dr. John P. W all, S. M. Sparkm a n Rev T homas A. C arru th, and many oth ers. It was a very wet a ff ai r. R eported the TRillUN: Festi v i t ies con t in ued unti l very late amid the popp i ng of corks, the flowin g of c h ampagne, the rec i tal o f many excellent speeches and the renditio n of e x ce llent music. The who l e affa i r was a grand tribute to the enterprise and farsighted ness o f T ampa's greatest benefactor." Plant had indeed bee n a great benefactor to Tampa. B ecause of the r ailr oad he brought in, Tampa had grown more d u ring the pre c e ding thre e years than it h a d du r i n g the enti r e s ix t y years following t h e estab li shment of Fort Brooke. Tampa h ad beco m e o ne of the n at i on's o utstanding boom towns and into it p oured men fro m every wa l k of l ife. The popu l ation had cli m bed from 722 in 1880 to 2 ,3 7 6 on D ecember I 1885, and was still increa sing every week. Hundre ds of new homes and scores of new busi ness buildings had been built. The increase in real estate values h ad been tremendous. T racts close to the city wh i ch h ad gone begging at $10 an acre, now sold for $250 and more. Lots inside the corporation limi ts h a d soared to undrea med of peaks. F ortunes wer e made by big land owne rs. Because o f the b o om Tampa go t its f i rst bank, an affiliate of Ambler. Mar v i n &: S to c kton o f J ac k sonville t he oldes t ban k i n Eas t Florida organized in 1870 John L. M arvin, a m e mber o f the banking firm, arri v ed in Tampa T ue s d ay, September 1 8, 1 8 8 3 He conferred wit h the town l eaders a n d they told him a bank was sorely needed. They assured him t hat if a bank were opened, they would g i ve it their hearty suppo r t. I mpressed w ith the town's possibil i ties, Marvin leased a sma ll b u i l ding o n the north side of 'Washington between Fra nkl in and Tampa a n d t h e n l e f t. On October !II, M arv in re turned and with him was a y oung fello w whom he introduced as the bank's first cashie r He wasT. C. T aliaferro Work was sta r ted fix ing up the bank 's quarters. A week later a 7,0 00pound saf e was brought in o p t he Lizzie Henderson. It:was hauled from t h e wharf on a log cart p ulle d by e ight mules. The l oad was so heavy

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A RAILROAD BRINGS A GOLDEN ERA 179 that a wh eel collap se d and the m ules gave out. But the safe was finally del i vered and a few days later the bank was opene d. It was c alled the Bank of Tampa. The first day's deposits to talled $5,636. The infant institutio n prospered and two years later built a hand some new home on the southwest corner of Franklin and Washington the first bric k building i n Tampa. I t was compl eted February 13, 1886. On M ay 6 188 6, the bank received a n ational c harter, one of the first in Florida and the name was changed to the First Nationa l Ban k of Tampa. John N. C. Sto ckton became pres id ent and T C Taliaferro cashier. Others on the board of directors were D. G. Ambler, John T. Lesle y and James P. Taliaferro, brother ofT. C During the winter of 1883 84, newcom ers floc ke d into the town in such numbers that every hotel and rooming house was pack ed. To provide badly needed accommoda tio ns, three n e w hot els were co n structed during the followin g summer-th e H. B. Plant, the St. James and the Palmetto All were built of wood and each contained about fort y rooms. The H B. Plant was located on the east side of Ash l ey between Lafayette and M ad i so n. It was owned b y Jerry T. Anderso n, who opened it Decemb e r 14, 1884. The St. J ames, located on the north east corner of Franklin and H arrison, was built by Dr. H M. Bruce. It boasted of ha vin g a billiard room and 405 feet of verandas. The Palm etto, which advertis ed that it was one of the largest and most com modiou s hote ls in s o uth F l orida, was three stories high and h ad a five story ob se rvatory. Jt was buil t by Judge N. G. Buff, of Terre H a ute, Ind. Tampa got its first ope r a house during the winter of 1883 -84. L ocated next to the northwest corner of Frank l in and Lafa yette, it was t w o stories high, with sto r es o n the ground floor and the opera house on the second. T he owner was Harry L. Bran ch, son of Dr. Franklin Branch The opera hous e was formally opened Friday, March 7, 1884, when Lambert &: Richa rdso n's Dramatic Troupe p resent ed the up roariou s comed y Fa te." "Our Boys" was given at the Saturday matinee and "Bac h e l o rs" Saturday night. Lambert&: Richardson were followed by the Golden Dramatic Company. For years thereafter, Bra nch's Opera Hous e was the only theatre in T ampa. It also served as a banquet hall and was used for d ance s and many other affairs. Musi c for many of the eve nts in the opera house was furnished by the Tampa Silver Cornet Band organized in April, 188 5, by A. A. Kelso, a sk ill ed musician. C. E. Parcell was president of the band, D. B. Giv ens, secretary; C. W. Ayres, treasurer and Kelso leader and bus iness manag er. Other membe rs were Fred H eld, Charles Bailey Adolph Stoy, Homer H ayden, W ill Cline, Charles Scrutton, P. R. Held and H enry Another am usement place was ope ned in January, 188 5 It was a roller skating rink ow ned by the Parcell brothers, located on the south east corner of J ac kson and Morgan The formal opening, he.ld January

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180 TAMPA 28, was attended by l ead ing citizens of the town, "many of whom," said the G uARDIAN, "put on exh ibitions to the del igh t of all thos e present." The first industry estab lished in T ampa becaus e of t he railr oad was t he fishing industry Bef ore the railroad came, Cedar Keys had a mon opoly on the business. But as soo n as the South Flori d a started oper ations, wholesal e fish houses were opened in Tampa by John Savare se, 0. J. Safford &: Son and J. R. Elki ngton &: Co. Each firm had a Beet of boats whi ch went to all parts of the Tampa Bay region and brought in fis h caught by commerc i al fi shermen. At Tamp a, they were iced and shipped away. By the end of the first year the comp anie s were sh i pping 50,000 pounds of fish daily. Ice for the fish com panies was suppl\ed f irst b y companies in Orlando and Mayo a sma ll town north of Orlando The first l ocal ice factory was opened J uly 12, 1884, at the Government Sprin g near what is now Thirteentlt Street and Se cond Avenue. The owner was H. A. Snodgrass who had formerly owned a store on washing ton Str eet. Snod grass had ordered a IOton ice machine in October, 1883, from McGuire &: Cosgrove, of P ensacola and expected to have his plant operating by the first of the year. But months passed bef ore the machinery was shipped. As a result, the outs ide firms came in ahead of him and when he started operations, an ice war devel oped, the price being cut to less than a half-cent a pound Unable to mak e money, Sno dgrass soon moved his p l a n t to Cedar K eys. By the summer of 1885, the dem and for ice was much greater than the out-of town companie s could sup p ly and the newly-organized Board of T rade decided on J uly 15 to s pend $38 to adve rtise for a new plant in New York Boston and Chica go papers. In the same ad tlte board also stated th at a sardine canning fact ory was needed. The bid for a sardine plant brought no answers but the plea for an ice plant produced results. The ad was read by J. M. L ong, of Newb urgh, N.Y. H e came to Tampa and said he wou l d build a plant if the Board of Trade wou l d guarantee the sale of fi ve to ns a d a y The guarantee was made and L ong returned early in 1886 and built a plant on the east side of th e river near the present Cass Street bridge. Water was obtained from an 800foot artesian well. The plan t started operations May 7, 1886, and the ice was sold as fast as it could be manufactured. T he Board, therefore, never had to bother abo u t its guarantee. The Board of Trade was organized Thursday night, May 7, 1885, at a mee ting o f the town's boosters in Branch's Opera H ouse. D r. J ohn P Wall was elected president; John T. Lesley vice-president, and T homa s A C arruth, secretary. Its first members included practically all the progre ssive citizens of Tampa They were: E P Sedor, H Her man, E A. Clark e, C. L. Friebel e, W. G. Ferris, George H. Packwood, W A. Morris on, H. E. Cleaveland, D. S. Macfarlane, A. B. M c K enz i e, Lawson Cha se, George T. Chambe rlain, Dr. J. A. Giddens, Perry G.

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A RAILROAD BRINGs A GoLDEN ERA 181 Wall Jr., H. L. K night, S. A. Jones, A. J. Knight I. S. Giddens, W. C Brown, T. C. Taliaferro, J. H. Fessen den, F. A. Salomonson Thomas A. Carruth, W. N. Conoley C L. Ayres, J A. Campbe ll S. B Leonardi, J. D Clark e, H. C. Macfa rlane, A. S. Lenf estey, A. C Wuerpel, H. W. Fuller, S. P. H inckl ey, Thomas E. J ackson, T. K. Spencer, J ames McKay, Jr., J. vV. Brannan, Fred Ferman, D. F. Hammond, H J. Coo per, Dr. George B. We edon, J oh n T. Givens, Dr. H. R Benjamin, John F Br own ing, N. Dixon, W. J. Allen, J. H. D orsey, Paul Jones, W. S. H ancoc k John B. Sp encer, J. T A nde rson S. M. Sparkman, W. B. H enderson, W. A. Givens W1Jliam H aye s Jr., F J. LaPenotiere, J. M. Johnson 0. J. Andreu, M L ove ngreen, Dr. Duff Post, E. L. Lesley, S. L Biglow, G. B. Sparkman, J ames T. Magbee and J. E. Mitchell. Unquestionably the most important achievement of the Board of Trade was the part it played in bringing the c igar industry to Tampa. Cigar Makers Come into Tampa Guavas, labor troubles, seasickne ss, the South Florida Rail road and the Board o f Trade all had something to do with makin g T ampa the l eading cigar manufacturing city of the world. Gavino Gutierrez, an importer of New York City, had dealings with a concern which made guava paste and jelly. The owner of this concern told Gutierrez he had been informed that guava trees grew wild in grea t numbers in the Tampa Bay region and he expres sed the bel ief that it might be a fin e place t o locate a guava plant. He a sked Gutierrez to stop at Tampa the next time he went to Key West-which he often did-and investigat e PA()'t> BllltJ.ttC 8t
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182 TAMPA Complying with his friend's request, Gutierrez came to Tampa early in June, 1885. He was unable to find the countless guava trees reported but he did fin d a town which h e liked immensely. He decided that Tampa was a wonderful place in which to live, work and enjoy life. Proce eding to Key "\Vest, Gutierrez l auded Tampa to a number of cigar manufac[Urers he knew, including Vicente Martinez Ybor, who was from his own native province in Spain; Ybor's partner, Edward Manrara and Seraf i n Sanchez, of the firm of Sanchez &: Haya, of New York City. When he l earned that the officia l s of both finns we r e con sidering moving tlteir plants to new locations, he lauded Tampa even more, declaring that its climate was ide al for c igar manufacturing, equa l in every way to that of Key "\.Yest and Havana The cigar men listened attentively. Ybor had been planning to leave Key West because of constantly recurring labor strife in that city. Manrara wanted to leave because he got seasic k going back and fort h to New York on business trips. Sanchez had been considering moving his plant from New York because h e had found climat ic conditions there unsatisfacto ry for making good Havana cigars. All the men had received good offers from Galveston, Mobile and Pensacola but they told Gutierrez they would move to Tampa if they found it to be as he repre sented: They promised they would go to Tampa and l ook it over. The men w ere true to their word Sanchez came to Tampa on July 14 and met with membe rs of the Board of Trade. They promised their cooperation Reported the TRIBUNE: "The benefits that would inure to Tampa from t he establishment of such an industry cannot be too deeply impressed upon our citizens. The firm of Sanchez &: Haya employs 125 cigar mak ers and can give employment to any number of little boys and girls as stri ppers. Sanchez then went on to New York. Arri ving there, he wrote to his friend Ybor telling him that Tampa seemed to be ideally located for cigar manufacturing. He suggested that Ybor go to Tampa and see what arrangement.s co uld be made about ge t t ing land. Ybor arrived in Taml?a in late Sept ember, was favorably impressed with the city and began looking around for the land requi red for factory sites and homes for wor k ers. He fin ally located a tract he lik ed, forty acres northeast of town owned by John T. Lesley. The sale price was $9,000. That was $4,000 more than he was willing to pay. On October 5 he met with members of the Board of T rade and to l d them that if the organization would pled ge payment of the $4,000, he would bring his plant to Tampa and the firm of Sanchez & Haya would come too. Otherwise h e said, the plants would have to go elsewhere. Deter mined to get th e cigar industry for Tampa, the board memb ers then voted to guarantee Ybor the $1 ,000 he needed and W. C. Brown, A. J. Knight and W. B. Henderson were appointed tO serve on a committee to raise the money. More than a year passed before all the money was

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A RAILROAD BRINGS A GoLDEN ERA 183 obtain ed. A final settlement was made with Ybor just before Christ mas, 1886. Without waiting to get the $4,000, Ybor purchased th e 40-acre tract from Lesley and 3 0 acres adjoinin g from S. P. H addon. A town named Ybo r City was platted and work of open ing t he streets was started, the first t ree being felled Oc tober 8, 1 885. A contrac t for erecting a two story fac tory and fifty workmen's homes was awa rded by Y bor October 31 to C. E. Parcell. Enoug h lan d for a factory site was g i ven by Y bor to Sanchez & Haya and Ignacio H aya came to Tampa to supervise opera tions. The Ybor plant was built on Seventh Avenue between 12th and 13th streets and Sanchez &: Haya s on Seventh at 15th. Both cigar plants were completed early in 188 6. Cigar makers were brought in from Key Vest, Havana and New York The owners p l anned to ope n at the same time but labor trouble prevented All th e cigar mak ers w e re Cuban except one Spaniard Ybor brought in from New York. The Cubans refused t o work with him and t he opening of the Ybor plant was delayed. So Sanchez & Haya opened first and had the honor of becoming Factory No. I. The first dear Havana cigars were made Monday, April 26, 1886 Y bor opened soon aftenvard, the Spaniard being dismissed and the Cubans satisfied. During 1886, a 40-room hotel was built in Ybor C i ty and many stores, restaurants and other commercial establ i shme nts were opened, all by Latin Ameri cans. More than 200 homes were constructed Shade trees were p l anted on both sides of th e main stree t s and wooden side walks were l aid. Most of the dwellings were enclosed by picket fences. The Ybor company bought m ore than a thousand acres to the east of its plant and enlarged the town l i mits. The original two story frame build ing used by Ybor was soon replaced by a b rick building three stories high in which six hundred persons were employed. Ybor City grew and prospered. The first strike in a Tampa cigar factory occurred January 17, 1 887, when the Knights of Labor call ed out their members in the Ybor plant during a dispute over wage rates. Two days later fiv e men were shot, one fatally, in a fight be tween loyal wor kers and strikers in an Ybor C ity billiard room The man who died was Manuel F M artinez. The strike ended February 12 when F oreman Santos B enitez and 75 str ikers left town-at the request of Tampa authorities. The third cigar plant to locate in Y bor City was that of Lozano, Pendas & Co., of New Yor k which built a factory in November, 1886. It was foll owed on J uly 22, 1887, by Emili o Pons&: Co., founded l ocally. By that t i me the industry was well" established in Tampa's Ybor City and the future of the entire communi ty looked bright indeed. Tampa now had a "skyscraper" to brag about. I t was a f ine, three story hotel on the no r t heast corner of Franklin and Washi ngton. It was the first three -story brick building in town. The owner was Dr.

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184 TAMPA Howell T. Lykes, a wealthy physician and cattleman of Brooksville. The hotel, completed October 29, 1886, was given his wife s name Almeria. For years, the Almeria was one of Tampa's leading hotels. Tampa's prospects looked so promi sing early in 1887 that the people decided to have the town incorporated as a city so that vitally needed public improvements could be obtained An enabling act was passed by the St a te Legislature in April and the first city election was held Jul y 15. In a hotly contested race, G B. Sparkman was elected mayor, defea ting H C. Ferris 283 to 269. Others e l ected were:]. Lamont Ba i ley, clerk and treasurer; W. T. Haskins, Jr. marshal; J. C Robbins, assessor, and A.M. Fleming collector. Councilmen elected were : W A. Honaker I. S. Giddens, W B. Henderson, J. A. Walker S. L. Biglow, C. E. Harrison, C. A. M Ybor, C. N. Brigham, J. E. Mitchell, H. L. Knight and F W. Myers The first city officials took office July 17. A new c i ty seal, picturing the steamer Mascotte, was adopted soon afterward. O ne of the first acts of the new city governme n t wa s the passage of an ordinance on September 6 dividing the city into four wards. The old town of Tampa became the First \>\l ard, North Tampa the Second Ward, West Tampa the Third Ward, and Ybor City Fourth Ward. Ybor City agreed to enter the city on the strength of promises that Tampa soon would get a water system, an organized fire department, electric lights and paved streets. But action on these improvements was delayed by one of the worst calam i ties which ever befell the city. Yellow Fever Strikes Again Tampa lived in dread of yellow fever duri!}g the years following the epidemic of 1871 but the disease did not recur for fifteen years, largely because of Dr. John P. Wall's rigid quarantine regulations. No one k new, o f course, how the disease was communicated from one person to another : One t heory was that the germs passed tluough the ground traveling two miles a day. Another theory the most com mon, was that the disease was spread by deadly miasmic vapors from swamps and marshes. These v apors were most prevalent at night; hence, it was considered most dangerous for any one to remain outdoors a fter darkness fell. Lack of knowledge regarding the disease caused it to be all the more feared Consequently, the town was greatly alarmed September 22, 1887, when the news spread that an importer of C uban fruits, Charles Turk, had just died of yellow fever. The alarm increased five days later when Mrs. Sarah C Linto died On October 3 the disease Claimed another victim, George Osman, and the alarm turned to terror. Two days later, A. B. McKenzie and P. E Sprink l e died, and the disease was declared to be epidemic by Dr. L. W. \.Veedon, then health officer.

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A RAILROAD BRINGS A GoLDEN ERA 185 The city was panic stricken. Hundreds fled to the country, man y in such haste that the y left lights burning in their homes meals on the tables, and their doors unlocked. Among those who fled was Editor G. M. Mathes of the TAMPA TRIBUNE. A young printer-reporter was left in charge of the paper-he continued to publish it daily, aided only by two Negroes who furnished the motive power for the press. Several days later he wrote: "Our city is desolate and distressfully quiet. Nearly all the business houses are closed and only a handful of our business men remain." Tar barrels were placed at each street corner and lighted in the hope that the penetrating smoke would kill the deadly germs. But i t did not. The disease continued to spread. Hundreds were stricken. A Citizens Relief Committee was appointed October II to aid the sick and destitute. T. W. Givens was named chairman; Lamont Bailey secretary; Perry G. wall, treasurer, and A. J. Harris, commissary chief. Givens' son was stricken a few days later and the chairmanship was assumed by H ugh C. Macfarlane Perry G. Wall, II, and A. J. Harris were placed in charge of the First Ward; William Cline and Rev. Sidney Crawford, Second Ward; Capt. D. S. McKay and J. C. Papy Third Ward, and Odet Grillion and M. Rodrigo, Fourth Ward. The need for PAHO c .. l'lC11f11Mif
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186 TAMPA doctors and nurses was so great that a call for help was sent out. Scores responded. Not umil cold weather came, weeks later did the epidemic abate. The TRIBUN E reported 7 4 deaths up to December 1. .At least five occurred thereafter, making the total death toll at least 79. No one knows how many became ill from the disease. The papers estimated about 750 The last death occurred January 11, 1 888, when L. A. Mackey died. The epidemic dealt Tampa a crushing blow Work had stopped completely in the cigar factories and was not resumed on a full schedule for \-Veeks. Mercantile houses had suffered heavily through loss of busi ness. The hotels stood empty-winter visitors had no desire to come to such a "plague-ridden place But at the very time when Tampa was most disheartened, two announcements were made by Henry Bradley Plant which helped im measurably to restore confidence. He said he expected to spend "a million dollars or more" in developing Port Tampa, on O l d Tampa Bay, nine miles away He also announced that he intended to finance the construction of a splendid hotel at Tampa. Tampa people would have much preferred, of course to have had Plant's port development close at hand, in the Hillsborough River Almost everyone r ealized, however, that a Hillsborough project was then impractical. U S Army engineers had reported two years before that the cost of dredging a bigship channel in Hillsborough Bay to the mouth of the river would be "excessively high in view of the amount of water-borne commerce forseeable." The engineers recommended that most of the harbor appropriation money should be spent at Old Tampa Bay where there was a natural deep water channel close to shore. Plant had purchased a right-of-way to Port Tampa soon after the engineers made their report, a railroad bridge had been built across the Hillsborough at Cass Street by Capt. John A. McKay, and track laying had been started in the fall of 1887. The Port Tampa extension was completed February 5, 1888, and Plant at once launched the "million dollar project he had promised An immense whar f nearly a mile long, was started and warehouses were constructed Port Tampa Inn, a novel hotel extending over the water, was built. An amusemen t resort, called Picnic Island, was qeveloped just south of the docks. It was opened with a barbecue and yacht races July 4, 1888, with Col. S. G. Harvey in charge. Picnic Island served as Tampa's favorite amusement park for years, excursions being run there on the rai l road. The Plant Steamship Company's steamers Mascotte and Olivette began docking at Port Tampa in June, 1888. l'rior to that time they had to anchor in Hillsborough Bay, cargoes and passengers being carried to and from the ships on smaller steamers. The Olivette was a 250-foot ship built under the supervision of Capt. James McKay, Jr., in Phila -

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A RAILROAD BRINGS A GoLDEN ERA 187 delphia and launched February 16, 1887. Captain McKay brought the vessel in April29, 1887, and therea fter served as her master. Incidentally, the Olivette and the Mllscotte were reportedly named by Plant after operas he liked. Plant's promise to build a fine hot el was made subject to two con ditions: extension of Lafayette Street a half mile west of the river and construction of a bridge over the river at that point. The city acquired the necessary land for the street early in 1888 and dedicated it as a thoroughfare. A contract for the bridge which had been sought for many y ears was awarded by the city May 24, 1888, to the King Bridge Company at a contract price of $13,800. On June 7 the county com missioners agreed to pay one third of the cost. To hasten construction work, the Plan t Investment Company guaranteed payments. The bridge was completed November 28. At long la st, the people of Tampa could cross the river without taking a ferry. The west side boomed after the opening of the bridge. The boom had been a long time coming. Settlers had located west of the river as early as 1838 when tracts were pre-emp ted there by two sons-in-law of Levi Collar: W. T. H askins, who married J eanette Collar and Robert .Jackson, who married Nancy Collar. The Haskins family did not like being inconvenienced by having to cross the river and went back to the east side. The Jackson family remained. Another very old west sider was Joseph Moore who came to Tampa in 1842 and located near the Jacksons The first known settler in what is now the Palm a Ceia area was 'William Samue l Spencer who located there in 1846. The first settler on the west side north of the present Lafayette Street was Jesse J. Hayden of Nonh Carolina, who moved the r e in 1866 Hayden's son, Peter, owned a store and livery stable on the east side and th e father established a ferry so his son could commute back and forth. The fer r y was also used by the general public. Hyde Park had its inception early in 1886. On February IS of that year 0. H Platt, of Hyde Park Ill. purchased twenty acres of the origina l Jackson estate and subdivided it, naming it after his home town. The lots were a quarter acre in size and the first street opened. Hyde Park Avenue, was 80 feet wide. The subdivision was opened March 3 and the first day's sales totalled $2,22 5. One of the first lot purchasers was Judge Joseph B. Wall who said a few days later that he had had a chance to re sell his lot and make a $300 profit. The sale o f lots was handled by the real estate firm of Salomonson & Fassenden. Despite the auspicious beginning of Hyde Park the section lan guished until after Plant definitely promised to build his hotel. The site he chose was a 60acre tract he had purchased in 1886 from Hayden and Mrs Donald S. McKay, Hayden's daughter, for $4 0 000. The corn erstone of Plant's hotel, called the Tampa Bay Hotel, was laid with great pomp and ceremony Thursday July 26, 1888, by Mayor

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188 TAMPA Herman Glogowski. A public holiday was declared and all the stores closed. Almost everyone in town crossed the river to witness the big event. S. l'vl. Sparkman was master of ceremonies. Speeches were made by Hugh C. Macfarlane, Joseph B. Wall, and Dr. H. R. Benjamin. Music was furnished by the Tampa Silver Cornet Band. There is little doubt but that when Plant planned the Tampa Bay Hotel he hoped to outdo his business associate Henry Flagler, Standard Oil baron, who had started building a railroad empire of his own on the East Coast and had just finished the $2,000,000 Ponce de Leon Hotel at Sf. Augustine. The two men were close friends and there were per sistent rumors that they had made a deal to split Florida between them, Flagler to ta ke the East Coast and Plant the W'est, and that neither would build railroads in the other's tenitory Be that as it may, they still were rivals and each tried to outshine the other. Plant instructed his archi tect, J. A. Wood, of New York, to make the Tampa Bay truly mag nificent, and Wood followed orders. The hotel Wood created was indeed unique-a dark, red castle of Moorish architecture with all the size and splendor of t he Alhambra in Granada; a tremendous building, five stories high, containing nearly 500 rooms and covering six acres. Its porches were almost as wide and as long as city streets Mosque -like curves topped its countless w i ndows, and Moorish arches supported the balconies. Over it towered silvery domes and minarets and atop each minaret, thirteen in number, shone a crescent moon, o n e crescent for each month in the Moslem year. To erect the building hundreds of skilled craftsmen were brought into Tampabricklayers, carpenters, painters, plasterers, electricians and plumbers vVeekly payrolls ran into the thousands. Practically all the money was spent in Tampa for the essentials of life -and more than a few luxmies. Merchants prospered, and so did the entire community. The great construction project was a Godsend during the bleak summer of 1888 when nearly all Florida was prostrated by the terrible yellow fever epidemic in Jackson;vi!le, far worse than Tampa had suffered the year before. Not one case was reported in Tampa, probably because of rigidly enfor ced quarantine regulations. The authorities went so far as to fumigate every carload of building materials which came into town. As the months passed, and the building grew and grew, Tampa people watched from across the river almost with awe. This was some thing more majestic than they had ever dreamed of having; it seemed to be a constantly growing symbol of glorious days to come. Following positive orders from Plant, Architect 'Wood went to great lengths to make the building strong and fireproof. All the floors and ceilings were made of concrete reinforced with countless tons of steel rails salvaged when the South Florida changed its tracks to standard gauge, and also with huge quantities of marine cable brought from Key

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A RAILROAD BRINGS A GOLDEN ERA 189 \Vest. Except for the porches and furnishings, there was hardly a thing in the building which would burn. The building proper was completed early in 1890 but the opening was l ong delayed while Mrs. Plant combed the art centers of Europe and the Orient for r ich furniture of ebony and gold, velvets, tapestries carpets, gorgeous vases of porcelain, massive statues of bronze and stone, oil paintings done by masters, one-time prized possessions of the crowned heads of nations. More than a million dollars was spent for furnishings. The treasures came into Tampa by the shipload. Believing that golf might some day become a popular pastime, Plant induced the leading citizen of Sarasota John Hamilton Gillespie, golf addict from Scotland, to come up and lay out a course for him, west of the hotel grounds. Plant also built a race track, the first in town. Finally, in January, 1891, were sent out by Plant to friends throughout the world to attend an opening ball at the Tampa Bay Hotel on Februar y 5. One invitation was sent to Flagler. He wired back: "Where is Tampa Bay?" Plant tersely replied: "Follow the crowd." And the crowd came-celebrities from everywhere Velvet cushioned trains brought them to the very doors of t he hotel, a spur track having been l aid from the main line. The hotel was aglow with lights and the minarets beamed like beacons. In the dining room, the choicest foods w ere ser v e d and a New York orchestra played sweet music. Champagne flowed like water All night long the guests made merry in the ballroom. The affair was infinitely more spectacular than any Tampa had ever seen before and in all probability would ever see again. World f amous men and women continued coming to the Tampa Bay all through the season 4,367 gues t s were entertained before the hotel closed in April. The visitors catTied the name of Tampa through out the land. The Indian trading post of other days was becoming famous. Henry Bradley Plant, the one-time captain's boy with a sensitive nose, had put Tampa on the map.

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C HAPTI:R V III M ODERN TAMPA IS BOR N HENRY BRADLEY PLANT certainl y was not a mag i cian. But even if he had been. and had possessed a magic wand, he could hard l y have wrought a greater transforma t i on in H illsb orough County and Tampa than was wrought because o f him in the years f ollowing 1883. Before the Connecticut Yankee came to centra l Flori da, the Tampa Bay region was hopelessly handicapped by the lack of adequ ate tra nsportation facilities. Fifteen to twenty days, for instance, were required to send shipments of oranges to n orth ern markets, a n d by the time the oranges got there, half were rotted. M oreover transportation charges were so high they often exceeded the selling price and growers netted nothing. As a result half the annual orange crop usually was left un harvested. And the growing of fr esh vegetables for northern mar k ets was of course impractical. Completion of the South Florida R ailro ad gave new life and hope to the entire region. The citrus indus try boomed and so did truck farm ing. New settl ers l ocated in every part of the county and its population soared from 5 ,814 in 1880 t o 14,941 in 1 890. Hillsborough be came one of the most prosp erous count ies i n the state. The effect of the railroad upon T ampa was metamorphic. The sleepy little village of 1880 was transformed into a bustling boom town. During the decade from I 880 to 1890 it grew faster than any other city in Florida ever grew before or has e ver grow n since. Its population lea pe d from 720 to 5,532 an increase of 668.3 per cent. During the fabulous eighties Tampa got its first street railway. its first water works, its first orga nized fire department, its firs t paved streets, its first sewers and its fil'st elec tric lights. T he street railway was the b r ainchil d of J. E M itchell, a dynami c promoter who came to Tampa in 1883. He co nceived the idea of estab lishing a l ine which would meander through the northern part of town and terminate at Murphey's Pond where h e was promoting a subdivision. His plan was approved by some of the lead in g citizens and the T am p a Street Rail way Company was incorporat ed Febmary 12, 1 885, by W B H enderson, Joseph B Wall, Edward A. Clarke, John T. Lesley, S. M. Sparkman, W. C. Brown and S A J ones. A bright and sh iny, woodburning, narrow-gauge locomotive and many tons of rails were brought in but then the project halted. Backers of the company became hesitant and delayed in advan c ing more money. The street railway might have died a'bo rning had it not been for Vicente Martinez Ybor and Edward Manrara developers of Ybor City. They

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MoDERN TAMPA I s BoRN 191 ne;ded a railway to connect their infant town with Tampa proper so on November 14, 1885, they bought controlling interest in the company and made Mitch ell president. A contract for laying tracks was awarded to C. E. Parcell. The street rai lway line was completed early in April, 1886. Start ing at Hillsborough Street and Franklin Avenue, it ran east to Florida, north on Florida to Constance, east on Constance to Ce ntral, north on Central to Sixth Avenue, and east on S ixth to Ybor City The first trip o ve r the line was made April 8 and the journey too k eight minutes. The engineer of the locomotive, named Jennie was Fred Burton who had formerly been with the Union Pac1fic. The first passenger cars were made in Tampa by J. H. Kraus e. After the railway started operations the TAMPA TRIBUNE gloate d : "Tampa can now take its place among the most progressiv e cities of America. Only one other city in Fl orida, Jacksonville, can boast of a street railway and ours is undoubtedly superior to theirs." During the fo llowing winter, the railway was extended down Franklin to Wash i ngton, and east on Washington to Monroe, thereby serving the main business section. Of even more importa n c e than the stree t railway, Tampa got its first waterworks before the 1880s ended. For more than sixty years, Phlltt) by Bart"" Bro t Scores of miles of 1he ineiit bathing beaches in the wor,
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192 TAMPA the people had depended upon rain barrels, cisterns and shallow wells. T r oops at Fort Brooke had gotten their drinking water at Government Spring, near what is now Thirteenth Street and Second Avenu e Inci dentally, the fir st road in south Florida was constructed hom the fort to the spring so water could be taken to the garrison in barrels on mule drawn wagons. During the winter of 1884-85, a series o f disastrous fires convinced everyone that a dependable water supply was essential and on July 28, 1 885, the council awarded a franchise to the Holly Manufactu ring Com pany, o f Lockport, N.Y. The company agreed to provide enough water for a town of I 0,000 and install fifty fire hydrants without charge. Vhter rates were fixed at $8 a year for homes and from $15 to $50 a year for business places. After getting the contract, the Holly officials lost their enthusiasm. Making a house-to house check to learn how many fami lies would take the "city water," they learned they could not expect to get a gross revenue of more than $, 000 a year. That was not enough to pay oper ating expenses, to say nothing of giving a return on the initial invest ment, so the concern understandably proceeded to for get the franchise Repeated attempts were made to interest other companies but all failed because Tampa, then incorporated as a town, could not obligate itself to pay for water hydrants. That obstacle was removed July 15, 1887, when Tampa was incorporated as a city. On September 1 3 the new city council awar d e d a franchise to the Jeter-Boardman Water works Company and agreed to pay $4,500 a year for 110 hy d rants. Preparations for drilling artesian wells were starting late in the summer when Tampa was stricken by the yellow fever epidemic All work was stopped and i t was no t resumed until early summer of 1888. Then Jacksonville was hit by yellow fever and northern capitalists began to shun Florida invest_!Jients. The JeterBoardman company had trouble getting money and months passed before it could proceed. Finally, however two 1300 foot artesian wells were drilled at Sixth Street and Jefferson Avenue, a 110,000-gallon stand pipe was constructed and a pumping station was completed 'Vater was turned on April 20, 1 889. Now, for the first time, Tampa people got water merely by turn ing on a faucet. Completion of the water system mad e possible an effective fire fighting organization. Prior to that time Tampa' s firemen had been seriously handicapped by lack of an adequate water supply The first fire fighting group formed in the town was the Tampa H ook 8c Ladder Company No. 1, organized June 2, 1884, w i t h W B Henderson as foreman, Fred Herman, assistant foreman, and C. P. Wandell, treasurer Other members were P. F. Smith, Dr. Duff Post, Ed Morris, J. C Cole, E. L. Lesley, Phil Collins, S. P. Hayden, Frank

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MoDERN TAMPA I s BoRN Ghira H. L. Knight A. J. Kni g h t, C. L Ayr es, S. B. Crosby and A. P B rockway. The onl y equipment these firemen had consisted of twenty buck ets, two scaling ladders and some a xes. Need less to say, more than a littl e d iffi c ulty was encountered in batding serious conflagrations This was clearly shown May 8, I 886, when all the buildings except the Firs t Nationa l Bank were wiped out in the block bounded by Franklin, Whiting, Tampa and Washin gton Included among the structur e s destroye d were two buildings owned by vV. P Hende rson, a new store o f Friebele &: Boaz, the Bald win House, the furniture store of A. Glass & Bros and the warehouse of Miller & H enderso n. The loss was est i mated at $30,000 Immed iately after this fire the tow n counc il decided it might be wise to invest in a fire engine so a $600 hand pumper" was ordered I t came J uly 30 alon g with 350 feet of two -in c h hose and a hose reel. Almost everyone in town turned out the next day to see the engine tested. The hose was run down to the river and six of the strongest firemen began laboring on the p u mps The results were splendid-a stream of water was thrown clear over the top of John T. Lesl ey's two story building at Franklin and W ash ington. To make effective use of the n e w equipment, the Tampa Fire Compa ny was organized August 30, 1886, with A C. Wuerpel as presi dent, Robert Mugge as secretary and Herman Glogowski as treasurer. O t her members were G. B. Sparkman Odet Grillon, H. Hearg e ist C Pink e rt, John R. Jones, Leon 'Danize, Charles G. Lundgren, J 0 Ne l son, Vinsente deLeo, and Ernest Geistenberge r T hese men, and the members of the Hook&: Ladde r Company, served without pay. During the next two years the fire m e n did the best they could with th e hand pump engine. It served fair l y well when the fire was near the river but was useless, o f course, if no adequate water supply was close a t hand. Many buildings burned to the ground which could have been saved if water had been available. Everyone rejoiced therefore, when t h e waten,orks compan y announced that water soon would be turned into the mains. Funds were raised to buy 3,000 feet of hose and seven h imd hos e carts which were stationed in various parts of 19wn and manned by n e wly-organized volunteer companies, the Alert, Resolute, Relief, Humanity, Myrtle and Pho e nix. On May 18, !889, A. J. Harris was appoi nted chief and competitiv e fire drills were held regularly. An e lectrical fire alarm system was insta lled December 9, fifteen street boxes and four bells being placed in various par.ts of town Now Tampa felt quit e safe. With a street railway, a waterwor k s and a fire organiut tion, Tampa began taking o n city airs in 1889. But it still .had.

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194 TAMPA weed-grown streets and Tampa people finally decided something must be done about them The town also had its outdoor priv i es and they too were frowned upon. So when the electors were cal led upon Tues day, Apri l 23, 1889, to pass on the city 's first bond issue they enthus i astic ally approved it 489 to 13. It provided $65 000 for sewers and $35 000 for streets. Soon after the bonds were sold sewers were laid in the business section and in a few residential streets. The trunk lines emp t ied into the river. No one worried much about the water becoming contaminated. A long argument followed regarding the type of "pavi ng" to be used on t he s t ree ts. Many con t ended that shell wou l d be good enough shell taken from the ancient Indian mounds which still dotted the c ountryside. Others insisted that Tampa de s erved something better than shell, that cru shed sto n e should be used Still others wanted cypress blocks-and cypress blocks won out. A c ontract for paving Franklin from Whiting to Twiggs was awarded May 22, 1890, to Matthew Hays and his son, George A. Hays, who agreed to put down the b l ocks for $1.l0 a square yard They put up a small mill on Whiting Street b u t had to wait until fall to start cutting blocls, the rainy season having started, causing the cypress logs to become t oo filled with sap work of paving Franklin was finally started in January and the paveme n t was finished the following April. It seemed to be ideal and the city rejoiced. But when the rainy season came again the rejoicing turned to sorrow The cypress blocks swelled and started popping up. Repairs had to be made constantly. As a result, crushed stone and stone blocks were used on Lafayette and shell on the other streets iri the business district. V.Thile work of paving was going on, the city went a step farther and ordered wooden sidewalks laid in all parts of "old Tampa," the city to pay one t hird of the cost and the property owners two thirds Declared t h e TRIBUNE: "Soon no one will have cause, as heretofore, to curse Tampa sand. Counc il should have taken this action long ago but 'it is better late than never'." The honor of brin g i ng the first electric lights to Tampa went to the Tampa E l ectric C ompany, organized January 29, 1 887, by John T. Lesley, W. N : Conoley, R. A. Jackson William Sutliff and L. S. Dawes. A small v.rest i nghouse generator was brought in and two arc l ight s were put up, one at Washington and Franklin and the other in front of the "Dry Goods Palace," opened tl1e year before by Abe Maas The current was turned on the first time Monday night April 25, 1887. People came from all parts of town to see the sight. C ommented the TAMPA JouRNAL: "The amazed throng could hardly believe th\lt the Stygian darkness cou l d be dispelled so miraculously by current coming through a wi r e."

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MoDERN TAMPA Is BORN 195 Unfortunate l y, the arc lights were not an unqualified success. The light they provided was dazzlingly brilliant bnt they sputtered, and crackl ed and hissed and went out with discourag i ng frequency. Despite all this, the c ity was so impressed that on September 13, 1 887, the city council awarded the company a ten-year contt'act for street lights, the company to provide twe l ve arcs at 60 cents a night each. T o obtain money needed to buy more powerful generators, the company was reorganized and its name changed to the Tampa Electric Light & Power Company. So lon B. Turman became president, Douglas F. Conoley vice-president, and ,.V. N. Conoley secretary and treasurer But then came the yellow fever epidemic a n d the electric light system was not installed until May, 1888. A power plant was then built at the corner of Tampa and Cass, po les were erected and arc lights were put up at the principal street in tersections i n Tampa and Ybor City .Jack and Ed Ahem were in charge of operations. Photo not available

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196 TAMPA The infant corporation had plenty of troubles-f:inancial and me chanical. Few persons wanted to have their homes or offices wired f.or electric lights they were too dangerous and too uncertain. Good old oil lights were safer and more dependable. The company's revenues were far below expectat ions and, to make matters worse, the generator 'was constantly breaking down. The local backers of the company fina lly gave up the fight in March 1890 and sold out to a syndicate of Easterners headed by]. R. Ritter, of Philadelphia, who formed the Florida Electric Company, incorporated at $50,000. The attorneys for the new company were Hugh C. Macfarlane and N. B. K. Pettingill. Despite the fact that the old company had lost money the city in sisted that the 60-cent-a-night rate for arc lights was too high and a long rate fight ensued Finally, on December 8, 1890, the company signed a three-year contract to provide twelve arcs of 2,000 candlepower at $11 a month each and 193 32-c andlepower incandescents at $2 a month In January, 1891, Tampa finally got its long-hoped-for telephone system. For six years the Southern Bell Telephone&: Telegraph Com pany had tried to get enough subscribers i n Tampa to open an exchange. It did not succeed until the early winter of 1890. An exchange was established in the Jackson Building with .J. S. Rowe and I. S. Usty in charge. Phones were installed in November and December and the exchange was formally opened January 15, 1891. But the phones hissed and hummed so badly that conversation over them was nearly impossible and the subscribers comp l ained bitterly. Many years passed before Tampa got good telephone service. Another Railroad Comes to Tampa Thirty years behind schedule, the Florida Railroad came to Tampa in 1890 Or, to be more exact the Florida Rail road's grandchild came to Tampa, the Florida Central &: Peninsular. A plaything of David Levy 'Yulee and other railroad stock manipu lators, the Florida Railroad had been reorganized time and again and had successively borne the names of Atlantic, Gulf&: \Vest Indies Transit Co., the Florida Transit Railroad, the Florida Transit &: Peninsular, the Florida Railway &: N av igation Co. a nd finally, on May l 1889, a fte r it had been sold under foreclosure, the Florida Central &: Pen insular. H. R. Duval, of Jacksonville who had been receiver for th e road, became the FC&:P president. At that time, t he railroad undoubtedly was one of the most dilapi dated in the country. I t owned 509 miles o f track but they were .. gener ally refe rred to as "great streaks of rust." Its locomoti ves were so decrepit that they seldom s ucceeded in bringing the wobbling trai ns to their destination without breaking down somewhere along the road. Hence the popular nickname of the road, "Friends, Come and Push.

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MoDERN TAMPA Is BoRN 197 The Florida R ail ro ad's charter p r ovided as has been stated b efore that i t s ho uld be built from F ernand in a to Tam pa Bay. Bu t its c h ief promote r D av id Levy Yulee, owned tremendous tracts of land in the present Lev y County so he extended the road to Cedar Key, forgetting Tampa Bay existed. T he line was comp l eted in April, 1861. For buil d ing it, the railroad received 650 ,000 acres of land from the state and federa l government Delving into the archives of the old Flor i da Railroad, the FC&P offic ials learned that their road w o ul d be en t itled to 461,655 more acres from the federal government and 1.450,000 more from th e state i f their tracks would be extended to Tampa Bay. One of their lines then ran as far south as Wildwood; consequently only 90 miles of additional track had t o be laid to secure these juicy land p lums. Quite natura lly, therefore the FC&:P officials proceeded to ma ke the ex tension forth with I nasmuch as the Plant System already had opened the central peninsu lar with its roa ds, lan d values had soared and 606,655 acres were worth going a fte r Besi des, Tampa was now an important city com pletely eclips ing the railroad 's termina l at Cedar Key. Not wasting any time, the FC&P proceeded at once to lay tracks south fro m Wildwood. Plant City was reached late in 1889. Fro m th ere, t he tracks were ext ended westward to ward Tampa by way of Turkey Creek, Sydney, Valrico, Limona and Y eom ans. Most of the la nd need ed for the rig ht-of-way was donated Construction of the road to the edge of Tampa was easy but getting it into th e c i ty presented a probl em. T h e 'fampa city council passed an ordinance by a bare majority to give the road the right to use the city streets-but the ordinance was promptly vetoed by M ayor H erman Glogows ki H e insisted that Tampa sn eets were cluttered up" enough the way it was. H e also argued th a t Tampa was so indeb ted to Plant that the city should not allow ano ther railroad to come in and give him competitio n. The mayor's action blocked the FC&P offici als only temporarily. Consu lting their attorneys th ey decided they had the right alleg edly g iven by an Act of Con gress of 1 856, to enter south of the city limi ts through the military reservati on, then occ upied by h o mesteaders who had sett led there in 1883. They to l d the homesteaders that a settle men t for the land needed for th e right -of-way would be made lVhcn th e courts finally passed on a long -drawn-out l ega l bat tle then bein g waged by various claimants of the reservation. Crews were brought in and grad in g started. Homest eaders who objected to t he "trespassing wer e disregarded. The grade was quic k ly comp l eted and tracks were laid to Water Str eet by May I, 1890.

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198 TAMPA The first trai n into Tampa over the new line arrived Monday night, May 5 It brought in 150 Negro excursionists from Ferna ndina, mem bers of the Knigh ts of Labor and 25 other passengers. A crowd of several hundred persons had gathered to greet the first passengers but a heavy halted the celebration. Regular service was started the f ollowing day, two passenger trains and one freight train entering and leaving Tampa daily. Compl etion of the tracks to Vhter Street did not satisfy the FC&P officials They wanted to exte n d the lirie to the river The South Florida officials objected strenuously, and threatened to seek a court injunction Determined to go ahead the FC&P swung into action at midnight, Saturday, Augus t 2 By the light of bonfires and flares, a large crew of FC&P me n tore u p the SF rail s at \.Yater Street, made a crossing, and extended their tracks along the river to the Ross Biglow & Co. wharf, giving a 500-foot water E r ontage. A crowd gathered to witness an expected pick-and-shovel battle. But there was no bloodshed There is l ittle doubt but that the completion of the FC&P line aided in the devel opment of Tampa. Its route northward was 31 miles shoner than the shortest route of the Plant System and Tampa benefitted through the compe t itive f reight and passenger rates afforded. More over, the FC&P soon began running fast express trains to Jacksonville and, to compete, the South Florida had to put on faster trains. By August the running time be tween t h e two towns was cut to eight hours and forty minutes. Tampa was getting ever closer to the North. The FC&P brought one immediate benefit to the city Hugh quan tities of earth obtained i n cutting the rai lroad grade through the reserva tio n were dumped, with the hearty appro val of the city, in the Jackson Street gully a n d one of Tampa's most conspicuous eyesores was elimi nated. T he gully had been nude by a small creek which drained the flat lands to the e ast; h e avy rains had caused such serious erosion that a small can yon had been cre ateld, dividing the business district into two sec ti o n s Before the gully was filled with the FC&P f ill-di rt, a large storm sewer was put down by the city to carry off the water After the .fill was made, Jackson Street was opened for development. A Lush Period fm Ttlmpa. The people of Tampa were extremely optimistic in 1890. The city was forging ahead faster than i t ever had before Everyone was prosperous. In addition to the gorgeous Tampa Bay Hotel, then near ing completion, fift y one buildings were bei n g built in various parts of town. One of the structures was a new city hall, a two story bri ck building erected on the southwest corner of Laf ayette and Florida a t a cost of $10 ,000. C. E. Parcell was the architect and James Bullivant and J. C.

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MoDERNTAMI'AlsBoRN 199 McNeil the contractors. Completed in August, 1890, the city hall pro vided headquarters for the fire department as well as city offices The entire county felt so up and coming in 1890 that there was little opposition on December 16 to a proposed $80,000 bond issue to provide funds for building a new county courthouse, needed to replace the frame structure erected in 1855. After the bonds were sold a con tract was awarded on June 2 1891, to Vll. H. Kendrick and work on tl1e building was started immediately. The architect was ]. A. v\Tood, who had designed the Tampa Bay Hotel. The old courthouse was moved up on Florida Avenue and used several years by Dr. F. H. Cald well as a hospital. The new building was completed August I, 1892. With additions, it has served the county ever since. Tampa's prospects looked so bright in the spring of 1892 that capitalists began fighting among themselves to gain the right to provide electric lights and power for the town and also electric street railways. The battle began in April when the Tampa Suburban Company was organized by W H Kendrick, E. S Douglas and Peter 0. Knight with the financial backing of Mr. and Mrs C. W. Chapin, wealthy winter residents from New York. The company stated it intended to build an electric street railway from Ybor City through Tampa and down the west side of the Hillsborough River to Ballast Point. This announcement aroused tl1e fighting spirit of the owners of the Tampa Street Railway Company which operated the steam loco motive line to Ybor City. The officials insisted their franchise covered all parts of the city and that the Tampa Suburban had no right to build. Going to the courts, they succeeded in getting an injunction which restrained the Tampa Suburban from proceeding. To get around this injunction, the backers of the Tampa Suburban organized a new company called the Consumers Electric Light & Power Company It secured a franchise to sell electric service as well as trans portation. Stock was sold to local people and a generator was installed in a small sawmill near l\lorgan and Cass. Trolley lines were built to Ballast Point and West Tampa late in 1 892 and also to Ybor City. The Ybor City line closely paralleled the line of the older company which electrified its road and put trolley cars in operation on May 16, 1893. A transportation war followed, the fare between Tampa and Ybor City being finally reduced to two cents Lacking the strong financial backing of tl1e new company the Tampa Street Railway Com pany went into bankruptcy and the Consumers purchased its prop erties at a receiver's sale on June 18, 1894. While the street railway battle was being fought, two new news papers were started, the TAMPA DAILY TIMES and the TAMPA TRIBUNE. The TIMES came into existence because of the city's need for a newspaper better than either of the two tri weeklies the city then had,

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200 TAMPA the old TAMPA TRIBUNE, founded in 1876, and the TAMI'A JouR NAL, founded in 1886. Both papers were underfinanced and understaffed and were limping along in a half-hearted f ashion. To remedy the situa tion, the Tampa Publishing Company was founded February I, !893, with the financial backing of many leading citizens. S. A. Jones became president; W. B. Henderson, vice president; A. J. Knight, secretary, and T. C Taliaferro, treasure r The company was capitalized for $25,000. Immediately after the incorporation, the new company purchased the TAMPA JouRNAL for $3,500 and the TAMI'A TRIBUNE for $3,450. H. J. Cooper was appointed general manager at $75 a month. The mechanical plants of the two papers were consolidated in the .JoU R NAL' s plant on the southeast corner of Franklin and Washington. The first issue of the TIMES appeared Tuesday, February 7, 1893. Cooper continued to manage the paper until 1898 when it got into financial difficulties. With the help of H. L. Mitchell and Capt. H. H. Scarlett, D. B. McKay then paid some of the most pressing debts and took charge. He purchased a controlling interest in the paper soon afterward and in time became sole owner. Shortly after the two old papers were purchased by the TIMES, word of the merger reached a young, aggressive editor of a small weekly pub lished at Bartow, the PoLK CouNTY NEws. He was Wallace Fisher Stovall, then 24 years old. Reasoning that the consolidation of the two old papers into one might provide an opening for an "opposition" paper Stovall came to Tampa to Jearn if his hunch was correct. He found one man who had the same idea, Dr. John P. Wall. With Dr. \Vall's endorsement on a note, Stovall borrowed $450 to move his plant to Tampa and start publishing The first issue of his paper appeared March 23, 1893. He called it the. TAMPA TRIBUNE, appropria ting t he name of one of the papers which had perished. In the beginning, Stovall found the going hard. But he turned out a splendid, progressive paper and soon the TRIBUNE was carrying as many ads and had as many readers as the strongly-backed TIMES. Stovall continued publishing t he TRIBUNE for thirtytwo years and made it one o f the leading papers of the entire South. Despite Disasters Tampa G1ows Compared with most sections of the country, Tampa escaped lightly from the panic of 1893. But the city did have a bank failure. The Gulf National Bank, o r ganized a short time before, closed its doors May 29 after $80,000 had been withdrawn by depositors, leaving less than $40,000 in the safe. Officers of the bank were C. B. Lloyd, president ; A .J. Knight, vice-president, and John 0. Ball, cashier. Publisher Stovall was hard hit by the bank's closing. Every cent of his paper's money was in the bank and when it suspended, Stovall had

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MoDERN TAMPA Is BoRN 20 l nothing lef t to pay operating e xp enses. H e was forced to give up his daily edi tions and publish only once a week. T he daily was resumed J anuary I, 1895, soon after the Tampa Tribun e Publishing Company was incorporated S t o vall was president and treasurer; V. M Ybor, v ice president, and ]. S. McFall secretary. Directors were Pete r 0 Kni ght, C. E. Harrison, w. E. Bled soe, Seidenberg &: Co., Sanchez &: H aya and C. C. Whitaker. ]. B. Anderson, of Alaba ma, a Method ist mi n ister was named receive r of th e Gulf National. The institut ion was i nherentl y solvent and the c reditors were finally paid in full with inter est on their claims. I n add i tion, assets exceedin g $30,000 \\'Cre turned over to the stock h o l ders. While the Gulf National was in l iquidation, a new bank was ro unded, the Exchange Nationa l 'cap italized at $!00,000. One o f its principal backers was a newcomer to Tampa, J ohn Trice, president of the Okolona Banking Company, of Okolona, Miss. Another founder was J. ).!. C Stockto n president of the State Bank of Florida, at Jackson PA.I .,. 8tH. Hilb:boT'Ot1gh. Cotunv gnnC\ produce bundre
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202 TAMPA ville. Stockton was a f01mer member of the Jacksonville banking firm of Ambler, Mar vin & Stockton and had served as the first president of the First National Bank of Tampa. By 1894 he had become a bitter banki ng and politi cal rival of James P TaliafetTo, one of th e princ ipal stockholders of the First National, and he had no intention of permitting the First National to remain the only bank in Tampa. So he bought a large block of the Exchange National stock for himself and his Jackson ville friends and aided the new in stitution in getting started . The largest Tampa stockholders of the bank were Edwa r d Manrara, Anderson and Peter 0. Knight. The new bank was opened April 16, 1894, in the old quarters of th e Gulf National at Franklin and Twiggs. Price was presi dent, Stockton, vice president, and Anderson, cashier. Trice remained with tlie Exchange National less than a year-he could not get along with Cashier And erson Manrara then became president and Ziba King, a wealthy cattleman of Arcad ia becam e vice president. Anderson continu ed as cashier. Shortly after leaving the Exchange Trice proc eeded to organize a third bank, the Ci tizens Bank & Trust Comp a ny, capitalized at $100,000. It was opened October 7, 1895 in a new three -story brick and stone buildin g at Franklin and lack. Trice was president; W. J. Davis, vice-president, and C. E Allen, cashier. Directors were Trice, Davis, J. M. Long, John Savarese, J. S. McFall and W. B. Gray. Tampa suff ered a series of disastrous fires during 1894 In addition to seven homes and three small business p laces, the Tampa Lumber Company's plant was completely de stroyed, on July 27, causing a loss of $40,000 The fires emphasized the fact that Tampa 's volunteer fire depart ment and obsolete fire fighting equipment were entirely inadequate to provide proper protection. The council was pressed to take action and on December 31 ordered two modern La France fire engines and all other equipment needed to establish a first-class fire depart ment. The engines arrived in Ma rch and were named "Manrara" and "Salomonson," in h ono r of the two men who contrib uted money to buy horses to pull th em. On March 22 A. J. Harris was appointed fire chief and twenty-two full time firemen were employed. They were assigned to si x fire stations in various parts of town. A calamit y of the 1890s which had a profound aftermath was the abnormally cold weather during the winter of 1894-95 the coldest s i nce 1835. The first blow was struc k early Sunday, December 29, 1894, when t he temperature in Tampa dropped to 1 8 degrees. Temperatures as low as I 0 degrees were reported in the great c itrus belt in north central counties. The loss to ci trus growers was appa lling. The extrem e co ld weather was followed by six weeks of unusua lly warm weather M any trees up state on wh i ch only the fruit and twigs

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MooRN TAMP A I s BoRN 20!1 bad been frozen bega n to show new signs of l ife. O n February 7, the temperature rose to 77 degrees. But that night there occurred the worst drop in temperature i n the history of Tampa, the mercury falling to 22 degTees. T h e m aximu m that day was only 36 and on t h e f o ll owing mor n i ng, February 9 th e m i n i m u m was 23. Two s u ccessive nights of such co ld weather, coming when the citrus tree s we r e gro w in g a nd f ull of sap, froze many of th e m to th e ground, sp li t ting the bark and killing t hem. Farther north, in th e gre a t citrus belt, practically all o f th e t r ees were k i lled. Florida suffe red a cri pp li ng bl ow. Estimates of th e loss ranged as h i g h as $80,000 0 0 0 D uring t h e F ebruary co l d spell, snow f e ll in Tam p a for t he f ir st time in the memo r y o f o l d timers. In a few p l aces, s now covered the ground and youngste r s were abl e to sc;oop u p enoug h to make snowba lls. This was on the morn ing o f F ebruary 8. The wintry appearance of the city was heigh t ened by icicles which hung from almost every roof. Much damage was done by the bursting of water pipes. In the l o n g r un, H illsborough County gained m o re from the Big Freeze than it l ost Citrus growers who h ad been w ip e d out in the northern part o f the pe n i ns ul a moved southwar d t o sections where the co l d had not been so seve r e or so prol onge d. Hillsborough Cou n t y became t he heart of the new c itru s be l t and as a result, Tampa pro fi ted greatly. T h e ultimate benefits o f t h e Big Freeze of course were n o t fore seen in 1 895 and the fait h o f many perso n s i n t he future of the state was badly s h a ken. T h at was definite l y not t h e case with H enry B rad ley Plant. I n stead of re trench i ng, he proceeded to make many new investments. E arly in April, Plant announced that he inte n ded to build a fine casino at the T ampa B ay H otel. Work on the large two-story structure was st:arted soon a fte r ward. T-shaped, the casino had a 122 by 58 foot clubhouse in front a nd a combined auditorium a n d swi mming pool, 157 by 88 feet, extendin g t o the rear. The swimm in g p ool w as under the remova bl e floor of the audi toriu m. The casin o was opened T uesday n ight, December 3 1896, w i t h t he p l ay "Th e Right to Happiness," starring t he famous ac tress l'"Iinn ie Maddern Fiske. Many o t h e r f ir st class a ttractions appeared later in the casino. Plant's faith in Florida als o was show n b y his purchase on April 1, 1 895, o f t h e S anford & St P e t e r sburg Railroad, originall y kn own as t h e Orange B e lt built in 1 887-88 by Peter A D e m e ns cofounder of St. Petersburg. Imm e d ia te l y a f ter the P lant System t oo k over the road, i t was cha n ged f r o m n arrow to standard gauge. On January l, 1896, the P l ant System also a bsorbed the famous Florida Southern Rail road. I n add i t i on to his rail r oad acquis i t i ons, P lant erected the mill ion do ll a r

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204 T AMPA Belle v iew Hote l at Belleair, a few miles sout h of Clearwater. The hotel was opened February 14, 1 896. The Cigar Industry ExfJands Tampa escaped lightly from the ca lamities o f the 1890 s large l y because of i ts rapidl y growing, prosperous cigar indust ry. The i ndustry was retarded temporarily by the yellow feve r epi demic of 1887 but made a quick com ebac k early in 1888. Its value to Tampa had become so evident that members of the Board of Trade in February 1 888, subscribed $15,000 to bring the factory of R Monne &: Co. from N ew York. The plant went into operation on August 30 and employed dw ee hundred cigar mak ers. The Monne C o mpany was the last o n e brought to Tampa through public subscrip tions From then on, plants were established largely through the efforts oE two development companies, the Ybor City Land & Improvement Company and the Ma cfarlane Invesunent C ompany. The Ybor City Land & Improvement Company was organized October 1 5, 1886, by Vicente Martinez Y bor, Edward Manrara and E. R. M. Ybor. During the following decade, the compan y donated $126,000 in land and buildings as inducements to other f actories to locate in Ybor City. Concerns brought in included Seidenber g &: Co., Trujillo &: Ben emelia; Gonzalez, Mora &: Co.; Amo, Ortez &: Co.; Arquellas, Lop ez &: Bros.; Jose JVL Diaz &: Bro., and Creagh Cudnccht &: Co. More than a halE million dollars was spent by the Ybor City Land &: Improvement Compan y in developin9 Ybor City, making it a city within a c ity, a city as truly Latin-Amen can in appearance and in the c u stoms of its inhabitants as though it had been in the heart o f Cuba. In 1892, the development of another LatinAmerican community was started by t h e Macfarlane Investme .nt Company, headed by Hugh C. Macfarlane, a native of Scotland who had come to Tampa in 188 3 to practice law. Early in 1892 Macfarlane platted a 200-acre tract he owned west o f the Hillsboroug h River and b ega n offering fac tory s ites and three-st o r y brick buildings to manufacturers who would locate there. The f irst factory was taken in June, 1892, by O'Hara&: Co., of Key West. Another was taken in December by Julius E llinger &: Co., also of Key West. I n March, 1893, a third factory was occu pied by C. E. Arnsworth &: Co Other com panie s came later, including Cuesta Rey &: Co. ; A. Santella & Co.; Pendas & Alvarez the Morgan Cigar Com pany and many others. To enable residents of d1e new community to go quickly back and forth to Tampa, M acfa rlane and his associates late in 189 2 erected .an iron drawbridge over the Hillsborough River at Fortune Street at a cost of $30,000 and a few months later aided in the financing of a stree t

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TAMPA I s BoRN 205 car line built by the Consumers Electric Light &: Power Comp any By 1895 more than 2,000 persons were living in the new communi ty and it was incorpor ated as the r.own of VVest Tampa on !l'lay 18. By that time it had its own churches, parks clubs and busine s s places and was truly a town in its own right. Many of the cigar factories which came to Tampa in the ea rly 1890s came because of labor troubles in both New York and Key west. The great fire o f March 30, 1886 in Key West also was a factor in the e xodus of manufacturers from that c i ty not because the y h ad been burned out but because they feared another devasta ting conflagration. In the decade after the fire, eleven Key W est factories came to Tampa. During that same period, thirteen came from New Yor k five from Chicago and two fro m Havana. Tampa by that time had become one of the leading cigar manufacturing cities of t h e world On July I, 1894, the industry was emp loying 2 915 person s and had an annual payroll of $1, 909,730. During the preceding year, 88 ,190,00 0 cigar s bad been made which sold for $5 533,000. Besides developing their own plants the ciga r manufacturers in veste d heavi ly in Tampa real esta te, banks and business establishm e nts. Cigar money financed the first brewery built in Florida erected in Tampa in 1897 by t h e Florida Brewing Company, organized by Edward Manrara, E. W. Codington and Hugo Schwab. Patterned after the famous Castl e Bre w e ry of Joha nnesburg, South Africa, the towering Plt()l() Unl"f'II':T f/ fmpo Port was one of the busiest spots in the nation in 1898 when U. S troops l e( t the r e in lran.sports to f r ee Cub.1 from Spain. This picture shows boarding one of the tl'ansport.s. h also shows the famoull Port. Tampa hm wh ere could fish fTorn their whtdow$ The Inn is the building 1n the ccnlct.

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206 TAMPA structure was erected at the Government Spring near Thirteenth Street and Second Avenue at a cost of $20 0 000. The brewery soon began shipping out bee r by the t rain load to all parts of Florida and e xporting great quantities to Cuba. During the mid 1890s, Tampa people paid little attention to ordinary events. What really captured their attention was the gallant fight being waged by Cuban insurgents to win their freedom from their Spanish rulers. Tampa Fights the Cuban War Tampa's deep concern over the fate of Cuba during the 1890s was most understandable. Hundreds of Tampa citizens, born in Cuba, had fled from the island because of the tyra nny of the Spanish authorities. Letters received f rom friends and relatives they left behind told of the suffering of their countrymen and feeling ran high in Ybor City and West Tampa. Jose Mar ti, hero of the Ten Year war, was given a tllUnderous welcome when he came to Tampa and pleaded for f unds to carry on the fi ght for freedom. Almost every c igar maker pledged a day's pay each week to show his sympathy for the Cuban cause. Liberal contri butions were made by Latin-America n business and professional men. The Cuban war was Tampa's war, at l east for a large segment of Tampa's population. And all Tampa grieved when Marti was killed in Cuba in one of the early battles. Tampa became one of th e principal ports through which arms and ammunition were sent to the insurgents. Filibusterers' ships often slipped silently up the river in the dead of night and tied up at the wharves. Shadowy f igures quickly appeared from nowhere and quietly loaded them. And then, in an hour or so, the ships would weigh anchor and disappear in the darkness. In an attempt to stop the flow of money and munitions from Tampa, the Spanish General "'Butcher" vVeyler early in 1896 declared an embargo on tobacco exports from Cuba to the United States, hoping to force the cigar factories to shut down In this emergency, Vicente Martinez Ybo r and other leading manufacturers persuaded H B Plant to send the OlitJette and Mascotte to Havana before the embargo dead line and bring back enough toba cco to keep the ir factories running. The ships brought in tremendous cargoes, even their staterooms being piled high with Havana leaf. The cigar indu stry was sav ed Bitterness against Spain mounted steadily in the Latin American sections all through 1897. The fiery speeches of revolutionists who came from Cuba were enthusiastically applaud ed Ybor City became accustomed to seeing little groups of whispering men clustered under the balconies, planning strategy And whenever rumors spread that

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MooeR N TAMPA I s BoRN 207 Spanish spies ha d come in to get infor mation regard ing munitions sh ip mcnts, persons wh o had tics with Spain were closely watched. Then, on the night of February 15, 1 898, the battleship M aine was blown u p in Havan a harbor. Tampa buzzed with excitement. But the newspapers urged coo lness and pati ence. And Tampa marked time. 'Weeks bef ore the official declaration of war, Tampa was furnishe d evid ence that war was coming Government agents swarmed all through the region, sounded the h arbo r looked into transportation facilities, and started mak ing arra n gements with business f irms for supplies. A Tampa schooner was chartered to t ake two 50-ton cannons to Key Vest to prot ect that port from the dreaded Sp anis h battle sh ips. Survivo rs of the Maine were brou g h t back home on the Olir1ette on March 28 A great c rowd went to Por t Tampa t o greet them. The heroes were given a rous i ng ovation and ta k e n to Tampa's b est homes. Re fugees kept pouring in from Cuba. On April 7th the Mascotte broug h t more than 900. The stories they told of the suffering in the Spanish con centration camps aroused bitter anger C ol. F ernando F igueredo, a leader of the Cuban Junta painted inflamatory pictures of Span i sh atrocities and brought thunderous cheer s whe n h e admon ished th e crowds to R eme mber the Maine! Remember the Maine! Co ns ul -Gen era l Fitzhugh Lee ordered to leave Havana arrived on Apri l9. vVar was now a certainty Two spec i a l trains with a thousa nd passe nge rs on board, as we ll as a band, made the nine-mile tri p to Port Tampa to welcome h im When the boat t rain arrived in Tampa, thousands more crowded around it, waving Cuban and American flags and shouting "Viva Lee!" T he general yelled: Vhat are you sho uting for? Do you want to fight?" The crowd roared back: "Yes!" The general smi led bro a dly. "That's what I wanted to hear you say," h e sa id. L ate r, however, the genera l told newspapermen that because of his diplomatic status h e cou ld not talk for publication Even befor e Congress off ici ally dcclar ecl war, Tampa was se l ecte d as a principal concentration an d embarka t ion point for troops which wou ld inva de the island. It was cho sen p rimar i ly bec ause it was the c i ty nearest to Cuba which had both r ail and port facilities. The War Department's decision also was in fluenced by the fact that Tampa's sub-trop ical weather would be idea l for acclimating the soldiers. And o f course due consideratio n was g i ven the fact that T ampa had the magnifi cent Tampa Bay Hotel where sumpmous quarters would be availab le for all the 'brass" which would accomp any the exp edition. New s came on April 20th that P resident William M c Kin ley had deman de d that Spain withdraw from Cuba. Cannons boo med and fiery spe eches were mad e from scores of p l atforms a nd balconies. The en thusiasm was hei ghte ned by the presence o f five companies from Fort

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208 TAMPA McPherson G eorg i a The southern boys came in wearing t h e Co n federate gray T h e y w e re encamped at D eSo t o Park and soo n w e re joined by the 69th o f New York, attired in Y a nkee blue. But the juxta position of the blue and the gray caus e d no c asualties. Clara Barton soo n m ade her appe a ra n ce with her R e d Cross s taf f Af ter stay i n g a f e w days at the Tampa Bay Hotel she establish ed a n offic e for her organizat ion in]. Mac k T owne s home on Plant Avenue. W ith the for mal declarat i on of war on April 24, troops began pouring into Tampa at a d izzy pace often as many as twe n ty to t h irty trai n loa d s a day. T he soldiers w e re encamped all the way fr om Port Tampa to beyo nd Ybor City with th e m a in e ncampment at Tampa Heights where 2 5 0 ac r e s had been set asid e for army use By th e mi d dle of May more th a n 3 0 000 soldiers had strea med into Tampa, o u tnum be ring the ci v ili an pop ulation better t ha n two to one Wit h t h e troops top flight mili tary me n arrived wi t h t h eir staff me mbers: General Nelson A. M iles, in command of the e x pedit ion; G e n e ral W R Shafte r in c omm a nd of the F ifth C orps; G eneral Fitz hugh Lee, in command of the Seven t h Corps, a n d G eneral Joseph Wheel er, in ch a r ge o f the volunt e e r cava l ry. The re also was t h e o n e and only Colon e l "Teddy" Roosev e lt of t h e Rough Riders, Col o n e l Leonard Wood a nd many, many others Tampa Bay Hote l literally shined with a rmy brass. As Karl Ili cke.l t ells in his book "The .Mangrove Coa st," t h e big lobb y of the ho t e l exploded in a flash of g olden braid glitteri ng s word hilts boo t s b ri g h t with polish "\-\Ti de-brimm e d Ste tsons and the dark blue uniforms of the army m e n were the p r ev ail ing note but h ere and th ere were mon o cl e d m en i n foreign unifo rms t h e mi l itary attaches o f European nati o ns stan ding by t o see w ha t t he y could of the s how. Also the r e were officers wives a n d a throng of fro m n ort h e rn . .. cmes. The army's f irst pay day c ame early in May and the TIMt:s re ported that ov e r $ 1 7 5 000 was paid out to t he soldiers Tampa mer c hants reaped a big harvest and s o di d t h e gambling joints, whi c h o p e rated o p e nly, and t he saloon ke e p ers and the feminin e mem b ers o f the ol d est p ro fession i n the world. R ed light d isu i c ts sprang up ove r nigh t. Ma ny of th e soldi ers became most hila r io us. T hey com m andeere d t h e str eet cars and went clanging thro u g h the c i ty, f iring rev o l vers as th ey went. Others i nv a ded the Flo rida Br ewery and de manded free drink s for all. Tampa pe o pl e were not too deepl y o ffended. After all, t he boys soon would be fighting and dying on Cub a n battlefields so why not let them have a littl e fun while they had th e c h a nce? .Mayor M E G illett sent only a mild r emo nstrance to army h eadq uarters Had h e b ee n mor e

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MoDERN TAMPA Is BoRN 209 severe he wo\tld have heard from Tampa merchan ts. They were mop ping up. wro te the correspondent for the vVASHINGTON PosT: "The Tampa shopkeepers are making so much money that the city banks will hardly hold it. Even a lemonade man, equipped with a bucket and two tin cups, can make $25 a day And $25 a day in 1898 was big money Red and blue bandanas, worn around t he neck became the rage Two young Jewish boys, then j ust becoming merchandisers, plunged all the money they had, $300 and brought in a huge stock The 'ker chiefs sold like the proverbial hot cakes and the brot hers made a killing. They later owned one of Tampa's leading stores. Transports began docking at Port Tampa. Trains loaded with supplies for the expedition began pouring in. The con fu sion became indescribable. The Plant System was not geared to handl ing such a flood of locomotives and cats. Regardless of how long the railroad men worked, trains came in hours late and the railroad yards were swamped To help bring order out of chaos, Plant himself took charge of opera tions. He remained in charge until a brash young officer came into his office one day and declared that unless the road operated more effi. cie ntly, the Var Department would seize the entire system. "Seize it and be damned," Plant stormed, and walked away. But the seizure did CowU4Y of Burgllfl /JtQ4 Mole than 30,000 ooldicrs camped in and near l;1mpa before embaTking for Cuba in the Spanish .t..merican \Var They li ved in tents in camps scattered all the way from Port Tampa to DeSoto Beach. This photograph was taken hi r ampa Heights

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210 TAMPA not occur-the army had enough headaches as it was. The "bras h officer was young "Teddy" Roosevelt. The railroad' s problems were not lightened by the fact that scores of would-be adventurers came to Tampa to take part in the war, willy nilly . R eported the TAMPA TRillUNE; "vVilliam Astor Candler has ar rived with his private expedition. Mr. Candler is paying all the expenses of a group of his New York friends and i f they cannot connect with the American arm y they w ill join the Cubans .... He w ill buy or c harter a boat and go and see the fun." All through the long, hot month of May the sold i ers waited for orde rs to leave. They liked Tampa a n d the nearby towns they visited but were anxiou s to get going. Finally on June 9, a dispatch fro m General Garcia ncar Santiago reached G ene ral Miles stating that 9,000 well equipped Cubans had ta ke n fine positions and were ready for the arrival of United States forces. That was th e word Miles was waitin g for. He sent orders down th
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MonERN TAMPA I s BoR>-.r 211 Several thousand soldiers, mostly volunteers, r emained in T ampa [or weeks after the war ended H eavy rains came and swamped the camps. Scores became ill with "Cuban fever," malaria and typhoid fever. Many died F ina lly, l ate i n Au gust, the las t of the troops departed. The exact number of Tampa Latin-Amer i cans who fought with the insurgents as volunteers during the revolut i o n is not known. Many l eft but no r ecor d was kept of their departure One Anglo American of Tampa is known to have been active. He was Capt. J ames McKay, Jr. Ear ly in the revolution he ran both g uns and volunteer figh t ers to the island in his new ship, the Fanita and later landed a contingent and a cargo of arms at Cardenas in one of the first battles American forces had with the Spaniards Early in July he took two hundred teamsters to the Santiago area and arrived just in time to take part in the engageme nt. Captai n also super intended the loading of transports at Port Tampa for the quartermasters department and their unloading on the c oast of Cuba. T wo other Tampans had a hand in the war. They were J. VJ. Phillips and W. R Fuller of the finn of Phillips & Fuller Hand lin g contracts for the government, the firm sold the army a thousand cars of grain, feed and other supplies in ninety days and at one time had 700 cars in transit. When a sudden emerg ency arose in Hav ana in August, the firm filled an order for two hundred cars of grai n in five days By the end of Augu st, th e g l amorous war period was ended. All the troops had left Tampa and the Tampa Bay Hotel was deserted The city set tled down for a dog days' breathing spell. Tampa did not kn ow it then but it soon learned t ha t i t had been helped immeasureably by the war. Mill ions of dollars had been spent by the army in the city for supplies and by the soldiers for recreation, and the m one y served to pump new life and vigor into the com munity. M oreover, the name of Tampa had been in the newspaper hea dlines of the nation for months and the city was advertised as it had never been advertised before. What was even more important, T ampa re ceived most favorable word-<>f-mout h advertising from soldiers stationed in the city. T hey lik ed Tampa and to l d their friends b ack north about it. The word s pread t ha t Tampa was a city with a future. It truly

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CI-JAPTER IX AT TI-lE TURN OF TI-lE CENTURY IHE BIRTH OF 'I;HE NEW CENTURY was accepted calmly in Tampa. Un like other cities where wild celebrations continued for hours, Tampa almost disregarded the event. A few whis tles were blow n, a few bells were rung and a few arrests were made for intoxication but in general the town was most sedate. The only social event of consequence was a New Years ball at Centro Espanol attended by a hundred co uples. President Vicente Guerra led the grand march Tampa's failure to give the infant century a royal welcome was most surprising. Certainly the town had ample reason for celebrating. It had made amazing progress during the last two decades of the 19th century and prospects for the 20th century looked bright indeed. Proof that Tampa was growing faster than any other city in Florida was furnished by the 1900 Federal census. The figures showed that Tampa's population had soared from a niggling 720 in 1880 to an impressive 5,532 in 1890 and an amazing 15,839 in 1900 No wonder the newspapers called Tampa the "Queen City o f the Gulf." In many respects, however, Tampa was still nothing but a lusty boom town which was suffering acutely from growing pains. Richard Harding Davis, famous war correspondent, described it as a "squalid, sand-blighted city" and the description was not entirely libelous Even the greatest Tampa booster could not have called the Tampa of 1900 a beautiful city. In the best residential sections, where yards were enclosed by picket fences, many home owners had well-kept la wns and gardens. Elsewhere, however, the yards were weed-grown or barren, having been overrun in the past by wandering cows and hogs. Ordinances banning the roaming creatures from the city had been passed repeatedly in the past but the "cow lovers" had so much political strength that not until after the Spanish American War were the laws enforced. The sand sand-everywhere effect was heightened by the dreary sand flats which extended along the edge of Interbay Peninsula, now the beautifu l Bayshore, and the equally dreary sand flats off the mouth of the river, later developed into Davis and Seddon islands. 'Vith a few exceptions, most of the buildings in the business dis tric t were frame shacks, many unpainted and dilapidated. Gambling houses were wide open above dingy saloons. Red light districts flour ished. Between Ybor City and the Tampa business district lay the "scrub," the city's Negro district, unkempt and unsightly. And south of Sixth Avenue, in the Town of Fort Brooke, L oui s Athanasaw the

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AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 213 Gre ek, ran his notori o us Imperial Theatre where almost anything could happen-and often d id. E fforts had been made nine years before to lift Tampa out of the sand by building wooden side walks and "paving" the business streets with cypress bloc ks and shell. But the cypress block paving had swelled and popped open, the she ll paved stre ets had disintegrated into powdery dust and many of the wooden sidewalks had rotted and fallen apart. Civic progress had been almost completely stopped during the 1890s by a small but influential group o f large land ow ners who were chronica lly opposed to pay in g taxes. They wanted Tampa to grow so t hei r prop erties wou ld become more valuable but t hey wer e dead set against helping to pay for improvements which would make growth possible. Bond i ssues $200,000 for streets and sewers had been approved by the voters in 1889 and 1891 but the no taXation group had succeeded in blocking all attempts to increase taxes eno ugh t o make payments on the bo nds As a result public improvements were halt ed and the city's credit was impaired This state of affa irs started to change in the late 1890s. Many mill i ons of dollars flowed into the city becaus e of the Spanish -Ame rican War and this new money injected new life and new confidence into the comm unity. Moreover, th e ranks of the ultra-conservative "no -____ .. __ .,...___ ___ .._., --l'luM Btt'"' Bt
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214 TAMPA taxation" group began to be weaken ed by the Grim R eaper and more progre ssive citizen s began to take the reins. The effect of a ll this was shown in 1899 when the city enthusi astically support ed a pla n to i ssue enough bonds to refund the out standing debt of $270,000 and pay for n ew improvements costin g abo u t $.525,000 M oreover, Ma yo r F. C. Bow yer succee ded in ha v in g the c ity council pass o rdinances compelling downtown prope r ty owners to pay for paving streets and constructing con crete sidewalks. Before 1900 ended, most of the streets in the business sectio n were hard surfaced and had good sidewalks. The reign of King Sand was nearing an end. The year 1900 also brought a greatly e xtended sewerag e system. The first sewers had been laid in 1890 but they served only the ma in business section now the system was e xtend e d to other parts of town. All the sewers, of co urse emptied into the river. To pay for all this "extravagance," prope rty was reapprai sed and assessed at $5,544,819 and the tax rate was increased to 20 mi lls. The anti-tax ers groaned b u t for a t ime booming Tampa paid little attention to their groaning. Despi te the revived community spirit T am pa had to get along with fewer street lights and a curtailed trolley system during the f i rst half of 1899. This was due to grievous trouble the. Consum ers Electric Light and Street Railway Company h ad wi th Hillsborough County's cattle barons. l}'ll894 the C onsumers absorbed th e Florida Electric Company, s ue cessor to t he Tampa Electric Ligh t 8c Power Co. and thereby acquired the city street lighting cont ract. A year later the company started bui l d ing a $150,000 dam on the H illsborough Ri ver. I t was completed late in the summer of 1897. When the dam filled up, water cove r ed hundreds of acres forme rly use d by cattlemen a s grazing lands. The comp any had purchased the overflowed la)1ds, paying high prices. But that made n o dif fere nce to the cattle barons-they viewed th e dam as a dastardly infring ement of their God-give n right to graze their cows anywhere the creatures care d to roam. They seethed with anger. And on Tuesday ni ght, December 13, 1898, the dam was blown u p with dynamite. Almost everyone kne w who was guilty-but no arrests were made. The cattle barons were still too powe r fu l. Six months were required to clear away the wreckage and rebuil d the dam. In t he meantime, the generating capaci t y of the plant was greatly reduc ed, many street cars had to be taken off their runs and ma ny street lights remain ed unlighted Financiall y weakened by the sabo tage, the Consumers company sold its fran chise and properties on O cto ber 2, 1899, to the Tampa Electric C ompany, a new corporation of easte rn capitalists h eaded by Stone 8c webster, of Boston. George J. Baldwin, of Savannah Ga., was

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AT TtiE TuRN OF THE CENTURY 215 named president; Peter 0. Knight, vice-president; Elliot Wadsworth, secre ta ry; C. A. Stone, treasure r and H enry G. Bradlee, manager. The decease of the Consumers caused the loss of one of the city's most unusual sights-the private trolley car of Mrs. C. vV. Chapin, principal fina ncial backer of the company. Mrs. Chapin had used the private car to sally forth majesti cally to do her shopping, visit friends, and go sight-see ing-now this privileg e was de n ied her. I t was a grievous blow. The Cha pins soon afterward left the city When the Tampa El ectric assumed control, the city's t ro ll ey system consisted of 21\12 miles of track. Main lines extended to Ybor City, West Tampa and Bal last Point and two branch lines ran out of Ybor City, one to DeSoto Park, completed October 18, 1894, and the other to the company's dam, five miles north, completed in 1897. In those bygone days before the automob ile era one of Tampa's most popular forms of amusement was ''t aking the trolley" out to Ballast Point or DeSoto Park The latter place boasted of little except a beauti ful picnic grounds, an excellent beach and a f ish ing dock but Balian Point had a large, open-air dancing pavil ion and theatre, a large bath house, a restaurant where shore dinners were sened, and many amuse ment attractions. The Tampa Electric later spent many thousands of l'ltoc 1;7 lfr. When Tampa'$ post office and fedetal building was completed in 1904 it was the finest govern ment building in all Sou1h Florida.

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216 TAMPA dollars developing the point, naming it Jules Verne Park. Still later the Tampa Electric donated both Ballast Point and De Soto Park to Tampa for use as parks. Sulphur Springs, long noted for its famous springs and natural beauty, was first developed and opened to the public by Dr. J. H. Mills who purchased the property in 1900 from J. H. Krause. The springs could be reached only by horse and buggy or bicycle over a narrow, winding road and by crossing the Hillsborough over a rickety, one-way bridge. Late in 1 908 a trolley line to the springs was built by the Tampa & Sulphur Springs Traction Co., headed by H. H. Kilpatrick and John P. Martin. The firm of Swann &: Holtsinger backed the project Far more exciting to Tampa youngsters than trolley rides were the excursions on Tampa Bay steamers to the Gulf beaches at Anna Maria and Pass-a -Grille-adults, 75 cents for the round trip; children, 40 cents. With picnic baskets loaded heavily with food whole families would go on the excursion boats, leaving early in the morning from the Jackson Street dock. The excursionists would not return until after dark, and they would be tired and sun-burned-but happy. Those were the never-to-be f orgotten days! Tampa Acquires the Tampa Bay Hotel At 2:55 Friday afternoon, June 23, 1899, Tampa lost a real friend -Henry Bradley Plant. The railroad magnate died suddenly in his northern home at 586 Fifth Avenue, New York. Just a few weeks before, it seemed, the courtly old gentleman had been seen following the gardener around the grounds of the Tampa Bay Hotel, looking at the flowers of tl1e exotic plants and watching the gorgeous peacocks strut their feathers. Then he had left in his palatial private car, "No. 100," waving farewell ta friends who had gathered to see him off. His death came as a shock to the entire city and particularly to those who knew how much he had been interested in Tampa's future. Both newspapers paid him high tribute, flags were flown at half mast, and many business places closed Monday afternoon while his funeral was being held in New York. The passing of the railroad king caused the fate of the Tampa Bay Hotel to become uncertain. Many other fine hotels had been built in strictly tourist localities and the Tampa Bay had declined in popularity. It had been less than half-filled for several seasons. Manager A E. Dick operated it o n ly at a heavy loss. Plant's friends joked about it and called it "Pl ant's Folly." But he would laugh and say it was worth every cent it had cost him, simply because it enabled him to listen to the majestic music of the German pipe organ.

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AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 217 In his will, Plant stipulated that his property should not be par titioned until h i s great-grandson, then four years old,-reached maturity. To accomplish this, Plant had tried to become a citizen of Connecticut where the laws permitted such an arrangement. But in the contest of his will by his widow, he was declared a citizen of New York and the provision was annulled. Soon afterward, announcement was made that properties of the Plan t System had been absorbed by the Atlantic Coas t Line Railroad. In addi t ion to t he Savannah, Florida & V.T estern Railway, the parent of the railroad empire, t he Plant System owned twelve smaller roads. Altogether, it had 2,139 miles of track. The capital stock totalled $23,403,900 and was owned by t he Plant Investment Company wh ic h also owned seven steamship lines extending from Nova Scotia to Cuba, and the great port facilities at fort Tampa. In addition, the company owned the Port Tampa Inn, the Belleview Hotel at Belleair, the Seminole Hotel at Vinter Park, and hotels at Ocala, Kissimn1ee and Punta Gorda. The railroads of the Plant System were merged with the ACL on May I 1902. The Tampa Bay Hotel, unlike the other properties, was not owned by the Plant Investment Company. Plant's son, Morton, owned 82 per <:ent of t he hotel stock and Mrs. Plant owned 18 per cent. At first, Mrs. Plant wanted to give the property to t he Jesui t College but her step -son objected. A sort of feud developed-and the hotel remained closed. The closing of me hotel was a blow to Tampa, and civic leaders demanded that it should be acquired by the city, if possible. Finally, late in 1904, the heirs agreed to sell, for $125,000 cash. The necessary bonds were approved 481 to 67 at an election January 24, 1905, and the purchase was completed tl1e following June 22-after Mayor F. A. Salomonson had been compelled by the courts to sign t h e bonds. The worthy mayor insisted that the 500-room hotel, with its luxurious fur nishings and 150 acres of land-the finest property in the city-wasn't worth such a large amount. Soon after the hotel was purchased, the city lease d it to David Lauber, of Buffalo, for $10,000 a year and it was reopened the follow ing January. The fate of something even more important than the Tampa Bay Hote l also hung in the balance for a few years after the turn of the century. That was the :Fort Brooke military reservatio n. H omesteaders Get the Reservation When the beautiful Fort Brooke military reservation souili of whiting Street was opened to homesteaders in March, 1883, the choicest p'onion was claimed by Dr. Edmund S. Carew, of Arredondo. Alachua County The remainder of the 148.11 acres was claimed during the

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218 TAMPA next few days by nineteen other would b e h o mesteaders. Squatters a l s o rus hed o nto the land and lived i n hastily erecte d tar paper shanties and wooden s hacks. I ncluded among the squatters was one of the most colorful men who ever l ived in Tampa, a self-confessed Russia n nihilist who sai d his name was Dr. Frederick N. vVeightnovel. Unde r the R ussian s leader ship, the squatte rs said they intended to in corp orate the town of Mos cow: Armed with clubs th e y t hreatened to repel invaders. But after a shor t p eriod of squabblin g they gave up their town -founding ideas and b ecame peaceful. Thereafter, Dr. Weightnovel re mained in the limelight for many y ears His black, bush y hair hung down on his and was an e xc ellent advertis e me n t for the hair toni c h e peddl ed. A remarkab l y strong man, he was an e xcellent swimmer and liked nothing better than to demonst rate his ability t o excursio nists at Pic n ic Isl and, eating his dinne r, smok ing cigar ette s and r eadin g newsp apers whil e floating on his back And a fter h e attracted a crowd, he would sell his hair tonic to the onlookers. The most notorious incident con n ected with h i s caree r was a cele bration h el d by his "Free L ove Soci e ty," made up of some of the town's gayest young bla des. After a parade t hrough Ybor City, the free lovers banquetted at t he old H abana Hotel. The windows exte nded do wn to the floor and a crowd which qui c kl y gath e r e d had a fu ll vi ew o f the activi ties within,-.induding the cav ortings of N eg ro girl waitresses, all star k naked. T his was a little too muc h even for broad minded Tampapolice and s heri f f's deputies ra i ded the p l ace and many of the free lovers were haul ed off to jail. That e nded the society During the last few yea r s of his life, the Russian op erated a hos pital" in a t wo-story building on Whiting: n ear Franklin. Everyone said he performe d aborti ons But he was permitted to keep tbe place open until a young woman died there. From evi dence secured in a raid which foll owed, \.Veightnove l was ind i cted. S hortl y af terward he d i ed, on Ma y 19, 190 6 It was be l ieved he poisoned himself. M ore than twenty years of bitterly fought, expensive legal battles follo wed the occupation of .the ganison by the homestead ers. The bat tl e against them was waged by heirs of Robert]. Hackl e y th e young New Yorker who came t o Tampa Bay i n the fall of 1823 and establi shed a planta t ion on the river bank, only to be th row n off a few months later by Col. George Mercer Broo k e who tl\e site for a garrison. H a ck ley s heirs contended that he had a legal ri g h t to the property ina smuch as he had settle d t here f irst and would have occupied it per manentl y had he not b een disposs essed His intentions were clearly shown, th e y said, by the fact that he had later tried repe atedly to pre-

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AT THE TURN Oil THE CENTURY 219 empt the land and buy it from the government but was b locked because it was held as a military reserv ation. The battl e was waged first in th e Department of the Interior and then in the F ederal co urts First one side w o n and then the other. But regardless of who won, t he battle was carried on to highe r cou rts. The con troversy became eve n m o r e in tense after the Fl orida Centra l 8: P eninsular Rail road extended its tracks throug h the rese rvation in the sprin g of 1890 and built depots and warehouses there. The r ail road purchased the rights of some of the homesteaders and, consequently the home steaders' battle became the railroad's battle. Quite possib l y the railroad shouldered most o f the e xp ense of t he l itigation Be t hat as it may, the legal scrap con tinued, o n and o n. Dr. Carew took n o hand in th e b at tli ng. The kindly old doctor, beloved by everyone in Tampa, spent most of his time in his garden at t h e garrison raising st rawberries and vegetab le s which he brought to h i s friends in town. On December 31, 1886, while v isitin g in Gaines ville, he died sudden ly. Thereafter the land t i tle battl e w a s car ri ed on by his heirs. His widow c ontinued to live in the old offic ers' quarters. Tampa's extremely rapid growth during tlte late 1880s and ear l y 1890s made th e land more and mo re valuab le. And, also, more a nd m ore needed for the develo pment of a harbor inasmuch as it contained thousands of fee t of wa t erfron tage on the r iver and Hillsbo rough Bay. Gambli ng on t h e chance tltat th e homeste aders would win the l ega l fight, Ed ward M Hendry and Andrew J. Knight ; members of two pioneer families, purchased the ri ghts to 59 acres early in 1895 s ub d ivided the land int o small lo ts and filed the plat on August 16. F ew sales we r e made at that time, however, due to the fact that the title was still clouded Finally, late in the fall of 1904, the famous land dispute, known as the Scott vs. Carew case, reac hed the Uni ted States Sup reme Court and was argu ed on Novembe r 7 and 8. And on January 3, 1905, the Supreme Court h ande d down it s de c isi on, upho lding the claims of th e homesteaders and rejecting t he cl a im s of the Hackley heirs H ac kley the court said, h ad no right to preempt t h e l a nd when he went the re in 1823 inasmu ch as the act of preemption appl ying to Florida was not passed by Congress unti l April 22, 1 826. T herefore h e was actually trespassing on the public domain and the army had had a perfect right to dispossess him. Furthermore, his later claim to the land invalid because he ha d no right to claim land in a mi l itary reservation. Hom esteaders' claim s upheld by the S u pre me Court includ ed t hose of the heirs of Dr. Carew, of Louis B ell, who had died Nov ember 19, 1885, and of And rew Stilli ngs ; also the claims of Frank Jones, E. B. Chamberlain and a Negro, Julius Caesar

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220 TAMPA Shortly after the Supreme Court handed down its decision, the reservation was taken into the city l imits and it soon became the site of Tampa's first real harbor. PrehistoTic Monsters B ttild a Harbo1 Strange, weird creatures, unlike anytl1ing on the earth today, roamed the land and inhabited the sea a million years or so ago when Florida was being formed. Through some mysterious process of Mother Nature's, the bodies of these prehistoric creatures were converted through the passing eons into almost inexhaustible deposits of phosphate. As everyone knows, phosphate is v i tally needed throughout the world for making fertilizer. To place it on board ships, harbors are obviously required. And since Tampa happened to be most advantage ously located near many of the greatest phosphate deposits of the state, the Federal government finally was persuaded to provide Tampa with one of the finest harbors in the South. Before the phosphate deposits were discovered Tampa pleaded year after year with Congress for an adequate harbor development appropriation-but got scarcely anything. Tampa's harbor woes can be traced back to 1824 when Colonel Brooke selected the east bank of the Hillsborough as the site for an army garrison. He chose the spot only because Hackley had built a house there which could be used to provide excellent quarters for his officers-and himself. Also, because Hackley had cleared some land where gardens could be planted. Colonel Brooke paid little or no attention to the fact that tl1e channel of the Hillsborough was only several feet deep and that any sea-going vessel would have to anchor a t least two mi les down the bay, beyond the sandy shoals He had plenty of_men to bring in supplies on lighters and all the time in the world to get the task accomplished. So why worry about a harbor? The colonel didn't-but it wasn't long before others did. As early as 18 46 merchants of Tampa petitioned Congress fo r enough money to deepen the channel a few feet and take out some of its most t ortuous curves, but the pleas were in vain Congress gave nothing. In 1854 the United States Navy charted Tampa Bay to determi n e the best location for a railroad terminal, 32,12 1 soundings being made The report, made in 1855 by a Lieutenant Berryman, was not favorable to Tampa. It showed that Tampa had only five feet of water, or Jess. for a distance of two miles from shore while at the present s ite of St. Petersburg e leven feet of water was found less than half a mile out. Not until 1880, when politically influential railroad promoters began casting.eyes toward Tampa Bay, did Congress appropriate a li ttl e

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AT THE TUR.N OF THE CNTUR.Y 221 money for channel dredging at Tampa. And not until early 1883. when Henry Bradley Plant announced that he would positively build a road to Tampa, did the dredging start. The government dredge Alabama appear ed in Hillsborough Bay in January and started pump ing. By the end of 1885, a narrow, twisting. 8-foot channel had been made up the river to about I 00 feet below the Lafayette Street bridge. Steamers of.shallow draft could now dock in the city without trouble Tampa' s hope s o f getting a big-ship channel were blasted at t h at time, however when U. S. engineers declared that its cost wou l d be excessively high in view of the amount of waterborne commerce then foreseeable. They recomm ended that most of t he government money be spent thereafter at O l d Tampa Bay where a natural deep water chan nel was relativ ely close to shore. Because of that reco mmendation, Plant hurriedly made plans for extending his railroad to Port Tampa. (Sec Chapter VII.) Early in 1891, a 20foot channel 200 feet wide was completed to Port Tampa. Up t o that time the government had spent only $130,000 i n both Hill sborough B ay a n d Old T ampa Bay. But the day o f niggardly harbor appropriations was nearing an end. Phosphate had been discove red in Florida. J. Francis LeBaron, of Jacksonville, a govern ment surveyor, been credited with being the discoverer of phosphate in Florida The story is that he found pebble phosphat e in the Peace River district in 1881 but kept his discovery secret for five years and, consequ ently no one kne w that Florida had phosp hate until 1886. That story does not check with the f acts. When the Alabama was dredging the Hill sboFough channel in April, 1883 phosphate rock was brought to the surface. Samples were sent to the Ashley Phosphate Company, of Charleston, S. C., and an analysis showed the rock was of high quality Newspaper stories stated that the Ashley company then purchased 3,000 acres of phosphate land in the Tampa Bay region and at Charlotte Harbor, Braid en Creek and Terra C eia. That was in the summer of 1883. The first pebble phosphate mining operations were started, old records show, early in 1888. The first miner was T. S. Moorehead, of Pennsylvania who bought the rich bars at Arcadia and went into business under the name of the Arcadia Phosphate C ompany. His first shipment of ten cars was made in May, 1888 to the Scott Manufacturing Co., of Atlanta, Ga., owned by Col. G. W. Scott, with whom he had a distribution arrangement. Shipments were made regularly thereafter but the public was not informed of the mining operations until a year later. In the meantime, Scott bought great tracts of phosphate land in the Peace River district.

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222 TAMPA Rich deposits of rock phosphate were discovered May 17, 1 889, by a German homest eader Albertus Vogt while he was drilling on his 160-a cre tract of sand and wire grass in Ma r ion County north of Dunnellon. News of the discovery quickly spread and in a few tnonths F l orida was overrun by prospectors almost like California had been in the '49 gold rush. Southbound trai n s were crowded with prospecting parties loaded down with picks and shovels and camp equipment They swarmed all over the state, making test holes everywhere. Di ggers were hired at skyhigh wages and farmers profited handsomely by renting out ve hicle s and draft animals Fortunes were made in buying and sell ing land Many pho sphate mi nes were opened during the following year aml Tampa becam e the princip al shipping point. The mineral b egan pour ing into t h e c i ty by the train load and elevators were hurriedly erected at Port Tampa. During 1892, shipm ents totalled 345,327 tons more than all other exports combined. Much pebble phosphate was dredged up in the Alafia River and brought into Tampa by barge. To dry it for shipment, a drying plant was erected on t he river near P latt. It was called the P e ru vian Phosphate works Later, ano ther drying p l ant, called the Tampa Phosphate works, was opened by Perry G. wa ll. The worldwid e depress ion startin g in 1892 had a serious effect on the phosphat e industry European countries, the heaviest purc hasers, bought sparingly and prices at the mine dropped from $17 and $18 a ton to $ 5.5 0. Man y mines closed and shipments did not get back to the 1892 f i gure until after the dep r ession ended. But from then on they climbed steadily. With the revival of the industry in the late 1890s, C ongress was bombarded with demands from officials of the FC&P rai l road that harbor improvements be made im mediately in the Hill sborough River. They pointed out that thei r roa d passed thro-ugh rich phosphate regions but that shipments had to be switched over to the Plant System and to Port Tampa for trans shipment by water. They in sisted that the Plant System had been given an unfair competitive advantage through the government's improvement of Port Tampa, which the Plant System owned outri ght. Tampa business men joined in the demand for improved shipping facilities They pointed out that only small shallow -draft steamers could get through the narrow, twisting channel and tie up at Tampa wharves, and that the growth of Tampa was being retarded by the Plant System's mono poly of deep sea shippi ng. Port Tampa by that time Ftad been deve lo ped into one of the finest ports on the Gulf coast Two immens e piers had been built, extending out to deep water. Between the piers was a basin, 2 5 feet deep, where

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AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 223 an entire fleet of vessels could dock Many warehouses and elevators had been built and the rai l road yards were over a mile long. The port also boasted of the Port T ampa Inn, built out over the water, where guests could fish out of their windows. Port Tampa had become a thriving, bustling town. On March 3, 1899, Congress passed an act providing for improve ments at both Port Tampa and Tampa. The Port Tampa project pro vided for deepening the channel from 20 to 27 fee t and widening it from 200 to 300 feet. The Tampa project provided for a straight, 1 2 foot channel from deep water through Grassy Island to within I 00 feet of the Lafayette Street bridge, with a turning basin at the mouth of the river. This project was completed in 1 900. \'\ T hile it was much less than Tampa had hoped for, it nevertheless indicated that \Vashington at last realized Tampa existed as well as Port Tampa. Tampa's real port development dates from March 3, 1905, when Congress appropriated $350,000 to provide a channel 20 f:eet deep from the mouth of r i ver to the 20-foot contour in the bay, embracing the 12-foot channel made in I 900. Credit for getting this appropriation was given to Stephen M. Sparkman, member o f a pioneer Hillsborough County family, who had been elected to Congress in 1894 from the Ph()tt> b y 8r6$, t raffic wa::; no problem in Tampa hack in 1912 when this photograph was taken. Construction work wai then undcnvay on t he ne w Cilitens Bank building; the sk)scraper at the right, beyond the oou r thouse, was the Hillsboro Hotel whkh had ju::;t been oompleLcd.

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224 TAMPA First D istrict. Before going to Congress and afterward, Sparkman had served as counsel for the Plant System and had been accused of being more in terested in the development of Plant's Port Tampa than in Tampa. Bu t when Sparkman bec ame a member o f the Rivers a nd H ar bors Committee, he plugged Tampa incessa ntly and th ere i s little doubt but that his efforts made possible Tampa's splendid harbor of the present time . W o rk on t he 20f oot channel was started late in 1905, almost co n currently with the beginning of the so-called Hendry & Knight channel on t h e south side of the old military reservation. This channel 20 feet deep and 300 feet wide, extended eastward about 2,000 feet from the turning basin at the mouth of the Hill sborough. The firm of: Hendry &: Knight composed of Edward M H end ry and Andre w J. Knight, had started acquiring properti es in t h e reserva tion during the 1890s, while var ious claimants of the land were still fight i ng in the courts for its possession. By the time the Supreme Court finally decided on J anuary 3, 1905, that the homesteaders' claims were valid, the firm h ad gotten possession of a large part of the reservation. And when the court deci1iion lifted the last cloud from the land title the f irm proceeded to dredge its channel and buil d terminals along the waterfront. The first steamship company which used the terminals and the channel was the M all ory L i ne ; cons eque ntly, the chann el was often referred to as th e Mallory Channel. While th e channel projects were proceeding, the Seab oard Air Line Railway had been most active The Seaboard, incidentally, officially absorbed the FC&P on August 15, 1903. After the merger the Sea board lost no t ime in sewing up almost the entire waterfront in tl1e Tampa area T his was done by P eter 0. Knight, attorney for the ra il road, who by that time had become one of Tampa's most influ ential cit izens. Knight's first outstanding achievement for the rai lroad was the purchase of the marsh flats south of th e garrison owned by the heirs of wm. B. Henderson. And, at Knigh t's request, the city waived all its rights t o submerged lands around the island. Sand then was dredged out of the harbor channels and used to build up the i sland well above sea level. The fills were made under the directio n of A. E. Seddon, one armed construction engineer of the Seaboard and the island was named in his honor, Seddon Island. In 1909 a $17 5 000 steel drawbridge was built to connect the island with the mainland and phosphat e elevators were co nstructed there. Knight also took a l ea ding part in securing all th e franchises and land needed by the Tampa Northern Railroad, the third railroad to come into Tampa. The line. which extended to Brooksvill e, was com pleted Oc tober I, 1907. For this road, Knigh t purchased 40 acres adjoin-

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AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY 225 ing DeSoto Park and also all of Hooker's Point, named for its original owner, William B. Hooker. The city waived its rights to the submerged lands around Hooker's Point, at Knight's request, just as it had done at Seddon Is l and. The Tampa Northern was offic i ally absorbed by the Seaboard on July I, 1912. As a result of Knight s achievements, the Seaboard obtained undisputed possession of more than five miles of waterfront-and an is l and of priceless value. 'Vork on the 20-foot channels was well advanced by early summer of 1908 and on June 25 the fir s t large steamer arrived in Tampa. She was the 2 ,048ton Rio Gmnde, a freighter of the Mallory Line. Almost everyone in Tampa swarmed to the waterfront to witness the history making event. The Mallory terminal had not yet been completed so the ship did not discharge or take on any cargo -just a few passengers disembarked. Large seagoing ships began making Tampa a regular port of call late in 1908. The Mallo ry Line ran ships to New York, Key West and Mobile; the Southern Steamship Company started a service between Tampa and Phi l adelphia, and the Penn Steamship Line operated ships between Tampa and New Orleans. T erminals also were constructed by exporters of lumber and naval stores. Ships began arriving in such numbers by late 1909 that the harbor became congested. It was obvious that the channel would have to be widened and deepened and more waterfront space made avai l able. And at the insistence of Sparkman, Congress on June 25, 1910, authorized a tremendous deve l opment program, to cost $1, 750,000 or more a project, which when developed completely, gave T ampa its harbor of today. It will be discussed later The most useless structure ever built in the Tampa area was con structed in 1909 in connection with the Seaboard's development of Seddon Island. The railroad put down many tracks for a switch yard iust east of Meridian Street despite vehement denunciations of nearby property owners who declared that street traffic was being blocked. To still the outcry, the Seaboard built a long v iaduct over the tracks from the end of Washington Street. East of the viaduct there was nothing but waste marshlands and the structure was never used except by Tampa's early motorists who tested their motors by driving up the steep eastern ramps. The structure which cost at least $100,000, was torn down in the early 1940s and its useless existence finally terminated Tampa Devdops as tt Comrnenial Center Tampa's standing as the leading commercial center of the Florida West Coast was materially strengthened by the completion of the first major harbor development project in 1908. But it had won that stand

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226 TAMPA ing at least twenty years before soon after the first train puffed into town and gave Tampa rail connections with the outside world. Tampa stores stocked all human needs from the cradle to the grave and people came to Tampa from far up and down the coast and deep inland, in sail soats and lumbering ox carts, to do their shopping And, to get more business Tampa wholesale establishments started sending out sa l esmen as early as the mid 1880s Stopping in every com munity where there was a store, those pioneer drummers helped greatly to spread Tampa' s fame. By the turn of the century, Tampa wholesalers were sending goods to all parts of South Florida. The leading hardware wholesaler was the firm of Knight & Wall whose business ha d become so large by 1892 that it had to erect a ne w three story business block at Tampa a n d Lafayette to house its merchandise. In 1900 Tampa had three well-established wholesale groceries J. Q. Brantley I. S. Giddens & Co., and the Tampa Wholesale Grocery Company, operated by T P Light f oot Crenshaw Brothers and J. P. Hardee &: Company were wholesale dealers in fruits and vegetables, Phillips & Fuller wholesaled building supplies. The Bentley Gray Dry Goods Company was widely recognized as one of the leading wholesale dry goods firms of the state. Nick Kokin had built up a thriving busi ness in t ropical fruits. Both the Tampa Harness &: Wagon Company, operated by Thomas N. Henderson, and E D. Hobbs & Company were wholesaling bicycles as well as wagons bugg ies and harness Robert Mugge sold beer and liquor all over South Florida and his business was f lourishing. iVIost of the merchandise shipments to towns on Tampa Bay were handled at the turn of the centur y by the Independent Line a sub sidiary of the FC&P Railroad which operated the Manatee and Te,asia. The line was managed by vV. R. Fuller The boats clocked at t he foot of Jackson Street where a pier was rent ed from the city for $50 a year. The Manatee was one of the best known boats which ever plied the waters of Tampa Bay and is still remembered by many old t imers. Freight and passengers also were carried on t he tri m little Mistletoe, owned by the Florida Fish & ke Company, headed by John Savarese. And on January 16, 1900, the Plant Steamship Company put tl1e fast H. B. Plant on the vVest Coast run; lat er, this f ine boat was used in Tampa Bay. Another famous boat, the Favo1ite came to Tampa Bay on October 17, 1906 T he 500-passenger steamer was purchased in New York for $80,000 by the Tampa Bay Transportation Company, headed by F. A. Davis, pioneer St. Petersburg developer. A t tha t t ime, Davis had iisions of .making St Petersburg the "\Vest Coast's leading port, just as others had had before and still others have had since.

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Ar T H E TURN OF T H E CENTURY 227 By 1908, so many steamers were operating on Tampa Bay that a steamship war developed, first one company and then the other c u tting passenger fares and freight rates. The war was finally ended on March 27, 1909, when a merger of various interests was effected and the St. Petersburg Transportation Company was organized, headed by H. Walter Fuller The company, commonly known as the Favorite Line, operated the Favorite, Manatee, H. B. Plant, Terasia and the Vandalia, a small 81-foot boat. The Vandalia soon burned in St. Petersburg and Fuller bought the Pokonoket to replace her. The names o f those steamers of yesterday arc meaningless to the younger people of today. But their names should be presened-they are symbols o f one of the most glamorous periods in the history of Tampa, an era that has gone forever. Its passing was the inevitable consequence of the development of a new form of transportation the automobile. Devil Wagons Come to Tampa A strange contraption chugged down Franklin Street one sunshiny day in February, 1901. At first glance it looked jus t like an ordinary carriage. But no horses were pulling it-and it moved regardless. All of ten miles an hour-a tenific speed. To clear the way, the driver honked a horn repeatedly-and peopk came running from the stores to see what was happening. Horses tied up at hitching posts along the street l ooked at the weird vehicle, reared up o n their hind legs and snorted in fear The contraption was a steam Locomobile-a buggy with an engine in the back. It was a strange creation but it ran, all by itself, and attracted no end of a ttent ion because it was the firs t "horseless carriage" ever driven on Tampa streets The owner was Edward Manrara, o ne of the town's leading citizens, and the driver was Frank Bruen, manager of the Tampa Gas Company. People laughed at l\hnrara for fooling around with such a crazy contrivance. Why he couldn't go two blocks without getting stuck in the sand! And then he'd have to get some one to push him out and start him going again Why didn't he stick to his dependable horse and buggy and be sure of getting tO places he wanted to go? But the devi l wagons had come to stay. Before 190. 1 ended, Victor James, working i n Fred Ferman's bicycle shop built a gasoline car-and it ran. Early in 1902 Benja min &: Owens began selling Locomobiles in their bicycle shop at 608 Franklin and made their first sale to Dr. L G. Lamer. Later in the year Dr. H. H. Stebbins and Ed Bryan proudly drove Cadillacs th rough the streets and in February 1903, Fred Ferman sold his first four cars O ldsrnobiles-to W. H. Kendrick Ernest Berger, E C. Tibbetts and Hubert King.

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228 'T'AMPA Eel Bryan was the fi rst motorist to venture as far out of town as St. Petersburg. He made the long journey in the incre d ible time of eight hours. That was truly fast time i n those clays because good roads were non-existent. The only roads the motorists had were actually little m ore than tra il s which zigzagged through the pine wo ods and around swamps and swales In places, the wheels sank hub deep in clutching sand and in .other places they sank in equally clutching mttd. During the rainy season m any of t h e roads were impassable for months. As late as 1905, Hillsborough County's annual appropriation for roads and bridges was just $,19,000 and Hillsborough at that time took in the present Pinellas County. Motoring in th ose bygone days was true ad ventur i ng but, despite its hazards, the number of autos in Tampa increa sed steadi ly. By the beginning o f 1906 ther e were more than a hundred in operation a nd t.he owners organized Tampa's first automobi le club. Tours as far away as Clearwater and Tarpon Sp ring-s were made And occasionally a few of the members journeyed way dow n to Manatee. In October 1909, City Editor Willis B. Powell ofthe TAM I' A TIMES conceived the idea of promoting an endurance race to Jackson ville and return to focus public attention on the need for better roads. Publisher D B McKay gave his approval and so did the T ampa Automobile Club. And the race was run, starting on T uesday, Nov ember 23, 1909-the first cross cou ntry race in the history of F lorida Eighteen cars took part in the momentous event T he contestants were: Ambrose Davis, in a Maxwell; Victor James, Maxwe ll : Isaac Craft Chalmers Detroit ; Ed T. Lewis Cadillac ; H orace Williams, E M-F; F. A. Wood, Reo; George Prestman American; T. E Bryan, Premier; L. R. Wood, Cadillac ; Capt. H. L. Johnson, E-MF; Dr. J. S. Helms Premier; D. F. Owen Ford ; E. G. Hester, Hudso n; Perry G. Wall, Chalmers Detroit; C. W. Green, Franklin; C. E. Tufts, E M F ; Joe B Johnson, Buick, and H. E. Snow Chalmers-Detroit. Begoggled and enshrouded in l inen dusters the contestants lef t the TAMPA TIMES office early in the morning preceded by a "confetti" car; driven by the pilot, B M. Reed. The car was called the "co n fetti" car because the pilot dropped confetti at crossroads so the drivers f ol lowing would know the route. Others in the car were L. D Reagin d i r e ctor of publicity; Frank Bruen, chief observer, and Dr. J. S. Helms, race physician. Other race officials who went in other cars were C. 'IN. Greene, chaitman; E. F Buchanan, secretary, and C. S. vVashington, reeree The official starter was E. F. McConahah sales manager of. the Studebaker Company, who came t o Tampa especially for the race. The route selected was through Plant City Dad e City, Brooksville, Du nne llon, Ocala and Micanopy to Gainesville, the end of the first

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AT THE TUII.N OF THE CENTURY 229 day's run. M any miles of the so-called road ran through heavy sand and t he drivers had to cut palmetto fronds and lay them in the ruts in order t o proceed. The w ea ther turned co ld after the racers pas sed through Ocala a n d by th e time they reached Gainesville long after dark some of the motori sts w ere nearly frozen. On the second day, t he contestants went through to J ac k sonv ille and then turned south to St. Augustin e where they rema ined overnight. O n the third clay, Than ksgiving D a y they reached Kissimmee and on the fourth day they lim ped into Tampa, begrimed and exhaus ted The entire route of 543 mi l es was covered in approxim at el y 53 h ours of breaknec k drivi ng time, or about ten miles an hour. The hard lu c k driver of the group was F. A. 'Wood, presi dent of the First Nation a l Bank of St Petersbu rg. While passing through Ybor City at the start of t h e race, he hit a 7 5 year o ld man, Francis Falsone, and bruised him severe ly. At Plan t City h e drove through a litter of pigs killed several and had to pa y damages. Nine miles north of Ormond on th e return trip, he ran into a stump and broke an a xle. He and his mechanic Bert Joughin tied it together with fence wire 1'/totl'l' by Brw. Uan:m:tll are n ot th e prit,cip:al import of 1>11t they a c most photugcnic. )Jan)' nf a he luscious rruic :u e hrought i:n eve1 y wc.:'Ck frmn the.: p l anta ti ons of Central America.

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230 TAMPA and proceed ed. And just before he got ba c k into Tampa, he crashed into a tree and sma sh ed his radiato r. N one o f the drive rs made t he run without some kind of a break down o r accident. T wo of the cars were so bad l y dama ged that the o wners h ad to drop ou t of the race. F orty-si x blow outs and punctures were reported and eleven new t ires had to be purchas e d. H orace Williams, of St. Petersburg, was awa rded first prize for the touring car group and Perry G. wan, second prize. Wall's car was called th e kid's car" b ecause it was driv e n by two youngster s under 14, H. E. Snow, Jr., and Sp e n cer Snow First prize in the runabout class wem to Ambrose Davis and the second prize to Vic to r A. J ames. The e n durance run was far more than just ano ther a u to race. It marked the birth of t he Good Roads movement in Florida. In eve r y town and village alo ng the r o ute, th e contestants were greeted by en thusiasti c crowd s and everywhere they wer e to l d that every effort would be mad e f rom the n on t o get bette r highway s (or Florida The good roads did not come at once, of course, but the need for them was recog nized-and that represented a great victory for the Good R oads boosters. H ardly anyon e realized it then but the Good Roads movement was destined to ha ve a tremendous bearing on the future growth of T amp a Hillsbor ough County and the entire stat e of Florid a

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C H APTER X T AMPA SPENDS FOR FUTURE 6 R OWTI-I A NECRO DRIVINC A TEAM of mules started cross ing the newly -buil t S e m i nole Bridge on P inellas Peninsula early Tuesday, September 12, 1911. When the team was ha lfway across the flimsy str uctu re bega n swayi ng from sid e to side-and sud denly it collapsed. T he Negr o ;md the mules fell into the bayou The water was shallow so they got to s hore unharmed. The bridge was a wrec k and down in St. Petersburg, automobi l e club memb ers cursed fluen tly and l ong For many, many momhs they had plead ed with Hill sbor ough Count y commissioners to build th e sorely need ed span and had even contrib uted $2,50 0 toward its $10,000 cons truction cost. And now it was ruined be yond repair. Half of i t had floated out into B oca Ciega Bay and the other half was lying c razily <;>n its side. If the bridge had bee n constructed right the motorists moaned, this never would have happened. Just another exa mple of Hills borough Coumy inef ficiency, they said. T wo months lat er, on November 14, voters in the \ Vest borough district were called upon to approve or defeat a bill by the state legislature the preceding May providing for the creation of Pinella s County out of Hillsbor oug h. Members of the St. Petersbur g Automo bile Club l ed the rati fication fi ght. And the bill was approved 1 ,379 to 505. Pinella s County became a fact -and Hill sborough lost one of its fairest secti ons There is little doubt but that the Pinellas booste rs would have won the separation battle eve n though t he bridge had remain ed standing. However, its collapse gave them th e last arguments needed for v ictory. The <"OUnty separation movement had been gaining strength year after year. People living on the peninsula claim ed they were not ge tting their proper share of tax money for roads and schoo ls. St. Pete rsburg people wer e particularly disgruntled becaus e it took them so long to reach the county seat at Tampa. Going by train required a l o ng. tire some, 160-mi l e trip way up to Trilby, south to Lakeland and then west to Tampa To drive to Tampa was next to i mpossib le ev e n after auto mobiles cam e into use because th e roads wer e so bad. The trip had to be made by boat and s c hedules made it almo st impossible to return the same day. The people o f th e peninsu l a had other griev ances many more. So perhaps the division was inevitable, regardless of how much Editor McKay fought against it in his TAMPA TIMES and Editor Sto vall rail ed in his TAMJ'A On Ja nuary I, 1912, Pinellas County came officially into existenc e

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232 TAMPA Viewed from a po li t ical standpoint, the separation may have been a calamity. Nevertheless, Pinellas managed to forge ahead quite nicely after it was severed from Mother Hillsborough's apron strings-and Mother Hillsbor ough recovered rapidly from the sh ock. The entire Tampa Bay region continued to pros per. Tampa itself kept booming. Its population more than doubled between 1900 and 1910, soaring from 15, 839 to 37,782. I t had become the se con d largest c i ty in the state and was running close on the heels of Jacksonville. Key West had been far outdistanced its days of pros perity had ended, largely because its once-flourishing cigar industry had fled. Its loss was Tampa's gain. The cigar industry continued to be the major factor in Tampa's growth and prosperity More than a hundred cig ar factories had located in Tampa by 19 10 were employing 10,500 persons. The weekly payroll averaged $200,000, almost 75 per cent of the total payroll of the city. The im portance of the industry was plainly shown when the factories were forced to dose because of general strikes. The first general stri k e occurred August 5, 1901, when Cuesta R ey &: Company disregarded a dema n d made by L a Resistencia Society that it close a branch factory in Jackson ville. Members of the International Cigar Makers Union then small, remained at work but members of La Resistencia caused so much trouble that product ion was suspended. Their member s in other plants walked out in sympat h y The strike con tinued until November 25 when sixteen of the leaders of La Resistenc ia were rounded up by a secret "vig il ance committee," marched aboard the Marie Cooper and taken to Honduras where they were dumped unceremoniously on the beach. The fed e ral authorities investiga t ed the affair but discovered nothing. Tampa's second general strike was called June 25, 1910 by the Intern ational Union when man ufac turers engaged in a price war began cutting wage rates to lower production costs. Factories were dosed for month s and business stagnated. A Citizens Comm i ttee was organized, unoff icially, to quell disorders which started when strike break ers were brought in. The strikers appea led to the governor, saying Tampa was unfair to organized labor. The governor came in, held public meet ings, and gave Tampa a dean bill of h e alth. The dissension was climaxed by the fatal shooting of J. F. Easter l i ng, a bookkeeper when he was leaving the plant of Bustillo Bros. &: Diaz. Two Italians, Angelo Albano and C. Ficarrotta, suspected of being the murderer.s ; were arrested in West Tampa. Sheriff 's deputies arrived to take them to the county jail. A mob seized the suspects near Grand Ce ntral and Howard, dragged t h em to a nea rby oa k grove, and hung them from a tree. On Decembe r 28 a grand jury reported that i t could not get any informatio n regarding d1e identity of the mob mem-

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TAMI'A FoR. FuTUR E GROWTH 238 bers. The st rik e f i n all y ended January 26, 191 I, whe n t h e union ran out of funds to pay strike benefits. T ampa then beca me an ope n shop town and rema ined one for about seven years. With th e l abor troubles ended, the ou tput of c igar s soon reached a new peak, due to the man ufacturers' n eed f o r c a t chi n g u p w i t h b ack orders Pa y rolls climbed a n d merc hant s q ui c kl y made up for los ses s us t ained during the period of inactivi t y The entire city prospered The prosperity was mate rially i n c rea sed by the record breaking d e v e lopment then occurring in a ll of south Florida. E very section was b oo ming. One of the causes for th e b oom was th e widespread publicity g i ven to r e clam a tion projects underway i n t h e onceimpenetrable fastnesses of t h e mysterious Everglade s and the natio n -wide s a le of t h e bla c k G lades' mucklands, "richer than land in the Valley of t h e N i le ." T he reclamation p r ojects, started by Governo r N apol eon B. Brow ani in 1904, se e m ed to be succeeding beyond all e xpec t a t io ns in 1909. Some of the marsh lands around La k e Okeechobee b e came dry enough for c ul tivatio n and it l oo ked as though a miracle had bee n p e r fo r med. Clever l and s p e culators wh o h ad acquire d grea t b egan waging gigantic sal e s campaig n s in a s uper -hoopla m a n n e r. The e ntire nation was o verrun by th e promoters high pressure salesm e n who insisted that a te n acre farm in the Promised Land w o ul d ., . ...;,;; by 81UIfl 8tH, Thi5 vic of the mouth o( the Hill.sl>orough Rher, taken Crom the top of t h e B a) V i ew Hotel in 191S. Jhows the marshy i:slat ld'i which were by 0. l '. Oni.<;. into Da' is lslat ,d.s. Liulc: Gnssy bland i s shown at top center while be) ontl can he: seen Big Grassy ls.Jand abo called Depot Ke, Uig Island :and R3bbil Island. l'an of Seddon Idand can be seen at the ext. remc left

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234 TAMPA make a person independent for li f e In that Empire of the Sun they ra ved, crops grew as though by magic, chickens never stopped laying, and l ife for man and beas t was full and rich R etired scho ol teachers bought farm plots and so did retire d ban k ers, profe ssiona l men and mer chants. Even experienced farmers, des irous of livi ng in t he fab led land wh ere flowers never die, purchased acreage Men and women everywhere, fr om eve r y wal k of life believed even the mos t fantastic tales about the Poor Man's P aradise. Sales ran in t o the millions. Unfortunately, the Everglades boo m had a disastrous ending. \.Vith in a few years it became evident that the reclamat ion projects had fai l ed and that the dryin g up of the Glades had been caused by an unusually long dry spell and not by the work of man. Most o f the purchas ers who came to Florida with high hopes never had a chance t o try farming. They found that th e l and the y bad purchased was under several feet of water One disgruntled purchaser moaned: I have bough t land by the Coot; I have bought land by the acre but, by God, I neve r before bought land b y the gallon." Disastrous though the boom was, it had its beneficial aspects. T he publicity given by th e nation s press to the Ev erglades befo re the l and swindle be came apparent coincided with a burst of adverti sing by 51;. Petersburg, M iami a:nd othe r mushro oming resort ci t ies and helped make the entire country "Flori da consciou s." People becam e anx i ous to sec the gloriou s place they read so much about -and to Fl orida they came. Their coming caused a statewi de boom let. In Tampa, th e boom let brought a burst of activity While it lasted, the city got its first worthwhil e real estate developmen t its f irst modern bridge across the Hill sbo rough, its first real skyscra pers i ts first city w ide paving program, its first ef.fective sewage disposal system its first union depot, and its first public library. And the county got it s first ha r d surfaced hi ghways The real estate development was th e brain child of two men of v ision who ca me to Tampa shortly aft e r th e turn of the century from Dandridge, Tenn.-Alfred Reuben Swann and Eugene Holt singer. Swan n was a wealthy p l antation owner and financ ier ; H o lt s in ger a much younger man, had been a member of one o f th e leading law f i rms of T ennessee and owned large tracts of timber land in s outh Georgia and near Wauchula, Fla. At that time the west s h ore of Hillsbor o u g h Bay south of. H yde Park Avenue was a paradis e for fidd ler crabs Dreary mud flats extended far down t he bay During the long summer months, seawe e d left on the flats by h igh tides often decomposed and sm elled to high heaven. Few pe r sons cared to liv e in such a place.

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TAMPA SPENDS FoR FuTURE GROWTH 235 8t() l lhe evolution or Bays horc Houlev:trd is shown by these photographs. The top pi<.:turc shows che mud fla t s w h ich extended along the bayfront be fore Swann &: Holtsingcr uartcd development work in 1907. The center pitture s hows the boulC\ a rd as it looked in 19Zi and the lower pict\lre t aken i n 1949, -5hows the bo\ le v ard as it is at presel\t. South of the spot tvhere the photographer stood the boulevard's two lanes ate separa ted by a pa rkway.

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236 TAMPA Convinced that these unsightly plats co ul d be converted into a high class residential district, the two newcomers from Tennessee organized the Swann & Holtsinger Company, purchased a large tract jn that area, and started developing Holtsinger directing operations. A suction dredge, named the was constructed in the Hillsborough River and put to work. It was kept pumping day and night, covering the mud flats with clean sand brought in from the bottom of the bay. A strong seawall was built-and within a few years th e development was completed. Suburb Beautiful it was called. And it was all of that. Today it is known on l y as a part o f the Bayshore district. Had the developers been so inclined, they could have sold the prop erty next to the bay for residential lots and received fancy prices. But they were convinced that Tampa as a whole would be most be nefitted by having a h ighway directly on the waterfron t So they built Bayshore Drive south from Swann Avenue to Rome Avenue where it tied in with a county road opened in the early 1890s in connect io n with the construc tion of the first trolley line to Ballast Point. In 1 914, this county road was made into a boulevard two 11foot strips of brick pavement being laid at a cost of $89,074. The boulevard was 3.12 miles long. Development of the Bayshore section and also all the territory west of the river was hastened by the construction of a new bridge across the Hillsborough. It had long been needed. The bridge erected there in 1 888 had been replaced in 1 896 by a somewhat stronger bridge which cost $66,000. But it was too nanow to accommodate the constantly in creasing traffic a nd the draw gave trouble constantly. A movement to get a wider, better bridge was started soon after t he turn of the century but a strong antitaxation group blocked all at tempts to get i t financed. The vitally needed improvement finally was obtained during the administration of Mayor D. B. McKay, first elected in 1910. An enabling act was passed by the state legislature on May 17, 1911, and on August 29 the city council passed an ordinance for the issuance of the necessary bonds. Plans were drawn by Alexander Twombley, consulting engineer of New York, and a contract for building the bridge was awarded May 8 1912, to the Edwards Construction Company. The bridge, 80 feet wide, was completed the following April at a cost of $240,000, the Tampa Electric Company paying $50,000 of its cost. The city election in the spring of 1912 was a no-quarter battle between the anti-taxation group and progressive citizens who realized that if Tampa hoped to move ahead, improvemems would have to be made -and. paid for. McKay was re-elected by a substantial majority for a four-year term Immediately after the election he called a mass mee tin g to l earn the views of citizens regarding the advisability of issuing enough bonds to get the needed improvements financed. More than 200 persons attended. Sen timent for the bonds was ovenvhelming

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TAMPA Sl't:Nus FoR FuTURE <:;RowTH 237 The rna in test cam e Augus t 2 0 1912, w hen the p ropo sed bond issue came up for app ro val or rej ection by the voters. I t called for bond s tota lling $1,700,000. Of that total, $300,000 was for a n ew city hall. $74 8,784.29 for paving and storm sewers, $551,215.71 for a sewerag e system, and $100, 000 for city dock s and parks. The bond issue was s trong l y supponed by the TM>II'A TRIBUNE, as well as b y M ayor McKay s TIMES, and when the votes were counted it was le arned that the bonds had been approv ed, 686 to 171. Tampa had decided unequivo cally that the c ity must go ahea d, re gard less of th e c ost. Pla ns for the new city ha ll were d rawn b y the Tampa architectural firm of Bonfoey & E ll i ott. I t was erected at L a fayette and Florida on the sit e of the old city hall built in 1890. Add itio nal land nee(!ed was purcha sed from the esta te of Dr. Sh e ldon Strin ger, whose old home wa s on the northw est corner of Florida an d Jackson at the rear of the old city ha ll. The cornerstone was laid in January 1915 w i th Masoni c ceremonies The princit > al speaker was Mrs. Mari a Moo re Post, widow of Madison Post, third mayor o f Tampa, and mother of D r. Duff Pos1: secon d Tampa-b orn mayor of the city. The building was const ructed by the finn o f McGue k e n&: Hyer at a cost of $235.000 and was co mplete d and occ u pi e d late in 1915. A new sewerage system, made possib le by t he $ 1 ,700 000 bon d issue, was one of the city's most pressing needs. Only a small part of tht: c ity had any sewers at all and thos e which existed, laid in 1890 and in 1900. emptied directly into the Hill sbor ough Riv er, caus i ng a dangerous p o ll ution pro blem. With the bond mo ney, sewers were laid everywher e within the corpor a te l imits and Imh off sewage disp osal plants were con str ucted th e pla ns bein g made by T womblcy & Hainey of New York City. The system was comp leted in I 915. A 20yearo ld de mand for a unio n depot fina lly was answe red in 191 I when the Atlantic Coast Line and the Sea b o ard joined forces and organized the Tampa Unio n Stat ion Company, headed by Peter 0 Knight. A co mract for a depot to cost $100 ,000 was awa rded May 1 9 to W C. Hobbs and the structure was complet ed May 15, 1 912. At th e same time the South ern Express C ompany erected an express buil d in g in t he same locality Construction of the depot was a v i ctory for th e TAMl' A TRIBUNE whi ch h ad fought for it for years Tampa's skyline wa s jabbed by skysc rapers for the first time i n 1912 when th e eightstory, 320room H i llsboro Hote l was compl ete d and two ten-story giants w ere started. one for Robert Mugge and the other for the Citizens Ban k & T rust Com pany headed by John T r ice. The H illsb oro, then the largest commercia l hotel in Florida, was built by a company h eade d by L ee B. S kinner, a native of '1\!isconsin who c am e to Flo rida in 1883, loca ted a t Dun edi n and m ade a fortun e in t he citrus industry. The h otel was started lat e i n 1911 and o peoecl

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238 TAMPA in July, 1912. Associated with Skinner in the project were "Major" Charles Wright, one o f the best known men of Tampa, and J. L. Talli vast who had become wealthy dealing in naval stores in Manatee County. Wright had built a two-story concrete block building on Madison just north of the courthouse many years before Cone's Liver y Stable was located on the ground floor and, in the late Nineties, the county had its first high school overhead, on the second floor. The TAMPA TIMES also had its home in the building at one time and so did t he post office The Hillsboro, situated just north of the Wright Building, filled a long-felt need in Tampa. Prior to its erection, the principal hotel open the year round was the DeSoto, built in 1892 -93 by Capt. R. F. Webb and V\laJter Parker. Designed by J. A. Wood, the architect who had planned the Tampa Bay Hotel and the county courthouse, it was topped by Moorish domes and minarets which 'Vood favored and was adorned by rambling wooden porches and stately marble columns in the lobby. However the De Soto lacked modem bathroom facilities and the Hills boro became Tampa's lead i ng hotel, immediately upon completion. Later the De Soto was modernized and enlarged. Robert Mugge, builder of one of the first ten-story skyscrapers was a large, blond German who cam e to Tampa i n 1884 and made a fortune in the wholesale beer and liquor business. He first attracted attention in December, 1884, when he put up the first street lights in town in front of his Jackson S t reet home and bottling plant. The iights burned oil. At that time he also laid the first concrete sidewalk. Said t he TAMI'A TRIBUNE: "Mugge 's example i s one that many other good citizens would do well to follow." Six years later, in April, 1890, Mugge organized the Tampa Elec trical Illuminating Company, installing a generator in his ice plant on Central Avenue and started supplying electricity to the scrub district. But he could not get a street lighting contract from the city and the venture was unprofitable He mor e than made up for his loss, however, through his wholesaling of alcoholic beverages. His business grew year after year. Foreseeing even better business in 1898 when T ampa was first mentioned as an embarkatio n point for troops, he wired the Annheus er-Busch Company for a trainload o f beer. The company wir ed back: "There won't be a war and we don't sell beer by the trainload." But there was a war and M ugge did get beer by the trainload and he profited handsomely. Mugge first planl)ed his skyscraper for use as a warehouse. But before it was completed he changed his mind and decided to turn it into a hotel. on each floor ther e was a large, ornately decorated lounge Said .Mugge "The way I've got it figured out, this hotel is a cross be tween a YMCA and a ten-story bar room." V\lhen opened the hotel was called the Bayview.

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TAMPA SP..:Nos FoR FuTuRe GRowTH 239 Old timers say that Banker John Trice was "goaded" into con structing his ten-story skyscraper by friends who kept telling him that Tampa sorely needed a towering office building to give the city dis tinction and that he was just th e man to build it. Fi nally c onvinced that his friends were right, Trice proceeded to construct the finest office building on the Florida West Coast. It was completed in the spring of I913 at a cost of more than $600,000. The first offices in the building were rented by Insu rance Man James C. McKay. Two more outstanding buil dings were con structed during 1913, th e Elks Building and the Knights of Pythias Building. The lodges built their homes on sites where well-known T ampa citizens had lived for many years, the Elks at the old homestead of Dr. John P. Wall and the Pythians at the homestead of John T. Givens, on the sout heast corner of Lafayette and Morgan. The K. o f P. building has been us ed since I 925 by the Tampa Chamber of Commerce. Expansion of Tampa's public utilities, made necessary by the city's rapid grow th, was symbolized in 1914 by the constr uction of a large, four-story telepho n e building by the Pen insular Telephone Company The Peninsular was organized in March, 190 I, by William G. Brore in a native of Ohio, and several of h i s northern business associates. The Southern Bell Telephone Company was then operating in Tampa but its ser vice l!!ft so much to be desired that Brorein had comparatively little troubl e in ge t ting a franc hise. The two compa nies competed with each other until I 906 when the P eninsular pmchased all the hold of the Bell i n Tampa and i ts suburbs. This was the first instance of a Bell system being bought out by an independent. In 19 I 4 the Pen insular fac ed a crisis. The common battery syst em, which had served for over a decade, was becoming antiquated and the exchange on Zack Street over a music sto re had become outgrown. The company faced the necessity of installing a new system, a new exchange and erecting a buildin g of its own. To do this, a million dolla rs of new cap ital had to be raised. It was quickly obtain ed. President Brorein insisted up on gettin g the best equipment obtainab le and, as a result, Tampa won the distinction of being the first large city in the South to get automatic telephones. The automatic system was "cut over" on March 4, 1915. Expa nded facilitie s also w ere needed by th e Tampa Gas Company beca use of the city's growth. This company was org anized in 1895 by A. J. Boardman and Frank Bruen of Minneapolis, with Edward Man ram cigar manufacturer advancing most of the money Peter 0. Knight a lso was a member of the com pany. A small gas plan t and a 30,000 -cub ic foot storag e tank wer e cons tructed. In the beg innin g the gas company had difficulty in mee ting ex penses Wood was cheap colored cooks were plentiful and few persons

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240 TAMPA wanted t o go to the expense of piping gas into their homes The c om pany p robab l y wo ul d hav e gone under had i t not secured a contract from th e c ity fo r 250 gas s t r eet lights insta ll e d in I 898. In 1900 t h e gas c ompany was purc hase d by a s yndicate of Eas t e m capitalists headed by John Gribbel of Phil adelphia Three years later the company had only !163 c u stomers a n d of those only I 09 had ga5 coo k s toves. But the "new-fan g led" fuel f in a ll y beca me popu lar an d by 1910 the numbe r of cu sto mers had inc reased to 1,1 60 and a n n ual sales tota ll e d 35 000,00 0 cubic feet T h erea f t e r, the number of c u s to mers increased ever more rapid l y and in 1912, a 600,000-cubic foot storage tan k had to be erected and a much large r plant built. In that year the compan y also mov e d into its n ew Tampa Gas Bui ldin g During 19 13 T a mpa got a unified stre e t ca r s y ste m. T h e Tampa & Su lphu r Springs Traction C o mpany w h i ch had b uil t a l i ne to Sulphur Springs in 1907, had thereafte r establ i shed other l ines in the city and compet e d w i th the Tampa E l ectric Company. But t h e city cou l d not maintain two s ystems and in 191 I t h e y ou nger concern, h eaded b y J o h n P. Mar tin, wen t into th e hands of a receiver. Two y e ars later i t was pur chased at receiver's sal e by the Tampa El ectric a n d the two syst ems were co n solidated The company then had 47 miles of track and was operating 67 trolley cars 63 of w h ich were open. Four o t he r hist o r y ma king t ranspo rtati o n dev el o pm ents oc cu rred during 1914: Tampa got its first dir ec t r ailr oad c onn ection with St. Petersburg. Hillsborough County built its first highw a y system T ampa became one of the terminals of the first airplan e line established in the wo rl d, and wor k was started on the Ybor Channel. T h e rail road linking St. Petersb u r g and Tan\pa was built by th e Tampa & Gulf Coast R a i lroa d o r ganized in Tampa September 17, 1909, by a group headed by Charles H. Brown. The company comp l eted a road to Tarpon Springs in September, I 9 I 0, and a line to Cleanvater was comp leted o n Apri l 1, 1914. This ro ad was e x tended into St. Petersbu rg on September 2 2. Prior to its com pletion peo ple who wan te d to go by rail benvee n Tampa a n d Sr. Petersb u rg had to go on rhe A tl antic Coast Line by way of Trilby, a jaunt of some 160 m i les. Shortly t hereafter the Tampa &: Gulf Coast was absorbed by the Sea board, wit h wh ich it h ad a lways been aff il ia t ed. Tampa an d St. P etersbur g r eceive d nat i onal publicity in 1914 thro ugh the estab lishment of the St. Petersburg-Tampa A i rboat L ine by the Benoist A i rcraft Company, o f St. Louis. The line was financed by St. P e t e rsburg boos t ers as a publicity stunt and never was a f i n a ncial s uccess. Bu t Fro m a n adver t i s i n g stand point i t was wor t h every cent it cost. due t o the that it was t he wor ld's firs t com mercial air line. The Benois t c ompany sen t its first plane to St. Petersb urg D e ccmber 3 I 1913. It was hastily assembled and the next day, the com-

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TAMPA FoR FuTURE GROWTH 241 pany's star pi lot, Tony Jannus made the first flight to Tampa. He took with him as a passe ng e r A C. Pheil, of St. Petersburg, who paid $400 for the privilege. The hydroplane landed at the foot of Lee Street at 10:30 a. m. the trip taking 23 minutes. A crowd o f more than 3,000 was on hand to greet the intrepid adventurers. Movies. were made by Pho tographer W. C. Burgert. The first landing i s pictured in a mural paint i ng in the administration building of the Peter(). Knight Airport. The inauguration of the air service receiv ed national publicity a n d of course both Tampa newspapers gave i t a big play. In t elling of the epochal flight, the T AMI' A TJMES said that Jannus flew about 50 feet in the air most of the way from S t Petersburg but that when he approached Tampa he rose to about 150 feet so as to give his passenger a better view of the city which must have bee n a wonderful one indeed. Jannus can go even higher if he chooses." The reporter added that Jannus would have cut a minute or so off the 23 minutes requir ed for the fligh t had his speed not been reduced by the bunting which decorated the plane The first parcel carried on t he airboat l i ne contained photographs sent on January 2 to the Tri-Color Engraving Company of Tampa by the ST, PETERSIJURG TIMES, who wanted t o have cuts made in a hurry. Clyde G l enn, manager of the engraving company, said he would have the cuts ready for Jannus to take back the next day. B u t on January 3, This photograph. taken on Januat}' 2 1914, was published in newspapers throughout the c:>untry. lt shows the first woman pamnger of the nation's fint commercial air l ine, between Tampa and St. Petersburg. The pilot was Tony Jannus and the passenger M iss Mae Peabody, of Dubuque Ia

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242 TAMPA Jannus' piane capsized in the bay so the cuts were sem t o S t Petersburg by train. . The first express shipment o f the line was made January 12 when the Tampa branch of Swift &: Company sent a case of Swift Premium ham and bacon, weighing 40 pounds, to the Heffner Grocery Company, of St. Petersburg. Photographs of the ham and bacon being loaded on the plane were later used by the company in its national advertising . . Two more planes were sent to St. Petersburg by the Benoist com pa n y during January but the line lost money from the start and was kept alive o n ly through subsidies. When it ceased to be a novelty of publicity _value, the subsidies were stopped and the flights were discon tinued, early in the spring. Jannus went to Russia for the Benoist company during World War I and was killed October 12, 1916, while making a test flight. Jannus was not the only pioneer aviator who flew at T ampa. Lin Beachey thrilled Tampans by flying over the city at n ight and A. C. Beach provided more thrills by his stunts at Plant Field. His feats were dimaxed February 8 I 915, by a crash at the entrance to the Gordon Keller Hospital. Badl y hurt, Beach crawled e>ut of t h e wreckage and staggered into the hospital for treatment. Before 1914 came to an end Hillsborough County motorists got something they had dreamed about for years-a system of highways they could drive over without getting bogged down iri sand or mud. Hard-surfaced roads 75 miles of them-were constructed. Money for them was obtained from a $1,000 ,000 bond issue approved by the voters Tuesday, July 29, 1913. For weeks before t he election both newspapers had editorialized on the vital need of a good highway system. "A vote against the bonds is a vote for the return of the dark ages ," warned the TAMPA TRIBUNE. when the big day came the bond issue was ra t ified by an over whelming majority, 3,041 to 786. But it must be recorded that the issue passed only because of the support it received in Tampa and west Tampa. Elsewhere in the county it was defeated, 417 to 352. Every other community turned it down, even Plant City, 124 to 122. The largest adverse votes came in the "cattle belt." Riverview rejected the bonds 64 to 2, Wimauma 42 to 11, Seffner 30 t o I I and Ruskin 33 to I 0. Foreseeing the day when they would have to fenc e in their animals. the cattle barons and their followers showed they were convinced that highways were not needed or wanted Despite the cattlemen, the highways were built. Most of the roads were surfaced with brick and were nine to twelve feet wide. Two con tracting firms were given the bulk of the business: The Edwards Con struction Company and Kendrick, Webb, Davis & McNeil. The cost from $10,000 t o $15,000 a mile. The finished highways lef t

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TAMPA SPENDS FoR FuTUREGROWTH 243 much to be desired but in comparison to the so-called roads Hills borough had before, they were marvelous. Incidentally, t he million dollar bond issue was the first of that amount issued in Florida for highways and one of the first in the United States While the county was getting its highways, Tampa acquired 85 miles of paved streets, the cost being assessed agains t the property owners benefitted a nd the c ity paying only for intersections. At long last the reign of King Sand had come to an end. Constructio n of Ybor Channel, the key project in Tampa' s harbor development program, was made possible by a Federal appropriation of $1,750 000 a u thorized June 25, 1910. The channel was dredged in a marsh which had once been part of the m i litary reservation and was then owned by A. R. Swann, Andrew J. Knight and Wilford C. and Guy C. Clarkson. Ano ther large tract was held in the name of Charles Ball it had been deeded to him by his father in law, Stephen M. Sparkman, before the latter became congressman: The government insisted that t he city must secure at l east 700 feet on each side of the channel before dredging would be started. Giddings Plt(Jl() bt . Thi.s ro:tdbaucr(:d Wti'il(; autom ob ile provided (irsc bus out o f TamJ)a. The picture was taken in 19l9 in fron t 'of the post office.

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244 TAMPA Mabry, then city attorney, started negotiations immediately with the property owners and the necessary land was secured late in 1911, the arrangements providing that the owners should be paid with certificates which could be used to pay taxes on remaining lands for eight years. Dredgi n g was starte d February 19, 1912, and proceeded rapidly there after. Ybor Channel and Sparkman Channel, connecting it with the main channel running south from the mouth of the river, were made 24 feet deep. Sand obtained from the channels was used to fill the sur rounding marsh land and build up Hookers Point. An additional appropriation of $ 1,450,000 for deepening all the channels to 27 feet was voted by Congress Augus t 8, 1917, with the pro viso that the city must first build adequate piers and warehouses on the city owned land and also build a municipally owned railroad which would connec t with all railroads entering t he city and would serve both sides of Ybor Channel. The city fai led to comply with these conditions at that time but, because o f the use made of the harbor during World War I, dredging was continued regardless. The f irst development project on the new harbor cons i sted of a 1,000-foot dock and large ware house built by the Swann Terminal Company just east of the foot of Meridian Street. Of all the things which Tampa built during the busy 'teens prob ably nothing pleased more people than the city's firs t public library. The library drive was launched about 1 905 by Miss Louise Frances Dodge, society editor of the TAMPA TRTnUNE, who rnsisted that Tampa should endeavor t o secure a grant from the Carnegie Foundation She interested the Women s Club but, strangely enough strenuous oppo sition developed. Many persons insisted that Tampa should never never stoop to accepting Andrew Carnegie s "tainted money" and they fought the movement incessantly. Finally however, a $25,000 Car negie grant was secured in 1912 through the able assistance of Hugh C Macfarlane, and a year later the grant was increased to $50,000. At the same time, Macfarlane got a grant for a library in West T ampa. After t he $50,000 grant was pledged a long fight developed over the location of t he proposed library. Some said it should be b uilt on the Tampa Bay Hotel grounds, which the city owned, and others held out for a dow n town location. After heated arguments, a site on Seventh Avenue near Franklin was purchased for $.15,000 and the building was constructed by Aulick, Bates & Hudnall The architect was Fred James. The library was completed June 30, 1915, but its opening was long delayed by the refusal of t he ci ty council to appropria te sufficient money to furnish and maintain it. The most the council would agree to give was $.5,000 a year; the library board insisted $15,000 was needed.

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TAMPA SPENDS FoR FuTURE GROWTH 245 F i nally, after endless wrangling, the city co u ncil agreed to give $10,000 and the library was opened to the public Friday April 27, 1 917. Its only books then were 3,800 which had been don ated b y Mr. and Mrs. L. H Lothridge Members of the first library board were ]. A. M Grable, E. D Lambright Henry Giddens, E. L. Robinson and W L. Parker. Mis s Helen Virginia Stelle was the first librarian and Miss May Lewis assistant librarian Included among the women who assisted in the library movement were Mrs. J C. McKay Mrs U S Bird, Mrs. W L. Ligat Miss Lottie Watkins Mrs. W. C Richards, Mrs. C W. Greene .Mrs. M. M. Taylor ;illd Mrs. S. L. Lowry Tamp a During W o1ld War I L ike all other communities throughout the n ation, Tampa and Hillsborough subordinated everything during 191 7 and 1918 to the ma i n task of winning the World War. Scores of leading citizens spent much of their time on Liberty Loan and Red Cross drives and hun dreds of young men entered various branches of the armed services. The worst tragedy of the war for Tampa was the sinking of the U .S. S. Tampa, the crew of which i n cl u ded 23 Tampa youths in Bristo l Channel on September 26, 1918. The sh i p was torpedoed by a German Thi s i s an art i st's c
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246 TAMPA submarine or hit a mine while in convoy service and sank with all on board. None of the bodies were recovered. The names of the victims of the disaster, as well as the names of all others from H ill s borough County who made the supreme sacrifice dur 4ng the conflict, were engraved on monuments and markers set up by the R otary Club on a highw ay which ha d been constructed immediately after the war at a cost of $870,000. The highway, fifteen feet wide, ex te nded from H oward Avenue to the Pine llas County line and was !1!1/2 mileS long. It was completed March 5, 1920. At that time the highway was one -of the finest in the state. It was dedicated by the Rotary Club January l, 1921, as a memori al highway in honor of the war heroes. During World War I, shipbuilding became an outstanding industry in Tampa. In former years, schooners and yachts had been constructed by the T ampa Steam Ways, headed by Capt. John Miller, but the building of large ships was not undertaken until 1916 when Ernest Kreher, head of the Tampa Foundry & Machine Co., got a contract from the Central Hudson Company, of New York for a 2,500-ton ice breaker. The hull w a s built on Ybor Channel and the ship was completed at the company's p lan t on the r i ver. N a med the Ponghkeepsie, i t was launched in May 1917. Shortly before the ship was compl eted, Kreher organized the Tampa Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., capitalized at $800,000. The company then built two 3,500 -ton merchant ships, the Eve,.glades and Lithopolis, which were sold to the British government. Late in 1917, the proper tics of the comp any were leased to Oscar Daniels, of Chicago, who had gotten a government contract for building ten I O,OOOton ships. His firm, called the Oscar Daniels Company, completed the ships during the war period, employing 3400 men at the peak. Daniels' six-year lease on the properties expired in 1923 and t he T ampa Shipbuilding&: En gineering Co. again too k possession. Eight 286 -foot 3500ton wooden cargo ships were built for the United States Shipping Board during the war by the Tampa Do c k Com pany, h eaded by ]. L. McGuc k en, C. ]. Hyer and A. J. Knight. T he company had its yards on Ybor Channel.

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CI-IAPTER X I TI-lE. FLOR IDA BOOM-AND AFTERMATI-l TAMP A s FUTURE LOOKE D anything but bright in the early 1920s. R ecord breaking prosperit)' w hich had come wit h t he act i vity of war days appea r e d to b e a thin g of t he p ast. For many m onths t h e city seem e d to be s lipping ba ckwa r d and eve n t h e most optim i s tic began t o l ose faith T h e f irst blow s uffered by t he city was the closin g down o f the sh i pyards of the Tampa Dock Co m pany and the Oscar D aniels Company which had employ e d more t han 5 000 men during 1918 T ampa D ock closed first. The O scar D aniels yards remained open a while to buil d tw o 12,000 ton stee l tankers for Sta n dard Oil and t hen t hey too stopp e d operati o ns. Man y of th e emp lo y ees encou ntered difficulty i n finding other jobs. To add to ci ty's tl oubles, tbe ci gar ind u s try w a s p r ostrateci by a genera l strike. ll resu lted from t h e de t erminatio n of c i gar ma n uf ac turers to wea ken or destroy the cigarma k ers unio n which had gained s t rength rapid l y d uring the war years and, accord in g to the ma n ufac turers, had started ma k ing unreasonable demands for wqrking hours and h i g h e r wages. To acco mplish their ends, th e manufactu re r s foste r ed th e OJ'g aniza: tion of t h e Torcedores Soc i e t y The me mbers of this society dema nded an ope n shop a nd t he manufactu r e rs were sympathe tic to their demand s I n retaliation t h e I nternational Cigar Mak ers Union call ed a general strike on April 1 4 1920. A total of 7,6 I 3 union men q u i t work. All t he c igar factorie s cl osed and appr o xi mate l y 3,500 other employeeS wer e thrown out o f work The in d ustr y w as i n ac tive f o r th e remainder of th e year a nd the resultan t loss of payroll s affe cted all1 i nes of b usiness. The strike was ilot ende d until early i n 1921 after t h e u n i o n had pai d o u t nea rl y a million dolla rs in s trik e benef its and had becom e almost ban k rupt. I n the end the manufacturers scored a viclOry-the cigarma k ers w ere forced to accept th e open shop. But the victory was c o s tl y for the ma n ufacturers Because of the stri ke, production of c i gar s dropped from 410, 00 0,000 in 1919 to 227 ,000,000 in 1 92 0 and a number of th e compa nies were h ard hit by t h e loss o f income. M a ny s mall factorie s wer e never reop ene d Tampa's g loom in late 1920 was incr e a sed by the business dep ression w hi ch then p r evai led t h roug hout t he n a t i on. The depre ssion was s h o r t lived but acute w h ile it lasted and few p e r sons wi t h money cared to mak e new investments . B y fall of 1 921, h o wever, th e wo r s t of th e de p r ession w a s ove r a nd the nat io n o n c e more b ega n ro enjoy pro sper ity T ampa too k heart

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248 TAMPA again and then came the worst hurricane the city had experienced since the terr i f i c storm of 1848. It hit on Tuesday Oc tober 25. The hurricane developed in the Carib bean, swung around t he western end of Cuba, p roceeded northward to the latitude of Tampa Bay and then swung inland. The wind was preceded and accompanied by a deluge of rain; 6.48 inches fell during a 24-hour period. The barometer fell to 28.8 1 by 2 p.m. Tuesday and the wind attained a recorded velocity of 53.8 miles an hour. Gusts exceeded a hundred miles The strong wind played havoc with communication lines and Tampa was isol ated for hours from the rest of the world. S cores of roofs and signs wer e blown away. But the worst damage was done by water blown in to Tampa Bay from the Gulf. I t rose higher and hi g her until it reached 10.5 feet above mean low tide, five feet higher than in any other hurricane since 1848 The seawall along Ba yshore Boulevard was destroyed in many places and water poured into many of the city's finest homes Long stretches of the Ballast Point streetcar line were undermined. Many bridges were washed out. Scores of houses at Edge water Bea ch, DeSoto Park and Palmetto Beach were inundated Sunset Beach was almost entirely wiped out. Wharves were destroyed and the steamer F avorite, then owned by the Wilson L i ne, was driven ashore and badly dama ged. The total damage in the Tampa area was est i mated at about $500,000. E verywhere in the Tampa Bay r egion, people who lived along the waterfront experienced thrills as the water came in and overflowed their lawns and poured into their homes. But no one drowned. Great excitement was caused by a report that P ass-a-Grille had been buri ed under five feet of water and that !50 l ives had been lost. But when a government ship reached there on 'Wednesday it was l earned that not one person had been killed or injured and that propert y damage was negligib l e : Although the hurricane d i d far less damage to Tampa and other Tampa Bay cities than often was done to northern cities by tornadoes or cyclones, many persons believed that news stor ies abo u t the storm would be bad publicity and cause winter vis i tors to shun the entire West Coast. But there was no cause for alarm. No one realized it then, but l:iy the late fall o f 1921 the Big Florida Boom was undenvay-and nothing could stop it, not even a hurricane. The Bi g Boom, one of th e strangest phenomena of America s real estate histor y was a direct outgrowth of World War I and started soon after the -v.:ar ended. Beca use of the war, the public's reservoir of capita l was filled to overflowing. Farmers be came r i c h. Factory work ers pi l ed up savings. Industrialists and financiers made millions. E veryone, or ne;uly every one, had money to spend. Thousands of northerners who

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THE Fl.ORJDA BooM-AND AFTERMATH 249 never before had ventured beyond t heir own states decided to spend some of their money to go to Sunny Florida. For years they had r ead about the glamorous state-now at last they co u ld sally forth and see for them s elves what Florida was really like, and bask in its sunsh ine. Some of the adventurers came in pa l at i al yachts and private rail road coaches. Others less affluent came by Pullman and day coach. And many many others came in automobiles-automobiles they had p ur chased during the war years but had never used before for long journeys. Now, with the war over, t he proud owners had the chance to ramble southward. T o make sure they would have a place to s l eep and some thing to eat they piled their cars with tents and bedding, and great boxes of canned food. They soon became known as Tin Can Tourists. The firs t defin i te sign that a boom was in the mak i ng carne with the first b i g in vasion of Florida by the Tin Canners during the winter of 1919-20. They formed one of the most motley caravans the world had ever see n Sh in y li mousi nes bumped fenders with dilapidated fliv vers; sophis ticated urbanites rubbed elbows with country hicks. A ll highways leading south were c r owded Despite slippery s li thery roads, the Tin C anners came. They swarmed all through South Florida and packed resort cities. l V!akeshift tourist camps sprang up almost overnight. U ns ightly places they were, with rubbish thrown eve r ywhere and almost non-ex i ste n t toilet faci li t ies. They were the best Flor ida then had to offer-and many Florida cities made no attempt to prov i de anything better. But Tampa d id, a t De Soto Park, and as a result the PAolUl by Rurtr.u 8 r()S Lhan 13,000 cigar maker:> were employed b y oompanie s in Tatnpa d o ring th e late 1 920s

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250 TAMPA Tin Can Tourists of the 'Vorld organized here during the winter of I 921-22. The organization is still alive and active. The invading tourists-Tin Canners and those who came by rail and water-dumped millions and millions of dollars in to Florida Not only for food and lodging but for homes. And land on which they could build and thereby be sure of having a place to live. They were the progenitors of the Big Florida Boom. The boom was accelerated by t he magic of real estate profits. Thou sands of tourists made enough money by buying lots one year and selling them the next to pay all the expenses of their winter vacations. And plungers who bought business prop erty acreage or blocks of lots in well located subdivisions, reaped golden harvests. Returning north, they spread the word about the wonderland of Florida where fortunes could be made while revell i ng in the sunshine. Like an epidemic the "Flori da fever" spread throughout the nation. Speculators, as well as tourists, began flocking here from every state. With them came an army of real estate salesmen, young and old who posed as golfers and wore knick e rbockers after the fashion of the day High pressure lads they were, and they stopped at nothing to make sales. The Florida boom was on-in all its fury! It was a phenomenon which is hardly comprehensible to anyone who did nor. live through it. It was like an insidious disease, spread by t he germ of quic k and easy profits. A disease which swept the entire state like an epidemic, afflicting the foo lis h and the wise the gullible suckers and the most astute financial giants. Hardly anyone was im mune. In Tampa, the disease was mild in the beginning, and few persons were affected. In fact, hardly anyone knew such a disease existed. Unprecedented activity in real estate seemed r.o be merely a normal concomitant of healthy growth. From the end of World War I up to the winter of 1922 -23 there was a slow but steady rise in realty values. Nothing spectacular-just an increase which the city's growth completely justified. And Tampa truly was growing. Part of the growth was due to a continuec;l influx of winter visitors. But most of it resulted from the fact that Tampa maintained and strengthened its standing as the com mercial center of all southwest Florida All that section of the state was then developing with startling rapi dity and, as it deve lope d, Tampa expanded and prospered to the same degree To serve the mushrooming cities of St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Lakeland, Bradenton, Sarasota, Fort Myers and other favored children of the boom, more and more wholesale and distribution firms were established here and each firm b[O}}_ght new people to the city. All the newcomers needed homes in wll'i'ch to live. And, in supplying them contractors and rea l estate salesmen prospered amazingly.

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THE FLoRIDA BooM-AND AFTERMATH 251 The greatest activity in high-class residential properties occurred i n lnt erbay P enins u la. This was due in large measure to the deve lopment wor k done years befo r e by Swann &: H oltsinger in the Bayshore section and by the T ampa Bay L and Company, headed by James F. Taylor, in the Palma Ceia region. At the latter place, the Palma Ceia Golf Club com pleted an 18-hol e course in February, 1917, and many club members built homes close by. P rior to that time, the only place Tampa's go lf ers had to play was at Rocky P oint wh e re the Rocky Point Golf Club built a course in 1906. Development of I mer bay P enins ula was give n a tremendous bo ost during the winter of 1922-23 when it became certain that the long-t a lk ed about Gandy Bridge was to be come a reality. Gandy Bridge was the creation of George S. Gandy k now n to everyone on t he Flor ida West Coast as Dad" Gandy who had gone to St. Petersburg in 1 903 from Philad elphia and had taken a lead in g pan i n the development o f the Sunshine City. The idea of spanning Old Tampa Bay with a bridge and t h ereby cutting the dist anc e between Tampa and St. Petersburg f rom 43 to 19 miles d id not originate with Candy. John P. Martin one of the pro moters of the Tampa & Sulphur Springs Traction Company had the same id ea in 1908 and H. V\Talter Fuller, of St. Petersburg, had vision e d a bridge in 1910. But neither Mart in nor Fuller carried the stru cture beyond the dream stage Gandy did. H e star ted making survey s in 1 915 and by 1918 had purchas ed th e ri g ht-of-way and had secured p e rmits from the 'War Department and a fra n c hise from the Florida state l egislature. Further progress was halted f irs t by vVorld \Var I and then by t h e 1920-21 depression. But as soon as the depression ended, Gandy renewed his efforts to raise enough money to finance const r uct ion costs. Getting the bridge financed was not easy, particularly s i nce Gand y was determined to retain a comrolling in teres t in the bridge compan y without putting up any mone y to pay for stock. H e might never have completed the project h ad it not been for a man he employed i n Sep tember, 1922Eugene M Elliot t, as cleve r a promoter as ever came to Florida. A man of mysterious background but unlimited nenre, E ll iott had t h e r e putation of being able LO se ll anythi ng regardless of its .merits. Elliott brought in a crew of high powered salesmen. H e hi red publicity and advertising men, the best he could find. He put on a sa les campaign like noth in g t he Wes t Coast had ever seen befo re And within 122 days he succeeded in selling $2,0 00 000 worth of preferr ed Gandy Bridge stock and 66,666 shares of no-par value common stock. As soon as it became certain that all th e stock wou l d be sold, Gandy started construction work on the bridge. Or, to be more exact on t he bridge and the causeways-3!,4 miles of causeways and 2!12 miles of re i nforced concrete bridge 22 feet wide. Work was started l ate in 1922 and completed i n the fall of 1924.

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252 T AMPA The b ridge was officially o pened with a big cel ebration Thursday, N o vem be r 20, 1924. A ro p e o f flo w ers stretching a cross t he br i dge was cut by Florida 's governo r, Cary A. H ardee, whil e the go vernors of s ix t e e n other sta tes, city o f f icials of Tampa a n d St. Pet e rsburg a n d a throng o f distinguished citizens l o o ked o n a n d c h eered Tam pa was r epresented at th e c e re monies by Mayor P erry G. Wall, C i ty Co mmis s i o n ers Sumter L. L owry and Vv. A. Adams, a nd County Commissi oner Oscar Ayala. Also by "Miss Tampa"-Miss Sara Keller. T h ere is n o doubt but that Gandy Bridge was an important factor in the development of both St. Petersburg and Tampa. At the time it was complet ed it was the longest automobile toll b ri dg e in the world, and unn umbe red thousands of F l ori d a's w i nter vis i tors cam e t o O ld Tampa Bay to travel o ver it. Moreover th e bridge w a s p ublici zed througho ut the country i n newspape rs, magazin e s and mo vies and the public i ty hel ped th e entire Tampa B ay r e g ion. What was even more important, from T a m pa's viewpoi n t, was t h at the bridge served to bring the pros pero u s lower Pinellas Peninsu l a region almost ne x t door to Tampa's merchants and wholesalers "While constructio n work on Gandy Bridge progressed, I nterbay Peninsu l a spurted ahead. James F. Taylor continued wi t h his Palma Ce i a projects. Companies head e d by A. J. Simm s pu t New Suburb Beauti ful and severa l other o utstand i ng subdivisions o n t he mar k et. Lloyd & Skin n e r h ad t h e i r Belmar d e v e l opment; T homas C H ammond s old Virginia P ark, o w ne d by the estate of Mrs Potter P almer; Joh n Mc Millan H arvey had S u nset Pa r k and C. V. Sta rke y T wo Pi nes. T h ere were literally scores of other subdivisi o ns i n the lnterbay sectio n some good some not so good, ranging in size from a few acres to several hundred. In many of them little money was spent for im provem e nts. T he streets were graded, a few sidewalks laid flowers and shru b s pla nted to pretty them up," and that was just a bout all. It was up to t h e salesmen to sell t h e lot s on the strength of t h e work bei n g do n e by Dad" Gandy o n his bri dge. And sell t he m they did, by the t housands a t fabul ous p rices. The first definite proof that peop l e were deter m ined to go o n a real e s tat e spree was furn i s h e d during 1923 and 1924 whe n there wa s wil d sp ecul ation in properti e s along the main road s leading tO the bridge. Ac r eage prices zoomed from around $50 an acre to as high as $10,000. And the price of lots along t he ma i n arteries skyrocketed to unheard of heights. All such l ots were to be business l ots-naturally! S t o res, h otels and apartments w o uld l i ne the main road s from downtown Tampa to downtown St. Pe t e rs burg Immediately! So the prices wen t up and up. The rapid deve lopment o f Inter b ay soon made evid e n t the fact t hat so met h in g wou l d have t o b e done to prov i de dra ina ge. Since t h e sectio n i s a s flat as the prove r b ial pancake, home own ers often found

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THE I'LoRJDA BooM-AND AFTERMATH 253 their houses surrounded by water during the rainy season. 'Veeks often passed before the water drained away. To r e medy the situation, the Interbay drainage district was created and work was sta r ted on one of the largest dra inage projects in the state. It extended through 250 sub divisions in which 25,000 lot s had been marketed. The system was com pieced by January I, 1928, at a cost of $2,338,000 It worked -but it ultimately proved to be an unbearable burden for the property owners, and the district went into the hands of a receiver. But that was after the boom had ended. Not all t h e new subdivisions of boom days were loca ted on Inter bay Peninsula, by any means One of the best developments, Temple Terrace, was located north of Tampa, just beyond th e beautiful Hills borough River The property consisting of about I ,50 0 acres, was p u rchased in 1921 from Mrs. Potter Palmer by a syndicate headed by D. Collins Gillett and planted with Temple oranges, developed by !vi. E. Gillett, father of Collins, one of the leading nurserymen of Florida In 1924 the project was changed from an orange grove deve l opment PAo:
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254 TAMPA to a residential development. A country cl ub was establishe d, an IS hole golf course was laid out, many miles of streets were open ed and paved, and many buildings were constru cted, including scores of homes, a hotel and a fine apartment building. Temple Terrace boom ed. But the boom at Temple Terrace was a mere trifle compared to the boom of ano ther development then progressing aln10st in the heart of Tampa at breakneck spee d -Davis Isl ands T he Saga of D. P. Davisand His Islat1ds When Dave Davis was a y oungster he had t he reputation of being a daredevil. The stoc ky fre ckl e-faced sandy-ha ired lad often accom panied his fat her, a stea mboat engine er, on trips down Tampa Bay and he liked nothing b e u e r than to walk the steame r 's rails, even in stormy weather Several t imes he lost his balan ce and fell overboard but he was a fine swimmer and always escap e d drowning. Young Dav e attende d Tampa scho ols and earned spendin g money by carry i ng papers for the TAMPA TIMES and la ter ma kin g sodas at Tibbetts' confec t i one r y store. I n 1902, whe n 1 7 yea rs old, he got a job at Knigh t &: Wall's and wor ke d there several yea rs. Bu t he was tOO adventurously inclined to stay lon g at one place and about 1 905 he left Tampa. No recor d exists of Davis activities during th e next decade. About all that is know n is that he went f ir st to Centra l America, lived severa l years in the P anama Canal Zone, and then came back to the States and drifted from one place to another. In 1915 h e mrned up at Jacksonvill e and was married there on November II to M a rjori e H. Merri tt. During World 'War I h e operated an anny canteen at Camp Johnston and ran a boat line between the camp and Ja cksonv i lle. After the war he went to Miami and became a real estate salesman. By t he time the boom had gotten well underway he had made enough money to buy an interes t in the Shadowy Lawn development. Later he put on subdi visions of his own and reported l y made a small fortune. While in Mi ami, Davis watched the wor k being done in converting the mud flats i n Biscayne Bay into isl ands where millionaires paid fabulous prices for h ome sites. Then one day h e was reminde d by friends of the two undevel oped islands a t the mouth o f the H illsborough River which he had tramped over as a boy hunting rabbits and seeking buried pirates' treasureLittle Grassy I sland and the island a li ttle farther south known at vario us times as D epot Key, Big Isl and, R abbit Islan d and Big Grassy Island The appearan ce o f these islands was not prepossessing. They were surrounded by uns ig htly mud flats and covere d with marsh grass, man groves and tangl ed undergrow th But when Davis thought about Lhem,

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THt: fLORIDA BOOM -AND AFTERMATH 255 h e becam e convinced that they could be dev eloped just as eas ily, an d just as profitably as the islands in Biscayne Bay. A man of action h e quickl y dec ided t o find om if his hunc h was cor rect. Com ing to Tampa, h e checked the owner ship of the islands. H e l ea rned th at a tip of D epot Key had been pu rchased fro m the sta te way back on April 1 8, 186 0, by William Whita ke r, pionee r settler of Sarasota for $6.30 -$1 a n acre for 6.3 acres. The small tract was still owned by the "Whitaker est ate. Davis a lso learned t hat the remainder of the two isla nds had be en acqu ired by two of Tampa's most active land specul ators in 1881 after it had b ecome cenain that a railroad was coming to Tampa BayW. C Brown, pioneer merchant and perennial county official, and William B. Henderson, cattleman merc hant and capitalist. They und oubtedl y had expected that the islan ds would be needed by the railroad in develop i ng por t facili ties and con sequently got them to ma k e a quick profit. Brown had purchased Littl e Grassy Island from the state for $16.30 $ 1 an acre for its 16.3 acres. To get D epo t Key, Brown and Henderson _jo ined forces. T hey purchased 69.75 acres of it from th e state for 9 0 cents an acre. But for some reaso n now unknown, they wer e unab le to buy the remaining 28.5 acres. So they persuaded the town o f ficials to buy the missing tract and then they immediately leased it from the tow n for 99 years at $20 a ye ar. Incidentally, the Tampa newspaper s pu blished at the tim e made no mention o f th e lease 0 1 t h e land purc h ases. During the decades which followed 1881, neither Brown nor H enderson made any use of the islands. The rail r oad did not want them-so they rema in ed as nature had made them. Even tually both m e n d ied a n d title to the i sland s passed to the i r h e irs. F i nall y in 1921 t h e City of Tampa d eci ded that it cou l d use Little Grassy I sland for a par k so i t was p u rchas ed f rom Mrs Mar y E Brown, widow of w. C Brown, for $25,000. Depot Key was still owned in 1 924 b y the Henderson estate, the Bro w n estat e and the Whitaker estate. Title to the subm erged lands between th e tw o islan ds and around them, Da vis learned was held by th e c ity. It had been granted to the municipality in 1898 by the state l egisla ture in the same act in which the city got t itle to the submerged lands south of the garr ison -lands later turned over by the city for nothi ng upon the urging of Peter 0 Knight to the Seaboard railroad and conv erted into Sedd on I sland. Afte r s i z ing u p the situation, Davis became certain that his island deve lopment scheme was feasi ble, prov idin g he could get possession of the islan ds and the subme rged lands aroun d the m. So he held man y con ferences with atto rneys repre senting the lan d owners and with city off icials. Also with pro minent citizens w hose support he needed.

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. 256 TAMPA In Februa ry, 1924, a t torneys for t he B rown and Henderso n e states agreed to se ll Depot Key fo r $100,000 $10,000 down and $90,0 0 0 in deferred payments. The deal did not include of course the small tract held by th e Whitaker estate. Davis acq ui red that later -and $50 worth of reven u e s tamps on the deed indic at e t h at he p aid $50,000 for th e 6.3 acres for whi ch W i lliam Whita ker had p aid $ 6.30. Afte r arra ng i ng t o ge t D epot K ey, D avis proceed ed at once to try to obtain the essent i a l L ittle Grassy Island and the submerg e d lands. T hese the c i ty finally agreed to sell a fter almost e n dless n egoti ations, for $200,000. A nd because the ci ty officials r e alized that Da vis' p r opose d dev elopment wo u l d be a priceless asset t o th e city, a n d a dd greatl y t o tax r even ues, the offi c i a ls agreed to return th e $200,000 to D avis if h e c ompleted t he project in four years, dee ded a 55-acre pa r k to the city, and built a bri dge to the i sland costing at least $100,000. The terms were satisfactor y to Davis-but the deal could not be comp l eted w i th out its being submitted to the people. S o a referendum was he ld April 22, 1924. The agreement, v i gorousl y app roved by both d ai l y ne wspape rs, was ra ti f i e d by an o verwh e l ming majority 13 13 to 50. The only o p p osition cam e from a few Bayshore Drive residen t s w h o contended that their v i ew of the c i ty wou l d be destroY.ed by the island development. These opponems did not admit defeat even after the r eferendu m T hey carri e d t h e issue to the courts, s a ying that the ci t y ha d n o righ t to sell its sub merge d la n ds. A l e ga l ba t tl e fo ll o wed, Dav i s by Mabry, R e aves&: Carlton and other atto rneys. F ina lly, on S eptember 9, 1924 the sta t e s u preme court ruled three to two in his favor-and the transaction was val idated. From then on, Davis operated wit h hurricane speed. With A. Y. M i l am, o ( J a c ksonville, as an associ a te h e inco r p orat ed D. P. Da vis Prope rties, I nc., for $3,5 00,000. A co ntract was a warded to the Nort hern D redge a n d D ock Company, of M i n nea po lis, for s tupend ous dredging operations G littering sa l e s off ices were opened on t h e northwest corner of Fran kl in and Mad i son T he walls and windows of the off ices were adorned with magnificent drawings showing Davis Is lands as it wo u ld b e soo n The dream de velo pment was w o n derful i ndee d L a te in Septemb e r huge adve rtisements bega n in news papers throug hout the sta te, proclaimin g to an expec tant pubhc that the first bloc k of 300 lots in D avis Islands would be p la ced on sal e o n Saturday O ctober 4. Crews of high powered hoopla salesmen swung ih t o action whi pping u p interest. And then on Fri d ay, t he day before th e sale was to b e he l d, a line of wouldb e purch asers be gan forming i n fro n t of the sales off i ces All tl1at af t e rnoon and n i ght the li ne i ncreased in length-no one wante d to miss this opportunity of a l ifetime. And on Saturday morning within three hours after the sales began all 300 l ots were s o ld, for $1,683,582. Practica ll y every lot sold was still under

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TH FLORmA BooM-AND AfTERMATH 257 water-dredg ing was not sta rted until six days late;r! Nothing like it had ever been seen before, not even in boomi n g Florida. A second block of lots was pla ced on sale on October I 3 and again the salesmen scored a sell-out, advancin g the total of sales to $2,711,782. And during the year which followed every lot on the islands passed imo the hand s of eager buyers for $18, 1 38,000. On O ctober 24, 1925, the islands were withdrawn fro m the market beca use there was nothing left to sell. Development work progressed stead i ly while the sal es campaign was going on. Five dredges pumped night and day, and great str etches of glittering white sand appeared where the dreary mud flats had been before. Miles of streets were paved canals were dug, bridges were con structed. An e l ectr i c light system was installed at a cost of $250,000 A municipal yacht basin was cre ated and a country club established. A 55-acre park was laid out and deeded to the city-Davis named it Marjorie Park in memo r y of his wife who had died in 1922. During 1925, building permits for structures on the islands passed the $7,000,000 mar k Sixt y homes were b u ilt; also, the B iscayne Mira sol and Pal merin hotels and the P alace of F l orence and Ven e tian apartments. And a $200,000 Coliseum, built by a company headed by C. F. Cullen And soon thereafter, ground was broken for a million dollar Municipal Hospital. Pilot() by Blf11.:<'1t JJnn. Two m05quito-inested lln1tds of t h e movthQf the Hillsborough R iver and un sightly mud flats adjoining were convcrttd by D. t>. Da vis in 192526 into one of thc finest residential .sections of Florida. The Munlcip:al Hospilal. then nearing oomple l lon, is s h own in the foreground.

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258 TAMPA By the end of 1925 Davis had won the reputation of being the greatest developer in all Florida. He had accomplished a miracle-and was sitting pretty. He felt so prosperous that he went to St. Augustine, bough t a huge tra ct of undeveloped land artd began the development of Davis Shores. Engrossed in his work at St Aug u stine, Davis never realized, in January, 1926 that something most calam itous had occurr ed. The Florida boom had ended; the bubb l e had burst. An end h ad finally c om e to the f i veyear o rgy of wild, frenzied, real estate spec ulation. Davis did not sense that the crash had come. But neither d i d any of the other boomtime developers and promoters. All were convinced that the collaps e of sales in that fatal January was merely a temporary condition, a brief lull. They were all certain that after a few short weeks, sales would pick up again and be greater tha n ever before. So they kept pumping money into their project s. But by the ea rly summer of 1926 D avis' situation had become desperate. Tho u sands of persons who h ad bought lots in Davis Islands failed to make their second payments. Instead of the $ 1 ,000,000 in payments he confidently expected, D av i s got less than $30 ,000. A ll the money he had received from the origi n al dow n payments was gone-for commissions on sal es, advert ising lavish offices and terrifically e x pe n sive promotions-speed boat races, tenni s and golf championship m!!ets, and everything else needed for publicity And all his reserv e cap ital had been spent at St. Augustine Frantically, Davis called in one of the l eading New York accounting firms to make an audit. When it was compl eted, the auditors declared that Davis Isla nds undoubtedly was the soundest project in the state. Bu t their decl aration did not bring in money. Davis predicament became worse and wo r se. Development work on the i slands stopped. Late in July, 1926, Stone &: Webster en t ered the picture at the urging of Peter 0. Knight, president of the Tampa Electri c Company and general counsel for all the Stone & W ebster properties in F lorida. Announcemen t was made on August 2 that a syndicate had been formed, $2,500,000 subscrib e d and that thereaf ter Stone&: Vebster would direct the financial affairs of the development com pany and carry o n co n struction operatioru until the proj ec t was com pleted. The syndicate formed the Island I nvestment Com pany with Howard G P hilbroo k as preside nt. Da vis I s lan ds passed out of the hands of D. P. Davis. For his interest in the development, he rece ived 49 per cent of the new company's common stock. Putti'ng it up as coll atera l at a New York bank, he borrowed $250 ,00 0, pan of which he proceede d to spend at St. Augustine. He was still convin ced that his projects w e r e sound. On October 11, 1926, Davis sailed for Europe on the Majes tic. Some said he went to buy property on the French Riviera and start a develop

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THE FLORIDA BooM-AND AFTERMATH 259 ment similar to Davis I slands. Others said he went just to have a good time Two days later on October I 3th great headlines appeared in Tampa newspapers. D. P Davis had "died at sea" had been "lost overboard" from the Majestic! Commander G. R. Metcalf of the steamship, first said that Davis had "jumped from the cabin port." Later reports were that Davis had been "cutting up" and had accidentally fallen overboard while balan cing himself on the edge of a drawing room port hole. The ship's commander stated that an hour's search had been made but that Davis' body could not be fo und becaus e of the heavy rain, strong wind and rough waters. Statements regard ing the fatality were made by Mrs. Alice Smith and her daughter, Mrs Lucille Zehring old friends of Davis who were on the ship, and by two Davis I sland emp loyees R aymond Schindler and F. W. Montayne but no one seemed sure just what had happened. There was even talk to the e(fect that Davis had been murdered and h i s body thrown overboard, by someone who wanted a large sum of money he was carrying in his money belt. Just one thing was certain D P. Davis was dead. The exact cause of his death was never positively determined. But an insurance company in which he held a large policy finally decided that his death had been accidemal. The inves tigators agreed that Davis had fallen overboard while walking on a small ledg e on the outside of the liner, going from one porthole to another just for th e fun of it! Said his friends : "Dave was just trying to duplicate his boyhood feat of walking the rail-and this time he wasn't lucky!" The bursting of the Florida bubble which caused D P Davis to lose his islands was not generall y believed to be an actuality until l ong after the blast occurred Had the true extent of the calamity been recognized, it is doubtful whether the syndicate backed by Stone & Webster would have invested $2,500,000 in Davis Islands. Certainly other developers would have quit putting money into their proje cts The fact was, however that few persons were then ready to admit that the grand and glorious boom had ended. Almost everyone was positive that when co l d weather came again, the real estate market would once more become activ e Consequently, development work was carried on at Davis Islands, at Temple Terrace, at Parkland Estat es, and many other leading developments And during J 926, the principal progress was made at Forest Hills, the deluxe promotion of Burks L. Hamner. But when the winter of 1926 -2 7 arrived, real estate men hunted i n vain for prospectS. No one, it seemed, wanted to buy any more wee bits of Florida heaven. T he saturation point for real estate had fin all y

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260 TAMPA been reached. Thousands of persons who had purchased lots on the installment plan stoppe d making payments. Developers were forced to stop work. Prices of lots plunged down ward at a sickening pace The ranks of the "knick e rbocker army" thinned rapidly At long last every one was forced to realize that the boom h ad truly ended. V'lhen the ef[ects o[ the boom in toxication began to w:ork off, Tampa l ooked aroun d in a bewildered daze and started taking stock of its assets and liabili t ies. On the debit side of the ledger was found a heavy load of bonded indebtedness in curred in paying for public improvements. Unl ike other large cities in penin s ular F lorida howe ver, Tampa had not run wild in issuing bonds and as a result, the city never defaulted in its bond pay ments during the lean years which followed as other cities did. Tampa always managed t o ke e p its cred i t good Part of the c r edit for the conservatism probably was due to the (act that Tampa then had a businessman 's administrat ion. The old councilmanic form of g o vernment was discarded after a b itter fight on October 19, 1920, when the peop l e app r oved a change, 3768 to 3002. The c i ty manager form of government was favored and five outstanding men were chose n to direct t h e city's affairs at an e l ectio n on December 7. Charles H. Brown was electe d mayor-commissio ne r and 'lftl A. Adams, 'IN. J. Barritt, V. V. Sharpe, and Henry E. Snow, commissioners. Sumter L. Lowry, a l eader in the fight for th e govern menta l change and Dr. L. A. Bize becam e commissioners in 1921. A. vV. D. Hall, of Chi cago, was brought in to become the first city manager: He served until July, 1922, when he was succeeded by \'11. L esley Brown. ... The first major problem tackled by the new admini s t ration per tained to the c ity's promised coope ration in the harbor deve lop ment project. Before the federal governm ent agreed in August, I 917, to deepen Ybor Channel to 27 feet, the c it y pledged itself to construct municipal wharves, dredge a slip, and build a municipal warehouse; also, to prov ide a belt lin e railroad connectin g with both the Atlantic Coast Line and Seaboard rai lroads. These promises had not been kept partly because of public apathy and partly becau se the Seaboard vigorou s ly opposed the propos ed public rail sen i ce into a section it had sened e xclu sive l y for ye ars Becaus e of the c i ty's failure to live up to i ts word, the fede ral government threatened in I 9 2 0 to stop i ts dredgi ng operations. T he new city admini s tr ation promptly took action, calling for a vote on a $600,000 bond issue to pay for the pled ged projects The bonds were approved late in 1921 and work was started ea rly in 1922. The slip, wharves and warehouses were completed within two years and a b e lt line railroad was constructed on the west sid e of the chan n el. Its extension to the east side was s uccessfully blocked by t he Seaboard.

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. b) 8 r ()t " F.voluuon of the Estuary from deso l ate mmsh 1:11\th into T:anwas most outStaoding section is graphically s h()wn h y thes e two photogruphs. The t .OP picture wtt..t; tak e n i n 1912 fro ln th e top of the Florida Brewin g Co . looking sout h The n c wly...:rected plant of the Tampa Compa n)' L'i show n at the r-lghL A litdc be)' Ond, th e o l d \Vashing-wn viaduct can be see n and, in the distance St!ddon Island The l ower photograph. taken rom a bo, c Sparkman Channel looking n orth, shows Ybor Channel at the rilht. The lc::c: 'Terminal, of the B ull Steamship Line. b shown at the let and the Gulf florida 1 cnninal, o the \\'aterman Stcatn$bip Company. on 'ben Channel. Beyond th e Iauer i1 the City Slip and terminal v."3rehouse. Most o the buildlnp .shown were buih o n land originall y ownOO. and sold b y the In"cstmcnt Compan -y.

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262 TAMPA The harbor development work, coming as it did when the Florida boom was getting well under way, provided the stimulus for the success ful promotion of Tampa's most outstanding industrial subdivision, west of Ybor Channel, commonly known as the Estuary. Most of the land in this section was owned by the I nter-State Invest ment Company, h eaded by James T. Swann Advertising the Estuary as "d1 e Liberty Bond of Tampa real estate," Swann launched an extensive sales campaign, alm ost as aggressive and spectacular as mat waged by D. 1'. Davis for his islands. Scores of lotS were sold and when t he c i ty voted on April 22, 1924, to build the La fayette Street viaduct over the Seaboard tracks and thereby provide easy access to the section, the Estuary really boom ed. Prices of lots fronting on Lafayette Street soared as high as $1,200 a front foot. Swann also had a hand in the promotion of the large st terminal facil ities of the Estuary. When the boom was in full swing he secured an option to buy a choice bit of Ybor Channel frontage rom Stephen M Spar kman for $600,000. Sparkman had purchased the property bac k in 1881 from James N. Hooker for $1.25 an ac r e. After he secured dle option Swann sold it to a local syndicate who promoted ilie Tampa Union Terminal Company. Construction of the terminal facilities was financed by eastern cap italists after Sparkman had been paid in full. During the depression of the 1930s the terminal proper ties were acquired by the Gulf Florida Terminal C ompany, an affiliate of the 'Vaterma n Steamship Company. The second major problem tackled by t he new city administr ation in the early 1920s related to the city's waterwork system. For more than thirty years, water had been supplied by the Tampa Waterworks Com p any, successor to the J eter-Boardman Water Works Company. The water was obtained from artesian wells and by 1921 the company was supplying 7,000,000 gallons a day. But the water was hard extremely hard, and the company did not extend its mains as rapidly as the growing city demanded. Wrangling over rates and service continued constantly. Municipal ownership of the water syst em had lo ng been demanded by the TAMPA TRmUNE and the issue was finally decided on March 6, 1923. By a vot e of 490 to 126, d1e voters approved d1e purchas e of the company's properties for $1,377,722 and at ilie same time approved the expenditure of $1,272,278 to purchase land needed for the development o f a new water supply and to extend the system. The Hillsborough River was decided upon as dle best source of supply and a new plant was built above the Tampa Electric Company dam. Anson W. Squires was appointed first water works superintendent. The new city officials came in for criticism of being too conserva tive late in 192 3 after the boom was well started. The TAMPA TIMES declared they w ere holding back the city by failing to call for a vote on vitally needed improvements. Perhaps as a result o[ this prodding, a

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THE fLORIDA BooM-AND AFTERMAT H 263 vote was called for April 22, 1924, on projects t otalling $3,000,000. E very proposal was approved by an ove n vhe l m ing majorit y The TIMES then crowed : "Now Tampa bas ceased to crawl." Included among the approved projects were bridges over the Hill s borough Ri ver at Fortune, Cass and Platt s treets and the Lafayette Street viadu c t All wer e fi n ished in 1926. The bridges r anged in cost [rom $250,000 to $325, 0 0 0 The viaduct cost $250,000, o f which the city paid $111,000 and Sea board t h e remainder. Prior to t h e co mpletio n of the viaduct the railr o a d t ra c k s south of the depot could b e crossed only by going over the narro w s t eep Washin gto n Street viaduct which peopl e rarely used The latte r structure, with its right angle tu rn a t the end, was finally torn down early in \.Vo rld War II. Re constr uction of th e B ayshore seawall inside the city li mits, ruined during the hurricane o f 1921, a lso was favored by the voters and the project was completed in 1925 at a c ost of approximately $400,000. At t h e same time the county s pent $359,446 to b uild a seawal l 2.!1 miles l ong from H oward Avenue to Hawthorne Road Another project favored by the voters was the conversion of Tampa Bay Casino, owned by the city, in to a much needed auditorium, $250,000 being voted for the purpose But after r ec onsidering the city commis sioners decided that th e casi n o would no t have a large eno ugh seating capacity so an enti r ely n e w structur e was orde r e d built at t h e north end of Crescent P lac e It was c ompleted in the early fall o f 192 6 a t a cost of $297,352 and was opened October 19 with the o p eretta "The Lovely Galatea," played b y the Thalians. Na t B. Rogers was named first mana ger of the auditori u m A public need o( far greater urgency than an audi torium a lso was recognized at the bond issue referendum when the voters approved th e expenditure of $215,000 for extens i on of hospital facilities. Tampa t hen had only the 32bed, twostory Gordon Keller Hospital, located on the North Boulevard opposite the fair grounds. This hospital completed June I, 1910, at a cost of $24,43 1 had lon g since been outgrown. Plans for a $215,000 enlarg ement, however, we r e a bandoned when ho spita l authori t ies agreed that the idea was imprac t ical. The city officia l s then de c id e d to b u ild a n e w hospita l i n Mar j orie P ar k o n Davis Islands, d eede d to t he city b y D. P Davis ear l y in 1 9 2 5 A $ 1 0 00,000 bond i ssue to pay for the hospital was approved by t h e voters on Marc h 17, 1925, and wor k on it was started one year la ter. The first pati ents w ere admitted i n the instiwtion, named the Tampa Municipal Hospital late in 1927 but the hospital was not comp leted unti l months later at a cost of $1,344,318. The old Gordon Keller was then turned over t o the fair association for use as an e xhibit building.

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264 TAMPA The new hospital was only one of the fine structures which changed Tampa's s kyline during the boom years. Included among the out standing buildings erected then were two skyscraper hotels, the 12-story Tampa Terrace and the 18story Floridan. The Tampa Terrace was the achievement of a group of forty pro gressive citizens who advanced $1,000 or more each late in 1924 and bought the southwest corner of Florida and Lafayette from Joe B. Johnson, who then owned it. Construction of the hotel was financed by a syndicate of Atlanta capitalists, bonds being sold by the Adair Realty & Trust Company, of that city. The hotel was opened early in 1926. After t h e crash the bon d holders sold it to Barron G. Collier, multi millionaire street car advertising magnate of New York who was then investing heavily in Florida properties. The Floridan, then the tallest hotel in Florida, was conceived in 1925 by A. J. Simms, a native of New Brunswick who had come to Tampa in 1907 and had been a leading developer for years. Forming the Tampa Commercial Hotel Company, which he served as general manager and secretary, Simms enlisted the support of prominent citizens to serve as company officials. They included W. E Dorchester, L. C. Edwards, T. N. Henderson, C. H. Constans, Abe Maas, J. W. \Varren, Clarence Holtsinger, G. C. Warren, J. C. Vinson Ben Cosio, Webb Clarke and L. J. Efird. Bonds were sold by the Adair Realty & Trust. Company. Work on the hotel was started February 4, 1 926, and i t was opened January 15, 1927 The Floridan, like the Tampa Terrace, passed into the hands of Harron Collier after the crash. Both were operated by the Collier Florida Coast Hotels Inc. The distinction of having the taltcst office building in town was won by the First National Bank during the turbulent Twenties. For more than a decade, the Citizens Bank, with its fine 1 0 story building, had lorded it over the other banks of Tampa, advertising itself as "The Big Bank in the Big Buildi ng." This may have had something to do with the decision of the First National officials to replace its four-story, white marble-faced home, erected in 1896, with a larger structure. In all events, they anno unced in 1925 that they inten<:led to build a 12-st ory building and construction work was started. Very shortly thereafter, the officials of the Citizens, not to be outdone, started adding two more stories to their building But instead of going up only twelve stories as announced, the First National went up thirteen-and the Citizens no longer could claim the tallest structure. The new First National Build ing reportedly cost $1,000,000 The marble front of the old bank was sold for $10,000 and used for another building farther north on Franklin. wallace F. Stovall, founder of the TAMPA TRllli.JNE, did more to change the skyline of downtown Tampa during the boom than any other individual. Starting off by building a new 4-story home for his

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THt: FLORIDA BooM-AND AFTERMAT H 265 n ewspape r on Tampa Street he proceeded to build the 12-story '.Vallac e S. Building the 7 story Stovall Olficc Building, and the 8-story Stovall Professional Building. M oney to erect the last three strucwres was obtaine d by Colonel Stova ll from the sale of the TRIIJUNE, a sal e which was one o f the most unusual incidents in t h e history of Florida journalism. In June, 1925 Mrs. Lulette Gunby, an old acquaint a nce of the publ isher suggested t hat h e s e ll the paper and for only $5,000 obtained a 30 day option to buy it for $ 1,200,000. Colonel Stov a ll was conv inced, he later said that the option would never be exerc i sed because of the price he had stipu lated and looked upon the option merely as a chance t o make $ 5 000 Unfortunately for him how ever, he over l oo ked the fact that Florida at that time was dealing in big money and $ 1 ,200,000 was considered a rather insi gn i ficant sum. B ecause of that, Mrs. Gunby succeeded i n organizing a syndicate to complete th e transaction. Mem b ers of the syndicate were Dr. L. A. Bize M. W. Ll oyd, L. B Skinner, R usse ll T arr, H T. L y kes M. J. Hulsey and George Booker. Before the sale was comp l eted, Sto va ll offered the syndicate $200,000 fo r release from the agreement, but was r efused. I t is said that the syndicate paid Mrs. Gunby I'A.of .7 ,.,.,,.,, 81'N. H ill5borough Countr"$ c:;ounbouse has been a landma k iu Tampa for more than half a ce nluf) h was buih in 189l-92 at a cost of 560.000 ; today the land alone is wonh m2ny times that amount. The 'fampa 1-loc.d is shown at the ldt and "'fampas City Hall at the rigbl

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266 T AM P A $200,0 00 for swinging the deal, in addition to t he $1,200,000 paid to the publisher. After Colon e l Stovall sold the TRIBUNE he backed his son Wallace 0. Stovall, in establishing a rival morning paper, the TAMPA TELEGRAI'Ii, th e first issu e of which appeared on October 11, 1925. The TELEGRAPH lived only eight momhs. Tampa was not large enough to support three daily newspape rs, not even i n boom days. And when the crash came, the profits of eve n the once mos t affluent TAMPA TRIBUNE dwindled to th e van i shing point. To get out from under the syndicate which had purchased it sol d the pape r on March 18, 1927, to S. E. Thomason, for many years associated wit h the CHICAGO TRIBUNE, and John Stewart Bryan, president and publisher of the Richmond (Va.) NEw s -LEADER. Besides skyscraper hotels and offic e buildings Tampa got hundreds of commercial buildin1,rs during the boom days, scores of apartment buildings and l iterally thousands of n ew homes T h e city grew as though b y magic. Everywher e th ere was frenzied construction activity. The zenit h of the building boom was reached in 1925. Bui l d ing permits issued that year soared to the unbelievable peak of $23,418,836. That represented nearly half as much building. done in one year, as had been completed from the time the first train puffed into to wn, way bac k in 1 884, up to the beginning of the Big Boom. At the peak of activities, railroads declared an embargo on freight shipments imo F l orida, due to con gestion of freight cars at bottl e nec k junction points But the embargo did not phase Tampa build ers. They began bringing i n s upplies by water-and the wharve s along t h e water (ront were lined with frei ghters, more sh ips than Tampa h ad ever seen before Building materia l s were piled in small moumains a l ong the docks. The buil ding boom h eld over well into 1926. During that year the permits totalled $15,872,772. Part o f the activity in 1926 was clue to the great buildin g prograu1 inaugurated in the city by the count y schoo l board then composed of John G. A nderson, Jr., Irving Walden, and S. D. Sweat, with W D. F. Snipes as county schoo l superintendent Upon the recommendation of the board, bond issues totalling $5,100,000 were voted in I 925 i n Tampa and West Tampa for school sites, buildings and equipment. With this money the schoo l board built nine elementary schools, three junior high schools two senior high schoo ls, a vocat iona l school an administration building, fou r Negro schools and made additions to seven old buildings. The Henry B. Plant High School, constructed at that time, cost $525,000 and a n ew Hillsbo rough High Sch ool, com pleted in 1928 cost $1,00 0 000. Because of t he Big Boom, Hillsborough County got a n etwor k of new hard-surfa ced highways which cost approximately $4,000 000 When the roads were completed, motorists could get in or out of the county

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THE FLORIOA BooM-AND AFTERMATH 267 from any directio n without having to plow through sand or mud. A connecting link with Gandy Bridge was one of the roads constructed Two roads leading south to the Manatee County line also were built. The first went through Rivervi ew and the second through Gibsonton and Ruskin. The latter road 26 miles long and 15 feet wide was com pleted in 1924 at a cost of $840 408. All the roads built during tlte 1920s proved to be roo narrow and too li ghtly constructed, and within a r ela tively short time had to be replaced But, judged by 1920 standards, they were excellent. Traffic in and out of Tampa was facilitated by two projects paid for largely by developers-the Michigan Avenue Bridge, built by Tampa Developers Inc., in connection with the development of Michigan Avenue section, and the 22nd Street Causeway, built in connection with the development of Tampa Bea c h on the east side of McKay Bay. The bridge was reported to h ave cost $400,000 and the causeway $!100,000. Both were completed during the winter of 1926-27. The 22nd Street Causeway and particularly the roads to Ma natee became important links in one of the most-talked-about highways then being co nstructed in America, the Tamiami Trail, so named by Secre tary L P Dickie of the Tampa Bo ard of Trade from "Tampa to Miami ." Dickie and other West Coast good roads booste r s began fighting for the Trail in 191 5 when paved highways south o f Tampa were non ex istent. But not until l ate 192 1 cou ld motorists go as far south as Sarasota without danger of b eing stuc k in sand or mud. During the two years following, passable roads were opened south to the Caloosa hatchee River and a bridge over that river was completed March I 2 .. 1924, opening Fort Myers to the motoring wor ld. At that time, little progress had been made on the Trail south of Fort Myers particularly on the cross-state section. To focus public attention on the Glades portion a small party of intrepid Trail Blazers had attempted to cross early in April 1923, but had become mired down and l ost for two weeks while airplanes searched for them. Two men [rom Tampa were i n that party, Frank Whitman and Russell Kay. The Trail Blazers feat rec e iv ed nationwide publicity but it did not greatly accelerate construction work. \.Vork was not speed,ed up until after the Sta t e Road Department took over the project in 1926. Thereafter rapid progress was made and finally, in April, 1928, the entire Trail was comp l eted. It was dedicated Tuesday n i ght, April 24, during ceremonies at the Tampa Auditorium. Principal speakers were Governor John W. Martin, Ma yor D. B. McKay, T. E d. Bryan, W W. Trice and W. G. Brorein The next morning a motorcade left for Miami Highway enthusiasts joined it all along the way and a memorable cele bration was held in Fort Myers.

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268 TAMPA Completion of the Trail made possible the inauguration ofbtls service between Tampa and Miami via the 'Nest Coast by the Tamiami Trail Tours, Inc., headed by Banon G Collier. A trip w h ic h formerly :required more than a day was shortened to about eight hours. At that time, Tamiami Trail Tours had only the one bus line; since then, its lines have been extended until they serve 43 counties and all the princi pal cities east of Tallahassee and south of the Georgia line. The co mpany has its headquarters in Tampa. By early 1928 the collapse of the Florida boom had been partly forgotten i n Tampa. The fac t was that Tampa had been les s seriotisiy affected by the crash than most cities in peninsular F l orida, simply bec;1use it was by no means entirely dependent upon winter visito rs or real estate. It had the cigar industry to fall back upon. In 1927 there were 159 cigar factories in the city employing 13 000 persons, with a weekly payroll of $350,000. Production of cigars that year totalled 479,000,000. Tampa had be come nationally known as the greatest cigar manufacturing city in the United States. Tampa had also become widely recognized by 1927 as a city of diversified manufacturing. The Tampa Board of Trade had a record of 382 industrial concerns, in addition to cigar factories, which produced 89 different products. Most of these concerns were small but they all helped to give the city stabili ty Nevertheless, there is no denying the fact that Tampa in 1927 was not as prosperous as it had been two years before. All of South Florida was temporarily in the doldrums and merchants everywhe 1 : e were going bankrupt. Inasmuch as Tampa was the commercial center of a large area which had been badly crippled, it could not expect to escape from the crash unscathed. Man y persons believed that the city manager form of government was responsible for some of the city's troubles. This was shown on July 7, 1927, when a change was approved by a three to two majority. On the following December 6, a new charter providing for a modified form of government was favored 4880 to 1507. D. B. McKay was elected mayor on January 28, 1928, and the follow ing representatives from twelve dis tricts: AI. E. Edwards, J. vV. Frazie r, S. Boteler Thompson, W. J. Bailey, Adolph N. Goldstein, Walter H. Campbell, A nton io Reina, Ben F Emerson, Clemente Sendoya, T. N. Henderson H: B Broac h and Kenneth Hamilton The new officials too k office at once. But efficient though they were, they could ha rdly solve all the city's problems. Especially because real trouble was almost in sight. It came all too soon.

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xu DI:PRI:SSION-WAR-AND AFTERWARDS WEDNESDAY, July 17, 1929, was a black day in the history of Tampa. For on the morning of that day, one of the city's largest banks, the Citizens Bank & Trust Company, failed to open its doors for business. So did five smaller banks affiliated with the Citizens: the Bank of Ybor City, the Franklin Bank, the Citizens Nebraska Avenue Bank, the Lafayette Bank, and the American State Bank of Tampa. The immediate cause of the financial calamity was a wild rumor which had swept through Ybor City on Monday, two days before a rumor that Tampa banks were insolvent. A reader in one of the cigar fact.ories employed to entertain the cigarmakers had read reports of bank failures in other cities and some of his listeners became fearful of thei r money in local banks. They stormed out of the factory and started a run on the Ban k of Ybor City. Reports of the run quickly spread through Tampa. And because the Ban k of Ybor City was affiliated with the Citizens, a silent run was started on the big downtown bank It continued all day Tuesday, July 16. Before the Citizens' tellers closed their windows that afternoon, they had paid out $ 1,120,000 in cash. A nd the run had not ended. All night long officials and directors of the Citizens conferred with state bank examiners. For a while they believed their institution could be sav ed But be f ore daylight came they were forced to realize that they did not have enough cash in their vaults to weather the storm if it continued -as it most certainly would And to protect their deposi tors as best they could, they agreed that the bank and its affiliates could not reopen that day for business The TAMPA Tl!'.u;s did not get out an extra to tell about the closing of the banks. But word of the disaster soon reached every part o f the city and people were stunned. Hundreds of business concerns had accounts in the banks and thousands of individuals had entrusted to them the i r life savings. Tampa had been dealt a staggering blow Fear fed on f ear, and runs were started on the three large banks which remained open-the First Nati onal, the Exchange National, and the First Savings & Trust Company. Those three institutions, all thoroughly so u nd, were headed by able, experienced bankers-the First National by R. ]. Binnicker, the Exchange by J. A. Griffin and the First Sav i ngs by A C Clewis. In the emergency, those men knew what to do and they acted quickly. Even before their ba nks were opened, they made arrangments for getting a million dollars in cash from Jacksonville, on orders from the Federal

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270 TAMPA Reserve Bank in Atlanta. The money was brought to Tampa in..a c hart ered airplane. Pilo ted by Laurie Yonge the plane arrived at Drew Field at noon, was met by a--police squad, and the money was rushed to the banks. That night, $4,000,000 more itl cash was brought in by express. Not all the money was needed. By Thursday afternoon, the las t fear stricken depositor had been paid-and th e runs were ende.d. But the collapse of the once-mi ghty Citizens and its a ff ilia tes cost the people of T ampa nearly $10,000,000. Deposits in the Citizens at the time it closed totalled $11,161,200.14 and the liquidators we r e able to pay only 27 per cent of the claims the depositors losing approxim ately $8, 150,000. Dep osits in the affiliated banks in Tampa totalled 688.86, and only about half that amount was paid back ultimately to depositors The crash of th e Citizens had repercussions all through southw est Florida. Affiliat ed banks in four other c i ties also were forced to close: the Bank of Plant City, the Bradenton Bank &: Trust Comp any, the First Bank &: Trust Company of Sarasota and the First Bank &: T rust Company of Fon Meade. Depositors i n all those banks lost heavily. The downfall of the Citizens was said to have been due in part to the fact that it had abso rbed a number of smaller banks which had be come shaky after the Florida crash. On December I, 1927, it had taken over the National Bank of Commerce head ed by Hatton B. Rogers, and had liquidated it without loss to the depositors -butat a cost of n ea rly $500,000 to the itself. Moreov er, the Citizens had ta ken over the chain of bank s which had been organized by N. A. Perry at the peak of the boom and this actio n was said to have cost another $500,000. Tampa's hopes of rec overing quickly from th e closing o f the Citizens and its affiliates were shattered by the devastating stock market crash of October 1929. Before the year ended stock losses throughout the nation totalled fifteen billion dollars The Great Depression star t ed The United States began to be paral yzed, and with each passing month the para lysis became more severe. Thousands of winter vis itors who had been coming to Flori da for years remained in their northern homes. Those who did come spent money cautiou s ly. M ercha nts in every city were hard hit. Hundreds d i d not take in enough money to pay their re n t. They we r e forced to lay off employees they had had for years. Bu ilding activities everywhere practically cea sed. Coming so soon after the F lorida crash, t h e national de pression caused infinite hardships. Being the commercial center of southw est Florida, a section heavily dep endent on touris t business, suffered acutely. Many of its who l esale concerns went bankrupt. Even the cigar industry was affected by the national depression. Millio ns of c iga( smokers quit smoking or turned to pipes or cigarets. The cigar factories were forced to retrench,

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DEI'RESSION-\.VAR-AND A'TERWARDS 271 and laid off thousands of workers. Tampa was soon confronted with the worst unemployment problem in its history. Relief age n cies were swamped For those who had money the Great Depression was no hardship Living costs were extremely low. : Food, for example, cost very little. Here are some prices taken from newspaper advertisements in Novem ber, 1932: pur e pork sausage, 10 cents a pound; best grade sirloin steak, 15c; hamburger, two pounds for 15c; best grade ham, 18c a pound; six large cans of pork and beans, 25c; I 0 pounds of potatoes, I lc; young roasti n g hens, 18c a pound; fryers, 23c a pound; six tall cans of evaporated milk, 24 c; three tall cans of salmon, 25c; and so on. Yes, living was cheap, for those who had money. But thousands had no mo ney. The first federal relief funds, a mere dribble, came into Tampa in the spring of I 932. Other dribbles followed. They kept peop l e from starving, but that was about all Under FERA r u les, wor k ers received 17 cencs an hour for a maximum of 140 hours a month or $23.80. Only one person in a family could take a relief job. Photo not available

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272 TAMPA In the spring of 1934 a total of 16,488 perso ns in Hills borough County were certified for relief -and WPA came into existence. WPA headquarters in Tampa were set up in t h e Wallace S Buildin g with ]. R. McLeod as district supervisor and W E Robinson assistant distr i c t supervisor. The first WPA project for Tampa, approv ed August 2, 1 935, al l otted $ 105 ,343 for the development of a munici pal airpor t on Davis I slands, land for which was obtai n ed from the I sland I nvestmen t Com p any .in a tax settlement deaL The ai r port was named the P e ter 0 Knight A irport in recognition of the help given by Knight in arranging the land t rans fer; also, becaus e he was one of the tow n 's leadi ng citizens. The airport project was sta rted by WPA workers on Augus t 7; the firs t WPA payroll carne on August 16234 men rece ived $1,470. From then on WP A rolls climb ed rapidly. Before Au gust ended 1.071 men w e r e p l aced at work on a mosquito and malarial control project for which $403,560 was allott ed. By tl1e end of Octob er, 1935, WPA roll s totall ed S,675. The number increased to 5 ,032 on January I, 1936; 6,320 on January I 1 937: 7,677 on January 1, 1938 a nd 8,588 on January 1, 1939. At that time, 2,196 more wer e eligible for j obs but no more jobs were availab le Thereafter, the number of WP A workers declined rapidly -vVorld War II was bringin g prosperity back t o the nation. Up to April 9, 1941, a total of $19,83 6,592.23 was spent on WPA projects in Hillsb oro u g h County, mostly in Tampa. Of that amount, the federal gover nment a llotted $15,857 ,096 .86 and the sponsors pa id $3,97 9 495.37 in money, materials or l and. More than three-fourths of the total amount-$1 4,244,759 .7 9 to be exact went for labor T here were litera ll y hundreds o f projects large and small; for women as well as for men, for skilled pro(e ssional people as well as uns kille d day laborers. To list al l the projects woul d be an almost endless task. A few of them, how ever, deserve spec ific menti o n Work on the P eter 0. Knight Airport cost $462,264 bef o r e it was com pleted. That in cl uded the cost of dredging and grading buil di ng runways and constructing the terminal building, hangars and admin is tration buildings. The most outstanding proj ect was the work done o n Bayshore Boulevard, me first allotment for wh ich was made on November 4 1935, amounting to $248,689. During the ne x t th ree years, new sea walls were constructed the entire length of the boulevard and new much wide r pavemen'ts laid. In addition, the missing link between th e P latt Street Bridg e and Mag nolia Street was opened and compl eted. Alto gether the work on th e boulevard cost $1,216,257 The costly project had been made n ecessar y largely because the old seawall, built for the city and co unty less t han ten years befor e, had b ee n shoddily con structed and had gone to pieces in many places

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DEJ'RESSJON-\.YAR-ANI> AFTJ::RWARI).'; 278 Nearly a million dollar s was spent in various ways on t h e land acquired in 1905 from t he estate of Henry B P lane. R epairs to the Tampa B ay H otel cost $.1!18, 154; $186 927 went for the deve lopment of Plant Park ; $129,156 for gTandstand and bleach e rs at Plant Fie ld and $465,72 4 for b uildi ngs and other improve ments at the fair gTotmds. Projects at the fairgrou nds were sponsored by the South Florida Fair Assoc iation; the others were sponsored by the city. A total of $361,880 was spent for t h e construction of the armory of the I 16th Fie l d Artillery, the first batta li o n ol' which had been must ered i n a t the Tampa Bay Casino on De cember 5, 1921. During the 1920s ten frame buildings and a boxin g arena had been built for the artill ery men and in 1934 35 two reel brick buildings had been constr u cted as CWA projects at a cost o f $!10, 000 each. Then, o n A u gust 26. 1938. a WPA allotment of $270,730 was made for t h e main armor y b u ilding . \ n o ther allotment of $91.150 followed on D ecembe r 23. 1940. After the entrance o f the Uni ted States into '.Yorld war II, the armory was named Fort Homer 'N. H esterly i n honor of Col onel Hesterly, one of the organizers of the artiller y unit which then was i n act ive se r vice. During th e war the armory served as headquarters for the 3rd A ir For ce. The devel opmen t o f D rew Field co ns t ituted another vVP A proj ect of major The history of t h e field dovetails with the history o f Tampa's participation in aeronautics. Pi oneer b i rdmen who cam e to Tampa in '\Norld vVar I days a nd ucl'orc utilized Benjamin Field on Howard Avenue as a landing place. T hi s field was part of a tract of land give n to Henry B. Plant b y George N. Benjamin, one of the f ounders of West Tampa, as an inducement to the ra ilr oad m agnate to buil d the Tampa Bay Hot el. The field was milized in the 1920s as the site for the armo r y mentioned above. During the F lorida boom severa l attempts were made by p r ivate individuals to establish air fields on the o u ts kirts o f the city but no adequa t e f i eld was provided. In 1926 and 1927, commercial aviation developed so rapidly that Tampa officia ls finally dec ided that the city must have an airport if it expected to k eep abreast of the times. After long discussions regarding sites, the city finally l ea sed for five years an 160-acre tract in the Rocky Point district o wned by John H. D rew, an aviation enthusiast The lea se with an option to buy was signed January I 1928. Soon afterward, an adjoining SOacre tract was leased from the Chicago -Tampa Development Company. Space wa:s lea s ed to A. B. M c Mull e n f'or an air school and many of Tampa's first flyers took lesson s there. Air meets were held i n Feb ruary, 1 928, and February 1 929. And in May, 1929, an $18,000 hangar was constr ucted by the city But the fiel d had no runways and on one occasio n when a large pla n e came in a high mound of ea rth had to be p il ed up, and planks lai d down one side of it for runways to enable the ship to ta k e w the air again.

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274 TAMPA Further development of the field was halted by insistent demands that Tampa should develop a truly first-class airport where f acilities would be available for both hydroplanes and land planes. The demands were inspired by promises from officials of the Pan American Airway System that Tampa would be made the base of that company's operations if such an airport would be provided. Enthused by t he promises, the people approved a $.7 50,000 bond issue to pay for the port, to be built on an island in Tampa Bay off Ballast Point to be made by dredging. Then came a long bitter fight. Many residents in the Bayshore district objected strenuously to the proposed island airport, saying that it would lower their property values. Strongly backed movements were started to sell the city land in other locations. To settle the dispute, Mayor D. B. McKay appointed four outstanding men to serve on the airport committee: Franklin 0. Adams, F. L. Judd, Captain George Perkins; and Lieutenant Philip Pratt. After lengthy deliberations, the committee reported tha t i t favored Cat f ish Point on Interbay Peninsula. However a majority bloc of six councilmen refused to proceed with the project, giving as their excuse the explanation that it would cost more than the $750,000 provided by the bond issue. The TA.MPA TRIBUNE, which had fought long and hard for the airport, insisted vehemently on going through with it. But t he six obstinate councilmen would not listen-and plans for the airport were shelved. Thereupon, Pan-American, in disgust, abandoned t he idea of establishing its base in Tampa and went to Miami. That was in January 1930. In 1933, when Tampa began planning projects tO provide work for the unemployed with federal assistance, Drew Field came back into the picture. The city's lease on the 160-acre tract, and option to buy had expired but the city finally succeeded a fter much squabbling in buying it for $11, 654 the figure at which it was appraised by the Tampa Real Estate Board. The purchase was completed February 10, 1934. vVork of improving the field was started as a GWA project ten days later, $31,000 being allotted for i t by the government. Another allotment of $46,690 was made by WPA on August 7, 1935. Thereafter, development progressed steadily, allotments being made from time to time by the Civil Aeronautics Association. Three 7,000 foot asphalt runways were constructed, hangars were built, lights were installed. and other impro v ements made. By 1938, Drew Field was rated as one of the best in Florida. Tampa Gets a Universit; Because of government help, Tampa got many worthwhile things during t he depression years. But one o f the best obtainments, with per haps the greatest long range possibilities, came entirely through the initiative of its own citizens at very little cost-the U niversity of Tampa.

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AFTERWARDS 275 The idea of estab l ishing a university in the city, first considered in the late 1920s, was stim ulated by th e depress ion. After the cras h many Tampa families which normally would have sent their chi ldren to co ll eges and u nivers ities in other cities for higher education were no longer finan cia lly able to stand the expe nse. So the children rc mained at home. Deepl y deploring the fact that Tampa's youth was being denied educ ationa l opportunities, a group of leadi n g citizens dec i ded that something must be done, and done quickly. After lo ng discussion of the problem, they agreed that, somehow or ocher, a unive rsity s h ould be established here. L eade rs in the movement were V. V. Sharpe, George B. Howell S. E. Thomaso n and John B. Sutton. The first step to make the institutio n an actua lity was taken on March 13, 1930 when Tampa University was incorpor ated. The founders were: ]. A. Griffin, Sha rpe, Thomason, R J Binnicker, Sut ton, D. B. McKay, Fran k D. Jackson, Carl D. Brorein, James T. Swann, W. G. Br orein Judge Alexander Akerman, J ames Vv. Morris, George M. Osb orn, A L. Cuesta Jr., John G. Anderson, Jr., Dr. W. P Adamso n Dr. ]. S. Helms, Charles A. McKeand, Frederic H. Spa ulding. Cha r les F. Blake and M. W. Carothe rs. PhotQ by Buflllll Or
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TAMPA Having high hopes but no money, the incorporators were forced to mark time for more than a year before they were able to carry out their plans, and even then they were unable to establish a university. The best they could do was to get a junior college started It was opened OctOber 5, 1931, in the Hillsborough County High School with 65 pupils Classes were held from 4 p.m. tO 9 p.m. five evenings a week The instructors were volunteers who received nothing for their services. Frederic H. Spaulding was president and Paul F. Strout, dean Both were Harvard graduates with M.A. degrees. The first executive board consisted of Howell Blake, Jackson Carl Brorein, and Carothers. Attendance at the college doubled during the second year and the trustees realized that if the institution hoped to li ve it would have to obtaiil quarters of its own. After mulling over various proposals for months, and having many setbacks, they finally centered tl1eir attention on the old Tampa Bay Hotel, then standing vacant. The once magnificent hotel, purchased by tll e city from the estate of Henry B. Plant in 1905 had become a huge, rninaratecl red elephant. One leaseholder had followed another but no one made any money u ntil the Big Boom when the mammotl1 structure was filled with paying guests for the first time since Spanish-American war clays. vV. F. Adam s who then held the lease, became so affluent that he spent $70,000 of his own money to renovate the run-down building. The city which also was affluent, put in $.187,000 more. But then came the crash-and the Tampa Bay stood almost empty all season Adams lost heavily, and he contin u ed to lose more each winter thereafter. Finally, on August 22, 932, he went bankrupt. City officials tried in vain to find some one else who would lease t he hoteL But they had no success. So they listened attentively when the university advocates b roached the subject of acquiring the building and on August I, 1933, a lease was s ig ned, the university to pay $1 a year for the hotel which had originally cost $3,000,000 Crews of relief workers were hastily assembled and work of con the hotel into something that looked like an educational insti tution was immediately start ed During the following month, m ore activity was seen around the hotel man had been seen since the gold braided army officers departed for Cuba in 1898. By t he middle of Sep tember the conversion job had progressed far enough to permit the open ing of classes on the 18th, this t ime as a senior college. Student enrollment totalled 350. President Spaulding was still in charge but John Coulson had succeeded Strout as dean. The faculty was enlarged to make it possible to award the degrees of B.A., B.S., and B.S. in Business Admin is tration. And the in fant university even boasted of having a f ootba ll coach-Nash Higg ins. Truly, the Unive rsi ty had taken its place in the Florida sun.

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D EI'RESS IONVVAR-AND AFTERWARDS 277 But if any university ever opera ted on a shoestring, that univ er s ity was T ampa's. When th e first classes were started, th e tr ustees had only $3,500 in their operating fund and there w ere lio big don ation s in sigh t Tuition fees we re necessarily low and only b y exerc i s ing the most rigid econom ies was the university able to weather that f i rst year as a senior college. But it did, a nd its credits were va l idate d by t h e Univ e r s ity of Florida and the State Board of Education. Tampa Uni versity had come to stay P resident Spaulding headed the university until the fall of 1935 when h e becam e inact ive T he administration of the scho o l was the n ce nte red i n Dean M S. Hal e, who had succ eede d Cou lson the preceding spring. Dr. John Harvey Sherman was pre sident fro m the spring of 19!!7 ro June, 1 910, and James Elliott Mooney from J une, 1940 to Janu ary, 1944. Dean l\I. C Rhode s t hen s erved as actin g pesiclent until Dr. Ellwood C. Nance assumed ofl' ice in May, 1945. T ampa Again M oves F orward Some time during the mid-Thinies-no one know s exactly when the United States pass ed through the c risis of th e Great Depression ill ness. Strangely en o ugh, th e c hange for t he better ca me even before '
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278 T AMPA During the late su mmer o 1940 the company got i nto fin ancial difficulties and in November, the Tampa Shipbuilding C ompany, Inc., was organized to take ove r operati ons. George B. H owell was named pres ident and J. W. Gray, secretary and treasurer Kreher rema ined with the company as consulting eng ineer. Thereafter, one ship after another s lipped off the ways in Ybo r Channel to join the fleets carrying supplies to war-torn Europe. When the U ni ted States entered the conflict, operations were speeded up still more. Employment reach ed a pea k of 16,000. Nearl y a hundred ships w e re cons tructed, principally for the n avy on a cost-plus, fixe d fee basis. The la rgest were th e destro yer tend ers Piedmont, Siena and Y osemite which cost $ 1 7, 000 000 each They were the l argest ships ever co nstructed south of Newport News. The company also repaired and convert e d mor e than 500 other ships, including many which had been damaged by subm arines or in battles T he company 's operation s were undoubtedl y the larg est ever con ducted in South Fl orida. More than $8,000,000 was spent in add itional plant build ings tools and machine ry and to handle the tremendous volume of materi als pouring into the c i ty, the company leased sixteen wareho uses. Ics weekly p a y r oll at peak produ c t io n e xcee ded $750,000. The fi rst ship com ple ted by the company, the Seawit c h le d a charm e d life during the war She was at Manila when the J apa nese bombed that port at the start o the war, but th e captain raced to sea and s h e escaped unharmed. T hereafter, the Seawitch was used to del iver supplies all through the South Pac i fic and was never damaged, even though she almost always trave led without escort beca use of her speed T o satisfy th e nation's i nsatiable appetit e for shi ps another ship building company was established in Tampa, McCl oskey 8c Co mpany, which had its yards and shops at H oo ker's Point. This company buill 5,000-ton concrete shi p s and at the peak. employed 4,000 men. Its shops were equipped with more than a million dollars worth of mac h inery and it owned a huge graving d r ydock capabl e of accomm odati ng a 480 foot v essel. Seventy -eight large seagoin g tug s also w ere built in Tampa for th e army by the Tampa M arine Corporation, headed by C. J. ( Steve) H yer (q .v. ) and W. H. Reyno l ds. At the peak. the company had 2 ,300 employees. It was awa rded the Army-Navy "E" on April 18, 1944t h e first given to any Tampa comp any. Tampa Gets an Anny Air B ase Less than thre e months after the beginning of World II in !939, work. was started on a project w h ich has meant more to T ampa than anything since the com ing of Plant s railr oad in 1884-MacDi ll Field

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DEPRESSION-'INAR-ANn A vrERWARus 27 9 T ampa got the air base in son o( a round-about manner. During the m i d thirties, when war talk first started, the army began mak i n g p lans for s ix air bases throughout t h e c o u ntry, one of wh i c h tl1e S outhe aster n, was to be l ocate d som ewhere in Fl ori da. At f i rst, the army see med t o favor Arcadia w h e r e a large air base had been l ocat e d during \Vorl d \ Var I. And for some time the Tampa Chamber of Comm erce worked in Arcad i a's beha lf, tl1e offic i als believing that anything which hel ped South Flori da w ould h e l p Tampa. Earl y in 1939 how eve r w i nte r mane uv ers wer e held i n Tampa b y the GHQ Air Fo r ce, which had headquarters in the P a l merin H ote l on Davis I slands. \Vhile tl1e top army airmen were here, they secretly ad vised several Tampa men t h a t they had no idea of r ec o mmending Ar cadi a the y sa i d they h ad no des i re t o be b ased in such a "des o l a te regio n They s ugge sted that T ampa s hould get bus y and t r y t o get the bas e itse l f i nstead of p l ugg ing for some other locality. That suggestion started fi r e"orks. F rom th e n on, T ampa worked for th e base as i t h ad never b e f o r e wor ked for anything. A co m m i t t ee of T a mpa"s l ead ing citi zens was na med to pull t h e n e cessary strings and t he s tring s were p ull e d u nceasin g ly. T h e n on J uly 14, 1939 the mo mentous announcement was made that G eneral Thomas Handy, who had been conferring w i th the T ampa committee for weeks, had dec i ded Sleek steamers or che \Vatenna11 Stc:un5hip Compan y make Tampa :a regular port or call. dock i ng a1 the modem Cui( florida Terminal on the Vbor Channel

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280 TAMPA that the base should be located at the lower end of lnterbay P e nin s ula known as the Catfish Point section. Members of the commi ttee which succeeded in getting the base for Tampa were: vV. Howard Frankland, Frank J. Gannon, G eorge B. Howell, R. Ambler Liggett Joseph A. Swe ene y E P. Taliaferro, M. M Frost, Pat Whitaker, Leslie H. Blank A B. M c Mullen, Howell T. Lykes Jerome A. \.Yaterman, D. Hoyt Woodb ery, R obert Clinton F ranc i s L. J udd, G. D ave Curtis, T. N. H enderson and H e nry C Tillman. One of the promises made to get th e base was that the coumy would furnish 3,500 acres while the army was buying 2,295 more. Bu t when the location of the si t e was announced, property owne r s b egan demand ing fantastic prices for the land. As a result, the properties w ere con by the g?vernment on O ctober 9 after 298 had been appratsed by L cshe H. Blank, vV. E . Hamn e r and W. H. 1 oole At t hat time the count y promised to pay $97,000 to the government in lieu of buying the land it had agreed to furni s h A congre ssiona l appropri ation of $3,173,000 for the Southeastern Army Air base h ad been made in June, 1939 so money was i m m edia t ely available to start constr uction. Bu t work of clearing the huge tract and preparing it for a base was started as a vVPA project, on Tuesday, No vember 28. WP A a ll o tted $60 9,64 1 and t h e war departmem $45 5 114 making a total ol' $ 1 064,755. Within a few days, 1 ,60 0 WPA workers were on the j ob. At the same t i me, WP A started extending Lisbon Avenue to the fie l d, $550 000 being allotted for the purpose. Incidentally these were the la st WPA projects in Hillsb oro ugh County V\Then th ey were started mor e than 8,000 men and wome n were on \.YPA rolls. Fo u r months later the tota l was down to 5 ,503 and by the lime the Uni ted States entered the war, WPA had faded out of t h e picture. Soon there was a shortage o f wo rkers in Tampa instead of an une mployment problem. The world confl ict had route d the de pressiOn Construction work on runways, han1,rars, barrac ks and administra tion building s at the air base was start ed in Decem ber, 19 39. All were built by pri vat e cont ractOrs. The great expanse of scrub pal m e ttoes and sand spurs infested with rattlesnak es, began to be convert.cd magi cally into one of the f inest air bases i n the nation H ow many milli ons were spent in the conversion job, no one k nows. The r ecords are buried in war deparunem files. The base was named .Mac.Dill Fi eld by the army early in 1940 in mem ory of Col. Leslie MacDill, a native of Monmouth, Ill., a vetera n army aviator who was killed in 1938 in a cras h at Washington D C .. while on a flight from Bolling Fi e ld. The first road to the field also was named after him. Later, a much better highway to the base was buil t south on Vera Av enue from Hillsborough Avenue by the federal govern ment, state and co unty It was named the Dale Mabry Boule vard in

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memory of C apt. D ale Mabry, of Tampa. who was kille d January 28, 1922, w h en the dirigible Roma, built in Italy [or the Uni ted States burned at H ampton V a while on a tri al fli g ht. Dale was a brother of G iddings and Milton Mabry. The firstcomingent of soldi ers came to Ma c Dill Field from Mitchell Field, New York, on March 11, 1940. Fifty men we r e in the contingent. A month later, 150 more arriv ed. From then on, they streamed in By May I 0 more than 1 ,000 were sta t ioned at the base. The first squadron of army planes, fourtee n in number, arriv e d on May 15, 1940. The squadron co nsisted of four B-17s, the four motOred Boeing Bombers commonly kn own as the Flying For tresses, and t en B IBs, two-motored Douglas bombers. The p lanes were flown here from L angley Field, Virginia, in four and o ne-half hours The first p l ane w hich landed was pi l oted by Lieut. Col. Vincent J. Meloy, com mander of the 29th Bombardment Group. Unable to land at M ac D ill F i e l d b e cause the runways there were not yet completed, the planes settled down a t Drew Fiel d which hac! just been l eased to the army by the city for 25 yea rs. O n October 2 3 1940, th e army lease d an adjoining 400 acre tract and later added t o its h oldings. During the war, when Colonel Melvin Asp was commanding ofl'icer there, great improv ements were made and many thousand s of men were brought i n to receive t h e ir Cinal tra ining. Estimates of th e r.or.al number t rained at Drew vary g r e atly r anging all t he way f r om 50,000 to 120,0 00. Proba b l y th e greatest number at the field at any one tim e was about 25,000. At M acD ill Fiel d, development work was rushed all during I 940. T h e first commanding officer there was Col. Clarence L. Tinker. The first formal flag raising at the base was h eld June 16 under the auspices of the E lk s Lod g e the principa l tal k s being made by D oyle E Carlton and D. B M c K ay. P atri o tic songs were sung by Mrs. E B ryant Wood 'A'hcn war was declared three bombing squadro n s we r e stationed at the field the 6th, 43rd and 52nd. T hereafter, the base was steadi l y enlarged and more than 1 5,000 serv i cemen were stationed there at the pea k o f operations Headquarter s for th e 3rd Air F orce were ma i ntained during 1 h e war at Fort Hesterly where $ 50,000 m ore was spent by the air force for f urtlter i mprovements. H enderson Fie l d, just west of the C ity of Temple Terrace, was used b y the air corps for condition ing airme n. Dev e lop m c n t of this field had been start ed during th e depression as a WPA pro ject but was never compl eted, despite the fact that it had b een e nvision e d as the county's "Internat i ona l Airport." D uring the W ar and Afterwards From the time the Japanese bombed P earl Harbor on D ecember 7 1941, until Japa n surrendered nearl y four years late r Tampa people

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282 TAMPA subordinated everything to the main task of winning the war, just as people did everywhere throughout the nation Before the war ended, thousands of H illsborough County men were fighting in all parts of the world, from the fog-shrouded rocks of the Alemians to the steaming jungles of New Guinea and the bloody battle fields of North Africa, Italy France and Germany. Rarely did a week pass without word being received of several having made the supreme sacrifice. -It was little wonder, therefore, that Tampa people did not complain about the seeming l y endless red tape and inconveniences of all forms o f rationing abo u t restrictions against traveling, or about running short occasionally in a few items of food And, as soldiers on the home front, they buckled down to t he task of putting over war bond and Red Cross drives, serv i ng as air wardens or waterfront guards, and doing everything possib le to hasten the war's end. Throughout the entire war, and for many months thereafter, Tampa was crowded with servicemen Not only with men who were stationed at MacDill and Drew fields but with fighter pilots who were being trained at the Pinellas County Air Base and a i r corps technicians from St. Petersburg. And with servicemen from camps all over Florida who came to Tampa on furloughs or lea ves to enjoy themselves. The hotels were always filled. Stores, restaura nts and cafes did a record smashing business. Everyone had money to spend-and t hey spent it. While the war was in progress, Tampa got a new mayor, Curtis Hixon succeeding Mayor Robert E. L. Chancey in 1943. Chancey had served the city twelve years, the stormiest in the city's history. He had been elected in 1931, defeating T. N. Henderson 7901 to 6632 in a wild election in which charges of vote f raud abounded. To assure a "clea n election," police guarded the voti n g booths and arrested a hundred voters suspected of illegal practices. To add to the excite ment, sheriff's deputies arrested the police. For a time it looked as though Tampa would have a civil war. When Chancey took office, Tampa' s f inancial affa i rs were in a sorry state During the boom days, the city commissioners had bonded t he city for $13,000,000 for necessary public improvements and interest pay ments on the bonds were taking most of the city s depression-depleted revenues. Banks held the city's notes for $ 600,000 and refused to lend any more. The city could not meet its payrolls. Cha ncey proceeded to slash the police and fire departments, reducing their budgets $100,000 a year. Several fire stations were closed. Other city departments were similarly cut. Remaining employees were given part of their pay in certificates. Before the depressio n ended, the city had to borrow $750,000 from the RFC to obtain money for city-sponsored WPA projects. To relieve the strain, the city's merchants fi nally agreed to pay a special tax on gross business.

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DEPRESSION-WARAND AFTERWAROS 283 Mayor Chancey was re-elected in 1935. After the election, charges were made that he and his political followers had been g u ilty o f in timi dating v o ters stuffing the ballot boxes and doctor i ng the results. As a res ult of the alleged fraud, a movement to get voting machines, pioneered by W R. Letcher, received wide popular support and the machines were finally purchased and installed. In his bid for a fourth term in 1943, Mayor Chancey was opposed by Hixon a dru ggist who had come to Tampa from A l abama in 1910. Hixon had served two terms as city alderman had been twice elected as a co u nty c ommissioner and was popular He defea t ed Chancey by a large majority. The election marked the beginning of a reform wave which culm i nated in 1945 in a losing battle for the return of the city manager form of government but which effected a charter revision providing for representatives elected a t l arge i n stead o f by wards It also increased the powers and duties of the mayor. Photo not available

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284 TAMPA Hixon took office at the peak of the war, when the city was filled with servicemen, and he put the resources of the city into .drives to curb vice and venereal d iseases. He also began buil d i ng up city depart ments which had become run down during the long depression years. He was able to perform this much needed task because the city had, by that time, started to become prosperous again and tax payments were increasing steadily . Because of the war, and also because of politics, t he entire Tampa Bay region was benefitted in 1944 by the action of the federal govern ment in taking over Gandy Bridge and eliminating the toll. A free bridge had long been urged by civic leaders in both Tampa and St. Petersburg but officials of the Gandy Bridge Company, then reaping a rich harvest, succeeded in blocking all attempts to get action However, they made the mistake of failing tO make arrangements for s e rvic emen to obtain passes easily and the government, spmred by Senator Claude Pepper, intervened. Just before the primary election of 1944, the bridge was commandeered by the government under provisions of the act which conferred war emergency powers upon the president This action, it has been said, re-elected Pepper to the senate. Gandy Br i dge became a free bridge at I :30 p.m., April 27, 1944. Up to that time, a wll of 35 cents had been charged for a car and five cents for each passenger A jury fixed the price paid to the Gandy Bridge Company at $2,382,642. Davis Causeway, the connecting link between Tampa and Clear w ater, was taken over by the State Roa d D epartment six weeks before the federal government too k over Gandy Bridge. The ca u seway had been started in 1927 by Capt. B. T. Dav i s but work on it had been halted first by the F lorida crash and later by the national depression Finally, in 1933, Davis secured an RFC loan and completed its construction. I t was opened Thursday, June 28, 1934, with ceremonies sponsored by Corita Davis, daughter of the builder. A gate of flowers was cut by a group of Tampa girls including Elizabeth Sharpe, Mary Fernandez, Becky Price, Mary Catherine Mio::hler, Robie Webb, Mrs. Sallie G. Bannon and Kathleen Simpson. Speeches were made by Doyle E Carlton and Mayor Chancey T he price paid for the nine-mile causeway and 3,51 0-foot bridge was $1,085,000, of which the F ederal Works Administration paid half and the Stare Road Department the remainder. After the war ended, the causeway was greatly improved and beauti fied by the State Road Department, palms and shr ub s being planted along its entire length and many attractive picnic shelters for motorists erected. Commissioners of H illsborough and Pinellas counties were so well pleased by the development that they changed the name of the causeway to the Courtney Campbell Parkway honoring the man who was

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0EI'RESSION-,VAR-AXO AFTERWARIIS 28 5 then the Tampa district member of the road d e parunent. Shortly there after, th e department leased to the city of Tampa a tract of land at the east end of the causeway for use as a municip al bathing beach and picnic grounds. Plans for the d evelopment of th e beach a t a cost of approxi mately $ 1 ,000,0 0 0 were nearing completion at the end of 1949. In addition tO improvement of th e beach the plans provided for the con struction of a casi no, with dining room, loun ge roof garden, bar, balcony and convention room large enough to seat I ,000 persons; a fresh water swimmin g pool, two larg e bath houses, four caba nas, parking l ots and landing slips for small boats. vVork on the pro ject was e x pected to start during 1950. An E m of Peace-and P rosperit) When the war ended, Tampa worried for a time over t h e possi bility that a wave of unemployment would follow the return of thousa nds of servic eme n and the suspension of activities in the shipyards Bu t a ser ious unemployment problem did not arise. A lar ge per centag e of the shipyard workers had come into Tampa from o ther p laces and when sh i pyard operations ceased most of the outsi ders drifted away, p r obably returning to their fonner homes. As [or the servicementhey wer e q uickly absorb ed by a Tampa which soon began enjoying record growth. Tamp11 prospered along with all other comm unities in the Tampa Bay region The prosperit y was due almost entirely to the fac t that the removal of wartime tr ave l restrictions re l eased a flood of winter v isitors eage r to bask in Florida s unshine Northerners invaded Fl o r ida b y the m ill ions. In addition to va ca t ioners there came many tho usands who had retired and desired to spend th e remainder of their lives in a milder climate. Wide adop t ion of pension plans throughout th e nation had greatly increased the number of persons who were finan c ially able to retire and Florida bene f i tted to a mark ed degree. R eal est ate values in Tampa began tO advance rapidly soon after the end o f the war. This was partl y due to the removal from the market of distress p ropert ies boom tim e constructed buildings which had been taken over by bond holders after the Florida crash and during the na tiona! d epress ion. On M ay 11, 1943, the Floridan Hotel, built in 1926 by a company headed by A. J. Simms and later acquired by the Collier Florida Coast Hotel C o., was purchased by a group of twelve persons inclu d ing chil
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286 TAMPA During the summer of 1944 a s ynd i cate headed by Julian L. Cone acquired the Stovall Professional Building, const ructed in 1925 26 by W. F. Stovall On O ctober 13, 1944, this same syndicate purcha sed the Citizens Building, built in 1926 by the Citizens Bank & Trust Co. The re ported purchas e price was $600,000 $ 1 5 0,000 cash and a $450,000 mortgage signed b y J. L. Cone and T. E. D ress ler. Other buil dings erec ted during th e boom b y Colonel Stovall were sold at a foreclosur e sale in Februa ry I 945 for $698,200 to the Crest View Realty C ompany which was r eorganized and refina nced by the com pany s attorney. I ncluded in the sale were t he 'Wall ace S Building Stovall Office Building, Haverty Furniture Company Buil ding, and other properties. The principal stockh olders in the reorganiz ed Crest View were Julian L Cone, W. Howard Frank land, Paul H. Smith C. T. Dawkins, Sam Flom W F Stovall and W 0. Stovall. Colonel Stovall was made presid ent. On June 3, 1948 one of the buildings, the Stovall Office was sold for enough to pay all the company 's indebtedness All the unsold lots in Davis Islan ds the Davis Island C ountry Club. and stock of Davis Is lands Inc were purchased on Octo be r 22, 1945 b y a syndicate composed of W. H oward Frankl and J. H. L. Fren ch Wallace C. Tinsley and Alfred Dana. The syndicate acquired nearl y a t housand lots The purc ha se pri ce was not announ ced. The Tampa Terrace Hotel was purc hased on February 7, 1946, by a syndic a te compos ed of Mrs. Angele s Corra l, widow of the late Manuel Corra l and fifteen o ther persons. To operate the hote l Overlord Inc., was organized. The Sunshin e Race Track, con structed during the boom at a cost of $1 250 000 and forced to close because of supe r-zealou s law e nforce mem offi cial s was acquired in 1946 by a compan y headed b y John W Kane, of Wilmington Del. and C. C Vega Jr., and reopened January 23, 1947. The rac e track h a s since become one of the \Vest Coast' s majo r attractions, each season show ing impro vemen t in the quality of racing and amount o f mutu a l play. I nvestment in ex pensive properties w a s only one of the signs of returning prosper ity to the \Vest Coast at t h e end of t he war. A buildin g boom developed throughout the Tampa Bay region which was comparable in magnitude to the building boom of the 1920s but fortunately witltout i ts speculative aspects. Every community spurted ahead. Tampa who l esale firms which so l d buil ding supp lies did a land-o ffice business And so did the wholesale rs and d i stributors of all types of consumer goods for which the p ublic had developed a hunger during the war years. In helpi ng to satisfy that hunger Tampa business firms thrived amazingly. P rosperity for Tampa also came from th e decision of the army to retain MacDill Field as a permanent air base because of its e x ce llent year-round flyin g weather and because it prov ided an unexc e lled base

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DPRESSION-\VAR-AND AFTERWARDS 287 for bomb ers needed to patro l the Gulf and Caribbean. MacDill is now staffed by 5,500 mil i tary men and 1,000 civili ans and brings into Tampa a monthl y pay roll which exceeds even that of the cigar indus try. Inas much as a large perce ntage of both servicemen and civilian employees have famil ies, a strong demand for homes has developed, particularly in the lmerbay district. Drew Field was inactivated soo n after the war ended and on March I 1946 was turned over by the federal government to th e city and immediat e l y convened into a municipal a irport. Na tional Airlines began u sing the field on April 25 and Eastern Airlines on May I. The name of the field was changed to Tampa International Airport on Oc tober 15, 1947. O peration of the port has been d irec ted by the Hills borough County Aviation Auth ority, organized August 23, 1945. The orig ina l members of the board we r e \ V. B. Haggerty, Leslie H. Blank, E. H. Chapman, 1\.fayor Curtis Hixon and County Commissioner Moore Haggerty the chairman, w as s ucceeded in March, 1946 by Kar l B. C uesta, Jr. Cuesta and Blank have sinc e been succeeded by Tom N. Hend erson a nd ]. Cli fford MacDonald. Donald C Van de Water was director from December I 1945, to April 1 2 1 946, when he was s uc ceeded b y W. A. Ber lin. Due to action taken by Tampa's city officia ls land adjacent to the Drew Field which had been acquired by the army did not revert to privat e own ers hip. On August 25, I 949 t he city purchas ed 720 PMto by BMI,ctt Dun Cigars are made by machiner v as well as by hand in Lhc famou!l HavATampa Cigar Co producer of almost hal ( o f :tll the ciga r s made ;lt th e l >rescnt time in Tampa.

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288 T AM P A ac res !Tom th e government for $70,400, intend ing t o u s e it for the development of a mam moth sports cen ter p l an s for which ha ve not y e t passed the dis c us s i o n s tage. A broad progra m o f public works pro j e cts vitally nee d e d to t ake c are of Tamp a' s i ncrease d populatio n a n d to p rovide for future gro w t h w a s launched soon after t h e war's en d. G i ven top priority was a $3,500, 000 w a te nvor ks improveme n t program, wor k on w h i ch was completed i n 1949 This assures Tampa of an adeq u ate supply o f wate r eve n during the m ost ex tended drou g h ts and gives t h e c i ty a wate r wor k s system said to be surpa s sed by no o th e r cit y of comparab l e size in th e n a t ion. After lon g years of t alking an d con trove rsy, Tampa too k posit ive steps during 1949 to s olv e its sewa g e problem Back in 1915, during Mayor D. B. M c K a y 's administration an e xcellent Imhof f d ispo sal s y stem was provided but the city's tot a ll y une xpected mushr o om gro w t h during the b ooming 1 920 s cau s ed t h e syst em t o become overta x ed. Sewers b ubbl ed up a ll o v e r to w n and the res u lta n t ste n c h was of t en almost unbearable What was eve n worse t h e wate r s of Hillsborough R iver and H illsbo r ough Bay w e re dangerously poll u ted. Reali zing that the sit u atio n had to be corre c ted, t h e city officials had plans m a d e for a $13,000,000 m a s t e r sewerage system to be financed by a special t a x Cont r a cts for the fir st of three s tages o f constructio n were awarded during the summer o f Hl49 They totalled $3,22 1 ,834. Work on the p rojec t was started Decem be r 12. V\'hen the syste m is entirely c o m p l e t ed, polluti on of t h e ri ver a n d bay will b e m a teriall y lessen ed. The complete sol ution o f th e poll u t io n p roblem was in de[i ni t ely d ela yed, however, b y t h e abandonment late in D ecember of p l a n s for a sewerage system in the Interba y district. T o l essen traffic congest i o n between downtown T ampa and Six Mil e Creek t he city made rapid progress during 1949 i n acquiring its por tion o f th e r ightof-way need e d f o r the exte n s ion of Fra nk Adamo Drive. The county a l s o t o ok steps to acq ui re a three -mil e strip need ed to extend the driv e t o the Lake 'Vale s R oad T he State Road D e p a rt ment already ha d ag r ee d to carry th e h i gh w a y e astward from that poin t t hereby providin g a b a d l y n eeded ancry direct to the populou s sec ti ons of c e ntral and cast F l orid a Tampa became the owne r of v alu able wate rft-ont facilities as a res ult of cessation of shipyard activities The shipb u ild ing plant of Mc C los k ey 8c Company on Hooker' s P oint, includi n g 131 acres of land was purch a s ed on April 1 6, 1 947 for $425,000, o n a dow n payment of $ 85,000, the remai n ing $ 340,000 to b e paid within ten yea rs T i tle to the property rest s in the Hillsborough C o unty Port Authority esta b lished by act of t h e sta te legislature June I I 1945. The original me tn bers of the board were Bruce R obbins R icha rd Knight F. M H e n d ry, B yron Bushn e ll and Morris White. R obbins and White h ave since

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DEPRESSION-',Y AR-AND AFTERWARDS 289 been succeeded by Dave Gordon and Carleton C Cone. By the end of 1949 the authority had succeeded in renting land and equipment to fifteen dissimilar business concerns which have added materially to the city's payrolls. H. Barton Lewis has been port manager since 1945. Rapid growth of the Univ ersity of Tampa followed the close of the war When Presiden t Nance wok charge in the spring of 1945, enrollment was down to less than 200. It shot upward fast, however, when veterans began taking advantage of the educational opportunities offered by the government. More than I I 00 students were enrolled in the fall of 1949. The Univers ity's fina ncial affairs were materia ll y bettered in 194 I when the county commissioners allotted $15 000 annually to its support. The allotment l ater was increased to $25,000. The university was helped still more when Doc tor Nance succeeded in raising $65,000 from civic clubs, churches and indiv i duals for new furnishings and Photo not available

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290 TAM:PA imp rovements Doctor Nance also stressed the pressing need for raising an endowment fund of at least $500,000. Two drives were conducted and by the end of 1949 t he goal was almost in sight. David E. Smiley publisher of the TAMPA TIMES and chairman of the university's board of trustees, served as the drive l eader Hillsborough County's ancient courthouse in the heart of the business district, built in 1891, was doomed by the coun ty com missioners during 1949 when they approved plans for a new building to be erec t ed on the two blocks bounded by Lafayette, Pierce, Twiggs and Jefferson. Ground occupied by the old Madison Street School was taken over and private properties were purchased at a cost of $160,000. 'Vork of de molishing buildings was started late in 1949. The estimated cost of the new courthouse is $2,35 5,000. It is to be financed by a one mill tax levy which during the two years prior to 1949 brought i n $985 ,000. County commissioners planned to award a construction contract in 1950. In Ybor City, plans were being made late i n 1949 for restor i ng the Spanish atmosphere of the business section. .Many of the beautiful balconies, decorated w ith iron grill work, which formerly adorned the buildings, had been torn down through the passing years in socalled modernization programs and,as a result, Ybor City had lost much of its old-world charm. The proud Latins believed that if a resto ration pro gram could be carried out, possibly with federal assi stance, Ybor City would attract almost as many sight-seers as the French quarter of New Orleans, particularly since Ybor City's Spanish restaurants have become nationally famous. Because of the Lat in Americans, Tampa long ago acquired a cosmo politan atmosphere equalled by few other cities of the country. Also because of the Latins, Tampa today has some of the nation's finest clubs clubs which have done much to add to the culture of the city. These clubs, incidentally, were among the pioneers of group health i nsurance in the United States. Years ago they adopted plans for assuring all the ir member s adequate medical and hospital care in case of illness. The leading Latin clubs are the Centro Centro Espanol, Circulo Cubano and Club ltalia. The cigar industry, for which Ybor City was founded, in 1885 furnished employment in 1949 for about 7,000 men and women, mostly LatinAmericans. The tota l was about 6,000 less than in the 1920s, due largely to the introduction of cigarmaking machines. Approximately the same n umbe r of c igars were being produced with 7,000 employees as had been produced 20 years before with 1 3,000. Keen competition had caused the death of many small concerns, the number of factories having plunged downward from 159 in 1927 to 18. All except three of the remaining factories operated union shops, the union having made a strong comeback during the 1930s.

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DEPRESSION-\NAR-ANll AFTERWARDS 291 Latin-A meri cans wh o came to Tampa be cause of the c i gar industr y wer e n o longer entirely dependent upon it. Rela tive ly few mem bers of t he second generation wrned to t h e cigar factories for lif e jobs; th e y prefe rred to ente r other lines of endea vor wh ere the pay is be tter and opportunities for advan cement great e r. Today their occupations are as divers ified as tho se of their Anglo-American fri ends and neighbors. Although the cigar industry i s still Tampa s leading industry, it proba bly does not brin g as muc h money into th e ci ty as the government's opera tion of: the air bas e at MacDill Fie ld. Mor eov er, Tampa has lon g since ceased lO be a one -ind ust r y t own. Becau se of t he proximity of rich phosp hate depo sits the manufac ture o f fertilizer has b ecome of major im portan ce. This industry was pio n ee red in 1904 by Lemuel R. Woods, founder of the Gulf Fertilizer Company and since then seve ra l othe r large com panies have entered the field n ota bly th e Lyons Fertilizer Compan y and the West Coast F e r tilizer Company I n addi tion the U.S. Phospho ri c Products Com pany h as a mul ti-million do llar plant on the Alafia Riv er. All thes e con cerns ha ve large payr o ll s and bring much money into Tampa. l'liMtJ IJy /Ja,tl)ll JJr.,l This is the heart o l1 pic;turesqu e Ybor Cily, the L ;uin Atnetitan $4!Ctloo uf Tampa which is [amou J for its Old \\'orJd ;umospbtrc and Spanis h r estaur :mc.s. The w3:c. takc.'fl in 1946 before Street cars g:w e w a y lu buSClo.

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292 TAMPA Another major i n dustry is the manufacture of cement by the Gen eral Portland Cement Company, formerly known as the Florida t>ortland Cement Company, which has an immense plant on the east side of Sparkman Channel and produces most of the cement used in F l oridaSince the Big Freeze of 1894-95 Tampa has become one of the principal centers of Florida s mammoth citrus industry. Headquarters o f the Florida Citrus Exchange, one of the l argest cooperatives have been maintained in Tampa since the organization was founded in 1909. The Exchange owns the building in which its general offices are located, at I 10 Oak Avenue. Numerous packing p lants also are located in and near Tampa, as well as several of the state's largest manu facturers of cit r us juices and concentrates Tampa's highly productive back country in which millions of dollars worth of truck produce are grown each winter J:or northern markets, has long been a rnajorfactor in Hillsborough County's economy. P lant City has been noted for many years as being the horne of winter strawberr ies and, on the rich farms in that locality, tremendous quan tities of celery, string beans, cabbage, peppers, and many other vegetables are produced each year. During the past decade, the Ruskin district has made tremendo u s fonvard strides and is widely known as the tomato center of t he state and the nation's salad bowl. O f utmost importance t o the city is the fact that Tampa now has the finest harbor on the entire Gulf and is natio n ally recognized as a leading gateway to Central and South America. D u ring the period of 1937 through 1941, outbound shipments averaged 2 120,153 tons an nually and shipments received averaged 1,469 550 tons. The need for making still further improvements was recognized by the Corps of Engineers and Congress during 1949 in approving plans for projects totalling $7,836,000. 'Vhen these projects are completed, channels into Tampa's harbor and into Port Tampa will have a rninimum depth of 34 f eet and will be greatly widened. In early 1950, Tampa was being served by steamships owned by the Waterman Steamship Co rpor ation Lykes Bros. Steamship Co. Inc. Luckenbach Gul f Steamship Co., Inc. Clyde Mallory Lines, Bull Steam ship Co., American Fruit and Steamship Co Alcoa Steamship Co., and Agwiline, Inc., and many smal ler companies. Also, steamships owned by foreign companies arrive regularly at the harbor.

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fi'AM 61 lfuu. AFTERWARDS 293 l M ....... ... ,. .. ........ "rhc heart or tlownto\
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CI-IAPTI:R XII I GASPARI LLA SEES TI-lE FAIRS lAMPA, TH GLAMORous ern on Tampa Bay, hard by the Spanish Main of yesteryear, has the unique distinction of being the only city in the whole world which is in vaded and captured each yea r by a sinful pirate and the bloodthirsty members of his wi cked crew. T he ruthless freebooter who crashes in, breaks down the city s defenses, and parades in triumph through the streets, is none other than that rapacious rascal Jose Gaspar, better known as Gasparilla, long famed in buccaneering lore. Some unkind persons with no romance in their souls have said that Gasparilla was only a legendary pirate that he never existed in real life. Edwin D Lambright, veteran editor of t he TAMPA TRIBUNE, insists that such statements are malicious. Fifteen ye ars ago he spent months in laborious research to learn the truth about the famous pirate and he preserved his findings for posterity in his fascinating book, "The Life and Exploi ts of Gasparilla, the Last of the Buccaneers, published in 1936. The following is a brief review of Gasparilla's life, as related by Author Lambright: Jose Gaspar was born in 1756 in the province of Barcelona, Spain. He studied in a naval academy and when 22 years old was commissioned a lieutenant in the Spanish navy. During a battle with the British fleet in the Medi terranean in 1783 the Spanish fleet suffered a crushing defeat. The surviving ships fled to sea. Among these was the Fl orida Blanca on which Gaspar was serving Gaspar's boon companion was one Roderigo Lopez, an adventurous youth. The two men conceived the idea of seizing the ship and becoming pirates Promoti ng a successful mutiny, they murdered the captain and the uncoo perative members of the crew, threw t heir bodies to the sharks, and sailed away to Florida. On the journey westward, Gaspar decided that his name lacked a romantic ring so h e adopted the more mellifluous Gasparilla. He also the nam e of his ship to Gaspari/la Finally rea ching the F lorida Straits Gasparilla sailed up the West Coast until he reached the islands off Charlotte H arbor. Selecting one of the islan ds as a base, he named it Gasparilla Island, the nam e it bears today. The crew landed and built a group of houses of palmetto logs and established headquarters. Three months l ater,. Gasparilla set forth on hi s first venture in robb ery on the hig h seas. Off the north coast of Cuba he sighted a Spanish merchantman The ship was easy prey. Gasparilla offered

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GASI'ARILLA SEES THE FAIRS 29 5 places in his band to any of the captured c rew wh o migh t choose piracy to death. About a do zen accept ed. The others, headed by the captain, declined. They w e re tossed in to t he sea. The pirates ransacked the ship and foun d much mo ney and huge stocks of valuable stores. These they t ook and also two fair young women who were passengers. Quarters for the women were establish ed on an island near the pirates' base called Captiva. Dur i ng the years whi ch followed, scores o f other b ea u ti Eul maidens, ruthlessly seized des pite th eir tears and pl e as for mercy w ere quartered on this island. For m ore than three de ca des G aspa r illa continued his bloody car eer. Scores of ships were seized and l oote d of their t reasure A huge store of gold was a ccumul ated and many chests full of preci o us gems. G asp a rilla built a beautifu l castle for himself on Gasparilla Islan d and furnished it l avishly. One day in 1801, a gall eon hove in sight. In its h o ld was a rich c a rgo of gold. Bu t ric he r still was its human treasure. A b eautif ul Spani s h princess was on board and five of her l adiesin -waiting. Gaspar ilia wretch t h at h e was, tossed the fair ladies in-waiting to his crew. For hims e lf he kept t he gorgeous Spani s h princess. He p r opo s iti o n ed herbut she spurned his ad vances. Irk ed no end by her o bstinacy, he ordered her beheaded-and behead e d she was. For onc e, Gasparilla regr ette d his hasty a ction H e took th e s lim body of t h e princess in his arms, c arried i t ashore, and bur ied it in the i s land sand, high above th e warm waters of the sm ilin g Gulf. There, in her lone l y grave the princess probably still lies today while the nigh t birds sin g in the d usk to lull her spir it to rest and th e mo o n throws kindly shadows o'er the spo t As the years p assed, the once mighty Ga sparill a be gan to los e the fire of youth. H is once boundless energy began to wane. And finally, in 1821, when he was 65 yea rs old a n d had amassed a f ortune of millions of dollars of stolen t reasure, h e decided to aband o n his piratical care er. Call ing his fai thful cutthro ats to him, he told them sadl y that he was quitting-that his horde of gol d would be div i ded and tha t all who chose to go w ith h im w o uld sa il t o South America wh e re t hey wo u ld live as gentl emen for the re ma inder of their lives. The trea sure was to be d i vide d on December 21, 1 821. But on the morning of that d a y a bri g was s ighted in the G ulf. Gaspar ill a's eye s l i t with avarice. H e could not res ist th e temptation of taking one more rich p rize before he ended his pirate days. Out into the Gulf he s ailed t o enga ge th e ship. But, alas and ala c k the brig turned out to be the c amoufl ag ed U.S. Navy s h i p Ente rprise, o ne of a leet sent out to s weep piracy from the seas --.... The pirates fought v alia ntly. Bu t 1:heir ship was soon riddl ed by the b lazing guns of t he Enter pri se. Many of the c rew fell, morta ll y

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296 TAMPA wounded. Gasparilla was heartbroken. And when be saw a l ongboat being lowered from the warsh i p to come and capture him he seized a leng t h o f anchor c h a in wrappe d it abo u t his waist mounted to the guard rdil, and shouted to his men: "Gasparilla dies by h i s o w n hand not the enemy's!" H e l eaped into the sea. His sword, hel d high overhead, Bashe d in the sunlight. A splash. A moment of ripples. A moment of bubbles. And then all was still. Gasparilla had gone to hi s fina l rest i ng place. Of the forty pirates who started on the fatal raid, ten managed to escape, swimming to the mai nland Ei ghteen were dead. Twelve were captured. They were ta ken to New Orleans tr i ed, and later hung. All e xcept one, John Gomez, the cabin boy. He was spared becaus e of his youth and sentenc ed instead t o ten years in prison G a spar i lla's treasure has n ever been found. It may lie buried today in the sands of Gasparilla Is l a n d, hidden from the covetous eyes of man. The buccaneer's palatial home ha s disappeared. But fisher men say that sometimes in the dead of night, off Gasparilla Island, when the waves are singing a soft lullaby to the weary and the wind is whispering sweet messages through the palms, the phantom vessels of t he pirate fleet arise from their ocean resting place and pursue, as in the days of old the ghost s hips of the merch antme n T h at i s the story o f Gaspar i lla the buccaneer, a s s u mmar ized from t.he boo k of Author Lambright His end was tragic, true enough. But Gasparilla was not destined to remain forgotten forever in his watery grave in the Gulf of Mexico. In the spring of 1904, Miss Lou ise Frances Dodge society edito r of the TAMPA TRIBUNE, was wrac kin g her bra i ns trying to thin k of some thin g spectacular to en li ven a May Fest i val she was planning. Just then a man of ideas came into her office-George W. Hardee. He suggested the re i ncarnation of Gas parilla -an in vasion of Tampa by the doughty pira te. Miss Dodg e was impres s ed, and from Hardee 's s uggestion came Tampa's annu al Gaspa rilla Carniva l and Y e M ystic Krewe of Ga spar illa N u merous confere nces w ith socia l a n d c i v ic leaders followed. A group o f young men, not adverse to becoming pira tes for a day or week, were banded together as members of the Kr ewe. Plans were made secret Iy and then, on April 23, 1904, the startling announcement that Tampa woul d be invaded by Gasparilla duri ng the May Festival was made on the first page of the TIU8UNE. And the invasion took plac e as p l anned, on May 4, 1904. During the y ea r s which ha v e f ollqw ed 1904, the G a sparilla Carnival has dev el oped in to a spectacle u n ique in America n pageant ry. There is never a dull moment from the time th e pirate and h i s crew appear o n Invasion Day in their three -masted sloop with t he J o lly Rodge r dancing

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GASf'AiliLLA SEES THE FAIRS 297 at its masth ead, until the p irate ship puts out to sea five days l ater. During that period of revelry there is a huge triumphal parade surpassed n o where in th e nation, a gala n i ght pa rade in Ybor City, and a long round of social events, noted for their merrymak ing, clima xed b y the annu al co ronation ba ll. Truly, Caspar ill a Jiv es again-In Tampa. But he is no longer Pi rate Casparilla-he is King Caspa rilla and while he's in t own he reigns in rega l spl endor. Memb ers of Ye Mystic Krewe who ha ve had their day as King Gasp a r ilia a re : 1 904-E. R C undy; 1905 W. C. Gaith e r ; 1906 P e nn D awson; 1910-E. M Hend ry; 191 1-F. M. And erson; 19 12-J. C. Bark ley; 1913-Tom L. L y k es; 1914-W. R. B ec k wit h ; 1915-T od Ford G illett ; 1916E P T alia ferro; 1917-Wallace 0 Stova ll ; 1920 0tto Le e H e nderson ; 1921-L. vVa l thugh L ee ; 1922-Joe B Johnson ; 1923-D. C o llins Gill ett; 1924J ames W. War ren; 1925-C. L. Spark man; 1926-Rob ert W Shack l eford; 1927J M ac Donnell Thompson ; 1928-L C. (Ted) de Ia Vergne ; 1929-Lem P. Woods ; 1930-Cordon L. G ibbo ns ; 1931-Jim E. Wal l J r .; 1932W. F ran k Hobbs; 1933 Tru man G r een; I 934-C. R. Griffin; 1935-Henry Weidman; 1936-John H e ll; 1 937D r H. J. Blackmon; Hl38-David Falk ; 1 9!19Lebr on Kinchley; 1 940-C1yde Perry; 1941-J ames T. Swann, Jr.; 1947Neil McMullen ; 1948-Dr Phil ip Hampto n ; 1949 William C. M c Elmurray, and 1950 W H oward Frankland. /J/tM" by Drot, .sih er y domes n nd m ina r e t s or the Tamp;,r H otel. ouw lh c Uni\ enity of rampa> lend a Moori1h touch to the skyline of modern T ampa

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298 TAMPA Tampa women who have served as Q u ee n of Gasparilla are: 1904Mary L ee Douglass (Mrs W. L Ligat) ; 1905 Mary Carnes (Mrs. C harles Ward); 1906-Lillian Stevens (Mrs Penn Dawson); 1910Kathleen Phillips (Mrs .]. A. Trawick); 1911Dorothy Gunby (Mrs. Jerry Sommers); 1912-Stella Taliaferro (Mrs. Martin B Withers); 1913-Rut h Trice (Mrs. George V. "Book er); 1 914 Mary Cotter Lucas (Mrs. James T. Swani1); 1915-Daisy Giddens (Mrs Daisy G. Murphy) ; 191 6 Doris Knight (Mrs Wallace 0 Stovall); 1920-MaryTrice Clewis (Mrs George B Howell) ; 1921Mildred Taliaferro (Mrs Andres Iglesias); 1922-Lillie Wall Honaker (Mrs. A. L. Adams); 1923Marian H arvey (Mrs. Charles Partric k ); 1924 Sara Keller (Mrs Sara Lykes Keller) ; 1925 Elizabeth Nelson (Mrs Council Rudolph); 1 926 Nell Lee (Mrs.]. Neal Greeni n g); 1927 Carlotta Cuesta (Mrs. Arno l d S Kirkeby); 1928 Emala Park hill (Mrs. A. Pickens Coles); 1929 Eliza beth Dawson (1\.frs. C. H. Martin); 1930 L ucille Trice (Mrs F Doug las Carten); 1931-Phy llis Turner (Mrs James W. Warren); 1932Sylvia C orral (Mrs. C. C. Vega, J r.) ; 1933 Carol Lyons (Mrs. F. S Jahn); 1 934 -Lou ise L ykes ; 1935 Sara Brantley Johnson (Mrs. Walter H. Turpin II); 1936 -Manha Carlton (Mrs David Ward); 1937 Elea nor McK ay (Mrs Jack Peters); 1938 Mary Frances Swann (Mrs Mary F rances McKnight); 1939-Peggy Van Dyke (l\frs .]. Carrington Barrs); 1940-Sue Cross ( M rs Ed Ventress); 1941-Ruth Binnicker (Mrs. James T Swann, Jr.); 1947 Dolly Sutton (Mrs Herbert Robso n ) ; 1948Mary Ellen C ook ; 1949 Lucy Ann Forgy, and 1950 Miss Mary Julia Dupree. Flor ida Goes to the Fair The a n nual Gasparilla Pirate Fest ival is held concurrently each February w i th the Florida State Fair, now the largest winter e x position i n the world Tampa's first fairs, bac k in the 1890s, were sponsored by Henry B. Plant, builder of the Tampa Bay Hotel, to serve as an attraction for the g u ests of h i s hotel and also to promote interest in South Florida. T hey were held in connection with the horse races at the race tracks built by the railroad mag n ate northwest of t he hotel. vVidely advertised throughout the state, the fairs attracted large crowds and South Florida counties vied with eac h other in furnishing i nteresting exhi bits. The fairs were d i scontinued after the death of P lant i n 1899 and five years passed before Tampa had another Sponsored by a committee of local citizens headed by T. ]. Laud-Brown, then manager of the Tampa Bay Hotel, a fair was held in November 1905. One of the fea tures of the program, i n which the Gasparilla carnival played a big part, was the fi rst Tampa parade in which automobi les appeared At that time, abou t sixty Tampans owned cars but only three had enough faith

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GASI'ARILLA SEES THI( FAIRS 299 in their horseless carriage s to venture forth in a parade-Ernest Berger, J. J. Farn swort h and F. E. Muller. The fair was repeated by the same company in November 1906, but was not a financial success, despi te the appearance of Vice-President and Mrs. Charles Vl. F airbanks. So the fair s were abandoned. T ampa had no annual festiv ity of any kind thereafter until the Panama Canal Celebra tion was held in February, 1910, in anticipation of the great benefit which wou ld accrue to Tampa with the opening of the long-awaited canal. This cele bration, also promoted by the energe tic Laud-Brown, attracted mor e t han 100,000 persons to T ampa including many internationally famed celebrities. Tampa's next festivity was held in February 1911, to celebrate the fact that the city had shown a remarkable growth during the preceding decade, as shown by the 1910 census. Laud-Brown was again the pro moter The Census Celebration was featured by the appearance in Tampa of the first airpla nes, piloted by Linco ln Beachey and J. A. D. McCurdy. The intrepid airmen first flew on Sunday, Febru ary 19-and were promptly arrest ed on charges of disturbing the pea ce, sworn out by Tampa ministers who did not like th e idea of the Sabbath being desecrated in such an unholy manner. D espite the arrests, the two men continued to fly and Beache) made hist ory that week by flying over Tampa at night, the first night flying in the history of aviation. Beachey later was killed when his plane plunged into San Francisco Bay. /'lr()l.tf by IJ111>1. Hundreds o thous.ands of persons come to Tampa each Febi 'U:tr)' to attend the FJorid"" Stati! t he la.rgcltt exposition in the worJtl,

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300 TAMPA During the next four years, the Gasparilla carnival monopolized festivities a n d each winter becanie more spectacular. Not uiuil the summer of 1915 was a determined effort made to revive the fairs. At that .time the South Florida Fair and Gasparilla Association was organized by J. A. Griffin, Charles A McKay J. Edg-ar Wall and C. R. McFarland with W. G. Brorein as president and A. L. Allen as secretary. Other counties and cities were persuaded to partici pate, buildings were erected at Plant Field, and the fair was opened February 4, 1916. It continued until February 12. During that per i od, ten convent i ons were held in the city and Samuel Gompers, president of the A. F. of L. was the guest of honor The 1916 fair was so successful that it was repeated in 1917. It was not held in 1918 because of World War I but was revived in 1919. Since that time it has been Florida's most outs t anding winter event and has been held each year except during Vorld War II. Scores of the city's leading citizens have served as directors of the fair association without remuneration, to make it a success. P. T. Strieder, formerly of Fort 'o\l'ayne, Ind. has been general manager of the fair since 1920. In 1 946, the name of the sponsoring organization was changed to the Florida State Fair and Gasparilla Association. One of the principal features of the fair for many years was the famous Johnny Jones Carn i val. Since the death of Jones the carnival has been succeeded by the Royal American Shows which winter in the city. Facil i ties at the fair grounds have been greatly improved since the first fair was held In 1923, a new concrete grandstand was built and several new exhibition buildings constructed The greatest improve ments came during '\oVPA days in the 1930s when $465,724 was spent for buildings and other improvements. One old building replaced at that time was the old Gordon Keller Hospital which had housed exhibits after the Municipal Hospital was completed in 1927. Since the end of World vVar II, the fair association has built many other new buildings and has succeeded, in countless other ways, in making the fair more attractive. Held in conjunction with the Gasparilla cele bration, it serves to lure hundreds of thousands of persons t.o Tampa at the height of the winter season.

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CI-IAPTtR XIV MISCELLANEOUS Fort Brooke : Ful'l Baook e, f i.rst ca11ed Cantonme m Bl'(JUk.c. was <."Stabli.s hed on Janu:tr)' 2 (, 182 '. br Colonel Geor ge Mctc:cr Brooke. On llecem ber l O 1880, President t\ndrew Jackson .sec asid e a milit :uy rc:w:na tion of 16 miles .square.. 2.;6 square miles. whh Fort Brooke in the exact center n,iJ tt:Servadon was ralucc:d to rour miles square by the Secretaf)' of War on Febnmry 13 JB-47, and on M;uch 2J, 1818, was reduced again L o the milir ar)' quarter::; and their e nclos ures the (H'C.S em Whiting Stl'ec t hdng 1hc nouhcm bound:ny on the river side. On the ca..n, the reservation ran a.s rar north a:s the preseu Sixth .-henuc. On July Lhc Secretary of 'Var dcddcd that d1e Jon no longer a s needed (or milit:ary purposes and turned the land 0\'er to tile De pa_rtmcnt or 1he lmerior. Capt.11in Jamc:ll ,\lc Ka)' then leased iL. pQ!iling a bond. lie to ok. )>OllliCSSion Jan.uttr)' I 1 8 61, bltl when the C i \' il \ Var the Confederate Army occu pied the g:t r rison The (:onrederatc s abandoned the fort Ma y 18tH. and three Jatc:r. the Y ankees m<>'ed in. Titc)" sraled a 'month a.nd then Ft.'dcral OCCUJ)31ion troops came in .. when the: w;u ended and remained unti l August 16, 1869. On January 22 1877, the milltuty was reduced 1 0 aboUL 148 a cres, the s ection cast of Street nnd south of Sixth 1 \vcnue being re,crtc.-<1 to the public domain. Thi$ latter ponion wu 1 hen purchased b)' prhate parties and the To"n Of fort Brook e e2me imo cxisrenc::c. Jn l 880. two companies wcte transferred to the fort f to n Key 'Vest then suffering from ye llow fe ver. The .o;oldicrs remained until late 1882 wheH they were trans ferred to Mt. Vernon. Ala and Sc. Augustine. The l ast contingent ldt on Dccc:mbcY 21. On january 4, 1883. the: \\'ar turned the H8 acres left in the fort over to the Department. o( the and on March 18$3. the hnCJt purtum wa s h oucst .c.'lded by D r EdtnwHI S. Carew. (S<."C :P:1gc 169 .) Apph tat ions (or tht cntainder of the g: n riSQn were filed b\' other homesteaders. A long leg-.:.1 battle .. a l'iom daimants o C the propctt}' folIt was not settled until January .5, 190.J. when the U. S Supreme Court ruled i1\ fa,or of hom.,..eaden. (S.. Page 219 .) by Bun Looking north from top of Tampa .t:lcc::lric smokes tack iu 190(). ,.,,o bridga ac:r<.' the HiUs borough can be sun-the: l,.:l(aycue Street bridge at extreme rigbc and Atlantic Coast Une bridge in distance. Tbe Tampa Bar H.otel and the nee track. beyond h are \ isiblc. The old Baptist Church is in front or Plant Park.

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302 TAMPA H illsbo r ough County Hillsbo rough County was esta blished by the State Legislature January 2.5, 1884, being carved om of Alachua County. It contained 8,580 sqmuc ntiles (5.491.200 a cres ) :md ex t e nded h alf way acf9'SS the peninsula and frorn abO\'e the > r esent Dade City on the nonh to the Caloosa 1atclHX Ri,er on the souch. (See l'agc 67 ) Hillsborough l ost almo:!ll half o{ iu va.o;t domain oo Janual) 9. 1855. when Manatee Councy "''as created by the Legislature. (See Page 128.) Another rich section was lost February 8. 1861, Polk County was created. ( See Page 160.) Land north ol the pr....,t boundary of the oounty was tUeo on june 2. 1887. when COUI\l) was created and on May 23, 1911. the State Lc:gi.slature created Pi nellas Cotmtf. (Sec Page 281.) HILlSBOROUGH COUNTY HISTORICAL COMMIS SION wa.< created by tbc State Legis lature in 1949 to coHecr :mel preserve material of Hillsborou g h Co\.mty and South Florida. Mrs. John B ranch., \\' h O took an active part in iu creat-ion, is dtairman and Charles H. Pent i s SCCI'etary. Other members arc:: D B McKa), Horace H adtnt)", Mn. Harry L. Weedon, Mrs. Roy J H. Leuon, Theodore Lesley, J ohn E>l:.ridgc, Mn. G W Worchington, and Dr. C. T. Young. The mem bcrs named Mr. McKny as county hbtorian. The county commisstoncrs h:t.\'C been author ltc.:d by the act to appropriate as much as S3,000 annually to pay expen ses of I he c;ommis:sioo and prov ide room s for the prdC:I'vation and displ ay of historical material. POPULATION The growth of "f:nnpa and Hillsborough Count y is. shown b y Census Ugurcs. as ollows.: Tampa County 1840 1850 1860 1 870 1880 189 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 19 10 (not g&ven) 2,377 885 2.98 1 796 8,216 720 5,8H 5,532 1 4,94 1 1 5,839 86,013 37,782 78,374 5 1, 608 88,257 101,161 153,519 108,39 1 180,148 12M7 6 207 ,S44 Estimates made by ClOllnting namC!> on County Census sheets SUite census Port T ampa City ,. ... founded In 1887 when H. B. Plant extended his South Florida Rail road to Old Tampa Bay at that point. Creal wharves and w a rehouses were erected there. and also Port Tampa Inn, extending over ch e water. l'i<::nic f.sland, one of Tampa's favorite atuuse. men.t places (or many year, esta blished n earb)' Port Tampa City boomed for 1110rc than a d eca de, but 1ts growth w as halted by the harbor development in Tampa proper which drew away much of its mariumc trade. FoJJowing the de:uh or Mr Plam, the extensive holdings o the Plant lmcstmcnt Company at Port wer e purchased by the Atlantic Coast Line R.atl road and aUiJiateJ The steamship lints ttarted by I )Jant were acquired by the P. 8: 0. Steamship Compnny which operated the steamer J Culw and Governo r Cobb between the pc>rt and Havana until World 1Nar U For a }'ear or so during tbe 1890s, Port Tampa was the headquarters of the Honduras NationaJ Lottery, rounded by backt:rS o the Louia.iana Slate lottery of New O rleans after the laue.r was closl in 1893. Lotttty men trted a fort like brick building, surrounded by a stockade and patrolled by armed guards. Louery draw ings WC'T'e made at Puerto Cortez, a ami\11 i5land of f the Honduns coast, and lists of w inning numbers were printed on the steamship wntcr which ran between Puerto and Port Tampa. To avoid conflict with U. S PO$tal Autflotities, tickets and mon ey were dis tributc d b)' the Central American bpress Com pany. De spite this precaution. the lottery was brok el\ up by the Yede .ral go vernment in 1895 and the buHding was dosed. 'fhe Port Tampa Public School now stands o n the site. The pofula tion o Pon Tampa in 1940 wa.s 1 ,124 and m 1945, 1,401. Town ol North T ampa lnoorponted In IS& after opening of E. A. Cl;ute (q.v.) Subdh ision Bame Second Ward of TamJXl in 1887 wheu Tampa was i noorporated as. a city. (Sec Page 1 8 4.) Town of Fort Bt'OOke-L oc:ncd of Avet'IUC and 50t.tth of Fihh A\'enue, origi nally !>nrc of the o l d Fon Brooke military rcscrvat..io n n co t poratcd in 1885 and rc:m:hned ouulde Tampa city limits umil 1907. Ybor City-Founded late in J88!J by Viccnlc Manin6 Ybor (q., ) a<> center for tlte dgar in dustry. Bea.rue Fourth Ward ol Tampa In 1887. \\'at TampaOrigina.l o( West T amp:t were: Hugh C. Madarlane. Ctorge N Benjam in. john H. D rew, P hillip H. Collins Matthew and W. W Hooper, L B Skinner ;.nd A. C. Cle\\ b. Incorporated Ma.y 1 8, 1 895; fir s t mayor. fernando figuredo. It$ population then wou 2,81 5. Became part o f Tampa Janu ary I 10 2S. Mayors of Tamp a Tampa' lim ma) or was Judg e Jooeph B. Utn caster one of Florida's most jurists, who carne: to Tampa from Jacksotwille n ISSS. lie was elected February lG, l&.G, in the (inl election under the city c.harte:r ap proved by the State L<:gislan. In 1862. lmmcdiatel)' after Jackso n was elected, J.ntt nicipal government was suspended by the Con

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federate commander at Fort B rooke, o n February 22. ; \hCT the in Au;ust. 1866. jad:.son called for a municipal e.lecuon b\n it w.ts ded;.red i11cgal. Subse
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3 04 TAMPA Ruskin Florida's Salad Bowl focw section s of Horlda h ave s een more rapid development during the pa3t Lwcnty years than the community of Ruskin, located on the east ern or Tamp:. Btl)' nJ> proxh nat cl y fou r teen rojles due south o f Tampa. j tiSt north of the bt:ami!u l Litcle M ; tntllc:c River. Ru.skin probably o w es iLS ori gin to lbe fa c t that Miss Adaline Di c kman o( Stunner, Iowa, was married about 1 888 to Dt. George MeA. b ea d of R us k i n College. or Glenn E llen, lU. Dr. M iller dtcided, about 1908, that the .una11 coll ege should be moved co Florida and, alter making a survey or 1hc n.atc. selected the t..itclc:: Manatte R.h cr .sectio n as the m ost r av o rab.lc. The three brothcn o f M rs. Mill er-Albert P., L L. and N. .Dickmanb:u :kcd Dr. Miller in the vcmure and cogt:Lht:l' the y purchased 12.000 ac.rcs. H;)lf of. the huge L r a c L p latted into sma11. plots and the l()WI\1 : or Rmkin. The remauung tl,OOO acres were rciOtnH:d b y the com mmtily founders f o r thc:mseh es. The .s.ma11 f arm p lots a n d town lots w ere sol d 1 o "''Ouldbe Florida in a.U part s of the countr) at $10 an acre for the: ann lands and S I O cadt f o r 1ht town lots. The colonizers "'ere suppo6ed to work 1 ogechnM a 1earn. helping o n e grow and market the crop$.. and share in the profits. Ruskin College was m ove d t o the v illag e of R\ slti n in 1910. Rmtic: typ<: we1 c crc.-ctcd for tlSC ail dorntitorlc:ll and a IMge oon crete structure, now by the Ruskin 'Wol'll en's Club, was built f o r cla M ror . \ filler died. The coOegc wnil neve r rc-opctled. T h e tO\\'n of Ruskin slumbere d Ill' tratls[ormation from a s p o t on the map to the tln;,,ing community i t Is t oday i s due ir l measure t o the efforts of raul B Dickman son of Al fred P f )ickma. n one o f the t own founders. PauJ D i ckman w as acth ely enP.Jed i n the rea l estat e bu$ i nCS-" durin g the Flond.a boom btu when the crAsh camt'. his paeer profits \"aoi.shcd and he found h eav l y i n d cht. Abou t all he had was 2 500 o f unde\'e l oped land. inherited from his fathe r At thaL time, o n ly 72 acres were under cultiv :ttt o n n orth of the Little Manatee. Dickman decid ed to nmke anothc1 try at sell ing the land t o co loniters. H e made many sales. partic\llarly t o ex--soldiers who were drawillgpcnsions He also suc;c:eeded i n perstadi.ng the ('.ounty Growers Association t o move: a pack i n g p l ;mt into Ruskin. For a t i me:, the com"'untty boomed. Un(ortunately. h o w eve r few o f the n e w settlers were good farme rs. T he} failed 10 paying croplS and for a t ime it lookc: d a M though Ruskin was doomed co b e for ever UllJ)roducth c. ThCJ\ D ickman decide d to take a hand him sel f ac farming. Be knew liuJe about it and had ahnon no m o n ey. But. in the fall of 1 929. h e started with an acre a n d a half o f l a n d and o n e m u l e. Sc.ra.ngdy enough. b e raised a crop which a profiL A little-b\u not much. Nol c.noug h t o gh:e him a good credit standing with memben of the finandal commiu.c.e o ( the County Crowcrs A ssociation. \\>'hen he trie d 10 b orro w $..1\00 lO buy fercililCI '. they wrned h i m d o wn. They decreed that a1\ ex r e at c :state m : m co uld not possibly bc c orn c :1 gocxl farme r nut Oidana.o got hi.s fertilit.<:t on credit from n fc:rtilizc r wmpany and went rc Dic kn H uls s u cces s s i nce rhet ) h as been nothing l ess than plu::n omeoal. Part of i t is due tv Ruskins fa, orable location in 3 sec tion rarel y hanntd b)' frosts. protected as it is by the wate of Tampa Bay Part also is due 1 0 1hc excellem soil. ;a Andy Joam which is underlaid with shell 1narl. and to the abtlndant artesian water av:aila b l e for irrigation. But mo!lt of Dickman's success is due enti r e l y to his own e ff o rts. Realizing that h e k n e w nex t to nothing about scientific farming. and realizin g that he ooul d not farm pofhably wilhouc. ulllng scientific m ethods h e S/>cnt e nd lt:liS h o urs j n :study and more hollrs n c:x.pc:ri m cntations. His main contern w as s oil and rerti liza ti on. invented spiderllk t me thanie.1 l creations fo r the f ields a.nd s p l'ayi n g the wowing plants. He e m p l oyed 1hc men a ailablc t o h el p hi m in his "'Ork. E;ach tcason he gambled on the plamtd more and more aCTC$. And :alw'l.ys his crops returned good pro fit s. Ry the midl930s on t h e West recognit.c:d Dickman as being a farm e r of o u t :otal lding a b ility a_nd the Ma1\atee County C r o w ers t \$$0c:l:ation maUe him a director, and the u rCilitl ent. ny 1940. the Ruskin branc h of 1hc Ol'g
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United States where the vegetables are carried in huge refrigerated trucks. all painte d a vivid lemon color. Dickman' s favorite color. A marketing technique de\doped by Dick man which has :.uracted national attention is his "prcpackaging"-taking vc:getables direct from the field, packing thc:m in zmall cello phane containers, and transponing thero in re frigcrated trucks direct to market where they arc sold as fresh as the day they were harvested. Dickman's original l!h acrc truck farm of 1929 has expanded, almost miraculom:ly, into farms totalling 1320 acres. ln addition he has 80 acres in citrus trees and 3600 acres i n grazing lands where he has started r;\iSing C.."\ttle on a large sc:ale. developing a hybrid breed from thoroughbred Herefords and 1\r ahmas. The Paul 8. Dickman Farms have become
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306 TAMPA There was liu le need for bankers of any kind in T ampa during the Civil 'Var, when business activities were a1most oomp letely suspe n ded, or during the bleak d:t) S immediately after the end of the conflict. But late in 1866 Captain james McKay resum.ed shipment of cattle to Cuba and, shortly aftetward, Captain F. A. Hendry and Jacob Suxnmerlin entered the business Then came the Cuban hJsorrection of 1868 -?8, :mel the cattle business boomed Gold Spaoish doub loons, "pieces of eight," became more common in Tampa and in the cattle countq than Ameri can dolfars The fi rst local industrv w h ich had a regula r payroll was established '" Tampa in J 872 by H P. Lovering. a Northerner. He had con ncclions with the Dixon Pe n cil Company. o f New J ersey. and set up a mill on the hank of the Hi11sborough to cut cedar: for me in making pencils. At that time there was an appar(..'tltly mexh:ntstible sopply o f cedar in the swamps of the upper borough and thousands of log.-; w<:re lfoat(:d down the river cut at Lovering's mill, and shipped away. Employment was fur nished for s cores of loggers and mill h a nds. But the mill burned in 18.78 and was not rebuilt. The oodar ind\IStry then centered at Cedar Keys. Due to the lack of a railroad, Tampa slipped backward dming the 1870s. it s population d rop ping from 796 to 720. But in 1883, Henry B. Plant began bu.ilding his South Florida Rail road and Tampa st..1xted booming as it 'had never boomed before. And bec:ause of the boo m Tampa got its first ba.n k an affiliate of Ambler. Marvin & Stockton, of Jacksollvillc the oldest bank in East F lorida. The seojor member of the banking firm, Da\'id CriHith Ambler, had dose connections wit h Plant and knew that the South l
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a.c;:Eion is said to have oonlributed t o the failure of that institutio n on jul y 1?, 1929. Fhe smaller loclll banks aUiliated with the Cititens dosed at the same time. (See Page 247.) Tampa' s remaining bank s W t l t $trongly en trenchc..d atttl no futthcr failures occur red, e\ en during the worst of the deprcMion Several $ ntall bank!:> were liquid:ued without loss to the depositors by stronger hanks which took them O\o'er. Separate historia of existing bank." follo w : FIRST NATIO:-!Af. D A N K The fin< National Bmk of Tampa, the oldcs< national bank in Florida, rtceivtd its charter 1886. It was the succesao r of the: Bank o f Tampa, organized in t88S John N C. Stod< ton wss tbe f irs t president and T. C. Taliaferro. COlshier. Others on the: board of di:rcc t ors were 1). C. Ambler, John T. Lesley and James P. Talia(erro. oJdcr brother ofT. C The First National was first located in che twos t or)' brick building C1'C<:ted by the Bank of Tampa on the southw est corner of Fran kl.in and \Vashington. ln 1896 it moved into a four-nor}' marble aced buildir1g on the southwest comer of FrankJin and Mad ison. Thil home was re plaoed in 1926 by a 13nory business bltilding, (OIUtmc.ted and (uroi.med at a cos-t or During iu long e1W.encc .. the fifS( National h:u had 5e'\'en president.s. Stodc.ton scrw::d until 1889 when he was succeeded by D. G. Ambler who beaded the institution two yc:a.rs and was f ollowed by Jarne$ P Ta1iaferro who sc::nOO unlH 1903 He was succc:cdcd by T. C Tali afeno, who rontinucd a$ president until Jan U:Jf)' 1927. when he btcamc chairman of the board. R J. Uinni ck.cr, who had be<:n viOO since 1 922 wa & the n m:.de president. He s er ved until 1934 when he was rnade chair man of the board. tie was succeeded. as president. by. P. Taliaferro. ln January. 1950. Mr. llinnicker retired. r.. P Taliaferro then became chairman of the board and V. H. Northcutt, "-'ho had bem executive viprc:sideru since J94S, was named praident. R. A Liggett was then named \ ice-chairman or the boa.td Other officers in the bank are: E. C Schoen and C. B Galloway. vice J>residents; J. f. Adam s and E. lN. Jolmson vice preside!lu; i\L B. Ses sio ns trust officer; G C. Bullock cashiel'; R. G. Thomplion, W. R. Terrell.]. A. McCook and R n M acCarthy. a.ssistant cash iers; T. I... Bantcs attditor. and Manuel Sanchez m;._nager savings department. Directors are: R. J Binnickcr_. John T. Campbell, Courtney W campbell, F. Cooper, H. C. Culbrealh, W. H. Frankland, Jobn R. H imes. R D. Jack son, J. T Lane R A Uggell. A. C. Liggett. John W L ykes, D B V. H Nonbcuu, E. P Taliaferro,\\'. M Taliaferro. Peter Taylor, and James \\r. Warren. The of the bank in rellt years ill shown by the IacL that deposiu increased from $ 12,590 119 i n Decemb er, 1981. to $21,800,029 in I!J.IO anocil$ in the totalled $348.385 in 1 903. They pa:ssed the million dollar mar k in 1909 and the two million dollu mark in 1914. The steady growth of the institution s'ince the depraslon ol the 1930s is shown by the lacl that d eposits i ncreased rom $11,l6 S,740 in ber to 518,551,228 in 19-to' and $5-4,050,158 ir) December, l949 The capital. S'.lrplus and un divid<.'tl tnofits at that time totalh : d $5,220,991 Offi cers of the bank at present art: C. C. 'Vhha ker, ch airman of the board; J. A. Griffin p resident; Peter 0 Knight J r., and G. R GriUin John W. Bryan, ''ice praidtnt and trus t officer ; Jo'. 0 vice president and cashier; \Vatter C. Lunden, vice presidtot and credit manager. Hamilton Hunt, assillanl vittpretident; Hood C. Hamp1on. K. W. Dulaney Isabel Cueto and Fred C. Lyon, caahiers., and \\'. M. Kit er, usist:ant trust officer. Directors are: F Ouo Anderson. Byron Bushnell, John W. llryan. R M C lewi. Jr., Ray D. Crane, Cbest er Fe'l!uson J. A Griffin C. R Griffin, Paul A. HoXie, PeLcr 0 KniJ!hl Jr .. John D. Peters C. c. Whitaker, Karl E. Whitaker, Fred J. Wood s and Dr. C. T Young

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308 TAMPA MARINE BANK&: T'kUST COMP.AN\' The Marine Bank & Trust Company, formerly the First Sa v ings & Trust Company, wa s char tered April 28. 19 1 4, and opened on the foli O \\' in_gjuly J. The fiQt officers were: A. C. Clewi s pres i dent: L. L Spaford. first vice preside.m; H. L. Knight, seoond ''ice -p resident: C. H. Clewis, treasurer, o :ut d R.. M Clewis secretarv Early directors of the First Savings included A C. Clewis, Benjamin Cosio, '" I. '\4/ebb, Peter 0 Knight, Kal'i E. Whitaker, L. L Spaf ford, J. A. M Grable, H L. Knight, M W. carrnth, John B. Moody, Ernest K r eher, H J \\la trous, C. H. CJcwi s, l S. Cra ft, C. C. Whitaker and R. M Clewis. A. C. Clewis s erved as president umil his death in 1944 He was s u cceeded by George 1\. 1-low cll. The name of th e bank was changed to the Marine Bank&: l 'rust Company on j\lly I, 1949. Growt h o f the bank in recent years is show-n bv the f act tbal its deposits ha\'e increased fro m $1.31 1 ,136 in December, 1934, t o $2,146, 824 in 1940, $7,195,105 in 19-15 and $11,550,607 in De-mber, 1 949. A t time iU> capital sur plu s undivided pr(lfits and r esetve s tot alled $1,117,985. Present. officers of the bank. a rc: Coorge .B. Howell, president; L. D. Smith and J. \\'. Gray, ''ice presidents; F A. Plummer. cashier; George K St.ra\ls, tnst officer; V M Cavanaugh, $C< :re tary and comptroller and A. C Cle\'ll'is. J r assistant secretary Directors arc: Carl D Drore i n A C. Clewis. Jt .. R M. Clewis. H. L. Crowder.]. W. Gray, Jay L Hearin, George n HoweH, Ernest Kreher, F. A Plummer C. L. Reeves L. D Smith and 0 P. Stallings. BROADWAY NA1'10NAJ.. B.\NK The Broadway Natiotlal Dan k i s an outgrowth of the LatinAmeric a n Bank of Ybor City wh ich in 1930 had absorbed the old I.atin American Sank, an institut ion w hicl\ had served the Ybor City t erritory before and during the Florida boom. The L a tirvAmerican Bank of Ybor City w as nationalized with a ctpital of $10 0,000 on Jtme 30, 1937, and irs n ame changed to the Broa3way Nat ional. lts first offiters were : Charles A Munroe. dHlirman o f the board; H. T. Lykes. \'icechairm. a n o f the board; V. R. Northc;utt. pre.c;ident; E. 1'. Taliaferro, v ice president: Jules I. Gl'iUin, vioeprc sident and cas hier, and Roy Cotarelo assistant c a shic f Th<.: d irectors wet e : A Dibona, A. G Hancock, ,V, H. Jackson, R. A l.iggeu, H. T. Ly kes, J>. Manchester. Charles A Munroe. V. H Northcutt, T W Ramsey, E. J?. Taliaferro, C. C. Veg-, Jr., and Jose p h Woh l. Deposits of the ban k increaM: d from $49 5,929 on D ecember 3 1 1931. to Sl,l-12,964 on D ecember 31. 1910. and $6 ,621,8 18 on December 31. 1949. Us capita l surplus .and undivided profits arc now $276, 308 Northcutt set\'ed as president until January, 1950, when he was matfc chairman o the board and was succeeded as president by Roy Cota relo. Ed ward C. Spot o is r)OW cashier and Frank Felitas assistant ca shier Di r ectors arc:: J A n nroadwat(.-r A Di nona. :\. M Morris V H. Northcutt, T. \V. C C. Vega, J r j05Cph \Vohl, john A. Oolcatcr and Roy Cota rdo. C'...OI..OMB IA BAN K The Colu mbia Rank of Ybor Cit)' w a s organ ized August 8, 19'23, with a capital of SIOO,OOO. hs first officers were J. B l-fa r din, pres ident; John S. McFall, first v ice president; W. K. Zewadsk.i, s.ond .. icepre$idcnt; Simo n A Crimaldi, third vice-president ; GOOfb"C E Sitnp son, fourth \*icepreside.nt, and R M McKinney, cashie r In 193t the bank's deposits were $456 .816.57 Uy 1910 t hey had increaS<.-d to $949.266.32 and in Decem b er, 1949. t o $4,720, 327.01. The capital s u rplus and urldivided profics at the end of 1949 t otalled $29 2,616. 32 Hardin s ened as pres ident until 1926 when h e was sncceede d by J. R. Griffin who held t h e office tmtil 1 940 whe n he was followed by A J. Grima ldi the present preside n t. Other officeT$ in 1950 w e r e Simon A Grimaldi, Harry N Sandler and Henr)' Scaglione, vice presidents ; j o h n l.aza rra, vic;c prcsident and c.1shier, and Charles P Alonso a ssistant cashier. Directors were A J. GJjroaldJ, S A Grima l di, Sandler. C(."<>rg-e E. S im pson Lauara, S cag1io nc:, Angelo G Spicola Sah a dor C l:'erli ta, Manuel J. Bnch man, Frank J. Falsone and Ch a rles E. Mende7-lN1't;.R N A TIONAt. l\ANK The International Bank was chartered i n 1926 :md opene d with a capital of $50,000. V M. Antuano was president and A Massari v ice president and cashier. Other d irectors we r e D Massari. G. M Massari, and A f<. Ma55ar i. Antnano was succeeded as president b y A Massari in 1929. Deposits in the Internat ional on Dc<:embcr 31, 1934, wer c.-$35 0,061: o n December 31. 1940. $!152,176, and on D ecember 31, 1949, S 3.949,777 Capital, surplus and ondividc d profits of the bank now t o ta l 5260,717. oUic:ers are: A. Massad, p r esident; F Mass a ri, .A. F Mass ari, second viceptesident; I. ,F. Ma ss ari, cas hier, and joseph L Greco a ssist ant cash.ier Directors are: A. f l. F .. D. and .'\. F Massari. STATE BANK Ok' \rVr: ... TAMI'A The State Ban k of \Vest Tarn.Pa was opened on November 1 1946, with a capztal of $10:),000. S. J. Ferlita, one of the principal o rganizers. was named president: Melvin B. Fishe r. ,(ce.pres i denc; Jot: A Garcia. s econd vioe p res ident, and L C. Ch iaram o nte . c ashier. D i rectors were Fel'lita, Fisher, G a t cia, Ralph A Ma1cicano. \V. D. Dickerso n and Sam C FcrH ta. Uy December 31. 1949. the bank's depo,its had increa sed to $1,850,735 and its capital. sur plut and undivided profits total1ed Sl46,265 Office rs then were F'erfita, presiden t : Marcic;ano. firs c vi cep n :sidcnt; Garc1a se cond "\'ice prcsi dc1\l; Chiaramonte. cashier, and P J. Albano; assistant cashier. Dire ctors wer e Ferlita, M ar t:icano, Garcia. G D Goff, A. J, Ficanoua. Dickerson, 1 ) $. Cimin<>. S r. George Guida and J. R. r vrynat t.

PAGE 309

MORl\15 PLAN SANK The Morris P lan Bank o f Tampa was organ iz.cd in 1917 :u the Morris Plan Dank Company 'ith a capital o $.'>0.000. The founders indudetl Dr. L. A Bile, who became pesldcnt, ; J A. Griffin and flank Bt:tltlC) wfio btcame vice presidents a.nd 0. C. Gillett. Dr J S. Helms, F. D. Jadson, W C Brorein. Abe Maas, J. M. Haney, W B Cray, Henry Leiman and D F. Owen. G D. Curus was the. tint ca,hier. He succeeded Dr. Bite as president in 1 931. LeBron Kinchley, who joined the bank in 1 923, sue c;eedcd Curti s as presidem Ju 1939. The romp:u') be<:am.e a bank in t9S8. Its pl'esellt <:..,Ptal is $75,000, -surph a s $50,000 and [Otal rnources. $934,5 08. Its deposit-Oil Decem ber !1, 1949, wto t $77M20. Tho prestnt orriccn an: LeBron JUnchley. president and creasurer. J. 0'8ricn, and Mau O'Brien. scaetary. Directors are LeBron Kinchle:y, Harr) A. Kinch1cy, Julius \Veil, Anthony Florez. Man O'-Brien, and Mrs. Blanche Dtiuon. Railway and Electric Service Tampa got a slrcet ra.Uway JUOI'c thon a )'ear before the Hrsc electric light plant w:u built in cown. Track s were laid ftom downtown 'Tampa to Ybor City early in 18.86 and krvice Wa$ sta:rtcd on April 8, t-wo wooden p:nsenger roaches being pulled b)' a woodbumlng, narrow g:a:uge locomolile. The Tampa Street Railwa y Company pro,ided the: service. It was backed by Vicente Martinez Ybor 3J)d Edward Manran. The first electric lights were brought to Tampa b)' th e Tampa ETectric Comp;my, ized January 29. 1887 by John T. Lesley. \\. N Conole-y R A. Jackso n Wmianl. Smlirf and L. S. Dawes. T"o arc ligh.ts were: put up, one at washington and Franklin and the other in f-rotu of Dry Goods PaJaa: Q.anetu, pro ,,-idcd by a small \Vestingbome generacor turned on April 25, 1887. A tenyear contract or street lights was awa:rdcd to the company by the city Sep tember l3, 1887. ro obtain money Jleeded fo benet equipment, the Tampa Elec:t ric was reorgnnhed and iu uam c changed to Tampa Electric & Ulumillating Company. Solm' 8. Turman was prestdc:nL l>ue to the ycJiow tever epidemic of 'ate 1887, the elcc:tric light system waJ not in staJled until May 1888 Po"e.r was furnished by a plant at Tampa and Coss, with Jack and Ed A&eun in charge of operations. Reause rcw pt'Ople wanted "dangerous elec tricity" in theJr homes. the coropany lost money and m March 1890, iu backers sold to a sy ndi cate of headed b y J. R Ricter who formed the Florida E lectric Company. inr,orporated (or $50,000. A tbreeyear c:onuact for s t.teet ligh ts was signe d December 8. 1890 (See Page 100.) Both the: florida lectric and Stet Railwa) soon got competition. In April, 1892. the T a.mpa Suburban Company was organized to build elec.crJc street railways to Ybo r City and Ballast Point. (See Page 1 99.) Tl)is companl' soon changed ils name to lftt Consumers Electric Ug.ht l,ower Company and the proposed MISCELLANEOUS 309 linc.s were built in 1892, power being supphcd f-rom a plant oonstrucccd at Morgan and Ca$$. To meet the competition. the Tampa Street Raihvll)' c1ectrified its line on May 16, 189-', obtaining its power from the lJecuic. A tnnsportalion war f ollowed which orad ahe Tampa Street Railway into bank rul?tcy. TI1e CotlRmers purduued iu prop June 18, 1894. About the same time,. ic absorbed the Florida Electric. The ('...on-&ume.rs then staned 'building a $)50,. 000 dam on the Rher. It was compJetcd late in 1897 but was blown up by cattlemen on De<ackcd by Swann & Holtsing er. This compnn)' went into the hands of a receiver in 1911 and w:.$ purchased by the Tamp:t Elec tric in 191S at receive r 's The Tampa Elec nlc tbe:n had 'l7 miles of uack aJld was oper aling 6i trolley cars. Use o( electricit)' b'/ the public increased rapidl)' after lhe tum o the a;ntury and in 190-t the Tam1>a Elc:ctric bt1ilt a lae'J)C modem powet plant on che HiiJsboroug-h Rt''tr near the foot of Grand CtnC'I':ll This plam, l;ner named the Pt:tcr 0. Knight Power Statio n wa s later greatly enlarged au(l moderoized its C:I.JUcil.)' being tinaH y inct casfd to 57.500 kiJow::us. In 1947, another plant was completed. on tlookcrs Point. with a capacity of 50.000 kilowars. Growth or che Tampa Electric during the past haU cenwry reflects the tremendous growth of the territOr") it serves.. which now includes all of Hillsborough County and Lhc ch.y of \Vinter Haven In f90!J, the number of customers totalled in 1919, 9 958: in 1929 in 1939. 45 088 and in 1 949, 83,688 ln 1950, the company vah ed ill p lant (adlities at 511,603.513; i t s tcanJmi.ssion system at $4,937,793; its diJtribution system at $12 89,40t; its icc plants and equipmem at SS78,290. and its omcc buildings. cxtuipment and unfinished oonsuuction at SS.OOO.l07-a to
PAGE 310

310 TAMPA open an exchan ge. f h t.ir efforts failed and six )' ears passed bclore the compa n y made another attc lllpt. This tim e it w as s uccesslul. An exchange was in the Building with J S R o w e 11nd l. S. Usty tn c harge and '''as fonnally o p<:ned January 1 5 1891. But the Jin es h issed and hummc..-d, and cra ckled and jangle d so badl y tha t con v e r sation over them wa s a l most i mposs i ble. In J 896 Tampa got its Hrsc. lon g -dist ance phones when the 1'ampa and Manatee R iver Telegrapb &, Tclepbone co-wu .,.ublisbcd to Knc Manatee: River vcgc:table growen a n d Tampa w h o lesalers. This Une w&$ extended to Sarasota N ovember 9. 1899, by the GuH Coast Telephone Co Ser\ ice provided i n Taro l )a b y the Souther n B ell was anything but sa'is ac t o r y and ea r ly ill 1901 city official$ granted a hanchhc to a new company which promi$Cd t o inuall better equip ment. T his conce r n was the l)c nir1$ular Tde phone Co., foundc.:d in j:muary. 1901 a n d in c:orporstcd the f ollo wing mon t h by w. G. Brorein ( q .v ) a n d his :wociates. The com p an)'s capital w as SOOI'l inueased from $50,000 to $t00,000 The original oniccrs and dir"tors of the Peninsular were \V C. Brorejn, pre5idcn t aod general m a nager: J ames \ V IJ:ur wic k ''ke p r esident; Guy H'uffmaJl, sec.rer a l)'treasurc r ; J J L un$1ord and J. F. Brorcin. After incorporating, Broreit'l obtained fran cllises in surrounding communities and pm: c;hased the exchanges In B radenton and Pal m eno whic;h had b ee n establ h hcd by the Mana t ee Rher T. & r. (".o. D u rhlg the next three yea rs exchange s were opened in Plant City. Sarasota. Bartow Mulberry, a n d Lakeland. The St. Petersburg Telephone Co. was yurctlascd ill 190!, and acban ges were 'n Cleatllo"ater and Tarpon Springs. The Tampa excba.nge was opened in 1902: wit b a 7QO-Iine board and p.-ovided far beucr se r v ice than tbe Southern Bell 'Because o f the dupHcation of ser\ ice, bot h companies los t money and in 1906. cbe l )cni n sular purchased cbe Bell's interestS fo r $80, 000. This is said to be the first instan ce of B e ll selling to a.n independent. The properties o f the Sl. P e t ersbur g, TarpOt\ Springs and Cle a r water cxc h angt..-s were soJd in J 906. They were later divided a n d the Penin su lar bought bac:k the C l earwa ter and Tarpon Springs exchanges but could noc: acquire the St. Petenb\trg proputl(S until 1923, this time at a cost of $(00.000. 01' more than tOO tirnes the stlling price in 1906. I n 1 9 1 3. the Peninsular met Lhe cha llenge of a Jack s on ville organiz.atio n attempt. ing to geL a Taropa b-anchisc b y prorni5ing t o install d i a l equipment, whic h w as not used th e n ;n any dL)' of comparable sire. To provid e room for the automat ic equipment and a 1so provide room for ectpansion a fo\lr-.story buUdmg was built at Zack and Morgan and o n l\.farch 4, 1915. the city was cut O\'c:r t o the new s ystem. There were then t e tephonn in operation. Prior c o tltat. time, the exchange had bce.t' located a t 809 Zack. O ther exchanges w ere p u rch ase d Ol' b u il t dur ing tbe next few years: Winter Ha"crl i n 1 917; Hahte $ Cily, Frostproof and Lake W a les in 1921, and Ne\11 l)ort Riche)' in 1926, y J 926 the number of tcl ephont..; i n Tampa had increa se d to 2 1,800, a growth or 39-4 per cent in 1 1 yea r s . and s ubscrjben were p lacing a n >'Cf2g< of 250,000 local and 1,31 0 longdlst>nce calls dHy Tamp3's S)"tCID cornp dscd 700,000 miles o wire and nearly 600 csup l oyees. To provide ror the rapid growth. a 12-.story buiklinc was added in. 1926 to the four-story building. Since then, Tamp a's t e l epho n e 'l'ltcln. has been decen t ralize d wi t h the cornplehon or ex change offices scattered O\ e r the ci t)' a n d sur ro\maln g area : Main. 'Va11crafL Ybor, Se mi tl o l e Hxde !lark. Brandon. K e yston e, l.utz, Tem p l e I' e rrnce, Port Tampa, and Dre w P ark. Abou t 1 50 square miles aie included I n the fla t4ra 1 c calling al'ea Continued growth of the compa n y i n recent year'S b shown b)' the fact tha t the nul\lber of telephones in usc increased fro m in 1959 to 82.000 on VJ Day; t o 101,000 in 19*7 and to IW,OOO on Dcctmber I, 19*9. Of this 52,000 Tampa telephones 'ere pladng an a-verage o( O\'er calls daily. With the death o! W. G 8 Torein in 19S7, his nt:t >hew. Cad Bror cin (q.v. ) was elected presi dent. l'rcsent oUice rs and directors are: Cotrl D Drorein, president and gen eral m anu.gt r ; J. A G riffin vice-president: c. E. Archer. o e a s urcr and secretar): Richa.rd D Jac:ksOJ\, T h o m as B. 'Veyman Willingham . L. C. Gerry, F.ar l c L. Petel's, and Murray H Coggeshall. The Civitan Award An Tampa institution is the Chitan A"ard for Outstanding Clli.zenship, ghc:n each year by the Ch i tan Club to a citiz-m Klected by a seaet ootnll'tiu. The requiremenu ror sc 1 cctions are r hat the rceiP"i.cnt must b e a citizen o ( Taml?a who has perfonued or tak.cn 3 leading part 1n either one or a numbe r of i mporUlnt public services, entirely unsc:lfid\ly and with out remuneration. Eligibility i s no1 limi t e d t o one y ear's service but can embr ace conti n ued civic ervicc for a term of )'cars. The a ward was establ ished i.n 1 929 a n d has bee n given e a ch year since. The cornmlttce making the se l cctjo n is co01posed of repreun tath c citi1ens named by the Civit-.n Club. but the dub takes no part m the choice. Tbe com miucc:: presides at the deli\ery of tbe award and gives tht recipient an cngn,ed scroll and his w i f e a flora l tribute. R ecipient$ of the a ward t o d a t e have been: \\'.C. Urorei n, D B. McKay. Frank M Tra)'n o r CaTI JJrorei n A L. Cuesta Jr .. C. W L)'Ont, Ernes t Maas Ray Cralle, VV. B. Haggerty l)et c r 0. Knl.ght, V. V Sharpe. Frauk Gannon, R E L. Chan cey, H oward Macarlane. v H Northcutt. 1':. D Lambright, James Handley, D. Jackso n J. A. Gril!in, :Ellwood C. Nance and J oh n A Dolcatc:r. (The award to H aggerty was

PAGE 311

rejected by the Civitan Club, mainly bec a use he had al.rcad)' recei.vc:d tlac Junior Cha.robc:r of Commerce: a.ward, and was del hcre d by the selection committc.."t: Juclf.) In r cx.cnt years. deJivc1y of the distinction has be e n made by .E. D. LamiJright, cditori a l di rec tor or the Tll.muNt, on the oc casion of the Go .. ernor's l.un<::heon during the Florida Fair6-CCpt in J945 '"heo the committee voted the award to Lambright hjms.elf F l orida Mad e Cemen t During the Florida boom ol the 1920s, uemendous quantities of cement "'ere U-Sed in new construction but aU o( it had t o bt brought into the state from other sections. Farsig b LCd Florida businessmen and bankers realized that facililies should be praUas and Texas. The co mpany's officrrs arc: Smith W Storey, president: Howard Miller. vi.c..>cprcs,dcnt and treasurer; L Gibson. viCe prC$ident in cl1arge of opcnnlom; A. E Hjerpe. vice-president in charge of ,;ales: L. Hard\\'ic:k Caldwell. vJee. p rcsi
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CHAPTI:R XV BIOGRAPI IUoS GEORGE MERCER BROOKE Me reer the. offlccr who c:&tabUshcd the c:antonmmt on the cast bank o.f tbt Hillsborough River which later was named Fort Brooke in his honor, wal a native of Vir ginla He was a.s a fi.rst Ht::uten:ant o( the 5th Infant r y MayS. 1 808, and a lieutenant c;ol onel March 1 1819. While stationed at Cantonment Clinch. near f'cn$aoola, in Noveanb er, 182). Colofl d Brooke received ordets to establish the fon a.t Tampa Bay As relatctl i n the genern l text. he ldt P en in januaT)' with two companies and se l ttd the fort site on January 24. dispossessing Richard Hotcldcy who h a d established a planta t ion there. .Brooke "'a$ promoled 10 colonel on Jul)' 15 1851. He became a brigad ier 3a1eral Septembet" 17, 1834, and a major general May 50. 1848 He married to UtC) rhomas, of D uxbury Mass.. While Jiv ing at Jton 8rQOke the)' had a son john M ercer B rooke horn 18_ 1826. who becam e fam o u s by constructing the firs t ironcla d baUI C$hip the S.S. Me)'rimac, later renamc:.-d the C.S. S. Jtirginia. (Sec Ce1\eral text.) Genera l BroClke died t\-fa1ch 9, 1851. From mcagte data auilable, it b believed he le f t Fort B rooke about 182'7 and ne\er returned. LEVI COLLER l...etti Coller. the lint known Anglo-AtnericaJI who wtlet1 with a family in the Bay arn. was born in Ma.s.sachu.s.ett$. 1n 1812 he went to St. Augu stine and a yea r Jater was mat tied to Nanq Di:xon The ILory o( the coming o f Mr and MrS. Coller 1 0 Tampa Bay in 1 824 is related in Chapter II. Mr. and Mrs. Coller had seve n children wh o grew to maturity : Nancy, born jamar y 22 1 814; Cordeli3, born Apri1 6, 1817; Eliza, born May 18, 1819 ; M H oey. She di4ll a young chief who conducted ncgotia t ions with Colonel Worth at Fort Broo(e in 1\ugust, 1842, which led to he u:rmlnation ol the Second Seminole '"ar. After che war ended, Bowlegs brought hi t 1ribc t o Hms bot'Ough Cou n t}' and scule
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The Third Seminole War nartcd late in [)e(;em ber, 1855, when .Billy and his warriors attacked a suncying pa.rty a.her 10ldien: had wthJessly destroyed his garden Hostilitie s condnued umil Ma)' 4, 1858 when Bill)' and 123 othe r Seminole$ were finally iltdu ced t o l ca\'e They departed from Fort Myers on the steamer Grey Cloud. Fortyone more Indian s w ere taken aboard a t Egmout Key. Chief reportedl y died at the: rescna don in Arkansas late in 1859. His picture. shown here. was reproduced from a made in now owned by Theodore AUG USTUS S T.F.ELE Augus tus Steele, ''founder'' of Hillsborough County, was born in COnnccticuc June 4, 1792 J the 501l of Mr. and M n .. Seth Stee l e. \Vith a group of Connecticut colo ni atl he carne to Flor ida in 1825 and settled sou1 h or Ta.Hanassee on the St. Marks River at M agnolia where he estab lishcd a newspaper, the M ACNOUA Aov.t.RTISIA. On July 13. 1832, he w., appointed deputy collecto r of customs at Fort Brooke and ten days later postma..hia. December 12. 1812. the sort of Samue l Kennedy an d Jane (Penr<10e) Pugll, dC$ccndants of old English families. Going to St. Augus tine in 1828. Thomas rc\'ersed his name s of Pugh and Kenned y, taking the J:mer as his sum am e Comlng to Fort B rooke in 1840, Mr. Ktn nedy estabH.sbC!d a sutler's store at the garrisoq When tbc Seminole War of 1835-42 ended, be purchased a schooner and made trading trips t o Cc:ncral and South America. During the Mai can 'ar he ran the Mex ican blockade to take iupplies to the American troops. Finally cap tuted, be was hcJd prisoner se,eral months. In 18
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314 TAMPA charter for the local lodge being obtai.ned January 20. 1851. Mr. and Mrs. Moore had ele\en chil dren: Samuel Lo1.1is, Faraba Ann, Margaret, Jackson. E m ily Wa.lter Raleigh, WiUiam J., Marla Jane, Joseph Jr. Henrietta and Martha Washing ton. Mr. Moore di.cd in J869 and Moore in 1856. SIMON T URMAN Simon Tuntt.an was born February 2S. 1799, on a farm in C h ampa i gn Cou n t)', Ohio, the son of Benjamin and Sarah (Had>Our) Tur man, n:uives of Virginia who had migrated to Ohi o a y04r before. In 1810 the family mi g ratc;:d again and s.cttled in T l.lr man Township, Sullivan County, Indiana. In 182 1 Simon Turman wa.s married to !\.U$5 Abijah Cushman, daughter of Seth and Nancy ( Rtmdel) Cushman, o( Massachusetts. who had gone to Indiana i n l816 Simon aud Abijah Turmal\ lived il1 Vennilion County, lnd_ iana, \mtil early 1843 when they joined a party of Florida -bound adventurers and wem t o the Manatee River section, then in Hillsborough County On j\tly 16 he homesteaded 1 60 acres. Vl.'hcn } lorida became a state in 1845, Mr. Turman was namt:d judge of probate and in that capacit)' also setv{..-d as a m embe r of the board of count)' commissioners and a$ the oounty's fjn;t school superintendent. Soon afletward he movc.-d to ') ampa aod built a home at Lafayeue and Ash l ey streets. The home was partly demo l ished i n the h urricane of 1848 but was later rebuil. Judge Turman was stricken with ye llow fe.,.er during the 1858 epidemic and died October 31. H i s widow died January 3 1864. judge and Mrs. Turman had four children: Solon, bom in 1825; Nanq, born in 1826; Simon Turman, Jr., born about 1829, and Mary, born October 81, 1843, at Turman's L;u)ding on the Manatee River. Simon Turman, Jr., j n 1850 we n t to Cov ington, Ind., to assist his brother So lon who was then publisher of TI-t FRIEND, a weekly newspaper In 1855 he returned to 1 'ampa and purchased the FlORIDA In January, 1861, he represented Hillsborough Connty a t the .s<.'Ct:Ssion oonvention at Talla ha.ssee and on April 10, 1862, was commis sioned lieutenant in the Confederate Anny. .He sened in Co E, 7th Florida Infantry. and in 1863 was promoted to lieutcn .ant oolonet. He was ,.;ounded at the battle of Rcsacca, Ca., alld died May 22, 1864-. Prior to entering the anny. on September 20, 1 860, he was married to Meroba Hooker daughter of Wi11ia.n Brinton and 1\.b r} Amanda (Hare) Hooker. Their only son Solon Brinton. was born August 28, J86L After his death his widow was married to Henry L. C.-ane, in 1 868. She died April 19, Solon Brinton Turman was educaled at De Pauw Univ<.'TSity, GrcCncastle, Ind., and stud ied law a t the Unhcrsity of Virginia. He was admilted to the Florida bar i n 1887. In 1891 he became engaged in the phosphate industry and later served as specia l commiss i one r from florida 10 the World' s Columbian Ex:position at Chicago He was appointed solicitor o the criminal court of record in 1899. In 1897, he wa." married to Matilda L-ykes, daughtel' of Dr. Tyson and Almeria Bell (Mc K a)') L y kes. They had two cbitdren Almena. born. SeptelUber 26. 1898, and Solon Brinton, Jr., born March 2, 1 900. Mr. Tur man died December 19, 1911. After his death, his widow married D C Gillett. Solon Brinton Turman, Jr. is now living in New Otleans where he is ex<.-cutive vice president of the Lykes llros. St.camsnip Co. THE KENDRICK FAMILY f:dward Tatnall Kendrick was born at St. Mary$, Ga on December 26, 1819, the son of James and Elit.abeth (Mickl e r) Kendrick He served as a olunteer during the Semilto lc: Vlar of 1835 42 and, at the end of the war, came to Hillsborough County aud built the first water mill ever constructed i n the oounty, on flint Creek at the outlet of Lake Thonotosassa I n 1847 he enlisted in the army and $ef\'ed duritlg the Mexican 'Var. When the war ended he returned to Tampa and opened a butcher shop and later was elected sheri(. During the Seminole \Alar of 1856-53 he served as an officer. He then lc>cated i n Fort Meade and in cattle raising At the outbre-dk of the Chil War he raised a company of infan t ry in the Confederate Army and died in Knox ... me, Tenn., J
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structing the county courthouse. He then becarne on.e of the organizers of the Tampa :utd l'almctto B-<;acb Railway which on October 18. 1894. completed a trolley line to DeSoto Park. R. \V. Easley and his nephew, Louis T Ken drick, were associated with him in the ent<:r prise. The line was leased on oompletior \ to the <.:onsumc{S Electri c Light & Street Railwa y Co. William Harney and Russell (Reneau) Kt.:n drick had a daughter Edna, boJn january 14, 1881. She married Cecil A. McCord April 9, 1 905. _had six Kern, Sa rah, Russell, \\lham Kcndnck, Mary Isobel and Cilc Adair. WILLIAM C. FERRIS \'\'illiam G. Ferris, pioneer Tarnpa merchant, was born in New York state in 1821. \.Vhen X.Z old, he came to Tampa with his wi fe Eliza beth and opened a store in the garris<.m which '"as washed awa)' in the hu.rricanc of 1 848. After the stOrm } he built another store on Whiting. Lat<.:r he had a store on Washh1gton. Mt'. and Mrs. Ferris had six children: joseph . Mary, William, Ann El iza, Henry C and Josiah Henry C Ferris was born on May 21, J-le operated his father's store ;tftc;r the latter s death and also had a store: in Limoua, Fla. He was elected mayor in August 1 880, the secon d nath:c; son to hold that office, Thomas E. Jackson being the fjrst.. He was mayor, however, only a few months. He mow:xl across the ri\'er, outside the cit y limits, a.nd had to resign. C B. Sparkman \\'aS elec ted ott March 22.. 188l, to succeed him. Mr. ferris was married to Julia Bartholomew. He: died D.-<:ember 27 1902 William ferris li ved in Tampa many years He: had a son. William H., who h"ed in Birming ham. Jo$ iah Ferris had two sons, Josiah. Jr. who later published t h e 0ltLANI)0 and Lee, who Jived in Tampa. ----JOHN JACKSON FAMILY john Jackson, survqor of the original town site of Tampa. was born in 1819 at BaJlybag County Monaghan, Ireland, the son of Hugh. and Ann (Corcoran} Jac-kson. W'ith his b r o ther Thomas be came to America in 1841 and went to New Orl eans whete he became an assistant city engineer. Two )'tars later he came to Hillsborough Coumy and homesteaded on the Manatee River near the present town of Pal metto. His brother d.rowned soon afterward while on a f ishing trip. A skilled civil engineer and land surveyor. Mr. Jackson was employed b)' the United States go,ernment soon after coming here to survey public lands and his work took him to xnany parts of the state. The suneyor general at that tirne was Co l o t lcl Robert Butle r i n whose honor Lake Butler in PineJJas C.Ounty was named. Tiu: co l onel's office wa s i n St. Augustine and whil e there on a business n i p Mr. Jackson met Ellen Maher, daughter of BIOGRAPHIES 3) 5 JOHN JACKSON Robert and Catherine (Quig ley) Maher of County Tippe.rary Ireland. They were mar ried July 22. 1847. ln 1847 Mr. Jadson was employed b\ the county conamjssioners of HilJsboro ugh cOunty to lay out the town of Tampa (See Chapter IV). He named many of the streecs of the present cit}' In 1849 he opened a ge1tera l store at Tampa and Was h ington streets which be conducted untiJ his death in 1887. Mrs. Jack s on died on January 1906. Mr. and Mrs Jackson had four children, all born in Tampa, who grew to maturity: Thomas E . James A., Kate V. and John A Thoma.o; E. Jackson was born July 9, 1852. After a t tt.'l'lding Fordham University 'in New York he: was empl oyed at the custom house under C:apt.ain Jolm T Lcslc)' and later went into business with his father. He served three terms as mayor of Tampa, fi"e terms a.5 county treasurer. and one term as county com mi$sioner He also was bookkeeper (our years in the office of Sheriff Robert A. Jackson. He was married to Kate E \Varner o( Omaha, Neb. They had children: Mar)' .Ellen, Bernier A.. Lt1Iu Marguerite:, and John Ed ward. The fourth child of Mr. and Mrs. John Jack sou, John A l exander, was gr.t.duatcd from the United States: Naval Academy and later stud ied medicine He practiced Se\eral years in Tampa and then went to New York where he later became an instl uctor at Columbia Uni versity He was married to Mary Ganan, o f

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316 TAMPA Hartford, Coon. 'J'bc)' had two d\ildren: EHtabeth Garvan and john Alexander. Jr. and Mrs. John J ac kson were devout Catholics and led the movement to have a CaLh olic priest in Tampa. He ca1ne from Ca. and baptitcd one o the Jack son children, the fhst t o be in Taropa b)' a catholic priest. the death of Mr and Mn. Jack3on, a marble altar was erected in their memory in the Sacred Heart Catholic Church. SPARKMA N FAMI L Y Memben of various branches of the Sparkman family have ti" ed in or near Hillsborough County for more than a The first Sparktnat\ who arrived was Simeon L. Sparkm;tn who came to Hillsborough from Georgia with his family in 18 and hollle at' HickapusO\SSa, ne3r lhe present Plant City. In 1845 he wa.s e l ected the first tax :.ssessor of lhe county and hill tax rolb o( 1847, now preserved in the state library at Talla show that the lOtlll O[ taxes assessed that )'"C3I was $550 .08, of whkh S?te got $506.'12 and tbe c;ourll)" $185.M. For his year's sal a ry, Mr. Sparkman was paid $44. 'The federal censu s ol 1 850 shows that Simeon Sparkman bad property \ aluU'lin throughout the conUiet. He also setved h\ the same rank. th_ rough t11e Third Seminol e War Moving to Hillsborough County in 184S. he settled at Si n t rnons Hammock and became one of the leading cattlemen of the state Late in tbe 1850J h sol d bis stock to Capt. Jamco M cK.a) Sr an d mocd into Tampa where he built a fine home which was later com'eftcd into a botc::l and the O range Grove becauJe o( chc many orange crees he planted on the JroundJ. (See Index: Orange Grove He mveitcd heavily in real estate. One o( h1s prop e-1t.ies was 1he peninsula where the terminals of the Tampa Northern were Jocawd. S lill known a.s Hooker s l)oint. He wa s married to Mary Amanda Hare, of R .. lc:lgh N. C They had children who att.ained m:lturitv : Anna Elu:abecb Jotnc E M:utha H.. Ma'ry Henrietta, M croba: .Sarah, Ell
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ed. H e Ide Tampa some time during the war period and, :tO br as is known. did not rctum. He tlied in C':a inest1ille Fla in Janua'l' 1886 KNIGHT FAMILY Tht progenitor of the Knight family in sout h Florida wa s Samuel Knight a nath e of Georgia who married Nancy R.obe t't arld migrated t o nonh Flo rida during the l830s. In 1843 h e mov e d so uth to the p r esent Le\' }' County whel't h e nnd two of his sons Jesse and Joel, tO\URNS MJTCH ELL Henry Laurens go'' t.rnor of Fl orida fTom 1892 t o \\"aS born in Alabama Se p tcmber 1831, tho $00 of Thom.., and Eliubeth (St.arns) Mi tch
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318 TAMPA he resigned t.o enter I he state legislature to which he had been elected in his absence He was twice reelected At the close of the war he resumed d\c practlce of law and when the state's carpetbag governmen t w;u overthrown he was appointM judge of drcuit coun of the sixth judici a l cirQJ iL He served from 1871 to 1888 when he was appointed a ju$ticx: of the state supreme court. He resigned this pcition in 189lto resume the office o( judge of the circuit in which hi& home county was located. In 1892 the stau: conven tion of the Democralk part)' was held In Tampa and h e was no1ninatc.:d (or gtwernor. In November be was elected to the offlce by a large majority. At the election of 1896 he was cler k or the circuit court of Hills borough County and served until Janu.ary 1 1901. when he b:ame county \\'hicb pos-ition he held until his death on Occobtr 14. 1903. On April 11. 1866 he was married to Mar-y Eugenia Spencer, daughter of \Villiam S:urnt cl and Em ily (Kendric k) Spenocr They had no children. SPENCER FAl\HLY \\'illiam Samuel Spencer was bom in Savannah. Ga. May 23. 1811, the son of William J .pb and Eliza (Cardnier) SJM:ncc::r, both nalivcs o( Eng land. He was ma_rricd in to EmjJy Amanda Kendr ick o( St. Mary', Ga. In l881, they moved to Columbia Cotmty, l'lol'ida, :lind in 18i6 mas K., born July I, 1846 ; Susan, born October 14, 1847, who married ferdinand Me I.cod. and Ellen Mar<;n, born JuiJ 11. 1851, who married Dr. Cha. rles Lucian Mitch ell. MrS. Spencer died in Tampa June 3, 18Gl. and Mr. Spencer October 25, 1871. Three of the Spencer sons were acthely engaged in new11papc:r publishing in Tampa. \Villiam James s1ar1cd working for lhe FLoRIDA in 185-5 soon alter it had been pur chased by s;onon Tunnan. Jr. L;ue ;n Tur man retired and young Spencer. 1hen only nineteen. purchased lt. He: rontinued as publisher until May 25, 18GI. when the paper wu forced to suspend publle;'ltiou because of the war. lm mediately rhereaftcr, he enlisted in che Confedet'-" ate Anny. He w:u stricken with typhoid fever THOMAS K. SPENCER while l'oer\ing in Kentuclc.y and died at Frankfort OcEN1NSULAR. were hidden in the count, ry. \Vhen the conflict eodc:d. t hey were brought back to Tampa and publication of the paper was resumed b)' john and Thomas on April 26, 1866. Less than t\\'0 months later, John bc:came ratally ill from dysencety. c:ontracted while in service He died June 80. Thoma.'l continued as P'.lblisher until 1872 when he M>ld the paper to Republicanli Four }'ear s later, on M
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tle death o f h i s first wile. Mr. Spe:, ncer was mar ried to Jiubtth Parri.sb, of P-arrish. Manatee County. They had three sons and two daught ers: Lauren s V who married Hatti e Let Cone; \ Vil H am C., who mar- icd I ,auline iMar t i n ; Tho tna s K l r.; F.liz a b c th, w h o married W F Fcnnan . ;)n ti'l-.tar l who m:arr icd Huber t E. King. JAMES McKAY, SR. Jarnc:o M cKay, progenitor ol the McKay lamily in Tampa. was born March 1 7 1808, i n t h e north of Scotl and, at T h u rso in Col:uuy Caithness. H e w e nt w s e a w hen a bo)' and bc..--c: une a master m ariner before he was t wenty Hvc. A h lll account or hls m a rriage in 1837 i n St. Louis ro Matilda Cail, ol .Edinburg. and of his coming t o Tampa In the fall ol 184.6 is itl tl1c general r cxc; see Chapter IV At that tune. Mr. and Mrs Mc:Kay had f o\l r c h ildre n: Geo rge. J:unc!:i a n d J ohn A Fo \ l r m ore c .hild ren wcc born i n F lorida: Donald, Mado n Matilda and Al meria Bel l. The family accom pani ed to Tampa by Mrs. McKay's mother. Madame Sarah Cail Both Ca p tai n McKay and Madame <:ail i n vc:stt:d hca\'ily in. Teal e state soon afte r t heir a n h:tl b uying 1na n y b lock s just tlOl'Ch o [ t h e garriil> n a n d larg e tracts ea s t o f town and on the wdt shor e o ( HilLsboroug h B ay. in the Ballast Point .s:tion. He: c:rected a home on the noTth ea5( corner of Fnnklin and Wash;ngton and a store building on tlte sou t hwest oorner He established a b"Cncral s wrc aotl ad\'c:rt isc d that h e sol d everythin g fro 1 n a kniuing ne4::dl e t o a sheet anchor H e a l so buil t a sa w m ill . JAMES McKAY, SR BIO GRAPHI E S 319 Unwilling to remain long on dry land. captain soon bought the sdloooen Sttrah Matild# and m.,l'kl and ,;utrted making trips to Cuba and Gemral a u d Soulh, A m e rica, handling g e n eral caJl,'OeS aod t nldln g. D uri,lg the Semino l e 'Var o t1 1 8 5 6 58 h e opera ted a s u 1 l c r's store at Fort M) ers. After tbe wa t etldt:d h e entered the catcl e bminess, buying tu::rds and .selling the anitnals in Cuba. He is ucdited with being 1he lint shipper of cattle fr-om Florida to the Ha,ana market. During the Chil Mt.Kay wa s one o f Florida' s OJOSL a<:tiw: b l o d:.nde runners and wh e n h is ships we r e d estl'oye d he b ecame head o f rh e FiJt h Commissary Dis trict for the Confederate Amy. (Sec Chapter V .) After the war ended be remtered the cattle on a la rger scale and built u p tbe neec \)( vtuels then owned b ) any individual in the state. His ship.o; als o ran Otl regul a r sch edules to Cefficer in the U n ited S ta l es army. They had no children. Marion Mc Kay w a s married to \ Vil Ham or Tallahass ee. They h a d a daughrer. Sarah. who W8.$ married to William A Canu. o( Tampa. Marilda McKay wu married to l>r. John P. Wall (q v.). Almeria Bell McKa y w.s married to Dr. Howell T L ) kes, o f B roo h vill e ( q ..) C aptai n M cK:.y died II. 1876 l\h't. McKay died Septe mbe r 21, 1 894. JAMES McKAY. J R James McKay, Jr .. was born '" M obile, Ala . No,embe r 27, 1842. the o l dest son of james and Marilda (Ga il) McKay. He attended TaiDpn, firs t public s c hool and enlis ted I n t he 4th flor;dn Regi ment at the 3tart o f t h e C i vll \Va r. Enterjn g h i s father's businns a t the clee of 1he \\"3J', be spent much of bis l ime a t sea and became a ma.scr mariner. following his [ather' s death in 18iG, be had cha rge of the: Mc Kay flecc u n L i t lt wa5 $Ol d and the n w ns e rnployed b )' L h c MalJor> L i n e, se r ving a.s c.1.ptain of the ste a nlcr A. Washburn whic h cani e d the mail on the Gulf coas t On April 16, 1886, Captain McKay went 1\"irh the Plant Steamship Company. becoming captain of the A f as.cottc (q v ) Earl{ )n 1887 h e In charge o f t h e construction o the Olivette ( q .v.) a t Cramp's Shipy ard. in Phil;&d c lphia He the n brought t h e $hip into and commanded her U llti l September 1 1894. when h e r es jgncd t o become United Sta tes manhal for the souchern district of Fl orida. During tht Spani.sh American

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3 2 0 TAMP A \Va r he upc.rintt!nded t h e Jo.1ding and unloading of transpo rts for th e army Ahcr tlle wa r h t be came marine supc:rimendent of United S c ates rrantporl$. inspecting au transportS chancrc:d by the r:!ve m m enc o n the Acla.ntk and Gulf C035ts, W1lh headq,Hnters in New Y ork. City. He resigned i n 1914 to bc."'Ome pos tma$tcr o Tampa. ..-\lwa)'l active political!)'. Capt a i n M c K a)' servtd two terms in the Florida state sena t e dur ing the J880s and two \ "ean as m a )'Of o f Tampa. 1 902. H e W M ntarrled thrt:c times: the first t i m e t o Ma r y E Crichton, daughte r of Dr. John T C r ichton ; the .second t i m e to Helene T u rtor,, of M assac :huxtts. and the third cime co UUian N i mms Wa rren or Atla n tic Highlan ds N J James and Mary (Crichton) Mc Kay had nin e children, four sons, J arnes C ric ht o n (q.v.), H ar o ld, john Ctichton m d F rederick, and (ive daughters. Sarah Matilda, Blanche. julia . Madge a n d Mary Captain Mc K ay h3d no child ren by his second or thil'd wi f e. He died i n Se ptember, 192-1. a t Tampa. JOH N A. McKAY J ohn Angu s Mc K ay. thi-rd son or Jatnes and Matilda (Cail) M cKay, wa.s born i n J 815 in Mobile A la. He served i n the Conrederate Anny during Lhe Civil \Var and later roJio wed the ;;ca sc"-eral acquiring a maner mariner's Jicmse. During the 1870s he was collector of cus t oms i n T3tnpa a n d afterwards enga ged in the contracting busines s, handling a number of proj ects for t h e Pla n t Sys t e m Later he w as pro prieror o the Orange GrO\ e H otel. In 1867, john McKay v.-as married to Mary Jane M cCarty. daughter of M itchell and Eliu bell> Ay lcos (Simm o ns) McC.1rt y (q. v. ). h a d six dtil dren: Donald Brenham. C h a rles A . M i t cbcll F., a_nd :Kennet h 1.. and two
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WILLIAl\I B HENDERSON 'William JJc;nton 1'-fenderson was born ber 17, 1839, in Jackson County, Georgia, tJ>c oldest son of Andrew J. and F lora Olivia (McDonald) Henderson. The: father died when William was twche y ear$ old and he started work ing in the genera l store of Kennedy & Darling. ln 1 860 he putcbased a sma ll farm on the Alafia Rher and soon a fterward opened a small store there which he operated umil a [ter the start o the Civ i l \Var. He then joined Capt. james Gettis' Co. D of the 7 t h F l orida Regiment. lie ser\ed about a year when his h ealth broke and he came home He then entered the can\e b\t::;iness and prospe r ed ln 18G6 he opeued a g e oeral store in Tampa and sold meat and other supplies to the Feder:tl troops then OUP> il)g the garr ison He also con tiotted r aisi ng cattle and during the C\tban i nsur rcction of 18G.s to 1878, when s te ers were selling at r ecord prices, amassed a f ortune. Durin g this perio d in 1873, he wen( into partnership Capt John Miller and formed the firm of MiJicr & Henderson which not. onl y establiihed Tampa' s la rg est general store but a l so a ( J ee t of ships. (See Chapter Vl.} Mr. Henderson i twes ted heavily in real esta te, becoming one o f the la rgest propeny o-wners i n t h e co \tnty. f:le was o n e of the (o\ tnders of the Tantpa llo;ud of Trade and helped t o brittg t he cigar i ndustry to T ampa. He was the organizer and president o f the Tampa Commercial Compat\)' ;md took a lea ding pan i n the organization of t he WILLIAM B. HENDERSON BIOGRAI'HIES 321 Taltlpa Harnes s 8: Wago n Co., th.e Beckwith & HenderSOn rea l estat.<: agency later known as n(.'<'kwith, Henderson & Warren, and several other tOJ\Cerns. Hr: was presideot of the Bank of 'Vest T a mpa. \Yc u Tam pa. I...and & lmprove.ment. Co Tampa lhtilding & Loan Association and Tampa Publis h in g Co. lie ":as f or ten years presiden t of the State Boird of Health and chairman of the boar d o f oo\lnty commissioners for se.veral terms. Be also ser ved as chairman of the oounty school board and s everal terms as member of the city ooundl. He was a stewa r d and trustee of the First Methodist. Church He was a Mason, an Odd fellow and a ntember o f the Confederate Veterans O n February 9 1860 M.r. Henderson was mar. l'ie d to Caroline Elizabeth Spencer. daughter of William Samuel and (Kendrick) Spencer. They had six children who attained m aturity: Gettis A . Blanche. who married Dr. Lesl ie w \.v'ecxlon: Cora, who married George Cl a r cnce warren; Nellie May, who d ie d a t the a.ge o f thirty, \ln married; John '\\'iHiam. and M attie ward, who married Amos Love Mrs. Henderson died Decem ber 14. 1906, and Mr. Henderso n May 7, 1 909. CONSTANTINE BOUGARDEZ Constantine Bougardcz was born in Lorraine. F r ance. March 3, 1 824. a young mao he
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322 TAMPA Fricbele reopene d his store and ope rated it until his death on Dec ember 2. 1886. fie also was e:ogag(.'tl in marly other busine ss ent.crprl s es and invc;s u;d heav ily in rc.al e5tatc. On Jan ua.r)' 8, 1852, Mr. Friebele was married tO Julia A WaH daughter of l)erry G. and Nancy (Hunter) Wall. They had three children: Samuel. Mary and Nannic. Sarouel married Rosa Dagenh:ndt and died without issue. Mary was married to James f.dgar Lips comb and by him had a son, Jam.es Edgar, J r. Alter the death of her first husband, Mrs. Lipsoo.mb was married to Dr. James VI/. Dupree, of Louisiana, and by him had l WO sons Frededck F. and j ames W. Nannie Friebe le died unmarried. Mrs. Frie bele died Marcil 9, l 915. JOHN T. GIVENS John T. Givens {originaUy spelled G i \'en) was born in Somh C.'\rolina September 15, 1815, o Scotch and English descent. He enlisted in the arm y during the Seminole V/ar o f 1835 .. !2 and was stationed s i x months a t Fort Brooke He then returned to Sot.lth Carolina where he was married to Nancy Cunningham 'Valker. In 1848 Mr. Givens mo-.ed to Madison Coumy, Florida, and five years J a te t came t o Tampa. arri\'iug on Chri s tmas day. The town had started co grow and he engaged in building. He a.lso started an utJdertakin g c;stab Ji5hment . m aking his own coHins. He ereeted a home on the so.utheast con\er of Morgan and l.afayc;uc. M r. and M rs. Gi., ens were charter members of the Meth odist C hurch or w hidl he erected t h e first c;hu n:h building On the diagon:tlly opposite h is home. He and a son, Darwin Bra ndt Give n s, crc:::cted the first public school building on a Jot on Franklin Street he had previous ly sold to the schoo l board !or 5400. Mr. Gj,cns served one term as co\mty treasurer, two te rms as oonntv commi ssioner and two terms as a member of the county board of public instruction. Mr. and Mrs. Givens .h3d twelve children: Robel't Henry, Thomas Wilkes, John Jasper, Jane Florlda Francis Elizabeth. Marion. Mary l .ouis.a Ariana Eliza. Warren Addison. Darwin Branch, Clara Virginia and Franklin Leonidas Mrs. Ghens died September I. 1 897, and Mr. G i vens November 10, 1901. LESLEY FAMI LY 'The progenitor of Lhe Le sl ey family in Tampa was Leroy Gilliland Lesley, born May ll, 1808 in Abbe\'ilJe. S C .. the son of John Har ris and Ma r y (Gill iland) Le:slt;y. A minister in the Mctho di5t c.:onferenc.:e h e came w 'Ya mpa w ith his f:un i l y in I 848 hom Madiso n Count-v. \'lhcre he had located in 1829 In Tamp a he 'be came the rhird p>'IJ>tor of the Methodist Church. A soldier as wc11 as a ntinisccr of the g0$p<::l he served in the Sem in ole wars o f 1835 42 a n d 1 856 58 and as a captain of an independent company he organ i zed for the Confeder:.ue Army in the Civ i J '\Var. In 1834 L eroy G Lesley was marr ied to (ndiana Childs Livingston, a descendant o f Philip Livings ton, one of the; $igners of the Dedaration of lndepCJ\d t nce. They had thrc..-e children : John Thomas Lesley :Emory L and Ma ry C Following the death of his first wife, he w a s m .arri e d to Jan e Lucy Sandwich who bore him a da\tghtcr Emma.. John ThoO)as l.c;;lcy e ngage,'({ in carpentry in Tampa \tntil t.he Seminol e \Var of 1856 58 in which he enlisted as a prLvate and became a lieu tenant. After the war he began raising cattle. When the Chil 'Var started he organized a com pany of infantr y w hich w a s a ttached to the 4th Flo1 ida Regiment. He was elected captain of the oomp.aU)' A fter taking part in e n gagements at Fernandina and l\ lohile, he was to major in October 1862. Early in 1863 he \\( as granted leave to go home and organire a ca\' :tlry company for home guard service. After [he war ended, Captain Lesley as he w as thereafter known, serve d two years as sheriff and then built a saw mm and engaged in the lumber b us i ness umil 1872 when he tenamed to cattle raising He accumulated a fortune and bc.""Came one of the lart,"CSt property o w n ers in Hills borough ('.ounty. He wa.s one o f the ori ginal d i l ectors o( the First National B;tn k In 1876 CapLa il\ l.esle) was e le c t e d t o the lower house of the stat.e leg islature and in 1878 and 1 882 co the state senate. In 1885 he was a member of the consti tutional c::onvcntion which framed a new state oonstintt.ion. ln 1893 he was a .ppointed to serve an unexpi red t e r m as dcrk o f the circuit co\ ttt bm r csign.e
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c:ebQr '"as appointed by President McKin l ey. H e abo sencd as ma,or of Fon B roo k e from 1886 to 1907 ,,hen itllrl-as taken into Tampa. On Augns: t 23, Captairl Lesley was married w Mrs. Ma'lf:lrct ( BTO"'ll ) T t tcker. who died i1\ 1893. They had ix children: Indiana Elizabeth, Emory Leroy, who was married t o jennie Morpn. and had five children-Emory L., Jr., Mary Virgin ia. Geraldine Elh.ab eLh, John 'l'Rliaferro, and India Childs ; John james, un married: Taliafeno, who tuarricd Sarah R Yancey and had two children, Marg-.u:ct and Samh ; T heodore, who rnarric;d i\by Y:mocy and had tw o children, Thc:.otlorc Jr., artd Mary Lowndes, and Lhingswn G. J..cslc .. y, who WB 5 married 1 0 Georgia Floren<:e Yancey and had three children, John Livingston. Loona and LoiJ. Caplnin l.csley died July 13, 191.3. His wif e dit:d September 22, Emo r y Leroy Leslf) '. second son of Leroy and I ndian:e ( I.i'f'ingscon) Les l ey. was l:.Hied by the accidenta l discharge: of a gun when a yo\mg man. C. U.IC) third cltild of Leroy G. aod Jndiana ('Uvin8$t On) Lesley. ll. a;s fi.m married tO Willi1m H Brown "bodied in 1871. Thq had one child, \Villism Lesley Brown. Following Mr. Hrown't dcach. hi$ widow married Urban S. B ird, a minister. 'They bad no children. Lesley. daughter of Lero y G and Jane Lucy (Si'mdwich) l .esley was married to 'Villiarn J t"rlcrson. The)' had three children: but only One reached maturit)' a daughter namt."(). L es l ey who wa $ m:m icd to Guy L. Buell. ALFONS O DeLAUNEY Alfonso Dc:Launay u;c;ond mayor of Tampa, was bor n in Virginia in 1810. the SOil of a Rc\olu tional'y 'W$r purito from Hilhborough County to the Florida comen tion whidl \'Oted the: state from th e Union. From 1860 t o 1865 he se:ned as Con federlllt S t a t(:l> pos-hnaster and deputy in5pe<:tor of cus t oms !or the port of Tampa. : Mr Dcl.auna)' wa s m:nried twice ; fir5t to Mis' St. johns, o Geo rgia, b) whom he had one son, St. Johns Dc:taunay, and seoondly. t o Victoria MontesdeOca (q.v ). by who1. n be had four c hil d rc n : P a uline, Em ma, H a rr)' a t hl F l orida. J.lc died In Tam1>a .Julv 28 1865. STEPHEN M. SPARKMA N SI.CJ>hcn M. Sparkman was born July 29, l 849, i n Her nando County, the son of Nathaniel K c.igtu l ey and Mary ( Caso n) Sparkman After being educated in counlry schools. he taught !IChool for severa l yean and then studied law in 1he Tampa oUicc of Henry Laurens Mitdlell, later governor of Florida"' and '"as admitted to the bar in October, 1872. BIOGRAI'HIES 323 STEPHEN M. SPARKMAN I It: wa$ s t a t e's auomcy for the aixt h circuit in 1878 and held that position until 1 887. Jn the e a rly 1 880s he counsel fo th e South Florida Railroad and when that line acquired by the Plant Sy5tcm wall rc tai ncd in the same capacity. J-lc continued t o serve the Plant S fste m for man y yean. Alwilys acth' e in politics ;\ lr. Sparkman wa s e l ected co Congress in 189-l from the Firn D lstric t and w:as re:electcd ten times. serving mtinuousl y umi1 1917. He '"3S a roember of the important Rinrs and Harbors Committee for t"enty years and during the la$C. six )"ear$.. 'MI"aS chairman of lhe oommiuoe. When the: SiXLieth Congress ere a1ed the National \Vate rways C'..ommi.Won. he was made a membe r o f i t and in that capachy v isited Europe wi( b the other commissioners to study the navigable wate n\ ays of t.he Old Europe. Durjn g his ser\'ke in Cong-rc::M. Mr. Si)arkrnan s u cceeded in obtaining miHions o( dollars for the de,'c1opment o th'en and harbors in Southwest .1-'lot ida, and Tampa in p:ntic.tlar hnmca:nl1'e ; ,hly benefitted through. the dcvelop n a cnt of: a dccpwatel' harbor which. ranks with the b est o n the Gu lf. AL th e conclus i on o f his service in Congress, Mr. Spal'kma n prac-tic:c,.'d l:tw i.n Tampa. He was married in 1875 to .Ellen U ookc:r. daughter of John I. and C-.thbe r t (Lanic:r) Hooket. They had nine children: E. Lamar, who marritd Daisy N. Smitb: Mar)' c.. who married Edward H Hart: Julia. who married Charles E. Ball: Louise who married Victor H Kni3hr; Stephen M. who married Corris Knigh t; Cuth

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324 TAMPA bert Wayne, who marrk-d Dr. Rollin jefferson: Curtis Lanier, Francis Eugenia. and Nathaniel Keightley. Mr. Sparkman died September 26 1929. ROBERT F. NUNEZ Robert Flo urnoy Nlmez, a natic of Georgia, came to Tampa during the late 1840!:> and became a clerk in the general store of Kennedy&: Datling. ln 1859 he rented a store room on the ground floor of the Masonic: Temple, at Washington and Tampa, built by John Darling, and started a store of his own He was one of cbe oq;-.utiz.ers of the Tampa Brass Cornet Dand. In 1862, Mr. Nunet sold the store and joint.-d the Confederate Army as captain o f Co. B, 7th Florida Regiment. He fought in Termessee and KentUck) and wal> in Bragg's famous march. Un used co the colder climate he oontracted pne\l monia from which he never rccoi.ered. Because of his illnes-s he was released from the army tn 1864 and returned to Tarnpa He died in 1868. Before joining the army. Mr. wa.s mar ried to A. H. Craft, daughter of 1he Rev. S. C. Craft, pastor of 1he First Baptist Church. They had t wo children, Roby, who wa!!' married to I. S. Giddens a pioneer grocer o f Ta.mpa . and Robert, who was married to Ellen Hale. Mr. and Mrs. Gid dens had three children: Genevieve. Daisy and Mary. TI1e children of Robert and Ellen ( Hale) Nunel were: Robert, Jr. Mary, John and Paul. DR. FRANKLIN URANCH 'Franklin Braxu:h, pioneer physi.cian al\d dntggist of 'tampa. was born in Orwell Vt., No"ember 28 . 1802. He was graduated from CasLleton Medical Collc.:ge in Vermont in 1825 and scanc;;d practicing in the Abbeville district of Carolina. On December 1 6 ISSO, he was marned to Miss Matilda Vashti \ViJson. They had three sons l)an\'in A .. who became a physician. and Franklin A. and James 0., who became Mcthodi'H minister!i The) also had three daughters, Lavoni a Helen and l,.ucy. Doctor DrMu;h came to Tampa in the late I MOs. opened an 3poth(.'C'trys shop, practiced tned.icine and preached in Methodist churches. ln April. 18-19. he bought land near che Manatee Ri\'er and built two large log house!i with the intention of starting a s.anitarimn. He also went into Lhe business of S\tpplying ti rnber.s f<:>r ship builders Both v(:nturcs failed and the doccor teturned to Tampa and re-esta blished his dntg store. His log houses were used as a place of refuge by Manatee pioneers during the third Seminole '.Yar Dr. Darwin A. Branch. who had remained in Tampa. was elected mayor In 1856 to sru:cc::ed Judge Lancaster . the town's fi r s t mayor, who had died that year. l he Brand' family was hard hit by the ) cHow fever e_pidemks of 1857 and 1858. llr. Franklin Uranch s wife died August 23. 1857 and his grand Clara Vash ti Clarke, of .Ed ward A.,and Helen (Brancb) Clarke, d.led Otlober 21, t h e s.ame year. During the Cf?i demic, Dr. Darwin A. Branch died, on August 16. at the age of 2G, and Mrs Clarke died on December 22, :H I he age of 18. On JanoaT)' 6, 1860, Dr. Franklin l\r.tnd t was tnanicd to Mattha A. Turnbull, o( Monticello, f'la. They had a son, Harry L Btanch who, in 1884, built Tampa's finn opera hous e Hoctor BranCh died Thursday, A\lg\st 24, ISS2. MADISON POST Madison Post was born in Ne\'i Jctse) on January 22, 1 815, and came to Tantpa iu 1849 to operace the old Kilgore or Tampa Hotel. Later he opened a gener.al store. ln 1858 he was elect .ed ma)<>r o( Tampa, the third man to hold that office He .served during the C i"il 'War in the Confederate Army and died September 10, 18G7. Shortly after coming to Tampa Mt. was matried to Ma.ria Jane Moore They had five c h ildren: Duff, who rnaa t icd Ina (Me Gregor) Sage; Holly, who married I' reder ick A. Fine: Linnic Darling, who married George A. nell: Madison, who married Maria Kelly, and Jacob J., who married Rose 1rV'inn. Duff Post became a dentist ar\d practiced in Tampa many years He abo took an active par t in community life He was cit) marsh a l for two years and mayor (rom 1883 through I88t3. He \\as the seoond native-born ma} 'Or in Tampa's history. He was preside .nt o( the count)' board of health in 1893 and postmaiitcr of Tampa (rom 1891 th.rotagh 1895, duritlg whic h time free mail dcli 'iery was es tablished. He also establi-shed the Hrst emergency hos: pital in the city Doctor Post was married to lna (McGregor) Sage They had no children. JOSl'H ROBLES Joseph Robles wa.s born Jn Madrid, Spain, Scp terubet 15, 1817. WbenJ5 years old he came w the United States, landing at St. Marys, Ga., o n his (ifteemh binhd:n. He was married in Geo rgi a in 1840 to i\bry A. .. daughtel' ,) Michael Carrison. of Effingham Co unty. Soon after the marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Robk-s moved to Columbia County, Florida The Semi note 'r\lar of 183!'H2 was then being waged and Mr. Robles se rved as a volunteer \mt.il tbc oon flict ended. Laler he moved to Hernando C<>unty and in 1851 came to Hillsborough. ln 1857 he hoanesceaded north of what is now Colum bfl$ Drhe between Florida and Nebraska Avcnuc.-s. Much of this land was sold in the 1870s to north cnlers who wanted to establish "or.tngc grove eState s." (St:e Chapter VI.) During the CivH 'V:tr, Mr. Robles served as a home guard and once;; captured eight Yankccs who were attempting to T:tid a salt workii at the head of Old Tampa Bay. (See Chapter V ) Mr. Robles died Februarv 12. 1907. He was SUI'Vi\'ed by nine children : )ohn C . J()SCph l' . Seabom L ... Green W . :f'Tands M., floracc T .. Mary 0 Fannie A and Julia A :His oldest son

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Mk.bael l'., dietl during the Civil War while a prisoner at Camp Chase. The entire hunllr has been noted for lor1gevily. One of the Joseph P., was sti.ll livrng in 1g..19 at the age or 1 02. He was the olden resident o( Ta:mp:a. EDWARD A. CLARKI:: Edward A. Clarke was born in 1827 in Cornwall ontheHudson, New York. He came co Tant1)a in 1853 and opened a general store, h is plate ot business being located Cor many )'CM!J 011 the southwest corner of \Vashington and Mnriotl. With Chri11l0pher l.. Frkbele, his brothel'in law, he egagcd in blockade running during tl\e: Chil \Va r, was capt u red at Anclote K eys. and was imprisontd until lht end ol the "'a. r. He then retumcd to Tampa and reopened hiJ tore. He i 1 1vested heavily I n real estate whid\ became im mensely valuable after Tampa started booming in 1883. H e atulred one of his most "aluable ho ldings about :S3 acres jtst nonh of 1-I:trri:s.cm. from a Negro servant, Fortune Taylor. on june 2:J. 1875, for $2M. The woman had it after the Civil Wal' Mr. Clarke subdivided this tract in 1883, c:alling it Clarke's Subdivision No. 1. h was i11corpor:ucd as North Tampa tn 188.5 but was t;)ken into "'fampa in 18$7 In 1855 Mr. Clarke wa:s married to llc len Mary Brandl, or Dr. Franklin and Matilda V. Bra11d1 They had a daughter, Clara Vashti, who died iri lhc ycUow fe\er epiUc:.role of 1857. His wife died In Another epidemic a )'Car J:uer. On May 31. 1 800, he was m arried to Saah 1 ... Walt. daughter of Perry C . tlnd NanC)' {HtuHcr) Wall. They had a daughter. F106Sie, who m:rricd w Andrew J Knight. Clar-ke died in November, 1886. WILLIAM T. BROWN 'Villiam T Brown was bom in 1810 in Marl boro Cotmty Sou1h carolina. Coming t o Florida in 1831. he lh cd rirst in Leon Coul\t)' and then, in 1642 took UJ> land under the Anne!d Oc.cupa l ion .. ,,, in A lnchua Cot)nty wher e he wns mar r ied to Elizab cc h Townsend, daugluer of Light and Phoebe (Ctl l 'ttr) Townsend. In 1851. M r. Brown came: to Hillsborough County aod developed 1wo plantatio ns, one 3l TWo Mile Branch, itt the area or the presou Se\erub and Nebraska Avenues, and the o ther a( Simmons' Hammock .. He built a town horne on the northwest corner of Lafayette and Jeffer'$0n, the site of the new county cot1rthon$C. M:r. Brown Jerv,:d in volunteer oornpunlcs dur ing bo1h the Second and the Third \lo/3rs. He wn.s e1cct<:d co the citv co un c il in 1857 and in .J861. Aher lhe war he abandoned his plantations and opened a general 5to r c which he operated until the time of his death on Augus t II. 1868. Mr. B rown as twice married, fint to Elizabeth Townsend the mother of all hit children, and later to Mn. ).brtha Jane (Webb) Teaooc:k who sur\ ived him many years His ehildrcn were : M:.rgar c l Ada line, who rit'SL man icd '"'il liam W Tucker and later John T. Les l ey; James BIOGRAPHIES 325 Light: WIJIItlm Henry, who m;)rri<:d Mary Camil lm; lesley, and John f'rand.s .JOl-IN HENRY KRAUSE John Henry Krause, a nati .. e or Saxony, Ger many. came 1 0 Tampa in 1855 and atabiUbed a bJacbmith J.hop on 1he northeast corner of Franklin and laek Street$ where c.be fine. Cidxc:ns bank building later was built. During the Civil \Var he sened iu the: Confederate Army. When the war ended, Mr. K1 ausc reurned to Tampa and bcg:m ro:.nuraeturillg ca rts and bu8'8'ic:S which were used ::t11 over South Florida. H e also opened a gencml store on 1he soutbc:a'lt corner ol Franklin and Zac k Latct he invested heavily in real estate: and :u one t.ime l1. as sole owner o[ Sulphur Spri.ngs.. Mr. Krause was fint married to Mary E. Dacgenhardt, daughter of Job'' H and Mal) M. Daegenhardl, natl, es of Dresden, Sa.xony, who had co1ne 10 Tampa in 1818 Mr. and Mts. Kr.tuse had six children who maturlly: Henrietta, who marrl<.:d Joho T. G\ ltm ; who married Joseph A N. Crable: John tlcnry: Annie, who married R obcl't Nunel; Frc:dcric ;k Wilhelm, and Rt)Sa. Sc:,cnl ye a rs after the dcalh of his first wife. Mr. Krnu -le was mart'icd to '\Vci:s brod .. who bore him 0\'0 children Hem1an and \\'ilhclmina. 'WILLIAM CHARLES BROWN William Charles Brown wa s bm n June 10, 1831 irl Athens 0 Trained ao; a civH. e nginec:r. he was cmplo)'ed b)' ntil roads until his health failed. Seeking a milder clima te, he came to Tarnpa in November, IM5, tlnd became as.10eJate d whh his two Mkajah C. and J VI Drown, owners of a clothing J.Cote at Franklin and 'Vashington. He in both the Third Seminole War and in the CivU War. After tbe Civil \Var he returned to his original \'ocation. that of a s.unC')'Or. ln 1800, Mr. BrO\\'Jl was elcetcd city clerk and in 1867 c:ounty s urveyor. Later h e served as clerk Qf the clrcuit C.O\Irt from 1877 to 1885. He was also a. member of the Democrati c Exc:cutive Cotn rnUtee and in 1884 was a ddcgalc to tht: J\alional convention in Chicago. lo 1881, Mr. Brown purch;a sed Little Grassy bland a t the mouth of the Hil b:borough and with William n . Henderson acquired almost all of Depot K ey. These islands later purchased by D r. Duis and develoJ>ed into Da\'is Islands (See Chapter Xl.) Mr. Brown was se<::re taJ:)' of the chy's first street r:rHroad compam and. also hnd a financ;ial interest in rn:m y Tamp.. busutcss co nctrn.s. He dh .. -d December 3 1 HM)-1, and was S tln'ivec.l by his widow. the former Mary E. Ha.ger-, and four children: Mrs. T homas Gibbons. Mn. Louis carney. r:IOMie and KarL ANDREW J. KNIGHT Andrew J Knight was born at Knigh t's Station. Hillsborough C.C.uuy, December 20, 1 857 the son of joel and Vil-ginia (Mitclu:ll) Knight ()'') After aUclltl i ng public Khools, Mr. Knight studied law :md was admincd to practice but

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326 TAMPA business pro,ed more aurac t he and he De\ 'er followed the legal profession. In the early eighties he had a store on Washington Street and in 1887 entered the real estate bo&Incss. 'Vith Edward M. Hendry he organized the firm o( Hendry 8: Kn_igh t which subdivided a larg e part of lhc garriSon, const ructed the H cndr}' & Knight channel and buih terminals He was. one of the founders of the Tampa Dock Company. Mr. Knigh t was marrjed to Flossie Clarke, onl y child of Edward A. and Sarah ( Wall) Clarke. '1'hcy had Soe'\en children who lived to maturity: 1-':sli. Vida Cla re. A 4dine Julesc, FlOS$k and Sarah. Mn. Knlpt died In 1910 and 01\ September 18, 1 918, Mr. Knight married Ruby Leon Marcum. Mr. Knight died September 28. 1926. HENRY LAURENS KNIGHT Henrv Laurens Knigl u wos born in Plan t City in 1859; the son o joel and Virginia (Mitchell) Knight. He attended public schools in the Char lone Harbor dlstrlct, where the fami l y JUoved after the Ciil \\far. and later was eng:Jg.:d in tht: cattle business. Coming t o Tampa in the early 1880s, Mr. Knidtt was married to Lillie \V)ll, daughter of WiiTiom W. and Minnie ( May) Wall (q.v.). With the corolng o( the South )I lorida Railroad, Tampa and the entire Tampa nay region begatl enjoying unprecedented dcvc lOJ,ment and Mr. foresaw the need o a uore which wotl1d spce-1:tlize i n ::;cUing all typc::s of hardware. He Cl\tcred into partnerstlip wit h Perr)' G 'van (uk an -active intel'CSt in c i vic affairs and wa!i a member of the ci1y wuncil ror a number o[ year$ and wa s a nu::mb el' ol' the port conn uill:i i o n ttl the tillle of his death rc.-5idenL of Knight, Inc. On Oc:wber 21. 91$ he: was married to Fav l,arker. daughter of W L. tlarkcr. builder of thci l:>c SolO 1-lmc:l (cp'.). T h ey have three children: r-::anc)' ( Mts. Robert Harper), J:rnnccs (Mr:$. Ja<:k Sk cmp), :md C hnrlc.s t..,_Jl. Kichard Kn ight was born in Plano. Tex . july 1 6. tR99. He was gradtlated from 1-lilhbo rough

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CHARLES L KNfCHT High Sc hool and attem.lcd the U n ive rsity or Fl orida. I n 1 922 he joined his father ill e stablish in g the finn o f C L Knigh t&: Son s, rnc r ealtors. a n d i s now pres ident of tf,e co m pany. Durtng the 1 930s he w a s s tate apprai5er a n d later s ta t e m an agcr o f L he :Hontc Owners Lo an Corporatio n with headquarters in Jackson ville. He has been a member of the Hillsborough County Port Author ily since its inception On f'ebruar}' 14. 1923, be married 10 G race Hildreth. They b;t\ C three daugtuers: Edith Knight Ann Cooper Knight and Sandra Wall Knight . T H E CULBREATH FAM I LY Edward Culbreath, progenitor of the Culbreath fa mil y in A m erica, came to this coun t ry f r o m Sco lland in 175 6 a n d was I h e first se ctler o{ the co mmunity !iUbs<.."(l\te ntl y calle d Sco t la nd i n F .d g e fiel d Dist r ict Somh Caro llo". H i s des c e ndant, Harry C. Cu lbreath, born in Edgefie l d District on Occobcr 12, 1 814, was the wn of VViJliam and B alhllheba Culbreath. He setved as a member or the lOth Regiment. Somh caroHna Volunt:n. io Florida during th!! Semi nolcIndian Wu, 1835!16. On Occc:mber 26. 1841. he wa.5-married to Matilda Ma)n<"td He enlis-ted in the COnfedente: Army on April 15, JSGI, at Charleno n S.C., and was immediately appoimed sergant whereupon he organited Com C. 7th R eginH:nt, Souch Caroli n a Infantry, CSA. with w llich company h e served i n Virg i nia u n til discharged of p h)sical disabili t y o n Sept ember 12. 1 86 1 at flint Hill. R e-enlisting October G. 18GI aL Gam p Bu t l er, So uth Carolina. he sc rvecl :.s scrot)d and f j rs t lieu tenant, Co m pany n, 2nd Regiment, Sou t h Caro BtOGRAPH I$ 327 l ina A rtillery, CSA. He appoint('(} capt air) in Company K.. same regitncnt, on May 7, 1862. This oompanl of artill ery whida he organil.
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328 TAMPA the U n ion Army during the \Var fictwcet) the Stat es, Co l W. G Bartholomew. The t wo vete rans nevc:r t ired <>f d iscusing the confli ct, but their ( r ien dsh i p grew stronger and when Colonel Culbreath fmaUy passed away, n.o one g r ieved more than lhe Northern office r. Col onel Culbreath died Septe mber 4 18S5, and Mrs Ctt lbrcath, November 18 1895. They had six childre n who liv e d to maturit)': Joseph in e, Ira 1' H. l'ope, William 1'. (q.v.), john and Percival P. Culbreath married John Strother and had seven ch ild re n: l'opi.c, Manic. Julia, Ida, Pc..-arJ Fa nni e and Hemy C. lla J>. Cu l breath m:trricd t o JuHa I.ong. who died a t B;ty Vie w Augus t 2L. 1867. 'They had a son, Joseph Harry Culbreath (q.v .). H l1opc Ctllbrcath was married to Henrietta Hackney. who died February 20, 1870. He died Crysca1 Ri\ef February 3 1887. John Culbreat h was born Ma y 29, l854. He n t arried Rosa H ays. De cember 21. 1882 He specia l ized in arb<>ricullure and pl:mcccl most of the trees whlc:h bc3utify Memorial Highway and older sectio ns of Tatt\pa. He had si. x children: Matilda, \V i lliaro Pope, John, Hugh (q.\ ) and ErnesL Percival P CuJbrcath was born 13, 1$156. He marric.:d Mittie Pate May 5 18$9 They had f our children: Ruby Pate who wa..<; married to Dr. J. C. Ca raballo; l'erdval P Jr., Pearl and Mehin. Mr. Culbreath was associate d for m:my years wit h the Knight 8: \r\rall Co. WJLLIAl\1 P (BOB) CULBREA "I:H Wlllia lll l'. (a((cc t io nately called Bo b ) Cul bruth Carolina, l'ebruary .;. J 853, the son of Harry C. and Matilc.la (Maynard) Culbreath (q.\.). He came t o Hillsborough County with the family jn 1866. He wa::; cdu cated in publ ic school s o( South Ca r o lin a and ltorjda. M r. C u1br<:3dl first wo rked vit h his father and brothers on their Edgefield farm and or:mgc gto\'e it) what is now the: Bi!ac.:h Pad;, i>e(:tion. F l 'Orn 1879 h e worked in cedar mills near \Vebs t cr, Fl.it. In 1855 he c rltcred the railway mai l serv ice and later beSition i n 1800 to enac:r the innuanc e l msiness, reptesenting the New York Life lnsurance Comp:my and other ' koown and reiipectcd for his admcacy o( rigi d law enfor<.:<: 1'. {!.1011) C\JJ.IIREATH mcnt and was an authori t y OJ\ t h e h i s tory of thc Confederate government aud a rmy. Due to ilJ health, !\h C n lbreath r e tired ill 19'21. He died JuC/25. 1926, and was bu .. ied in the amilr plot o Hopewell Cemetery west of Tampa. ne.ar the o.ld Cul breath far m He \\';ts marl'ied if) Macon. Ga .. April 12. JSSl. to \Vhite of Maoon. '!'hey had four sons: one, who died at birth. ar\Qthc:r Robert Lee, who died at 13, Harry C. (q. \'. ), and Charle s E Mrs C ltlbrea t h died Novembe r J 1. J9-:J9, and buried beside her husband j n 1iope well Cemetery. HARRY CHAPPELL CULBREATH Harrr ChappeJI Culbreath. named for his grandfather, Harry C C\llbreath (q.v.), W<\$ bom on the fan\ily f ()f Spafli s h c;c:-c.Ja r lumber and owu el opt.:nHOr s of s;tiling \ essels t rading wilh Cuba. l n 1907. he hc.t: a m e a sak-sm;m, Jater the sales manager, o V. Guerra Diaz & Co. Cuban wba.ctQ imponers and cigat ma.ou fa<.:turers. He l.'tlllained with the c;ompany unlil World 'War I ( see bel ow) A fter the war, Mr. Culbteath became one of the organizer s and incorporat
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;u. \ ice-presidem and general and executive vice-president. Jn ( uly. 192;>, Uus a unpany became an amli.:n c o( 'i..ykc:s Bro t hers S teamship Co., Inc .. in which Mr. Culbreath w as c)cct<.'(l a ncnbcr the o r dire c tors, m em ber or t h e es.ec uu..c comnuttc c : m d vic:eprcsidcn t . Ml'. C ulbreath a l.so h:u b ee n exccuuve vtce prcilidc n t o f Blocks Terminal, Jnc.., from iLS <>rgan 1tation in January, 19,40: a director _at\d of the Cin:mce c;ommauce of the FU$l Nauonal Bonk o Tampa since January. 1940, and a di rector and member or the ex ccutue finance com of the: Cul l.iJe lnsurance Compa.ny since junuary, 19l5. II\ April. 191i, Mr. Culbreath entered the: fin:t nrricers military traiuiJ\g camp at F e Mc. Pherson, <.:a. He was ootnmi ssio n ed a firu lieutenan t in Jul)' a n d was a s signed l() Lhe 82nd Division. He with the American Expeditionar y F o rce in F r al)cc fro m M:ay, 1917, t o Jvne, 19 1 9 He wa s prom oted t o capLa i n in Octo'ber, l HS, and w as suh secrucntly pro. uoted tO major, lieutenant c olonel a 1 \ d col onel. U S Army Resc\ ve. ln 1920, Colonel Culbreath was elected to !\'t' as tht: .s-eoond o f the USS Tampa Pnst No. 5, Americ:an Lq:i<>n. He sc-rcd tw o ttrm .. "'-during whid1 the: Legion firmly e:stabli">hed in Tampa. Jn 192'.l, when the rtservcs established, he was assigned by the comma.nding general, l'ourth Corps Area, to comu1aod ch e 828th Infantry R cgi mem (rescne) of the 82nd Divis i()n, in which be had been a member dorlng th e war. He wa s also dc:s i g l)ated to tf\ c of r e sc c oor p s acti v1ti<.-s in f' Jorid". L a t e r he pro 11.\R'RY (:Hi\l'l'El, l. CUl LIRi\T H BIOCRAPIIIES 329 m otea n n d v i ce-p r e sid e n t and tru ll tcc of t h e Flod()a Foundatio n. H e i:; a m c nl.bcl' oC the Khlt':U)I..'I C lub, Uni versity C lub, American Leg i on, Veterans of Foreign \Van, Tampa Pro pcflcr C lub, Tampa Yacht and Coun1ry Club, Palma Cei:. Colr Chb, Ye M)'$lic K rewc of C:a.1: and Firsl Baptist Church. JOSEPH HARRY CULBREATH j oseph Jiarry Q.Jibreath W:t.<; bont ntar 8a)' Vieh ', on PineJias l'eninsula, March 7. 1 867. th e son of Jra P. and Julia ( Long) <.:ulb rcouh. His motl'lcr dic.: d when he was a baby and h e was 1aisc:d In the honl:t: of h is Col H C. C u l breath ( q v.). He w a s educau: d in Hi11s b ul'o ugh COU I 'Il)' s cho ol s and in 188!' started WOI k jug fo1 lhe old TJUI:SUN E alt a pl'inccr He $cnc.xl as a foreman and proorreadc uf the l utP.S u1Hil he rellre
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330 TAMPA DR. JOHN P. WALL John P. \ Vall was born in J::upcr, Fla . September 1 7, 1836 the son of Pcny G. and Nan cy (Hunt e r } \Vall. He $tudlcd rnedkinc and rc cdvcd a n M. D degree in the late 1850s. Mo ving lo l'ern :md i n a he practiced Lhel'e until the out break of the Chil \ Var when he offered his sti'V ioes to the Conedenut and ser"cd in an army hospital in Rtchmond. Va... until the war ended. He then carne to Tampa to practioe. In 1862 Dr. \Vall was married to Pressie Euba.nks .of Hernando County. During the yeiIOl'l' fCcr epidemic of 1871, Dr. \Val l 'YII>aS suict.en and his wife nursed him. just 3S he was reco .. er ing. his wife bec3.me ill and on September 6 she died. Thereafter Dr. \Vall made an i.ntcnsh e stud}' of the disease and was Otc uf the first to advance .the thOOr)' that. it w : u spread by m os quitoc:J. Sut o ther phytic lans sco ffed at the idea and n o t h itig wa$ done t o cmdletHe the pests D r. Wall did s ucceed, how c\'er. in prewmting an other serio u s epidemic by bocomi _ng heahh officer and insis.ring llpon most rigid qua.rantine regula tions. So long as be held 1he oUicc. the city was free rom the dread disease Besidts being one of the most distinguished ph)'Sicians o h is day. Dr. Wall also w-as one o Ta.mpas most outstanding civic leaden. He two years as mayor :md was one of the founders, and the first president, of the Tampa Board of Trad e. He also wa s the: firs t editor of the Su:-
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and Minnie (May) Wall. Ne auended t b e East Florid a Seminar y and Bingham's Military School a t A s heville, N. C When he was sixteen old he decided to go iluo the hanl.,...arc bushu:ss wilh his bn> ther iO l:tw, Henry Laurens Knight. His father had died s ix years b efore and his s h:tre of the c.-sta te amounted to $2.000 which w as being held for him by his guardian and unc.l c, .Edward A. Clarke Be persuade d his uncle t o ad., a nce him this amount and he joined Mr. 'Knight In rounding the hard ware firm. But because Mr W'all ,.,as not of age, his name could not be u.sc:d in the firm name, and hi$ gua_ rdian's was uted iru1nd. The finn, lhel'f:fore. was first known ;u C l ,.rke & Knight. In 1887, following the death o Mr. Clarke, the name o( Knight S:: Wall was adopted and used Lhereafter. The concern w as developed into one of 1he Jar_gel:it mercantile cSUI.blishrue nts in Florida In adda tion to hit businclll!. a c thities, Mr. WaH de v oted anu c h of hb time t o c i v ic and poli tical affairs. H e served at arlou s times as c h ainnan of and county Democratic:: con:unit tcc.'S and was Ghairman of the executi v e commlt4 te e of the Wb.it e Munic;ipal Party. In 1890 and in 1894 he was e J ected to serve on the cit y cowtdl and wn a member of the county school board in 1897498. lo 1923 he was elected ma}"OT4 commi$$ioner of T aropa for a rour4rcar tctm, sen ing until January 1. 19'28. Mr. Vall was married t o Miltti e Houstoun1 of Tallahassee. They had t wo children, Roustoun and Martba. Mr. Wall died January 25, 1944. .JO SEPH BAI SDEN WALL Joseph D ai.s den \Vall was born J anuar-y 23. 18,:J7. the son of Perry G. and Barbara (Baisden) '\VaJI. He attended law schoo l ar the Un i versity o f Virginia, started practicing in B rooksville and cam e to Tampa in 1872 He was a partner at ooc: time of Henry L Mitchtll. who became go\cmor of florida, and later of Pct.c:r 0. H e as Hate senator. statc'a auomey, JUdge of the criminal C:Oltrt of tc.cord. :md of the circuit oourt. On NO\ 'ember 28, 1869. h e was manied to l)redous Edgetington of firook.s\ ille. They had a daughter, Helen ,.Y,, who was married to J u dge Charl es 1\ Parkhill, who afterwards became one of t h e j ust ice:; of the state n tpreme OOU I'C. The w ife oC J oseph B. was Frederi c a Lykes. of Brooks ville They had no ebildrcn He d ied Dc:c:embcr 2l, l 9 12. J. EDGAR WALL J. Edgar Wall was born In Tampa March 10. 1872. the $00 of William W. aod Minnie Wall. lie was educated in Ta1npa sch ools, a t Bingham' s Mili tary Academy in Asheville:, N. C. at EmorsCollege in O xlol'd Co. .. and at the East man nusi.oes:s College, P o u ghk<:cp!de N Y After completing bb edu c ation he returned to Tamp a and i n 1 893 bcc::unc m ember of the firm of l(n;ght & Wall ( q v ). In 1897 he m oved to Texas ;\nd engaged in farming and cattlerais ing but retained his with the BIOCRAPHI 33 1 He rcwrntd to Tampa in 1907 and a5 and assistant manager of the firm until 1919 when he was cla:ted ptcSid cnt after the death of H. L. Knight In 1 914 he organ izc.-d tbc Machin 8: wall Co. of H awma, and ibctcc n years as one o( H s ofHciah. ln 1933 h e wa11 appointed postmaster and s erved until 1948. Mr. W a ll sen.ed as cha_irman o( the b03rd o tnutecs o ( Fl orida Southern CoUege !or over 20 yeal'1 and has been d:1ainnan of the bo:ard of the Florida Fair and Casparilla.and board ch:lit man of rampa Chapter. N A He has been a trustee of the First Methodist Church and has been accive in Maso n ic work Alw ays keenly i n terested i n a\iation, he is now president o the Tampa Chapter of the National Aeronautics Auchorhy. On Janu :ny 10 1894 Mr. "\Vall wa1 married to li'Jorric l}o wman at Plano, Tex. ThC}' had two sons and a 'VilHam Jnd: .son \Vall (decea sed) Min m e wall, who was married t o J. C)arkc Evans :md james Edgar W aH. Jr. ISAAC S. CRAFT I saac S. Cr3ft was born in Tanpa DCU:mbe:r 4, 1867, the "'n o f D. Isaac and .Emma M Craft. Ui.s (aUtcr served as sheriff during che 1870s. H e aucnded public: $Chools in T ampa. the Ust Florida Seminary of Gainesville and grad uated from the Eastman Business College. at Poughkeepsie, N. Y ., in 1888. ln 1889 h e startt:d working for the Knighc & 'Vall Company and re maine<( whh Lhe oonccrn tweot}'one years. be4 coming vic:eprc.";'lidc.nt. C r.-ft reorganized the Florida Auto 8:. Cas E n gine Comp:-.ny in 1910 and bc:.-amc gener al managc.r o r the concern. H e wa s also vicc4 president and ge neral manager of the Eag l e Roofing CO.: presiden t of the Tamp2 Steam Wa)'S Co . and i ccprcs:ide m of the: Lyons Fertili1er Co. He was also a director of the First Savings 1: Trust Co. and the wac S. u vy Wholaale Drug Co. He sened two tenns on the city council and was s membet or the Tampa cl\artcr board. On June 1 5, 1893 Mr. C raft was married to Lillian Munro. They bad two children : 1\melia (Mn. B. Uradlcy), and Robert Mun o. J\.lr. Craft d;ed May 1::2::. .:19:;:3;.: 4 ;_ CAPTAIN J OHN MILLJ::R j ohn Miller ws$ born in Norway. J\ugu.st 4, 1 831. \Vhcn c l cvc n years old he sailed to Quebec as a a.bin boy. Aher sening four ynrs on an American vmt:l, learning n avigation. he beca me a s.a.Uor on a packet boat betwn New York :and Li'erpool. Cradua lly advancing he fin2lly became a m:a. ste.r mariner and the owner of a brig which during the Ch'il \\'at wat used by the Federal goyernment a s a transport. When the war ended, Captain MUler bough t a sc hooner in New Yor k l oaded it with merchan dis.e and cam e 10 the Florida 'Ves t fo engag e in tr.td i ng. J n 1 8 6 7 he entered the mer c:anclle b11s lncs$ it\ T ampa 3nd six. years late r went into partnerllhi.p with \V. B. llendenon o1'ganlzing the firm of Miller 8: Henderwn. For

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332 TAMPA CAPTAIN JOHN MILLER twenLy yeditorial department and bc."Came dt)' editor, and later cdi .tor. l.ate in J898 the paper got into l'ioancial difficulties and McKay b orrowe d enough money to bU)' controlling jnterest. ln 1922 he bought all the remainiog out:standing stock Mr. McKay served the paper as editor and publisher from 1898 to 1933 when it was acc1uirc.d by David E Smiley and Ralph Nicholson. Mr. McKa)' sened the Cit y of Tampa for founeen years a.nd as for thrc;c:: m01\thJ; He was elc;.'<:ted in 1910 for Lhe fust tim e for a twovear te rm; w;u reelected in l9JZ lor a term and rc-dc:<:t<.'' a fso s.encd three terms as jurr cC>mmi::;:;icmer f.(PA. SUN: IM ,. Ta.nnJNt::.. He was named oom\t\' historian late in HH9 b y the newl)'l;reated Hillshorotlgh Cotlnl)' Hi.sto ri caJ Commission i\ k McKay has been awarded the honorAry degree of doctor of humanities by R ollins Col lege and was t.ltcoratcd b)' tlte late King Alfo n so oC Spain with the Order of Isabel J a Catalico. In 1944 he wa!i awarded the Cervantc.-s Medal bv the Hispanic lnsti tnte in Florida. Decause o f his in tereS!. in tbe Seminole lndianJ;, he was made one of their honorary chiefs, and namc:.-d Chid White Aeron Dllring World War J, Mr. ;\ t e Kay was appoiut cd by \.,resident \Vilson to serv e as chainn:ut or the Pres ideJlt' s Advisory Committee for South DONAL]) (IRENHAM McKAY

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west Y.'torida 10 furnish oonfidcntia_l inormalion regarding indhiduats being considered for rc spon.sib lc positions in various phases o[ the totar clfon. M r ;\ f cK:ay is direc1or of the First National U ank. He i.s a pan president of the Tampa Board of Trade, p,.edecessor of the Chamber o Com mcroe; was one of the founders and is now a tl'ltSLec of the University of Tampa; is a paS-l e.x altcd t uler of the Elks, is an honorar)' tncmber o( the R.ot..ary Ch b and is a member of Bay Lodge Kni ghts of and L'Unionc Ilaliano. On October 7, 1900, Mr. McKay was m:n icd IO Aurora P. f'. Gutierrez daltghtcr of Gavino Cutic:t tez. :.1 pioneer of Ta. mp:.l' s Spanish col ony who t ook a leading part in the establishment o the c:ig: u industry in Tampa. (See Chapter VII ) Of thh union there; are seven lhing children: Mat)' H ele n (Mr.s. John K. Martin), Ada Mal'ion Aurora Celeslina G. E. Bumctt), Mary Jane (Mro. J L. Ou), John Angm and Robert A ngus. Three children are dea:ascd: Donald Brenham, Jr., Margaret Almeria ( ,.trs Ch. n M Ctt)'Wn), and Petronila Fcmanq;a n selling policies [or the Penn Mutual I..He lmur ancc COtnpanr. He has represented the company ever si n ce and has the: distinction of h aving ser cd under &e\en of its presidents.. Mr. M cKay was so successful as a part-t i m e that he ga.vc up his job with the mall scrv tce about 1900 to devote his tun anention to 1he business Ae has engaged in h ever A:lnce and i s now Tampa's o ldest insuranoc mnn in length of. serv ice. .Still an agent or the l'cnn Mutua), he is also s tate ag<.:nt of the Amcd can E<1uit :tbl c Insurance Company and general agent ror s . tfeguard lnsnrance Company and die U S l'Jdcht)' & G uarantee C..omp:my, \vhi c h h e ha s rc /)rcsentcd for forty-three years. Banquets hclc.l In 1ls honor have b'eell attended b}' many ol leading insurantc men of the nation. Mr McKa y is a charter member of f)pt Tc111ple Shrine and a member of variou& other orpnbar ions :md dubs. fie is a stcwud i n 1hc Hyde Yark Me1hodist Cburdl. On September 18, 1891. Mr. Mc.Ka.y was married BIOGRAPHILS 333 JAMES C. McKAY to Lillian MacDon nell of l'crmlndina . Fla Th(.!}' have tlll't::<: t:hildrcn : Jam e s A., Allen C., and R i chardS. WILLIAM JAMES HUERSON 'Villinm James Frierson -was born in Hernando County. Flodda., October 11:, 1858, the .son ot lames and l.otlisa (La-w) Frierson. ln 1868 the amUy came to H.iUsborough County wh e r e the ruothc:r died in 1884 and 1he father in 1800. 'fhe FricTSOn homestead \"o"a.S on the Alafia Riv er, 2'.l miles east o f Tampa. Ahtr engaging in farming Mr. Frienon came lO Tampa in 1885 and established a meat market. His store became one of the leading enablbh mems in the city and he continued to operate it undl 19J2 when he retired from acti\ e business .and de\'Otcd his ti1ne to his orange grO\'C$, Mr. Frierson W<\5 married February 14. 1 882, to Emma LesJie, ,,ho died No\'ernbcr 20. 1889, lea\' ing a daughter, Leslie (Mrs. Cuy Uucll). On 1\ugust 19, 1891, he was manicd. to Luu:mna a rld had four children who grew to mtllu n ty: Roy Tame;$, Grace (Mrs. W G Curry), M:u guel'itc (t\frs. Vernon John Garre n), anti J\nna (Mrs. Robert Thomas Ui!:ihop). Mr. Fl'icrson died May 7, 1918. WILLIAM LESLEY BROWN WlJiiam Lesley Brown wai born in Tampa. F ebruary J7. 1869, the .son or \Villi.am Henrx and M n r_y C.:tmillu s Laley, and a grandson of W11Ham. T. 1\rown ( q.v.). After attending schools in Tampa and K ey 'Vest. he entered th e cattle busi ness "'hh his john T. Leslq. In 1892 he

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33 4 TAMPA established a lh ery business in Tampa under t h e n a m e o f \V. Lesl ey B row n &: Co., which he con dnue d for twcnt ) fi vc years. Mr. Srowtt took an a cthc part for many yc.1rs in Ta1npa's public aff:lil 's, He s e l'\ ed as c;oundl man from his distric t in 1 896, 1898 and 1900. Under the oonu'ni ss iot\ form of government, which he hdped to es t ablis h h e served a$ dt)' tax collector from 1921 until J uly. J92:2. whe n he was appointed city man3ger, wb;ch positio n be held for the n ext si x yean. (Sec Chapter XU.) FoUowing the c:ity"s return to the alc:k:rmanic fonn of government. Mr. Brown rctirl from politics to dc:\"Ote his time to his really hoJ.dings.. He w a s t wice married, lint to Mabl e C. Upton and :sccondl)' t o ClaTa Jane Stric:kla nd. .JAMES EDWARD L IPSCOJviB James Edward Lipsc omb w:ts h orn in Leesboro Ah1., July 23. 1850. H e c:ame t o Tampa in 1869 with his sister, Ida, aod s c artc d working in William W 'Vall's iilOre. H e late r bc.tln\e associa t e d i n bns m ess with Christ opher L. Friebcle, wh ose daugh t er, .Mar ie., he married in 1876 He: elec:ted tna)or in 187S and was reclt< in 1874 and 1875 He di< on April 8, 1882 and was Stln ived by his widow and one ""' james .t::a in 1 875 wlth James WiiHam s. H e was eJcCI<. : d ma)'Or in Augus t 1876, :md liCr\'C.'tl a year. Jn 1877 he wa s elected councilman llc l eCt Tampa after the d c s truc::.tion o f his mill and d id not retut"l\. CHARLES E. HAR R ISON Charlet: Harrison was born in Jadc.504Willc.. Fla .. O<:tober 5. 1851, the son of Ephrlam L llJld Anne (Cooper) Harrison. After ancnding rdtool\ in Jat. ksonville scu d ied law and in 1872 came to rampa. He .served as cotm t y judge of HiUs botough Cot lnt y for .sixtcet \ y ears wa& abo a m e m ber o r the dty co\lncil. Jn addition to his legal pr: c t icc and judici al judge Harrison w rote cdiwr i n li ror lo.::al pape 1 'il and was the author of l,IONi tt'..R Ol} p ubl ish ed in 1915, in whic h illvaluable: data regarding c.11' l y familia w a$ prcscr \ 'od. H e a lso S-pent much 1 imc oomJ>iling data for a history of Hillsborough County. On Occ:ober 15. 187!, he was rnarriOtl o Anna f Civecu. b:ad four childrt"n: julia N .. f.dward, John E._, and S,.mucl (;. judge Harrison died May 15, 1920. CHA RLES Al'IGUS Mc K A Y Charl es A n g u s Mc:K.a)' was bo r n in Tampa Scp ICmbcr 1 6, l878, the son of Capt. John An g u1:1 and Mni'V jane ( M cCart) McKay (q. v ) Alter at t.e ntfin g p ublic .schoOls, he worked a s h o l't time CHAR LES ANClJS McKAY

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as an a pprentice printer and then beca ne a cle rk for the SO\llh F lorida Dry C(w:>d s Co t r.pa ny. then o ne o( Tam pa' s l eadi n g s tores I n 1 893. Mr. M c K ay went north a11d for four )'tltl worked for the Joliet Drv COOresident of l he Tampa Retail Merchants AssOCJ.ation which i1\ 1912 formed the Tampa Carniv a l Aw,ci:ttio n to de\e lop Tamp:t a s a u:ad ing cen ter by stnging parades, streot dances and F 'armer$ nay. With J Edgar Wa ll C R. McFarland. J. A. Griffin and A. L Altt'n, Mr. McKa) organhtd the South Florida Fair in 19 15. Jn 193' the (air was rtarganid and named the South florida Fair Gasearilla A,s:$0d. :u-ion. Mr. M cK2)' sc.ned as vice pt'C!'idcnc of the associ a tion and was a direc tor of it until his deacb. H e was al!lo a lifelong me:rnbet of the Gasp a ri H a K rcwe and grand rnarsha l o f the p:tr :td e ( o r mall)' years. H e wa.s COchnirma n o f the B ettel' As.sociati o n o( Flol'ida. in 1935. and re t aine d the po:u tmtil his death. He was an ac tive civic Jeader of the Interbay area. and as preiident of the board of supcrvi$0rs of Interb
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336 T AMPA star ted :1 builders' suppl) Firm Later h e became one of Tampa' s mc.Mt a.cthe de, elopers and boosters. He "-'U one o the principal organitcn of the Board of Trade in 1885. In 1892 he led a movement to buy T ampa's two small newspapers and s tar-tca lnve51mtnt Comp any in wbidl much capital was im't$1ed. Lalttr Mr. Beckwith joined wich WilHam 8 Heodcrson in forming lkd. with &: Hcndc:rwn real estate (i.rm, and C. C. \ Varren was taken into the firm Aher the de-ath of Mr. Henderson. the finn's name was c:hanged to Bcckwith \ V arren Compa n y Mr. Uedc.owith abo was the principal stockhold er in the Bk"ilhR.ange Jewelry Company and \\'a$ heavily interested in the llcntan ]kd"ilh A u tomobile Company. For about fiheen year.s h e a.Jso O )>er;J.tc.-d a sawmi ll at Harney flc: was a m e mber eal), Louis Beman, and Marjory ( Mrs. W 1::. H amner) Mr B.cck'"ith died September I. l 926, and Mr s. Dcc:kwl t b o n June I, l931. LUDWIG W ILHE L M BUCHHO L Z 1.\ldwig WJlhchn Buchholz wui l>orn i n Christ fcldc:. Germany, Marc:b 25, 185!:t, lht Jon of Marlin .a.nd Wilhctmlnc: ( Foes-e ) Buchholz. He was edu caced in &c:hools in Germany and was J>rincipal and organist In a school a 1 Kuntendor until e migrated in 1880 coming to in scarc:h of h eall h He h<.mgh t the Camey place at Bloo n i n g dalc.: a n d e n gaged h1 farm i n g and dtrt i S gro wmg J n rSS.s and girl" C:\nning chJbs, and S('hool libraries ill ci ty and cou n L)' S<.:hools. He w as h tmorcd by being n a m ed as an officia l of many tca
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l'anslow was in 188S to Josephine Chira.. dau$hler of Mr. and Mr.s. Doruonic Chir.t, pio1tecr res,dents of 1'ampa. They h;u i five chil drcn: U eat ric e. Eupller.nia (MrS. Theodore Brown) Joscpb Chlra., Domiojc,. and Paul Jgnaeius. HNRY BRADLEY J>LANT Although Henry Brad l ey Plant never had a home in Tampa he undoubtedly comributed more to the of the cit)' than any other pe1'SOn. He wn.s born O c tober 27. 1819, at Branford. Conn., the sOil of AndeNOn and Uetsc:y (Hr.1dley) Plant. H{J lather was a dc$c;;cndatH o( j ohn Plaut. an Englishman ll 'ho settled in Hartfcwd in 16S9. His mother was a dat1ghter of Levi Bradley, :a mus i cian who taught < l school. 'the father died in 1 825, a victilll of typhus, and Mt$. Plant was married again, to Phllcrnon Hoadley. of Martensburg. N. Y. Young J)lam ditl not 1ik.e going to se:hool and in 1837 when 18 yeat'i old, h e got a job a captain'3 boy on a stc:ambo"L line ruunilt g between New 'Vorl;. And New llavc:n (See Chap ter VII.) In 1$4 2, while still wich the steam boat line. Plant married Ellen Blackstone, daughu:r of Mr. and Mrs. J ames 1\lackston e. The)' hnd two sons, one who dh:d ht infancy and Morton. who later was assod :ucd with his father in business Desiring lO spend mon: tin\C al home. Mr. Plant left the st.eamship line soon after his mar riage and joined Bcceher & Com pany. which h01d conducted the e xpress bu,iness on the steamships. In 1847, the: Bcher concern w:u acquired by the Adams :"pr ess Company and Plant JOined the latter company, $000 be coming one of il $ officials. Mrs. Plant suffered from tuberculosis and in the laU o r 1852, her ph,sician ad\ ised her to go to } lorida. Mr and Plant then apc:nt the winter in Jad:.ton ville. During the f oUo" ing winter, wbe-u Mr. Plant a.galn had to seck a mildc:r cll mat.e b ec.1use of his ,.,.if c's h e-alth, the Adams x.pn.-ss Company placed him in of its buJiness i u the Slates ao.d duriog the neu $1!\ 'ef\ rears he spent bis entire time esublishing new expT<:S:s llne5 all throuJ,-1'1 the South. Mrs Pla n t died o n FebtU3r)' 28, 1861. A few monLhs 1ater, aher the C ivil War bad begun, the Adams E.xpr... Company sold its hold ings below the MasonDixon line to Plant to pre'\'ent them from falling into the hands of the Coufedcrates. He the Southern Ex prC'Ss Company with offices in Augusta. Du ring the summet of 1863 :Mr. Plant became ill and In '''gutl "cnt t? Eui'Of!C 10 rcx.upcrate. He returned ro Augusta in Apr1l, 1865. after the war had ended. From 1865 to 1 879 he d e c1oped his expre ss busint:iS and also acquired J:,r5(e blocks of stock in railroads in Ccorg ia and F lor ida which had been h:ud hit by the war. With associates-, he purchased the Atbncic & Gulf Railroad in 1879 and soon aftcr\\ard organized the Savannah, l'Jodda 8c Wt:stem Railroad nntl .BtOCRAPHIES 337 ......... HL'IR Y BRADLEY PLANT built a new Jine from W'aJcross to A ycnr later he p urchase.< the Savam'lah and Charleston Ra.ilroad, whid1 h:td been tn the c:o,1rts for yean. and rebuilt the line to pro''ide connec-tions between Jackson ville and Charleston. An account of Mr. Plane's acquisition of the South and his dcab with the Jackson "illt, Tampa & Key 'Vest '"hieh led t o the con strudion of a railroad into Tampa is 3ive:n in Chapter VII: also, his dc:,clopmcnt of Port Tautpa, the establishing ol a steanur.hip line to the 'Vest Indies and his (() ll&tructiorl of the Tampa nay Hotel. Other t>hases of his acthities tn Tampa and ticinity are diKJuss.td in Chap< VUL Mr. Plant died a t his home in New York on June 23, 1899. For an aooount of the dispo $ilion of his. propert ies, including the Tampa Bay Hotel. see Chapter IX. Mr Plant was survived b y his son Morcon and his second wi fc, Margaret Josephine Loughman. whoRl h e had married in T C. TALIAFERRO Thomas Canon Tal_ iaferro was born July 19. 1859. at Orange Counhouse. Va. 'Vhen a young man he \\"'ent to JackSQn ,il1e tngaged in the tum ber busine ss aocf chen joined the banking firm of Ambl er, Marvin 8; Stodaon. the old est bank in F.a.st Florida. In the fall of 1885 members of the h1nking inn founded the Rank. of Tatnpa and Talia ferro cam e here to becom e cashier of the inslituLion, che first hank T:mpa ever had. On

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338 TAMPA Ma'' 6, 1886, the ba.nk rece ived a national c;harter and its name was changed co the First National nank. Mr. scr\'ed as president o f the bank from 1903 umil January. 19'.27, when he was made chairman of the board. was directing head of the bank for fortyseven years. In his )ounger years, Mr Taliaferro was active in sports and often umpired basebaU games in Tampa. He also served as chief of the \ollmteer H1-e department. ln later life he de\'oted his full time to banking and stu::ceeded in making the First N:Hional one o f the l eading banks of Florida. Mr. Taliaferro was O larried in Tampa t o Stella i\ iorrisoll, daughter of Mr. and Mrs '\11/. A. Morrison, whose homestead was kn0\'10 for man}' years as Ll'e Morrison Grove. Mr. Taliaferro dit:d April 11, 1 928. He was sur vived by his widow and Hve c .hildren: Edmund llendlcton, Wilham M., Thomas C .Jr. Mrs M 1\. \.Yithers, and Andres Iglesias. He was also $urvivc.'(( by two broth<:n;, the former United senator James P. Taliaferro, of Jackson ville, and \V. R. Taliaferro of C harlotte, N. C., and a sister, Lucy Taliaferro. o( Orange Court house Va. WILLIAM FREDERICK FERMAN William frederick Ferman was born in Min neapolis on May 1 5. 1874, the $On o f Frede rick and Julia Gones) Ferman. The famiJ y came lO Florida in the fall of 1883, in search o( a more healthful d i mat( : and arrived in Tampa on October 20 The father immediate l y bought a clothing store own e d by F T. Ewing and went WILLIAM FREDERICK FERMAN into business; in 1 885, he was a founde r of the 1'ampa Board of Trade in which he '"as active for many years. William Frederick Ferman, known as Fred, was educated in T;unpa schools and in 1895. when 21 years: o l d. ope1ted his first b\ISi ness, the Tampa Cycle &: Sporting Goods Com pany. lo 1899, h.e and Victor James constructed the f ir.5t gasoline motored automob ile ever seen in Tampa. It was mademostly from bicycle parts. For a while Mr. Ferman. oonsjdcrc.'d the idea of manufacturing carS here for general sale but gave up the idea for a sales agency fol.' OJdsmobiles which he opened in 1002. His agency was the fir.o:t in Tampa. Mr. Ferman's bus iness expanded steadily there after. His firm sold Cadillacs from 1903 lO 1921, DodgC$ fr(nn 1914 to 1935, and since then has sold Chevro l ets. At the. time of his death on Scptctn ber 4, 1949, h<.: was presid<.:nt of the Ferman M<>tOr Car Co Inc., the Ferman Che .... rolet Co., and the Ferman Oldstllobile Co. He was Tampa's oJdcst automobile dealer and one o [ the oldest in the comury. He had been a membe1 of General Motors' Dealer Steering Committee and was often consulted on dealer poJi c y. He w as also a di reCtOr of the First National Bank. For many years, i\'lr. Fe r .man was an ac t ive member of the Grea t e r Tampa Chamber of Commere<:, whjc;h he helped to organize. He was also a Jrtembe t of the Fil 'St Methodjst Church and the Liule 'White Church which preceded it. l n his youth he was a n arde.nt bicycle racer and later took up golf for rc.."<:reation, bec..-oming a member Qf the Palma Ce ia Golf Club. During the last of his life, he greatly cnjoyc..'ll f ishing and boating. Mr. Ferman was survived by his widow, the fonner Elizabeth sgencex, daughter of Thomas K. and (I a rrish) Spencer. and by rwo sons, \4/. F Fennatl, Jr and james L. lennan. W ill iam Frederick, Jr., w.., born July 21, 1901. He attended Tampa publ ic schools, Staunton MHitary Acaderny in V irginia? and later Stetson Universitv. He was married in 1939 to Miss Lottie Hicks. of' Jat:ksOJf\ ille. Jar l lc;S L. Ferman was born April 14, 1915. He attended Tampa public schools and Emory Uni versity He was m arried in 1937 to Miss Martha Sale . of Shellman, Ca. They hav e a son. James L., Jr., born October 19, 1943. GEORG C WARREN Coorgc C. 'Varreu was born in Columbus . Ca .. June 27, 1863, the son of James \\'hitHeld and 'Laura P (Wimberly} Wanen. He was educated in pri\'ate sclloob at Kirkwood Ga and when 16 years old became a surveyor for the Georgia Pacific now part of the Sollthc:m Rail road. In 1883, Mr. 'Warren <.:arne to F lorida and o;..orkc::d for the SolUh F l ol'ida Railroad then being constructed between Kissimmee and Tan) pa. '\Vbcn the raih' <)ad was completed he caaue to Tampa as the first freight agent for the l,l _ant S)'Stcm. I..css than a ye a r later he went with the Bank of Tampa. predecessor of the First Na t iona l . and worked with T C. Taliaferro unti1

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GEORGE C W ARREN the yellow fever epidemic o( J887 when he fl\Oved 10 Atlanta . There he W l\i as:cociatod '\\'ilh che Co. co mm e r c ial bankers and cotton broke rs until 1891 whe n he n;tur:ned to Tampa and becam e a m ember of t.he fit m of JJeckwith. Henderson &: W a i 'I'CO, real est ate, mort. g-'.tgo and loaus. In 1924 h e bc.:came presidem o f the \VarrenSimm s Company which dc,eloped Parkland statts. New Submb Beaulifu l and se-. eral other subdivUion.t I n 1929 firm purchased .8kwith & \ Vhitta ker, and reorganized as Warren &: Shntn$, Inc. This rinn merged with the L H Macintyre Co. in 19M to fo rm the \VarrenIlc:ndcrso n Realt)' Co!Up;any, with Mr. \ Van e n president. With h i s brot her, A l fred C. and a OOtt$in T. N. Henders o n. h e purchased the Tam pa Coca CoJa: franchi$0 on d J ) l tun l:tte in 1905 anti was part owner tliUil hl.s cnt h on January 7. l946. He ser ved as p resident a fter the death of Mr. Henderson in Octob er, 1 944. He was also a director of tl\e Firs:t National B=t1tlr:.. Mr. Wa.rren was act i\'c in the Tampa Board of Trade and Chamber 0( Commerce lor many years aod was a cbafler member o f Ye Kr ewe o Gasparilla. He a mcmbeT of the Tampa Y acht and Cotuttry Club, Rock y Point Col! Club. First Meth odisL Church Hillsborough Lodge 1\o. 25 F.&A. M .. Scottish R ite, a1ld Egypt T emple SJninc. He wa11-als o a life m ember of the lks. On Jul} JJ, 1888, Ml'. warren w;u manicd L O Cora Lee Henderson daughter of \Villiam B. and CaroJi n e Eli zabet h (Sp e n ce r) Henderson (q. v.). They had Lwo eh lld rcn: \ViJiiam Hen derson and James \ \'hitficld (cp.). BIOGRAI'Hit;S 339 HERMAN GLOGOWSK I Herman Glogowski was born in Germn ny in 18.'55, c:.rnigratcd to Americ:t in 1867 came. to Tampa in 1883 and opened a m e n 's d0lh1ng s t ( lrc which he operated for many yc nr s there after. An ardc:nL town booster, he WitS e lected JH:l)' O I in 1886 1888 1890 alld 1 892. During his scoond adminhtrat.ion he laid tlle eorner11ton e o( the Tampa lb)' Hotel, on july 26, 1 888. He later scned as city oouncihnan arld was a de:lcptc many times to lhe D emocrauc: county con ' en1ionJ. A cli\' C in Masonk work for many yean. Mr. Ctogowsk.i :se:rved eight ynrs as wonb.ip(ul mauc:r of Hilbbnrough Lodg e No. 2!i. He wa5 married lO Dcrtha BrOWil. They had two son s Nat and Bernie, and a daughter, 'Tii H e. Mr. C roSowlSkl died December 3, 1909. .JAMES J:unc.ot J.cnfestey w as born 10 Guern sey. Chan nel b l ands. on December 6, 1844. His forbears were l 'rcnch. I n 1863 he e rn ibrrat.ed to Quebec \ here he: lived two )'ears, and went to and subsequently lO Dct.rcm where he remained eleven years and operattd a faaory. Later he operated a broom f2etory n A tl:a aua. Coming to Tampa in 1885, Mr. Lcn .. tey en gmged in the furniture and wtdcrtaking business for twelve yean and then, in ntablish< l.cnrc...,tc}' Broom Facto ry. the hrst co n cer n of 1ts kind I n the s tate. All kinds of broom s and wh.isks w ere man factureIlltllt and supplies: laundry and dry cleaning equipment

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340 TAMPA GEORGE S. LENFESTE Y and supplies and jan itor st'pplies. As this business dt: veloped. Lenfestey Co. was also orgauited in 1943 (or the purpose of handling equipment and J:mpplies for the canning lrldnstry. Mr. Len feSLev is manager-partner of this business. On l, 1937 h<:: became president of the COJ\ lidernial Loan Morcgagc Con)pany. '''hid\ office he still holds For many years Mr. Lenfcstcy has t aken a prominent part il t commtmity activities. He has serve d as director of both the Comm.unily Chesc and Red Cross anrlual drives, and is now president of the Red Cross, Tampa Chapter. He is a of the Presidents' Round Ta blc, Rotary Chrb Horida and Hillsborottgh Co u nt)' 'faxpa) ers Associa t ions, and United W a r (:hest. He i s chainnan of th.e board of trustees of the Y .\.V. C .A. and Salvation Arroy and a mem ber of the Board of Control of the HilJshorough County lic:unc al)d Hospital. He is an elder in the Hyde Park Presbyterian Chur ch. During \.Yorld \Var 11 he served as assistant fire chief of the Defense Counci l. He also se rved two years on the election board. O n August 22, 1911, Mr. l.cnfcstcy was married to I.ena Putna m. in Middle Stewiacke. Nova Sco t ia. They had three children: Jessie (Mno Sam P Hall. Jr.), G. Sydney Lenfeste y and \VilHam F r ederick Thompson Lenfcs tey . HENRY CLAY GIDDENS Hemy Clay Giddens was bOrn i n Berrie1\ County, Coorgia November 2. 186 3 was educated in the pubHc school$ and later attendt:d the East man Business College of Poughkeepsie. N. Y. He came to Tampa in 1883 an(l was employed by C. L Friebc1e and laler by E. A. Clarke Jn I 889 h c C$tabli$hcd the fim1 oflienry Giddens & Com pany with Wm B. Henderson as partner. The company became one of the largest retail c:lothing firms U) the state and was located on the northwest corner of Fran.ldin and Lafayette in the Ciddcns Uuildirlg. Giddens was one of the first members of the Library l.\oard !>C:ncd on the cit)' council for four years, on the boat d of public works for four years. and was acth'e in the Board of YMCA . YWCA and Old Peop l es Home. He was an elder of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Giddens was marri.c."Cl i n 1887 to Miss Sa11ie had a son, Henry C . J r Mr. Gtddens a HtbJet i n his ... n ... o_,ry ... ___ HUGH C. MACFARLANE Hugh C. Macfarla n e fo under of \Vest Tam.pa, was born Decembe r 28, 1851 at Cro:ssmylouf, near Glasgow. Sa,tland, the son of James D. and Ann (CampbeJI) Madarlane. both natives of ScoL l and, wbo came to America in 1865. They settled first at f'all R iver, Mass., then moved to Stearns County. Minnesota. where they n:maincd until J876, and then reLurncd to Massachusetts. Mr. Macfarlane attended St Johns College. i n Minnesota, and then stndicd Ja(y at Boston Uni ve rsily being graduated in 1876. He started practic ing in Bristol Comuy, Massac:hllSttts. and came t o Tampa ill 1884. ln 1887 he was appo inted city attorney, sen' ing three yearS. In 1893 he was ap pointed state's a t torney of the sixth judicial cir cuit but rcsignc .. -d a year later. At ''arious times Mr. l\bdarlane was associated in l aw practioe with D. 'F. Rammond, N. :S. K. Pcuingill .. hi$ b rother. Mauhew B Macfar l ane, judge .. fhomas M. Shackleford. and James 1:-. G l en. In 1924 the f irm of Macfarlane, T'ettingill. Macfarla n e and Fowler was formed. consisting of H11gh C. Macfarlane N. B K Pettingm. his son Howard 1). Macfat l anc. and Cody Fow ler. Mr. Macfarlane had th e d i stinctio n of foundi _ng West 'l'::uupa, donating buil dings and land 10

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HUCH C MACFARLAN ciga r m::muf aetuN!rs as inducements (Sec Chap ter VIII. ) Jlc served ;, number of years as a rncll\ ber o f the bo:trd of public w orks in T:unpa, as a member o the board of port comm.is$ionert. and as superintendent Of public '"-'Orks in \VCIIl Totmpa wbiJe it rema.iued J separate munjcipalily. He was a chntcr mtmb of the: Rocky l'oint Golf Club. a ol national, state and local bar a.uociation.s, and a member of the f..lks and Masoos. Shrinc:rs and Odd Fellow s. Ac was Ulal'fied in Tampa to Frances I. Pcttin gill and had lhl'c.'C children : J:tnlt:s 0., Howard i. and l\'lary E. (Hoyt) Mr. Maca1Jan e diccl Janua.-y 7, ---HOWARD P. MACFARLAN Howard Pcuin.gill Madarlanc was born at Tampa May 28, 1888. son of Hugh C. and FranCC$ (Pettingi ll) M acfa rlane (q.,.). He attended loca l Khools, nxchcd an A.B. degree at PTin ccton Uni 'CJ"$ity in 1911, his LL.B. degree at Walihing ton & l.cc Unhcrsl l)' in 191!l. Dur-ing World \Var I be ser,ed in the U. S. Armv as a second lieu-ten ant uf inf:uttry. l>uring his ca t'C."Cr. Mr. Madal'lanc liCr\cxl cit}' auornt.") of Wen Tampa from 1918 to 192!) and has been a member of the following l egal firms : Madarl:an e & Pettingill 1918 ; Macfarlane. Pettingill, Madarlane & 19245-I; McKay, Madarlane, Ja.dson &: Jo'e.rguson, 1935, anti iJ now senior metnbcr of the firm }.ofacfarlanc ferguson. Allison and Kelly. Mr. Macrarlanc is a former pQst commander U.S. 1 'ampa l)ost No. f,, A merican Legion: former department t:omman
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342 TAMPA EDUARDO MANRARA Eduardo Manrara wa s born in Pt1erto Principe Cuba, in 1842. After swdying in local schools. he bec:anu.: a clerk in a bnnking house and later became associated with Vicente Manincz Ybot in the cigar {actory, then located in Havana. In 1869 Mr. Ybor n1ovtd his J>lant to Key West and three years later Mr. : M:anr.ua became a member of the firm. In 1885 .. Ybor 3: Manrara moved t o Tatnpa. a factory bciog built in the later known as Ybor City. (See (;hapten VI and VlL} The con c;:c:rn led in the manu f acture or dear H avana until i ts sale in 1899 Its p r inci&nl brand wa.s Principe de Gales. Mr. Manrara wa.s one or the founders of the Ybor Citv Land Sc lmptO\'tment Companv, the Tampa street Railwa y Com puny, Uh: Tampa Gas CQmpany, and the Exchang e National Bar.tk which he served as president for years He also had tnany other busine ss connect ions in Tampa. Manrara had four so n s and a daughter: F..duardo, Oscar, Arthur Arma.ndo, and Miss Amalia Maorara and Anhur Manrara sur vhc and lhc:: in New York Tl1e others are de ceased Mr. Manrara died May 2 1912. VlCENTE MARTINEZ YBOR ViccJltc Mart.ine2: Ybor. Coundu of Ybor City, was born in Valencia, Spain, September 7, 1818. he was fourteen ye-ars old be went to Htwana and stsned working as a cle.rk in a grocery store A fe'" years later he began selling d gars for J{ :wana m:mufa cLurcn: a.nd in 185!5 s tal'ted a c igar fac.tory o( hh o wn VICENTE MARTINEZ YBOR In 18G9, shonly ahcr the outbr
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DR. LESLIE W. WEE DON 1 894 dming a sel'io os epid e mi c i n Lha t dty. He was a mem ber o f the VeHow fever Institu t e, of the Durca. u o f Public H e -alth, U. S Mari n e Hos plual Sctvlcc. He sencd as 1 h e f irst dty phys i cian of Tampn. mganhed t h e C ity H ealt h Deparu:ncn t, esHtb li.shcd an E.metgenty Ho.5pital i n 1889, :and w:u one of che flve doctor s w h o organized the Hills bolough Countr Medica l Assoc i ation. He was a me-mber of lhe Methodist Church. On February 14, 1889, Dr. \Veedon wa.s mar ricd to 1 .. Blanche daughter of WH Ham U. and Caroline I.Jilabcth (Spena:r) llc:ndcnon They had fouT dlildrt'IJ: Leslie \\'., Jr. (dea.scd}: rederidt Renfroe and )tary Blant:he. Dr. Weedon died No\cmbcr 12, 19S7. Dr. and Mn. \ Veedon owned a large t rac t or land on PineJias Peninsula just south of 1b c present we stern end of Gand y B ridge. lndudcd ut the tract was a large i sland stud ded with giant Jndi_:t l t moun ds w he,.-re t h e y p lanted a large citru s w cwc. This i s land is .still know n a 8 b land. of the Smithsonia n In s tltul c m ade ext ensive excavatio n s in t h e India n mounds there in 1923 -24 a n d une arth e d man y prioc lcs5 artibct s which h a ve .adde..'
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344 TAMPA Tilt Lykes )Jack r8 and the \Vat of '98, demand for tattle to restock depleted randws pl'ovided a good market ill Cuba for Florida cattle taiscn . and Doctor Lykes was a leader in this trade. The Lykes name followc:d in person the. ex tcnsive cattle shipments in Cuba. 'Two scms, Frederkk E. and Howell T Jr .. a her educational and bU$. i n ess experience in Havan::a in 1899 cuablished a busincs.c; of thc:ir c nvn in the Cuban capitol tO handle cattle ilDl>Orlexpon trade in Cuba and Caribbean countnes. Ont of a mooc;.tor Lykc;s' seven soils toOk pal't to create the prc:."Sentday extcnsi\'e cattle, me- enterprises. From the turn of the century. Doctor Lykes was ac-tive in civic and fraternal affai ts of Tampa and Sout h Florida. induding J-lillsborO\ Igh .Lodge, F. it: A. M Ac was de<:ted and served one tenri in the Florida State Se nate. To nr. AoweU T Lykes and Almeria Bell (i\kKay) L ykes were born eight children: TUiie (Mr s 0 C. Gillett), Frt:derid E., Howell T., Jr james M . Lipscomb G., Thomas M., John \V. and Joseph T. Mrs. LykC:."$ died in October, 1926, and with her husband rests in 1he fan1Hy burial pf1ing Hill. Here giant oaks shelter them and four of th.eir seven so.os in their 1 etmn 10 the scene of Lbeir family bc.-gi1 \ning. At th_e presenl time, l'rederick E. L y kes, of DrooksvJilc. and John \V. Lykes and Jo:;eph T. Lykes, both of Tampa, a l e directing the \ aried interests of the f.:::m:.::ih:..Y:.._ _ THE MAAS BROTHERS Abc and Isaac Maas, founders of Maas Brothers. were born in Dolgesheitn. Germany, l>OU$ o( Joseph and :omny (Bachrach) Maas. Abe was born Ma)' 185 :J. and fsaac;, October 14, 1861 After attending sc hools in Germany, the broth crs came to America. Abe in l87!J and Isaac two years later. Both in merchandising in Georgia fo t' a 1.1111nber o years In 1886, 1\be came w Tamp3 and opened a small store called the Dl'y Goods Palact at Franklin and Twiggs. l-Ie wa$ joh1ed il.l 1886 b y lsaac. who had been in busine ss for a )'C'.tr in Ocala, and the firm of Maas Brothers was established. In 1898 the (:onc;crn moved its store into the Kl'ause Building at Franklin and Zack where it

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rt1nained until it took O\'tr the American Na 1 ional Bank Build in,. The compa ny later ex. Jl:andcd its iliLi<.'S nf the Everglades and purc ha sed a large tn'C L of land c:m the wes t and sou1h of Lake Okeec hobee. After \Vorld war I, hr.: e m p l oycd Captain john O'Brien, of Philadelphia. 10 de"de>p this area. and later his wife. ),fari;m Newhall Horwitz O'Br-ien, who was e lcc.tcd as the

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346 TAMPA riD:t ma\'or o Moore Ha\r en. the first woman ma)'or i n the United Mr. Clewis later built a railroad rom Moore Ha\'C:Il to C l ewiston. k1lOWJ1 as the which h e sold t o the A tlantic Coast l.jnc; System. \Vhc.:n It that the so il was suit ed or sugar cane gro\vit'lg, as wen as vcgetabk'$, the Cclotex Corponulon, in oonjullc tiot\ with <:.apt.ailt and MN. O'Uritn and Mr. Clewis, began the de\elopment o[ what now known as Clewiston, named after Mr. ClewJ.S. Mr. Clewis was a me.mbe:r of the Episcopal Church, Tampa Yadlt and Country Club. a Royal Arch Mason. and an Odd Fellow. a Knight of Pythias. and "-ario\.1$ other social and ci\-ic Ot}."2nitat.ions. Ot\ December 18, 1889, Mr. Clewis was married in ralb:hassec to Amelia Munro, daughter of Robert MmlrO, a native O( Scotland. They had two childr:en: Mary Trice (Mrs. George B. Howell), and 1\lomo Charlclt C l ew is, Jr. lloth live in Tampa. ------MELVILLE C. GIBBONS Melville C. Gibbons was born in Va., October 12. 1862. son of Mr. and Mrs. H C. Cibboru. Coming to Florida when a young man, he studied law in the omce or e. R. Cunby. i.n Orlando. and \\'as admitted to the Florida bar in 1886 Shonk altcrward he ronned a partnership with Mr. G Unby. then rx>gnized as one of the Foremost aztomC)'S in Florida. Mr. Gibbons came L O Ta.tnpa in 1889 when Mr. Cunh)' was appointed oolloctor of customs. They continued to be partners until 1910. Mr. Gibbons t hc!l) prattitcd alone until 1918 when he formed a partnership with his o l dest SOl\, Gunby Gibb011S. M. GUNBY GIBllONS In 1927, his son. Cordon L . was adlnitted to the inn and in 19.!2, his sou. ArthurS. OJ1januar)' 17. 1894, Mr. Gibbons was married to Miss Mary E. Dlain They had six Melville C unbj, Ashby T., Edith B. (Mn. W 0. Kinncb ew), Cordon L A .rthur S., ancna S. Cralle. of Tampa. Tbey ha., c two iOns. Soon M. and Myro_n_ G_. ---WILLIAM A. ADAMS William A. Adams was born in licmy Count.)'/ Ct."orgla on t'cbruarv 13, 1871. the son of A l.. and Mtl.l'thn (ltcnde::SO n) lii$ father was a Coufc:teran. ha\o' ing in the 30th Georgi:. R.egimcnt. Mr. 1 \dam.s rccein.-d his ea_ rly education in the public tiChoob o Georgia and 1\'0tked se..-eral \ 'tal'S on his father's ann. In 1 889, while the rampa Ba y H otel '-''as under oonstruction. he came to Tampa and became a bookkeeper for lhe Tampa Lumber Company. se,en ) 'CUt IJ.1cr he went into the lumbct business himself aod Stlb set.ttu:utl)' became <:OJ\J\e<:Ltd with the Tampa Crm:c:ry Co mpany. He pttrchased the: buliincss aher n few years a11d opcratc:d it :tlong with a rcLail store. In 1 917, Mr. Adams sold the Tarnpa C I'OCCI 'Y Cornpany and, il) auociation with T 1 ... Kcnnt.'(ly. Ad:uns-Kcnncdv &: Company In 1922 he purc hased M r. itUCI'd\ and became .th e sole owner. Since then be has bn joined by his &an.s. J S. and A. L Adams. and the concern has become one()( the mos.t important whoiC$lllc;: hO\l5eS in South f<1orida. A IW:I)' S keenly interested in public :affairs, Mr. At.hun sc:r,cd SC\'Cn years d\lting the 1920s on the city ootn mission l\llder the city mar,agcr form of govcl'luncnc During this period. Tampa ex peri enccd its grc:ntc.>st gi'Owl h and the commls.sion ad voca1cd and secured numerous itnpmvernents which had bt."el\ sought lor but never at tairu.:tl. (See Chapter XI.) Mr. Adam s was honored by luHdng :-\ d ;ml$ Park named aher hi:m

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WlLLlAM A. A D A MS in recognition of hjs prominent part in having the city buy the laud and h&)' out the park. M r. Adams is the: o ldes t active s t ewa l d i n the F'ir:il Meth o dist Ch\IT<:h, having more than fifty years. He has also serve d the church as dis trict steward, trustee and dbtrlc:t tnlSICC. He is a trustee of the Y .M.C.A. and ror many y ears was acti\' e i n the Board of Tndc. He is now a mem her of the T ampa Chamber or Comrueru: and is vicepresident of the Tampa Q-edh Men 's AssO cb. tion. He is: a fonner member of the Rock r Point Golf Club and Palma Ceia GoU Club. On November 9, M r. Adams was rnarried in Alabam a to Miss ''T. L" Kennedy. He SLill lh es. in 195-0, in th e h ouse h e built in 1894 on Se\eauh A\enue. He h as thrte child rt!rl: Maq. lhc w ife o f Judge 1 .. L. l'ark s ; J oseph S and \ U rc d L e e noth sons auc:ntled Tampa sclu.lQis. the University of florid:. at Gainesv ille, and the Eastma n nusi ness College, In J>oughkecpsic N \'. Joseph scn:ed in the Navy dl. lring \Vorld War I and became: an ensign. l.cc :attende d the Army Offi cers T rainjng School and '"as cotnm i ssio ncd :1 lieUleoant. JosephS. Adams wn man-iod t O Katherin e Ha,d.:in s. "'ho died in 1930. H e has daugb ters: Katherine wife of Major Surr Randall, Jr.; E:lixabcth and Patric ia He is a pas t potentate or Egypt Temple Shri n e Alfr e d Lee Adams '''as m:tnkd in l923 to Li11ic \Vall Hon a k er, qHecn o f G a s p a rilla h1 1922. They have a son, A l fre d Lee, J r., who in 19 5 0 was :t junior in Georg i a Tech. Jose p h a n d Lee Adams nrc paru'ler.s with t heir fathe'l in Adams Kennedy 3: Comp:u1y. BIOGRAPHIES 3 47 F RANCIS L. WING } .. rands l.y m:an '\Ving was born in Nc"' Bed ford. Ma!ill .. May 9, 1868 He c.'a1ne l O Taml>a in 1 889 and engaged firs t in the furnil\u'e thct !ll:lr l c d : t laundry : m d later 'c i H hH O the real CliUlt C business. H e built anI!:Tl?.R 0 KNIGHT l'c t er 0 Knight was l)orn in rn . Oe ccmbcr 16, 1 865, 1he son of Jan}.t."$ W and Sarah .Elizabeth ( K.alltt.) Knight. Both h is gnmdather and grc:-..&tgrandJathcr scned in 1hc R c:vohtlio narr War He attended schools in Snfder Count)'. Pcnu. syh-ania. and was graduated wuh an l.Ll\. degree (rom Valparaiso Unhe:rsit y in 188-1. After S"aduaung he went t o Jo .. on Mrc n.. Fla . where has mother was then livi n g, and began prac ticing law. He Wa$ elccu.:d mayor or the L own which he he lped incorporat e before he wa.s 21. ln 1 88 7 h e took a leading pnrt in lhe C l 'eation o f Lee County, was named lil lll. e,:ou n ty l'ETER 0. KNIGHT

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348 TAMPA a.uorrtC'), and in 1 888 wu11 elected to the State Legislature. '\'hile i 1 \ Tallahassee he became well :IO(Uainted w ith j11dgc j
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business and iu l."'CXI will. A year later be bor rowed more to purchase th e co mpany's real cst:ttc at 17th Street and che ACL railroad, and con strutLed a new mill and novelty works Both l otlns were soon repaiU. The T W. Ramsey Lum be r Com pany as his conccm was callt.'tl, b<..-canu; 1mc o dfe Iargen in llou chwcst Florida. In addi tion to selling h.1mbcr. il maintairted a novelty works for the manufacture of windows, doors and interior woodwork. The (Ompa ny is now the oldest of its kind in the Tampa Bay area.. Jn civic aUai.rs. RamKy has long been regarded 3S one ot Ta.r:npa's roremcn;t workers and has t'\ery movement for cbe ad,anre ment of the: c:ity. He 5et\'ed as a of the Tampa city councU during the E. GilIeue administration and i n the charter board election of 1927 received the highe:;t of votes cast for any candid:Hc. He is a 32nd degree Motson and a member o Rg')'pt Temple Shrioc 1 1nd Knight:; of On April 30. 1902. Mr. R.amsc)' was married 10 Nellie Collier o( Marco, F la., a1hl to her he; crer<."Sident of Ta1npa &: 1;a1metto Beach ra1 wa:y (q.\'.). He later org2nncd cbe Florida Loan 8.: lll\'cstmcnt .eo. and erccaed a thrce:nory brick building on fnnkJjn In 189!1 he was clccced to the city counCil and in 1894 was elecced ma,.or. He died m Verona. Augu'c 14, 1896. and was $U. nivec.l by his widow, tbe former Loula Trice. OTTO PYROMUS STALLINGS Ouo l)y1'0mns Stall.iogs was born in Co'lngto n, Ca . OcLober 16, 1871, the .son of Sjmeon Newton Nnncy Amanda (Mabry) Sta11inp He tentlctl the pubHcschoolo; of Covington. Jtudted two years ut Emory College. and completed a bu.sincss course in Lexington Ky.

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350 TAMPA OTTO PYROMUS STALLiNGS Mr. Stallings <.:amc to 'fampa lvr the !irst thne in 1891. worked a short tim e for the Tampa C:mnmcrda l Co. and the n rcwrned to Coorg a a. He tarne to Tampa to live in 1894. and, during the following tw e lv e )'Cill'51 worked for the Henry C. Giddens Clothing Co., Beckwith, Hcnder:son &: Warren Real F.state Co., the 'Vc."Cdon Drug Co . the Tampa Boal'd of t >ublic \\forks. and the Tampa Harnm &: \\' agon Co. On April 16, 1906;. Mr. Stalling$ went into the ii\Sllrance butintu. fire and casuah,-in sunnce. and surety bonds. Mr. Stallings has been engaged in that butinm ever since. the firm name now being Quo P Stalling 1 &: Son. Mr. StaUings is a member of Hillsborot.lgh Lodge No. 25, F .&A.M.; Tampa Yor k Rite; Scvttish Rite: Egypt Temple Shrine: 1 .0.0.1'.: Knights o( and the Tampa Ro(ar>' He has bc:en l :c.tc:ward of the l'irst Churc;h or nWt'C than twctuy years On Oe:tobet 19, 1898, Mr Stall ings was married to Minnie Henderson Mhc:hcll. daughter of Dr. Charles Lucien and Ellc:n Marlin (Spence r ) cheU. in t'ort Meade fla. Ml'$. Stalli ngs died August 2. 1928 in Ashc, ille. N. C. was sur vi ved by her husband and thTff tbildnn: Otto MitchelL Mary Amnda ( Mrs. Marl< Reed Kitchin), and Charles Norman. Otto Mitchell was botn AU$USt 2, 1899. in Ba:rtow, Fla. He actcruied the Umvcrsity of florida and the United States Military Ac.'1detu)' at \Ve!it PoinL H e CIHered his falher's agcnc;v in 19 19 and is now a p;n tner. O n October 28, 19!?1, he was mtlrdc:d to Rosa l'.lizahtlh Spark m:an at OrlandQ Fla. Tl1cy havt: four children: Mar)' Elizabeth, Otto Mitchell, Jr . Charles Hay ard and Richard Nonnan. Mary Aroand:t Sca11ings was born M arch 17, 1905, jn "fampa. She was gnduaccd from Florida State University in Jtmc. 1 925. rc:cch ing 3 1\, S. degree. On November 1 9, 1928, sh e was man icd to M:tt
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the Ybor City Works, OJ>c:rated in co n junction with the Florada Brewing Compan) ', ond began m;1king soft drinks. He sold chis b usiness abo\U 1915 and the Moon at 17th Street ;tnd 7th A,enue, which he operated until the ad\'ent of prohibition. On April 15 J9t9, 1\.lr. Spirola bouglu the Vito Cag nina Hatdwarc Store at 1815 7th A\cnue, c:;tablishtd in 190'.l, and changed iLS name to G. C. Spicola &: Sons. his 30M carlo G ( Charlie) and Angelo C . being associated with him. The contern prospert.-d and iL was i n coq)orated in 19M the Sp icola Hardware Co., Inc with Mr. Spioola's two other sons, G. and Gaetano (Tom), Jr., beooming nockholdcrs. Since then the compa.ny bas become one: o( the leading hard ware firms of the area. During th_ e past ?\--11-. Spicol a ha s bee n one of the l cadng C IVIC workerS of Vbor Cit)' and has pla} 'Cd a prominent part in its de ,eJopment. He is a membe r of L'Unionc Juliana, Sons ot llaly and the Elks Lodge. On Fchrtarv 21, 1897, Mr. Spicob was married to Rosina his hoyhood swr.cthc- They have six children: Caetano C. (Tommy), Ul, Rosi e, Josephine, 1\ngelo, Carl.o, Jr., and judy Ann. Ang elo C., who is secrctaryt reasurcr of the hardware company, was married on _lunc 18, 1933. to t\ngic Garcia. o( Tampa.. They ha.ve twO c:hildn:n : Angelo, Jr. and Angda. Both Carlo .:md Angelu were eduClned in Tampa M;bools. Josep h G Spiwl: t was gradu:ttcd with honOI'S from tl1c la w college of Stetson University in 1925. lie served a$ as.sistant county solicitor for ten years and for the paM thre-e yean has been junice of the peace . He was married on Februa')' 9, 1930, t o Ehna Noron". Thev have t w o childre n: Joseph C., Jr . and Cuy \\o'illiam s. Gaetano C. (Tom) _fr., was graduated from the Unh ersit)" of Florida with an LL.B. in 1935 aud then started pract ici n g law in Tampa. A lways interested in llports, he bought the Tamp:t Smokeu prof<:ssional baseball Lcam in 1946 and has owned it C\'cr slnee. On 22. 19-38, he was manicd to Gonzalc%. of Tampa., and ha.s ,.,.o children, R.osc Ann and Maria l..fnda. FRASIER T BLO UN T F'riUicr T. Blount was bom in Cainn,ille. Fl:t. NO\embeT 1882, lhe son o( Frank M. and Elizabeth f PariMl) Blount. The family moved to Plant City in 1885 and to Tampa in 1892. After ;mending \'ubli c school s alld wo rking in various occupat ons lor Sc:\eral years Mr. BloltDl c:rucred the undertaking business in 190ft R e bas been engaged in il ever since. With A. P Turner as a panncr, he established the firm o( lUount 8c Turner jn January, 19 1 3. Fo\11' years BIOGRAPHIES 351 FRAS!f.R T. BLOUl\T later he bol1gbt his partner's interest and e5tab4 lished the f-inn of F. T. Blount Co. He i.s now the oldest undC I'U'Ikcr fn Tampa in point uf serv ice and the onlv one li.!Jtetl bv Nauonal Se lected Morticians. l1r. Blount w :u appointed a merober of lhe Cit)' F.lcction SOard when it was created ;n 1935 and serve d three ye ars. H e h:.s been a member of Lhc Hillsborough Co\lnty E.xecl.lliv c Commit tee s ince 1932. In 19H he wa s appointed a com missi oner of the Slum Clearing Board and has since sened as "iccdlairman and chair J\\an Ht is a p ast pt es ident of lhe l'uneraJ Directors Asscx:uttiun and 3 25-year member of the National Selected Mort icians. He is 3 52nd degrc:c Mason (F..g)rpt Temple Shrine). a past pati'On of Mysci c Chapter of E.a.stero Star, a stew ar'(l of the Tam1>n Hctght s Methodist Clnarch, and a member of the TarOpa (;h:unber of Com merce, Rotary Club. Kllights of P yt hia.s, Odd Fe llow s, and Jr. 0 UAM On _hme 8. 191S, Blount was married to Lela f lays. They have a daughter. Elir.:abeth Ann, who i s lht: wife o( D West Bilz:cn Magoon. ERNEST KREHER Emen Kreher. pionCC1' s:cecl ship builder of Tampa, was bom )n Limbach, C'rerruany, janual'}' 10, 1871, the son of Richard nnd Selm a (Ittner) K1ch er. His falhcr was a mechanical engineer Coming to the United States in 1890 M r. Kreher worked nearly two years in a machine shop in Philadelphia and then came: to Tampa. He got a job in the foundry and machine shop of Krause & Wngncr. After 'WOr king for that concern five

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352 TAMPA years. he went '''ith the PJam Steamship Company whe1e he l'eroained three year::;. l n 1900 Mr. Kreher organited the Tampa Foundry & Machine Company wil.h Capt. S l . Vamedoux of Georgia as pn;::oidttH of the ron cern. T he company bought the oJd plant of Kratlse & . acquired new lt spe<.:1.ah1.cd m bmld1ng phosphat e muung ma chinery but also built many dredges. ln 1916, M r. Kreher obtained a con t ract frorn the Centra l Hudson Company, of New York, (or building a 2500 -ton breaker. T he ship. named the Pough. kecpsie, was completed in May, 1917. Shortly before thjs Kreher had bought. out C :lptain Varnc doux s in the t:omp any and organited the Tampa Sbjpbtlilding 8: Engi neering Companv, 9( which he hcc;3mc pre .. ddcnt. For further details regarding Mr. Kreher' s shipbuilding activities, sec Chapwrs X and XU. Mr. Kreher has two children : Ernest. Jr . and Marguerite, wife of fred F Scars. LEROY BOND GILES Lerov Uond Giles wa.s born in Jefferson Countv. Flo r ida. on De-cember 4. 1 882, the son of Leroy P. otnd Arizona );:Iizabeth (F r eeman} Gi l es The <:amc w Tal'npa in the carlv 1800:; and \ fr. Giles attended Jocal schools. \Hu:n : l young man, Mr. started wo r king for Tibbeu Corifeccioner y Store and later went the Cordon Kelle.r Clothing Company Early m. the 1900s he wem uuo the phnnbmg bw;jne$S \v1th Joe U. ]ohn.son, establishing t h e finn of Jolmson & Giles. In 1907 the firm took chc BuiY llOND Gll.J::S :<>inoo. ln 1 .94. 2 he bought Mr. Johnson's interest in the busi1\t:SS and the name was change d to the G.iles Mc.nor GOmpany. One of the pioneer good roads advocates of the state, M r Gil es was the first treasure r of the Ta1'npa A uton\obi le :md Golf C lub, organiz-ed in l90G. He is now president of the Tampa Motor Clu b, :u:a affiliate of the AAA. He has 6cen long active in bolb the Tampa and Florida automobile dealer$ At is a director of the Hills borough County Tuberculosis Assodation, the Hillsborough COt\JHy Associatio r J fo r tiH: nlind. and the Tampa Chamber of Commerce . A 32nd degree Mason, he is a member of Egypt Tcnaple Shrine and Royal Orders of Jesters. He is also a member of the Tampa Yac;ht & Countv Cl\lb, lini v er!lity Club. the N ati onal Aetonamic3.t Asso ci:ttion, Ye Mystic l\.rewc of Gasparilla. Exchange Club and the F ii'Sl Methodist Church. Mr. was married on August 9, 1911, to M yra Gt.vens. o f Tampa. 'They han:: a son Leroy Bond C les, Jr. born ju)y 17, 1917, who is as.w cia ted "'ith his father i n the Giles Motnr Compa ny. EDMUND l'. TALIAFERRO Edmund PendletOI\ Taliaferro was bom in Tampa, .May 30, 1392, the son of Tilomas Carson and Stdla L. (Morrison) Taliaferro (q.v.). He was educated at the Uni v e rsity of Virgmia and Unh crsity of the South, Sewanee, Tenn. Taliaferro entered the employ of the F'in; t Nati
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su pply corps. U.S. N R., 191719. He bas held C\' CT)' position in the bank. H.e scr"cd as preSl dent rorn 1934 until J amHU )' 19!>0, when he wa:s named chairman o( the board. In addition. he i s a director M the Fir s t Na t ionat Bank of C\llf Li(e Ins uranc e Co . Jacksoo\ illc : Central Portland Cement Co and National Mr. Taliaferro set\'ed a:t prc:Jidcnt of che Tampa Chamber of C ommerce. 19J6-57. aod i.s a mc1nbcr o ( the Tampa Yacht and Country Club, Palma GoU Club. Ye My$tjc Krewe of Casparill.a # lb Club, Scoui.sb Rile and York Rjte M asons. aDd Egyp t Shrine. On DcccmbeT 2 1m, Mr. Taliaferro was mar ried to Sara H ull, at Savannah. Ca. rhcy have two children: Sara Hul11nd f.dmund PendletOI'): Tali:tferro, jt GEORGE V. BOO KER Gc:.'Orgc V. Booker was bom at E llenton, l'la., on the Manatee River, till M : m : h 24 1888, the :owm uf Samuel J. and (V:mder.lpe) Booker His f ather was a mi.llvc of Vifltlnla who came to florida in the 1880s and u\othc:r was a descendant of the Vandcdpc and M cCiotld lam ilics. pioneers o the Manatee: scction. Mr. "Rooker was educated in the pt1blic schools ofTampa.."-here his family moved in 1892 \Vhcn fourtt'e2\ years old. he c.auh s chool and sta rted work ing as a lineman for the P eninsular Tele phooc Company. Two ,-cars later he went tu Jackson\'ille where he bc.u nt c ;ul electrician for th e l ; lorida EloctJ:ic Company In 19M he mc.wed 1 0 La k e C i ty ;-u)d sta1 tcc:l nn <:1cc.:nic.1l and p lumbing bO\ I S e GEORGE V 1100Kt:R BIOCRAI'HIES 353 Returning r o Tampa in 1907. Mr. Boo ker went into the lumber business. At that time. h owe!\er, Tampa Uill felt the effects of the 1 907 money l,anic and there was Hnle building. Consequently, lC gave up the venture and worked fol' SC\'Cral lc;Hs in lhc state and count)' tax office. n 1913, he became <.:onnccted with the C iliz.cn s &: Tru s t C.ompany and two later WtU made :us b.t.ant ca.5hier of the Bank. o( Ybor Ci ty. f-Ie rcmalned at the bank until September. 1917. when he entered the anny and was ass igned to the 20ch Engineers. His outfit landed in three momtu later and be s.trved a year a.ncJ a half. Returning to Tampa I n j une, 1919 he rejoined the Ba_ n k o( Ybor Cil)' \\'here he remained unail Febmary, 1920, when he bought the k Company, a building s nppJ y wnoorn, ;md cstabJishe d the irn\ of Booker & whic:h he still heads. This co mpatly has b eco m e one of the largest of it:t kind In SOut h Fl( ,ricla. Mr Uooker is also pre>idem <)[ the F 0 1 t Myers Build er:\ Sc 1 v ice. nf fore Myers, and i:J hal f owner o( the L ewis Lumber Company. or Bradentotl, and the 200-.suit e Yacht Basin Apartmentj;. at Clc:arw:ucr Reach. He \\'as one ol the founders and is now a director of the Sarasota Stale Bant, in Sanasota During the: adminl5tntion of Ma)'Or R E. L.. he $CJ'\'ed. ten ran s cit}' oompuuller. M r. noul:.er ill a member of the raen.la Yacht and Cou ntry Club, the Palma Ceia Golf C lub, Ye M yslic Krewc of Casparilla. the Tampa C han\ btr Q( Co mmerce, and other organhatlons. H e Willi married in 1913 to R.uth Trice, daugh. tc1 o f M1. ;md Mu. John Hilt wire died on November 6. 1926, :.lnd on Decxmbcr 12. 1929, he wa:t marri ed agaitl to Mrs j\1 31tita C:.rci: Sch m idt. Mrs. J\ooker has a son. Hugo Schmidt, who wa.s gnduated from Annapolis an 1 040 a nd is n ow a.iiOCi:ucd with his step-father i n hi.s n css and is trnsurer of Booker & Dicbon, I nc. WALLACE FISHER STOVALL \VaHace t-Jsher Sto\all, generally kn o wn a s .. C;unc to Florida in 1886 ;md l c;trncd 1 0 be a printer 011 the: O('.AJ.A CAI'ITOt,, a daily n e w spaper ownttl by ;a brotherin-Jaw, Thomas M. lolarrili. H e first became a newspaper publisher ln t 888 \\ 'hen, with his twin b otht:r Thonaa." 1 .. Stovall. he atabl&shtd t h e '"D:xLY lxorl.NDI'.NT at l.ak e Weir. H iJ bro,he:r left Florida a year late-r and Col St.,..all sold the paper, moed lO 0C>I3 3nd purchased the C'.APfTOL from his brotherin law. L11tcr he published the Sur..trna Cou:o.: ; TY 'I'1MF.S, at and the J'Ot. K CoUN1' Y NHws, ill nartow Colonel St.cwall Jcarned c.-arJy in 1893 L lmt the 'f"-MI'A TR.mUNt: a!ld TAMi'A JOOKNA\. hnd been hy a group whic;h fc)tmdcd the TAMP;\ TIMES. Sensing that there anight be :1n opening f
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354 TAMPA WAI.LACE FISHER STOVALL of one or l .he suspended papers. (See. Chapter IX.) The TRmvNE was launch<."CI a s a daily. with a weekly b\lt 1h e dully was s uspended after the fai lure o[ the Gulr Nntional Sank a n d was not resumed until Janual'y I. 1895 Then it became the TAMl'A MORN INC T tunu NP., appearing each day of the week except Monda y ll attained 1he status of a seven day paper December 7. 1908. Under Colo nel Sto\aU's the Tsuaux became one of lhe most outstanding: newspapers of the entire South. ln June. l92S", during the Florida boom. he sokl it ror $1. 200 000 to a syndica headed by M W. Lloyd. Dr. L. A. Bite and L. B. Skinner. {Sec Chaplcl' XI.) A builder as well as a newspaper Colonel Stovall did mor e c o change Tampa's sk)' line than any other single individual. Among the b u ildi ngs which h e co nstructed are the: 12story 'Vallace S. BuiiUing the Stovall Office Roilding, and the tlSto r y S L0\'<'1.11 Building. To erect these buildings. he ustd the money obtain) from the of the T&ttsUNt : and several mHJion in borTowed capital. His impli<:i t faith in Tamp3. w:u his fioancial undoing. of the Florida crash and the deprcsston whidl fotJowed he was unable to meet and Lhe bondholden finally foreclosed, in 1945 He i.5 now managing the properties for corporation which acquired them. During the thirty-two years when Colonel Sto \ all published the TRmUNr., Tampa developed lrom a small. nondescript town to the modern city it is toda)' atid Colonel Stovall aided in no :;mall degree in the d e v elopment. His achieve ments during that period arc count1t:!IS but he is most pro\ld of the pa.rt he played in the eSlab li.shmem of the Florida State F3ir, now rcoognited as one of he world's greater roidwi _nter attract ions; the co r\struction of Tampa's Union Rail wa)' SLaticm, l ong vit.ally needed. and the r ound ing of Lhe Old Peoples Home and Count) Humane Society lie wn$ one uf the members Q( Lodg e No. 708, B.P.O .F.., a member of e : Masonic lodge, was an earlv member o the Tampa Bo:.rd of Trade, noW the Chamber of Commerce, and has been a Ufclong Presbyterian. Colonel Sto, all has three children. 1\'allace Olh e.r and Minnie StO\>-all ( Mrs. J H Mason) arc the son and daughter by his fint wire Mamie H owse Stovall. a nati\'e of Okahumpka. whom he married in 1889. and Susan (Mn. Rld\ard A. Mack). is the daughter b) his second wire. Faye Stokc:s S t O\'all. DR. FRANKS. ADAMO FrJnk S. Adamu wa.-; born in Tatl)pa January 20 lhe son of Joseph and Mar)' Adamo. He was cductUe d at the Ui-l i'lc::riity of and rc.u hed an M.D. dqree at Rush Medical In Jtitute, in C.hicago. He Tampa and tn 1932 appomtmedtcal dt rlf!'CtOr of Centro :\sturiano H ospit:tl Jn 19S? ht wa.s na_mtd county medica l directo-r joining 1he Anny Medical COrp$ on January I, he was $-Cnl to the Philippitles and wu capturtd at the baltle. of Corregid?T Then a he ga1ned world-wrdc Came for de..,etopu'\g a lltw t rc;auncnt for gangnme while adminfstcrlng aid to the wounded of Bat.aan. On Marell 17. while 111111 a prisoner of the Japanese h e was award ed the lc;g icm of fl.terit Rescu e d in Feb ruar)', 1945 he rentrned to Taiopa and on April 27 w as g i ve n n hero'$ wclcoro e. In O c tober. 1946, he re,umed his former position a:s tOunty ntedical director but resigned on january 24, 1947, to return to privat e practice. Dr. Adamo is married and h:u two daughters. M rs. Har-ry Robertson and Roy f. $axon* Fint Jhenue. being extended eastward to p1'0'1ide a new outlet from the city, has been named the 1-'nn k Adamo Drh e in his honor. THOMAS lVf. SHACKLEFORD 'l'homns M. $hack1c::ford wa s born at Fayette ville, Tenn .. November 14, 1859 che son oC Daniel Park :m d (Youn g) Shackleford He tenc.lc:d Fnycuevllle gubhc schoots and Durntt Coll<.-ge. in Spencer, fenn., st\tdic."<< at l : tw offices in Tcnncuc:e and was adnaiucd t o the Tennessee bar In 1882. Comillg to Florida 10011 Mr. Shackleford practired ten )'an al Broots"illt and came to Tampa to practice in 1893-. I n 1902. he appointed by Co\ernor Jen nings to sen e as judge of the supreme court of Florida .-nd set" ed urit.il 1917 when he Tc:signed. During several years of this period he acted as chief j\I S ti ce. In 1910 he recei\'ed Lhc honorary dtg'I'CC of t.l,..ll. from the Unhcrsit). o flo rida. Shackleford was married in 1882 to Nannlc C l opton Rhea. who died (ive l:ncr. Later h e was married to Lena A Wooten. One son, T. M Shacklefor d Jr .. was born t o \he fir$t union, and lllother liQn, Robert W S h ac kleford. lO the sc.."CCnd. Judge Shackleford died in 1927.

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SUMTER L LOWRY Sumter L. Low'1' w-.u born in York S C .. in 1861, the M>n of J)r. Jam .. M and Louba ( AIed: elected as one. of t .hc <.:om mi s sioners, se rvng lHX yea rs. While tn ofhcc he took a leading part in the purchMC: o f the w;atet'WOfk$ b y the city the installation O( thC aterwort.s plan\, the improvement o f the har hor. che building o( the Municipa l Holipital. the rehabil itation of Tampa Bay Hotel, the build in g of fhe b ridges anU the building o lhC beautiful fia yshore Boulc, ard. lo rtcq:;nitiofl of his KJVice to the city. Lowry Park was named in his honor. ;\ mem ber of the Epi s ( :OJ>al Church. he help<.'(l SU)ITF.R 1 .. LOWR\' SIOGRAPHII'.S 3 5 5 to rais e funds (o r the building of St. 1\ndrews and '''aS one o f the foun d ers o St. John's church. H e was a del:cg;u e to the conference of Episcopal churches in 1928. He was a past grand chancx:llor of the Knight $ of P)th ia.s, a J>f'C$ident of the Life Undel' writers of Florida. a t > re,idenL of the florida State f i r e OnderwT,ten Assoda t.ion. and Commamler in Chief of the National Sons of Confederatt Veterans D octor Lowry was married in So .uth Carolina to WUiie Miller of Rale, i g h N. C m 1889. M rs l.owry died iu Augus t,. 1 946, a t the age of 85 During ha lifelime she "'-'a.J one of Tampa's most eamest women workers. Included among the and institutiot'! which she initiated and suppor ted _the C l ub, the Young Women's Chnsuan A.ssocJ.ahon. the \Votn an's Ex cha nge Club. the Red Cross the Colonial Dames and the American }4ion Auxiliary. She was one of the lc;tde rs in tfic ca m paign to ac'l uir c the Tampa Publ!t Lib ary. < cath, the Tampa 'Tnbnne stated m an edt to rial tha t Mrs. Lowry was the mos:t active ;.md ef(ec.th e woman ch c worker Tampa ever knew .. she most (){ lhc energy, abilit) ond btains Ugtu'ed in the intellcctuaJ and wc:a l de\ cfop rncnt of the GU)'. (hildren er e OOrn t o Dr. and Mn. Low r ,, Willie Loui se ( MrS. Vaughan Carnp) Sumter .L.; Dt. RJackburn \V., Lo1>c:r D., ,.u'1d the late lsaiJcll o ( Mrs. George: Scott Doci O r Lowry died in 1934, :at t h e a.gc of ANGELL. CU ESTA Angel LaMadrid Cuesta was born in Asturias, Spain, Dettmbcr 21. 18.;8 In May, 187$ he went to Havan a where he attended school t"-o yean and tlu: n $tanc:d wor king :as otn apprentice c .igar maker. Later he woa kcd at the bench in K ey :md New York. I n 188' l he opened a s.ma11 factor y in Atlanta. Coming to Tampa in 189S. Mr. Cues.ta cstab l ished a s mall plant at Pol't Tampa. In 1895 he and l'c regl'ino RC)' organi u .-d Cucsta Rey & co. anti located their plant in Wes t T ampa. Later, Mr Cuesta organittd companies in jaduJono;ilJe and I hn'ana. cuesta Rey & Company bcxame one of the large s t f;t<.:tori<:3 In T ampa and had the distinc tion o be ing the ool y f:.ctory in the United States with royal appoinune:n t as .. purvc.-}on of Hanna cigars t o the RO)'al Court o Spain, granted b y King Alfonso XUI in 191!i. 'fhe a pCI'lU)Il;tl friend o r Mr. cuena, dc.-cor at.cd hu:n three times in recognition of his work in hi.$ native country. An active Rotarian. M r Cuesta helped organ i:r.c d11bs in Havana and in sev eral c it ies in Spain. He was d i rector of the Childrens Home. florid a f' a _ir &: GasparU l a Association was. active in school work in West Tampa, and wu a. member of many c ivic organit4\t.iom. lie was a and an Jk. Mr C uesta wa s married in 1887 in Atl anta to Marie ninder. They had three children: t.... Jr., Katl and Carlotta ( Mrs. Amo1d S. Ku beby) Mr. Cuem died J uly 56, 1 9S6

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356 T A MP A JOHN TRJ CE John Trice, founder.o.f both the t::xch.ang e Na Honal Baok and the Cutxens: Bank & Trust Com p:t:n)' was bon\ on a rarm in Monroe Coun t y Mississipl'i in 1856. He aucndc.."tl country schoolli and studu.:d tw() year s < H LhC E tncry and Hcndrv CoHege in Virg-inia. Leaving college at the :.gc of 20 Mr. Trice worked two yean in a general store in Ok.alona, M iss .. and then went inco bus-iness for hitnse:U, starting a small grocer y store. H.is ''entor e was 1885 he "'H persuaded to expand Ins acttnttcs and open a bank. The instinttion prospered. 1\rr. Tric;c: was married in l878 to Miss Mamie Rogers, of Verona, M[ss. In 1 894, Mrs.. Tric;c's failed t!te T.ampa. Un \ulhng to remaul macuvc, Mr 1 nc:e J ojne d with J N <.:.Stockton of Jac:kiiOiwlllc. in founding the Exchange National 1\ank OJ>CII<'l hi s firs t w i fe Mt. T r ice was marn<.:d to Miss Pearl jon es, o r North Caro-JOHN TRICE lin:t. He d .ifd February 5 1915, and was sun. h cd by hi$ widow and se-.en children: M rs. L. A Bi:r,c, i\'frs. 1' .'\. Chancellor, Mrs. Ceorgc: Jlookc:r, Laura. Lucille (now MrS. A. R Kn auf), John Jr., :tnd And rcw HENRY LEIMAN H'cnry Leiman wa s born in New York 185'7, &OJ\ of Danid and Sophie Lc:iman H1s anccsco, s were from Germany. lie Wa.t educated in the public; J>Chooh o r Ncn' York and in 1 810 started working for the box manufacturing concern of W'illism Wicke. ln 1894 he was trans:fcrred to Tampa to a branch for.,the c:onlp-.any. t ook ovc:r chc phant of che Ybo r Caty Dox CompaO) and renamtd it the T:unpa n ox Com pany. In 1902 he and his sonin law, Roland A. \Vibon, purc:haiied t h e p lant. The cc.mc:crn Wil $ inwrporated in 1906 and during that yeu n large plant wa s constna<:tcd at Sc<:ond Avenu e St reet. D t l ring the yer a rs which r ollow<:d the Tampa llo x Compan y became the l; n f;C$t conc:c m in the world manufacturing ciga r boxes, cases a a!d tin r;am fn r clsars. Mr. Lcunan was a o Ciuteni l};;tnk 1.: Trust Company, Morris PJan Bank o T ampa South Florida Fair Association. and Lhe National urc lnsuianc;e Co. was a 52nd etC. Ma 50n. a Knight Tcmplar, a Shriner ami an Elk and belo nged to many civic org:miucion:s. On March 29, 1880 Mr. Leiman was 1t1arr-icd to Margtuct Bed;er. He had a daughte r. M al'tha (Mrs. Roland A. 'Viloon) and \VIIIhm 1 H e died Dcc.cmber 5 1931. ' ERNEST B:ERGER mc11t Berger was born in New Y ' si nc:e 1929. B e t gcr was a member for 1 8 years o r the 1 :lcU'idn Suuc Boar d of l)hannacy u n d presi d ent of the hoanl for 12 yearS. He ii the roundea honorary p r esident of the National AsJOCiation of Boards of Pharmacy a.nd a former \'i cep1'csi

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ERNEST UI!RCER dent of the Amc.rkan l,h:mnaceutical :\ssocia -1 i on; was a delegate to the United States Pharma co pcal Revisi on ConvenLion. ar\cl s erved as vicepresiden t of the N:1ti<.>n:1l Whol esa l e Druggist s AssoC-iation. He was ;a m ember o f the World':; Con ference on Narcotic duouion an.d hdpcd sec ure passage of the Harri.ron >:arcotic Law For rn30f years M1. Berger has cakcn a leading part in movements to (ostcr btttt: r relationships l.atinAmcrica n c::otancrles. Being a charter member of the Tampa R ooary Club. be helped organize R otary Clubs in Spain and was a delegate t o lntenlation.al Rotary in Spain. He is: a. member of the American Arbitration Assoc i ation and i' chc nrganiter and presitlerH of the PanAmerican Commis.o;ion of Tampa. Since Dembca 22, I 948. he bas been c ons\ I for the Republic of Pnn:una. Mr. nerger was the org:mlzcr and is pre.sidc::nt of the American Flag He i s a charter member of the Tampa Y2tht :md Country Club and a (onnc;r ''e!Stryman oC the Episrop3l Church. Fro m 1896 to 1900 he s.cr ved with Tampa l:Ufles. speaks. reads and write-s: and has two sons: l.awrmct t:rnest llcrger 2nd Clifton William Berger. _..;... __ W. H FI:U:C KER \V. H:. Fred:.er wa s bo1 n in Chatham, New lhuruwick. Canad:t, in J849. Jn 1 878 he went to and engag<.' mO\'etl frou! Acton to Sprint(flcld His father cmc:-rcd the gra1n and n om bumtea. t\ccompa llied by \V. U. Chapin, "'h. l"l e t eher c:amc t o T:un1 ) a jn 1894 where M r. Chapin's un<:le. C. "". Chapin, was the principal stockholder or the (:Qn $umct s E lect r ic L ight &: Street Railw:t)' Company.. The Consumers Corup3ny ac that thne was Urawin g p l ans for a wa.tet power pl2nt to be located on the Hillsboro Rher. Constnacti o n work W:t.$ scaned ill J895 and comp leted in the ran of 1896. Mr. F1echer with other construaion dmies., "-as in or all the "'OTk The dam was blown up De-mber 1 5, 1 898, by cautemen who objecred w the O \ 'crflow of their gru:ing lands Mr. Fle t c her has been ac-tive in the civic affairs o( l':unpa tie \vas aho active in the uaning of the T:unp: l Y:acht &: Count-ry Club, the Casparilla Gamiv:d l'lorida Fair and other ac:tivhl cs f o r the illlpi'Ovcment of Tampa. tor a numbea of years he wa:s an aclivc mcm be r of the Fraternity, having served as master of Lodge; ;-.: o 25, Aigh Prlest o r T:a.mpa Chapter. lUUstl'iOOS Tarnpa Council. Commander of hanhoe COmmandary. Poc.cntate of Egy p t Temple. and 3Srd Degyff Soouish Rigtlt S"lason$. He is a dta.rttr member of the R o ta!")' Club of Tampa. Mr. )."l e t cher was married in J 906 t o Viola C. Ro1.1th. The'' ha, e two chitdrc u-tliot C. and Harriet. .J. A. GRIFFI N J. Arthur Cl'iin was born in Fowlt ow1'1, Ca., M ay 4 187 4 son of Andrew & and (H.agood) Criffi:o. Hi$ fathei $3W sef\ice in the Civif War. haYing been a u:aeanbc r or Durham's AniHel'y Jn 1876 the bmUy came to florida, sculing in Marion County. Alter attending pub1i<: scbools in Marion County, .\tr. GriUin taught sd,ool for a short lime nnd then started working as a bank mes stngc:r and boo kkeeper for the first National Bank of Ocala. The bank closed aJu: r the Big Freeze of 1 895 Mr. wor-ked for the re oci\'Cf a (C\'1 rlll)rtths and then came t o Tampa \'/here he l'tarted workiog July J(,, 1895. as a ledge, bookkt:epcl' for the Excha _ngc National Ua11k1 opened a y eal' before. ln 1003 he wn s made cashier u nd soun au;rward was lnilde e x ecuth c He became president oi the

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358 TAMPA J. A. CRifflN lithution in 1922 and h3S served io that capacity ever since Mr. Griffin is also president of the Exchange National Uank of Winter llaven. He is a dire<:tor oE the General Portland Con1.pany, dirc.-ctor and hononny \ ic::epl' esident of the Pen insular Telephone Com pan)'. and for many yean has been acth el)' connected wilh the Elfers Citrus Grower1 Assoctation serving as d irector and president. He was a founder a .nd b no' a. trustee of the Uni\'e'nity of Tampa. helped organize and was president of tht Commun1t)' Chen, has been a director atla. rge of lhc Florida Sta t e Chamber o( Commerce s ioc e its inception and is a member of the Tampa Ch;unber oC Co mmerce Ma:sonic Lodge. S h nne, Elks. Centro Espanol, Centro EsLUriano. and Palma Ceia Golf Club. Mr. Griffin was married November 12. 1902. to Nancy Marshall Johnson, of Frede rick, a of the late Chief Justice John Mat shall or tbe United SLat es Supreme COurt. They ha\c five: children: George Richard, James A .. Nanc y ( M ... Max Chrls l ian), and Jack I SHAM WHITFIELD PHILLIPS Isham Whi tfield Phillips was born at Corinth, Mi.s. was di.s:sol\"ed and Mr. Phillips tstab lished I. W. l'hillips & Co .. s peciali zing t n all types of building .supJ?lies . The firm ooe of the l:ugest or. ItS kind m SQuth Fl onda. Mr l hlllips was ill\ acth e member and chair n\!1n of the board of stewards of the H yde Park Method i:n Episcop al C hurch, South. l 1 \ N0\1Crber. 1873, Mr. thillips was manied lo Miss Fannie Tuggle johnson, of luka, Mir..s. They had two children: Cornelia, who died at the age of li\e. and L\1la Marion (Mrs R M. C l ew is). M rs. l,hillips diod in 1886 ant! on April 30, 1 891. M r. Phillips was married t o M iss Carrie I...ee T'ritt. of Verona, They had four chil dren: ,\lfred k .. Adrienne T rice (Mn. Walter f. Eller), Eleanor Whitfield (Mn. \\lahon N. nd I. W ., Jr. Mr. Phillip$ died Januaq 16. 1914, J. W PHILLIPS I. W Phillips was born in rampa November 8, 1901, the son of Isham \Vhilfic:ld a n d Carrie I. W l'HILLIPS

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Lee (rrice) Phillips (q.v.) :He attended public schools it) Tampa and Washington D C the MiUtary Academy, Ft. Defiance, Va .. J915-18 and the University of f'lorida, 191923. After leaving the unive r :;ity Mr. Phillips "'orked a short time fo1 the Clyde Mallory Line. in Tam.pa. and then st:uted wol'king for I. \\1'. PhilJips & Co . on January 1 . 1924. He has bcetl with the company ever s ince fle wu made \'i<.:e presidem and general manager in 1940 and has b:.-cn president and gene r a) manager since 1944 1\ Jr. is a charter member and past di rcc.:ror of the Tampa lhtilders Excha nge an asso ciate director of the Ass ociated Geitcra l Con t ra ctor$ of Americ;a, a director of the Greater Tampa Chamber of Conuncn.:c, a former vc.'$try man of St. Andrews tpiscopal Church. a past pres ident of St. Audrew s Club, a past seen:; tary of the Rotary Club, a ronncr director of the Trame: Club and Propcllor Club Port of T ampa, and a d in:cwr o ( the Hill sborough County lax He i s a member of Kappa Alpha fr:.uemtty. On Nov t'mbcr 11;, 1925, Mr. l'hiltips was nlolk OOUt )tic s In 1880 he estabHshc:d the nuckerc N u rseries, the first large nursery in the state, :nld was one of the founders of the florida Fruit ;md Vegetable As *iOCiation, 1he foremnncr of the Flotida Cilrus f:xc.:hange, of which he became the fh'Sl gen cta1 manage r _Mr. Cillcu came w Tampa after the Big Freeze ot 189 4 95 when his holdint,rs i n Marion ('.ount\' we1 e w i ped out. anti later estab lished the Tampa Building aftd Investment Co. and t h e Gillett Lumber Co He was elected mavor in 1896 and liCrved two rears He died in New York City Sep tember 20, 1922. 0. Collins G ill ett. son of M)ron Gillett was born june 6, i884, at \Veirsda l e. Fla After grad uaring f rom the Uni vers ity of the South, he enbusiness with his father and Jater developed temple lerr:tces a1ld Temple Tenace. He was president of the Tampa Southern Railroad FJor 1da Citrus Exchange, f:xchange Supply Co and w as act.ile in civic:: and so<:ial affairs. He died Oc:cernber W. 1933, in New York and was ::our vived by his widow, the former MJ'$. TiiHe. L1.kes whom he had ma rried on January' 15 . 192,. OFFlN FALK Offiu Fa lk, founder of 0. F'aJks Department Store was born in Groduo, R(tssia. on April 23rd, 1 873 He came to the United States in 1889, and l ived in Key \Vest, Florid.a, until 1895. ln 1895 he moved to Tampa and opent.-d a small store on ith A\'cnue, Ybo r City. Jn 189"7 h e moved to BIOGRAPHIES 359 Ol'FIN l', \ I..K F'raokli n Str<:et and in JS99 he and his brother, 1\fonis l,.alk, bought out the bn::oiness of J. 'I'. Btll Ch, l o cated i n a small b t lildin.g on the corner of Frankl.in and Pol k streel$. Additional space was taken O\'et (rom time to time and in 1923 a threc story btlildit)g was built at the corner of and Polk streets. adjoin ing the old store. Subsequently as the business and the city grew, the s tore that was started in 189:> became one of the la rges t and be::ot known stores i11 the state. Mr. J.alk was acti\'c in the Kiwanis Club, a member of the Palma Ceia Golf Club, and served as president of the Congregation Schaarai 7...cdek. Mr. FaJk was \'cry act.ive in Ci\'ic affairs, and ser\ed ten years as a member of the city tounc;il. He also sel' ved on the personal staff of two go,emOr5 On june 4 -th, 189.3, Mr. FaJ k married Miss Emma Smith of Key \Vest, Florida. He died 2 1st, 1911, a n d is survived by his widow, and two children, Da\'id A Falk, and Annje E. (Mrs. F r ank) Mandel. DAVID A. FALK Dav i d A Falk was born in Tampa May 18, 1 896, the son o[ Offin and Emma (SmJth) Falk (q.v .). He wa::o gr:td\ l:lted from Hillsborough Righ Sd10ol in 1912. studic:d a ) ear at the Univers ity of and then auended 'Vashington & Lee from whi c h he was graduated with an A.B. d(."g'Tt.'<; in J91& and a1\ l.L:Jl. degree io 1917 .-\rte r pract icing law a short time. Mr. F.alk was wmrnis sioned a lieutenant in the U S Army and :>ef\'Cd a year during World \\Tar 1 a s personnel officer of the Quartermaster General.

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360 TAMPA 0.-\Vl O A. f.'ALK When the w a r ended, Mr. F:alk starl e d working in 0. Falk ':; Ot:partmtnl Store, learning every phase uf the business. H e h :u be e n pre!:iiilcnt o f the cou rn si nc.c:: 1 9 11. l-Ie is :tho pn:sident o f the fr.tnklin l)olk Corp.. Highlnud l)ines Corp., nahama Corp., A\'On Spring5 Com pan>' and Pahne t e Corp., and is a direcwr of the l''ir st Federal Sa\rings & l,..oan Co., Lrons fertilizer Co., a.nd West Coast Fertilizer C.o. Mr. Falk is a 1ru.stee O( the Vnh.-ersit) of Tampa, a past of chc Club and Presidenl$ Round a past king of Gas pnHI.a, a direclor of the: lorida Fair and Casparma A.ssociation and the Tampa Chamber of Commcrc;c. was a member of the State Welfar e Uoard and Tampa flou.sing Authority, and is a member of Palma Ceia Goff Club. Tampa Yacht. and Country Chtb, UnivC:I'llil y Club, Elks, Ma::;onic Lodge (.32nd <.Iegree), Scoltt$h Rite. and Egypt Tc: mplt: S hrine. He sencd nine >'ear:; as presiacnt O( the Stace \\terchatlU A ssoci:ttum and i s a past president o( the Tampa Merchants Association. In oollegc he was a metnbcr of Zcua 6eu Tau social fraternit)' 3nd Delta Sigma Rho bonorary debating fTatetnity. Oo No\-e:mber 15, 19:16, Mr. f'alk was married to Mary McKa) daughter of Charles A. and Irene May (Mc. Ke:ague ) M cKay. JOHN A. WELLE R John A. \ r Vellcr was h o m in S t. Louis, Cratint County, Mic:h February 26. 1 86 0 A fter atu. tld htg the New York State Nonnal in B rockport he entered banking in hi$ home town and bcc:ame cas hiea o( the Finst National 1\ank. Corning to Tampa because of his wifr;'s health in l895, Mr. \Vcller hec:ame engaged in account ing work :md whcn F. C. Bowyer took oUice as mayor in 1898, Mr. \VeJier was appointed cit)' o\llditor. t-\t that Lime. the cit)' ':;, b o nds were i n default and the city'$ .rc.."Cords were in a chaotic condilion. Mr. Vdler prepared and pttbl bhed rhc firllt comp l e te financial sl:tt. c m cnt ol the c ity. thereb> makmg poS!>iblc the rC Citabli shmcnt of t h e cl t y '11. credit. i\ tr. Weller served as city auditor until he, and a daughter, died of t yphoid fever in He wat suMdved by his widow and three c:hUdnn: Leslie june ( M rs. A. \V. Connor). Frederick. and Mrs. WeUer Wa$ well known in mmu:al circles and was t11c fir:st teacher ()( muJic in public school s and lhe fint p:tld choi r directo D. P. (DAVJO) DAV I S Da vid P Dllvb, dc.,eloper of Davjj bland s was hom in Green Cove Fl a., Nnvcmber 29, 1 885, the .son of George It tiC)' atld <;ertrudc Oavi:i. Hb father was an engineman of f:t ol'ida ri\'er boats and worked for a rlutnber of yc;ars in the Tampa Ba)' area. operating a fcr r)' for some time o n the Manatee R he r D P D avis educated in public .schools of Crcen Qr.'C Springs and in Tampa. He later arried for Ta1npa Ttmts. wortcd in Tibbcus Conejonery and clerked for Krtjgbt & Wall Co. In 1912 he went to C'..c1ttr;al Ameriurin g W o l'ld War 1 he o per.tt c canteens and mn b o; H line 10 Jl. 1'. (D.\\110) DAVIS

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Camp JohllS ton. Whc:t the-war ended he en tered tlle real business itl Miami. first as a and then as the d e ,eloper of Sh3dowy Lfwn subdivision totrl)' in J924 Mr. J>avis came to Tampa, ac IJttl<.: Gra)Sy Island and R i g Crassy "bland. and started the develo l>ment known as Davis Islands (Sec Chapter Xl.} On Augu::;t 2 1926. he turned over controlling interest in Davi s J:;Jands to a svndicate backed bv Stnne & Web stc::r. On OctOber 13. 1 926. he ' los t a t sea' while on his way to E urope on the Majcs1ic It was bclic:vcd he fell overboard acddcn taJiy. I I is bodv was n cvet' found. t\fr. was married on November 11. Hnr,, :u to Marjory H. Merrill, whO died in 1922. He was married again on Oc t obe r 10, 1925, to .tli:tabcth Nelson. He had two children by hill fir:st marri age: C<:oa gc R.. and David P ., .Jl', HORACE CALDWELL GORDON Hoa ace Caldwell Goa don was bom il\ Cleve land 0 Man;h J3. 1872, son of Richatd Harper and Luq Cordelia (Cals auome)' and served umi ) 1920 '"hen be resigned w become mayor of 'fampa. r,ri()r t() that time he had ser\'Cd on ihe board of public works and the port conmli s sion. He was a 92nd degree Mason a Shriner, and a of the Elks, Odd Fellow:; and Knights of Pythia.s. On Decembct 4, 1895. he \ \a:s married to LUC)' (:. Weimer. The'' had three chiJd r en: Horace C Jr., Luc ile 1\L, .ind R ichard H J udsc Gor don d ied June 19, 19_24_. _ _ V. V SHARPE Vivian Vicwr Shar-pe was bom in Piedmont, Ala. September 4, 1876, the son of Jame:s S. and Mary l>. (Cicn:land) Sharpe. The family came t o Florida in J883 and settled in \ Vi_ldwo